P. 1
Project Network Analysis TIB

Project Network Analysis TIB

|Views: 98|Likes:
Published by bknz

More info:

Published by: bknz on Nov 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/31/2012

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Project
  • Examples
  • What is project management
  • Project Management Process
  • Work breakdown structure
  • Project Planning
  • Project Scheduling and Control Techniques
  • History of CPM/PERT
  • AOA Project Network for House
  • AON Project Network for House
  • Situations in network diagram
  • Questions to prepare activity network
  • Forward Pass
  • Backward Pass
  • CPM analysis
  • PERT
  • Probability computation
  • Normal Distribution of Project Time
  • PERT Example
  • Cost consideration in project
  • Project Crashing
  • Activity crashing
  • Time-Cost Relationship
  • Time-Cost Tradeoff
  • Project Crashing example
  • Time Cost data
  • Benefits of CPM/PERT
  • CPM/PERT can answer the following important questions:
  • Computer Software for Project Management
  • Practice Example
  • Practice problem

Project Management - CPM/PERT

Siva Prasad Darla Sr Lecturer School of Mechanical & Building Sciences

What exactly is a project?
PM 1 – I’m in charge of the construction of a retail development in the centre of a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work of the various contractors to ensure that the project is completed to specification, within budget and on time. PM 2 – I am directing a team of research scientists. We are running trials on a new analgesic drug on behalf of a pharmaceutical company. It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that proper scientific and legal procedures are followed, so that our results can be subjected to independent statistical analysis. PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to New Delhi to organize the introduction of multimedia resources at a teachers’ training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance of these darla/smbs/vit 2 resources by lecturers and students within the college.

PM 1 – I’m in charge of the construction of a retail development in the centre of a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work of the various contractors to ensure that the project is completed to specification, within budget and on time. PM 2 – I am directing a team of research scientists. We are running trials on a new analgesic drug on behalf of a pharmaceutical company. It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that proper scientific and legal procedures are followed, so that our results can be subjected to independent statistical analysis. PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to New Delhi to organize the introduction of multimedia resources at a teachers’ training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance of these resources by lecturers and students within the college. Project is not defined by the type of outcome it is set up to achieve
darla/smbs/vit 3

Project
A project is a temporary endeavour involving a connected sequence of activities and a range of resources, which is designed to achieve a specific and unique outcome and which operates within time, cost and quality constraints and which is often used to introduce change.

Characteristic of a project
A unique, one-time operational activity or effort Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities Established to achieve specific objective Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited Typically has its own management structure Need leadership

darla/smbs/vit

4

Examples
– constructing houses, factories, shopping malls, athletic stadiums or arenas – developing military weapons systems, aircrafts, new ships – launching satellite systems – constructing oil pipelines – developing and implementing new computer systems – planning concert, football games, or basketball tournaments – introducing new products into market
darla/smbs/vit 5

• Its origins lie in World War II. • One of these techniques was the use of networks to represent a system of related activities darla/smbs/vit 6 . complex. one time task within time.What is project management • The application of a collection of tools and techniques to direct the use of diverse resources towards the accomplishment of a unique. cost and quality constraints. when the military authorities used the techniques of operational research to plan the optimum use of resources.

depending on skills required Project Manager – most important member of project team Scope statement – a document that provides an understanding. justification. and expected result of a project Statement of work – written description of objectives of a project Organizational Breakdown Structure – a chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for work items Responsibility Assignment Matrix darla/smbs/vit 7 – shows who is responsible for work in a project .Project Management Process • • • • • • • • • • Project planning Project scheduling Project control Project team – made up of individuals from various areas and departments within a company Matrix organization – a team structure with members from functional areas.

activities and tasks) in a hierarchical structure which can be scheduled and cost • It defines tasks that can be completed independently of other tasks. facilitating resource allocation. subcomponents.Work breakdown structure • A method of breaking down a project into individual elements ( components. assignment of responsibilities and measurement and control of the project • It is foundation of project planning • It is developed before identification of dependencies and estimation of activity durations • It can be used to identity the tasks in the CPM and PERT darla/smbs/vit 8 .

Work Breakdown Structure for Computer Order Processing System Project darla/smbs/vit 9 .

Project Planning • Resource Availability and/or Limits – Due date. late penalties. early completion incentives – Budget • Activity Information – Identify all required activities – Estimate the resources required (time) to complete each activity – Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed to create interrelationships darla/smbs/vit 10 .

Project Scheduling and Control Techniques Gantt Chart Critical Path Method (CPM) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) darla/smbs/vit 11 .

Gantt Chart Graph or bar chart with a bar for each project activity that shows passage of time Provides visual display of project schedule darla/smbs/vit 12 .

(1957) for construction of new chemical plant and maintenance shut-down – Deterministic task times – Activity-on-node network construction – Repetitive nature of jobs • Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – – – – U S Navy (1958) for the POLARIS missile program Multiple task time estimates (probabilistic nature) Activity-on-arrow network construction Non-repetitive jobs (R & D work) darla/smbs/vit 13 .History of CPM/PERT • Critical Path Method (CPM) – E I Du Pont de Nemours & Co.

management and control of projects • Use of nodes and arrows Arrows  An arrow leads from tail to head directionally – Indicate ACTIVITY. a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work. • Activity – A task or a certain amount of work required in the project – Requires time to complete – Represented by an arrow • Dummy Activity – Indicates only precedence relationships darla/smbs/vit 14 – Does not require any time of effort Project Network . a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish. Nodes  A node is represented by a circle .Indicate EVENT.• Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning.

and arrows show precedence relationships Activity-on-arrow (AOA) arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in time darla/smbs/vit 15 .Project Network • Event – Signals the beginning or ending of an activity – Designates a point in time – Represented by a circle (node) • Network – Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes and arrows Activity-on-node (AON) nodes represent activities.

AOA Project Network for House Lay foundation 3 2 0 Dummy Build house 3 Finish work 1 1 3 Design house and obtain financing 2 1 Order and receive materials 4 Select paint 6 1 Select carpet 7 1 5 AON Project Network for House Lay foundations Build house 2 2 Start 1 3 3 1 5 1 4 3 Finish work 7 1 6 1 Select carpet 16 Design house and obtain financing Order and receive darla/smbs/vit Select paint materials .

Situations in network diagram A B A must finish before either B or C can start C A C B A B A both A and B must finish before C can start C D both A and C must finish before either of B or D can start B Dummy A must finish before B can start both A and C must finish before D can start darla/smbs/vit 17 C D .

Concurrent Activities Lay foundation 3 Lay foundation Dummy 2 0 2 3 2 1 Order material Order material 4 (a) Incorrect precedence relationship (b) Correct precedence relationship darla/smbs/vit 18 .

Network example Illustration of network analysis of a minor redesign of a product and its associated packaging. The key question is: How long will it take to complete this project ? darla/smbs/vit 19 .

For clarity. this list is kept to a minimum by specifying only immediate relationships. that is relationships involving activities that "occur near to each other in time". darla/smbs/vit 20 .

Questions to prepare activity network • • • • • Is this a Start Activity? Is this a Finish Activity? What Activity Precedes this? What Activity Follows this? What Activity is Concurrent with this? darla/smbs/vit 21 .

CPM calculation • Path – A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the ending event • Critical Path – The longest path (time). determines the project duration • Critical Activities – All of the activities that make up the critical path darla/smbs/vit 22 .

Forward Pass • Earliest Start Time (ES) – earliest time an activity can start – ES = maximum EF of immediate predecessors • Earliest finish time (EF) – earliest time an activity can finish – earliest start time plus activity time EF= ES + t Latest Start Time (LS) Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time LS= LF .t Latest finish time (LF) Backward Pass latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time darla/smbs/vit 23 LS = minimum LS of immediate predecessors .

Zero slack – Longest path through a network • Find the project duration is minimum project completion time darla/smbs/vit 24 .ES = LF . i.CPM analysis • Draw the CPM network • Analyze the paths through the network • Determine the float for each activity – Compute the activity’s float float = LS .EF – Float is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay in its completion before it becomes a critical activity.e.e... delays completion of the project • Find the critical path is that the sequence of activities and events where there is no “slack” i.

8 d. 9 b. 12 . 17 i. 6 g. 15 a. 6 h. 13 c.CPM Example: • CPM Network f. 5 e. 9 darla/smbs/vit 25 j.

6 0 6 h. 5 0 5 e.CPM Example • ES and EF Times f. 12 . 6 a. 9 b. 15 g. 13 j. 9 darla/smbs/vit 26 d. 8 0 8 c. 17 i.

6 0 6 f. 17 6 23 i. 12 . 6 h. 15 6 21 g. 8 0 8 c. 5 0 5 d. 9 b.CPM Example • ES and EF Times a. 13 8 21 e. 9 5 14 darla/smbs/vit 27 j.

5 0 5 d. 9 21 30 b. 13 8 21 e. 12 21 33 Project’s EF = 33 28 . 6 23 29 h. 17 6 23 i.CPM Example • ES and EF Times a. 6 0 6 f. 15 6 21 g. 8 0 8 c. 9 5 14 darla/smbs/vit j.

15 6 21 g. 9 21 30 24 33 b.CPM Example • LS and LF Times a. 17 6 23 i. 6 0 6 f. 9 5 14 darla/smbs/vit j. 13 8 21 e. 12 21 33 21 33 29 . 6 23 29 27 33 h. 8 0 8 c. 5 0 5 d.

15 6 21 18 24 g. 12 21 33 21 33 30 . 5 0 5 7 12 i. 9 21 30 24 33 j. 9 5 14 darla/smbs/vit 12 21 a. 6 23 29 27 33 h. 13 8 21 8 21 e.CPM Example • LS and LF Times f. 8 0 8 0 8 c. 6 0 6 4 10 b. 17 6 23 10 27 d.

6 23 29 4 27 33 j. 8 0 0 8 0 8 c. 13 0 8 21 8 21 e. 17 4 6 23 10 27 d. 15 3 6 21 9 24 g. 9 3 21 30 24 33 a. 9 7 5 14 12 21 darla/smbs/vit h.CPM Example • Float f. 12 0 21 33 21 33 31 . 6 3 0 6 3 9 b. 5 7 0 5 7 12 i.

5 e. 13 c.CPM Example • Critical Path f. 6 h. 12 . 17 i. 6 a. 9 darla/smbs/vit 32 j. 15 g. 8 d. 9 b.

the consensus best estimate of the activity’s duration – optimistic time (to ) .the time the activity would take if things did not go well – most likely time (tm ) .PERT • PERT is based on the assumption that an activity’s duration follows a probability distribution instead of being a single value • Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters of an activity’s duration distribution: – pessimistic time (tp ) .to 6 33 .the time the activity would take if things did go well Mean (expected time): te = tp + 4 tm + t o 6 2 Variance: Vt darla/smbs/vit =2 = tp .

• The length of the critical path is the mean of the project duration probability distribution which is assumed to be normal • The standard deviation of the project duration probability distribution is computed by adding the variances of the critical activities (all of the activities that make up the critical path) and taking the square root of that sum • Probability computations can now be made using the normal distribution table. • Analyze the paths through the network and find the critical path.PERT analysis • Draw the network. darla/smbs/vit 34 .

Probability computation Determine probability that project is completed within specified time x- Z=  where  = tp = project mean time  = project standard mean time x = (proposed ) specified time darla/smbs/vit 35 .

Normal Distribution of Project Time Probability Z  = tp darla/smbs/vit x Time 36 .

F 2 5 8 J D.H 2.C 1 1.5 37 K G.5 5 H E.) Time (Hr.) Time (Hr.F 5 6 7 I E. Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Activity Predec.5 5 C A 3 3 3 D A 4 5 6 E A 0.75 4.PERT Example Immed.5 1 1.C 3 4 5 G B.5 F B.5 2.I 3 darla/smbs/vit 5 7 .) A -4 6 8 B -1 4. Time (Hr.

PERT Example PERT Network D A E H J C B F G I K darla/smbs/vit 38 .

PERT Example Activity A B C D E F G H I J K Expected Time 6 4 3 5 1 4 2 6 5 3 5 darla/smbs/vit Variance 4/9 4/9 0 1/9 1/36 1/9 4/9 1/9 1 1/9 4/9 39 .

PERT Example Activity ES A B C D E F G H I J K 0 0 6 6 6 9 9 13 13 19 18 EF 6 4 9 11 7 13 11 19 18 22 23 darla/smbs/vit LS 0 5 6 15 12 9 16 14 13 20 18 LF 6 9 9 20 13 13 18 20 18 23 23 Slack 0 *critical 5 0* 9 6 0* 7 1 0* 1 0* 40 .

5 + .7612 darla/smbs/vit 41 .PERT Example Vpath = VA + VC + VF + VI + VK = 4/9 + 0 + 1/9 + 1 + 4/9 = 2 path = 1.71 From the Standard Normal Distribution table: P(z < .414 z = (24 .2612 = .71) = .23)/(24-23)/1.414 = .

PROJECT COST .

a new critical path may be created. the process is repeated. each of the critical paths must be reduced. • If the length of the project needs to be reduced further. darla/smbs/vit 43 . reduces it by one time unit. then the project manager selects the least cost critical activity. • This is accomplished by reducing the length of the critical path(s). or accelerate the completion of the project. and traces that change through the remainder of the network. • When there is more than one critical path. • If each activity requires the expenditure of an amount of money to reduce its duration by one unit of time. • As a result of a reduction in an activity’s time.Cost consideration in project • Project managers may have the option or requirement to crash the project. • The length of the critical path is reduced by reducing the duration of the activities on the critical path.

Project Crashing • Crashing – reducing project time by expending additional resources • Crash time – an amount of time an activity is reduced • Crash cost – cost of reducing activity time • Goal – reduce project duration at minimum cost darla/smbs/vit 44 .

Activity crashing Crash cost Crashing activity Slope = crash cost per unit time Normal Activity Normal cost Normal time Crash time Activity time darla/smbs/vit 45 .

 Crashing costs increase as project duration decreases  Indirect costs increase as project duration increases  Reduce project length as long as crashing costs are less than indirect costs Time-Cost Relationship Time-Cost Tradeoff Min total cost = optimal project time Total project cost Indirect cost Direct cost darla/smbs/vit time 46 .

Project Crashing example 2 8 1 12 4 12 7 4 3 4 5 4 6 4 darla/smbs/vit 47 .

Time Cost data Activity Normal time 1 12 2 8 3 4 4 12 5 4 6 4 7 4 Normal cost Rs 3000 2000 4000 50000 500 500 1500 75000 Crash time 7 5 3 9 1 1 3 Crash cost Rs 5000 3500 7000 71000 1100 1100 22000 110700 Allowable crash time 5 3 1 3 3 3 1 slope 400 500 3000 7000 200 200 7000 darla/smbs/vit 48 .

R400 3 4 R3000 5 4 R200 R500 2 8 R7000 4 12 R700 To…. Project duration = 31 1 7 7 4 6 4 R200 49 R400 3 4 5 4 R200 Additional cost = R2000 R3000 darla/smbs/vit ..R500 2 8 1 12 R7000 4 12 Project duration = 36 R700 7 4 6 4 R200 From…..

what is the best way to do this at the least cost? darla/smbs/vit 50 . behind schedule or ahead of schedule? •If the project has to be finished earlier than planned.Benefits of CPM/PERT • • • • • Useful at many stages of project management Mathematically simple Give critical path and slack time Provide project documentation Useful in monitoring costs CPM/PERT can answer the following important questions: •How long will the entire project take to be completed? What are the risks involved? •Which are the critical activities or tasks in the project which could delay the entire project if they were not completed on time? •Is the project on schedule.

independent and stable activities Specified precedence relationships Over emphasis on critical paths Deterministic CPM model Activity time estimates are subjective and depend on judgment PERT assumes a beta distribution for these time estimates.Limitations to CPM/PERT • • • • • • Clearly defined. Monte Carlo simulations can be performed on the network to eliminate the optimistic bias darla/smbs/vit 51 . but the actual distribution may be different • PERT consistently underestimates the expected project completion time due to alternate paths becoming critical To overcome the limitation.

) PowerProject (ASTA Development Inc.Computer Software for Project Management • • • • • • Microsoft Project (Microsoft Corp.) Primavera Project Planner (Primavera) Project Scheduler (Scitor Corp.) Project Workbench (ABT Corp.) darla/smbs/vit 52 .) MacProject (Claris Corp.

Practice Example A social project manager is faced with a project with the following activities: Activity Description Social work team to live in village Duration 5w Social research team to do survey Analyse results of survey Establish mother & child health program 12w 5w 14w Establish rural credit programme Carry out immunization of under fives 15w 4w Draw network diagram and show the critical path. darla/smbs/vit 53 . Calculate project duration.

Practice problem Activity 1-2 1-3 3-4 2-4 3-5 4-5 Description Social work team to live in village Social research team to do survey Analyse results of survey Establish mother & child health program Establish rural credit programme Carry out immunization of under fives 4 5 3 darla/smbs/vit 54 Duration 5w 12w 5w 14w 15w 4w 2 1 .

ac.sivaprasaddarla@vit.in darla/smbs/vit 55 .

82-8.

.9  .

.3..7.9 /.9434130947..3 %006:089438 44399.9.09470.3/ 98.884.094.8841.90/5.574/:.250 :897.425090985740.234770/08341.

82-8.

9  ..

.9070.94.943858 9.4.908 9..49073920 /.9438583.7..3.79 9889805994.47.1343 220/.9870.:730..232:2-850.9.7940.

82-8.

9  ..

38.:77039998 /.9.9.79.70.0/0898 .930947 W W W W W 898.9 898.9.9.9.9.9.9.9843.":089438945705.9.9!70.$9.9 .7..944898 .

82-8.

.9  .

9..0:590.:..90/806:03.9.041..9 /:7.9 /.039949003/30.908 4190..92.79.943 W !.!..9089..7.039 W 79.7930.9 %0430895.9080.9..4330.!.9 .5.9 920 /09072308905740..943 W 79./31742 9089.

82-8.

9  ..

47.9089920.9089$9.425090/94:9/0.389..389.708989.2:241220/..9.3.9089920.7/!.3-0.3.3.088478 /..7.7089920.3...3.3.9.79%20 $ .7089$9.79%20 $ 0.9.79.9 920 $232:2$41220/.79 $2.90570/0.088478 W .9089138920  .9.7994:9/0..9.9.90570/0.9.9..9920 $ 9 .88 W .5..7089920..5..7089138920  0.799205:8.9920 $ 9 .3138 0.9..79.

82-8.

7/!...9  .88 ..

8.91470.5.9..98974:9030947 W 09072309014.24:39419209..88 W 7.79.9$ $  4..041.  0 0748..!.9.9/:7..398.0398 0709070834 8.998.7.79..4250943-014709-0.98902..2:2.4250943920 /.9 14.3-0 /0.9.9.425094341905740.9 814.3/0.9 425:9090..9.9   0 /0.0905.. 430895.9.9.9974:.9 W 3/90...90!30947 W 3.30947 W 3/905740..9438232:25740..908..990806:03.989.4208.3.

82-8.

.9  .

7. /  .250 W !0947 1  .!.  0  /.      .

82-8.

9      ..

250 W $.!.7.  .3/%208 1        .   /    0  /.   .

82-8.

9  ..

!.3/%208 .  .7.   .250 W $.   /    0    /.

82-8.

.9  1              .

  .!.7.250 W $.3/%208 .   .   /    0    /.

82-8.

9 8  ..9 1                     !740.

  .7.   1                     /    0    /.!.3/%208 .  .250 W $.

82-8.

9        ..

!.250 W $.7.3/%208 1                        /            0    /.

82-8.

9   .      ..   .      .

250 W 4.7.!.9 1                            /             0       /.

82-8.

.       .9 .   .      .

9 1      .250 W 79.!..!. /  .  0  /.7.

82-8.

.9  .      .

9.-9/897-:9433890..01 938//34940 24890920 92  90.7..920 94  9092090..908..3.9.7.!#% W !#%8-.70706:70/94.94:/9.9 8/:7.20907841 .9.943 1448.80/4390.88:259439.943 459289.94:/9..9 8/:7.7.438038:8-0890892.9 8/:7.01938 //40 0.943/897-:943 5088289.3.:0 W %7009200892.920 95  9092090.9.425:90905.3 050..830.9.90/920  90  95 92 94   '.904190 .574-./41-03.9.0'9 9  /.3.

82-8.

9 95 94   ..

-9.98974:9030947..7.94341905740.7.3/13/90.084190..-9/897-:943.5.9.79..9089.88:20/94-03472.9030947 W 3.7//0.3/.425:90/-.9/:7.79.-0 /..79.989020.//390..9./0:83903472.425:9.!#%.943574-.9438.9 W %00394190.4190..3.5.9 ..341905740.334-02.707449419.3/ 9.92.9/:7.0905.79. .5. W %089.0:590.88 W 7..39086:.943 574-.-9 /897-:9438.98:2 W !74-.8. /897-:9439..3.908 .

82-8.

.9  .

-99.10/920 /.95740.3/.425090/93850.425:9.!74-.98.3920  5745480/ 850.7/20.7.920.989.943 0907230574-.3920 9 5740.-9.10/920  3  9 0703 95 5740.

82-8.

.9  .

-9 9 3 95 /.472.9%20 !74-.897-:94341!740.7.

82-8.

.9  %20  .

7.!#%.9. %20 7 . %20 7 %20 7                         /.4890!088289.9 !70/0.250 220/  59289.

82-8.

9    ..

7.!#%.250 !#%0947            /.

82-8.

.9  .

90/%20            /.250 .9.!#%.7.9 50.

82-8.

9 '.7.0 .3..

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

  .

 .

             .

                        /.9 $                             $              $.7..   .250 ..9.!#%.79.

82-8.

.9 .

250 '5.9 ' ' ' ' ' .!#%.

   .

  .

  95.9       .

9   .

-0 !        /.7/472.897-:9439.   74290$9.3/.7.

82-8.

9  ..

!# % $% .

489..5. 5..42580/-70/:..3/97.9 2.089-430920:39  ..-0.3.92.5.007.890 5740.3..9090.9 70/:.24:3941243094 70/:.79..79..79.982:89-070/:..943 4190..9 8 W %00394190..94335740...3.089.79.70..9300/894-070/:.98900.9084390.5.89.30.489.79.0/1:7907 90 574.943-430:3941920 903905740.390/:7...3.9 47.9.90/ /.79.0/ W 19003941905740.9 W 10.425094341905740.9.0/-70/:.438/07.3/07419030947 W 8.90/ W 039070824709.9..30974:90702....79.9.07 800.5.4190.9 W !740.9 W %88.7.08887050.70/:..9870/:..7.708:941.9706:708900503/9:7041.0782.92.9 8920 .3430..3900394190.0904594347706:70203994.9.9433.098/:7.9 0..5.

82-8.

.9  .

7.8920 .9232:2.4894170/:.83 70/:.9.7084:7.//943.!740.9/:7.3..9870/:.9.24:3941920.9920-0503/3.8.943.97.83 W 7.489 /.9920 W 4. 70/:.05740.489 ..3.0/ W 7.08 W 7.35740.3.

82-8.

.9  .

7.8 920 .8.9.9 $450.9920 /.489507:39920 472.83 7..9.9..9.8 .7.7.83..9.489 7. 920 7.9 472.

82-8.

489 . .9  472..

85740.7.9.9.9/:7..83.8.05740.9 920 %49.9 .70.70.943/0.9/:7.808 3/70.%20 489#0.489 3/70.5740.94385 7.489 70.9039.9.80.9433.4898 %20 489%7.83.85740.843.9.3 3/70.489 4592.700889.7.48983.5740.4898.48983.70.808 #0/:.80./0411 3949.489 /.70.

82-8.

9 920  ..

!740.7.830.250               /.97.

82-8.

.9  .

8920                                       /.9 472.8 7.489#8 .7. .9.%20489/.8 4.7. 7. 472.489#8 920 .9.-0 8450 920 .

82-8.

.9                .

943 #     # #   742 #   #   # #   #     #  %4 !740.9/:7..943 //943.9   # /:7.7.489 #   # /.#     #   !740.

82-8.

9   # ..

03019841!.

.3/8.9.920 !74.9.902.943 &801:32439473.79..9/4.3./05740.92.5.08415740.8250 .:2039.02039 ..92.389.0.4898 !.!#% W W W W W &801:.

330/ .94/498.0/ W../418..7090 7883.4.!#%.99.425090/..9.894-01380/0.9.35.0/:0 W1905740..0/:0 -03/8.380790144325479.90039705740.39 6:089438 W44390039705740.9190070349.9890-089 .7090.0...4:/ /0.3.7.489/.425090/43920 W8905740.9438.094-0.0/:047.9900.89.883905740.9.908479.79.9.7079.

82-8.

.9  .

29.943894!.

99200892.-.9090459289.9.905.4250943920/:094.9:.0/03.070.908.43889039:3/070892.9 .10/570.88:208.8 /.-09.943858 .98-0..943 4390.3/89.423.-0.0.79.3//0503/43:/2039 !#%.90890050.9438.5.8843.3-0 50714720/43903094794023.07.90/5740.908 $50.9.9073.4209029.7...07025./897-:9432.9. W W W W W W %44.!#% 0.-0/1107039 W !#%.7/0130/ 3/0503/039..7482:.908 -:9 90./897-:94314790809200892.79.708:-0.98 09072389..!24/0 .

82-8.

.9  .

07.7.9$.425:907$419.70 147!740. !740.9 $%0.9 .3307 !72.07.9!.748419475 .!740.0/:07 $.9 .!740.947-03.748419!740.3.9..02039 W W W W W W .947475 !740... %475 /.04520393.78475 !407!740. !72.

82-8.

.9  .

.08 :7..908.70/95747.3/8490.-824907 .99901443 .0781..0 3.0 89.90.0 $4..7.!7.03.79.9/:7.294.92...80708:98418:7./0.4790.943       7.7080.774:922:3...:.7.9.908 ..9.95747.905740.94341:3/071.30947/.5.-87:7.2.9  .75943 $4..220 .250 84.0.3.7.5740.0/9.9.294/48:7.2 89.943 /.5740.

82-8.

9  ..

294..94341:3/071.03....7080.!7.08    /.80708:98418:7.4790.0           $4./0.9 08.9.294/48:7.774:922:3.0 3.2 89.-824907 .95747.0574-02 .0 89.220 .70/95747..75943   $4.-87:7.7.9.7.90.

82-8.

9  :7..943         .

57..7.8..//.9 .. 3 /.8.7.

82-8.

9  ..

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->