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Pavement Design

Pavement Design

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Published by: ketaki_agarwal on Nov 16, 2011
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Pavement Analysis and Design

Pavement Types- overview

Pavement Types
• Road pavement – a structure of superimposed layers of selected and processed material that is placed on a foundation/ subgrade. • Traditionally pavements are divided into two categories - flexible and rigid • This categorization is on the basis of how the pavement responds to load and climatic conditions

subbase and subgrade •Rigid pavement : Portland cement concrete slab with or without base and placed over subgrade .Pavement Types •Flexible pavements : bituminous surfacing over base.

composed of several layers of materials which can accommodate this "flexing .surfaced with bituminous (or asphalt) materials. These types of pavements are called "flexible" since the total pavement structure "bends" or "deflects" due to traffic loads.Flexible Pavement •Flexible pavements. •A flexible pavement structure .

layered systems with better materials at top where intensity of stress is high and interior at the bottom where stress is low. .Flexible pavements Conventional flexible pavements.

Examples of flexible pavements .

Surface layer of flexible pavement Cross section of WBM .

Load Distribution – Flexible Pavement .

Basic Structural Elements of Flexible Pavement Material layers are usually arranged within a pavement structure in order of descending load bearing capacity with the highest load bearing capacity material (and most expensive) on the top and the lowest load bearing capacity material (and least expensive) on the bottom. rut resistance and drainage. subbase and subgrade •This top structural layer of material is sometimes subdivided into two layers: the wearing course (top) and binder course (bottom). smoothness. . •prevents entrance of surface water into the underlying base. •Surface courses are most often constructed out of HMA. •Surface Course. noise control.contact with traffic loads •provides characteristics such as friction.

•Base Course. •Subbase Course. •Generally consists of lower quality materials than the base course but better than the subgrade soils.between the base course and subgrade. . •A subbase course is not always needed or used. •primarily as structural support but it can also minimize the intrusion of fines from the subgrade into the pavement structure and improve drainage. •provides additional load distribution and contributes to drainage •Base courses are usually constructed out of crushed aggregate or HMA. •Subbase courses are generally constructed out of crushed aggregate or engineered fill.immediately beneath the surface course.

jpg Bituminous pavement .heroncay.http://www.com/WEB-MD/HCLVBB/DIRECTIONS/IMG_9306Expressway%20Ends%20Sign.



Rigid Pavement -high flexural strength -Load.through slab action -Structural failure -.joints --stresses. temperature .load.

Concrete Pavement .

Design Approaches empirical analytical/theoretical/rational .

Pavement Design Determination of combination of thickness of various layers in most economical way to sustain the load for given input parameters such that no part of the structure is excessively stressed. .

stress/strain/ deflection at any point in the pavement system for applied wheel load conditions .Pavement Analysis .

layer configurations and environment) and pavement failure were determined using experience. loads. .Design Approaches Empirical Design Relationships between design inputs (e. they can be used with confidence as long as the limitations with such an approach are recognized. Specifically. experimentation or a combination of both. it is not prudent to use an empirically derived relationship to describe phenomena that occur outside the range of the original data used to develop the relationship. materials. Although the scientific basis for these relationships is not firmly established.g..

Design CBR Method of Pavement Design Input: CBR Value ( strength of subgrade) and Traffic details ( No. standard axle load (msa). of commericial vehilces. annual rate of growth of traffic…etc) 365 X A [(1 + r ) x − 1] NS = X F r (1) . damage factor (VDF).Empirical Approach.

msa .IRC: 37 –1984 Empirical Method CBR of soil Thickness of pavement Traffic.

Analytical Design Approach Analytical/ Mechanistic / Rational Takes into Account the Mechanistic Behaviour of Pavement Components Structural Responses of Pavement to applied load are analyzed Critical Responses having strong bearing on the performance are identified and Controlled during design .

IRC-37-2001 ( mechanistic approach) .

in the year of construction. Nc = Cumulative Standard Axles to be catered for in the design A = Initial traffic.IRC-37-2001 ( mechanistic approach) Nc = where.1 ] ----------------------------. = Design life in years = VDF (number of standard axles per Commercial axle) = Lane Distribution Factor 365 X A [ (1+r)n . in terms of the number of commercial vehicles per day r n F D = annual growth rate of commercial traffic.x F x D r .

wheel load.To convert all wheel loads.AASHTO load equivalency factors(ESLF). of passes of the ith axle load group Generally damage due to wheel load – fourth power formula . Measured using-portable weigh pad EASL = ∑ Fi ni i =1 m where m = no.· Wheel Load: Standard load (8.2T).std. Fi = EALF for i th Group ni= no.of axle load groups.

Axle Load Survey VDF calculation Sl No Load on Tyre Front Rear Axle Load Front Rear 02 2-4 46 Frequency of Axle load (T) 68 810 10-12 12-14 14-16 16-18 18-20 1 2 3 4 5 6 .


2)4 n2*(3/8. of commercial vehicles observed . T Mid Point T Frequency AASHTO Equivalency factor Equivalent Std.2)4 (5/8.2)4 (3/8.2)4 n1*(1/8.2)4 Sum= AASHTO Equivalency factor: Forth power law VDF= sum of equivalent std. axles 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 01 03 05 07 n1 n2 n3 (1/8. axles/ No.2)4 n3*(5/8.VDF Axle Load Group.

Mechanistic-Empirical Design Unlike an empirical approach. . a mechanistic approach seeks to explain phenomena only by reference to physical causes. The relationship between these phenomena and their physical causes is typically described using a mathematical model. and the physical causes are the loads and material properties of the pavement structure. Design phenomena : stresses. Various mathematical models can be used. strains and deflections within a pavement structure.

•Uses material properties that relate better to actual pavement performance. •Provides more reliable performance predictions. •Better defines the role of construction. •Better characterize materials.Mechanistic Method of flexible pavement Design Basic advantages of a mechanistic-empirical pavement design method over a purely empirical one are: •It can be used for both existing pavement rehabilitation and new pavement construction. •Accommodates environmental and aging effects on materials. . •Accommodates changing load types.

p Circular contact area. tangential) and one shear stress (τzr = τzr ) on any τ cylindrical element in a homogenous. µ τzr three normal stresses (vertical. isotropic material σz z τrz σt r σr . radius “a” E. radial.Analysis of linear elastic multilayer system P Contact pressure.

µ3 h1 h2 h3 Layer n En. µn α . µ1 E2. µ2 E3.Elastic multilayered system .Assumptions 2a p Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 E1.

Assumptions • The material in each layer is homogeneous • The material in each layer is isotropic • The materials are linearly elastic with an elastic modulus of E and a Poisson’s ratio of • The layers are infinite in areal extent • Each layer is of finite thickness except the nth layer. • The material is weightless .Elastic multilayered system .

shear stress.Elastic multilayered system . Zero shear stress at each side of the interface • No shearing forces at the surface – some models consider them .Assumptions • Uniform pressure applied at surface over circular contact area • Continuity conditions • For full friction between layers (same vertical stress. vertical displacement and radial displacement) • For frictionless (smooth) interface.

A = a/h2. A and H sz1 (sz1 – sr1) (sz2 – sr2) (sz2 – sr3) = (ZZ1)p.layer systems K1 = E1/E2. = (ZZ1 – RR1)p = (ZZ2 – RR2)p = (ZZ2 – RR3)p sz2 = (ZZ2)p Five coefficients ZZ1. K2. ZZ2. (ZZ1-RR1).3 . H = h1/h2 Peattie charts and Jones’ tables for obtaining different stress parameters for a given combination of K1. k2 = E2/E3. ZZ2-RR2) and (ZZ2RR3) to be obtained from charts and tables .

layer systems Computation of two critical strains Tensile strain at the bottom of first layer and vertical compressive strain on subgrade er1 = (sr1/E1 – m1*st1/E1 – m1*sz1/E1) For m1 = 0.sz1) ez3 = (sz2/E3 – m3*st3/E3 – m3*sr3/E3) = (1/2E3)*(sz2 – sr3) (for Poisson ratio of 0.5) .3 .5 and since st1= sr1 due to symmetry) er1 = (1/2E1)*(sr1.

of layers that can be handled Loading – normal and shear stresses at surface Rough and smooth interfaces FEM analysis for non-linear analysis of pavements layers (especially the granular layers) .Analysis of layered systems Commercial software No. of software are available for analysis of layered systems with different capabilities No.

Main Structural Failures Fatigue Cracking of Bituminous bound Layer – Caused by Repeated Application of Wheel Loads of Commercial Vehicles Rutting along Wheel paths – Due to Permanent Deformation in pavement layers (mainly in subgrade) .

µ3 Tensile Strain at the Bottom of Bituminous layer Vertical Strain on Top on Subgrade .Critical Pavement Responses h1 h2 εt E1. µ2 εz E3. µ1 E2.

Inputs to Mechanistic Pavement Design Strength of all layers Poisson ratio values Standard Load .standard axle ( msa) Temperature Failure criteria ( Rutting and fatigue failures) . tyre pressure Traffic Loads.

Rut Depth Bituminous Layer Granular Layer Subgrade .

Crocodile Cracking .

Rigid Pavement .

rigid pavements do not flex appreciably to accommodate traffic loads . which may or may not incorporate underlying layers of stabilized or unstabilized granular materials. • Since PCC is quite stiff.Rigid pavements •These are portland cement concrete pavements.

because of PCC's high stiffness. •Flexible pavement uses more flexible surface course and distributes loads over a smaller area and relies on a combination of layers for transmitting load to the subgrade .Rigid Pavement •Rigid pavement. tends to distribute the load over a relatively wide area of subgrade •The concrete slab itself supplies most of a rigid pavement's structural capacity.

Concrete Pavements • Deflections are very small and hence the name “rigid pavement” • The high flexural strength of the slab is predominant and the subgrade strength does not have as much importance as it has in the case of flexible pavements • Usually finite slabs with joints (jointed concrete pavements) • Continuous slabs also can be constructed (without joints). Usually with reinforcement .

Concrete Pavements Concrete Slab Granular Base Subgrade .

Concrete Pavements Longitudinal joint Transverse joints Tie bars Subgrade Dowel bars Subbase or base Concrete Slab .

Concrete Pavement .

Concrete Pavement .Components • Concrete Slab • Granular or stabilised base • Granular or stabilised subbase • Subgrade • Joints are the other main features of concrete pavement significantly affecting its performance .

Concrete Pavements Stresses in slabs are caused by • Wheel loads – flexural (repeated applications) • Temperature differential within the thickness of the slab causing curling • Uniform temperature variation causing shrinkage or expansion • Change in moisture and the corresponding volumetric change in subgrade. base or slab • A combination of all these factors .

Concrete Pavements – Mechanical Model The two commonly used models for concrete pavements differ in their assumption about foundation Dense liquid / spring / Winkler foundation Elastic foundation .

Foundation Types Slab on Spring Foundation Most commonly used No shear strength Suitable for soft cohesive soils Slab on Elastic layers Complex analysis Suitable for stiff base layers .

Spring Foundation Slab on Spring Foundation Foundation is represented by its spring constant known as modulus of subgrade reaction (k) K determined by conducting plate load test .

p a D .Radius of relative stiffness of slab and subgrade p=k∆ Reactive pressure on foundation.

m2)))(1/4) . where k is the modulus of subgrade reaction and “l” is the radius of relative stiffness of slab and subgrade l = ((Eh3/(12 k (1.Radius of relative stiffness of slab and subgrade Stiffness term for a slab = (Eh3/(12(1-m2)) Equating this to kl4.

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction Plate Load Test Reaction frame Hydraulic Jack Stiff loading plate Load is gradually increased and the deflection of the foundation observed .

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction Plate Load Test Bearing Pressure. p 750mm plate Correction for moisture K=p/∆ Settlement. ∆ Determined for 1.25mm .

interior . edge.Westergaard’s Analysis Slab on Winkler Foundation Considered three wheel load positions for analysis Corner.

corner and edge Interior – Load in the interior and away from all the edges Edge – Load applied on the edge away from the corners Corner – Load located on the bisector of the corner angle .Wheel Load Stresses Westergaard (1926) developed equations for solution of load stresses at three critical regions of the slab – interior.

Wheel Load Stresses Edge Corner Interior .

572P/h2) 4 log10 (l / b) + 0.069) Edge loading (tensile stress at the slab bottom) σe (psi) = (0.Wheel Load Stresses Westergaard solutions for a Poisson ratio of 0.6 .3162P/h2) 4 log10 (l / b) + 1.15 for concrete Interior loading (tensile stress at the slab bottom) σi (psi) = (0.359) Corner loading (tensile stress at slab top) σc (psi) = (3P/h2) 1 – ((a (2)(1/2)) / l)0.

lbs h = slab thickness. inches = (1.6a2 + h2)(1/2) – 0.675 (h) for a < 1.724 h = a when a >= 1. inches . inches a = radius of wheel contact area (circular contact) b = radius of resisting section.Wheel Load Stresses Where. P = wheel load.724 h l = radius of relative stiffness.

Curling Stresses in a Finite Slab y x

sx = (CxEaDt)/(2(1- m2) + (CymEaDt)/(2(1- m2) = ((EaDt)/(2(1- m2))(Cx + mCy) sy = ((EaDt)/(2(1- m2))(Cy + mCx)



a = Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete

Bradbury Coefficients
1.2 Warping Stress Coefficient, C 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 5 10 15

B = Free length or width of slab

Ratio B/l

Curling Stresses Edge Stresses
σ = (CEaDt)/2

Corner Stress - Negligible

Stresses due to Friction • Volumetric change in concrete induces tensile stresses in concrete and • Causes opening of joints leading to reduction in load transfer efficiency .

Stresses due to Temperature Difference within the slab • Due to temperature differential within the slab thickness • Day Time – The slab curls up (top convex) • Night time – slab curls down (top concave) • Due to weight of slab and resistance offered by the foundation. stresses are induced .

Stresses due to Temperature Difference within the slab Day time C T T1 > T2 T2 Night time T1 > T2 T T2 C .

Critical Combination of Stresses Night Time Thermal stresses (tension at top) compensate stresses due to loads (compression at top) Afternoon Thermal stresses will be additive to load stresses Concrete Pavements without expansion joints – End restraint stresses (compression) in summer .

however modulus value of bituminous layer is selected based on temperature sub base. base course. surface course are the layer over foundation [subgrade] .Flexible Pavements Load distribution from grain to grain Possess less flexural strength Design is based on Foundation layer strength and wheel load associated parameters Temperature stresses not considered.

SDBM. Earthen Roads. AUSTROADS. SHELL Method . Wet Mix Macadam (WMM). PM…etc] Design Methods: IRC:37-2001 [In India] for BC IRC: SP:20-2002 for Rural roads AASHTO. BM.2002. All types of bituminous pavement [ BC.Examples of Flexible Pavements Water Bound Macadam (WBM).

Vehicle damage factor. wheel load associated parameters such as standard axle load [ 8.Design input parameters • Strength of foundation layer and other layers • Traffic. •Performance criteria [ relating rutting and fatigue with critical parameters and controlling these to avoid failure in these modes] Relating strains with life of the pavement [N with strain] . tyre pressure.2 t].

temperature Depends less on foundation layer parameters or Placed directly over subgrade[ foundation] on base course. .slab action { wider area] Posses high flexural strength Design is based on wheel load.Rigid Pavement Load distribution.

Rigid Pavement Design IRC: 58-2002 [ In India] AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design PCA Method .

three places [ interior.Rigid Pavement Design Load stresses. edge and corner] stresses using Westergaard Analysis .

Rigid Pavement.Stress equations Interior loading (tensile stress at the slab bottom) σi (psi) = (0.572P/h2) 4 log10 (l / b) + 0.6 .3162P/h2) 4 log10 (l / b) + 1.069) Edge loading (tensile stress at the slab bottom) σe (psi) = (0.359) Corner loading (tensile stress at slab top) σc (psi) = (3P/h2) 1 – ((a (2)(1/2)) / l)0.

Rigid Pavement Design Similarly Temperature stresses at three locations Combination of stress [ load and temperature stress].to be compared with flexural strength of the concrete to calculate the thickness of concrete slab. long. No. of joints are present.these are to be designed [ expansion. Joint…etc] . contraction.

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