Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
2
Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume II – AC
By Tony R. Kuphaldt Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
i c 20002010, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiﬁcation of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits
PRINTING HISTORY • First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. PlainASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. • Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source ﬁles translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. • Third Edition: Equations and tables reworked as graphic images rather than plainASCII text. • Fourth Edition: Printed in November 2001. Source ﬁles translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like A LTEX, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but searchandreplace substitutions. • Fifth Edition: Printed in November 2002. New sections added, and error corrections made, since the fourth edition. • Sixth Edition: Printed in June 2006. Added CH 13, sections added, and error corrections made, ﬁgure numbering and captions added, since the ﬁfth edition.
ii
Contents
1 BASIC AC THEORY 1.1 What is alternating current (AC)? 1.2 AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Measurements of AC magnitude . 1.4 Simple AC circuit calculations . . 1.5 AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Vectors and AC waveforms . . . 2.3 Simple vector addition . . . . . . 2.4 Complex vector addition . . . . . 2.5 Polar and rectangular notation . 2.6 Complex number arithmetic . . 2.7 More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . . 2.8 Some examples with AC circuits 2.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 12 19 20 23 25 27 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55 57 57 59 64 71 74 77 79 81 81 83 87 92
3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE 3.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Series resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Inductor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE 4.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 AC capacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . iii
iv 4.5 4.6
CONTENTS
Capacitor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 97 99 99 101 106 110 119 120 120 121 121 126 131 135 136 145 151 153 153 158 168 174 185 188 189 189 190 196 199 202 204 215 215 217 218 232 237 239 243 248
5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R, L, AND C 5.1 Review of R, X, and Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Series R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Parallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Seriesparallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Susceptance and Admittance . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 RESONANCE 6.1 An electric pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance 6.3 Simple series resonance . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Applications of resonance . . . . . . . . 6.5 Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . 6.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit 6.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Square wave signals . . . . . . . . 7.3 Other waveshapes . . . . . . . . . 7.4 More on spectrum analysis . . . . 7.5 Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 FILTERS 8.1 What is a ﬁlter? . 8.2 Lowpass ﬁlters . 8.3 Highpass ﬁlters 8.4 Bandpass ﬁlters 8.5 Bandstop ﬁlters 8.6 Resonant ﬁlters . 8.7 Summary . . . . 8.8 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 TRANSFORMERS 9.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation 9.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers . 9.3 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Phasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
9.7 Special transformers and applications 9.8 Practical considerations . . . . . . . . 9.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 251 268 281 281 283 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345 347 347 352 355 360 365 367 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406 407 408 412 420 421 426 438 442 460 464 469 471 479
10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 10.1 Singlephase power systems . . . . . . . . 10.2 Threephase power systems . . . . . . . . 10.3 Phase rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Polyphase motor design . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations . 10.6 Threephase transformer circuits . . . . . 10.7 Harmonics in polyphase power systems . 10.8 Harmonic phase sequences . . . . . . . . 10.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 POWER FACTOR 11.1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits 11.2 True, Reactive, and Apparent power . . . . 11.3 Calculating power factor . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Practical power factor correction . . . . . . 11.5 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AC METERING CIRCUITS 12.1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . 12.2 Frequency and phase measurement 12.3 Power measurement . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Power quality measurement . . . . 12.5 AC bridge circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 AC instrumentation transducers . . 12.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 AC MOTORS 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . 13.3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . 13.4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors . . 13.9 Singlephase induction motors . . 13.10 Other specialized motors . . . . . 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . . . 13.12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
CONTENTS
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
14 TRANSMISSION LINES 14.1 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Circuits and the speed of light . . . . 14.3 Characteristic impedance . . . . . . . 14.4 Finitelength transmission lines . . . 14.5 “Long” and “short” transmission lines 14.6 Standing waves and resonance . . . . 14.7 Impedance transformation . . . . . . 14.8 Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1 ABOUT THIS BOOK A2 CONTRIBUTOR LIST A3 DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE INDEX
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
483 483 484 486 493 499 502 522 529 537 541 547 550
Chapter 1
BASIC AC THEORY
Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 What is alternating current (AC)? AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of AC magnitude . Simple AC circuit calculations . . AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 12 19 20 23 25
1.1
What is alternating current (AC)?
Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as direct current (DC), which is electricity ﬂowing in a constant direction, and/or possessing a voltage with constant polarity. DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery (with deﬁnite positive and negative terminals), or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. As useful and as easy to understand as DC is, it is not the only “kind” of electricity in use. Certain sources of electricity (most notably, rotary electromechanical generators) naturally produce voltages alternating in polarity, reversing positive and negative over time. Either as a voltage switching polarity or as a current switching direction back and forth, this “kind” of electricity is known as Alternating Current (AC): Figure 1.1 Whereas the familiar battery symbol is used as a generic symbol for any DC voltage source, the circle with the wavy line inside is the generic symbol for any AC voltage source. One might wonder why anyone would bother with such a thing as AC. It is true that in some cases AC holds no practical advantage over DC. In applications where electricity is used to dissipate energy in the form of heat, the polarity or direction of current is irrelevant, so long as there is enough voltage and current to the load to produce the desired heat (power dissipation). However, with AC it is possible to build electric generators, motors and power 1
2
CHAPTER 1. BASIC AC THEORY
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) I
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) I
I
I
Figure 1.1: Direct vs alternating current
distribution systems that are far more efﬁcient than DC, and so we ﬁnd AC used predominately across the world in high power applications. To explain the details of why this is so, a bit of background knowledge about AC is necessary. If a machine is constructed to rotate a magnetic ﬁeld around a set of stationary wire coils with the turning of a shaft, AC voltage will be produced across the wire coils as that shaft is rotated, in accordance with Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction. This is the basic operating principle of an AC generator, also known as an alternator: Figure 1.2
Step #1 S N N + no current! Load I Load I S Step #2
Step #3 N S S I
Step #4
N
no current! Load
+ I Load
Figure 1.2: Alternator operation
The faster the alternator’s shaft is turned. especially if the shaft of the generator is revolving at high speed. The diagram shown above is a bit more simpliﬁed than what you would see in real life. this reversing voltage polarity will create a reversing current direction in the circuit. WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)?
3
Notice how the polarity of the voltage across the wire coils reverses as the opposite poles of the rotating magnet pass by.1. there are multiple sets of coils making intermittent contact with the brushes. The problems involved with making and breaking electrical contact with a moving coil should be obvious (sparking and heat). If the atmosphere surrounding the machine contains ﬂammable or explosive
. their construction is not as simple as their AC counterparts. the faster the magnet will spin. both pulses in the same direction (polarity). While DC generators work on the same general principle of electromagnetic induction. and electrical connections are made to this spinning coil via stationary carbon “brushes” contacting copper strips on the rotating shaft. In order for a DC generator to produce constant voltage. With a DC generator.1.3
Step #1 N S N S N S I Load Step #3 N S N S N S I Load
Step #2 N S + +
Load Step #4 N S + +
Load
Figure 1.3: DC generator operation The generator shown above will produce two pulses of voltage per revolution of the shaft. All this is necessary to switch the coil’s changing output polarity to the external circuit so the external circuit sees a constant polarity: Figure 1. Connected to a load. resulting in an alternating voltage and current that switches directions more often in a given amount of time. the coil of wire is mounted in the shaft where the magnet is on the AC alternator. rather than brief pulses of voltage once every 1/2 revolution.
it is far more efﬁcient to do so with steppedup voltages and steppeddown currents (smallerdiameter wire with less resistive power losses). the transformer “steps up” the voltage from the source level to a higher level at the load: Figure 1.6 The transformer’s ability to step AC voltage up or down with ease gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power distribution in ﬁgure 1.5 If the winding ratio is reversed so that the primary coil has less turns than the secondary coil.7. In fact. An AC generator (alternator) does not require brushes and commutators to work. and the DC motor being dependent on the brush contacts making and breaking connections to reverse current through the rotating coil every 1/2 rotation (180 degrees). then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry. the current through the secondary coil is just the opposite: primary coil current multiplied by the ratio of primary to secondary turns.4: Transformer “transforms” AC voltage and current. While DC motors require the use of brushes to make electrical contact with moving coils of wire. This relative simplicity translates into greater reliability and lower cost of manufacture. respectively: Figure 1. Without
. business. If the secondary coil is powering a load.4
Transformer AC voltage source
Induced AC voltage
Figure 1.4
CHAPTER 1. the AC motor being dependent upon the reversing magnetic ﬁeld produced by alternating current through its stationary coils of wire to rotate the rotating magnet around on its shaft. But what else is AC good for? Surely there must be more to it than design details of generators and motors! Indeed there is. the practical problems of sparkproducing brush contacts are even greater. There is an effect of electromagnetism known as mutual induction. this device is known as a transformer: Figure 1. AC motors do not. So we know that AC generators and AC motors tend to be simpler than DC generators and DC motors. AC and DC motor designs are very similar to their generator counterparts (identical for the sake of this tutorial). When transmitting electrical power over long distances. This relationship has a very close mechanical analogy. BASIC AC THEORY
vapors. Transformer technology has made longrange electric power distribution practical. we will create an AC voltage in the other coil. or consumer use. The beneﬁts of AC over DC with regard to generator design is also reﬂected in electric motors. and so is immune to these problems experienced by DC generators. When used as such. using torque and speed to represent voltage and current. whereby two or more coils of wire placed so that the changing magnetic ﬁeld created by one induces a voltage in the other. If we have two mutually inductive coils and we energize one coil with AC. The fundamental signiﬁcance of a transformer is its ability to step voltage up or down from the powered coil to the unpowered coil. The AC voltage induced in the unpowered (“secondary”) coil is equal to the AC voltage across the powered (“primary”) coil multiplied by the ratio of secondary coil turns to primary coil turns.
5: Speed multiplication gear train steps torque down and speed up.6: Speed reduction gear train steps torque up and speed down. to other customers low voltage Stepdown
Home or Business
low voltage
Figure 1. .
high voltage Power Plant Stepup .1. Stepup transformer steps voltage up and current down.
Speed reduction geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + AC voltage source low voltage few turns high current many turns Load + "Stepup" transformer high voltage
low torque high speed
high torque low speed
low current
Figure 1. .1. Stepdown transformer steps voltage down and current up.
.7: Transformers enable efﬁcient long distance high voltage transmission of electric energy. WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)?
Speed multiplication geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + high voltage AC voltage source low voltage many turns few turns high current Load
5
"Stepdown" transformer
+
high torque low speed
low torque high speed
low current
Figure 1.
As useful as transformers are. over time. Perhaps more than any other reason. but does so in a very particular manner. BASIC AC THEORY
the ability to efﬁciently step voltage up and down. but pulsed DC is not that different from AC. are of simpler construction than DC electromechanical generators. • A transformer is a pair of mutuallyinductive coils used to convey AC power from one coil to the other. the voltage switches polarity over time. they only work with AC.6
CHAPTER 1. known as alternators. and least when the magnet poles are furthest away from the coils. That rate is greatest when the magnet poles are closest to the coils. known as a sine wave: Figure 1. respectively. • AC and DC motor design follows respective generator design principles very closely. • AC stands for “Alternating Current. Often. the number of turns in each coil is set to create a voltage increase or decrease from the powered (primary) coil to the unpowered (secondary) coil.
. and direct current (DC) can only produce steady magnetic ﬁelds. • AC electromechanical generators.2
AC waveforms
When an alternator produces AC voltage. If we were to graph the trigonometric function of “sine” over a horizontal range of 0 to 360 degrees.8 In the voltage plot from an electromechanical alternator. transformers simply will not work with direct current. respectively. we would ﬁnd the exact same pattern as in Table 1. the voltage level changing most rapidly at the zero (“crossover”) point and most slowly at its peak. The reason why an electromechanical alternator outputs sinewave AC is due to the physics of its operation.” meaning voltage or current that maintains constant polarity or direction. The voltage produced by the stationary coils by the motion of the rotating magnet is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic ﬂux is changing perpendicular to the coils (Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction). not DC. When graphed over time. direct current may be interrupted (pulsed) through the primary winding of a transformer to create a changing magnetic ﬁeld (as is done in automotive ignition systems to produce highvoltage spark plug power from a lowvoltage DC battery). the change from one polarity to the other is a smooth one. • REVIEW: • DC stands for “Direct Current. this is why AC ﬁnds such widespread application in power systems.” meaning voltage or current that changes polarity or direction. the “wave” traced by this voltage of alternating polarity from an alternator takes on a distinct shape. it would be costprohibitive to construct power systems for anything but closerange (within a few miles at most) use. over time.1. Because the phenomenon of mutual inductance relies on changing magnetic ﬁelds. • Secondary voltage = Primary voltage (secondary turns / primary turns) • Secondary current = Primary current (primary turns / secondary turns)
1. Of course.
1.9659 + 285 0.2.9659 1.2588 + 345 0.7071 + 315 0.1: Trigonometric “sine” function.0000 +peak 270 1.0000 0.9659 0.7071 0.8: Graph of AC voltage over time (the sine wave).0000 0.2588 + 195 0.9659 + 255 0.7071 + 225 0.8660 0.0000 zero 360 0.2588 0.8660 + 240 0.8660 + 300 0.0000 zero 180 0.8660 0.5000 0.5000 0. sin(angle) wave Angle (o ) sin(angle) 0.5000 + 330 0.
Angle (o ) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
Table 1.5000 + 210 0. AC WAVEFORMS
7
(the sine wave) +
Time
Figure 1.0000
wave zero peak zero
.7071 0.2588 0.
A radio station transmitter broadcasting at a frequency of 100 MHz generates an AC voltage oscillating at a rate of 100 million cycles every second.9
one wave cycle
0
90
180
270
360 90 180 (0) one wave cycle
270
360 (0)
Alternator shaft position (degrees)
Figure 1. BASIC AC THEORY
Mathematically. In Europe. the dimension marked for one cycle is often measured in a unit of time. Prior to the canonization of the Hertz unit. The period of a wave in degrees is always 360. Many people believe the change from selfexplanatory units like CPS to Hertz constitutes a step backward in clarity. and also the angular position of our simple twopole alternator shaft as it rotates: Figure 1. gives no hint as to the unit’s origin or meaning. most often seconds or fractions of a second. on the other hand. This is most easily shown by spanning the distance between identical peaks. we would have marked exactly one cycle of that wave. respectively. the standard powerline frequency is 60 Hz. In the United States of America. the AC voltage only completes 50 cycles every second. A more popular measure for describing the alternating rate of an AC voltage or current wave than period is the rate of that backandforth oscillation. this is often called the period of a wave.
. frequency was simply expressed as “cycles per second. The name Centigrade was based on a 100count (“Centi”) scale (“grade”) representing the melting and boiling points of H2 O. but the amount of time one period occupies depends on the rate voltage oscillates back and forth. but may be measured between any corresponding points on the graph. When expressed as a measurement. If we were to follow the changing voltage produced by a coil in an alternator from any point on the sine wave graph to that point when the wave shape begins to repeat itself.9: Alternator voltage as function of shaft position (time). The degree marks on the horizontal axis of the graph represent the domain of the trigonometric sine function. so the voltage produced by the coils follows that same function. The modern unit for frequency is the Hertz (abbreviated Hz). Since the horizontal axis of this graph can mark the passage of time as well as shaft position in degrees. This is called frequency. A similar change occurred when the unit of “Celsius” replaced that of “Centigrade” for metric temperature measurement. where the power system frequency is 50 Hz. which represents the number of wave cycles completed during one second of time.8
CHAPTER 1. The name Celsius. meaning that the AC voltage oscillates at a rate of 60 complete backandforth cycles every second.” Older meters and electronic equipment often bore frequency units of “CPS” (Cycles Per Second) instead of Hz. the rate of magnetic ﬂux change due to a rotating magnet follows that of a sine function.
The relationship between period and frequency is very useful to know when displaying an AC voltage or current waveform on an oscilloscope screen.
. Figure 1. Voltage and current are by no means the only physical variables subject to variation over time.1 Hz.10: Time period of sinewave is shown on oscilloscope.10. its frequency will be 0. frequency is equivalent to pitch. or 1/10 of a cycle per second:
Frequency in Hertz =
1 Period in seconds
An instrument called an oscilloscope. which is nothing more than the alternating compression and decompression (pressure waves) of air molecules.2. Lowpitch notes such as those produced by a tuba or bassoon consist of air molecule vibrations that are relatively slow (low frequency). if a wave has a period of 10 seconds. By measuring the period of the wave on the horizontal axis of the oscilloscope screen and reciprocating that time value (in seconds). In musical terms. you can determine the frequency in Hertz. it shares many of the properties of other wave phenomena. sound (especially structured music) provides an excellent analogy for relating AC concepts. interpreted by our ears as a physical sensation.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger 16 divisions @ 1ms/div = a period of 16 ms
DC GND AC
timebase
1m
X s/div
DC GND AC
Frequency =
1 1 = = 62. AC WAVEFORMS
9
Period and frequency are mathematical reciprocals of one another.5 Hz period 16 ms
Figure 1. For this reason. The ECG is a specialpurpose oscilloscope expressly designed for medical use. plotted as a graph with time as the independent variable. Generalpurpose oscilloscopes have the ability to display voltage from virtually any voltage source. That is to say. used by physicians to graph the oscillations of a patient’s heart over time. You may be familiar with the appearance of an ECG or EKG (electrocardiograph) machine. Much more common to our everyday experience is sound. like sound. Because alternating current is a wave phenomenon.1. is used to display a changing voltage over time on a graphical screen.
Here are but a few sample waveforms and their common designations in ﬁgure 1.12 As you can see.13 329.63 349.11: The frequency in Hertz (Hz) is shown for various musical notes.16 493.13
.88 523.18 293.94 261. the next lowest “A” (one octave below 220 Hz) will be 110 Hz.00 466.08 Hz) and the next A sharp (466.99 392. The next highest “A” note has a frequency of 440 Hz – exactly twice as many sound wave cycles per second. This similarity in sound is musically recognized.66 311. BASIC AC THEORY
Highpitch notes such as those produced by a ﬂute or whistle consist of the same type of vibrations in the air. only vibrating at a much faster rate (higher frequency).08 246.63 277.00 233. Following this rule.23 369. The same 2:1 ratio holds true for the ﬁrst A sharp (233. the same pattern immortalized in the whimsical Rodgers and Hammerstein song sung in The Sound of Music – covers one octave from C to C. Audibly. the shortest span on a musical scale separating such note pairs being called an octave. two notes whose frequencies are exactly double each other sound remarkably similar.11 is a table showing the actual frequencies for a range of common musical notes. Other “waveforms” of AC are commonly produced within electronic circuitry. Astute observers will notice that all notes on the table bearing the same letter designation are related by a frequency ratio of 2:1. A view of a piano keyboard helps to put this scale into perspective: Figure 1. this is not the only kind of alternating wave in existence. While electromechanical alternators and many other physical phenomena naturally produce sine waves. one octave is equal to seven white keys’ worth of distance on a piano keyboard.30 440. and for all note pairs found in the table. The familiar musical mnemonic (doeraymeefahsolahtee) – yes.25
Figure 1. For example.10
CHAPTER 1. the next highest “A” note (one octave above 440 Hz) will be 880 Hz.16 Hz). Figure 1.00 415.
Note A A sharp (or B flat) B C (middle) C sharp (or D flat) D D sharp (or E flat) E F F sharp (or G flat) G G sharp (or A flat) A A sharp (or B flat) B C
# # # #
Musical designation A1 A or B B1 C C# or Db D D or E E F F# or Gb G G or A A A or B B C
1 b b b b
Frequency (in hertz) 220. the ﬁrst frequency shown (designated with the letter “A”) is 220 Hz.
AC WAVEFORMS
11
C# D# Db Eb
F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb
C# D# Db Eb
F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb
C# D# Db Eb
F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb
C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B one octave
Figure 1.
Square wave
Triangle wave
one wave cycle Sawtooth wave
one wave cycle
Figure 1.12: An octave is shown on a musical keyboard.2.
.13: Some common waveshapes (waveforms).1.
They’re simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. where quantities of voltage and current are generally stable. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz). anything different being labeled as nonsinusoidal. and by tracing the alternation over time we can plot it as a “waveform. any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal. • REVIEW: • AC produced by an electromechanical alternator follows the graphical shape of a sine wave. frequency is the same as pitch. which is the essential property distinguishing one note from another.” We can measure the rate of alternation by measuring the time it takes for a wave to evolve before it repeats itself (the “period”). • Frequency is the number of complete cycles that a wave completes in a given amount of time. • One cycle of a wave is one complete evolution of its shape until the point that it is ready to repeat itself. But how do you grant a single measurement of magnitude to something that is constantly changing? One way to express the intensity.15 Unfortunately. Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit. triangle. we have little trouble expressing how much voltage or current we have in any part of a circuit.” In music. square. However. and express this as cycles per unit time. the reallife result is often a distorted version of the intended waveshape. Generally speaking. of an AC quantity is to measure its peak height on a waveform graph.14 Another way is to measure the total height between opposite peaks. Even in circuits that are supposed to manifest “pure” sine. This is known as the peaktopeak (PP) value of an AC waveform: Figure 1.3
Measurements of AC magnitude
So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current alternates in direction. Some waveforms are so complex that they defy classiﬁcation as a particular “type” (including waveforms associated with many kinds of musical instruments). or magnitude (also called the amplitude).12
CHAPTER 1. • The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes to complete one cycle. • Frequency = 1/(period in seconds)
1. or sawtooth voltage/current waveforms. we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes. we encounter a measurement problem if we try to express how large or small an AC quantity is. or “frequency. either one of these expressions of waveform amplitude can be misleading when comparing two different types of waves. BASIC AC THEORY
These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence. a square wave peaking at 10 volts is obviously a greater amount of voltage for a greater amount of time than a triangle wave
. We also know that AC can alternate in a variety of different ways. 1 Hz being equal to one complete wave cycle per second. With DC. For example.
MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE
13
Peak
Time
Figure 1.1.3.16: A square wave produces a greater heating effect than the same peak voltage triangle wave.
.14: Peak voltage of a waveform.
PeaktoPeak Time
Figure 1.15: Peaktopeak voltage of a waveform.
10 V
Time (same load resistance)
10 V (peak) more heat energy dissipated
10 V (peak) less heat energy dissipated
Figure 1.
the average value for most waveforms is technically zero.
Figure 1. polaritysensitive meter movements vibrate uselessly if exposed to AC voltage or current. aggregate number.16 One way of expressing the amplitude of different waveshapes in a more equivalent fashion is to mathematically average the values of all the points on a waveform’s graph to a single. Conversely.18
+ +
+
+ ++
+
+ + ++
+
+ ++
+
+ +
Practical average of points. “average” is usually deﬁned as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values over a cycle. as if the waveform looked like this: Figure 1. of course. This. This amplitude measure is known simply as the average value of the waveform. it will be assumed that the “practical” deﬁnition of average
. indicating the true (algebraic) average value of zero for a symmetrical waveform. In other words.14
CHAPTER 1.18: Waveform seen by AC “average responding” meter. If we average all the points on the waveform algebraically (that is. to consider their sign. because the inertia of the pointer against the tension of the spring naturally averages the force produced by the varying voltage/current values over time. However. their needles oscillating rapidly about the zero mark. because all the positive points cancel out all the negative points over a full cycle: Figure 1. either positive or negative). BASIC AC THEORY
peaking at 10 volts. The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different: Figure 1. we calculate the practical average value of the waveform by considering all points on the wave as positive quantities.17
+
+
+
+ ++
+
+
+ 
. as a practical measure of a waveform’s aggregate value. all values assumed to be positive. Polarityinsensitive mechanical meter movements (meters designed to respond equally to the positive and negative halfcycles of an alternating voltage or current) register in proportion to the waveform’s (practical) average value. will be true for any waveform having equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line of a plot.17: The average value of a sinewave is zero. When the “average” value of a waveform is referenced in this text..True average value of all points (considering their signs) is zero!
Figure 1.
We might say that the two saws were equivalent or equal in their cutting capacity.1. Rather. motorpowered metal blade to cut wood. angle. To rate a jigsaw based on its peak blade speed would be quite misleading when comparing one jigsaw to another (or a jigsaw with a bandsaw!).3. two pieces of modern woodworking equipment.
.19: Bandsawjigsaw analogy of DC vs AC. its blade speed constantly changing. because the power dissipated by a given load (work performed per unit time) is not directly proportional to the magnitude of either the voltage or current impressed upon it. aggregate measurement is also present in this saw analogy: how might we express the speed of a jigsaw blade? A bandsaw blade moves with a constant speed. Another method of deriving an aggregate value for waveform amplitude is based on the waveform’s ability to do useful work when applied to a load resistance. similar to the way DC voltage pushes or DC current moves with a constant magnitude. etc. toothed. One jigsaw might move its blade with a sinewave motion. Consider a bandsaw and a jigsaw. Both types of saws cut with a thin. and P = I2 R). The comparison of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) may be likened to the comparison of these two saw types: Figure 1.19
Bandsaw Jigsaw
blade motion
wood
wood
blade motion
(analogous to DC)
(analogous to AC)
Figure 1. The problem of trying to describe the changing quantities of AC voltage or current in a single. Despite the fact that these different saws move their blades in different manners. while another with a trianglewave motion. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE
15
is intended unless otherwise speciﬁed. What is more. they are equal in one respect: they all cut wood. the jigsaw uses a backandforth motion. on the other hand. equipped with identical blades (same tooth pitch. Although the mathematics of such an amplitude measurement might not be straightforward. an AC measurement based on work performed by a waveform is not the same as that waveform’s “average” value. the utility of it is. and a quantitative comparison of this common function can serve as a common basis for which to rate blade speed. power is proportional to the square of the voltage or current applied to a resistance (P = E2 /R. the backandforth motion of any two jigsaws may not be of the same type. A jigsaw blade. Picture a jigsaw and bandsaw sidebyside. Unfortunately. But while the bandsaw uses a continuous motion of the blade to cut. equally capable of cutting the same thickness of the same type of wood at the same rate.). depending on the mechanical design of the saws. moves back and forth.
20
5A RMS 10 V RMS 2Ω 5A RMS 10 V 50 W power dissipated 5A 2Ω 5A 50 W power dissipated
Equal power dissipated through equal resistance loads
Figure 1. then taking the square root of that average to obtain the ﬁnal answer). because the principal concern here is insulator “ﬂashover” caused by brief spikes of voltage. electrodynamometer) will work so long as they have been calibrated in RMS ﬁgures. RMS amplitude measurement is the best way to relate AC quantities to DC quantities. analog meter movements (D’Arsonval. RMS current measurement is the best to use. when dealing with measurements of electric power. which can capture the crests of the waveform with a high degree of accuracy due to the fast action of the cathoderaytube in response to changes in voltage. or other AC quantities of differing waveform shapes. we have the same amount of load resistance (2 Ω) dissipating the same amount of power in the form of heat (50 watts). one powered by AC and the other by DC. iron vane. averaging those squared values. we would call this a “10 volt” AC source. Peak and peaktopeak measurements are best performed with an oscilloscope. analog meters must be speciﬁcally calibrated (or miscalibrated. More speciﬁcally. BASIC AC THEORY
Might this comparison be used to assign a “bandsaw equivalent” blade speed to the jigsaw’s backandforth blade motion. Weston. The qualiﬁer “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. depending on how you look at it) to indicate voltage
. which is a function of power dissipation caused by current through the resistance of the wire. to relate the woodcutting effectiveness of one to the other? This is the general idea used to assign a “DC equivalent” measurement to any AC voltage or current: whatever magnitude of DC voltage or current would produce the same amount of heat energy dissipation through an equal resistance:Figure 1. the procedure consists of squaring all the positive and negative points on a waveform graph. when rating insulators for service in highvoltage AC applications. Because the mechanical inertia and dampening effects of an electromechanical meter movement makes the deﬂection of the needle naturally proportional to the average value of the AC. However. the algorithm used to obtain the DC equivalent value from points on a graph (essentially. Because the AC voltage source pictured above is equivalent (in terms of power delivered to a load) to a 10 volt DC battery. For instance. because the principal concern with current is overheating of the wire. peak or peaktopeak measurements may be the best to employ. when determining the proper size of wire (ampacity) to conduct electric power from a source to a load.” but the quantity and principle are both the same. peak voltage measurements are the most appropriate. For other considerations. For RMS measurements.20: An RMS voltage produces the same heating effect as a the same DC voltage In the two circuits above. we would denote its voltage value as being 10 volts RMS. irrespective of time. not the true RMS value.16
CHAPTER 1. Sometimes the alternative terms equivalent or DC equivalent are used instead of “RMS.
just the laws of physics in action in fulﬁllment of the deﬁnition of RMS.15 (0. since the peak is the same as the RMS and average values. usually a sine wave.577 (the reciprocal of square root of 3) and form factors of 1. and triangle waves hold true only for pure forms of these waveshapes. PeaktoPeak.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = 0. Average (practical.5). Squareshaped waveforms always have crest and form factors equal to 1. simple conversion coefﬁcients exist for equating Peak. not algebraic). Bear in mind that the conversion constants shown here for peak. For “pure” waveforms.707 (Peak) AVG = 0. The heating effect of that resistance element is measured thermally to give a true RMS value with no mathematical calculations whatsoever.707 (the reciprocal of the square root of 2) and a form factor of 1. Triangle.22: Arbitrary waveforms have no simple conversions. for instance. Some instrument manufacturers have designed ingenious methods for determining the RMS value of any waveform. there are ratios expressing the proportionality between some of these fundamental measurements. and peaktopeak measures of an AC waveform. This is a very important concept to understand when using an analog D’Arsonval meter
. average.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
Figure 1.1. peak (crest). MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE
17
or current in RMS units.577/0. is the ratio of its peak (crest) value divided by its RMS value. In addition to RMS. The accuracy of this type of RMS measurement is independent of waveshape. The crest factor of an AC waveform.11 (0. One such manufacturer produces “TrueRMS” meters with a tiny resistive heating element powered by a voltage proportional to that being measured. The accuracy of this calibration depends on an assumed waveshape.22
RMS = ??? AVG = ??? PP = 2 (Peak)
Figure 1. Electronic meters speciﬁcally designed for RMS measurement are best for the task.21
RMS = 0. and RMS measurements to one another: Figure 1. RMS. square waves.3. The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value divided by its average value.and sawtoothshaped waveforms have RMS values of 0. and average amplitudes of sine waves.577 (Peak) AVG = 0.21: Conversion factors for common waveforms.636).707/0. Sinusoidal waveforms have an RMS value of 0. The RMS and average values of distorted waveshapes are not related by the same ratios: Figure 1.
Since the sinewave shape is most common in electrical measurements. • Analog. • Peaktopeak amplitude is the total height of an AC waveform as measured from maximum positive to maximum negative peaks on a graph.637 of its peak value. If the waveform of the voltage or current being measured is anything but a pure sine wave. it is the waveshape assumed for analog meter calibration. or RMS quantity. as a practical measure of amplitude. Also known as the “equivalent” or “DC equivalent” value of an AC voltage or current. RMS meter calibration is obtained by “skewing” the span of the meter so that it displays a small multiple of the average value. and thus a meter calibrated for sinewave voltage or current will not indicate true RMS when reading a nonsinusoidal wave. • “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. and the small multiple used in the calibration of the meter is 1. BASIC AC THEORY
movement to measure AC voltage or current.1107 (the form factor: 0. peaktopeak. Any waveshape other than a pure sine wave will have a different ratio of RMS and average values. the meter’s calibration
. electromechanical meter movements respond proportionally to the average value of an AC voltage or current.707 of its peak value. For example. a waveform’s average value is often calculated as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values (taking all the negative values and considering them as positive). not the RMS. calibrated to indicate sinewave RMS amplitude. • The crest factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its peak (crest) to its RMS value. • Average amplitude is the mathematical “mean” of all a waveform’s points over the period of one cycle. Often abbreviated as “PP”. average. Also known as the crest amplitude of a wave. analog AC meters not employing “TrueRMS” technology. will only be accurate when measuring pure sine waves. However. because the degree of needle deﬂection in an analog D’Arsonval meter movement is proportional to the average value of the waveform. • Peak amplitude is the height of an AC waveform as measured from the zero mark to the highest positive or lowest negative point on a graph. Bear in mind that this limitation applies only to simple. For a sine wave. which will be equal to be the RMS value for a particular waveshape and a particular waveshape only.707/0. Technically. When RMS indication is desired. • REVIEW: • The amplitude of an AC waveform is its height as depicted on a graph over time. the indication given by the meter will not be the true RMS value of the waveform. and is a way of expressing an AC quantity of voltage or current in terms functionally equivalent to DC. An analog D’Arsonval movement. • The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value to its average value.18
CHAPTER 1. An amplitude measurement can take the form of peak. the RMS value is approximately 0. 10 volts AC RMS is the amount of voltage that would produce the same amount of heat dissipation across a resistor of given value as a 10 volt DC power supply.636: the ratio of RMS divided by average for a sinusoidal waveform). the average value so calculated is approximately 0. For a sine wave. the average amplitude of any waveform with equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line on a graph is zero.
current.
R2
500 Ω
Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 Rtotal = 1 kΩ Etotal Rtotal 10 V 1 kΩ
Itotal =
Itotal =
Itotal = 10 mA ER3 = ItotalR3 ER3 = 4 V
ER1 = ItotalR1 ER1 = 1 V
ER2 = ItotalR2 ER2 = 5 V
Series resistances still add.
1. Actually. However. as we will discover later on. the same laws and rules of DC apply simply and directly. and opposition to current in more advanced mathematical forms.23) involving nothing more than an AC power source and resistance. and the Laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm still hold true. however.1.
. parallel resistances still diminish. With purely resistive circuits.23: AC circuit calculations for resistive circuits are the same as for DC.4. SIMPLE AC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
19
must be “skewed” accordingly. with simple circuits (ﬁgure 1.4
Simple AC circuit calculations
Over the course of the next few chapters. you will learn that AC circuit measurements and calculations can get very complicated due to the complex nature of alternating current in circuits with inductance and capacitance. and so we can treat the numbers as though we were dealing with simple DC quantities. its just that we have to express the quantities of voltage. these rules and laws always hold true. This means that the accuracy of an electromechanical meter’s RMS indication is dependent on the purity of the waveform: whether it is the exact same waveshape as the waveform used in calibrating. these complexities of AC are of no practical consequence.
R1 100 Ω 10 V R3 400 Ω
Figure 1.
I promise! • The “table” method of organizing circuit values is still a valid analysis tool for AC circuits. In technical terms. In some areas of electronics. peak measurements are assumed.” I mean that the two waveforms are not synchronized: that their peaks and zero points do not match up at the same points in time. More on this later. average.
A B
A B A B
A B A B
Figure 1.20
CHAPTER 1. but they are out of step with each other. BASIC AC THEORY
Because all these mathematical relationships still hold true. or RMS). Unless otherwise stated. The graph in ﬁgure 1. all values of voltage and current in AC circuits are generally assumed to be RMS rather than peak. By “out of step. this is called a phase shift. peaktopeak. then all currents and voltages subsequently calculated are cast in terms of peak units.
1. • REVIEW: • All the old rules and laws of DC (Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws. If the source voltage is given in AC RMS volts. with more complex circuits.5
AC phase
Things start to get complicated when we need to relate two or more AC voltages or currents that are out of step with each other. Ohm’s Law) still hold true for AC. However. we can make use of our familiar “table” method of organizing circuit values just as with DC:
R1 E I R 1 10m 100
R2 5 10m 500
R3 4 10m 400
Total 10 10m 1k Volts Amps Ohms
One major caveat needs to be given here: all measurements of AC voltage and current must be expressed in the same terms (peak.24 illustrates an example of this. Earlier
A B
. This holds true for any calculation based on Ohm’s Laws.24: Out of phase waveforms The two waves shown above (A versus B) are of the same amplitude and frequency. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. average. but in most applications (especially industrial electronics) the assumption is RMS. or peaktopeak. etc. then all calculated currents and voltages are cast in AC RMS units as well. If the source voltage is given in peak AC volts. we may need to represent the AC quantities in more complex form.
” Whichever waveform is ahead in its evolution is said to be leading and the one behind is said to be lagging. Mathematical operations of addition. “voltage ’A’ is 45 degrees out of phase with voltage ’B’. they will be out of step by the same angular amount at every point in time. it is safe to say something like. progressing to full positive amplitude at 90 degrees. zero at 180 degrees. Phase shift. and not just an expression of shift between any two particular points along the waves. and division must operate on these quantities of phase shift as well as amplitude. When applying Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff ’s Laws.” Any other AC voltage or current in that circuit will have its phase shift expressed in terms relative to that source voltage. like voltage.
. is always a measurement relative between two things. the “A” wave being ahead of the “B” wave. We can use this angle scale along the horizontal axis of our waveform plot to express just how far out of step one wave is with another: Figure 1.1.26 Because the waveforms in the above examples are at the same frequency. and back to the starting point of zero at 360 degrees. full negative at 270 degrees. Typically in the analysis of AC circuits. we can express phase shift for two or more waveforms of the same frequency as a constant quantity for the entire wave. quantities of AC voltage and current must reﬂect phase shift as well as amplitude. This is what makes AC circuit calculations more complicated than DC.25
degrees A 0 90 180 270 (0) 360 90 180 270 (0) 360
A B
B
0
90
180
270
360 (0) degrees
90
180
270
360 (0)
Figure 1. There’s really no such thing as a waveform with an absolute phase measurement because there’s no known universal reference for phase. that voltage stated as “xxx volts at 0 degrees.25: Wave A leads wave B by 45o The shift between these two waveforms is about 45 degrees. That is. the voltage waveform of the power supply is used as a reference for phase.5. A sampling of different phase shifts is given in the following graphs to better illustrate this concept: Figure 1. Fortunately. subtraction. The starting point of a sine wave was zero amplitude at zero degrees. a full circle. AC PHASE
21
we saw how we could plot a “sine wave” by calculating the trigonometric sine function for angles ranging from 0 to 360 degrees. multiplication. For this reason.
26: Examples of phase shifts.
. BASIC AC THEORY
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B)
Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A)
A
Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are mirrorimages of each other
B
Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other
Figure 1.22
CHAPTER 1.
Stated more formally. • The amount of phase shift between two waves can be expressed in terms of degrees. it was realized that electricity and magnetism were related to each other. a magnetic ﬁeld was generated perpendicular to the axis of ﬂow. When an electric current was passed through a conductor.6. a major discovery lay hidden just beneath this seemingly simple concept of related perpendicularity. The man responsible for this conceptual revolution was the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (18311879). a voltage was produced along the length of that conductor.6
Principles of radio
One of the more fascinating applications of electricity is in the generation of invisible ripples of energy called radio waves. if a conductor was exposed to a change in magnetic ﬂux perpendicular to the conductor.
1. as deﬁned by the degree units on the horizontal axis of the waveform graph used in plotting the trigonometric sine function. who “uniﬁed” the study of electricity and magnetism in four relatively tidy equations. • A leading waveform is deﬁned as one waveform that is ahead of another in its evolution. • REVIEW: • Phase shift is where two or more waveforms are out of step with each other. B lags A
• • Calculations for AC circuit analysis must take into consideration both amplitude and phase shift of voltage and current waveforms to be completely accurate. and its unveiling was one of the pivotal moments in modern science.1. With Oersted’s accidental discovery of electromagnetism. This requires the use of a mathematical system called complex numbers. Because the subject of complex numbers is so essential to the understanding of AC circuits. This breakthrough in physics is hard to overstate. some of the basic principles will be covered. the next chapter will be devoted to that subject alone. Example:
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A leads B. A lagging waveform is one that is behind another. Maxwell’s discovery was this:
. scientists knew that electricity and magnetism always seemed to affect each other at right angles. The limited scope of this lesson on alternating current does not permit full exploration of the concept. Likewise. So far. In essence. However. what he discovered was that electric and magnetic ﬁelds were intrinsically related to one another. with or without the presence of a conductive path for electrons to ﬂow. PRINCIPLES OF RADIO
23
there is a mathematical system of quantities called complex numbers ideally suited for this task of representing amplitude and phase.
So are Xrays and “gamma” ray radiation. The closed wire path of the loop antenna acts like an inductor with a large air core. with the same endresult of a continuous electromagnetic wave sent away from the antenna. thus sustaining the electric ﬁeld further into space. As the powered loop antenna radiates its changing magnetic ﬁeld into space. As the powered dipole radiates its changing electric ﬁeld into space. By using a source of AC voltage and a special device called an antenna. In this mode. BASIC AC THEORY
A changing electric ﬁeld produces a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. and A changing magnetic ﬁeld produces a perpendicular electric ﬁeld. An antenna is nothing more than a device built to produce a dispersing electric or magnetic ﬁeld.27: Dipole and loop antennae While the dipole looks like nothing more than an open circuit.24
CHAPTER 1. an antenna acts as a receiving device: Figure 1. we can create electromagnetic waves (of a much lower frequency than that of light) with ease. converting AC voltage and current into electromagnetic wave energy. When attached to a source of highfrequency AC power. a changing magnetic ﬁeld is produced at right angles. these pieces of wire are effective radiators of electromagnetic ﬁelds when connected to AC sources of the proper frequency. The only difference between these kinds of electromagnetic radiation is the frequency of their oscillation (alternation of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds back and forth in polarity). and the loop a short circuit.28
.27
Basic antenna designs DIPOLE LOOP
Figure 1.
All of this can take place in open space. Two fundamental types of antennae are the dipole and the loop: Figure 1. This dynamic structure of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating through space is better known as an electromagnetic wave. a changing electric ﬁeld is produced at right angles. an antenna acts as a transmitting device. Antennas also have the ability to intercept electromagnetic waves and convert their energy into AC voltage and current. Either antenna achieves the same basic task: the controlled production of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. There are many kinds of natural radiative energy composed of electromagnetic waves. again providing ample opportunity for the ﬁeld to disperse away from the antenna instead of being concentrated and contained as in a normal inductor. and so on as the wave propagates at the speed of light. with the electric ﬁeld open to dispersal instead of being concentrated between two closelyspaced plates. The two open wires of the dipole act as a sort of capacitor (two conductors separated by a dielectric). Even light is electromagnetic in nature. the alternating electric and magnetic ﬁelds supporting each other as they travel through space at the speed of light.
this brief introduction is enough to give you the general idea of what’s going on (and perhaps enough information to provoke a few experiments). See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. • A twin set of electric and magnetic ﬁelds. oscillating at right angles to each other and traveling at the speed of light.28: Basic radio transmitter and receiver While there is much more that may be said about antenna technology.1. 2004): Corrected typographical error: “circuit” should have been “circle”. constitutes an electromagnetic wave. from most recent to ﬁrst. designed to radiate a changing electric ﬁeld or changing magnetic ﬁeld when powered by a highfrequency AC source. CONTRIBUTORS
AC voltage produced Radio receivers AC current produced
25
electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation
Radio transmitters
Figure 1. and secondarily producing an electric ﬁeld in space. and secondarily producing a magnetic ﬁeld in space. • REVIEW: • James Maxwell discovered that changing electric ﬁelds produce perpendicular magnetic ﬁelds. primarily generating a magnetic ﬁeld when energized. • An antenna is a device made of wire.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.
1. • The dipole antenna consists of two pieces of wire (not touching). primarily generating an electric ﬁeld when energized. or intercept an electromagnetic ﬁeld and convert it to an AC voltage or current. and vice versa. Harvey Lew (February 7. • The loop antenna consists of a loop of wire.7. even in empty space.
.
Zarella (April 28. 2003): Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.26
CHAPTER 1. Mark D. 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of “average” waveform amplitude. John Symonds (March 28. BASIC AC THEORY
Duane Damiano (February 25.
. 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of the unit “Hertz.” Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.
. . . Complex vector addition . . . . . kilometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or some other unit of linear measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we ﬁnd that quantities of voltage. . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 2
COMPLEX NUMBERS
Contents
2. . The kind of information that expresses a single dimension. The voltage produced by a battery. as well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polar and rectangular notation . . . . is a scalar quantity. More on AC ”polarity” . . . . Some examples with AC circuits Contributors . . . . . . . However. . because they’re dynamic (alternating in direction and amplitude). . Vectors and AC waveforms . . . . . and even resistance (called impedance in AC) are not the familiar onedimensional quantities we’re used to measuring in DC circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . such as linear distance. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . .6 2. . . . Complex number arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . when we begin to analyze alternating current circuits. Simple vector addition . is called a scalar quantity in mathematics. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Introduction . . . . . .5 2. . . for example. . .1
Introduction
If I needed to describe the distance between two cities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I would have to provide more information than just the distance between those two cities. . . . . . Rather. . So is the resistance of a piece of wire (ohms). . . . . . . . current. I could provide an answer consisting of a single number in miles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . if I were to describe how to travel from one city to another. .1 2. . these quantities. . Scalar numbers are the kind of numbers you’ve used in most all of your mathematical applications so far. . . .7 2. . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55
2. . . . . . . . . . . . However. . . . . . . . . . or the current through it (amps). . possess other dimensions that 27
. . . I would also have to provide information about the direction to travel. . . .3 2.
we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multidimensional quantities.2) The idea of representing a number in graphical form is nothing new. AC quantities in a singlefrequency circuit have both amplitude (analogy: distance) and phase shift (analogy: direction). In order to successfully analyze AC circuits. In this case. directly right is considered to be 0o .5) Later yet we learned that the number line could extend to the left of zero as well: (Figure 2. If I draw a line with a certain length (magnitude) and angle (direction).43 angle = 302.66 angle = 45 degrees
length = 9. where we’re only dealing with a single frequency. COMPLEX NUMBERS
must be taken into account. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers.01 degrees (57.1)
length = 7 angle = 0 degrees
length = 10 angle = 180 degrees
length = 5 angle = 90 degrees
length = 4 angle = 270 degrees (90 degrees)
length = 5. we still have the dimension of phase shift to contend with in addition to the amplitude.3) We even learned how addition and subtraction works by seeing how lengths (magnitudes) stacked up to give a ﬁnal answer: (Figure 2.99 degrees)
Figure 2. Even with relatively simple AC circuits. Like distances and directions on a map. These were fractional or decimal quantities: (Figure 2. there must be some common frame of reference for angle ﬁgures to have any meaning. and angles are counted in a positive direction going counterclockwise: (Figure 2. Just like the example of giving directions from one city to another. we learned that there were ways to designate the values between the whole numbers marked on the line.28
CHAPTER 2.1: A vector has both magnitude and direction. Frequency and phase shift are two of these dimensions that come into play. We all learned this in grade school with the “number line:” (Figure 2. A complex number is a single mathematical quantity able to express these two dimensions of amplitude and phase shift at once.4) Later. Complex numbers are easier to grasp when they’re represented graphically.6)
. I have a graphic representation of a complex number which is commonly known in physics as a vector: (Figure 2.
.5: Locating a fraction on the “number line”
.2...2: The vector compass
.1.4: Addition on a “number line”.
Figure 2..5 . INTRODUCTION
29
The vector "compass" 90o
180o
0o
270o (90o)
Figure 2.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2.
31/2 or 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2.3: Number line.
5+3=8 8 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 7 8 9 10 ..
• A complex number is a mathematical quantity representing two dimensions of magnitude and direction. or measuring DC battery voltage. like this: (Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
. but all “motion” along that line is restricted to a single axis (horizontal). integer. Being a relative measurement. If there is more than
. or the amplitude and phase of an AC waveform. You can move up or down the number line. Sometimes the word phasor is used in electrical applications where the angle of the vector represents phase shift between waveforms. scalar numbers are perfectly adequate for counting beads. a tip. The straightness of the number line illustrates this graphically. and a deﬁnite direction. The angle of the vector. Generally this “reference” waveform is the main AC power supply voltage in the circuit. but they fall short of being able to represent something more complex like the distance and direction between two cities. like voltage. These ﬁelds of numbers (whole. real.7) The greater the amplitude of the waveform.30
CHAPTER 2. phase shift (vector angle) only has meaning in reference to some standard waveform. etc. Remember that phase is always a relative measurement between two waveforms rather than an absolute property. we need multidimensional representations. To represent these kinds of quantities.. • A vector is a graphical representation of a complex number. length.) learned in grade school share a common trait: they’re all onedimensional. representing weight. It looks like an arrow. weight. Onedimensional.. etc. In other words..
2. we need a number line that can point in different directions. the greater the angle difference between the corresponding vectors. it is referenced to the power supply voltage waveform (arbitrarily stated to be “at” 0o ).6: “Number line” shows both positive and negative numbers. rational.9) The greater the phase shift in degrees between two waveforms. Usually. however. (Figure 2. when the phase of a waveform in a circuit is expressed..8) (Figure 2. represents the phase shift in degrees between the waveform in question and another waveform acting as a “reference” in time.2
Vectors and AC waveforms
OK. so how exactly can we represent AC quantities of voltage or current in the form of a vector? The length of the vector represents the magnitude (or amplitude) of the waveform. with a starting point. and that’s exactly what a vector is. the greater the length of its corresponding vector. 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
. irrational. • REVIEW: • A scalar number is the type of mathematical object that people are used to using in everyday life: a onedimensional quantity like temperature.
Figure 2. a deﬁnite length.
2. VECTORS AND AC WAVEFORMS
Waveform Vector representation
31
Amplitude
Length
Figure 2.2.8: Vector angle is the phase with respect to another waveform.
Waveforms Phase relations Vector representations (of "A" waveform with reference to "B" waveform) Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other A B
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B)
A 90 degrees B
Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A) A B Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are A mirrorimages of each other A 180 degrees
B 90 degrees
B
Figure 2.7: Vector length represents AC voltage magnitude.
.
if AC voltage sources with the same phase angle are connected together in series. COMPLEX NUMBERS
A
B
A angle B
phase shift
Figure 2.9: Phase shift between waves and vector phase angle one AC voltage source. so we’ll begin with that. with a clearly deﬁned point of reference for phase it becomes possible to speak of voltages and currents in an AC circuit having deﬁnite phase angles.32
CHAPTER 2. subtracted.3 milliamps at 64 degrees. the length of a vector represents the amplitude of the wave while the angle of a vector represents the phase angle of the wave relative to some other (reference) waveform. and divided. With a clearly deﬁned point in the circuit declared to be “ground. Even though we know AC doesn’t have “polarity” in the same sense that DC does. their magnitudes (lengths) add up just like regular scalar quantities: (Figure 2. For example. Similarly.
2.3
Simple vector addition
Remember that vectors are mathematical objects just like numbers on a number line: they can be added.3 mA. If vectors with common angles are added.” it means that the current waveform has an amplitude of 24. Addition is perhaps the easiest vector operation to visualize. • REVIEW: • When used to describe an AC quantity.10)
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 0 degrees total length = 6 + 8 = 14 angle = 0 degrees
Figure 2. multiplied. This concept of a reference point is not unlike that of the “ground” point in a circuit for the beneﬁt of voltage reference. being understood that those voltages (always relative between two points) are referenced to “ground. their voltages add just as you might expect with DC batteries: (Figure 2.10: Vector magnitudes add like scalars for a common angle. and it lags 64o behind the reference waveform. usually assumed to be the main source voltage waveform.” it becomes possible to talk about voltage “on” or “at” single points in a circuit.11) Please note the (+) and () polarity marks next to the leads of the two AC sources. these marks are
.” Correspondingly. then one of those sources is arbitrarily chosen to be the phase reference for all other measurements in the circuit. if the current in an AC circuit is described as “24.
essential to knowing how to reference the given phase angles of the voltages. if opposing AC voltage sources are connected in series. in this AC circuit they’re actually pushing in opposite directions because one of those voltages has a phase angle of 0o and the other a phase angle of 180o . The result. . Since both sources are described as having equal phase
.12)
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 180 degrees total length = 6 . due to the reversal of wire connections on the 8 volt source. we see .and + on the 8 volt source). Similarly. of course. Even though these polarity markings would normally indicate an additive effect in a DC circuit (the two voltages working together to produce a greater total voltage).12: Directly opposing vector magnitudes subtract. SIMPLE VECTOR ADDITION
33
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + +

6V
+

8V
+
14 V 0 deg

14 V
+
Figure 2.14) Note how the polarities appear to be opposed to each other now. is a total voltage of 2 volts.3. If vectors directly opposing each other (180o out of phase) are added together.and + on the 6 volt source. their voltages subtract as you might expect with DC batteries connected in an opposing fashion: (Figure 2. We could have just as well shown the opposing voltages subtracting in series like this: (Figure 2.11: “In phase” AC voltages add like DC battery voltages. Notice how the polarity markings in the above diagram seem to indicate additive voltages (from left to right.2. This will become more apparent in the next example.8 = 2 at 0 degrees or 2 at 180 degrees
Figure 2. their magnitudes (lengths) subtract just like positive and negative scalar quantities subtract when added: (Figure 2.13) Determining whether or not these voltage sources are opposing each other requires an examination of their polarity markings and their phase angles.
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + 6V + 
8V + 
+ 2V 180 deg
+
2V
Figure 2.14: Opposing voltages in spite of equal phase angles.
.34
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
6V 0 deg + 
8V 180 deg +

6V
+
+
8V

2V + 180 deg
+
2V

Figure 2.13: Opposing AC voltages subtract like opposing battery voltages.
COMPLEX VECTOR ADDITION
35
angles (0o ). their magnitudes (lengths) add up quite differently than that of scalar magnitudes: (Figure 2. these voltage quantities are complex quantities. The resultant voltage can be expressed in two different ways: 2 volts at 180o with the () symbol on the left and the (+) symbol on the right.16)
8V 180 deg +
These voltage sources are equivalent!
8V 0 deg + 
Figure 2.15: Just as there are two ways to express the phase of the sources. they truly are opposed to one another. A reversal of wires from an AC voltage source is the same as phaseshifting that source by 180o . (Figure 2.16: Example of equivalent voltage sources. their voltage magnitudes do not directly add or subtract as with scalar voltages in DC. which add up in a trigonometric fashion. Note that it is possible to obtain voltmeter indications of 6 and 8 volts.17) If two AC voltages – 90o out of phase – are added together by being connected in series. respectively. (Figure 2. Instead.4
Complex vector addition
If vectors with uncommon angles are added.2.
. and the overall effect is the same as the former scenario with “additive” polarities and differing phase angles: a total voltage of only 2 volts. across the two AC voltage sources. or 2 volts at 0o with the (+) symbol on the left and the () symbol on the right.18) Compared to DC circuit analysis. there are two ways to express the resultant their sum. a 6 volt source at 0o added to an 8 volt source at 90o results in 10 volts at a phase angle of 53. this is very strange indeed.15)
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + 
+ 2V 180 deg 
+
2V 0 deg
Figure 2.13o : (Figure 2.
2. and just like the above vectors.4.
13 deg
Figure 2.13 degrees
6 at 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 90 degrees + 8 at 90 degrees 10 at 53.17: Vector magnitudes do not directly add for unequal angles. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Vector addition
length = 10 angle = 53.36
CHAPTER 2.
6V 0 deg + 
8V 90 deg + +
10 V 53.18: The 6V and 8V sources add to 10V with the help of trigonometry.
.13 degrees
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees
Figure 2.
39 ∠ 158. Vector and triangle diagrams sufﬁce to illustrate the general concept. absolute value.” Here are two examples of vectors and their polar notations: (Figure 2. two voltages can be aiding or opposing one another to any degree between fullyaiding and fullyopposing.81o)
Figure 2. polar notation for the vector from New York City to San Diego would be something like “2400 miles. AC voltages may aid or oppose to any degree depending on the phase shift between them. or modulus) and the angle of its vector (usually denoted by an angle symbol that looks like this: ).49 ∠ 45o
Note: the proper notation for designating a vector’s angle is this symbol: ∠ 5. but more precise methods of symbolism must be used if any serious calculations are to be performed on these quantities.5.19)
8.19: Vectors with polar notations.
.06 ∠ 29. DC voltages can only directly aid or directly oppose. In the next section. we’ll learn how to represent vector quantities in symbolic rather than graphical form.81 ∠ 230. with nothing in between. inclusive. To use the map analogy. There are two basic forms of complex number notation: polar and rectangular.5
Polar and rectangular notation
In order to work with these complex numbers without drawing vectors.
2. With AC. Without the use of vector (complex number) notation to describe AC quantities. southwest. Polar form is where a complex number is denoted by the length (otherwise known as the magnitude.2o 7. we ﬁrst need some kind of standard mathematical notation.81 ∠ 129. it would be very difﬁcult to perform mathematical calculations for AC circuit analysis.19o (7. • REVIEW: • DC voltages can only either directly aid or directly oppose each other when connected in series.06 ∠ 330.26o) 8.74o (8. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
37
yet only read 10 volts for a total voltage! There is no suitable DC analogy for what we’re seeing here with two AC voltages slightly out of phase.2.
the angled vector is taken to be the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Vectors being twodimensional things. but rather are mathematical operators used to distinguish the vector’s vertical component from its horizontal component.20: The vector compass Rectangular form.20) The above vector on the right (7. Rather than describing a vector’s length and direction by denoting magnitude and angle. since that dimension lies in a different direction. on the other hand. In order to distinguish the horizontal and vertical dimensions from each other. the horizontal and vertical quantities are written as a sum: (Figure 2. (Figure 2. As a complete complex number. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Standard orientation for vector angles in AC circuit calculations deﬁnes 0o as being to the right (horizontal). The “imaginary” axis of the graph corresponds to another number line situated at 90o to the “real” one. it is described in terms of “how far left/right” and “how far up/down.
The vector "compass" 90o
180o
0o
270o (90o)
Figure 2.38
CHAPTER 2. the vertical is preﬁxed with a lowercase “i” (in pure mathematics) or “j” (in electronics).21) The horizontal component is referred to as the real component.81 230. a vector angled 270o (straight down) can also be said to have an angle of 90o . or negative numbers less than 180.19o ) can also be denoted as 7. The vertical component is referred to as the imaginary component.
. Please note that vectors angled “down” can have angles represented in polar form as positive numbers in excess of 180. making 90o straight up. In essence. is where a complex number is denoted by its respective horizontal and vertical components.22) The “real” axis of the graph corresponds to the familiar number line we saw earlier: the one with both positive and negative values on it. For example.” These two dimensional ﬁgures (horizontal and vertical) are symbolized by two numerical ﬁgures. (Figure 2. 180o to the left. These lowercase letters do not represent a physical variable (such as instantaneous current. totally alien to the scale of the real numbers. scalar (“real”) numbers. also symbolized by a lowercase letter “i”).81o . since that dimension is compatible with normal.81 129. and 270o straight down. described by the lengths of the adjacent and opposite sides.
POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
39
4 + j4 "4 right and 4 up"
4 + j0 "4 right and 0 up/down"
4 + j4 "4 left and 4 up"
4 . the ﬁrst number representing the the horizontal (“real”) and the second number (with the “j” preﬁx) representing the vertical (“imaginary”) dimensions."real"
+ "real"
j .j4 "4 right and 4 down"
4 + j0 "4 left and 0 up/down"
4 j4 "4 left and 4 down"
Figure 2.21: In “rectangular” form the vector’s length and direction are denoted in terms of its horizontal and vertical span.22: Vector compass showing real and imaginary axes
.
+ "imaginary" +j
."imaginary"
Figure 2.5.2.
the horizontal and vertical sides representing the “real” and “imaginary” rectangular components.40
CHAPTER 2. This may be understood more readily by drawing the quantities as sides of a right triangle. Conversion between the two notational forms involves simple trigonometry.
Figure 2.23: Vector compass with real and imaginary (“j”) number lines. 5 4 3 2 1 "real" number line 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 . COMPLEX NUMBERS
we must have a twodimensional “map” upon which to express them. thus the two number lines perpendicular to each other: (Figure 2... The primary reason for having two methods of notation is for ease of longhand calculation. To convert from polar to rectangular. and the imaginary component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the sine of the angle.. rectangular form lending itself to addition and subtraction. and polar form lending itself to multiplication and division. respectively: (Figure 2. the hypotenuse of the triangle representing the vector itself (its length and angle with respect to the horizontal constituting the polar form).23)
5 4 3 "imaginary" number line 2 1 ..
Either method of notation is valid for complex numbers.24)
. ﬁnd the real component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the cosine of the angle.
and the angle by taking the arctangent of the imaginary component divided by the real component:
4 + j3
(rectangular form)
c=
a2 + b2
(pythagorean theorem)
polar magnitude = polar magnitude = 5 polar angle = arctan polar angle = 36.5.87o 5 ∠ 36.
.2.87o +4 +j3
Figure 2. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
41
length = 5 angle = 36. respectively).87o (5)(cos 36.87o) = 4 (5)(sin 36.24: Magnitude vector in terms of real (4) and imaginary (j3) components. Example: ﬂy 45 miles 203o (West by Southwest).87o
• REVIEW:
42 + 32
3 4
(polar form)
• Polar notation denotes a complex number in terms of its vector’s length and angular direction from the starting point.
5 ∠ 36.87 ) = 3 4 + j3
o
(polar form) (real component) (imaginary component) (rectangular form)
To convert from rectangular to polar. ﬁnd the polar magnitude through the use of the Pythagorean Theorem (the polar magnitude is the hypotenuse of a right triangle. and the real and imaginary components are the adjacent and opposite sides.
For addition.(80 . but these operations can also be done “by hand.j72
For longhand multiplication and division.j15) 95 . • Both polar and rectangular forms of notation for a complex number can be related graphically in the form of a right triangle. When multiplying complex numbers in polar form. • In rectangular notation. It is highly recommended that you equip yourself with a scientiﬁc calculator capable of performing arithmetic functions easily on complex numbers. and the vertical side representing the rectangular “imaginary” component. Example: drive 41 miles West. polar is the favored notation to work with. the horizontal side representing the rectangular “real” component. and add up the imaginary components of the complex numbers to determine the imaginary component of the sum:
2 + j5 + 4 .” This section will show you how the basic operations are performed. squared. Addition and subtraction with complex numbers in rectangular form is easy. angle with respect to horizontal side = angle).
2. multiplied. Some scientiﬁc calculators are programmed to directly perform these operations on two or more complex numbers. subtracted.6
Complex number arithmetic
Since complex numbers are legitimate mathematical entities. The imaginary component is preceded by a lowercase “j.j49
36 + j10 + 20 + j82 16 + j92
When subtracting complex numbers in rectangular form. It will make your study of AC circuit much more pleasant than if you’re forced to do all calculations the longer way. inverted.j34 .” sometimes called the j operator.j15 255 . simply add up the real components of the complex numbers to determine the real component of the sum.(20 + j82) 56 .j34 + 80 .(4 . divided. simply multiply the polar magnitudes of the complex numbers to determine the polar magnitude of the product. with the hypotenuse representing the vector itself (polar form: hypotenuse length = magnitude. they can be added. and such. and add the angles of the complex numbers to determine the angle of the product:
.42
CHAPTER 2. the ﬁrst quantity is the “real” component (horizontal dimension of vector) and the second quantity is the “imaginary” component (vertical dimension of vector).j19
36 + j1 0 . just like any other kind of number. COMPLEX NUMBERS
• Rectangular notation denotes a complex number in terms of its horizontal and vertical dimensions.j3) 2 + j8
175 . just like scalar numbers.j3 6 + j2
175 . simply subtract the real component of the second complex number from the real component of the ﬁrst to arrive at the real component of the difference. then turn and drive 18 miles South. and subtract the imaginary component of the second complex number from the imaginary component of the ﬁrst to arrive the imaginary component of the difference:
2 + j5 .
and you’ll have little trouble with AC circuit analysis. Virtually any arithmetic operation that can be done with scalar numbers can be done with complex numbers. and even trigonometric functions (although this involves a whole new perspective in trigonometry called hyperbolic functions which is well beyond the scope of this discussion).02857 ∠ 65o o o 35 ∠ 65 35 ∠ 65 1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0.0032 ∠ 10o = 312. simply divide the number (in polar form) into a scalar value of 1. subtraction. COMPLEX NUMBER ARITHMETIC
43
(35 ∠ 65o)(10 ∠ 12o) = 350 ∠ 53o (124 ∠ 250o)(11 ∠ 100o) = 1364 ∠ 10o or 1364 ∠ 350o (3 ∠ 30o)(5 ∠ 30o) = 15 ∠ 0o
Division of polarform complex numbers is also easy: simply divide the polar magnitude of the ﬁrst complex number by the polar magnitude of the second complex number to arrive at the polar magnitude of the quotient. subtraction.6 ∠ 60o
To obtain the reciprocal. multiplication.5 ∠ 77o
= 11. a complex number. multiplication. including powers. solving simultaneous equations with complex coefﬁcients. roots.1 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 1 0.273 ∠ 150o
= 0.0032 ∠ 10o = 1 ∠ 0o 0. Be sure that you’re familiar with the basic arithmetic operations of addition. which is nothing more than a complex number with no imaginary component (angle = 0):
1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0. or “invert” (1/x). • REVIEW:
. and inversion. Operations with complex numbers are by no means limited just to addition.2. division. division. however. and subtract the angle of the second complex number from the angle of the ﬁrst complex number to arrive at the angle of the quotient:
35 ∠ 65o 10 ∠ 12o 124 ∠ 250o 11 ∠ 100o 3 ∠ 30o 5 ∠ 30o
= 3.5 ∠ 10o
These are the basic operations you will need to know in order to manipulate complex numbers in the analysis of AC circuits.6. and inversion.
Although it would be mathematically correct to represent a battery’s voltage as a negative ﬁgure with reversed polarity markings. COMPLEX NUMBERS
• To add complex numbers in rectangular form. Being that alternating current has no set “polarity” as direct current does.26)
6 V +
Figure 2. these polarity markings and their relationship to phase angle tends to be confusing.26: Decidedly unconventional polarity marking. for most people the equivalence between abstract vectors and real circuit quantities is not an easy one to grasp. • To multiply complex numbers in polar form. divide the magnitudes and subtract one angle from the other. add the real components and add the imaginary components. multiply the magnitudes and add the angles.
2. we have a choice in how we connect a voltmeter or other voltagemeasuring instrument to the source of voltage. Voltage is an inherently relative quantity. To divide. it would be decidedly unconventional: (Figure 2. using “+” and “” symbols.
. and two test leads on the instrument with which to make connection. Earlier in this chapter we saw how AC voltage sources are given voltage ﬁgures in complex form (magnitude and phase angle). we know that its test leads are connected “backward” to the voltage (red lead connected to the “” and black lead to the “+”). we denote the polarity of voltage sources and voltage drops explicitly.44
CHAPTER 2. Batteries have their polarity designated by way of intrinsic symbology: the shortline side of a battery is always the negative () side and the longline side always the positive (+): (Figure 2. When we measure a voltage. This section is written in the attempt to clarify some of these issues.25: Conventional battery polarity. If a digital voltmeter indicates a negative DC voltage. However. as well as polarity markings. and use colorcoded meter test leads (red and black).7
More on AC ”polarity”
Complex numbers are useful for AC circuit analysis because they provide a convenient method of symbolically denoting phase shift between AC quantities like voltage and current.25)
+ 6V Figure 2. as there are two points between which the voltage exists. In DC circuits. Subtraction is similar.
aiding voltage sources add with one another to form the total voltage. we describe to what degree one voltage aids or opposes another by phase: the timeshift between two waveforms. this form of notation and interpretation is not as unusual as you might think: it is commonly encountered in problems of DC network analysis where “+” and “” polarity marks are initially drawn according to educated guess. opposing voltages subtract from one another. labeled with the exact voltage ﬁgures obtained by the voltmeter.7. Let’s review these principles with some graphical aids. Still. we know that source #2 is a battery facing in the opposite direction: (Figure 2. we know source #1 is a battery facing in this orientation: (Figure 2. however. By deﬁnition. We could. the principle of relating test lead connections to the mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter indication: (Figure 2. Using the voltmeter to measure across the ﬁrst source: (Figure 2. and later interpreted as correct or “backward” according to the mathematical sign of the ﬁgure calculated. First. the polarity marks (which indicate meter test lead placement) indicate the sources aiding each other. Thus. however. and the red lead of the meter really is touching the positive.” A voltmeter connected to the above battery with red lead to the bottom terminal and black lead to the top terminal would indeed indicate a negative voltage (6 volts). though. draw the two sources as nondescript boxes. We never describe an AC voltage as being negative in sign. and we have a choice in how we might connect a voltagemeasuring instrument between those two points. while the red test lead is actually touching the negative.30) This second voltmeter reading. because the facility of polar notation allows for vectors pointing in an opposite direction. Actually. is a negative () 17 volts.28) This ﬁrst measurement of +24 across the lefthand voltage source tells us that the black lead of the meter really is touching the negative side of voltage source #1. which tells us that the black test lead is actually touching the positive side of voltage source #2.2.31) It should be obvious to any experienced student of DC electricity that these two batteries are opposing one another. and which terminal the black lead is touching. the phase angle of an AC voltage has meaning only in the context of knowing which of the two points is considered the “reference” point. we simply say that one is 180o out of phase with the other. the polarity marks indicating voltmeter test lead placement: (Figure 2. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY”
45
Interpreting such notation might be easier if the “+” and “” polarity markings were viewed as reference points for voltmeter test leads. Instead. In AC circuits. The mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter’s reading has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections: which terminal the red lead is touching. By deﬁnition. Thus. Consider the use of a DC voltmeter in determining whether or not two DC voltage sources are aiding or opposing each other. Likewise. voltage is relative between two points. “+” and “” polarity marks are often placed by the terminals of an AC voltage in schematic diagrams to give the stated phase angle a frame of reference. Because of this fact. the “+” meaning “red” and the “” meaning “black. we don’t deal with “negative” quantities of voltage.29) Measuring the other unknown voltage source: (Figure 2.32) According to this diagram. so we subtract 17 volts from 24 volts to obtain the total voltage across the two: 7 volts. assuming that both sources are unlabeled as to their polarities. so we add 24 volts to 17 volts to obtain 7 volts: still the correct
. If one AC voltage directly opposes another AC voltage.27) The mathematical sign of a digital DC voltmeter’s display has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections.
46
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
V V
OFF
A A
V V
OFF
A A
A
COM
A
COM
6V
6V
Figure 2. red is (+).
The meter tells us +24 volts
V V
OFF
A A
A
COM
Source 1
Source 2
Total voltage?
Figure 2.28: (+) Reading indicates black is ().
.27: Test lead colors provide a frame of reference for interpreting the sign (+ or ) of the meter’s indication.
29: 24V source is polarized () to (+).7.
24 V
Source 1
17 V
Source 2

Total voltage = 7 V
+
Figure 2.30: () Reading indicates black is (+).
.31: 17V source is polarized (+) to ()
24 V Source 1
17 V + Source 2
+
Figure 2.
The meter tells us 17 volts
V V
OFF
A A
A
COM
Source 1
Source 2
Total voltage?
Figure 2. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY”
47
24 V
Source 1
Source 2
Total voltage?
Figure 2.32: Voltmeter readings as read from meters. red is ().2.
it would be perfectly acceptable to represent the 6 volt source as 6 V 225o .59o
Figure 2.48
CHAPTER 2. The same is true for AC voltages.861 V 16. COMPLEX NUMBERS
answer. so to determine the total voltage across the resistor we must add the voltage ﬁgures of 10 V 0o and 6 V 45o together to obtain 14. the polarity markings serve as frames of reference to place the voltage ﬁgures’ mathematical signs in proper context. the result will always be correct. (Figure 2. The polarity markings show these two voltage sources aiding each other. If we let the polarity markings guide our decision to either add or subtract voltage ﬁgures – whether those polarity markings represent the true polarity or just the meter test lead orientation – and include the mathematical signs of those voltage ﬁgures in our calculations.34)
10 V ∠ 0o +
6 V ∠ 225o + 
14.33: Phase angle substitutes for ± sign. Again.
. However.861 V ∠ 16. we need polarity markings to provide frames of reference for those voltages’ phase angles. any polarity marks must be included as additional symbols on the diagram.861 V ∠ 16. They must. AC voltage symbols have no intrinsic polarity marking. correlate with the given phase angle to represent the true phase relationship of that voltage with other voltages in the circuit. and there is no one “correct” way in which to place them. 6 V 45o with negative on the left and positive on the right is exactly the same as 6 V 225o with positive on the left and negative on the right: the reversal of polarity markings perfectly complements the addition of 180o to the phase angle designation: (Figure 2.59o
Figure 2.34: Reversing the voltmeter leads on the 6V source changes the phase angle by 180o . with a reversed set of polarity markings.59o . except that phase angle substitutes for mathematical sign. whose symbols intrinsically deﬁne polarity by means of short and long lines.35) Unlike DC voltage sources. however.33) Take for example the following circuit:
10 V ∠ 0o +
6 V ∠ 45o +
14. and still arrive at the same total voltage: (Figure 2. Therefore. In order to relate multiple AC voltages at different phase angles to each other.
2. it is assumed that all frequencies are equal. . with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law).8
Some examples with AC circuits
Let’s connect three AC voltage sources in series and use complex numbers to determine additive voltages. The only qualiﬁcation is that all variables must be expressed in complex form. SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS
49
6 V ∠ 45o + . If this is the case. all of the same frequency).36: KVL allows addition of complex voltages. All the rules and laws learned in the study of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well (Ohm’s Law. . network analysis methods).8. 6 V ∠ 225o + 
Figure 2. and all voltages and currents must be of the same frequency (in order that their phase relationships remain constant). . taking into account phase as well as magnitude.36)
22 V ∠ 64
+ E1 + E2 + E3 load
o
12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o
Figure 2. The setup of our equation to ﬁnd total voltage appears as such:
. no frequency value is speciﬁed. Kirchhoff ’s Laws.2. is equivalent to . (Figure 2. The polarity marks for all three voltage sources are oriented in such a way that their stated voltages should add to make the total voltage across the load resistor. Notice that although magnitude and phase angle is given for each AC voltage source. . thus meeting our qualiﬁcations for applying DC rules to an AC circuit (all ﬁgures given in complex form.35: Reversing polarity adds 180o to phase angle • REVIEW: • Polarity markings are sometimes given to AC voltages in circuit schematics in order to provide a frame of reference for their phase angles.
38)
resultant vector
22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o
12 ∠ 35o
Figure 2.37. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Etotal = E1 + E2 + E3 Etotal = (22 V ∠ 64o) + (12 V ∠ 35o) + (15 V ∠ 0o)
Graphically. In order to determine what the resultant vector’s magnitude and angle are without resorting to graphic images. Remember.
22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o
12 ∠ 35o
Figure 2. we can convert each one of these polarform complex numbers into rectangular form and add.38: Resultant is equivalent to the vector sum of the three original voltages.50
CHAPTER 2. the vectors add up as shown in Figure 2. we’re adding these ﬁgures together because the polarity marks for the three voltage sources are oriented in an additive manner:
.37: Graphic addition of vector voltages. The sum of these vectors will be a resultant vector originating at the starting point for the 22 volt vector (dot at upperleft of diagram) and terminating at the ending point for the 15 volt vector (arrow tip at the middleright of the diagram): (Figure 2.
8298 + j6.7735 V 15 + j0 V
9.5018o . There are other components (notably capacitors and inductors) which do not respond uniformly to different frequencies. This is extremely important in relating calculated ﬁgures of voltage and current to real circuits.5o (with reference to the 15 volt source.8906 V
In polar form.81 volts 20. A voltmeter connected across these points in a real circuit would only indicate the polar magnitude of the voltage (36.7735 V 34. The same principle holds true for AC ammeters: they indicate the polar magnitude of the current. it is not very applicable to practical measurements. not the angle.j19. We can use SPICE to verify the accuracy of our results.681E+01
I’m using a frequency of 60 Hz as a default value
vp(3) 2. In this test circuit.j12.0) vp(3. Although rectangular notation is convenient for addition and subtraction.ac lin 1 60 60 .0) .8829 V + 9.000E+01 v(3) 3.8298 + j6.4740 . and was indeed the ﬁnal step in our sample problem here.8. lagging the 15 volt (0o phase reference) by 20. we get a total voltage of 36.8052 volts).050E+01
Sure enough. Also.39) ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 2 1 ac 12 35 sin v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin r1 3 0 10k .2. It’s there so that SPICE does not declare an opencircuit error and abort analysis.j19. this equates to 36.8052 volts 20.5018o . Rectangular ﬁgures must be converted to polar ﬁgures (speciﬁcally polar magnitude) before they can be related to actual circuit measurements.print ac v(3.end freq 6. An oscilloscope could be used to display two voltage waveforms and thus provide a phase shift measurement.8052 volts. but that is another subject! (Figure 2.6442 .8829 V 22 V ∠ 64o = 9. the choice of frequencies for the simulation (60 Hz) is quite arbitrary. but not a voltmeter.6442 . SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS
51
15 V ∠ 0o = 15 + j0 V 12 V ∠ 35o = 9. not the phase angle. What this means in real terms is that the voltage measured across these three voltage sources will be 36. the 10 kΩ resistor value is quite arbitrary. whose phase angle was arbitrarily stated at zero degrees so as to be the “reference”
. because resistors respond uniformly for all frequencies of AC voltage and current.
41) The resultant (sum) vector should begin at the upperleft point (origin of the 22 volt vector)
.40)
22 V ∠ 64o
Polarity reversed on source E2 !
+ E1 E2 + + E3 load
12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o
Figure 2.40: Polarity of E2 (12V) is reversed. as voltage ﬁgures will either directly add or subtract. this is counterintuitive. depending on polarity. Even though the angle is still written as 35o . even though the leads have been reversed.39: Spice circuit schematic.52
CHAPTER 2. this would be impossible. and 22 volt supplies connected in series? With DC. Remember that the phase angle of any voltage drop is stated in reference to its noted polarity. COMPLEX NUMBERS
3 22 V ∠ 64o 2 12 V ∠ 35o 1 15 V ∠ 0o 0 + V3 + V2 R1 + V1 
3
10 kΩ
0
Figure 2. What if we took the same circuit and reversed one of the supply’s connections? Its contribution to the total voltage would then be the opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. waveform). our “polarity” (phase shift) can vary anywhere in between fullaiding and fullopposing. But with AC. 12 volt. Note how the 12 volt supply’s phase angle is still referred to as 35o . and this allows for such paradoxical summing. How is it possible to obtain a total voltage of just over 36 volts with 15 volt. the vector will be drawn 180o opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. At ﬁrst glance.
SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS
53
22 ∠ 64o
12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35o 15 ∠ 0o
Figure 2. The connection reversal on the 12 volt supply can be represented in two different ways in
.41: Direction of E2 is reversed.2. and terminate at the right arrow tip of the 15 volt vector: (Figure 2.42: Resultant is vector sum of voltage sources.8.42)
22 ∠ 64o
resultant vector
12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35ο
15 ∠ 0o
Figure 2.
0) vp(3. Rectangular expressions of complex quantities in an AC circuit have no direct.ac lin 1 60 60 .54
CHAPTER 2.7735 V 14.8298 . although they are convenient for performing addition and subtraction. • When reversing the direction of a vector (equivalent to reversing the polarity of an AC voltage source in relation to other voltage sources).
.050E+01
vp(3) 6. conversion to rectangular form yields the same result:
12 V ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 V ∠ 215o = 9.8829 V or 12 V ∠ 35o = 9.8298 . or a reversal of sign on the magnitude (making it 12 volts 35o ).6442 .j6.094E+01
• REVIEW: • All the laws and rules of DC circuits apply to AC circuits.8829 V
The resulting addition of voltages in rectangular form.4964 V verify the results of our calculations: 60. as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws require.8143 . it can be expressed in either of two different ways: adding 180o to the angle.8298 .j6.j6.j19. or reversing the sign of the magnitude.6564 V
In polar form. • Meter measurements in an AC circuit correspond to the polar magnitudes of calculated values.0) .j26. this equates to 30. Either way. with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). and all voltages and currents are at the same frequency. Once again. COMPLEX NUMBERS
polar form: by an addition of 180o to its vector angle (making it 12 volts 215o ).8829 V + 9. empirical equivalent.9368o . we will use SPICE to
ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 1 2 ac 12 35 sin Note the reversal of node numbers 2 and 1 v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin to simulate the swapping of connections r1 3 0 10k . so long as all values are expressed and manipulated in complex form. then:
15
+ j0
V
9.end
freq 6.print ac v(3.000E+01
v(3) 3.
Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.
.9
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. CONTRIBUTORS
55
2. from most recent to ﬁrst.9.2.
56
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
.
. . . . . . . . . AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor (Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Series resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2) 57
. . 57 59 64 71 74 77 79
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . it would look something like this: (Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
AC resistor circuits
ET I ER IR ET = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET
Figure 3. . . . . .4 3. . . . .7 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . .1). .Chapter 3
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
Contents
3.1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel resistorinductor circuits Inductor quirks . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . .6 3.1: Pure resistive AC circuit: resistor voltage and current are in phase. . . .2 3. . . . . . .
We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. Whether the
. Likewise. the voltage is also negative. the voltage across the resistor is also at its positive peak. the instantaneous voltage across the resistor is also zero. When the instantaneous value for current is zero. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. At any given point in time along the waves. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). Conversely. when the current is negative (below the line). taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
e= i= + Time 
Figure 3. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 3.3: Instantaneous AC power in a pure resistive circuit is always positive. meaning the values at that instant in time). and so on.58
CHAPTER 3. at the moment in time where the current through the resistor is at its positive peak. the waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is exactly in phase with the waveform for the current through it. Because the resistor simply and directly resists the ﬂow of electrons at all periods of time.3)
e= i= p= + Time 
Figure 3. Note that the power is never a negative value. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. the voltage is also positive. When the current is positive (above the line).
the power equals zero whenever the instantaneous current or voltage is
. In accordance with Lenz’s Law. but it means the exact same thing.4)
ET
I EL IL ET = EL I = IL L
EL IL
90°
Figure 3. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave. The inductance (L) is in Henrys.4: Pure inductive circuit: Inductor current lags inductor voltage by 90o . inductors oppose changes in current through them. in amps per second. the voltage “leads” the current. Therefore. where it crosses the zero line). the relationship between the voltage dropped across the inductor and rate of current change through the inductor is as such:
e = L di dt
The expression di/dt is one from calculus. and the instantaneous voltage is at a peak wherever the instantaneous current is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the current wave.7) Because instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current (p=ie).6) Things get even more interesting when we plot the power for this circuit: (Figure 3. Looking at the graph. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous current (i) over time. That is. the voltage dropped across an inductor is a reaction against the change in current through it. let’s analyze a simple inductor circuit: (Figure 3. it would look something like this: (Figure 3. If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit. on the current sine wave). a resistor still dissipates energy. if current is decreasing. the instantaneous voltage is zero whenever the instantaneous current is at a peak (zero change.2
AC inductor circuits
Inductors do not behave the same as resistors. and the current “lags” behind the voltage. (Figure 3. Expressed mathematically. of course. this induced voltage is always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current at its present value. by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate of change of current. the induced voltage will “push against” the electron ﬂow.3. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage expressed as “v” instead of “e” (v = L di/dt). This opposition to current change is called reactance.2.5) Remember. the polarity will reverse and “push with” the electron ﬂow to oppose the decrease.
59
3. rather than resistance. the voltage wave seems to have a “head start” on the current wave. is in volts. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS
current is positive or negative. Whereas resistors simply oppose the ﬂow of electrons through them (by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the current). and the instantaneous voltage (e). To show what happens with alternating current. if current is increasing in magnitude. or level slope.
6: Current lags voltage by 90o in a pure inductive circuit. instantaneous power may be positive or negative
.
current slope = 0 voltage = 0
current slope = max. (+) voltage = max. () voltage = max.5: Pure inductive circuit. waveforms.60
CHAPTER 3. ()
Figure 3.
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 3.7: In a pure inductive circuit. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
+
e= i= Time
Figure 3. (+) e= i= Time
+
current slope = 0 voltage = 0 current slope = max.
the term “2πf ” (everything on the righthand side except the L) has a special meaning unto itself. or it may be represented by its own symbol. known as the angular velocity of the AC system.0796 In the reactance equation. If the alternator producing the AC is a doublepole unit. like this: XL . and 2500 Hz. As with the resistor example.1.
. But what does negative power mean? It means that the inductor is releasing power back to the circuit. What this means in a practical sense is that the reactance of an inductor dissipates a net energy of zero. just like resistance is. Since inductors drop voltage in proportion to the rate of current change. this is for perfect inductors only. the power is positive. the reactance formula XL = 2πfL could also be written as XL = ωL. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any inductor is directly proportional to the frequency of the alternating current. To be speciﬁc. while a positive power means that it is absorbing power from the circuit. if you imagine one cycle of AC to represent a full circle’s rotation. and less voltage for slowerchanging currents. or 360o . A radian is a unit of angular measurement: there are 2π radians in one full circle. which is every 2π radians. The exact formula for determining reactance is as follows:
XL = 2πfL
If we expose a 10 mH inductor to frequencies of 60.7699 120 7. there are times when one is positive while the other is negative. they will drop more voltage for fasterchanging currents. However. Because of the differences. reactance associate with an inductor is usually symbolized by the capital letter X with a letter L as a subscript. Table 3. it has a different name: reactance.3.5398 2500 157. An inductor’s opposition to change in current translates to an opposition to alternating current in general. except that its mathematical symbol is X instead of R. Thus. This opposition to alternating current is similar to resistance. it will manifest the reactances in Table Figure 3. Since the positive and negative power cycles are equal in magnitude and duration over time. which dissipates energy in the form of heat. which appears similar to our Roman lowercase “w”: ω.2. which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction.1: Reactance of a 10 mH inductor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 3. quite unlike the resistance of a resistor. It is the number of radians per second that the alternating current is “rotating” at. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms. just as there are 360o in a full circle. but different in that it always results in a phase shift between current and voltage. If this constant of 2π is multiplied by frequency in Hertz (cycles per second). because the current and voltage waves are 90o out of phase. the inductor releases just as much power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span of a complete cycle. the result will be a ﬁgure in radians per second. the lowercase Greek letter Omega. the power is also positive when the instantaneous current and voltage are both negative (below the line). AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS
61
zero. Angular velocity may be represented by the expression 2πf. it will produce one cycle for every full turn of shaft rotation. and it dissipates zero power. resulting in equally frequent occurrences of negative instantaneous power. which have no wire resistance. 120. Mind you. Whenever the instantaneous current and voltage are both positive (above the line).
Alternating current in a simple inductive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the inductive reactance (in ohms). ω is sometimes expressed in units of electrical radians per second rather than (plain) radians per second. too:
. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here. It is not necessarily representative of the actual shaft speed of the alternator producing the AC. (Figure 3. an inductor will offer greater opposition to the passage of current. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). As the frequency (or alternator shaft speed) is increased in an AC system. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
It must be understood that this “angular velocity” is an expression of how rapidly the AC waveforms are cycling.7699 Ω E X 10 V 3. the angular velocity will be a multiple of the shaft speed. Any way we express the angular velocity of the system.62
CHAPTER 3. we ﬁnd that an inductor’s opposition to current has a phase angle. the voltage has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the current.7699 Ω
I= I=
I = 2. As was shown earlier. An example circuit is shown here: (Figure 3. so as to distinguish it from mechanical motion.9) If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically in the form of complex numbers. and vice versa. a full cycle being equal to 2π radians. If the alternator has more than two poles.8)
10 V 60 Hz
L
10 mH
Figure 3.6526 A
However. For this reason.8: Inductive reactance
(inductive reactance of 10 mH inductor at 60 Hz) XL = 3. it is apparent that it is directly proportional to reactance in an inductor.
7699 Ω
For an inductor: 90o 90o
E 0o I Opposition (XL)
Figure 3. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. we say that the phase angle of an inductor’s opposition to current is 90o . AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS
63
Opposition =
Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 90o 2. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers rather than scalar quantities of resistance and reactance. • REVIEW: • Inductive reactance is the opposition that an inductor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its magnetic ﬁeld.6526 A ∠ 0ο
Opposition =
Opposition = 3. Mathematically. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R).2. It is symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter “omega.
. in units of electrical radians per second instead of cycles per second. This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis.7699 Ω ∠ 90o or 0 + j3. • Inductive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XL = 2πfL • The angular velocity of an AC circuit is another way of expressing its frequency.3.” or ω.9: Current lags voltage by 90o in an inductor. meaning that an inductor’s opposition to current is a positive imaginary quantity.
64
CHAPTER 3. In the above example. Now we will mix the two components together in series form and investigate the effects. or 5 + j0 Ω). while the inductor will offer 3. just like resistance and reactance.10)
R ET I IR EL IL ET = ER+ EL I = IR = IL L EL 37° I ER ET 10 V 60 Hz
R 5Ω L 10 mH
Figure 3. This combined opposition will be a vector combination of resistance and reactance.016o
. or 0 + j3.7699 Ω) Ztotal = 5 + j3.7699 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. the higher the frequency. In other words. we need a more comprehensive term for opposition to current than either resistance or reactance alone.7699 Ω (XL) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (3.7699 Ω ∠ 900) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j3. and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms. the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers. This term is called impedance. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
• Inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency. the total circuit impedance is:
Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (3.7699 Ω).7699 Ω inductive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 3.
3. the more it opposes the AC ﬂow of electrons.3
Series resistorinductor circuits
In the previous section.262 Ω ∠ 37. Take this circuit as an example to work with: (Figure 3.10: Series resistor inductor circuit: Current lags applied voltage by 0o to 90o . its symbol is Z.7699 Ω or 6.7699 Ω 90o . we explored what would happen in simple resistoronly and inductoronly AC circuits. Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o . In order to express this opposition succinctly. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency. and the inductor’s reactance is an imaginary number (3.
11)
phase shift = 37. the current wave lags behind the voltage wave (of the source).597 A ∠ 37. form
In fact. the phase relationships between voltage and current haven’t changed.016o
I = 1. (The phase angles of resistive and inductive impedance are always 0o and +90o . To calculate current in the above circuit.
I= I=
E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 6.3. just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than resistance is. regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current).016o
As with the purely inductive circuit. can be and should be represented as a single impedance in an AC circuit.11: Current lags voltage in a series LR circuit.016o + e= i= Time Figure 3. this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR).016o as opposed to a full 90o as was the case in the purely inductive circuit. Voltage across the resistor is in phase (0o shift) with the current through
. (Figure 3. For the resistor and the inductor. in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex. separately or in combination (series/parallel).3. we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source. respectively. not scalar. Any resistance and any reactance.262 Ω ∠ 37. although this time the lag is not as great: only 37. which is generally assumed to be zero. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
65
Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect.
a difference of exactly 90o between the two. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
it.984o Notice that the phase angle of EL is exactly 90o more than the phase angle of the current.9847 V ∠ 37.
The voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it.597 A ∠ 37.984o .
E = IZ EL = ILZL EL = (1.016o Notice that the phase angle of ER is equal to the phase angle of the current. while the current through the inductor has a phase angle of 37. telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only).7699 Ω ∠ 90o) EL = 6.984o) Etotal = 10 V ∠ 0o
Let’s check the validity of our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 3.66
CHAPTER 3.0203 V ∠ 52. just as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law would predict:
Etotal = ER + EL Etotal = (7.0203 V ∠ 52.12)
.016o .
The voltage across the inductor has a phase angle of 52.016o)(5 Ω ∠ 0o) ER = 7. We can verify this mathematically:
E = IZ ER = IRZR ER = (1. We can also mathematically prove that these complex values add together to make the total voltage. This tells us that E and I are still 90o out of phase (for the inductor only). and the voltage across the inductor is +90o out of phase with the current going through it.016o) + (6.597 A ∠ 37.9847 V ∠ 37.016o)(3.
2) 7. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
67
1 10 V 60 Hz 0
R 5Ω L
2 10 mH 0
Figure 3.98o .3.020 V ∠ 52.597E+00 ip(v1) 1.000E+01 freq 6. we get a current phase angle of 143o (37o + 180o ).2) v(2.298E+01 i(v1) 1.000E+01 v(1.985E+00 vp(1. This is merely an idiosyncrasy of SPICE and does not represent anything signiﬁcant in the circuit simulation itself. respectively. respectively).98o I = 1. into the table.430E+02
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 7. Applying a table to this simple series resistorinductor circuit would proceed as such. rather. Instead of a phase angle of 37.702E+01 v(2) 6. Note how both the resistor and inductor voltage phase readings match our calculations (37.0) ip(v1) . convert them into complex ﬁgures of impedance and write those in):
. it would be beneﬁcial for us to use the “table” method. don’t insert actual resistance or inductance values in Ohms and Henrys.3.print ac vp(1.2) 3.12: Spice circuit: RL.ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(1. just as we expected them to. With all these ﬁgures to keep track of for even such a simple circuit as this. ac rl circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 l1 2 0 10m .016o .985 V ∠ 37.02o EL = 6. SPICE outputs current ﬁgures as though they were negative (180o out of phase) with the supply voltage.0o
Note that just as with DC circuits.597 A ∠ 143. draw up a table for E/I/Z ﬁgures and insert all component values in these terms (in other words.0) i(v1) .020E+00 vp(2) 5.02o and 52.end freq 6.2) vp(2. First.
and multiplication and division in polar form).016o
Ohms
Now that we know total voltage and total impedance. writing each quantity in both forms will be useful indeed. if you are forced to perform complex arithmetic “longhand” (addition and subtraction in rectangular form. I ﬁnd it helpful to write both the rectangular and polar forms of each quantity in the table. However. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) to determine total current:
. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 + j3. we can proceed just as with DC: determine the total impedance from the individual impedances.7699 ∠ 90o Ohms
Although it isn’t necessary. then this extra documentation is completely unnecessary.7699 3.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits Ztotal = ZR + ZL
5 + j3.68
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 3. Since this is a series circuit. we know that opposition to electron ﬂow (resistance or impedance) adds to form the total opposition:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
L
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0 + j3.7699 3.
Now that our “given” ﬁgures are inserted into their respective locations in the table. If you are using a calculator that has the ability to perform complex arithmetic without the need for conversion between rectangular and polar forms.7699 6.262 ∠ 37.
7699 6.016o 0 + j3.j0.7699 3.j0. Consequently.262 ∠ 37.2751 . therefore the rate of their ﬂow must uniform throughout.9614 1.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.j0.2751 .3. we can transfer the ﬁgures for current into the columns for the resistor and inductor alike:
R E I Z 1.597 ∠ 37.7699 3.262 ∠ 37.016o 5 + j3.016o 5 + j3.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
L
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
1.7699 ∠ 90o
1.597 ∠ 37.j0.9614 1.9614 1.3.597 ∠ 37. This is done through the use of Ohm’s Law (E=IZ). SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.2751 . the total current in a series AC circuit is shared equally by all components.2751 .9614 1. respectively.016o Volts Amps Ohms
69
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC.016o
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL
Now all that’s left to ﬁgure is the voltage drop across the resistor and inductor.7699 6.597 ∠ 37. This is still true because in a series circuit there is only a single path for electrons to ﬂow. applied vertically in each column of the table:
.
2751 .j0.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 3.016o 1.016o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
And with that.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.8071 6. Impedance (Z) of a series RL circuit may be calculated. reactance.016o 0 + j3.3756 (real rectangular) or 4.j0. XL XL XL Z Z = = = = = 2πfL 2π·60·79. This is not absolutely necessary. So long as phase shift is properly represented in our calculations. and impedance are proportional to voltage.9614 1. resistance.7699 6.9614 1.0203 ∠ 52. Find the impedance at 60 hertz. I will indicate both polar and rectangular forms of each quantity in my AC circuit tables simply for convenience of mathematical calculation. The ﬁgures here that directly relate to reallife measurements are those in polar notation.262 ∠ 37. not rectangular! In other words.3756 . not 6. The exact same rules we applied in the analysis of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well. there is no fundamental difference in how we approach basic AC circuit analysis versus DC. given the resistance (R) and the inductive reactance (XL ).j4.984o 1. but may be helpful for those following along without the beneﬁt of an advanced calculator.9614 1. Since E=IR.j0. the best choice would be polar.2751 . the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram. Thus.58 millihenry inductor.9847 volts.016o 5 + j3.2751 . Rectangular notation.8071 (imaginary rectangular) volts.597 ∠ 37.7699 3.597 ∠ 37.70
R E I Z 6. Now is a good time to review the relationship between these calculated ﬁgures and readings given by actual instrument measurements of voltage and current. because it is the only one that can be directly correlated to real measurements. our table is complete. If we were to restrict ourselves to the use of only one form of notation.58×10−3 30 Ω R + jXL 40 + j30
.6244 + j4. measurement instruments simply tell you how long the vector is for that particular quantity (voltage or current).597 ∠ 37. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
L 3. is a more abstract form of notation than polar in relation to realworld measurements. with the caveat that all quantities must be represented and calculated in complex rather than scalar form.8071 7. if you were to connect a voltmeter across the resistor in this circuit. while convenient for arithmetical addition and subtraction. respectively. and E=IZ. To describe this in graphical terms. (Figure 3. it would indicate 7. E=IXL . As I stated before.13) Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 79.9847 ∠ 37.
• A purely inductive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly +90o (ZL = XL Ω 90o ).87o
• REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance. respectively. and impedances add to form the total impedance. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
71
R ET I IR EL IL XL
EL 37° I Voltage
ET
XL 37°
Z
ER Impedance
R
Figure 3. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance.14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit.13: Series: RL circuit Impedance phasor diagram. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . Zn • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). voltage drops add to form the total voltage. Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in circuits. and the resistor and inductor both have the same values of resistance and inductance. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . . It is symbolized by the letter “Z” and measured in ohms.
3. • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ .4
Parallel resistorinductor circuits
Let’s take the same components for our series example circuit and connect them in parallel: (Figure 3.4. Z = sqrt(402 + 302 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36. just like resistance (R) and reactance (X).87o Z = 40 + j30 = 50 36. • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit.3.
. . the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . I = E/Z .
We know that voltage is shared uniformly by all components in a parallel circuit. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
E
I R
53°
E I R 10 V 60 Hz R 5Ω L 10 mH
IR
IL
L IL I
I = IR+ IL E = ER = EL
Figure 3. The approach is fundamentally the same as for DC. we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3. calculating current through the resistor and current through the inductor:
.7699 3.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns of the table.72
CHAPTER 3. So.
they must also have the same values of impedance.14: Parallel RL circuit.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
The only difference in our analysis technique this time is that we will apply the rules of parallel circuits instead of the rules for series circuits.7699 3. so we can transfer the ﬁgure of total voltage (10 volts 0o ) to all components columns:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.
7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
73
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC circuits. Incidentally.3221 ∠ 52. No matter which way you calculate total impedance (Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula). And if you’re determined to run through a formula like this “longhand.. and this example is no different.7699 3. total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column.6526 3.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3. you will arrive at the same ﬁgure:
. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3. just as with DC circuits. we often have multiple options in calculating the quantities in our analysis tables.984o Volts Amps Ohms
Finally.7699 3.6526 2. branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law still holds true for AC as it did for DC):
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IL Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 ..” be prepared for a very large amount of work! But. parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances.4.3. Z1 Z2 Zn
The only problem with using this formula is that it typically involves a lot of calculator keystrokes to carry out.
Zparallel =
1 1 1 1 + + .j2.j2.j2.6526 2.
and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance. which is AC’s tendency to ﬂow through the outer areas of a conductor’s crosssection rather than through the middle. . and we know that all wire possesses some measurable amount of resistance (unless its superconducting wire). Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . branch currents add to form the total current. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o .7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 . Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits).322 ∠ 52.6526 2. the impedance of any real inductor will always be a complex combination of resistance and inductive reactance.15) Consequently.74
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 3. and not electron friction as is the case with resistive components. inductors are not quite so pure in their reactive behavior.j2. they’re made of wire. its opposition to AC current is strictly based on inductive reaction to changes in current. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . . That is. To begin with. However.4035 3.
.j2. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .7699 3. • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit.0102 ∠ 52. This builtin resistance acts as though it were connected in series with the perfect inductance of the coil. I = E/Z .984o 1.6526 3.984o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law Z= E I
or
Rule of parallel circuits: 1 Ztotal = 1 1 + ZR ZL
• REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance.
3.8122 + j2. like this: (Figure 3. using the reciprocal formula. an inductor acts as a purely reactive device. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . Compounding this problem is something called the skin effect.5
Inductor quirks
In an ideal case.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3.
Added to the resistive losses of wire and radiation. INDUCTOR QUIRKS
75
Equivalent circuit for a real inductor
Wire resistance R Ideal inductor L
Figure 3. and can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat metal objects! In fact. contributing to additional resistive effects. on the other hand. eddy currents can even develop within the crosssection of the wire itself. Electrons switching directions of ﬂow. which is not as good a conductor as copper. they use the entire crosssectional area of the conductor to move. the heated substance not having to touch the coil(s) producing the magnetic ﬁeld. When electrons ﬂow in a single direction (DC). there are other effects at work in ironcore inductors which manifest themselves as additional resistance between the leads. This radiated energy does not return to the inductor. To counteract this tendency. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies. current cannot circulate within that crosssectional area and there will be no (or very little) resistive losses from that effect. Eddy current losses are primarily counteracted by dividing the iron core up into many thin sheets (laminations). the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced tend to induce circulating currents within the iron core known as eddy currents. When an inductor is energized with AC. and thus where standard combustion heating technology would be useless. special
. As you might have expected.3. In highfrequency service. It is a “noncontact” technology. this process of “inductive heating” is often used in highpurity metal foundry operations. especially if the AC is of high frequency. limiting the effective crosssectional area available. tend to avoid travel through the very middle of a conductor. where metallic elements and alloys must be heated in a vacuum environment to avoid contamination by air.15: Inductor Equivalent circuit of a real inductor.5. Also. eddy current losses in metallic inductor cores manifest themselves in the form of heat. the alternating magnetic ﬁeld of an inductor energized with AC may radiate off into space as part of an electromagnetic wave. The skin effect becomes more pronounced as frequency increases. These electric currents in the iron core have to overcome the electrical resistance offered by the iron. and so it manifests itself as resistance (power dissipation) in the circuit. each one separated from the other by a thin layer of electrically insulating varnish. With the crosssection of the core divided up into many electrically isolated sections.
but at radio frequencies they can be quite large. individually insulated strands called Litz wire (short for Litzendraht) can be used. Altogether. Usually their combined effect is too small to notice. for example. which tends to be confusing.76
CHAPTER 3. another value exists called the Q factor. a highQ inductor is better than a lowQ inductor for design
. It is worthy to note that the skin effect and radiation losses apply just as well to straight lengths of wire in an AC circuit as they do a coiled wire.” the “purer” the inductor is.16)
Equivalent circuit for a real inductor
"Effective" resistance R Ideal inductor L
Figure 3. radiation losses. To help quantify the relative amount of effective resistance in an inductor. any magnetic hysteresis that needs to be overcome with every reversal of the inductor’s magnetic ﬁeld constitutes an expenditure of energy that manifests itself as resistance in the circuit. A radio transmitter antenna. The higher the value for “Q. Additionally. and hysteresis losses. eddy current. is designed with the express purpose of dissipating the greatest amount of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The insulation separating strands from each other prevent eddy currents from circulating through the whole wire’s crosssectional area. radiation.16: Equivalent circuit of a real inductor with skineffect. and hysteresis losses) are expressed under the single term of “effective resistance:” (Figure 3. Because its so easy to add additional resistance if needed. Some core materials (such as ferrite) are particularly notorious for their hysteretic effect. the stray resistive properties of a real inductor (wire resistance. For some reason. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
wire made of very ﬁne. Counteracting this effect is best done by means of proper core material selection and limits on the peak magnetic ﬁeld intensity generated with each cycle. the Powers That Be decided to use the same letter of the alphabet to denote a totally different quantity. eddy currents. or “quality factor” which is calculated as follows:
Q=
XL R
The symbol “Q” has nothing to do with electric charge (coulombs). Effective resistance in an inductor can be a serious consideration for the AC circuit designer.
since the resistive effects of inductors (wire skin effect. increasing the resistance of that conductor above what it would normally be for direct current: (Figure 3. In order for a Q value to have precise meaning. and therefore further “taints” the reactive purity of real inductors. the skin effect is where alternating current tends to avoid travel through the center of a solid conductor. Stray resistance isn’t the only inductor quirk we need to be aware of. Due to the fact that the multiple turns of wire comprising inductors are separated from each other by an insulating gap (air. or some other kind of electrical insulation). Q does not vary proportionally with reactance.17: Skin effect: skin depth decreases with increasing frequency. This effectively limits the crosssectional conductor area available to carry alternating electron ﬂow. radiation losses. Because inductive reactance (X) varies with frequency. varnish. eddy current.17)
Crosssectional area of a round conductor available for conducting DC current "DC resistance"
Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting lowfrequency AC "AC resistance"
Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting highfrequency AC "AC resistance"
Figure 3.3. An ideal inductor would have a Q of inﬁnity. AC capacitance will be explored in the next chapter. we have the potential for capacitance to develop between turns. and hysteresis) also vary with frequency.6. but it sufﬁces to say at this point that it behaves very differently from AC inductance. limiting itself to conduction near the surface.
. MORE ON THE “SKIN EFFECT”
77
purposes. with zero effective resistance. However. so will Q.
3.6
More on the “skin effect”
As previously mentioned. it must be speciﬁed at a particular test frequency.
why not just use hollow metal rods instead of solid metal wires and save both weight and cost? (Figure 3. As you can see. In the following photograph you can see some large inductors used in a 50 kW radio transmitting circuit. The degree to which frequency affects the effective resistance of a solid wire conductor is impacted by the gauge of that wire.” the “AC resistance” of the same conductor referring to a higher ﬁgure resulting from the skin effect. for excellent conductivity at the “skin” of the tube:
Figure 3. the wire might as well be hollow! In some radio applications (antennas.18) Most antenna structures and RF power conductors are made of hollow metal tubes for this reason. at high frequencies the AC current avoids travel through most of the conductor’s crosssectional area. largegauge wires exhibit a more pronounced
.78
CHAPTER 3. As a rule. For the purpose of conducting current. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
The electrical resistance of the conductor with all its crosssectional area in use is known as the “DC resistance. The inductors are hollow copper tubes coated with silver. most notably) this effect is exploited. Since radiofrequency (“RF”) AC currents wouldn’t travel through the middle of a conductor anyway.18: High power inductors formed from hollow tubes.
gage size k factor gage size k factor 4/0 124. CONTRIBUTORS
79
skin effect (change in resistance from DC) than smallgauge wires at any given frequency.9 4 55. Table 3.182 kΩ at a frequency of 10 MHz:
RAC = (RDC)(k) RAC = (25 Ω)(27.5 22 6.8 2/0 99.182 kΩ
f 10
Please remember that this ﬁgure is not impedance. inductive or capacitive. corrected for the skin effect.8 18 10. and the combined effects of reactance and resistance (impedance). This is simply an estimated ﬁgure of pure resistance for the conductor (that opposition to the AC ﬂow of electrons which does dissipate power in the form of heat).0 10 27.
f
RAC = AC resistance at given frequency "f" RDC = Resistance at zero frequency (DC) k = Wire gage factor (see table below) f = Frequency of AC in MHz (MegaHertz)
Table 3. are entirely different matters.86 6 47.2: “k” factor for various AWG wire sizes.3.6 1/0 88.7.6 2 69. Reactance.0 14 17.5 8 34.6) RAC = 2.
3. from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. a length of number 10gauge wire with a DC endtoend resistance of 25 Ω would have an AC (effective) resistance of 2.9 
For example.
. The equation for approximating skin effect at high frequencies (greater than 1 MHz) is as follows:
RAC = (RDC)(k) Where.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. and it does not consider any reactive effects.2 gives approximate values of “k” factor for various round wire sizes.
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
Jim Palmer (June 2001): Identiﬁed and offered correction for typographical error in complex number calculation. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.80
CHAPTER 3.
. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
. . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . .1
AC resistor circuits
ET I ER IR ET = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET
Figure 4. .6 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . .2) Because the resistor allows an amount of current directly proportional to the voltage across it at all periods of time. . . . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: voltage and current are in phase. . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . .2 4. . . . . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor. . . . . . . . . . . .1) it would look something like this: (Figure 4. . . . . . . Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits Capacitor quirks . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . the waveform for the current is exactly in phase with the waveform for 81
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . 81 83 87 92 95 97
4.Chapter 4
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
Contents
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Figure 4. . . . . . . . . AC capacitor circuits . . . . . . . . .
We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. When the current is positive (above the line).
the voltage.
. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
e= i= + Time 
Figure 4.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. and so on. Conversely. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. meaning the values at that instant in time). At any given point in time along the waves.82
CHAPTER 4. when the current is negative (below the line). Likewise.3)
e= i= p= + Time 
Figure 4. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 4. the instantaneous current through the resistor is also zero.3: Instantaneous AC power in a resistive circuit is always positive. Whether the current is positive or negative. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). the voltage is also positive. the current through the resistor is also at its positive peak. a resistor still dissipates energy. the voltage is also negative. When the instantaneous value for voltage is zero. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. Note that the power is never a negative value. Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. at the moment in time where the voltage across the resistor is at its positive peak.
4: Pure capacitive circuit: capacitor voltage lags capacitor current by 90o If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit.5: Pure capacitive circuit waveforms. The ﬂow of electrons “through” a capacitor is directly proportional to the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor. Expressed mathematically. is in amps. but it means the exact same thing. capacitors oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they charge or discharge to the new voltage level.2
AC capacitor circuits
Capacitors do not behave the same as resistors. let’s analyze a simple capacitor circuit: (Figure 4.4. it would look something like this: (Figure 4. of course. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous voltage (e) over time. Therefore. the relationship between the current “through” the capacitor and rate of voltage change across the capacitor is as such:
i=C
de dt
The expression de/dt is one from calculus. in volts per second. but one that is precisely opposite to the kind exhibited by inductors. the instantaneous current is zero whenever the instantaneous voltage is
. the current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage across it. Whereas resistors allow a ﬂow of electrons through them directly proportional to the voltage drop. This opposition to voltage change is another form of reactance.5)
+
e= i= Time
Figure 4. Remember. and the instantaneous current (i). The capacitance (C) is in Farads. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage change over time expressed as dv/dt instead of de/dt: using the lowercase letter “v” instead or “e” to represent voltage. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
83
4.2. To show what happens with alternating current.4)
ET
I VC IC EC ET = EC I = IC C 90°
IC
Figure 4.
As with the simple inductor circuit. Looking at the graph. the 90 degree phase shift between voltage and current results in a power wave that alternates equally between positive and negative. where it crosses the zero line).6)
voltage slope = 0 current = 0
voltage slope = max.7: In a pure capacitive circuit. it merely absorbs and releases power. (+) e= i= Time
+
voltage slope = 0 current = 0 voltage slope = max. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
at a peak (zero change. (+) current = max.
. and the voltage “lags” behind the current. the instantaneous power may be positive or negative. ()
Figure 4. or level slope. (Figure 4. too: (Figure 4. the current “leads” the voltage. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave.6: Voltage lags current by 90o in a pure capacitive circuit. and the instantaneous current is at a peak wherever the instantaneous voltage is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the voltage wave. This means that a capacitor does not dissipate power as it reacts against changes in voltage.7)
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 4. the current wave seems to have a “head start” on the voltage wave. the same unusual power wave that we saw with the simple inductor circuit is present in the simple capacitor circuit. () current = max.84
CHAPTER 4. As you might have guessed. on the voltage sine wave). alternately.
just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). and the reactance offered by the capacitor. the equation XC = 1/(2πfC) could also be written as XC = 1/(ωC).1: Reactance of a 100 uF capacitor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 26. (Table 4.6366
Please note that the relationship of capacitive reactance to frequency is exactly opposite from that of inductive reactance. which is referred to as the angular velocity of the AC circuit. As with inductors. Inductors oppose faster changing currents by producing greater voltage drops.5258 120 13. The following circuit illustrates this mathematical relationship by example: (Figure 4. Alternating current in a simple capacitive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the capacitive reactance (in ohms). the reactance of a capacitor is expressed in ohms and symbolized by the letter X (or XC to be more speciﬁc). Thus. For any given magnitude of AC voltage at a given frequency. a capacitor of given size will “conduct” a certain magnitude of AC current.2629 2500 0.2. As with inductors. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of the alternating current. the reactance equation’s 2πf term may be replaced by the lowercase Greek letter Omega (ω). Conversely. the AC current through a capacitor is a function of the AC voltage across it. Just as the current through a resistor is a function of the voltage across the resistor and the resistance offered by the resistor. capacitors oppose faster changing voltage drops by allowing greater currents. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
85
A capacitor’s opposition to change in voltage translates to an opposition to alternating voltage in general.
. they will pass more current for fasterchanging voltages (as they charge and discharge to the same voltage peaks in less time).8: Capacitive reactance. with ω cast in units of radians per second.8)
10 V 60 Hz
C
100 µF
Figure 4. inductive reactance (in ohms) increases with increasing AC frequency. which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction.4. Capacitive reactance (in ohms) decreases with increasing AC frequency.1)
XC =
1 2πfC
Table 4. and less current for slowerchanging voltages. Since capacitors “conduct” current in proportion to the rate of voltage change.
9: Voltage lags current by 90o in an inductor.5258 Ω ∠ 90o
For a capacitor: 90o 90o
I 0o
E
Opposition (XC)
Figure 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
XC = 26. As was shown earlier.5258 Ω I= I= E X 10 V 26. the current has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the voltage.3770 A
However.
Opposition =
Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 0o 0. If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here. meaning that a capacitor’s opposition to current is a negative imaginary quantity. (Figure 4. we say that the phase angle of a capacitor’s opposition to current is 90o . we can calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition to current. and not just scalar quantities of resistance and reactance.5258 Ω
I = 0.
.9) This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis.3770 A ∠ 90o
Opposition =
Opposition = 26.86
CHAPTER 4. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. Mathematically.
5258 Ω). Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R). In the above example.j26. and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms. while the capacitor will offer 26.3.
• Capacitive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XC = 1/(2πfC)
• Capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. or 5 + j0 Ω). its symbol is Z. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
• REVIEW:
87
• Capacitive reactance is the opposition that a capacitor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its electric ﬁeld.3°
R 10 V 60 Hz
5Ω
C
100 µF
ET
Figure 4. just like resistance and reactance.5258 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. Now we will combine the two components together in series form and investigate the effects. Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o .
4.10: Series capacitor inductor circuit: voltage lags current by 0o to 90o . the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers. (Figure 4. the higher the frequency. and the capacitor’s reactance is an imaginary number (26.10)
R ET I IR VC IC ET = ER+ EC I = IR = IC EC C
I ER
79. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency. the total circuit impedance is:
. or 0 .3
Series resistorcapacitor circuits
In the last section. In other words. The term for this complex opposition to current is impedance.4. the less it opposes (the more it “conducts”) the AC ﬂow of electrons. we learned what would happen in simple resistoronly and capacitoronly AC circuits.5258 Ω 90o .
933 Ω ∠ 79. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (26.5258 Ω ∠ 90o) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 . which is generally assumed to be zero. although this time the difference is 79. we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source. the current wave is leading the voltage wave (of the source). regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current).5258 Ω (XC) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (26.j26.5258 Ω or 26.5 mA ∠ 79. respectively. To calculate current in the above circuit.325o instead of a full 90o .11) As we learned in the AC inductance chapter. in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex.993 Ω ∠ 79. just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than simple resistance is. can be and should be represented as a single impedance.5258 Ω capacitive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 26.325o
I = 370. (Figure 4.325o
Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect. separately or in combination (series/parallel). this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR). form
In fact.325o
As with the purely capacitive circuit.
I= I=
E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 26.88
CHAPTER 4. Let’s place out known ﬁgures for this series circuit into a table and continue the analysis using this tool:
. the “table” method of organizing circuit quantities is a very useful tool for AC analysis just as it is for DC analysis.j26. Any resistance and any reactance. not scalar.5258 Ω) Ztotal = 5 . (The phase angles of resistive and capacitive impedance are always 0o and 90o .
325o Volts Amps Ohms
0 .j26.06m 370.5258 ∠ 90o C Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68. we can apply Ohm’s Law (E=IR) vertically to determine voltage across the resistor and capacitor:
.j26.623m + j364.325o
Current in a series circuit is shared equally by all components.06m 370.5258 26.993 ∠ 79.623m + j364.5m ∠ 79.5258 26. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
89
phase shift = 79.993 ∠ 79.5m ∠ 79.4.325 degrees + e= i= Time Figure 4.325o 5 .325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 68.3.11: Voltage lags current (current leads voltage)in a series RC circuit.5m ∠ 79.5258 26.j26.325o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IC
Continuing with our analysis.623m + j364.5258 ∠ 90o
5 .325o 0 .06m 370.j26.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
C
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.5258 26.623m + j364. so the ﬁgures placed in the “Total” column for current can be distributed to all other columns as well:
R E I Z 68.
12: Spice circuit: RC.end
.623m + j364.06m 370.06m 370.675o . Let’s check our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 4.0) i(v1) .8269 ∠ 10.j26. This tells us that the capacitor’s voltage and current are still 90o out of phase with each other.5m ∠ 79.5m ∠ 79.j26.5258 26.325o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Notice how the voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 4.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.ac lin 1 60 60 .623m + j364. telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only).2) v(2.2) vp(2.print ac vp(1. exactly 90o less than the phase angle of the circuit current.06m 370.0) ip(v1) .print ac v(1.623m + j364. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
C 9.5258 26.11m + j1.8203 1.12)
1 10 V 60 Hz 0
R 5Ω C
2 100 µF 0
Figure 4.6569 .8523 ∠ 79.90
R E I Z 343.325o 5 . The voltage across the capacitor has a phase angle of 10.325o 68.993 ∠ 79.325o 0 .
ac rc circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 c1 2 0 100u .5m ∠ 79.j1.675o 68.8203 9.
.933E+01 v(2) 9. and E=IZ.11 millivolts (real rectangular) or 1. given the resistance (R) and the capacitive reactance (XC ).000E+01 v(1.325o . the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram. resistance. Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 88. SPICE confusingly prints the current phase angle at a value equal to the real phase angle plus 180o (or minus 180o ).4. Impedance (Z) of a series RC circuit may be calculated. reactance.827 V ∠ 10.13: Series: RC circuit Impedance phasor diagram.2) 1. respectively.33o EC = 9. which does correspond to our previously calculated ﬁgure of 79. Since E=IR. and impedance are proportional to voltage.852E+00 vp(1.827E+00 vp(2) 1. Real instruments connected to real circuits provide indications corresponding to the vector length (magnitude) of the calculated ﬁgures.705E01 ip(v1) 1. In this case. Find the impedance at 60 hertz. not rectangular form! For example.5 mA ∠ 100.8523 volts. While the rectangular form of complex number notation is useful for performing addition and subtraction.7o output by SPICE for current phase angle equates to a positive 79.13)
ER ET I R IR EC IC C
37°
I ER
37°
I R XC
ET Voltage
EC
Z Impedance
Figure 4. However.007E+02
91
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 1.3. (Figure 4. E=IXC . the 100.2) 7. Again. its a simple matter to correct this ﬁgure and check to see if our work is correct. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
freq 6.852 V ∠ 79.7o
Once again. if we were to actually build this series resistorcapacitor circuit and measure voltage across the resistor. which alone has direct correspondence to true measurements. not 343.8203 volts (imaginary rectangular). it must be emphasized that the calculated ﬁgures corresponding to reallife voltage and current measurements are those in polar form.000E+01 freq 6. it is a more abstract form of notation than polar. Thus.067E+01 i(v1) 3.3o .67o I = 370.42 microfarad capacitor. our voltmeter would indicate 1.
we will connect them in parallel and see what happens: (Figure 4.14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit.j30 = 50 36. . and the resistor and capacitor both have the same values of resistance and capacitance. respectively.42×10−6 XC = 30 Ω Z = R . regardless of what type of components comprise the impedances. resistive impedance.87o Z = 40 . Zn • Please note that impedances always add in series. • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . and impedances add to form the total impedance.92
CHAPTER 4. Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in circuits.4
Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits
Using the same value components in our series example circuit. voltage drops add to form the total voltage. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance. they must also have the same values of impedance. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . and capacitive impedance are to be treated the same way mathematically. • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). • A purely capacitive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 90o (ZC = XC Ω 90o ).jXC Z = 40 . • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
XC = 1/2πfC) XC = 1/(2π·60·88.87o
• REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance.
4. So. That is. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . inductive impedance. . we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values:
. I = E/Z .j30 Z = sqrt(402 + (30)2 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36.
14: Parallel RC circuit.5258 26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o
Ohms
This being a parallel circuit now.j26. PARALLEL RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
93
E
I R
IR IC C
IC
10. we know that voltage is shared equally by all components.7°
I 10 V 60 Hz E IR R 5Ω 100 µF C
I = IR+ IL E = ER = EC
Figure 4. so we can place the ﬁgure for total voltage (10 volts 0o ) in all the columns:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o
C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0 .5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EC
Ohms
Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns in the table.4.j26. calculating current through the resistor and current through the capacitor:
.4.
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
C
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0 .
0352 ∠ 10.j26.99m 2.675o Volts Amps Ohms
Finally.99m 376. the parallel impedance formula looks like this:
Zparallel =
1 1 1 1 + .j26. Once again. It is noteworthy to mention that this parallel impedance rule holds true regardless of the kind of impedances placed in parallel. parallel inductors... total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC circuits.99m ∠ 90o 0 .5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IC Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376. we will arrive at the same ﬁgure:
.99m ∠ 90o 0 . + Z1 Z2 Zn
The only drawback to using this equation is the signiﬁcant amount of work required to work it out. In other words. all the terms are common and can be applied uniformly to the same formula. Regardless of how we calculate total impedance for our parallel circuit (either Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula). parallel capacitors.94
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 4.99m 376. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376. parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances. especially without the assistance of a calculator capable of manipulating complex quantities. branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add up to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law again):
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.5258 26. it doesn’t matter if we’re calculating a circuit composed of parallel resistors. or some combination thereof: in the form of impedances (Z). As we saw in the AC inductance chapter.5258 26.
Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . branch currents add to form the total current. Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits).j910. capacitors have the virtue of generally being purer reactive components than inductors. . .5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376.9135 ∠ 10. and since their electric ﬁelds are almost totally contained between their plates (unlike inductors. nothing is so perfect.99m 376. I = E/Z . 90o ) than inductors.14m 4. containing absolutely zero resistive (power dissipative) effects. whose magnetic ﬁelds naturally tend to extend beyond the dimensions of the core). Consequently. • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit. they will tend to dissipate less power than an equivalent inductor.675o Volts Amps Ohms
95
Ohm’s Law E Z= I
or
Rule of parallel circuits: Ztotal = 1 1 1 + ZR ZC
• REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance.4.0352 ∠ 10.675o 4. the ideal capacitor is a purely reactive device. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o .8284 .
.99m ∠ 90o 0 . However.5
Capacitor quirks
As with inductors.
4. CAPACITOR QUIRKS
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376. using the reciprocal formula. It is a lot easier to design and construct a capacitor with low internal series resistance than it is to do the same with an inductor. Capacitors also tend to be smaller and lighter weight than their equivalent inductor counterparts. of course. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o .j26. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ .5. The practical result of this is that real capacitors typically have impedance phase angles more closely approaching 90o (actually.99m 2. In the real world.5258 26. and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance.
electrolytic capacitors should never be used with AC unless it is mixed (biased) with a constant DC voltage preventing the capacitor from ever being subjected to reverse voltage. and is equivalent to resistance in the circuit. For these reasons. due to both the characteristics of the microscopically thin dielectric ﬁlm and the electrolyte paste. Unless specially made for AC service. This heating effect represents a loss in power. This effect is undesirable for capacitors where we expect the component to behave as a purely reactive circuit element. much less signiﬁcant than the stray resistances present in an average inductor.96
CHAPTER 4. and the plates never have to contact the object being heated. Table 4.” A relative scale of dielectric loss from least to greatest is given in Table 4. The source of capacitor loss is usually the dielectric material rather than any wire resistance. these stray resistances are usually of modest impact (low series resistance and high parallel resistance). One of the ways to mitigate the effect of dielectric “loss” is to choose a dielectric material less susceptible to the effect.2: Dielectric loss Material Loss Vacuum Low Air Polystyrene Mica Glass LowK ceramic Plastic ﬁlm (Mylar) Paper HighK ceramic Aluminum oxide Tantalum pentoxide high Dielectric resistivity manifests itself both as a series and a parallel resistance with the pure capacitance: (Figure 4. Dielectric materials tend to react to changing electric ﬁelds by producing heat. circuit designers tend to favor capacitors over inductors wherever a design permits either alternative. Capacitors with signiﬁcant resistive effects are said to be lossy.
. Temperature is controlled by varying the voltage or frequency of the source. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies and in fact can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat insulating materials like plastic! The plastic object to be heated is placed between two metal plates. known for their relatively high capacitance and low working voltage.2. Electrolytic capacitors. Even then. connected to a source of highfrequency AC voltage. Not all dielectric materials are equally “lossy. as wire length in a capacitor is very minimal. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
they are less prone to transmitting or receiving electromagnetic “noise” to/from other components. in reference to their tendency to dissipate (“lose”) power like a resistor.15) Fortunately. are also known for their notorious lossiness. their resistive characteristics may be too severe a shortcoming for the application anyway.
6
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.4. CONTRIBUTORS
97
Equivalent circuit for a real capacitor
Rseries
Ideal capacitor
Rparallel
Figure 4.15: Real capacitor has both series and parallel resistance.
4. from most recent to ﬁrst.6. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
.
98
CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Review of R. . . . a voltage drop is produced that is 90o out of phase with the current. . . . . . . . 120
5. . 110 Susceptance and Admittance . AND C
Contents
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
. . . . X. . . . . . . and C . . L. . . . . 120 Contributors . . and C . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.1 5. . . let’s brieﬂy review some basic terms and facts. . . . and Z
Before we begin to explore the effects of resistors. . . . . . . . . . . Reactance is essentially inertia against the motion of electrons.Chapter 5
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. . It is present in all conductors to some extent (except superconductors!). .1
Review of R. . . respectively. . . . . . . but most notably in capacitors and inductors. . and capacitors connected together in the same AC circuits. .6 5. . . . . X. . . . . . L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inductors. . 119 Summary . . . Reactance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “X” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). . . . . . .3 5. . .4 5. . . . . 101 Parallel R. . . . When alternating current goes through a resistance. . . . . . . . most notably in resistors. . .2 5. . . 99 Series R. . . . . . . . . . a voltage drop is produced that is inphase with the current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Z . . . . . . . . . Resistance is essentially friction against the motion of electrons. . . . . . . . When alternating current goes through a pure reactance. . It is present anywhere electric or magnetic ﬁelds are developed in proportion to applied voltage or current. . 106 Seriesparallel R. . . . . . and C . . . . L. . . . . L. . . . . Resistance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “R” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). . . . . . .
voltage drop always leads current by 90o . form
Kirchhoff ’s Laws and all network analysis methods and theorems are true for AC circuits as well. All components possess impedance. For a perfect capacitor. but not reactance. and capacitor. The impedance phase angle for any component is the phase shift between voltage across that component and current through that component. a voltage drop is produced that is somewhere between 0o and 90o out of phase with the current. While this qualiﬁed equivalence may be arithmetically challenging. Perfect inductors and perfect capacitors (Figure 5. the voltage drop and current are always in phase with each other. and because of this universal quality.
Resistor
100 Ω
Inductor
R = 100 Ω X=0Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 0
o
100 mH 159. the concept of power in AC circuits is radically different from that of DC circuits. and so the impedance angle of a resistor is said to be 0o . For an perfect inductor. Perfect resistors (Figure 5.1) possess resistance. it makes sense to translate all component values (resistance. it is conceptually simple and elegant. L. The only real difference between DC and AC circuit calculations is in regard to power. inductor. capacitance) into common terms of impedance as the ﬁrst step in analyzing an AC circuit. and so a capacitor’s impedance phase angle is said to be 90o . Because reactance doesn’t dissipate power as resistance does. in complex form. not scalar.1: Perfect resistor. AND C
Impedance is a comprehensive expression of any and all forms of opposition to electron ﬂow. A revised version of Ohm’s Law.1) possess reactance but no resistance. looks like this:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex. so long as quantities are represented in complex rather than scalar form. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. For a perfect resistor. and they diminish in parallel. voltage drop always lags current by 90o . It is present in all circuits. and in all components. inductance. When alternating current goes through an impedance.100
CHAPTER 5.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90o
Figure 5.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90
o
Capacitor 10 µF 159. Impedances in AC behave analogously to resistances in DC circuits: they add in series. and so an inductor’s impedance phase angle is said to be +90o . Impedance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “Z” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). based on impedance rather than resistance. including both resistance and reactance. More on this subject in a later chapter!
.
04 Ω 1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1. and C
Let’s take the following example circuit and analyze it: (Figure 5.5. L.5 µF
Figure 5.2.7684k Ω or 1.2: Example series R.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o
.2)
R 250 Ω 120 V 60 Hz C 1.5 µF)
XC = XC =
XC = 1. of course. The ﬁrst step is to determine the reactances (in ohms) for the inductor and the capacitor. and C circuit. is still regarded as a purely “real” impedance (polar angle of 0o ):
ZR = 250 + j0 Ω or 250 Ω ∠ 0o ZL = 0 + j245. L.j1.2
Series R.04 Ω or 245.3) Remember that an inductive reactance translates into a positive imaginary impedance (or an impedance at +90o ). Resistance.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC = 0 . (Figure 5.
L
650 mH
XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245. AND C
101
5.7684 kΩ
The next step is to express all resistances and reactances in a mathematically common form: impedance. while a capacitive reactance translates into a negative imaginary impedance (impedance at 90o ). L. SERIES R.
5437 kΩ ∠ 80.7684k 1.j1. they can be handled in the same way as plain resistances in a DC circuit. so:
Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC Ztotal = (250 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j245. with all quantities of opposition to electric current expressed in a common. This is an ideal time to draw up an analysis table for this circuit and insert all the “given” ﬁgures (total voltage.04 245.j1. I’ll assume perfectly reactive inductors and capacitors from now on in my example calculations except where noted otherwise. inductor. AND C
ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o 120 V 60 Hz ZC 1. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.3: Example series R.7684k Ω) Ztotal = 250 . we know that the total circuit impedance is equal to the sum of the individuals. L. however (like those of the resistor.j1. since its always a quantity relative to another waveform. and so will be written at an angle of 0o .04 Ω) + (0 .
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.5233k Ω or 1. Although real components won’t be perfect in this regard.102
CHAPTER 5.04 ∠ 90o 0 . Notice that I’m assuming a perfectly reactive inductor and capacitor. Phase angles for impedance. Since the above example circuit is a series circuit. complex number format (as impedances. because the phase relationships between voltage and current at each component are absolutely deﬁned. and not as resistances or reactances). and C circuit with component values replaced by impedances.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o
Figure 5.04 Ω ∠ 90o
Now. and capacitor). they should be fairly close.680o
Inserting this ﬁgure for total impedance into our table:
. are known absolutely.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Unless otherwise speciﬁed. L. and the impedances of the resistor. Remember that there is no such thing as an “absolute” angle of phase shift for a voltage or current. For simplicity. respectively. and capacitor). the source voltage will be our reference for phase shift.
ZL
245. with impedance phase angles of exactly +90 and 90o . inductor.
5233k 1.708m 77.734m ∠ 80.5437k ∠ 80.5.j1.04 245. Thus.708m 77.680o 250 .734m ∠ 80.734m ∠ 80.7684k 1.04 245.589m + 76.7684k 1.04 245.680o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Being a series circuit.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12. to determine voltage drops:
.589m + 76.5233k 1.j1.04 ∠ 90o 12.589m + 76.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 12.7684k 1.5437k ∠ 80.680o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
103
We can now apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/R) vertically in the “Total” column to ﬁnd total current for this series circuit:
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245. SERIES R.j1.589m + 76.680o 0 + j245.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC 250 .734m ∠ 80. AND C
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.708m 77.708m 77.734m ∠ 80.04 ∠ 90o 0 .2.680o 0 .5233k 1.j1.j1.708m 77.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.j1.5437k ∠ 80.04 ∠ 90o 0 . current must be equal through all components.589m + 76. L.680o 250 .680o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL = IC
Now we’re prepared to apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) to each of the individual component columns in the table. we can take the ﬁgure obtained for total current and distribute it to each of the other columns:
R E I Z 12.
equations in AC circuits are the same as those in DC circuits.0848 19. the voltage across the capacitor is 137.177 19. Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) still holds true. KVL tells us that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops across the resistor.262 137.589m + 76. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.46 volts! How can this be? The answer lies in the interaction between the inductive and capacitive reactances.5233k 1. If the total impedance in a series circuit with both inductive and capacitive elements is less than the impedance of either element separately.68o 12.65 .5437k ∠ 80. It is analogous to adding together a positive and a negative (scalar) number: the sum is a quantity less than either one’s individual absolute value.734m ∠ 80.797 + j3.680o 0 . and capacitor should equal the applied voltage from the source.04 245. Once you’ve mastered the technique of reducing all component values to impedances (Z). using impedances (Z) instead of resistances (R). voltages greater than the source voltage may be obtained across some of the individual components! Further consequences of inductors’ and capacitors’ opposite reactances in the same circuit will be explored in the next chapter.708m 77. they tend to cancel each other out! Although they’re still added together to produce a sum. that sum is actually less than either of the individual (capacitive or inductive) impedances alone. When these two contrary impedances are added (in series). L. Expressed in rectangular form.434 ∠ 80.589m + 76. inductor.680o 250 .680o 12.708m 77.048 ∠ 170.3199o 12. and so do Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.1472 + j19.589m + 76.j1. the inductor’s impedance has a positive imaginary term and the capacitor has a negative imaginary term.680o Volts Amps Ohms
18.680o 0 + j245. Expressed as impedances.589m + 76. With this abnormally high current through each of the components.46 ∠ 9. we can look at the answers we derived for component voltage drops in the last circuit. AND C
C 135.04 ∠ 90o
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Notice something strange here: although our supply voltage is only 120 volts.104
R E I Z 3.7684k 1. then the total current in that circuit must be greater than what it would be with only the inductive or only the capacitive elements there.734m ∠ 80. analyzing any AC circuit is only about as difﬁcult as analyzing any DC circuit. a bit of complex number addition proves otherwise:
.734m ∠ 80.708m 77. To demonstrate Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law in an AC circuit.734m ∠ 80. except that the quantities dealt with are vector instead of scalar.j1. Even though this may not look like it is true at ﬁrst sight. we can see that the inductor opposes current in a manner precisely opposite that of the capacitor.708m 77.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L
CHAPTER 5.j22. With the exception of equations dealing with power (P).
943E+01 vp(1.5.3) vp(3.262 V 120 + j0 V EL EC Etotal
Aside from a bit of rounding error. L.end
freq 6.2) v(2. the answer you will receive should be exactly 120 + j0 volts.2) 1.65 .000E+01 freq 6.0) i(v1) .ac lin 1 60 60 .1472 + j19. We can also use SPICE to verify our ﬁgures for this circuit: (Figure 5.
ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin r1 1 2 250 l1 2 3 650m c1 3 0 1.0848 V + 135.905E+01 vp(2.5u .print ac v(1.2) vp(2. and C SPICE circuit.print ac vp(1. Performed on a calculator (preserving all digits).068E+01
v(2.5 µF
3
Figure 5. L.0) ip(v1) .3) 1.000E+01
v(1. the sum of these voltage drops does equal 120 volts.932E+01
.177 V ER 18.375E+02 vp(3) 9.j22.320E+00
i(v1) 7. AND C
105
ER + EL + EC should equal Etotal 3.3) v(3.2.773E02 ip(v1) 9.2) 8.797 + j3.3) 1.4: Example series R. SERIES R.4)
1 120 V 60 Hz
R 250 Ω L C
2 650 mH
0
1.707E+02
v(3) 1.
. current.3
Parallel R. which is so unique that it deserves a chapter devoted to that subject alone. because series inductive and capacitive impedances tend to cancel each other out. L. The only exception to this principle is the calculation of power. The fact that these components are connected in parallel instead of series now has absolutely no effect on their individual impedances. which is very different for AC.43 V ∠ 80. and resistance (actually.73 mA ∠ 99.7o EC = 137. . L. This may lead to voltage drops across components exceeding the supply voltage! • All rules and laws of DC circuits apply to AC circuits. The only exception to this consistency is the calculation of power. except that all quantities of voltage. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. and C
We can take the same components from the series circuit and rearrange them into a parallel conﬁguration for an easy example circuit: (Figure 5. This is good.5 µF
Figure 5. the total impedance for a circuit containing both inductance and capacitance may be less than one or more of the individual impedances.68o EL = 19. AND C
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 19.5: Example R. since it means all you’ve learned about DC electric circuits applies to what you’re learning here. • REVIEW: • Impedances of any kind add in series: ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . and C parallel circuit. there is little difference between AC circuit analysis and DC circuit analysis. Zn • Although impedances add in series.106
CHAPTER 5.5 V ∠ 9.
5. As you can see.05 V ∠ 170.5)
120 V 60 Hz
R
250 Ω
L
650 mH
C
1.320o I = 77.32o (actual phase angle = 80. L.68o)
The SPICE simulation shows our handcalculated results to be accurate. impedance) must be handled in complex rather than scalar form so as to account for phase angle. so long as values are expressed in complex form rather than scalar. So long as the power supply is the same
.
j1.3. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total voltage to all component columns in the table:
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.04 ∠ 90o 0 .
frequency as before.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o
245.04 Ω ∠ 90o
Figure 5.6) With all component values expressed as impedances (Z). we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in each column to determine current through each component:
. and C parallel circuit with impedances replacing component values.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL = EC 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Now. L.7684k 1.6: Example R. L. PARALLEL R.5. AND C
107
120 V 60 Hz
ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o
ZL
ZC 1.j1. the inductive and capacitive reactances will not have changed at all: (Figure 5. we can set up an analysis table and proceed as in the last example problem.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Knowing that voltage is shared equally by all components in a parallel circuit.04 245.04 245. except this time following the rules of parallel circuits instead of series:
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.7684k 1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .
7684k 1.7684k 1. First.858m ∠ 90o 0 .858m ∠ 90o 0 .71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245. with all the reciprocations (1/Z).7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m . This is especially true if you’re unfortunate enough not to have a calculator that handles complex numbers and are forced to do it all by hand (reciprocate the individual impedances in polar form. then convert back to polar form for the ﬁnal inversion.05 + j123. then invert).311o 141. then convert them all to rectangular form for addition.7)
.96 187.
R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 . L. AND C
C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67. working through the parallel impedance equation with complex numbers is no easy task. The second way to calculate total current and total impedance is to add up all the branch currents to arrive at total current (total current in a parallel circuit – AC or DC – is equal to the sum of the branch currents).108
R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L
CHAPTER 5. then use Ohm’s Law to determine total impedance from total voltage and total current (Z=E/I).03m ∠ 41.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .j489. will provide the correct answers.311o Volts Amps Ohms
Either method. and then calculate total current by dividing source voltage by total impedance (I=E/Z).04 ∠ 90o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67.j421. we could calculate total impedance from all the individual impedances in parallel (ZT otal = 1/(1/ZR + 1/ZL + 1/ZC ).71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245. However.85m 639.71m 489.71m 489.858m 67. Let’s try analyzing this circuit with SPICE and see what happens: (Figure 5.j1. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.j1.j489.858m 67.04 245. performed properly.04 ∠ 90o
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
There are two strategies for calculating total current and total impedance.04 245.79 ∠ 41.
390E01 ip(vi) 4.786E02 ip(vic) 9. L. and C SPICE circuit.5u .7: Example parallel R. All are set to 0 volts. PARALLEL R. L.print ac ip(vi) ip(vir) ip(vil) ip(vic) .800E01 ip(vir) 0.end
freq 6.ac lin 1 60 60 .5 µF 0
0
Figure 5.131E+01
i(vir) 4.000E+01
i(vic) 6.3.5. AND C
109
2 Vir Vi 3 1 120 V 60 Hz 0 R
2 Vil 4
2 Vic Rbogus 5 250 Ω L 650 mH 0 C
2
6
1.print ac i(vi) i(vir) i(vil) i(vic) .000E+01
.000E+01
i(vi) 6.
ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vi 1 2 ac 0 vir 2 3 ac 0 vil 2 4 ac 0 rbogus 4 5 1e12 vic 2 6 ac 0 r1 3 0 250 l1 5 0 650m c1 6 0 1.000E+00
i(vil) 4.000E+01 freq 6. Battery symbols are “dummy” voltage sources for SPICE to use as current measurement points.897E01 ip(vil) 9.
Even more than that. just using complex numbers instead of scalar to represent voltage.8: Example seriesparallel R. which SPICE cannot tolerate). Take this seriesparallel circuit for example: (Figure 5. To do this. current.8)
C1 4. The ﬁrst order of business. we were able to avoid that idiosyncrasy of SPICE of printing current ﬁgures 180o out of phase.7 mA ∠ 90o IC = 67.
5. as usual. and impedance.31o IR = 480 mA ∠ 0o IL = 489. L. our current phase readings came out to exactly match our hand calculations. and C circuit. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. is to determine values of impedance (Z) for all components based on the frequency of the AC power source. it should come as no surprise that seriesparallel analysis would be the same as well. and C
Now that we’ve seen how series and parallel AC circuit analysis is not fundamentally different than DC circuit analysis. AND C
Interpreted SPICE results Itotal = 639. This way. then convert reactance (X) and resistance (R) ﬁgures into proper impedance (Z) form:
. L.86 mA ∠ 90o
It took a little bit of trickery to get SPICE working as we would like on this circuit (installing “dummy” voltage sources in each branch to obtain current ﬁgures and installing the “dummy” resistor in the inductor branch to prevent a direct inductortovoltage source loop.0 mA ∠ 41.110
CHAPTER 5. by installing the dummy voltage sources (current meters) in the proper directions.7 µF 120 V 60 Hz
L C2
650 mH 1. we need to ﬁrst determine values of reactance (X) for all inductors and capacitors. but we did get the proper readings.4
Seriesparallel R. L.5 µF R 470 Ω
Figure 5.
38 Ω or 564.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o ZR = 470 + j0 Ω or 470 Ω ∠ 0o
Now we can set up the initial values in our table:
C1 E I Z 0 . In order that our table may follow all these steps.04 ∠ 90o 0 .5. each column designated by its respective component combination:
. it will be necessary to add additional columns to it so that each step may be represented.4.j1.04 245.04 Ω or 245. that impedance will be combined in parallel with the impedance of the resistor. AND C
Reactances and Resistances: XC1 = XC1 = 1 2πfC1 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(4. The ﬁrst step is to combine L and C2 as a series combination of impedances.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245. to arrive at another combination of impedances.38 564. SERIESPARALLEL R. so I will place a new row of columns underneath. L.7684 kΩ
ZC1 = 0 . by adding their impedances together.7 µF) XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245. that quantity will be added to the impedance of C1 to arrive at the total impedance.j1.38 Ω 1 2πfC2 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Being a seriesparallel combination circuit.38 Ω ∠ 90o ZL = 0 + j245. Adding more columns horizontally to the table shown above would be impractical for formatting reasons.7684k Ω or 1. Then.5 µF)
XC2 = XC2 =
R = 470 Ω
XC2 = 1. we must reduce it to a total impedance in more than one step.j564.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC2 = 0 . Finally.04 Ω
111
XC1 = 564.j564.7684k 1.
j696. This gives us one table with four columns and another table with three columns. there is no avoidance of the reciprocal formula: the required ﬁgures can be arrived at no other way!
L .34 ∠ 58. AND C
Total C1 . This time. and the “reciprocal” formula for complex impedances in parallel.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
429.” we can safely discard that column from the ﬁrst table.
Now that we know the total impedance (818.5233k ∠ 90o
R // (L . we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in the “Total” column to arrive at a ﬁgure for total current:
.C2)
Total C1 .5233k 1.112
CHAPTER 5.41 449.[R // (L .C2 E I Z
R // (L .15 .15 .C2)
Calculating these new (combination) impedances will require complex addition for series combinations.11 ∠ 17.j132.C2 E I Z 0 .79 818.371o
Ohms
Rule of series circuits: ZLC2 = ZL + ZC2 Rule of parallel circuits: 1 ZR//(LC2) = 1 1 + ZR ZLC2
Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZC1 + ZR//(LC2)
Seeing as how our second table contains a column for “Total.[R // (L .34 Ω 58.371o ) and the total voltage (120 volts 0o ).C2)] Volts Amps Ohms
L .147o
429. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.j1. L.
64m ∠ 58.899m + j124.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245. SERIESPARALLEL R. L.7684k 1.371o 429.79 818.4.5233k 1.11 ∠ 17.64m ∠ 58.371o 0 .j132.34 ∠ 58.15 .147o
76.371o Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2)
Now.15 .86m 146.371o Volts Amps Ohms
113
L . we can transfer the ﬁgure for total current into both columns:
C1 E I Z 76.j564.11 ∠ 17.147o 429.38 564.371o 429.5233k 1.86m 146.j1.86m 146.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
76.41 449.86m 146.5.15 .899m + j124.[R // (L .04 245.C2)
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
At this point we ask ourselves the question: are there any components or component combinations which share either the total voltage or the total current? In this case.899m + j124.34 ∠ 58.371o 0 .j696.j1. we can calculate voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) using Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those table columns:
. since the total impedance is composed of the two sets of impedances in series. AND C
Total C1 .64m ∠ 58.C2)
Total C1 .41 449.j696.C2 E I Z 0 .j1. Thus.04 ∠ 90o 0 .899m + j124.5233k ∠ 90o
R // (L .64m ∠ 58. both C1 and the parallel combination R//(L−−C2 ) share the same (total) current.j132.79 818.C2 E I Z
R // (L .[R // (L .5233k ∠ 90o 429.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2)
L .15 .
371o 429.371o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
A quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see whether or not the voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) indeed add up to the total.114
C1 E I Z 70.j132.j564. because those sets of impedances are in parallel with each other.533 + j43.899m + j124. AND C
C2 R Volts Amps 0 + j245.04 ∠ 90o 0 . it is!
That last step was merely a precaution.5233k 1.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
L .760 ∠ 31.533 + j43.64m ∠ 58.400 82. we again ask ourselves the question: what other components share the same voltage or current? In this case.400 V + 49. there is much opportunity for error.86m 146.34 ∠ 58.[R // (L .629o 76. they should!
Etotal should be equal to EC1 + ER//(LC2) 70.j696.38 564.04 245.C2) 49.86m 146.j43.41 449.147o
Total C1 .857 ∠ 41. L.899m + j124.15 .79 818.86m 146.371o 429.11 ∠ 17.371o 0 . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.j1. In a problem with as many steps as this one has.64m ∠ 58.j1.899m + j124.64m ∠ 58.j43. After having solved for voltage drops across C1 and the combination R//(L−−C2 ).400 65.467 .400 V 120 + j0 V Indeed.467 .38 ∠ 90o L
CHAPTER 5. the resistor (R) and the combination of the inductor and the second capacitor (L−−C2 ) share the same voltage.15 .7684k 1. Occasional crosschecks like that one can save a person a lot of work and unnecessary frustration by identifying problems prior to the ﬁnal step of the problem.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76. we can transfer the voltage ﬁgure just solved for into the columns for R and L−−C2 :
.5233k ∠ 90o
R // (L .C2 E I Z 0 . According to Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law.225o 76. Therefore.
j43. SERIESPARALLEL R.34 ∠ 58.5233k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 49.857 ∠ 41.371o 429.899m + j124.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.04 245.04 ∠ 90o 0 .760 ∠ 31. L.5.629o 76.857 ∠ 41.86m 146.86m 146.4.899m + j124.400 82.15 .38 564.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.533 + j43.533 + j43.857 ∠ 41.899m + j124.225o 76.533 + j43.41 449.467 .467 .C2) 49.86m 146. AND C
C1 E I Z 70.39m + j92.147o
Total C1 .j43.64m ∠ 58.j1.760 ∠ 31.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
.7684k 1. All we need to do is apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in both of those columns:
C1 E I Z 70.79 818.[R // (L .400 65.j696.371o Volts Amps Ohms
Now we’re all set for calculating current through the resistor and through the series combination L−−C2 .12m ∠ 41.400 65.371o 0 .j564.11 ∠ 17.86m 146.38 564.225o 105.j564.15 .5233k 1.64m ∠ 58.371o 0 .7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.400 65.j132.j1.7684k 1.225o Volts Amps Ohms
115
L .400 82.400 65.857 ∠ 41.629o 76.64m ∠ 58.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 L C2 R 49.04 245.899m + j124.225o
R // (L .38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.64m ∠ 58.341m 140.371o 429.04 ∠ 90o 0 .C2 E I Z 0 .j1.533 + j43.
two calculations).86m 146.232m ∠ 131.225o
28. we can complete our analysis table for this circuit.232m ∠ 131.j132.225o 105.86m 146. L.64m ∠ 58.899m + j124.12m ∠ 41.490m + j32.899m + j124.86m 43.533 + j43.41 449.22o 43.371o 429.490m + j32.7684k 1.38 ∠ 90o 28. AND C
Total C1 .857 ∠ 41.533 + j43.j564.899m + j124. they should:
IR//(LC2) should be equal to IR + I(LC2) 105.
.15 .533 + j43.400 82. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.371o Volts Amps Ohms
L .400 65.39m + j92.341m 140.04 245.516m 28.86m
Indeed.400 65.22o 0 + j245.899m + j124.857 ∠ 41.15 .22o 146.232m ∠ 131.116
CHAPTER 5.490m + j32.j696. With impedance and current ﬁgures in place for L and C2 .490m + j32.467 .5233k 1.516m 43.516m 76.38 564.39m + j92.400 65.5233k ∠ 90o 429.j43.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: ILC2 = IL = IC2
With one last step (actually.C2 E I Z 49.79 818. it is!
Since the L and C2 are connected in series.C2) 49.7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.64m ∠ 58.371o 0 .516m 76.147o
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Another quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see if the current ﬁgures for L−−C2 and R add up to the total current. According to Kirchhoff ’s Current Law.629o 76.64m ∠ 58.760 ∠ 31.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.11 ∠ 17. and since we know the current through their series combination impedance.225o
R // (L .857 ∠ 41.j1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .j1. we can distribute that current ﬁgure to the L and C2 columns following the rule of series circuits whereby series components share the same current:
C1 E I Z 70.371o 0 .[R // (L . all we have to do is apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those two columns to calculate voltage drops.341m + 28.34 ∠ 58.
12m ∠ 41.629o 76. C SPICE circuit. SERIESPARALLEL R.22o C2 57.22o 43.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
117
28.7 µF
more "dummy" voltage sources to act as current measurement points in the SPICE analysis (all set to 0 volts). L. C2 . L. let’s turn to SPICE for a computer veriﬁcation of our work:
2
C1 4.22o 0 + j245.501 + j50.467 . and current phase angle for C1 .400 65. voltage phase angle.899m + j124.400 82.225o 105.j43. these ﬁgures do concur with our handcalculated ﬁgures in the circuit analysis table.371o 0 . current.
.232m ∠ 131.533 + j43.j564.232m ∠ 131.04 245.7684k 1.j6.516m 43.451 ∠ 41.225 R 49. While there is more potential for human error in carrying out the necessary complex number calculations. AND C
C1 E I Z 70.39m + j92.490m + j32.5 µF 0
0
0
Figure 5.4. it must be emphasized that there is nothing really new going on here besides the use of complex numbers. Each line of the SPICE output listing gives the voltage.981 10. As daunting a task as seriesparallel AC circuit analysis may appear.86m 146. as do the voltage and current Laws of Kirchhoff.594 ∠ 221.968 .7684k ∠ 90o
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Now.64m ∠ 58.5. the basic principles and techniques of seriesparallel circuit reduction are exactly the same.04 ∠ 90o 0 .382 76.857 ∠ 41.760 ∠ 31. L. 3 Vir 4 6 R 470 Ω 3
Vit 1 120 V 60 Hz
Vilc
L 5 C2
650 mH 1. in that order. Ohm’s Law (in its new form of E=IZ) still holds true. and R. As you can see.38 ∠ 90o L 7.516m 28.j1.38 564.9: Example seriesparallel R.341m 140.490m + j32.
end
circuit
i(vit) ip(vit) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vir) ip(vir)
freq 6. • It is important to remember that before seriesparallel reduction (simpliﬁcation) can begin.000E+01
v(2. all component values will be expressed in common terms (Z) instead of an incompatible mix of resistance (R).0) . and capacitor.118
CHAPTER 5.323E02
ip(vilc) 1.312E+02
C2
freq 6. and capacitance (C).388E+02
i(vilc) 4. That way.3) vp(2.3) 8.837E+01
C1
freq 6.0) vp(5.122E+01
R
• REVIEW: • Analysis of seriesparallel AC circuits is much the same as seriesparallel DC circuits.print ac v(4.163E+01
i(vit) 1.print ac v(6. you must determine the impedance (Z) of every resistor.645E+01
vp(5) 4.122E+01
i(vilc) 4.122E+01
i(vir) 1.7u l 4 5 650m c2 5 0 1.312E+02
L
freq 6.print ac v(5. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.5) .000E+01
v(4.5) 1.276E+01
vp(2.586E+01
vp(6) 4. inductor.5u r 6 0 470 .0) . L.323E02
ip(vilc) 1. inductance (L).059E+01
vp(4.
.3) .000E+01
v(5) 7.466E01
ip(vit) 5.5) vp(4.000E+01
v(6) 6.3) 3. The only substantive difference is that all ﬁgures and calculations are in complex (not scalar) form.ac lin 1 60 60 .5) 1.0) vp(6.401E01
ip(vir) 4. AND C
ac seriesparallel rlc v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vit 1 2 ac 0 vilc 3 4 ac 0 vir 3 6 ac 0 c1 2 3 4.print ac v(2.
either a purely resistive (conductive) circuit. . conductance simply adds. We call this timebased opposition.5
Susceptance and Admittance
In the study of DC circuits. Now. It is a useful term when exploring the mathematical formula for parallel resistances: Rparallel = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . 1/Xn ). susceptances (B) add in parallel and diminish in series.5. unfortunately the same symbol used to represent magnetic ﬂux density. we see a certain logic to the naming of this new term: while impedance is a measure of how much alternating current is impeded in a circuit. and like resistance we also measure it in the unit of ohms. and its symbol is “Y”. Admittance is measured in (guess what?) the unit of Siemens. we had to have a new term: impedance. susceptance is a scalar quantity. Conductance used to be measured in the unit of mhos. Mathematically. admittance is a complex quantity rather than scalar. admittance is a measure of how much current is admitted. the student of electricity comes across a term meaning the opposite of resistance: conductance. conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. rather than with a constant. When resistive and reactive components are interconnected. In order to express and quantify the effects of mixed resistive and reactive components. Its mathematical symbol is “B”. the proper unit of measurement is Siemens. and each 1/R term in the “parallel resistance formula” is actually a conductance. The name for this measure is admittance. unchanging friction as resistors do. Likewise. The terms “reactance” and “susceptance” have a certain linguistic logic to them. Again. As conductance is the complement of resistance. i. . Reactive components such as inductors and capacitors oppose the ﬂow of electrons with respect to time. we need a complementary measure representing the reciprocal of impedance. SUSCEPTANCE AND ADMITTANCE
119
5. Also like conductance. which diminishes as more parallel components are included in the circuit. . To be consistent. When symbolized in a mathematical formula. the reciprocal of reactance. 1/Rn ). Mathematically. Unlike resistance. then add susceptances rather than diminish reactances: Xparallel = 1/(1/X1 + 1/X2 + . while conductance is the measure of how much a circuit conducts current. the proper letter to use for conductance is “G”. Like conductance. Like impedance. “conductance” represents the ease of which electrons may ﬂow.5. susceptance is the measure of how much a circuit is susceptible to conducting a changing current. . but now is measured in Siemens. you may never have to work with ﬁgures of susceptance (B) or admit
. there is also a complementary expression of reactance. Given a scientiﬁc calculator capable of handling complex number arithmetic in both polar and rectangular forms. While reactance is the measure of how much a circuit reacts against change in current over time. just like resistance and conductance. measured in ohms and symbolized by the letter “Z”. pure reactances.e. ﬁgures of conductance (G) and susceptance (B) are most useful in circuits where the two types of opposition are not mixed. reactance. Resistance is the measure of how much a circuit resists current. it is equal to 1/X. it used to be measured in the unit of mhos. or “ohms” spelled backward. If one were tasked with determining the total effect of several parallelconnected. one could convert each reactance (X) to a susceptance (B). Whereas the term “resistance” denotes the amount of opposition to ﬂowing electrons in a circuit. or a purely reactive (susceptive) circuit. called susceptance. their combined effects can no longer be analyzed with scalar quantities of resistance (R) and reactance (X). Like conductances (G).
proceed with the same steps and strategies learned for analyzing DC circuits. Be aware. The same troubleshooting strategies applied toward DC circuits also hold for AC. and even the network theorems learned in DC still hold true for AC when voltage. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. and Z=E/I Remember that only the calculated ﬁgures expressed in polar form apply directly to empirical measurements of voltage and current.6
Summary
With the notable exception of calculations for power (P). and will be covered in its own chapter in this book.
. Rectangular notation is merely a useful tool for us to add and subtract complex quantities together. current. Power is another subject altogether. is the most practical way to express complex quantities for circuit analysis.120
CHAPTER 5. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. using the “new” form of Ohm’s Law: E=IZ . where the magnitude (length of vector) directly relates to the magnitude of the voltage or current measured. Because power in a reactive circuit is both absorbed and released – not just dissipated as it is with resistors – its mathematical handling requires a more direct application of trigonometry to solve. inductor. and capacitor component values into impedances (Z). although AC can certainly be more difﬁcult to work with due to phase angles which aren’t registered by a handheld multimeter. Ohm’s Law.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.
5. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. from most recent to ﬁrst. though. the ﬁrst step in analysis is to convert all resistor. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. After that. and impedance are all expressed with complex numbers. Polar notation. and the angle directly relates to the phase shift in degrees. AND C
tance (Y). based on the frequency of the power source.
5. all AC circuit calculations are based on the same general principles as calculations for DC circuits. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. The only signiﬁcant difference is that fact that AC calculations use complex quantities while DC calculations use scalar quantities. L. of their existence and their meanings. I=E/Z . When faced with analyzing an AC circuit.
. . . . . . Inductors store energy in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld. . . . . . . .Chapter 6
RESONANCE
Contents
6. . . . the inductor will begin to build up a “charge” in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld as current increases in the circuit: (Figure 6. 121 126 131 135 136 145 146 148 151
6. . . . . . creating their own AC voltage and current cycles. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. .7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . When these two types of reactive components are directly connected together.2 Parallel resonant circuits . . . . . . . .2) 121
.6. Meanwhile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 An electric pendulum . . . Capacitors and inductors are ﬂipsides of the same reactive coin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Series resonant circuits . . . . . . . . . leaving the capacitor in the charged state and the inductor in the discharged state: (Figure 6. . . storing and releasing energy in complementary modes. . . . . . . . . . . . the capacitor will very quickly charge and the inductor will oppose change in current. . . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a potential: static voltage.1
An electric pendulum
Capacitors store energy in the form of an electric ﬁeld. .5 6. . . . If either the capacitor or inductor starts out in a charged state. . .3 6. . . . . . . . .6. . Applications of resonance . its voltage decreasing. . . . . . . . 6.1) The capacitor will begin to discharge. . back and forth. . . . If we assume that both components are subjected to a sudden application of voltage (say. . . . . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a kinetic motion of electrons: current. . . their complementary tendencies to store energy will produce an unusual result. . . . . . . . . . . from a momentarily connected battery). . . Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit . the two components will exchange energy between them. . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance Simple series resonance .
being the recipient of this current. as before. leaving the inductor fully charged with
. The capacitor. RESONANCE
e= i=
e Time
capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor discharged: zero current
Figure 6.5) Now we’re at a condition very similar to where we started: the capacitor at full charge and zero current in the circuit. Inductor charging: current increasing.4) When the inductor is ﬁnally depleted of its energy reserve and the electrons come to a halt.3)
e= i= Time
capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: maximum current
Figure 6. inductor fully charged: maximum current. it will generate a voltage (like a battery) in order to keep current in the same direction.
e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time
Figure 6. In fact. The capacitor. causing an increase in current (in the opposite direction as before) and a decrease in voltage as it depletes its own energy reserve: (Figure 6.122
Battery momentarily connected to start the cycle + i
CHAPTER 6. The inductor will maintain current ﬂow even with no voltage applied.3: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage. The inductor.6) Eventually the capacitor will discharge to zero volts. will keep electrons ﬂowing in the circuit until the capacitor has been completely discharged. will begin to accumulate a charge in the opposite polarity as before: (Figure 6. inductor discharged: zero current. will begin to discharge through the inductor.2: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing. the capacitor will have reached full (voltage) charge in the opposite polarity as when it started: (Figure 6. still charging.1: Capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak. leaving zero voltage across it: (Figure 6.
AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM
123
e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity) inductor discharging: current decreasing Time
Figure 6.
e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time
Figure 6. inductor charging: current increasing.4: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity). inductor fully discharged: zero current.6.
e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time
Figure 6.1.5: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak. inductor discharging: current decreasing.6: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing.
.
RESONANCE
Time
capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: current at () peak
Figure 6. In doing so. Overall. inductor discharging: current decreasing. The inductor. until the process stops altogether. Eventually the capacitor will become fully charged again as the inductor expends all of its energy reserves trying to maintain current.9)
e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time
Figure 6. inductor fully charged: current at () peak. generating a voltage like a battery to continue the ﬂow. desiring to maintain current in the same direction. there is a transformation
. the capacitor will begin to charge up and the current will decrease in magnitude: (Figure 6. This completes one full cycle of the energy exchange between the capacitor and inductor: (Figure 6.124 full current through it: (Figure 6.8)
e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing inductor discharging: current decreasing Time
Figure 6.7)
e= i=
CHAPTER 6.8: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing. this behavior is akin to that of a pendulum: as the pendulum mass swings back and forth. This oscillation will continue with steadily decreasing amplitude due to power losses from stray resistances in the circuit. will act like a source again.9: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak. The voltage will once again be at its positive peak and the current at zero. inductor fully discharged: zero current.7: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage.
a pendulum’s backandforth oscillation will continue with a steadily dampened amplitude.10)
maximum potential energy. this kind of natural sinewave oscillation for a mechanical system is called Simple Harmonic Motion (often abbreviated as “SHM”).10: Pendelum transfers energy between kinetic and potential energy as it swings low to high. the pendulum’s position and velocity measurements trace two sine waves (90 degrees out of phase) over time: (Figure 6. the result of air friction (resistance) dissipating energy. The same underlying principles govern both the oscillation of a capacitor/inductor circuit and the action of a pendulum.6. it passes quickly through a point where the string is pointed straight down. the mass brieﬂy stops and switches directions. maximum kinetic energy
potential energy = kinetic energy =
Figure 6. not on the amount of voltage (or current) at each respective peak in the waves. zero kinetic energy mass
zero potential energy. The oscillation rate is independent of the amount of energy stored in it. and not the weight of the mass itself. The rate of oscillation is strictly dependent on the sizes of the capacitor and inductor. Like the circuit. It is an interesting property of any pendulum that its periodic time is governed by the length of the string holding the mass. At the peak height of each swing of a pendulum. in a similar fashion to the way energy is transferred in the capacitor/inductor circuit back and forth in the alternating forms of current (kinetic motion of electrons) and voltage (potential electric energy). It is at this point that potential energy (height) is at a maximum and kinetic energy (motion) is at zero. potential energy (height) is at zero and kinetic energy (motion) is at maximum. Also like the circuit. AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM
125
of energy taking place from kinetic (motion) to potential (height).1. At this point. hence the similarity in effect. As the mass swings back the other way. That is why a pendulum will keep swinging at the same frequency as the oscillations decrease in amplitude. The same is true for the capacitor/inductor circuit. In physics. The ability for such a circuit to store energy in the form of
.
RESONANCE
oscillating voltage and current has earned it the name tank circuit. In the above circuit. we need to be able to predict what the resonant frequency will be for various combinations of L and C.
6. • REVIEW: • A capacitor and inductor directly connected together form something called a tank circuit. this tendency to oscillate. In fact. we have a 10 µF capacitor and a 100 mH inductor.
10 µF
100 mH
Figure 6.2
Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance
A condition of resonance will be experienced in a tank circuit (Figure 6. which oscillates (or resonates) at one particular frequency.126
CHAPTER 6. Because inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency and capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. and we’re looking for that
. the circuit is said to be in a state of resonance. at a particular frequency is not limited to circuits exclusively designed for that purpose. However. nearly any AC circuit with a combination of capacitance and inductance (commonly called an “LC circuit”) will tend to manifest unusual effects when the AC power source frequency approaches that natural frequency. Since we know the equations for determining the reactance of each at a given frequency. a condition of resonance will have been reached. For this reason. or resonate. and be aware of what the effects of resonance are. This is true regardless of the circuit’s intended purpose.11) when the reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal to each other. there will only be one frequency where these two reactances will be equal. The unusual effects will reach maximum in this condition of resonance. energy is alternately shufﬂed between the capacitor and the inductor in the form of alternating voltage and current 90 degrees out of phase with each other. If the power supply frequency for a circuit exactly matches the natural frequency of the circuit’s LC combination. natural frequency regardless of how much or little energy is actually being stored in it gives it special signiﬁcance in electric circuit design. Its property of maintaining a single. At that frequency.11: Simple parallel resonant circuit (tank circuit). • When the power supply frequency for an AC circuit exactly matches that circuit’s natural oscillation frequency as set by the L and C components.
.6. . . With capacitive and inductive reactances equal to each other. . .2. . . . . the total impedance increases to inﬁnity. 2πfL = 1 2πfC
Multiplying both sides by f eliminates the f term in the denominator of the fraction . we arrive at a resonant frequency of 159. . . simplifying . we can set the two reactance formulae equal to each other and solve for frequency algebraically:
XL = 2πfL
XC =
1 2πfC
. setting the two equal to each other. meaning that the tank circuit draws no current from the AC power source! We can calculate the individual impedances of the 10 µF capacitor and the 100 mH inductor and work through the parallel impedance formula to demonstrate this mathematically:
. .155 Hz. SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE
127
point where the two reactances are equal to each other. . f= 2π 1 LC
So there we have it: a formula to tell us the resonant frequency of a tank circuit. given the values of inductance (L) in Henrys and capacitance (C) in Farads. f= 1 2π2πLC . representing a condition of equal reactance (resonance) . Plugging in the values of L and C in our example circuit.
What happens at resonance is quite interesting. 2πf2L = 1 2πC
Dividing both sides by 2πL leaves f2 by itself on the lefthand side of the equation . . f2 = 1 2π2πLC
Taking the square root of both sides of the equation leaves f by itself on the left side .
12) The 1 picoohm (1 pΩ) resistor is placed in this SPICE analysis to overcome a limitation of SPICE: namely. (Figure 6. but we can say that the result approaches a value of inﬁnity as the two parallel impedances get closer to each other. we use the parallel impedance formula to see what happens to total Z:
Zparallel =
1 1 1 + ZL ZC 1 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o + 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o
Zparallel =
Zparallel =
0.01 ∠ 90o
Zparallel =
Undefined!
We can’t divide any number by zero and arrive at a meaningful result. We can plot the consequences of this over a wide power supply frequency range with a short SPICE simulation: (Figure 6.01 ∠ 90 1 0
o
1 + 0.155 Hz)(10 µF)
XC = 100 Ω
As you might have guessed.128
CHAPTER 6. RESONANCE
XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(159. This SPICE simulation plots circuit current over a frequency range of 100 to 200 Hz in twenty even steps (100 and 200 Hz inclusive). Current magnitude on the graph increases from
. that it cannot analyze a circuit containing a direct inductorvoltage source loop. Now. What this means in practical terms is that. the total impedance of a tank circuit is inﬁnite (behaving as an open circuit) at resonance.12) A very low resistance value was chosen so as to have minimal effect on circuit behavior. I chose these component values to give resonance impedances that were easy to work with (100 Ω even).155 Hz)(100 mH) XL = 100 Ω
XC = XC =
1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(159.
.....684E+02 1.. . . .. . . . 1. * 1.
3. * . .. * . .105E+02 7. * .. . .. .350E03 . .. * ..063E03 ... . . .. .0E02 . .. * .162E03 1.6. .263E+02 4.373E04 .632E03 .000E+02 9. * ..632E+02 4.474E+02 1. . * . . .. 1. .540E03 ... ..2.. . * ..969E04 .895E+02 3.033E03 . . . .. * .. . .12: Resonant circuit sutitable for SPICE simulation. .934E03 . * .368E+02 3.506E03 . . .789E+02 2. . . * 1. . 1.737E+02 1... .590E04 . .579E+02 1.. .* . .. 1.542E03 ..162E04 1..421E+02 2.. 1.947E+02 4. .609E03 . .. . 1. * .505E03 .271E03 .... . .000E03 .. ..053E+02 8.. . 1.842E+02 2. . 1..* ..749E03 . 1. * . * . 1.... . . . ..470E03 . . 2.1. 1.. 1.828E03 ...455E03 . * . * . . 1.158E+02 6... .
freq i(v1) 3.526E+02 8. . .. 1. SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE
129
1 1 Rbogus 2 C1 0 0 0 10 uF L1 0 100 mH 1 1 pΩ
Figure 6. . .. . * .211E+02 5....132E03 .
.663E03 .316E+02 3.. . 1. . 1. ...000E+02 4..
end
CHAPTER 6. though it does no harm.9 Hz.130 tank circuit frequency sweep v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u * rbogus is necessary to eliminate a direct loop * between v1 and l1.plot) command.cir). Such graphs plot amplitude or phase shift on one axis and frequency on the other. the graph output produced by this SPICE computer analysis is more generally known as a Bode plot. The plot above is produced from the above spice circuit ﬁle ( *. while frequency increases from top to bottom. which SPICE can’t handle rbogus 1 2 1e12 l1 2 0 100m . The current in this circuit takes a sharp dip around the analysis point of 157. The steepness of a Bode plot curve characterizes a circuit’s “frequency response. The following commands produce the plot below: (Figure 6.13) spice b r resonant.cir ( b batch mode. The above spice ( *.raw resonant.plot ac i(v1) . the command (.ac lin 20 100 200 . which is the closest analysis point to our predicted resonance frequency of 159.cir) does not require the plot (. part of the spice package.plot) in the last line producing the text plot on any printer or terminal.” or how sensitive it is to changes in frequency. r raw file.155 Hz.cir) nutmeg resonant. A better looking plot is produced by the “nutmeg” graphical postprocessor. It is at this point that total current from the power source falls to zero.raw From the nutmeg prompt: >setplot ac1 (setplot {enter} for list of plots) >display (for list of signals) >plot mag(v1#branch) (magnitude of complex current vector v1#branch) Incidentally. RESONANCE
left to right.
. input is resonant. • For a tank circuit with no resistance (R). • REVIEW: • Resonance occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal to each other. resonant frequency can be calculated with the following formula:
fresonant =
•
1 2π LC
• The total impedance of a parallel LC circuit approaches inﬁnity as the power supply frequency approaches resonance.
SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE
131
Figure 6.
6.6.
• A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other. the two impedances cancel each other out and the total impedance drops to zero!
10 µF 100 mH
Figure 6.14) When a state of resonance is reached (capacitive and inductive reactances equal). (Figure 6.3
Simple series resonance
A similar effect happens in series inductive/capacitive circuits.14: Simple series resonant circuit.
.13: Nutmeg produces plot of current I(v1) for parallel resonant circuit.3.
16) The peak is still seen to be at the plotted frequency point of 157. the closest analyzed point to our predicted resonance point of 159.15) in series along with the capacitor and the inductor to keep the maximum circuit current somewhat limited.plot ac i(v1) .ac lin 20 100 200 . I’ll add a small resistor (Figure 6.15: Series resonant circuit suitable for SPICE.j100 Ω
1
R1 1Ω C1 3 L1
2 10 µF 100 mH 0
1V
0
Figure 6. this would not be good.9 Hz. and perform another SPICE analysis over the same range of frequencies: (Figure 6.
series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .155 Hz. This would suggest that our resonant frequency formula holds as true for simple series LC circuits as it does for simple parallel LC circuits.j100 Ω) Zseries = 0 Ω
With the total series impedance equal to 0 Ω at the resonant frequency of 159. RESONANCE
At 159. while frequency increases from left to right.155 Hz: ZL = 0 + j100 Ω Zseries = ZL + ZC Zseries = (0 + j100 Ω) + (0 . (Figure 6.16)
ZC = 0 . In the circuit drawn above. circuit current amplitude increases from bottom to top. the result is a short circuit across the AC power source at resonance.132
CHAPTER 6.end As before. which is the case:
.155 Hz.
What is the expected value? Given: fr = 159. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE
133
Figure 6.3) v(3) .ac lin 20 100 200).155 Hz.
fresonant =
1 2π LC
A word of caution is in order with series LC resonant circuits: because of the high currents which may be present in a series LC circuit at resonance. it is possible to produce dangerously high voltage drops across the capacitor and the inductor. voltage across the capacitor and inductor reach a peak somewhere around 70 volts! This is quite impressive for a power supply that only generates 1 volt.3. caution is in order when experimenting with circuits such as this.17) series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m . L = 100mH. R = 1 XL = 2πfL = 2π(159.ac lin 20 100 200 . This SPICE voltage is lower than the expected value due to the small (20) number of steps in the AC analysis statement (. as each component possesses signiﬁcant impedance. We can edit the SPICE netlist in the above example to include a plot of voltage across the capacitor and inductor to demonstrate what happens: (Figure 6. Needless to say.155)(10µF)) = j100Ω
.6.16: Series resonant circuit plot of current I(v1).155)(100mH)=j100Ω XC = 1/(2πfC) = 1/(2π(159.end According to SPICE.plot ac i(v1) v(2.
134
CHAPTER 6. I=I(V1#branch) 0.17: Plot of Vc=V(2. • The same formula for determining resonant frequency in a simple tank circuit applies to simple series circuits as well.3) 70 V peak. Q = VL /VR = VC /VR • REVIEW: • The total impedance of a series LC circuit approaches zero as the power supply frequency approaches resonance. due to high current ﬂows and substantial individual component impedances. The ratio of the capacitor (or inductor) voltage to the applied voltage is the “Q” factor. these voltages are out of phase and cancel yielding a total voltage across all three components of only 1 V. VL =v(3) 70 V peak. This voltage will stress these components to that level and they must be rated accordingly. • Extremely high voltages can be formed across the individual components of series LC circuits at resonance. RESONANCE
Figure 6. However.
.532 A peak Z = 1 +j100 j100 = 1 Ω I = V/Z = (1 V)/(1 Ω) = 1 A VL = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VC = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VR = IR = (1 A)(1)= 1 V Vtotal = VL + VC + VR Vtotal = j100 j100 +1 = 1 V The expected values for capacitor and inductor voltage are 100 V. the applied voltage.
As was noted before. In fact. this is how analog radio receiver tuner circuits work to ﬁlter.. or at most a nuisance to be avoided (especially if series resonance makes for a shortcircuit across our AC voltage source!). or select.19: Resonant circuit serves as ﬁlter. the phenomenon of resonance appears to be a useless curiosity. and their design constitutes a discipline of study all by itself: (Figure 6. and not on the magnitudes of voltage or current present in the oscillations: (Figure 6. Another use for resonance is in applications where the effects of greatly increased or decreased impedance at a particular frequency is desired..18: Resonant circuit serves as stable frequency source. employed in a variety of applications.6.
Figure 6. so can a tank circuit be used to stabilize the electrical frequency of an AC oscillator circuit.4.19)
the natural frequency of the "tank circuit" helps to stabilize oscillations
AC source of mixed frequencies
Tank circuit presents a high impedance to a narrow range of frequencies.. these particular circuits are called ﬁlters.18)
. to the rest of the "oscillator" circuit . However. One use for resonance is to establish a condition of stable frequency in circuits designed to produce AC signals. thus acting as a sort of frequency “ﬁlter” to strain certain frequencies out of a mix of others. with the capacitor and inductor directly connected together. A resonant circuit can be used to “block” (present high impedance toward) a frequency or range of frequencies. one station frequency out of the mix of different radio station frequency signals intercepted by the antenna.. Usually. • REVIEW:
. a parallel (tank) circuit is used for this purpose. Resonance is a very valuable property of reactive AC circuits. the frequency set by the tank circuit is solely dependent upon the values of L and C. . blocking them from getting to the load
load
Figure 6.4
Applications of resonance
So far. exchanging energy between each other. APPLICATIONS OF RESONANCE
135
6. In essence. Just as a pendulum can be used to stabilize the frequency of a clock mechanism’s oscillations... this is not the case.
though. the resonant frequency should be 159. it means zero impedance at resonance:
fresonant =
1 2π LC
However. the effects of radically altered impedance will manifest at the resonance frequency predicted by the equation given earlier. In a parallel (tank) LC circuit.22)is necessary to prevent SPICE from encountering trouble in analysis. respectively. • Resonance can be exploited for its impedance properties: either dramatically increasing or decreasing impedance for certain frequencies. Watch. just as a pendulum can be used to maintain constant oscillation speed in a timekeeping mechanism. In a series LC circuit. an extra resistor (Rbogus ) (Figure 6. this simple calculation for resonance becomes invalid. as soon as signiﬁcant levels of resistance are introduced into most LC circuits. Here. SPICE can’t handle an inductor connected directly in parallel with any voltage source or any other inductor.5
Resonance in seriesparallel circuits
In simple reactive circuits with little or no resistance. We’ll take a look at several LC circuits with added resistance.
6. this means inﬁnite impedance at resonance.155 Hz. According to our simple equation.20: Parallel LC circuit with resistance in series with L. where current reaches maximum or minimum in the following SPICE analyses:
Parallel LC with resistance in series with L 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 10 µF 2 L1 0 100 mH 1 100 Ω
Figure 6. RESONANCE
• Resonance can be employed to maintain AC circuit oscillations at a constant frequency.136
CHAPTER 6. using the same values for capacitance and inductance as before: 10 µF and 100 mH. so the addition of a series resistor is necessary to “break
. Circuits designed to screen certain frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies are called ﬁlters.
8 Hz instead of 159.6.end
Figure 6.2 Hz!
. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
137
resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u r1 1 2 100 l1 2 0 100m .plot ac i(v1) .2 Hz
Minimum current at 136.ac lin 20 100 200 .5.21: Resistance in series with L produces minimum current at 136.8 Hz instead of calculated 159.
plot ac i(v1) . The astute observer will notice a pattern between the four SPICE examples given above. (Figure 6. a 1 Ω resistor (R1 ) is placed in series with the inductor and capacitor to limit total current at resonance.27) The tendency for added resistance to skew the point at which impedance reaches a maximum or minimum in an LC circuit is called antiresonance. RESONANCE
Parallel LC with resistance in series with C 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 2 100 Ω 3 10 µF L1 0 100 mH 1 Rbogus
Figure 6.26) The shifted resonance is shown in (Figure 6. a series LC circuit with the signiﬁcant resistance in parallel with the capacitor. in terms of how resistance affects the resonant peak of a circuit:
. up” the voltage source/inductor loop that would otherwise be formed. This resistor is chosen to be a very low value for minimum impact on the circuit’s behavior. In the following series circuit examples.25). R2 .24) we experiment with placing signiﬁcant resistances in parallel with either L or C.22: Parallel LC with resistance in serieis with C.end Minimum current at roughly 180 Hz instead of 159. resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 0 10u rbogus 1 3 1e12 l1 3 0 100m . The “extra” resistance inserted to inﬂuence resonant frequency effects is the 100 Ω resistor.ac lin 20 100 400 . And ﬁnally. The results are shown in (Figure 6.138
CHAPTER 6.2 Hz!
Switching our attention to series LC circuits. (Figure 6.
23: Resistance in series with C shifts minimum current from calculated 159. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
139
Figure 6.6.2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.5.
.24: Series LC resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L.
Series LC with resistance in parallel with L 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH R2 10 µF 3 100 Ω 0 2
Figure 6.
9 Hz instead of 159. RESONANCE
Maximum current at roughly 178.plot ac i(v1) .end Maximum current at 136.2 Hz!
Figure 6.ac lin 20 100 400 .2 Hz!
.140 resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m r2 3 0 100 .8 Hz instead of 159.plot ac i(v1) . resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u r2 2 3 100 l1 3 0 100m .ac lin 20 100 200 .2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.25: Series resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L shifts maximum current from 159.end
CHAPTER 6.
RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
141
Series LC with resistance in parallel with C 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 2 10 µF R2 100 Ω 3
Figure 6.
.5.
Figure 6.2 Hz to about 136.26: Series LC resonant circuit with rsistance in parallel with C.6.27: Resistance in parallel with C in series resonant circuit shifts curreent maximum from calculated 159.8 Hz.
28) The resulting plot is shown in (Figure 6. you’ll see that the frequencies are shifted by the same amount.29). but never completely eliminated. If you look even closer to the four SPICE examples given. inductors are typically plagued with substantial amounts of resistance due to the long lengths of wire used in their construction. Since iron is a conductor of electricity as well as a conductor of magnetic ﬂux. RESONANCE
• Series LC circuit: • R in parallel with L: resonant frequency shifted up • R in parallel with C: resonant frequency shifted down Again. this illustrates the complementary nature of capacitors and inductors: how resistance in series with one creates an antiresonance effect equivalent to resistance in parallel with the other. and will not be covered in this brief lesson.29) has not changed from the earlier series LC circuit (the one with the 1 Ω token resistance in it). the resonant frequency of the circuit will be unaffected by the resistance.142 • Parallel (“tank”) LC circuit: • R in series with L: resonant frequency shifted down • R in series with C: resonant frequency shifted up
CHAPTER 6. which manifest themselves as added resistance in the circuit. Obviously. What is more. but changing. and that the shape of the complementary graphs are mirrorimages of each other! Antiresonance is an effect that resonant circuit designers must be aware of. but at least it has the same natural frequency!
. Added resistance in an LC circuit is no academic matter. due to a strange phenomenon known as the skin effect where AC current tends to be excluded from travel through the very center of a wire. even though the resistance is now 100 times greater. frequencydependent resistance at that. we also have to contend with the “core losses” of ironcore inductors. As if the resistance of an inductor’s wire weren’t enough to cause problems. One notable exception to the rule of circuit resistance causing a resonant frequency shift is the case of series resistorinductorcapacitor (“RLC”) circuits. the resistance of wire tends to increase as frequency goes up. inductors not only have resistance. This effect can be thought of as though the iron core of the transformer were a sort of secondary transformer coil powering a resistive load: the lessthanperfect conductivity of the iron metal. While it is possible to manufacture capacitors with negligible unwanted resistances. Maximum current at 159. This effects can be minimized with laminated cores. The only thing that has changed is the “sharpness” of the curve. this circuit does not resonate as strongly as one with less series resistance (it is said to be “less selective”). Thus. thereby reducing the wire’s effective crosssectional area. So long as all components are connected in series with each other. It should sufﬁce the beginning student of electronics to understand that the effect exists.2 Hz once again! Note that the peak of the current graph (Figure 6. (Figure 6. The equations for determining antiresonance “shift” are complex. and what its general tendencies are. changing ﬂux produced by alternating current through the coil will tend to induce electric currents in the core itself (eddy currents). good core design and highgrade materials.
series rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .28: Series LC with resistance in series.29: Resistance in series resonant circuit leaves current maximum at calculated 159.
.2 Hz.plot ac i(v1) . RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
143
Series LC with resistance in series 1 R1 100 Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 10 µF
Figure 6. broadening the curve.end
Figure 6.5.ac lin 20 100 200 .6.
30: L/R time delay circuit The idea of this circuit is simple: to “charge” the inductor when the switch is closed. Interestingly enough. If resistor R is large enough. dissipating enough energy to prohibit the inductance and stray capacitance from sustaining oscillations for very long. the principle of employing resistance to eliminate unwanted resonance is one frequently used in the design of mechanical systems. But frictionless machines are difﬁcult to ﬁnd in the real world. RESONANCE
It is noteworthy that antiresonance has the effect of dampening the oscillations of freerunning LC circuits such as tank circuits.31) Why is this? There’s no capacitor in the circuit. where any moving object with mass is a potential resonator. The shock absorber’s job is to introduce a strong antiresonant effect by dissipating energy hydraulically (in the same way that a resistor dissi
. If this causes resonant problems (unwanted AC oscillations). cars would bounce wildly at their resonant frequency after hitting any bump in the road. this oscillation would continue forever. you might ﬁnd unexpected oscillations (AC) of voltage across the inductor when the switch is closed. The rate of inductor charging will be set by the ratio L/R. Also. Without shock absorbers.144
CHAPTER 6. it will fail to resonate at all. and so are lossless tank circuits. In the beginning of this chapter we saw how a capacitor and inductor connected directly together would act something like a pendulum. (Figure 6. If enough energy losses are present in a tank circuit. resistor. which is the time constant of the circuit in seconds. .30)
switch
R
L
Figure 6. so how can we have resonant oscillation with just an inductor. exchanging voltage and current peaks just like a pendulum exchanges kinetic and potential energy. it will cause a condition of antiresonance. there will always be some that you cannot eliminate. added resistance may be a way to combat it. Antiresonance’s dampening effect is more than just a curiosity: it can be used quite effectively to eliminate unwanted oscillations in circuits containing stray inductances and/or capacitances. if you were to build such a circuit. While clean circuit layout is important in eliminating much of this stray capacitance. as almost all circuits do.) in a tank circuit will cause the oscillations to decay in amplitude until they are no more. just as a frictionless pendulum would continue to swing at its resonant frequency forever. In a perfect tank circuit (no resistance). Take note of the following L/R time delay circuit: (Figure 6. the placement of circuit conductors may create stray capacitance. and battery? All inductors contain a certain amount of stray capacitance due to turntoturn and turntocore insulation gaps. . Energy lost through resistance (or inductor core losses or radiated electromagnetic waves or . A very common application of this is the use of shock absorbers in automobiles. However.
• REVIEW: • Added resistance to an LC circuit can cause a condition known as antiresonance. More formally. where the peak impedance effects happen at frequencies other than that which gives equal capacitive and inductive reactances.6.31: Inductor ringing due to resonance with stray capacitance.6
Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit
The Q. caused by the exclusion of AC current from the center of conductors. quality factor. A higher value for this ﬁgure of merit correspondes to a more narrow bandwith.
6. • Resistance inherent in realworld inductors can contribute greatly to conditions of antiresonance. as we
. which is desirable in many applications. This is the case in practical applications. • In a simple series LC circuit containing resistance (an “RLC” circuit). One source of such resistance is the skin effect. Resonance still occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal. respectively: Q = Pstored /Pdissipated = I2 X/I2 R Q = X/R where: X = Capacitive or Inductive reactance at resonance R = Series resistance. Another source is that of core losses in ironcore inductors. Q is the ration of power stored to power dissipated in the circuit reactance and resistance. This formula is applicable to series resonant circuits. of a resonant circuit is a measure of the “goodness” or quality of a resonant circuit. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT
145
ideal L/R voltage curve = actual L/R voltage curve =
Figure 6. and also parallel resonant ciruits if the resistance is in series with the inductor. resistance does not produce antiresonance. pates energy electrically).6.
146
CHAPTER 6. Current is maximum at resonance. Our formula is correct for a small R in series with L.
6. leaving a net capacitive value. The resonant current peak may be changed by varying the series resistor. A practical application of “Q” is that voltage across L or C in a series resonant circuit is Q times total applied voltage. current through L or C is Q times the total applied current. RESONANCE
are mostly concerned with the resistance of the inductor limiting the Q. In a parallel resonant circuit.33) Below the resonant frequency. the series resonant circuit looks capacitive since the impedance of the capacitor increases to a value greater than the decreasing inducitve reactance.32) Since the deﬁnition of resonance is XL =XC . Above or below resonance.34) This also affects the broadness of the curve.32: At resonance the series resonant circuit appears purely resistive. impedance at a minumum. A low resistance. Below resonance it looks capacitive. (Figure 6. Bandwidth in terms of Q and resonant frequency:
. Note: Some text may show X and R interchanged in the “Q” formula for a parallel resonant circuit.
Figure 6. leaving only the resistance to contribute to the impedance. the reactive components cancel. low Q circuit.1
Series resonant circuits
A series resonant circuit looks like a resistance at the resonant frequency. which changes the Q.6. (Figure 6. impedance increases. as compared to a high resistance. high Q circuit has a narrow bandwidth. capacitive reactance decreases. The impedance is also at a minimum at resonance. leaving a net inductive component. (Figure 6. Above resonance it appears inductive. This is correct for a large value of R in parallel with C and L. the inductive rectance increases. Current is set by the value of the resistance. Above resonance.
6. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT
147
Figure 6.
BW = fc /Q Where fc = resonant frquency Q = quality factor
Figure 6.33: Impedance is at a minumum at resonance in a series resonant circuit.6.34: A high Q resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth as compared to a low Q
.
the 100% current point is 50 mA.35: Bandwidth. (0. The 0.35)
Figure 6. (Fig
. RESONANCE
Bandwidth is measured between the 0. The 70.4 mA.7% level is 0707(50 mA)=35. (Figure 6.2
Parallel resonant circuits
A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at the resonant frequency. the reactive components cancel. and the half power points are ± 32 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 355291 = 64 fl = fc .6.36) At resonance XL =XC . The bandwidth is 64 Hz. (Figure 6.707)2 = (0.5).35. The impedance is maximum at resonance.
fl = low band edge
fl = fc .148
CHAPTER 6. ∆f is measured between the 70. BW = ∆f = fh fl = fc /Q Where fh = high band edge.∆f/2 fh = fc + ∆f/2 Where fc = center frequency (resonant frequency) In Figure 6.707 current amplitude points.7% amplitude points of series resonant circuit. The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 291 Hz for fl and 355 Hz for fh .707 current points correspond to the half power points since P = I2 R.∆f/2 = 32332 = 291 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 323+32 = 355 Since BW = fc /Q: Q = fc /BW = (323 Hz)/(64 Hz) = 5
6.
capacitive above resonance.707)2 =0. the series resonant circuit looks inductive since the impedance of the inductor is lower. the capacitive rectance decreases.37) A low Q due to a high resistance in series with the inductor prodces a low peak on a broad response curve for a parallel resonant circuit. Impedance is maximum at resonance in a parallel resonant circuit. we may use the impedance curve. This produces a higher peak in the narrower response curve. inductive below resonance.37) Below the resonant frequency.∆f/2 = 31231 = 281 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 312+31 = 343 Q = fc /BW = (312 Hz)/(62 Hz) = 5
.7% level is 0707(500)=354 Ω.
Figure 6.6. a high Q is due to a low resistance in series with the inductor.50) Since voltage is proportional to impedance.6. Voltage is at a peak at resonance since voltage is proportional to impedance (E=IZ). (Figure 6. and the half power points are ± 31 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 343281 = 62 fl = fc . drawing the larger proportion of current. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT
149
ure 6. This corresponds to the 70. The high Q is achieved by winding the inductor with larger diameter (smaller gague). taking on a capacitive characteristic.36: A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at resonance. Above resonance. ((0.38) conversely.39) In Figure 6. The bandwidth is 62 Hz. (Figure 6. lower resistance wire. The 70.39.7% voltage points since power is proportional to E2 . but decreases above or below resonance. the 100% impedance point is 500 Ω. (Figure 6. drawing the larger current. The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 281 Hz for fl and 343 Hz for fh . thus. The bandwidth of the parallel resonant response curve is measured between the half power points.
37: Parallel resonant circuit: Impedance peaks at resonance.
Figure 6.38: Parallel resonant response varies with Q.150
CHAPTER 6. RESONANCE
Figure 6.
.
6. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.7% impedance points of a parallel resonant circuit. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. ∆f is measured between the 70.
.7. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.39: Bandwidth. from most recent to ﬁrst. CONTRIBUTORS
151
Figure 6.6.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.
152
CHAPTER 6. RESONANCE
.
. . Quite often we may encounter circuits where multiple frequencies of voltage coexist simultaneously. . . . . . . . . Square wave signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . Additionally. . . . . in which case we call them nonsinusoidal waveforms. . . . its “frequency” is said to be zero. Contributors .3 7. . . . Also. In many applications of electronics. . .5 7.1 7. . . . . . . . . . .1
Introduction
In our study of AC circuits thus far. . circuit waveforms may be something other than sinewave shaped. . . . . . though. . . . . . . . . The result of such a mix is a signal varying in intensity. but never changing polarity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for example). .6 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More on spectrum analysis Circuit effects . . . . Sometimes mixedfrequency voltage and current signals are created accidentally. . . . . . . . . . . . . Other waveshapes .Chapter 7
MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Contents
7. . . . . This may be the result of unintended connections between circuits – called coupling – made possible by 153
. . 153 158 168 174 185 188
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we’ve explored circuits powered by a singlefrequency sine voltage waveform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or changing polarity asymmetrically (spending more time positive than negative. . . . . . and any signal containing DC along with a signal of varying intensity (AC) may be rightly called a mixedfrequency signal as well.4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . analysis is more complex than what we’ve seen up to this point. . . . Since DC does not alternate as AC does. . . . . In any of these cases where there is a mix of frequencies in the same circuit. we may encounter situations where DC is mixed with AC: where a waveform is superimposed on a steady (DC) signal. . singlefrequency signals are the exception rather than the rule. . . . . . . . . . . . .
while the parallal proximity of the two conductors effectively cancels any electromagnetic (mutually inductive) coupling because any induced noise voltage will be approximately equal in magnitude and opposite in phase along both conductors. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
stray capacitance and/or inductance between the conductors of those circuits. dedicated metal conduit.1)
"Noise" source
Mstray Zwire
Cstray Zwire
Zwire
"Clean" DC voltage
DC voltage + AC "noise"
Figure 7. the results are usually undesirable. canceling each other at the receiving end for a net (differential) noise voltage of almost zero. The following schematic shows how an AC “noise” source may “couple” to a DC circuit through mutual inductance (Mstray ) and capacitance (Cstray ) along the length of the conductors. in which case both signals may become “mixed” with each other: (Figure 7. The result is a mix of DC and AC at the signal load. When stray AC voltages from a “noise” source mix with DC signals conducted along signal wiring.154
CHAPTER 7.2) The grounded cable shield – a wire braid or metal foil wrapped around the two insulated conductors – isolates both conductors from electrostatic (capacitive) coupling by blocking any external electric ﬁelds. A classic example of coupling phenomenon is seen frequently in industry where DC signal wiring is placed in close proximity to AC power wiring.3)
. and signals should be conducted via 2conductor “twisted pair” cable rather than through a single wire and ground connection: (Figure 7. (Figure 7. Polarity marks placed near each inductive portion of signal conductor length shows how the induced voltages are phased in such a way as to cancel one another. Coupling may also occur between two sets of conductors carrying AC signals. The nearby presence of high AC voltages and currents may cause “foreign” voltages to be impressed upon the length of the signal wiring. while stray inductance formed by parallel runs of wire in conduit may cause current from the power conductors to electromagnetically induce voltage along the signal conductors. Stray capacitance formed by the electrical insulation separating power conductors from signal conductors may cause voltage (with respect to earth ground) from the power conductors to be impressed upon the signal conductors.1: Stray inductance and capacitance couple stray AC into desired DC signal. For this reason. power wiring and lowlevel signal wiring should always be routed through separated.
INTRODUCTION
155
"Noise" source
Mstray
Cstray

+ Shielded cable +
Figure 7.
Signal A
Zwire
Zwire
Zwire
A+B
Mstray Zwire Zwire
Cstray Zwire
Signal B
B+A
Figure 7.3: Coupling of AC signals between parallel conductors.7.1.
.2: Shielded twisted pair minimized noise.
which convert audiofrequency air pressure waves into corresponding voltage waveforms. If the sound waves consist of a single. In other cases. mixedfrequency signals are the result of intentional design or they may be an intrinsic quality of a signal. while the second overtone would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). while the ﬁrst frequency is called the fundamental). this application of the term “overtone” is speciﬁc to particular instruments. Such is the case with microphones. signal coupling via stray inductance and capacitance is usually accidental and undesired. Some computer communications networks operate on the principle of superimposing highfrequency voltage signals along 60 Hz powerline conductors. the resulting voltage waveform produced by the microphone will consist of those frequencies mixed together. Whether it be AC mixed with DC. pure note or tone. the ﬁrst overtone would be 2000 Hz (the 2nd harmonic). pure sine wave vibrations but rather are a mix of different frequency vibrations at different amplitudes. However. Perhaps the easiest way is to simply connect voltage sources in series: (Figure 7. each frequency a wholenumber multiple of the ﬁrst (called harmonics. If the sound wave is a chord or other harmony of several notes. Musical chords are produced by blending one frequency with other frequencies of particular fractional multiples of the ﬁrst. The particular mix of frequencies in the voltage signal output by the microphone is dependent on the sound being reproduced.
. It is generally quite easy to create mixedfrequency signal sources. Certainly these are examples of mixedfrequency AC voltages. Very few natural sounds consist of single. investigating a little further. In some cases. the voltage waveform will likewise be a sine wave at a single frequency. etc. This technique has been used for years in electric power distribution networks to communicate load data along highvoltage power lines. so as to convey computer data along existing lengths of power cabling.156
CHAPTER 7. Sometimes the term “overtone” is used to describe the a harmonic frequency produced by a musical instrument.4)
60 Hz AC + DC voltage 90 Hz mixedfrequency AC voltage
Figure 7. If we had an instrument producing the entire range of harmonic frequencies shown in the table above. mixedfrequency signals may be produced by a single voltage source. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Coupling is but one example of how signals of different frequencies may become mixed. An illustration of these terms is shown in Table 7. we ﬁnd that even a single piano note (produced by a plucked string) consists of one predominant frequency mixed with several other frequencies. However.1 with a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz (an arbitrary ﬁgure chosen for this example). The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst harmonic frequency greater than the fundamental. under conditions that are deliberately established.4: Series connection of voltage sources mixes signals. or two AC signals mixing with each other.
steel strings have a different sound than nylon strings. produce a much broader range of frequencies. and neither produce the same harmonic content as stringed instruments. not limited to wholenumber multiples of the fundamental. sounds very “ﬂat” and “featureless” to the human ear. an instrument made from a tube that is open on one end and closed on the other (such as a bottle. the measure of a tone’s harmonic content is called timbre or color. dulcimer. Musical tones become even more complex when the resonating element of an instrument is a twodimensional surface rather than a onedimensional string. These differences in tone. As anyone who has played guitar can tell you. while the second overtone would be 5000 Hz (the 5th harmonic). The result is a distinctive tone that some people ﬁnd acoustically offensive. All these instruments produce harmonic frequencies (wholenumber multiples of the fundamental frequency) when a single note is played. 5000 Hz. As such. 6000 Hz. Such an instrument set up to produce a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz would also produce frequencies of 3000 Hz. banjo. pipe organ. Brass instruments do not possess the same “harmonic content” as woodwind instruments. which produces sound when air is blown across the opening) is incapable of producing evennumbered harmonics. or fundamental 2000 2nd harmonic 3000 3rd harmonic 4000 4th harmonic 5000 5th harmonic 6000 6th harmonic 7000 7th harmonic
157
It so happens that certain instruments are incapable of producing certain types of harmonic frequencies.7. or any other evenmultiple frequencies of the fundamental. but would not produce 2000 Hz.) tend to produce sounds composed of a single frequency (the “fundamental”) and a mix of harmonics. described by the physics of motion for each unique object producing the sound. etc. Most musical instruments are incapable of producing sounds this simple. but the relative amplitudes of those harmonic frequencies are different for different instruments. A distinctive blend of frequencies is what gives a musical instrument its characteristic tone.) or of a column of air in a tube (trumpet. Instruments based on the vibration of a ﬂat plate (steel drums. and so on. Also. A pure sine wave (single frequency). however. piano. etc. Instruments based on the vibration of a string (guitar. and some types of bells).1: For a “base” frequency of 1000 Hz: Frequency (Hz) Term 1000 1st harmonic. clarinet.1. What gives each instrument its distinctive tone is the same phenomenon that gives each person a distinctive voice: the unique blending of harmonic waveforms with each fundamental note. In musical terms. as well. For example. lute. tuba. 4000 Hz.
. we would say that the ﬁrst overtone (the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental) in such an instrument would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). 7000 Hz. INTRODUCTION
Table 7. are a result of different harmonic content produced by differences in the mechanical vibrations of an instrument’s parts. being entirely devoid of any harmonics. ﬂute. etc. the tone produced by a guitar string changes depending on where along its length it is plucked.
• An overtone is a harmonic produced by a particular device.2
Square wave signals
It has been found that any repeating. Most musical tones. it has been found that square waves are mathematically equivalent to the sum of a sine wave at that same frequency. the lowest frequency sinewave is called the fundamental.158
CHAPTER 7.
• REVIEW:
• A sinusoidal waveform is one shaped exactly like a sine wave. and the other sinewaves whose frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental wave are called harmonics. nonsinusoidal waveform can be equated to a combination of DC voltage. Later sections of this chapter will refer to musical instruments as sources of waveforms for analysis in more detail. or simply exist out of necessity. So long as it repeats itself regularly over time.
• A nonsinusoidal waveform can be anything from a distorted sinewave shape to something completely different like a square wave. purposely created. plus an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple frequency sine waves at diminishing amplitude:
. music provides a rich ﬁeld of study for mixed frequencies and their effects. and/or cosine waves (sine waves with a 90 degree phase shift) at various amplitudes and frequencies. it is reducible to this series of sinusoidal waves.
• Mixedfrequency waveforms can be accidently created. while the “second” overtone is the next greater frequency produced. for instance. sine waves. This is true no matter how strange or convoluted the waveform in question may be.
7. Some devices and systems do not permit the establishment of certain harmonics. depending on the device producing the mixed frequencies. In particular.
• When multiple sine waveforms are mixed together (as is often the case in music). Successive overtones may or may not correspond to incremental harmonics. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental. and so their overtones would only include some (not all) harmonic frequencies. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
As you can see. are not composed of a single frequency sinewave. but are rich blends of different frequencies.
7th.27V 50Hz V3=424mV 150Hz V5=255mV 250Hz V7=182mV 350Hz V9=141mV 450Hz
plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform
Figure 7. . I’ve summed the 1st. In this particular SPICE simulation. it stands to reason that we should be able to prove this by adding together several sine wave harmonics to produce a close approximation of a square wave.7. ad infinitum .2.5: A square wave is approximated by the sum of harmonics. if a square wave is actually an inﬁnite series of sine wave harmonics added together. . like this: (Figure 7.5)
V1=1. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
159
1 V (peak) repeating square wave at 50 Hz is equivalent to: 4 (1 V peak sine wave at 50 Hz) π + + 4 (1/3 V peak sine wave at 150 Hz) π 4 (1/5 V peak sine wave at 250 Hz) π 4 (1/7 V peak sine wave at 350 Hz) π 4 (1/9 V peak sine wave at 450 Hz) π
+ +
+ . 5th. . . but easily demonstrated with SPICE. However. and 9th harmonic
. We’ll use SPICE to plot the voltage waveforms across successive additions of voltage sources. The circuit we’ll be simulating is nothing more than several sine wave AC voltage sources of the proper amplitudes and frequencies connected together in series. 3rd.
This truth about waveforms at ﬁrst may seem too strange to believe. This reasoning is not only sound.
plot tran v(3. 1/5.6: Pure 50 Hz sinewave.plot tran v(4.plot tran v(5.471m 450 0 0) 9th harmonic r1 5 0 10k . .891m 350 0 0) 7th harmonic v9 5 4 sin (0 141.413m 150 0 0) 3rd harmonic v5 3 2 sin (0 254. of course. we see what happens when this clean and simple waveform is combined with the
. we see the fundamentalfrequency sinewave of 50 Hz by itself. It is nothing but a pure sine shape. The fundamental frequency is 50 Hz and each harmonic is. explaining what it is we’re looking at. 1/3.tran 1m 20m . .160
CHAPTER 7.27324 50 0 0) 1st harmonic (50 Hz) v3 2 1 sin (0 424.end I’ll narrate the analysis step by step from here.plot tran v(1.0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th harmonics . The amplitude (voltage) ﬁgures are not random numbers.0) Plot 1st + . Next.6)
Figure 7. etc. This is the kind of waveform produced by an ideal AC power source: (Figure 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
voltage sources in series for a total of ﬁve AC voltage sources. + 9th harmonics . rather.plot tran v(2. an integer multiple of that frequency. they have been arrived at through the equations shown in the frequency series (the fraction 4/π multiplied by 1.0) Plot 1st harmonic . with no additional harmonic content.0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th + 7th harmonics . for each of the increasing odd harmonics).648m 250 0 0) 5th harmonic v7 4 3 sin (0 181. building a squarewave v1 1 0 sin (0 1. 1/7. In this ﬁrst plot.0) Plot 1st + 3rd harmonics .
Suddenly.7.8)
Figure 7. 3rd and 5th harmonics approximates square wave.8: Sum of 1st.2. it doesn’t look like a clean sine wave any more: (Figure 7. The rise and fall times between positive and negative cycles are much steeper now. or 150 Hz). and the crests of the wave are closer to becoming ﬂat like a squarewave.7: Sum of 1st (50 Hz) and 3rd (150 Hz) harmonics approximates a 50 Hz square wave. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
161
third harmonic (three times 50 Hz.
.7)
Figure 7. Watch what happens as we add the next odd harmonic frequency: (Figure 7.
Finally.162
CHAPTER 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
The most noticeable change here is how the crests of the wave have ﬂattened even more. The fact that repeating. adding the 9th harmonic. When a square wave AC voltage is applied to a circuit with reactive components (capacitors and inductors). Here we can see the wave becoming ﬂatter at each peak. the ﬁfth sine wave voltage source in our circuit. the details of which are well beyond the scope of this text. of course) is a close approximation of a square wave. Let’s try this on a square wave. However. and/or cosine waves is a consequence of how waves work: a fundamental property of all waverelated phenomena. The mathematical process of reducing a nonsinusoidal wave into these constituent frequencies is called Fourier analysis. which we already know is composed of oddharmonic sine waves: The pulse option in the netlist line describing voltage source v1 instructs SPICE to simulate
. sine waves.9)
Figure 7. electrical or otherwise. but those dips and crests are smaller in amplitude than they were before. There are more several dips and crests at each end of the wave. Watch again as we add the next odd harmonic waveform to the mix: (Figure 7. to prove that a pure square wave is actually equivalent to a series of sine waves. and 7th harmonics approximates square wave.10) The end result of adding the ﬁrst ﬁve odd harmonic waveforms together (all at the proper amplitudes.9: Sum of 1st. 5th. 3rd. SPICE has the ability to sample a waveform and reduce it into its constituent sine wave harmonics by way of a Fourier Transform algorithm. we obtain this result: (Figure 7. those components react as if they were being exposed to several sine wave voltages of different frequencies. and its application in AC power quality and signal analysis is widespread. computer algorithms have been created to perform this analysis at high speeds on real waveforms. outputting the frequency analysis as a table of numbers. which in fact they are. The point in doing this is to illustrate how we can build a square wave up from multiple sine waves at different frequencies. nonsinusoidal waves are equivalent to a deﬁnite series of additive DC voltage.
end
. 3rd.10: Sum of 1st. 5th. 7th and 9th harmonics approximates square wave. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
163
Figure 7.1m .plot tran v(1.2.7.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k .0) .four 50 v(1.0) .tran 1m 40m .
squarewave analysis netlist v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 .
010E02 0. I had to inform SPICE of the fundamental frequency (for a square wave with a 20 millisecond period. (Figure 7.390 92.585 5 2.892E02 0.756 17.11: Squarewave for SPICE Fourier analysis Next.
.000E+02 5.500E+02 4.390 4 2.561 total harmonic distortion = 43. 9th is smallest). and how the amplitudes of the odd harmonics diminish (1st is largest.000 2 1.366 9 4.12) SPICE has broken the waveform down into a spectrum of sinusoidal frequencies up to the ninth harmonic. we’ll print the Fourier analysis generated by SPICE for this square wave: fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 2.253E01 0.113316 19.038757 98.000E+02 5.171 100.443E01 0.000E+02 4. in this case one that is symmetrical (equal time for each halfcycle) and has a peak amplitude of 1 volt.274E+00 1.039337 103. so it knew how to classify the harmonics.038415 94.195 3 1. plus a small DC voltage labelled DC component. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
a squareshaped “pulse” waveform.000E+01 1.562E01 0.000000 2. 6th.366 13.841E01 0.171 8 4.11)
Figure 7.040175 107.201179 10. Note how small the ﬁgures are for all the even harmonics (2nd.164
CHAPTER 7. 4th. First we’ll plot the square wave to be analyzed: (Figure 7.976 8.805747 percent Here.500E+02 1.780 6 3.780 96.585 4.000E+02 4.500E+02 1.500E+02 2.333987 6.144549 15.976 7 3.936E02 0.116E02 0. 8th).195 0.561 105.439E02 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 5. this frequency is 50 Hz).
sampling the AC waveform(s) and determining the harmonic content thereof. the equalizer is able to selectively attenuate (reduce) the amplitude of certain frequencies present in music.
This same technique of “Fourier Transformation” is often used in computerized power instrumentation. but be aware of their existence and application.5 kHz kHz 10 12.5 kHz kHz
Figure 7.13)
Graphic Equalizer
Bargraph displays the amplitude of each frequency Control levers set the attenuation factor for each frequency
50 Hz 150 300 Hz Hz 500 Hz 750 Hz 1 1. (Figure 7.2.12: Plot of Fourier analysis esults. Typically. You need not be concerned with exactly how these computer routines work. Equipped with several knobs or slide levers.5 kHz 5 7. In fact. there will be a “bar graph” display next to each control lever.5 kHz kHz 3. This same mathematical technique used in SPICE to analyze the harmonic content of waves can be applied to the technical analysis of music: breaking up any particular sound into its constituent sinewave frequencies. to “customize” the sound for the listener’s beneﬁt.7.
. displaying the amplitude of each particular frequency. A common computer algorithm (sequence of program steps to perform a task) for this is the Fast Fourier Transform or FFT function. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
165
Figure 7. you may have already seen a device designed to do just that without realizing what it was! A graphic equalizer is a piece of highﬁdelity stereo equipment that controls (and sometimes displays) the nature of music’s harmonic content.13: HiFi audio graphic equalizer.
A waveform of inﬁnite duration (inﬁnite number of cycles) can be analyzed with absolute precision. an oscilloscope’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over time (horizontal) is a “timedomain” analysis.166
CHAPTER 7. It is only when we have an equation describing a waveform in its entirety that
. Thus. Like an oscilloscope. The term “domain” is mathematical: a sophisticated word to describe the horizontal axis of a graph. this is not so much a quirk of SPICE as it is a property of waveforms in general. we are performing frequencydomain analysis. they often have an appearance like that of an oscilloscope: (Figure 7. The design of spectrum analyzers may be as simple as a set of “ﬁlter” circuits (see the next chapter for details) designed to separate the different frequencies from each other. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
A device built strictly to display – not control – the amplitudes of each frequency range for a mixedfrequency signal is typically called a spectrum analyzer.” Ideally. the spectrum analyzer uses a CRT (or a computer display mimicking a CRT) to display a plot of the signal. Please take note of how the Fourier analysis from the last SPICE simulation isn’t “perfect. Unlike an oscilloscope. or as complex as a specialpurpose digital computer running an FFT algorithm to mathematically split the signal into its harmonic components. a frequency analyzer gives the operator a Bode plot of the signal: something an engineer might call a frequencydomain rather than a timedomain analysis. Spectrum analyzers are often designed to analyze extremely highfrequency signals.14: Spectrum analyzer shows amplitude as a function of frequency. but the less cycles available to the computer for analysis. Again. the amplitudes of all the even harmonics should be absolutely zero. In essence. the less precise the analysis. and so should the DC component.14)
Spectrum Analyzer
amplitude
frequency
Figure 7. When we use SPICE to plot signal amplitude (either voltage or current amplitude) over a range of frequencies. such as those produced by radio transmitters and computer network hardware. this plot is amplitude over frequency rather than amplitude over time. In that form. whereas a spectrum analyzer’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over frequency (horizontal) is a “frequencydomain” analysis.
SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
167
Fourier analysis can reduce it to a deﬁnite series of sinusoidal waveforms. the less certain its frequency is.238E01 0.564 9.200 79.329 16.999E03 harmonic frequency fourier normalized no (hz) component component 1 5.000 86.option limpts=1001 .146 80.500E+02 1.15) shows less of a DC component voltage and lower amplitudes for each of the even harmonic frequency sine waves.764 84.015627 9 4.000 7.015704 3 1.800 0.273E+00 1. In the following analysis.500E+02 4. We could improve the precision of our analysis here by letting the wave oscillate on and on for many cycles.141737 8 4.four 50 v(1.7.997E02 0. • Computer algorithms exist which are able to sample waveshapes and determine their constituent sinusoidal components. The fewer times that a wave cycles. the imprecision of the ﬁrst analysis is not so much a ﬂaw in SPICE as it is a fundamental property of waves and of signal analysis.399
Notice how this analysis (Figure 7.000E+02 1.500E+02 1. The Fourier Transform algorithm (particularly the
.994E02 0.946 12.plot tran v(1.804E01 0. I’ve omitted the waveform plot for brevity’s sake – its just a really long square wave: squarewave v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 . • REVIEW: • Square waves are equivalent to a sine wave at the same (fundamental) frequency added to an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple sinewave harmonics at decreasing amplitudes.199 14.0) .000E+02 1.000000 2 1.600 82.015688 5 2.015663 7 3.109662
phase normalized (deg) phase (deg) 1.529 77.382 88. a short pulse – a waveform that doesn’t even complete a cycle – actually has no frequency.396E01 0.999E02 0.2.182 5.989E02 0.332897 4 2.0) . Taking this concept to its logical extreme. Again.tran 1m 1 .500E+02 2. but rather acts as an inﬁnite range of frequencies.536E01 0. and the result would be a spectrum analysis more consistent with the ideal.600 10.400 3. all because we let the computer sample more cycles of the wave. Sufﬁce it to say that the number of cycles and the certainty of a waveform’s frequency component(s) are directly related.end fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 9.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k .000E+01 1.800 75. This principle is common to all wavebased phenomena.000E+02 1.000E+02 1.199215 6 3. not just AC voltages and currents.1m .
Circuit components that distort the normal sinewave shape of AC voltage or current are called nonlinear. These current waveforms then produce changes in the voltage waveform to other circuit components. These devices have the ability to suddenly change their resistance with the application of a control signal voltage or current.168
CHAPTER 7. Fast Fourier Transform. If not taken into consideration by the circuit designer. but not the only one.3
Other waveshapes
As strange as it may seem. It is becoming increasingly common in the electric power industry to observe overheating of transformers and motors due to distortions in the sine
. are equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of higher (harmonic) frequencies. due to voltage drops created by the nonsinusoidal current through circuit impedances. nonsinusoidal waveform is actually equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of different amplitudes and frequencies added together. producing current waveforms bearing little resemblance to the source voltage waveform powering the circuit. Electronic power control devices such as transistors and siliconcontrolled rectiﬁers (SCRs) often produce voltage and current waveforms that are essentially choppedup versions of the otherwise “clean” (pure) sinewave AC from the power supply. These nonsinusoidal waveforms. or FFT) is commonly used in computer circuit simulation programs such as SPICE and in electronic metering equipment for determining power quality. these harmonic waveforms created by electronic switching components may cause erratic circuit behavior. While this is an advantage from the perspective of energy efﬁciency. thus “turning on” or “turning off ” almost instantaneously. Nonlinear components such as SCRs ﬁnd popular use in power electronics due to their ability to regulate large amounts of electrical power without dissipating much heat. Square waves are a very common and wellunderstood case.15: Improved fourier analysis. regardless of their actual shape. the waveshape distortions they introduce can cause problems. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.
7. any repeating.
Ideally. This is no theoretical exercise: it is very real and potentially very troublesome.0) v(2. a pure sine wave voltage: (Figure 7.model mod1 d .0) . This is generally done with components called diodes. The simplest type of AC/DC rectiﬁcation is halfwave.four 60 v(1.
Figure 7. One very common way harmonics are generated in an AC power system is when AC is converted. or “rectiﬁed” into DC. OTHER WAVESHAPES
169
wave shape of the AC power line voltage stemming from “switching” loads such as computers and highefﬁciency lights. In this section.plot tran v(1.3.0) . but our Fourier analysis ﬁgures aren’t perfect because SPICE doesn’t have the luxury of sampling a waveform of inﬁnite duration.
halfwave rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 0 10k d1 1 2 mod1 .tran .7. I will investigate a few of the more common waveshapes and show their harmonic components by way of Fourier analysis using SPICE.16: Halfwave rectiﬁer.16) Oddly enough. which only allow the passage of current in one direction. we’ll see how SPICE analyzes the source waveform.0) v(2. the conventional diode schematic symbol is drawn such that electrons ﬂow against the direction of the symbol’s arrowhead:
1
diode
2 + load 
0
0
The diode only allows electron flow in a counterclockwise direction. though. too small to show on the harmonic plot above. where a single diode blocks half of the AC current (over time) from passing through the load. (Figure 7.5m 17m . we’ll compare this with the Fourier analysis of the halfwave
. Next.end halfwave rectifier First.18) Notice the extremely small harmonic and DC components of this sinusoidal waveform in the table above. there would be nothing but the fundamental frequency showing (being a perfect sine wave).
347 104.354E03 0.170
CHAPTER 7.091 70. V(1)+0.467E03 0.092E03 0.000044 86.465E04 0.200E+02 2.220E03 0.342 3 1.
fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 8.400E+02 1.655
.005 0.000E+02 1.400E+02 1.664 9 5.288 56.600E+02 1.016E04 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.000 2 1.000074 63.800E+02 6.658 4 2.663 86. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.492E03 0.000E+01 1.602 7 4.200E+02 1.660 52.669 54.17: Halfwave rectiﬁer waveforms.086 6 3. This is not part of the simulation.482E+01 1.185E03 0.000099 52.319 5 3.000168 104.000076 61.324 61.607 63.000080 70.000082 56.800E+02 1.283 8 4.000000 0.132E03 0.4 shifts the sinewave input V(1) up for clarity.000091 54.
21) and its harmonic analysis through SPICE: (Figure 7.400E+02 5.224 61.595 79.000E+00 1.206E01 0. reversing the polarity of half the AC cycle to get electrons to ﬂow through the load the same direction all the time.3.200E+02 3.167 132. Another method of AC/DC conversion is called fullwave (Figure 7.000E+01 7. which as you may have guessed utilizes the full cycle of AC power from the source.18: Fourier analysis of the sine wave input.295 5 3.456E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.7.800E+02 7.19) fourier components of transient response v(2) dc component = 4.006417 132.889
Notice the relatively large evenmultiple harmonics in this analysis.400E+02 4.051E02 0.810 87.000000 0. pure sinewave.600E+02 1. OTHER WAVESHAPES
171
Figure 7.570 167. but we can examine the waveform (Figure 7.479 9 5.22) What a difference! According to SPICE’s Fourier transform.800E+02 1.000 89. Also take note of the large DC component: 4. cosine) waveforms into our circuit from the original. it behaves a lot more like DC. “rectiﬁed” voltage across the load resistor: (Figure 7.362 7 4.790 6 3. we’ve introduced the equivalent of several higherfrequency sinusoidal (actually. we have a 2nd harmonic component to this waveform that’s over 85 times the amplitude of the original AC source frequency!
.456 volts.765 3 1.420 8 4.085
normalized phase (deg) 0.010703 61.284 114.493E02 0.017223 168. Because our AC voltage waveform has been “rectiﬁed” (only allowed to push in one direction across the load rather than backandforth).009117 152.727E01 0.200E+02 4.016E+00 0. By cutting out half of our AC wave.100 152.000E+02 6.005 4 2.073556 87.005787 115.492E02 0. I won’t bore you with details of exactly how this is done.195 2 1.20).024676 79.430849 89.149E01 0.382E02 0.
5m 17m .plot tran v(1.four 60 v(2.
fullwave bridge rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 3 10k d1 1 2 mod1 d2 0 2 mod1 d3 3 1 mod1 d4 3 0 mod1 .model mod1 d .20: Fullwave rectiﬁer circuit.3) .0) v(2.19: Fourier analysis halfwave output.tran .
1 D1 V1 15 V 60 Hz 2 D2 0
1 D3 R + load 10 kΩ D4 0 3
Figure 7.end
.3) . MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.172
CHAPTER 7.
027 5 3.496E02 1.839 25.023 0.013E+00 14.800E+02 1.337E01 4.907 2.767350 100.034465 93. OTHER WAVESHAPES
173
Figure 7.492 1.3.000E+01 7.752 7 4.507 6 3.457E02 1.271 6.21: Waveforms for fullwave rectiﬁer
fourier components of transient response v(2.400E+02 7.519 0.065240 90.200E+02 7.504 8 4.800E+02 7.052023 95.000E02 1.000000 93.026 1.006043 118.200E+02 5.070827 94.000 2 1.997E+00 85.364E02 1.319 9 5.267 4 2.600E+02 3.7.241E02 1.273E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.787 0.669415 90.230 3.3) dc component = 8.465161 92.000E+02 7.400E+02 1.289 3 1.612
.404E01 2.
MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7. can be reduced to a series of sinusoidal waveforms added together. As you can see. simple AC sinewave may end up as a complex mess of harmonics after passing through just a few electronic components.4
More on spectrum analysis
Computerized Fourier analysis. Different waveshapes consist of different blends of sinewave harmonics. • Rectiﬁcation of AC to DC is a very common source of harmonics within industrial power systems.273 volts (almost twice what is was for the halfwave rectiﬁer circuit) while the second harmonic is almost 6 volts in amplitude. what may begin as a neat. which is interesting.22: Fourier analysis of fullwave rectiﬁer output. it is of the utmost importance to realize the principles at work and to grasp the practical effects that harmonic signals may have on circuits.fourier option is also programmed into a variety of electronic test instruments to perform realtime Fourier analysis on measured signals. This section is devoted to the use of such tools and the analysis of several different waveforms.
. The DC component of this wave shows up as being 8. particularly in the form of the FFT algorithm. so long as it is repetitive. This same mathematical routine programmed into the SPICE simulator as the . Notice all the other harmonics further on down the table. While the complex mathematics behind all this Fourier transformation is not necessary for the beginning student of electric circuits to understand.
7. but before we do that we’ll take a closer look at waveforms and their respective harmonics. is a powerful tool for furthering our understanding of waveforms and their related spectral components. The practical effects of harmonic frequencies in circuits will be explored in the last section of this chapter. The odd harmonics are actually stronger at some of the higher frequencies than they are at the lower frequencies.174
CHAPTER 7. • REVIEW: • Any waveform at all.
Viewed with an oscilloscope. a C
. Actually.23: Oscilloscope display: voltage vs time. a sine wave looks like a wavy curve traced horizontally on the screen. the signal measured for this demonstration was created by an electronic keyboard set to produce the tone of a panﬂute. This particular frequency value is a “C” pitch on a piano keyboard. the horizontal axis of the display is marked with the word “Frequency. The height of the peak represents the signal amplitude (voltage). is a result of the speciﬁc equipment used to analyze the waveform. unfortunately. the closest instrument “voice” I could ﬁnd resembling a perfect sine wave.25 Hz.25 Hz. This. represents the cyclic increase and decrease of voltage over time. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
175
First we have a simple sine wave at a frequency of 523. The horizontal axis of this oscilloscope display is marked with the word “Time” and an arrow pointing in the direction of time’s progression.” denoting the domain of this measurement. The plot below was taken from an oscilloscope display.4. the result is quite different: (Figure 7.23)
Figure 7. Close observation reveals imperfections in the sinewave shape. one octave above “middle C”. If we view this same AC voltage on a spectrum analyzer. Characteristics like these due to quirks of the test equipment are technically known as artifacts: phenomena existing solely because of a peculiarity in the equipment used to perform the experiment.24) As you can see. If we mix three different sinewave tones together on the electronic keyboard (CEG.7. The single peak on the curve represents the predominance of a single frequency within the range of frequencies covered by the width of the display. The curve itself. If the scale of this analyzer instrument were marked with numbers. showing signal amplitude (voltage) over time: (Figure 7. of course. you would see that this peak occurs at 523.
Other musical instrument “voices” are not as simple as this one.25 Hz.176
CHAPTER 7. and not a necessary characteristic of the musical chord itself. we should expect to see multiple
. while others are lower. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies.” The waveform itself is far from a pure and simple sinewave form. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7. As you will notice. one octave above “middle C. major chord) and measure the result. This is a result of the three different waveforms alternately reinforcing and canceling each other as their respective phase shifts change in time. Knowing that any repeating.25) The oscilloscope display (timedomain) shows a waveform with many more peaks and valleys than before. (Figure 7. the device used to generate these waveforms is an electronic keyboard: a musical instrument designed to mimic the tones of many different instruments.27) The fundamental frequency of this tone is the same as in the ﬁrst panﬂute example: 523. some of these peaks are higher than the peaks of the original singlepitch waveform. the unique tone produced by any instrument is a function of its waveshape (or spectrum of frequencies). In fact. though. The spectrum display (frequencydomain) is much easier to interpret: each pitch is represented by its own peak on the curve. For example. The panﬂute “voice” was chosen for the ﬁrst demonstrations because it most closely resembled a pure sine wave (a single frequency on the spectrum analyzer display). both the oscilloscope display and the spectrum analyzer display reﬂect this increased complexity: (Figure 7. let’s view the signal for a trumpet tone: (Figure 7. As was stated before. a direct result of the mixing of these three frequencies.26) The difference in height between these three peaks is another artifact of the test equipment: a consequence of limitations within the equipment used to generate and analyze these waveforms.24: Spectrum analyzer display: voltage vs frequency.
7.
Figure 7.26: Spectrum analyzer display: three tones.
. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
177
Figure 7.4.25: Oscilloscape display: three tones.
28)
Figure 7.
. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.27: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of a trumpet tone.178
CHAPTER 7.28: Spectrum of a trumpet tone. peaks on the spectrum analyzer display: (Figure 7.
the third harmonic three times the fundamental (1569. for example. the time. This display only shows the ﬁrst six harmonics.29) and spectrum analyzer (frequencydomain) display: (Figure 7.32) plots for a waveform approximating a square wave: According to the spectrum analysis. Note. with each successive harmonic represented as its own peak along the width of the analyzer screen. Each instrument has a unique harmonic “signature” to its tone. and so on. this waveform contains no even harmonics. we obtain a similarly complex oscilloscope (timedomain) plot (Figure 7. but the proportions aren’t the same.25 Hz is represented by the leftmost peak.7. However. The second harmonic is twice the frequency of the fundamental (1046. Both instrument tones contain harmonics all the way from 1st (fundamental) to 6th (and beyond!).31) and frequencydomain (Figure 7. for example. The analytical power of the oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer permit us to derive general rules about waveforms and their harmonic spectra from real waveform examples. Bear in mind that all this complexity is in reference to a single note played with these two instrument “voices. only odd. would create a much more complex mixture of frequencies than what is seen here.” Multiple notes played on an accordion. Although this display doesn’t show frequencies past the sixth harmonic. We already know that any deviation from a pure sinewave results in the equivalent of a mixture of multiple sinewave waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. the pattern of oddonly
.5 Hz).4.75 Hz). Note the differences in relative harmonic amplitudes (peak heights) on the spectrum displays for trumpet and accordion. close observation allows us to be more speciﬁc than this.29: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of accordion tone. but there are many more comprising this complex tone.30)
Figure 7. Trying a different instrument voice (the accordion) on the keyboard.(Figure 7. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
179
Indeed we do! The fundamental frequency component of 523.
180
CHAPTER 7.30: Spectrum of accordion tone.
Figure 7.31: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a square wave
. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.
Known as a sawtooth wave. A waveform that is
. however. and sixth harmonics. the two different waveforms are common in their lack of even harmonics. contained both even and odd harmonics.35) When the spectrum analysis of this waveform is plotted. Tiny peaks can be seen for the second. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
181
Figure 7.7. A perfect triangle waveshape produces no even harmonics. just like a perfect square wave. Let’s continue our investigation with an analysis of a triangle wave: (Figure 7.32: Spectrum (frequencydomain) of a square wave. That difference is symmetry above and below the horizontal centerline of the wave.36) The distinction between a waveform having even harmonics versus no even harmonics resides in the difference between a triangle waveshape and a sawtooth waveshape.34) the only signiﬁcant frequency peaks on the spectrum analyzer display belong to oddnumbered multiples of the fundamental frequency.33) In this waveform there are practically no even harmonics: (Figure 7.4. for this analysis shows the strong presence of evennumbered harmonics (second and fourth): (Figure 7. The trumpet and accordion tones. artifacts of the test equipment used in this analysis). but this is due to imperfections in this particular triangle waveshape (once again. It should be obvious from inspection that the harmonic spectrum of the triangle wave is not identical to the spectrum of the square wave: the respective harmonic peaks are of different heights. its oscilloscope plot reveals it to be aptly named: (Figure 7. However. fourth. harmonics in descending amplitude continues indeﬁnitely. This should come as no surprise. Let’s examine another waveform. we see a result that is quite different from that of the regular triangle wave. except that its risetime is not the same as its falltime. This difference in harmonic content is noteworthy. as we’ve already seen with SPICE that a square wave is comprised of an inﬁnitude of odd harmonics. this one very similar to the triangle wave.
MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.
.
Figure 7.34: Spectrum of a triangle wave.182
CHAPTER 7.33: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a triangle wave.
MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
183
Figure 7.35: Timedomain display of a sawtooth wave.4.7.
.
Figure 7.36: Frequencydomain display of a sawtooth wave.
(Figure 7.” For further clariﬁcation. In the examples shown. and the sawtooth wave are unsymmetrical around their centerlines and therefore do contain even harmonics. (Figure 7. and note that their harmonic contents are unchanged. Square waves. and all are devoid of even harmonics. This principle of centerline symmetry should not be confused with symmetry around the zero line. Waveforms like the trumpet tone. This rule of harmonic content (even harmonics only with unsymmetrical waveforms) applies whether or not the waveform is shifted above or below zero volts with a “DC component.39: These waveforms are composed exclusively of odd harmonics.184
CHAPTER 7. but this has nothing to do with harmonic content.37)
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
symmetrical above and below its centerline (the shape on both sides mirror each other precisely) will contain no evennumbered harmonics.37: Waveforms symmetric about their xaxis center line contain only odd harmonics. the amount of DC voltage present in a waveform has nothing to do with that waveform’s harmonic frequency content.38: Asymmetric waveforms contain even harmonics. shifted with DC voltage. Again.38)
Figure 7. and pure sine waves all exhibit this symmetry. I will show the same sets of waveforms. triangle waves. the accordion tone. (Figure 7.39)
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 7.40)
. the horizontal centerline of the waveform happens to be zero volts on the timedomain graph. (Figure 7.
the circuit in question will react as though its having an array of different frequency voltages imposed on it at once. if you happen to measure even harmonics in an AC circuit with a spectrum analyzer or frequency meter. Any reactive component such as a capacitor or an inductor will simultaneously present a unique amount of impedance to each and every frequency present in a circuit. Thankfully. • The amount of DC “bias” voltage present (a waveform’s “DC component”) has no impact on that wave’s harmonic frequency content. even harmonics being practically nonexistent.
7. Also. the analysis of such circuits is made relatively easy by applying the Superposition Theorem.5
Circuit effects
The principle of nonsinusoidal. This is good to know if you’re a power system designer and are planning ahead for harmonic reduction: you only have to concern yourself with mitigating the odd harmonic frequencies. and
. CIRCUIT EFFECTS
185
Figure 7. Why is this harmonic ruleofthumb an important rule to know? It can help us comprehend the relationship between harmonics in AC circuits and speciﬁc circuit components.7. Now that we have this rule to guide our interpretation of nonsinusoidal waveforms. and that clue may be helpful in locating the source of a problem (look for components or conditions more likely to distort one halfcycle of the AC waveform more than the other). it makes more sense that a waveform like that produced by a rectiﬁer circuit should contain such strong even harmonics. you know that something in that circuit must be unsymmetrically distorting the sinewave voltage or current. • REVIEW: • Waveforms that are symmetrical above and below their horizontal centerlines contain no evennumbered harmonics. there being no symmetry at all above and below center. When an AC circuit is subjected to a source voltage consisting of a mixture of frequencies.40: These waveforms contain even harmonics. It means that any time we have a waveform that isn’t perfectly sinewaveshaped. the components in that circuit respond to each constituent frequency in a different way. evennumbered harmonics are rarely seen in those applications. repeating waveforms being equivalent to a series of sine waves at different frequencies is a fundamental property of waves in general and it has great practical import in the study of AC circuits. Since most sources of sinewave distortion in AC power circuits tend to be symmetrical. regarding the multiplefrequency source as a set of singlefrequency voltage sources connected in series.5.
328o 0 .22µ + j1.328o 2.768 kΩ 1 µF
Figure 7.4569 3.9623 .j2.j2.6716o 926.1168m 1.42: Circuit for solving 60 Hz.
R E I Z 2.0377 + j2.2 kΩ 5V 60 Hz C XC = 2.2 kΩ C XC = 1.4509m ∠ 50.653k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 926.653 kΩ 1 µF
Figure 7.186
CHAPTER 7.328o 2.1168m 1.328o Volts Amps Ohms
Analyzing the circuit for 90 Hz source alone:
R 5V 90 Hz 2.22µ + j1.1919 ∠ 50.4569 3.j2.653k 3.8486 ∠ 39.
.2k + j0 2.1168m 1.22µ + j1.4509m ∠ 50. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
analyzing the circuit for one source at a time. Analyzing circuit for 60 Hz source alone:
2. summing the results at the end to determine the aggregate total:
R 5V 60 Hz 5V 90 Hz
Figure 7.653k 2.43: Circuit of solving 90 Hz.328o 926.446k ∠ 50.2k ∠ 0o C 2.4509m ∠ 50.2k .41: Circuit driven by a combination of frequencies: 60 Hz and 90 Hz.2 kΩ C 1 µF
R 2.
we can regard it as originating from a seriesconnected string of multiple sinusoidal voltage sources at the appropriate amplitudes.7714m ∠ 38.9625 . but it is possible.793o 1.823k ∠ 38. such as a square wave.4415 3. I mention this not to scare you. but not frequency.6716o (60 Hz)] + [3.2k ∠ 0o C 1.768k 1. citing the fact that computers’ high frequency squarewave “clock” voltage signals are capable of generating radio waves that could interfere with the operation of the aircraft’s electronic navigation equipment. especially in light of the fact that the two source voltages are equal. This has been known to translate into unexpected circuit resonances. This is worthy to note. What we can tell from this application of the superposition theorem is that there will be a greater 60 Hz voltage dropped across the capacitor than a 90 Hz voltage.207o 1.768k 2.207o (90 Hz)]
Because the two voltages across each component are at different frequencies.j1.0375 + j2. this can be a laborious task for some waveforms (an accurate squarewave Fourier Series is considered to be expressed out to the ninth harmonic.1325 V ∠ 51.3807m + j1.328o (60 Hz)] + [3.5. but worse yet is the fact that the harmonic multiples of those fundamental frequencies span an even larger range. CIRCUIT EFFECTS
R E I Z 3. Just the opposite is true for the resistor’s voltage drop.793o (90 Hz)] EC = [3.2k + j0 2. and the like.
.768k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 1. It’s bad enough that typical microprocessor clock signal frequencies are within the range of aircraft radio frequency bands.793o Volts Amps Ohms
187
Superimposing the voltage drops across R and C.j2.2k . If we know the Fourier series (multiple sine/cosine wave equivalent) of that wave.1325 ∠ 51.3807m + j1. but to inform you of the potential complexity lurking behind seemingly simple waveforms.8971 ∠ 38. It is this kind of unequal circuit response to signals of differing frequency that will be our speciﬁc focus in the next chapter.1098m 1.4415 3. electromagnetic noise over broad ranges of the frequency spectrum. A reallife circuit will respond just the same to being powered by a square wave as being powered by an inﬁnite series of sine waves of oddmultiple frequencies and diminishing amplitudes.793o 2.7714m ∠ 38. due to the fact that clock signal voltages are squarewave in shape and not sinewave. and phase shifts. Harmonics are known to manifest their effects in the form of electromagnetic radiation as well.3807m + j1. Complex number notation give us the ability to represent waveform amplitude (polar magnitude) and phase angle (polar angle). transformer and inductor core overheating due to eddy currents.1919 V ∠ 50. Technicians and engineers need to be made aware of the potential effects of nonsinusoidal waveforms in reactive circuits.8486 V ∠ 39.793o 2. We can also apply the superposition theorem to the analysis of a circuit powered by a nonsinusoidal voltage.7714m ∠ 38. frequencies. we get:
ER = [3. we cannot consolidate them into a single voltage ﬁgure as we could if we were adding together two voltages of different amplitude and/or phase angle at the same frequency. Needless to say.793o 0 .1098m 1. or ﬁve sine waves in all!).7. Studies have been performed on the potential hazards of using portable computers aboard passenger aircraft.1098m 1.8971 V ∠ 38.j1.
but those harmonic frequency multiples theoretically extend into inﬁnitely high frequency ranges.188
CHAPTER 7.
. Low frequency power line voltage and current doesn’t radiate into space very well as electromagnetic energy. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Electromagnetic “emissions” of this nature can be a problem in industrial applications. This problem can manifest itself in industry when old motor controls are replaced with new. Also. not frequency! • Harmonics can cause problems by impressing unwanted (“noise”) voltage signals upon nearby circuits. or a combination thereof. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. but high frequencies do. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. Suddenly there may be weird electrical noise being impressed upon signal wiring that never used to be there.
7. plus a DC offset voltage if necessary. capacitive and inductive “coupling” caused by closeproximity conductors is usually more severe at high frequencies. Analysis of voltages and currents is accomplished by using the superposition theorem. electromagnetic radiation. NOTE: superimposed voltages and currents of different frequencies cannot be added together in complex number form. Signal wiring nearby power wiring will tend to “pick up” harmonic interference from the power wiring to a far greater extent than pure sinewave interference. These unwanted signals may come by way of capacitive coupling. and amplitudes. because the old controls never generated harmonics. The mathematical process for determining the sinusoidal waveform equivalent for any waveform is called Fourier analysis. inductive coupling. • Multiplefrequency voltage sources can be simulated for analysis by connecting several singlefrequency voltage sources in series. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a particular series of sine/cosine waves of different frequencies. solidstate electronic motor controls providing greater energy efﬁciency. The fundamental power line frequency may only be 60 Hz. from most recent to ﬁrst. phases. with harmonics abounding in very large quantities due to (nonlinear) electronic control of motor and electric furnace power. too. and those highfrequency harmonic voltages and currents tend to inductively and capacitively “couple” better to nearby conductors than any 60 Hz signals from the old controls used to.6
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. since complex numbers only account for amplitude and phase shift. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. • REVIEW: • Any regular (repeating).
.3 8. A common need for ﬁlter circuits is in highperformance stereo systems. You may also be familiar with crossover networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . You may be familiar with equalizers. . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . 215
8. . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Both equalizers and crossover networks are examples of ﬁlters. . . . . .Chapter 8
FILTERS
Contents
8. or simply a ﬁlter. . . . . . . 189
. . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which block certain ranges of frequencies from reaching speakers. . . A tweeter (highfrequency speaker) is inefﬁcient at reproducing lowfrequency signals such as drum beats. . . designed to accomplish ﬁltering of certain frequencies. . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . .1
What is a ﬁlter?
It is sometimes desirable to have circuits capable of selectively ﬁltering one frequency or range of frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies in a circuit. . . 189 Lowpass ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A circuit designed to perform this frequency selection is called a ﬁlter circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This gives better audio system efﬁciency and thus better performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Bandpass ﬁlters .6 8.4 8. . . . . . . . . . . 215 Contributors . . .8 What is a ﬁlter? . . 199 Bandstop ﬁlters . . 204 Summary . . . . . which allow the amplitudes of several frequency ranges to be adjusted to suit the listener’s taste and acoustic properties of the listening area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . only passing highfrequency signals to the speaker’s connection terminals. . . . . . . so a crossover circuit is connected between the tweeter and the stereo’s output terminals to block lowfrequency signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Highpass ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Resonant ﬁlters . . where certain ranges of audio frequencies need to be ampliﬁed or suppressed for best sound quality and power efﬁciency.
blocking all (higherfrequency) harmonics. displaying Bode plots (amplitude versus frequency) for the various kinds of ﬁlters. This high impedance in series tends to block highfrequency signals from getting to the load.2)
. • A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other. • REVIEW: • A ﬁlter is an AC circuit that separates some frequencies from others within mixedfrequency signals. • Audio equalizers and crossover networks are two wellknown applications of ﬁlter circuits. much like the previous example with two sources (60 and 90 Hz). This can be demonstrated with a SPICE analysis: (Figure 8. a lowpass ﬁlter is a circuit offering easy passage to lowfrequency signals and difﬁcult passage to highfrequency signals.
8. then it should be possible to construct a ﬁlter circuit that only allows the fundamental waveform frequency to pass through. I will make extensive use of SPICE as an analysis tool. We will be studying the design of several elementary ﬁlter circuits in this lesson. if the student is willing to invest a lot of time working and reworking circuit calculations for each frequency. and so require power conditioning for proper operation. To reduce the load of math on the reader. If a distorted sinewave voltage behaves like a series of harmonic waveforms added to the fundamental frequency.1 and the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. Bear in mind. Some electronic devices are sensitive to the presence of harmonics in the power supply voltage.2
Lowpass ﬁlters
By deﬁnition.190
CHAPTER 8. that these circuits can be analyzed over several points of frequency by repeated seriesparallel analysis. and many variations of each one: The inductive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. FILTERS
Another practical application of ﬁlter circuits is in the “conditioning” of nonsinusoidal voltage waveforms in power circuits. though. There are two basic kinds of circuits capable of accomplishing this objective.3
1
L1 3H
2
V1
1V
Rload
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.1: Inductive lowpass ﬁlter The inductor’s impedance increases with increasing frequency.
plot ac v(2) .
1
R1 500 Ω 1V C1 7 µF Rload
2 1 kΩ
V1
0
0
Figure 8.8.
.3: Capacitive lowpass ﬁlter. LOWPASS FILTERS
191
inductive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 3 rload 2 0 1k .end
Figure 8.2: The response of an inductive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency.2.ac lin 20 1 200 .
dropping most of the voltage across series resistor R1 . on the other hand. Capacitors also tend to participate less in “coupling” effects with other components (generate and/or receive interference from other components via mutual electric or magnetic ﬁelds) than inductors.ac lin 20 30 150 .192
CHAPTER 8. and are less expensive. Inductors.end
Figure 8. despite their increased complexity. passing only
. with only a resistor and capacitor needed for operation. (Figure 8. FILTERS
The capacitor’s impedance decreases with increasing frequency. with only one component comprising the ﬁlter. capacitive ﬁlter designs are generally preferred over inductive because capacitors tend to be “purer” reactive components than inductors and therefore are more predictable in their behavior. This low impedance in parallel with the load resistance tends to short out highfrequency signals. By “pure” I mean that capacitors exhibit little resistive effects than inductors. typically exhibit signiﬁcant dissipative (resistorlike) effects.4) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u rload 2 0 1k . The inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the pinnacle of simplicity. The capacitive version of this ﬁlter is not that much more complex. However. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is often preferred in ACDC power supplies to ﬁlter out the AC “ripple” waveform created when AC is converted (rectiﬁed) into DC.plot ac v(2) . and in the magnetic losses of the core material.4: The response of a capacitive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency. making them almost 100% reactive. However. both in the long lengths of wire used to make them.
6)
. All lowpass ﬁlters are rated at a certain cutoff frequency. In a simple capacitive/resistive lowpass ﬁlter.7% of the input voltage. A capacitive lowpass ﬁlter requires an extra resistance in series with the source. sometimes AC signals can “couple” from one circuit to another via capacitance (Cstray ) and/or mutual inductance (Mstray ) between the two sets of conductors. A prime example of this is unwanted AC signals (“noise”) becoming impressed on DC power lines supplying sensitive circuits: (Figure 8. one capacitor).5) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u * note: no load resistor! . However. If a cutoff frequency equation fails to give consideration to load impedance. Without that load resistance in place. we arrive at a cutoff frequency of 45. What’s wrong? The problem here is that the load resistance of 1 kΩ affects the frequency response of the ﬁlter. we see the load voltage well below 70.473 Hz. SPICE produces a Bode plot whose numbers make more sense: (Figure 8. In the design of a highcurrent circuit like a DC power supply where additional series resistance is undesirable. That is.end fcutof f = 1/(2πRC) = 1/(2π(500 Ω)(7 µF)) = 45. the frequency above which the output voltage falls below 70. it is the frequency at which capacitive reactance in ohms equals resistance in ohms. One frequent application of the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter principle is in the design of circuits having components or sections sensitive to electrical “noise.2. skewing it down from what the formula told us it would be.8. below the calculated cutoff point.7 is not really arbitrary. On the other hand.ac lin 20 40 50 .7% of the source voltage (1 volt) even at a frequency as low as 30 Hz. This cutoff percentage of 70. when we look at the plot generated by the SPICE simulation.473 Hz When dealing with ﬁlter circuits. whereas the inductive lowpass ﬁlter does not. LOWPASS FILTERS
193
the pure DC component. the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter might make more sense. all though it may seem so at ﬁrst glance. if low weight and compact size are higher priorities than low internal supply resistance in a power supply design. it is always important to note that the response of the ﬁlter depends on the ﬁlter’s component values and the impedance of the load.” As mentioned at the beginning of the last chapter.plot ac v(2) . The primary reason for this is the requirement of low ﬁlter resistance for the output of such a power supply. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the better design choice. it assumes no load and will fail to give accurate results for a reallife ﬁlter conducting power to a load. the cutoff frequency is given as:
fcutoff =
1 2πRC
Inserting the values of R and C from the last SPICE simulation into this formula. In a simple capacitive lowpass ﬁlter (one resistor.
FILTERS
Figure 8.
.473 Hz.
"Noise" source
Mstray Zwire
Cstray Zwire Load
Zwire
"Clean" DC power Esupply
"Dirty" or "noisy" DC power Eload
Figure 8.5: For the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter with R = 500 Ω and C = 7 µF. the Output should be 70.194
CHAPTER 8.7% at 45.6: Noise is coupled by stray capacitance and mutual inductance into “clean” DC power.
2. Such a capacitor is called a decoupling capacitor: (Figure 8. which means the noise magnitude can vary at different points in the DC system. because the uninterrupted conductors connecting them should make the two sets of points electrically common. power conductor impedance allows the two voltages to differ. Capacitor size is usually 0. • REVIEW: • A lowpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of lowfrequency signals from source to load. the voltage as measured at the load terminals is now a mix of AC and DC. However. applied to load. • Inductive lowpass ﬁlters insert an inductor in series with the load.8. A cursory glance at a crowded printedcircuit board (PCB) will typically reveal decoupling capacitors scattered throughout. one would expect Eload to be precisely identical to Esource . If we wish to prevent such “noise” from reaching the DC load.7: Decoupling capacitor. though. After coupling with the AC noise source via stray mutual inductance and stray capacitance.1 µF or more. Normally. ﬁlters noise from DC power supply. Greater capacitance will do a better job at ﬁltering noise. LOWPASS FILTERS
195
The oscilloscopemeter on the left shows the “clean” power from the DC voltage source. the AC being unwanted. but size and economics limit decoupling capacitors to meager values.7)
"Noise" source
Mstray Zwire
Cstray Zwire Load
Zwire
"Clean" DC power Esupply
"Cleaner" DC power with decoupling capacitor Eload
Figure 8. capacitive lowpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel with the load. and shorting it out. The former
. In its simplest form. and difﬁcult passage of highfrequency signals. usually located as close as possible to the sensitive DC loads. the capacitor behaving as a very low impedance to any AC noise. a minimum amount of capacitance needed to produce a low enough impedance to short out any noise. this is nothing more than a capacitor connected directly across the power terminals of the load. all we need to do is connect a lowpass ﬁlter near the load to block any coupled signals.
end The inductor’s impedance (Figure 8.196
CHAPTER 8.8: Capacitive highpass ﬁlter.7% of the input (source) voltage. requiring only one component above and beyond the load. above which the output voltage increases above 70. the capacitive design is the simplest.8) versions of the highpass ﬁlter are just the opposite of their respective lowpass ﬁlter designs:
C1 1 0. The capacitor’s impedance (Figure 8.9) This high impedance in series tends to block lowfrequency signals from getting to load. As a consequence. Just as in the case of the capacitive
.
• The cutoff frequency for a lowpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70. again.plot ac v(2) .
8. and vice versa.ac lin 20 1 200 . the inductive (Figure 8. As with lowpass ﬁlters. capacitive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 2 0. Above the cutoff frequency.7% of the input.8) increases with decreasing frequency. (Figure 8. As one might expect.10) decreases with decreasing frequency.5u rload 2 0 1k .10) and capacitive (Figure 8.7% of the input voltage. especially with highpass ﬁlters where high frequencies commonly cause inductors to behave strangely due to the skin effect and electromagnetic core losses.3
Highpass ﬁlters
A highpass ﬁlter’s task is just the opposite of a lowpass ﬁlter: to offer easy passage of a highfrequency signal and difﬁcult passage to a lowfrequency signal. the output voltage is lower than 70. (Figure 8. most of the voltage gets dropped across series resistor R1 . This time. And.5 µF V1 1V Rload 1 kΩ 2
0
0
Figure 8. FILTERS
ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out. highpass ﬁlters have a rated cutoff frequency. the reactive purity of capacitors over inductors tends to favor their use in ﬁlter design.11) This low impedance in parallel tends to short out lowfrequency signals from getting to the load resistor.
plot ac v(2) .
inductive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 l1 2 0 100m rload 2 0 1k .
1
R1 200 Ω 1V L1 100 mH Rload
2
V1
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.end
.8.10: Inductive highpass ﬁlter.9: The response of the capacitive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency. HIGHPASS FILTERS
197
Figure 8.ac lin 20 1 200 .3.
2 midranges.11: The response of the inductive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency. Also bear in mind that I’m only showing you one channel (either left or right) on this stereo system.or highfrequency signal power is wasted on a speaker incapable of efﬁciently reproducing those sounds. but this should give you the general idea. More elaborate ﬁlter networks are sometimes used. • REVIEW: • A highpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of highfrequency signals from source to load. FILTERS
Figure 8. lowpass ﬁlter circuit.
. which is the topic of the next section. an inductor connected in series with the woofer (bass) speaker will serve as a lowpass ﬁlter for the low frequencies that particular speaker is designed to reproduce. Using a stereo system as a practical example. In this simple example circuit. the capacitive highpass ﬁlter’s cutoff frequency can be found with the same formula:
fcutoff =
1 2πRC
In the example circuit. In like fashion. For better performance yet. the midrange speaker is subjected to the full spectrum of frequencies from the stereo’s output. a capacitor connected in series with the tweeter (treble) speaker will serve as a highpass ﬁlter. so that is the value for R in the formula. imposing a high impedance to lowfrequency bass signals. we might like to have some kind of ﬁlter circuit capable of passing frequencies that are between low (bass) and high (treble) to the midrange speaker so that none of the low. What we would be looking for is called a bandpass ﬁlter. and 2 tweeters. A real stereo would have six speakers: 2 woofers. there is no resistance other than the load resistor.198
CHAPTER 8. thereby preventing that power from being wasted on a speaker inefﬁcient for reproducing such sounds.
7% of the input (source) voltage.13: System level block diagram of a bandpass ﬁlter.
. or frequencies need to be ﬁltered from a wider range of mixed signals. and difﬁcult passage of lowfrequency signals. Filter circuits can be designed to accomplish this task by combining the properties of lowpass and highpass into a single ﬁlter. inductive highpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and an inductor in parallel with the load. Creating a bandpass ﬁlter from a lowpass and highpass ﬁlter can be illustrated using block diagrams: (Figure 8.14)
Signal input
Lowpass filter blocks frequencies that are too high
Highpass filter blocks frequencies that are too low
Signal output
Figure 8. while lowpass ﬁlter routes lows to woofer.7% of the input.
8. BANDPASS FILTERS
199
lowpass Woofer
Stereo
Midrange
highpass Tweeter
Figure 8. or spread. The former ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out.4
Bandpass ﬁlters
There are applications where a particular band.12: Highpass ﬁlter routes high frequencies to tweeter.4. Above the cutoff frequency. and vice versa.8. The result is called a bandpass ﬁlter. • The cutoff frequency for a highpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70. • Capacitive highpass ﬁlters insert a capacitor in series with the load. the output voltage is greater than 70.
Using real components. the reactive “purity” of capacitors gives them a design advantage. it is not without certain limitations.200
CHAPTER 8.end Bandpass ﬁlters can also be constructed using inductors. and their combined effort makes for an attenuated (reduced amplitude) signal at best.14: Capacitive bandpass ﬁlter. The response of the bandpass ﬁlter is shown in (Figure 8.59 volts. While the general idea of combining lowpass and highpass ﬁlters together to make a bandpass ﬁlter is sound. capacitive bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2. it can be difﬁcult to design such a ﬁlter to allow unhindered passage within the desired frequency range.plot ac v(3) .5 µF Rload 1 kΩ
V1
0
0
0
Figure 8. Both the lowpass and highpass sections will always be blocking signals to some extent. FILTERS
What emerges from the series combination of these two ﬁlter circuits is a circuit that will only allow passage of those frequencies that are neither too high nor too low. Because this type of bandpass ﬁlter works by relying on either section to block unwanted frequencies. but as mentioned before. although the source voltage is a full volt. here is what a typical schematic might look like Figure 8. It will still ﬁlter out all frequencies too high or too low.15)
Source
Lowpass filter section 1 R1 200 Ω 1V C1 2
Highpass filter section C2 3 1 µF 2. it might look something like Figure 8. Notice the curve peak on the previous SPICE analysis: the load voltage of this ﬁlter never rises above 0. If we were to design a bandpass ﬁlter using inductors.14.5u c2 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k .
. The fact that the highpass section comes “ﬁrst” in this design instead of the lowpass section makes no difference in its overall operation.16.ac lin 20 100 500 . even at the peak of the “passband” frequency range.
BANDPASS FILTERS
201
Figure 8.4.16: Inductive bandpass ﬁlter.
.8.
Source
Highpass filter section R1
Lowpass filter section L2
L1
Rload
Figure 8.15: The response of a capacitive bandpass ﬁlter peaks within a narrow frequency range.
giving easy passage only to frequencies within a certain range. or vice versa. C3 . just like the bandpass design. and R3 in a “T” conﬁguration as well. • “Attenuate” means to reduce or diminish in amplitude.
8. this arrangement is commonly known as a “TwinT” ﬁlter. The lowpass ﬁlter section is comprised of R1 .5
Bandstop ﬁlters
Also called bandelimination. Not surprisingly. this kind of ﬁlter passes all frequencies above and below a particular range set by the component values. Together. and C1 in a “T” conﬁguration.17)
passes low frequencies Lowpass filter Signal input Highpass filter passes high frequencies
Figure 8. • REVIEW: • A bandpass ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are too low or too high. • Bandpass ﬁlters can be made by stacking a lowpass ﬁlter on the end of a highpass ﬁlter.18). or notch ﬁlters. (Figure 8.17: System level block diagram of a bandstop ﬁlter. bandreject. narrower band of passable frequencies). giving sharp response when the component values are chosen in the following ratios:
Signal output
Component value ratios for the "TwinT" bandstop filter R1 = R2 = 2(R3) C2 = C3 = (0. When you turn down the volume control on your stereo.202
CHAPTER 8. We will discuss those methods a little later in this chapter.5)C1
. The highpass ﬁlter section is comprised of C2 . except that this time we connect the two ﬁlter sections in parallel with each other instead of in series. There are other methods to achieve bandpass operation without sacriﬁcing signal strength within the passband. R2 . it looks something like (Figure 8. you are “attenuating” the signal being sent to the speakers. FILTERS
This signal attenuation becomes more pronounced if the ﬁlter is designed to be more selective (steeper curve. Constructed using two capacitive ﬁlter sections. it can be made out of a lowpass and a highpass ﬁlter.
BANDSTOP FILTERS
203
R1 C2 source R3 C1
R2 C3 Rload
Figure 8. • The frequency of maximum attenuation is called the notch frequency. Given these component ratios.5. Also known as bandelimination. giving easy passage only to frequencies outside of that range.
. bandreject. giving the name “TwinT” to the bandstop combination.19) twint bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2u r2 2 3 200 c2 1 4 1u r3 4 0 100 c3 4 3 1u rload 3 0 1k .ac lin 20 200 1. Commonly. • Bandstop ﬁlters can be made by placing a lowpass ﬁlter in parallel with a highpass ﬁlter. the frequency of maximum rejection (the “notch frequency”) can be calculated as follows:
fnotch =
1 4πR3C3
The impressive bandstopping ability of this ﬁlter is illustrated by the following SPICE analysis: (Figure 8. or notch ﬁlters.end
• REVIEW: • A bandstop ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are within a certain range.5k .8.plot ac v(3) .18: “TwinT” bandstop ﬁlter. both the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter sections are of the “T” conﬁguration.
20: Series resonant LC bandpass ﬁlter. Knowing this. Series LC circuits give minimum impedance at resonance. but never both at the same time.22) to short a signal.6
Resonant ﬁlters
So far.20). we have two basic strategies for designing either bandpass or bandstop ﬁlters.
.
8. For bandpass ﬁlters. while parallel LC (“tank”) circuits give maximum impedance at their resonant frequency. the two basic resonant strategies are this: series LC to pass a signal (Figure 8.204
CHAPTER 8. FILTERS
Figure 8. or parallel LC (Figure 8. and this property can be exploited in designing bandpass and bandstop ﬁlter circuits.19: Response of “twinT” bandstop ﬁlter. We should know by now that combinations of L and C will tend to resonate. The two schemes will be contrasted and simulated here:
filter 1 V1 0 L1 1H 1V 2 C1 3 1 µF Rload 1 kΩ 0
Figure 8. the ﬁlter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed either capacitors or inductors.
plot ac v(3) . shorting out the signal and dropping most of it across series resistor R1 .ac lin 20 50 250 . (Figure 8. (Figure 8. However. the resonant frequency of which is unaffected by circuit resistance.end
Figure 8.22) The tank circuit will have a lot of impedance at resonance. The other basic style of resonant bandpass ﬁlters employs a tank circuit (parallel LC combination) to short out signals too high or too low in frequency from getting to the load: (Figure 8. the tank circuit will have a low impedance. RESONANT FILTERS
205
Series LC components pass signal at resonance. Under or over resonant frequency. allowing the signal to get to the load with minimal attenuation.21) series resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k .15 Hz.8. A couple of points to note: see how there is virtually no signal attenuation within the “pass band” (the range of frequencies near the load voltage peak).6. however. the value of the load resistor will not skew the peak frequency. different values for the load resistor will change the “steepness” of the Bode plot (the “selectivity” of the ﬁlter). unlike the bandpass ﬁlters made from capacitors or inductors alone. since this ﬁlter works on the principle of series LC resonance. and block signals of any other frequencies from getting to the load. Also.23)
.21: Series resonant bandpass ﬁlter: voltage peaks at resonant frequency of 159.
15 Hz.ac lin 20 50 250 .
.23: Parallel resonant ﬁlter: voltage peaks a resonant frequency of 159.22: Parallel resonant bandpass ﬁlter. FILTERS
1 V1 1V 0
R1 500 Ω L1
filter 2 C1 100 mH 0
2 Rload
2 1 kΩ 0
10 µF 0
Figure 8.
parallel resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 0 100m c1 2 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .end
Figure 8.206
CHAPTER 8.plot ac v(2) .
dropping it across resistor R1 and preventing its passage on to the load. The amplitude at the notch frequency. on the other hand. In most analog radio tuner circuits. RESONANT FILTERS
207
Just like the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs relying on a series resistance and a parallel “shorting” component to attenuate unwanted frequencies. It should be noted that this form of bandpass ﬁlter circuit is very popular in analog radio tuning circuitry.24 photograph of a simple radio comprise the main elements in the tank circuit ﬁlter used to discriminate one radio station’s signal from another. Again.25) When the series LC combination reaches resonance. the rotating dial for station selection moves a variable capacitor in a tank circuit. to use either series or parallel resonance. creating a bandstop ﬁlter. First. (Figure 8.6.
Figure 8. is
. this resonant circuit can never provide full input (source) voltage to the load. we’ll look at the series variety: (Figure 8. (Figure 8.8.24: Variable capacitor tunes radio receiver tank circuit to select one out of many broadcast stations.27) The parallel LC components present a high impedance at resonant frequency. notice how the absence of a series resistor makes for minimum attenuation for all the desired (passed) signals. we will examine the parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: (Figure 8. thereby blocking the signal from the load at that frequency.26) Next. Conversely. we can also use them to block frequencies within a certain range.28) Once again. we have two major strategies to follow in doing this. Just as we can use series and parallel LC resonant circuits to pass only those frequencies within a certain range. it passes signals to the load at any other frequencies. That series resistance will always be dropping some amount of voltage so long as there is a load resistance connected to the output of the ﬁlter. for selecting a particular radio frequency from the multitudes of frequencies available from the antenna. The variable capacitor and aircore inductor shown in Figure 8. its very low impedance shorts out the signal.
FILTERS
1
R1 500 Ω
2 L1 100 mH Rload 3 C1 10 µF 0
2
V1
1V
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8. series resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 3 100m c1 3 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .25: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter.ac lin 20 70 230 .26: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159.
.end
Figure 8.208
CHAPTER 8.plot ac v(2) .15 Hz).
parallel resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 1 2 10u rload 2 0 1k .6.ac lin 20 100 200 .
.end
Figure 8.28: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159.8.27: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter.plot ac v(2) . RESONANT FILTERS
209
C1 1 V1 0 1V
10 µF 2
L1 100 mH
Rload
1 kΩ 0
Figure 8.15 Hz).
creating a large voltage drop around C1 .plot ac v(3) .29.ac lin 20 100 1k . both working together to allow only low frequency signals to reach the load.
1 V1 0 1V
L1 100 mH
filter 2
L2 100 mH 1 µF Rload
3
C1
1 kΩ 0
0
Figure 8. In all these resonant ﬁlter designs. more effective design of lowpass or highpass ﬁlter might be realized by combining capacitive and inductive elements together like Figure 8. this is a very “selective” ﬁlter. the more insightful student will recognize that any combination of capacitors and inductors together in a circuit is likely to cause resonant effects to happen at a certain frequency. The inductors should block any high frequencies.210
CHAPTER 8. can cause strange things to happen.end What was supposed to be a lowpass ﬁlter turns out to be a bandpass ﬁlter with a peak somewhere around 526 Hz! The capacitance and inductance in this ﬁlter circuit are attaining resonance at that point.29: Capacitive Inductive lowpass ﬁlter. If there is any stray resistance (especially likely in the inductor). and eliminates the need for a series resistance. regardless of L2 ’s attenuating inﬂuence. as we have seen before. while the capacitor should short out any high frequencies as well. FILTERS
very low. the selectivity depends greatly upon the “purity” of the inductance and capacitance used. After assessing the standard RC and LR lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs. In other words. as well as introduce antiresonant effects that will skew the peak/notch frequency. it might occur to a student that a better. this seems to be a good strategy. At ﬁrst.30) lc lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 2 0 1u l2 2 3 100m rload 3 0 1k . which is seen at the load. Let’s plot a SPICE analysis and see what happens over a wide frequency range: (Figure 8. A word of caution to those designing lowpass and highpass ﬁlters is in order at this point. this will diminish the ﬁlter’s ability to ﬁnely discriminate frequencies. The output voltage to the load at this point actually
. Resonance. However.
30: Unexpected response of LC lowpass ﬁlter.31. vm(2) in Figure 8. along with load voltage. RESONANT FILTERS
211
Figure 8. We’ll run the same analysis again.8. and the source current.31: Current inceases at the unwanted resonance of the LC lowpass ﬁlter. which might not be good either. vm(3):
Figure 8. I(v1). they will impose a very heavy (very low impedance) load on the AC source.6. only this time plotting C1 ’s voltage.
.
exceeds the input (source) voltage! A little more reﬂection reveals that if L1 and C2 are at resonance.
Rg and Rload to match it.plot ac v(3) .212
CHAPTER 8. C= 1µF Z = (L/C)1/2 =((100 mH)/(1 µF))1/2 = 316 Ω In Figure 8. the L/C ratio could have been adjusted to match that resistance.
filter 316 Ω 1 Rg Vpp Voffset 1 Hz L1 1V C1 L2 1. and the ﬁlter output impedance must be matched by “rload” for a ﬂat response. The problem is that an LC ﬁlter has a input impedance and an output impedance which must be matched. and changed the load Rload from 1000 Ω to 316 Ω. If we were expecting this ﬁlter to provide a simple lowpass function. we see the voltage across C1 and the source current spiking to a high point at the same frequency where the load voltage is maximum. and the required . Note that if we needed to drive a 1000 Ω load. LC matched lowpass filter V1 1 0 ac 1 SIN Rg 1 4 316 L1 4 2 100m C1 2 0 1.0 uF Rload 316 Ω 4 100 mH 2 100 mH 3
0
Figure 8.end
. Z = (L/C)1/2 Taking the component values from (Figure 8. we can ﬁnd the impedance of the ﬁlter.32 we have added Rg = 316 Ω to the generator. The voltage source impedance must match the input impedance of the ﬁlter. The input and output impedance is given by the square root of (L/C). we might be disappointed by the results.ac lin 20 100 1k .32: Circuit of source and load matched LC lowpass ﬁlter. For L= 100 mH. FILTERS
Sure enough.29).0u L2 2 3 100m Rload 3 0 316 .
increasing the voltage at the ﬁlter output. is a nonsinusoidal AC voltage consisting
. very low.6. if this particular ﬁlter design possesses a potentially troublesome resonant point? The answer lies in the selection of ﬁlter component sizes and the frequencies encountered from an AC/DC converter (rectiﬁer). thus. has a “frequency” of zero.30) to the matched ﬁlter (Figure 8. on the other hand. the inductance is decreased by the heavy DC current.8. This improves the voltage regulation with respect to variable loads. we mean that the DC current creates a “too” high level of ﬂux in the magnetic core. Despite the unintended resonance. This is a choke. DC of course. This is undesirable. The decrease in inductance decreases reactance XL . What we’re trying to do in an AC/DC power supply ﬁlter is separate DC voltage from a small amount of relatively highfrequency AC voltage. reduces the voltage drop across the inductor. The ﬁlter inductors and capacitors are generally quite large (several Henrys for the inductors and thousands of µF for the capacitors is typical). This property is directly applicable to LC ﬁltered power supplies– the regulation is poor.33: The response of impedance matched LC lowpass ﬁlter is nearly ﬂat up to the cutoff frequency. making the ﬁlter’s resonant frequency very.33 shows the “ﬂat” response of the LC low pass ﬁlter when the source and load impedance match the ﬁlter input and output impedances. By saturate. This poor load regulation can be mitigated by a swinging choke.33) is that variable load on the ﬁlter produces a considerable change in voltage. Why is this. The ripple voltage. Decreasing reactance. The point to make in comparing the response of the unmatched ﬁlter (Figure 8. The power supply voltage changes with a change in load. designed to saturate when a large DC current passes through it. Since induction is proportional to dΦ/dt. lowpass ﬁlters made up of capacitors and inductors are frequently used as ﬁnal stages in AC/DC power supplies to ﬁlter the unwanted AC “ripple” voltage out of the DC converted from AC. RESONANT FILTERS
213
Figure 8.
Figure 8. so there’s no way it can make an LC circuit resonate. inductor. so that the AC component of current cannot vary the ﬂux.
ac/dc power supply filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin v2 2 1 dc l1 2 3 3 c1 3 0 9500u l2 3 4 2 rload 4 0 1k .ac lin 1 120 120 . For pluginthewall power supplies running on 60 Hz AC power (60 Hz United States.200E+01 freq 1. 50 Hz in Europe). the lowest frequency the ﬁlter will ever see is 120 Hz (100 Hz in Europe). Therefore.print ac v(4) . The following SPICE analysis calculates the voltage output (AC and DC) for such a ﬁlter.
2 V2 1 V1 0
L1 3H 12 V C1 1V 120 Hz
3
L2 2H 9500 µF Rload
4
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.12 microvolts
With a full 12 volts DC at the load and only 34. which is well above its resonant point.12 µV of AC left from the 1 volt AC source imposed across the load. with harmonics many times that in addition. this circuit design proves itself to be a very effective power supply ﬁlter.412E05
DC voltage at load = 12 volts
AC voltage at load = 34.
. FILTERS
of a fundamental frequency at least twice the frequency of the converted AC voltage.34: AC/DC power suppply ﬁlter provides “ripple free” DC power. with series DC and AC (120 Hz) voltage sources providing a rough approximation of the mixedfrequency output of an AC/DC converter.214
CHAPTER 8.200E+01 v(4) 3.200E+02 v(4) 1.dc v2 12 12 1 .print dc v(4) . the potentially troublesome resonant point in a such a ﬁlter is completely avoided.end v2 1.
8. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. leaning on the power of the SPICE circuit analysis program to explore ﬁlter performance. If you are not familiar with the use of SPICE or other circuit simulation programs. The mathematics involved with component selection and frequency response prediction is daunting to say the least – well beyond the scope of the beginning electronics student. from most recent to ﬁrst.
8.7
Summary
As lengthy as this chapter has been up to this point. But if any signal of signiﬁcant magnitude close to the resonant frequency is applied to the input of the ﬁlter. SUMMARY
215
The lesson learned here about resonant effects also applies to the design of highpass ﬁlters using both capacitors and inductors. strange things will happen! • REVIEW: • Resonant combinations of capacitance and inductance can be employed to create very effective bandpass and bandstop ﬁlters without the need for added resistance in a circuit that would diminish the passage of desired frequencies. an intuitive understanding of circuit concepts can be attained.
. The beneﬁt of such computer simulation software cannot be understated. With the ability to generate Bode plots and precise ﬁgures. but to actually set up and analyze your own circuit simulations is a much more engaging and worthwhile endeavor as a student. It has been my intent here to present the basic principles of ﬁlter design with as little math as possible. So long as the desired and undesired frequencies are well to either side of the resonant point. for the beginning student or for the working engineer.8
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. A quick perusal of any advanced ﬁlter design textbook is sufﬁcient to prove my point. Circuit simulation software empowers the student to explore circuit designs far beyond the reach of their math skills. To see SPICE analyses presented in this book is an aid to understanding circuits. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. take the time to become so! It will be of great beneﬁt to your study. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. it only begins to scratch the surface of ﬁlter design.7.
fresonant =
•
1 2π LC
8. the ﬁlter will work OK. which is something often lost when a student is burdened with the task of solving lengthy equations by hand.
216
CHAPTER 8. FILTERS
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Practical considerations . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Power capacity . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Energy losses . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . .8. . . .6 9.5 9. . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . .7. . 269 Stray capacitance and inductance . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . 251 9. . . . . .Chapter 9
TRANSFORMERS
Contents
9. 275 Heat and Noise .8. . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Impedance matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Phasing . .6 9. . . . . . 248 Special transformers and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Bibliography . . 239 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . 268
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Stepup and stepdown transformers . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Air core transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . 262 Saturable reactors
ScottT transformer . .7 Mutual inductance and basic operation . . . .7. . . 265 Linear Variable Differential Transformer . . . . . .5 9. .1 9.3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
217
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Core saturation . . . . 251 Potential transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. .1 9. . . . . . . . 256 Current transformers . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Voltage regulation . . . . . .7. . . . 272 Inrush current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . 260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. 259 Tesla Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Electrical isolation . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the opposing voltage comes from another mechanism: the reaction to a changing magnetic ﬂux in the iron core. Changing ﬂux induces a counter EMF. the voltage drop originates from electrical energy loss. current. In this example. we would expect this ironcore coil to oppose the applied voltage with its inductive reactance.1
Mutual inductance and basic operation
Suppose we were to wrap a coil of insulated wire around a loop of ferromagnetic material and energize this coil with an AC voltage source: (Figure 9. and magnetic ﬂux in the device. With a perfect inductor (no resistance in the coil wire). When AC current changes. the voltage dropped across the load must equal the voltage supplied by the source. limiting current through the coil as predicted by the equations XL = 2πfL and I=E/X (or I=E/Z).1 (b)). though. Here. in order that it may balance against the source voltage and produce an algebraic loop voltage sum of zero. as in any onesource. we need to take a more detailed look at the interactions of voltage. the “friction” of electrons ﬂowing through the resistance. oneload circuit.1 (a))
iron core wire coil resistor
(a)
(b)
Figure 9. the load (inductor coil) must produce an opposing voltage equal in magnitude to the source.1: Insulated winding on ferromagnetic loop has inductive reactance. Kirchhoff ’s voltage law describes how the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero. ﬂux Φ changes. Michael Faraday discovered the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux (Φ) and induced voltage with this equation:
e= N
dΦ dt e = (Instantaneous) induced voltage in volts N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) Φ = Magnetic flux in Webers t = Time in seconds
Where. TRANSFORMERS
9. For the purposes of this example. In other words. we could apply this fundamental law of electricity to describe the respective voltages of the source and of the inductor coil. As an inductor.
. From where does this opposing voltage arise? If the load were a resistor (Figure 9. limiting AC current. assuming zero voltage dropped along the resistance of any connecting wires.218
CHAPTER 9.
electromotive force. and because the mathematical relationship between mmf and current is also directly proportional (no ratesofchange present in either equation). or mmf. dΦ/dt.3) This is why alternating current through an inductor lags the applied voltage waveform by 90o : because that is what is required to produce a changing magnetic ﬂux whose rateofchange produces an opposing voltage inphase with the applied voltage. Because the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux and mmf is directly proportional. Graphed. Magnetomotive force generated by an electromagnet coil is equal to the amount of current through that coil (in amps) multiplied by the number of turns of that coil around the core (the SI unit for mmf is the ampturn). Due to its function in providing magnetizing force (mmf) for the core.2) this shows itself as a set of sine waves (assuming a sinusoidal voltage source). In magnetic “circuits. the ﬂux wave 90o lagging behind the voltage wave:
e = voltage e
Φ = magnetic flux Φ
Figure 9. It should be mentioned that the current through an ironcore inductor is not perfectly sinusoidal (sinewave shaped).1. or EMF).a. In electric circuits. the mmf required to produce this changing magnetic ﬂux (Φ) must be supplied by a changing current through the coil. Magnetomotive force (mmf) and magnetic ﬂux (Φ) are related to each other by a property of magnetic materials known as reluctance (the latter quantity symbolized by a strangelooking letter “R”):
A comparison of "Ohm’s Law" for electric and magnetic circuits: E = IR Electrical mmf = Φℜ Magnetic
In our example.2: Magnetic ﬂux lags applied voltage by 90o because ﬂux is proportional to a rate of change. if the
. due to the nonlinear B/H magnetization curve of iron. Magnetic ﬂux through a ferromagnetic material is analogous to current through a conductor: it must be motivated by some force in order to occur. (Figure 9. In fact. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
219
The instantaneous voltage (voltage dropped at any instant in time) across a wire coil is equal to the number of turns of that coil around the core (N) multiplied by the instantaneous rateofchange in magnetic ﬂux (dΦ/dt) linking with the coil. this motivating force is voltage (a. this current is sometimes referred to as the magnetizing current.” this motivating force is magnetomotive force. the current through the coil will be inphase with the ﬂux wave as in (Figure 9.k.9.
the magnetizing current waveform becomes distorted. disproportionately greater levels of magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) are required to deliver equal increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). etc. The effects of hysteresis and eddy currents conspire to further distort and complicate the current waveform.3: Magnetic ﬂux. Thus. inductor is cheaply built.4
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ
Figure 9. This coil current resulting from the sum total of all magnetic effects in the core (dΦ/dt magnetization plus hysteresis losses.220
CHAPTER 9. The distortion of an ironcore inductor’s exciting current may be minimized if it is designed for and operated at very low ﬂux densities. The situation is further complicated by energy losses within the iron core.) is called the exciting current. eddy current losses. the large increases of mmf required to supply the needed increases in ﬂux results in large increases in coil current. resulting in a magnetizing current waveform that looks something like Figure 9.4: As ﬂux density approaches saturation. When a ferromagnetic material approaches magnetic ﬂux saturation. making it even less sinusoidal and altering its phase to be lagging slightly less than 90o behind the applied voltage waveform. like current. Generally speaking. where “N” is the number of turns of wire in the coil and “I” is the current through it). using as little iron as possible. lags applied voltage by 90o . accounting for the bellshaped halfcycles of the current waveform in the above plot. this
. the magnetic ﬂux density might reach high levels (approaching saturation). coil current increases dramatically at the peaks in order to maintain a ﬂux waveform that isn’t distorted. Because mmf is proportional to current through the magnetizing coil (mmf = NI. TRANSFORMERS
e = voltage e
Φ = magnetic flux Φ i
i = coil current
Figure 9.
it will dissipate zero power.1.). (Figure 9. having a current waveform 90o out of phase with the voltage waveform creates a condition where power is alternately absorbed and returned to the circuit by the inductor.9. and has the same number of turns around the core. resulting in a perfectly sinusoidal exciting current. As we’ve seen already in the inductors chapter.5) wrapped around the same iron core. it is measured in the unit of Henrys. which tends to make the inductor bulky and expensive. while the second will be labeled the secondary:
iron core wire coil
wire coil
Figure 9. a voltage of equal magnitude and phase to the applied voltage will be induced along its length. If the inductor is perfect (no wire resistance. Let us now consider the same inductor device. no magnetic core losses. assuming perfect containment of the magnetic ﬂux through the common core).5: Ferromagnetic core with primary coil (AC driven) and secondary coil. except this time with a second coil (Figure 9. etc. but unlike normal inductance it is symbolized by the capital letter “M” rather than the letter “L”:
. Like normal (self) inductance. For the sake of simplicity. The ﬁrst coil will be labeled the primary coil.6) the induced voltage waveform is drawn slightly smaller than the source voltage waveform simply to distinguish one from the other: This effect is called mutual inductance: the induction of a voltage in one coil in response to a change in current in the other coil. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
221
requires a core with large crosssectional area. though. In the following graph. we’ll assume that our example core is far from saturation and free from all losses.
If this secondary coil experiences the same magnetic ﬂux change as the primary (which it should.
the magnetic ﬂux in the core cannot be affected by secondary coil current. do not worry. it would cause more voltage to be induced voltage in the primary coil (remember that e = dΦ/dt). this mmf is accompanied by magnetic ﬂux. However. Magnetomotive force is produced any time electrons move through a wire. since it is opencircuited. However. in accordance with Kirchhoff ’s voltage law.222
CHAPTER 9. one might expect this secondary coil current to cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. In this case. additional ﬂux is not permitted.8) If you ﬁnd this process a bit confusing. Polarity marks and current direction arrows have been added to the illustration to clarify phase relations: (Figure 9. Therefore induced secondary voltage es is the same magnitude and phase as the primary voltage ep. so the only way the secondary coil’s mmf may exist is if a counteracting mmf is generated by the primary coil. In fact. Usually. of equal magnitude and opposite phase. if we connect a load resistor to it. This cannot happen. though. e2 = voltage induced in secondary coil i1 = current in primary coil
No current will exist in the secondary coil. If more ﬂux were induced in the core.7) At ﬁrst.6: Open circuited secondary sees the same ﬂux Φ as the primary. Transformer dynamics is a complex
. TRANSFORMERS
ep = primary coil voltage Φ = magnetic flux ep Φ es ip
ip = primary coil current es = secondary coil voltage
Figure 9. inphase with the induced voltage (because the voltage across a resistor and the current through it are always inphase with each other). this is what happens. it does not. because the primary coil’s induced voltage must remain at the same magnitude and phase in order to balance with the applied voltage. Consequently.
Inductance di e=L dt
Mutual inductance di e2 = M 1 dt Where. (Figure 9. Indeed. an alternating current will go through the coil. what does change is the amount of mmf in the magnetic circuit. in accordance with the mmf=ΦR “magnetic Ohm’s Law” equation. an alternating current forming in the primary coil – 180o out of phase with the secondary coil’s current – to generate this counteracting mmf and prevent additional core ﬂux.
a counteracting mmf is produced by the loaded secondary.9.1.
+ + + + wire coil wire coil
iron core
mmfprimary mmfsecondary
Figure 9.7: Resistive load on secondary has voltage and current inphase.
.8: Flux remains constant with application of a load. However. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
223
iron core wire coil
wire coil
Figure 9.
Its schematic symbol looks like two inductors (coils) sharing the same magnetic core: (Figure 9. the inductor coils are often referred to as windings. because it transforms electrical energy into magnetic energy. the iron core can be seen in this photograph to be made of many thin sheets (laminations) rather than a
. there are some that do not. As far as the source “knows.10) Both coils of wire can be seen here with coppercolored varnish insulation.224
CHAPTER 9. exposing the crosssection of the iron core as well as both windings. their constituent inductors being magnetically linked together through the air.11. Of course. Figure 9. and how the secondary coil is behaving as a source with respect to the resistor. Notice how the primary coil is behaving as a load with respect to the AC voltage source. Like the transformer shown previously. As modeled in our initial example. We call this type of device a transformer.” transformers are necessarily AC devices. Because its operation depends on electromagnetic induction between two stationary coils and a magnetic ﬂux of changing magnitude and “polarity. What is important to understand is this: when an AC voltage is applied to the primary coil. Additionally. this particular transformer is open for viewing and so serves its illustrative purpose well: (Figure 9. the two inductor coils can be clearly seen. the powered inductor of a transformer is called the primary winding. The wire gauge can also be seen to differ between primary and secondary windings. a transformer is shown cut in half. Rather than energy merely being alternately absorbed and returned the primary coil circuit. The following photograph shows a power transformer of the type used in gasdischarge lighting. wound around an iron core. just enough to magnetize the core to create the necessary voltage for balancing against the source (the exciting current). While many transformers have ferromagnetic core materials.9)
Transformer
Figure 9. it creates a magnetic ﬂux in the core. energy is now being coupled to the secondary coil where it is delivered to a dissipative (energyconsuming) load. separated by lines indicating a ferromagnetic core. Here. In transformers. The reason for this disparity in wire gauge will be made clear in the next section of this chapter. The pair of vertical lines represent an iron core common to both inductors. having a greater number of “turns” around the core. which induces AC voltage in the secondary coil inphase with the source voltage. then back into electrical energy again. this unit also utilizes primary and secondary windings of differing turn counts. The two inductor coils are easily distinguished in the above symbol. in reference to the manufacturing process where wire is wound around the core material. there is also an additional primary coil current lagging the applied voltage by 90o .9: Schematic symbol for transformer consists of two inductor symbols. while the unpowered coil is called the secondary winding. TRANSFORMERS
subject. Any current drawn through the secondary coil to power a load induces a corresponding current in the primary coil. drawing current from the source. The top coil is larger than the bottom coil.” its directly powering the resistor. In the next photograph. While most transformer designs enclose the coils and core in a metal frame for protection.
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
225
Figure 9.10: Example of a gasdischarge lighting transformer. solid piece. The reason for this will also be explained in a later section of this chapter.
Figure 9.11: Transformer crosssection cut shows core and windings. It is easy to demonstrate simple transformer action using SPICE, setting up the primary and secondary windings of the simulated transformer as a pair of “mutual” inductors. (Fig
226
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
ure 9.12) The coefﬁcient of magnetic ﬁeld coupling is given at the end of the “k” line in the SPICE circuit description, this example being set very nearly at perfection (1.000). This coefﬁcient describes how closely “linked” the two inductors are, magnetically. The better these two inductors are magnetically coupled, the more efﬁcient the energy transfer between them should be.
(for SPICE to measure current)
1
Rbogus1
(very small)
2
3
Vi1 0V
4
V1 0
10 V
L1 100 H 0
(very large)
L2 100 H 5
Rload
1 kΩ
5
Rbogus2
Figure 9.12: Spice circuit for coupled inductors. transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** This line tells SPICE that the two inductors ** l1 and l2 are magnetically ‘‘linked’’ together k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end Note: the Rbogus resistors are required to satisfy certain quirks of SPICE. The ﬁrst breaks the otherwise continuous loop between the voltage source and L1 which would not be permitted by SPICE. The second provides a path to ground (node 0) from the secondary circuit, necessary because SPICE cannot function with any ungrounded circuits. Note that with equal inductances for both windings (100 Henrys each), the AC voltages and currents are nearly equal for the two. The difference between primary and secondary currents is the magnetizing current spoken of earlier: the 90o lagging current necessary to magnetize the core. As is seen here, it is usually very small compared to primary current induced by the load, and so the primary and secondary currents are almost equal. What you are seeing here
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.962E+00 i(v1) 9.975E03 i(vi1) 9.962E03
227
Primary winding
Secondary winding
is quite typical of transformer efﬁciency. Anything less than 95% efﬁciency is considered poor for modern power transformer designs, and this transfer of power occurs with no moving parts or other components subject to wear. If we decrease the load resistance so as to draw more current with the same amount of voltage, we see that the current through the primary winding increases in response. Even though the AC power source is not directly connected to the load resistance (rather, it is electromagnetically “coupled”), the amount of current drawn from the source will be almost the same as the amount of current that would be drawn if the load were directly connected to the source. Take a close look at the next two SPICE simulations, showing what happens with different values of load resistors: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 ** Note load resistance value of 200 ohms rload 4 5 200 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.348E+00 i(v1) 4.679E02 i(vi1) 4.674E02
Notice how the primary current closely follows the secondary current. In our ﬁrst simulation, both currents were approximately 10 mA, but now they are both around 47 mA. In this second simulation, the two currents are closer to equality, because the magnetizing current remains the same as before while the load current has increased. Note also how the secondary voltage has decreased some with the heavier (greater current) load. Let’s try another simulation with an even lower value of load resistance (15 Ω): Our load current is now 0.13 amps, or 130 mA, which is substantially higher than the last time. The primary current is very close to being the same, but notice how the secondary
228 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 1.950E+00 i(v1) 1.301E01 i(vi1) 1.300E01
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
voltage has fallen well below the primary voltage (1.95 volts versus 10 volts at the primary). The reason for this is an imperfection in our transformer design: because the primary and secondary inductances aren’t perfectly linked (a k factor of 0.999 instead of 1.000) there is “stray” or “leakage” inductance. In other words, some of the magnetic ﬁeld isn’t linking with the secondary coil, and thus cannot couple energy to it: (Figure 9.13)
wire coil
leakage flux
wire coil
leakage flux core flux
Figure 9.13: Leakage inductance is due to magnetic ﬂux not cutting both windings. Consequently, this “leakage” ﬂux merely stores and returns energy to the source circuit via selfinductance, effectively acting as a series impedance in both primary and secondary circuits. Voltage gets dropped across this series impedance, resulting in a reduced load voltage:
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
voltage across the load “sags” as load current increases. (Figure 9.14)
229
ideal transformer leakage inductance Source leakage inductance Load
Figure 9.14: Equivalent circuit models leakage inductance as series inductors independent of the “ideal transformer”. If we change the transformer design to have better magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary coils, the ﬁgures for voltage between primary and secondary windings will be much closer to equality again: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** Coupling factor = 0.99999 instead of 0.999 k l1 l2 0.99999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.987E+00 i(v1) 6.658E01 i(vi1) 6.658E01
Here we see that our secondary voltage is back to being equal with the primary, and the secondary current is equal to the primary current as well. Unfortunately, building a real transformer with coupling this complete is very difﬁcult. A compromise solution is to design both primary and secondary coils with less inductance, the strategy being that less inductance overall leads to less “leakage” inductance to cause trouble, for any given degree of magnetic coupling inefﬁciency. This results in a load voltage that is closer to ideal with the same (high current heavy) load and the same coupling factor: Simply by using primary and secondary coils of less inductance, the load voltage for this heavy load (high current) has been brought back up to nearly ideal levels (9.977 volts). At this
230 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 ** inductance = 1 henry instead of 100 henrys l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.977E+00 i(v1) 6.664E01 i(vi1) 6.652E01
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
point, one might ask, “If less inductance is all that’s needed to achieve nearideal performance under heavy load, then why worry about coupling efﬁciency at all? If its impossible to build a transformer with perfect coupling, but easy to design coils with low inductance, then why not just build all transformers with lowinductance coils and have excellent efﬁciency even with poor magnetic coupling?” The answer to this question is found in another simulation: the same lowinductance transformer, but this time with a lighter load (less current) of 1 kΩ instead of 15 Ω: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end With lower winding inductances, the primary and secondary voltages are closer to being equal, but the primary and secondary currents are not. In this particular case, the primary current is 28.35 mA while the secondary current is only 9.990 mA: almost three times as much current in the primary as the secondary. Why is this? With less inductance in the primary winding, there is less inductive reactance, and consequently a much larger magnetizing cur
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.990E+00 i(v1) 2.835E02 i(vi1) 9.990E03
231
rent. A substantial amount of the current through the primary winding merely works to magnetize the core rather than transfer useful energy to the secondary winding and load. An ideal transformer with identical primary and secondary windings would manifest equal voltage and current in both sets of windings for any load condition. In a perfect world, transformers would transfer electrical power from primary to secondary as smoothly as though the load were directly connected to the primary power source, with no transformer there at all. However, you can see this ideal goal can only be met if there is perfect coupling of magnetic ﬂux between primary and secondary windings. Being that this is impossible to achieve, transformers must be designed to operate within certain expected ranges of voltages and loads in order to perform as close to ideal as possible. For now, the most important thing to keep in mind is a transformer’s basic operating principle: the transfer of power from the primary to the secondary circuit via electromagnetic coupling. • REVIEW: • Mutual inductance is where the magnetic ﬂux of two or more inductors are “linked” so that voltage is induced in one coil proportional to the rateofchange of current in another. • A transformer is a device made of two or more inductors, one of which is powered by AC, inducing an AC voltage across the second inductor. If the second inductor is connected to a load, power will be electromagnetically coupled from the ﬁrst inductor’s power source to that load. • The powered inductor in a transformer is called the primary winding. The unpowered inductor in a transformer is called the secondary winding. • Magnetic ﬂux in the core (Φ) lags 90o behind the source voltage waveform. The current drawn by the primary coil from the source to produce this ﬂux is called the magnetizing current, and it also lags the supply voltage by 90o . • Total primary current in an unloaded transformer is called the exciting current, and is comprised of magnetizing current plus any additional current necessary to overcome core losses. It is never perfectly sinusoidal in a real transformer, but may be made more so if the transformer is designed and operated so that magnetic ﬂux density is kept to a minimum. • Core ﬂux induces a voltage in any coil wrapped around the core. The induces voltage(s) are ideally in phase with the primary winding source voltage and share the same waveshape. • Any current drawn through the secondary winding by a load will be “reﬂected” to the primary winding and drawn from the voltage source, as if the source were directly powering a similar load.
232
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
9.2
Stepup and stepdown transformers
So far, we’ve observed simulations of transformers where the primary and secondary windings were of identical inductance, giving approximately equal voltage and current levels in both circuits. Equality of voltage and current between the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, however, is not the norm for all transformers. If the inductances of the two windings are not equal, something interesting happens: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.962E01 i(v1) 9.975E05 i(vi1) 9.962E04
Primary winding Secondary winding
Notice how the secondary voltage is approximately ten times less than the primary voltage (0.9962 volts compared to 10 volts), while the secondary current is approximately ten times greater (0.9962 mA compared to 0.09975 mA). What we have here is a device that steps voltage down by a factor of ten and current up by a factor of ten: (Figure 9.15)
Primary winding
Secondary winding
Figure 9.15: Turns ratio of 10:1 yields 10:1 primary:secondary voltage ratio and 1:10 primary:secondary current ratio. This is a very useful device, indeed. With it, we can easily multiply or divide voltage and current in AC circuits. Indeed, the transformer has made longdistance transmission of electric power a practical reality, as AC voltage can be “stepped up” and current “stepped down” for reduced wire resistance power losses along power lines connecting generating stations with
9.2. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS
233
loads. At either end (both the generator and at the loads), voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less expensive equipment. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary (more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a stepup transformer. Conversely, a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a stepdown transformer. Let’s reexamine a photograph shown in the previous section: (Figure 9.16)
Figure 9.16: Transformer crosssection showing primary and secondary windings is a few inches tall (approximately 10 cm). This is a stepdown transformer, as evidenced by the high turn count of the primary winding and the low turn count of the secondary. As a stepdown unit, this transformer converts highvoltage, lowcurrent power into lowvoltage, highcurrent power. The largergauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The primary winding, which doesn’t have to conduct as much current, may be made of smallergauge wire. In case you were wondering, it is possible to operate either of these transformer types backwards (powering the secondary winding with an AC source and letting the primary winding power a load) to perform the opposite function: a stepup can function as a stepdown and visaversa. However, as we saw in the ﬁrst section of this chapter, efﬁcient operation of a transformer requires that the individual winding inductances be engineered for speciﬁc operating ranges of voltage and current, so if a transformer is to be used “backwards” like this it must be employed within the original design parameters of voltage and current for each winding, lest it prove to be inefﬁcient (or lest it be damaged by excessive voltage or current!). Transformers are often constructed in such a way that it is not obvious which wires lead to the primary winding and which lead to the secondary. One convention used in the electric power industry to help alleviate confusion is the use of “H” designations for the highervoltage winding (the primary winding in a stepdown unit; the secondary winding in a stepup) and “X” designations for the lowervoltage winding. Therefore, a simple power transformer will have
234
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
wires labeled “H1 ”, “H2 ”, “X1 ”, and “X2 ”. There is usually signiﬁcance to the numbering of the wires (H1 versus H2 , etc.), which we’ll explore a little later in this chapter. The fact that voltage and current get “stepped” in opposite directions (one up, the other down) makes perfect sense when you recall that power is equal to voltage times current, and realize that transformers cannot produce power, only convert it. Any device that could output more power than it took in would violate the Law of Energy Conservation in physics, namely that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted. As with the ﬁrst transformer example we looked at, power transfer efﬁciency is very good from the primary to the secondary sides of the device. The practical signiﬁcance of this is made more apparent when an alternative is considered: before the advent of efﬁcient transformers, voltage/current level conversion could only be achieved through the use of motor/generator sets. A drawing of a motor/generator set reveals the basic principle involved: (Figure 9.17)
Power in
A motor/generator set
Power out
Shaft coupling Motor Generator
Figure 9.17: Motor generator illustrates the basic principle of the transformer. In such a machine, a motor is mechanically coupled to a generator, the generator designed to produce the desired levels of voltage and current at the rotating speed of the motor. While both motors and generators are fairly efﬁcient devices, the use of both in this fashion compounds their inefﬁciencies so that the overall efﬁciency is in the range of 90% or less. Furthermore, because motor/generator sets obviously require moving parts, mechanical wear and balance are factors inﬂuencing both service life and performance. Transformers, on the other hand, are able to convert levels of AC voltage and current at very high efﬁciencies with no moving parts, making possible the widespread distribution and use of electric power we take for granted. In all fairness it should be noted that motor/generator sets have not necessarily been obsoleted by transformers for all applications. While transformers are clearly superior over motor/generator sets for AC voltage and current level conversion, they cannot convert one frequency of AC power to another, or (by themselves) convert DC to AC or visaversa. Motor/generator sets can do all these things with relative simplicity, albeit with the limitations of efﬁciency and mechanical factors already described. Motor/generator sets also have the unique property of kinetic energy storage: that is, if the motor’s power supply is momentarily interrupted for any reason, its angular momentum (the inertia of that rotating mass) will maintain rotation of the generator for a short duration, thus isolating any loads powered by the genera
9.2. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS
235
tor from “glitches” in the main power system. Looking closely at the numbers in the SPICE analysis, we should see a correspondence between the transformer’s ratio and the two inductances. Notice how the primary inductor (l1) has 100 times more inductance than the secondary inductor (10000 H versus 100 H), and that the measured voltage stepdown ratio was 10 to 1. The winding with more inductance will have higher voltage and less current than the other. Since the two inductors are wound around the same core material in the transformer (for the most efﬁcient magnetic coupling between the two), the parameters affecting inductance for the two coils are equal except for the number of turns in each coil. If we take another look at our inductance formula, we see that inductance is proportional to the square of the number of coil turns:
L=
N2µA l L = Inductance of coil in Henrys N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) µ = Permeability of core material (absolute, not relative) A = Area of coil in square meters l = Average length of coil in meters
Where,
So, it should be apparent that our two inductors in the last SPICE transformer example circuit – with inductance ratios of 100:1 – should have coil turn ratios of 10:1, because 10 squared equals 100. This works out to be the same ratio we found between primary and secondary voltages and currents (10:1), so we can say as a rule that the voltage and current transformation ratio is equal to the ratio of winding turns between primary and secondary.
Stepdown transformer many turns high voltage low current few turns low voltage high current load
Figure 9.18: Stepdown transformer: (many turns :few turns). The stepup/stepdown effect of coil turn ratios in a transformer (Figure 9.18) is analogous to gear tooth ratios in mechanical gear systems, transforming values of speed and torque in much the same way: (Figure 9.19) Stepup and stepdown transformers for power distribution purposes can be gigantic in proportion to the power transformers previously shown, some units standing as tall as a home. The following photograph shows a substation transformer standing about twelve feet tall: (Figure 9.20)
236
CHAPTER 9.
Figure 9. while stepping speed up.
.20: Substation transformer. TRANSFORMERS
LARGE GEAR (many teeth) SMALL GEAR (few teeth)
high torque low speed
low torque high speed
Figure 9.19: Torque reducing gear train steps torque down.
print ac v(3.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .print ac v(2. ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
• REVIEW:
237
• Transformers “step up” or “step down” voltage according to the ratios of primary to secondary wire turns.ac lin 1 60 60 . A transformer designed to reduce voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepdown transformer.5) i(vi1) .3
Electrical isolation
Aside from the ability to easily convert between different levels of voltage and current in AC and DC circuits. which is the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. We can demonstrate an application of this effect with another SPICE simulation: this time showing “ground” connections for the two circuits. transformers also provide an extremely useful feature called isolation.21) v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.9.end
.
Voltage transformation ratio = Lsecondary Lprimary
•
9.0) i(v1) . • The transformation ratio of a transformer will be equal to the square root of its primary to secondary inductance (L) ratio. imposing a high DC voltage between one circuit and ground through the use of an additional voltage source:(Figure 9.3.
Voltage transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary
Current transformation ratio = Where.
•
N = number of turns in winding
• A transformer designed to increase voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepup transformer.
0000 (3) (4) 250. TRANSFORMERS
(for SPICE to measure current)
1
Rbogus
2
3
Vi1 0V
4
V1 0
10 V
L1 10 kH 0 V2
L2 100 H 5 250 V 0
Rload
1 kΩ 5
Figure 9.0000 (5) 250.962E01 9.000E+01 1.
DC voltages referenced to ground (node (1) 0.5) i(vi1) 6.000E+01 9.21: Transformer isolates 10 Vac at V1 from 250 VDC at V2 .0000 (2) 0.962E04
0): 250.238
CHAPTER 9.0000 AC voltages: freq v(2) i(v1) 6.975E05 freq v(3.0000
Primary winding Secondary winding
.000E+01 9.
The impressed voltage in this example is often called a commonmode voltage because it is seen at more than one point in the circuit with reference to the common point of ground.22. • Transformers designed to provide electrical isolation without stepping voltage and current either up or down are called isolation transformers. The transformer isolates the commonmode voltage so that it is not impressed upon the primary circuit at all. but rather isolated to the secondary side. it does not matter that the commonmode voltage is DC.
Figure 9. PHASING
239
SPICE shows the 250 volts DC being impressed upon the secondary circuit elements with respect to ground. we can
. Using our SPICE example from before.21) but as you can see there is no effect on the primary circuit (zero DC voltage) at nodes 1 and 2. For the record. we need to be aware of the phase relationships between the primary and secondary circuits. It could be AC. and the transformer would isolate it from the primary circuit all the same. (Figure 9. and the transformation of AC power from primary to secondary circuits remains the same as before. either. • REVIEW: • By being able to transfer power from one circuit to another without the use of interconnecting conductors between the two circuits. even at a different frequency.9. There are applications where electrical isolation is needed between two AC circuit without any transformation of voltage or current levels. transformers called isolation transformers having 1:1 transformation ratios are used. A benchtop isolation transformer is shown in Figure 9.22: Isolation transformer isolates power out from the power line. transformers provide the useful feature of electrical isolation.4.
9. In these instances.4
Phasing
Since transformers are essentially AC devices.
999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .5m 17m .tran 0.end nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot v(2) v(3. the voltage was stepped down by a factor of ten.23: Secondary voltage V(3.240
CHAPTER 9.23) . and the current was stepped up by a factor of 10. V(2).24) Both
.5). (Figure 9. V(3.
In going from primary. (Figure 9. to secondary.5) is inphase with primary voltage V(2). TRANSFORMERS
plot the waveshapes (Figure 9.23) for the primary and secondary circuits and see the phase relations for ourselves: spice transient analysis file for use with nutmeg: transformer v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.5)
Figure 9. and stepped down by factor of ten.
25: As a practical matter.24: Primary and secondary currents are inphase. It would appear that both voltage and current for the two transformer windings are inphase with each other. If we were to look at an unmarked transformer. PHASING
241
current (Figure 9. After all.
.23) waveforms are inphase in going from primary to secondary.25)
+
+ or
??? +


Figure 9. at least for our resistive load. nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot I(L1#branch) I(L2#branch)
Figure 9. the polarity of a transformer can be ambiguous. a transformer is nothing more than a set of magneticallylinked inductors. and inductors don’t usually come with polarity markings of any kind.4.24) and voltage (Figure 9. This is simple enough. we would have no way of knowing which way to hook it up to a circuit to get inphase (or 180o outofphase) voltage and current: (Figure 9. Secondary current is stepped up by a factor of ten.9. but it would be nice to know which way we should connect a transformer in order to ensure the proper phase relationships be kept.
the transformer will come with some kind of schematic diagram labeling the wire leads for primary and secondary windings. relative to the other winding(s). If you want to reverse the phase relationship yourself. the dot convention only tells you which end of each winding is which.28) • REVIEW:
. secondary black to dot. On the other hand.27: Out of phase: primary red to dot. the phase shift from primary to secondary will be zero degrees. In other words. if the dots on each winding of the transformer do not match up. but when “H” and “X” labels are used to label transformer winding wires. all you have to do is swap the winding connections like this: (Figure 9. Sometimes dots will be omitted. the subscript numbers are supposed to represent winding polarity.242
CHAPTER 9. and is nothing more than a dot placed next to each corresponding leg of a transformer winding: (Figure 9.26)
Figure 9. the phase shift will be 180o between primary and secondary. On the diagram will be a pair of dots similar to what is seen above. The similar placement of these dots next to the top ends of the primary and secondary windings tells us that whatever instantaneous voltage polarity seen across the primary winding will be the same as that across the secondary winding. The “1” wires (H1 and X1 ) represent where the polaritymarking dots would normally be placed. It is called the dot convention. Of course.27)
Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
Since this is a practical concern.26: A pair of dots indicates like polarity. Typically. transformer manufacturers have come up with a sort of polarity marking standard to denote phase relationships. like this: (Figure 9.
5
Winding conﬁgurations
Transformers are very versatile devices. It is entirely possible to assemble a transformer such as the one above (one primary winding. magnetically “coupling” or “linking” them together. Consider this transformer circuit: (Figure 9. In fact. provides multiple output voltages. The basic concept of energy transfer between mutual inductors is useful enough between a single primary and single secondary coil. which were required to supply low voltage for the tubes’ ﬁlaments (typically 6 or 12 volts) and high voltage for the tubes’ plates (several hundred volts) from a nominal primary voltage of 110 volts AC. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
243
Figure 9. Here. Not only are voltages and currents of completely different magnitudes possible with such a transformer. • The phase relationships for voltage and current between primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are direct: ideally.9. • The dot convention is a type of polarity marking for transformer windings showing which end of the winding is which.29: Transformer with multiple secondaries. The relationship of winding turn ratios and voltage ratios seen with a single pair of mutual inductors still holds true here for multiple pairs of coils.
9.29)
load #1
load #2
Figure 9. secondary red to dot. three inductor coils share a common magnetic core.5. this design of transformer was quite common in vacuum tube power supply circuits.28: In phase: primary red to dot. relative to the other windings. two secondary windings) in which one secondary winding is a stepdown and the other is a stepup. but transformers don’t have to be made with just two sets of windings.
. but all circuits are electrically isolated from one another. zero phase shift.
The transformer in Figure 9.
load #1
load #2
Figure 9.30: Photograph of multiplewinding transformer with six windings. a similar effect can be obtained by “tapping” a single secondary winding at multiple points along its length. A tap is nothing more than a wire connection made at some point on a winding between the very ends.30 is intended to provide both high and low voltages necessary in an electronic system using vacuum tubes.”
. like Figure 9. while high voltage is required to create the potential difference between the plate and cathode elements of each tube. the winding turn/voltage magnitude relationship of a normal transformer holds true for all tapped segments of windings.31: A single tapped secondary provides multiple voltages. Not surprisingly. The wires for this transformer (15 of them!) are not shown in the photograph.244
CHAPTER 9.32) Carrying the concept of winding taps further. a primary and ﬁve secondaries.31. One transformer with multiple windings sufﬁces elegantly to provide all the necessary voltage levels from a single 115 V source. If electrical isolation between secondary circuits is not of great importance. Low voltage is required to power the ﬁlaments of vacuum tubes. This fact can be exploited to produce a transformer capable of multiple ratios: (Figure 9. being hidden from view. we end up with a “variable transformer. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9.
much more efﬁcient than control using a variable resistor! Movingslide contacts are too impractical to be used in large industrial power transformer designs. able to connect with it at any point along its length. but multipole switches and winding taps are common for voltage adjustment. Adjustments need to be made periodically in power systems to accommodate changes in loads over months or years in time.33)
Variable transformer
load
Figure 9.5. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
245
multipole switch
load
Figure 9.33: A sliding contact on the secondary continuously varies the secondary voltage. These transformers were essentially stepdown units. and a switch with poles at every tap position: (Figure 9.32: A tapped secondary using a switch to select one of many possible voltages. where a sliding contact is moved along the length of an exposed secondary winding. Typically. especially the train sets of the 1950’s and 1960’s. One consumer application of the variable transformer is in speed controls for model train sets.
. and these switching circuits provide a convenient means. the highest voltage obtainable from the secondary winding being substantially less than the primary voltage of 110 to 120 volts AC. The effect is equivalent to having a winding tap at every turn of the winding. The variablesweep contact provided a simple means of voltage control with little wasted power.9.
A stepdown autotransformer would look something like Figure 9.246
CHAPTER 9. sacriﬁcing isolation. saving copper. The autotransformer depicted above performs a voltage stepup function. Indeed this is possible.
Autotransformer
load
Figure 9.
.35.35: This auto transformer steps voltage down with a single coppersaving tapped winding. but must be actuated only when the transformer has been deenergized (no power). TRANSFORMERS
such “tap switches” are not engineered to handle fullload current. it makes sense that it should be possible to forego electrical isolation altogether and build a transformer from a single winding. and the resulting device is called an autotransformer: (Figure 9.34)
Autotransformer
load
Figure 9. Seeing as how we can tap any transformer winding to obtain the equivalent of several windings (albeit with loss of electrical isolation between them).34: This autotransformer steps voltage up with a single tapped winding.
9. The latter conﬁguration is popular enough to have earned itself its own name: the Variac.37: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to buck the line voltage down. In Figure 9. The alternative with a normal (isolated) transformer would be to either have just the right primary/secondary winding ratio made for the job or use a stepdown conﬁguration with the secondary winding connected in seriesaiding (“boosting”) or seriesopposing (“bucking”) fashion. Additionally. being able to step household AC voltage down (or sometimes up as well) with a wide. autotransformer windings can be tapped to provide variations in ratio.36: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to boost the line voltage. they can be made continuously variable with a sliding contact to tap the winding at any point along its length. First. secondary. The prime advantage of an autotransformer is that the same boosting or bucking function is obtained with only a single winding. the “boosting” conﬁguration. Like regular transformers.
. Primary.38) Small variacs for benchtop use are popular pieces of equipment for the electronics experimenter. (Figure 9. and load voltages are given to illustrate how this would work.
"boosting"
120 V
30 V
150 V
Figure 9. making it cheaper and lighter to manufacture than a regular (isolating) transformer having both primary and secondary windings. ﬁne range of control by a simple twist of a knob.37 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly subtracts from the primary voltage:
"bucking"
120 V
30 V
90 V
Figure 9.36 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly adds to the primary voltage. the “bucking” conﬁguration.5. In Figure 9. Next. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
247
Autotransformers ﬁnd popular use in applications requiring a slight boost or reduction in voltage to a load.
even with a constant voltage input. of course. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.38: A variac is an autotransformer with a sliding tap.Efullload Efullload
(100%)
. TRANSFORMERS
The "Variac" variable autotransformer
load
Figure 9.6
Voltage regulation
As we saw in a few SPICE analyses earlier in this chapter. except without providing electrical isolation. • Transformer windings can also be “tapped:” that is. among other factors. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer’s voltage regulation. intersected at many points to segment a single winding into sections. This allows for multiple stepup and/or stepdown ratios in the same device. It can be calculated from the following formula:
Regulation percentage =
Enoload .
9. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. making contact with the winding at any point along its length. tapped inductor coil used to step up or step down voltage like a transformer. the output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. The winding. • A Variac is a variable autotransformer. • An autotransformer is a single. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. • REVIEW: • Transformers can be equipped with more than just a single primary and single secondary winding pair.248
CHAPTER 9. has to be bare (no insulation) in the area where the arm sweeps. For power transformer applications. • Variable transformers can be made by providing a movable arm that sweeps across the length of a winding. where the transformer is seen by the load (ideally) as a constant source of voltage.
348 volts at the point we decided to call “full load.962E+00 v(3.674E02
Output with 1k ohm load Output with 200 ohm load
Notice how the output voltage decreases as the load gets heavier (more current). This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size (ampacity) and the method of transformer cooling. this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power transformer. let’s compare the output voltage with a 1 kΩ load versus a 200 Ω load (assuming that the 200 Ω load will be our “full load” condition).9.000E+01 freq 6.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 9e12 .9.962E03 i(vi1) 4.print ac v(2. VOLTAGE REGULATION
249
“Fullload” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible secondary current. Taking our ﬁrst SPICE transformer simulation as an example.990 V .000E+01
v(2) 1.5) 9.000E+01 freq 6.5) 9.end
freq 6.348E+00 i(vi1) 9. we get:
Regulation percentage =
9.00 volts AC: freq 6. Recall if you will that our constant primary voltage was 10. a good power transformer should exhibit
.0) i(v1) .990 volts at (virtually) no load and 9.000E+01 v(3.” Calculating voltage regulation with these ﬁgures.5) i(vi1) . Now let’s take that same transformer circuit and place a load resistance of extremely high magnitude across the secondary winding to simulate a “noload” condition: (See ”transformer” spice list”) transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.653E04 i(vi1) 1.348 V 9. Powering a simple resistive load like this.5) 9.8678 %
Incidentally.6.print ac v(3.110E12
Output with (almost) no load
So.ac lin 1 60 60 .348 V
(100%)
Regulation percentage = 6.990E+00
i(v1) 2. we see that our output (secondary) voltage spans a range of 9.000E+01 v(3.
harmonic ﬁltering between the power source and the load. ferroresonant transformers have an auxiliary secondary winding paralleled with one or more capacitors. the ferroresonant transformer is a power transformer engineered to operate in a condition of persistent core saturation. There are some applications. cranked in or out of the winding assembly by the operator. This “tank circuit” serves as a ﬁlter to reject harmonics created by the core saturation. this resonant circuit also “ﬁlters out” harmonic frequencies generated by nonlinear (switching) loads in the secondary winding circuit and any harmonics present in the source voltage. highcurrent power for the welding process. Some arc welder designs provide arc current adjustment by means of a movable iron core in the transformer. Thus. One such case is in discharge lighting. which are nothing more than stepdown transformers supplying lowvoltage. where a stepup transformer is required to initially generate a high voltage (necessary to “ignite” the lamps). but certainly better than nothing). To combat this side effect. forming a resonant circuit tuned to the power supply frequency. however. Moving the iron slug away from the windings reduces the strength of magnetic coupling between the windings. (Figure 9. and the ferroresonant transformer is no exception.39) In addition to blocking harmonics created by the saturated core. then the voltage is expected to drop off once the lamp begins to draw current. a decrease of secondary voltage under high load current would be a good thing. Another application is in current control for AC arc welders. TRANSFORMERS
a regulation percentage of less than 3%. and the ability to “ride through” brief losses in power by keeping a reserve of energy in its resonant tank circuit. “Ferroresonance” is a phenomenon associated with the behavior of iron cores while operating near a point of magnetic saturation (where the core is so strongly magnetized that further increases in winding current results in little or no increase in magnetic ﬂux). where poor regulation is actually desired. which diminishes noload secondary voltage and makes for poorer voltage regulation. an arc doesn’t require as much voltage to sustain itself once the air has been heated to the point of ionization. Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage regulation. That is. No exposition on transformer regulation could be called complete without mention of an unusual device called a ferroresonant transformer. which means the secondary winding outputs a nearly constant voltage despite signiﬁcant variations in supply (primary winding) voltage. so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “bestcase” condition. These transformers are also highly tolerant
. Normally. core saturation in a transformer results in distortion of the sinewave shape. This is because discharge lamps’ voltage requirements tend to be much lower after a current has been established through the arc path. which is available for sustaining output winding voltage for brief periods of input voltage loss (milliseconds’ worth of time. While being somewhat difﬁcult to describe without going deep into electromagnetic theory. its iron core is “stuffed full” of magnetic lines of ﬂux for a large portion of the AC cycle so that variations in supply voltage (primary winding current) have little effect on the core’s magnetic ﬂux density. In this case. providing “clean” power to the load. Ferroresonant transformers offer several features useful in AC power conditioning: constant output voltage given substantial variations in input voltage.250
CHAPTER 9. A high voltage is desired to assist in “striking” the arc (getting it started). a stepup transformer with poor voltage regulation sufﬁces nicely for the task of conditioning power to the lamp. and provides the added beneﬁt of storing energy in the form of AC oscillations. but like the discharge lamp.
In the case of a resistive heating element. which means they don’t work very well when powered by small enginedriven generators having poor speed regulation.7. and because power is transferred equivalently between primary and secondary windings. Some applications. of excessive loading and transient (momentary) voltage surges. these devices have equally noteworthy disadvantages: they waste a lot of energy (due to hysteresis losses in the saturated core).7. they can be used to “convert” the impedance of a load to a different level. • A ferroresonant transformer is a special transformer designed to regulate voltage at a stable level despite wide variation in input voltage. The purpose of a load (usually) is to do something productive with the power it dissipates.39: Ferroresonant transformer provides voltage regulation of the output. Semiconductor circuits exist to “condition” AC power as an alternative to ferroresonant devices. Voltages produced in the resonant winding/capacitor circuit tend to be very high. the more stable the secondary voltage and the better the regulation it will provide. generating signiﬁcant heat in the process.7
9. may prioritize the ferroresonant transformer’s advantages over its disadvantages. necessitating expensive capacitors and presenting the service technician with very dangerous working voltages. • REVIEW: • Voltage regulation is the measure of how well a power transformer can maintain constant secondary voltage given a constant primary voltage and wide variance in load current.1
Special transformers and applications
Impedance matching
Because transformers can step voltage and current to different levels. though. but none can compete with this transformer in terms of sheer simplicity.9. that some may be brieﬂy paralleled with unsynchronized AC power sources. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
251
AC power output AC power input
Resonant LC circuit
Figure 9. and are intolerant of frequency variations. They are so tolerant. The lower the percentage (closer to zero). allowing a load to be switched from one source of power to another in a “makebeforebreak” fashion with no interruption of power on the secondary side! Unfortunately. the practical purpose for the power dissipated is to
. That last phrase deserves some explanation. so let’s investigate what it means.
9. in fact.
5 Ω Pload = 1000 W I=8A 125 V Rload 15.41. Loads are engineered to safely dissipate a certain maximum amount of power.41: Stepup transformer operates 1000 watt 250 V heater from 125 V power source The ratio of the transformer’s windings provides the voltage stepup and current stepdown we need for the otherwise mismatched load to operate properly on this system. The transformation ratio of impedance is the square of the voltage/current transformation ratio. TRANSFORMERS
heat something up. the same as the winding inductance ratio:
. at different voltage and current ratings. or 125 volts and 8 amps).625 Ω Pload = 1000 W
Figure 9. All hope is not lost.40: Heating elements dissipate 1000 watts.5 Ω load! The voltage and current ﬁgures for the primary winding are indicative of 15. With 62.5 Ω of the load itself. In other words. not the actual 62. Using Ohm’s Law to determine the necessary resistance of these heating elements (R=E/I).5 Ω
1000 watts dissipation at the load resistor !
Figure 9. although in this case that’s all they’re composed of (no reactance). respectively. Both heaters dissipate exactly 1000 watts of power.5 Ω of impedance (resistance). we would end up being disappointed. The 250 volt heater would be said to be a higher impedance load than the 125 volt heater. not only has our stepup transformer transformed voltage and current.5 Ω and 15. Consider these two 1000 watt resistive heating elements: (Figure 9. but they do so at different voltage and current levels (either 250 volts and 4 amps. but two loads of equal power rating are not necessarily identical. though. If we desired to operate the 250 volt heater element directly on a 125 volt power system. the current would only be 2 amps (I=E/R.
I=8A 125 V
I=4A 250 V Rload 62. or onequarter of its rated power. With a stepup transformer.625 Ω (R=E/I) load at 125 volts.625 Ω load impedance.625 Ω. we might refer to their opposition to current in terms of impedance rather than plain resistance. As far as the power supply “knows. we could operate the 250 volt heater element on the 125 volt power system like Figure 9.5). Take a close look at the primary circuit ﬁgures: 125 volts at 8 amps. not a 62. 125 x 2). we arrive at ﬁgures of 62.252
CHAPTER 9. 125/62. The impedance of the heater and the voltage of our source would be mismatched.40)
I=4A 250 V Rload 62.” its powering a 15. and the power dissipation would only be 250 watts (P=IE. If these are AC loads. but it has transformed impedance as well. and we couldn’t obtain the full rated power dissipation from the heater.
high current) load. the ampliﬁer can only deliver full power to a load (speaker) also having 500 Ω of impedance.625 Ω (a 4:1 ratio.7.9.5:1. Since we’re going from a high impedance (high voltage. or 7. drawing power at the correct voltage and current levels to satisfy the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem and make for the
. which is 2:1 squared). Substitute the word “impedance” for “resistance” in that deﬁnition and you have the AC version of that Theorem.5 Ω to 15. we would need a winding ratio equal to the square root of 500:8 (the square root of 62. for it allows a load to dissipate its full rated power even if the power system is not at the proper voltage to directly do so. This is generally more of a concern in specialized electric circuits such as radio transmitter/antenna and audio ampliﬁer/speaker systems.43) To obtain an impedance transformation ratio of 500:8. the speaker will load the ampliﬁer to just the right degree. With such a transformer in place. Impedance transformation is a highly useful ability of transformers. Additionally. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
253
Voltage transformation ratio =
Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary
2
Current transformation ratio =
Impedance transformation ratio =
Nsecondary Nprimary
2
Inductance ratio = Where. To make this system work better. Such a load would drop higher voltage and draw less current than an 8 Ω speaker dissipating the same amount of power. Recall from our study of network analysis the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.42) With an internal impedance of 500 Ω. we can use a transformer to match these mismatched impedances. which states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network supplying the power.906:1). If we’re trying to obtain theoretical maximum power dissipation from a load.
Nsecondary Nprimary
N = number of turns in winding
This concurs with our example of the 2:1 stepup transformer and the impedance ratio of 62. the ampliﬁer would tend to dissipate more than its fair share of power in the form of heat trying to drive the low impedance speaker. If an 8 Ω speaker were connected directly to the 500 Ω ampliﬁer as shown. Let’s take an audio ampliﬁer system and see how it works: (Figure 9. the impedance mismatch would result in very poor (low peak power) performance. we’ll need to use a stepdown transformer: (Figure 9. we must be able to properly match the load impedance and source (Thevenin/Norton) impedance together. low current) supply to a low impedance (low voltage.
.254
CHAPTER 9.43: Impedance matching transformer matches 500 Ω ampliﬁer to 8 Ω speaker for maximum efﬁciency. .
Speaker Z=8Ω
ZThevenin EThevenin 500 Ω Speaker Z=8Ω
Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω .
. . .906 : 1
Figure 9. equivalent to .42: Ampliﬁer with impedance of 500 Ω drives 8 Ω at much less than maximum power.
impedance "matching" transformer Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω impedance ratio = 500 : 8 Speaker Z=8Ω winding ratio = 7.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
255
most efﬁcient power delivery to the load. The use of a transformer in this capacity is called impedance matching. Anyone who has ridden a multispeed bicycle can intuitively understand the principle of impedance matching. A human’s legs will produce maximum power when spinning the bicycle crank at a particular speed (about 60 to 90 revolution per minute). Above or below that rotational speed, human leg muscles are less efﬁcient at generating power. The purpose of the bicycle’s “gears” is to impedancematch the rider’s legs to the riding conditions so that they always spin the crank at the optimum speed. If the rider attempts to start moving while the bicycle is shifted into its “top” gear, he or she will ﬁnd it very difﬁcult to get moving. Is it because the rider is weak? No, its because the high stepup ratio of the bicycle’s chain and sprockets in that top gear presents a mismatch between the conditions (lots of inertia to overcome) and their legs (needing to spin at 6090 RPM for maximum power output). On the other hand, selecting a gear that is too low will enable the rider to get moving immediately, but limit the top speed they will be able to attain. Again, is the lack of speed an indication of weakness in the bicyclist’s legs? No, its because the lower speed ratio of the selected gear creates another type of mismatch between the conditions (low load) and the rider’s legs (losing power if spinning faster than 90 RPM). It is much the same with electric power sources and loads: there must be an impedance match for maximum system efﬁciency. In AC circuits, transformers perform the same matching function as the sprockets and chain (“gears”) on a bicycle to match otherwise mismatched sources and loads. Impedance matching transformers are not fundamentally different from any other type of transformer in construction or appearance. A small impedancematching transformer (about two centimeters in width) for audiofrequency applications is shown in the following photograph: (Figure 9.44)
Figure 9.44: Audio frequency impedance matching transformer. Another impedancematching transformer can be seen on this printed circuit board, in the upper right corner, to the immediate left of resistors R2 and R1 . It is labeled “T1”: (Figure 9.45)
256
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9.45: Printed circuit board mounted audio impedance matching transformer, top right.
9.7.2
Potential transformers
Transformers can also be used in electrical instrumentation systems. Due to transformers’ ability to step up or step down voltage and current, and the electrical isolation they provide, they can serve as a way of connecting electrical instrumentation to highvoltage, high current power systems. Suppose we wanted to accurately measure the voltage of a 13.8 kV power system (a very common power distribution voltage in American industry): (Figure 9.46)
highvoltage power source
13.8 kV
load
Figure 9.46: Direct measurement of high voltage by a voltmeter is a potential safety hazard. Designing, installing, and maintaining a voltmeter capable of directly measuring 13,800 volts AC would be no easy task. The safety hazard alone of bringing 13.8 kV conductors into an instrument panel would be severe, not to mention the design of the voltmeter itself. However, by using a precision stepdown transformer, we can reduce the 13.8 kV down to a safe level of voltage at a constant ratio, and isolate it from the instrument connections, adding an additional level of safety to the metering system: (Figure 9.47)
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
257
highvoltage power source
13.8 kV
load
fuse
fuse precision stepdown ratio
PT grounded for safety
V 0120 VAC voltmeter range
Figure 9.47: Instrumentation application:“Potential transformer” precisely scales dangerous high voltage to a safe value applicable to a conventional voltmeter. Now the voltmeter reads a precise fraction, or ratio, of the actual system voltage, its scale set to read as though it were measuring the voltage directly. The transformer keeps the instrument voltage at a safe level and electrically isolates it from the power system, so there is no direct connection between the power lines and the instrument or instrument wiring. When used in this capacity, the transformer is called a Potential Transformer, or simply PT. Potential transformers are designed to provide as accurate a voltage stepdown ratio as possible. To aid in precise voltage regulation, loading is kept to a minimum: the voltmeter is made to have high input impedance so as to draw as little current from the PT as possible. As you can see, a fuse has been connected in series with the PTs primary winding, for safety and ease of disconnecting the PT from the circuit. A standard secondary voltage for a PT is 120 volts AC, for fullrated power line voltage. The standard voltmeter range to accompany a PT is 150 volts, fullscale. PTs with custom winding ratios can be manufactured to suit any application. This lends itself well to industry standardization of the actual voltmeter instruments themselves, since the PT will be sized to step the system voltage down to this standard instrument level.
9.7.3
Current transformers
Following the same line of thinking, we can use a transformer to step down current through a power line so that we are able to safely and easily measure high system currents with inexpensive ammeters. Of course, such a transformer would be connected in series with the power line, like (Figure 9.48). Note that while the PT is a stepdown device, the Current Transformer (or CT) is a stepup device (with respect to voltage), which is what is needed to step down the power line current. Quite often, CTs are built as donutshaped devices through which the power line conductor is run, the power line itself acting as a singleturn primary winding: (Figure 9.49) Some CTs are made to hinge open, allowing insertion around a power conductor without
258
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
grounded for 05 A ammeter range safety A Instrument application: the "Current Transformer" CT
13.8 kV
load
fuse
fuse precision stepdown ratio
PT grounded for safety
V 0120 VAC voltmeter range
Figure 9.48: Instrumentation application: “Currrent transformer” steps high current down to a value applicable to a conventional ammeter.
Figure 9.49: Current conductor to be measured is threaded through the opening. Scaled down current is available on wire leads.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
259
disturbing the conductor at all. The industry standard secondary current for a CT is a range of 0 to 5 amps AC. Like PTs, CTs can be made with custom winding ratios to ﬁt almost any application. Because their “full load” secondary current is 5 amps, CT ratios are usually described in terms of fullload primary amps to 5 amps, like this:
600 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 600 A line current) 100 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 100 A line current) 1k : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 1000 A line current)
The “donut” CT shown in the photograph has a ratio of 50:5. That is, when the conductor through the center of the torus is carrying 50 amps of current (AC), there will be 5 amps of current induced in the CT’s winding. Because CTs are designed to be powering ammeters, which are lowimpedance loads, and they are wound as voltage stepup transformers, they should never, ever be operated with an opencircuited secondary winding. Failure to heed this warning will result in the CT producing extremely high secondary voltages, dangerous to equipment and personnel alike. To facilitate maintenance of ammeter instrumentation, shortcircuiting switches are often installed in parallel with the CT’s secondary winding, to be closed whenever the ammeter is removed for service: (Figure 9.50)
power conductor CT ground connection (for safety)
current
close switch BEFORE disconnecting ammeter!
05 A meter movement range
Figure 9.50: Shortcircuit switch allows ammeter to be removed from an active current transformer circuit. Though it may seem strange to intentionally shortcircuit a power system component, it is perfectly proper and quite necessary when working with current transformers.
9.7.4
Air core transformers
Another kind of special transformer, seen often in radiofrequency circuits, is the air core transformer. (Figure 9.51) True to its name, an air core transformer has its windings wrapped around a nonmagnetic form, usually a hollow tube of some material. The degree of coupling (mutual inductance) between windings in such a transformer is many times less than that
260
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
of an equivalent ironcore transformer, but the undesirable characteristics of a ferromagnetic core (eddy current losses, hysteresis, saturation, etc.) are completely eliminated. It is in highfrequency applications that these effects of iron cores are most problematic.
(a)
(b)
Figure 9.51: Air core transformers may be wound on cylindrical (a) or toroidal (b) forms. Center tapped primary with secondary (a). Biﬁlar winding on toroidal form (b). The inside tapped solenoid winding, (Figure (a) 9.51), without the over winding, could match unequal impedances when DC isolation is not required. When isolation is required the over winding is added over one end of the main winding. Air core transformers are used at radio frequencies when iron core losses are too high. Frequently air core transformers are paralleled with a capacitor to tune it to resonance. The over winding is connected between a radio antenna and ground for one such application. The secondary is tuned to resonance with a variable capacitor. The output may be taken from the tap point for ampliﬁcation or detection. Small millimeter size air core transformers are used in radio receivers. The largest radio transmitters may use meter sized coils. Unshielded air core solenoid transformers are mounted at right angles to each other to prevent stray coupling. Stray coupling is minimized when the transformer is wound on a toroid form. (Figure (b) 9.51) Toroidal air core transformers also show a higher degree of coupling, particularly for biﬁlar windings. Biﬁlar windings are wound from a slightly twisted pair of wires. This implies a 1:1 turns ratio. Three or four wires may be grouped for 1:2 and other integral ratios. Windings do not have to be biﬁlar. This allows arbitrary turns ratios. However, the degree of coupling suffers. Toroidal air core transformers are rare except for VHF (Very High Frequency) work. Core materials other than air such as powdered iron or ferrite are preferred for lower radio frequencies.
9.7.5
Tesla Coil
One notable example of an aircore transformer is the Tesla Coil, named after the Serbian electrical genius Nikola Tesla, who was also the inventor of the rotating magnetic ﬁeld AC motor, polyphase AC power systems, and many elements of radio technology. The Tesla Coil is a resonant, highfrequency stepup transformer used to produce extremely high voltages. One of Tesla’s dreams was to employ his coil technology to distribute electric power without the need for wires, simply broadcasting it in the form of radio waves which could be received and conducted to loads by means of antennas. The basic schematic for a Tesla Coil is shown in Figure 9.52.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
261
discharge terminal "Tesla Coil"
Figure 9.52: Tesla Coil: A few heavy primary turns, many secondary turns. The capacitor, in conjunction with the transformer’s primary winding, forms a tank circuit. The secondary winding is wound in close proximity to the primary, usually around the same nonmagnetic form. Several options exist for “exciting” the primary circuit, the simplest being a highvoltage, lowfrequency AC source and spark gap: (Figure 9.53)
HIGH voltage! HIGH frequency! RFC
high voltage low frequency RFC
spark gap
Figure 9.53: System level diagram of Tesla coil with spark gap drive. The purpose of the highvoltage, lowfrequency AC power source is to “charge” the primary tank circuit. When the spark gap ﬁres, its low impedance acts to complete the capacitor/primary coil tank circuit, allowing it to oscillate at its resonant frequency. The “RFC” inductors are “Radio Frequency Chokes,” which act as high impedances to prevent the AC source from interfering with the oscillating tank circuit. The secondary side of the Tesla coil transformer is also a tank circuit, relying on the parasitic (stray) capacitance existing between the discharge terminal and earth ground to complement the secondary winding’s inductance. For optimum operation, this secondary tank circuit is tuned to the same resonant frequency as the primary circuit, with energy exchanged not only between capacitors and inductors during resonant oscillation, but also backandforth between
262
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
primary and secondary windings. The visual results are spectacular: (Figure 9.54)
Figure 9.54: High voltage high frequency discharge from Tesla coil. Tesla Coils ﬁnd application primarily as novelty devices, showing up in high school science fairs, basement workshops, and the occasional low budget scienceﬁction movie. It should be noted that Tesla coils can be extremely dangerous devices. Burns caused by radiofrequency (“RF”) current, like all electrical burns, can be very deep, unlike skin burns caused by contact with hot objects or ﬂames. Although the highfrequency discharge of a Tesla coil has the curious property of being beyond the “shock perception” frequency of the human nervous system, this does not mean Tesla coils cannot hurt or even kill you! I strongly advise seeking the assistance of an experienced Tesla coil experimenter if you would embark on building one yourself.
9.7.6
Saturable reactors
So far, we’ve explored the transformer as a device for converting different levels of voltage, current, and even impedance from one circuit to another. Now we’ll take a look at it as a completely different kind of device: one that allows a small electrical signal to exert control over a much larger quantity of electrical power. In this mode, a transformer acts as an ampliﬁer.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
263
The device I’m referring to is called a saturablecore reactor, or simply saturable reactor. Actually, it is not really a transformer at all, but rather a special kind of inductor whose inductance can be varied by the application of a DC current through a second winding wound around the same iron core. Like the ferroresonant transformer, the saturable reactor relies on the principle of magnetic saturation. When a material such as iron is completely saturated (that is, all its magnetic domains are lined up with the applied magnetizing force), additional increases in current through the magnetizing winding will not result in further increases of magnetic ﬂux. Now, inductance is the measure of how well an inductor opposes changes in current by developing a voltage in an opposing direction. The ability of an inductor to generate this opposing voltage is directly connected with the change in magnetic ﬂux inside the inductor resulting from the change in current, and the number of winding turns in the inductor. If an inductor has a saturated core, no further magnetic ﬂux will result from further increases in current, and so there will be no voltage induced in opposition to the change in current. In other words, an inductor loses its inductance (ability to oppose changes in current) when its core becomes magnetically saturated. If an inductor’s inductance changes, then its reactance (and impedance) to AC current changes as well. In a circuit with a constant voltage source, this will result in a change in current: (Figure 9.55)
L load I
Figure 9.55: If L changes in inductance, ZL will correspondingly change, thus changing the circuit current. A saturable reactor capitalizes on this effect by forcing the core into a state of saturation with a strong magnetic ﬁeld generated by current through another winding. The reactor’s “power” winding is the one carrying the AC load current, and the “control” winding is one carrying a DC current strong enough to drive the core into saturation: (Figure 9.56) The strangelooking transformer symbol shown in the above schematic represents a saturablecore reactor, the upper winding being the DC control winding and the lower being the “power” winding through which the controlled AC current goes. Increased DC control current produces more magnetic ﬂux in the reactor core, driving it closer to a condition of saturation, thus decreasing the power winding’s inductance, decreasing its impedance, and increasing current to the load. Thus, the DC control current is able to exert control over the AC current delivered to the load. The circuit shown would work, but it would not work very well. The ﬁrst problem is the natural transformer action of the saturable reactor: AC current through the power winding will induce a voltage in the control winding, which may cause trouble for the DC power source.
264
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
saturable reactor
load I
Figure 9.56: DC, via the control winding, saturates the core. Thus, modulating the power winding inductance, impedance, and current. Also, saturable reactors tend to regulate AC power only in one direction: in one half of the AC cycle, the mmf ’s from both windings add; in the other half, they subtract. Thus, the core will have more ﬂux in it during one half of the AC cycle than the other, and will saturate ﬁrst in that cycle half, passing load current more easily in one direction than the other. Fortunately, both problems can be overcome with a little ingenuity: (Figure 9.57)
load I
Figure 9.57: Out of phase DC control windings allow symmetrical of control AC. Notice the placement of the phasing dots on the two reactors: the power windings are “in phase” while the control windings are “out of phase.” If both reactors are identical, any voltage induced in the control windings by load current through the power windings will cancel out to zero at the battery terminals, thus eliminating the ﬁrst problem mentioned. Furthermore, since the DC control current through both reactors produces magnetic ﬂuxes in different directions through the reactor cores, one reactor will saturate more in one cycle of the AC
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
265
power while the other reactor will saturate more in the other, thus equalizing the control action through each halfcycle so that the AC power is “throttled” symmetrically. This phasing of control windings can be accomplished with two separate reactors as shown, or in a single reactor design with intelligent layout of the windings and core. Saturable reactor technology has even been miniaturized to the circuitboard level in compact packages more generally known as magnetic ampliﬁers. I personally ﬁnd this to be fascinating: the effect of ampliﬁcation (one electrical signal controlling another), normally requiring the use of physically fragile vacuum tubes or electrically “fragile” semiconductor devices, can be realized in a device both physically and electrically rugged. Magnetic ampliﬁers do have disadvantages over their more fragile counterparts, namely size, weight, nonlinearity, and bandwidth (frequency response), but their utter simplicity still commands a certain degree of appreciation, if not practical application. Saturablecore reactors are less commonly known as “saturablecore inductors” or transductors.
9.7.7
ScottT transformer
Nikola Tesla’s original polyphase power system was based on simple to build 2phase components. However, as transmission distances increased, the more transmission line efﬁcient 3phase system became more prominent. Both 2φ and 3φ components coexisted for a number of years. The ScottT transformer connection allowed 2φ and 3φ components like motors and alternators to be interconnected. Yamamoto and Yamaguchi: In 1896, General Electric built a 35.5 km (22 mi) threephase transmission line operated at 11 kV to transmit power to Buffalo, New York, from the Niagara Falls Project. The twophase generated power was changed to threephase by the use of ScottT transformations. [1]
3phase23 = V∠0° 3phase31 = V∠120° 3phase12 = V∠240°
Y1 86.6% tap
R3 2phase2 = V∠90°
R4 50% tap Y2 R2 T1 T2 Y3 2phase1 = V∠0° R1
Figure 9.58: ScottT transformer converts 2φ to 3φ, or vice versa.
5 0o . and 1 240o = 0.866 90o . to keep track of the Kirchhoff voltage loop polarities. The three output phases are 1 120o and 1 240o from (c). V23 .VBA = 0 (1) KVL: V12 = VAC (2) KVL: V31 = VCB +VBD (3) KVL: V23 = VDB .5 0o + 0.5V∠0° = 0. Application of 2φ Niagara generator power produced a 3φ output for the more efﬁcient 3φ transmission line.866V(0+j1) VCB = VBA = 0. In Figure 9.866)=V∠120° V23 =(0.866 90o . V23 . We show “DC” polarities all over this AC only circuit.58.866V2P2 = 0.60 we graphically show the 2φ vectors at (a).866 respectively.866(0+j1))=V(0.866V∠90°=V(0. Subtracting 86. along with input 1 0o (a). At (b) the vectors are scaled by transformers T1 and T2 to 0. Subtracting 0o is equivalent to adding 180o .59: ScottT transformer 2φ to 3φ conversion equations.
D V23
+ −
T2 Y3 +
R3 + V31 + − + V2P2 −
Given two 90° phased voltages: V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) V2P2 =Vsin(θ+90°)=Vcos(θ)=V∠90°=V(0+j1) Derive the three phase voltages V12 .5+j0. subtracted at V23 in the KVL equations.866V∠90°=V(0. the other end is connected to the T1 secondary center tap.6% tapped transformer T2 on the 3φ side of the circuit.866)=V∠−120°=V∠240°
Figure 9.5)V∠0°+0. This 0o is vectorially subtracted from T2 secondary voltage due to the KVL equations V31 .5V2P 1 on the secondary ends. This 0.866V∠90° = 0. TRANSFORMERS
The ScottT transformer set. Figure 9. The bottom line is when we add 86.866V2P 2 due to the 86.5(1+j0)0.VBA
86. Keep in mind that this 2nd phase of the 2φ is 90o . More common these days is the application of 3φ power to produce a 2φ output for driving an old 2φ motor.5V2P1 = 0.6% tap. One end of the T2 86.59.6% of 90o from 50% of 180o yields 120o or 240o .6% secondary winding is a 3φ output. In Figure 9.6% of 90o to 50% of 180o we get 120o .866V2P 2 is added at V31 .0. First. Both ends of the T1 secondary are the other two 3φ connections.5V(1+j0)
V12 = V2P1 = V∠0° V31 = (0. At (c) 1 120o = 0.50% +B 
. one of the 3φ voltages is identical to a 2φ voltage due to the 1:1 transformer T1 ratio. The T2 secondary voltage is 0.
. consists of a center tapped transformer T1 and an 86.866(0+j1))=V(0.5+j0. The T1 center tapped secondary produces opposite polarities of 0.5 and 0.R4 + + Y1 R1
A
Y2 R2
T1 + − + − V12
V2P1 C
VDB = 0. The primaries of both transformers are connected to the 2φ voltages. we use vectors in both polar and complex notation to prove that the ScottT converts a pair of 2φ voltages to 3φ. V31 : V12=V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) (1) KVL: V12 +VAC = 0 (2) KVL: V31 VCB +VBD = 0 (3) KVL: V23 = VDB .266
CHAPTER 9.5(1+j0)+0.6% . VP 12 = V2P 1 .5)V∠0°0.
SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
0. With a centered slug. the top winding. It is extended outside the body by an nonmagnetic rod. the top winding.
up V1 V1 V2 V13 V3 V3 center down
Figure 9. Moving the slug from top to bottom shows a minimum at the center point.5∠0° 1∠240° 1∠120°
267
a
0.60: Graphical explanation of equations in Figure 9. the voltage on this coil increases as the voltage decreases across the top coil.7.8
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) has an AC driven primary wound between two secondaries on a cylindrical air core form.866V∠90°
b
c
1∠0°.7.59. If the core is moved toward the bottom winding. (Figure 9. it is 180o out of phase with with V1 .1∠240°
Figure 9.9. the seriesopposing wired secondaries cancel yielding V13 = 0. the voltage across this coil increases due to increased coupling.5 to 10 VAC at a frequency of 1 to 200 Khz. bottom winding. a centered slug yields equal voltages across both coils. Moving the slug down from the center position increases V13 . The excitation voltage is in the range of 0. and inphase with V3 . bottom winding. while the voltage on the bottom coil decreases. Units are available for measuring displacement over a distance of a fraction of a millimeter to a half a meter.
. 1∠90° yields 1∠−120° . However. and 180o out of phase with V3 . In practice leakage inductance prevents the null from dropping all the way to 0 V. Note that it is inphase with with V1 . Theoretically.5∠0° 0. A ferrite core is suitable at these frequencies. LVDT’s are rugged and dirt resistant compared to linear optical encoders.
9. with a 180o phase reversal in passing the center. Moving the slug up increases V13 . The LVDT is a displacement or distance measuring transducer.61: LVDT: linear variable differential transformer.866V∠90° 1∠90° 1∠0° 0. As the core is moved toward the top winding.61) A movable ferromagnetic slug converts displacement to a variable voltage by changing the coupling between the driven primary and secondary windings.
no hysteresis or eddy current losses. It has a movable ferromagnetic core to vary the coupling between the excited primary and a pair of secondaries. aircore. Additionally. and wire thick enough to handle any amount of current. transformers must be designed to carry the expected values of primary and secondary winding current without any trouble. TRANSFORMERS
• Transformers can be used to transform impedance as well as voltage and current. For example. • A Current Transformer (CT) is another special instrument transformer designed to step down the current through a power line to a safe level for an ammeter to measure. • A Potential Transformer (PT) is a special instrument transformer designed to provide a precise voltage stepdown ratio for voltmeters measuring high power system voltages. take a stepdown transformer with
. Unfortunately. Not only do the windings have to be well insulated from the iron core. it is called impedance matching. though the current rating is usually derived from a voltamp (VA) rating assigned to the transformer. stepup transformer designed to produce very high AC voltages at high frequency. the magnetic core can be saturated. also known as an LVDT.8
9.1
Practical considerations
Power capacity
As has already been observed. Respecting these limitations. tight voltage regulation. This means the winding conductors must be made of the proper gauge wire to avoid any heating problems. in the business of practical transformer design. but each winding has to be sufﬁciently insulated from the other in order to maintain electrical isolation between windings. transformers must be well designed in order to achieve acceptable power coupling. winding conductor insulation is a concern where high voltages are encountered.
9. Also. With enough DC current. the inductance of which can be controlled by the DC current through a second winding around the same core. • A linear variable differential transformer.268 • REVIEW:
CHAPTER 9. is a distance measuring device. When this is done to improve power transfer to a load. Thus. decreasing the inductance of the power winding in a controlled fashion. An ideal transformer would have perfect coupling (no leakage inductance). and low exciting current distortion. • A Tesla Coil is a resonant. • An aircore transformer is one lacking a ferromagnetic core. • A saturable reactor is a special type of inductor. the ideal transformer would have to be inﬁnitely large and heavy to meet these design goals. as they often are in stepup and stepdown power distribution transformers. • A ScottT transformer converts 3φ power to 2φ power and vice versa. perfect voltage regulation. perfectly sinusoidal exciting current.8. transformers are rated for certain levels of primary and secondary winding voltage and current. compromises must be made.
9.2
Energy losses
When transformers transfer power. but only with substantial increases in cost. As it was stated earlier. this loss can be a signiﬁcant factor.333 A (maximum primary winding current)
= 20. There is. they dissipate power in the form of heat. of course. and what causes it to be lost.8. Consequently. these “eddy currents” must overcome signiﬁcant electrical resistance as they circulate through the core. Loops of wire covered by hightemperature insulation encircle the pipe’s circumference. they do so with a minimum of loss. Perhaps the most signiﬁcant of these “core losses” is eddycurrent loss. size. modern power transformer designs typically exceed 95% efﬁciency. highfrequency alternating current is used rather than power line frequency (60 Hz). This phenomenon is so pronounced that it is often exploited as a means of heating ferrous (ironcontaining) materials. The maximum winding currents can be determined as such:
1000 VA 120 V 1000 VA 48 V
= 8. Large transformers are almost always rated in terms of winding voltage and VA or kVA. a secondary voltage rating of 48 volts. These induced currents – as described by the perpendicularity clause of Faraday’s Law – tend to circulate through the crosssection of the core perpendicularly to the primary winding turns. which is resistive power dissipation due to the passage of induced currents through the iron of the core. Their circular motion gives them their unusual name: like eddies in a stream of water that circulate rather than move in straight lines. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
269
a primary voltage rating of 120 volts. we have a source of inefﬁciency in the transformer that is difﬁcult to eliminate. and a VA rating of 1 kVA (1000 VA). the bulk of transformer power loss is due to magnetic effects in the core.”
. In order to maximize the eddy current effect. The photograph of (Figure 9. Resistive losses aside. but this is typically seen on small transformers. Increasing the gauge of the winding wire is one way to minimize this loss.8. power lost due to resistance of the wire windings. It is good to know where some of this lost power goes.833 A (maximum secondary winding current)
Sometimes windings will bear current ratings in amps. there will always be power dissipated in the form of heat through the resistance of currentcarrying conductors. inducing eddy currents within the pipe wall by electromagnetic induction. but not as good as the copper or aluminum from which wire windings are typically made. Iron is a fair conductor of electricity. The box units at the right of the picture produce the highfrequency AC and control the amount of current in the wires to stabilize the pipe temperature at a predetermined “setpoint. Because transformers require such long lengths of wire. Because iron is a conductor of electricity as well as being an excellent “conductor” of magnetic ﬂux.
9. however. Unless superconducting wires are used. there will be currents induced in the iron just as there are currents induced in the secondary windings from the alternating magnetic ﬁeld. and weight. Hence.62) shows an “induction heating” unit raising the temperature of a large pipe section. In overcoming the resistance offered by the iron.
. Laminated cores like the one shown here are standard in almost all lowfrequency transformers. The main strategy in mitigating these wasteful eddy currents in transformer cores is to form the iron core in sheets.63)
solid iron core "eddy" current
laminated iron core
Figure 9. Recall from the photograph of the transformer cut in half that the iron core was composed of many thin sheets rather than one solid piece. each sheet covered with an insulating varnish so that the core is divided up into thin slices.63: Dividing the iron core into thin insulated laminations minimizes eddy current loss.62: Induction heating: Primary insulated winding induces current into lossy iron pipe (secondary). The result is very little width in the core for eddy currents to circulate in: (Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9. so transformers designed to run on higherfrequency power (such as 400 Hz. This has the undesirable effect of increasing the manufacturing cost of the transformer. used in many military and aircraft applications) must use thinner laminations to keep the losses down to a respectable minimum.270
CHAPTER 9. Eddy current losses increase with frequency.
meaning that they will always be higher. turn to turn (in a single winding). thereby increasing effective resistance as the frequency goes up and creating more power lost through resistive dissipation. not lower. Another “core loss” is that of magnetic hysteresis. they can cause severe transformer overheating. and designing the core for minimum ﬂux density (large crosssectional area). similar technique for minimizing eddy current losses which works better for highfrequency applications is to make the core out of iron powder instead of thin iron sheets.8. Transformer energy losses tend to worsen with increasing frequency. In most power distribution systems where the line frequency is very stable.3
Stray capacitance and inductance
Aside from power ratings and power losses. one would think excessive frequency would never pose a problem.9. transformers often harbor other undesirable limitations which circuit designers must be made aware of. This type of loss can be mitigated through good core material selection (choosing a core alloy with low hysteresis. nonsinusoidal waveforms are equivalent to additive series of multiple sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. in the form of harmonics created by nonlinear loads. Unfortunately it does. This tendency to stay magnetized is called “hysteresis. Usually this capacitance is of no concern in a power application. Like their simpler counterparts – inductors – transformers exhibit capacitance due to the insulation dielectric between conductors: from winding to winding. these granules of iron are individually coated in an electrically insulating material. In signiﬁcant measure.8. Powdered iron cores are often found in transformers handling radiofrequency currents. Closely related to the issue of ﬂux containment is leakage inductance. Flux containment (making sure a transformer’s magnetic ﬂux doesn’t escape so as to interfere with another device. these other frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental (line) frequency. but small signal applications (especially those of high frequency) may not tolerate this quirk well. Also. Power transformers can be engineered to handle certain levels of power system harmonics. Like the lamination sheets. We’ve already seen the detrimental effects of leakage inductance on voltage regulation with SPICE simulations
. In power systems.” and it takes a certain investment in energy to overcome this opposition to change every time the magnetic ﬁeld produced by the primary winding changes polarity (twice per AC cycle). as evidenced by a “thin” B/H hysteresis curve). and winding to core.
9. and this capability is sometimes denoted with a “K factor” rating. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
271
Another. and making sure other devices’ magnetic ﬂux is shielded from the transformer core) is another concern shared both by inductors and transformers. transformers of signiﬁcant size are designed to operate efﬁciently in a limited range of frequencies. which makes the core nonconductive except for within the width of each granule. For this reason. Magnetic core losses are also exaggerated with higher frequencies. than the design frequency of the transformer. eddy currents and hysteresis effects becoming more severe. the effect of having capacitance along with the windings’ designed inductance gives transformers the ability to resonate at a particular frequency. All ferromagnetic materials tend to retain some degree of magnetization after exposure to an external magnetic ﬁeld. deﬁnitely a design concern in signal applications where the applied frequency may reach this point (usually the resonant frequency of a power transformer is well beyond the frequency of the AC power it was designed to operate on). As we’ve seen in earlier chapters. The skin effect within winding conductors reduces the available crosssectional area for electron ﬂow.
the voltage induced in the secondary winding will no longer match the waveshape as the voltage powering the primary coil.272
CHAPTER 9. As was stated before.8. One way to meet this design criterion is to engineer the transformer with ﬂux leakage paths for magnetic ﬂux to bypass the secondary winding(s).64: Voltage and ﬂux waveforms for a peaking transformer. and secondary voltage pulses only when the ﬂux is changing (below saturation levels): (Figure 9. but there are exceptional applications. creating harmonics in the secondary winding’s output. For ferromagnetic core transformers. we must be mindful of the saturation limits of the core. TRANSFORMERS
early in this chapter. Remember that ferromagnetic materials cannot support inﬁnite magnetic ﬂux densities: they tend to “saturate” at a certain level (dictated by the material and core dimensions).
9. The core is designed to saturate quickly and sharply. As we discussed before. it manifests itself as a series impedance with the load. In other words. the overloaded transformer will distort the waveshape from primary to secondary windings. Special transformers known as peaking transformers exploit this principle to produce brief voltage pulses near the peaks of the source voltage waveform. the less voltage available at the secondary winding terminals. harmonic content in AC power systems typically causes problems.4
Core saturation
Transformers are also constrained in their performance by the magnetic ﬂux limitations of the core. good voltage regulation is desired in transformer design. meaning that further increases in magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) do not result in proportional increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). If this happens. which will in turn produce the poor regulation needed for discharge lighting. the more current drawn by the load. Because leakage inductance is equivalent to an inductance connected in series with the transformer’s winding.
. When a transformer’s primary winding is overloaded from excessive applied voltage. This results in a severely cropped sinewave ﬂux waveform.64)
ep = primary voltage
es = secondary voltage
Φ = magnetic flux
es ep Φ
Figure 9. at voltage levels well below peak. Thus. Usually. the core ﬂux may reach saturation levels during peak moments of the AC sinewave cycle. The resulting leakage ﬂux will produce leakage inductance. discharge lighting circuits require a stepup transformer with “loose” (poor) voltage regulation to ensure reduced voltage after the establishment of an arc through the lamp.
If we take the opposite perspective.65)
e 60 Hz
Φ
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux Φ e 50 Hz
Figure 9. but for longer periods of time. it will climb to a greater peak value. demands that the ﬂux maintain the same rate of change as before.66. In this case. a voltage waveform reaching the same peak value. and relate the original waveform to its derivative. though. we say that the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. if the ﬂux has to climb at the same rate as before. if a power transformer designed to operate at 60 Hz is forced to operate at 50 Hz instead. but for longer periods of time.9. the ﬂux must reach greater peak levels than before in order to produce the same opposing voltage needed to balance against the source voltage. but taking a longer amount of time to complete each halfcycle. Because the voltage is proportional to the ﬂux’s rateofchange.8. Since each halfcycle of the 50 Hz waveform accumulates more area between it and the zero line of the graph than the 60 Hz waveform will – and we know that the magnetic ﬂux is the integral of the voltage – the ﬂux will attain higher values in Figure 9. This is true even if the source voltage is the same as before. (Figure 9.66) Mathematically. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. Yet another cause of transformer saturation is the presence of DC current in the primary winding. Any amount of DC voltage dropped across the primary winding of a transformer will
. The integral of any mathematical function is proportional to the area accumulated underneath the curve of that function. Thus. this is another example of calculus in action. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
273
Another cause of abnormal transformer core saturation is operation at frequencies lower than normal. For example. Since instantaneous winding voltage is proportional to the instantaneous magnetic ﬂux’s rate of change in a transformer. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. “derivative” being that calculus operation deﬁning one mathematical function (waveform) in terms of the rateofchange of another. (Figure 9.65: Magnetic ﬂux is higher in a transformer core driven by 50 Hz as compared to 60 Hz for the same voltage. we may call the original waveform the integral of the derivative waveform.
For most transformers.274
CHAPTER 9. (Figure 9. engineering the core for low ﬂux densities provides a safe margin between the normal ﬂux peaks and the core saturation limits to accommodate occasional. shifts the waveform peaks toward the upper saturation limit.
.
cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. core saturation is a very undesirable effect.67)
saturation limit flux centerline 60 Hz e Φ
saturation limit
Figure 9. This additional ﬂux “bias” or “offset” will push the alternating ﬂux waveform closer to saturation in one halfcycle than the other. This ensures that the relationship between mmf and Φ is more linear throughout the ﬂux cycle. Also.66: Flux changing at the same rate rises to a higher level at 50 Hz than at 60 Hz. which is good because it makes for less distortion in the magnetization current waveform.67: DC in primary. TRANSFORMERS
e 60 Hz Φ less area less height
e 50 Hz Φ more area more height
Figure 9. abnormal conditions such as frequency variation and DC offset. and it is avoided through good design: engineering the windings and core so that magnetic ﬂux densities remain well below the saturation levels.
Thus.5
Inrush current
When a transformer is initially connected to a source of AC voltage. the ﬂux and current levels were at their negative peaks when voltage was at its zero point.8. there may be a substantial surge of current through the primary winding called inrush current.72) This is analogous to the inrush current exhibited by an electric motor that is started up by sudden connection to a power source. the ﬂux and current waveforms build to their maximum positive ratesofchange. We know that the rate of change of instantaneous ﬂux in a transformer core is proportional to the instantaneous voltage drop across the primary winding.9. and both will be lagging the voltage waveform by 90o :
e = voltage e
Φ = magnetic flux Φ i
i = coil current
Figure 9.69) Alternatively. in a transformer that has been sitting idle. the current waveform will be inphase with the ﬂux waveform. During continuous operation (when the transformer has been powered for quite some time). however. between continuousmode operation and the sudden starting condition assumed in this scenario: during continuous operation. let us consider what happens if the transformer’s connection to the AC voltage source occurs at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at zero.8. lags applied voltage by 90o . PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
275
9. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. and on upward to their positive peaks as the voltage descends to a level of zero: A signiﬁcant difference exists. as stated before. however. Or. a magnetic ﬂux of rapidly increasing value must be generated. As the voltage builds to its positive peak. In order for the transformer to create an opposing voltage drop to balance against this applied source voltage. but actually no more rapidly than under normal conditions: (Figure 9. (Figure 9. these two waveforms are phaseshifted by 90o . this is the point in time where both ﬂux and winding current are at their negative peaks. although transformer inrush is caused by a different phenomenon. (Figure 9.68) Since ﬂux (Φ) is proportional to the magnetomotive force (mmf) in the core. Let us suppose that the primary winding of a transformer is suddenly connected to an AC voltage source at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at its positive peak value. In a continuouslyoperating transformer. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. (Figure 9. like current.68: Continuous steadystate operation: Magnetic ﬂux. experiencing zero rateofchange (dΦ/dt = 0 and di/dt = 0). there is no “surge” or “inrush” or current in this scenario. The result is that winding current increases rapidly. both magnetic ﬂux and winding current should
. and the mmf is proportional to winding current.69) Both core ﬂux and coil current start from zero and build up to the same peak values experienced during continuous operation.
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ
Instant in time when voltage is zero. TRANSFORMERS
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ
Instant in time when transformer is connected to AC voltage source.
.276
CHAPTER 9.70: Starting at e=0 V is not the same as running continuously in Figure 9.3 These expected waveforms are incorrect– Φ and i should start at zero. during continuous operation. same as steadystate operation.
Figure 9.
Figure 9.69: Connecting transformer to line at AC volt peak: Flux increases rapidly from zero.
transformers may also exhibit undesirable physical effects. Heating may be minimized by good design. the magnetizing current would rise to approximately twice its normal peak value as well. in a transformer that’s just “starting. Φ starts at initial condition Φ=0. which creates the mmf to cause ﬂux in the core. Noise is primarily a nuisance effect. the most notable being the production of heat and noise. most transformers aren’t designed with enough of a margin between normal ﬂux peaks and the saturation limits to avoid saturating in a condition like this.” the ﬂux will reach approximately twice its normal peak magnitude as it “integrates” the area under the voltage waveform’s ﬁrst halfcycle: (Figure 9. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
277
start at zero.9. This means that winding current. However. In an ideal transformer. but heat is a potentially serious problem because winding insulation will be damaged if allowed to overheat. will disproportionately rise to a value easily exceeding twice its normal peak: (Figure 9. Because of this. the magnitude of the inrush current strongly depends on the exact time that electrical connection to the source is made. not from a previously negative (magnetized) condition as we would normally have in a transformer that’s been powered for awhile. ensuring that the core does
. from a "cold start" condition.6
Heat and Noise
In addition to unwanted electrical effects. As you can see. If the transformer happens to have some residual magnetism in its core at the moment of connection to the source. Thus.71)
Φ e
flux peak approximately twice normal height!
Instant in time when voltage is zero. assuming it doesn’t saturate the core.71: Starting at e=0 V.8.72) This is the mechanism causing inrush current in a transformer’s primary winding when connected to an AC voltage source. increasing to twice the normal value. it will increase from zero upward. disproportionate amounts of mmf are needed to generate magnetic ﬂux. When the magnetic ﬂux increases in response to a rising voltage. During saturation.
9.8. generating the necessary mmf to create this higherthannormal ﬂux. and so the core will almost certainly saturate during this ﬁrst halfcycle of voltage.
Figure 9. so as to tolerate current surges such as this without opening the circuit. the inrush could be even more severe. transformer overcurrent protection devices are usually of the “slowacting” variety.
• Class H: No more than 150o Celsius winding temperature rise. These letter codes are arranged in order of lowest heat tolerance to highest: • Class A: No more than 55o Celsius winding temperature rise. from a "cold start" condition. and also to displace moisture which would otherwise compromise the integrity of the winding insulation. • Class B: No more than 80o Celsius winding temperature rise. TRANSFORMERS
i Φ e
current peak much greater than normal! flux peak approximately twice normal height!
Instant in time when voltage is zero. Heatdissipating “radiator” tubes on the outside of the transformer case provide a convective oil ﬂow path to transfer heat from the transformer’s core to ambient air: (Figure 9.73) Oilless. B.” transformers are often rated in terms of maximum operating temperature “rise” (temperature increase beyond ambient) according to a letterclass system: A. that eddy currents are minimized.
Figure 9. or H. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. Large power transformers have their core and windings submerged in an oil bath to transfer heat and mufﬂe noise. The familiar “hum” heard around large power transformers is the sound of the iron core expanding and
. not approach saturation levels. Audible noise is an effect primarily originating from the phenomenon of magnetostriction: the slight change of length exhibited by a ferromagnetic object when magnetized. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. Current also increases to twice the normal value for an unsaturated core. or considerably higher in the (designed for) case of saturation. at 40o Celsius (maximum) ambient air temperature. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. • Class F: No more than 115o Celsius winding temperature rise.72: Starting at e=0 V.278
CHAPTER 9. F. and that the windings are not overloaded or operated too close to maximum ampacity. or “dry.
9.73: Large power transformers are submerged in heat dissipating insulating oil.8.
. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
279
Primary terminals
Secondary terminals
Heat
Core
Heat
Radiator tube
Radiator tube
flow Oil
Figure 9.
This capacitance can be signiﬁcant enough to give the transformer a natural resonant frequency. the winding generates an mmf. • REVIEW: • Power transformers are limited in the amount of power they can transfer from primary to secondary winding(s). which explains why ferroresonant transformers – which must operate in saturation for a large portion of the current waveform – operate both hot and noisy. • Both transformers and inductors harbor certain unavoidable amounts of capacitance due to wire insulation (dielectric) separating winding turns from the iron core and from each other. which may cause overheating in large transformers. there will be no current through it. maintaining low magnetic ﬂux levels in the core is the key to minimizing this effect. Leakage inductance tends to worsen a transformer’s voltage regulation (secondary voltage “sags” more for a given amount of load current). to ensure there is adequate mechanical support to handle the stresses. which can be problematic in signal applications. • Leakage inductance is caused by magnetic ﬂux not being 100% coupled between windings in a transformer. operation at too low of a frequency. wasting energy. and/or by the presence of a DC current in any of
. Any ﬂux not involved with transferring energy from one winding to another will store and release energy. as current will dissipate heat. TRANSFORMERS
contracting at 120 Hz (twice the system frequency. However. though. which is how (self) inductance works. Under heavy load (high current) conditions. Large units are typically rated in VA (voltamps) or kVA (kilo voltamps). which becomes counteracted by a “reﬂected” mmf in the primary winding to prevent core ﬂux levels from changing. and consequently no magnetomotive force (mmf) produced by it. these stresses may be great enough to cause audible noise to emanate from the transformer. • Magnetic saturation of a transformer core may be caused by excessive primary voltage. • Increased frequency results in increased power losses within a power transformer. If the secondary winding is opencircuited. physical force between the windings which will tend to make them vibrate. when the secondary is “loaded” (current supplied to a load). Among the effects are eddy currents (circulating induction currents in the iron core) and hysteresis (power lost due to overcoming the tendency of iron to magnetize in a particular direction). Another noiseproducing phenomenon in power transformers is the physical reaction force between primary and secondary windings when heavily loaded. Again. which is 60 Hz in the United States) – one cycle of core contraction and expansion for every peak of the magnetic ﬂux waveform – plus noise created by mechanical forces between primary and secondary windings. The presence of harmonics in a power system is a source of frequencies signiﬁcantly higher than normal. These opposing mmf ’s generated between primary and secondary windings as a result of secondary (load) current produce a repulsive.280
CHAPTER 9. • Resistance in transformer windings contributes to inefﬁciency. • Magnetic effects in a transformer’s iron core also contribute to inefﬁciency. Transformer designers have to consider these physical forces in the construction of the winding coils.
which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Inrush current is most severe when connection to the AC source is made at the moment instantaneous source voltage is zero. • Transformers often experience signiﬁcant inrush currents when initially connected to an AC voltage source. Mitsugi Yamaguchi. Saturation may be minimized or avoided by conservative design.
9.org/organizations/pes/public/2005/mar/peshistory. http://www. from most recent to ﬁrst. Bart Anderson (January 2004): Corrected conceptual errors regarding Tesla coil operation and safety.9
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.html
. which provides an adequate margin of safety between peak magnetic ﬂux density values and the saturation limits of the core.9. • Noise is a common phenomenon exhibited by transformers – especially power transformers – and is primarily caused by magnetostriction of the core.ieee. EDN. “Electric Power In Japan. Rapid Electriﬁcation a Century Ago”. Physical forces causing winding vibration may also generate noise under conditions of heavy (high current) secondary winding load. CONTRIBUTORS
281
the windings. (4/11/2002). See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.9.
Bibliography
[1] Mitsuyoshi Yamamoto.
TRANSFORMERS
.282
CHAPTER 9.
. . . Threephase power systems . 283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Singlephase power systems . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . Phase rotation . . .8 10. .5 10. . . . . . . . Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations Threephase transformer circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . The distinction between a “power circuit” and a “regular circuit” may seem arbitrary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If the load resistor’s power dissipation were substantial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 10. . . we might call this a “power circuit” or “power system” instead of regarding it as just a regular circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depicted above (Figure 10. . . .1: Single phase power system schematic diagram shows little about the wiring of a practical power circuit.1) is a very simple AC circuit. . . Polyphase motor design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonics in polyphase power systems Harmonic phase sequences . . . . .6 10.1 10. . . . . . . . . .Chapter 10
POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Contents
10. . . .1
Singlephase power systems
load #1
load #2
Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . .4 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345
10. . . . . . . . but the practical concerns are deﬁnitely not. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
weighing over 300 pounds per thousand feet.67 A
Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW
83. the wiring for the 20 kW loads at 120 Vac is rather substantial (167 A). The advantage would be less current required. permitting the use of smaller.66 amps total circuit current. would have to have greater resistance values to dissipate the same power as before (10 kW each) at a greater voltage than before. Normally.284
CHAPTER 10. However.2: As a practical matter. lighter. in the real world it can be a major concern.3)
. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
One such concern is the size and cost of wiring necessary to deliver power from the AC source to the load. of course. Such wire is well over 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter. This is no small amount of current. If we give the source in the above circuit a voltage value and also give power dissipation values to the two load resistors. Bear in mind that copper is not cheap either! It would be in our best interest to ﬁnd ways to minimize such costs if we were designing a power system with long conductor lengths.
I= I=
P E 10 kW 120 V (for each load resistor)
I = 83. The loads. and would necessitate copper wire conductors of at least 1/0 gage.2 adds up to 166.33 amps for each load resistor in Figure 10. we do not give much thought to this type of concern if we’re merely analyzing a circuit for the sake of learning about the laws of electricity. we can determine the wiring needs for this particular circuit: (Figure 10.33 A) Itotal = 166.33 A) + (83.2)
120 V
load #1 P = 10 kW
load #2 P = 10 kW
Figure 10.33 A
Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (83. One way to do this would be to increase the voltage of the power source and use loads built to dissipate 10 kW each at this higher voltage. and cheaper wire: (Figure 10.
porcelain insulators. Again.33 A
Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW
Now our total circuit current is 83. but it is a very valid concern in the real world. Power distribution companies tackle this problem by stringing their power lines along high poles or towers.3: Same 10 kW loads at 240 Vac requires less substantial wiring than at 120 Vac (83 A). and insulating the lines from the supporting structures with large. but it might not always be practical to keep power wiring out of reach at the point of use the way it can be elevated out of reach in distribution systems. This is why power distribution system designers elect to transmit electric power using very high voltages (many thousands of volts): to capitalize on the savings realized by the use of smaller. The gain in efﬁciency realized by stepping up the circuit voltage presents us with increased danger of electric shock.
I= I=
P E 10 kW 240 V (for each load resistor)
I = 41. However.33 amps. half of what it was before.10. which weighs less than half of what 1/0 gage wire does per unit length.1. High voltage gives greater system efﬁciency by means of reduced conductor current. We can now use number 4 gage wire. At the point of use (the electric power customer).67 A) Itotal = 83.67 A
Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (41. SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
285
240 V
load #1 P = 10 kW
load #2 P = 10 kW
Figure 10. this is not usually the sort of thing we concentrate on while learning about the laws of electricity. this solution is not without disadvantages.67 A) + (41. Another practical concern with power circuits is the danger of electric shock from high voltages. cheaper wire. This is a considerable reduction in system cost with no degradation in performance. This tradeoff between efﬁciency and danger is one that European power system designers have decided to
. there is still the issue of what voltage to use for powering loads. especially when large amounts of power are being dealt with. lighter.
However. The voltage across each load is only 120 volts. just as the American tourist must do while in Europe. For the most part. if either load were to open. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
risk.4: Series connected 120 Vac loads. In later sections of this chapter. so the safety factor is better. The current through each load is the same as it was in the simple 120 volt circuit. but the currents are not additive because the loads are in series rather than parallel. Mind you. the odds are that it will be from coming into contact with the conductors of a particular load rather than from contact across the main wires of a power system.5)
+ 240 V 
+ 240 V 
. An alternative solution would be to use a higher voltage supply to provide power to two lower voltage loads in series. so I’m introducing this notation early on in the chapter for your familiarity. Notice the polarity markings (+ and ) for each voltage shown. driven by 240 Vac source at 83. This approach combines the efﬁciency of a highvoltage system with the safety of a lowvoltage system: (Figure 10. That is why tourists from America visiting Europe must carry small stepdown transformers for their portable appliances. current would stop in the other load as well.286
CHAPTER 10. we still have a full 240 volts across the power system wires. There’s only one disadvantage to this design: the consequences of one load failing open. phase relationships will become very important. as well as the unidirectional arrows for current. all their households and appliances operating at a nominal voltage of 240 volts instead of 120 volts as it is in North America.3 A total current. If anyone is going to get shocked.33 A load +120 V #1 10 kW load +120 V #2 10 kW 83. or being turned off (assuming each load has a series on/off switch to interrupt current) are not good. but each load is operating at a reduced voltage. Is there any way to realize the advantages of both increased efﬁciency and reduced safety hazard at the same time? One solution would be to install stepdown transformers at the endpoint of power use. we need to modify the design a bit: (Figure 10. even though the notation is valid to provide a frame of reference for phase. to step the 240 VAC (volts AC) power down to a more suitable 120 VAC. For this reason.33 A
Figure 10. not 240. Being a series circuit. this would be expensive and inconvenient for anything but very small loads (where the transformers can be built cheaply) or very large loads (where the expense of thick copper wires would exceed the expense of a transformer).4)
83. I’ve avoided labeling “polarities” in the AC circuits we’ve been analyzing.
SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
287
83. so we’re still ahead on efﬁciency. An essential component to a splitphase power system is the dual AC voltage source. then run a third wire to the connection point between the loads to handle the eventuality of one load opening.1. The astute observer will note that the neutral wire only has to carry the difference of current between the two loads back to the source. Notice how the neutral wire is connected to earth ground at the power supply end. the neutral wire carries zero current.33 A + + 120 V ∠ 0o "hot" "neutral" 0A "hot" 83. we use two 120 volt supplies (in phase with each other!) in series to produce 240 volts. Since most AC systems receive their power from a stepdown transformer anyway (stepping voltage down from high distribution levels to a userlevel voltage like 120 or 240). the coils can be similarly centertapped for the same effect.5: Addition of neutral conductor allows loads to be individually driven. This is called a splitphase power system. Fortunately. In the above case. designing and building one is not difﬁcult. with perfectly “balanced” loads consuming equal amounts of power.6) If the AC power comes directly from a generator (alternator). Three smaller wires are still cheaper than the two wires needed with the simple parallel design.10.33 A (for each load resistor)
Instead of a single 240 volt power supply. The extra expense to include a centertap connection in a
. that transformer can be built with a centertapped secondary winding: (Figure 10.33 A load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load +120 V #2 ∠ 0o 
120 V ∠ 0o
+ 240 V 
Figure 10. since grounding the neutral wire ensures the least possible voltage at any given time between any “hot” wire and earth ground. This is a common feature in power systems containing “neutral” wires.
Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 0o) Etotal = 240 V ∠ 0o I= P E Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW
10 kW I= 120 V
I = 83.
phase relations between multiple AC sources might be very confusing. we must subtract voltages. To mathematically calculate voltage between “hot” wires.7)
120 V 120 V
+ 240 V 
"hot" + + 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o + 240 V ∠ 0o "hot"
Figure 10. so it is clear whether they are aiding (“boosting”) each other or opposing (“bucking”) each other. Otherwise.120 ∠ 180o 240 ∠ 0o
Rectangular 120 + j0 V .6: American 120/240 Vac power is derived from a center tapped utility transformer. we’d be denoting two voltage sources in direct opposition with each other. because their polarity marks show them to be opposed to each other:
Polar 120 ∠ 0o .288
CHAPTER 10. This notation is often used to reference the phasings of multiple AC voltage sources.7: Split phase 120/240 Vac source is equivalent to two series aiding 120 Vac sources.(120 + j0) V 240 + j0 V
If we mark the two sources’ common connection point (the neutral wire) with the same polarity mark (). with polarity marks (+) to () just like seriesaiding batteries can alternatively be represented as such: (Figure 10. Here is where the (+) and () polarity markings really become important. Why am I taking the time to elaborate on polarity marks and phase angles? It will make more sense in the next section!
. Note that the splitphase sources in the schematic (each one 120 volts 0o ). which would give 0 volts between the two “hot” conductors. transformer or alternator winding is minimal. If not for these polarity markings. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Stepdown transformer with centertapped secondary winding + + 2. we must express their relative phase shifts as being 180o apart.4 kV + Figure 10.
• Splitphase AC sources can be easily created by centertapping the coil windings of transformers or alternators. The term “splitphase” merely refers to the splitvoltage supply in such a system. Suppose that we had two sources of AC voltage connected in series just like the splitphase system we saw before. The advantages of polyphase power systems are more obvious if one ﬁrst has a good understanding of single phase systems.10. this kind of AC power supply is called single phase because both voltage waveforms are in phase. Apologies for the long introduction leading up to the titletopic of this chapter.85 V ∠ 30o
. can be put to use to make power systems with even greater conductor efﬁciencies and lower shock hazard than with splitphase. applied to power systems. with more than two wires. But we know from our experience with vectors and complex numbers that AC voltages don’t always add up as we think they would if they are out of phase with each other. providing socalled 120/240 VAC power. Given load currents of 83.2
Threephase power systems
Splitphase power systems achieve their high conductor efﬁciency and low safety risk by splitting up the total voltage into lesser parts and powering multiple loads at those lesser voltages. voltage between the two “hot” wires is not 240 volts (120 0o . with each other.33 amps. • A splitphase power system is one with multiple (inphase) AC voltage sources connected in series. while drawing currents at levels typical of a fullvoltage system. works just as well for DC power systems as it does for singlephase AC systems. the voltage is:
Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) . delivering power to loads at more than one voltage.2.8) Since each voltage source is 120 volts. In a more general sense. This principle.(120 V ∠ 120o) Etotal = 207. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
289
Power systems in American households and light industry are most often of the splitphase variety. • REVIEW: • Single phase power systems are deﬁned by having an AC source with only one voltage waveform. Instead. except that each voltage source was 120o out of phase with the other: (Figure 10. Such systems are usually referred to as threewire systems rather than splitphase because “phase” is a concept restricted to AC.120 180o ) because the phase difference between the two sources is not 180o .
10. or in step. each load must still be dissipating 10 kilowatts of power. The term “single phase” is a counterpoint to another kind of power system called “polyphase” which we are about to investigate in detail. and each load resistor is connected directly in parallel with its respective source. However. the voltage across each load must be 120 volts as well. This technique. by the way. They are used primarily to achieve balance between system efﬁciency (low conductor currents) and safety (low load voltages).
(83.9)
83.33 A ∠ 0o) .33 A ∠ 0o + + "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 120o "neutral" load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load 120 V #2 ∠ 120o +
+ 207.(83. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
83.Ineutral = 0 . we say that the voltage between “hot” conductors is 208 volts (rounding up).33 A ∠ 240o or 83.33 A ∠ 0o load + 120 V ∠ 0o #1 "neutral" Node Ineutral load o #2 120 V ∠ 120 + "hot" 83.33 A ∠ 120o
. and thus the power system voltage is designated as 120/208.290
CHAPTER 10.85 V ∠ 30o 
"hot" 83.
"hot"
Iload#1 . If we calculate the current through the “neutral” conductor.8: Pair of 120 Vac sources phased 120o .33 A ∠ 120o
Figure 10. Kirchhoff ’s Current Law tells us that the currents entering and exiting the node between the two loads must be zero: (Figure 10.Ineutral = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Ineutral = Iload#1 .Iload#2 Ineutral = . Nominally. we ﬁnd that it is not zero. even with balanced load resistances. similar to splitphase.9: Neutral wire carries a current in the case of a pair of 120o phased sources.33 A ∠ 1200) Ineutral = 83.33 A ∠ 120o
Figure 10.Iload#2 .
SPICE listing: 120/208 polyphase power system) Sure enough.33 A ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 0o 83.10)
83. It is there just in case one or more load resistors should fail open (or be shut off through a disconnecting switch). because the overall voltage between the two “hot” conductors is 32 volts lower than it was in the splitphase system (208 volts instead of 240 volts). I’ll spare you the long. the easiest being the Superposition Theorem. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
291
So. just like each “hot” wire. drawnout calculations because you should be able to intuitively understand that the three voltage sources at three different phase angles will deliver 120 volts each to a balanced triad of load resistors. With the same amount of current through each “hot” wire.2. with each load’s “hot” wire carrying 83. the currents are the same as for two loads. why not use that third wire as another “hot” conductor. To ensure load voltage stability in the event of another load opening. (Figure 10.12) At that current and voltage. powering another load resistor with a third 120 volt source having a phase angle of 240o ? That way. we need a neutral wire to connect the source node and load node together: So long as the loads remain balanced (equal resistance. equal currents). Note that we are still conveying 20 kW of total power to the two loads. Let’s see how this might look: (Figure 10.10: With a third load phased 120o to the other two. the voltage drops across the remaining load(s) will change. A full mathematical analysis of all the voltages and currents in this circuit would necessitate the use of a network theorem.33 A ∠ 120o load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2 120 V 10 kW 120 V 10 kW + 208 V ∠ 30o 
Figure 10. However.
. so we haven’t reduced system cost over the splitphase 120/240 system.33 amps. the neutral wire will not have to carry any current at all.10. with (approximately) 208 volts between any two “hot” conductors and conductor currents equal to 83.33 amps of current raises an interesting possibility: since its carrying current anyway. This circuit we’ve been analyzing with three voltage sources is called a polyphase circuit. we can use SPICE to do the math for us: (Figure 10. Notice that this circuit has no “neutral” conductor to ensure stable voltage to all loads if one should open.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o 83. For proof of this. we get 120 volts across each load resistor.11. we ﬁnd that the “neutral” wire is carrying a full 83. we could transmit more power (another 10 kW) without having to add any more conductors. we have realized a gain in safety. What we have here is a situation similar to our splitphase power circuit with no “neutral” conductor: if one load should happen to fail open. The fact that the neutral wire is carrying 83.33 amps as before. we must use the same gage copper conductors.33 amps. each load will be dissipating 10 kW of power.
print ac i(v1) i(v2) i(v3) .333E+01
v(3. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 3 3 R3 1.44 r3 3 4 1.3) v(3.292
CHAPTER 10.ac lin 1 60 60 .200E+02 1.4) v(2.000E+01 8.000E+01 2.44 Ω 2
120 V ∠ 120o
Figure 10.print ac v(1.end
VOLTAGE ACROSS EACH LOAD freq v(1.2) v(2.44 r2 2 4 1.4) 1.44 .200E+02 v(3.11: SPICE circuit: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o .1) 2.4) v(2.078E+02 2.200E+02 VOLTAGE BETWEEN ‘‘HOT’’ CONDUCTORS freq v(1.333E+01
.078E+02 i(v3) 8.078E+02 CURRENT THROUGH EACH VOLTAGE SOURCE freq i(v1) i(v2) 6.2) v(2.44 Ω R2 R1
1 1.000E+01 1.44 Ω
4 1.4) .333E+01 8.
120/208 polyphase power system v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 1.3) 6.4) v(3.1) .print ac v(1.4) 6.
More speciﬁcally.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V "hot" ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o "hot" 83. On the other hand. the kind used predominantly in large power distribution systems. and “polyatomic” (a substance composed of multiple types of atoms). it is a threephase circuit. The preﬁx “poly” simply means “more than one. “polygon” (a geometrical shape made of multiple line segments: for example.13)
120V 250 A
load #1 10 kW
load #2 10 kW
load #3 10 kW
Figure 10. and with a considerable price tag attached. 120 volt loads. or 250 amps. Let’s survey the advantages of a threephase power system over a singlephase system of equivalent load voltage and power capacity.33 times 3. (Figure 10. which is a great improvement. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
293
83. A singlephase system with three loads connected directly in parallel would have a very high total current (83. We could get away with using number 2 gage copper wire at a total mass of about 600
.12: SPICE circuit annotated with simulation results: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o . we would need over a halfton of copper wire to do the job. This would necessitate 3/0 gage copper wire (very large!).2. we could build a splitphase system with two 15 kW. three 10 Kw loads on a 120 Vac system draw 250 A. this is a “polyphase” circuit. Since the voltage sources are all at different phase angles (in this case.13: For comparison. at about 510 pounds per thousand feet.10. pentagon and hexagon).33 A ∠ 0o "hot" + 120 V ∠ 0o 83. If the distance from source to load was 1000 feet. (Figure 10.33 A ∠ 120o 0A "neutral"
load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2
120 V 10 kW
120 V 10 kW
Figure 10.” as in “polytheism” (belief in more than one deity).14) Our current is half of what it was with the simple parallel circuit. three different phase angles).
which will total 500 pounds (four runs of 1000 feet each) for our example circuit. One question remains to be answered: how in the world do we get three AC voltage sources whose phase angles are exactly 120o apart? Obviously we can’t centertap a transformer or alternator winding like we did in the splitphase system. First. we showed the three voltage sources connected together in a “Y” conﬁguration (sometimes called the “star” conﬁguration). Overall. since that can only give us voltage waveforms that are either in phase or 180o out of phase. permitting the use of much thinner and lighter wire. there is greater potential for dangerous electric shock to occur. In our example circuit.33 amps versus 125 or 250 amps).14: Split phase system draws half the current of 125 A at 240 Vac compared to 120 Vac system. the advantages are quite clear. the conductor currents are quite a bit less (83. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
+ +
125 A ∠ 0o "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o "neutral" 0A load #1 load #2 120 V 15 kW 120 V 15 kW + 240 V ∠ 0o 
"hot" 125 A ∠ 180o
Figure 10. This represents a signiﬁcant cost savings over the splitphase system. but then those phase shifts would depend on the phase angles of our load impedances as well (substituting a capacitive or inductive load for a resistive load would change everything!). The interconnections between pairs of windings (as shown for the singlephase alternator: the jumper wire between windings 1a and 1b) have been omitted from the threephase alternator drawing for simplicity. with the additional beneﬁt that the maximum voltage in the system is lower (208 versus 240). the six “pole” windings of a threephase alternator are connected to comprise three winding pairs. ﬁguring about 200 pounds per thousand feet with three runs of 1000 feet each between source and loads. with one lead of each source tied to
. We can use number 4 gage wire at about 125 pounds per thousand feet. However. each set spaced 120o apart around the circumference of the machine as in Figure 10.
pounds. each pair producing AC voltage with a phase angle 120o shifted from either of the other two winding pairs.15. Perhaps we could ﬁgure out some way to use capacitors and inductors to create phase shifts of 120o . When we contrast these two examples against our threephase system (Figure 10.294
CHAPTER 10.12). The best way to get the phase shifts we’re looking for is to generate it at the source: construct the AC generator (alternator) providing the power in such a way that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld passes by three sets of wire windings. even though each load only receives 120 volts. Together. we also have to consider the increased safety hazard of having 240 volts present in the system.
• A splitphase power system is one where there are two voltage sources. • REVIEW: • A singlephase power system is one where there is only one AC voltage source (one source voltage waveform).10. • A polyphase power system uses multiple voltage sources at different phase angles from each other (many “phases” of voltage waveforms at work).
.or splitphase systems. The common way to depict this connection scheme is to draw the windings in the shape of a “Y” like Figure 10.16: Alternator ”Y” conﬁguration. The advantage of this is the ability to have lower conductor currents while maintaining low load voltages for safety reasons.2. but it is probably the easiest to understand at ﬁrst. A polyphase power system can deliver more power at less voltage with smallergage conductors than single. More to come on this subject later in the chapter. a common point (the node where we attached the “neutral” conductor). THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
Threephase alternator (b) Singlephase alternator (a) winding 1a S winding 1b winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b
295
N
winding 3b
N
winding 2b
Figure 10. powering a two seriesconnected loads.
+ 120 V ∠ 0o
+ + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o
Figure 10. (b) Threephase alternator. The “Y” conﬁguration is not the only option open to us.16.15: (a) Singlephase alternator. 180o phaseshifted from each other.
10. (Figure 10.18) However. This order keeps repeating itself as long as we continue to rotate the alternator’s shaft.296
CHAPTER 10. The magnet passes by each pole pair at different positions in the rotational movement of the shaft. This sequence of phase shifts has a deﬁnite order. These winding sets are spaced around the circumference of the rotor’s rotation at the desired angle(s).17) and watch what happens as the magnet rotates. if we reverse the rotation of the alternator’s shaft (turn it counterclockwise). POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
• The phaseshifted voltage sources necessary for a polyphase power system are created in alternators with multiple sets of wire windings. the magnet will pass by the pole pairs in the opposite sequence. Where we decide to place the windings will dictate the amount of phase shift between the windings’ AC voltage waveforms. Since voltmeters and ammeters would be useless in telling us what the phase rotation of an operating power system is. the voltage and current magnitudes will all be the same. we
.19) The order of voltage waveform sequences in a polyphase system is called phase rotation or phase sequence. If the magnet is rotating clockwise. phase rotation will make no difference at all.17: Threephase alternator The phase angle shift of 120o is a function of the actual rotational angle shift of the three pairs of windings (Figure 10. If we’re using a polyphase voltage source to power resistive loads. we’ll have 321. If we make winding 1 our “reference” voltage source for phase angle (0o ).18). Now. then winding 2 will have a phase angle of 120o (120o lagging. Instead of 123.3
Phase rotation
Let’s take the threephase alternator design laid out earlier (Figure 10. that depend on having phase rotation being one way or the other. or 240o leading) and winding 3 an angle of 240o (or 120o leading). and 3 will be another 120o ahead of 2. as we will see shortly. winding 2’s waveform will be leading 120o ahead of 1 instead of lagging. the order is 123 (winding 1 peaks ﬁrst. Whether 123 or 321. There are some applications of threephase power. For clockwise rotation of the shaft.
winding 2a winding 1a S
winding 3a winding 1b
winding 3b
N
winding 2b
Figure 10. winding 3 will generate its peak instantaneous voltage exactly 120o (of alternator shaft rotation) after winding 2. which will hits its peak 120o after winding 1. them winding 2. (Figure 10. then winding 3).
2.1.10.1 3 2 1
TIME
Figure 10.1.2.2.1.3 1 2 3
TIME
Figure 10.2.2.3.3.3.3.19: Counterclockwise rotation phase sequence: 321.1.18: Clockwise rotation phase sequence: 123. PHASE ROTATION
297
phase sequence: 1.
.2.3.
phase sequence: 3.
The capacitor is sized to have approximately the same amount of reactance at system frequency as each lamp’s resistance. ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v1v2v3”
1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V ∠ 120o R1 3 3 C1
1 2650 Ω
4 1 µF R2 2 2650 Ω
Figure 10. the circuit being balanced. greater than 0o but less than 120o .21).
to phase #1 C
to phase #2
to phase #3
Figure 10.20. the two lamps would glow at equal brightness. This phase shift.298
CHAPTER 10. skews the voltage and current values across the two lamps according to their phase shifts relative to phase 3. If the capacitor were to be replaced by a resistor of equal value to the lamps’ resistance.20: Phase sequence detector compares brightness of two lamps. which is then used to detect the sequence by way of comparison between the brightness of two indicator lamps in Figure 10. The following SPICE analysis demonstrates what will happen: (Figure 10.1 volts and the voltage across phase 2 lamp (between nodes
. the capacitor introduces a phase shift between voltage and current in the third leg of the circuit equal to 90o . However. The two lamps are of equal ﬁlament resistance and wattage. The resulting phase shift from the capacitor causes the voltage across phase 1 lamp (between nodes 1 and 4) to fall to 48. One ingenious circuit design uses a capacitor to introduce a phase shift between voltage and current.21: SPICE circuit for phase sequence detector. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
need to have some other kind of instrument capable of doing the job.
ac lin 1 60 60 . .795E+02 1.sequence = v1v2v3 v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .4) v(2.end freq v(1.4) .5 volts.4) v(2.sequence = v3v2v1 v1 1 0 ac 120 240 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 0 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .4) v(3.795E+02 4. reversal of the alternator’s shaft rotation is not usually an option open to an enduser of electrical power supplied by a nationwide grid (“the” alternator actually being the combined total of all alternators in all power plants feeding the grid).(”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1”) the ﬁrst lamp receives 179.10.4) v(2.4) 6. .4) .5 volts while the second receives only 48.1 volts.” going from left to right in the number string above.
What is commonly designated as a “123” phase rotation could just as well be called “231” or “312.print ac v(1.610E+02 Here. . 321321321321321 . There is a much easier way to reverse phase sequence than reversing alternator rotation: just exchange any two of the three “hot” wires going to a threephase load. the opposite rotation
. However. making the ﬁrst lamp dim and the second lamp bright.print ac v(1.4) v(3.610E+02
299
2 and 4) to rise to 179.4) 6.810E+01 1. Just the opposite will happen if the phase sequence is reversed: ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1 ” phase rotation detector .4) v(3. PHASE ROTATION
phase rotation detector .000E+01 4.810E+01 1.4) v(2. .end freq v(1.3.000E+01 1. This trick makes more sense if we take another look at a running phase sequence of a threephase voltage source: 123 rotation: 321 rotation: 123123123123123 . Likewise.4) v(3. We’ve investigated how phase rotation is produced (the order in which pole pairs get passed by the alternator’s rotating magnet) and how it can be changed by reversing the alternator’s shaft rotation.ac lin 1 60 60 .
(Other AC motor designs are not quite this simple. the phase rotation ends up being reversed (123 gets changed to 213. as shown in the operation of a phase rotation detector circuit. corresponding to the two possible directions of alternator rotation. some types of AC motors are virtually identical in construction to their alternator (generator) counterparts.
Original 123 phase rotation 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
End result 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1 (wires 1 and 2 swapped) phase rotation = 213
(wires 2 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 132
(wires 1 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 321
Figure 10. is the order in which the voltage waveforms of a polyphase AC source reach their respective peaks. For a threephase system. No matter which pair of “hot” wires out of the three we choose to swap. • Phase rotation can be reversed by swapping any two of the three “hot” leads supplying threephase power to a threephase load. we can try all the possibilities for swapping any two of the wires at a time and see what happens to the resulting sequence in Figure 10.22. but it will have impact on unbalanced reactive loads. • REVIEW: • Phase rotation. 132 or 321. or phase sequence.300
CHAPTER 10. As we studied in the ﬁrst chapter of this book. but we will leave those details to another lesson). • Phase rotation has no impact on resistive loads.22: All possibilities of swapping any two wires.
10. there are only two possible phase sequences: 123 and 321.4
Polyphase motor design
Perhaps the most important beneﬁt of polyphase AC power over singlephase is the design and operation of AC motors. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
(321) could just as easily be called “213” or “132. consisting of stationary wire windings and a rotating magnet assembly.
. all equivalent).” Starting out with a phase rotation of 321.
23: Clockwise AC motor operation.
Step #1 N S S I I + N N S Step #2 N S
Step #3 S N
S S N N
Step #4 S N
+ I I

Figure 10.23) However.24: Counterclockwise AC motor operation.
. it will continue to be pulled around clockwise. If the rotating magnet is able to keep up with the frequency of the alternating current energizing the electromagnet windings (coils). It could just as easily be powered in a counterclockwise direction by the same AC voltage waveform a in Figure 10.10. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN
Step #1 N S N I I + S N S Step #2 N S
301
Step #3 S N
N S S N
Step #4 S N
+ I I

Figure 10. clockwise is not the only valid direction for this motor’s shaft to spin.24.4. (Figure 10.
The line current and safety advantages of polyphase power over single phase power were discovered later. Once helped to spin in a particular direction. Polyphase AC motors require no such trickery to spin in a deﬁnite direction. It was this concept of a rotating magnetic ﬁeld that inspired Nikola Tesla to design the world’s ﬁrst polyphase electrical systems (simply to make simpler. What can be a confusing concept is made much clearer through analogy. These supplementary coils are typically connected in series with a capacitor to introduce a phase shift in current between the two sets of windings. and energized with an AC voltage that is out of phase with the main power. Usually.25)
winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform winding 2a winding 1a S winding 1b
N winding 2b winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform
Figure 10. Have you ever seen a row of blinking light bulbs such as the kind used in Christmas decorations? Some strings appear to “move” in a deﬁnite direction as the bulbs alternately glow and darken in sequence.27)
.25: Unidirectionalstarting AC twophase motor.26) That phase shift creates magnetic ﬁelds from coils 2a and 2b that are equally out of step with the ﬁelds from coils 1a and 1b. more efﬁcient motors). (Figure 10. current. the magnetic rotor can spin in either direction. In fact. This is a common trait of all singlephase AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors: they have no normal or “correct” direction of rotation. Because their supply voltage waveforms already have a deﬁnite rotation sequence. they will continue to spin that way as long as AC power is maintained to the windings. It is this phase rotation that pulls the rotating magnet around in a deﬁnite direction. (Figure 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Notice that with the exact same sequence of polarity cycles (voltage. the combination of all three phase winding sets working together creates what is often called a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. The natural question should arise at this point: how can the motor get started in the intended direction if it can run either way just as well? The answer is that these motors need a little help getting started. Other strings just blink on and off with no apparent motion.302
CHAPTER 10. so do the respective magnetic ﬁelds generated by the motor’s stationary windings. Where that “help” comes from for a singlephase AC motor to get going in one direction can vary. The result is a set of magnetic ﬁelds with a deﬁnite phase rotation. What makes the difference between the two types of bulb strings? Answer: phase shift! Examine a string of lights where every other bulb is lit at any given time as in (Figure 10. and magnetic poles produced by the coils). it comes from an additional set of windings positioned differently from the main set.
27: Phase sequence 1212: lamps appear to move. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN
303
1a
2a
1b C I
2b
I
these two branch currents are out of phase with each other
Figure 10.4.10.26: Capacitor phase shift adds second phase.
Figure 10.
.
29. the direction of shaft rotation for polyphase motors is very easily reversed: just swap any two “hot” wires going to the motor. the rotating magnetic ﬁeld necessary for selfstarting must to be created by way of capacitive phase shift. With this blinking sequence.
1 all "1" bulbs lit 1 all "2" bulbs lit 1 all "3" bulbs lit 1 all "1" bulbs lit
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3 Time
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
phase sequence = 123 bulbs appear to be "moving" from left to right
Figure 10. Now the lights in Figure 10.29 appear to be “moving” in a clockwise direction because they are arranged around a circle instead of a straight line. The blinking pattern will either appear to move clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the phase sequence. the “2” bulbs are dark.” Now let’s examine a string of lights where there are three sets of bulbs to be sequenced instead of just two. Plus.28)). the bulbs will appear to “move” from left to right. there is no deﬁnite “motion” to the bulbs’ light. Technically. It should come as no surprise that the appearance of motion will reverse if the phase sequence of the bulbs is reversed. the “1” and “2” bulb blinking sequences are 180o out of phase (exactly opposite each other). This is analogous to the singlephase AC motor. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
When all of the “1” bulbs are lit. and it will run in the opposite direction! • REVIEW:
.30. the necessary phase shifts are there already.304
CHAPTER 10. If the lighting sequence is 123 (the sequence shown in (Figure 10. Now imagine this blinking string of bulbs arranged into a circle as in Figure 10. which can run just as easily in either direction. but which cannot start on its own because its magnetic ﬁeld alternation lacks a deﬁnite “rotation. With phase shifts of less than 180o we get true rotation of the magnetic ﬁeld.28. This is analogous to a threephase AC motor with three sets of windings energized by voltage sources of three different phase shifts in Figure 10.28: Phase sequence: 123: bulbs appear to move left to right. With polyphase motors. With singlephase motors. and these three sets are equally out of phase with each other in Figure 10. and vice versa. Your eyes could follow a “motion” from left to right just as easily as from right to left.
winding 2a winding 1a S
winding 3a winding 1b
winding 3b
N
winding 2b
Figure 10.
.30: Threephase AC motor: A phase sequence of 123 spins the magnet clockwise. bulbs appear to rotate clockwise. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN
305
2
3
all "1" bulbs lit
1
1
3 2
2 3 The bulbs appear to "move" in a clockwise direction
all "2" bulbs lit
1
1
3 2
2 3
all "3" bulbs lit
1
1
3
2
Figure 10.10.29: Circular arrangement.4. 321 spins the magnet counterclockwise.
306
CHAPTER 10.5
Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations
Initially we explored the idea of threephase power systems by connecting three voltage sources together in what is commonly known as the “Y” (or “star”) conﬁguration. as discussed earlier. there may or may not (Figure 10. (Figure 10. although it certainly helps alleviate potential problems should one element of a threephase load fail open.31: Threephase “Y” connection has three voltage sources connected to a common point. a deﬁnite direction of shaft rotation can be established. • Polyphase motors don’t need such measures.32. while the windings themselves are typically called phases. the “Y” conﬁguration becomes more obvious in Figure 10. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines.31)
120 V ∠ 0o
+ + + 120 V ∠ 240o
120 V ∠ 120o
Figure 10. • Singlephase induction motors often use an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor to create the necessary phase shift. • Swapping any two “hot” wires on a polyphase AC motor will reverse its phase sequence. • Singlephase AC motors of this type need help to get started spinning in a particular direction.33) be a neutral wire attached at the junction point in the middle. their direction of rotation is ﬁxed by the phase sequence of the voltage they’re powered by. thus reversing its shaft rotation.
. This conﬁguration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. In a Yconnected system. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
• AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors work by having a rotating magnet follow the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced by stationary wire windings.
10. • By introducing a phase shift of less than 180o to the magnetic ﬁelds in such a motor. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging.
"line"
"neutral"
3phase.33: Threephase. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
307
"line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line"
Figure 10.
"line"
(no "neutral" wire)
. 3wire "Y" connection "line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line"
Figure 10. threewire “Y” connection does not use the neutral wire.32: Threephase. fourwire “Y” connection uses a ”common” fourth wire.5.10.
Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced threephase source or load. If the Yconnected source or load is balanced. the phase voltage is 120 volts. then there will be no voltage available to push current around and around that loop. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced threephase system. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
When we measure voltage and current in threephase systems. the “Y” conﬁguration is not the only valid one for connecting threephase voltage source or load elements together. threewire ∆ connection has no common. Starting with the top winding and progressing counterclockwise.34.” for its geometric resemblance to the Greek letter of the same name (∆).308
CHAPTER 10. Another conﬁguration is known as the “Delta. electrons ﬂowing around the triangle with nothing but the internal impedance of the windings to hold them back. With the above circuit. the line voltage is roughly 208 volts.34: Threephase. If they do. we need to be speciﬁc as to where we’re measuring. and line currents equal to phase currents. this is not the case. however. Yconnected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages. Due to the phase angles of these three voltage sources. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3:
For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase
Iline = Iphase
However. One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero. For the circuit shown above. and consequently there will be no circulating current. Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure 10. At ﬁrst glance it seems as though three voltage sources like this would create a shortcircuit. and the latter to current through any one component. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor.
"line" 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + + 120 V ∠ 120o "line"
Figure 10. our KVL expression looks something like this:
"line"

.
because each line conductor attaches at a node between two windings.35)
120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 120o
+

Ebreak should equal 0 V
Figure 10. the resulting equations for a ∆ conﬁguration are as follows:
. our KVL
(120 V ∠ 120o) + (120 ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + Ebreak = 0 0 + Ebreak = 0 Ebreak = 0
Sure enough. if we add these three vector quantities together. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage. we turn to its practical use as a source of power in threephase circuits. Because each pair of line conductors is connected directly across a single winding in a ∆ circuit. the line current will be the vector sum of the two joining phase currents. there will be zero voltage across the break. Another way to verify the fact that these three voltage sources can be connected together in a loop without resulting in circulating currents is to open up the loop at one junction point and calculate voltage across the break: (Figure 10. they do add up to zero. Not surprisingly.
Starting with the right winding (120 V equation looks like this:
120o ) and progressing counterclockwise. telling us that no current will circulate within the triangular loop of windings when that connection is made complete. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
309
(120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + (120 V ∠ 120o) Does it all equal 0? Yes!
Indeed.35: Voltage across open ∆ should be zero.10. Having established that a ∆connected threephase voltage source will not burn itself to a crisp due to circulating currents.5. Conversely.
34 A
So each line current in this threephase power system is equal to 144. which is substantially more than the line currents in the Yconnected system we looked at earlier.310
CHAPTER 10. more costly wire. With each load resistance receiving 120 volts from its respective phase winding at the source. the current in each phase of this circuit will be 83.33 A)
Iline = 144. The answer is no.36: The load on the ∆ source is wired in a ∆.
. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase Iline = 3 Iphase
Let’s see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure 10. necessitating thicker. given the fact that we have such greater conductor currents. Although this circuit would require three number 1 gage copper conductors (at 1000 feet of distance between source and load this equates to a little over 750 pounds of copper for the whole system).33 A (for each load resistor and source winding)
Iline = Iline =
3
Iphase
3 (83.33 amps:
I= I=
P E 10 kW 120 V
I = 83.36)
120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V o ∠ 240 + 120 V ∠ 120o
10 kW
+

10 kW
10 kW
Figure 10. it is still less than the 1000+ pounds of copper required for a singlephase system delivering the same power (30 kW) at the same voltage (120 volts conductortoconductor).34 amps. One might wonder if we’ve lost all the advantages of threephase power here.
The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a ∆connected source is increased phase current in the remaining windings. in order to keep the phase voltages at the load from changing. the phase voltage will be constant regardless of open failures in the load elements.39) with the same winding failure in a Yconnected source In this case.
208 V + 120 V o ∠0 + 120 V ∠ 120o


104 V
104 V
winding failed open!
Figure 10. if dual voltages are needed (e. Yconnected systems are
. a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off). With each load phase element directly connected across a respective source phase winding.37: Even with a source winding failure.g. It is possible for one of the windings in a ∆connected threephase source to fail open (Figure 10. However.37) without affecting load voltage or current!
120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o
120 V
winding failed open!
120 V
120 V

Figure 10. and load phase voltage is still 120 V. The only difference is extra current in the remaining functional source windings. ∆connected sources are preferred for reliability. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
311
One distinct advantage of a ∆connected system is its lack of a neutral wire. two of the resistances suffer reduced voltage while one remains at the original line voltage. the line voltage is still 120 V. With a ∆connected load.10.5. two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely! For this reason. 208. A Yconnected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure 10. With a Yconnected system.38. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the ∆connected source is its fault tolerance. 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents. Compare this fault tolerance with a Yconnected system suffering an open source winding in Figure 10. This is not necessary (or even possible!) in a ∆connected circuit.38: Open “Y” source winding halves the voltage on two loads of a ∆ connected load.
the conﬁguration of choice. • REVIEW: • The conductors connected to the three points of a threephase source or load are called lines. • Line current is the current through any one line between a threephase source and load.39: Open source winding of a ”YY” system halves the voltage on two loads. while line current is equal to phase current times the square root of 3. while line current is equal to phase current. • Line voltage is the voltage measured between any two lines in a threephase circuit. • In balanced “Y” circuits. and looses one load entirely.
For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase
•
Iline =
3
Iphase
. line voltage is equal to phase voltage times the square root of 3. • Phase current is the current through any one component comprising a threephase source or load. • The three components comprising a threephase source or load are called phases. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
+ 120 V o ∠0


+ 120 V ∠ 120o
104 V 0V
104 V
winding failed open!
Figure 10.312
CHAPTER 10. line voltage is equal to phase voltage. • Phase voltage is the voltage measured across a single component in a threephase source or load.
For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase
• Iline = Iphase • In balanced ∆ circuits.
Yconnected sources can deliver the same amount of power with less line current than ∆connected sources. However. and are able to perform with less material requirement. as regular singlephase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two threephase systems in a variety of conﬁgurations. The various combinations of ways that these windings can be connected together in will be the focus of this section. while ∆ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open. it makes sense that we would need threephase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. However. the winding connection options are the same: • Primary . Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate transformer.6
Threephase transformer circuits
Since threephase is used so often for power distribution systems.40: Three phase transformer core has three sets of windings.10. and less weight than their modular counterparts. Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either ∆ or Y conﬁgurations to form a complete unit.
. less size. each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. A threephase transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings. This is only partially true. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
313
• ∆connected threephase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure than Yconnected sources.40. the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load).Secondary • • • • Y Y ∆ ∆ Y ∆ Y ∆
The reasons for choosing a Y or ∆ conﬁguration for transformer winding connections are the same as for any other threephase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages.6. special threephase transformers are built for those tasks.
Threephase transformer core
Figure 10. eliminating the requirement for a special threephase transformer.
10. Essentially it looks like three singlephase transformers sharing a joined core as in Figure 10.
Figure 10. as may outputs B1 . B2 . A2 .41: (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “” or all the “+” winding points together. I’ll show the wiring connections for a YY conﬁguration: Figure 10. starting with Figure 10. forming the ∆ loop.44) are connected in a chain. At
T2
T3
. First. B3 . Having both primary and secondary winding sets connected in “Y” formations allows for the use of neutral conductors (N1 and N2 ) in each power system. and C. A3 may be wired either “∆” or “Y”. Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren’t shown in regular Y or ∆ conﬁguration can be tricky. B.41)
+ ∠ 0o
+

+ ∠ 120o o
+∠0 o
∠ 240 (Y)
∠ 240
o
+ ( ∆)

+ ∠ 120o
Figure 10. the “dot” side of one winding connected to the “nondot” side of the next. we’ll take a look at a Y∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10. Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase windings of ∆ and Y: (Figure 10.44) Note how the secondary windings (bottom set. (∆) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to ). Now. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a threephase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings).
A1 B1 C1 T1 A2 B2 C2
Figure 10. Let me illustrate.314
CHAPTER 10.43 Note in Figure 10.42: Inputs A1 .42. Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one threephase system to another. while the nondot ends are connected together to form the centers of each “Y”.43 how all the winding ends marked with dots are connected to their respective phases A.
44: Phase wiring for “Y∆” transformer.6. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
315
YY A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 N2 A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.
.10.43: Phase wiring for “YY” transformer.
T2
T3
Y∆ A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 T2 T3
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.
some power system designers choose to create a threephase transformer bank with only two transformers. but it appears the secondaries are connected in a Y conﬁguration. ∆∆ connection schemes (Figure 10. If one of the two transformers were to fail.316
CHAPTER 10. a connection is made to a line of the second power system (A. Such a conﬁguration (Figure 10.48) shows a bank of stepup transformers at the Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam in Washington state.45) would allow for the provision of multiple voltages (linetoline or linetoneutral) in the second power system. being that there is only one large highvoltage insulator protruding from
. Bear in mind. and C). from a source power system having no neutral. but the overall size. weight. the load voltage and current would deﬁnitely be affected. B.” Of course. each of the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same amount of power as three in a standard ∆ conﬁguration. The following photograph (Figure 10. and cost advantages are often worth it. Several transformers (green in color) may be seen from this vantage point.45: Phase wiring for “∆Y” transformer.46) When there is no need for a neutral conductor in the secondary power system. that with one winding set missing from the ∆ shape.47) This conﬁguration is called “V” or “Open∆. Now.
∆Y
A1 B1 C1
T1 N2 A2 B2 C2
T2
T3
Figure 10.45. wired together in some form of threephase conﬁguration.46) are preferred because of the inherent reliability of the ∆ conﬁguration. let’s examine a ∆Y system in Figure 10. Considering that a ∆ conﬁguration can operate satisfactorily missing one winding. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
every connection point between pairs of windings. and they are grouped in threes: three transformers per hydroelectric generator. representing a ∆∆ conﬁguration with a missing winding in both the primary and secondary sides: (Figure 10. And ﬁnally. The photograph doesn’t reveal the primary winding connections. we turn to the ∆∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10. this system no longer provides the fault tolerance of a normal ∆∆ system. however.
"Open ∆" A1 B1 C1
T1
T2
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.6.46: Phase wiring for “∆∆” transformer.10.
. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
317
∆∆
A1 B1 C1
T1
T2
T3
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.47: “V” or “open∆” provides 2φ power with only two transformers.
Washington state. semiconductor powercontrol devices (diodes. causing nonsinusoidal current waveforms. Examples of nonlinear components include gasdischarge lamps. This suggests the other side of each transformer’s secondary winding is at or near ground potential. On the right. undistorted. we explored the concept of harmonics in AC systems: frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency. TRIACs).
10.49) Most nonlinear loads produce
. . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
each transformer. As we learned in the mixedfrequency chapter. transformers (primary winding magnetization current is usually nonsinusoidal due to the B/H saturation curve of the core). as the ﬁlament resistance changes throughout the cycle due to rapid ﬂuctuations in temperature. where the generators and turbines are housed. This would be true were it not for nonlinear components. (Figure 10. . The building to the left is the powerhouse. the harmonic frequencies will be odd integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency only. ideally. any distortion of an otherwise sinewave shaped waveform constitutes the presence of harmonic frequencies. and electric motors (again.318
CHAPTER 10. With AC power systems where the source voltage waveform coming from an AC generator (alternator) is supposed to be a singlefrequency sine wave. SCRs. with no even integer multiples.7
Harmonics in polyphase power systems
In the chapter on mixedfrequency signals. the sloping concrete wall is the downstream face of the dam:
Figure 10. which could only be true in a Y system. when magnetic ﬁelds within the motor’s core operate near saturation levels). Nonlinear components draw current disproportionately with respect to the source voltage.48: Stepup transfromer bank at Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam. there should be no harmonic content . USA. When the nonsinusoidal waveform in question is symmetrical above and below its average centerline. Even incandescent lamps generate slightly nonsinusoidal currents. transistors.
50. the odd harmonics can still cause problems. A . Even though half of the possible harmonic frequencies are eliminated by the typically symmetrical distortion of nonlinear loads.
Figure 10. for example. however. However. etc. Being completely linear in nature. See SPICE output “Fourier components of transient response v(2.52.7. First. you obtain a direct indication of current through it. 12th. we should expect no harmonics other than the 1st (fundamental) of 60 Hz.plot command appears in the SPICE netlist. 8th. and normally this would result in a sinewave graph output. since E = IR.50: Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms – even harmonics present. I’ve purposely omitted the waveform display for
. It is helpful to be able to simulate nonlinear loads in SPICE so as to avoid a lot of complex mathematics and obtain a more intuitive understanding of harmonic effects.
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 10. singlephase or otherwise. Some of these problems are general to all power systems. and it is these problems to which this section is speciﬁcally devoted. Transformer overheating due to eddy current losses.51) The Rsource and Rline resistances in this circuit do more than just mimic the real world: they also provide convenient shunt resistances for measuring currents in the SPICE simulation: by reading voltage across a 1 Ω resistance.10. Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms with even harmonics present are shown for reference in Figure 10. assuming a 60 Hz source.49: Examples of symmetrical waveforms – odd harmonics only.3)” and Figure 10. In this case. and so evennumbered harmonics (2nd.) are absent or only minimally present in most AC power systems. we’ll begin our simulation with a very simple AC circuit: a single sinewave voltage source with a purely linear load and all associated resistances: (Figure 10. 6th. 10th. A SPICE simulation of this circuit (SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”) with Fourier analysis on the voltage measured across Rline should show us the harmonic content of this circuit’s line current. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
319
current waveforms like this. there are some problems caused by harmonic currents that are speciﬁc to polyphase power systems. 4th. can occur in any AC power system where there is signiﬁcant harmonic content.
407E12 0.000000 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.four 60 v(2.399 7 4.200E+02 5.000E+02 1.000000 34.056E12 0.
linear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k .400E+02 3.51: SPICE circuit with single sinewave source.000E+01 1.324 9 5.tran 0.000000 41. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ
3
Rload
0
Figure 10.000 123.5m 30m 0 1u .000000 53.028E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.716E11 0.3) .320
CHAPTER 10.267 11.338E11 0.793E12 0.000000 21.000000 36.600E+02 3.800E+02 4.000000 4.plot tran v(2.343 8 4.931E11 0.122 37.end
Fourier components of transient response v(2.000 2 1.691
.3) .800E+02 7.461 108.000000 72.000000 83.453E11 0.198E01 1.400E+02 9.122 3 1.options itl5=0 .624 4 2.651E11 0.200E+02 2.324 93.461 6 3.399 30.267 5 3.691 total harmonic distortion = 0.000000 51.376 76.3) dc component = 4.657 125.
1198 amps of 60 Hz (fundamental) current as we did in the ﬁrst simulation. which is our expected load current: about 120 mA. See SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”. I’ll show the waveform plot in Figure 10. which is three times the source frequency of 60 Hz. Why don’t
.198E01) for the “Fourier component” of the 1st harmonic. since current sources of known value lend themselves better to mathematical network analysis than components with highly complex response characteristics. given a source voltage of 120 volts and a load resistance of 1 kΩ. brevity’s sake – the .55 and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. (See Figure 10. In this circuit. or the fundamental frequency. I’ll choose the latter approach shown in Figure 10.53 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. and so we see very small harmonic currents indicated (in the picoamp range!) for all frequencies up to the 9th harmonic (in the table ). the complexity of a semiconductor component would cause no trouble for us.3)”) the mixed frequencies are unmixed and presented separately. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
321
Figure 10. 180 Hz current source at work.9 mA: our 50 mA. but appearing in the 3rd harmonic row we see 49. which is as far as SPICE goes in performing Fourier analysis. but since current sources can be ﬁnetuned to produce any arbitrary amount of current (a convenient feature).54 just so you can see the effects of this 3rdharmonic current on the total current. its current will add with the resistor’s to make a nonsinusoidal total line current.1198 amps (1.plot command is in the netlist simply to satisfy a quirk of SPICE’s Fourier transform function. Here we see the same 0.52: Frequency domain plot of single frequency component. This can be done in two fundamentally different ways. We show 0. Another is to add some AC current sources in parallel with the load resistor. In the Fourier analysis. The latter method is often preferred by engineers for simulating harmonics. One way is to design a load using nonlinear components such as diodes or other semiconductor devices which are easy to simulate with SPICE.10. Since we’re letting SPICE do all the math work. Connected in parallel with the 1 kΩ load resistor. we have a current source of 50 mA magnitude and a frequency of 180 Hz. No discrete Fourier transform is perfect.7. Next. I’d like to simulate a nonlinear load so as to generate harmonic currents. which would ordinarily be a plain sine wave.
tran 0.
. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 60 Hz 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ
3
3
Rload
50 mA 180 Hz
0
0
Figure 10.plot tran v(2. Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) .four 60 v(2.3) .end
Figure 10.53: SPICE circuit: 60 Hz source with 3rd harmonic added.3) .5m 30m 0 1u .options itl5=0 .322
CHAPTER 10.54: SPICE timedomain plot showing sum of 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.
800E+02 4.619E10 0.400E+02 2.3) dc component = 1.198E01 1.000 2 1.000000 156.416667 144.666663 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.074E10 0.
.000 139.800E+02 1.000000 72.845 249.570 3 1.582 212.071 8 4.772 232.498
Figure 10.000E+01 1.498 total harmonic distortion = 41.400E+02 1.200E+02 1.000000 140.000000 67.546 5 3.000 97.200E+02 8.609E11 0.407E11 0.349E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.582 6 3.55: SPICE Fourier plot showing 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.000000 160.000 4 2.10.546 241.990E02 0.772 9 5.570 216.871E11 0.329E10 0.736E11 0.000000 169.000000 169.071 228.000E+02 3. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
323
Fourier components of transient response v(2.845 7 4.600E+02 5.7.000000 177.
See Figure 10. 3rd.324
CHAPTER 10. so some of its current is shunted through the load and never goes through the line back to the source. 5th. and each of those harmonic currents would appear in the Fourier analysis breakdown. It’s an inevitable consequence of this type of simulation. 3rd.
.” we would see further distortion of the line current waveform from the ideal sinewave shape.5m 30m 0 1u . and 9th harmonics present 3 3 3 3 3
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 120 V 60 Hz
Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 0 0 0 0 0
Figure 10.end As you can see from the Fourier analysis.
Nonlinear load: 1st. where one part of the load is “normal” (a resistor) and the other part is imitated by a current source.options itl5=0 . If we were to add more current sources to the “load.plot tran v(2. Two Fourier analyses will be performed: one for the voltage across a line resistor.58 and SPICE listing “YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics”.3) . reading voltages across ﬁxed resistances of 1 Ω each gives direct indications of current through those resistors. 7th. (Figure 10.four 60 v(2. at 49. See Figure 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
we see the entire 50 mA through the line? Because that current source is connected across the 1 kΩ load resistor. As before.57) every harmonic current source is equally represented in the line current.56 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har 3 0 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har 3 0 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har 3 0 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) . and 9th harmonics present. this is just a singlephase power system simulation. 5th.tran 0. Things get more interesting when we make it a threephase simulation. 7th.56: Nonlinear load: 1st. and one for the voltage across the neutral resistor.3) . So far.9 mA each.
908 3 1.469E09 0.000 2 1.908 216.000 4 2.271E09 0.416667 144.000 157.416666 144.800E+02 2.000 33.3)”.57: Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.416667 0.990E02 0.200E+02 1.781 9 5.000
Figure 10.000 6 3.062 72.900E09 0.198E01 1.000000 72.990E02 0.062 7 4.742E09 0.990E02 0.873 72.400E+02 4.000E+01 1.600E+02 6.000000 38.800E+02 4.000 21.873 5 3.219 144.416666 72.
.000 44.7.400E+02 5.200E+02 4.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.000000 85.000000 116.990E02 0.000 8 4.000E+02 4.299E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.333296 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
325
Fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 93.3) dc component = 6.10.
tran 0.7) .55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.four 60 v(2.5m 100m 12m 1u .55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.8) .1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .plot tran v(0.options itl5=0 .7) .1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.plot tran v(2.1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.8) .1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line and neutral wire resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 rneutral 0 7 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.326
CHAPTER 10.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.end
.four 60 v(0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.
811 9 5. we would expect the neutral current to be zero.000 8 4. and odd harmonic currents of approximately 50 mA each.198E01 1.000 2 1.416667 0. (Figure 10.1198 amps. as determined by the voltage drop across the Rneutral resistor between SPICE nodes 0 and 7.146 7 4.811 0.000 6 3.800E+02 2.8)” What should be surprising here is the analysis for the neutral conductor’s current.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.800E+02 4.218E10 0.990 0.990 5 3. Each
.400E+02 4.200E+02 2.400E+02 4.600E+02 1.000E+01 1.877E10 0.985 3 1. Consequently. See Figure 10.000 148.985 0. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier components of transient response v(2.8) dc component = 6.415422 0. YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 9
327
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 60 Hz 120 V 240o 1Ω 1Ω
4 Rsource 3 120 V 60 Hz 120o Rneutral 1Ω 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1 kΩ Rload 1Ω 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz
7
Vsource 5 Rsource 6
Rline 1Ω
10
Figure 10.990E02 0.000000 147.000 4 2.404E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.200E+02 4.000000 172.236E10 0. it should come as no surprise that the Fourier analysis for line current in one phase of the 3phase system is nearly identical to the Fourier analysis for line current in the singlephase system: a fundamental (60 Hz) line current of 0.975E02 0.000 172.000 166.59 and Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 166.000000 0.975E02 0. each phase identical to the singlephase AC system simulated earlier.000
Fourier analysis of neutral current: This is a balanced YY power system.58: SPICE circuit: analysis of “line current” and “neutral current”.000 147.10.990E02 0.60) In a balanced 3phase Y load.7.209009 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.784E10 0.000E+02 4.416666 0.000000 148.146 0.415423 0.
396E10 0.882 7 4.200E+02 1.993 8 4.001378 35.025 24.493E01 344147.018 81.434 240.328
CHAPTER 10.7) dc component = 1.4889 179.819E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000000 60.600E+02 3.869E10 0.975E10 0.121 59.800E+02 1.200E+02 1.264E06 2.080596 119.000783 15.000 31.023E07 2.400E+02 1.188 240.584 9 5.000E+01 4.206 3 1.000 4 2.002898 21.999
normalized phase (deg) 0.400E+02 1.59: Fourier analysis of line current in balanced YY system
Fourier components of transient response v(0.913955 59.963 44. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Figure 10.981 6 3.337E07 1.257E09 0.136 0.103 5 3.000E+02 9.7638 180.017
.493E01 344147.018 2 1.800E+02 5.000431 91.
10. The phase shift ﬁgure of 120o generally assumed in threephase AC systems applies only to the
. Note that the fundamental frequency (60 Hz. you will ﬁnd exactly two positive halfcycles and one negative halfcycle of the harmonic waveform. this is what happens. it appears our 3rd and 9th harmonic currents in each phase are adding to form the neutral current. or the 1st harmonic) current is virtually absent from the neutral conductor.7) ” This is exactly what’s happening. The same may be said about the 5th and 7th harmonics. What this means is that the 3rdharmonic waveforms of three 120o phaseshifted fundamentalfrequency waveforms are actually in phase with each other. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
329
Figure 10.62. Our Fourier analysis shows only 0. With three sources per harmonic frequency in the load. Let’s consider. The key to understanding this is made clear in a timedomain graph of phase currents. individually. the 3rd and 9th harmonics are strongly represented within the neutral conductor. However. In a system with no harmonic currents. it is easy to see how they would cancel each other to give a resultant current of zero in the neutral conductor.4337 µA of 1st harmonic when reading voltage across Rneutral . See Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(0.3 mA (1. with a phase sequence of 123. (Figure 10.61) With the three fundamental waveforms equally shifted across the time axis of the graph. what a 3rd harmonic waveform for phase 1 would look like superimposed on the graph in Figure 10. both of those currents having negligible magnitude. In contrast. with 149.493E01 volts across 1 Ω) each! This is very nearly 150 mA. we cannot say the same for harmonic currents in the same system. Observe how this harmonic waveform has the same phase relationship to the 2nd and 3rd fundamental waveforms as it does with the 1st: in each positive halfcycle of any of the fundamental waveforms. though it might not be apparent why this is so. Examine this plot of balanced phase currents over time.59 phase current – which by itself would go through the neutral wire back to the supplying phase on the source Y – should cancel each other in regard to the neutral conductor because they’re all the same magnitude and all shifted 120o apart. though.7. or three times the current sources’ values.60: Fourier analysis of neutral current shows other than no harmonics! Compare to line current in Figure 10. leaving zero current through the neutral conductor.
1
2
3
TIME
Figure 10.
.330
CHAPTER 10.2.2.2.3.61: Phase sequence 123123123 of equally spaced waves.62: Third harmonic waveform for phase1 superimposed on threephase fundamental waveforms. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
phase sequence: 1.1.3.3 1 2 3
TIME
Figure 10.1.
not only are the 3rd harmonic waveforms of each fundamental waveform in phase with each other. 2. the 12th harmonics. Thus. etc. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
331
fundamental frequencies. both at the same frequency.) are generally not signiﬁcant. etc. 9th. Suppose that A represents one waveform and B another. respectively.10. but shifted 120o from each other in terms of phase. which is to say no phase shift at all.) to signiﬁcantly contribute to neutral currents. this effect occurs
. For the more mathematically inclined. A phase shift of 360o is the same as a phase shift of 0o . leaving only the oddnumbered multiples (3rd. or 360o at the frequency of A’ and B’. this principle may be expressed symbolically. and so on.63)
1 2 3
TIME
Figure 10. A’ and B’ must be in phase with each other:
Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o
3rd harmonic
A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o)
This characteristic of the 3rd harmonic in a threephase system also holds true for any integer multiples of the 3rd harmonic. not to their harmonic multiples! If we were to plot all three 3rdharmonic waveforms on the same graph. Let’s call the 3rd harmonic of each waveform A’ and B’.63: Third harmonics for phases 1. and the timeshift between A’ and B’ is equivalent to 120o at a frequency three times lower. 12th. we would see them precisely overlap and appear as a single.7. 18th. 21st. but so are the 6th harmonics. 15th. but 3 times that. Since only odd harmonics appear in systems where waveform distortion is symmetrical about the centerline – and most nonlinear loads create symmetrical distortion – evennumbered multiples of the 3rd harmonic (6th. the 21st harmonics. When relating waveforms of different frequency. uniﬁed waveform (shown in bold in (Figure 10. the 15th harmonics. So. the most accurate way to represent phase shift is in terms of time. the 18th harmonics. The shift between waveforms is only accurately expressed in terms of phase angle when the same angular velocity is assumed. The phase shift between A’ and B’ is not 120o (that is the phase shift between A and B). In polyphase power systems with some number of phases other than three. the 9th harmonics. 3 all coincide when superimposed on the fundamental threephase waveforms. because the A’ and B’ waveforms alternate three times as fast as A and B.
meaning that each phase of the load will receive a different voltage than what is produced by the source. “5ω” represents the 5th harmonic. The following illustration shows how triplen harmonic currents created at the load add within the neutral conductor. but the 3rd and 9th harmonic currents are of negligible magnitude. “ω” represents the fundamental frequency. 16th. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
with harmonics of the same multiple. one might be tempted to remove the neutral wire entirely. and so on. “3ω ” represents the 3rd harmonic. 20th. right? Unfortunately.64: “YY”Triplen source/load: Harmonic currents add in neutral conductor. So. we see that the triplen harmonic currents (3rd and 9th) all but disappear in the lines connecting load to source. indeed. All triplen harmonics add with each other in the neutral conductor of a 4wire Yconnected load. and is mathematically equivalent to 2πf. First. This is very problematic.64)
Source
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line line
Load
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω
3ω
neutral
3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω
5ω
7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
Figure 10. the harmonic currents that add in the neutral conductor of a starconnected 4phase system where the phase shift between fundamental waveforms is 90o would be the 4th. we see that there is substantial harmonic
. If there is no neutral wire in which triplen currents can ﬂow together. We’ll rerun the last SPICE simulation without the 1 Ω Rneutral resistor and see what happens: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Strange things are happening. 8th. The symbol “ω” is used to represent angular velocity. then they won’t. Second. the triplen harmonic currents may be of great enough magnitude to cause neutral conductors to overheat. doing so just causes a different problem: the load’s “Y” centerpoint will no longer be at the same potential as the source’s. In an effort to mitigate these additive triplen currents. For instance.332
CHAPTER 10. 12th. The 5th and 7th harmonic currents are present at their normal levels (approximately 50 mA). In power systems containing substantial nonlinear loading. and so on: (Figure 10. as other safety concerns prohibit neutral conductors from having overcurrent protection. and thus there is no provision for automatic interruption of these high currents. Due to their abundance and signiﬁcance in threephase power systems. the 3rd harmonic and its multiples have their own special name: triplen harmonics.
four 60 v(8.7) .plot tran v(0.1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.7.four 60 v(2.end
333
.10.plot tran v(8. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
YY source/load (no neutral) with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.four 60 v(0.55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.7) .7) .8) .5m 100m 12m 1u .55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.8) .55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.tran 0.plot tran v(2.options itl5=0 .7) .1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.
584 9 5.638 90.416668 0.485 7 4.990E02 0.000 19.7879 180.423E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.882 7 4.000E+02 3.198E+02 1.121 59.995E02 0.025 24.009 111.7) dc component = 6.200E+02 2.210E07 0.000 158.000E+01 344147.136E07 0.747 5 3.263E08 0.000E+01 1.009 4 2.000 4 2.600E+02 8.000 90.016 3 1.023E07 0.565 0.400E+02 5.188 240.136 0.510 5 3.417500 180.453E04 1.093E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000000 35.000000 19.747 179.800E+02 5.000000 0.000E+02 9.000783 15.400E+02 4.400E+02 9.473 3 1.234E04 2.000000 159.400E+02 4.981 6 3.000E+01 0.850 6 3.200E+02 6.800E+02 2.018 81.206 3 1.462 9 5.800E+02 5.000 2 1.510 0.400E+02 5.999 total harmonic distortion = ************ percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.000E+01 1.8) dc component = 5.000835 179.000431 91.925539 percent Fourier components of transient response v(0.999
.790 8 4.000003 90.000000 124.080596 119.000E+01 0.565 7 4.016 90.999 total harmonic distortion = 59.963E11 0.7) dc component = 6.200E+02 4.005
normalized phase (deg) 0.000000 90.485 179.959E02 0.231E08 0.103 5 3.000 159.388E10 0.416665 0.000008 90.200E+02 4.017
normalized phase (deg) 0.417499 179.001E07 0.000E+01 344147.000 124.800E+02 3.850 13.000 8 4.138E07 0.005 total harmonic distortion = 58.000E+02 4.913955 59.600E+02 1.800E+02 8.990E02 0.000000 158.000 6 3.198E01 1.018 2 1.000000 60.800E+02 1.991E07 0.002898 21.638 9 5.000 2 1.070E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.023E04 2.001378 35.963 44.200E+02 9.606E11 0.000000 0.000 31.462 179.400E+02 5.4728 179. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Fourier components of transient response v(2.000 4 2.126E11 0.278E07 0.473 180.434 240.043467 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.993 8 4.600E+02 1.000000 111.406E07 0.000832 179.200E+02 6.334
CHAPTER 10.000E+01 1.000000 13.789 35.
55555 milliseconds. The 120o phaseshifted source has these ﬁgures: “(0 207. and source phase current (voltage across Rsource . and also to harmonic load phase voltages of equal magnitude. balanced Y system. 60 Hz. (Figure 10.55555m 0)”. In summary.846 60 0 0)”. removal of the neutral conductor leads to a “hot” centerpoint on the load “Y”. or 1/3 of the full
. perhaps switching to a ∆ conﬁguration will. there is 50 volts of both 3rd and 9th harmonic frequency between these two points.65 is a graphical summary of the aforementioned effects. the 0o source has these ﬁve specifying ﬁgures: “(0 207.7. to ensure the load phase voltages remain at 120 volts each). Let’s try a ∆ source instead of a Y. keeping the load in its present Y conﬁguration. Figure 10.
Source
ω 5ω 7ω
line line
ω 5ω 7ω
Load
V
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
3ω 9ω
V
3ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 5ω 7ω
Figure 10. the undesirable effect from harmonics was excessive neutral current.10. Thus. and see what happens. the voltage as measured across one of the load’s phases (between nodes 8 and 7 in the SPICE analysis) likewise shows strong triplen harmonic voltages of 50 volts each. Triplen voltages appear across load phases. and 0 damping factor. skip this paragraph! When simulating circuits having AC sources of differing frequency and differing phase. 207. all the same as the ﬁrst except for the time delay factor of 5. all comprised of triplen frequencies.846 volts peak amplitude (120 times the square root of three. but at least each phase of the load received voltage nearly free of harmonics. Since removing the neutral wire didn’t seem to work in eliminating the problems caused by harmonics.846 60 5. Yconnected system. load phase voltage (nodes 8 and 7). The measured parameters will be line current (voltage across Rline . 0 time delay. the only way to do it in SPICE is to set up the sources with a delay time or phase offset speciﬁed in seconds. According to SPICE. nodes 1 and 2). Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors. If you just want to ﬁnd out what happens in the circuit. nodes 0 and 8). between which the neutral conductor used to connect. which is deﬁnitely not normal in a linear (no harmonics).66) Note: the following paragraph is for those curious readers who follow every detail of my SPICE netlists. Finally.65: Threewire “YY” (no neutral) system: Triplen voltages appear between “Y” centers. which means 0 volts DC offset. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
335
voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints. In the previous simulation where we had a 4wire.
16666m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 4.72222m 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 15.2) .8) v(8.7) v(1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
DeltaY source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource1 1 0 sin(0 207.8) v(8.1111m rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 8 1 rline2 2 9 1 rline3 4 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 9.846 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource2 3 2 sin(0 207.846 60 11.plot tran v(0.5m 100m 16m 1u .72222m 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 9.16666m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 4.16666m 0) * * analysis stuff .72222m 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 9.2777m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 15.2) .7) v(1.16666m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 4.2777m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 15.options itl5=0 .336
CHAPTER 10.846 60 5.end
0 deg)
120 deg) 0)
240 deg) 0)
.four 60 v(0.2777m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 15.55555m rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource3 5 4 sin(0 207.2777m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 4.72222m 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 9.tran 0.
7. Therefore. which gives all sources in the netlist time to engage before any analysis takes place. they don’t “turn on” until their delay time has elapsed. VB . Both 5th and 7th harmonics are represented there. This is an intrinsic property of all ∆Y circuits and not a quirk of SPICE.6667 milliseconds for a 60 Hz waveform. 90o . the load components receive the same harmonicallyrich voltages and the lines see the same currents as in a threewire Y system. The result of this analysis is almost as disappointing as the last.
. The Yconnected load. then “Y” load voltages VA . because the phase voltages in a Y load are not in phase with the phase voltages of a ∆ source.1111 milliseconds. 120o .66: DeltaY source/load with harmonics period of 16.16666 milliseconds (90o ). The 240o source must be timedelayed twice that amount.6667 milliseconds. when I speciﬁed the delay times for the harmonic sources. This is for the ∆connected source. with negligible triplen harmonics: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: Really. and VCB are referenced at 0o . (Figure 10. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
0 Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 4 1 kΩ Rload 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o 9
337
2
Rsource 120 V 60 Hz o 3 120 1Ω 4
1 kΩ
Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz
1 kΩ
Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz
1 1Ω 2 Vsource Rsource
7
Rline 4 1Ω
10
Figure 10. One ﬁnal note: when delaying AC sources in SPICE. equivalent to a fraction of 240/360 of 16. and 210o . requires a different set of timedelay ﬁgures for its harmonic current sources. and VC will have phase angles of 30o . VBA . and 9. respectively. Consequently.tran transient analysis line to hold off analysis until 16 milliseconds after start.72222 milliseconds (210o ). or 11. I had to set them at 15. with a full 50 volts of triplen harmonic (3rd and 9th) frequencies across each load component. Otherwise. or +330o ). and load phase voltages remain unchanged as well. on the other hand.2777 milliseconds (30o .67) Line currents remain unchanged (the only substantial harmonic content being the 5th and 7th harmonics). If ∆ source voltages VAC . the only advantage of the ∆Y conﬁguration from the standpoint of harmonics is that there is no longer a centerpoint at the load posing a shock hazard. which should come as no surprise. which means any mathematical analysis up to that point in time will be in error. I set the . respectively. Source phase current is a fraction of the line current. and 240o . 4.10.
000540 151.906E02 1.112 6 3.400E+02 2.998 324.850E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.722 149.198E01 1.570 5 3.398E07 0.000000 49.324E11 0.002 6 3.000E+01 0.600E+02 2.926 7 4.181 2 1.000578 148.813 39.033E11 0.000062 0.772 5 3.993E02 0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Fourier components of transient response v(0.000E+01 1.815 91.000000 156.998 4 2.140E11 0.875 9 5.693 3 1.995 total harmonic distortion = 58.267E06 0.000000 0.228 119.004109 percent Fourier components of transient response v(1.200E+02 1.000000 174.000 9.723 3 1.998 83.453 324.519E07 0.000000 150.525E11 0.433E07 0.000000 174.000000 110.000000 91.200E+02 1.000E+02 6.400E+02 2.800E+02 8.2) dc component = 3.8) dc component = 6.024E11 0.000000 66.815 110.493 179.994E02 0.000000 159.802 7 4.000 2 1.931E02 0.994 8 4.422E06 0.548 8 4.506E06 0.000013 0.000021 179.162 7 4.005 4 2.996 97.000 100.995
normalized phase (deg) 0.996 6 3.416644 29.234E11 0.200 9 5.198E+02 1.000000 39.198 179.883E02 0.200E+02 4.416682 30.800E+02 2.390 179.397 5 3.200E+02 2.491E11 0.925038 percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.998 92.466E02 0.000E+01 1.000000 52.564E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.417221 90.000 2 1.000E+01 6.259E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.600E+02 2.897 59.800E+02 1.800E+02 5.603 301.694 0.000000 57.600E+02 1.000E+02 2.949E11 0.800E+02 1.996 4 2.897 9 5.417398 179.518E06 0.031969 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.400E+02 1.998 8 4.338
CHAPTER 10.883E02 0.200 329.7) dc component = 1.000000 150.995
normalized phase (deg) 0.400E+02 4.200E+02 6.800E+02 4.417222 89.674 3 1.400E+02 4.000 156.200E+02 2.745 179.000E+02 4.307 239.000038 179.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.417440 179.400E+02 5.186
.941E07 0.000E+01 0.838 1.112 81.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.000000 68.
10. “Fourier analysis: Fourier components of transient response v(0.67: “∆Y” source/load: Triplen voltages appear across load phases. nor in the load phase voltage. Note the directions that the arrows of the current sources within the load phases are pointing. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
339
Source
ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω
line line
ω 5ω 7ω
Load
ω
3ω
5ω
ω 5ω 7ω
ω 5ω 7ω 3ω 9ω
7ω 9ω
V
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 5ω 7ω
Figure 10. See SPICE listing: “DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics”. with negligible harmonic content. the load phase voltage is almost a pure sinewave. It would seem to be the ideal solution. These results may be graphically summarized as such in Figure 10.7.68) that should guarantee that each load component receives nonharmonic voltage.6)”. What we would have is current circulating within the loop formed by the ∆connected phases. and think about what would happen if the 3rd and 9th harmonic sources were DC sources instead. analyzing line current. never reaching the line conductors or the windings of the source. nor in the source phase current! We know that triplen currents exist. load phase voltage. The complete lack of any neutral wires or “center points” in a ∆∆ system prevents strange voltages or additive currents from occurring.1)”. But what happened to the triplen harmonics? The 3rd and 9th harmonic frequencies don’t appear in any substantial amount in the line current. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: As predicted earlier. Let’s simulate and observe. (Figure 10. but where did those currents go? Remember that the triplen harmonics of 120o phaseshifted fundamental frequencies are in phase with each other. Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors and in source phase windings. This is where the triplen harmonic currents have gone: they stay within the ∆ of the load. and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. If we were to reconﬁgure the system into a ∆∆ arrangement.69. because the 3rd and 9th harmonic current sources are intentionally placed in the phases of the load. and source phase current. thanks to the direct connection with the source phases in a ∆∆ system. This is a major beneﬁt of the ∆∆ system conﬁguration: triplen harmonic currents remain
. since each load phase would be directly connected in parallel with each source phase.
69: ∆∆ source/load: Load phases receive undistorted sinewave voltages. Triplen currents are conﬁned to circulate within load phases.
Source
ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω
line line
ω 5ω 7ω
Load
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 5ω 7ω
ω 5ω 7ω ω
V
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 5ω 7ω
Figure 10. Nontriplen currents apprear in line conductors and in source phase windings.340
CHAPTER 10.
. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω
0
Rload 1 kΩ 50 mA 180 Hz 50 mA 300 Hz 50 mA 420 Hz 50 mA 540 Hz
2
6
7
120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o
Rsource 120 V 60 Hz 120o 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload
1 1Ω 2 Vsource 3 Rsource 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA
1Ω 4
4 8
Rline 4 1Ω
Figure 10.68: DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics.
6) v(7.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 4 sin(0 120 60 11. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 2 sin(0 120 60 5.55555m 0) i9har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.1111m 0) rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 6 1 rline2 2 7 1 rline3 4 8 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 7 6 1k i3har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 8 7 1k i3har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.5m 100m 16m 1u .1111m 0) i5har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 300 11.7.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .1) i(3har1) .55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 6 8 1k i3har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 180 11.plot tran v(0.options itl5=0 .55555m 0) i7har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.6) v(7.tran 0.end
341
.6) v(2.four 60 v(0.55555m 0) i5har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.6) v(2.10.1111m 0) i9har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 540 11.1111m 0) i7har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 420 11.1) .
000 144.400E+02 4.400E+02 2.200E+02 1.416918 180.000 151.000000 22.000000 63.127 180.475 7 4.999 6 3.000E+02 8.905
normalized phase (deg) 0.000 6 3.499E09 0.010 141.000003 89.235702 percent Fourier components of transient response v(2. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Fourier components of transient response v(0.000008 89.013
normalized phase (deg) 0.000000 156.400E+02 9.951E09 0.000000 89.000E+02 4.000000 23.974 4 2.400E+02 1.000E+02 1.127 5 3.000000 4.000 181.368 5 3.980E02 0.416664 149.000000 31.925538 percent Fourier components of transient response v(7.939 243.400E+02 4.000 8 4.905 total harmonic distortion = 0.997 0.800E+02 1.001 213.200E+02 5.749 3 1.416921 180.760 180.416669 150.000 2 1.000 6 3.940 2 1.480E11 0.985 4 2.007E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.001667 180.385 89.800E+02 3.449 89.800E+02 6.666 3 1.800E+02 2.070E01 1.939 202.400E+02 3.699 89.385E07 0.385 9 5.257E07 0.039E09 0.215E10 0.6) dc component = 6.089E10 0.187 5 3.1) dc component = 1.923E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.195E+02 1.342
CHAPTER 10.578E10 0.000 8 4.000000 151.813 300.000 6.200E+02 8.001667 180.940 60.000003 89.000000 133.000000 0.6) dc component = 5.000000 63.000000 150.759 9 5.129E07 0.911E11 0.940 9 5.000000 144.385E11 0.600E+02 1.194E01 1.200E+02 4.000 4.000000 36.997 7 4.415 359.000E+01 2.949
.980E02 0.000E+01 1.000000 179.571 359.800E+02 7.800E+02 1.000 46.600E+02 2.760 7 4.569E11 0.595E11 0.001 8 4.974 36.749 89.955 156.990 4 2.491 3 1.666 60.961298 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.991 total harmonic distortion = 58.000000 89.626E02 0.200E+02 2.000009 89.251E06 0.000E+01 1.992E01 0.600E+02 4.626E02 0.987 total harmonic distortion = 58.000000 8.200E+02 1.992E01 0.752E06 0.680E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.877E06 0.657E11 0.000 2 1.
Since any distortion of an originally pure sinewave constitutes harmonic frequencies. we can say that nonlinear components generate harmonic currents. no rotation. 12th. • In a 4wire YY system.8. They are in phase with each other. and C are 120o apart. despite the fact that their respective fundamental waveforms are 120o out of phase with each other. that is. not evennumbered. and integer multiples of it (6th.8
Harmonic phase sequences
In the last section. the thirdharmonic multiples of those frequencies (180 Hz) fall perfectly into phase with each other. the only harmonics present will be oddnumbered. • Triplen harmonic currents in a ∆connected set of components circulate within the loop formed by the ∆.10. • When the sinewave distortion is symmetrical above and below the average centerline of the waveform. HARMONIC PHASE SEQUENCES
343
conﬁned in whatever set of components create them.
. C all coincide. where phases A. B. • The 3rd harmonic.
10. B. In a 60 Hz threephase power system. triplen harmonic currents add within the neutral conductor.70) and/or in mathematical terms:
A B C
TIME
Figure 10. This can be thought of in graphical terms. we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its integer multiples (collectively called triplen harmonics) generated by 120o phaseshifted fundamental waveforms are actually in phase with each other. and do not “spread” to other parts of the system. • REVIEW: • Nonlinear components are those that draw a nonsinusoidal (nonsinewave) current waveform when energized by a sinusoidal (sinewave) voltage. (Figure 10.70: Harmonic currents of Phases A. 15th) are known as triplen harmonics. 9th.
240o)
CBA
(120 ) B’’’ 7 x 120o
(840o = 720o + 120o)
o
(240 ) C’’’ 7 x 240o
(1680o = 1440o + 240o)
o
7th harmonic
ABC
9th harmonic
(240 ) C’’’’ no 9 x 240o o o rotation (1080o = 0o) (2160 = 0 )
(120 ) B’’’’ 9 x 120o
o
o
Harmonics such as the 7th. are called negative sequence. This pattern of positivezeronegativepositive continues indeﬁnitely for all oddnumbered harmonics. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o
3rd harmonic
A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o)
If we extend the mathematical table to include higher oddnumbered harmonics.344
CHAPTER 10. we will notice an interesting pattern develop with regard to the rotation or sequence of the harmonic frequencies:
Fundamental
A 0o
B 120o
C 240o
ABC no rotation
3rd harmonic
A’ B’ C’ 3 x 0o 3 x 120o 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) A’’ 5 x 0o (0o) A’’’ 7 x 0o (0o) A’’’’ 9 x 0o (0o) B’’ 5 x 120o
(600o = 720o . Harmonics such as the 5th. are called zero sequence.120o)
5th harmonic
C’’ 5 x 240o
(1200o = 1440o . Triplen harmonics (3rd and 9th shown in this table) which don’t “rotate” at all because they’re in phase with each other. lending itself to expression in a table like this:
. which “rotate” with the same sequence as the fundamental. are called positive sequence. which “rotate” in the opposite sequence as the fundamental.
9
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. the primary harmonic of concern is the 5th. Zerosequence frequencies neither contribute to nor detract from the rotor’s torque. whereas negativesequence frequencies actually work against the direction of the rotor’s rotation. from most recent to ﬁrst. and/or 23rd) in the power supplied to a threephase AC motor will result in a degradation of performance and possible overheating. Positivesequence frequencies work to push the rotor in the proper direction. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.
10. An excess of negativesequence harmonics (5th. 2002): Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly”. since the mechanical rotation of the rotor depends on the torque produced by the sequential “rotation” of the applied 3phase power. and generally originate with less amplitude anyway. 17th.9. Since the higherorder harmonics tend to be attenuated more by system inductances and magnetic core losses. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.10. CONTRIBUTORS
345
Rotation sequences according to harmonic number + 0 1st 7th 13th 19th 3rd 9th 15th 21st 5th 11th 17th 23rd Rotates with fundamental Does not rotate Rotates against fundamental
Sequence especially matters when we’re dealing with AC motors. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Ed Beroset (May 6. 11th. which is 300 Hz in 60 Hz power systems and 250 Hz in 50 Hz power systems.
.
346
CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
.
. . . . . . . . .3 Calculating power factor . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits
Consider a circuit for a singlephase AC power system. .2 True. . . . . . . 355 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Ac source drives a purely resistive load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Contributors . . . . . . . . 60 Hz AC voltage source is delivering power to a resistive load: (Figure 11. . Reactive. . . . . . . . . 347
. . . . 360 11. . . 347 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 352 11. . . . . . .1)
120 V 60 Hz
R
60 Ω
Figure 11. . . . . . .1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits . .Chapter 11
POWER FACTOR
Contents
11. . . .4 Practical power factor correction . . . . . . . . . . where a 120 volt. . . . . and Apparent power . . . 365
11. . .
. and never returned to the source as it is with reactive loads. its frequency is double that of either the voltage or current waveforms. If the source were a mechanical generator.2: Current is in phase with voltage in a resistive circuit. never negative for this resistive circuit. because this form of mathematical symbolism implies unchanging phase relationships. let’s consider a simple AC circuit with a purely reactive load in Figure 11. current. As strange as it may seem. Because this load is purely resistive (no reactance). and calculations look similar to that in an equivalent DC circuit. RMS. For comparison. POWER FACTOR
ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o I= I= E Z 120 V 60 Ω
I=2A
In this example. the current to the load would be 2 amps. the current is in phase with the voltage. This means that power is always being dissipated by the resistive load. Note that the waveform for power is always positive. phase relationships constantly change. This different frequency prohibits our expression of power in an AC circuit using the same complex (rectangular or polar) notation as used for voltage. The power dissipated at the load would be 240 watts. Also note that the waveform for power is not at the same frequency as the voltage or current! Rather. it would take 240 watts worth of mechanical energy (about 1/3 horsepower) to turn the shaft. current. If we were to plot the voltage.3.
e= i= p= + Time 
Figure 11. it would look like Figure 11. and power waveforms for this circuit. and impedance. When frequencies are not the same.2. and to handle any relevant phase relationships with trigonometry. the best way to proceed with AC power calculations is to use scalar notation.348
CHAPTER 11.
. If the source were a mechanical generator. Though it is alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.11.989 A
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 11.4) This means that power is being alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.1.4: Power is not dissipated in a purely reactive load.
XL = 60.319 Ω ∠ 90o I= I= E Z 120 V 60. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS
349
120 V 60 Hz
L
160 mH
Figure 11. The generator shaft would be easy to spin. it would take (practically) no net mechanical energy to turn the shaft. (Figure 11. Now.319 Ω or 60.319 Ω
I = 1.3: AC circuit with a purely reactive (inductive) load. because no power would be used by the load.319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60. Note that the power alternates equally between cycles of positive and negative. and the inductor would not become warm as a resistor would.5. let’s consider an AC circuit with a load consisting of both inductance and resistance in Figure 11.
our load current is 1.152o
I= I=
E Z 120 V 85.319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60. we may calculate current in the circuit by taking the polar magnitude of the voltage source (120 volts) and dividing it by the polar magnitude of the impedance (85. This reactance combines with the 60 Ω of resistance to form a total load impedance of 60 + j60. The only thing left to dissipate power here is the
. any inductive reactance in this load will likewise dissipate zero power. POWER FACTOR
Load
Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload
160 mH
60 Ω
Figure 11.350
CHAPTER 11.078 Ω).319 Ω or 85.319 Ω of inductive reactance.078 Ω ∠ 45.319 Ω ∠ 90o ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o Ztotal = 60 + j60.410 A
At a frequency of 60 Hz.319 Ω or 60.
XL = 60.078 Ω
I = 1. as they equally absorb power from. If we’re not concerned with phase angles (which we’re not at this point). We already know that reactive components dissipate zero power.5: AC circuit with both reactance and resistance.319 Ω. or 85.078 Ω 45. With a power supply voltage of 120 volts RMS. the 160 millihenrys of inductance gives us 60. This is the ﬁgure an RMS ammeter would indicate if connected in series with the resistor and inductor. and return power to.410 amps. the rest of the circuit.152o . Therefore.
Because of this way in which AC power differs from AC voltage or current. The reactance dissipates no power. Furthermore.
. As with any reactive circuit. resistance. However. Whereas the angle for voltage or current represents a relative shift in timing between two waves.1. the phase angle for power represents a ratio between power dissipated and power returned. Rather. we see how this combination works in Figure 11.11. the phase angle for power means something quite different from the phase angle for either voltage or current. Voltage and current are 90o out of phase with each other. Voltage and current are in phase with each other. Mathematically representing power in an AC circuit is a challenge. current. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS
351
resistive portion of the load impedance. and reactance than it is to try to derive it from vector. it is actually easier to arrive at ﬁgures for power by calculating with scalar quantities of voltage. • REVIEW: • In a purely resistive circuit. the power waveform will still alternate between positive and negative. in circuits with mixed resistance and reactance like this one. and total power for this circuit. though. or complex quantities of voltage. If we look at the waveform plot of voltage.
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 11. If the source were a mechanical generator. because the power wave isn’t at the same frequency as voltage or current. indicating that there is more power absorbed by the load than there is returned to the circuit. current. Looking at the waveform plot for power. no circuit power is dissipated by the load(s). resulting in a net power dissipation of zero. the power alternates between positive and negative instantaneous values over time. it should be evident that the wave spends more time on the positive side of the center line than on the negative. the imbalance of positive versus negative power is due to the resistance as it dissipates energy outside of the circuit (usually in the form of heat). current. What little returning of power that occurs is due to the reactance. but the amount of positive power will exceed the amount of negative power. In a purely reactive circuit that alternation between positive and negative power is equally divided. the resistor does. the amount of mechanical energy needed to turn the shaft would be the amount of power averaged between the positive and negative power cycles. all circuit power is dissipated by the resistor(s). In other words. power is alternately absorbed from and returned to the AC source.6. • In a purely reactive circuit. and impedance that we’ve worked with so far.6: A combined resistive/reactive circuit dissipates more power than it returns to the source. the combined inductive/resistive load will consume more power than it returns back to the source.
Voltage and current in such a circuit will be out of phase by a value somewhere between 0o and 90o . any complex starting quantities such as voltage.352
CHAPTER 11. or dissipated.2
True. The actual amount of power being used. Reactive. and not merely the “real” or “imaginary” portion of the current. Apparent power is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S. current. usually resistances (R). As a rule. true power is a function of a circuit’s dissipative elements. POWER FACTOR
• In a circuit consisting of resistance and reactance mixed. as always). reactance. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance. Reactive power is a function of a circuit’s reactance (X). Apparent power is a function of a circuit’s total impedance (Z). and it is the product of a circuit’s voltage and current. rather than watts. If I’m calculating apparent power from voltage and impedance. there will be more power dissipated by the load(s) than returned. in a circuit is called true power. Since we’re dealing with scalar quantities for power calculation. and Apparent power
We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power. without reference to phase angle. yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. The mathematical symbol for reactive power is (unfortunately) the capital letter Q. This “phantom power” is called reactive power. and it is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P. The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power. and impedance must be represented by their polar magnitudes. if I’m calculating true power from current and resistance. but some power will deﬁnitely be dissipated and some will merely be absorbed and returned. and impedance (all using scalar quantities):
. For instance. and it is measured in a unit called VoltAmpsReactive (VAR).
11. both of these formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic. I must use the polar magnitude for current. not by real or imaginary rectangular components.
Examine the following circuits and see how these three types of power interrelate for: a purely resistive load in Figure 11.
. a purely reactive load in Figure 11. Reactive load only: Resistive/reactive load: These three types of power – true. TRUE. we can solve for the length of any side (amount of any type of power).11. There are three equations available for the calculation of apparent power. and apparent power for a purely resistive load.7: True power.2. Resistive load only:
I=2A 120 V 60 Hz R no reactance 60 Ω
P = true power = I2R = 240 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 0 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 240 VA
Figure 11. reactive.8. reactive power.10). Using the laws of trigonometry.7. and apparent – relate to one another in trigonometric form. given the lengths of the other two sides. and a resistive/reactive load in Figure 11. We call this the power triangle: (Figure 11. P=IE being useful only for that purpose. AND APPARENT POWER
353
P = true power
P = I2R
P=
Measured in units of Watts
E2 R
E2 X Measured in units of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR) Q = reactive power Q = I2X Q=
S = apparent power
S = I2Z
S=
E2 Z
S = IE
Measured in units of VoltAmps (VA)
Please note that there are two equations each for the calculation of true and reactive power. or the length of one side and an angle.9. REACTIVE.
410 A
Load
Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload
160 mH XL = 60.319 Ω 60 Ω
P = true power = I2R = 119. POWER FACTOR
I = 1.73 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 238. reactive power.998 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 169.73 VA
Figure 11. and apparent power for a purely reactive load.354
CHAPTER 11.9: True power.989 A 120 V 60 Hz no resistance 160 mH XL = 60.
.256 VA
Figure 11.365 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 119. reactive power.8: True power.
I = 1. and apparent power for a resistive/reactive load.319 Ω
L
P = true power = I2R = 0 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 238.
• Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive power. Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent and
. It also happens to be the same angle as that of the circuit’s impedance in polar form.3
Calculating power factor
As was mentioned before.3. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR
355
The "Power Triangle"
Apparent power (S) measured in VA
Reactive power (Q) measured in VAR
Impedance phase angle True power (P) measured in Watts
Figure 11.11. Q = opposite length. True power is symbolized by the letter P and is measured in the unit of Watts (W). the angle of this “power triangle” graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power. • REVIEW: • Power dissipated by a load is referred to as true power. both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent power. • These three types of power are trigonometrically related to one another.
11. In a right triangle. When expressed as a fraction. • Total power in an AC circuit. The opposite angle is equal to the circuit’s impedance (Z) phase angle. this ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power factor for this circuit. P = adjacent length. Apparent power is symbolized by the letter S and is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA).10: Power triangle relating appearant power to true power and reactive power. Reactive power is symbolized by the letter Q and is measured in the unit of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR). and S = hypotenuse length.
then the true power must be equal to zero. Here. the power triangle would look like a horizontal line.365 W 169.705 cos 45. Power factor can be an important aspect to consider in an AC circuit.998 VAR (inductive). by adding another load to the circuit drawing an equal and opposite amount of reactive power. so we have to add a capacitor in parallel to our example circuit as the additional load.356
CHAPTER 11. the power factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle. to cancel out the effects of the load’s inductive reactance. because any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit’s wiring has to carry more current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load. Inductive reactance can only be canceled by capacitive reactance. The poor power factor makes for an inefﬁcient power delivery system. respectively. because true power equals zero. The power triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit). For the purely inductive circuit. The effect of these two opposing reactances in parallel is to bring the circuit’s total impedance equal to its total resistance (to make the impedance phase angle equal. we’ll use the power formula which starts from voltage and reactance:
. Here.256 VA
Power factor =
Power factor = 0.152o = 0. making any power in the circuit purely reactive. POWER FACTOR
hypotenuse sides of a right triangle.256 watts to the load with the same 1.410 amps of current. is a unitless quantity. Since we know that the (uncorrected) reactive power is 119. because the adjacent (true power) side would have zero length.705
It should be noted that power factor. If our last example circuit had been purely resistive. we would have been able to deliver a full 169. because the reactive power equals zero. Since this capacitor will be directly in parallel with the source (of known voltage). the power triangle would look like a vertical line. the power factor is 1 (perfect).365 watts that it is presently dissipating with that same current quantity. rather than the mere 119. to zero). we need to calculate the correct capacitor size to produce the same quantity of (capacitive) reactive power. For the purely resistive circuit. or at least closer. the power factor is zero. paradoxically. If there are no dissipative (resistive) components in the circuit. like all ratio measurements. Poor power factor can be corrected. because the opposite (reactive power) side would have zero length. The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit. Using values from the last example circuit:
Power factor =
True power Apparent power 119.
solving for C . 1. solving for X .319 Ω 60 Ω
120 V 60 Hz
Figure 11. .11.3.105 µF
Let’s use a rounded capacitor value of 22 µF and see what happens to our circuit: (Figure 11. X= E2 Q (120 V)2 119. .41 A 160 mH XL = 60.998 VAR 1 2πfC
XC =
X=
. and 3 are SPICE related.
. .11)
Itotal = 994. . V2 and node numbers: 0. .002 Ω
C=
1 2π(60 Hz)(120. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR
357
Q=
E2 X
.257 mA L load 22 µF 2 Rload
Load Iload = 1. and may be ignored for the moment. C= 1 2πfXC
X = 120. . 2. .11: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging power factor of inductive load. .002 Ω)
C = 22.716 mA 1 V1 C 3 0 V2 IC = 995.
while the power dissipated at the load resistor remains unchanged at 119.11) shows total voltage and total current are nearly in phase. If our power factor correction efforts had been perfectly ontarget. Vtotal . Note that the total current (Itotal ) is in phase with the applied voltage (Vtotal ). The main current has been decreased from 1.12). We can compare those currents to Vtotal .41 amps to 994.cir power factor”. Note that the lagging current. is still more inductive than it is capacitive. If we had added too large of a capacitor in parallel. The start time of 200 msec ( instead of 0) in the transient analysis statement allows the DC conditions to stabilize before collecting data. A SPICE simulation of the circuit of (Figure 11. See SPICE listing “pf.272o = 0. overall. we would have arrived at an impedance angle of exactly zero.64 .60 Ω ∠ 0o) Ztotal = 120.365 W 119.319 Ω ∠ 90o .365 W S = apparent power = I2Z = 119.366 VA
Power factor = 0.j573. POWER FACTOR
Ztotal = ZC // (ZL .9999887 Impedance (polar) angle = 0.58m Ω or 120. or purely resistive. indicating a phase angle of near zero.57 Ω ∠ 90o) // (60. overall. The reference is Vtotal .366 VA
The power factor for the circuit.64 Ω ∠ 0.272o cos 0. There is no single current common to all components. we know that the circuit. IL of the inductor would have caused the total current to have a lagging phase somewhere between (Itotal )
. The SPICE circuit ﬁle has a zero volt voltagesource (V2) in series with the capacitor so that the capacitor current may be measured.358
CHAPTER 11. This is because the applied voltage.7 milliamps.ZR) Ztotal = (120.9999887
Since the impedance angle is still a positive number. indicating that the circuit was more capacitive than inductive.2724o
P = true power = I2R = 119. This is no coincidence. The power factor is much closer to being 1:
Power factor = Power factor =
True power Apparent power 119. to which all other measurements are compared.365 watts. The Nutmeg plot of the various currents with respect to the applied voltage Vtotal is shown in (Figure 11. we would have ended up with an impedance angle that was negative. appears across the parallel branches of the circuit. has been substantially improved.
. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR
359
pf.3. The lagging IL with respect to Vtotal is corrected by a leading IC .tran 1m .11.12: Zero phase angle due to inphase Vtotal and Itotal .cir power V1 1 0 sin(0 C1 1 3 22uF v2 3 0 0 L1 1 2 160mH R1 2 0 60 # resolution .end
factor 170 60)
stop start 200m 160m
Figure 11.
You must be careful not to overcorrect when adding capacitance to an AC circuit. compensates for the lagging inductor current. we say that its power factor is leading. • REVIEW: • Poor power factor in an AC circuit may be “corrected”. real power as in Figure 11. the leading capacitor current. If the load’s reactance is inductive in nature (which is almost always will be). This is not normally a problem because the power factor correction is applied close to the offending load. It cannont be sold. Since the total voltage and current are in phase. You must also be very careful to use the proper capacitors for the job (rated adequately for power system voltages and the occasional voltage spike from lightning strikes.4
Practical power factor correction
When the need arises to correct for poor power factor in an AC power system. Negative power is fed back to the generator. If a circuit is predominantly inductive. whose reading you can compare against a calculation of apparent power (from multiplying total voltage and
. and the apparent power (which can be ﬁgured by taking a voltmeter reading in volts and multiplying by an ammeter reading in amps). for continuous AC service.2. However. there is still circulating current between the capacitor and the inductive load. In other words. Conversely. It should be noted that too much capacitance in an AC circuit will result in a low power factor just as well as too much inductance. by the calculation of an appropriate capacitor value. like an induction motor. you probably won’t have the luxury of knowing the load’s exact inductance in henrys to use for your calculations. and capable of handling the expected levels of current). or reestablished at a value close to 1. Had the phaseangle not been corrected to zero (PF=1). and was corrected to a power factor of 0.6. will always be positive throughout a 60 Hz cycle.705 lagging.999 lagging. IC . though. you will have access to a wattmeter for measuring true power. The result is a total current phaseangle somewhere between the inductor and capacitor currents. we say that its power factor is lagging (because the current wave for the circuit lags behind the applied voltage wave). it does waste power in the resistance of electric lines between load and generator. power. Thus. our example circuit started out with a power factor of 0. the product of these two waveforms.
11. Note that reduction of line losses applies to the lines from the generator to the point where the power factor correction capacitor is applied. Most likely. that total current (Itotal ) was forced to be inphase with the total applied voltage (Vtotal ). The parallel capacitor corrects this problem.360
CHAPTER 11. the product would have been negative where positive portions of one waveform overlapped negative portions of the other as in Figure 11. Moreover. parallel capacitance is what is needed to correct poor power factor. POWER FACTOR
and IL . You may be fortunate enough to have an instrument called a power factor meter to tell you what the power factor is (a number between 0 and 1). by adding a parallel reactance opposite the effect of the load’s reactance. In less favorable circumstances you may have to use an oscilloscope to compare voltage and current waveforms. measuring phase shift in degrees and calculating power factor by the cosine of that phase shift. if a circuit is predominantly capacitive.
615 A)(240 V) S = 2.13: Wattmeter reads true power.5 kW 2.” given the length of the hypotenuse (apparent power) and the length of the adjacent side (true power):
. Let’s do an example problem to see how this works: (Figure 11.308 kVA
As we can see. We can do this by multiplying load voltage by load current:
S = IE S = (9. and from that determine the reactive power of this load: (Figure 11.11. we ﬁgure the power factor of this load by dividing the true power by the apparent power:
Power factor =
P S 1.14) To determine the unknown (reactive power) triangle quantity. PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
361
total current measurements). you can determine reactive power and power factor.5 kW Ammeter reading = 9. we can draw a power triangle. Now.308 kVA is a much larger ﬁgure than 1.13)
wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz
ammeter A Load
Wattmeter reading = 1.4. which tells us that the power factor in this circuit is rather poor (substantially less than 1). 2. First. From the values of true and apparent power. we use the Pythagorean Theorem “backwards.65
Using this value for power factor. product of voltmeter and ammeter readings yields appearant power. we need to calculate the apparent power in kVA.308 kVA
Power factor =
Power factor = 0.615 A RMS
Figure 11.5 kW.
14: Reactive power may be calculated from true power and appearant power.(True power)2
Q = 1.
Reactive power =
(Apparent power)2 .5 kW
Figure 11. POWER FACTOR
Apparent power (S) 2. we can calculate the size of capacitor needed to counteract its effects:
.754 kVAR
If this load is an electric motor.754 kVAR). it will have a lagging (inductive) power factor.362
CHAPTER 11.308 kVA
Reactive power (Q) ???
True power (P) 1. Now that we know the amount of reactive power (1. which means that we’ll have to correct for it with a capacitor of appropriate size. wired in parallel. or most any other industrial AC load.
737 kVAR (for the capacitor only). and a corresponding reactive power of 1. of course. C= 1 2πfXC
X = 32. .16)
.238 amps. giving a current of 7. solving for C .4.15)
wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz C
ammeter A Load
80 µF
Figure 11. . . An 80 µF capacitor will have a capacitive reactance of 33. solving for X . PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
363
Q=
E2 X
.761 µF
Rounding this answer off to 80 µF. . we can place that size of capacitor in the circuit and calculate the results: (Figure 11.754 kVAR . . resulting in:
Inductive kVAR .845 Ω
C=
1 2π(60 Hz)(32.1.11. .754 kVAR 1 2πfC
XC =
X=
. the capacitor’s reactive power will directly subtract from the load’s reactive power. but it will result in a substantial reduction of apparent power.157 Ω.845 Ω)
C = 80.15: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging (inductive) load.Capacitive kVAR = Total kVAR 1. X= E2 Q (240)2 1. Since the capacitor’s current is 180o out of phase from the the load’s inductive contribution to current draw.737 kVAR = 16. .519 VAR
This correction. . and of the total current drawn from the 240 Volt source: (Figure 11. will not change the amount of true power consumed by the load.
5 kW Reactive power (Q) 16.
. POWER FACTOR
Power triangle for uncorrected (original) circuit
Apparent power (S) 2.519 VAR
Figure 11.16: Power triangle before and after capacitor correction.5 kW
1.308 kVA
Reactive power (Q) 1.737 kVAR (capacitive)
Power triangle after adding capacitor Apparent power (S) True power (P) 1.754 kVAR (inductive)
True power (P) 1.364
CHAPTER 11.
and a new total current of (1. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.5.50009 kVA
This gives a corrected power factor of (1. or 6.
.11. or 0.50009 kVA / 240 Volts).
11.615 amps! This lower total current will translate to less heat losses in the circuit wiring.5
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. a substantial improvement over the uncorrected value of 9. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. meaning greater system efﬁciency (less power wasted).25 amps.99994.5kW / 1. CONTRIBUTORS
365
The new apparent power can be found from the true and new reactive power values. using the standard form of the Pythagorean Theorem:
Apparent power =
(Reactive power)2 + (True power)2
Apparent power = 1. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. from most recent to ﬁrst.5009 kVA).
POWER FACTOR
.366
CHAPTER 11.
. . just remember that they each act like a oneway valve for electrons to ﬂow: acting as a conductor for one polarity and an insulator for another. 12. . . and those engineered speciﬁcally for AC use. . . . . . . . . the alternating current must be rectiﬁed into DC. . like permanentmagnet motors. . . . . We saw diodes used in an example circuit demonstrating the creation of harmonic frequencies from a distorted (or rectiﬁed) sine wave. . Permanentmagnet moving coil (PMMC) meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage (or. .5 AC bridge circuits . . Oddly enough. . . . . . . . . . Without going into elaborate detail over how and why diodes work as they do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you can think of it in terms of the direction of the current). . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
AC voltmeters and ammeters
AC electromechanical meter movements come in two basic arrangements: those based on DC movement designs. . . . Arranged in a bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency and phase measurement 12. . . . . . . .1) Permanentmagnet meter movements. . 12. . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . .4 Power quality measurement . . . . . . . . . .7 Contributors . . the arrowhead in each diode symbol points against the permitted direction of electron ﬂow rather than with it as one might expect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This is most easily accomplished through the use of devices called diodes. . . . . . .1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . In order to use a DCstyle meter movement such as the D’Arsonval design. . . . . . . because the direction of needle movement will change with each halfcycle of the AC. . . . . . . . . 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406
12. .Chapter 12
AC METERING CIRCUITS
Contents
12. four diodes will 367
. . . . . . . . .6 AC instrumentation transducers . . (Figure 12. .3 Power measurement . .
AC source
Bridge rectifier
Figure 12.
.1: Passing AC through this D’Arsonval meter movement causes useless ﬂutter of the needle.2)
50 0 "needle" 100
magnet
magnet
wire coil + Meter movement needle will always be driven in the proper direction.
serve to steer AC through the meter movement in a constant direction throughout all portions of the AC cycle: (Figure 12.2: Passing AC through this Rectiﬁed AC meter movement will drive it in one direction.368
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
50 0 100
"needle" magnet magnet
wire coil
Figure 12.
to make voltmeter divider circuits.5) If the meter movement is electrostatic. Probably the simplest design is to use a nonmagnetized iron vane to move the needle against spring tension. This strategy has the advantage of being nondissipative (no true power consumed and no heat produced): (Figure 12. though. just as a seriesconnected multiplier resistor gives a movingcoil (inherently resistive) meter movement a greater voltage range: (Figure 12. just as poorly! The forces involved are very small. the vane being attracted toward a stationary coil of wire energized by the AC quantity to be measured as in Figure 12. for some highvoltage AC applications. the electrostatic movement is an elegant technology.1. and as such these “electrostatic” meter movements tend to be fragile and easily disturbed by physical movement.3: Ironvane electromechanical meter movement. Electrostatic attraction between two metal plates separated by an air gap is an alternative mechanism for generating a needlemoving force proportional to applied voltage. But. especially if the electron beam is swept sidetoside across the screen
. This works just as well for AC as it does for DC.12. this technology possesses the advantage of extremely high input impedance. a single “multiplier” capacitor may be connected in series to give it a greater voltage measuring range.
50 0 "needle" 100
wire coil
iron vane
Figure 12. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS
369
Another strategy for a practical AC meter movement is to redesign the movement without the inherent polarity sensitivity of the DC types. external apparatus. electrostatic meter movements are capable of measuring very high voltages without need for range resistors or other.4) Capacitors may be used instead of resistors. and thus inherently capacitive in nature. This means avoiding the use of permanent magnets. When a sensitive meter movement needs to be reranged to function as an AC voltmeter.6) The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) mentioned in the DC metering chapter is ideally suited for measuring AC voltages. or should I say. seriesconnected “multiplier” resistors and/or resistive voltage dividers may be employed just as in DC meter design: (Figure 12. much smaller than the magnetic attraction between an energized coil and an iron vane. meaning that no current need be drawn from the circuit under test.3. Also. If nothing else.
Electrostatic meter movement Cmultiplier Voltage to be measured
Figure 12.
.4: Multiplier resistor (a) or resistive divider (b) scales the range of the basic meter movement. AC METERING CIRCUITS
AC voltmeter Voltage to be measured Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier Voltage to be measured
AC voltmeter Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier
(a)
(b)
Figure 12.370
CHAPTER 12.
Sensitive meter movement Voltage to be measured Rmultiplier
Figure 12.5: AC voltmeter with capacitive divider.6: An electrostatic meter movement may use a capacitive multiplier to multiply the scale of the basic meter movement..
there is another factor crucially important for the designer and user of AC metering instruments to be aware of.1099
In other words. of course! Typically the assumption is made that the waveform shape to be measured is going to be sine (by far the most common. although many times it is mistaken as such. called RMS (RootMeanSquare) for the sake of meaningful comparisons with DC and with other AC waveforms of varying shape.11 times higher than it would ordinarily (naturally) indicate with no special accommodations.637
= 1. CRT’s have the disadvantages of weight.1.7: RMS.707 times the peak value while Average is 0. especially for power systems). A graphical representation of the AC wave shape and not just a measurement of magnitude can easily be had with such a device.637 times the peak. AC measurements are often cast in a scale of DC power equivalence. and electromechanical meter movements naturally deliver average measurements rather than RMS. ironvane. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS
371
of the tube while the measured AC voltage drives the beam up and down.707 0. and then the meter movement scale is altered by the appropriate multiplication factor. and triangle waves. Meter movements relying on the motion of a mechanical needle (“rectiﬁed” D’Arsonval. This average value is not necessarily the same as RMS.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
Figure 12. and PeaktoPeak values for sine.109:
0.12. Note that for triangle waves. This is the issue of RMS measurement.577 (Peak) AVG = 0. None of the meter movement technologies so far discussed inherently measure the RMS value of an AC quantity. the ratio between RMS and Average is not the same as for sine waves:
. electromechanical AC meter movements still have a place in practical usage.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = 0. For these reasons. and electrostatic) all tend to mechanically average the instantaneous values into an overall average value for the waveform. size. the meter movement will be calibrated to indicate approximately 1. As we already know. Average and RMS values rate against each other as such for these three common waveform shapes: (Figure 12. so we can divide one ﬁgure by the other to obtain an averagetoRMS conversion factor of 1. For sine waves we see that RMS is equal to 0. what are AC meter designers to do? Cheat.7)
RMS = 0. With some of the advantages and disadvantages of these meter movement technologies having been discussed already. signiﬁcant power consumption. square. It must be stressed that this “cheat” only works well when the meter is used to measure pure sine wave sources.707 (Peak) AVG = 0. Average. However. and fragility (being made of evacuated glass) working against them. Since RMS seems to be the kind of measurement most people are interested in obtaining with an instrument.
effectively squaring the values in realtime. Suppose that the AC source to be measured is connected across a resistor of known value. While the device shown above is somewhat crude and would suffer from unique engineering problems of its own. Calibrating AC voltmeters and ammeters for different fullscale ranges of operation is much
. the concept illustrated is very sound. AC METERING CIRCUITS
0. one major instrument manufacturer has implemented this technique into its highend line of handheld electronic multimeters for “trueRMS” capability. a similar problem arises: how do you determine the RMS value of a waveform from it? Conversion factors between Peak and RMS only hold so long as the waveform falls neatly into a known category of shape (sine. and square are the only examples with Peak/RMS/Average conversion factors given here!). for it will work with ANY waveform shape whatsoever: (Figure 12. This includes triangle waves. The resistor converts the AC voltage or current quantity into a thermal (heat) quantity. square waves.8: Direct reading thermal RMS voltmeter accommodates any wave shape.372
CHAPTER 12. The astute reader will note that I have omitted the CRT “movement” from the RMS/Average discussion. This would provide a far more direct measurement means of RMS than any conversion factor could. this matter of accurate RMS measurement is no small matter. triangle.5
= 1. and then the meter scale itself is calibrated to give an indication based on the squareroot of the thermal measurement: perfect RootMeanSquare indication all in one device! In fact. The system’s mass works to average these values by the principle of thermal inertia. One answer is to design the meter movement around the very deﬁnition of RMS: the effective heating value of an AC voltage/current as it powers a resistive load. the RMS and Average values are identical! An AC meter calibrated to accurately read RMS voltage or current on a pure sine wave will not give the proper value while indicating the magnitude of anything other than a perfect sine wave. or any kind of distorted sine wave. Still.8)
sensitive meter movement
AC voltage to be measured thermocouple bonded with resistive heating element
Figure 12. This is because a CRT with its practically weightless electron beam “movement” displays the Peak (or PeaktoPeak if you wish) of an AC waveform rather than Average or RMS. and the heat output of that resistor is measured with a device like a thermocouple. With harmonics becoming an everpresent phenomenon in large AC power systems.154
With square waves.577 0.
10) Because of the expense (and often large size) of instrument transformers.12.” sometimes far beyond what resistors would have practically allowed for. The three “donut” current transformers (CT’s) can be seen in the rear of the panel.9)
05 A AC movement range A CT precision stepup ratio
highvoltage power source
13. Potential Transformers (PT’s) and Current Transformers (CT’s) are precision instrument devices manufactured to produce very precise ratios of transformation between primary and secondary windings. just as with DC. meter ranges can be electromagnetically rather than resistively “stepped up” or “stepped down. simple AC meter movements to indicate extremely high voltages and currents in power systems with accuracy and complete electrical isolation (something multiplier and shunt resistors could never do): (Figure 12. they are not used to scale AC meters for any applications other than high voltage and high current. As this panel has been removed from service. (PT) Potential transformer scales voltage down. Three AC ammeters (rated 5 amps fullscale deﬂection each) on the front of the panel indicate current through each conductor going through a CT. we are not limited to these techniques as we were with DC: because we can use transformers with AC. For scaling a milliamp or microamp movement to a range of 120 volts or 5 amps. • REVIEW:
.1. However. Shown here is a voltage and current meter panel from a threephase AC system.8 kV
load
fuse
fuse precision stepdown ratio
PT
V 0120 V AC movement range
Figure 12. and parallel “shunt” resistors are used to allow ammeter movements to measure currents beyond their natural range. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS
373
the same as with DC instruments: series “multiplier” resistors are used to give voltmeter movements higher range. there are no currentcarrying conductors threaded through the center of the CT “donuts” anymore: (Figure 12.9: (CT) Current transformer scales current down. normal precision resistors (multipliers and shunts) are used. They can allow small.
AC METERING CIRCUITS
Figure 12. • Polarized (DC) meter movements must use devices called diodes to be able to indicate AC quantities. These instruments may be ranged to indicate RMS value.2
Frequency and phase measurement
An important electrical quantity with no equivalent in DC circuits is frequency.10: Toroidal current transformers scale high current levels down for application to 5 A fullscale AC ammeters. especially in AC power systems designed to run efﬁciently at one frequency and one frequency only. • Electromechanical meter movements.
12. If frequency needs to be measured at some distance from the alternator. the frequency will be directly proportional to the shaft speed of the machine. Longer tuning forks have lower resonant frequencies: their tones will be lower on the musical scale than shorter forks. other means of measurement will be necessary.
. Frequency measurement is very important in many applications of alternating current. naturally provide the average value of a measured AC quantity. and frequency could be measured simply by measuring the speed of the shaft. but only if the shape of the AC waveform is precisely known beforehand! • Socalled true RMS meters use different technology to provide indications representing the actual RMS (rather than skewed average or peak) of an AC waveform.374
CHAPTER 12. If the AC is being generated by an electromechanical alternator. The tuning fork is a great example of this: strike it once and it will continue to vibrate at a tone speciﬁc to its length. One simple but crude method of frequency measurement in power systems utilizes the principle of mechanical resonance. whether electromagnetic or electrostatic. though. Every physical object possessing the property of elasticity (springiness) has an inherent frequency at which it will prefer to vibrate.
12: Vibrating reed frequency meter front panel.11)
sheet metal reeds shaken by magnetic field from the coil
to AC voltage
Figure 12.12. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
375
Imagine a row of progressivelysized tuning forks arranged sidebyside. Whichever tuning fork is closest in resonant frequency to the frequency of that vibration will tend to shake the most (or the loudest).
.
Frequency Meter
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
120 Volts AC
Figure 12. The one closest in resonant frequency to the applied AC will vibrate the most. and that base is vibrated at the frequency of the measured AC voltage (or current) by means of an electromagnet. and you have the vibrating reed frequency meter: (Figure 12. Well. looking something like Figure 12.2.12. we could see the relative motion of each by the length of the blur we would see as we inspected each one from an endview perspective. They are all mounted on a common base. If the forks’ tines were ﬂimsy enough. The user of this meter views the ends of all those unequal length reeds as they are collectively shaken at the frequency of the applied AC voltage to the coil.11: Vibrating reed frequency meter diagram. make a collection of “tuning forks” out of a strip of sheet metal cut in a pattern akin to a rake.
and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. their operational principle is not. obviously. it will work. then measurement of any unknown frequency by comparison should be relatively easy. the most accurate means of measurement are usually those where an unknown quantity is compared against a known standard.13. are not precision instruments. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. This is the basic principle behind the DC (Wheatstone) bridge circuit and it is a sound metrological principle applied throughout the sciences. very slight in most cases. They are often found on small enginedriven generator sets for the purpose of setting engine speed so that the frequency is somewhat close to 60 (50 in Europe) Hertz. In frequency as in other types of electrical measurement. So long as the inductor and/or capacitor can intercept enough stray ﬁeld (magnetic or electric. we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). but they are very simple and therefore easy to manufacture to be rugged. and will physically deform when an external voltage is applied across their lengths. especially because it doesn’t require direct connection to the circuit. This deformation is very. See Figure 12. This technique is a popular one for amateur radio operators (or at least it was before the advent of inexpensive digital frequency instruments called counters). One or both components are made adjustable. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). Essentially. Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage across their length when physically stressed. we turn our attention back to the tuning fork.13: Resonant frequency meter “peaks” as LC resonant frequency is tuned to test frequency.
. For that frequency standard. Quartz is a naturally occurring mineral possessing a very interesting property called piezoelectricity. While reedtype meters are imprecise. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Vibrating reed meters. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. or at least a more modern variation of it called the quartz crystal. In lieu of mechanical resonance.
Figure 12. but it does exist. the basic instrument doing nothing more than indicating when the two quantities are equal to each other. respectively) from the circuit under test to cause the meter to indicate.376
CHAPTER 12.
Sensitive AC meter movement
variable capacitor with adjustment knob calibrated in Hertz. If we have access to an accurate frequency standard (a source of AC voltage holding very precisely to a single frequency).
and that chip mounted securely inside a protective shell with wires extending for connection to an external electric circuit. it will “ring” with its own unique frequency determined by the length of the chip.
C capacitance C caused by wire connections across quartz characteristics of the quartz L
Figure 12. the quartz chip will tend to vibrate most when it is “excited” by an applied AC voltage at precisely the right frequency. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
377
Quartz rock is elastic (springy) within that small range of bending which an external voltage would produce.12. the resulting device is simply called a crystal (or sometimes “xtal”). (Figure 12.15: Quartz crystal equivalent circuit. Chips of quartz rock can be precisely cut for desired resonant frequencies. which means that it will have a mechanical resonant frequency of its own capable of being manifested as an electrical voltage signal. The schematic symbol is shown in Figure 12. In reciprocal manner. if a chip of quartz is struck. When packaged as such. just like the reeds on a vibratingreed frequency meter. Electrically.15) The dielectric properties of quartz contribute an additional capacitive element to the equivalent circuit.14: Crystal (frequency determing element) schematic symbol.
crystal or xtal
Figure 12. In other words.
.2. and that resonant oscillation will produce an equivalent voltage across multiple points of the quartz chip which can be tapped into by wires ﬁxed to the surface of the chip. that quartz chip is equivalent to a series LC resonant circuit.14.
known frequency. the resonant frequency variation over time with a quartz crystal is very. If metal plates are used to electrostatically deﬂect the electrons. The ﬁrst picture is of the Lissajous ﬁgure formed by two AC voltages perfectly in phase with each other: (Figure 12. very low. This is how quartz movement watches obtain their high accuracy: by means of an electronic oscillator stabilized by the resonant action of a quartz crystal. The capacitance shown in parallel due to the wire connections across the dielectric (insulating) quartz body is real. we will obtain a simple ﬁgure on the screen of the CRT. Crystals. A full discussion on crystal dynamics is not necessary here. and if their amplitudes are equal:
. AC METERING CIRCUITS
The “capacitance” and “inductance” shown in series are merely electrical equivalents of the quartz’s mechanical resonance properties: they do not exist as discrete components within the crystal. as resonant elements. National standards laboratories around the world maintain a few of these hyperaccurate clocks. there will be a pair of plates to the left and right of the beam as well as a pair of plates above and below the beam as in Figure 12. principally due to the relative absence of stray resistance. If we allow one AC signal to deﬂect the beam up and down (connect that AC voltage source to the “vertical” deﬂection plates) and another AC signal to deﬂect the beam left and right (using the other pair of deﬂection plates). nothing discovered thus far surpasses the accuracy of a single resonating atom.16. though. If the two frequencies are the same.378
CHAPTER 12. To achieve this. Cathode Ray Tubes typically have means of deﬂecting the electron beam in the horizontal as well as the vertical axis. and it has an effect on the resonant response of the whole system. which uses an atom of mercury (or cesium) suspended in a vacuum. but what needs to be understood about crystals is this resonant circuit equivalence and how it can be exploited within an oscillator circuit to achieve an output voltage with a stable. excited by outside energy to resonate at its own unique frequency. This is the principle of the socalled atomic clock. Because the resonant frequency is solely dependent on the physical properties of quartz (a very stable substance. the Lissajous ﬁgure will take on the appearance of an oval. a straight line will not be formed. For laboratory applications. shown as they would appear on the face of an oscilloscope (an AC voltagemeasuring instrument using a CRT as its “movement”). and broadcast frequency signals based on those atoms’ vibrations for scientists and technicians to tune in and use for frequency calibration purposes. typically have much higher “Q” (quality) values than tank circuits built from inductors and capacitors. Here is a sampling of Lissajous ﬁgures for two sinewave signals of equal frequency. thus eliminating frequency errors due to thermal expansion and contraction of the quartz. Rather. the shape of that ﬁgure being dependent upon the phase shift between the two AC signals. These patterns are called Lissajous ﬁgures and are a common means of comparative frequency measurement in electronics.17) If the two AC voltages are not in phase with each other. mechanically). patterns will be produced on the screen of the CRT indicative of the ratio of these two AC frequencies. even greater frequency stability may be desired. how do we compare that against an unknown frequency to obtain a measurement? One way is to use a CRT as a frequencycomparison device. For the ultimate in a frequency standard though. becoming perfectly circular if the phase shift is exactly 90o between the two signals. the crystal in question may be placed in a temperature stabilized environment (usually an oven). The resulting frequency is detected as a radiowave signal and that forms the basis for the most accurate clocks known to humanity. Now we get to the practical part: once we have a source of accurate frequency. making their resonant frequencies very deﬁnite and precise.
12.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.16: Cathode ray tube (CRT) with vertical and horizontal deﬂection plates.17: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
379
electron "gun"
horizontal deflection plates (vacuum) electrons electrons vertical deflection plates
viewscreen
light
Figure 12.2. zero degrees phase shift.
.
” slowly changing orientation as the
. Consider the following illustration of a 3:1 frequency ratio between horizontal and vertical: (Figure 12. if the two AC signals are directly opposing one another in phase (180o shift). . we will end up with a line again.380 (Figure 12. When we are faced with signal frequencies that are not the same. AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.20) The more complex the ratio between horizontal and vertical frequencies. the more complex the Lissajous ﬁgure. and a 3:2 frequency ratio (horizontal = 3. Lissajous ﬁgures get quite a bit more complex. the Lissajous ﬁgure will appear to “move.21) .19)
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12. . only this time it will be oriented in the opposite direction: (Figure 12. In cases where the frequencies of the two AC signals are not exactly a simple ratio of each other (but close). 90 or 270 degrees phase shift. 180 degrees phase shift.18: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency.19: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. vertical = 2) in Figure 12.18)
CHAPTER 12.22. Consider the following examples and their given vertical/horizontal frequency ratios: (Figure 12. Finally.
12.2.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.21: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is three times that of vertical.
. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
381
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.20: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is twice that of vertical.
12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Lissajous figure: Horizontal/Vertical frequency ratio is 3:2
Figure 12. with an accurately calibrated adjustment knob.). Reference frequency signals can be made with a high degree of accuracy by oscillator circuits using quartz crystals as resonant devices. the Lissajous ﬁgure will be stable on the viewscreen of the CRT. If the two frequencies are locked in an exact integer ratio between each other. 2:3. indicating frequency by relative oscillation among a set of uniquely tuned “reeds” shaken at the measured frequency. etc. For ultra precision. and a sensitive meter is read for maximum voltage or current at the point of resonance. usually) to indicate frequency.382
CHAPTER 12. 3:4. 1:2. • REVIEW: • Some frequency meters work on the principle of mechanical resonance. The physics of Lissajous ﬁgures limits their usefulness as a frequencycomparison technique to cases where the frequency ratios are simple integer values (1:1. as is the case when using a CRT to generate Lissajous ﬁgures. atomic clock signal standards (based on the resonant frequencies of individual atoms) can be used. phase angle between the two waveforms rolls between 0o and 180o . Despite this limitation.22: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal/vertical frequency ratio is 3:2. • Other frequency meters use electric resonant circuits (LC tank circuits. One or both components is made to be adjustable. 1:3. Lissajous ﬁgures are a popular means of frequency comparison wherever an accessible frequency standard (signal generator) exists.3
Power measurement
Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than with DC circuits for the simple reason that phase shift complicates the matter beyond multiplying voltage by
. • Frequency can be measured in a comparative fashion.
rectangular conductor is directly proportional to both the magnitude of the current through it and the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.3. An ingenious method of deriving an electronic power meter (one that generates an electric signal representing power in the system rather than merely move a pointer) is based on the Hall effect. rectangular conductor. Mathematically. obviously. it is a product (multiplication) of these two variables. and so modern Hall Effect devices are made of these. H. whereby a voltage is generated along the width of a currentcarrying conductor exposed to a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld: (Figure 12. Three phase power measurement can be accomplished using two dynamometer movements with a common shaft linking the two moving coils together so that a single pointer registers power on a meter movement scale. The Hall effect is an unusual effect ﬁrst noticed by E. What is needed is an instrument able to determine the product (multiplication) of instantaneous voltage and current.23)
voltage
S current N current
S N
Figure 12. Hall in 1879. POWER MEASUREMENT
383
current ﬁgures obtained with meters. makes for a rather expensive and complex movement mechanism. It makes sense then that if we were to build a device using a Halleffect sensor where the current through the conductor was pushed by AC voltage from an external circuit and the magnetic ﬁeld was set up by a pair or wire coils energized by the current of the AC power circuit. Fortunately. The amount of “Hall Voltage” produced for any given set of conditions also depends on the type of material used for the ﬂat. the common electrodynamometer movement with its stationary and moving coil does a ﬁne job of this.23: Hall effect: Voltage is proportional to current and strength of the perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. the Hall voltage would be in direct proportion to the multiple of circuit current and
. The voltage generated across the width of the ﬂat. This. but it is a workable solution.12. It has been found that specially prepared “semiconductor” materials produce a greater Hall voltage than do metals.
If voltage and current in the power circuit are 90o out of phase (a power factor of zero. this device is able to provide instantaneous power measurement: (Figure 12. Often it is useful to have a meter to totalize power usage over a period of time rather than instantaneously. The output of such a meter can be set in units of Joules. generating a signal corresponding to the instantaneous absorption and release of power through the reactive load. being the product (multiplication) of current and magnetic ﬁeld strength. the other will be zero.384
CHAPTER 12. meaning no real power delivered to the load). Conditioned through a lowpass ﬁlter circuit.24: Hall effect power sensor measures instantaneous power. At those points in time. Between those points in time. or total energy
. Having no mass to move (unlike an electromechanical movement). the Hall output voltage will ﬂuctuate equally between positive and negative. this net DC voltage can be separated from the AC mixed with it. indicating zero true power in the circuit.24)
voltage
Rmultiplier
AC power source
Load
Figure 12. the Hall output voltage will likewise be zero. Not only will the output voltage of the Hall effect device be the representation of instantaneous power at any point in time. Consequently there will be a net DC output voltage. AC METERING CIRCUITS
voltage. The net DC output voltage will be zero. the alternate peaks of Hall device current and magnetic ﬁeld will never coincide with each other: when one is at its peak. the ﬁnal output signal registered on a sensitive DC meter movement. but it will also be a DC signal! This is because the Hall voltage polarity is dependent upon both the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld and the direction of current through the conductor. If both current direction and magnetic ﬁeld polarity reverses – as it would ever halfcycle of the AC power – the output voltage polarity will stay the same. Any phase shift between voltage and current in the power circuit less than 90o will result in a Hall output voltage that oscillates between positive and negative. but spends more time positive than negative.
regardless of waveshape. clean sinewave voltages and currents are becoming highly distorted. and can be difﬁcult to pinpoint. Or. Loads controlled by “nonlinear” electronic components are becoming more prevalent in both home and industry.4. If the voltage is anything but sinewaveshaped. since power is a measure of work being done per unit time. more commonly. engineers and technicians require ways to precisely detect and measure these conditions. then have that motor turn an “odometer” style counting mechanism to keep a running total of energy consumed. Remember that “averaging” type meters are calibrated so that their scales indicate volts RMS. with the rotating magnetic ﬁeld established by sets of coils energized by line voltage and load current so that the rotational speed of the disk is dependent on both voltage and current. the worse the power quality is. cause exceedingly high neutral conductor currents in threephase systems. Power Quality is the general term given to represent an AC power system’s freedom from harmonic content. and the greater its harmonic content. or cause nonsinusoidal currents to ﬂow in the circuit. aside from power factor. A power system with good quality power should generate equal voltage readings between the two meters.4
Power quality measurement
It used to be with large AC power systems that “power quality” was an unheardof concept. Almost all loads were of the “linear” variety. A simple way for a technician to determine power quality in their system without sophisticated equipment is to compare voltage readings between two accurate voltmeters measuring the same system voltage: one meter being an “averaging” type of unit (such as an electromechanical movement meter) and the other being a “trueRMS” type of unit (such as a highquality digital meter). POWER QUALITY MEASUREMENT
385
consumed. Another qualitative measurement of power quality is the oscilloscope test: connect an oscilloscope (CRT) to the AC voltage and observe the shape of the wave. the output of the meter can be set in units of WattHours. Excessive harmonics in an AC power system can overheat transformers. the averaging meter will not register the proper value. A “power quality” meter is one that gives some form of harmonic content indication. meaning that they did not distort the shape of the voltage sine wave. to within the rated error tolerance of the two instruments. based on the assumption that the AC voltage being measured is sinusoidal.
12. whereas the trueRMS meter always will. which is equivalent to the presence of an inﬁnite series of highfrequency sine waves at multiples of the fundamental power line frequency. meaning that the voltages and currents in the power system(s) feeding these loads are rich in harmonics: what should be nice. With problems like these plaguing power systems. This is not true anymore. Mechanical means for measuring WattHours are usually centered around the concept of the motor: build an AC motor that spins at a rate of speed proportional to the instantaneous power in a circuit.25)
. create electromagnetic “noise” in the form of radio emissions that can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment. The “motor” used in these meters has a rotor made of a thin aluminum disk. reduce electric motor horsepower output. The rule of thumb here is this: the greater the disparity between the two meters. Anything other than a clean sine wave could be an indication of trouble: (Figure 12.12.
386
CHAPTER 12. orange.26)
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Total distortion = 43. the spectrum analyzer splits a mixedfrequency signal into its constituent frequencies.26: Power quality meter is a low frequency spectrum analyzer.7 % Power Quality Meter
Figure 12. yellow. Such an instrument is called a power quality meter and is sometimes better known in electronic circles as a lowfrequency spectrum analyzer. there is no substitute for an instrument speciﬁcally designed for that purpose.25: This is a moderately ugly “sine” wave. and blue is in that light). if quantitative analysis (deﬁnite.” Just as a prism splits a beam of white light into its constituent color components (how much red. AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12. and displays the result in the form of a histogram: (Figure 12.
. numerical ﬁgures) is necessary. What this instrument does is provide a graphical representation on a CRT or digital display screen of the AC voltage’s frequency “spectrum. Deﬁnite harmonic content here! Still. green.
evennumbered harmonics tend to be canceled out. digitizing those points of information.5. and thus the more sensitive it will be.
12. The process is not much unlike what the SPICE program tells a computer to do when performing a Fourier analysis on a simulated circuit voltage or current waveform. To review. with a nulldetector meter movement connected between them to indicate a condition of “balance” at zero volts: (Figure 12.
. When the bridge is in a balanced condition (zero voltage as indicated by the null detector). the ratio works out to be this:
In a condition of balance: R1 R2 = R3 R4
One of the advantages of using a bridge circuit to measure resistance is that the voltage of the power source is irrelevant. and so only harmonics existing in signiﬁcant measure are the oddnumbered. This is true with AC as well. the “5” for 300 Hz (the 5th harmonic). In threephase AC power systems (predominant for large power applications). there will be no fundamental error introduced as a result of a lesser or greater power supply voltage unlike other types of resistance measurement schemes. The black rectangles represent the relative magnitudes of each of these harmonic components in the measured AC voltage.27) Any one of the four resistors in the above bridge can be the resistor of unknown value. A greater supply voltage leads to the possibility of increased measurement precision. because they are designed to display only those frequencies known to be generated by the power system. and so on. Meters like these are very useful in the hands of a skilled technician. For American power systems. the “1” represents 60 Hz (the 1st harmonic. and its value can be determined by a ratio of the other three. and using a microprocessor (small computer) to perform numerical Fourier analysis (the Fast Fourier Transform or “FFT” algorithm) on those data points to arrive at harmonic frequency magnitudes. or fundamental). and we can apply the very same principle to the accurate measurement of unknown impedances. the higher the supply voltage. the bridge circuit works as a pair of twocomponent voltage dividers connected across the same source voltage.5
AC bridge circuits
As we saw with DC measurement circuits. Power quality meters such as this might be better referred to as overtone meters. 60 Hz sine wave would show only a tall black bar over the “1” with no black bars showing at all over the other frequency markers on the scale. However. A pure. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
387
Each number on the horizontal scale of this meter represents a harmonic of the fundamental frequency. Practically speaking. which are “calibrated. because different types of nonlinear loads tend to generate different spectrum “signatures” which can clue the troubleshooter to the source of the problem. the circuit conﬁguration known as a bridge can be a very useful way to measure unknown values of resistance. because a pure sine wave has no harmonic content. the easier it is to detect a condition of imbalance between the four resistors with the null detector. the “3” for 180 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). These meters work by very quickly sampling the AC voltage at many different points along the waveform shape.12.” or whose resistances are known to a precise degree.
28: “Modern” lowOhm headphones require an impedance matching transformer for use as a sensitive null detector.
. Headphone speakers are typically lowimpedance units (8 Ω).28)
Press button To test
Null detector for AC bridge made from audio headphones Headphones
Test leads
1 kΩ
8Ω
Figure 12. as both magnitude and phase across the components of the two dividers must be equal in order for the null detector to indicate “zero.388
CHAPTER 12.” The null detector. of course. on the indicator. or minimum reading. Impedance bridges work the same. One way to maximize the effectiveness of audio headphones as a null detector is to connect them to the signal source through an impedancematching transformer. An audio output transformer works well for this purpose: (Figure 12.27: A balanced bridge shows a “null”. AC METERING CIRCUITS
R1
R3
null
R2
R4
Figure 12. only the balance equation is with complex quantities. and so a stepdown transformer helps “match” lowcurrent signals to the impedance of the headphone speakers. An oscilloscope is often used for this. must be a device capable of detecting very small AC voltages. although very sensitive electromechanical meter movements and even headphones (small speakers) may be used if the source frequency is within audio range. requiring substantial current to drive.
Depending on how the bridge is set up. Roughly equal performance was obtained using two different stepdown transformers: a small power transformer (120/6 volt ratio). without phase angles in balance as well. each one with a certain impedance: (Figure 12. there will still be voltage across the terminals of the null detector and the bridge will not be balanced. or derived from
. When describing general AC bridges. if the bridge’s power source frequency is within audio range) as the switch is actuated.” As always in bridge measurement circuits. and an audio output transformer (1000:8 ohm impedance ratio). a “click” will be heard from the headphones each time the switch is pressed and released. the whole circuit looks like Figure 12. accounting for both magnitude and phase angle.29: Bridge with sensitive AC null detector. calibrated component that can be adjusted in value until the null detector device indicates a condition of balance. or even “Q. obtained from a highquality. this circuit is usable for detecting signals from DC to over 2 MHz: even if the frequency is far above or below the audio range. a condition of balance will be realized when the headphones fail to produce “clicks” (or tones. inductance.
Headphones
R1
R3
R2
R4
Figure 12. it must be stressed that the impedance quantities in the above equation must be complex. the unknown quantity is always “balanced” against a known standard. where impedances and not just resistances must be in proper ratio for balance. the unknown component’s value may be determined directly from the setting of the calibrated standard. be it capacitance. With the pushbutton switch in place to interrupt current. Listening to the headphones as one or more of the resistor “arms” of the bridge is adjusted.29.1 µA with this simple detector circuit.12.30) For this general form of AC bridge to balance. it is sometimes helpful to draw the respective bridge legs in the form of boxshaped components. Bridge circuits can be constructed to measure just about any device value desired. It is insufﬁcient that the impedance magnitudes alone be balanced. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
389
Using a pair of headphones that completely surround the ears (the “closedcup” type). Connected to a resistive bridge. the impedance ratios of each branch must be equal:
Z1 Z = 3 Z2 Z4
Again.5. resistance. I’ve been able to detect currents of less than 0.
A couple of simple bridge circuits are shown below. these simple bridge
. Simple “symmetrical” bridges such as these are so named because they exhibit symmetry (mirrorimage similarity) from left to right. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Z1 null Z2
Z3
Z4
Figure 12. as practical symmetrical bridge circuits often have a calibrated.31) and one for capacitance: (Figure 12. They are a bit simpliﬁed from their reallife counterparts.32)
unknown inductance Lx null Ls standard inductance
R
R
Figure 12. one for inductance (Figure 12.390
CHAPTER 12. variable resistor in series or parallel with the reactive component to balance out stray resistance in the unknown component.30: Generalized AC impedance bridge: Z = nonspeciﬁc complex impedance.31: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown inductor by comparison to a standard inductor. that standard through a mathematical formula. The two bridge circuits shown above are balanced by adjusting the calibrated reactive component (Ls or Cs ). But. in the hypothetical world of perfect components.
This internal resistance may be of interest to measure. An example of a little extra complexity added to compensate for realworld effects can be found in the socalled Wien bridge. the capacitors are made ﬁxed (and usually of equal value) and the top two resistors are made variable and are adjusted by means of the same knob. The combined effect of Rs and Cs is to alter the magnitude and phase angle until the bridge achieves a condition of balance.33) All capacitors have some amount of internal resistance.34) Calibrationgrade inductors are more
. the settings of Rs and Cs can be read from their calibrated knobs. which uses a parallel capacitorresistor standard impedance to balance out an unknown series capacitorresistor combination. because the balance of the bridge is frequencydependent.5. or at least that resistance is already known so that it can be factored into the balance equation. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
391
unknown capacitance Cx Cs null standard capacitance
R
R
Figure 12. (Figure 12. They are also used as frequency meters.12. circuits do just ﬁne to illustrate the basic concept. where the internal resistance is relatively high. used to precisely measure inductances. and the unknown capacitance and resistance determined mathematically from the balance equation (Z1 /Z2 = Z3 /Z4 ). and is used to measure unknown inductances in terms of calibrated resistance and capacitance. This ingenious bridge circuit is known as the MaxwellWien bridge (sometimes known plainly as the Maxwell bridge). When used in this fashion. the parallel impedance of the two determined mathematically. An interesting variation on this theme is found in the next bridge circuit.32: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown capacitor by comparison to a standard capacitor. Once that balance is achieved. (Figure 12. Wien bridges are useful for determining the values of “lossy” capacitor designs like electrolytics. and so the Wien bridge attempts to do so by providing a balancing impedance that isn’t “pure” either: Being that there are two standard components to be adjusted (a resistor and a capacitor) this bridge will take a little more time to balance than the others we’ve seen so far. be it literal or equivalent (in the form of dielectric heating losses) which tend to spoil their otherwise perfectly reactive natures. It is assumed in the operation of the Wien bridge that the standard capacitor has negligible internal resistance.
.33: Wein Bridge measures both capacitive Cx and resistive Rx components of “real” capacitor. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cx Rx Cs null Rs
R
R
Figure 12.392
CHAPTER 12.
Lx Rx R
null Cs R Rs
Figure 12.34: MaxwellWein bridge measures an inductor in terms of a capacitor standard.
designed to have the volt
. as they are here. (Figure 12. Unlike the plain Wien bridge. Magnetic ﬁelds can be difﬁcult to shield. A potential problem in sensitive AC bridge circuits is that of stray capacitance between either end of the null detector unit and ground (earth) potential. they form stray current paths to the AC voltage source which may affect bridge balance: (Figure 12. and both must be adjusted to achieve balance. as it would create a direct current path for stray currents. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
393
difﬁcult to manufacture than capacitors of similar precision. Instead.37) The Wagner earth circuit is nothing more than a voltage divider. Because the phase shifts of inductors and capacitors are exactly opposite each other. For easiest operation. the total stray impedance for leakage currents made far less and any leakage currents through these stray capacitances made greater as a result: (Figure 12. and even a small amount of coupling between coils in a bridge can introduce substantial errors in certain conditions. the bridge can be made to work if the capacitor is ﬁxed (nonvariable) and more than one resistor made variable (at least the resistor in parallel with the capacitor. One or both components are made adjustable. this problem is eliminated. we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). a special voltage divider circuit called a Wagner ground or Wagner earth may be used to maintain the null detector at ground potential without the need for a direct connection to the null detector. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. the balance of the MaxwellWien bridge is independent of source frequency.36) One way of greatly reducing this effect is to keep the null detector at ground potential. However. However. a capacitive impedance can balance out an inductive impedance if they are located in opposite legs of a bridge. but a full discussion is not warranted here. and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. There are more variations beyond these designs. their operational principle is not. Essentially. the limiting factor being the inductor’s stability over a wide frequency range. Because capacitances can “conduct” alternating current by charging and discharging. so there will be no AC voltage between it and the ground. Generalpurpose impedance bridge circuits are manufactured which can be switched into more than one conﬁguration for maximum ﬂexibility of use. and in some cases this bridge can be made to balance in the presence of mixed frequencies from the AC voltage source. The problem is worsened if the AC voltage source is ﬁrmly grounded at one end. and thus no current through stray capacitances.5. the standard capacitor (Cs ) and the resistor in parallel with it (Rs ) are made variable. Another advantage of using a Maxwell bridge to measure inductance rather than a symmetrical inductance bridge is the elimination of measurement error due to mutual inductance between two inductors. which would be worse than any capacitive path.35) While reedtype meters are imprecise. as the different variable resistors interact in balancing magnitude and phase. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). In lieu of mechanical resonance. directly connecting the null detector to ground is not an option. and one of the other two).12. and so the use of a simple “symmetrical” inductance bridge is not always practical. With no second inductor to react with in the Maxwell bridge. in the latter conﬁguration it takes more trialanderror adjustment to achieve balance. However.
.35: Stray capacitance to ground may introduce errors into the bridge. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray
Cstray
Figure 12.394
CHAPTER 12.
Cx
Cs null
Cstray R R
Cstray
Figure 12.36: Stray capacitance errors are more severe if one side of the AC supply is grounded.
will be at ground potential as well.38) so that one end of the null detector may be connected to either the bridge or the Wagner earth. age ratio and phase shift as each side of the bridge. any other divider circuit (including either side of the bridge) having the same voltage proportions and phases as the Wagner divider. the bridge is not only guaranteed to be balanced. There is often a provision made in the null detector connection to conﬁrm proper setting of the Wagner earth divider circuit: a twoposition switch. (Figure 12. or any other device capable of registering very small AC voltage levels. • Null detectors for AC bridges may be sensitive electromechanical meter movements. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
395
Cstray
Wagner earth Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray
Cstray
Figure 12. When the null detector registers zero signal in both switch positions. Because the midpoint of the Wagner divider is directly grounded. Thus.37: Wagner ground for AC supply minimizes the effects of stray capacitance to ground on the bridge. its only required point of calibration accuracy is at zero. Like DC null detectors.
. the Wagner earth divider forces the null detector to be at ground potential.12.5. oscilloscopes (CRT’s). without a direct connection between the detector and ground. and powered by the same AC voltage source. headphones (ampliﬁed or unampliﬁed). but the null detector is also guaranteed to be at zero potential with respect to ground. thus eliminating any errors due to leakage currents through stray detectortoground capacitances: • REVIEW: • AC bridge circuits work on the same basic principle as DC bridge circuits: that a balanced ratio of impedances (rather than resistances) will result in a “balanced” condition as indicated by the nulldetector device.
special devices have been made that do the same with AC. • Some impedance bridge circuits are frequencysensitive while others are not. they can be “nonsymmetrical.). • A Wagner earth or Wagner ground is a voltage divider circuit added to AC bridges to help reduce errors due to stray capacitance coupling the null detector to ground.396
CHAPTER 12.6
AC instrumentation transducers
Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities and repeat that information in the form of DC electrical signals (thermocouples. or even capacitances balancing out inductances. since both impedance magnitude and phase angle must be properly matched to balance. A simple and easy way to do this is with a potentiometer: (Figure 12. pH probes. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray
Cstray
Figure 12.38: Switchup position allows adjustment of the Wagner ground. • AC bridge circuits often have more than one adjustment. strain gauges. • AC bridge circuits can be of the “symmetrical” type where an unknown impedance is balanced by a standard impedance of similar type on the same side (top or bottom) of the bridge. Or.39)
. etc. This is especially true in the ﬁelds of automated machine tool control and robotics.” using parallel impedances to balance series impedances.
12. The frequencysensitive types may be used as frequency measurement devices if all component values are accurately known. It is often necessary to be able to detect and transmit the physical position of mechanical parts via electrical signals.
The phase of the output voltage relative to the excitation voltage indicates which direction from center the core is offset. which means they suffer the effects of physical wear over time. but slides in and out within a nonconducting tube. If the potentiometer is to be operated in an environment where combustible vapor or dust is present. Devices made for this purpose are called LVDT’s. The further away the core is from center position. You might have already experienced this effect when adjusting the volume control on an old radio: when twisting the knob. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
397
potentiometer shaft moved by physical motion of an object
+ V 
voltmeter indicates position of that object
Figure 12. this potential for arcing translates into a potential for an explosion! Using AC instead of DC.40) Obviously. potentiometers have their own unique problems. With most potentiometer circuits. The AC voltage output by an LVDT indicates the position of the movable core. Being arranged to oppose each other (180o out of phase) means that the output of this device will be the difference between the voltage output of the two secondary windings. the current is so low that wiper arcing is negligible. It is called linear because the core’s freedom of motion is straightline. Also. they rely on physical contact between the “wiper” and the resistance strip. As potentiometers wear. The design of an LVDT looks like this: (Figure 12. When the core is centered and both windings are outputting the same voltage. nor is there the possibility of creating an arc. Excitation of the LVDT is typically 10 volts RMS or less. the net result at the output terminals will be zero volts. It is variable because the core is free to move between the windings. The core does not contact the wire windings. and two secondary windings connected in seriesbucking fashion. this physical contact between wiper and strip creates the possibility of arcing (sparking) between the two as the wiper is moved. the greater percentage of input (“excitation”) voltage will be seen at the output. but it is a possibility to be considered. which stands for Linear Variable Differential Transformers. Zero volts means that the core is centered. Thus.12.39: Potentiometer tap voltage indicates position of an object slaved to the shaft. their proportional output versus shaft position becomes less and less certain. Those noises are the result of poor wiper contact in the volume control potentiometer. However. this device is a transformer: it has a single primary winding powered by an external source of AC voltage. we are able to completely avoid sliding contact between parts if we use a variable transformer instead of a potentiometer. It is differential because of the way the two secondary windings are connected. you might hear “scratching” sounds coming out of the speakers. at frequencies ranging from power
.6. The primary advantage of an LVDT over a potentiometer for position sensing is the absence of physical contact between the moving and stationary parts. For one. the LVDT does not “wear” like a potentiometer.
398
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
AC output voltage AC "excitation" voltage
movable core
Figure 12.40: AC output of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) indicates core position. line to the high audio (20 kHz) range. One potential disadvantage of the LVDT is its response time, which is mostly dependent on the frequency of the AC voltage source. If very quick response times are desired, the frequency must be higher to allow whatever voltagesensing circuits enough cycles of AC to determine voltage level as the core is moved. To illustrate the potential problem here, imagine this exaggerated scenario: an LVDT powered by a 60 Hz voltage source, with the core being moved in and out hundreds of times per second. The output of this LVDT wouldn’t even look like a sine wave because the core would be moved throughout its range of motion before the AC source voltage could complete a single cycle! It would be almost impossible to determine instantaneous core position if it moves faster than the instantaneous source voltage does. A variation on the LVDT is the RVDT, or Rotary Variable Differential Transformer. This device works on almost the same principle, except that the core revolves on a shaft instead of moving in a straight line. RVDT’s can be constructed for limited motion of 360o (fullcircle) motion. Continuing with this principle, we have what is known as a Synchro or Selsyn, which is a device constructed a lot like a woundrotor polyphase AC motor or generator. The rotor is free to revolve a full 360o , just like a motor. On the rotor is a single winding connected to a source of AC voltage, much like the primary winding of an LVDT. The stator windings are usually in the form of a threephase Y, although synchros with more than three phases have been built. (Figure 12.41) A device with a twophase stator is known as a resolver. A resolver produces sine and cosine outputs which indicate shaft position. Voltages induced in the stator windings from the rotor’s AC excitation are not phaseshifted by 120o as in a real threephase generator. If the rotor were energized with DC current rather than AC and the shaft spun continuously, then the voltages would be true threephase. But this is not how a synchro is designed to be operated. Rather, this is a positionsensing device much like an RVDT, except that its output signal is much more deﬁnite. With the rotor energized by AC, the stator winding voltages will be proportional in magnitude to the angular position
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
Synchro (a.k.a "Selsyn") Resolver
399
AC voltage source rotor winding threephase stator winding
rotor winding
twophase stator winding
stator connections
rotor connections
stator connections
rotor connections
modern schematic symbol
Figure 12.41: A synchro is wound with a threephase stator winding, and a rotating ﬁeld. A resolver has a twophase stator. of the rotor, phase either 0o or 180o shifted, like a regular LVDT or RVDT. You could think of it as a transformer with one primary winding and three secondary windings, each secondary winding oriented at a unique angle. As the rotor is slowly turned, each winding in turn will line up directly with the rotor, producing full voltage, while the other windings will produce something less than full voltage. Synchros are often used in pairs. With their rotors connected in parallel and energized by the same AC voltage source, their shafts will match position to a high degree of accuracy: (Figure 12.42)
Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver"
The receiver rotor will turn to match position with the transmitter rotor so long as the two rotors remain energized.
Figure 12.42: Synchro shafts are slaved to each other. Rotating one moves the other. Such “transmitter/receiver” pairs have been used on ships to relay rudder position, or to
400
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
relay navigational gyro position over fairly long distances. The only difference between the “transmitter” and the “receiver” is which one gets turned by an outside force. The “receiver” can just as easily be used as the “transmitter” by forcing its shaft to turn and letting the synchro on the left match position. If the receiver’s rotor is left unpowered, it will act as a positionerror detector, generating an AC voltage at the rotor if the shaft is anything other than 90o or 270o shifted from the shaft position of the transmitter. The receiver rotor will no longer generate any torque and consequently will no longer automatically match position with the transmitter’s: (Figure 12.43)
Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver"
AC voltmeter
Figure 12.43: AC voltmeter registers voltage if the receiver rotor is not rotated exactly 90 or 270 degrees from the transmitter rotor. This can be thought of almost as a sort of bridge circuit that achieves balance only if the receiver shaft is brought to one of two (matching) positions with the transmitter shaft. One rather ingenious application of the synchro is in the creation of a phaseshifting device, provided that the stator is energized by threephase AC: (Figure 12.44)
threephase AC voltage source (can be Y or Delta) Synchro
voltage signal output
Figure 12.44: Full rotation of the rotor will smoothly shift the phase from 0o all the way to 360o (back to 0o ). As the synchro’s rotor is turned, the rotor coil will progressively align with each stator coil, their respective magnetic ﬁelds being 120o phaseshifted from one another. In between those positions, these phaseshifted ﬁelds will mix to produce a rotor voltage somewhere between 0o ,
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
401
120o , or 240o shift. The practical result is a device capable of providing an inﬁnitely variablephase AC voltage with the twist of a knob (attached to the rotor shaft). A synchro or a resolver may measure linear motion if geared with a rack and pinion mechanism. A linear movement of a few inches (or cm) resulting in multiple revolutions of the synchro (resolver) generates a train of sinewaves. An Inductosyn R is a linear version of the resolver. It outputs signals like a resolver; though, it bears slight resemblance. The Inductosyn consists of two parts: a ﬁxed serpentine winding having a 0.1 in or 2 mm pitch, and a movable winding known as a slider. (Figure 12.45) The slider has a pair of windings having the same pitch as the ﬁxed winding. The slider windings are offset by a quarter pitch so both sine and cosine waves are produced by movement. One slider winding is adequate for counting pulses, but provides no direction information. The 2phase windings provide direction information in the phasing of the sine and cosine waves. Movement by one pitch produces a cycle of sine and cosine waves; multiple pitches produce a train of waves.
P θ
fixed
slider
fixed
slider sin(θ) (a) cos(θ) (b)
Figure 12.45: Inductosyn: (a) Fixed serpentine winding, (b) movable slider 2phase windings. Adapted from Figure 6.16 [1] When we say sine and cosine waves are produces as a function of linear movement, we really mean a high frequency carrier is amplitude modulated as the slider moves. The two slider AC signals must be measured to determine position within a pitch, the ﬁne position. How many pitches has the slider moved? The sine and cosine signals’ relationship does not reveal that. However, the number of pitches (number of waves) may be counted from a known starting point yielding coarse position. This is an incremental encoder. If absolute position must be known regardless of the starting point, an auxiliary resolver geared for one revolution per length gives a coarse position. This constitutes an absolute encoder. A linear Inductosyn has a transformer ratio of 100:1. Compare this to the 1:1 ratio for a resolver. A few volts AC excitation into an Inductosyn yields a few millivolts out. This low signal level is converted to to a 12bit digital format by a resolver to digital converter (RDC). Resolution of 25 microinches is achievable.
402
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
There is also a rotary version of the Inductosyn having 360 pattern pitches per revolution. When used with a 12bit resolver to digital converter, better that 1 arc second resolution is achievable. This is an incremental encoder. Counting of pitches from a known starting point is necessary to determine absolute position. Alternatively, a resolver may determine coarse absolute position. [1] So far the transducers discussed have all been of the inductive variety. However, it is possible to make transducers which operate on variable capacitance as well, AC being used to sense the change in capacitance and generate a variable output voltage. Remember that the capacitance between two conductive surfaces varies with three major factors: the overlapping area of those two surfaces, the distance between them, and the dielectric constant of the material in between the surfaces. If two out of three of these variables can be ﬁxed (stabilized) and the third allowed to vary, then any measurement of capacitance between the surfaces will be solely indicative of changes in that third variable. Medical researchers have long made use of capacitive sensing to detect physiological changes in living bodies. As early as 1907, a German researcher named H. Cremer placed two metal plates on either side of a beating frog heart and measured the capacitance changes resulting from the heart alternately ﬁlling and emptying itself of blood. Similar measurements have been performed on human beings with metal plates placed on the chest and back, recording respiratory and cardiac action by means of capacitance changes. For more precise capacitive measurements of organ activity, metal probes have been inserted into organs (especially the heart) on the tips of catheter tubes, capacitance being measured between the metal probe and the body of the subject. With a sufﬁciently high AC excitation frequency and sensitive enough voltage detector, not just the pumping action but also the sounds of the active heart may be readily interpreted. Like inductive transducers, capacitive transducers can also be made to be selfcontained units, unlike the direct physiological examples described above. Some transducers work by making one of the capacitor plates movable, either in such a way as to vary the overlapping area or the distance between the plates. Other transducers work by moving a dielectric material in and out between two ﬁxed plates: (Figure 12.46)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 12.46: Variable capacitive transducer varies; (a) area of overlap, (b) distance between plates, (c) amount of dielectric between plates. Transducers with greater sensitivity and immunity to changes in other variables can be obtained by way of differential design, much like the concept behind the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Here are a few examples of differential capacitive transducers: (Figure 12.47)
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
403
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 12.47: Differential capacitive transducer varies capacitance ratio by changing: (a) area of overlap, (b) distance between plates, (c) dielectric between plates. As you can see, all of the differential devices shown in the above illustration have three wire connections rather than two: one wire for each of the “end” plates and one for the “common” plate. As the capacitance between one of the “end” plates and the “common” plate changes, the capacitance between the other “end” plate and the “common” plate is such to change in the opposite direction. This kind of transducer lends itself very well to implementation in a bridge circuit: (Figure 12.48)
Pictoral diagram capacitive sensor Schematic diagram
V
Figure 12.48: Differential capacitive transducer bridge measurement circuit. Capacitive transducers provide relatively small capacitances for a measurement circuit to operate with, typically in the picofarad range. Because of this, high power supply frequencies (in the megahertz range!) are usually required to reduce these capacitive reactances to reasonable levels. Given the small capacitances provided by typical capacitive transducers, stray capacitances have the potential of being major sources of measurement error. Good conductor shielding is essential for reliable and accurate capacitive transducer circuitry! The bridge circuit is not the only way to effectively interpret the differential capacitance output of such a transducer, but it is one of the simplest to implement and understand. As with the LVDT, the voltage output of the bridge is proportional to the displacement of the transducer action from its center position, and the direction of offset will be indicated by phase
404
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
shift. This kind of bridge circuit is similar in function to the kind used with strain gauges: it is not intended to be in a “balanced” condition all the time, but rather the degree of imbalance represents the magnitude of the quantity being measured. An interesting alternative to the bridge circuit for interpreting differential capacitance is the twinT. It requires the use of diodes, those “oneway valves” for electric current mentioned earlier in the chapter: (Figure 12.49)
R
R C1 + + C2 Rload Eout
Figure 12.49: Differential capacitive transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit. This circuit might be better understood if redrawn to resemble more of a bridge conﬁguration: (Figure 12.50)
R + C1
R Rload + C2
Figure 12.50: Differential capacitor transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit redrawn as a bridge.Output is across Rload . Capacitor C1 is charged by the AC voltage source during every positive halfcycle (positive as measured in reference to the ground point), while C2 is charged during every negative halfcycle. While one capacitor is being charged, the other capacitor discharges (at a slower rate than it was charged) through the threeresistor network. As a consequence, C1 maintains a positive DC voltage with respect to ground, and C2 a negative DC voltage with respect to
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
405
ground. If the capacitive transducer is displaced from center position, one capacitor will increase in capacitance while the other will decrease. This has little effect on the peak voltage charge of each capacitor, as there is negligible resistance in the charging current path from source to capacitor, resulting in a very short time constant (τ ). However, when it comes time to discharge through the resistors, the capacitor with the greater capacitance value will hold its charge longer, resulting in a greater average DC voltage over time than the lesservalue capacitor. The load resistor (Rload ), connected at one end to the point between the two equalvalue resistors (R) and at the other end to ground, will drop no DC voltage if the two capacitors’ DC voltage charges are equal in magnitude. If, on the other hand, one capacitor maintains a greater DC voltage charge than the other due to a difference in capacitance, the load resistor will drop a voltage proportional to the difference between these voltages. Thus, differential capacitance is translated into a DC voltage across the load resistor. Across the load resistor, there is both AC and DC voltage present, with only the DC voltage being signiﬁcant to the difference in capacitance. If desired, a lowpass ﬁlter may be added to the output of this circuit to block the AC, leaving only a DC signal to be interpreted by measurement circuitry: (Figure 12.51)
R
Lowpass filter
R C1 + + C2 Rload
Rfilter Cfilter Eout
Figure 12.51: Addition of lowpass ﬁlter to “twinT” feeds pure DC to measurement indicator. As a measurement circuit for differential capacitive sensors, the twinT conﬁguration enjoys many advantages over the standard bridge conﬁguration. First and foremost, transducer displacement is indicated by a simple DC voltage, not an AC voltage whose magnitude and phase must be interpreted to tell which capacitance is greater. Furthermore, given the proper component values and power supply output, this DC output signal may be strong enough to directly drive an electromechanical meter movement, eliminating the need for an ampliﬁer circuit. Another important advantage is that all important circuit elements have one terminal directly connected to ground: the source, the load resistor, and both capacitors are all groundreferenced. This helps minimize the ill effects of stray capacitance commonly plaguing bridge measurement circuits, likewise eliminating the need for compensatory measures such as the Wagner earth. This circuit is also easy to specify parts for. Normally, a measurement circuit incorporating complementary diodes requires the selection of “matched” diodes for good accuracy. Not so with
406
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
this circuit! So long as the power supply voltage is signiﬁcantly greater than the deviation in voltage drop between the two diodes, the effects of mismatch are minimal and contribute little to measurement error. Furthermore, supply frequency variations have a relatively low impact on gain (how much output voltage is developed for a given amount of transducer displacement), and squarewave supply voltage works as well as sinewave, assuming a 50% duty cycle (equal positive and negative halfcycles), of course. Personal experience with using this circuit has conﬁrmed its impressive performance. Not only is it easy to prototype and test, but its relative insensitivity to stray capacitance and its high output voltage as compared to traditional bridge circuits makes it a very robust alternative.
12.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions, from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting, which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
Bibliography
[1] Waltt Kestler, “Position and Motion Sensors”, Analog Dehttp://www.analog.com/UploadedFiles/Associated Docs/ vices. 324695618448506532114843952501435805318549066180119988Fsect6.PDF
Chapter 13
AC MOTORS
Contents
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1 Hysteresis and Eddy Current . . . . . . . 13.2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.1 Synchronous reluctance . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.2 Switched reluctance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.3 Electronic driven variable reluctance motor 13.5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5.1 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5.2 Variable reluctance stepper . . . . . . . . . 13.5.3 Permanent magnet stepper . . . . . . . . . 13.5.4 Hybrid stepper motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors . . . . . . . 13.7.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7.2 Theory of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7.3 Nola power factor corrrector . . . . . . . . . 13.7.4 Induction motor alternator . . . . . . . . . . 13.7.5 Motor starting and speed control . . . . . . 13.7.6 Linear induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors . . . . . . . . . 13.8.1 Speed control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8.2 Doublyfed induction generator . . . . . . . 13.9 Singlephase induction motors . . . . . . . . . 13.9.1 Permanentsplit capacitor motor . . . . . . 13.9.2 Capacitorstart induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 409 412 420 421 421 422 424 426 426 428 431 435 438 442 443 445 453 454 455 460 460 462 462 464 465 466
407
408
13.9.3 Capacitorrun motor induction motor . . . . 13.9.4 Resistance splitphase motor induction motor 13.9.5 Nola power factor corrrector . . . . . . . . . . 13.10 Other specialized motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10.1 Shaded pole induction motor . . . . . . . . . 13.10.2 2phase servo motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10.3 Hysteresis motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10.4 Eddy current clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11.1 Transmitter  receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11.2 Differential transmitter  receiver . . . . . . 13.11.3 Control transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11.4 Resolver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.1 Single phase series motor . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.2 Compensated series motor . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.3 Universal motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.4 Repulsion motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.5 Repulsion start induction motor . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 467 467 469 469 469 470 470 471 472 473 476 478 479 480 480 480 481 481 482
Original author: Dennis Crunkilton
Figure 13.1: Conductors of squirrel cage induction motor removed from rotor.
13.1
Introduction
After the introduction of the DC electrical distribution system by Edison in the United States, a gradual transition to the more economical AC system commenced. Lighting worked as well on AC as on DC. Transmission of electrical energy covered longer distances at lower loss with
electric motors are not 100% efﬁcient. high reliability. And. persist in small appliances along with small Tesla induction motors. If a soft iron nail is temporarily magnetized by a solenoid.
13. converting it to mechanical work. (Figure 13. is driven by alternating current square waves. Br due to hysteresis remains.2 shows the family tree of the AC motors described in this chapter. However. These problems were encountered when adapting DC motors to AC operation. reducing the heat loss. The thin isolated laminations break these loops. Initially.3) a motor takes in electrical energy in terms of a potential difference and a current ﬂow. again. Hc the coercive force.5) An alternating current has to expend energy. Steinmetz contributed to solving these problems with his investigation of hysteresis losses in iron armatures. Thus. Both rotor and stator cores of AC motors are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. is replacing the conventional brushed DC motor in many applications. one goal is to maximize motor efﬁciency. motors were a problem with alternating current. these problems had to be solved before AC motors of any type could be properly designed before they were built. the AC induction motor. The heat is an undesired byproduct of the conversion. It must be removed from the motor and may adversely affect longevity. His new type of motor. However. If the laminations are made of silicon alloy grain oriented steel. The laminations are coated with insulating varnish before stacking and bolting into the ﬁnal form. Also. Some of the electric energy is lost to heat. Alas. a small amount of residual magnetization.4) The current loops look like shorted transformer secondary turns. another form of energy. Yet small brushed AC motors. Such has been the case with dieselelectric locomotives on a smaller scale for many years. in overcoming this residual magnetization before
. the Tesla motor reigns supreme. INTRODUCTION
409
alternating current. (Figure 13. similar to the DC variety. generated by solid state circuitry Figure 13. AC motors also have some losses not encountered by DC motors: hysteresis and eddy currents. Magnetic hysteresis is a lagging behind of magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to magnetizing force.1) make for long life.13. one would expect the nail to lose the magnetic ﬁeld once the solenoid is deenergized. The brushless DC motor. At the system level. the stepper motor. AC motors were constructed like DC motors. is the workhorse of industry to this day. Its ruggedness and simplicity (Figure 13. the silicon (a semiconductor) added to the alloy used in the laminations increases electrical resistance which decreases the magnitude of eddy currents. Above one horsepower (750 W). Modern solid state electronic circuits drive brushless DC motors with AC waveforms generated from a DC source. as compared to the static ﬁelds in DC motor motor ﬁeld coils. Cruise ships and other large vessels replace reduction geared drive shafts with large multimegawatt generators and motors. (Figure 13. Though few AC motors today bear any resemblance to DC motors. Eddy currents are minimized by breaking the potential conductive loop into smaller less lossy segments. Numerous problems were encountered due to changing magnetic ﬁelds.1. Charles P.1
Hysteresis and Eddy Current
Early designers of AC motors encountered problems traced to losses unique to alternating current magnetics.1. and low maintenance. but by a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. hysteresis losses are minimized. actually an AC motor. Nikola Tesla envisioned an entirely new type of motor when he visualized a spinning turbine. a digital version of motor. due to I2 R losses in the motor windings. not spun by water or steam.
AC MOTORS
Wound rotor
Capacitor start
Shaded pole
PM rotor
PM
Switched reluctance
Synchros & resolvers
Capacitor run
Variable reluctance
Synchronous condenser
Hybrid
.
Asynchronous AC brushed Universal
Synchronous Other DC motors
Polyphase
Single phase
Sine wave
Stepper
Brushless
Reluctance
Squirrel cage
Permanent split capacitor
Split phase
Wound rotor
Variable reluctance
Synchronous reluctance
CHAPTER 13.2: AC electric motor family diagram.410
Electric motor family tree
Electric motor
AC
DC
Figure 13.
3: Motor system level diagram. Hysteresis loss is encountered each time the polarity of the AC reverses. INTRODUCTION
411
Mechanical enegy Electrical energy Heat
Figure 13.
solid core
laminated core
Figure 13. 4% silicon. has still lower losses.1. let alone in the opposite direction. rolled to preferentially orient the grain or crystalline structure.5: Hysteresis curves for low and high loss alloys.4: Eddy currents in iron cores. Once Steinmetz’s Laws of hysteresis could predict iron core losses. it can magnetize the core back to zero.13.
B Teslas BR HC
H Aturns/m
B
H
HC BR low hysteresis loss high loss
Figure 13. Silicon grain oriented steel. The loss is proportional to the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop on the BH curve. it was possible to design
. “Soft” iron alloys have lower losses than “hard” high carbon steel alloys.
(3) advance or retard the phase of one unit until both AC outputs are in phase. the synchronous motor is more complex. they will make up the lost cycles of AC so that clocks lose no time. A synchronous motor is similar to an alternator with a rotating ﬁeld. Today this is but a minor category of AC motors. That is. it could be two motors. Large synchronous motors are a few percent more efﬁcient than the more common induction motors. Above 10 Horsepower (10 kW) the higher efﬁciency and leading powerfactor make large synchronous motors useful in industry. If more torque in the direction of rotation is applied to the rotor of one of the above rotating
. (2) drive both alternators at the same rotational rate.6: Synchronous motor running in step with alternator. use a motor as a generator. Or. conversely. Once synchronized. Since motors and generators are similar in construction. Though. and be in phase with each other. Though battery powered quartz regulated clocks are widely available.2
Synchronous Motors
Single phase synchronous motors are available in small sizes for applications requiring precise timing such as time keeping. This is due to power plant operators purposely maintaining the long term accuracy of the frequency of the AC distribution system. The ﬁgure below shows small alternators with a permanent magnet rotating ﬁeld. it should be possible to use a generator as a motor. The point is that in either case the rotors must run at the same nominal frequency. the alternators will be locked to each other. (clocks) and tape players. This knowledge of eddy current and hysteresis was ﬁrst applied to building AC commutator motors similar to their DC counterparts.6 could either be two paralleled and synchronized alternators driven by a mechanical energy sources. they must be synchronized.
torque angle
N S N S 1
S S N N 2
S S N N 3
Figure 13. This ﬁgure 13. If it falls behind by a few cycles. (4) close the switch before they drift out of phase. Others invented new types of AC motors bearing little resemblance to their DC kin. if an external power source were connected. the AC line operated variety has better long term accuracy−− over a period of months.412
CHAPTER 13. The procedure for synchronizing two alternators is to (1) open the switch. or an alternator driving a synchronous motor. This was akin to being able to design a bridge ahead of time that would not collapse once it was actually built.
13. requiring considerable torque to break one unit loose (out of synchronization) from the other. AC MOTORS
AC motors which performed as designed.
The process repeats for a new cycle of sine wave. At (4) the sinewave reaches a negative peak with holding torque again at a maximum. as the sine wave changes to positive in Figure 13. while the upper south coil attracts that rotor north pole. Synchronization and torque are lost beyond this angle. By the time that the sine wave reaches a peak at (2). loading the rotor will cause the rotor to lag the positions shown by angle α. Torque is developed only when synchronization of the motor is maintained.13.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
413
alternators. extracting energy from the AC line. As the sine wave changes to negative between (3&4). Assuming that the motor is up to synchronous speed. the rotor will exceed the maximum torque angle advancing or lagging so much that synchronization is lost. In the case of a small synchronous motor in place of the alternator Figure 13. while attracting rotor north rotor pole. Once up to speed. This angle increases with loading until the maximum motor torque is reached at α=90o electrical. like a motor. the angle of the rotor will lag the stator ﬁeld as at (3). If excessive torque or drag is applied. However.7 (1).7: Sinewave drives synchronous motor. the angle of the rotor will advance (opposite of (3)) with respect to the magnetic ﬁeld in the stator coils while still synchronized and the rotor will deliver energy to the AC line like an alternator. the synchronous motor is not self starting and must still be brought up to the approximate alternator electrical speed before it will lock (synchronize) to the generator rotational rate. the torque holding the north pole of the rotor up is at a maximum. In a similar manner the rotor north pole is repelled by the upper north coil and attracted to the lower south coil. Note. As the sine wave changes from negative to 0 VDC to positive.
α
S N N 1 2 1 3 4 S
S N S S N 2
N N
N S N
S 3
S 4
Figure 13.6 right. the synchronous motor will maintain synchronism with the AC power source and develop torque. In a similar manner the rotor south pole is repelled by the upper south coil and attracted to the lower north coil. If a load such as a brake is applied to one of the above units. This torque decreases as the sine wave decreases to 0 VDC at (3) with the torque at a minimum.2. The rotor will also be advanced with respect to the rotor in the other alternator. the lower south coil pushes the south rotor pole. The current in the coils of a single phase synchronous motor pulsates while alternating
. In actual practice. it is not necessary to go through the elaborate synchronization procedure for alternators. the above ﬁgure illustrates the rotor position for a noload condition (α=0o ). the lower north coil pushes the north rotor pole.
A similar 2pole permanent magnet synchronous motor will also rotate at 3600 rpm. the bottom south. a 12pole motor at 600 rpm. it synchronizes to this alternation. Rotor speed will be 1/6 of that experienced with a 2pole synchronous motor. A 2pole (pair of NS poles) alternator will generate a 60 Hz sine wave when rotated at 3600 rpm (revolutions per minute). a permanent magnet rotor bar will encounter 6pole pairs corresponding to 6cycles of AC in one physical rotation of the bar magnet. The rotation speed will be 1/6 of the electrical speed of the AC. If the permanent magnet rotor speed is close to the frequency of this alternation. assume that the top is temporarily north.10) shows a 12pole Westclox synchronous clock motor. These 6souths are interleaved with 6north tabs bent up from the top of the steel pole piece of the coil. Higher efﬁciency higher torque multipole stator synchronous motors actually have multiple poles in the rotor.8) is for illustration.
Figure 13. Thus. Example: 60 Hz would rotate a 2pole motor at 3600 rpm. or 600 rpm for a 12pole motor.9: Onewinding 12pole synchronous motor. The style of construction shown (Figure 13. Construction is similar to the previous ﬁgure with a single coil. The 3600 rpm corresponds to 60 revolutions per second. The one coil style of construction is
.9. This is a small induction motor similar to those in the next section. A 4pole motor would rotate at 1800 rpm. Since the coil ﬁeld pulsates and does not rotate. The stator (Figure 13. A lower speed motor may be constructed by adding more pole pairs. Though the polarity of the coil alternates due to the appplied AC. AC MOTORS
polarity. Rather than wind 12coils for a 12pole motor. Pole pieces route the south ﬂux from the bottom and outside of the coil to the top. wind a single coil with twelve interdigitated steel poles pieces as shown in Figure 13.
N S
Figure 13.414
CHAPTER 13. it is necessary to bring the permanent magnet rotor up to speed with an auxiliary motor.8: Addition of ﬁeld poles decreases speed.
10: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www.12 generates an electrically rotating ﬁeld in the stator. At one time nonselfstarting motors without the induction motor cup were manufactured.com economical for low torque motors.com The rotor (Figure 13.clockHistory.13.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
415
Figure 13. This 600 rpm motor drives reduction gears moving clock hands.11: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www.11) consists of a permanent magnet bar and a steel induction motor cup.)
Figure 13. It would rotate at 50/5 = 10 rotations per second or 600 rpm (10 s−1 x 60 s/minute. The synchronous motor bar rotating within the pole tabs keeps accurate time. If the Westclox motor were to run at 600 rpm from a 50 Hz power source. how many poles would be required? A 10pole motor would have 5pairs of NS poles. A 3phase synchronous motor as shown in Figure 13. Such motors are not self starting if started from a ﬁxed frequency power
. The induction motor cup outside of the bar magnet ﬁts outside and over the tabs for self starting.2.clockHistory.
where f is the power line frequency. If the coils are energized one at a time in the sequence φ1. multiply by 60. These will be slip ring fed electromagnets in large industrial motors. 4pole synchronous motor Small multiphase synchronous motors (Figure 13. 50 or 60 Hz for industrial power line operated motors. The electromagnetic armature is only energized after the rotor is brought up to near synchronous speed. The number of poles is n. For rotor speed in rpm. acting like an induction motor. For example. Such motors are known as brushless DC motors. The three phases of stator excitation add vectorially to produce a single resultant magnetic ﬁeld which rotates f/2n times per second.12: Three phase. when the φ1 and φ2 sinewaves coincide. and will be square waves in all but the most demanding applications.12) will rotate at 1800 rpm with 60 Hz power or 1500 rpm with 50 Hz power. the resultant ﬁeld will rotate. Large industrial synchronous motors are self started by embedded squirrel cage conductors in the armature. The multiphase drive signals are generated by electronic circuits. They are used when constant speed is required.
φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2
φ3
N S S
N S N
φ3
Figure 13. S = f120/n where: S = rotor speed in rpm f = AC line frequency n = number of poles per phase The 3phase 4pole (per phase) synchronous motor (Figure 13. Two or three phase drive may be used by supplying the appropriate number of windings in the stator. Since the sine waves actually overlap. AC MOTORS
source such as 50 or 60 Hz as found in an industrial setting. they can correct the AC line for a lagging power factor. Only 3phase is shown above. but smoothly. φ3. φ2. not in steps. Furthermore. The bar magnet rotor shown is only appropriate for small motors.416
CHAPTER 13. True synchronous motors are driven by sine waveforms. the ﬁeld will be at a peak pointing between these poles.12) may be started by ramping the drive frequency from zero to the ﬁnal running frequency. the rotor is not a permanent magnet as shown below for the multihorsepower (multikilowatt) motors used in industry.
. Having a leading power factor. The rotor with multiple magnet poles (below right) is used in any efﬁcient motor driving a substantial load. but an electromagnet. the rotor should point to the corresponding poles in turn. Large industrial synchronous motors are more efﬁcient than induction motors.
Would ripple torque be a problem for a fan motor? No. is known as a brushless DC motor.13) shows the drive electronics associated with a low voltage (12 VDC ) synchronous motor. The PM rotor may be rotated by hand but will encounter attraction to the pole pieces when near them. which provides a low level signal with a frequency proportional to the speed of rotation of the motor. not even a motor. Would ripple torque be a problem for a motor used in a tape player? Yes. we are primarily interested in synchronous motors in this section. is fed back to a phase locked loop. Though.13. A synchronous motor will generate a sinusoidal back emf if the stator
. which compares the tachometer frequency and phase to a stable reference frequency source such as a crystal oscillator. This type of motor has higher ripple torque torque variation through a shaft revolution than a sine wave driven motor. A motor driven by square waves of current.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output
417
hall effect
Figure 13. a pulse train proportional to motor speed.
reference frequency phase locked loop waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output
position sensor tachometer
Figure 13.14) This tachometer signal. (as for a disk drive) a tachometer and phase locked loop may be included. we do not want the motor to alternately speed and slow as it moves audio tape past a tape playback head. as proviced by simple hall effect sensors.15) Note that there are no stator coils. The position sensor could be as simple as as solid state magnetic ﬁeld sensors such as Hall effect devices providing commutation (armature current direction) timing to the drive electronics The position sensor could be a high resolution angular sensor such as a resolver. (Figure 13. If a motor is driven by sinewaves of current synchronous with the motor back emf. Ripple torque. inductosyn (magnetic encoder). These motors have a position sensor integrated within the motor. This is analogous to the mechanical situation. If constant and accurate speed of rotation is required.13: Electronic synchronous motor The block diagram (Figure 13. regardless of whether the drive waveforms are generated by electronic means. or an optical encoder. or cogging is caused by magnetic attraction of the rotor poles to the stator pole pieces.2. it is classiﬁed as a synchronous AC motor. (Figure 13. This is not a problem for many applications.14: Phase locked loop controls synchronous motor speed.
3φ distributed winding
Single phase belt
Figure 13.
.15: Motor ripple torque and mechanical analog.16: Windings distributed in a belt produce a more sinusoidal ﬁeld. AC MOTORS
N S
Ripple torque
mechanical analog
Figure 13.418
CHAPTER 13.
A resolver provides analog angular position signals in the form of signals proportional to the sine and cosine of shaft angle. However. The sine wave drive may actually be from a PWM. Slots having fewer windings at the edge of the phase winding may share the space with other phases. Encoders provide a digital angular position indication in either serial or parallel format.78.17) Each phase requires drive electronics for this wave form phaseshifted by the appropriate amount per phase. (Figure 13. Synchronous motor efﬁciency is higher than that of induction motors.
. the torque is constant throughout a revolution by the trigonometric identity: sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 The generation and synchronization of the drive waveform requires a more precise rotor position indication than provided by the hall effect sensors used in brushless DC motors.2. which mounts inside a drive wheel. The synchronous motor can also be smaller. or optical or magnetic encoder provides resolution of hundreds to thousands of parts (pulses) per revolution. A resolver. Induction motors are mostly used in railway traction. For a 2phase motor.
PWM
Figure 13. driven by a sinewave. Pulse Width Modulator.13. It will be more sinusoidal if pole windings are distributed in a belt (Figure 13.[1] The largest experimental superconducting synchronous motor is capable of driving a naval destroyer class ship. In all these applications the electronic variable speed drive is essential.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
419
magnetic ﬁeld has a sinusoidal distribution. makes it attractive for such applications. Winding belts may take on an alternate concentric form as shown in Figure 13. This arrangement cancels many of the stator ﬁeld odd harmonics.17: PWM approximates a sinewave. especially if high energy permanent magnets are used in the rotor. a high efﬁciency method of approximating a sinewave with a digital waveform. a small synchronous motor.16) across many slots instead of concentrated on one large pole (as drawn in most of our simpliﬁed illustrations). The advent of modern solid state electronics makes it possible to drive these motors at variable speed. The high temperature superconducting version of this motor is one ﬁfth to one third the weight of a copper wound motor.
[2] A larger version of the linear synchronous motor with a movable carriage containing high energy NdBFe permanent magnets is being developed to launch aircraft from naval aricraft carriers. the leading power factor can be adjusted by varying the ﬁeld excitation. a hydrogen ﬁlled synchronous condenser can be driven harder than an air cooled unit. Originally. Furthermore. The stator of a synchronous motor is the same as that of the more popular induction motor. Furthermore. a synchronous linear motor results. heat removal is ten times more efﬁcient. large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct the lagging power factor of induction motors. Since a synchronous condenser does not supply a torque. If the rotor and stator of a conventional rotary synchronous motor are unrolled.[3]
13. Since the density of hydrogen is 7% of that of air. This is often usefull in cancelling out the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive loads. To develop maximum torque. Thus. A synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no mechanical load to fulﬁll this function. And the position of the rotor with respect to the stator ﬁeld needs to be calculated. This enhances power line voltage regulation.3
Synchronous condenser
Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. the windage loss for a hydrogen ﬁlled unit is 7% of that encountered in air. the output shaft may be dispensed with and the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. or it may be physically smaller for a given capacity. It is implemented with a fast microprocessor driving a pulse width modulator for the stator phases. by absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. the thermal conductivity of hydrogen is ten times that of air.
. The synchronous condenser may then be ﬁlled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce windage losses. the position of the rotor needs to be known accurately. Any more. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. typically above 91%. As a result. Thus. This type of motor is applied to precise high speed linear positioning. The efﬁciency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condensers along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. As a result the industrial grade electronic speed control used with induction motors is also applicable to large industrial synchronous motors. This type of control is known as vector phase control.420
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
The variable speed drive must also reduce the drive voltage at low speed due to decreased inductive reactance at lower frequency. There is no explosion hazard as long as the hydrogen concentration is maintained above 70%. and controlled. the rotor needs to lag the stator ﬁeld direction by 90o . More real power may be transmitted through a ﬁxed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous condensers absorbing reactive power. Much less results in reduced torque. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor. This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the ﬁeld of the synchronous motor. it loses synchronization.
an iron core. it will still develop 10 or 15% of synchronous torque. Transient sags and dips of milliseconds duration are stabilized.19)
13. The synchronous condenser aids voltage regulation by drawing leading current when the line voltage sags.4. is of no more use than air. or any other material with a relative permeability µr =1. An iron core would saturate at 2 Teslas in the rotor air gap. the magnetic analog of electrical resistance.4.4
Reluctance motor
The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an unrestrained piece of iron will move to complete a magnetic ﬂux path with minimum reluctance. in the rotor. which must be cooled to the liquid nitrogen boiling point of 77o K (196o C). approximate µr =1000. Thus. This supplements longer response times of quick acting voltage regulation and excitation of generating equipment. This is due to variable reluctance throughout
. The superconducting wire carries 160 times the current of comparable copper wire.18: Synchronous condenser improves power line voltage regulation. while producing a ﬂux density of 3 Teslas or higher. Such a machine is said to have considerable additional transient ability to supply reactive power to troublesome loads like metal melting arc furnaces. Such a synchronous condenser has a higher power density (smaller physically) than a switched capacitor bank. The ability to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the overall power grid against fault conditions. which increases generator excitation thereby restoring line voltage. The manufacturer describes it as being a “reactive power shock absorber”. RELUCTANCE MOTOR
421
The ability of synchronous condensers to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the power grid against short circuits and other transient fault conditions.1
Synchronous reluctance
If the rotating ﬁeld of a large synchronous motor with salient poles is deenergized.
13.
Generator Voltage 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 40% 60% Line current 80% 100%
sync w/o hronous cond syn ense chr r ono us con den ser
Figure 13. (Figure 13. The capacity of a synchronous condenser can be increased by replacing the copper wound iron ﬁeld rotor with an ironless rotor of high temperature superconducting wire.18) A capacitor bank does not have this ability.13. (Figure 13.
The reluctance of the rotor to stator ﬂux path varies with the position of the rotor. a switched reluctance motor. a synchronous reluctance motor results. and low efﬁciency are characteristics of the direct power line driven variable reluctance motor.2
Switched reluctance
If an iron rotor with poles. Low power factor. The synchronous torque is due to changes in reluctance of the magnetic path from the stator through the rotor as the slots align.4.
φ3
S
S
φ3
N
high reluctance
N
low reluctance
Figure 13. For smooth vibration free operation the 6step approximation of a sine wave (c) is desirable and easy to generate. in a wave drive pattern. Waveforms (a & b) are applicable to the stepper motor version of the variable reluctance motor. It starts like an induction motor but runs with a small amount of synchronous torque. (Figure 13. low pullout torque. is ﬁtted to a multiphase stator. This is an over simpliﬁed rotor and waveforms to illustrate operation. the magnetic analog of electric resistance. one which only switches in one direction. one at a time.19) A switched reluctance motor is also known as a variable reluctance motor. AC MOTORS
a rotor revolution. There is no practical application for a large synchronous reluctance motor. it is practical in small sizes.21) Wave drive (a) is simple.422
CHAPTER 13. The power driver must pull alternately high and low.20) of the stator phases moves the rotor from one position to the next. but without any conductors. (Figure 13. corresponding to the stator slots. If one end of each 3phase winding of the switched reluctance motor is brought out via a common lead wire.
13. When a stator coil pole pair is energized.20) The other coil connections are successively pulled to ground.19: Reluctance is a function of rotor position in a variable reluctance motor. More torque is provided by the bipolar drive (b). Sequential switching (Figure 13. The mangetic ﬂux seeks the path of least reluctance. requiring only a single ended unipolar switch. However. or drawn from the power line. but requires a bipolar switch. the rotor will move to the lowest magnetic reluctance path. This motor is an inexpensive means of developing a moderate synchronous torque. capable of synchronizing with the stator ﬁeld results. If slots are cut into the conductorless rotor of an induction motor. This attracts the rotor to the clockwise rotating magnetic ﬁeld in 60o increments. Sine wave drive (d) may be generated by a pulse width modulator (PWM).
. we can explain operation as if it were a stepper motor. (Figure 13. Various waveforms may drive variable reluctance motors. That is. Such was the status of the variable reluctance motor for a century before the development of semiconductor power control.
21: Variable reluctance motor drive waveforms: (a) unipolar wave drive. oversimpliﬁed operation.20: Variable reluctance motor. (b) bipolar full step (c) sinewave (d) bipolar 6step. RELUCTANCE MOTOR
423
V+
φ3 φ2
φ2 φ3 φ1
φ2 φ3 φ1
φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3
Figure 13.
.13.4.
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (b) (a)
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (d) (c)
Figure 13.
This makes the motor simple and inexpensive. AC MOTORS
Doubling the number of stator poles decreases the rotating speed and increases torque. Figure 13.424
CHAPTER 13. An electronic driven variable reluctance motor (Figure 13. which is not nearly as simple as that for a brushless DC motor. The relationship between torque and stator current is highly nonlinear– difﬁcult to control. While the variable reluctance motor is simple. there is an electronic driven version of the switched reluctance motor. an electronic feedback system. it is difﬁcult to control. A microprocessor performs complex calculations for switching the windings at the proper time with solid state devices.4. this is offset by the cost of the electronic control. Sequential switching of the ﬁeld coils creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the irregularly shaped rotor around with it as it seeks out the lowest magnetic reluctance path. or derive this from monitoring the stator back EMF. This might eliminate a gear reduction drive. A variable reluctance motor intended to move in discrete steps. Though difﬁcult to control.22: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor. a variable reluctance motor is optimized for continuous high speed rotation with minimum ripple torque.3
Electronic driven variable reluctance motor
Variable reluctance motors are poor performers when direct power line driven. stop. this motor is easy to spin. and start is a variable reluctance stepper motor. minimizing ripple torque. even more so than an induction motor. This must be done precisely to minimize audible noise and ripple
. microprocessors and solid state power drive makes this motor an economical high performance solution in some high volume applications. controls torque and speed. Variable reluctance motors or steppers actually use rotors like those in Figure 13. Electronic control solves this problem and makes it practical to drive the motor well above and below the power line frequency.23 This is the opposite of the high ripple torque desired in stepper motors.
φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3
φ3 φ1 φ2
φ1 φ2 φ3
φ3 φ1 φ2
Figure 13. If smooth rotation is the goal. Rather than a stepper.23) resembles a brushless DC motor without a permanent magnet rotor.22.
13. However. However. covered in another section. It is necessary to measure the rotor position with a rotary position sensor like an optical or magnetic encoder. A variable reluctance motor driven by a servo.
• Cost effective compared to bushless DC motor in high volumes. The simplicity of the motor compensates for the drive electronics cost. • Low cost accurate speed control possible if volume is high enough. • High starting torque. using specialized design techniques. The efﬁciency of this electronic driven motor can be high. which is only justiﬁed for large manufacturing volumes. One such vacuum cleaner uses a compact high efﬁciency electronic driven 100.23: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor. commutator. torque. • High efﬁciency and reliability compared to conventional AC or DC motors. No brushes. • Adaptable to very high ambient temperature. no Cu or Al in the rotor. or permanent magnets. winding current must be monitored and controlled. For lowest ripple torque. or pump motors. Advantages • Simple construction.4. Disadvantages • Current versus torque is highly nonlinear • Phase switching must be precise to minimize ripple torque • Phase current must be controlled to minimize ripple torque • Acoustic and electrical noise • Not applicable to low volumes due to complex control issues
.000 rpm fan motor.13. it requires considerable optimization. no rotor windings. RELUCTANCE MOTOR
425
µprocessor control
stator drive
variable reluctance motor
stator current rotor position
Figure 13. The strict drive requirements make this motor only practical for high volume applications like energy efﬁcient vacuum cleaner motors. no permanent magnets. simpliﬁes motor manufacture.no brushes. But. fan motors. no commutator.
(Figure 13. the high speed and accuracy required of modern harddrive head positioning dictates the use of a linear servomotor (voice coil). The stepper motor drivers are less complex solid state switches.5. Application wise.5
Stepper motors
A stepper motor is a “digital” version of the electric motor.426
CHAPTER 13. Today this is a higher cost solution to high performance motion control applications. The capacitor generates a 90o second phase. the default is the stepper due to low cost. being either “on” or “off ”. we have a 2phase drive. good torque. good accuracy. the predecessor of the stepper motor was the servo motor. microprocessors readily interface to stepper motor driver circuits. which may also have either salient poles or
. Thus. Slosyn synchronous motors can run from AC line voltage like a singlephase permanentcapacitor induction motor. However. As the windings are energized in sequence. When stopped but energized. The rotor is a cylindrical solid. we treat stepper motors as a class of AC synchronous motor. The expense and complexity of a servomotor is due to the additional system components: position sensor and error ampliﬁer. DC can be switched to the motor so that it sees AC. Thus. AC MOTORS
13. The servo ampliﬁer is a linear ampliﬁer with some difﬁcult to integrate discrete components. The rotor moves in discrete steps as commanded. (Figure 13.
13.1
Characteristics
Stepper motors are rugged and inexpensive because the rotor contains no winding slip rings. High acceleration or unusually high accuracy still requires a servo motor. Otherwise. moderate speed. A considerable design effort is required to optimize the servo ampliﬁer gain vs phase response to the mechanical components. With the direct line voltage. And.25) In other words. They were once used for the same purpose in harddrives.
command
stepper motor load command
error
servo motor
load
position sensor
Figure 13. simple drive electronics.24: Stepper motor vs servo motor. Modern solid state driver electronics was a key to its success. a stepper (short for stepper motor) holds its load steady with a holding torque. the rotor synchronizes with the consequent stator magnetic ﬁeld. a stepper motor controller is less complex and costly than a servo motor controller. rather than rotating continuously like a conventional motor.24) It is still the way to position heavy loads beyond the grasp of lower power steppers. or commutator. A stepper motor positions the readwrite heads in a ﬂoppy drive. and low cost. The bipolar magnetic ﬁelds may also be generated from unipolar (one polarity) voltages applied to alternate ends of a center tapped winding. Drive waveforms of bipolar (±) square waves of 224V are more common these days. Wide spread acceptance of the stepper motor within the last two decades was driven by the ascendancy of digital electronics.
If they do rotate continuously. There may also be multiple pole pairs per phase. These phases are frequently split into pairs. Steppers cannot achieve the speeds on the speed torque curve instantaneously. They have torque ratings to a thousand inoz (inchounces) or ten nm (newtonmeters) for a 4 kg size unit. torque pulsations. the step angle. This speed is frequently not attainable due to mechanical resonance of the motor load combination. Most steppers are a few inches in diameter with a fraction of a nm or a few inoz torque.25: Unipolar drive of center tapped coil at (b). decreasing to zero at some high speed. holding stepper has a relatively high holding torque rating. The step angle is related to motor construction details: number of coils.13. Stepper motor coils are wound within a laminated stator. load torque. load inertia. emulates AC current in single coil at (a). they do not even approach a subfractional hp rated capability. There is less torque available for a running motor. except for can stack construction. a 4pole stepper motor may have two phases composed of inline pairs of poles spaced 90o apart.
Torque maximum speed holding torque
cutoff speed Speed
Figure 13. three pairs per phase.5. number of poles. when the drive waveforms are changed. corresponding to 4 to 500 steps per revolution. Determine that the rotor is a permanent magnet by unpowered hand rotation showing detent torque. More often than not the rotor is a permanent magnet. The maximum start frequency is the highest rate at which a stopped and unloaded stepper can be
. number of teeth. there is no horsepower rating. They are truly small low power devices compared to other motors. A small “dime” size stepper has a torque of a hundredth of a newtonmeter or a few inchounces. and drive electronics as illustrated on the speed vs torque curve.26: Stepper speed characteristics. The torque available is a function of motor speed. For example a 12pole stepper has 6pairs of poles.75o . There may be as few as two winding phases or as many as ﬁve. Thus. Since stepper motors do not necessarily rotate continuously. ﬁne teeth. Stepper motors move one step at a time. (Figure 13.26) An energized. Drive electronics may halve the step angle by moving the rotor in halfsteps. It can be from 90o to 0. STEPPER MOTORS
V+ V V V+ Vbipolar
+
427
unipolar
Figure 13.
The hybrid stepper has soft steel teeth added to the permanent magnet rotor for a smaller step angle.
ΘST = step
. The permanent magnet stepper has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. minimizing the length of any high reluctance air gap. angle NS = number stator poles.2
Variable reluctance stepper
A variable reluctance stepper motor relies upon magnetic ﬂux seeking the lowest reluctance path through a magnetic circuit. This torque load on the stepper is due to frictional (brake) and inertial (ﬂywheel) loads on the motor shaft.(Figure 13. Once the motor is up to speed. AC MOTORS
started. due to the lesser number of rotor poles. The stator typically has three windings distributed between pole pairs . The drive waveforms for the 3φ stepper can be seen in the “Reluctance motor” section. In practice. yielding a 30o step angle. pullout torque is the maximum sustainable torque without losing steps. the rotor four salient poles. For a variable reluctance stepper motor. However.28. When stopping a stepper motor.ΘS where: ΘS = stator angle.428
CHAPTER 13. the step angle is given by: ΘS = 360o /NS ΘR = 360o /NR ΘST = ΘR . NP = number rotor poles
ΘR = Rotor angle. There are three types of stepper motors in order of increasing complexity: variable reluctance.27: Three phase and four phase variable reluctance stepper motors. Sequentially switching the stator phases produces a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which the rotor follows. The variable reluctance stepper has s solid soft steel rotor with salient poles. Any load will make this parameter unattainable. permanent magnet. the step rate may be decreased before stopping. This means that an irregularly shaped soft magnetic rotor will move to complete a magnetic circuit.5. The maximum torque at which a stepper can start and stop is the pullin torque.
13. and hybrid. the step rate is ramped up during starting from well below the maximum start frequency. the rotor moves less than the stator angle for each step. The drive for a 4φ stepper is shown in Figure 13.
φ3 V+ φ2 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 30o step φ3 15o step φ4 φ1 V+ φ2 φ1 φ4 φ2 φ3
Figure 13.27) A deenergized stepper with no detent torque when hand rotated is identiﬁable as a variable reluctance type stepper.
the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates clockwise. the actual step angle is the difference between a stator angle of 45o and a rotor angle of 30o . In practice.30) This may move the heads of a ﬂoppy drive upon command by the ﬂoppy drive controller. This could be combined into a single circuit board. but it aligns with a CW by 30o stator tooth. φ3 . φ4 ) to align the “dotted” rotor tooth to the next CCW stator Tooth. The direction. Starting at rest with phase φ1 energized. moving from φ1 to φ2 . STEPPER MOTORS
φ1
S
429
φ3
S Ν S Ν S
φ2
Ν
φ4
Ν
φ1 V+ φ4 φ2
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 counterclockwise 15o step
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 reverse step. How far would the stepper rotate if the rotor and stator had the same number of teeth? Zero– no notation. The rotor moved CCW to the next rotor tooth at 45o .28. Variable reluctance stepper motors are applied when only a moderate level of torque is required and a coarse step angle is adequate. Instead.. Both driver and controller may be combined into a single integrated circuit accepting a direction command and step pulse. it can drive the carriage toward the optical interrupter. as used in a ﬂoppy disk drive is such an application. 24pulses or steps move the rotor through 360o . It outputs current to the proper phases in sequence. the driver is either discrete transistor switches or an integrated circuit. The controller could be a microprocessor or a specialized integrated circuit. Disassemble a reluctance stepper to view the internal components. In Figure 13. clockwise
φ3
Figure 13. Note what does not happen! The dotted rotor tooth does not move to the next stator tooth. etc. The rotor moves counterclockwise (CCW). The rotor tooth angle of 45o enters into the calculation by the above equation. By reversing the sequence of pulses. The rotor has protruding poles so that they may be attracted to the rotating stator ﬁeld as it is switched. However. which is a smaller angle (15o ) than the stator angle of 30o . With 3pulses per stator tooth. calibrating the
. The shaft is frequently ﬁtted with a drive screw. and 8stator teeth. Otherwise. The driver is not a linear ampliﬁer. In principle. which is 45o . (Figure 13. it does not know the position of the carriage.29.13.5. the direction of rotation is reversed above right. A screw drive. but a simple onoff switch capable of high enough current to energize the stepper. the driver could be a relay or even a toggle switch for each phase. three pulses are required (φ2 . and number of steps are controlled by a stepper motor controller feeding a driver or ampliﬁer. we show the internal construction of a variable reluctance stepper motor in Figure 13. When the controller powersup. Thus. is much longer than our simpliﬁed illustration. An actual motor. step rate. the φ2 stator ﬁeld attracts a different tooth in moving the rotor CCW.28: Stepping sequence for variable reluctance stepper.
optical interrupter stepper motor guide rails carriage
knife edge
Figure 13.430
CHAPTER 13.29: Variable reluctance stepper motor.30: Variable reluctance stepper drives lead screw.
. AC MOTORS
Figure 13.
most inexpensive stepper motor.5o to 90o .
. (d) φ2 .13. As long as the load torque does not exceed the motor torque. If the detent angle is large.31: PM wave drive sequence (a) φ1 + . The stator usually has two windings. • This is the least complex. Permanent magnet stepper motors require phased alternating currents applied to the two (or more) windings.5. The timing of the bipolar or unipolar wave is wave drive. The windings could be center tapped to allow for a unipolar driver circuit where the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld is changed by switching a voltage from one end to the other of the winding. the controller will know the carriage position. A bipolar drive of alternating polarity is required to power windings without the center tap. or half step. (b) φ2 + .5 V to 2.
13. The controller counts step pulses from this position. STEPPER MOTORS
431
position at which the knife edge cuts the interrupter as “home”. it is likely a permanent magnet stepper rather than a hybrid stepper (next subsection). full step. • The only type stepper with no detent torque in hand rotation of a deenergized motor shaft. this is almost always square waves generated from DC by solid state electronics. In practice.3
Permanent magnet stepper
A permanent magnet stepper motor has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. • Large step angle • A lead screw is often mounted to the shaft for linear stepping motion. A pure permanent magnet stepper usually has a large step angle. +2.5 V. Rotation of the shaft of a deenergized motor exhibits detent torque. Bipolar drive is square waves alternating between (+) and () polarities. say.. Wave drive
φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 φ−1
S N
+ −
−
N S N S
N S
S N φ−2 Wave drive a b
+
S N S c
N
S
N
−
φ−2
+
φ−2
+
φ−2
−
d
Figure 13. Summary: variable reluctance stepper motor • The rotor is a soft iron cylinder with salient (protruding) poles. (c) φ1 . Unipolar drive supplies a (+) and () alternating magnetic ﬂux to the coils developed from a pair of positive square waves applied to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. say 7.5.
32: Waveforms: bipolar wave drive. There are twice as many waveforms because a pair of (+) waves is required to produce an alternating magnetic ﬁeld by application to opposite ends of a center tapped coil.33) waveforms are unipolar because only one polarity is required. Permanent magnet stepper motors are manufactured with various leadwire conﬁgurations. but requires twice as many drivers.32) are bipolar because both polarities . This simpliﬁes the drive electronics. the simplest drive is wave drive.
φ1 φ2 φ1’ φ2’ V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1
6wire
φ1’
Figure 13. These may be produced by either unipolar or bipolar waves.
φ1
+ + a b c d
φ2
φ2’ φ1
φ2
φ1’
Figure 13.34: Stepper motor wiring diagrams.31) The rotation sequence left to right is positive φ1 points rotor north pole up. the most
. The 6wire motor.432
CHAPTER 13.34)
φ2 φ2’ φ1 V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2a φ2a’ φ2b’ φ2b’ φ1a
φ1a’ φ1b
φ1’
2wire bipolar
6wire unipolar
φ1’
5wire unipolar
φ1’
8wire bipolar or unipolar
φ1b’
Figure 13. motor coils must have center taps for unipolar drive.33: Waveforms: unipolar wave drive. AC MOTORS
Conceptually. The waveforms (Figure 13. (Figure 13. (+) and () drive the stepper. The motor requires alternating magnetic ﬁelds. The 4wire motor can only be driven by bipolar waveforms. negative φ1 attracts rotor north down. The wave drive waveforms below show that only one coil is energized at a time. While simple. However. The (Figure 13. The coil magnetic ﬁeld reverses because the polarity of the drive current reverses. (Figure 13. () φ2 points rotor left. (+) φ2 points rotor north right. this does not produce as much torque as other drive techniques.
Unipolar drive (not shown) would require a pair of unipolar waveforms for each of the above bipolar waveforms applied to the ends of a center tapped winding. or in parallel for low voltage high current drive. This attracts the rotor poles midway between the two ﬁeld poles. The unipolar waveforms for half step drive are shown above. followed by both windings energized. Unipolar drive uses a less complex.5. Half step drive is a combination of wave drive and full step drive with one winding energized. The 5wire motor can only be driven by unipolar waves. Though. is intended for unipolar drive because of the center taps.35)
φ−1 S φ−1 S φ−1 N
S
φ−1
+
N
+
N
S
S
−
S
N
S
−
S
−
N
−
a
N
N + φ−1 0 + φ−2 0 
N φ−2 b
S φ−2
N
S
+
b
N
+
c
S
N
N
S d
+
a
−
−
+
−
φ−2
+
+
φ−2
−
c d
Figure 13. It may be wired for unipolar drive as for the 6wire or 5wire motor. STEPPER MOTORS
433
common arrangement. (Figure 13. half stepping the motor moving the print head across the paper of an inkjet printer would double the dot density. Half step drive The step angle for a given stepper motor geometry is cut in half with half step drive. This method produces exact 1:1 turns ratios for center tapped windings. A biﬁlar winding is produced by winding the coils with two wires in parallel. less expensive driver circuit.36) Half stepping provides greater resolution in positioning of the motor shaft. bipolar drive. A pair of coils may be connected in series for high voltage bipolar low current drive. yielding twice as many steps. (Figure 13. This corresponds to twice as many step pulses per revolution. For example. as the common center tap interferes if both windings are energized simultaneously. The additional cost of bipolar drive is justiﬁed when more torque is required. The rotor aligns with the ﬁeld poles as for wave drive and between the poles as for full step drive.
. Full step drive Full step drive provides more torque than wave drive because both coils are energized at the same time.35 has the same step angle as wave drive. This winding method is applicable to all but the 4wire arrangement above. it may be driven by bipolar waves if the center taps are ignored.13. The 8wire conﬁguration is rare.35: Full step. Full step bipolar drive as shown in Figure 13. but provides maximum ﬂexibility. often a red and green enamelled wire.
Each side wraps around to the center
. By varying the currents to the windings sinusoidally many microsteps can be interpolated between the normal positions. One phase. yet has 24poles in each of two phases. It is also desirable to reduce the number of windings. It is desirable to increase the number of poles beyond that illustrated to produce a smaller step angle.434
φ−1 φ−1 φ−1
CHAPTER 13. This style of construction is known as can stack. 24pole canstack construction. The permanent magnet stepper (Figure 13. AC MOTORS
φ−1
S N S N φ−2 a
S
+ −
+
N
−
S N S N S
N
S
−
N
N
S φ−2
+ 0 + 0 
−
+
b +
−
φ−2
+
c
N
S
+
N
S
−
φ−2
+
d
a
b
c d
Half step
Figure 13. Microstepping is possible with specialized controllers. on a transient basis.37: Permanent magnet stepper motor. will have a north side and a south side.
N
S
north south
ceramic permanent magnet rotor φ1 coil φ2 coil
Figure 13.36: Half step.37) only has two windings. with ﬁngers brought to the center. bipolar drive. Construction The contruction of a permanent magnet stepper motor is considerably different from the drawings above. A phase winding is wrapped with a mild steel shell. or at least not increase the number of windings for ease of manufacture.
See below for offset.5. However. These alternating northsouth ﬁngers will attract the permanent magnet rotor. Summary: permanent magnet stepper motor • The rotor is a permanent magnet.4
Hybrid stepper motor
The hybrid stepper motor combines features of both the variable reluctance stepper and the permanent magnet stepper to produce a smaller step angle. it will rotate in a reproducible direction if the phases are alternated. And. • Often used in computer printers to advance paper.
13. often a ferrite sleeve magnetized with numerous poles. If the polarity of the phase were reversed. which is not usefull. the rotor will move 7. • Large to moderate step angle. Note that the rotor is a gray ferrite ceramic cylinder magnetized in the 24pole pattern shown.5o from φ1. (Figure 13. Canstack style construction of a PM stepper is distinctive and easy to identify by the stacked “cans”. Though.13. We do not know which direction. the rotor would jump 360o /24 = 15o . The rotor is a cylindrical perma
. if we energize φ1 followed by φ2. Application of any of the above waveforms will rotate the permanent magnet rotor. STEPPER MOTORS
435
of the doughnut with twelve interdigitated ﬁngers for a total of 24 poles.5o because the φ2 is offset (rotated) by 7. (b) ﬁeld offset detail. This can be viewed with magnet viewer ﬁlm or iron ﬁlings applied to a paper wrapping. • Canstack construction provides numerous poles from a single coil with interleaved ﬁngers of soft iron.
φ−1 coil
x’
x’
x
90° offset
φ−1 coil
PM rotor dust cover φ−2 coil
φ−2 coil
x
Can stack permanent magnet stepper
Figure 13.38: (a) External view of can stack. the colors will be green for both north and south poles with the ﬁlm.5. This is key to making the rotor follow the switching of the ﬁelds between the two phases.38) Note the rotational offset between the two phase sections.
See rotor pole detail above. one pole of the rotor. In other words.
N
S
rotor pole detail
N
permanent magnet rotor. magnetized along the axis with radial soft iron teeth (Figure 13. Note that the 48teeth on one rotor section are offset by half a pitch from the other. there could be as many as ﬁve phases. the teeth of the south pole are offset from the north teeth by half a tooth. This detail is only discernable on the schematic diagrams below. we attempt to illustrate the quarter tooth rotation produced by the two stator phases offset by a quarter tooth. Due to this offset. The result is that the rotor moves in steps of a quarter of a tooth when the phases are alternately energized. In the next two ﬁgures. However.40) to illustrate details not obvious above. Note the reduced number of coils and teeth in rotor and stator for simplicity. These stator phases are offset from one another by onequarter of a tooth. except for missing teeth in the space between the poles. the rotor moves in 2×96=192 steps per revolution for the above stepper. may align with the stator in 48 distinct positions. Thus. The northsouth poles of a phase swap polarity when the phase drive current is reversed. This offset allows for rotation in 1/96 th of a revolution steps by reversing the ﬁeld polarity of one phase. As if this were not complicated enough. Bipolar drive is required for untapped windings. This winding may be center tapped for unipolar drive. the rotor may align with the stator in 96 distinct positions. AC MOTORS
nent magnet. the rotor effectively has 96 interleaved poles of opposite polarity. Features of hybrid stepper schematic (Figure 13.39). but wired in series. or Figure 13. The quarter tooth stator offset in conjunction with drive current timing also deﬁnes direction of rotation. the stator main poles are divided into two phases (φ1. a pair of wires wound physically in parallel. 96pole 8pole stator
S
Figure 13. This rotor tooth offset is also shown below. we provide a simpliﬁed pictorial and schematic representation (Figure 13. say the south pole. and the rotor half tooth offset.40)
. φ2). However. Therefore. This half tooth offset shows in the rotor pole detail above.30. Though.39: Hybrid stepper motor.436
CHAPTER 13. Two phase windings are common as shown above and below. There are typically two winding phases distributed between pole pairs. The stator coils are wound on alternating poles with corresponding teeth. The center tap is achieved by a biﬁlar winding. The above drawing is representative of an actual hybrid stepper motor. The stator teeth on the 8poles correspond to the 48rotor teeth.
Rotate 1/4 tooth. bottom north. Start position. reverse. south bottom.
. φ1’ statorS: rotorbottomN. Fields φ1. rotation=0. the φ2 stator teeth are offset by onequarter tooth.41) • Rotor top is permanent magnet south. In fact. the rotor would move by onehalf tooth. • The top of the permanent magnet rotor is the south pole. The alignment would be south stator top to north rotor bottom. φ2=on. Hybrid stepper motor rotation (Figure 13. direction unknown. Align (right to left): φ2 statorNright:rotortopS. off. φ2 are switchable: on. • The top φ1 stator teeth align north to rotor top south teeth. • (b) φ1=off. north stator bottom to south rotor. • If the polarity of φ1 were reversed. • If the φ1 stator is temporarily energized north top. Polarity of φ1 and ¡phi2¿ drive determines direction of rotation. • The bottom φ1’ stator teeth align south to rotor bottom north teeth. φ2=off. the bottom north. This will allow for rotation by that amount if φ1 is deenergized and φ2 energized. total rotation=1/4 tooth. • The rotor northsouth teeth are offset by half a tooth.13.40: Hybrid stepper motor schematic diagram. φ2’ statorS: rotorbottomN. Align (top to bottom): φ1 statorN:rotortopS. • Enough torque applied to the shaft to overcome the holdin torque would move the rotor by one tooth. STEPPER MOTORS
1/4 tooth offset alignment stator North PM South PM North
437
N φ1
φ2′
1/2 tooth offset alignment Stator South
φ2
S φ1′
Figure 13. • The φ2 stator teeth are not aligned with the rotor teeth when φ1 is energized.5. • (a) φ1=on=northtop.
Rotate 1/4 tooth from last position. Align (bottom to top): φ1 statorS:rotorbottomN. • The stator poles have matching ﬁne teeth of the same pitch as the rotor. why do we discuss brushless DC motors in a chapter on AC motors? Brushless DC motors are similar to AC synchronous motors. The step angle could be a fraction of a degree. much less than the 7. AC MOTORS
off S φ1
off off φ2′ φ2 S φ2′ N φ2
off off φ2′ φ2
S φ1′ align top
(a)
off align right
φ1′
(b)
N φ1′ align bottom
(c)
Figure 13.
13. φ2=reverse(on). • Not shown: φ1=off. The major
. Summary: hybrid stepper motor • The step angle is smaller than variable reluctance or permanent magnet steppers.438
N φ1 φ1
CHAPTER 13.5o of permanent magnet steppers. Align (top to bottom): Total rotation 1tooth. • The poles of one stator windings are offset by a quarter tooth for an even smaller step angle. • The rotor is a permanent magnet with ﬁne teeth.41: Hybrid stepper motor rotation sequence. So.6
Brushless DC motor
Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors with the availability of solid state power semiconductors. The hybrid stepper will have a small step angle. Align (left to right): Total rotation: 3/4 tooth. • The stator windings are divided into no less than two phases. • (c) φ1=reverse(on). An unpowered stepper motor with detent torque is either a permanent magnet stepper or a hybrid stepper. φ2=off. φ1’ statorN:rotortopS. φ2=off (same as (a)). • Not shown: φ1=on. Total rotation from start: 1/2 tooth. North and south teeth are offset by half a tooth for a smaller step angle. corresponding to a few hundred steps per revolution.
can take on two forms (Figure 13. The style of construction is either cylindrical or pancake.6. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
439
difference is that synchronous motors develop a sinusoidal back EMF. with permanent magnet rotors. cylindrical.43)
Stator Stator
Rotor Rotor
(a)
(b)
Figure 13.43b). a submultiple of the powerline frequency. the direction of the magnetic ﬂux is radial with respect to the rotational axis. sans the shaft. often with electromagnet rotors. back EMF for brushless DC motors. This style motor is used in hard disk drives. as compared to a rectangular. High torque pancake motors may have stator coils on both sides of the rotor (Figure 13.42 and 13.13. Both have stator created rotating magnetic ﬁelds producing torque in a magnetic rotor.43: Pancake motor construction: (a) single stator. Synchronous motors are usually large multikilowatt size. The most common cylindrical style is with the rotor on the inside. Lower torque applications like ﬂoppy disk drive motors sufﬁce with a stator coil on one side
.42).42: Cylindrical construction: (a) outside rotor. or trapezoidal. It is also possible the put the rotor on the outside surrounding the stator. Brushless DC motors tend to be small– a few watts to tens of watts. The most usual construction. (Figures 13.
Rotor Stator
(a) (b)
Stator Rotor Stator
Figure 13. (b) double stator. (b) inside rotor. Such is the case with brushless DC fan motors. above right. The speed of a brushless DC motor is not ﬁxed unless driven by a phased locked loop slaved to a reference frequency. True synchronous motors are considered to be single speed. This style of construction may be short and fat. However.
The direction of the magnetic ﬂux is axial. parallel to the axis of rotation. Application of a magnetic ﬁeld to the sensor causes a small voltage change at the output. The commutation function may be performed by various shaft position sensors: optical encoder. The 6stator coils comprise three winding phases. a rotating magnetic ﬁeld would be generated.43a).44 is commutated by a Hall effect device for each of the three stator phases.45). and approximate the rotor poles. The above cylindrical motor could drive a harddrive if it were equipped with a phased locked loop (PLL) to maintain constant speed.45) has 6stator poles and 8rotor poles. magnetic encoder (resolver. The permanent magnet rotor would follow as in the case of a synchronous motor.44) A Hall effect sensor is a semiconductor device where the electron ﬂow is affected by a magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to the direction of current ﬂow.44: Hall effect sensors commutate 3φ brushless DC motor. The rotor is a ﬂat ferrite ring magnetized with eight axially magnetized alternating poles. The simple cylindrical 3φ motor Figure 13. This Hall signal is ampliﬁed so that the stator coils are driven with the proper current. (Figure 13. The steel plate also helps complete the magnetic circuit. It looks like a four terminal variable resistor network. The ﬂat stator coils are trapezoidal to more closely ﬁt the coils. it would need a PLL to maintain constant speed. synchro. Small inexpensive motors use Hall effect sensors. Not shown here. The voltages at the two outputs are complementary. The changing position of the permanent magnet rotor is sensed by the Hall device as the polarity of the passing rotor pole changes. etc).. We do not show that the rotor is capped by a mild steel plate for mounting to the bearing in the middle of the stator. The Hall output may drive a comparator to provide for more stable drive to the power device. helping to close the magnetic circuit.440
CHAPTER 13. More modern Hall effect sensors may contain an integrated ampliﬁer. A
. it may drive a compound transistor stage if properly biased. that is. Similar circuitry could drive the pancake ﬂoppy disk drive motor (Figure 13.
V+ H1
A1
V+ V+ H1 V+ S N
V+ NC H3
H2 H3 V+ H2
A2
A3
V+
Figure 13. the Hall signals may be processed by combinatorial logic for more efﬁcient drive waveforms. If the three stator phases were successively energized. Again. or Hall effect magnetic sensors. and digital circuitry. Or. (Figure 13. The sensor must be mounted close to the permanent magnet rotor to sense its position. The stator poles are also mounted atop a steel plate. AC MOTORS
of the rotor. The 3φ pancake motor (Figure 13. This 3lead device may directly drive the power transistor feeding a phase winding.
it may be called a 4φ motor. • The rotor has 8poles superimposed to help eliminate zero torque points. This is an incentive to move lower performance products from a 3φ to a 2φ conﬁguration.45: Brushless pancake motor two pole rotor would follow this ﬁeld at the same rotation rate as the rotating ﬁeld. The goal of a brushless fan motor is to minimize the cost of manufacture. The brushless DC fan motor (Figure 13.13. our 8pole rotor will rotate at a submultiple of this rate due the the extra poles in the rotor. • The fan housing is placed atop the rotor. However. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
φ−1 φ−2 φ−3
441
S N S N
N S N S
Stator
Rotor φ−1′ Hall effect sensor
Figure 13.6.46) has these feature:
S N S H2
N N S
S
N S
H1 N N
S
2φ brushless fan motor
Figure 13. • The Hall effect sensors are spaced at 45o physical.46: Brushless fan motor. Depending on how it is driven.
. which is placed over the stator. 2φ. • The stator has 2phases distributed between 4poles • There are 4salient poles with no windings to eliminate zero torque points. • The rotor has four main drive poles.
47. which is 90o physical for a single pole rotor. When this ripple torque is added to normal energizedtorque curve.442
CHAPTER 13. This makes it possible to start the motor for all possible stopping positions.47: Brushless DC motor 2φ pushpull drive. The 2φ stator requires that the Hall sensors be spaced apart by 90o electrical.7 being common. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. Nikola Tesla conceived the basic principals of the polyphase induction motor in 1883.
V+
A1
N V+
A2
S V+ V+ H1
A3
H1 H2
V+ V+ H2
A2
Figure 13. The majority of the torque is due to the interaction of the inside stator 2φ coils with the 4pole section of the rotor. where it cannot be started from rest.4. AC MOTORS
You may recall that conventional DC motors cannot have an even number of armature poles (2. the Hall sensors would be placed 90o physical. The 8poles rotor section is only for improving motor starting. In Figure 13. one sensor provides commutation for two opposing windings. it is possible for a hypothetical 4pole motor to come to rest at a torque minima. Note Hall spacing above. Tesla sold the manufacturing rights to George
. If the rotor was a 2pole rotor. Since we have a 4pole permanent magnet rotor. we should be able to start the motor. the easier the motor starting. 90% of industrial motors are induction motors.7
Tesla polyphase induction motors
Most AC motors are induction motors. the 2φ pushpull drive (also known as 4φ drive) uses two Hall effect sensors to drive four windings. As long as the torque minima does not drop to zero. This further removes the torque minima. The addition of eight permanant magnet poles to the normal 4pole permanent magnet rotor superimposes a small second harmonic ripple torque upon the normal 4pole ripple torque. etc) if they are to be selfstarting. the 4pole section of the rotor must be on the bottom so that the Hall sensors will sense the proper commutation signals. The addition of the four small salient poles with no windings superimposes a ripple torque upon the torque vs position curve. The sensors are spaced 90o electrical apart. The more successful we are in removing the torque minima. 3. and had a half horsepower (400 watt) model by 1888. Thus.5.
13. the sensors must be placed 45o physical to achieve the 90o electrical spacing. Moreover. the result is that torque minima are partially removed. In fact. Since the Hall sensor has two complementary outputs.
The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet.48 is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available. this is two or three phases.1
Construction
An induction motor is composed of a rotor. one pair for each of the two phases of AC. The 2phase induction motor stator above has 2pairs of coils. In practice. That is. known as an armature. for larger motors less torque pulsation and higher efﬁciency results if the
.7. The stator in Figure 13. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
443
Westinghouse for $65.48 has salient.
13. the other to a Spole until the phase of AC changes polarity.13. In Tesla’s time.7. However. By induction motor. Large industrial motors are 3phase. The other pair of coils is oriented 90o in space to the ﬁrst pair. This pair of coils is connected to AC shifted in time by 90o in the case of a 2phase motor. as used on Tesla’s early induction motor. like a transformer. obvious protruding poles. The stator in Figure 13. we must emphasize that nearly all polyphase motors are threephase.
Rotor Stator
Figure 13. and a stator containing windings connected to a polyphase energy source as shown in Figure 13. This design is used to this day for subfractional horsepower motors (<50 watts). By polyphase. we mean that the stator contains multiple distinct windings per motor pole.48: Tesla polyphase induction motor. we mean that the stator windings induce a current ﬂow in the rotor conductors. one coil corresponds to a Npole. Most large ( > 1 hp or 1 kW) industrial motors are polyphase induction motors. the source of the two phases of AC was a 2phase alternator. driven by corresponding time shifted sine waves.000. The simple 2phase induction motor below is similar to the 1/2 horsepower motor which Nikola Tesla introduced in 1888. unlike a brushed DC commutator motor.48. While we include numerous illustrations of twophase motors for simplicity.
AC MOTORS
coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations.49)
Figure 13. Comparing the 2φ motor to Tesla’s 2φ motor with salient poles. Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in Figure 13. which may also hold the end housings.50. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion. then worked into the slots. the number of coils is the
. The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel. the windings for both a twophase motor and a threephase motor have been installed in the stator slots. In Figure 13.
φ−3
φ−1 φ−2
(a)
φ−1
(b)
φ−2
Figure 13.50: Stator with (a) 2φ and (b) 3φ windings.49: Stator frame showing slots for windings.50. The coils are wound on an external ﬁxture. A stack of these is secured by end screws.444
CHAPTER 13. (Figure 13.
Edge slots may contain windings from two phases. This group is called a phase belt. and remachining of the commutator. The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots. The theory of operation of induction motors is based on a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. This eliminates the brushes. a pole winding. That is. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
445
same. See Figure 13. shown at (b) removed from the rotor. it will follow the motion of the magnet. and an embedded copper or aluminum squirrel cage. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed. sparking. the phase belts overlap. and consequent current ﬂow.7. brush adjustment and replacement. producing a more sinusoidal magnetic ﬁeld distribution across the pole. is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above.
13. The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet. The laminations are coated with insulating oxide or varnish to minimize eddy current losses. a steel laminated rotor.51). in the conductive disk. The lines of ﬂux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage. there is no commutator. One means of creating a rotating magnetic ﬁeld is to rotate a permanent magnet as shown in Figure 13. (b) conductive cage removed from rotor. In actual large motors. As compared to a DC motor armature.
(a)
(b)
Figure 13. The key to the popularity of the AC induction motor is simplicity as evidenced by the simple rotor (Figure 13. This is shown in the synchronous motor section.51: Laminated rotor with (a) embedded squirrel cage. graphite dust. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics. This current ﬂow creates an electromagnet whose polarity opposes the motion of the permanent magnet– Lenz’s Law.13. The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet.
. If the moving magnetic lines of ﬂux cut a conductive disk.7.16. The rotor consists of a shaft. Both rotor and stator cores are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. The alloy used in the laminations is selected for low hysteresis losses. arcing. twisted.2
Theory of operation
A short explanation of operation is that the stator creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the rotor around. with respsect to the shaft. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations.52.
An analog automotive eddy current speedometer is based on the principle illustrated above. so that lines of ﬂux cut the disk induce a current. the trace moves to (c). slowing it. the degree to which the disk falls behind the rotating magnet. a one dimensional line would display.707 Vpk at 45o . which follows the permanent magnet. Torque is proportional to slip. driven by currents which are 90o out of phase. no electromagnet ﬁeld. If the disk were to spin at the same rate as the permanent magnet. If this were not the case. it moves to (d). This point (0. This should not be surprising if you are familiar with oscilloscope Lissajous patterns.54 shows the two 90o phase shifted sine waves applied to oscilloscope deﬂection plates which are at right angles in space. developing more torque. AC MOTORS
Figure 13.707) falls on the radius of the circle between (a) and (b) The trace moves to (b) with minimum “X” and maximum “Y” deﬂection. If a load is applied to the disk. completing one cycle. With maximum negative “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. create an electromagnetic ﬁeld in the disk. the disk speed will always fall behind that of the rotating permanent magnet. The combination of 90o phased sine waves and right angle deﬂection. This circle is traced out by a counterclockwise rotating
. the trace moves up and left toward (b). there would be no ﬂux cutting the disk. results in a two dimensional pattern– a circle. The torque developed by the disk is proportional to the number of ﬂux lines cutting the disk and the rate at which it cuts the disk. Figure 13. 0. In Figure 13.53.446
CHAPTER 13. and on back to (a). A rotating magnetic ﬁeld is created by two coils placed at right angles to each other. Starting at (a) with maximum “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. With the disk restrained by a spring.707. Thus. no induced current ﬂow.52: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld produces torque in conductive disk. More slip corresponds to more ﬂux cutting the conductive disk. a circular Lissajous is produced by driving the horizontal and vertical oscilloscope inputs with 90o out of phase sine waves. more torque will be developed as more lines of ﬂux cut the disk. no torque. disk and needle deﬂection is proportional to magnet rotation rate. Between (a) and (b) the two waveforms are equal to 0. Then with minimum “X” and maximum negative “Y”.
54: Xaxis sine and Yaxis cosine trace circle.7.
b a’ c a a’ a
b
c
a
d a’ b
a
d horizontal deflection verticall deflection
c
d a
Figure 13.53: Out of phase (90o ) sine waves produce circular Lissajous pattern. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
447
OSCILLOSCOPE b vertical Y V/div c a trigger
DC GND AC
a horiz’tl X
a’ b
c
d
a
timebase d s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 13.
.13.
back down left to origin at (c). Figure 13. The line is produced by equal deﬂections along both axes.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical b V/div a trigger c timebase d s/div horiz’tl X
DC GND AC
Y
DC GND AC
a
a’ b
c
d
a
Figure 13. Equal “X” and “Y” deﬂection moves the illuminated spot from the origin at (a) up to right (1.448
CHAPTER 13. By analogy three windings placed 120o apart in space.55: No circular motion from inphase waveforms.
. If a pair of 90o out of phase sine waves produces a circular Lissajous.1) at (b). and back up right to origin. Such is the case for a 2phase motor. For reference. a similar pair of currents should be able to produce a circular rotating magnetic ﬁeld.down left to (1. AC MOTORS
electron beam. and fed with corresponding 120o phased currents will also produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. y=x is a straight line.1) at (d).56: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld from 90o phased sinewaves.55shows why inphase sine waves will not produce a circular pattern.
φ−1
φ−1 φ−2
φ−1 φ−2
a φ−1
φ−2
a’
b
φ−2
a a’ b
c
d
φ−1
φ−1 φ−2
c
d
φ−2
Figure 13.
a multiple of 2
. it certainly is an upper limit. the ﬁeld rotates at 60 times per second or 3600 revolutions per minute (rpm).there is but one pole pair per phase– the number we need. Hz P = total number of poles per phase. Figure 13. The synchronous speed is given by: Ns = 120·f/P Ns = synchronous speed in rpm f = frequency of applied power. φ2 maximum • (c) φ1 maximum negative. or 3000 rpm. In the case of 60 Hz power.7. the magnetic ﬁeld rotates counterclockwise (ﬁgures ad) as follows: • (a) φ1 maximum. φ2 zero • (a’) φ1 70%. The 3600 and 3000 rpm. However. are the synchronous speed of the motor.57 has a total of six poles or three polepairs and three phases. the synchronous speed is cut in half because the magnetic ﬁeld rotates 180o in space for 360o of electrical sine wave. The magnetic ﬁeld will rotate once per sine wave cycle.56. φ2 zero • (d) φ1 zero. If we double the number of motor poles. The “full speed” Figure 13. φ2 maximum negative Motor speed The rotation rate of a stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld is related to the number of pole pairs per stator phase. Though the rotor of an induction motor never achieves this speed. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
449
As the 90o phased sinewaves.57: Doubling the stator poles halves the synchronous speed. φ2 70% • (b) φ1 zero. progress from points (a) through (d).
φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2
φ3
φ3
full speed
half speed
Figure 13. it rotates at 50 rotations per second. For 50 Hz power.13.
If the rotor were to run at synchronous speed. the safe continuous torque rating. at the synchronous speed. Thus. Why is it so low? The stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at 50 Hz. However. It is the magnetic ﬂux cutting the rotor conductors as it slips which develops torque. AC MOTORS
Example: The “half speed” Figure 13.450
CHAPTER 13. the slip between the rotor and the synchronous speed stator ﬁeld develops torque. as is the frequency of the current.5 Hz. the rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed.N)/Ns where: Ns = synchronous speed. the rate at which stator ﬂux cuts the rotor is the difference between synchronous speed Ns and actual rotor speed N. no current induced in the rotor.5 Hz. no bearing. The rotor ﬁeld attempts to align with the rotating stator ﬁeld. f = stator power line frequency Slip at 100% torque is typically 5% or less in induction motors. The synchronous speed for 50 Hz power is: S = 120·50/4 = 1500 rpm The short explanation of the induction motor is that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld produced by the stator drags the rotor around with it. there would be no stator ﬂux cutting the rotor. decreasing as the rotor approaches synchronous speed. Rotor frequency is given by: fr = s·f where: s = slip. the frequency of the induced current in the rotor fr = 0. The stator ﬁeld is cutting the rotor at the synchronous speed Ns . If there were no mechanical motor torque load. The rotating magnetic ﬁeld is only cutting the rotor at 2. or (Ns . The 2. fr = 0. The ratio of actual ﬂux cutting the rotor to synchronous speed is deﬁned as slip: s = (Ns . no ﬂux will cut the rotor at all. If the rotor spins a little faster. no torque. The current induced in the rotor shorted turns is maximum. The Figure 13. The locked
. the rotor is at rest. the line frequency.05·50 = 2. The rotating stator magnetic ﬁeld interacts with this rotor ﬁeld. windage.5 Hz is the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual rotor speed. As the rotor speeds up. Torque When power is ﬁrst applied to the motor.N).58 graph shows that starting torque known as locked rotor torque (LRT) is higher than 100% of the full load torque (FLT). or other losses. while the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at the synchronous speed Ns . Thus for f = 50 Hz line frequency. This induced rotor current in turn creates a magnetic ﬁeld.57 has four poles per phase (3phase). The result is rotation of the squirrel cage rotor. The longer more correct explanation is that the stator’s magnetic ﬁeld induces an alternating current into the rotor squirrel cage conductors which constitutes a transformer secondary. N = rotor speed The frequency of the current induced into the rotor conductors is only as high as the line frequency at motor start. The rotor speed is 5% less. a loaded motor will slip in proportion to the mechanical load.
both torque and current will decrease substantially. B. any portion of the torque curve below 100% rated torque is normal. As the rotor gains 80% of synchronous speed. The torque. For a running motor. NEMA design classes Various standard classes (or designs) for motors.59) showing consideable variation from the torque curve above. and D to meet these
. This breakdown torque is due to the larger than normal 20% slip. Starting current or locked rotor current (LRC) can range from 500% to 1400% of full load current (FLC). The motor load determines the operating point on the torque curve. the safe running current. This condition is analogous to an open secondary transformer. but will decrease rapidly beyond this point. slip. There are several basic induction motor designs (Figure 13. While the motor torque and current may exceed 100% for a few seconds during starting.58: Torque and speed vs %Slip. As the rotor starts to rotate the torque may decrease a bit for certain classes of motors to a value known as the pull up torque.7. The locked rotor torque (LRT) for various motor designs and sizes ranges from 60% to 350% of full load torque (FLT). As the rotor accelerates to within a few percent of synchronous speed. torque increases from 175% up to 300% of the full load torque. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
500% %full load torque & current locked rotor current 400% 300% 200% 100%
qu e
451
curre
nt
tor
breakdown torque pullup torque full load torque/ current locked rotor torque 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns
100 0
Figure 13. This is the lowest value of torque ever encountered by the starting motor. Slip will be only a few percent during normal operation. continuous operation above 100% can damage the motor. The current is high because this is analogous to a shorted secondary on a transformer. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has speciﬁed motor classes A. and current will approach zero for a “no mechanical torque” load condition.59) have been developed to better drive various type loads.13. The different designs are optimized for starting and running different types of loads. %Ns =%Synchronous Speed. C. corresponding to the torque curves (Figure 13. The current has decreased only slightly at this point. Starting current known as locked rotor current (LRC) is 500% of full load current (FLC). Any motor torque load above the breakdown torque will stall the motor. This current draw can present a starting problem for large induction motors. rotor torque is about 175% of FLT for the example motor graphed above.
the motor excels at driving highly variable speed loads like those requiring an energy storage ﬂywheel. and reciprocating pumps and compressors. without excessive starting current (LRT). except class D. However. Efﬁciency and power factor are high. Applications include punch presses.452
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
drive requirements. This motor handles transient overloads as encountered in injection molding machines. • Class A starting torque is the same as class B. This motor is applied to hardstarting loads which need to be driven at constant speed like conveyors. and machine tools. Power factor Induction motors present a lagging (inductive) power factor to the power line. operate at %5 slip or less at full load. With a starting torque of LRT = 150% to 170% of FLT. The high slip results in lower speed. crushers. • Class F motors have much lower LRC. it can start most loads.The power factor in large fully loaded high speed motors can be as favorable as 90% for large high speed motors. • Class C (IEC Class H) has higher starting torque than class A and B at LRT = 200% of FLT. They drive constant easily started loads. Speed regulation is poor. It typically drives pumps. LRT. Similar International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classes N and H correspond to NEMA B and C designs respectively. shears.
400% %full load torque 300% 200% 100%
D C A
B
100 0
80 20
60 40
40 60
20 80
0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13. • Class E motors are a higher efﬁciency version of class B.59: Characteristics for NEMA designs.
. fans. Drop out torque and starting current (LRT)are higher. • Class D motors have the highest starting torque (LRT) coupled with low starting current due to high slip ( 5% to 13% at FLT). All motors. and break down torque than class B. • Class B (IEC Class N) motors are the default motor to use in most applications. and elevators.
the power factor can be in the range of 10% to 25%. power factor 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 20 40 60 80 100 % load efficiency power factor
Figure 13. The energy consumed in maintaining the stator magnetic ﬁeld is relatively ﬁxed with respect to load changes. as low as 10% PF.
13. increasing the power factor. efﬁciency suffers only slightly down to 25% FLT. As the torque load is increased. and decreased a few more percent at 25% FLT.60 Induction motors are typically oversized to guarantee that their mechanical load can be started and driven under all operating conditions. An unloaded motor is analogous to a transformer with no resistive load on the secondary. Efﬁciency only becomes poor below 25% FLT.60: Induction motor power factor and efﬁciency. Efﬁciency is decreased a few percent at 50% FLT. Efﬁciency at 75% FLT can be slightly higher than that at 100% FLT. while current associated with magnetizing remains ﬁxed. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
453
At 3/4 full load the largest high speed motor power factor can be 92%.3
Nola power factor corrrector
Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector (PFC) as an energy saving device for single phase induction motors in the late 1970’s.
Efﬁciency Large three phase motors are more efﬁcient than smaller 3phase motors. This was a good concept for the notoriously inefﬁcient single phase motors for which it was intended. Thus. though 90% is more common. This will increase power factor and efﬁciency.60). At starting. Thus the power line sees a reactive load. Large induction motor efﬁciency can be as high as 95% at full load. Little resistance is reﬂected from the secondary (rotor) to the primary (stator). 1φ motors in particular.13. It is based on the premise that a less than fully loaded induction motor is less efﬁcient and has a lower power factor than a fully loaded motor. there is energy to be saved in partially loaded motors. rising as the rotor achieves speed.
100% efficience. Efﬁciency for a lightly load or noloaded induction motor is poor because most of the current is involved with maintaining magnetizing ﬂux. Power factor (PF) varies considerably with the motor mechanical load (Figure 13. and most all single phase motors.
. As the rotor is loaded an increasing resistive component is reﬂected from rotor to stator. the voltage to a partially loaded motor may be reduced to decrease the energy required to maintain the magnetic ﬁeld. more current is consumed in generating torque. The power factor for small low speed motors can be as low as 50%. If a polyphase motor is loaded at less than 75% of rated torque where efﬁciency peaks. While there is nothing to be saved in a fully loaded motor. The variation of efﬁciency with loading is shown in Figure 13.7.7.
454
CHAPTER 13. The payback period for the expensive electronic controller has been estimated to be unattractive for most applications.
. (Figure 13. Moreover. the rotor is advancing 1% faster than the stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld. This is not 5% of the full load wattage but 5% of the wattage at the reduced load. The potential energy savings in going from 100% FLT to 25% FLT is the difference in efﬁciency 95% . Since the rotor is cutting the stator magnetic ﬁeld in the opposite direction (leading). This type of alternator appears to be unsuited as a standby power source. As an auxiliary power wind turbine generator.
500% %full load torque & current 400% 300% 200% 100% 20 120 100 80 0 20 Motor mode 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns 100% 200%
tor qu e qu e
curre
nt
tor
Generator mode 40 60 140 160
80 180
100 % slip 200 % Ns %full load torque & current
300% 400%
curre
nt
500%
Figure 13. It is failsafe. a 95% efﬁcient motor is still 94% efﬁcient at 50% full load torque (FLT) and 90% efﬁcient at 25% FLT. It normally lags by 1% in a motor.7. say 1% slip. it might be economical as part of an electronic motor starter or speed Control.90% = 5%. there is not much energy to be saved. it has the advantage of not requiring an automatic power failure disconnect switch to protect repair crews. The Nola power factor corrector might be applicable to a 3phase motor which idles most of the time (below 25% FLT). Because of their high efﬁciency (90%+). AC MOTORS
This concept is not very applicable to large 3phase motors. the rotor induces a voltage into the stator feeding electrical energy back into the power line.4
Induction motor alternator
An induction motor may function as an alternator if it is driven by a torque at greater than 100% of the synchronous speed. Though.61: Negative torque makes induction motor into generator. [7]
13. Such an induction generator must be excited by a “live” source of 50 or 60 Hz power.61) This corresponds to a few % of “negative” slip. This means that as we are rotating the motor faster than the synchronous speed. No power can be generated in the event of a power company power failure. like a punch press.
This breaker accepts high overcurrent for the duration of starting. An induction motor may be converted to a selfexcited generator by the addition of capacitors. feeding power back into the power line.7. Synchronous alternators are also more efﬁcient. The power rating needs to be 50% larger than for a comparable single phase motor to make up for one unused winding. reversing the normal direction of the electric kilowatthour meter. The speed of a wind turbine is difﬁcult to control. Motors over 50 kW use motor starters to reduce line current from several hundred to a few hundred percent of full load current. The load may be applied at this point. Small motors of a few kilowatts or smaller can be started by direct connection to the power line. As the generator is brought up to full speed. Running 3phase motors on 1phase Threephase motors will run on single phase as readily as single phase motors.62. The speed of the steam turbine drive is steady and controllable as required by synchronous alternators. This reduces starting current to. An intermittent duty autotarnsformer may reduce the stator voltage for a fraction of a minute during the start interval. The S contacts open and the R contacts close after starting. Starting larger motors can cause line voltage sag. Since the autotransformer is only used for the short start interval.7. followed by application of full line voltage as in Figure 13. See Doublyfed induction generator for a true variable speed alternator. Whereas an induction motor presents a lagging power factor to the power line. Multiple generators or multiple windings on a common shaft may be switched to provide a high and low speed to accomodate variable wind conditions. a direct line connected induction generator is considered to be ﬁxedspeed in a wind turbine. The only problem for either motor is starting. Sometimes 3phase motors are purchased for use on single phase if threephase provisioning is anticipated. If the load is removed residual magnetism may generate a small amount of current ﬂow. 200% of full load current. a few hundred percent is more common. an induction alternator presents a leading power factor. An induction alternator is better able to cope with these variations due to the inherent slip.5
Motor starting and speed control
Some induction motors can draw over 1000% of full load current during starting. though. say. Thus.
13. and subject to wind speed variation by gusts. This stresses the gear train and mechanical components less than a synchronous genertor. it may be sized considerably smaller than a continuous duty unit. affecting other loads.[6] Start up procedure is to bring the wind turbine up to speed in motor mode by application of normal power line voltage to the stator. This current is allowed to ﬂow by the capacitors without dissipating power. this allowable speed variation only amounts to about 1%. Motorstart rated circuit breakers (analogous to slow blow fuses) should replace standard circuit breakers for starting motors of a few kilowatts. the current ﬂow increases to supply a magnetizing current to the stator. Any wind induced turbine speed in excess of synchronous speed will develop negative torque.13. However. Single
. Induction generators are not widely used in conventional power plants. Closure of the S contacts applies reduced voltage during the start interval. Voltage regulation is poor. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
455
Small remote (from the power grid) installations may be make selfexciting by placing capacitors in parallel with the stator phases.
456
φ3 T1 φ1 S T2 S φ2 S = start.
φ1 R φsynthetic S φ1’ R
return S = start. the motor generates approximately standard 3φ. While running.62: Autotransformer induction motor starter. The start switch is opened in Figure 13. Matt Isserstedt shows a complete design for powering a home machine shop.[9]
.63 upon motor start.64. However. as shown in Figure 13. Sometimes a smaller capacitor than the start capacitor is retained while running. If it is small enough.65.63: Starting a threephase motor on single phase. smaller runcapacitors result in better 3phase power output as in Figure 13. Moreover. phase is applied to a pair of windings simultanous with a start capacitor in series with the third winding.63 for running a threephase motor on single phase is known as a static phase converter if the motor shaft is not loaded. Moreover. AC MOTORS
R S R M1 S
Figure 13. Three phase power may be tapped off from the three stator windings for powering other 3phase equipment. Hanrahan provides construction details. R= run
CHAPTER 13. it may be left in circuit as a runcapacitor. the motor acts as a 3phase generator. The capacitor supplies a synthetic phase approximately midway 90o between the 180o single phase power source terminals for starting.63. it may be started with a capacitor considerably smaller than a normal start capacitor. adjustment of these capacitors to equalize the currents as measured in the three phases results in the most efﬁcient machine. a large start capacitor is required for about a second to quickly start the converter. R= run optional run capacitor start capacitor
φ1
φ1 φ2
M1
φsynthetic φ1’
synthetic 3φ
φ3
standard 3φ
Figure 13. [8] Since a static phase converter has no torque load. See Figure 13. The circuit in Figure 13.[9] However.
Figure 13. Adapted from Figure 7. Run capacitors = 1216µF/HP.65: More efﬁcient static phase converter.64: Selfstarting static phase converter.7. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
457
L3 3phase L2 out L1 220V single phase in L2 L1 Run capacitor = 2530 µF per HP 1 HP motor
Figure 13. Run capacitor = 2530µF per HP. Hanrahan [9]
220V single phase in L2
L3 3phase L2 out L1
run run
1 HP motor start
L1
Start capacitor = 50100 µF/HP. Run capacitors = 1216 µF/HP. Hanrahan [9]
. Adapted from Figure 1.13. Start capacitor = 50100µF/HP.
However. By changing the 50 or 60 Hz line frequency to higher or lower values.67) Electronic speed control Modern solid state electronics increase the options for speed control.
φ1 φ1
4pole
2pole
Figure 13.5o segments are switchable to 45o segments. it may be rewired (or switched) from 4pole to 2pole as shown above for a 2phase motor. the voltage to the motor needs to be decreased when frequency is decreased.458 Multiple ﬁelds
CHAPTER 13. may be changed by reducing the line voltage. AC MOTORS
Induction motors may contain multiple ﬁeld windings.66. for example a 4pole and an 8pole winding corresponding to 1800 and 900 rpm synchronous speeds. When switching the above 60 Hz motor from 4 poles to 2 poles the synchronous speed increases from 1800 rpm to 3600 rpm. If the ﬁeld is segmented with leads brought out.66: Multiple ﬁelds allow speed change. If the motor is driven by 50 Hz. This may cause the stator magnetic circuit to saturate with disastrous results. However. Only the wiring for one phase is shown above for clarity. (Figure 13. the voltage needs to be increased to overcome increasing reactance to keep
. the drive frequency may be increased to increase the synchronous speed of the motor. our induction motor may run at multiple speeds. In practice. decreasing the frequency of the current fed to the motor also decreases reactance XL which increases the stator current. The 22. Conversely. Energizing one ﬁeld or the other is less complex than rewiring the stator coils in Figure 13. This reduces the torque available to the load which reduces the speed. Thus. what would be the corresponding 4pole and 2pole synchronous speeds? Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm (4pole) Ns = 3000 rpm (2pole) Variable voltage The speed of small squirrel cage induction motors for applications such as driving fans. the synchronous speed of the motor may be changed.
68: Electronic variable speed drive. The ﬂux and torque producing components of stator current are measured or estimated on a realtime basis to enhance the motor torquespeed curve.
. Once electronics is applied to induction motor control. This method quickly responds to load changes.
AC line speed
Inverter. varying from the simple to complex: Summary: Speed control • Scaler Control Low cost method described above to control only voltage and frequency. Summary: Tesla polyphase induction motors • A polyphase induction motor consists of a polyphase winding embedded in a laminated stator and a conductive squirrel cage embedded in a laminated rotor.67: Variable voltage controls induction motor speed. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
459
100% % torque 75% 50% 25% 100 0 80 20 motor torque
100% V reduced speed
50% V
load to
60 40
rque
40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13. without feedback. The inverter (Figure¡ref¿02480. This is a chopped waveform which is either on or off. current up to a normal value and maintain torque. • Vector Control Also known as vector phase control. many control methods are available. • Direct Torque Control An elaborate adaptive motor model allows more direct control of ﬂux and torque without feedback. This is computation intensive. high or low.7. the percentage of “on” time corresponds to the instantaneous sine wave voltage. variable frequency & voltage
M1
Figure 13.eps¡x1¿) approximates sinewaves to the motor with pulse width modulation outputs.13.
Their sole purpose is to allow resistance to be placed in series with the rotor windings while starting. but a rotor with insulated windings brought out via slip rings and brushes. The linear induction motor has been proposed as a drive for high speed passenger trains. but also increases the starting torque. AC MOTORS
• Three phase currents ﬂowing within the stator create a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which induces a current. in 2013. Up to this time. CVNX1.
. The direction of linear travel is controlled by the sequence of the drive to the stator phases. polyphase induction motors are selfstarting. and pullout torque is proportional to slip. Why put resistance in series with the rotor? Squirrel cage induction motors draw 500% to over 1000% of full load current (FLC) during starting. and consequent magnetic ﬁeld in the rotor. However.69) This resistance is shorted out once the motor is started to make the rotor look electrically like the squirrel cage counterpart.8
Wound rotor induction motors
A wound rotor induction motor has a stator like the squirrel cage induction motor. This will increase efﬁciency and reduce maintenance. Placing resistance in series with the rotor windings not only decreases start current. Line current reducing starters are only required for large motors. the linear induction motor is scheduled to replace steam driven catapult aircraft launch systems on the next generation of naval aircraft carrier.7. locked rotor torque (LRT). generating a 3phase output. the breakdown torque peak is shifted left to zero speed. (Figure 13.[4] [5]
13. locked rotor current (LRC). Thus.70 shows that by increasing the rotor resistance from R0 to R1 to R2 . if started.Note that this torque peak is much higher than the starting torque available with no rotor resistance (R0 ) Slip is proportional to rotor resistance. no power is applied to the slip rings. • Motor starters minimize loading of the power line while providing a larger starting torque than required during running. While this is not a severe problem for small motors. Rotor torque is developed as the rotor slips a little behind the rotating stator ﬁeld. it is for large (10’s of kW) motors.460
CHAPTER 13. However. Figure 13.6
Linear induction motor
The wound stator and the squirrel cage rotor of an induction motor may be cut at the circumference and unrolled into a linear induction motor. • A static phase converter is three phase motor running on single phase having no shaft load. • Three phase motors will run on single phase. • Unlike single phase motors. • Multiple ﬁeld windings can be rewired for multiple discrete motor speeds by changing the number of poles. high torque is produced while starting.
13. the linear induction motor with the accompanying magnetic repulsion levitation system required for a smooth ride has been too costly for all but experimental installations.
8. WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS
461
φ1 φ2 M1 φ3 Stator Rotor Start resistance
Figure 13.
.70: Breakdown torque peak is shifted to zero speed by increasing rotor resistance.13.69: Wound rotor induction motor.
400% 300% 200% 100% R2
breakdown torque R1 R0
%full load torque
100 0
80 20
60 40
40 60
20 80
0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13.
A higher resistance at R3 reduces the speed further. For comparison.71: Rotor resistance controls speed of wound rotor induction motor. the down shifted break down torque. 2. A wound rotor induction motor may also act as a generator when driven above the synchronous speed. The high starting torque available at zero speed. Heat generated during starting is mostly dissipated external to the motor in the starting resistance. See R2 curve at 90% Ns. This speed control technique is only usefull over a range of 50% to 100% of full speed.8.2
Doublyfed induction generator
We previously described a squirrel cage induction motor acting like a generator if driven faster than the synchronous speed. Figure 13.1
Speed control
Motor speed may be varied by putting variable resistance back into the rotor circuit. (See Induction motor alternator) This is a singlyfed induction generator. such a machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator (DFIG). a squirrel cage rotor only exhibits pull out (peak) torque at 80% of its’ synchronous speed.
13. 3
= motor torque R1 R0
%full load torque
rque load to 100 80 0 20
60 40
40 60
20 80
0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13. Resistors R0 R1 R2 R3 increase in value from zero. is not available at high speed.
13. Speed regulation is poor with respect to changing torque loads. Since there are connections to both the stator and rotor. Speed control works well with variable speed loads like elevators and printing presses. The complication and maintenance associated with brushes and slip rings is a disadvantage of the wound rotor as compared to the simple squirrel cage rotor.8. The singlyfed induction generator only had a useable slip range of 1% when driven by troublesome wind torque. A shorted rotor operates like a squirrel cage rotor. A high starting resistance makes the high pull out torque available at zero speed. This motor is suited for starting high inertial loads. AC MOTORS
The resistance decreases the torque available at full running speed.71. This reduces rotor current and speed. having electrical connections only to the stator windings. Since the speed of a wound rotor induction motor may be controlled
.
400% 300% 200% 100% R3 speed reduction R0. R2
1. But that resistance is shorted out by the time the rotor is started.462
CHAPTER 13.
The stator appears to be supplying 130% of power to the line. Keep in mind that the rotor “borrows” 30%. we may expect the same of the doublyfed induction generator.
.72) In the case of underspeed. In actual practice. and feeding power into the power line instead of dissipating it. (Figure 13.73) absorbing power from the rotor. ±30% is more practical.8.
Overspeed torqure Rotor
Stator
φ1 φ2
100% Torque energy
Converter
70% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy
Figure 13. we can vary the speed of a doubly fed induction generator by ±50% from the synchronous speed. Wound rotor induction motor qualities. still allowing the stator to feed the power line with 60 Hz power. The converter may “borrow” power from the line for the underspeed rotor. which passes it on to the stator. This improves the efﬁciency of the generator. the rotor resistance may be replaced by a converter (Figure 13. resistance placed in the rotor circuit will absorb excess energy while the stator feeds constant 60 Hz to the power line. over a range of 50100% by inserting resistance in the rotor. In actual practice. (Figure 13. • Excellent starting torque for high inertia loads. WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS
463
Overspeed torqure Rotor
Stator
φ1 φ2
100% Torque energy
70% Electric energy φ3 30% Waste heat
Figure 13.74) The borrowed power.73: Converter recovers energy from rotor of doublyfed induction generator. If the generator overspeeds. passes to the stator which is connected to the power line. That is.13.72: Rotor resistance allows overspeed of doublyfed induction generator. along with the larger shaft energy. we can also overspeed it by 50%. negative resistance inserted into the rotor circuit can make up the energy deﬁcit. leaving. leaving the line with 100% for the theoretical lossless DFIG. Not only can we slow the rotor by 50%.
allowing it to function well under synchronous speed.74: Converter borrows energy from power line for rotor of doubly fed induction generator. AC MOTORS
Underspeed torqure Rotor
Stator
φ1 φ2
100% Torque energy
Converter
130% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy
Figure 13. coming up to speed in a few seconds.
open
nostart 1φ motor 3φ motor. The single coil of a single phase induction motor does not produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. (Figure 13. • Speed is resistance variable over 50% to 100% full speed. • The generator version of the wound rotor machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator. (Figure 13. • Higher maintenance of brushes and slip rings compared to squirrel cage motor. it will not selfstart.75: 3φmotor runs from 1φ power.75) However. It will only develop 2/3 of the 3φ power rating because one winding is not used. but does not start. but a pulsating ﬁeld reaching maximum intensity at 0o and 180o electrical.9
Singlephase induction motors
A three phase motor may be run from a single phase power source. • Low starting current compared to squirrel cage induction motor.76)
. It may be hand started in either direction.464
CHAPTER 13.
13. 1φ powered
Figure 13. a variable speed machine.
If the rotor is started in the reverse direction. Less torque will be developed above or below 10% slip. with torque pulsations at full speed.
. An analogous situation exists in ﬁgure d. Little torque (see torque vs slip curve) other than a double freqency ripple is developed from the counter rotating phasor.9. once the rotor is started. it will develop a similar large torque as it nears the speed of the backward rotating phasor. At 45o and 45o (ﬁgure c) they are partially additive along the +x axis and cancel along the y axis. The solution is to keep the capacitor (impedance) small to minimize losses. The losses are less than for a shaded pole motor.9. This requires a motor with two windings spaced apart 90o electrical.13. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
∠90o
465
∠180o
∠0o
∠90o
a
b
c
d
e
Figure 13.77: Permanentsplit capacitor induction motor. typical of polyphase induction motors. fed with two phases of current displaced 90o in time. deriving 2phase power from single phase. The rotor will see 200% .
Figure 13.
13. if the rotor is rotated forward at a bit less than the synchronous speed.76a) and 180o (ﬁgure e). This type of motor suffers increased current magnitude and backward time shift as the motor comes up to speed. Thus. The sum of these two phasors is a phasor stationary in space. coinciding twice per revolution at 0o (Figure 13. It will develop maximum torque at 10% slip with respect to the forward rotating phasor. This is called a permanentsplit capacitor motor in Figure 13. Single phase induction motors have a copper or aluminum squirrel cage embedded in a cylinder of steel laminations.76: Single phase stator produces a nonrotating. When the phasors rotate to 90o and 90o they cancel in ﬁgure b. Thus.77. no starting torque is developed. pulsating magnetic ﬁeld. Another view is that the single coil excited by a single phase current produces two counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasors. However. the single phase coil will develop torque.10% slip with respect to the counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasor. but alternating polarity in time.1
Permanentsplit capacitor motor
One way to solve the single phase problem is to build a 2phase motor.
the auxiliary winding may be many more turns of heavier wire than used in a resistance splitphase motor to mitigate excessive temperature rise. the smaller sizes use less complex to build concentrated windings with salient poles. This type of motor can be adapted for use as a servo motor.
Figure 13. This motor conﬁguration works so well that it is available in multihorsepower (multikilowatt) sizes. usually applied to smaller motors. Moreover. The result is that more starting torque is available for heavy loads like air conditioning compressors.
13. The direction of the motor is easily reversed by switching the capacitor in series with the other winding.78: Single phase induction motor with embedded stator coils.2
Capacitorstart induction motor
In Figure 13.78 for larger size motors.79: Capacitorstart induction motor.79 a larger capacitor may be used to start a single phase induction motor via the auxiliary winding if it is switched out by a centrifugal switch once the motor is up to speed. described elsewhere is this chapter.
Figure 13. AC MOTORS
This motor conﬁguration works well up to 1/4 horsepower (200watt). though.9. Single phase induction motors may have coils embedded into the stator as shown in Figure 13.466
CHAPTER 13. Though.
.
80: Capacitorrun motor induction motor. The less than unity power factor is due to magnetizing current required by the stator. At light load. The additional complexity of the capacitorrun motor is justiﬁed for larger size motors.to ) series connected polarized electrolytic capacitors. This inefﬁciency correlates with a low power factor. it can start a single phase induction motor. but a lower loss polymer type. It is based on the premise that induction motors are inefﬁcient at less than full load. This coil produces a moderate starting torque. the current will experience less phase shift than the main winding. the full magnetizing current is not required.
Figure 13.13.81) With lower inductance and higher resistance. The current density in the auxiliary winding is so high during starting that the consequent rapid temperature rise precludes frequent restarting or slow starting loads.
13. About 30o of phase difference may be obtained. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
467
13. improving
.80) is to start the motor with a relatively large capacitor for high starting torque. This motor has more starting torque than a shaded pole motor (next section).9.9.
13. This ﬁxed current is a larger proportion of total motor current as motor load is decreased. It could be reduced by decreasing the applied voltage. Such AC rated electrolytic capacitors have such high losses that they can only be used for intermittent duty (1 second on.9. which is disconnected by a centrifugal switch at 3/4 of synchronous speed. A motor starting capacitor may be a doubleanode nonpolar electrolytic capacitor which could be two + to + (or .4
Resistance splitphase motor induction motor
If an auxiliary winding of much fewer turns of smaller wire is placed at 90o electrical to the main winding. A capacitor for motor running must not be of electrolytic construction. This simple (no capacitor) arrangement serves well for motors up to 1/3 horsepower (250 watts) driving easily started loads. 60 seconds off) like motor starting.9. (Figure 13.3
Capacitorrun motor induction motor
A variation of the capacitorstart motor (Figure 13.5
Nola power factor corrrector
Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector for improving the efﬁciency of AC induction motors in the mid 1970’s. but leave a smaller value capacitor in place after starting to improve running characteristics while not drawing excessive current. but not as much as a two phase motor built from the same parts.
single phase induction motor is a candidate for a PFC. 25% FLC or less. Once started the auxiliary winding is optional. the greater the potential savings. the power factor and efﬁciency. And the more time it idles. There is no savings for a fully loaded motor since all the stator magnetizing current is required. or conveyor. • The auxiliary winding of a permanentsplit capacitor motor has a capacitor in series with it during starting and running. Of course. [7] Summary: Singlephase induction motors • Singlephase induction motors are not selfstarting without an auxiliary stator winding driven by an out of phase current of near 90o . as low as 104 VAC. the greater the possibility of paying for the controller in a few years operation. thus restoring a higher power factor and decreasing losses. a 117 VAC refrigerator. The higher the initial line voltage.81: Resistance splitphase motor induction motor. the motor will operate more efﬁciently without any addon device. The power factor corrector senses power factor. Though. there is potential energy savings for 1φ motors. The cost of a PFC cannot be recovered for a motor operating only a few hours per day. for example. The voltage cannot be reduced. it needs to operate a large number of hours per year. It is safe for the power factor controller to lower the line voltage to 104110 VAC. A nominal 117 VAC motor is designed to work at as high as 127 VAC. if the power company delivers closer to 110 VAC.468
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
IT VT
IStart φ IRun
φ ≅ 30ο
VT IR
IS
I Run
tar t
IT
IX
IS
tar
t
Figure 13. But there is potential savings from a less than fully loaded motor. as in a lumber saw. and decreases motor voltage.
. That means that it is not fully loaded when operated at greater than 104 VAC. punch press. Since singlephase motors are about 2 to 4 times as inefﬁcient as threephase motors. It should be easier to pay for it by a factor of three as compared to the more efﬁcient 3φmotor. Any substantially idle. • A capacitorstart induction motoronly has a capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding during starting.
Starting torque is so low that shaded pole motors are only manufactured in smaller sizes.
OTHER SPECIALIZED MOTORS
469
• A capacitorrun motor typically has a large nonpolarized electrolytic capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding for starting.82: Shaded pole induction motor.82) Typically 1/3 of the pole is enclosed by a bare copper strap. • The auxiliary winding of a resistance splitphase motor develops a phase difference versus the main winding during starting by virtue of the difference in resistance.10. mechanical. These shading coils produce a time lagging damped ﬂux spaced 30o to 60o from the main ﬁeld. Motor speed can be lowered by switching reactance in series to limit current and torque. then a smaller nonelectrolytic capacitor during running. the iron core is removed from the rotor leaving only a shaft mounted aluminum cup to rotate. To reduce acceleration robbing inertial.84) The iron core is reinserted within the cup as a static (nonrotating) component to complete the magnetic circuit.
shorting bars
rotor
(a)
stator coils
(b)
Figure 13. or by switching motor coil taps as in Figure 13.
13.10
13. the construction is typical of a two phase motor.
. and other low torque applications. air circulators.83. (Figure 13. This lagging ﬂux with the undamped main component. The low mass rotor can accelerate more rapidly than a squirrel cage rotor. (a) dual coil design.1
Other specialized motors
Shaded pole induction motor
An easy way to provide starting torque to a single phase motor is to embed a shorted turn in each pole at 30o to 60o to the main winding.
13. produces a rotating ﬁeld with a small torque to start the rotor.2
2phase servo motor
A servo motor is typically part of a feedback loop containing electronic. below 50 watts.10.10. Low cost and simplicity suit this motor to small fans. and electrical components. The servo loop is a means of controlling the motion of an object via the motor.13. (b) smaller single coil version. A requirement of many such systems is fast response. Otherwise. (Figure 13.
10. hysteresis. Aircraft control surfaces may be positioned by 400 Hz 2φ servo motors.84: High acceleration 2φ AC servo motor. The phase of the waveform may invert (180o phase shift) to reverse the direction of the motor. The coils are excited with DC and attached to the mechanical load. this is accomplished by a series capacitor in the power line winding. One of the windings is driven by a 90o phase shifted waveform. The resulting low torque synchronous motor develops constant torque from stall to synchronous speed. This variable sine wave is the output of an error ampliﬁer. The drive motor is
. The other winding is driven by a variable amplitude sine wave to control motor speed. One phase is connected to the single phase line. is greatly accentuated. In the above ﬁgure.
13.
φ−1
φ−2 rotor cup
iron core
φ−1 φ−2
rotor cup
Figure 13. an eddy current clutch results. AC MOTORS
L1
Figure 13.
13. or lagging behind of rotor magnetization. See synchro CT section for example.4
Eddy current clutch
If the stator of an induction motor or a synchronous motor is mounted to rotate independently of the rotor.470
CHAPTER 13. the hysteresis motor is only available in very small sizes. the other is driven by an ampliﬁer.3
Hysteresis motor
If the low hysteresis Sisteel laminated rotor of an induction motor is replaced by a slotless windingless cylinder of hardened magnet steel.83: Speed control of shaded pole motor. phonograph turntables. Because of the low torque. The squirrel cage rotor is attached to the driving motor.10. and formerly. and is only used for constant speed applications like clock drives.
If one rotor is moved through an angle θ. where two motors need to be synchronized during starting. the higher the synchronizing torque for a pair of motors.87. Since the rotors are not shorted out nor resistor loaded.86) They are not intended to be self rotating. However there is a substantial synchronizing torque. (Figure 13.11
Selsyn (synchro) motors
Normally. the rotor windings of a wound rotor induction motor are shorted out after starting. manual rotation of one shaft will produce an unbalance in the rotor currents until the parallel unit’s shaft follows.13. This is a selsyn. resistance may be placed in series with the rotor windings to limit starting current. The DC excitation is adjusted from zero to the desired ﬁnal value providing a continuously and smoothly variable torque. However. the two rotors will remain synchronized during starting. the synchronizing torque is absent.
13. (Figure 13. which is an abbreviation for “self synchronous”. The rotors may be stationary. the main appplication is small units of a few watts for instrumentation applications– remote position indication. Summary: Other specialized motors • The shaded pole induction motor. If these windings are connected to a common starting resistance.85: Starting wound rotor induction motors from common resistors. a single phase powered rotor is sufﬁcient as shown in Figure 13. Instrumentation selsyns have no use for starting resistors. there is no starting torque. If drag is applied to one selsyn. used in under 50 watt low torque applications. but the rotors still paralleled.11. and the rotors are shorted.85) This is usefull for printing presses and draw bridges. Note that a common source of three phase power is applied to both stators. this will be felt when attempting to rotate the other shaft. Once started. • The eddy current clutch provides an adjustable torque. During starting.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
471
started with no DC excitation to the clutch.
φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator Rotor Start resistance Rotor Stator M2 φ2 φ3 φ1
Figure 13. While multihorsepower (multikilowatt) selsyns exist.
. develops a second phase from shorted turns in the stator. • Hysteresis motors are a small low torque synchronous motor once used in clocks and phonographs. the other selsyn shaft will move through an angle θ. no starting torque is developed. If the starting resistors are removed. The operation of the eddy current clutch is similar to an analog eddy current automotive speedometer. Though we show three phase rotors above. The higher the resistance during starting.
Stator current will ﬂow developing torque.
. Either the transmitter or receiver shaft may be rotated to turn the opposite unit. 115 Vac 60 Hz. (Figure 13.
S3 M1
S1 R1 60 Hz R2 R1
S3
S1 M2
R1 TX R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
R1 RX R2
R2 TX S2 Stator Rotor Torque transmitter . AC MOTORS
φ3 φ1 M2 θ Rotor Stator φ2
Figure 13. the phases of the induced stator voltages will be identical for both. Synchro transmitters and receivers are electrically identical. which are not externally energized.
13.87: Synchros have single phase powered rotors. a synchro receiver has inertial damping built in. also known as sychros. The receiver shaft is electrically slaved to the transmitter shaft. 115 Vac 400 Hz. However.
Synchro stators are wound with 3phase windings brought out to external terminals. and 26 Vac 400 Hz power. A synchro torque transmitter may be substituted for a torque receiver. the stator phase voltages will differ between transmitter and receiver. If the rotors of both the torque transmitter (TX) and torque receiver (RX) are at the same angle.receiver
Small instrumentation selsyns.TX
S2 Rotor Stator Torque receiver . retaining the 3phase paralleled stators. use single phase paralleled. The single rotor winding of a torque transmitter or receiver is brough out by brushed slip rings.86: Selsyns without starting resistance. Should one rotor be displaced from the other.472
φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator θ Rotor
CHAPTER 13. Synchros are available for use with 240 Vac 50 Hz. and no current will ﬂow.11. A synchro transmitter coupled to a weather vane indicates wind direction at a remote console.1
Transmitter . Remote position sensing is the main synchro application.88) For example. a synchro transmitter coupled to a radar antenna indicates antenna position on an indicator in a control room.RX
RX
Alternate abreviated symbols
Figure 13. (Figure 13. AC energized rotors.87) Synchros function as rotary transformers.
displays antenna postion on an RX relative to true north.88: Synchro application: remote position indication. a synchro receiver displays the position of a radar antenna relative to a ship’s bow. (Figure 13.receiver
A synchro differential transmitter (TDX) has both a three phase rotor and stator.
S3 S3 S1 R3 TDX Torque Differential Transmitter R2 R1 R1 M2 R2 M3 S1 S3 S1
R1 M1 R2
S2 TX Torque Transmitter
S2 ∠Μ3 = ∠Μ1 + ∠Μ2
S2 TR Torque Receiver
Figure 13. This stator electrical angle may be displayed by sending it to an RX. Reversing the S1S3 pair of stator leads between a TX and TDX subtracts angular positions.11. outputting the sum on the stator outputs.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
473
N W S transmitter receiver E
Figure 13.89) A synchro differential transmitter adds a shaft angle input to an electrical angle input on the rotor inputs.
13.89: Torque differential transmitter (TDX). regardless of ship’s heading.
.11. The addition of a ship’s compass heading by a synchro differential transmitter.13.2
Differential transmitter . For example.
The torque inputs in Figure 13. an electrical angle input on the three stator connections. antennaN = antenna + gyro rx = tx + gy For example. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 15o . The TDR has electrical angle inputs on both the stator and rotor.gy
Figure 13. We need to add the ships heading from a gyrocompass to the bowrelative antenna position to display antenna angle with respect to true north. ship’s heading is 30o .90) It is desired to display the antenna position with respect to true north. antennaN is: 45o = 30o + 15o Addition vs subtraction For reference we show the wiring diagrams for subtraction and addition of shaft angles using both TDX’s (Torque Differential transmitter) and TDR’s (Torque Differential Receiver). ship’s heading is 30o . antenna + gyro
differential transmitter
N W
∠tx ∠gy
∠rx
E
S
receiver .91 are TX and TDX. and an electrical angle output on the three rotor connections.
. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 0o . The angle output is a torque on the TDR shaft. The TDX has a torque angle input on the shaft.tx
∠rx = ∠tx + ∠gy gyrocompass . The difference between a TDX and a TDR is that the TDX is a torque transmitter and the TDR a torque receiver. AC MOTORS
A shipboard radar antenna coupled to a synchro transmitter encodes the antenna angle with respect to ship’s bow.474
CHAPTER 13. (Figure 13. The torque output angular difference is TR.rx
transmitter .90: Torque differential transmitter application: angular addition. antennaN is: rx = tx + gy 30o = 30o + 0o Example.
91: TDX subtraction.∠TDX = ∠TR
Figure 13.13.11.
R1 TX1 R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDR
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TX2 R2
TDR subtraction: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 .
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
475
R1 TX R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDX
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TR R2
TDX subtraction: ∠TX .92: TDX Addition.∠TX2
Figure 13.
.
R1 TX R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDX
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TR R2
TDX addition: ∠TX + ∠TDX = ∠TR
Figure 13.93: TDR subtraction.
Its rotor is wound with more turns than a transmitter or receiver to make it more sensitive at detecting a null as it is rotated. a 2phase motor.92 are TX and TDX.95. However. they can be controlled to some extent by varying the voltage to one phase with line voltage on the other phase. It has three equally spaced stator windings like a TX. The servo system will cause the servo motor to drive the antenna to the commanded position. However. the servo has driven the antenna and control transformer rotor to the commanded position. output to be ampliﬁed. When the control transformer rotor detects a null at 90o to the axis of the stator ﬁeld. the CT neither transmits nor receives torque. It is simply a sensitive angular position detector. AC MOTORS
The torque inputs in Figure 13. They are also difﬁcult to control since they are constant speed devices. stops rotating. control transformer. Unlike a TX or RX. by a servo system. The torque output angular sum is TDR. Heavy loads are more efﬁciently driven by large DC servo motors. The control transformer compares the shaft angle to the the stator magnetic ﬁeld angle. The servo motor may drive a reduction gear train and be large compared to the TX and CT synchros. There is no error between measured and commanded position.3
Control transformer
A variation of the synchro transmitter is the control transformer. The torque output angular sum is TR. or null. The CT compares the commanded to actual position and signals the servo ampliﬁer to drive the motor until that commanded angle is achieved. there is no rotor output. In Figure 13. the shaft of the TX is set to the desired position of the radar antenna.93 are TX1 and TX2 . typically.94 are TX1 and TX2 .
. The CT (Control Transformer) rotor output is zero when it is oriented at a angle right angle to the stator magnetic ﬁeld vector. The torque inputs in Figure 13. The torque inputs in Figure 13. However. When it measures a minimum. any CT detected error drives the ampliﬁer which drives the motor until the error is minimized.96) seeks to minimize the error between a commanded and measured variable due to negative feedback. The torque output angular difference is TDR. sent by the TX stator. This corresponds to the servo system having driven the antenna coupled CT to match the angle commanded by the TX. the poor efﬁciency of AC servo motors limits them to smaller loads.94: TDR addition. Any rotor displacement produces an AC error voltage proportional to displacement.11. A servo (Figure 13. The servo motor.
R1 TX1 R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDR
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TX2 R2
TDR addition: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 + ∠TX2
Figure 13.476
CHAPTER 13.
13. no CT.
11.96: Servo uses CT to sense antenna position null
.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
477
an
ten
na
input angle
W AC servo motor φ2 φ1 S1 S2 S3 R2
N S
E
CT R1 − +
TX R1 R2
120 Vac
Figure 13.95: Control transformer (CT) detects servo null.13.
mechanical coupling 2φ servo motor φ1 M3
S3 S1 R1 S3 S1
M2 CT φ2
S2 R1 R2
R2
M1 TX
S2
− +
Figure 13.
Summary: Selsyn (synchro) motors • A synchro. AC MOTORS
Airborne applications use 400Hz components– TX.11. The coordinates (X. like moving control surfaces. A resolver is used for polar to rectangular conversion. Convert to X and Y coordinates. torque receiver.4
Resolver
A resolver (Figure 13.
. Thus.
13. and a single rotor winding driven by alternating current. saves size and weight. and servo motor.97: Resolver converts shaft angle to sine and cosine of angle. Size and weight of the AC magnetic components is inversely proportional to frequency. The three TX outputs. (Figure 13. use of 400 Hz components for aircraft applications. A TX (torque transmitter) may be adapted for service as a resolver. The bearing angle shaft is coupled to the resolver shaft.
θ
φ2 = sinθ φ1 φ1 = cosθ
Figure 13.478
CHAPTER 13. accepts a threephase electrical representation of an angular input for conversion to a torque output at its shaft. is a rotary transformer used to transmit shaft torque. a blackbox within a radar encodes the distance to a target as a sine wave proportional voltage V. 3phases. There is also a linear version of the resolver known as an inductosyn.97) has two stator winding placed at 90o to each other. are processed by a ScottT transformer into a pair of quadrature components. See ScottT chapter 9 for details. The sine wave is fed to the rotor of a resolver. The rotary version of the inductosyn has a ﬁner resolution than a resolver. CT. • A TX. Therefore. • An RX.98) It is possible to derive resolverlike quadrature angular components from a synchro transmitter by using a ScottT transformer. torque transmitter. Y) are available on the resolver stator coils: X=V(cos( bearing)) Y=V(sin( bearing)) The Cartesian coordinates (X. with the bearing angle as a shaft angle. accepts a torque input at its shaft for transmission on threephase electrical outputs. also known as a selsyn. For example. An angle input at the rotor shaft produces rectangular coordinates sinθ and cosθ proportional voltages on the stator windings. TX transmits a torque form an input shaft to a remote RX output shaft. Y) may be plotted on a map display.
This produces a loss not present in DC magnetics. The success or failure of a motor design was not known until after it was actually built at great expense and tested. The singlephase AC version suffers a double line frequency torque pulsation. The series motor operates well above the synchronous speed of a conventional AC motor. torque differential receiver. A CT is typically a component of a servo– feedback system.13. • A Resolver outputs a quadrature sinθ and cosine(theta) representation of the shaft angle input instead of a threephase output. AC commutator motors may be either singlephase or polyphase. He formlated the laws of magnetic hysteresis in ﬁnding a solution. like comparable DC motors. detects a null when the rotor is positioned at a right angle to the stator angle input. control transformer. sums two electrical angle inputs producing a shaft angle output • A CT. Hysteresis is a lagging behind of the magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to the magnetizing force.
AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS
479
R3 Y1 S1 R1 R2 θ S3 V2 = 86.12. • The threephase output of a TX is converted to a resolver style output by a ScottT transformer.98: ScottT converts 3φ to 2φ enabling TX to perform resolver function. AC commutator motors. have higher starting torque and higher speed than AC induction motors.6% Vsin(θ+120°) Y3 TX synchro ScottT transformer S2 V1 =Vsin(θ) Y2 ct R1 V1 =Vsin(θ) R2 V’2 = Vsin(θ+90°) =Vcos(θ) R4
V3 = M2 Vsin(θ+240°)
Figure 13. not present in
.
13. • A TDX.12
AC commutator motors
Charles Proteus Steinmetz’s ﬁrst job after arriving in America was to investigate problems encountered in the design of the alternating current version of the brushed commutator motor. torque differential transmitter. The situation was so bad that motors could not be designed ahead of the actual construction. Low hysteresis alloys and breaking the alloy into thin insulated laminations made it possible to accurately design AC commutator motors before building. sums an electrical angle input with a shaft angle input producing an electrical angle output • A TDR.
2
Compensated series motor
The arcing and sparking is mitigated by placing a compensating winding the stator in series with the armature positioned so that its magnetomotive force (mmf) cancels out the armature AC mmf. and mixers. vacuum cleaners.
13. While starting. Larger higher speed universal motors use a compensating winding. (Figure 13. increasing the speed of the “series” motor.
13. Since a commutator motor can operate at much higher speed than an induction motor. Series AC motors smaller than hand drills and kitchen mixers may be uncompensated. use compensated stator windings. it can output more power than a similar size induction motor. operation is marginal.12.
.99)
field
field
Figure 13.99: Uncompensated series AC motor. (Figure 13. due to brush and commutator wear. which shares the arcing and sparking between commutator segments The lagging reactance and arcing brushes are only tolerable in very small uncompensated series AC motors operated at high speed.000 rpm use universal motors.
13. All but very small AC commutator motors employ compensating windings. A motor will run slower on AC than DC due to the reactance encountered with AC. armature windings connected to commutator segments shorted by the brushes look like shorted transformer turns to the ﬁeld.1
Single phase series motor
If a DC series motor equipped with a laminated ﬁeld is connected to AC. such as drills. This results in considerable arcing and sparking at the brushes as the armature begins to turn.12. or larger.12. the development of solid state rectiﬁers and inexpensive permanent magnets is making the DC permanent magnet motor a viable alternative. Thus. This is less of a problem as speed increases. Though. AC MOTORS
polyphase motor. Very small universal motors may be uncompensated. However. requiring 3000 to 10. While such a motor will rotate.100) A smaller motor air gap and fewer ﬁeld turns reduces lagging reactance in series with the armature improving the power factor. Motors as large as those employed in a kitchen mixer. the lagging reactance of the ﬁeld coil will considerably reduce the ﬁeld current. However commutator motors are not as maintenance free as induction motors.480
CHAPTER 13. Small line operated appliances. the peaks of the sine waves saturate the magnetic path reducing total ﬂux below the DC value.3
Universal motor
It is possible to design small (under 300 watts) universal motors which run from either DC or AC. the offsetting effects result in a nearly constant speed from DC to 60 Hz.
Speed can be conrolled by rotating the brushes with respect to the ﬁeld axis.
13. Starting torque is 300% to 600% of the full speed value as compared to under 200% for a pure induction motor. the high starting torque of the repulsion motor may be put to use. inferior commutation above synchronous speed.
shorting brushes field
compensating winding
Figure 13. This motor has superior commutation below synchronous speed.
13. Summary: AC commutator motors
.12.13. The ﬁeld induces a current ﬂow into the shorted armature whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes that of the ﬁeld coils.100: Compensated series AC motor.12. The brushes may also be lifted to prolong bush life.101: Repulsion AC motor. The induction motor rotor windings are brought out to commutator segments for starting by a pair of shorted brushes.12.101) consists of a ﬁeld directly connected to the AC line voltage and a pair of shorted brushes offset by 15o to 25o from the ﬁeld axis.4
Repulsion motor
A repulsion motor (Figure 13. Low starting current produces high starting torque. a centrifugal switch shorts out all commutator segments. At near running speed. giving the effect of a squirrel cage rotor .5
Repulsion start induction motor
When an induction motor drives a hard starting load like a compressor.
AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS
481
compensating winding
field
Figure 13.
but is not maintenance free. At high speed this motor provides more power than a samesize induction motor. May 2008.lmphotonics.pdf as generators”. This is known as a universal motor.metalwebnews.com/cvf32. This is known as a repulsion start induction motor. at http://www. Red Rock Energy
[7] “Energy Saver systems for Induction motors”.
[3] “Linear motor outperforms steampiston catapults”. • Retractable shorted brushes may start a wound rotor induction motor.com/howto/phaseconverter/phaseconverter. www. New Zealand at http://www.482
CHAPTER 13.com/howto/phconv/phconv.metalwebnews.O.spacedaily. Christchurch.beedall.CVF. December http://www. www.html [9] Jim Hanrahan“Building a Phase Converter”..designnews. • It is possible to produce small appliance motors powered by either AC or DC.com/energy.edn. EDN. Design News. M Photonics Ltd.htm [8] Matt Isserstedt“Building an AutoStart Rotary Three Phase Converter”. (Aerotech.aerotech. Navy Matters”.com/cimtext.com/article/CA207108. Box 13 076.htm [5] Bill Schweber.html?pubdate=04%2F11%2F2002 [6] “Operating 60 cycle motors www. • The addition of a compensating winding yields the compensated series motor. www. P.pdfopt txt Ship motor”.
Bibliography
[1] “American Superconductor achieves full power of 5MW www.com/news/energytech04zzn.redrok.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA151563&cfd=1 [4] “Future Aircraft Carrier .com/products/PDF/LMAppGuide.html 1995. (4/11/2002). The resulting motor is only practical in the smallest sizes. AC MOTORS
• The single phase series motor is an attempt to build a motor like a DC commutator motor. overcoming excessive commutator sparking. Inc. at
. “Electronics poised to replace steampowered aircraft launch system”. http://navymatters. Most AC commutator motors are this type. • The AC line is directly connected to the stator of a repulsion motor with the commutator shorted by the brushes. at PA)
Pittsburg.html [2] “Linear motor applications guide”.com/index.
I was mystiﬁed by the “50 ohms” label on this coaxial cable. . . . .2 14. . . . . . . . This type of cabling is often used to conduct weak (lowamplitude) voltage signals. . . Nowhere was I able to measure 50 Ω of resistance on this cable.Chapter 14
TRANSMISSION LINES
Contents
14. . . Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . I came across a length of coaxial cable with the label “50 ohms” printed along its outer sheath. . Measuring each of the two conductors’ resistances from one end of the cable to the other indicated nearly zero ohms of resistance: again. . . . . the two conductors insulated from each other for the entire length of the cable. . regardless of which points I connected my ohmmeter between. . Characteristic impedance .7 14.5 14. . . . . . “Long” and “short” transmission lines . . . exactly what I would have expected from continuous. . . Finitelength transmission lines . . . . just as I would have expected from two insulated conductors. . . . . . . . . . . .1
A 50ohm cable?
Early in my explorations of electricity.1 14. . . . . . . Circuits and the speed of light . . . . . . . . . . .4 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . How could two conductors. insulated from each other by a relatively thick layer of plastic. .3 14. . . have 50 ohms of resistance between them? Measuring resistance between the outer and inner conductors with my ohmmeter. . . . Impedance transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standing waves and resonance . . . . . I found it to be inﬁnite (opencircuit). . . . As such. 483 484 486 493 499 502 522 529
14. . . . . . . . due to its excellent ability to shield such signals from external interference. with a plastic insulating material separating the two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
. . .1) Now. . . . . . . . . . coaxial cable is a twoconductor cable made of a single conductor surrounded by a braided wire jacket.6 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . unbroken lengths of wire. . . . . . (Figure 14. . . the outer (braided) conductor completely surrounds the inner (single wire) conductor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What I didn’t understand at the time was the cable’s response to shortduration voltage “pulses” and highfrequency AC signals. the lamp immediately lights.eps¡x1¿) Actually. drawing current proportional to an applied voltage. When the switch is opened.
14.1: Coaxial cable contruction. However. TRANSMISSION LINES
Inner conductor Outer conductor (wire braid)
50 Ω
Insulation (polyethylene)
Protective jacket (polyvinyl chloride)
Figure 14. or in continuous DC circuits. onelamp circuit controlled by a switch. in circuits involving high frequencies and/or extremely long cable lengths. Many transmission line effects do not appear in signiﬁcant measure in AC circuits of powerline frequency (50 or 60 Hz). Practical applications of transmission line effects abound in radiofrequency (“RF”) communication circuitry. and in lowfrequency circuits subject to voltage transients (“surges”) such as lightning strikes on power lines. including computer networks. the effects are very signiﬁcant. with characteristic properties all its own. What we would normally dismiss as being just a pair of wires becomes an important circuit element in the presence of transient and highfrequency AC signals. This chapter explores transmission line behavior. Continuous direct current (DC) – such as that used by my ohmmeter to check the cable’s resistance – shows the two conductors to be completely insulated from each other. the lamp immediately darkens: (Figure¡ref¿02352. When the switch is closed.484
CHAPTER 14. the cable’s response to rapidlychanging voltages is such that it acts as a ﬁnite impedance. due to the effects of capacitance and inductance distributed along the length of the cable. However.2
Circuits and the speed of light
Suppose we had a simple onebattery. and so we haven’t had to concern ourselves with them in our study of electric circuits thus far. an incandescent lamp takes a short time for its ﬁlament to warm up and emit light after receiving an electric current of sufﬁcient magnitude to power it. so the effect is not
RG 58
/U
. we refer to the wire pair as a transmission line. with nearly inﬁnite resistance between the two. When expressing such properties.
What would happen.000 mile length of both wires. Thus. Switch Lamp Battery . it pushes on the one ahead of it and pulls on the one behind it.2. When one rail car (electron) begins to move. When the switch is opened again. delaying the switch’s action on the lamp: (Figure¡ref¿02353. Although the construction and operation of superconducting wires 372.000 miles in length would pose enormous practical problems.. not the response time of the lamp ﬁlament. and so this “thought experiment” is valid. but not before the slack is relieved from the couplings. One way of envisioning this is to imagine the electrons within a conductor as rail cars in a train: linked together with a small amount of “slack” or “play” in the couplings. the effect of switch action is instant at the lamp’s location.000 miles long? Since we know the effects of electricity do have a ﬁnite speed (albeit very fast). CIRCUITS AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT
485
Switch Lamp Battery
Figure 14.14. and no resistance along the 372.. Assuming no warmup time for the lamp ﬁlament.. the lamp would light up approximately one second after the switch closure.000 miles .. the overall effect of electrons pushing against each other happens at the speed of light (approximately 186. Although electrons move through wires very slowly. a set of very long wires should introduce a time delay into the circuit.
Figure 14. resulting in a much faster transfer of motion from the left end of the train (circuit) to the right end than
. lamp responds after 1 second.000 miles per second!). though. motion is transferred from car to car (from electron to electron) at a maximum velocity limited by the coupling slack.eps¡x1¿)
186. the lamp will continue to receive power for one second of time after the switch opens. if the wires carrying power to the lamp were 186. For all practical purposes.3: At the speed of light. instant.2: Lamp appears to immediately respond to switch. what I’d like to focus on is the immediacy of the electric current itself. However. it is theoretically possible. then it will deenergize.
this circuit is open.486
CHAPTER 14. • REVIEW: • In an electric circuit. although electrons within the conductors do not travel anywhere near that velocity. transferring wave motion along the water’s surface far faster than the water molecules themselves are actually traveling: (Figure¡ref¿02355.
14. What would happen when we close the switch? Being that there is no longer a load at the end of the wires. Another analogy. The wave will travel as water molecules bump into each other. although the electrons themselves don’t move that quickly. Suppose a ﬂat. electron motion “coupling” travels approximately at the speed of light. TRANSMISSION LINES
the actual speed of the cars (electrons): (Figure¡ref¿02354. In a very long circuit. .eps¡x1¿)
First car begins to move
. then the second car moves .eps¡x1¿)
. though. so as to produce a wave ahead of it. .3
Characteristic impedance
Suppose. . this “coupling” speed would become noticeable to a human observer in the form of a short time delay between switch action and lamp action. . that we had a set of parallel wires of inﬁnite length. the effects of electron motion travel approximately at the speed of light. wallshaped object is suddenly moved horizontally along the surface of water. is that of waves in water.
. and then the last car moves!
Figure 14. with no lamp at the end. Would there be no current at all? (Figure¡ref¿02356.4: Motion is transmitted sucessively from one car to next.eps¡x1¿) Likewise. perhaps more ﬁtting for the subject of transmission lines. . .
5: Wave motion in water. Switch Battery .
infinite length .. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
487
Object
water surface water molecule
wave
wave
wave
Figure 14.
Figure 14.
.14..6: Driving an inﬁnite transmission line.3...
488
CHAPTER 14.eps¡x1¿. the “wave front” of voltage and current change will propagate down the length of the wires at that same velocity. According to the equation. but now constitute a circuit component in themselves.9) and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in current. (Figure 14. (Figure 14. The reaction of a capacitance against changes in voltage is described by the equation i = C(de/dt).. resulting in the distributed capacitance and inductance progressively charging to full voltage and current. Energy is stored in this magnetic ﬁeld.eps¡x1¿. and in so doing drops voltage according to the inductance equation e = L(di/dt). Switch Battery . which tells us that current will be drawn proportional to the voltage’s rate of change over time. and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in voltage. Each wire develops a magnetic ﬁeld as it carries charging current for the capacitance between the wires. when the switch is closed.
. this pair of wires will draw current from the source so long as the switch is closed. Voltage applied between two conductors creates an electric ﬁeld between those conductors.eps¡x1¿) The end result of these interactions is a constant current of limited magnitude through the battery source. behaving as a constant load. In other words. because there exists series impedance along the wires due to inductance. Energy is stored in this electric ﬁeld....8) Remember that current through any conductor develops a magnetic ﬁeld of proportional magnitude. However.” we cannot eliminate capacitance along the wires’ lengths. and their distributed inductance will never allow unlimited charging current. TRANSMISSION LINES
Despite being able to avoid wire resistance through the use of superconductors in this “thought experiment.eps¡x1¿)
infinite length . ¡ref¿02363.eps¡x1¿. This voltage drop limits the voltage rateofchange across the distributed capacitance. ¡ref¿02361. Thus. like this: (Figures¡ref¿02360.
Figure 14. ¡ref¿02362. an instant rise in applied voltage (as produced by perfect switch closure) gives rise to an inﬁnite charging current. Any pair of conductors separated by an insulating medium creates capacitance between those conductors: (Figure¡ref¿02359. Since the wires are inﬁnitely long. the capacitance between conductors will react against the sudden voltage increase by charging up and drawing current from the source. the current drawn by a pair of parallel wires will not be inﬁnite. respectively. their distributed capacitance will never fully charge to the source voltage.7: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance between conductors. No longer are the wires merely conductors of electrical current and carriers of voltage. preventing the current from ever reaching an inﬁnite magnitude: Because the electrons in the two wires transfer motion to and from each other at nearly the speed of light.
.. current charges inductance...
Figure 14. Switch electric field Battery .
.
infinite length . magnetic field
Figure 14.3.8: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance and inductance..
..
Figure 14.10: Uncharged transmission line. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
489
infinite length .....
...9: Voltage charges capacitance. Switch Battery .14.
.. + + ..
..490
CHAPTER 14..12: Continue wave propagation.. + + + + .
Speed of light (approximately)
Figure 14..
Figure 14.13: Propagate at speed of light.11: Begin wave propagation. TRANSMISSION LINES
Switch closes! ...
.... + + + + + + .
Figure 14.
.
the characteristic impedance follows a different equation:
d1
d2
d Z0 = 138 log 1 d2 k Where. but rather a transmission line. No longer are the two wires merely a pair of conductors.3. identical units of measurement must be used in both terms of the fraction. Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d1 = Inside diameter of outer conductor d2 = Outside diameter of inner conductor k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors
In both equations. As a constant load. the characteristic impedance may be calculated as such:
d
r
d Z0 = 276 log r k Where. If the insulating material is other than air (or a vacuum). despite being comprised purely of inductance and capacitance (assuming superconducting wires with zero resistance).14. The impedance (resistance) of this line in ohms is called the characteristic impedance. the transmission line’s response to applied voltage is resistive rather than reactive. We can say this because there is no difference from the battery’s perspective between a resistor eternally dissipating energy and an inﬁnite transmission line eternally absorbing energy. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
491
with unique characteristics. both the characteristic impedance
. For a parallelwire line with air insulation. and it is ﬁxed by the geometry of the two conductors. Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d = Distance between conductor centers r = Conductor radius k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors
If the transmission line is coaxial in construction.
. Less parallel capacitance and more series inductance results in a smaller current drawn by the line for any given amount of applied voltage... Conversely.. which by deﬁnition is a greater impedance. the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is equal to the square root of the ratio of the line’s inductance per unit length divided by the line’s capacitance per unit length:
v = c
1 k
Z0 = Where... The velocity factor of any cable type – coaxial or otherwise – may be calculated quite simply by the following formula:
++++++++++++++++++++++ Velocity of wave propagation . owing to distributed capacitance and inductance as the voltage and current “waves” propagate along its length at a propagation velocity equal to some large fraction of light speed... It can be seen in either of the ﬁrst two equations that a transmission line’s characteristic impedance (Z0 ) increases as the conductor spacing increases. Barring any dissipative effects such as dielectric “leakage” and conductor resistance...... and it refers to the equivalent resistance of a transmission line if it were inﬁnitely long. The ratio of a transmission line’s true propagation velocity and the speed of light in a vacuum is called the velocity factor of that line.. v = Velocity of wave propagation c = Velocity of light in a vacuum k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors
Characteristic impedance is also known as natural impedance.492
CHAPTER 14. bringing the two conductors closer together increases the parallel capacitance and decreases the series inductance.. and the distributed inductance will increase (less cancellation of the two opposing magnetic ﬁelds). deﬁned as the ratio of a material’s electric ﬁeld permittivity to that of a pure vacuum.. TRANSMISSION LINES
and the propagation velocity will be affected..
L C
Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line L = Inductance per unit length of line C = Capacitance per unit length of line
.. Both changes result in a larger current drawn for a given applied voltage.Velocity factor = Where.. If the conductors are moved away from each other. the distributed capacitance will decrease (greater spacing between capacitor “plates”). Velocity factor is purely a factor of the insulating material’s relative permittivity (otherwise known as its dielectric constant).. equating to a lesser impedance.
But it was not inﬁnite in length. This simple. This is entirely different from leakage resistance of the dielectric separating the two conductors. but not indeﬁnitely. it will come to a stop. This abrupt cessation of current at the line’s end causes a “pileup” to occur along the length of the transmission line. the line will draw current from the DC source as though it were a constant resistance. and so on until the last rail car stops. If that piece of 50 Ω “RG58/U” cable I measured with an ohmmeter years ago had been inﬁnitely long. If the end of a transmission line is opencircuited – that is. since electrons cannot ﬂow where there is no continuing path.
14. and as such do not behave precisely the same as an inﬁnite line. If a transient voltage (a “surge”) is applied to the end of a transmission line.eps¡x1¿)
. and so it measured as “open” (inﬁnite resistance).66 and 0. but physically impossible. is surge impedance. • Velocity factor is a fractional value relating a transmission line’s propagation speed to the speed of light in a vacuum. The train does not come to a halt together. • If a DC voltage is applied to one end of an inﬁnitely long transmission line. but rather in sequence from ﬁrst car to last: (Figure¡ref¿02364. which causes the next rail car to stop as soon as the next coupling’s slack is taken up. Ohm’s Law relationship between current and voltage will hold true for a limited period of time. which I like for its descriptive value. All transmission lines have some ﬁnite length. Imagine a train traveling down the track with slack between the rail car couplings: if the lead car suddenly crashes into an immovable barricade. For any cable type. the characteristic impedance rating of a transmission line is important even when dealing with limited lengths. both a voltage “wave” and a current “wave” propagate along the line at nearly light speed. Nonetheless. • The characteristic impedance (Z0 ) of a transmission line is the resistance it would exhibit if it were inﬁnite in length. and the metallic resistance of the wires themselves. Values range between 0. it is equal to the reciprocal (1/x) of the square root of the relative permittivity of the cable’s insulation. An older term for characteristic impedance.4. I actually would have been able to measure 50 Ω worth of resistance between the inner and outer conductors.14.4
Finitelength transmission lines
A transmission line of inﬁnite length is an interesting abstraction. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES
• REVIEW:
493
• A transmission line is a pair of parallel conductors exhibiting certain characteristics due to distributed capacitance and inductance along its length. causing the one behind it to come to a stop as soon as the ﬁrst coupling slack is taken up. and would exist even if the dielectric were perfect (inﬁnite parallel resistance) and the wires superconducting (zero series resistance). Characteristic impedance is purely a function of the capacitance and inductance distributed along the line’s length.80 for typical twowire lines and coaxial cables. the line will draw a current proportional to the surge voltage magnitude divided by the line’s surge impedance (I=E/Z). • When a voltage is suddenly applied to one end of a transmission line. left unconnected – the current “wave” propagating down the line’s length will have to stop at the end. as the electrons successively ﬁnd no place to go.
This technique may also be used for determining the presence and location of a break in one or both of the cable’s conductors. When this reﬂected wave reaches
. Instruments designed for such purposes are called timedomain reﬂectometers (TDRs).760 miles per second). . When this electron “pileup” propagates back to the battery. All this happens very quickly for transmission lines of reasonable length. . it is reﬂected back to the source. it takes only 1/122. current at the battery ceases. and the line acts as a simple open circuit. The propagation of a signal from loadend to sourceend (such as what happened in this example with current encountering the end of an opencircuited transmission line) is called a reﬂected wave. and so an ohmmeter measurement of the line never reveals the brief time period where the line actually behaves as a resistor.146 microseconds) for a signal to travel from one end to the other. then the second car stops . the roundtrip time is twice this ﬁgure.760 of a second (8. . TRANSMISSION LINES
First car stops
. or 122. since a current will “reﬂect” off the wire break just as it will off the end of an opencircuited cable. and then the last car stops!
Figure 14. For the current signal to reach the line’s end and “reﬂect” back to the source. or 16. Highspeed measurement instruments are able to detect this transit time from source to lineend and back to source again. The basic principle is identical to that of sonar rangeﬁnding: generating a sound pulse and measuring the time it takes for the echo to return. and may be used for the purpose of determining a cable’s length.494
CHAPTER 14.14: Reﬂected wave.66 (signal propagation velocity is 66% of light speed. .
. . . because voltage cannot exist between two electrically common points. For a milelong cable with a velocity factor of 0. A signal propagating from the sourceend of a transmission line to the loadend is called an incident wave.292 µs. A similar phenomenon takes place if the end of a transmission line is shortcircuited: when the voltage wavefront reaches the end of the line.
This is analogous to a long transmission line with internal loss: the signal steadily grows weaker as it propagates down the line’s length. However. if the far end of the rope is secured to a solid object at a point prior to the incident wave’s total
.14.eps¡x1¿)
wave
wave
wave
Figure 14. A simple experiment illustrates the phenomenon of wave reﬂection in transmission lines. the source sees the entire transmission line as a shortcircuit. this happens as quickly as the signal can propagate roundtrip down and up the transmission line at whatever velocity allowed by the dielectric material between the line’s conductors.15: Lossy transmission line. Take a length of rope by one end and “whip” it with a rapid upanddown motion of the wrist.4. never reﬂecting back to the source. Again. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES
495
the source. A wave may be seen traveling down the rope’s length until it dissipates entirely due to friction: (Figure¡ref¿02365.
17) If we cut this line to
. since reﬂected energy is energy not delivered to the end device. Usually. and not to power some signiﬁcant load device. Even if the signals are intended for information only. Reﬂections may be eliminated from the transmission line if the load’s impedance exactly equals the characteristic (“surge”) impedance of the line. “loss” along the length of a transmission line is undesirable.eps¡x1¿)
wave
wave
wave
wave
Figure 14.16: Reﬂected wave. TRANSMISSION LINES
dissipation. This makes perfect sense if we return to our hypothetical. a second wave will be reﬂected back to your hand: (Figure¡ref¿02366. a 50 Ω coaxial cable that is either opencircuited or shortcircuited will reﬂect all of the incident energy back to the source. and then be completely absorbed or dissipated by the load for maximum signaltonoise ratio. the purpose of a transmission line is to convey electrical energy from one point to another. However. all signal energy being dissipated by the resistor. if a 50 Ω resistor is connected at the end of the cable. Thus.496
CHAPTER 14. there will be no reﬂected energy. inﬁnitelength transmission line example. A transmission line of 50 Ω characteristic impedance and inﬁnite length behaves exactly like a 50 Ω resistance as measured from one end. the ideal situation would be for all of the original signal energy to travel from the source to the load. (Figure 14. For example. as are reﬂected waves.
if we terminate the line with a 50 Ω resistor. a terminating resistor matching the natural impedance of the transmission line makes the line “appear” inﬁnitely long from the perspective of the source. indeﬁnitely: the same as if it were of inﬁnite length again: (Figure 14.20)
Switch Battery
infinite length .18: One mile transmission. then like an open (infinite resistance)
Figure 14. not just if the line is left unconnected (open) or jumpered (shorted). 50 Ω coaxial cable
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor
Figure 14.4. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES
497
some ﬁnite length..18) or shorted. depending on what condition we leave the cut end of the line: open (Figure 14.
Switch Battery
1 mile open 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0..
. (Figure 14.66
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16. it will behave as a 50 Ω resistor to a constant source of DC voltage for a brief time.or a shortcircuit. In essence.14. because a resistor has the ability to eternally dissipate energy in the same way a transmission line of inﬁnite length is able to eternally absorb energy.292 µs. the line will once again behave as a 50 Ω resistor. This happens whether or not the terminating resistance is greater or less than the line’s characteristic impedance. Reﬂected waves will also manifest if the terminating resistance isn’t precisely equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. it will be partial. Though the energy reﬂection will not be total with a terminating impedance of slight mismatch. but then behave like an open.19) However.17: Inﬁnite transmission line looks like resistor.
498
CHAPTER 14. then like a short (zero resistance)
Figure 14.
Switch Battery
1 mile 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.20: Line terminated in characteristic impedance.
.66
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16.19: Shorted transmission line.292 µs.66
50 Ω
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor
Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
Switch Battery
1 mile shorted 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.
the source “sees” only the terminating impedance. back to the source. • A transient (“surge”) signal applied to one end of an openended or shortcircuited transmission line will “reﬂect” off the far end of the line as a secondary wave. as compared to the period of the waveforms or pulses of the signiﬁcant signals in the circuit. whatever that may be. an openended cable simply reads “open” when measured with an ohmmeter. as it makes it appear that the source has transmitted another pulse. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES
499
Rereﬂections of a reﬂected wave may also occur at the source end of a transmission line. A reﬂected wave returning back to the source will be dissipated entirely if the source impedance matches the line’s. This rereﬂected wave will appear. A signal traveling on a transmission line from source to load is called an incident wave. After that time (a brief 16.
14. As we saw in the last section. • Reﬂected waves will also appear in transmission lines terminated by resistors not precisely matching the characteristic impedance.292 µs for the milelong coaxial cable of the last example). at least partially.5
“Long” and “short” transmission lines
In DC and lowfrequency AC circuits. a signal “bounced” off the end of a transmission line. it will behave as a resistor equal in value to the line’s characteristic impedance only for as long as it takes the incident pulse to reach the end of the line and return as a reﬂected pulse. of course.
. like another pulse signal transmitted from the source. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line will appear to a DC voltage source as a constant resistance for some short time. but will be reﬂected back toward the line end like another incident wave. due to the temporarily resistive behavior of any length transmission line. and “shorted” when its end is shortcircuited. if the source’s internal impedance (Thevenin equivalent impedance) is not exactly equal to the line’s characteristic impedance. if a transmission line is connected to a DC voltage source. Therefore. traveling from load to source. often employed to protect weak voltage signals from being corrupted by induced “noise” caused by stray electric and magnetic ﬁelds.5. the characteristic impedance of parallel wires is usually ignored. This includes the use of coaxial cables in instrument circuits. This type of reﬂection may be particularly troublesome. This is due to the relatively short timespans in which reﬂections take place in the line. • REVIEW: • Characteristic impedance is also known as surge impedance. • A reﬂected wave may become rereﬂected off the sourceend of a transmission line if the source’s internal impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance.14. This eliminates all signal reﬂections. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line may be made to appear inﬁnite in length if terminated by a resistor of equal value to the line’s characteristic impedance. then as whatever impedance the line is terminated with. is called a reﬂected wave. if the source impedance does not match the line.
By contrast.66 ms. the actual phase difference between startofline and endofline signals is negligible. Up until this chapter in the Lessons In Electric Circuits book series. twoconductor line are equal and inphase with each other at any given point in time.000 m/s). we can say that voltage along all respective points on a lowfrequency. power lines would have to exceed 775 miles in length before the effects of propagation time became signiﬁcant. If the velocity factor of the transmission line is less than 1.65 miles in length before line reﬂections would signiﬁcantly impact a 10 kHz
. An AC waveform with a frequency of 60 Hz completes one cycle in 16. the propagation velocity will be less than 186. To put this into perspective. At light speed (186. For all practical purposes. and the distance less by the same factor. you can see why all connecting lines in the circuits discussed thusfar have been assumed “short. such short time delays introduced by a transmission line between when the AC source outputs a voltage peak and when the source “sees” that peak loaded by the terminating impedance (roundtrip time for the incident wave to reach the line’s end and reﬂect back to the source) are of little consequence. but will be less if the transmission line has a velocity factor less than 1.66). because linelength propagations occur within a very small fraction of the AC waveform’s period. because their propagation effects are much quicker than the periods of the conducted signals.500
CHAPTER 14. if meters per second. TRANSMISSION LINES
If the circuit in question handles lowfrequency AC power. then wavelength in meters). all connecting lines were assumed to be electrically short. then wavelength in miles.” For a 60 Hz AC power system. we can say that the transmission lines in question are electrically short. But even if we used the coaxial cable’s velocity factor from the last example (0. we need to express the distance traveled by a voltage or current signal along a transmission line in relation to its source frequency. Velocity of propagation is usually the speed of light when calculating signal wavelength in open air or in a vacuum.000 miles per second. the distance is still a very long 2046 miles! Whatever distance we calculate for a given frequency is called the wavelength of the signal.
v f
λ = Wavelength v = Velocity of propagation f = Frequency of signal
The lowercase Greek letter “lambda” (λ) represents wavelength. this equates to a distance of 3100 miles that a voltage or current signal will propagate in that time. an electrically long line is one where the propagation time is a large fraction or even a multiple of the signal period. A simple formula for calculating wavelength is as follows:
λ= Where. Even though we know that signal magnitudes along the line’s length are not equal at any given time due to signal propagation at (nearly) the speed of light. Cables connecting an audio ampliﬁer to speakers would have to be over 4. A “long” line is generally considered to be one where the source’s signal waveform completes at least a quartercycle (90o of “rotation”) before the incident signal reaches line’s end. If a “long” line is considered to be one at least 1/4 wavelength in length. In these cases. in whatever unit of length used in the velocity ﬁgure (if miles per second.
In this scenario. However.62 feet. the cable is considered “electrically short” and its impedance is irrelevant to circuit function. this critical length shrinks to 1. and no component in the circuit is capable of measuring or responding quickly enough to “notice” a reﬂected wave. With a source connected to one end of the cable and a load to the other. transmission line length is far from trivial. though. regardless of line length. Taking the same length of cable.
. The most effective way to minimize the impact of transmission line length on circuit behavior is to match the line’s characteristic impedance to the load impedance. rendering the load completely irrelevant. and we only register the terminating (load) impedance. If the load impedance is equal to the line impedance.000 m/s). it is “electrically short” for this application. and will have the exact same amount of current drawn from it. when the line is short. We see this when testing a coaxial cable with an ohmmeter: the cable reads “open” from center conductor to outer conductor if the cable end is left unterminated. it immediately thereafter behaves as a simple “open circuit:” the impedance of the line’s open end. then any signal source connected to the other end of the line will “see” the exact same impedance. If we use a coaxial cable to conduct a DC voltage or current to a load. It is the extreme speed of the propagated signal that makes us unable to detect the cable’s 50 Ω transient impedance with an ohmmeter. A transmission line carrying this signal would not have to be more than about 21/2 feet in length to be considered “long!” With a cable velocity factor of 0. the load’s impedance dominates the circuit.14. When an electrical source is connected to a load via a “short” transmission line. Since the combined response time of an ohmmeter and the human being using it greatly exceeds the roundtrip propagation time up and down the cable. its own characteristics overshadowing the load’s. especially when line length happens to match speciﬁc fractions or multiples of signal wavelength. line impedance exclusively deﬁnes circuit behavior. Though the line acts as a resistor for a very brief period of time after the meter is connected (about 50 Ω for an RG58/U cable). current drawn from the source is a function primarily of the line and not the load. The next section discusses the effects of “long” transmission lines. its own characteristic impedance is of little consequence to the circuit’s behavior. though. an electrically “long” line acts as the principal component in the circuit. line length only affects the amount of time delay from signal departure at the source to signal arrival at the load. Consider our hypothetical 50 Ω cable of inﬁnite length. even at the full propagation velocity of light (186. This is to say. perfect matching of line and load impedances is not always practical or possible. and using it to conduct a highfrequency AC signal could result in a vastly different assessment of that cable’s “shortness!” When a source is connected to a load via a “long” transmission line. Note how the electrical “shortness” of a cable is relative to the application: in a DC circuit where voltage and current values change slowly. This is increasingly true the longer the transmission line is. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES
501
audio signal! When dealing with radiofrequency systems. Consider a 100 MHz radio signal: its wavelength is a mere 9. In this condition of perfect impedance matching. surely the ultimate example of a “long” transmission line: no matter what kind of load we connect to one end of this line.5. the source (connected to the other end) will only see 50 Ω of impedance. nearly any physical length of cable would be considered “short” from the standpoint of characteristic impedance and reﬂected waves. because the line’s inﬁnite length prevents the signal from ever reaching the end where the load is connected.8202 feet.66. In other words. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates over load impedance in determining circuit behavior.
21) If we add the two waveforms together.502 • REVIEW:
CHAPTER 14. when the propagation time is a large fraction or multiple of the signal’s period. Wavelength is calculated by the formula λ=v/f. The ultimate example of this is a transmission line of inﬁnite length: since the signal will never reach the load impedance. the terminating (load) impedance dominates circuit behavior. barring any resistive losses in the transmission line. • In a circuit with a “long” line. The incident wave is shown traveling from left to right. but does not propagate down the cable’s length like the incident or reﬂected waveforms causing it. in fact. thick line rather than a pair of wires. these reﬂections will mix with more of the oncoming incident waveform to produce stationary waveforms called standing waves. the line is considered electrically long. for the excellent immunity to induced “noise” that it provides for signals. being the representative sum of incident and reﬂected voltage waves. Conversely. where “λ” is the wavelength.6
Standing waves and resonance
Whenever there is a mismatch of impedance between transmission line and load. • When the period of a transmitted voltage or current signal greatly exceeds the propagation time for a transmission line. for simplicity’s sake. stationary waveform is created along the line’s length: (Figure 14. • A ruleofthumb for transmission line “shortness” is that the line must be at least 1/4 wavelength before it is considered “long. the line is considered electrically short. TRANSMISSION LINES
• Coaxial cabling is sometimes used in DC and lowfrequency AC circuits as well as in highfrequency circuits. • A signal’s wavelength is the physical distance it will propagate in the timespan of one period. reﬂections will occur. while the reﬂected wave travels from right to left: (Figure 14. “v” is the propagation velocity.
14. The transmission line in this illustrative sequence is shown as a single. It oscillates in instantaneous magnitude. The following illustration shows how a triangleshaped incident waveform turns into a mirrorimage reﬂection upon reaching the line’s unterminated end. Note the dots along the line length marking the “zero” points of the standing wave
. there are no reﬂected waves and thus no problems with line length. we ﬁnd that a third. the source only “sees” the cable’s characteristic impedance. The source effectively sees nothing but the load’s impedance. • When a transmission line is terminated by a load precisely matching its impedance.” • In a circuit with a “short” line. If the incident signal is a continuous AC waveform.22) This third. and “f ” is the signal frequency. represents the only voltage along the line. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates circuit behavior. “standing” wave.
STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
503
Direction of propagation Source ..6.. Unterminated line
Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave
Figure 14.21: Incident wave reﬂects off end of unterminated transmission line.14.
.
. Unterminated line
Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave
Figure 14..504
CHAPTER 14.22: The sum of the incident and reﬂected waves is a stationary wave.. TRANSMISSION LINES
Direction of propagation Source .
6. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
505
(where the incident and reﬂected waves cancel each other).14. with “nodes” of maximum and minimum vibration along their length. moving downward): (Figure 14.23: The standing wave does not propgate along the transmission line.. while an open tube end must be an antinode. Standing waves are quite abundant in the physical world. this time.26) A closed tube end must be a wave node. while the free end (if there is any) must be an antinode. Whether the standing wave terminates in a node (minimum amplitude) or an antinode (maximum amplitude) depends on whether the other end of the tube is open or closed: (Figure 14. the anchored end of a vibrating string must be a node.. shaken at one end. By analogy.24) Both the nodes (points of little or no vibration) and the antinodes (points of maximum vibration) remain ﬁxed along the length of the string or rope. and tied down at the other (only one halfcycle of hand motion shown. The effect is most pronounced when the free end is shaken at just the right frequency.25) Wind blowing across an openended tube also produces standing waves. and how those points never change position: (Figure 14.
Unterminated line
Time
Figure 14. Note how there is more than one wavelength suitable for producing standing waves of
. the waves are vibrations of air molecules (sound) within the tube rather than vibrations of a solid object.23)
Source
. Consider a string or rope. The major difference between a plucked string and a shaken string is that the plucked string supplies its own “correct” frequency of vibration to maximize the standingwave effect: (Figure 14. Plucked strings exhibit the same “standing wave” behavior.
506
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.
Plucked string
Figure 14.24: Standing waves on a rope.25: Standing waves on a plucked string.
.
STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
507
Standing sound waves in openended tubes 1/4 wave 1/2 wave
3/4 wave
1 wave
5/4 waves
3/2 waves
7/4 waves
2 waves
9/4 waves
5/2 waves
Figure 14.14.
.6.26: Standing sound waves in open ended tubes.
and force these waves to possess nodes and antinodes according to the type of termination impedance at the load end.27: Harmonics (overtones) in open ended pipes The actual frequencies (measured in Hertz) for any of these harmonics or overtones depends on the physical length of the tube and the waves’ propagation velocity. because we must consider both voltage waves and current waves.66. they also exhibit resonance at frequencies determined by physical length and propagation velocity. All higher frequencies are integermultiples of the lowest (fundamental) frequency for the system. The sequential progression of harmonics from one resonant frequency to the next deﬁnes the overtone frequencies for the system: (Figure 14. is a bit more complex than resonance of strings or of air in tubes. Because transmission lines support standing waves. TRANSMISSION LINES
vibrating air within a tube that precisely match the tube’s end points. To begin. This is a convenient method for expressing the physical length of a transmission line: the amount of time it takes a wave to propagate down its entire length. the type commonly used for cable television distribution – with a velocity factor of 0. we’ll specify the transmission line (t1) with a 75 Ω characteristic impedance (z0=75) and a propagation delay of 1 microsecond (td=1u). All components have an impedance of 75 Ω: (Figure 14.28) Using SPICE to simulate the circuit. let’s examine a perfectly matched source. Transmission line resonance.508
CHAPTER 14. Another way of saying this is that there are multiple resonant frequencies for any system supporting standing waves. If this were a real 75 Ω cable – perhaps a type “RG59B/U” coaxial cable.27)
1/4 wave 1st harmonic 3/4 wave 3rd harmonic 5/4 waves 5th harmonic 7/4 waves 7th harmonic 9/4 waves 9th harmonic Fundamental 1/2 wave 1st harmonic 1 wave 2nd harmonic 3/2 waves 3rd harmonic 2 waves 4th harmonic 5/2 waves 5th harmonic
1st overtone
2nd overtone
3rd overtone
4th overtone
Figure 14. This complexity is made easier to understand by way of computer simulation. and load. Since 1 µs is the period of a
. This is true for all standingwave systems: standing waves will resonate with the system for any frequency (wavelength) correlating to the node/antinode points of the system. which is the speed of sound in air. it would be about 648 feet long. transmission line. though.
6.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . and therefore no resonant “peaks” or “valleys” in the Bode plot.5 volts: (Figure 14. The other voltages dip and peak at different frequencies along the sweep range of 1
.31) Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 999meg .end Running this simulation and plotting the source impedance drop (as an indication of current). STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
509
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 0 75 Ω
Figure 14. Here is the SPICE netlist for the circuit shown above: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 75 . I’ll choose to sweep the frequency of the AC source from (nearly) zero to that ﬁgure.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . and the load voltage.29) In a system where all impedances are perfectly matched. Now. there can be no standing waves. we see that the source voltage – shown as vm(1) (voltage magnitude between node 1 and the implied ground point of node 0) on the graphic plot – registers a steady 1 volt.28: Perfectly matched transmission line. to see how the system reacts when exposed to signals ranging from DC to 1 wavelength.end Here.14. the source voltage. to simulate an openended transmission line. (Figure 14. 1 MHz signal. both the supply voltage vm(1) and the line’s loadend voltage vm(3) remain steady at 1 volt. while every other voltage registers a steady 0.30) We should deﬁnitely see some reﬂections on the line now as the frequency is swept from 1 mHz to 1 MHz: (Figure 14. let’s change the load impedance to 999 MΩ. the line’s sourceend voltage.
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 999 MΩ (open) 0
Figure 14.29: No resonances on a matched transmission line.30: Open ended transmission line.
. TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.510
CHAPTER 14.
500 kHz. I=0.32)
0V=0A Zsource 75 Ω Esource 1V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V
Figure 14. At 0 Hz (actually 1 mHz).6. how can this be? How can we get full source voltage at the line’s open end while there is zero voltage at its entrance? The answer is found in the paradox of the standing wave. I=0. and full source voltage present at the sourceend of the transmission line (voltage measured between node 2 and node 0: vm(2)). end: V=1.33) You might be wondering. mHz to 1 MHz. With a source frequency of 250 kHz. and the circuit behaves much as it would given a 1volt DC battery source. the signal is practically DC. At 250 kHz. yet still full voltage at the loadend: (Figure 14. the line’s length is precisely right for
. There is no circuit current.2)).32: At f=0: input: V=1. 750 kHz. we see zero voltage and maximum current at the sourceend of the transmission line. as indicated by zero voltage drop across the source impedance (Zsource : vm(1. 250 kHz. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
511
Figure 14.31: Resonances on open transmission line. (Figure 14.14. There are ﬁve points of interest along the horizontal axis of the analysis: 0 Hz. We will investigate each one with regard to voltage and current at different points of the circuit. and 1 MHz.
33: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0. end: V=1 I=0. 250 kHz
. the loadend of an opencircuited transmission line is a current node (zero point) and a voltage antinode (maximum amplitude): (Figure¡ref¿02383. voltage antinode at open end. At 500 kHz.33 mA. and here we see another point in the analysis where the source current drops off to nothing and the sourceend voltage of the transmission line rises again to full voltage: (Figure 14. although the node and antinode assignments for voltage and current are reversed: at the shorted end of the line. In essence. At this point. resulting in the source “seeing” a shortcircuit where it connects to the transmission line.eps¡x1¿) .2)). With the line’s load end opencircuited.512
CHAPTER 14. the plot looks a lot like it was at 250 kHz: zero sourceend voltage (vm(2)) and maximum current (vm(1. TRANSMISSION LINES
1 V = 13.37) In a similar fashion.35) At 750 kHz. the sourceend of the line experiences the same voltage and current amplitudes as the loadend: full voltage and zero current. even though the other end of the line is opencircuited: (Figure 14. there will be zero voltage (node) and maximum current (antinode). What follows is the SPICE simulation (circuit Figure 14. the source “sees” an open circuit at the point where it connects to the transmission line.eps¡x1¿)
Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14. I=13. a shortcircuited transmission line generates standing waves. Therefore. This is due to 3/4 of a wave poised along the transmission line. exactly onehalf of a standing wave rests on the transmission line. 1/4 wavelength to ﬁt from end to end. (Figure 14.39 at resonances) at all the interesting frequencies: 0 Hz (Figure¡ref¿02388.34: Open end of transmission line shows current node. but there will be voltage.33 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V
Figure 14. a full standing wave exists on the transmission line.36) When the supply frequency sweeps up to 1 MHz.38 and illustrations of what happens (Figure 14. there can be no current.
STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
513
Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Zero I
Figure 14.35: Full standing wave on half wave open transmission line.
.14.6.37: Double standing waves on full wave open transmission line.
Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I
Zero I
Figure 14.36: 1 1/2 standing waves on 3/4 wave open transmission line.
The shortcircuit jumper is simulated by a 1 µΩ load impedance: (Figure 14. and 1 MHz (Figure¡ref¿02391.
Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 1u . 500 kHz (Figure¡ref¿02389.39: Resonances on shorted transmission line
.eps¡x1¿).eps¡x1¿).514
CHAPTER 14. 750 kHz (Figure¡ref¿02390. TRANSMISSION LINES
(Figure 14.eps¡x1¿).end
Figure 14.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis .38)
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 0 1 µΩ (shorted)
Figure 14.40).38: Shorted transmission line.
end: V=0.40: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0. I=13.6. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
515
1 V = 13.33 mA. I=13.41: Half wave standing wave pattern on 1/4 wave shorted transmission line.
.
Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.14.42: Full wave standing wave pattern on half wave shorted transmission line.
Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.33 mA.33 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 0V
Figure 14.
43: 1 1/2 standing wavepattern on 3/4 wave shorted transmission line. TRANSMISSION LINES
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E
Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.
.
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω
Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I
Maximum I
Figure 14.516
CHAPTER 14.44: Double standing waves on full wave shorted transmission line.
and 1 MHz.ac lin 5 1m 1meg . Figure 14. 750 kHz. the transmission line is terminated in some impedance other than an open or a short. v(3). we can discover exactly what is happening at all the interesting frequencies: (DC.5714 volts. (Figure 14. however. the source voltage.print ac v(1.48.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
517
In both these circuit examples. the reﬂections will be less intense. both the line input voltage (v(2)) and the voltage dropped across the source’s 75 Ω impedance (v(1.2). indicating current drawn from the source) vary with frequency. However. The load voltage. Suppose we were to terminate our example line with a 100 Ω resistor instead of a 75 Ω resistor.46)
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 0 100 Ω
Figure 14. also remains steady. 250 kHz.45) Examine the results of the corresponding SPICE analysis to see the effects of impedance mismatch at different source frequencies: (Figure 14. Figure 14. Figure 14. the energy reﬂection is total: 100% of the incident wave reaching the line’s end gets reﬂected back toward the source.50).end If we run another SPICE analysis.49.6. but at a lesser voltage: 0.45: Transmission line terminated in a mismatch Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 .
.47. as will be the difference between minimum and maximum values of voltage and current along the line. Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 . v(1). an opencircuited line and a shortcircuited line. remains steady at 1 volt. this time printing numerical results rather than plotting them.14.end At all frequencies.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) . as it should. 500 kHz. Figure 14. If. Figure 14.47.
14.714E01
v(3) 5.715 mA.286E01 5.000E+00 1.714E01 4.5714 V 0.714E01 5.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.714E01 4.47: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0. I=5.57.714E01 5.46: Weak resonances on a mismatched transmission line
freq 1.4286 V = 5.286E01
v(1) 1.000E+00 1.286E01 5.5714. end: V=0.000E+00 1.715 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.000E+05 7.518
CHAPTER 14.500E+05 5.714E01 4. I=5.2) 4.714E01 4.000E03 2.500E+05 1.000E+00
v(2) 5.715 mA.
.286E01 5.714E01 5.286E01 5.714E01
0.714E01 5.000E+00 1. TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.000E+06
v(1.
5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.4286 V 0.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. end: V=0. end: V=5.619 mA.4286 V 0.5714.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.51: At f=1 MHz: input: V=0.14.619 mA.4286 V = 5.
.5714 V = 7. I=5.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.
0. I=7.5715 mA. I=7.714.5714.4286.715 mA. I=0.5714.715 mA.619 mA.619 mA.5714 V = 7.715 mA.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.5714 V 0. I=5.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. I=5.4286 V = 5.5714 V 0.5714.
0.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. end: V=0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.48: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0.50: At f=750 KHz: input: V=0.6. I=7. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
519
0. end: V=0.
0. I=7.4286.5714.49: At f=500 KHz: input: V=0.
rather than channeling all of it to the load. or SWR is valued at inﬁnity.or shortcircuited transmission lines – are often designed to operate at high standing wave ratios. the maximum and minimum voltage levels along this transmission line do not reach the same extreme values of 0% and 100% source voltage.333. with a 75 Ω line terminated by a 100 Ω impedance. as the radiated energy may “couple” with nearby conductors.520
CHAPTER 14. respectively. copper tubes with ceramic insulator caps at
. An interesting footnote to this point is that antenna structures – which typically resemble open. In this example. matching the previous calculation very closely. radiating electromagnetic energy away from the line. In this example. not only because reﬂected waves constitute energy not delivered to the load. this standing wave ratio.
SWR =
Emaximum Eminimum
=
Imaximum Iminimum
SWR =
Zload Z0
or
Z0 Zload
which ever is greater
A perfectly terminated transmission line will have an SWR of 1. Figure 14. Unlike the opencircuited and shortcircuited transmission line examples. but because the high values of voltage and current created by the antinodes of standing waves may overstress the transmission line’s insulation (high voltage) and conductors (high current). Again. The large. The following photograph (Figure 14. calculated by taking the maximum line voltage at either 250 kHz or 750 kHz (0. for voltage or for current. Also. since voltage at any location along the line’s length will be the same. corresponding to the standing current wave’s nodes and antinodes. a transmission line with a high SWR tends to act as an antenna. “undeﬁned”) quotient. the SWR will be ﬁnite: 1. This is usually undesirable. for the very reason of maximizing signal radiation and reception. and any ﬁnite value divided by zero results in an inﬁnite (actually. respectively.50) we see differing levels of voltage at each end of the transmission line. Standing wave ratio may also be calculated by taking the line’s terminating impedance and the line’s characteristic impedance. (Figure 14. we will have points of minimum and maximum current at certain ﬁxed locations on the line. because at those frequencies the standing waves terminate at one end in a node and at the other end in an antinode. the terminating impedance of 100 Ω divided by the characteristic impedance of 75 Ω yields a quotient of exactly 1. and dividing the larger of the two values by the smaller. this is usually considered ideal. When a line is terminated by an open or a short. since the minimum amplitude will be zero.52) shows a set of transmission lines at a junction point in a radio transmitter system. and likewise for current.5714 volts) and dividing by the minimum line voltage (0. Figure 14.4286 volts).48 and 750 kHz. producing signal interference. but we still have points of “minimum” and “maximum” voltage.333.46) The same holds true for current: if the line’s terminating impedance is mismatched to the line’s characteristic impedance. One way of expressing the severity of standing waves is as a ratio of maximum amplitude (antinode) to minimum amplitude (node). TRANSMISSION LINES
At odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency (250 kHz.
they are stationary). wooden shelter at the base of an antenna structure. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
521
the ends are rigid coaxial transmission lines of 50 Ω characteristic impedance.14. As we will see in the next section. but are the result of interference between incident and reﬂected waves along a transmission line. there are no reﬂected waves. these are operated at low SWR conditions. and therefore no standing waves at all. Note the ﬂat.
. The lines are gasﬁlled to avoid collecting moisture inside them.e. the phenomenon of standing waves in transmission lines is not always undesirable. Why ﬂat straps of copper and not round wires? Because of the skin effect. These lines carry RF power from the radio transmitter circuit to a small. Flexible coaxial cable connected to the rigid lines (also of 50 Ω characteristic impedance) conduct the RF power to capacitive and inductive “phasing” networks inside the shelter. which would be a deﬁnite problem for a coaxial line. though. In a perfectly terminated line. • An antinode is a point on a standing wave of maximum amplitude. The white. Like many transmission lines. copper “straps” used as jumper wires to connect the conductors of the ﬂexible coaxial cables to the conductors of the rigid lines.6. plastic tube joining two of the rigid lines together carries “ﬁlling” gas from one sealed line to the other. • REVIEW: • Standing waves are waves of voltage and current which do not propagate (i. which renders most of the crosssectional area of a round conductor useless at radio frequencies. • Standing waves can only exist in a transmission line when the terminating impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance.52: Flexible coaxial cables connected to rigid lines. • A node is a point on a standing wave of minimum amplitude. as it may be exploited to perform a useful function: impedance transformation. and from that shelter on to other shelters with other antenna structures:
Figure 14.
Resonant points exist at every harmonic (integermultiple) frequency of the fundamental (quarterwavelength). same as end of half wavelength line. resulting in resonance. The fact that this condition exists at both ends of the line tells us that the line faithfully reproduces its terminating impedance at the source end.53: Source sees open.
14. the nodes and antinodes of standing waves will correlate with the ends of a transmission line. is the ratio of maximum standing wave amplitude to minimum standing wave amplitude. • The lowestfrequency resonant point on a transmission line is where the line is one quarterwavelength long. or vice versa.
. • Transmission lines may be damaged by the high maximum amplitudes of standing waves. and current antinodes may overheat conductors. the line has voltage antinodes at both ends. so that the source “sees” an open circuit where it connects to the transmission line.or shortcircuited transmission line produce unusual effects. which ever yields the greatest quotient. there is maximum voltage and minimum current at either end of the line.53) and 1 wavelength (Figure 14.54) frequencies:
Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Zero I
Figure 14. or SWR.7
Impedance transformation
Standing waves at the resonant frequency points of an open. • Standing wave ratio. which corresponds to the condition of an open circuit. the source “sees” the load impedance as it is. When the signal frequency is such that exactly 1/2 wave or some multiple thereof matches the line’s length. It may also be calculated by dividing termination impedance by characteristic impedance. That is to say.522
CHAPTER 14. In either case. TRANSMISSION LINES
• At certain frequencies. Voltage antinodes may break down insulation between conductors. The following pair of illustrations shows an opencircuited line operating at 1/2 (Figure 14. A line with no standing waves (perfectly matched: Zload to Z0 ) has an SWR equal to 1. and current nodes at both ends. just as if it were directly opencircuited.
eps¡x1¿ below) thereof. at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14.60) At these frequencies.14. if the signal frequency is such that the line resonates at 1/4 wavelength or some multiple thereof.54: Source sees open. the source “sees” a short circuit.58) Line shortcircuited. same as end of half wave length line.57) Line opencircuited. or vice versa. the source will “see” the exact opposite of the termination impedance. same as end of full wavelength (2x half wavelength line). That is. Of course. at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14. the transmission line is actually functioning as an impedance transformer.eps¡x1¿ below) or some multiple (Figure¡ref¿02392a.55: Source sees short. transforming an inﬁnite impedance into zero impedance. and if the line is shortcircuited.
. The same is true if the transmission line is terminated by a short: at signal frequencies corresponding to 1/2 wavelength (Figure¡ref¿02390a.7.59). IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
523
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I
Zero I
Figure 14. source “sees” an open circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14. the source will “see” an open circuit: (Figure 14. However. if the line is opencircuited.57). source “sees” a short circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14. with minimum voltage and maximum current present at the connection points between source and transmission line:
Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14. the source will “see” a shortcircuit at the point where it connects to the line.
58: Source sees short.524
CHAPTER 14.
Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.56: Source sees short. TRANSMISSION LINES
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω
Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I
Maximum I
Figure 14. reﬂected from open at end of threequarter wavelength line.
. same as end of full wavelength line (2x half wavelength).
Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.57: Source sees short. reﬂected from open at end of quarter wavelength line.
14. reﬂected from short at end of threequarter wavelength line. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
525
Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.59: Source sees open.7.
.
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E
Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.60: Source sees open. reﬂected from short at end of quarter wavelength line.
halfwave length (Figure 14.62: Source sees 100 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of half wavelength line. let’s determine what impedance the source “sees” at its end of the transmission line at the line’s resonant frequencies: quarter wavelength (Figure 14. resonant frequency) or some odd multiple (3/4.715 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz
Fundamental frequency (1st harmonic)
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.63) full wavelength (Figure 14.
0. Take for instance the example circuit from the last section where a 75 Ω source connects to a 75 Ω transmission line. threequarter wavelength (Figure 14.
. terminating in a 100 Ω load impedance. this phenomenon may be used to match otherwise unmatched impedances to each other.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz
2nd harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. but if the signal frequency is known and unchanging. From the numerical ﬁgures obtained via SPICE. 7/4. .).5714 V 0.25 Ω 7.61: Source sees 56. . 9/4 .5714 V 1/2 λ 0.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of quarter wavelength line. 5/4.619 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.5714 V = 7.526
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
this only occurs at resonant points resulting in a standing wave of 1/4 cycle (the line’s fundamental.62).4286 V = 56.61).5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5.4286 V 0.64)
0.5714 V 1/4 λ Source "sees" 0.4286 V = 5.
4286 V 0.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of threequarter wavelength line (same as quarter wavelength).5714 V 3/4 λ Source "sees" 0. we obtain a ﬁgure of 22. and input impedance (Zinput ) for an unmatched transmission line operating at an odd harmonic of its fundamental frequency:
Z0 =
Zinput Zload
One practical application of this principle would be to match a 300 Ω load to a 75 Ω signal source at a frequency of 50 MHz.4286 V = 5. First.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz
3rd harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.7.619 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
527
0. All we need to do is calculate the proper transmission line impedance (Z0 ).25 Ω 7.5714 V 1λ 0. A simple equation relates line impedance (Z0 ). and multiplying by the 300 Ω load resistance.63: Source sees 56.500. and length so that exactly 1/4 of a wave will “stand” on the line at a frequency of 50 MHz.5714 V 0. load impedance (Zload ).715 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.
0. Taking the square root of 22. calculating the line impedance: taking the 75 Ω we desire the source to “see” at the sourceend of the transmission line.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5.14.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz
4th harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.64: Source sees 56.500 yields 150 Ω for a characteristic line
.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of fullwavelength line (same as halfwavelength).5714 V = 7.4286 V = 56.
695 feet. receives a full 1 volt. or 20 nanoseconds (20 ns). Since the frequency is 50 MHz. This means the source “thinks” it is powering a 75 Ω load. indicating a perfect match of impedance. Now. the source is dissipating 3.2) 5.end freq 5. the velocity of propagation will be 158.print ac v(1. 150 Ω. TRANSMISSION LINES
impedance.1738 feet.
. as indicated by the 1.2)) and the other half of its voltage across the input terminals of the transmission line (v(2)). Here is a schematic diagram for the circuit.000E+07 v(1.85. With 0.eps¡x1¿)
1 Esource 50 MHz 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line Z0 = 150 Ω 0 150 = (75)(300)
3 Zload 0 300 Ω
Figure 14.528
CHAPTER 14. the signal period will be the reciprocal of that.333 mW of power: the same as dissipated by 1 volt across the 300 Ω load. Onequarter of that time (5 ns) will be the time delay of a transmission line onequarter wavelength long: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 300 . The actual load impedance. showing node numbers for the SPICE analysis we’re about to run: (Figure¡ref¿02403.000E+00 v(2) 5. Taking this velocity and dividing by the signal frequency gives us a wavelength of 0. the requisite cable length is 4. Since we only need onequarter of this length for the cable to support a quarterwave.5 volt dropped across 75 Ω. however.000 ﬁgure at v(3).000 miles per second.65: Quarter wave section of 150 Ω transmission line matches 75 Ω source to 300 Ω load.100 miles per second.000E01 v(3) 1. according to the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. our 1volt signal source drops half of its voltage across the series 75 Ω impedance (v(1. We can specify the cable length in SPICE in terms of time delay from beginning to end.000E+00
At a frequency of 50 MHz.000E01 v(1) 1.003162 miles. and using a speedoflight ﬁgure of 186. The 1/4wavelength.ac lin 1 50meg 50meg . transmission line segment has successfully matched the 300 Ω load to the 75 Ω source. to calculate the necessary line length: assuming that our cable has a velocity factor of 0.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) . or 16.
we see the 1volt source voltage equally split between the 300 Ω source impedance (v(1.25 volts across the 75 Ω load. indicating that the load “appears” as a 300 Ω impedance from the source’s perspective where it connects to the transmission line.500E01
Here. • When operated at a frequency corresponding to a standing wave of 1/4wavelength along the transmission line. This technique of impedance matching is often used to match the differing impedance values of transmission line and antenna in radio transmitter systems. that this only works for 50 MHz and its oddnumbered harmonics.67
. because the transmitter’s frequency is generally wellknown and unchanging. Once again.000E+07 v(1. metal tube.33 µW. This 0.8.000E+00 v(2) 5. of course.66) • REVIEW: • A transmission line with standing waves may be used to match different impedance values if operated at the correct frequency(ies). while the empty space between the tube walls provide distributed capacitance: Figure 14.ac lin 1 50meg 50meg . The tube wall provides distributed inductance.end freq 5. (Figure 14. the line’s characteristic impedance necessary for impedance transformation must be equal to the square root of the product of the source’s impedance and the load’s impedance.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .
14.8
Waveguides
A waveguide is a special form of transmission line consisting of a hollow. Strangely enough. the same as the 0.000E01 v(1) 1. The use of an impedance “transformer” 1/4 wavelength in length provides impedance matching using the shortest conductor length possible.5 volt drop across the source’s 300 Ω internal impedance yields a power ﬁgure of 833.000E01 v(3) 2.14. as indicated by voltage ﬁgure v(3). For any other signal frequency to receive the same beneﬁt of matched impedances. demonstrating how this phenomenon of impedance transformation is fundamentally different in principle from that of a conventional.print ac v(1. twowinding transformer: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 300 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 75 . the exact same line can also match a 75 Ω load to a 300 Ω source. the 150 Ω line would have to lengthened or shortened accordingly so that it was exactly 1/4 wavelength long.2) 5.2)) and the line’s input (v(2)). the impedance values of source and load have been matched by the transmission line segment. WAVEGUIDES
529
Bear in mind.
Z0 = 75 Ω ...
.. TRANSMISSION LINES
1/4 λ Radio Transmitter .66: Quarter wave 150 Ω transmission line section matches 75 Ω line to 300 Ω antenna.67: Wave guides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables.. Z0 = 150 Ω Dipole antenna 300 Ω
Impedance "transformer"
Figure 14.530
CHAPTER 14.
Waveguide Waveguide
Wave propagation
Figure 14.
” Waveguides may be thought of as conduits for electromagnetic energy.
Figure 14. Lines small enough in crosssectional dimension to maintain TEM mode signal propagation
. Below such frequencies. or TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode.8.68: Twin lead transmission line propagation: TEM mode. directing the waves as the banks of a river direct a tidal wave. though. When functioning as transmission lines. and it is the dominant mode of wave propagation where the crosssectional dimensions of the transmission line are small compared to the wavelength of the signal. WAVEGUIDES
531
Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency. all transmission lines function as conduits of electromagnetic energy when transporting pulses or highfrequency waves. the propagation of electrical energy down a waveguide is of a very different nature than the propagation of electrical energy down a twoconductor transmission line. either. but perpendicular to each other. waveguides are useless as electrical transmission lines. because waveguides are singleconductor elements. This is known as the principal mode. However. the waveguide itself acting as nothing more than a “director” of the energy rather than as a signal conductor in the normal sense of the word. All electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating in the same direction of travel. there are no concerns with proper conductortoconductor spacing. In a sense. where the wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. Along the length of a normal transmission line. since the only dielectric in a waveguide is air. This mode of wave propagation can exist only where there are two conductors.68)
TEM mode Magnetic field
Wave propagation
Electric field
Magnetic field Both field planes perpendicular (transverse) to direction of signal propagation. or of the consistency of the dielectric material. twoconductor transmission lines of any substantial length operating in standard TEM mode become impractical. Moisture is not as severe a problem in waveguides as it is within coaxial cables. (Figure 14. With only a single conductor (the waveguide’s “shell”). and so waveguides are often spared the necessity of gas “ﬁlling.14. At microwave signal frequencies (between 100 MHz and 300 GHz). waveguides are considerably simpler than twoconductor cables – especially coaxial cables – in their manufacture and maintenance. both electric and magnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel.
or a short loop of wire terminated on the inside surface of the waveguide: (Figure 14. the coupler is a single stub (a halfdipole.532
CHAPTER 14. (Figure 14. When an electromagnetic wave propagates down a hollow tube.69: Waveguide (TE) transverse electric and (TM) transverse magnetic modes. which is nothing more than two openended stub wires of appropriate length.” if a conductive tube is used rather than two parallel conductors. parasitic power losses due to conductor “skin” and dielectric effects. but still be perpendicular to the other ﬁeld. TRANSMISSION LINES
for microwave signals tend to have low voltage ratings. Fortunately. Whichever ﬁeld remains transverse to the direction of travel determines whether the wave propagates in TE mode (Transverse Electric) or TM (Transverse Magnetic) mode. similar in principle to a “whip” antenna. and suffer from large. a deadended waveguide may also res
. 1/4λ in physical length). The other ﬁeld will “loop” longitudinally to the direction of travel. though. Other times.70) In some cases. Sometimes these coupling elements take the form of a dipole.eps¡x1¿ below) Just as transmission lines are able to function as resonant elements in a circuit. having no contact with the beam itself: (Figure¡ref¿02408. It is at these high frequencies that waveguides become practical. Many variations of each mode exist for a given waveguide.69)
Magnetic field
Magnetic field Electric field
TE mode
Electric field
Wave propagation TM mode
Magnetic flux lines appear as continuous loops Electric flux lines appear with beginning and end points
Figure 14. especially when terminated by a shortcircuit or an opencircuit. such as a class of vacuum tube devices called inductive output tubes (the socalled klystron tube falls into this category). at these short wavelengths there exist other modes of propagation that are not as “lossy. and a full discussion of this is subject well beyond the scope of this book. only one of the ﬁelds – either electric or magnetic – will actually be transverse to the wave’s direction of travel. Signals are typically introduced to and extracted from waveguides by means of small antennalike coupling devices inserted into the waveguide. a “cavity” formed of conductive material may intercept electromagnetic energy from a modulated beam of electrons.
8.
The inductive output tube (IOT) coaxial output cable RF signal input electron beam toroidal cavity
RF power output
DC supply
Figure 14.
. WAVEGUIDES
533
Waveguide
Waveguide
Coupling "stub" Coaxial cable
Coupling loop Coaxial cable
Figure 14.70: Stub and loop coupling to waveguide.14.71: Klystron inductive output tube.
. snow. To this end.72: Cantenna illustrates stub coupling to waveguide. and other physical contaminants from entering the waveguide. screws. “Real” waveguide antennae use similar barriers to physically enclose the tube. being nonconductive. The plastic. Some of the cans in the background still have their plastic lids in place.534
CHAPTER 14. one of them a “Pringles” potato chip can. A cavity’s resonant frequency may be altered by changing its physical dimensions. does not interfere with the RF signal. A few more tincan antennae may be seen in the background. the device is called a cavity resonator.72)
Figure 14. yet allow electromagnetic energy to pass unimpeded. TRANSMISSION LINES
onate at particular frequencies. • REVIEW: • Waveguides are metal tubes functioning as “conduits” for carrying electromagnetic waves.4 GHz signal in an “802. Inductive output tubes use toroidshaped cavity resonators to maximize the power transfer efﬁciency between the electron beam and the output cable. They are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency. When used as such. The following photograph shows a homemade waveguide formed from a tin can. used as an antenna for a 2. where the signal wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. and other mechanical elements for tuning are manufactured to provide coarse resonant frequency adjustment. Although this can is of cardboard (paper) construction. it functions as a unidirectional antenna. cavities with movable plates. The coupling element is a quarterwave stub: nothing more than a piece of solid copper wire about 11/4 inches in length extending from the center of a coaxial cable connector penetrating the side of the can: (Figure 14.11b” computer communication network. If a resonant cavity is made open on one end. its metallic inner lining provides the necessary conductivity to function as a waveguide. but functions as a physical barrier to prevent rain. dust.
Wave travel along a standard. TEM mode is only possible with two conductors and cannot exist in a waveguide. depending on which ﬁeld (electric or magnetic) is perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel.
.14. • A deadended waveguide serving as a resonant element in a microwave circuit is called a cavity resonator. or TM (Transverse Magnetic). sending or receiving RF energy to/from the direction of the open end. • A cavity resonator with an open end functions as a unidirectional antenna. WAVEGUIDES
535
• Wave propagation through a waveguide may be classiﬁed into two broad categories: TE (Transverse Electric). twoconductor transmission line is of the TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode.8. where both ﬁelds are oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel.
TRANSMISSION LINES
.536
CHAPTER 14.
highquality information into the hands of my students. there were plenty of texts in print.Appendix A1
ABOUT THIS BOOK
A1. My request to review the draft for the next edition of their book was met with disinterest on their part. As an industrial electronics instructor. My primary goal was to put readable. Worse yet were the many incorrect answers in the back of the book to selected problems. paving the way for a rewarding career and fascinating hobby. and I resolved to ﬁnd an alternative text. This willful and formal revoking of 537
. I decided to make it “open” following the same development model used in the making of free software (most notably the various UNIX utilities released by the Free Software Foundation. . I decided to make the book freely available. Adding insult to injury was the $100+ price. and those that were still being printed were quite expensive.1 Purpose
They say that necessity is the mother of invention. At least in the case of this book. It was out of frustration that I compiled Lessons in Electric Circuits from notes and ideas I had been collecting for years. Finding a suitable alternative was more difﬁcult than I had imagined. Some of the best books were out of print. I was forced to use a substandard textbook during my ﬁrst year of teaching. but a secondary goal was to make the book as affordable as possible. whose fame is growing even as I write). Contacting the publisher proved to be an exercise in futility. that adage is true. including several teachers of mine in elementary and high school. Sure. Their selﬂess assistance played a key role in my own studies. So. Over the years. . and the Linux operating system. I had experienced the beneﬁt of receiving free instruction and encouragement in my pursuit of learning electronics from many people. If only I could extend the gift of their help by giving to other people what they gave to me . Even though the particular text I was using had been in print and in popular use for a couple of years. My students were daily frustrated with the many typographical errors and obscure explanations in this book. More than that. but the really good books seemed a bit too heavy on the math and the less intimidating books omitted a lot of information I felt was important. they claimed my complaint was the ﬁrst they’d ever heard. having spent much time at home struggling to comprehend the material within. The goal was to copyright the text – so as to protect my authorship – but expressly allow anyone to distribute and/or modify the text to suit their own needs with a minimum of legal encumbrance.
Anyone can “copyleft” their creative work simply by appending a notice to that effect on their work. but anyone has the freedom to change it. The next chapter covers this process in more detail. you will be giving them something better than what you received. however. I’m sure this book in its initial form will not satisfy everyone. For the beginning student of electronics. and when things go wrong there’s no one to ask for help. and deserves the utmost respect. feel free to use this as a reference manual. leveraging my efforts to suit variant and individual requirements. as useful as it is. For the instructor or electronics professional. although in many cases labs are designed by educators to reinforce principles previously learned through lecture or textbook reading.2
The use of SPICE
One of the best ways to learn how things work is to follow the inductive approach: to observe speciﬁc instances of things working and derive general conclusions from those observations. Electricity maims and kills without provocation.538
APPENDIX A1. the subject matter is broad and harbors many potential dangers. is
.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
standard distribution limitations under copyright is whimsically termed copyleft. not everyone has the means or opportunity to set up a laboratory in their own homes. you must give credit where credit is due (to me. its wording is not as clear as it could be for that application. In “copylefting” this text. Most textbooks seem to approach the task of education from a deductive perspective: tell the student how things are supposed to work. as I had been with errorridden textbooks from major publishers. I chose one of them (the Design Science License. if you pass it on to someone else. Then. is intended to copyleft works of computer software. editing it as you feel necessary if you come across a useful piece of information. explosion. In science education. labwork is the traditionally accepted venue for this type of learning.
A1. When other. Although electronic components are typically inexpensive. but several Licenses already exist. Having taught myself most of the electronics that I know. I guaranteed that no instructor would be limited by a text insufﬁcient for their needs. but only with circuits powered by small batteries where there is no risk of electric shock. learn what you can from this book. and you must ensure that whoever you give the text to is aware of their freedom to similarly share and edit the text. The only “catch” is this: if you plan to distribute your modiﬁed version of this text. I appreciate the sense of frustration students may have in teaching themselves from books. or DSL) as the ofﬁcial notice for my project. the original author. rather than to allow the student to learn on their own through a truly exploratory process. etc. less speciﬁc copyleft Licenses began appearing within the free software community. The GPL. Highpower electric circuits should be left to the care of trained professionals! The Design Science License clearly states that neither I nor any contributors to this book bear any liability for what is done with its contents. and although its introductory language is broad enough to cover works of text. and anyone else whose modiﬁcations are contained in your version). The ﬁrst such License I applied to my work was the GPL – General Public License – of the Free Software Foundation (GNU). I strongly encourage experimentation on the part of the reader. It must be mentioned that although I strive to maintain technical accuracy in all of this book’s content. covering the ﬁne legal points in great detail. The inductive approach. ﬁre. adding or editing to your heart’s content. then apply those principles to speciﬁc instances that the student may or may not be able to explore by themselves.
Demonstrations also serve to clarify the meaning of the text with concrete examples. a chapter in the Reference volume (volume V) contains an overview of SPICE with many example circuits. and the respective programmers: • GNU/Linux Operating System – Linus Torvalds. a virtue complementing the charitable philosophy of this book very nicely. However. I discovered this when I started to learn a computer program called SPICE.A1. There may be more ﬂashy (graphic) circuit simulation programs in existence. the reader is left to take the author’s statements on faith. Without demonstrations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
539
hard to ﬁnd in the pages of a book. like all human beings. current. Furthermore. frequency. The problem with faith. This way. they should be able to understand how to use it themselves. SPICE is introduced early in volume I (DC) of this book series. are liable to err and/or communicate poorly.
. of course. is that it is only as good as the authority in which it is placed and the accuracy of interpretation through which it is understood. It is a textbased piece of software intended to model circuits and provide analyses of voltage. The following is a list of various free computer software used to make this book. but SPICE is free. whose patience during those many and long evenings (and weekends!) of typing has been extraordinary. I also wish to thank those whose opensource software development efforts have made this endeavor all the more affordable and pleasurable. trusting that what has been written is indeed accurate. With demonstrations. Although nothing is quite as good as building real circuits to gain knowledge in electronics. Another advantage to including computer analyses in a textbook is the empirical veriﬁcation it adds to the concepts presented. the reader can immediately see for themselves that what the author describes is indeed true. In learning how to use this powerful tool. • TEX text processing system – Donald Knuth and others. etc. and a host of others too numerous to mention.3.3
Acknowledgements
First. • Nutmeg postprocessor program for SPICE – Wayne Christopher. textbooks don’t have to be this way. the readers could learn the concepts inductively (by interpreting SPICE’s output) as well as deductively (by interpreting my explanations). and hopefully in a gentle enough way that it doesn’t create confusion. Authors. I made a discovery: SPICE could be used within a textbook to present circuit simulations to allow students to “observe”the phenomena for themselves. For those wishing to learn more. I wish to thank my wife. • Vim text editor – Bram Moolenaar and others. • Xcircuit drafting program – Tim Edwards. providing a perfectly safe means of experimentation on their own computers with circuit simulations of their own design. • SPICE circuit simulation program – too many contributors to mention.
A1. computer simulation is an excellent alternative. Richard Stallman. however. in seeing SPICE used over and over again.
and a wider audience for the online version of this book. Tony Kuphaldt. I honor you by helping others as you have helped me. and Forrest Mims’ original Engineer’s Notebook.lightandmatter. Constantin Zeldovich. Thanks to the staff of the Bellingham Antique Radio Museum. many thanks to my parents and those teachers of mine who saw in me a desire to learn about electricity. (Free for personal and academic use. Bernard Grob’s second edition of Introduction to Electronics I. Boylestad. and who kindled that ﬂame into a passion for discovery and intellectual adventure.) Appreciation is also extended to Robert L. Thanks to Michael Stutz for drafting his Design Science License. Other important texts in my electronics studies include the 1939 edition of The “Radio” Handbook. who were generous enough to let me terrorize their establishment with my camera and ﬂash unit. Washington for a very informative tour of their expanded (50 kW) facilities as well as their vintage transmitter equipment.540
APPENDIX A1. Last but certainly not least. Thanks also to David Sweet (website: (http://www. I wish to speciﬁcally thank Jeffrey Elkner and all those at Yorktown High School for being willing to host my book as part of their Open Book Project. April 2002 “A candle loses nothing of its light when lighting another” Kahlil Gibran
. and to make the ﬁrst effort in contributing to its form and content. Similar thanks to Jim Swartos and KARI radio in Blaine.org)) and Ben Crowell (website: (http://www.com)) for providing encouragement.andamooka.
• Gimp image manipulation program – too many contributors to mention. whose ﬁrst edition of Introductory Circuit Analysis taught me more about electric circuits than any other book. • Winscope signal analysis software – Dr. constructive criticism.
A • LTEX document formatting system – Leslie Lamport and others.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
• Texinfo document formatting system – Free Software Foundation. and to Richard Stallman for pioneering the concept of copyleft.
In addition. Again. talk about it. however. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other copyrighted work. you do so at your own risk. Here is a sample from the Design Science License: The Work is copyright the Author. you may refer to the Work. the Design Science License: Permission is granted to modify or sample from a copy of the Work. and ideally. information concerning how you may be contacted. and (as dictated by ‘‘fair use’’) quote from it.Appendix A2
CONTRIBUTOR LIST
A2. just as you would any copyrighted material under copyright law. read or otherwise interpret and/or execute the Work is unrestricted. you must document the nature of those modiﬁcations in the “Credits” section along with your name.see Section 7 (‘‘NO WARRANTY’’) below. All rights to the Work are reserved by the Author. The only “catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. because the Work comes WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY . perform. producing a derivative work. If you wish to modify this book in any way. distribute and modify copies of the Work.1 How to contribute to this book
As a copylefted work. This License describes the terms and conditions under which the Author permits you to copy. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. Your right to operate. this book is open to revision and expansion by any interested parties. and to distribute the derivative work under the terms described in the section for distribution above. 541
. except as specifically described below.
Please understand that when I classify a contribution as “minor. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. welcome to modify this book directly by editing your own personal copy. date.org
. some error corrections. or with a version of the Work.
CONTRIBUTOR LIST
provided that the following terms are met: (a) The new.1
Tony R.2.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. it is recommended that you submit any revisions or expansions to the original author (Tony R. • Contact at: jstarck@yhslug. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. and resources to make this a better book!
A2. Kuphaldt). Given the complexities and security issues surrounding the maintenance of ﬁles comprising this book. authorship is attributed to you. Kuphaldt
• Date(s) of contribution(s): 1996 to present • Nature of contribution: Original author. contact info. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). Minor contributions (typo corrections. time. but we would all stand to beneﬁt from your contributions if your ideas were incorporated into the online “master copy” where all the world can see it.
A2. while the material sampled or used from the Work remains attributed to the original Author. of course. etc.com
A2. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted.” it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a “major” contribution. in any way. You are.2. (c) Appropriate authorship credit is given: for the differences between the Work and the new derivative work.tux.2
Credits
All entries arranged in alphabetical order of surname. so that its name or title can not be confused with the Work. derivative work is published under the terms of this License.542
APPENDIX A2. etc. • Contact at: liec0@lycos. (b) The derivative work is given a new name.2
Jason Starck
• Date(s) of contribution(s): MayJune 2000 • Nature of contribution: HTML formatting. appropriate notice must be included with the new work indicating the nature and the dates of any modifications of the Work made by you.
• The students of Bellingham Technical College’s Instrumentation program.A2.2.com
• Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005 • Nature of contribution: Granted permission to reprint synchronous westclox motor jpg’s. gnuplot Fourier plots chapters 6.5
Your name here
• Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution • Nature of contribution: Insert text here.net
A2. pdf. 09/2005. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors.2. various chapters.com (June 2005) Typographical error correction in Volumes 1. 06/2006. 04/2005. 7. latex. ps.“Running 3phase motors on 1phase”.2.3.com. describing how you contributed to the book. Ch10. added to. Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www. • Bart Anderson (January 2004) Corrected conceptual and safety errors regarding Tesla coils. html. added to Air core transformers subsections chapter 9. CH 13. Added ﬂoating captioned LaTeX ﬁgures for more booklike appearance of . • Nature of contribution: Chapters: all.4
Bill Stoddard. all chapters except appedicies. CREDITS
543
A2.6
Typo corrections and other “minor” contributions
• lineallaboutcircuits. • Contact at: my email@provider. • Nature of contribution: Mini table of contents. 9.html. chapter 13 • Contact at: bill(at)billsclockworks(dot)com
A2.billsclockworks. Ch12.5. ScottT and LVDT subsections inserted.pdf. Added DoublyFed Induction Generator subsection. • Nature of contribution: Broke “Special transformers and applications” section into subsections. See Devel/tutorial. 01/2006. www. • Contact at: dcrunkilton(at)att(dot)net
A2. (s/visaversa/vice versa/).2.2.
. 02/2009. 8. minor change. Incremented edition number to 6 for major format change. 10. 01/2006.3
Dennis Crunkilton
• Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2005 to present • Nature of contribution: SpiceNutmeg plots.2.clockHistory. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors.
AND C. images: 12008. change Vic to Vir above resistor in image) (January 2005). 02053. 02516.Typographical error correction in “What is a ﬁlter?” section.Typographical error correction in “Other waveshapes” section. changed image 02305. / from others within mixedfrequency signals. (January 2005). L. 02062. • Jeff DeFreitas (March 2006)Improve appearance: replace ”/” and ”/” various chapters. 02516. Chapter 7: MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS.eps “Mutual inductance and basic operation” section. 02258. Chapter 4: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE (calculate the phase angle of the inductor’s reactive opposition / calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition). 02515. s/750 kiloWatt/750 Watt.eps.eps.eps. More on the “skin effect” section.¡/itemi¿ • Michiel van Bolhuis (April 2007). 02056.eps 3phase transformer images.eps. (dropping most of the voltage gets across series resistor / dropping most of the voltage across series resistor) • Brendan Finley (March 2007) Suggested content change in Transformers chapter. • anonymous (September 2007) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter. clariﬁed text.).544
APPENDIX A2. Chapter 3: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE “Voltage and current” section. (which only allow passage current in one direction.eps.eps. (corrected for the skin effect/corrected for the skin effect).
CONTRIBUTOR LIST
• Ed Beroset (May 2002) Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly” in chapter 10. • Colin Creitz (May 2007) Chapters: several. s/Alterantor/Alternator. and C” section. s/in an open ended/in open ended/. • Duane Damiano (February 2003) Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. 02074. Correction of 02210.18/(Figure 8.) (January 2005). s/capcitive/capacitive.Typographical error correction in “ Parallel R. s/dividing it my the/dividing it by the/. 02257.eps. • Sean Donner (January 2005) Typographical error correction in “Series resistorinductor circuits” section. s/over 50 Kw use/over 50 kW use/. Corrections numerous chapters. (January 2005). s/will be drive it/will drive it/.eps. (02083. s/it’s/its. • Richard Cooper (December 2005) Clariﬁcation of 02206. 02209. 02068.eps.eps opendelta image./ which only allow the passage of current in one direction.eps. text: s/(Figure 8. Chapter 5: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. • Kieran Clancy (August 2006) Ch 4.eps.eps.Typographical error correction in “AC capacitor circuits” section.eps. s/because we can to use/because we can use/. s/positive negative/positive or negative.eps. L. (Across voltage across the resistor/ Voltage across the resistor).18). Chapter 8: FILTERS. (from others in within mixedfrequency signals. (If we were restrict ourselves /If we were to restrict ourselves). 02263.
. s/phase shift makes complicates/phase shift complicates/.
image: 12081.
. • John Symonds (March 2002) Suggested an improved explanation of the unit “Hertz.com (July 2007) Ch 1. • Devin Bayer (September 2007) Correction to sml2html. s/100/180 trigonometric sin function table. missing formula.png not displayed in html. AC Motors. 3plcs Ch 1. • Mark D.com (May 2007) Pointed out error in Form Factor deﬁnition and calculation. • Bob Schmid (April 20027) Suggested we add Inductosyn.com (Feb 2008) Ch 9 . s/Vary/Very/ . • mike@allaboutcircuits.2. Polyphase AC Circuits.3 .eps. • Don Stalkowski (June 2002) Technical help with PostScripttoPDF ﬁle format conversion. Power Factor. • earsintraining@allaboutcircuits.000.” • Puddy Tat@allaboutcircuits.com (Oct 2007) Ch 1 .com (April 2007) Transformer voltage regulation example error. s/eight white/seven white/ . image: 12105. Zarella (April 2002) Suggested an improved explanation for the “average” value of a waveform.com (Sept 2007) Ch 1 .com (Aug 2007) Ch . Change one million to to $65. • machan@allaboutcircuits. ¡backslash¿} to } in <tabular>.sed. • rrgibbs@allaboutcircuits. s/as a the/as the/. “AC Phase” image 02022. Parallel.com (Nov 2007) Ch 13 .eps. CREDITS
545
• Steven Jones (November 2006) Suggested content addition in Power factor chapter. • jut@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2007) Resonance. ¨ • Elmo Mantynen (August 2006) Numerous corrections in chapters: Resonance. added graph to “Calculating factor correction” section. added to Ch12“AC metering”. Clariﬁcation of light load as refering to less current. • Harvey Lew (February 2003) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter: word “circuit” should have been “circle”.A2. • stacymckenna@allaboutcircuits. • Dave@allaboutcircuits. • Joseph Teichman (June 2002) Suggestion and technical help regarding use of PNG images instead of JPEG. • recca02@allaboutcircuits. Corrected error concerning Tesla’s sale of AC induction motor. • Jim Palmer (May 2002) Typo correction on complex number math.
• Timothy Kingman (Feb 2008) Changed default roman font to newcent.com (Feb 2008) Ch 2.
CONTRIBUTOR LIST
• Unregistered@allaboutcircuits. Error in the sign of value in sine table. s/Overspeed/Underspeed 02514.png moved single phase motors for polyphase to singnle phase tree. • The Electrician@allaboutcircuits. image 02419. s/that its/that it is/.com (November 2009) Ch 1. s/by/be in ”More on AC polaity” section. Clariﬁcation: average responding metermovement is a d’Arsonval movement.png • peter o@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2009) Ch 2 .546
APPENDIX A2.com (January 2010) Ch 13. • Imranullah Syed (Feb 2008) Suggested centering of uncaptioned schematics. • whanes@allaboutcircuits.png 02420.com (Feb 2008) Ch 1 .
. • Dennis Crunkilton (Feb 2009) Ch 13 . image 02046.png • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits. • ShaunManners@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2009) Ch 2 .
org Verbatim copying of this document is permitted.
A3. being an embodiment of the Work in some tangible medium. while all copies remain under the same terms and conditions as the original. in any medium. Preamble
Copyright law gives certain exclusive rights to the author of a work. “Work” shall mean such an aforementioned work. “Object Form” shall mean an executable or performable form of the Work. 547
.” and “distribution” rights).” “adaptative. The intent of this license is to be a general “copyleft” that can be applied to any kind of work that has protection under copyright. Whereas “design science” is a strategy for the development of artifacts as a way to reform the environment (not people) and subsequently improve the universal standard of living. this Design Science License was written and deployed as a strategy for promoting the progress of science and art through reform of the environment. so that anyone can copy and distribute the work or properly attributed derivative works. The License applies to any work which contains a notice placed by the work’s copyright holder stating that it is published under the terms of this Design Science License. This license states those certain conditions under which a work published under its terms may be copied. Deﬁnitions
“License” shall mean this Design Science License.2
1. The idea of “copyleft” is to willfully revoke the exclusivity of those rights under certain terms and conditions. distributed. only if said output constitutes a “derivative work” of the licensed Work as deﬁned by copyright law. including the rights to copy. and modiﬁed. The License also applies to the output of the Work. modify and distribute the work (the “reproductive.
A3.1
0.Appendix A3
DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE
Copyright c 19992000 Michael Stutz stutz@dsl.
548
APPENDIX A3.
DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE
“Source Data” shall mean the origin of the Object Form, being the entire, machinereadable, preferred form of the Work for copying and for human modiﬁcation (usually the language, encoding or format in which composed or recorded by the Author); plus any accompanying ﬁles, scripts or other data necessary for installation, conﬁguration or compilation of the Work. (Examples of “Source Data” include, but are not limited to, the following: if the Work is an image ﬁle composed and edited in ’PNG’ format, then the original PNG source ﬁle is the Source Data; if the Work is an MPEG 1.0 layer 3 digital audio recording made from a ’WAV’ format audio ﬁle recording of an analog source, then the original WAV ﬁle is the Source Data; if the Work was composed as an unformatted plaintext ﬁle, then that ﬁle is the the Source Data; if the Work was composed in LaTeX, the LaTeX ﬁle(s) and any image ﬁles and/or custom macros necessary for compilation constitute the Source Data.) “Author” shall mean the copyright holder(s) of the Work. The individual licensees are referred to as “you.”
A3.3
2. Rights and copyright
The Work is copyright the Author. All rights to the Work are reserved by the Author, except as speciﬁcally described below. This License describes the terms and conditions under which the Author permits you to copy, distribute and modify copies of the Work. In addition, you may refer to the Work, talk about it, and (as dictated by “fair use”) quote from it, just as you would any copyrighted material under copyright law. Your right to operate, perform, read or otherwise interpret and/or execute the Work is unrestricted; however, you do so at your own risk, because the Work comes WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY – see Section 7 (“NO WARRANTY”) below.
A3.4
3. Copying and distribution
Permission is granted to distribute, publish or otherwise present verbatim copies of the entire Source Data of the Work, in any medium, provided that full copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty, where applicable, is conspicuously published on all copies, and a copy of this License is distributed along with the Work. Permission is granted to distribute, publish or otherwise present copies of the Object Form of the Work, in any medium, under the terms for distribution of Source Data above and also provided that one of the following additional conditions are met: (a) The Source Data is included in the same distribution, distributed under the terms of this License; or (b) A written offer is included with the distribution, valid for at least three years or for as long as the distribution is in print (whichever is longer), with a publiclyaccessible address (such as a URL on the Internet) where, for a charge not greater than transportation and media costs, anyone may receive a copy of the Source Data of the Work distributed according to the section above; or (c) A third party’s written offer for obtaining the Source Data at no cost, as described in paragraph (b) above, is included with the distribution. This option is valid only if you are a
A3.5. 4. MODIFICATION
549
noncommercial party, and only if you received the Object Form of the Work along with such an offer. You may copy and distribute the Work either gratis or for a fee, and if desired, you may offer warranty protection for the Work. The aggregation of the Work with other works which are not based on the Work – such as but not limited to inclusion in a publication, broadcast, compilation, or other media – does not bring the other works in the scope of the License; nor does such aggregation void the terms of the License for the Work.
A3.5
4. Modiﬁcation
Permission is granted to modify or sample from a copy of the Work, producing a derivative work, and to distribute the derivative work under the terms described in the section for distribution above, provided that the following terms are met: (a) The new, derivative work is published under the terms of this License. (b) The derivative work is given a new name, so that its name or title can not be confused with the Work, or with a version of the Work, in any way. (c) Appropriate authorship credit is given: for the differences between the Work and the new derivative work, authorship is attributed to you, while the material sampled or used from the Work remains attributed to the original Author; appropriate notice must be included with the new work indicating the nature and the dates of any modiﬁcations of the Work made by you.
A3.6
5. No restrictions
You may not impose any further restrictions on the Work or any of its derivative works beyond those restrictions described in this License.
A3.7
6. Acceptance
Copying, distributing or modifying the Work (including but not limited to sampling from the Work in a new work) indicates acceptance of these terms. If you do not follow the terms of this License, any rights granted to you by the License are null and void. The copying, distribution or modiﬁcation of the Work outside of the terms described in this License is expressly prohibited by law. If for any reason, conditions are imposed on you that forbid you to fulﬁll the conditions of this License, you may not copy, distribute or modify the Work at all. If any part of this License is found to be in conﬂict with the law, that part shall be interpreted in its broadest meaning consistent with the law, and no other parts of the License shall be affected.
550
APPENDIX A3.
DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE
A3.8
7. No warranty
THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS,” AND COMES WITH ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
A3.9
8. Disclaimer of liability
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS WORK, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS [$Id: dsl.txt,v 1.25 2000/03/14 13:14:14 m Exp m $]
Index
λ, symbol for wavelength, 500 ω, symbol for angular velocity, 61, 85, 332 400 Hz AC power, aircraft, 270 Absolute value, vector, 37 AC, 1 AC circuit analysis, 120 AC motor, 408 addaphase, AC motor, 455 Admittance, 119 Alternating current, 1 Alternator, 2, 294 Alternator, induction, 454, 462 Ammeter, 367 Ampturn, unit, 219 Ampliﬁer, 262 Ampliﬁer, magnetic, 265 Amplitude, 12 Amplitude, average, 14 Amplitude, peak, 12 Amplitude, peaktopeak, 12 Amplitude, RMS, 16 Amplitude, vector, 30 Analysis, AC circuit, 120 Analysis, Fourier, 162 Analysis, frequency domain, 166 Analysis, parallel, 106 Analysis, series, 101 Analysis, seriesparallel, 110, 120 Analysis, time domain, 166 Analyzer, spectrum, 166 Angle, vector, 37 Angular velocity, 61, 85, 332 Antenna, 24, 78 Antinode, 505 Antiresonance, 138 Antiresonance, mechanical, 144 Arithmetic, with complex numbers, 42 Artifact, measurement, 175 Atomic clock, 378 Attenuation, 200 Autotransformer, 246 Average amplitude, AC, 14, 371 B, symbol for magnetic ﬂux density, 119 B, symbol for susceptance, 119 Bandelimination ﬁlter, 202 Bandpass ﬁlter, 199 Bandreject ﬁlter, 202 Bandstop ﬁlter, 202 Bandwidth, resonant circuit, 145 Biﬁlar winding, stepper motor, 433, 435 Bode plot, 130, 166, 190 Boosting, AC voltage sources, 288 Boosting, transformer connection, 246 Bridge circuit, 387, 403 Bridge, MaxwellWien, 391 Bridge, symmetrical, 390 Bridge, Wheatstone, 376 Bridge, Wien, 391 Brush, generator, 3 Brushless DC motor, 417, 438 Bucking, AC voltage sources, 288 Bucking, transformer connection, 246 C, symbol for capacitance, 83 Cable, coaxial, 483 Cable, shielded, 154 Cable, twisted pair, 154 Calculus, 59, 83 Can stack, stepper motor, 434 Capacitance, 83 Capacitive coupling, 153, 188 Capacitive reactance, 83, 84 551
552 Capacitor, 83 Capacitor, decoupling, 195 Capacitor, multiplier, 369 Capacitor, variable, 402 Cathode Ray Tube, 369 Celsius, unit, 8 Centigrade, unit, 8 Characteristic impedance, 491 choke, swinging, 213 Chord, music, 156 Class, transformer heat rating, 278 Clock, atomic, 378 Coaxial cable, 483 Coil, primary, 221 Coil, secondary, 221 Coil, Tesla, 260 Color (musical), 157 Commonmode voltage, 237 Complex number, 21, 28, 351 Complex number arithmetic, 42 Conductance, 119 Conservation of Energy, Law of, 234 Control transformer, synchro, 476 Core loss, 142 Counter, 376 Coupling, signal, 153, 188 CPS, unit, 8 Crest, 12 Crest factor, 17 Crossover network, 189 CRT, 369 Crystal, 376 CT, 257, 372 CT, control transformer, synchro, 476 Current transformer, 257, 372 Current, line, 306 Current, phase, 306 Cutoff frequency, 193, 196 Cycle, 8 D’Arsonval meter movement, 16, 367 DC, 1 DC equivalent, AC measurement, 16 Decoupling capacitor, 195 Degree vs. radian, 61 Delta conﬁguration, 306 Derivative, calculus, 273 Detector, null, 387 Dielectric “loss”, 96 Dielectric constant, 492 Dielectric heating, 96 Diode, 168, 169, 367 Dipole antenna, 24 Direct current, 1 Distortion, inductor current, 219 Domain, frequency, 166 Domain, time, 166 Dot convention, transformer, 241 Doubly fed induction generator, 462 Duty cycle, 405
INDEX
e, symbol for instantaneous voltage, 57, 59, 81, 83 E, symbol for voltage, 65, 88 ECG, 9 Eddy current, 75, 409, 445 Eddy current clutch, 470 Eddy current loss, 142, 269 Eddy current speedometer, 445 Effective resistance, 76 EKG, 9 Electric ﬁeld, 23, 121 Electrocardiograph, 9 Electrolytic capacitor, 96 Electromagnetic induction, 2 Electromagnetic wave, 24 Electrostatic meter movement, 371 Encoder, magnetic, 417 Encoder, optical, 417 Energy, kinetic, 124 Energy, potential, 124 Equalizer, 189 Equalizer, graphic, 165 Equivalent, AC to DC, 16 Exciting current, 220, 224 f, symbol for frequency, 61, 85 Factor, crest, 17 Factor, form, 17 Factor, power, 347 Farad, 83 Fast Fourier Transform, 164, 387
INDEX
Ferrite, 76 Ferroresonant transformer, 250 FFT, 164, 387 Field, electric, 23, 121 Field, magnetic, 23, 121 Figure, Lissajous, 378 Filter, 135, 189 Filter “selectivity”, 205 Filter, bandelimination, 202 Filter, bandpass, 199 Filter, bandreject, 202 Filter, bandstop, 202 Filter, highpass, 196 Filter, lowpass, 190 Filter, notch, 202 Filter, resonant, 204 Form factor, 17 Fourier analysis, 162 Fourier Transform, 162 Frequency, 8, 374 Frequency meter, 374 Frequency, cutoff, 193, 196 Frequency, fundamental, 156, 508 Fullwave rectiﬁcation, 171 Function, sine, 6 Fundamental frequency, 156, 508 G, symbol for conductance, 119 Generator, 3, 294 Generator, induction, 454, 462 Graphic equalizer, 165 Ground, 32 Halfwave rectiﬁcation, 169 Hall effect, 383 Harmonic, 156, 318, 508 Harmonic sequence, 344 Harmonic, even vs. odd, 181, 318 Harmonics and waveform symmetry, 181, 318 Harmonics, triplen, 332, 343 Headphones, as sensitive null detector, 388 Heating, dielectric, 96 Heating, inductive, 75 Henry, 59 Hertz, unit, 8 Highpass ﬁlter, 196 Hot conductor, 286 Hybrid stepper motor, 435 Hyperbolic function, trigonometry, 43 Hysteresis, 271
553
i, imaginary operator, 38 I, symbol for current, 65, 88 i, symbol for instantaneous current, 57, 81, 83 i, symbol for instantaneous voltage, 59 Imaginary number, 38 Impedance, 27, 64, 87, 101, 119 Impedance matching, 252, 253 Impedance, characteristic, 491 Incident wave, 493 Inductance, 59 Inductance, leakage, 227, 229, 271 Induction alternator, 454, 462 Induction generator, 454, 462 Induction motor efﬁciency, 453 Induction motor power factor corrector, 467 Induction motor slip, 450 Induction motor speed, 449, 458 Induction motor starting, 455 Induction motor synchronous speed, 449 Induction motor torque, 450 Induction motor, 2phase, 442 Induction motor, linear, 460 Induction motor, NEMA designs, 451 Induction motor, polyphase, 442 Induction motor, power factor, 452 Induction motor, repulsion start, 481 Induction motor, single phase, 464 Induction motor, speed control, 458, 462 Induction motor, wound rotor, 460 Induction, electromagnetic, 2 Induction, mutual, 4 Inductive coupling, 153, 188 Inductive heating, 75 Inductive reactance, 59, 61 Inductor, 59 Inductosyn, 401 Inrush current, transformer, 275 Instantaneous value, 57, 81 Integral, calculus, 273 Ironvane meter movement, 16, 371 Isolation transformer, 239
554 Isolation, transformer, 237 j, imaginary operator, 38 Joule, 384 Joule’s Law, 49 KCL, 19, 101 Keyboard, piano, 10 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law, 19, 101 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law, 19, 49, 101 Klystron tube, 532 KVL, 19, 49, 101 L, symbol for inductance, 59 Lagging phase shift, 21, 59, 83, 360 Laminated iron core, 269 Leading phase shift, 21, 59, 83, 360 Leakage inductance, 227, 229, 271 Lenz’s Law, 59, 445 Line, polyphase system, 306 Linear induction motor, 460 linear variable differential transformer, 267 Lissajous ﬁgure, 378 Litz wire, 75 Load, nonlinear, 385 Loop antenna, 24 Lowpass ﬁlter, 190 LVDT, 267, 397 M, symbol for mutual inductance, 221 Magnetic ampliﬁer, 265 Magnetic encoder, 417 Magnetic ﬁeld, 23, 121 Magnetic ﬁeld, rotating, 302 Magnetizing current, 219 Magnetomotive force, 219 Magnetostriction, 277 Magnitude, 12 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, 253 MaxwellWien bridge circuit, 391 Meter movement, 367 Meter, power factor, 360 Mho, unit, 119 Microwaves, 531 MMF, 219 Modulus. vector, 37
INDEX
Motor, 300 Motor, AC, 408 Motor, AC commutator, 479 Motor, AC series, 480 Motor, AC servo, 469 Motor, AC, compensated series motor, 480 Motor, AC, servo, 476 Motor, AC, synchronous, 412 Motor, AC, universal, 480 Motor, capacitorrun, 467 Motor, capacitorstart, 466 Motor, DC, brushless, 417, 438 Motor, hysteresis, 470 Motor, induction, 302 Motor, induction, efﬁciency, 453 Motor, induction, NEMA designs, 451 Motor, induction, power factor, 452 Motor, induction, slip, 450 Motor, induction, speed, 449, 458 Motor, induction, speed control, 458, 462 Motor, induction, starting, 455 Motor, induction, synchronous speed, 449 Motor, induction, torque, 450 Motor, induction, wound rotor, 460 Motor, permanentsplit capacitor, 465 Motor, power factor corrector, 453, 467 Motor, reluctance, 421 Motor, repulsion, 481 Motor, repulsion start induction, 481 Motor, shaded pole, 469 Motor, splitphase, 467 Motor, stepper, hybrid, 435 motor, stepper, permanent magnet, 431 Motor, stepper, variable reluctance, 428 motor, stepper, variable reluctance, 421 Motor, switched reluctance, 421 Motor, synchronous, 302, 412 Motor, variable reluctance, 421 Motor/generator set, 234 Multiplier, 369 Mutual inductance, 221 Mutual induction, 4 Natural impedance, 492 Negative sequence, 344 NEMA induction motor designs, 451
INDEX
Network, “crossover”, 189 Neutral conductor, 286 Node, vs. antinode, 505 Noise, transformer, 277 Nola power factor corrector, 453, 467 Nonsinusoidal, 10 Nonlinear components, 168, 318, 385 Nonsinusoidal, 153 Norton’s Theorem, 253 Notation, polar, 37 Notation, rectangular, 37 Notch ﬁlter, 202 Null detector, 387 Null detector, AC bridge, 387 Null meter, 387 Number, complex, 21, 28, 351 Number, imaginary, 38 Number, real, 38 Number, scalar, 27, 351 Octave, 10 Ohm’s Law, 19, 49, 88, 101 Ohm’s Law , 64 Ohm, unit, 119 Optical encoder, 417 Oscillation, 124 Oscillator, 135 Oscilloscope, 9, 378 Overtone, 156, 387, 508 p, symbol for instantaneous power, 58, 82 P, symbol for true power, 352 Parallel analysis, 106 Parallel circuit rules, 101 Parallel LC resonance, 128 PCB, 195 Peak, 12 Peaktopeak, 12 Peaking transformer, 272 Pendulum, 121 Period, 8 Permanent magnet moving coil, 367 Permanent magnet stepper motor, 431 Permittivity, relative, 492 Phase, 20 Phase rotation, 296 Phase sequence, 296 Phase shift, 20 Phase shift, vector, 30 Phase, transformer, 239 Piano, 10 Piezoelectricity, 376 Pitch (musical), 9 PMMC, 367 Polar notation, 37 Polarity, AC, 44, 53, 286 Pole, alternator, 294 Polyphase induction motor, 442 Polyphase, 289, 291 Positive sequence, 344 Potential transformer, 256, 372 Potentiometer, 396 Powdered iron core, 270 Power factor, 347 Power factor meter, 360 Power factor, induction motor, 452 Power quality, 385 Power quality meter, 385 Power triangle, 353 Power, apparent, 352 Power, negative, 59 Power, reactive, 352 Power, true, 352 Primary coil, 221 Primary transformer coil, 4 Principal mode, 531 Printed circuit board, 195 PT, 256, 372 Pythagorean Theorem, 41 Q, quality factor, 378 Q, resonant circuit, 145 Q, symbol for quality factor, 76 Q, symbol for reactive power, 352 Quality factor, 76 Quartz crystal, 376 R, symbol for resistance, 64, 87, 119 Radian, angular measurement, 61, 85 Radio, 23, 78 Radio wave, 23 Ratio, transformer, 232
555
556 Reactance, 119 Reactance, capacitive, 83, 84 Reactance, inductive, 59, 61 Real number, 38 Rectangular notation, 37 Rectiﬁcation, fullwave, 171 Rectiﬁcation, halfwave, 169 Rectiﬁer, 367 Rectiﬁer, siliconcontrolled, 168 Reﬂected wave, 493 Reﬂectometer, timedomain, 494 Relative permittivity, 492 Reluctance, 219 Reluctance motor, 421 Repulsion motor, 481 Repulsion start induction motor, 481 Resistance, 119 Resistance, AC, 77 Resistance, DC, 77 Resistance, effective, 76 Resistor, multiplier, 369, 372 Resistor, shunt, 372 Resolver, 398, 417 Resolver, synchro, 478 Resonance, 126, 505 Resonance, mechanical, 144, 374 Resonance, parallel, 126 Resonance, parallel LC, 128 Resonance, series LC, 131 Resonance, seriesparallel, 136 Resonance, transformer and inductor, 271 Resonant ﬁlter, 204 Resonant frequency formula, 126 Resonant frequency meter, 376 Resonate, 126 Resultant vector, 52 RF: Radio Frequency, 78, 484 Ripple torque, 417 RMS, 16, 371 RootMeanSquare, 16, 371 Rotating magnetic ﬁeld, 302 Rules, parallel circuits, 101 Rules, series circuits, 101 RVDT, 398 S, symbol for apparent power, 352 Saturable reactor, 262 Sawtooth wave, 10 Sawtooth wave , 181 Scalar number, 27, 351 ScottT transformer, 265, 478 SCR, 168 Secondary coil, 221 Secondary transformer coil, 4 Selectivity, 205 Selfinductance, 219 Selsyn, 398, 471 Selsyn, differential transmitter, 473 Selsyn, receiver, 472 Selsyn, transmitter, 472 Sequence, harmonic, 344 Sequence, phase, 296 Series analysis, 101 Series circuit rules, 101 Series LC resonance, 131 Seriesparallel analysis, 110, 120 Servo motor, AC, 476 Shield grounding, 154 Shielded cable, 154 SHM, 125 Siemens, unit, 119 Siliconcontrolled rectiﬁer, 168 Simple Harmonic Motion, 125 Sine function, 6 Sine wave, 6 Singlephase, 283, 288 Sinusoidal, 10, 153 Skin effect, 74, 77, 142, 260, 521, 531 Sound waves, 9 Spectrum analyzer, 166, 385 Spectrum, frequency, 385 Speed control, induction motor, 458 Speed control,induction motor, 462 Speedometer, eddy current, 445 SPICE, 51 SPICE simulation, 128 Splitphase, 287 Square wave, 10, 158 Standard, measurement, 376 Standing wave ratio, 520 Standing waves, 502 Star conﬁguration, 294, 306
INDEX
INDEX
static phase converter, 456 Stepper motor, 426 Stepper motor, biﬁlar winding, 433, 435 Stepper motor, can stack, 434 Stepper motor, hybrid, 435 stepper motor, permanent magnet, 431 Stepper motor, variable reluctance, 421, 428 Superposition Theorem, 185, 291 Surge impedance, 493 Susceptance, 119 swinging choke, 213 Switch, tap, 245 Switched reluctance motor, 421 SWR, 520 Synchro, 398 Synchro (selsyn), 471 Synchro, control transformer, 476 Synchro, differential transmitter, 473 Synchro, receiver, 472 Synchro, resolver, 478 Synchro, transmitter, 472 Synchronous condenser, 420 Synchronous motor, 412 Synchronous speed, induction motor, 449 Tank circuit, 125, 250 Tap switch, 245 TE mode, 532 TEM mode, 531 Tesla Coil, 260 Tesla, Nikola, 260, 302, 408, 442 Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer, 253 Theorem, Norton’s, 253 Theorem, Pythagorean, 41 Theorem, Superposition, 185, 291 Theorem, Thevenin’s, 253 Thevenin’s Theorem, 253 Threephase, 289, 291 Threewire DC system, 289 Timbre, 157 Timedomain reﬂectometer, 494 TM mode, 532 Transducer, 396 Transductor, 265 Transform, Fourier, 162 Transformer, 4, 224
557 Transformer coils, primary and secondary, 4 Transformer core, laminated, 269 Transformer core, powdered iron, 270 Transformer inrush current, 275 Transformer isolation, 237 Transformer ratio, 232 Transformer, ferroresonant, 250 Transformer, peaking, 272 Transformer, ScottT, 478 transformer, ScottT, 265 Transformer, stepdown, 232 Transformer, stepup, 232 Transformer, variable, 244, 397 Transistor, 168 Transmission line, 483 Triangle wave, 10 Triangle wave , 181 Triangle, power, 353 Triplen harmonics, 332, 343 TrueRMS meter, 16 Tube, vacuum, 243 Tuner circuit, radio, 135, 207 TwinT circuit, differential capacitance, 404 Twisted pair cable, 154 Unit, ampturn, 219 Unit, Celsius, 8 Unit, Centigrade, 8 Unit, CPS, 8 Unit, farad, 83 Unit, henry, 59 Unit, Hertz, 8 Unit, joule, 384 Unit, mho, 119 Unit, ohm, 119 Unit, siemens, 119 Unit, voltamp, 268, 352 Unit, voltampreactive, 352 Unit, watt, 352 Universal AC motor, 480 v, symbol for instantaneous voltage, 59, 83 VA, unit, 352 Vacuum tube, 243 Value, instantaneous, 57, 81 VAR, unit, 352
558 Variable capacitor, 402 Variable reluctance motor, 421 Variable reluctance stepper motor, 421, 428 Variable transformer, 244, 397 Variac, 247 Vector, 28, 351 Vector amplitude, 30 Vector angle, 37 Vector length, 37 Vector magnitude, 37 Vector modulus, 37 Vector phase shift, 30 Vector sum, 52 Vector, absolute value, 37 Velocity factor, transmission line, 491 Vibrating reed frequency meter, 374 Voltamp, 268 Voltamp, unit, 352 Voltampreactive, unit, 352 Voltage “polarity,” AC, 44, 53, 286 Voltage regulation, 248 Voltage, commonmode, 237 Voltage, line, 306 Voltage, phase, 306 Voltmeter, 367 Wagner earth, 393 Watt, unit, 352 Wave, electromagnetic, 24 Wave, sawtooth, 10, 181 Wave, sine, 6 Wave, square, 10, 158 Wave, triangle, 10, 181 Waveform symmetry and harmonics, 181, 318 Waveform, nonsinusoidal, 153 Waveform, sinusoidal, 153 Waveguide, 529 Wavelength, 500 Weston meter movement, 16 Wheatstone bridge, 376 Wien bridge circuit, 391 Winding, primary, 225 Winding, secondary, 225 Wire, Litz , 75 Wound rotor induction motor, 460
INDEX
X, symbol for reactance, 61, 64, 84, 87, 119 Xtal, 377 Y conﬁguration, 294, 306 Y, symbol for admittance, 119 Z, symbol for impedance, 64, 65, 87, 88, 119 Zero sequence, 344
INDEX
.
559
.