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Handbook Electrical Devices

Handbook Electrical Devices

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Electrical installation handbook Volume 2

2 edition
nd

Electrical devices

1SDC010001D0202

ABB SACE

Electrical installation handbook

Volume 2

Electrical devices

2nd edition February 2004

First edition 2003 Second edition 2004

Published by ABB SACE via Baioni, 35 - 24123 Bergamo (Italy) All rights reserved

...................... 25 Installation not buried in the ground .... 101 3...................................................5 TN system .........2 Installation and dimensioning of cables ....................................... 162 5..................................... 86 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3.............................. 213 Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables ....2 Protection and switching of generators .......... 70 2............................................................................Index Introduction ................................................................................2........................1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings ............................ 67 2. 146 4......................................................1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits ............................................................ 31 Installation in ground ............ 159 5 Protection of human beings 5.......... 66 2........................ 200 A..................................5 Neutral and protective conductors ........................3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact ...............1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation ...............................................7 Residual current devices ..6 IT system ............... 22 2..........2 DOCWin ................... 168 5............................................................................. 182 Annex A: Calculation tools A........ 230 ABB SACE ................................................1 General aspects ........................................................ 209 Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current .................................... 110 3........2 Distribution systems .................... 227 Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas ...................... 179 5..................................................................3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and swiching of capacitor banks .................................. 152 4.....1 General aspects ..................................................4 TT system .................................................1 Introduction ............................................ 171 5.......................... 3 1......3 Joule-effect losses .................... 131 4 Power factor correction 4...................2................4 Protection and switching of transformers ...................3 Protection and switching of motors .............................. 15 2 Protection of feeders 2..........2 Voltage drop ..................................................................2..........2 Power factor correction method ........................ 56 2...............................................................................................8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings ......................6 Busbar trunking systems ........ 165 5................ 174 5.......2 IEC Standards for electrical installation ... 25 2.3 Protection against overload .....................................................Electrical devices 1 ............................. 205 Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib .............1 Slide rules ................ 115 3................ 44 2....................4 Protection against short-circuit ......................... 177 5.......... 78 2...................................... 2 1 Standards 1...............

apparatus. aims to be of help in the correct definition of equipment.Electrical devices ABB SACE . however. published by national and international bodies. The technical standards. Juridical Standards These are all the standards from which derive rules of behavior for the juridical persons who are under the sovereignty of that State. a condition sufficient (even if not necessary) for the realization of plants according to the “status of the art” and a requirement essential to properly meet the demands of customers and of the community. Validity of the electrical installation handbook Some tables show approximate values due to the generalization of the selection process. IEC Standards are generally issued in two languages: English and French. 2 ABB SACE . for a common planning of new standardization activities and for parallel voting on standard drafts. nor a technical catalogue. This electrical installation handbook. is the respect of all the relevant laws and technical standards. Application fields Electrotechnics and Electronics Telecommunications Mechanics. but. and in particular in the electrical sector. for example those regarding the constructional characteristics of electrical machinery.1 General aspects In each technical field. immediate-use working tool. In 1991 the IEC has ratified co-operation agreements with CENELEC (European standardization body). in a single document. Therefore. Ergonomics and Safety International Body European Body IEC CENELEC ITU ETSI ISO CEN This technical collection takes into consideration only the bodies dealing with electrical and electronic technologies. Electrical installation handbook users The electrical installation handbook is a tool which is suitable for all those who are interested in electrical plants: useful for installers and maintenance technicians through brief yet important electrotechnical references. installation utilities. The IEC publishes international standards. IEC International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was officially founded in 1906. in any case. the electrical conductors and other components. The tables are always drawn up conservatively.Introduction Scope and objectives The scope of this electrical installation handbook is to provide the designer and user of electrical plants with a quick reference. a precise knowledge of the standards is the fundamental premise for a correct approach to the problems of the electrical plants which shall be designed in order to guarantee that “acceptable safety level” which is never absolute. aims to supply. and for sales engineers through quick reference selection tables. Technical Standards These standards are the whole of the prescriptions on the basis of which machines. 1 Standards 1. with the aim of securing the international co-operation as regards standardization and certification in electrical and electronic technologies. in addition to the latter. This is not intended to be a theoretical document. tables for the quick definition of the main parameters of the components of an electrical plant and for the selection of the protection devices for a wide range of installations. The dimensioning of an electrical plant requires knowledge of different factors relating to. technical guides and reports which are the bases or. the use of DOCWin software is recommended for the dimensioning of electrical installations. This association is formed by the International Committees of over 40 countries all over the world. this knowledge leads the design engineer to consult numerous documents and technical catalogues. for example. are circumstantially drawn up and can have legal force when this is attributed by a legislative measure.Electrical devices 3 . for more accurate calculations. in numerous practical installation situations. correction factors are given for actual conditions which may differ from the assumed ones. Some application examples are included to aid comprehension of the selection tables. In every case. in favour of safety. where possible. materials and the installations should be designed. manufactured and tested so that efficiency and function safety are ensured. a reference of utmost importance for any national and European standardization activity.

• the harmonized standards. CENELEC hopes and expects Cyprus to become the 28th members before May 2004. United Kingdom) and cooperates with 8 affiliates (Albania. 1 Standards “Low Voltage” Directive 73/23/CEE – 93/68/CEE The Low Voltage Directive refers to any electrical equipment designed for use at a rated voltage from 50 to 1000 V for alternating current and from 75 to 1500 V for direct current. • only the products which comply with the essential requirements specified by the directives can be marketed and put into service. Ukraine) which have first maintained the national documents side by side with the CENELEC ones and then replaced them with the Harmonized Documents (HD). France. transmission. the European Community has the task of promulgating directives which must be adopted by the different member states and then transposed into national law. When the study of a specific subject has already been started by the IEC. Luxembourg. Switzerland.Electrical devices 5 . Ireland. it is applicable to any apparatus used for production. whenever necessary. CENELEC deals with specific subjects. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Once adopted. • electric fence controllers. • radio-electrical interference. the apparatus covered by this Directive are divided into the following categories according to their characteristics: • domestic radio and TV receivers. • electrical energy meters. transformers. to amend the works already approved by the International standardization body. conversion. From 1991 CENELEC cooperates with the IEC to accelerate the standards preparation process of International Standards. Turkey. Lithuania. Poland. Cyprus. the second ones can be amended to meet particular national requirements. the European standardization body (CENELEC) can decide to accept or. such as machines. There is a difference between EN Standards and Harmonization Documents (HD): while the first ones have to be accepted at any level and without additions or modifications in the different countries. • electrical parts for goods and passenger lifts. Iceland. • industrial manufacturing equipment. • aeronautical and marine radio apparatus. Hungary. • educational electronic equipment. Slovenia. Finland. • mobile radio and commercial radio telephone equipment. Portugal. Latvia. • a manufacturer can choose among the different conformity evaluation procedure provided by the applicable directive. • specialized electrical equipment. • lights and fluorescent lamps. 4 ABB SACE . Malta. • medical and scientific apparatus. • plugs and socket outlets for domestic use. b) the apparatus has an adequate level of intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic disturbance to enable it to operate as intended. • telecommunications networks and apparatus.Electrical devices ABB SACE . installers.1. for use on ships. which complies with the safety provisions drawn up by international bodies in which the Member States participate. Germany. in case there aren’t any. Directive EMC 89/336/EEC (“Electromagnetic Compatibility”) The Directive on electromagnetic compatibility regards all the electrical and electronic apparatus as well as systems and installations containing electrical and/or electronic components. EC DIRECTIVES FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Among its institutional roles. French and German. Presently it comprises 27 countries (Austria. whose reference numbers are published in the Official Journal of the European Communities and which are transposed into the national standards.1 General aspects 1. Bulgaria. In particular. Greece. Denmark. aircraft or railways. Slovakia.1 General aspects 1 Standards CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) was set up in 1973. The scope of each directive is to make manufacturers take all the necessary steps and measures so that the product does not affect the safety and health of persons. Estonia. In particular. Norway. • electrical equipment for radiology and medical purposes. animals and property. An apparatus is declared in conformity to the provisions at points a) and b) when the apparatus complies with the harmonized standards relevant to its product family or. • mobile radio equipment. • information technology equipment (ITE). Netherlands. Czech Republic. Sweden. devices. Spain. • radio and television broadcast transmitters. The apparatus shall be so constructed that: a) the electromagnetic disturbance it generates does not exceed a level allowing radio and telecommunications equipment and other apparatus to operate as intended. with the general standards. • domestic appliances and household electronic equipment. EN Standards are generally issued in three languages: English. Croatia. distribution and use of electrical power. for which standardization is urgently required. these directives come into juridical force and become a reference for manufacturers. measuring instruments. protection devices and wiring materials. Italy. • the applicability of the harmonized standards or of other technical specifications is facultative and manufacturers are free to choose other technical solutions which ensure compliance with the essential requirements. Directives are based on the following principles: • harmonization is limited to essential requirements. and dealers who must fulfill the duties prescribed by law. Belgium. Romania. are considered in compliance with the essential requirements. The following categories are outside the scope of this Directive: • electrical equipment for use in an explosive atmosphere.

It guarantees compliance with SAA (Standard Association of Australia). manufacture and operation of the product EC declaration of conformity The manufacturer guarantees and declares that his products are in conformity to the technical documentation and to the directive requirements EUROPE ASDC008045F0201 Manufacturer AUSTRALIA AS Mark Naval type approval The environmental conditions which characterize the use of circuit breakers for on-board installations can be different from the service conditions in standard industrial environments.abb. It is always advisable to ask ABB SACE as regards the typologies and the performances of the certified circuit-breakers or to consult the section certificates in the website http://bol. such as: . Technical file The manufacturer draw up the technical documentation covering the design. 6 ABB SACE . 1 Standards ABB SACE circuit-breakers (Isomax-Tmax-Emax) are approved by the following shipping registers: • • • • • • RINA DNV BV GL LRs ABS Registro Italiano Navale Det Norske Veritas Bureau Veritas Germanischer Lloyd Lloyd’s Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Italian shipping register Norwegian shipping register French shipping register German shipping register British shipping register American shipping register When the CE marking is affixed on a product. as regards his products. unless this measure is justified by the proved non-conformity of the product.A. marine applications can require installation under particular conditions. Mark Electrical and non-electrical products. This prevents the Member States from limiting the marketing and putting into service of products bearing the CE marking.A. the most significant of which are vibration.Electrical devices AUSTRALIA S. humidity and dry-heat tests. Standards Association of Australia (S. In order to ensure the proper function in such environments. dynamic inclination.A.on board environments (engine room) where the apparatus operate in the presence of vibrations characterized by considerable amplitude and duration. by virtue of the European Community directives providing for the affixing of the CE marking. it represents a declaration of the manufacturer or of his authorized representative that the product in question conforms to all the applicable provisions including the conformity assessment procedures. for information only: COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation – Applicability/Organization Mark of compliance with the harmonized European standards listed in the ENEC Agreement.A.com. salt-mist environment).1.). Flow diagram for the conformity assessment procedures established by the Directive 73/23/EEC on electrical equipment designed for use within particular voltage range: Marks of conformity to the relevant national and international Standards The international and national marks of conformity are reported in the following table.it. including saltmist atmosphere (damp-heat. as a matter of fact.1 General aspects 1.Electrical devices ABB SACE .1 General aspects 1 Standards CE conformity marking The CE conformity marking shall indicate conformity to all the obligations imposed on the manufacturer. The Electricity Authority of New South Wales Sydney Australia AUSTRIA Austrian Test Mark Installation equipment and materials OVE 7 . the shipping registers require that the apparatus has to be tested according to specific type approval tests. .environments characterized by high temperature and humidity.

1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation ÖVE Identification Thread Applicability/Organization Cables COUNTRY 1 Standards Symbol Mark designation KONKAR Applicability/Organization Electrical Engineering Institute AUSTRIA CROATIA BELGIUM CEBEC Mark Installation materials and electrical appliances DENMARK DEMKO Approval Mark Low voltage materials.1.1 General aspects 1. This mark guarantees compliance with CSA (Canadian Standard Association) FRANCE NF Mark Conductors and cables – Conduits and ducting – Installation materials CHINA CCEE Mark Great Wall Mark Commission for Certification of Electrical Equipment FRANCE NF Identification Thread Cables Czech Republic EZU’ Mark Electrotechnical Testing Institute FRANCE NF Mark Portable motor-operated tools Slovakia Republic EVPU’ Mark Electrotechnical Research and Design Institute FRANCE NF Mark Household appliances 8 ABB SACE .Electrical devices ABB SACE . This mark guarantees the compliance of the product with the requirements (safety) of the “Heavy Current Regulations” BELGIUM Certification of Conformity Installation material and electrical appliances (in case there are no equivalent national standards or criteria) FRANCE ESC Mark Household appliances CANADA CSA Mark Electrical and non-electrical products. conductors and flexible cords FINLAND Safety Mark of the Elektriska Inspektoratet Low voltage material. This mark guarantees the compliance of the product with the requirements (safety) of the “Heavy Current Regulations” BELGIUM CEBEC Mark Conduits and ducts.Electrical devices 9 .

The mark is under the control of the Asociación Electrotécnica Española(Spanish Electrotechnical Association) M R 11 . insulated cords. lamp holders and electronic devices) Cables and cords COUNTRY 1 Standards Symbol Mark designation IMQ Mark Applicability/Organization Mark to be affixed on electrical material for non-skilled users.1. it certifies compliance with the European Standard(s). S . installation accessories such as plugs. I. earthing systems. R .Electrical devices E D A SIQ Slovenian Institute of Quality and Metrology AEE Electrical products. GERMANY ITALY GERMANY VDE Identification Thread NORWAY Norwegian Approval Mark Mandatory safety approval for low voltage material and equipment GERMANY VDE Cable Mark For cables. SINGAPORE O SIN GAPO SISIR R Electrical and non-electrical products E STA N D AR PP IRELAND IIRS Mark Electrical equipment SLOVENIA IRELAND K OF CO N F O IIRS Mark MI TY Electrical equipment SPAIN C A DE CON FO R M I DA D A NO R MA S U N MAR AR I . which is granted both to be used alone as well as in combination with the mark GS Hungarian Institute for Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment POLAND KWE Electrical products B RUSSIA Certification of Conformity Electrical and non-electrical products. as well as other components (capacitors. fuses. installation conduits and ducts NETHERLANDS KEUR KEMA-KEUR General for all equipment GERMANY VDE-GS Mark for technical equipment geprüfte Sicherheit HUNGARY MEEI Safety mark for technical equipment to be affixed after the product has been tested and certified by the VDE Test Laboratory in Offenbach.1 General aspects 1. the conformity mark is the mark VDE. wires and cables. It guarantees compliance with national standard (Gosstandard of Russia) JAPAN JIS Mark R O V ED T Mark which guarantees compliance with the relevant Japanese Industrial Standard(s). sockets.Electrical devices ABB SACE . 10 ABB SACE .1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation VDE Mark Applicability/Organization For appliances and technical equipment.

S.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation AENOR Applicability/Organization Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación. C ER TI FI C AT IO N UNITED KINGDOM ASTA Mark TR AD E M AR K Mark which guarantees compliance with the relevant “British Standards” U.S. U.A.A.Electrical devices D TES TI N A EP DENT LA B OR EN OR AT UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES Mark Electrical and non-electrical products Y UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES Mark Electrical and non-electrical products UL Recognition Electrical and non-electrical products CEN Mark Mark issued by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN): it guarantees compliance with the European Standards. CEN UNITED KINGDOM BASEC Identification Thread Cables CENELEC 12 ABB SACE .1. UNITED KINGDOM BSI Safety Mark Compliance with the “British Standards” SWITZERLAND Safety Mark ROVED Swiss low voltage material subject to mandatory approval (safety).A.S.Electrical devices ABB SACE . UNITED KINGDOM TO B R IT I S H A N D AR ST BEAB Kitemark Compliance with the relevant “British Standards” regarding safety and performances PP ND G FO R P U B L IC L I S T E D (Product Name) (Control Number) SWITZERLAND SEV Safety Mark Low voltage material subject to mandatory approval AF S ET Y SWITZERLAND – Cables subject to mandatory approval AN I U.1 General aspects 1. UNITED KINGDOM BASEC Mark Mark which guarantees compliance with the “British Standards” for conductors. Mark Cables 13 . cables and ancillary products. (Spanish Standarization and Certification Association) COUNTRY 1 Standards Symbol Mark designation BEAB Safety Mark Applicability/Organization Compliance with the “British Standards” for household appliances SPAIN UNITED KINGDOM SWEDEN SEMKO Mark Mandatory safety approval for low voltage material and equipment.

IEC 60038 IEC 60664-1 1983 2000 IEC 60909-0 IEC 60865-1 2001 1993 IEC 60781 1989 IEC 60076-1 IEC 60076-2 IEC 60076-3 2000 1993 2000 IEC 60076-5 IEC/TR 60616 IEC 60726 IEC 60445 2000 1978 1982 1999 14 ABB SACE .1 General aspects 1 Standards 1 Standards 1.Electrical devices 15 .Part 2: Temperature rise Power transformers .Part 1: Principles.1.Part 0: Calculation of currents Short-circuit currents . who declares under his own responsibility that all the equipment.Part 1: Rating and performance Graphical symbols for diagrams .Part 4: Location and installation documents IEC standard voltages Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems .Part 3: Insulation levels. dielectric tests and external clearances in air Power transformers . requirements and tests Short-circuit currents in three-phase a. • identification of the signer. systems .Calculation of effects .Declaration of Conformity The EC Declaration of Conformity is the statement of the manufacturer.Part 3: Connection diagrams. A copy of the EC Declaration of Conformity shall be kept by the manufacturer or by his representative together with the technical documentation. • the two last digits of the year of affixing of the CE marking. • description of the product. procedures or services refer and comply with specific standards (directives) or other normative documents. CENELEC Harmonization Mark IEC 60034-1 IEC 60617-DB-12M 1999 2001 EC Ex EUROPEA Mark IEC 61082-1 1991 CEEel CEEel Mark IEC 61082-2 1993 IEC 61082-3 1993 IEC 61082-4 1996 EC . marking and identification .Identification of equipment terminals and of terminations of certain designated conductors. • any reference to the technical specifications of conformity.Part 2: Functionoriented diagrams Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology . including general rules for an alphanumeric system COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation Applicability/Organization Certification mark providing assurance that the harmonized cable complies with the relevant harmonized CENELEC Standards – identification thread Mark assuring the compliance with the relevant European Standards of the products to be used in environments with explosion hazards Mark which is applicable to some household appliances (shavers.Part 1: Definitions and calculation methods Application guide for calculation of shortcircuit currents in low-voltage radial systems Power transformers . • reference to the harmonized standards and directives involved.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation STANDARD IEC 60027-1 YEAR 1992 TITLE Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology .12month subscription to online database comprising parts 2 to 11 of IEC 60617 Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Electrical devices ABB SACE .Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers Dry-type power transformers Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface.Part 1: General requirements Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .c. The EC Declaration of Conformity should contain the following information: • name and address of the manufacturer or by its European representative. electric clocks.Part 1: General Power transformers . tables and lists Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Part 1: General Rotating electrical machines . etc).

Part 4: Particular requirements for assemblies for construction sites (ACS) IEC 60446 1999 IEC 60947-6-1 1998 IEC 60447 IEC 60947-1 IEC 60947-2 IEC 60947-3 1993 2001 2001 2001 IEC 60947-6-2 1999 IEC 60947-7-1 1999 IEC 60947-7-2 1995 IEC 60947-4-1 2000 IEC 60439-1 1999 IEC 60947-4-2 2002 IEC 60439-2 2000 IEC 60947-4-3 1999 IEC 60439-3 2001 IEC 60947-5-1 2000 IEC 60439-4 1999 IEC 60947-5-2 1999 IEC 60947-5-3 1999 IEC 60439-5 1999 IEC 60947-5-4 1996 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Section 1: Terminal blocks Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 7: Ancillary equipment .Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Electromechanical control circuit devices Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-2: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Proximity switches Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-3: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Requirements for proximity devices with defined behaviour under fault conditions Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Section 4: Method of assessing the performance of low energy contacts.2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1. switchdisconnectors and fuse-combination units Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-1: Contactors and motor-starters – Electromechanical contactors and motorstarters Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-2: Contactors and motor-starters – AC semiconductor motor controllers and starters Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-3: Contactors and motor-starters – AC semiconductor controllers and contactors for non-motor loads Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-1: Control circuit devices and switching elements .Electrical devices ABB SACE .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60073 YEAR 1996 TITLE Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface.Electrical emergency stop device with mechanical latching function 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60947-5-6 YEAR 1999 TITLE Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-6: Control circuit devices and switching elements – DC interface for proximity sensors and switching amplifiers (NAMUR) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 6-1: Multiple function equipment – Automatic transfer switching equipment Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 6-2: Multiple function equipment Control and protective switching devices (or equipment) (CPS) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 7: Ancillary equipment .1. marking and identification .Identification of conductors by colours or numerals Man-machine-interface (MMI) . disconnectors.Electrical devices 17 . marking and identification – Coding for indication devices and actuators Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface. Special tests Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-5: Control circuit devices and switching elements .Actuating principles Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: General rules Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 2: Circuit-breakers Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches.Section 2: Protective conductor terminal blocks for copper conductors Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 5: Particular requirements for assemblies intended to be installed outdoors in public places Cable distribution cabinets (CDCs) for power distribution in networks IEC 61095 2000 IEC 60947-5-5 1997 Electromechanical contactors for household and similar purposes 16 ABB SACE .

socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes .Part 2: Particular requirements – Section 2: Remote-control switches (RCS) Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .Part 2-3: Particular requirements – Time-delay switches (TDS) IEC 61117 1992 IEC 60092-303 1980 IEC 60092-301 IEC 60092-101 IEC 60092-401 1980 1994 1980 IEC 61008-1 1996 IEC 61008-2-1 1990 IEC 60092-201 IEC 60092-202 IEC 60092-302 1994 1994 1997 IEC 61008-2-2 1990 IEC 60092-350 2001 IEC 61009-1 1996 IEC 60092-352 1997 IEC 60364-5-52 2001 IEC 61009-2-1 1991 IEC 60227 1998 1997 1997 1997 1998 2001 1995 IEC 60228 IEC 60245 1978 IEC 61009-2-2 1991 IEC 60670 1989 IEC 60669-2-1 2000 IEC 60669-2-2 2000 1998 1998 1994 IEC 606692-3 1997 18 ABB SACE . Part 2-1: Applicability of the general rules to RCCB’s functionally independent of line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB’s). Part 2-2: Applicability of the general rules to RCCB’s functionally dependent on line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBOs) Part 1: General rules Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO’s) Part 2-1: Applicability of the general rules to RCBO’s functionally independent of line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO’s) Part 2-2: Applicability of the general rules to RCBO’s functionally dependent on line voltage General requirements for enclosures for accessories for household and similar fixed electrical installations Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .Protection Electrical installations in ships . Part 303: Equipment .Electrical devices ABB SACE .Part 201: System design . Part 301: Equipment .Part 5-52: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Wiring systems Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/ 750 V Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Test methods Part 3: Non-sheathed cables for fixed wiring Part 4: Sheathed cables for fixed wiring Part 5: Flexible cables (cords) Part 6: Lift cables and cables for flexible connections Part 7: Flexible cables screened and unscreened with two or more conductors Conductors of insulated cables Rubber insulated cables .Part 302: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies Electrical installations in ships .Part 101: Definitions and general requirements Electrical installations in ships.General construction and test requirements Electrical installations in ships .Part 350: Shipboard power cables .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60890 YEAR 1987 TITLE A method of temperature-rise assessment by extrapolation for partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear A method for assessing the short-circuit withstand strength of partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) Electrical installations in ships.General Electrical installations in ships .Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube accessories Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCBs) Part 1: General rules Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB’s).Part 202: System design .Part 2-1: Particular requirements – Electronic switches Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .Electrical devices 19 .Transformers for power and lighting Electrical installations in ships.Part 352: Choice and installation of cables for lowvoltage power systems Electrical installations of buildings . Part 401: Installation and test of completed installation Electrical installations in ships .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1.Generators and motors Electrical installations in ships .Rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Test methods Part 3: Heat resistant silicone insulated cables 1 Standards STANDARD YEAR 1994 1994 1994 1998 IEC 60309-2 1999 TITLE Part 5: Lift cables Part 6: Arc welding electrode cables Part 7: Heat resistant ethylene-vinyl acetate rubber insulated cables Part 8: Cords for applications requiring high flexibility Plugs.1.

2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1.Probes for verification Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1: General .Section 1: Application and interpretation of fundamental definitions and terms Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1-2: General .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60079-10 YEAR 1995 TITLE Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres . definitions Electrical installations of buildings .Part 3-1: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications) Sections I to IV Miniature fuses Part 1: Definitions for miniature fuses and general requirements for miniature fuse-links Part 2: Cartridge fuse-links Part 3: Sub-miniature fuse-links Part 4: Universal Modular Fuse-Links (UMF) Part 5: Guidelines for quality assessment of miniature fuse-links Part 6: Fuse-holders for miniature cartridge fuse-links Part 10: User guide for miniature fuses Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use.1. Part 2: Particular requirements for timers and time switches Electrical installations of buildings .Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .Electrical devices 21 .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment Electrical installations of buildings . Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 61032 IEC 61000-1-1 YEAR 1997 1992 TITLE Protection of persons and equipment by enclosures .Part 17: Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Low-voltage fuses . Part 2: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (fuses mainly for industrial application) Low-voltage fuses .The effects of highaltitude EMP (HEMP) on civil equipment and systems IEC 60079-14 1996 IEC 61000-1-2 2001 IEC 60079-17 1996 IEC 60269-1 IEC 60269-2 1998 1986 IEC 61000-1-3 2002 IEC 60269-3-1 2000 IEC 60127-1/10 1999 1989 1988 1996 1988 1994 2001 1990 IEC 60730-2-7 IEC 60364-1 2001 IEC 60364-4 IEC 60364-5 IEC 60364-6 IEC 60364-7 2001 2001…2002 2001 1983…2002 IEC 60529 2001 20 ABB SACE .Part 4: Protection for safety Electrical installations of buildings . assessment of general characteristics.Methodology for the achievement of the functional safety of electrical and electronic equipment with regard to electromagnetic phenomena Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1-3: General .Part 14: Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .Part 6: Verification Electrical installations of buildings.Part 1: Fundamental principles.Electrical devices ABB SACE .Part 1: General requirements Low-voltage fuses.

Current-using equipment Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy. distribution or utilization of electrical energy. Stationary equipment Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved. Short-circuit current An overcurrent resulting from a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions. switching. Characteristics of installations Electrical installation (of a building) An assembly of associated electrical equipment to fulfil a specific purpose and having coordinated characteristics. . Overcurrent Any current exceeding the rated value. Protective conductor PE A conductor required by some measures for protection against electric shock for electrically connecting any of the following parts: . and motive power Switchgear and controlgear Equipment provided to be connected to an electrical circuit for the purpose of carrying out one or more of the following functions: protection. control. such as machines. Note: the actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances. . for example light. Other equipment Electrical equipment Any item used for such purposes as generation. conversion. appliances.main earthing terminal.Electrical devices 23 .2. Overcurrent detection A function establishing that the value of current in a circuit exceeds a predetermined value for a specified length of time.exposed conductive parts. . Electrical circuits Electrical circuit (of an installation) An assembly of electrical equipment of the installation supplied from the same origin and protected against overcurrents by the same protective device(s). Currents Design current (of a circuit) The current intended to be carried by a circuit in normal service. heat.1 Introduction The following definitions regarding electrical installations are derived from the Standard IEC 60050.earth electrode. Leakage current Electrical current in an unwanted conductive path other than a short circuit. measuring instruments. Fault current The current flowing at a given point of a network resulting from a fault at another point of this network. Voltages Nominal voltage (of an installation) Voltage by which an installation or part of an installation is designated. PEN conductor An earthed conductor combining the functions of both protective conductor and neutral conductor Ambient temperature The temperature of the air or other medium where the equipment is to be used. Fixed equipment Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. For conductors. . in which the motor. Wiring systems Wiring system An assembly made up of a cable or cables or busbars and the parts which secure and. forms an integral part of the equipment.Electrical devices ABB SACE . Distribution circuit (of buildings) A circuit supplying a distribution board. the rated value is the current-carrying capacity.earthed point of the source or artificial neutral. Neutral conductor (symbol N) A conductor connected to the neutral point of a system and capable of contributing to the transmission of electrical energy. designated conventional time.1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders 2. if any. transformers. equipment for wiring systems. 2 Protection of feeders Conventional operating current (of a protective device) A specified value of the current which cause the protective device to operate within a specified time. if necessary. Current-carrying capacity (of a conductor) The maximum current which can be carried continuously by a conductor under specified conditions without its steady-state temperature exceeding a specified value. protective devices. isolation. Portable equipment Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. Hand-held equipment Portable equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use. enclose the cable(s) or busbars. Final circuit (of building) A circuit connected directly to current using equipment or to socket-outlets. transmission.extraneous conductive parts. 22 ABB SACE . Overload current (of a circuit) An overcurrent occurring in a circuit in the absence of an electrical fault. apparatus. Origin of an electrical installation The point at which electrical energy is delivered to an installation.

Load analysis: .Electrical devices ABB SACE . Verification of the coordination with other equipments (discrimination and negative back-up. – Not permitted. 2 Protection of feeders 2. • insulation material (none. . 24 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 25 .Wiring systems”. • verify the voltage drop.definition of the position of the power distribution centers (switchboards). • choose the cross section according to the load current. XLPE-EPR): the insulation material affects the maximum temperature under normal and short-circuit conditions and therefore the exploitation of the conductor cross section [see Chapter 2. . Table 1: Selection of wiring systems negative outcome Dimensioning of transformers and generators with margin connected to future predictable power supply requirements (by approximation from +15÷30%) Dimensioning of conductors: . joints along the route. An aluminium conductor of the same cross section has an electrical resistance about 60% higher and a weight half to one third lower than a copper conductor. resistance to corrosive environments (chemical reagents or oxidizing elements). 2.verification of the protection against overload: the rated current or the set current of the circuit-breaker shall be higher than the load current.breaking capacity higher than the maximum prospective short-circuit current.) required by the method of installation.. 0 Not applicable. verification of the coordination with switch disconnectors. single-core cable without sheath. Verification of the protection of conductors: . it is necessary to: • choose the type of cable and installation according to the environment. or not normally used in practice. The following parameters are used to select the cable type: • conductive material (copper or aluminium): the choice depends on cost. dimension and weight requirements. the carrying capacity of a copper conductor is about 30% greater than the carrying capacity of an aluminium conductor of the same cross section.).definition of the cross section and of the current carrying capacity. terminals…) and switchboard design + Permitted. • the type of conductor (bare conductor. configuration. Verification of the voltage drop limits at the final loads negative outcome Short-circuit current calculation maximum values at the busbars (beginning of line) and minimum values at the end of line Selection of protective circuit-breakers with: . taking into account the utilization factors and demand factors.evaluation of the current (I b ) in the single connection elements. degree of insulation and difficulty of installation (bends. .. In general.calculation of the voltage drop at the load current under specific reference conditions (motor starting.verification of the protection against indirect contacts (depending on the distribution system). .definition of the paths and calculation of the length of the connection elements..characteristics compatible with the type of protected load (motors. . . .1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders Installation dimensioning The flow chart below suggests the procedure to follow for the correct dimensioning of a plant. Table 1 shows the types of conductors permitted by the different methods of installation..…).Support fixings direct Conduit trunking) ducting Cable brackets sulators wire + + + + + + 0 + + + + + + + + + + 0 0 + + Definition of the components (auxiliary circuits..1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation Selection of the cable The international reference Standard ruling the installation and calculation of the current carrying capacity of cables in residential and industrial buildings is IEC 60364-5-52 “Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-52 Selection and Erection of Electrical Equipment.verification of the protection against short-circuit: the specific let-through energy by the circuit breaker under short-circuit conditions shall be lower than the specific let-through energy which can be withstood by the cable: I2t ≤ k2S2 .4 “Protection against short-circuit”]. . barriers..2.. but lower than the current carrying capacity of the conductor: Ib ≤ In ≤ Iz .definition of the total power absorbed.rated current In not lower than the load curren Ib.definition of the power absorbed by the loads and relevant position. flush floor Cable Without Clipped Cable tray On in.2. capacitors. singlecore cable with sheath..) outcome 1SDC010001F0901 Conductors and cables Bare conductors Insulated conductors Sheathed cables Multi-core (including armoured and mineral insulated) Single-core Method of installation Cable trunking (including skirting Cable ladder trunking.definition of the conductor type (conductors and insulation materials.). PVC..2 Installation and dimensioning of cables For a correct dimensioning of a cable. multi-core cable) is selected according to mechanical resistance.

16 56 72. 14 10. or spaced less than 0. 32. 34 36 36 35 TV ISDN Room 3 Multi-core cable direct in a thermally insulated wall Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit on a wooden. 15. 13.3 times conduit diameter from it Multi-core cable in conduit on a wooden.Electrical devices 27 . 8.Not permitted. 60 4. 31. Description Room 1 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall A1 Room 2 Multi-core cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall A2 Table 2: Method of installation Method of installation Cable trunking (including skirting Cable ladder Support trunking. 31. or masonry wall or spaced less than 0. 7. F.Electrical devices ABB SACE . B2. 2 59. the method of installation (A1. From Tables 2 and 3 it is possible to identify the installation identification number. C. 33. G) and the tables to define the theoretical current carrying capacity of the conductor and any correction factors required to allow for particular environmental and installation situations. or masonry wall or spaced less than 0. 46. 58 - 5 B2 6 7 B1 8 9 B1 (8) or B2 (9) 12 A1 B1 (13) or B2 (14) A1 A1 1SDC010001F0201 The number in each box indicates the item number in Table 3.2. 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Examples of methods of installation Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Methods of installation To define the current carrying capacity of the conductor and therefore to identify the correct cross section for the load current. 9. 71 1. . flush floor Cable With Cable tray On fixings Conduit trunking) ducting Cable brackets insulators wire 30. B1. 7. 31. 32. A2. D.3 times conduit diameter from it Insulated conductors or single-core cables in cable trunking on a wooden wall – run horizontally (6) – run vertically (7) Insulated conductors or single-core cable in suspended cable trunking (8) Multi-core cable in suspended cable trunking (9) Insulated conductors or single-core cable run in mouldings Insulated conductors or single-core cables in skirting trunking (13) Multi-core cable in skirting trunking (14) Insulated conductors in conduit single-core or multi-core cable architrave Insulated conductors in conduit single-core or multi-core cable window frames or in or in A1 4 B1 Situations Building voids Cable channel Buried in Ground Embedded in Structure Surface Mounted Overhead Without fixings 40. 21 70. 8. 34 0 3 20. 5 0 50. 52. the standardized method of installation that better suits the actual installation situation must be identified among those described in the mentioned reference Standard. 55 0 44 33. 11 70. 45 6.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. 34 30. TV ISDN 13 14 15 16 20 21 Single-core or multi-core cables: – fixed on. E.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders For industrial installations. 12. 31. 53 6. 9 0 0 30. 0 Not applicable or not normally used in practice. multi-core cables are rarely used with cross section greater than 95 mm2. 34 30. 33. 0 15. 33. 73 57. 56 54. 71 44. 16 0 32.3 times (20) cable diameter from a wooden wall – fixed directly under a wooden ceiling (21) C 26 ABB SACE . Methods of installation Item n. 32. 51.

3 De 50 33 Spaced more than 0.3 De ≤ 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥20 De B1 28 ABB SACE .5 De ≤ V < 5 D e 32 On brackets or on a wire mesh 1 46 E or F Single-core or multi-core cable: – in a ceiling void 1 – in a suspended floor B2 5 De ≤ V < 50De B1 ≤ 0.3 De De V 24 Insulated conductors in cable ducting 2 in a building void 31 On perforated tray 1 E or F V 1.3 De De V 1.3 De 5 De ≤ V < 50 De B1 ≤ 0.3 times cable diameter from a wall Insulated conductors or single-core cable in flush cable trunking in the floor Multi-core cable in flush cable trunking in the floor B1 B2 E or F or G 51 34 On ladder E or F TV ISDN TV ISDN 52 53 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in embedded trunking (52) Multi-core cable in embedded trunking (53) B1 (52) or B2 (53) 35 Single-core or multi-core cable suspended from or incorporating a support wire E or F 1SDC010002F0201 36 Bare or insulated conductors on insulators G De V 54 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in an unventilated cable channel run horizontally or 2 vertically 1. Description ≤ 0.Electrical devices 29 . Description Methods of installation Item n.5 De ≤ V < 5 De 44 Insulated conductors in cable ducting in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W B2 ≤ 0.3 De V De 40 Single-core or multi-core cable in a 2 building void 30 On unperforated tray 1 C 1.5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥ 20 De B1 1.5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥ 20 De B1 ≤ 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Methods of installation Item n.2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.

58 0. floor or ceiling void.67 0.76 0.75 0.57 0.87 0.71 0.41 – – – Mineral (a) PVC covered or bare and exposed Bare not exposed to touch 70 °C to touch 105 °C 1.79 0.96 0.71 0.04 0.70 – 0.12 1.92 0.82 0.08 1.50 – – – – – – – XLPE and EPR 1.17 1. 58 C 59 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in masonry B1 Table 4: Correction factor for ambient air temperature other than 30 °C Insulation 60 Multi-core cables in conduit in masonry B2 70 Multi-core cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground D 71 Single-core cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground Sheathed single-core or multi-core cables direct in the ground – without added mechanical protection Sheathed single-core or multi-core cables direct in the ground – with added mechanical protection D 72 D 73 1 D D e is the external diameter of a multi-core cable: – 2. If the ambient temperature of the place of installation is different from this reference temperature.50 0. The depth of the channel is more important than the width.93 0. 30 ABB SACE .20 1.45 0.2.96 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE . Ambient temperature (a) °C 10 15 20 25 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 (a) PVC 1.22 1.47 – 0. • k2 is the correction factor for cables installed bunched or in layers or for cables installed in a layer on several supports.91 0.87 0. • k1 is the correction factor if the ambient temperature is other than 30 °C. V is the smaller dimension or diameter of a masonry duct or void.2 x the cable diameter when three single core cables are bound in trefoil. according to the insulation material.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity 2 Protection of feeders Installation not buried in the ground: choice of the cross section according to cable carrying capacity and type of installation The cable carrying capacity of a cable that is not buried in the ground is obtained by using this formula: Methods of installation Item n.94 0.07 1.11 1.14 1. Description 55 Insulated conductors in conduit in an open or ventilated cable channel in the floor Sheathed single-core or multi-core cable in an open or ventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically Single-core or multi-core cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W Without added mechanical protection Single-core or multi-core cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W With added mechanical protection I z = I 0 k1k2 = I 0 ktot B1 where: • I0 is the current carrying capacity of the single conductor at 30 °C reference ambient temperature.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.84 0.88 0.65 – – 0. the correction factor k1 on Table 4 shall be used.87 0. consult manufacturer.60 – 0. 2 De is the external diameter of conduit or vertical depth of cable ducting.26 1. or the vertical depth of a rectangular duct.04 0.Electrical devices 31 .14 1.65 0. or – 3 x the cable diameter when three single core cables are laid in flat formation.12 1.06 0.32 1SDC010003F0201 For higher ambient temperatures.54 – 0.80 0.15 1.85 0.07 1.61 0. 56 B1 57 C Correction factor k1 The current carrying capacity of the cables that are not buried in the ground refers to 30 °C ambient temperature.40 – 0.

A group of cables is considered to consist of similar cables when the calculation of the current carrying capacity is based on the same maximum allowed operating temperature and when the cross sections of the conductors is in the range of three adjacent standard cross sections (e. The heat dissipation of a single cable is different from that of the same cable when installed next to the other ones. c) on perforated tray c) < 30 cm 1SDC010002F0001 The value of correction factor k2 is 1 when: • the cables are spaced: . The factor k2 is tabled according to the installation of cables laid close together in layers or bunches. but must be calculated for each bunch or layer.Electrical devices 33 . The correction factors for bunched cables or cables in layers are calculated by assuming that the bunches consist of similar cables that are equally loaded. floor or on a cable ladder. c) double layer bunch: several circuits constituted by cables that are not spaced and are not installed in a layer.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor k2 The cable current carrying capacity is influenced by the presence of other cables installed nearby. several layers superimposed on a single support (e.g. Definition of layer or bunch layer: several circuits constituted by cables installed one next to another.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.two multi-core cables are spaced when the distance between them is at least the same as the external diameter of the larger cable. arranged horizontally or vertically. These factors have not been tabled. ceiling. spaced or not. b) in conduit. The calculation of the reduction factors for bunched cables with different cross sections depends on the number of cables and on their cross sections. Cables in layers: a) spaced. The cables on a layer are installed on a wall. .Electrical devices ABB SACE . tray) are considered to be a bunch. • the adjacent cables are loaded less than 30 % of their current carrying capacity. tray. from 10 to 25 mm2).g.two single-core cables belonging to different circuits are spaced when the distance between them is more than twice the external diameter of the cable with the larger cross section. 2 Protection of feeders a) b) > 2 De2 a) De1 De2 c) 1SDC010003F0001 b) Bunched cables: a) in trunking. 32 ABB SACE .2. b) not spaced.

cleats.86 Three cables in horizontal formation 20 mm ≥2 D e e 2D 31 1 1.93 0.97 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .70 1 n Method of installation in Table 3 20 mm Touching Vertical perforated trays (note 3) 1 225 mm 31 0. The following tables show the reduction factor (k2).94 1.71 0.93 0.86 Three cables in trefoil formation 1. (note 2) 32 33 34 ≥2 D e De De 1 2 3 1.63 0. cleats.73 0. equally loaded.97 0.79 0. NOTE 2 Where horizontal clearances between adjacent cables exceeds twice their overall diameter.62 0.89 0.95 0. NOTE 4 For circuits having more than one cable in parallel per phase. Values for such installations may be significantly lower and must be determined by an appropriate method. etc.2.70 0.89 0.97 0.and three-core cables. etc. but may lead to under utilization of cables with a larger cross section. and the corresponding factor is applied to the tables for two loaded conductors for the two-core cables.93 0.86 0. • n is the number of circuits of the bunch.00 0.90 0.72 multicore cables 0. NOTE 3 The same factors are applied to: – groups of two or three single-core cables.96 0. Table 5: Reduction factor for grouped cables To be used with current-carrying capacities.96 0.00 0. on a surface.75 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders The reduction factor for a group containing different cross sections of insulated conductors or cables in conduits.65 0.85 0. 34 ABB SACE .73 0.80 0.00 0.68 0.96 0. The reduction factor obtained by this equation reduces the danger of overloading of cables with a smaller cross section. – multi-core cables.88 0. each three phase set of conductors should be considered as a circuit for the purpose of this table.81 0.61 20 mm Method C Vertical perforated trays (note 3) Spaced ≥2 D e 31 225 mm 1 2 1.75 0.87 0. no reduction factor need be applied.81 0.72 0.98 0.98 0. (note 2) Touching 32 33 34 1 2 3 1. 2 floor or unperforated tray Single layer fixed 3 directly under a wooden ceiling Single layer on a 4 perforated horizontal or vertical tray Single layer on ladder 5 support or cleats etc.60 0.78 Methods E and F Ladder supports.91 0.82 0. Number of circuits or multi-core cables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 1.90 NOTE 3 Values are given for horizontal spacing between trays of 225 mm with trays mounted back to back and at least 20 mm between the tray and any wall.50 0. reference Methods A to F 1.92 0.87 0.00 0.00 0.78 Three cables in horizontal formation 2 3 Use as a multiplier to rating for k2 = where: • k2 is the group reduction factor.96 0.64 0.66 0.72 0.73 0. NOTE 4 If a system consists of both two.95 0.77 0.00 0.84 – – 2 Three cables in vertical formation Arrangement Item (cables touching) 1 Bunched in air. and to the tables for three loaded conductors for the three-core cables.45 0.00 0.00 1.86 Perforated trays (note 2) De De 2 3 No further reduction factor for more than nine circuits or 1.97 0.96 1. Such under utilization can be avoided if large and small cables are not mixed in the same group.79 0.80 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.Electrical devices 35 1SDC010004F0201 NOTE 1 These factors are applicable to uniform groups of cables.90 0.96 0.57 0.87 0. NOTE 2 Values are given for vertical spacings between trays of 300 mm. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.54 0. embedded or enclosed Single layer on wall. 20 mm NOTE 1 Factors are given for single layers of cables (or trefoil groups) as shown in the table and do not apply when cables are installed in more than one layer touching each other.79 0.00 0.00 0. cable trunking or cable ducting is: 2 Protection of feeders Table 6: Reduction factor for single-core cables with method of installation F Number of trays Number of three-phase circuits (note 4) 1 Touching Perforated trays (note 2) 1 31 2 3 0. .72 0.91 0.95 0.89 0. the total number of cables is taken as the number of circuits.41 0.78 0.98 0.82 0.00 0.95 0.38 Ladder supports. NOTE 5 If a group consists of n single-core cables it may either be considered as n/2 circuits of two loaded conductors or n/3 circuits of three loaded conductors.85 0.52 0.72 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.80 0.

00 1.80 0.00 0.96 1. on insulation and conductive material and on the number of live conductors.00 0.86 0.73 0.00 1.73 0.00 0.91 0.93 – – – 20 mm NOTE 1 Factors apply to single layer groups of cables as shown above and do not apply when cables are installed in more than one layer touching each other. etc.99 0.89 0.78 0. 4.92 0. cleats.87 0.00 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 7: Reduction factor for multi-core cables with method of installation E Method of installation in Table 3 Touching 1 2 Perforated trays (note 2) 1.Electrical devices 37 .66 Number of trays Number of cables 1 2 3 4 6 9 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: The following procedure shall be used to determine the cross section of the cable: 1.71 0.98 0.2.86 0.00 0.82 0.99 0.78 0. the actual cable current carrying capacity is calculated by IZ = I0 k1 k2. from Table 3 identify the method of installation.00 1.00 0.97 1.72 0.88 0.79 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .76 0.79 0.85 – – – 20 mm Touching 1 225 mm 1.96 0.88 0.76 0.78 0. Table 7 for multi-core cables in a layer on several supports or the formula shown in the case of groups of cables with different sections to determine the correction factor k2 appropriate for the numbers of circuits or multicore cables.73 0.85 – – De De 2 5.73 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.95 0.00 1.81 0.00 1.98 1.91 0. Values for such installations may be significantly lower and must be determined by an appropriate method.85 0.79 0. from Table 4 determine the correction factor k1 according to insulation material and ambient temperature. Table 6 for singlecore cables in a layer on several supports. calculate the value of current I’b by dividing the load current Ib (or the rated current of the protective device) by the product of the correction factors calculated: 20 mm 31 Spaced 3 De 1 2 3 1.87 0.68 0.88 0.70 20 mm Spaced D ee D 1 2 3 1.00 0.95 0. depending on the method of installation.98 0. use Table 5 for cables installed in layer or bunch. 2.91 0.88 0.87 0.00 1.82 0. 36 ABB SACE . NOTE 3 Values are given for horizontal spacing between trays of 225 mm with trays mounted back to back. from Table 8 or from Table 9.73 0.76 0.77 0.87 0.82 0.00 1. 3.00 0.00 1.97 0.91 0.70 2 Vertical perforated trays (note 3) I'b = 31 Spaced 1 225 mm Ib I = b k1k2 k tot 1.76 0.88 0. 1SDC010005F0201 NOTE 2 Values are given for vertical spacings between trays of 300 mm and at least 20 mm between trays and wall.80 0.00 1.00 1. 6.96 0.87 0. (note 2) 32 33 34 1. determine the cross section of the cable with capacity I0 ≥ I’b.00 1.71 0.00 0.79 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced. Touching 1 2 3 Ladder supports. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.80 0.98 0.76 0.00 1.

0 32 28 44 39 60 53 79 70 97 86 118 104 150 133 181 161 210 186 19.2.5 15.5 16.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 38 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 39 1SDC010006F0201 17 23 31 40 54 73 95 117 141 179 216 249 285 324 380 435 14.5 18 26 24 34 31 46 42 61 56 80 73 99 89 119 108 151 136 182 164 210 188 240 216 273 245 321 286 367 328 20 27 35 48 64 84 103 125 158 191 220 253 288 338 387 19 25 32 44 58 76 94 113 142 171 197 226 256 300 344 14.5 14 13.5 17.5 19.5 13.0 25 22 18.5 26 23 35 30 44 38 60 52 80 69 105 90 128 111 154 133 194 168 233 201 268 232 23 31 40 54 72 94 115 138 175 210 242 21 28 35 48 64 84 103 124 156 188 216 17.5 20 17.5 25 23 33 31 44 41 58 53 71 65 86 78 108 98 130 118 150 135 172 155 195 176 229 207 263 237 17.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.5 26 24 36 32 48 43 63 57 77 70 93 84 118 107 142 129 164 149 189 170 215 194 252 227 289 261 13 18.5 19.0 41 36 54 48 71 62 86 77 104 92 131 116 157 139 181 160 22 30 40 52 71 96 119 147 179 229 278 322 371 424 500 576 19.5 2.5 25 25.5 13.5 24 21 30 27.5 25 22.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 8: Current carrying capacity of cables with PVC or EPR/XLPE insulation (method A-B-C) Installation method A1 A2 B1 2 Protection of feeders B2 C Conductor Insulation Loaded conductors XLPE EPR 2 19 26 35 45 61 81 106 131 158 200 241 278 318 362 424 486 3 Cu PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Cu PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 Cu XLPE EPR 2 23 31 42 54 75 100 133 164 198 253 306 354 3 20 28 37 48 66 88 117 144 175 222 269 312 2 PVC 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 22 30 40 51 69 91 119 146 175 221 265 305 3 Cu PVC 2 3 15 20 27 34 46 62 80 99 118 149 179 206 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 24 33 45 58 80 107 138 171 209 269 328 382 441 506 599 693 3 Cu PVC 2 3 XLPE/EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 S[mm2] 1.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 16.5 24 21 32 28 41 36 57 50 76 68 101 89 125 110 151 134 192 171 232 207 269 239 25 33 43 59 79 105 130 157 200 242 281 22 29 38 52 71 93 116 140 179 217 251 18.5 15.5 17.5 33 30 25 23 26 42 38 32 29 33 57 51 43 39 45 76 68 57 52 60 99 89 75 68 78 121 109 92 83 96 145 130 110 99 115 183 164 139 125 145 220 197 167 150 175 253 227 192 172 201 290 259 219 196 230 329 295 248 223 262 386 346 291 261 307 442 396 334 298 352 18 24 31 41 55 71 87 104 131 157 180 206 233 273 313 14.0 32 44 59 73 90 110 140 170 197 227 259 305 351 .5 16.5 14 20 18.5 27 24 36 32 46 41 63 57 85 76 112 96 138 119 168 144 213 184 258 223 299 259 344 299 392 341 461 403 530 464 26 35 45 62 84 101 126 154 198 241 280 324 371 439 508 24 32 41 57 76 90 112 136 174 211 245 283 323 382 440 21 28 36 49 66 83 103 125 160 195 226 261 298 352 406 18.

Electrical devices 1SDC010100F0201 28 38 49 67 91 108 135 164 211 257 300 346 397 470 543 23 31 39 54 73 89 111 135 173 210 244 282 322 380 439 24 32 42 58 77 97 120 146 187 227 263 304 347 409 471 19.2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 40 ABB SACE .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 8: Current carrying capacity of cables with PVC or EPR/XLPE insulation (method E-F-G) Installation method E F 2 Protection of feeders G or or De De Insulation Loaded conductors Cu XLPE EPR PVC 2 26 36 49 63 86 115 149 185 225 289 352 410 473 542 641 741 22 30 40 51 70 94 119 148 180 232 282 328 379 434 514 593 Al XLPE EPR PVC Cu XLPE EPR PVC 3 23 32 42 54 75 100 127 158 192 246 298 346 399 456 538 621 18.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.5 26 33 46 61 78 96 117 150 183 212 245 280 330 381 5 161 200 242 310 377 437 504 575 679 783 940 1083 1254 131 162 196 251 304 352 406 463 546 629 754 868 1005 121 150 184 237 289 337 389 447 530 613 740 856 996 98 122 149 192 235 273 316 363 430 497 600 694 808 13 169 207 268 328 383 444 510 607 703 823 946 1088 110 137 167 216 264 308 356 409 485 561 656 749 855 103 129 159 206 253 296 343 395 471 547 663 770 899 84 5 105 128 166 203 237 274 315 375 434 526 610 711 141 176 216 279 342 400 464 533 634 736 868 998 1151 114 143 174 225 275 321 372 427 507 587 689 789 905 107 135 165 215 264 308 358 413 492 571 694 806 942 87 109 133 173 212 247 287 330 392 455 552 640 746 182 226 275 353 430 500 577 661 781 902 1085 1253 1454 161 201 246 318 389 454 527 605 719 833 1008 1169 1362 146 181 219 281 341 396 456 521 615 709 852 982 1138 130 162 197 254 311 362 419 480 569 659 795 920 1070 138 172 210 271 332 387 448 515 611 708 856 991 1154 122 153 188 244 300 351 408 470 561 652 792 921 1077 112 139 169 217 265 308 356 407 482 557 671 775 900 99 124 152 196 241 282 327 376 447 519 629 730 852 ABB SACE .5 2.Electrical devices 41 .5 2 34 43 60 80 101 126 153 196 238 276 319 364 430 497 Al Cu XLPE XLPE EPR PVC EPR PVC 2 Al Cu Al XLPE XLPE XLPE EPR PVC EPR PVC EPR PVC 3 Cu XLPE EPR PVC 3 Al XLPE EPR PVC Cu XLPE EPR 3H 3V 3H C PVC 3V XLPE EPR 3H 3V Al PVC 3H 3V S[mm2] 1.

2.5 4 1.0 33 43 56 35 47 61 78 105 137 178 216 266 323 385 441 498 557 624 3 37. De is the external diameter of the cable.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 500 V 2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. values should be multiplied by 0.9. 42 ABB SACE . For bare cables exposed to touch.0 37 49 64 40 54 70 89 120 157 204 248 370 441 505 565 629 704 304 S[mm2] 1.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 9: Current carrying capacity of cables with mineral insulation Installation method Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C Sheath PVC covered or bare exposed to touch C Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch Metallic sheath temperature PVC covered or bare exposed to touch 70 °C E or F 2 Protection of feeders G Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch e Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C PVC covered or bare exposed to touch Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch Loaded conductors or or or or or or De De De De 3 33. For metallic sheath temperature 105 °C no correction for grouping need to be applied.Electrical devices 43 1SDC010007F0201 .5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 750 V 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 2 23 31 40 25 34 45 57 77 102 133 163 202 247 296 340 388 440 514 3 19 26 35 21 28 37 48 65 86 112 137 169 207 249 286 327 371 434 3 21 29 38 23 31 41 52 70 92 120 147 181 221 264 303 346 392 457 2 28 38 51 31 42 55 70 96 127 166 203 251 307 369 424 485 550 643 3 24 33 44 26 35 47 59 81 107 140 171 212 260 312 359 410 465 544 3 27 36 47 30 41 53 67 91 119 154 187 230 280 334 383 435 492 572 2 25 33 44 26 36 47 60 82 109 142 174 215 264 317 364 416 472 552 3 21 28 37 22 30 40 51 69 92 120 147 182 223 267 308 352 399 466 3 23 31 41 26 34 45 57 77 102 132 161 198 241 289 331 377 426 496 2 31 41 54 33 45 60 76 104 137 179 220 272 333 400 460 526 596 697 3 26 35 46 28 38 50 64 87 115 150 184 228 279 335 385 441 500 584 3 29 39 51 32 43 56 71 96 127 164 200 247 300 359 411 469 530 617 3 26 34 45 28 37 49 62 84 110 142 173 213 259 309 353 400 446 497 3 29 39 51 32 43 56 71 95 125 162 197 242 294 351 402 454 507 565 Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 Note 4 For single-core cables the sheaths of the cables of the circuit are connected together at both ends.

Electrical devices 45 .46 0.125 m 0.80 0. Table 11: Reduction factors for cables laid directly in the ground Cable to cable clearance (a) Nil (cables touching) 0. 12. Number of circuits 2 3 4 5 6 Tables 11.45 – – – – XLPE and EPR 1.90 0.5 m 0.55 0.75 0.04 0.07 1. The heat dissipation of a single cable is different from that of the same cable installed next to the other ones.80 0. use the correction factor k1 shown in Table 10 according to the insulation material.65 0. k 2' I z = I 0 k1k 2k 3 = I 0 k tot where: • I0 is the current carrying capacity of the single conductor for installation in the ground at 20°C reference temperature.80 0.60 0.70 0. • k3 is the correction factor if the soil thermal resistivity is different from the reference value.65 0.85 0.70 0. and 13 show the factor k2’ values for single-core and multi-core cables that are laid directly in the ground or which are installed in buried ducts.55 0.80 0. 44 ABB SACE .55 0.05 0.53 0. If the ground temperature is different.70 0.77 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.89 0.55 0.71 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.50 One cable diameter 0.85 0.38 Multi-core cables a a Single-core cables a a NOTE The given values apply to an installation depth of 0.90 0. • k1 is the correction factor if the temperature of the ground is other than 20°C.5 Km/W. according to their distance from other cables or the distance between the ducts. 2.80 Table 10: Correction factors for ambient ground temperatures other than 20 °C Ground temperature °C 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Insulation PVC 1.65 0.63 0.10 1.76 0.60 0.96 0.60 0.84 0.80 0. Correction factor k1 The current carrying capacity of buried cables refers to a ground temperature of 20 °C.93 0. The correction factor k2 is obtained by the formula: ' ' k2 = k 2 .2.89 0.70 0.25 m 0.75 0.60 0.75 0.85 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .71 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Installation in ground: choice of the cross section according to cable carrying capacity and type of installation The current carrying capacity of a cable buried in the ground is calculated by using this formula: 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor k2 The cable current carrying capacity is influenced by the presence of other cables installed nearby. • k2 is the correction factor for adjacent cables.95 0.5 Km/W.

5 m 0. • if several conductors of similar sizes are present in the same duct (for the meaning of “group of similar conductors”.90 Note 1: the overall accuracy of correction factors is within ±5%.5 Km/W.1 2 1.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.90 0. 46 ABB SACE .70 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.85 0.85 0.90 0. for cables laid direct in the ground the correction factors for thermal resistivities less than 2. Note 3: the correction factors are applicable to ducts buried at depths of up to 0.90 0.75 0.75 0. a Soil thermal resistivity influences the heat dissipation of the cable.2.5 Km/W.Electrical devices 47 .80 0. see the paragraphs above). Thermal resistivities Km/W Correction factor 1 1.5 m 0.85 0.80 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 12: Reduction factors for multi-core cables laid in single way ducts in the ground Cable to cable clearance (a) Number of circuits 2 3 4 5 6 Nil (cables touching) 0.80 1.95 0.60 0.90 0.90 0. IEC 60364-5-52 states as reference value for the soil thermal resistivity 2. whereas soil with high thermal resistivity limits heat dissipation.5 1.85 0.70 0.80 0.18 1.5 Km/W Table 13: Reduction factors for single-core cables laid in single way ducts in the ground Number of single-core circuits of two or three cables 2 3 4 5 6 Duct to duct clearance (a) Nil (ducts touching) 0.70 0.05 2. • if the conductors are not of similar size.80 1.Electrical devices ABB SACE .0 m 0. Table 14: Correction factors for soil thermal resistivities other than 2.60 0. Note 2: the correction factors are applicable to cables drawn into buried ducts. the value of k2’’ is 1.70 0.80 0.25 m 0.25 m 0.8 m.96 Single-core cables a a NOTE The given values apply to an installation depth of 0. Soil with low thermal resistivity facilitates heat dissipation.5 Km/W will be higher.5 Km/W.5 1 3 0.60 0.65 0. Correction factor k3 NOTE The given values apply to an installation depth of 0.95 0.0 m 0.90 0.90 0. the correction factor is calculated by using this formula: ' k 2' = 1 n Multi-core cables where: n is the number of circuits in the duct.90 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.95 0.90 2 Protection of feeders For correction factor k2’’: • for cables laid directly in the ground or if there are not other conductors within the same duct.85 0.80 0.80 0.95 0.65 0. Where more precise values are required they may be calculated by methods given in IEC 60287. k2’’ is obtained from the first row of Table 5.90 0.80 0.

from Table 10. the actual cable current carrying capacity is calculated by. the insulation and conductive material and the number of live conductors.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.Electrical devices 49 1SDC010009F0201 similar sections? 1 n . use Table 11.5 2.5 24 30 40 52 66 80 94 117 138 157 178 200 230 260 I' b =I b /k tot k tot =k 1 *k 2 *k 3 k 2 =k 2 '*k 2 '' table current carrying capacity I 0 > I' b Thermal resistivity <> 2. Ambient air temperature <> 30 °C? no k1 = 1 cables laid directly in the ground? yes k 2 ' from table 11 (k 2 ''=1) no for cables? I z = I 0 k 1k 2 k 3 Table 15: Current carrying capacity of cables buried in the ground Installation method D k 2 from table 7 yes k2 = 1 yes multi-core cable? no similar sections? no k 2 ' from table 13 k 2 ' from table 12 no k 2 '' = 1 n yes yes no multi-core cable? single layer? more than one cable per conduit? yes no k 2 '' = no Conductor Insulation Loaded conductors 2 26 34 44 56 73 95 121 146 173 213 252 287 324 363 419 474 XLPE EPR 3 22 29 37 46 61 79 101 122 144 178 211 240 271 304 351 396 2 22 29 38 47 63 81 104 125 148 183 216 246 278 312 361 408 Cu PVC 3 18 24 31 39 52 67 86 103 122 151 179 203 230 258 297 336 2 XLPE EPR 3 2 Al PVC k 2 from table 6 yes k 2 from table 5 k 2 ''=1 yes k 2 '' from table 6 3 k tot =k 1 *k 2 S[mm ] 1. from Table 15. 4. Table 13 or the formula for groups of non-similar cables to determine the correction factor k2 according to the distance between cables or ducts. from Table 14 determine factor k3 corresponding to the soil thermal resistivity.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: Use this procedure to determine the cross section of the cable: 1. 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 2 1SDC010008F0201 26 34 42 56 73 93 112 132 163 193 220 249 279 322 364 22 29 36 47 61 78 94 112 138 164 186 210 236 272 308 22 29 36 48 62 80 96 113 140 166 189 213 240 277 313 18. 6. according to the method of installation.Electrical devices ABB SACE . 3. determine the correction factor k1 according to the insulation material and the ground temperature. determine the cross section of the cable with I0 ≥ I’b. calculate the value of the current I’b by dividing the load current Ib (or the rated current of the protective device) by the product of the correction factors calculated: 2 Protection of feeders START selection of wiring systems table 1 erection of wiring systems table 2 Method of installation table 3 Ib D method? yes Ground temperature <> 20 °C? yes k 1 from table 10 no k 1 from table 4 Ib I Ib = = b k1k2 k 3 k tot ' no k1 = 1 yes 5.5 Km/W? yes k 3 from table 14 no k3 = 1 S [mm2 ] I z = I 0 *k tot END 48 ABB SACE .2. Table 12.

2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Note on current carrying capacity tables and loaded conductors Tables 8. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary to apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. Where the neutral current is expected to be higher than the phase current then the cable size should be selected on the basis of the neutral current. the current flowing in the neutral conductor shall be taken into account in ascertaining the current-carrying capacity of the circuit.) are expected or there is an unbalance between phases of more than 50 %. for example. then the three phase conductors will not be fully loaded.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. In single-phase circuits. the number of loaded conductors is two. i. 12th. In this case the conductor size shall be chosen on the basis of the highest phase current. etc. In all cases the neutral conductor shall have an adequate cross section. then lower reduction factors may be applicable: these factors can be calculated only by taking into account the real shape of the current in the loaded phases. The reduction factors given in Table 16 only apply in the balanced three-phase circuits (the current in the fourth conductor is due to harmonics only) to cables where the neutral conductor is within a four-core or five-core cable and is of the same material and cross-sectional area as the phase conductors.Electrical devices 51 . IN = C Ib . The most significant harmonic which does not cancel in the neutral is usually the third harmonic. In such a case the neutral current will have a significant effect on the current-carrying capacity of the cables in the circuit. 2 Protection of feeders Equipment likely to cause significant harmonic currents are.86 - 0. This neutral current is due to the phase currents having a harmonic content which does not cancel in the neutral. If significant. where the neutral conductor in a multi-core cable carries current as a result of an unbalance in the phase currents the temperature rise due to the neutral current is offset by the reduction in the heat generated by one or more of the phase conductors. higher harmonics (e. These reduction factors have been calculated based on third harmonic currents. fluorescent lighting banks and dc power supplies such as those found in computers (for further information on harmonic disturbances see the IEC 61000). it is necessary to reduce the tabulated current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. k III k tot 50 ABB SACE .3 . In three-phase systems with high unbalance. If the neutral current is more than 135 % of the phase current and the cable size is selected on the basis of the neutral current. In balanced or slightly unbalanced three-phase circuits the number of loaded conductors is three. A 0 ÷ 15 I 'b = Ib k tot 15 ÷ 33 0. more than 10 %. 0.2. 9 and 15 provide the current carrying capacity of loaded conductors (current carrying conductors) under normal service conditions. kIII is the third harmonic content of phase current.g. Table 16: Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables Third harmonic content of phase current % Size selection is based on phase current 1 Reduction factor Current to take in account for the cable selection Ib’ Size selection is based on neutral current Current to take in account for the cable selection Ib’ - Effect of harmonic currents on balanced three-phase systems: reduction factors for harmonic currents in fourcore and five-core cables with four cores carrying current Where the neutral conductor carries current without a corresponding reduction in load of the phase conductors. since the current in the neutral conductor is negligible. Where the cable size selection is based on a neutral current which is not significantly higher than the phase current.86 N 1SDC010007F0001 > 45 - - 1 I 'b = I N Where IN is the current flowing in the neutral calculated as follows: Ib is the load current.86 B 33 ÷ 45 - I'b = IN 0. 9th.Electrical devices ABB SACE . ktot is the total correction factor.e.86 I 'b = Ib k tot . The magnitude of the neutral current due to the third harmonic may exceed the magnitude of the power frequency phase current.

given that: • each circuit a). In this example. Referring to the row for the arrangement (cables bunched) and to the column for the number of circuits (7) : 40 °C a) three-phase circuit consisting of 4 single-core cables. is Iz = 238 . 4x50 mm2. b) three-phase circuit consisting of one multi-core cable. the number of circuits or multi-core cables present shall be determined. for a multi-core copper cable with PVC insulation. since it is composed by three cables in parallel per phase. 1x(3x50) mm2. it is possible to find the reference number of the installation and the method of installation to be used for the calculations. 9x95 mm2 . A 95 mm2 cross section cable can carry. c) three-phase circuit consisting of 9 single-core (3 per phase) cables. the reference number is 31. I’b is calculated by: I 'b = Ib 100 = = 212.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. 238 A. 2x70 mm2.Electrical devices 53 .2.87. with three loaded conductors. is obtained.81 A 1SDC010008F0001 d 52 ABB SACE . 0. 0. method of installation E. under Standard reference conditions.85 A.54 a b c From Table 8. b) and d) constitute a separate circuit. k 2 = 0. a cross section with current carrying capacity of I0 ≥ I’b = 212. which corresponds to method E (multi-core cable on tray).85A k1k2 0. for a temperature of 40 °C and PVC insulation material. the total number of circuits is 7.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Example of cable dimensioning in a balanced threephase circuit without harmonics Dimensioning of a cable with the following characteristics: • conductor material: : copper • insulation material: • type of cable: • installation: : : : PVC multi-core cables bunched on horizontal perforated tray 100 A 2 Protection of feeders Procedure: Type of installation In Table 3. The current carrying capacity. 0. k 1 = 0. Correction factor of temperature k1 From Table 4. according to the actual conditions of installation.Electrical devices ABB SACE .87 • load current: : Correction factor for adjacent cables k2 Installation conditions: • ambient temperature: • adjacent circuits with For the multi-core cables grouped on the perforated tray see Table 5. • circuit c) consists of three circuits.54 After k1 and k2 have been determined. d) single-phase circuit consisting of 2 single-core cables.54 = 111.87. k1 = 0.87. As a first step. • the cable to be dimensioned is a multi-core cable and therefore constitutes a single circuit.

54 ABB SACE . so k2 = 1 After k1 and k2 have been determined. . for a multi-core copper cable with PVC insulation. since the value of factors k1 and k2 is 1. but a reduction factor of 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Example of dimensioning a cable in a balanced threephase circuit with a significant third-harmonic content Dimensioning of a cable with the following characteristics: • conductor material: : copper • insulation material: • type of cable: • installation: • load current: Installation conditions: • ambient temperature: • no adjacent circuits. 0.7 A k1 . 3 .Electrical devices 55 . but a reduction factor of 1 must be applied. 3 kIII = 115. a 70 mm2 cable with 196 A current carrying capacity shall be selected.Electrical devices ABB SACE . is still 126 A. is obtained. with three loaded conductors. k 2 . 0. 0.5 A 0. If the third harmonic content is 40 %. which corresponds to method E (multi-core cable on tray).2. A 35 mm2 cross section cable can carry. : 30 °C : : : : PVC multi-core layer on horizontal perforated tray 115 A 2 Protection of feeders If no harmonics are present.86 0. In this example. a 95 mm2 cable with current carrying capacity of 238 A must be selected.86 must be applied.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. the reference number is 31. Temperature correction factor k1 From Table 4. it is possible to find the reference number of the installation and the method of installation to be used for the calculations. . according to the actual conditions of installation. Table 16 shows that for a third harmonic content of 28% the cable must be dimensioned for the current that flows through the phase conductors. a 50 mm2 cable with carrying capacity of 153 A shall be selected. The current I’b becomes: I' = b Ib 115 = = 133.86 must be applied. I’b is calculated by: From Table 8. The current in the neutral conductor is: IN = Ib . for a temperature of 30 °C and PVC insulation material and the value of current I’b is: I 'b = 138 IN = = 160.4 = 138 A ktot Procedure: Type of installation On Table 3. The current in the neutral conductor is: IN = Ib . 126 A. Table 16 shows that the cable shall be dimensioned according to the current of the neutral conductor. The current carrying capacity. The third harmonic content is assumed to be 28%.86 0.86 k1 = 1 Correction factor for adjacent cables k2 As there are no adjacent cables.6 = 207A ktot I 'b = Ib = 115 A k1k 2 and current I’b is: I 'b = I N = 207A From Table 8. 3 . If the third harmonic content is 60 %. 3 k III = 115.86 From Table 8. Table 16 shows that the cable shall be dimensioned according to the current of the neutral conductor and a reduction factor of 0. a cross section with current carrying capacity of I0 ≥ I’b = 115 A. under Standard reference conditions. method of installation E. from Table 8.

the maximum torque shall also decrease. To limit these problems the Standards set the following limits: • IEC 60364-5-52 “Electrical installations of buildings. if no information are available.2 Voltage drop 2 Protection of feeders Voltage drop calculation For an electrical conductor with impedance Z. making it more difficult to start up motors.Wiring systems” Clause 525 states that “in the absence of other considerations it is recommended that in practice the voltage drop between the origin of consumer’s installation and the equipment should not be greater than 4% of the rated voltage of the installation.5 recommends that: “the voltage drop from the point of supply to the load shall not exceed 5% of the rated voltage under normal operating conditions”. 56 ABB SACE . for three-phase systems.Electrical devices 57 . For example: • motors: the torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage. Other considerations include start-up time for motors and equipment with high inrush current. The performance of a device may be impaired if supplied with a voltage different from its rated voltage. • incandescent lamps: the more the voltage drops the weaker the beam becomes and the light takes on a reddish tone.Requirements for special installations or locations .Electrical devices ABB SACE . • electromechanical devices: the reference Standard states that devices such as contactors and auxiliary releases have a minimum voltage below which their performances cannot be guaranteed. • r [Ω/km] is the resistance of the single cable per kilometre. For a contactor. • x [Ω/km] is the reactance of the single cable per kilometre. great variation may cause them to switch off.2.2. • IEC 60204-1”Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – General requirements” Clause 13. the voltage drop is calculated by the following formula: L (1) ∆U = kZIb = kIb ( r cos + x sin ) [V] n where • k is a coefficient equal to: . if the voltage drops. • n is the number of conductors in parallel per phase. = 1 . they are not very sensitive to small variations in voltage. the cable carrying capacity Iz shall be considered.External lighting installations” Clause 714. • electronic appliances: they are very sensitive to variations in voltage and that is why they are fitted with stabilizers. Temporary conditions such as voltage transients and voltage variation due to abnormal operation may be disregarded”. Selection and erection of electrical equipment .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. but in certain cases. the holding of the contacts becomes unreliable below 85% of the rated voltage. the reactance value shall be multiplied by 1.2 for single-phase and two-phase systems. the starting torque shall also decrease.512 requires that “the voltage drop in normal service shall be compatible with the conditions arising from the starting current of the lamps”. • L [km] is the length of the conductor. • IEC 60364-7-714 “Electrical installations of buildings .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2.cos 2 . • Ib [A] is the load current.2. for 50 Hz. for example. the percentage value in relation to the rated value Ur is calculated by: ∆u% = ∆U 100 Ur (2) Resistance and reactance values per unit of length are set out on the following table by cross-sectional area and cable formation. • discharge lamps: in general. therefore. • cosϕ is the power factor of the load: sin In an electrical installation it is important to evaluate voltage drops from the point of supply to the load. Normally. in case of 60 Hz.

43 4.25 0.680 0.08 0.57 0.323 0.0761 0.14 3.483 0.84 7.Electrical devices 59 .796 0.0966 0.30 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 58 ABB SACE .0752 0.86 2.60 25.42 0.14 9.191 0.0813 0.43 11.109 5.44 1.31 8.0965 0.66 0.109 9.31 0.5 2.153 0.907 0.203 0.79 23.1 0.15 8.65 7.0813 1.21 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 1: Resistance and reactance per unit of length of copper cables single-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 14.0817 0.241 0.15 18.101 0.389 0.38 0.24 0.36 0.16 0.97 0.101 6.075 2 Protection of feeders The following tables show the ∆Ux [V/(A.143 6.41 0.0783 0.259 0.08 0.156 5.16 0.63 17.30 0.550 0.78 1.94 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.29 0.8 0.65 2.0751 0.315 0.15 0.168 14.691 0.078 0.0975 0.0745 0.135 3.57 0.106 0.31 0.123 0.101 3.878 0.48 1.889 0.95 0.0928 0.28 1.31 1.41 0.0965 0.0745 0.41 0.44 14.91 0.11 0.16 15.44 0.077 0.22 0.24 10.056 0.157 0.159 0.20 16.67 0.89 5.25 0.14 S [mm2] 1.118 9.54 3.119 2.310 0.36 0.101 0.0762 0. Table 3: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 1 for copper cables cosϕ = 1 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 29.81 0.473 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 S[mm2] 1.188 0.35 0.9 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.384 0.60 2.0783 0.96 4.27 0.01 10.0908 0.58 0.08 0.93 2.35 0.0955 3.25 1.779 0.0762 0.55 4.84 0.19 0.0779 0.112 1.228 0.074 0.22 0.740 0.0908 0.58 2.13 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 30.540 0.64 2.33 0.24 0.79 6.358 0.25 0.25 0.78 0.0861 1.075 Table 4: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.26 0.0779 0.236 0.28 23.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 single-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 24.67 0.20 26.67 0.5 2.km)] values by cross section and formation of the cable according to the most common cosϕ values.29 1.48 3.0752 0.58 0.177 0.31 0.27 0.0902 0.135 2.106 1.24 1.22 0.960 0.101 0.5 2.112 0.43 0.73 11.641 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .94 0.88 2.42 0.0902 0.397 0.0943 0.48 0.21 0.074 0.0895 two-core/three-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 15.0751 0.0895 two-core/three-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 24.17 14.0861 2.70 1.0742 0.129 0.465 0.168 8.69 1.63 16.93 6.16 3.334 0.56 6.43 0.19 0.119 1.27 0.0817 1.58 0.47 1.0939 0.101 0.9 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 26.48 1.36 9.2.0742 0.38 0.19 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 27.33 0.356 0.0939 0.68 0.328 0.206 0.71 0.82 15.156 9.13 0.0955 2.51 0.112 0.0975 0.54 1.82 2.50 0.81 0.155 0.42 6.21 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 2: Resistance and reactance per unit of length of aluminium cables S [mm2] 1.81 1.125 0.494 0.654 0.118 14.82 0.89 4.252 0.17 0.0928 0.143 3.28 1.125 0.57 1.18 S[mm2] 1.80 5.47 0.5 2.

74 4.Electrical devices ABB SACE .36 0.41 1.75 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 22.24 0.03 0.22 0.38 1.52 3.57 0.26 0.65 3.93 2.29 0.22 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.26 0.40 0.88 20.23 2.21 0.26 9.39 0.87 0.63 1.50 0.41 0.18 1.46 10.81 19.45 5.2.91 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 5: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.Electrical devices 61 .66 0.67 0.76 0.49 0.54 7.74 3.76 43.78 0.29 0.94 15.94 0.52 0.62 8.56 1.23 0.87 6.35 1.84 0.55 1.51 2.79 22.20 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 22.23 29.75 0.94 0.5 2.23 2.07 1.80 5.28 0.5 2.62 0.47 1.18 2 Protection of feeders Table 7: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.98 6.25 0.34 1.85 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 25.21 0.23 0.22 S[mm2] 1.73 3.39 4.89 12.72 16.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 S[mm2] 1.41 2.55 13.38 6.26 1.91 18.5 2.57 11.30 21.54 0.40 0.47 1.49 5.71 4.59 1.55 1.39 2.31 0.20 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 24.26 0.23 0.31 13.68 14.31 0.72 0.48 4.87 1.25 0.62 0.08 0.65 4.75 13.39 2.26 0.34 21.35 0.65 0.21 0.45 6.69 9.35 0.99 2.56 0.42 0.55 0.22 0.99 0.25 1.52 0.92 8.76 11.64 0.21 0.43 18.95 0.45 0.22 0.44 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 S[mm2] 1.24 0.97 3.54 2.52 2.59 3.29 0.34 1.02 3.76 8.36 25.20 1.26 0.50 0.10 5.25 0.47 9.41 0.30 0.5 2.33 0.36 0.28 3.75 8.18 1.60 0.31 0.08 0.08 7.30 0.51 9.40 5.66 12.35 0.99 0.38 0.15 1.36 0.62 0.42 0.22 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 49.34 0.21 0.35 0.31 0.41 0.53 5.79 0.95 3.19 1.65 7.41 0.59 7.04 0.95 0.93 3.43 0.19 S[mm2] 1.54 0.11 1.46 0.05 14.83 1.26 0.42 13.21 12.69 0.63 0.42 0.42 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 60 ABB SACE .19 Table 8: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 1 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 1 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 48.88 0.33 6.83 0.78 0.41 1.35 15.26 0.09 29.10 0.16 5.92 25.79 0.15 0.55 0.85 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.24 0.34 3.32 0.29 0.05 2.48 0.8 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.73 0.52 3.31 0.22 10.30 0.25 0.75 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.54 0.34 15.05 2.36 0.95 1.96 1.44 0.77 42.59 2.44 12.36 0.08 2.90 0.42 19.29 0.33 0.21 7.62 1.19 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 25.28 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 6: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.79 7.10 0.07 1.41 0.48 6.14 0.35 0.27 1.48 0.8 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 23.27 0.34 0.02 2.49 0.

03 1.92 0.Electrical devices 63 .42 0.68 0.89 4.51 0.66 0.88 0.30 0.35 0.2.53 0.64 0.56 23.02 13.35 0.98 0.20 5.73 2.86 9.72 1.08 9.95 34.9 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.30 0.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 37.36 0.12 9.73 0.42 0.73 6.54 4.44 0.82 1.51 0.59 0.31 3.5 2.38 0.76 0.37 0.29 9.85 3.30 0.69 4.07 20.5 2.09 3.42 0.57 0.41 11.46 0.80 0.71 2.06 0.54 0.85 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 41.36 0.63 0.00 16.30 1.38 0.62 0.26 2 Protection of feeders Table 11: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.72 1.26 Table 12: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.57 1.49 0.25 1.22 33.81 1.29 1.37 1.27 9.12 0.84 0.65 0.63 2.57 1.26 S[mm2] 1.07 10.24 3.43 0.25 S[mm2] 1.66 1.74 1.8 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.35 2.63 0.99 1.29 0.37 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 10: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.97 0.27 1.92 0.30 1.35 0.26 6.28 3.50 14.05 5.64 0.02 0.67 20.78 0.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 39.44 0.45 22.09 5.76 2.53 0.52 2.43 1.24 1.55 0.08 8.93 3.81 5.78 0.78 6.55 22.58 19.35 8.63 36.41 0.61 6.87 3.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.02 23.64 3.71 0.44 0.38 0.15 2.37 0.87 22.85 0.95 12.14 26.60 2.54 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 62 ABB SACE .75 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.90 1.45 5.52 0.25 13.47 8.63 3.45 0.84 15.51 0.26 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 44.61 0.30 0.40 16.94 8.31 0.56 14.47 2.30 0.85 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.76 0.49 1.43 0.35 2.88 38.49 2.59 24.31 0.96 3.01 0.50 0.64 14.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 9: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.8 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 39.43 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 S[mm2] 1.87 27.24 1.55 0.72 4.96 23.80 31.45 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 S[mm2] 1.15 2.9 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 44.53 9.05 25.75 5.04 38.64 10.31 0.43 0.07 3.72 1.66 11.17 12.85 12.42 36.27 3.50 0.34 2.34 0.02 1.34 2.36 0.29 0.74 0.70 0.31 0.16 1.18 0.49 1.53 0.13 0.53 0.81 0.18 0.94 0.39 2.5 2.34 0.35 0.40 5.91 0.06 0.38 0.84 4.75 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 36.50 1.31 0.63 6.69 9.23 19.88 0.63 0.09 5.12 21.44 0.49 1.93 14.49 0.60 0.58 4.65 1.46 0.12 6.36 1.47 32.73 2.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 42.36 0.01 1.30 0.31 0.61 0.68 0.59 0.91 1.75 13.14 1.30 1.Electrical devices ABB SACE .30 0.46 0.75 15.31 0.73 25.5 2.09 13.87 10.12 16.53 0.

• power factor cosϕ: 0.9. 28. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A.14 = 28.14 64 ABB SACE .02 V/(A .U r ∆U x max = (3) 100. 100 = 100 = 0.9) with a 140 m cable installed on a perforated tray. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. I b . I b . L 100 .03 .60.Electrical devices ABB SACE .1 shows S = 10 mm2. • cable length: 25 m. it results: ∆U = 3.9 The Table 8 of Chapter 2.51% 400 Ur Example 2 To calculate a voltage drop on a three-phase cable with the following specifications: • rated voltage: 690 V. 400. and by dividing it by the number of cables in parallel. • cable formation: single-core copper cable. Example: Supply of a three-phase load with Pu = 35 kW (Ur=400 V. 4.81 .05% 400 Ur ∆u% = ∆U .025 = 2. 3x50 mm2. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. consisting of a multi-core copper cable with EPR insulation.2 . it results: L 0. fr= 50 Hz. • power factor cosϕ: 0.03 V 2 Protection of feeders Method for defining the cross section of the conductor according to voltage drop in the case of long cables In the case of long cables. • cable length: 50 m. for a 50 mm2 single-core cable it is possible to read that a ∆Ux voltage drop corresponds to 0. From Table 4. cos 3 3 .28 V 2 2 which corresponds to this percentage value: Ib = P 35000 u = = 56 A . L = 3.28 . cosϕ=0. 2. 50 . it results: ∆U = ∆U x . Load current Ib is: which corresponds to this percentage value: ∆u% = ∆U . 400 = = 1. • load current Ib: 50 A. 56. 100 = 100 = 7.81 V/(A⋅km). I b . • load current Ib: 100 A. or if particular design specifications impose low limits for maximum voltage drops. km) 100 . From Table 4. • cable formation: multi-core copper cable. the verification using as reference the cross section calculated on the basis of thermal considerations (calculation according to chapter 2. I b .2. the maximum ∆Uxmax value calculated by using the formula: ∆u%.1 “Current carrying capacity and methods of installation”) may have a negative result. 100 . for the multi-core 10 mm2 cable it is possible to read that the voltage drop per A and per km is 3. 56 . From Table 5. I b .6 . 100 = 100 = 0. 2x(3x10) mm2. = 3. Maximum permitted voltage drop 2%. 0.2.Electrical devices 65 . 0.05 ∆U = ∆U x . L is compared with the corresponding values on Tables 4÷12 by choosing the smallest cross section with a ∆Ux value lower than ∆Uxmax. L = 0. To define the correct cross section.42 V/(A⋅km). 0.85. 0. for a multi-core 10 mm2 cable it is possible to read that ∆Ux voltage drop corresponds to 3.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Example 1 To calculate a voltage drop on a three-phase cable with the following specifications: • rated voltage: 400 V.62% 690 Ur ∆U x max = ∆u% . Formula (3) shows: ∆U . = 4.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.42.U r 2% .60 V/(A⋅km).2 V which corresponds to this percentage value: ∆u% = This value is too high.2.U r .

159 0.3 Joule-effect losses 2 Protection of feeders 2.3 Protection against overload The Standard IEC 60364-4-43 “Electrical installation of buildings .112 3. to prevent cable overload.078 AI 24.155 0. • I2 = 1.Protection against overcurrent” specifies coordination between conductors and overload protective devices (normally placed at the beginning of the conductor to be protected) so that it shall satisfy the two following conditions: I b ≤ In ≤ I z I2 ≤ 1.78 2.153 0. Table 1: Resistance values [Ω/km] of single-core and multi-core cables in copper and aluminium at 80 °C Single-core cable S [mm2] 1. 56 .81< 1.2. • In is the rated current of the protective device.6% 400 Ur 2. I b . for adjustable protective releases.14 = 6. Pj = where: • Ib is the load current [A].68 3. The Standard allows an overload current that may be up to 45% greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable but only for a limited period (conventional trip time of the protective device).334 0.45⋅In for circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60898 (circuit-breakers for household and similar installations).259 0.056 0. L [W] 1000 whereas single-phase losses are: Where: • Ib is the current for which the circuit is dimensioned.2.397 0. 66 ABB SACE . The lost energy is dissipated in heat and contributes to the heating of the conductor and of the environment.1 9.27 1.45 . • I2 is the current ensuring effective operation in the conventional time of the protective device.45⋅Iz or In ≤ 0. By using this value it results: ∆U = ∆U x .389 0. • lower than the current carrying capacity of the cable.129 In I2 According to condition (1) to correctly choose the protective device. • Iz is the continuous current carrying capacity of the cable.41 0.779 0.878 14. I b . the rated current In is the set current.71 2.9⋅Iz. When the protective device is a fuse. L [W] 1000 Ib Iz 1. it is also essential to check formula (2) because IEC 60269-2-1 on “Low-voltage fuses” states that a 1.r . formula (2) becomes 1. • r is the phase resistance per unit of length of the cable at 80 °C [Ω/km] (see Table 1).358 6.356 1.08 5.889 0.540 0. if In ≤ Iz. r .6⋅In ≤ 1.465 1.5 2.550 0. A first estimate of three-phase losses is: Pj = 2 3.125 0. The verification of condition (2) is not necessary in the case of circuit-breakers because the protective device is automatically tripped if: • I2 = 1. I b . 0.796 0.0761 AI 24.43 0.35 V This corresponds to a percentage value of: ∆U . the formula I2 ≤ 1.323 1.241 0.680 9. For this cross section ∆Ux = 0.691 2.236 0. Therefore.191 0.641 0.81.188 0.45⋅Iz will also be verified.177 6.157 0. L = 0.206 0.740 2. ∆u% = 100 = 100 = 1.3⋅In for circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60947-2 (circuit-breakers for industrial use).02 V/(A⋅km).315 0.654 0.0966 0.077 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .310 0. In this case.228 3.907 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Cu 14.0943 0. it is necessary to check that the circuit-breaker has a rated (or set) current that is: • higher than the load current.252 0.494 1.57 3.91 5. to prevent unwanted tripping.473 0.8 8.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders From Table 4 a cross section of 50 mm2 can be chosen.483 0.123 0. for circuit-breakers.6⋅In current must automatically melt the fuse. • L is the cable length [m].35 .203 0.384 14. 6.960 9.328 0.45Iz .125 Two-core/three-core cable Cu 15.Electrical devices 67 1SDC010009F0001 2 2.24 1. Iz (1) (2) Joule-effect losses are due to the electrical resistance of the cable.

three-phase load so Ib = 112 A Cable specifications Iz = 134 A Protective device specifications T1B160 TMD In125.9 x In = 180 A Example 4 Load specifications Pr = 25 kW. cosϕ = 0. Examples Example 1 Load specifications Pr = 70 kW.Iz and this means that the cable is not fully exploited.3 Protection against overload 2. set current I1 = 125 A Protective device specifications T1B160 1P TMF In125 Cable specifications Iz = 134 A T3N250 TMD In200. the following must be achieved: 2 Protection of feeders Example 2 Load specifications Pr = 80 kW. set current I1 = 0. and the currents in the parallel conductors are unequal.9.9. Ur = 230 V .Electrical devices ABB SACE . Ib Iz Iz = 171 A Protective device specifications T2N160 PR221DS-LS In160.Electrical devices 69 . the design current and requirements for overload protection for each conductor shall be considered individually. Ur = 400 V.9.9 Iz 1SDC010011F0001 Load specifications Pr = 100 kW.2. cosϕ = 0. three-phase load so Ib = 160 A Cable specifications Iz = 190 A Protective device specifications In Fuse: choice of rated current Where the use of a single conductor per phase is not feasible.88 x In = 140.9. three-phase load so Ib = 128 A Cable specifications 1SDC010010F0001 Ib ≤ In ≤ 0. set current I1 = 0. cosϕ = 0. single-phase load so Ib = 121 A 68 ABB SACE . Ur = 400 V. Ur = 400 V .3 Protection against overload 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: to carry out by a fuse protection against overload. cosϕ = 0.8 A In Circuit-breaker: choice of rated current Example 3 Ib 0.9 .

78·10 3 2 3 2 3 2 G2 Table 1: Values of k for phase conductor Conductor insulation PVC ≤300 mm2 Initial temperature °C Final temperature °C Material of conductor: Copper Aluminium tin-soldered joints in copper conductors a PVC >300 mm2 70 140 103 68 - EPR XLPE 90 250 143 94 - Rubber 60 °C 60 200 141 93 - Mineral PVC 70 160 115 Bare 105 250 135/115 a - 70 160 115 76 115 The formula (1) must be verified along the whole length of the cable.09 2. NOTE 2 The nominal current of the short-circuit protective device may be greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable.61 1.28·10 5. . • S is the cable cross section [mm2].Electrical devices 71 1SDC010002F0901 .32 5.98·10 1.00·10 4. Vol.74·10 4.27·10 3. ABB SACE .60·10 1.90·10 8.11·10 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 10 1.53·10 1.38·10 -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 6 4.41 1 1 35 1.4 “Specific let-through energy curves”) or from a direct calculation in the case of devices that are not limiting and delaying.41·10 -2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 4 2.other types of joints in conductors.small conductors (particularly for cross section less than 10 mm2). see Annex D. Table 2: Maximum withstood energy for cables k2 S2 [(kA)2 s] Cross section [mm2 ] Cable PVC Cu Al EPR/XLPE Cu Al Rubber Cu Al k 115 76 143 94 141 93 1.47·10 1. in the case of conductors in parallel it is the cross section of the single conductor. The maximum value is normally the value of the three-phase short-circuit current at the beginning of the line.81·10 2 1 1 1 1 1 120 1.41·10 3.5 8.80·10 2.27·10 2.15·10 4.16·10 3.76·10 2.24·10 5.4 Protection against short-circuit A cable is protected against short-circuit if the specific let-through energy of the protective device (I2t) is lower or equal to the withstood energy of the cable (k2S2): 2 Protection of feeders Table 2 shows the maximum withstood energy for cables according to the cross section.09·10 1.65·10 -1 -1 -1 16 3.12·10 9.44·10 1.84·10 1.44·10 5.30·10 4. NOTE 3 The above factors are based on IEC 60724.97·10 2.99·10 4.32·10 2.5 2.52·10 1.28·10 5.85·10 7.99·10 4.21 25 8.02·10 6.60·10 1.31·10 1.24·10 3.16·10 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 6.2.18·10 5.33·10 1.84·10 7.24·10 1 1 1 1 1 1 95 1.19·10 5. I2t ≤ k 2S2 (1) where • I2t is the specific let-through energy of the protective device which can be read on the curves supplied by the manufacturer (see Electrical installation handbook.36·10 3.bare conductors. This value shall be used for bare cables exposed to touch.98·10 1.25·10 2 1 2 2 2 2 150 2.98·10 7. Chapter 3.94·10 1.98·10 2 2 3 2 3 2 300 1.48 5.48·10 2.51·10 1.duration of short-circuit exceeding 5 s.19·10 5.97·10 1.99 8.61·10 1. while the minimum value is the value of the phase to neutral short-circuit current (phase to phase if the neutral conductor is not distributed) or phase to earth at the end of the cable. Due to the shape of the specific let-through energy curve of a circuit breaker. .26 5.18·10 7.27 3.18·10 1.86·10 1.79·10 7.33·10 9.79·10 7.78·10 2. it is generally sufficient to verify formula (1) only for the maximum and minimum short-circuit current that may affect the cable.20·10 1.83·10 1.08 2. 70 ABB SACE .4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders 2.11·10 2.21·10 1. which are calculated by using the parameters of Table 1.Electrical devices 1SDC010010F0201 NOTE 1 Other values of k are under consideration for.06·10 1 1 1 1 1 Cross section [mm2 ] Cable PVC Cu Al EPR/XLPE Cu Al Cu Al k 115 76 143 94 141 93 50 3.62·10 7.47·10 1.08·10 2.08·10 7.30·10 4.95·10 2 2 2 2 2 2 185 4.04 8.39 1.24·10 5.27·10 1. . The values of the most common installations are shown in Table 1. 1.21·10 4.95·10 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 2. the conductor material and the type of insulation. for a more detailed calculation.00·10 3.62·10 3.95·10 1.52 1.96·10 2 2 2 2 2 2 240 7.23 2. . • k is a factor that depends on the cable insulating and conducting material.

(1 + m) . After calculating the minimum short-circuit current.7 4 3 5 3.0. number of parallel conductors kpar* 2 2 3 2. k . .2 .2 *kpar = 4 (n-1)/n where: n = number of conductors in parallel per phase • m is the ratio between the resistances of the neutral conductor and the phase conductor (if they are made of the same material m is the ratio between the cross section of the phase conductor and the cross section of the neutral conductor). • L is the length of the protected conductor [m].4 Protection against short-circuit 2.0.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders [(KA)2s] 102 2 Protection of feeders Calculation of short-circuit current at end of the conductor Minimum short-circuit current can be calculated by the following approximate formulas: 10 Ikmin = 1 Ikmin = 0.1) par L 1.Electrical devices 73 .9 150 0. U . verify that Ikmin >1.5 . 72 ABB SACE .027 for aluminium. .2.8 . I3 (3) where: • I3 is the current that trips the magnetic protection of the circuit-breaker.2) where: 10-1 10-2 10-3 1SDC010011F0001 • Ikmin is the minimum value of the prospective short-circuit current [kA]. k par 2L 1.75 300 0. • U0 is the phase to earth supply voltage [V].8 . S 0.018 for copper. S with distributed neutral conductor (2.80 240 0. • S is the cross section of the conductor [mm2]. • 1. k sec .72 10-1 1 10 [KA] • kpar is the correcting coefficient for conductors in parallel: This verification can be simplified by comparing only the let-through energy value of the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current with the withstood energy of the cable and by ensuring that the circuit breaker trips instantaneously at the minimum short-circuit current: the threshold of the shortcircuit protection (taking into consideration also the tolerances) shall therefore be lower than the minimum short-circuit current at the end of the conductor.2 is the tolerance at the trip threshold.Electrical devices ABB SACE . • ρ is the resistivity at 20 °C of the material of the conductors in Ωmm2/m and is: . • Ur is the supply voltage [V]. Ur .5 . k 0 sec with non-distributed neutral conductor (2. .85 180 0. • ksec is the correction factor which takes into account the reactance of the cables with cross section larger than 95 mm2: S[mm2] ksec 120 0.

k par = 1.4 Protection against short-circuit 2. The correction factors shown after the table must be applied if the system conditions are different from the reference conditions. . the cable is therefore fully protected against short-circuit.8 . In Table 3.5 .copper conductor with resistivity equal to 0. 400 V rated voltage.5 20 370 617 30 246 412 40 185 309 50 148 247 60 123 206 70 105 176 80 92 154 90 82 137 100 74 123 120 61 102 140 52 88 150 49 82 160 46 77 180 41 68 200 37 61 220 33 56 250 29 49 280 26 44 300 24 41 320 23 38 350 21 35 380 19 32 400 18 30 420 17 29 450 16 27 480 15 25 500 14 24 520 14 23 550 13 22 580 12 21 600 12 20 620 11 19 650 11 19 680 10 18 700 10 17 750 16 800 15 850 14 900 13 950 13 1000 12 1250 1500 1600 2000 2500 3000 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 9600 10000 12000 15000 20000 24000 30000 4 658 494 395 329 282 246 219 197 164 141 131 123 109 98 89 79 70 65 61 56 52 49 47 43 41 39 38 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 26 24 23 21 20 19 15 13 12 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Choice of CB1 System data: Rated voltage 400 V Ik = 30 kA Cable data: Insulated copper conductor in PVC Length = 150 m S = 50 mm2 Iz = 134 A CB1 T1N160 In160 Cable Section 50 mm2 1SDC010011F0201 PVC Cu Iz = 134.three-phase system.Electrical devices 741 593 494 423 370 329 296 246 211 197 185 164 148 134 118 105 98 92 84 78 74 70 65 61 59 57 53.non-distributed neutral. see Volume 1. 74 ABB SACE . when solved for the length. The values on the table below take into account the 20% tolerance coefficient for the magnetic trip value. U . If tolerance is 20%.0 A L = 150 m L Protection against short-circuit at the beginning of the conductor T1N160 In160 (breaking capacity 36 kA@400 V) I2t (@30 kA) = 7. S The magnetic threshold of the circuit breaker T1N160 In160 is set at 1600 A.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Example 2 Protection of feeders U Table 3: Maximum protected length Ur = 400 V Ik = 30 kA section [mm2] I3[A] 1. Chapter 3.Electrical devices 75 .5 10-1 (kA)2s (for the curves of specific let-through energy. . k sec . the increase in cable resistivity due to heating caused by the short-circuit current and the reduction of voltage due to the fault.4) k2S2 = 1152 ⋅ 502 = 3.101 (kA)2s The cable is therefore protected against short-circuit at the beginning of the conductor. Maximum protected length The formula (3).2. the maximum protected length can be identified for a given cross section of the cable and for the setting threshold of the instantaneous protection of the circuit breaker against short-circuit: . enables the maximum length protected by the protective device to be obtained for a precise instantaneous trip threshold. the circuit breaker shall definitely trip if the values exceed 1920 A.5 2.31.018 Ωmm2/m. 51 49 47 45 43 42 39 37 34 32 31 29 23 19 18 14 11 705 617 549 494 412 353 329 309 274 247 224 198 176 165 154 141 130 123 118 110 103 99 95 90 85 82 80 76 73 71 66 62 58 55 52 49 40 33 31 25 20 16 15 12 10 790 658 564 527 494 439 395 359 316 282 263 247 226 208 198 188 176 165 158 152 144 136 132 127 122 116 113 105 99 93 88 83 79 63 53 49 40 32 26 25 20 16 13 10 772 686 617 561 494 441 412 386 353 325 309 294 274 257 247 237 224 213 206 199 190 182 176 165 154 145 137 130 123 99 82 77 62 49 41 39 31 25 20 15 13 12 10 786 691 617 576 540 494 455 432 412 384 360 346 332 314 298 288 279 266 254 247 230 216 203 192 182 173 138 115 108 86 69 58 54 43 35 27 22 18 17 14 12 772 705 650 617 588 549 514 494 475 449 426 412 398 380 363 353 329 309 290 274 260 247 198 165 154 123 99 82 77 62 49 39 31 26 25 21 16 12 10 768 720 691 665 629 596 576 558 532 508 494 461 432 407 384 364 346 277 230 216 173 138 115 108 86 69 55 43 36 35 29 23 17 14 12 809 782 757 722 690 670 626 586 552 521 494 469 375 313 293 235 188 156 147 117 94 74 59 49 47 39 31 23 20 16 847 790 667 627 593 561 533 427 356 333 267 213 178 167 133 107 85 67 56 53 44 36 27 22 20 840 787 741 700 663 630 504 420 394 315 252 210 197 157 126 100 79 66 63 52 42 31 26 25 731 585 487 457 365 292 244 228 183 146 116 91 76 73 61 49 37 30 30 711 593 556 444 356 296 278 222 178 141 111 93 89 74 59 44 37 40 667 533 427 356 333 267 213 169 133 111 107 89 71 53 44 49 ABB SACE .98 kA 2L 1. Protection against short-circuit at end of the conductor The minimum short-circuit current at end of the conductor (ksec=1 and kpar=1) is: Ikmin = 0. .

2. kd = Correction factor for aluminium conductors: kr If the cable is in aluminium.73 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: On the table. By applying the correction factor kd required when the neutral is distributed: (*) 230 V single-phase is the equivalent of a three-phase 400 V system with distributed neutral and with the cross section of the phase conductor the same as the cross section area of the neutral conductor.39 3 1+ S 3 1+ 300 150 SN L= L0 . kd is 0.Electrical devices 77 . multiply the length value obtained from the table above by the correction factor kr = 0. a protected length equivalent of L0= 533 m is obtained.39 = 207. if necessary. Correction factor for distributed neutral: kd Multiply the length value obtained from the table by the correction factor kd: where • S is the phase cross section [mm2]. by the correction factors in order to obtain a value that is compatible with the installation operating conditions: L = L 0 k v kd k r Example 1 Neutral not distributed Rated voltage = 400 V Protective device: T2N160 TMD In100 Magnetic threshold: I3 = 1000 A Phase cross section = Neutral cross section = 70 mm2 The table shows that at I3 = 1000 A. 0. 76 ABB SACE .Electrical devices ABB SACE . so that kv is 0. for the cross section and magnetic trip threshold it is possible to read a maximum protected value L0.58.9 m This is the maximum protected length with neutral distributed.58.67. Example 2 Neutral distributed Rated voltage = 400 V Protective device: T3S250 TMD In200 Magnetic threshold: I3 = 2000 A Phase cross section = 300 mm2 Neutral cross section = 150 mm2 For I3 = 2000 A and S = 300 mm2. This length shall then be multiplied. 1 2 . • SN is the neutral cross section [mm2]. In particular: 2 .4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor for voltage other than 400 V: kv Multiply the length value obtained from the table by the correction factor kv: Ur [V] (three-phase value) 230(*) 400 440 500 690 kv 0.S N kd is 0.58 1 1.39. 2 . 0. 1 kd = 3 1+ S SN if S = SN if S = 2.39 = 533 .1 1.25 1. 1 = = 0. the 70 mm2 cable is protected up to 346 m.4 Protection against short-circuit 2.

cause r. Protection and disconnection of the neutral conductor If fault conditions arise. the exposed conductive parts of the single-phase equipment could take the system rated voltage to earth.the maximum current that can flow through the neutral conductor during normal service is lower than the neutral current carrying capacity. thereby making available a voltage that is different from the phase to phase voltage. As already mentioned. since this conductor is also a protective conductor. R 1 R1+ R2 Figure 2: Three-phase alternative power supply with a 4-pole switch Power supply 1 Power supply 2 Figure 1: Disconnection of the neutral conductor Moreover. L1 L2 L3 PEN PE L1 L2 L3 Supplier User . The 3rd harmonic (150 Hz) current of the line conductors will be added with the same phase angle to the neutral conductor current. In certain cases and under specific conditions. this voltage reaches the connected exposed conductive parts. this requirement applies only if there are no harmonics that may. but not necessarily the neutral conductor. if the neutral conductor is disconnected. 2. at any instant. 1). This may be caused by a phase to neutral short-circuit and by the disconnection of the neutral conductor due to accidental breaking or to tripping of single-pole devices (fuses or single-pole circuit breakers). This ensures that the neutral current will flow only in the neutral conductor of the respective switched on circuit. Furthermore.the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit by the protective device of the phase conductors. overcurrents on the neutral conductor must be detected so as to have the phase conductors. there is neither the need to detect overcurrents on the neutral conductor nor to use a breaking device (neutral conductor is not protected or disconnected). The need for protection on the neutral conductor and the possibility of disconnecting the circuit depend on the distribution system: Current using equipment 78 ABB SACE .s. e. a voltage to earth may occur on the neutral conductor. by not protecting the neutral conductor with single-pole devices. the supply voltage to the single-phase loads may be altered so that they are supplied by a voltage different from the U0 phase to neutral voltage (as shown in Fig.2. In certain specific cases. disconnected (neutral conductor protected but not disconnected): in this case the overcurrents on the neutral conductor do not need to be detected if the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: 1. • if the cross section of the neutral conductor is less than the cross section of the phase conductor. the functions of neutral conductor and protective conductor can be combined in a single conductor (PEN). Therefore.This method prevents electromagnetic fields due to stray currents in the main supply system of an installation. the neutral need not be disconnected if the supply conditions are such that the neutral conductor can be considered to be reliable at earth potential. it is able to contribute to the transmission of electric power. in TN-C systems. In TN-S systems. Neutral conductor The neutral conductor is a conductor that is connected to the system neutral point (which generally but not necessarily coincides with the star centre of the secondary windings of the transformer or the windings of the generator). U0 . the Standards specify minimum cross sections (see next clause) for the neutral conductor in order to prevent accidental breaking and they forbid the use of any device (single-pole or multi-pole) that could disconnect the PEN. all the necessary measures to prevent this type of fault shall be taken. the neutral conductor is also a protective conductor and cannot therefore be disconnected. P P P N U1 R1 R2 U1 = 1SDC010013F0001 3 .Electrical devices ABB SACE . For TN-C systems.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders 2. current values on the neutral conductor higher than the maximum current detected on the phase conductors. The sum of the currents within one cable must be zero.g. in fact.Electrical devices 79 1SDC010012F0201 NOTE .m.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders TT or TN systems: • if the cross section of the neutral conductor is the same or larger than the cross section of the phase conductor. the neutral conductor has to be disconnected to prevent currents circulating between parallel supply sources (see Figures 2 and 3). If the neutral conductor only is disconnected in a four-conductor circuit. voltage to earth arising on the neutral conductor constitutes a hazard for people. in TN-C systems.

5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders Figure 3: Three-phase alternative power supply with non-suitable 3-pole switch 2 Protection of feeders START L1 L2 L3 PEN PE L1 L2 L3 no Upstream protection for the neutral? yes TT/TN System? no yes SN ≥ S? no yes 1SDC010014F0001 NOTE – A three-phase alternative power supply with a non-suitable 3-pole switch. -open the phase contacts. It is necessary to: . due to unintentional circular stray currents generating electromagnetic fields.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2. It is not necessary to: -open the neutral contact. It is necessary to: -open the phase contacts It is not necessary to: -detect the neutral overcurrent. • the neutral conductor is connected at the same moment or before the phase conductor. Overcurrents do not need to be detected on the neutral conductor in any of the following cases: • the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit by a protective device fitted upstream. If the neutral conductor is distributed. no Is the circuit protected by a RCD with I∆n≤ 0. the overcurrents must be detected on the neutral conductor of each circuit in order to disconnect all the live conductors on the corresponding circuit.Electrical devices 81 1SDC010013F0201 .Electrical devices ABB SACE . connection and disconnection of the neutral conductor. It is necessary to: -detect the neutral current. -open the neutral contact.15 times the current carrying capacity of the corresponding neutral conductor. Neutral shall not be disconnected before the phase conductors Neutral shall be reconnected at the same time as or before the phase conductors 80 ABB SACE . This device must disconnect all the live conductors. It is not necessary: -the presence of a breaking device for the neutral.2. the neutral conductor included.open all the contacts (phase and neutral) It is not necessary to: -detect the neutral current. It is necessary to: detect the neutral current in order to open all the contacts (phase and neutral). • the circuit is protected by a residual current device with rated residual current lower than 0. For all distribution systems. shall ensure that: • the neutral conductor is not disconnected before the phase conductor.15 x Neutral carrying capacity ? yes Is the neutral protected by the short-circuit protection of the phase conductor? yes no Neutral max current < Neutral carrying capacity (Iz)? no yes IT system: The Standard advises against distributing the neutral conductor in IT systems. including the neutral one (neutral conductor protected and disconnected). whenever necessary.

2 S Min.m. the minimum cross section of the protective conductor SPE can be obtained by using the following formula: SPE = I 2t k (1) where: • SPE is the cross section of the protective conductor [mm2].5 Neutral and protective conductors 2. the cross section of the neutral conductor cannot be less than the cross section of the phase conductors. or 25 mm2 with an aluminium cable. • there is no high harmonic distortion of the load current.4 according to the materials of the conductor and insulation.Electrical devices 83 . 82 ABB SACE . selected from Table 1 Chapter 2.1 “Current carrying capacity and methods of installation” For a more accurate calculation and if the protective conductor is subjected to adiabatic heating from an initial known temperature to a final specified temperature (applicable for fault extinction time no longer than 5s). if any. the Standards specify a minimum cross section of 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium conductors k1 is the value of k for the line conductor.2. • I is the r. or 25 mm 2 in aluminium.2. If there is high harmonic distortion (the harmonic content is greater than 10%). k2 is the value of k for the protective conductor. when the size of the line conductors is less than or equal to 16 mm2 in copper. * For a PEN conductor. 16 k 2 S > 25 S* 2 k1 . as for example in equipment with discharge lamps.1 The cross section of the neutral conductor can be less than the cross section of the phase conductor when the cross section of the phase conductor is greater than 16 mm2 with a copper cable. current flowing through the protective conductor in the event of a fault with low impedance [A]. the reduction of the cross section is permitted only in accordance with the rules for sizing of the neutral conductor.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders Determination of the minimum cross section of the neutral conductor The neutral conductor. if both the following conditions are met: • the cross section of the neutral conductor is at least 16 mm2 for copper conductors and 25 mm2 for aluminium conductors. • in polyphase and single-phase three-wire circuits. • t is the trip time of the protective device [s]. neutral cross section SN [mm2] S* S* 16 S* 25 16 < S ≤ 25 16* k1 . two-wire circuits whatever the section. S k2 2 Where 1SDC010014F0201 for TN-C systems. 1 The cross section of phase conductors shall be dimensioned in compliance with the instructions of the Chapter 2. shall have the same cross section as the line conductor: • in single-phase. Table 1: Minimum cross sections of the neutral conductor Phase cross section S [mm2] Single-phase/two-phase circuits Cu/Al Any Three-phase circuits S ≤ 16 Cu S > 16 Three-phase circuits S ≤ 25 Al S > 25 * 2 Protection of feeders Protective conductor Determination of the minimum cross sections The minimum cross section of the protective conductor can be determined by using the following table: Table 2: Cross section of the protective conductor Cross section of line conductor S [mm2 ] Minimum cross section of the corresponding protective conductor [mm2 ] If the protective conductor is of the same material as the line conductor If the protective conductor is not of the same material as the line conductor S ≤ 16 S k k1 .s.

Electrical devices 85 . • or a second protective conductor of at least the same cross-sectional area as required for protection against indirect contact shall be laid up to a point where the protective conductor has a cross-sectional area not less than 10 mm2 Cu or 16 mm2 Al.5 mm2 Cu/16 mm2 Al.Electrical devices ABB SACE . which is not part of the supply cable. the cross section of the protective conductor. If Table 2 or formula (1) do not provide a standardized cross section.2. if no mechanical protection is provided. 1SDC010015F0201 Table 3: Values of k for insulated protective conductors not incorporated in cables and not bunched with other cables Temperature °C b Initial 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicon rubber a Material of conductor Copper 143/133 a 143/133 176 159 168 201 a Conductor insulation Aluminium Values for k 95/88 a 95/88 116 105 110 133 2 a Steel 52/49 a 52/49 a 64 58 60 73 Final 160/140 a 143/133 250 200 220 350 a 30 30 30 30 30 30 The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm . For current using equipment intended for permanent connection and with a protective conductor current exceeding 10 mA. Table 4: Values of k for protective conductors as a core incorporated in a cable or bunched with other cables or insulated conductors Temperature °C b Initial 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicon rubber a b Material of conductor Copper 115/103 a 100/86 a 143 141 134 132 Aluminium Values for k 76/68 a 66/57 a 94 93 89 87 42/37 a 36/31 a 52 51 47 1SDC010015F0201 Conductor insulation Steel Final 160/140 a 160/140 a 250 200 220 350 70 90 90 60 85 180 48 The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2. which provides the formula for accurate calculation of the value of k. if a mechanical protection is provided. a larger standardized cross section shall be chosen. 84 ABB SACE . reinforced protective conductors shall be designed as follows: • either the protective conductor shall have a cross-sectional area of at least 10 mm2 Cu or 16 mm2 Al.2. 2 Protection of feeders Further values of k can be taken from the Tables in Annex D. This requires that the appliance has a separate terminal for a second protective conductor. The most common values can be taken from Tables 3 and 4. shall be at least: . Regardless of whether Table 2 or formula (1) are used. b Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. on the type of insulation and on initial and final temperature.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders • k is a constant which depends on the material of the protective conductor. Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. through its total run.4 mm2 Cu/16 mm2 Al.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2. . When overcurrent protective devices are used for protection against electric shock. the protective conductor shall be incorporated in the same wiring system as the live conductors or be located in their immediate proximity.

conductors/busbars. . • cosϕm is the average power factor of the loads.supplying moving equipment (bridge cranes). . . • Ur is the operating voltage [V].12 30 1. .Electrical devices I b ≤ I Z 0 .edge-on. . safety and low power distribution. power and cosϕ and type of loads supplied by the same BTS 86 ABB SACE .suspensions/accessories: hanging and fixing elements for BTS and for any support required for special loads (lighting components. • Ib is the load current. 2 Protection of feeders BTS geometry • Type of installation: . tee joints and cross elements to create any type of route.three-phase.vertical.Electrical devices 87 . • Length. Loads • Number. Busbar trunking systems are subject to the following Standards: . etc). it is preferable to install the BTS edge-on so as to improve mechanical resistance and reduce any possible deposit of powder and polluting substances that might affect the level of internal insulation.95 50 0. . cos 3 r [A] m (1) where: • Pt is the sum of the active power of all the installed loads [W]. BTSs consist of: . • Type of BTS supply: .coupling: electrical and mechanical connecting elements for different elements. NOTE: BTSs shall be placed at a distance from the walls and the ceilings in such a way as to enable visual inspection of connections during assembly and to facilitate insertion of the branch units. displacements.single-phase .central power supply. .routing elements: flexible joints for the creation of curves or overcoming obstacles. distribution. b .lighting lines (medium power).1/2 if the BTS is supplied from the centre or from both ends simultaneously.85 ABB SACE . . Table 1: Correction factor kt for ambient temperature other than 40 °C Ambient Temperature [°C] 15 kt 1.05 40 1 45 0. kt = I Z (2) where: • IZ0 is the current that the BTS can carry for an indefinite time at the reference temperature (40 °C).17 25 1. the load current must be determined using the following data: Power supply • General type of load supply: .08 35 1.2.2 20 1. busbar trunking systems (BTSs) optimize the power distribution despite the inevitable modifications that are carried out (additions.IEC 60439 – 1 “Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies” . They are mainly used for: . If possible.straight elements: base elements of the line for carrying energy from the source to the loads. . • kt is the correction factor for ambient temperature values other than the reference ambient temperature shown on Table 1.from both ends. horizontal and vertical angles.flat. . • b is the supply factor. Choice of BTS current carrying capacity A BTS shall be chosen so that its current carrying capacity Iz complies with the following formula: Dimensioning of a BTS To dimension a BTS.IEC 60439 – 2 “Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways)”.power supply and distribution (medium and large power).from one end. .6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2.1 if the BTS is supplied from one side only.U .6 Busbar trunking systems (BTSs) In electrical installations for industrial environments. which is: . Load current calculation for three-phase system Load current Ib for a three-phase system is calculated by the following formula: Ib = Pt .pull boxes: elements that enable lamps or operating machines to be supplied directly with integrated protection (fuses or circuit breakers). .supplying sources of light. . • Rated voltage • Short-circuit current at the supply point • Ambient temperature. replacement of loads) and to facilitate maintenance work and safety verifications.

Cu HRC1 2000A 4 cond.142 0.031 0.335 0.014 0.205 0. Cu SC 1000A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 1600A 4 cond.074 0.122 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .205 0. Cu SB6 350A 5 cond. Cu Number of conductors 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 IZ0 [A] 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 rph* [mΩ/m] 0. Cu SB7 800A 4 cond.027 0.120 0.021 0. Cu SC 3000A 4 cond.120 0. Cu SB6 800A 5 cond.018 0. Cu MRf 1000A 5 cond.648 0.025 0.017 0.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Note: the following tables refer to Zucchini S. Cu SC 4000A 4 cond.Electrical devices 89 .031 0.026 0.097 0. Cu SB4 700A 4 cond.074 0. Cu HL404 40A 4 cond.216 0.035 0.068 0.008 xph [mΩ/m] 0. Cu MR 800A 4 cond.022 0. Cu SB5 500A 5 cond.120 0.335 0.205 0. Cu SB6 160A 5 cond.580 0. Cu MR 400A 4 cond.205 0.015 0.012 0. Cu HRC1 2500A 4 cond.247 0. Cu SB5 700A 5 cond.038 0.876 6.038 0.314 0. Cu HRC2 5000A 4 cond. Cu SB5 160A 5 cond. Cu SC 3200A 4 cond.366 0.173 1.037 0. Cu SB4 500A 4 cond.008 0.038 0. Cu HRC2 3200A 4 cond. Cu HL4044 40A 4+4 cond.020 0.034 0.115 0.188 0.216 0.516 2.072 0. Cu MR 1000A 4 cond.013 0. Cu MRf 630A 5 cond.068 0.335 0.115 0.019 0.400 0.194 0.122 0. Cu SC 2400A 4 cond.011 0.122 0. Cu HRC2 3000A 4 cond.129 0.290 0. products Table 2: Current carrying capacity IZ0 of copper BTS Size 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 Type LB254 25A 4 cond.122 0.285 0. Cu SB6 1000A 5 cond. Cu MS 100A 4 cond.011 0.040 0.092 0. Cu SB5 250A 5 cond. Cu SC 1250A 4 cond.015 0.073 0. Cu MR 630A 4 cond.194 0. Cu SB5 350A 5 cond.285 0. Cu SB6 500A 5 cond.073 0. Cu HRC2 4000A 4 cond.047 0.400 1. Cu SB7 1000A 4 cond. Cu SB4 160A 4 cond.142 0. Cu SC 2500A 4 cond. Cu MR 250A 4 cond.129 0.047 0.120 0.122 0. Cu SC 1200A 4 cond. Cu SC 1500A 4 cond.072 0.026 0. Cu SB7 350A 4 cond. Cu MRf 250A 5 cond. Cu MS 160A 4 cond.077 0. Cu SB5 1000A 5 cond.129 0.335 0.019 0.122 0.964 6.120 0.068 0.A.068 0.122 Ur [V] 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 Size 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 2 Protection of feeders Type SB6 700A 5 cond.009 0.072 0.188 0.314 0.188 0.038 0.142 0.314 0.792 1.122 0.129 0. Cu SL 40A 4 cond. Cu SC 5000A 4 cond.092 0. Cu SB7 250A 4 cond.194 0.129 0.188 0. Cu SB7 500A 4 cond. Cu SB4 800A 4 cond.122 0.205 0.516 3.023 Ur [V] 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 *phase resistance at Iz0 88 ABB SACE . Cu SC 1600A 4 cond. Cu SB4 1000A 4 cond.030 0.122 0.120 0.034 0. Cu HRC1 1250A 4 cond.2. Cu SB4 250A 4 cond.072 0.011 0.314 0.122 0.580 1.142 0.205 0.025 0. Cu SB6 250A 5 cond.637 0.574 0.077 0. Cu HL254 25A 4 cond. Cu HL2544 25A 4+4 cond.188 0.011 0.076 0.129 0.077 xph [mΩ/m] 1.035 0. Cu SB7 160A 4 cond. Cu SL 63A 4 cond. Cu MRf 315A 5 cond.p.007 0.016 0.092 0.188 0.144 1.6 Busbar trunking systems 2.092 0.556 3. Cu SB4 350A 4 cond. Cu SC 2000A 4 cond. Cu LB404 40A 4 cond.876 3.077 0. Cu MRf 400A 5 cond.790 0. Cu SB7 700A 4 cond. Cu Number of conductors 4 4 4+4 4 4 4+4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 IZ0 [A] 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 rph* [mΩ/m] 6. Cu SB5 800A 5 cond. Cu SC 800A 4 cond.122 0.023 0.194 0. Cu HRC1 1000A 4 cond. Cu MRf 800A 5 cond. Cu MR 315A 4 cond.005 0.

020 0. Al HRC2 3200A 4 cond.186 0.591 0. Al MR 315A 4 cond. Al SB5 630A 5 cond.226 0. Al SB7 500A 4 cond.127 0. Al HRC1 1600A 4 cond.062 0.096 0.2. Al HRC1 1250A 4 cond.071 0.011 0. Al SC 630A 4 cond.431 0.034 0. Al MRf 315A 5 cond. Al SB6 800A 5 cond.096 0. Al SB5 500A 5 cond. Al Number of conductors 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 IZ0 [A] 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 rph* [mΩ/m] 0. Al SB6 630A 5 cond.014 0. Al Number of conductors 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 IZ0 [A] 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 rph* [mΩ/m] 0.029 0.260 0.125 0. Al HRC2 4500A 4 cond.044 0.186 0.097 0. Al SB4 315A 4 cond.202 0.068 0.102 0.144 0.066 0.053 0.017 0. Al SB4 800A 4 cond.096 0.130 0.260 0.394 0.024 Ur [V] 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 *phase resistance at Iz0 90 ABB SACE . Al SC 4000A 4 cond. Al SB6 500A 5 cond. Al SB7 250A 4 cond. Al SB6 250A 5 cond. Al MRf 250A 5 cond.127 0.016 0.028 0.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Current carrying capacity IZ0 of aluminium BTS Size 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 Type MR 160A 4 cond. Al SB7 630A 4 cond.186 0.130 0.591 0.021 0.034 0. Al SB6 400A 5 cond. Al SB5 160A 5 cond.260 0.186 0.017 0.127 0.431 0. Al HRC2 4000A 4 cond.096 0.260 0. Al SC 800A 4 cond. Al SB7 160A 4 cond.202 0.097 0.186 0. Al SB5 800A 5 cond.073 0. Al MR 630A 4 cond.202 0.073 0. Al MRf 160A 5 cond.226 0.130 0.029 Ur [V] 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 Size 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 2 Protection of feeders Type SB4 630A 4 cond. Al SB5 400A 5 cond.202 0.011 0. Al SB5 315A 5 cond.071 0.034 0.014 xph [mΩ/m] 0.020 0. Al SB7 800A 4 cond.054 0.096 0.144 0.130 0. Al SC 3200A 4 cond. Al SC 1250A 4 cond.431 0.062 0.067 0. Al SC 1000A 4 cond.072 0.102 0. Al SB7 400A 4 cond.236 0. Al SB4 250A 4 cond. Al SB6 160A 5 cond.181 0.097 0.032 0.394 0.022 0.202 0.041 0.226 0.226 0.087 0.017 0.062 0.202 0.072 0. Al MR 250A 4 cond.044 0. Al MR 400A 4 cond.186 0. Al SB4 400A 4 cond. Al SB5 250A 5 cond.073 0. Al HRC2 2500A 4 cond.071 0. Al MRf 630A 5 cond.024 0.008 0.125 0.431 0.181 0. Al HRC1 1000A 4 cond.073 0.049 0. Al SC 3000A 4 cond.125 0.097 0.009 0. Al SC 2400A 4 cond.041 0. Al SC 1600A 4 cond.097 0. Al MRf 400A 5 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. Al SB4 160A 4 cond. Al SB6 315A 5 cond.181 0.027 0.130 0.236 0.097 0.130 0.071 0.125 0.023 0. Al SB7 315A 4 cond.102 0. Al MR 800A 4 cond.Electrical devices ABB SACE .181 0.035 0.066 0.102 0. Al HRC2 2250A 4 cond.072 xph [mΩ/m] 0. Al SC 2000A 4 cond. Al MRf 800A 5 cond. Al SC 1200A 4 cond. Al SC 2500A 4 cond. Al HRC1 2000A 4 cond.022 0.Electrical devices 91 .096 0. Al SC 1500A 4 cond.260 0.023 0.260 0.127 0.023 0. Al SB4 500A 4 cond.012 0.

I2 t CB < I2 t BTS ? yes IkpCB < I kp BTS ? yes no END 92 ABB SACE .2. This can be extrapolated from the curves shown in Volume 1 Chapter 3. • Iz is the continuous current carrying capacity of the BTS. In such cases. The following formula shall be verified: 2 Protection of feeders START I b ≤ In ≤ I z (3) Ib where: • Ib is the current for which the circuit is designed.The protection against short-circuit does not need to be checked if MCBs up to 63 A are used whenever correctly dimensioned for overload protection. the rated current In is the set current. • In is the rated current of the protective device. Voltage drop OK ? no yes Circuit-breaker choice Ib < InCB < IZ ? no Protection against electrodynamic effects The following formula shall be fulfilled: yes Ikp CB ≤ Ikp BTS (5) where: • Ikp CB is the peak limited by the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current value at the installation point. for adjustable protective devices. This can be extrapolated from the limitation curves shown in Volume 1. Protection against short-circuit The BTS must be protected against thermal overload and electrodynamic effects due to the short-circuit current. Temperature <> 40 °C ? yes no NOTE .Electrical devices 1SDC010017F0201 no ABB SACE . protection against both thermal and electrodynamic effects is certainly adequate because of the energy and peak limitations offered by these protective devices. Protection against thermal overload The following formula shall be fulfilled: kt=1 kt from Table 1 BTS choice (I b < kt*IZ0 =IZ ) I2t CB ≤ I2t BTS (4) where: • I2tCB is the specific let-through energy of the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current value at the installation point. • Ikp BTS is the maximum peak current value of the BTS (see Tables 4 and 5).3. in fact.4.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders BTS protection Protection against overload BTSs are protected against overload by using the same criterion as that used for the cables.Electrical devices 93 .6 Busbar trunking systems 2. Chapter 3. • I2tBTS is the withstood energy of the BTS and it is normally given by the manufacturer (see Tables 4 and 5).

48 0.6 1296 453. Cu MRf 630A 5 cond. Cu SC 1000A 4 cond. Cu HL2544 25A 4+4 cond.5 101. Cu SB4 800A 4 cond.29 20.5 312.6 4860 18585.4 169 169 169 540 900 453.25 777.25 60 100 100 100 187.2 116.25 756.5 312. Cu SB5 1000A 5 cond.4 960 614.8 34. Cu HL4044 40A 4+4 cond.25 60 100 100 100 187.25 1296 1296 3969 1600 1024 1024 1024 1024 7744 7744 2500 7744 7744 2500 7744 3600 7744 7744 4900 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 10000 I2tN [(kA)2s] 756.29 7.29 7.4 83. Cu MS 160A 4 cond. Cu SB4 250A 4 cond. Cu MR 400A 4 cond.25 756. Cu SC 800A 4 cond.4 4646.64 0.4 2160 4646. Cu SC 2500A 4 cond.5 312. Cu SC 3200A 4 cond. Cu SB5 500A 5 cond.4 45.8 45.25 777.5 31.6 4860 18585.6 6000 Ipeakph [kA] 58 58 75.64 0.6 1296 3969 1600 614. Cu SB4 500A 4 cond.5 312.6 75.4 169 169 169 187.8 34.29 7. Cu SB5 700A 5 cond.25 756.5 101. Cu SB5 350A 5 cond. Cu MRf 250A 5 cond.25 777.29 20.2 10. Cu MRf 315A 5 cond.4 83. Cu LB404 40A 4 cond. Cu HRC2 5000A 4 cond.8 Size 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 2 Protection of feeders Type SB6 700A 5 cond.2. Cu SB4 160A 4 cond.2 31. Cu MRf 800A 5 cond. Cu SB7 700A 4 cond.5 15. Cu SC 3000A 4 cond.4 34.75 756.25 I2tN [(kA)2s] 0.4 453.25 756. Cu SB7 350A 4 cond. Cu SB6 1000A 5 cond. Cu SC 5000A 4 cond. Cu SB6 250A 5 cond.Electrical devices ABB SACE .25 1296 1296 3969 756.25 30.2 10.25 777.25 777.6 75. Cu MRf 1000A 5 cond.Electrical devices 95 .4 116.6 139 84 60 60 60 60 194 194 105 194 194 105 194 132 194 194 154 387 198 387 198 387 198 387 220 IpeakN [kA] 34.25 Ipeakph [kA] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 17 17 17 17 52. Cu SB7 800A 4 cond.25 756.25 30.4 34.75 756. Cu SB4 350A 4 cond.4 79.6 139 58 58 58 58 75.6 15. Cu SC 1500A 4 cond. Cu SC 1200A 4 cond.75 756. Cu SB6 800A 5 cond.6 15.5 15.5 312.8 34.4 4646.25 756.6 15.8 34. Cu MRf 400A 5 cond. Cu I2tph [(kA)2s] 756.8 34. Cu SC 2000A 4 cond.8 45. Cu SB4 1000A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 2500A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 2000A 4 cond.4 36 36 36 36 116.5 52.4 50.25 756. Cu SB7 1000A 4 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. Cu SL 63A 4 cond.8 34.25 756.4 1500 4646. Cu SB7 160A 4 cond. Cu SB6 350A 5 cond.64 0. Cu SB5 250A 5 cond. Cu MR 315A 4 cond.6 37.25 756. Cu SL 40A 4 cond.4 4646.25 756.8 232.5 26 26 26 26 52.6 1296 2381.5 169 169 169 169 312.4 169 169 169 540 900 453. Cu SC 4000A 4 cond.29 20.2 118.25 756.8 37. Cu SC 1600A 4 cond.6 1296 2381.5 101.64 0.48 0.4 63 116.2 132 94 ABB SACE . Cu SB5 800A 5 cond.25 756.73 1 1 7.64 0.25 756. Cu SB7 250A 4 cond. Cu HL404 40A 4 cond.6 31.25 756.2 118.5 52.75 756. Cu MR 250A 4 cond.75 756.6 1296 3969 453.25 1296 1296 756.6 75.4 1024 1024 1024 7744 7744 2500 7744 7744 2500 7744 3600 7744 7744 4900 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 10000 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 756. Cu SC 1250A 4 cond.4 45.25 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 0.2 10.4 63 116. Cu SB6 160A 5 cond.4 1500 4646.48 0.2 118.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Table 4: Values of the withstood energy and peak current of copper BTS Size 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 Type LB254 25A 4 cond.4 45.4 92.8 34. Cu SB6 500A 5 cond.5 31. Cu HRC2 3000A 4 cond. Cu MR 1000A 4 cond.5 312.25 777. Cu MR 630A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 1250A 4 cond. Cu HL254 25A 4 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 4646.25 756.4 116.25 756.5 26 26 26 26 63 63 58 58 58 58 75.8 232. Cu SB7 500A 4 cond. Cu SB4 700A 4 cond.6 1296 453. Cu MS 100A 4 cond.6 15.25 756.4 2940 18585.4 232.73 1 1 7.64 0. Cu HRC2 3200A 4 cond.25 100 100 100 100 312.6 15.8 232. Cu HRC2 4000A 4 cond.4 116. Cu SB5 160A 5 cond.4 169 169 169 187.6 4860 18585.5 169 169 169 169 900 900 756.6 58 58 IpeakN [kA] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10.5 101.25 30. Cu MR 800A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 1600A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 1000A 4 cond.73 1 1 7. Cu SC 2400A 4 cond. Cu I2tph [(kA)2s] 0.8 34.6 15.8 45.25 756.75 756.8 34.

5 67.4 169 169 169 540 900 375 625 625 625 375 625 625 625 777.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Table 5: Values of the withstood energy and peak current of aluminium BTS Size 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 Type MR 160A 4 cond. Al HRC1 2000A 4 cond.5 31. Al SB7 800A 4 cond.5 31.5 112.5 312.5 101.5 31.8 211. Al MRf 315A 5 cond.6 1296 1444 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 67.8 40.6 79.5 40.5 60 100 100 100 187.6 37.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. Al MRf 250A 5 cond.6 63 105. Al SB4 250A 4 cond.6 15. Al MR 800A 4 cond.6 31. Al SC 2500A 4 cond. Al HRC2 4500A 4 cond.6 15.5 40. Al HRC2 2500A 4 cond.5 75. Al SB6 160A 5 cond.6 105. Al SB4 315A 4 cond.2 92. Al SB7 250A 4 cond.5 67.4 105.5 31.8 37.5 60 100 100 100 187.4 1024 1024 1024 6400 1600 6400 6400 2500 6400 6400 2500 6400 3600 4900 25600 25600 8100 25600 25600 8100 25600 8100 10000 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 614.5 169 169 169 169 625 625 169 169 169 169 900 900 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 1296 1296 1444 I2tN [(kA)2s] 67.2 31.5 112.4 1024 1024 1024 777. Al HRC2 3200A 4 cond.4 211.5 105.5 15.2 10.5 40.4 1024 1024 1024 777. Al SB7 400A 4 cond.2 211.5 67.5 40.6 15.5 67.4 169 169 169 375 625 101. Al SC 1000A 4 cond. Al SC 1200A 4 cond. Al SB5 630A 5 cond. Al SC 2000A 4 cond.2 10.4 1024 1024 1024 3840 960 3840 3840 1500 3840 3840 1500 3840 2160 2940 15360 15360 4860 15360 15360 4860 15360 4860 6000 Ipeakph [kA] 67.5 52. Al MRf 160A 5 cond. Al SB7 160A 4 cond.8 211.4 45.5 40. Al SB4 160A 4 cond. Al I2tph [(kA)2s] 1024 1024 1024 1024 1296 1296 1764 1024 1024 1024 1024 6400 1600 6400 6400 2500 6400 6400 2500 6400 3600 4900 25600 25600 8100 25600 25600 8100 25600 8100 10000 I2tN [(kA)2s] 614. Al SC 3000A 4 cond. Al SB4 500A 4 cond.6 50. Al SB5 250A 5 cond.5 31.4 169 169 169 540 900 375 625 625 625 375 625 625 625 777.5 31.5 67. Al SC 800A 4 cond.6 80 IpeakN [kA] 18 18 10. Al SB6 800A 5 cond.5 52.5 101.6 1296 1764 614. Al SB6 630A 5 cond.5 31.2 211.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 100 100 100 100 312.6 1296 1058.6 15.8 31. Al SB5 800A 5 cond.6 105.5 52. Al SB6 315A 5 cond.4 Ipeakph [kA] 30 30 17 17 17 17 52.6 75.5 52. Al SB4 800A 4 cond.5 312. Al MRf 630A 5 cond.4 52.5 176 84 176 176 105 176 176 105 176 132 154 352 352 198 352 352 198 352 198 220 IpeakN [kA] 40.2 118.5 31.5 26 26 26 26 63 63 52.8 132 96 ABB SACE . Al SC 630A 4 cond. Al SC 1250A 4 cond. Al SB5 400A 5 cond.5 45. Al HRC2 4000A 4 cond. Al SB6 400A 5 cond. Al SC 1500A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1250A 4 cond.5 112.5 31.2. Al HRC2 2250A 4 cond. Al MRf 800A 5 cond.6 75.6 88 67. Al MR 250A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1000A 4 cond.5 67.4 169 169 169 375 625 101.2 118.5 15.6 15. Al SC 2400A 4 cond. Al MR 400A 4 cond. Al SB5 160A 5 cond.5 75.2 118.5 52.5 26 26 26 26 52. Al SB7 500A 4 cond.5 52. Al SB6 250A 5 cond. Al SC 1600A 4 cond. Al SB7 630A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1600A 4 cond.5 52. Al I2tph [(kA)2s] 112. Al SB5 500A 5 cond.5 52.2 10. Al SC 4000A 4 cond.6 15.Electrical devices 97 . Al SB7 315A 4 cond. Al MR 315A 4 cond.6 1296 866. Al MRf 400A 5 cond.5 40.5 45. Al SB4 400A 4 cond. Al SC 3200A 4 cond.4 45.4 48 Size 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 2 Protection of feeders Type SB4 630A 4 cond.5 52. Al SB6 500A 5 cond. Al MR 630A 4 cond.5 312.4 614. Al SB5 315A 5 cond.6 63 105.

• rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS. the overload protection device shall be installed at the outgoing point. the risk of short-circuit is minimized. It is therefore necessary to protect also the feeder against overload. Ib . i. • x is the phase reactance per unit of length of BTS [mΩ/m].25 0.125 • Ib is the load current [A]. the voltage drop can be calculated more accurately by using the formulas below. The protection device against overload can be placed inside the pull box or on the incoming panel.25 0. sin ) [V] (6a) L1 ∆ u= a . is not already protected against short-circuit and overload by the device located upstream of the cable.8. the value of the voltage drop must be verified. protection against short-circuit is always required.2.5 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE . .e.protection against overload: the current carrying capacity of the feeder is generally lower than that of the BTS.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Protection of the outgoing feeders If the outgoing feeder. In the latter case. there is no inflammable material nearby. the voltage drop can be calculated by using the following simplified formula: If the loads cannot be considered to be evenly distributed. 3 . In locations with greater risk of fire. 100 Ur (7) To reduce the voltage drop in very long BTS the power can be supplied at an intermediate position rather than at the end (see Table 6). measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m]. Percentage voltage drop is obtained from: ∆ u% = where Ur is rated voltage. Voltage drop 2 Protection of feeders Table 6: Current distribution factor Type of supply From one end only From both ends Central Arrangement of loads Load concentrated at the end Evenly distributed load Evenly distributed load Load concentrated at the ends Evenly distributed load Current distribution factor 1 0. inside the pull box.Electrical devices 99 1SDC010015F0001 . L3 L2 m a . the following measures shall be taken: . 2 . which depends on the circuit supply and the arrangement of the electric loads along the BTS. the voltage drop can be calculated by the following formula if the BTS has a constant cross section (as usual): ∆u = 3[ rt ( I 1L1 cos 1+ I 2 L2 cos 2 + I 3 L3 cos 3 ) + x( I 1L1 sin 1 + I 2 L2 sin 2 + I 3 L3 sin 3 )] 98 ABB SACE . sin 1000 m ) [V] (6b) L l1 l2 l3 L L where: • a is the current distribution factor. • cosϕm is average power factor of the loads.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. • L is the BTS length [m]. L. the length does not exceed 3 metres. Ib .protection against short-circuit: there is no need to protect the feeder against the short-circuit if simultaneously: a. protection against overload can also be provided by the circuit-breakers protecting the single outgoing feeder from the panel only if the sum of their rated currents is lower or equal to the current carrying capacity Iz of the outgoing feeder. cos m + x . b. as shown in Table 6: For the distribution of the three-phase loads shown in the figure. ∆u . c. For three-phase systems with a power factor (cosϕm) not lower than 0. Calculation of voltage drop for unevenly distributed loads If a BTS is particularly long. ( rt . cos ∆u= 1000 For single-phase BTS the formula is: m + x . ( rt . which generally consists of cable duct. L. In explosive environments and environments with greater risk of fire.

presents a very low electrical resistance. I i .6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Generally speaking. • x is the phase reactance per unit of length of BTS [mΩ/m].Electrical devices ABB SACE . e. 1000 I i . The current flows through this filament. The electrical behaviour of these lamps involves a high peak current.fluorescent. in the case of distribution of loads shown in the previous figure: Length L1 L2-L1 L3-L2 Current I1+I2+I3 I2+I3 I3 Losses P1=3rtL1(I1+I2+I3)2 P2=3rt(L2-L1)(I2+I3)2 P3=3rt(L3-L2)(I3)2 Ptot=P1+P2+P3 The most commonly used lamps are of the following types: .incandescent. initially cold. measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m]. • L is the length of BTS [m]. Peak current diagram I [A] Peak Inrush current diagram I [A] 15÷20 In Pj = Inrush In 1. heating it until light is emitted. for a brief period an initial current exceeding the rated current (corresponding to the power of the lamps) circulates on the network. Li . • Ii is i-th load current [A]. The peak is caused by the lamp filament which. there may also be an inrush current with a value of approximately 1. • cosϕm is average power factor of the i-th load. and is present for a few milliseconds.halogen. equal to approximately 15 times the rated current. losses must be assessed section by section on the basis of the currents flowing through them. Three-phase losses are: 2 3 . this formula becomes: 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3. The correct dimensioning of the switching and protection devices must take these problems into account. rt . For accurate calculations. the resistance value increases considerably. causing the decrease in the current absorbed.5 min. Joule-effect losses Joule-effect losses are due to the electrical resistance of the BTS. after a few milliseconds the current returns to the rated value. .Electrical devices 101 1SDC010003F0901 . I b . cos mi + x . rt .1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits ∆u = 3 rt .5÷3 times the rated current.high intensity discharge: mercury vapour. • Li is the distance of the i-th load from the beginning of the BTS [m].5÷3 In while single-phase losses are: 4-5 milliseconds 2 2 . sin Introduction mi [V] (8) where: • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS. The losses are dissipated in heat and contribute to the heating of the trunking and of the environment. L [W] (9a) 1000 Upon supply of a lighting installation. Incandescent lamps Incandescent lamps are made up of a glass bulb containing a vacuum or inert gas and a tungsten filament. Calculation of power losses is useful for correctly dimensioning the air-conditioning system for the building. due to the very fast heating of the element. Subsequently.g. L [W] (9b) Pj = 1000 Time [milliseconds] 3. I b . 1° section 2° section 3° section Total losses in BTS 100 ABB SACE . . metal halide and sodium vapour. Time [minutes] where: • Ib is the current used [A]. lasting up to some minutes. .2. Li . This possible peak has a value of approximately 15÷20 times the rated current. • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m].

releasing energy in the form of radiation which is both ultraviolet and within the visible spectrum. the arc is able to vaporize the metallic elements contained in the gas.Electrical devices ABB SACE . High intensity discharge lamps require a suitably sized controller and a heating period which can last some minutes before the emission of the rated light output. quartz. This phenomenon slows the deterioration of the filament. flicker-free light. and an inrush current of up to twice the rated current for approximately 5 minutes. The colour characteristics and the efficiency of the lamp depend upon the different metallic elements present in the gas. which absorb from 10% to 20% of the rated power of the lamp. metal halide and sodium vapour The functioning of high intensity discharge lamps is the same as that of fluorescent lamps with the difference that the discharge occurs in the presence of a gas at high pressure. a lower dissipation of heat. • AC-5b switching of incandescent lamps. but requires a high peak current. A momentary loss of power makes the restarting of the system and the heating necessary. . Some types of fluorescent lamps with electronic reactors do not need a starter. Non PFC lamps have inrush currents of up to twice the rated current for approximately 5 minutes. the gas within the enclosure emits energy in the ultraviolet range which strikes the fluorescent material. which are struck by the arc. determined by the charge of the capacitor. PFC lamps have a peak current equal to 20 times the rated current. In this case.6. Electronic controllers offer specific advantages such as a saving in the energy absorbed. The value of the inrush current depends upon the presence of a power factor correction capacitor: . The documentation supplied by the manufacturer includes tables for contactor selection.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Halogen lamps Halogen lamps are a special type of incandescent lamp in which the gas contained within the bulb prevents the vaporized material of the tungsten filament from depositing on the surface of the bulb and forces re-deposition on the filament. using a controller (reactor). which can reach 20 times the rated current. The light is produced by a discharge within a transparent enclosure (glass. improves the quality of the light emitted and increases the life of the lamp. at maximum. The special type of bulb glass blocks the ultraviolet radiation and allows only the visible radiation to pass through.Electrical devices 103 . The colour of the light emitted depends upon the fluorescent material used. in some cases.9 There are two types of controllers. depending on the type of lamp) which contains mercury vapour at low pressure. 10 times the rated current.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3.in PFC lamps. this lowers the power factor to approximately 0. etc. Once the lamp has been switched on. the initial transient current may lead to peak currents equal to. magnetic (conventional) and electronic.3. in turn. 3 Protection of electrical equipment High intensity discharge lamps: mercury vapour. metal halide and sodium vapour. Lamp type Incandescent lamps Halogen lamps Fluorescent lamp High intensity discharge lamps Non PFC PFC Non PFC PFC Peak current 15In 15In − 20In − 20In Inrush current 2In 2In 2In Turn-on time 10 s 1÷6 s 2÷8 min 2÷8 min Protection and switching devices IEC 60947-4-1 identifies two specific utilization categories for lamp control contactors: • AC-5a switching of electric discharge lamps. the presence of the capacitor allows the reduction of the turnon time to a few seconds. The electrical behaviour of these lamps is the same as that of incandescent lamps. There are three main types of high intensity discharge lamps: mercury vapour. and to their type. the gas offers an ever lower resistance.non PFC lamps have inrush currents equal to approximately twice the rated current and a turn-on time of about ten seconds. Once the discharge has started. generated by a starter. 102 ABB SACE . normally a capacitor is added to increase the power factor to a value of more than 0. If the lamp is fitted with an electronic controller. according to the number of lamps to be controlled. a conventional or electronic controller. and it is necessary to stabilize the intensity of the current. The discharge is created by an appropriate peak in voltage. Compact fluorescent lamps are made up of a folded tube and a plastic base which contains.4÷0. this material transforms the ultraviolet radiation into radiation which has a wavelength within the visible spectrum. Fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps are a so-called discharge light source. and ensure a stable.

the trip characteristic curve shall be above the turning-on characteristic curve of the lighting device to avoid unwanted trips.Electrical devices ABB SACE .A S= 8.B A75 T2N160 In100 L= 1.B A40 N° lamps per phase 155 93 46 30 18 9 220 132 65 43 26 13 246 147 73 48 29 14 272 163 80 53 32 16 355 210 105 70 42 21 390 240 80 48 24 1SDC010032F0201 T2N160 In63 L= 0.A S= 8.B A63 T2N160 In100 L= 0.37 2.76.27 0. 3 Protection of electrical equipment Figure 1: Approximate diagram for the coordination of lamps with protection and switching devices [t] Contactor Icw ( ) * For calculation see Annex B Calculation of load current Ib Circuit-breaker characteristics [A] Table 1: Incandescent and halogen lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Incandescent/halogen lamps Circuit-breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type Rated Power [W] 60 100 200 300 500 1000 Rated current Ib [A] 0.Electrical devices 105 1SDC010004F0901 With reference to the above verification criteria.92. for three phase installations with a rated voltage of 400 V and a maximum short-circuit current of 15 kA.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3.91 1.B A110 120 104 ABB SACE .1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment For the selection of a protection device the following verifications shall be carried out: .coordination shall exist with the contactor under short-circuit conditions (lighting installations are not generally characterized by overloads).A S= 10.45 0.55 57 34 17 11 6 3 65 38 19 12 7 4 70 42 20 13 8 4 103 62 30 20 12 6 142 85 42 28 16 8 S270 D20 ---A26 S270 D20 S270 D25 ---A26 ---A26 S270 D32 ---A26 S270 D50 ---A30 T2N160 In63 L= 0. the following tables show the maximum number of lamps per phase which can be controlled by the combination of ABB circuit-breakers and contactors for some types of lamps.A S= 7.68.28 4.B A95 T2N160 In160 L= 0. Turning-on characteristics .68.A S= 10. . according to their power and absorbed current Ib(*) .A S= 8.B A50 T2N160 In100 L= 0. an approximate example is shown in Figure1.3.68.

A S= 10.38 0.8 1.15 1.Electrical devices 107 .7 106 ABB SACE .B A75 192 162 104 91 63 60 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.B A75 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.Electrical devices ABB SACE .A S= 10.B A50 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A.B A95 Rated Power [W] 20 40 65 80 100 110 Rated current Ib [A] 0.S= 10.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3.65 0.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 2: Fluorescent lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps non PFC Circuit-breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type Rated Power [W] 20 40 65 80 100 110 Rated current Ib [A] 0.3.2 40 33 21 18 13 12 44 37 24 21 14 14 50 42 27 23 16 15 73 62 40 35 24 23 100 84 54 47 33 31 A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 A40 N° lamps per phase 110 93 60 52 36 35 157 133 85 75 52 50 A50 S270 D16 S270 D20 S270 D20 S270 D32 S270 D40 S270 D50 3 Protection of electrical equipment S270 D63 T2N160 In100 L= 0.7 0.76.68.B A40 N° lamps per phase 233 160 100 80 64 59 335 230 142 115 92 85 360 255 158 126 101 94 400 280 173 140 112 104 530 365 225 180 145 135 T2N160 In63 L= 1.A S= 10.42 0.96.B A95 250 210 135 118 82 79 T2N160 In160 S= 0.68.26 0.68.A S= 10.B A110 278 234 132 92 88 1SDC010033F0201 150 Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps PFC Circuit-breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type S270 D25 --A26 Capacitor [µF] 5 5 7 7 16 18 83 58 35 28 23 21 94 65 40 32 26 24 105 75 45 36 29 27 155 107 66 53 43 40 215 150 92 74 59 55 S270 D25 S270 D32 --A26 --A26 S270 D40 --A26 S270 D63 --A30 T2N160 In63 L= 0.18 0.68.45 0.76.A S= 8.52 0.B A63 173 145 94 82 57 55 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.B A63 T2N160 In100 L= 0.96.

5 3.B S= 8. In the specific case.84.B A75 29 17 12 8 5 T2N160 In100 L= 1.ABB Tmax T2N160 In63 circuit-breaker with PR221/DS type electronic release.B S= 4.5. on the row corresponding to 200 W.B A75 T2N160 In160 A95 T2N160 In160 A110 L= 0.8.8 3 4.5.5.B S= 6. with protection L set at 0. .5.B L= 0.B A95 38 23 15 11 6 T2N160 In160 L= 0.8.5 2.B S= 6.2 Example: Switching and protection of a lighting system.88.5.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3: High intensity discharge lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps non PFC Circuit-breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type Rated Power [W] 150 250 400 600 1000 Rated current Ib [A] 1.8. 108 ABB SACE .B S= 6.B Rated Power [W] 150 250 400 600 1000 Rated current Ib [A] 1 1. supplied by a three phase network at 400 V 15 kA.B S= 6.B A110 41 25 17 12 7 Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps PFC Circuit-breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type S270 D16 --A26 Capacitor [µF] 20 36 48 65 100 13 8 5 4 14 9 5 4 15 10 6 5 23 15 9 7 4 28 18 11 8 4 S270 D20 S270 D20 --A26 --A26 S270 D32 --A26 S270 D40 --A30 S270 D40 --A40 N° lamps per phase 30 20 12 9 5 50 33 20 15 8 58 38 23 17 9 63 42 25 19 10 81 54 32 24 13 88 59 36 27 14 1SDC010034F0201 T2N160 In100 L= 0. select the cell showing the number of controllable lamps immediately above the number of lamps per phase present in the installation. made up of 55 incandescent lamps.3. curve B.Electrical devices 109 . of 200 W each.3 6.B S= 6.2 10. curve A and protection S set at 10.Electrical devices ABB SACE .88.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3.5.5. In Table 1.4 6.92.B S= 4. per phase.B A50 T2N160 In100 L= 0.3 6 4 3 1 7 4 3 2 1 8 5 3 2 1 11 7 4 3 2 15 9 6 4 3 A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 A40 N° lamps per phase 17 10 7 5 3 23 14 9 7 4 A50 S270 D16 S270 D2 S270 D20 S270 D32 S270 D40 S270 D40 S270 D50 3 Protection of electrical equipment S270 D63 A63 26 16 10 8 5 T2N160 In100 L= 0.B A63 T2N160 In100 L= 1.A50 contactor. corresponding to the cell for 65 lamps per phase the following equipment are suggested: .

the current supplied by the generator is a function of the parameters of the machine itself. Unlike the public supply network.in the case of operation in parallel with the network: Icu(Ics) ≥ IkNet. either as an alternative to. as the short-circuit contribution from the network is normally greater than the contribution from the generator. and by the transitory time constant T’d (0.in the case of a single generator: Icu(Ics) ≥ Ikg. or in parallel with the public utility supply network.2 Protection and switching of generators The need to guarantee an ever greater continuity of service has led to an increase in the use of emergency supply generators.5 and 4 times the rated current of the generator.5 s).5/3·In.03÷2. in case of a short-circuit. a subtransient phase: with a brief duration (10÷50 ms). function I can be set at the indicated values I3 = (1. 2.5 s). and decreases with time.in the case of n identical generators in parallel: Icu(Ics) ≥ Ikg·(n-1). • supply to the user installation in parallel with the public supply network. • breaking capacity Icu or Ics higher than the maximum value of short-circuit current at the installation point: . so as to achieve discrimination with the devices installed downstream.5÷2. at the rated voltage of the installation Ur. it can be estimated that the maximum value of the short-circuit current of a generator. 3 Protection of electrical equipment As a first approximation. with rated power Srg. characterized by the subtransient reactance X”d (5÷20% of the rated impedance value). 100 ' X 'd % where Irg is the rated current of the generator: Irg = Srg 3 .3. . and to allow fast tripping in the event of a short-circuit upstream of the device (working in parallel with other generators or with the network): I 3 ≥ I kg Subtransient phase 1SDC010018F0201 10-2 10-3 1 10 102 x Irg 110 ABB SACE . it is possible to identify the following successive phases: 1. Ur t [s] 101 Synchronous phase 1 Transient phase 10-1 The circuit-breaker for the protection of the generator shall be selected according to the following criteria: • the set current higher than the rated current of the generator: I1 ≥ Irg. if the function S is not present. • for circuit-breakers with electronic releases: . Typical configurations include: • “Island supply” (independent functioning) of the priority loads in the case of a lack of energy supply through the public network. is equal to: Ikg = Irg . and by the subtransient time constant T”d (5÷30 ms). a transitory phase: may last up to some seconds (0. which has a constant contribution. .5÷4)·Irg. set between 1.trip threshold of the delayed short-circuit protection function (S).trip threshold of the instantaneous short-circuit protection function (I3) set at a value greater than the rated short-circuit current of the generator. and is characterized by the transitory reactance X’d (15÷40% of the rated impedance value).2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3.5÷4)·Irg. a synchronous phase: may persist until the tripping of external protection.Electrical devices ABB SACE . in such a way as to “intercept” the decrement curve of the generator: I2 = (1. • for circuit-breakers with thermomagnetic releases: low magnetic trip threshold: I3 =2. . 3. and is characterized by the synchronous reactance Xd (80÷300% of the rated impedance value).Electrical devices 111 .

Table 1 Srg [kVA] 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB S20L/S260 B6 S20L/S260 B10 S20L/S260 B13 S20L/S260 B16 S20L/S260 B25 S20L/S260 B32 S20L/S260 B50 S20L/S260 B63 T2 160 In=63 T2 160 In=10 MCCB 3 Protection of electrical equipment 400 V ACB Table 2 Srg [kVA] 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB S20L/S260 B6 S20L/S260 B8 S20L/S260 B10 S20L/S260 B13 S20L/S260 B16 S20L/S260 B20 S20L/S260 B25 S20L/S260 B32 S20L/S260 B40 S20L/S260 B50 S20L/S260 B63 S280 B80 S280 B100 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=160 T2 160 In=160 T4 250 T3 250 T4 250 T2 160 In=63 MCCB T2 160 In=10 440 V ACB Table 3 Srg [kVA] 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB MCCB T2 160 In=10 500 V ACB Table 4 MCB 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCCB 690 V ACB T2 160 In=10 T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=63 T2 160 In=63 S280 B80 S280 B100 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=160 T2 160 T4 250 T3 250 T4 250 T4 320 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=160 T3 250 T4 250 T4 250 T2 160 In=160 T3 250 T4 320 T4 320 T4 250 T5 400 T5 400 T5 400 T4 320 T5 630 S6 800 T5 630 S6 800 T5 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 2500 S8 3200 E2/E3 1600 E3 2500 E3 3200 T5 400 T5 630 T5 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1600 E1 800 S6 800 S7 1250 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 3200 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E2/E3 2000 E3 3200 E3 3200/E4 4000 E4 4000 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1000 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 3200 E3 3200 E4 3600 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 E1/E2 1250 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E3 2500 1SDC010016F0001 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E2 2000 E3 2500 E3 2500 1SDC010017F0001 S8 2500 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 E6 5000/6300 S8 3200 E3 3200 Note: It is always advisable to check that the settings of the releases are correct with respect to the effective decrement curve of the current of the generator to be protected.2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment The following tables give ABB SACE suggestions for the protection and switching of generators.Electrical devices ABB SACE .2 Protection and switching of generators 3. 112 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 113 . the tables refer to 400 V (Table 1).3. 500 V (Table 3) and 690 V (Table 4). 440 V (Table 2).

2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment Example: Protection of a generator with Srg = 100 kVA.ensure continuous functioning of motors. capable of making.5 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3. inching 10-1kA 1kA 101kA (1) AC-3 categories may be used for occasionally inching or plugging for limited time periods such as machine set-up.3 Protection and switching of motors Electromechanical starter The starter is designed to: . Time-Current Curves 10 4 s 10 3 s T2 160 Circuit-breaker: defined by IEC 60947-2 as a mechanical switching device.3.disconnect motors from the supply line. with In = 160 A.guarantee protection of motors against working overloads.5 ms (subtransient time constant) T’d = 39. The main types of motor which can be operated and which determine the characteristics of the starter are defined by the following utilization categories: 10 s 2 10 1 s Table 1: Utilization categories and typical applications 1s 100 kVA generator decrement curve Current type Utilization categories AC-2 1SDC010019F0201 10-1s Alternating Current ac AC-3 AC-4 10-2s Typical applications Slip-ring motors: starting.5 % (subtransient reactance) X’d = 17. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making. The characteristics of the starter must comply with the international Standard IEC 60947-4-1. with electronic release PR221-LS. . .Electrical devices ABB SACE . which defines the above as follows: Contactor: a mechanical switching device having only one position of rest.3 ms (transient time constant) From table 2. during such limited time periods the number of such operations should not exceed five per minutes or more than ten in a 10 minutes period. carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions.2 A X’’d = 6. . value greater than Irg function I: 1.6 % (transient reactance) Xd = 230 % (synchronous reactance) T’’d = 5. the following settings are selected: function L: 0. switching off Squirrel-cage motors: starting. The two devices must be coordinated with equipment capable of providing protection against short-circuit (typically a circuit-breaker with magnetic release only). in a system with a rated voltage of 440 V.start motors. For correct protection of the generator.4 A. switching off during running(1) Squirrel-cage motors: starting. operated otherwise than by hand. an ABB SACE T2N160 circuit-breaker is selected. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions including operating overload conditions. 114 ABB SACE . corresponding to 134. plugging. The starter is typically made up of a switching device (contactor) and an overload protection device (thermal release). which is not necessarily part of the starter. The generator parameters are: Ur = 440 V Srg = 100 kVA f = 50 Hz Irg = 131. Thermal release: thermal overload relay or release which operates in the case of overload and also in case of loss of phase.84 – A.Electrical devices 115 . capable of making.

Electrical devices ABB SACE . thus achieving the reduction of peak inrush current. including. reducing working life. for example: . compared with the torque that the same motor would supply when delta-connected. MCCB KL K∆ KY TOR MCCB Motor KL Starting sequence 1SDC010018F0001 TOR Motor By pressing the start button. As can be easily checked.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment The choice of the starting method and also. and have quite a high starting torque. and the current absorbed from the line is reduced by 1/3 compared with that absorbed with delta-connection.asynchronous three-phase squirrel-cage motors (AC-3): the most widespread type due to the fact that they are of simple construction.once the normal speed of the motor is nearly reached. is reduced by 3 times.on starting. with the closing of line contactor KL. accompanied by a series of drawbacks. With this new configuration. . in which: . 116 ABB SACE . if necessary. but intended to start with a low initial resistant torque. the line voltage is applied to the motor terminals in a single operation. The start-up torque. This method is generally used with small and medium power motors which reach full working speed in a short time. the stator windings are star-connected. delayed by approximately 50 ms.Electrical devices 117 1SDC010019F0001 . This method is generally applied to motors with power from 15 to 355 kW. the DOL (Direct On Line) starter. contactors KL and K∆ closed. contactors KL and KY are closed. chains and mechanical joints). the current and the torque follow the progress of the curves associated with normal service connections (delta). starting the motor with star-connection gives a voltage reduction of √3. With alternating current. closes the K∆ contactor. the switchover to delta is carried out. After the switchover. . Hence a squirrel-cage motor develops a high starting torque with a relatively reduced acceleration time. and an increase in the acceleration time. but require elevated starting currents. even with a supply network of low power. These advantages are. of the type of motor to be used depends on the typical resistant torque of the load and on the shortcircuit power of the motor supplying network.high current consumption and associated voltage drop which may cause damages to the other parts of the system connected to the network. the first contact of the timer opens the KY contactor and the second contact.3. Star-Delta starter The most common reduced voltage starter is the Star-Delta starter (Y-∆).violent acceleration which has negative effects on mechanical transmission components (belts. The timer starts to measure the start time with the motor connected in star.slip-ring motors (AC-2): characterized by less demanding starting conditions. the most commonly used motor types are as follows: . 3 Protection of electrical equipment Other types of starting for squirrel-cage motors are accomplished by reducing the supply voltage of the motor: this leads to a reduction in the starting current and of the motor torque. proportional to the square of the voltage. however. Starting methods The most common starting methods for asynchronous squirrel-cage motors are detailed below: Direct starting With direct starting.3 Protection and switching of motors 3. the motor becomes delta-connected. Once the set time has elapsed. economical and sturdy. they develop high torque with short acceleration times. .

The reduction of the supply voltage is achieved by the insertion of inductive reactors or resistors. MCCB K1 K2 K3 K1 K2 Inductance 1SDC010020F0001 1SDC010021F0001 TOR Motor TOR Motor The autotransformer reduces the network voltage by the factor K (K=1. while the use of resistors causes the dissipation of a high power (Joule effect). the motor starts at a reduced voltage. starters can also be classified according to tripping time (trip classes). On starting.3. For a reduction K (0.6÷0. even for motors with power greater than 100 kW. and when it has reached approximately 80% of its normal speed.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment The thermal release TOR.64). Starting with inductive reactors or resistors This type of starting is used for simple or double-cage rotors.5÷3.5 times the rated value. The use of reactors notably reduces the power factor. the reactors are short-circuited by the closing of contactor K1. and are then excluded by the opening of contactor K2. but is also the most expensive. Starting with autotransformers Starting with autotransformers is the most functional of the methods used for reduced voltage starting. contactor K1 is opened and main contactor K3 is closed. excluding the autotransformer so as to supply the full network voltage. in series to the stator. inserted in the delta circuit. 118 ABB SACE . overload the motor without involving the line.3 Protection and switching of motors 3. and higher power doublecage motors.36÷0.8) of the motor voltage. With reference to the connection diagram. In compliance with the above mentioned Standard. Subsequently.Electrical devices 119 . the motor is supplied via contactor K2. the current is limited to 2. the torque is reduced by K2 times (0. and as a consequence the start-up torque is reduced by K2 times compared with the value of the full rated voltage. once the normal speed is reached.Electrical devices ABB SACE . On starting. It is possible to achieve exclusions by step of the resistors or reactors with time-delayed commands.8). can detect any 3rd harmonic currents.25÷1. and according to the type of coordination achieved with the short-circuit protection device (Type 1 and Type 2). KL line contactor and K∆ delta contactor Ir 3 Ir 3 KY star contactor overload protection release where Ir is the rated current of the motor. Applications can be found with squirrel-cage motors which generally have a power from 50 kW to several hundred kilowatts. the equipment used for a Star/Delta starter must be able to carry the following currents: Ir 3 3 Protection of electrical equipment Therefore. On start-up. The reduction of the supply voltage is achieved by using a fixed tap autotransformer or a more expensive multi tap autotransformer. which may occur due to saturation of the magnetic pack and by adding to the fundamental current. the motor is connected to the taps of the autotransformer and the contactors K2 and K1 are closed. even if limited to the starting phase. contactor K2 is opened.

such as direct starting and Star/Delta starting.8 3.500 V .440 V . and therefore the equipment necessary to achieve it.normal or heavy duty – Type 1 or Type 2. Type 2 In the case of short-circuit. ABB supplies solutions with: • magnetic circuit-breaker .5 15. but must trip within 10 s).7 2. • rated system voltage.50 kA) and for the most frequently used starting types. if necessary. the contactor and/or the thermal release must be replaced. the following must be known: • power of the motor in kW and type. as they can easily be separated (with a screwdriver.5 7.Electrical devices 121 .2 3 4 5.Electrical devices MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE .5 2.1 1.contactor . while the welding of the contactor contacts is allowed.5 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 520 545 610 Type I3 [A] Type Type min.690 V 35 kA .8 3. for asynchronous squirrel-cage motor (AC-3).6 T2S160 MF 2 T2S160 MF 3.8 2.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Table 2: Trip class Trip Class 10A 10 20 30 Tripping time in seconds (Tp) 2 < Tp ≤ 10 4 < Tp ≤ 10 6 < Tp ≤ 20 9 < Tp ≤ 30 Ir [A] 1.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU52 TA75DU80 TA75DU80 TA110DU110 TA110DU110 TA200DU175 TA200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E800DU800 E800DU800 E800DU800 1 1.5 4. For the most common voltages and short-circuit values (400 V . for example).5 10 13 18 29 36 36 60 60 80 80 130 150 100 100 100 150 150 250 250 250 where Tp is the cold trip time of the thermal release at 7.5 TA25DU8.2 times the set current value (for example: a release in class 10 at 7.3 1.6 T2S160 MF 1.thermal release. [A] 1. The trip classes are defined in the following table 2: Motor 3 Protection of electrical equipment The following is an example of the type of tables available: Table 3: 400 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.8 TA25DU2. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Release Current setting Pe [kW] 0. the thermal release must not be damaged.9 2. It is normal procedure to associate class 10 with a normal start-up type. In order to clearly determine a coordination type.6 11.5 8.4 1.1 1.3.55 0.2 T2S160 MF 4 T2S160 MF 5 T2S160 MF 8.5 1.contactor. • rated motor current.6 8. • starting type: DOL or Y/∆ .4 4 5 6. [A] max. Coordination type Type 1 It is acceptable that in the case of short-circuit the contactor and the thermal release may be damaged. and class 30 with a heavy duty start-up type.75 1. The requested devices shall be coordinated with each other in accordance with the prescriptions of the Standard. The starter may still not be able to function and must be inspected.37 0.4 TA25DU1. 120 ABB SACE .5 11 15 18.5 11 14 19 25 42 52 52 80 80 110 110 175 200 320 320 320 500 500 800 800 800 1SDC010022F0201 T2S160 MF 1.5 T2S160 MF 11 T2S160 MF 12. and the breaker release reset. without any significant deformation.2 22 28. • short-circuit current at installation point.5 5 6. • thermomagnetic circuit-breaker with PR212 MP electronic release – contactor. • thermomagnetic circuit-breaker .2 times the set current value must not trip within 4 s.5 T2S160 MA 20 T2S160 MA 32 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 100 T3S250 MA 160 T3S250 MA 200 T3S250 MA 200 T4S320 PR221-I In320 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S630 PR221-I In630 T5S630 PR221-I In630 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 21 21 26 42 52 65 110 145 163 210 288 392 469 547 840 960 1200 1440 1800 2400 2720 3200 4000 5040 6300 8000 9600 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF580 AF750 TA25DU1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Trip classes The trip classes differentiate between the thermal releases according to their trip curve.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.5 6 7.4 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.

6 T2S160 MF 1.8* TA25DU2.110 100 .7 2. coil [A] [A] 1 1.4 1.75 1. replacement with release E800DU800 is necessary MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 122 ABB SACE .5 15.5 2.200 60 . of range turns of the CT primary min.5 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 520 545 610 Type Type Type** T2S160 MA52 T2S160 MA52 T2S160 MA80 T2S160 MA80 T2S160 MA100 T2S160 MA100 T3S250 MA160 T3S250 MA200 T3S250 MA200 T4S320 PR221-I In320 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S630 PR221-I In630 T5S630 PR221-I In630 469 547 720 840 1050 1200 1700 2000 2400 2880 3600 4410 5670 A50 A50 A63 A75 A75 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A50 A50 A63 A75 A75 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A40 A75 A95 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA75DU63 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 TA200DU135 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 18-25 22-32 29-42 36-52 45 .2 22 28.55 0.5 6 7.1 1.5 4.2 3 4 5.3 1.5 7.320 100 .5 T2S160 MF 11 T2S160 MF 12.63 66 . Isomax – Contactor – TOR) MOTOR MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Release Contactor Thermal Overload Release Setting No.5 T2S160 MA 20 T2S160 MA 32 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 100 T3S250 MA 160 T3S250 MA 200 T3S250 MA 200 T4S320 PR221-I In320 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S630 PR221-I In630 T5S630 PR221-I In630 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 21 21 26 42 52 65 110 145 163 210 288 392 469 547 840 960 1200 1440 1800 2400 2720 3200 4000 5040 6300 8000 9600 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF750 AF750 AF750 TA25DU1.6 8.5 1.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 1.4* TA25DU1.5* TA25DU11* TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU105 TA450SU140 TA450SU185 TA450SU185 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500*** E800DU800 E800DU800 E800DU800 4 3 2 2 2 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 5: 400 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.8 3. To use the connecting kit.2 T2S160 MF 4 T2S160 MF 5 T2S160 MF 8.Electrical devices 123 .5 10 13 20 23 23 40 55 55 70 95 130 130 100 100 150 150 150 250 250 250 1.5 8.5 11 15 18.1 1.63 45 .3 Protection and switching of motors 3.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 LINE Type DELTA Type STAR Type Type [A] Ir [A] 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 Type [A] Pe [kW] 0.3.200 100 .8 3.5 5 6.Electrical devices ABB SACE . Isomax – Contactor – TOR) Motor MCCB Setting of the magnetic release [A] T2S160 MF 1.5* TA25DU8.4 4 5 6.320 1SDC010023F0201 MA : magnetic only adjustable release 500 * Provide a by-pass contactor of the same size during motor start-up ** For type E releases choose tripping class 30 *** Connecting kit not available.135 60 .4* TA25DU4* TA25DU5* TA25DU6.6 11.37 0.90 80 .9 2.6 T2S160 MF 2 T2S160 MF 3.8 2.5 11 15 20 30 40 40 60 80 80 105 140 185 185 320 320 500 500 800 800 800 1SDC010020F0201 I3 Pe [kW] 18. max.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: 400 V 50 kA DOL Heavy duty Type 2 (Tmax.

8 TA25DU2.5 10 10 18 20 28 28 40 55 70 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 150 250 250 1.1 1.1 4 5 6.2 2.5 T2H160 MF 11 T2H160 MA 20 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6H630 PR211-I In630 S6H800 PR211-I In800 S6H800 PR211-I In800 13 21 26 33 42 65 84 110 145 180 240 336 469 547 720 840 1050 1200 1750 2000 2500 3200 3600 4410 5355 7560 8000 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF 400 AF 460 AF 580 AF 580 AF 580 TA25DU1.Electrical devices 125 1SDC010021F0201 .5 4.7 2.55 0.8* TA25DU2. To use the connecting kit.7 2.2 2.5 T2H160 MF 8.4 1.6 T2H160 MF 2 T2H160 MF 2.5 7.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 1 1. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) Motor MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Release 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 7: 440 V 50 kA DOL Heavy duty Type 2 (Tmax.5 13.5 11 15 18.Electrical devices ABB SACE .2 3 4.1* TA25DU4* TA25DU5* TA25DU6.3 1.5* TA25DU11* TA25DU14* TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU105 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500*** E500DU500*** E800DU800 E800DU800 4 3 2 2 2 1 1. max.7 7.1 1. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) Motor MCCB Type Pe [kW] 0.7 2.2 3 4 5.4* TA25DU1.5 7.5 7.4 TA25DU1.7 7. coil [A] [A] TA25DU1.8 3.5 2. [A] 1.4* TA25DU3.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 6: 440 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.4 3.8 2.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 Contactor Setting of the magnetic release [A] 13 21 26 33 42 65 84 110 145 180 240 336 469 547 720 840 1050 1200 1750 2000 2500 3200 3600 4410 5355 7560 8000 9600 Current setting Type Pe [kW] 0.2 T2H160 MF 5 T2H160 MF 6.5 19 26 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 448 500 549 T2H160 MF 1 T2H160 MF 1.1 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.37 0.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA75DU80 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500* E800DU800 E800DU800 1 1.7 2.5 11 15 18.3.8 10.4 1.4 1.5 13.2 T2H160 MF 5 T2H160 MF 6.8 10.5 4.5 10 13 18 22 29 36 45 60 65 80 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 250 250 1SDC010024F0201 290 315 355 * Provide a by-pass contactor of the same size during motor start-up ** For type E releases choose tripping class 30 *** Connecting kit not available.5 11 14 15 27 30 40 40 60 80 105 200 200 320 320 320 500 500 500 500 800 800 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF750 AF 750 AF 750 T2H160 MF 1 T2H160 MF 1.4 3.4 5.5 T2H160 MF 8.1 4 5 6.55 0.75 1.5 19 26 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 448 500 549 Type I3 [A] Type Type min.5 T2H160 MF 11 T2H160 MA 20 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6H630 PR211-I In630 S6H800 PR211-I In800 S6H800 PR211-I In800 Thermal Overload Release Type** No.5 7.5 T2H160 MF 3.2 3 4.37 0.4 5.4 TA25DU3.75 1.5 T2H160 MF 3.8 2. of Setting turns of range the CT primary min.2 3 4 5. [A] max.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.5 11 14 19 25 32 42 52 63 80 90 110 200 200 320 320 320 500 500 500 800 800 Ir [A] 1 1.8 3. replacement with release E800DU800 is necessary * Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 124 ABB SACE .5 2.4 1.6 T2H160 MF 2 T2H160 MF 2.3 1.

5 T2L160 MF 11 T2L160 MF 12.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 Ir [A] 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 Type [A] T2H160 MA52 T2H160 MA52 T2H160 MA80 T2H160 MA80 T2H160 MA80 T2H160 MA100 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 392 469 720 840 960 1150 1625 1875 2250 2720 3200 4095 5040 A 50 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A 50 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A 16 A 26 A 26 A 30 A30 A40 A75 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 TA75DU25 TA75DU25 TA75DU42 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA80DU80 TA110DU110 E200DU200 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 Pe [kW] 0.37 0.5 TA25DU8.5 10 13 18 22 29 36 45 60 65 60 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 250 60-200 60-200 60-200 100-320 100-320 MA : Magnetic only adjustable release 320 * Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 126 ABB SACE .2 1.5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 0.63 1 1.8 3.5 4.2 2.8 4 5.5 11 14 19 25 32 42 52 63 80 90 200 200 200 320 320 500 500 500 800 1SDC010026F0201 Pe [kW] 18. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) MOTOR MCCB I3 LINE Type Contactor DELTA Type STAR Type Type [A] Thermal Overload Release 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 9: 500 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.5 8.8 3.Electrical devices ABB SACE .6 T2L160 MF 2.4 TA25DU1.5 7.75 1.5 2.1 1. [A] max.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA80DU80 TA110DU90 E200DU200 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E 500DU500 E 500DU500 E 500DU500* E 800DU800 0.5 6 7.88 1.2 3 4 5.2 T2L160 MF 4 T2L160 MF 6.1 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.5 23 29 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 230 279 335 394 440 483 T2L160 MF 1 T2L160 MF 1.2 6.4 1. [A] 1 1.5 T2L160 MA 20 T2L160 MA 32 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 I3 [A] 13 21 21 33 42 52 84 110 145 163 240 336 392 469 624 840 960 1200 1440 1875 2250 2720 3600 4000 4725 5040 7560 7560 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF 400 AF 460 AF 580 AF 580 TA25DU1.3.1 12.1 4 5 6.0 TA25DU1.5 T2L160 MF 8.8 TA25DU3.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.2 17.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 8: 440 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.Electrical devices 127 .5 T2L160 MF 3.5 2.63 60-80 80-110 1SDC010025F0201 MCCB Contactor Type Thermal Overload Release Type Current setting min.3 2.6 T2L160 MF 1. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) Motor Type 18-25 18-25 29-42 29-42 36-52 45 .55 0.2 2.9 9.

5 7.75 1.2 3 4 5. replacement with release E800DU800 is necessary MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 128 ABB SACE .8* TA25DU3.2 2.1 1.5 27.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.5 11 15 18.5 23 29 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 230 279 335 394 440 483 T2L160 MF 1 T2L160 MF 1.9 9.8 3.4* TA25DU1.2 6.2 17.5* TA25DU8.2 1.5 4.5 8.6 T2L160 MF 1.4 1. coil [A] [A] 0.3 2. max. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) MOTOR MCCB I3 LINE Type Contactor DELTA Type STAR Type Type [A] Thermal Overload Release Contactor Setting of the magnetic release [A] 13 21 21 33 42 52 84 110 145 163 240 336 392 469 624 840 960 1200 1440 1875 2123 2720 3200 3600 4725 5040 7560 7560 Type Type** Ir [A] 0.88 1.0* TA25DU1.Electrical devices 129 1SDC010027F0201 Pe [kW] 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 Ir [A] 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 Type [A] T2L160 MA52 T2L160 MA52 T2L160 MA80 T2L160 MA80 T2L160 MA100 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 430 547 720 840 1050 1375 1750 2000 2560 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A110 A145 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A110 A145 A 16 A 26 A 30 A30 A30 A50 A75 A95 A95 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU52 TA80DU80 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 E200DU200 18-25 22-32 29-42 36 .5* TA25DU11* TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU105 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500*** E500DU500*** E500DU500 230 279 335 394 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 2880 3400 4410 5040 A145 A210 A210 A260 A145 A210 A210 A260 A110 A145 A185 A210 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 60-200 100-320 100-320 100-320 MA: magnetic only adjustable release * Provide a by-pass contactor of the same size during motor start-up ** For type E releases choose tripping class 30 *** Connecting kit not available.5 40 40 55 70 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 150 150 1 1.Electrical devices 1SDC010021F0201 ABB SACE .5 2.37 0.5 T2L160 MF 11 T2L160 MF 12.1 4 5 6.2 2.63 1 1.5 2.5 6 7. To use the connecting kit.52 36 .5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 11: 500 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.5 T2L160 MF 3.55 0.5 4 3 2 2 2 10 13 20 27.8 4 5.6 T2L160 MF 2.2 T2L160 MF 4 T2L160 MF 6. of Setting turns of range the CT primary min.5 T2L160 MA 20 T2L160 MA 32 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 Thermal Overload Release No.1 12.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 10: 500 V 50 kA DOL Heavy duty Type 2 (Tmax.5 11 15 20 30 40 40 60 60 80 105 200 200 320 320 320 500 500 500 500 500 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF750 AF750 TA25DU1.52 60-80 65-90 80-110 60-200 .1* TA25DU4* TA25DU5* TA25DU6.8 3.5 T2L160 MF 8. Isomax – Contactor – TOR) Motor MCCB Type Pe [kW] 0.3.

Sr [kVA] K = Io/I1r τ [s] 50 15 0. depends on the size of the transformer and can be evaluated with the following formula (the short-circuit power of the network is assumed to be equal to infinity) I0 = K ⋅ I r1 ⋅ e ( – t / τ ) 2 where: K ratio between the maximum peak inrush current value ( I0 ) and the rated current of the transformer (I1r): (K= I0 / I1r). The curve which represents these transient phenomena in the time-current diagram.4kV of 400kVA transformer. • line contactor: A210.40 2000 8 0. 1 [s] 10-2 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 [kA] 130 ABB SACE . τ time constant of the inrush current. I1r rated current of the primary. this transient phenomenon stops after a few tenths of a second. the phenomenon decays in a few seconds.15 160 12 0.22 400 12 0.Electrical devices 131 .35 1600 9 0. setting range 100÷320 A (to be set at I r = 202 A ). the following information can be found: • Ir (rated current): 349 A. t time.Electrical devices 1SDC010022F0001 10-1 ABB SACE .4 Protection and switching of transformers General aspects Transformers are used to achieve a change in the supply voltage. • short-circuit protection device: circuit-breaker T5S630 PR221-I In630. termed “inrush current I0”. 3 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3. on the relevant row. the follwing diagram shows the inrush current curve for a 20/0. • star contactor: A185.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Example: For a Y/∆ Normal starting Type 2. • delta contactor: A210.10 100 14 0. • magnetic trip threshold: I3 = 4410 A.3.45 Further to the above consideration. during which the current may reach values higher than the rated full load current. The choice of the protection devices must take into account transient insertion phenomena. of a three phase asynchronous squirrel-cage motor with the following data: rated voltage Ur = 400 V short-circuit current Ik = 50 kA rated motor power Pe = 200 kW from Table 5. • thermal release E320DU320.30 1000 10 0. for both medium and low voltage supplies.20 250 12 0. The table below shows the indicative values for t and K parameters referred to rated power Sr for oil transformers. This transformer has an inrush current during the very first moments equal to about 8 times the rated current.25 630 11 0.

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3 Protection of electrical equipment
The transformer protection devices must also guarantee that the transformer cannot operate above the point of maximum thermal overload under shortcircuit conditions; this point is defined on the time-current diagram by the value of short-circuit current which can pass through the transformer and by a time equal to 2 s, as stated by Standard IEC 60076-5. The short-circuit current (Ik) flowing for a fault with low impedance at the LV terminals of the transformer is calculated by using the following formula:
Ik = Ur [A] 3 ⋅ ( ZNet + Zt ) (1)
10 4 s 10 3 s

3 Protection of electrical equipment
In summary: for the correct protection of the transformer and to avoid unwanted trips, the trip curve of the protection device must be above the inrush current curve and below the overload point. The diagram below shows a possible position of the time-current curve of an upstream protection device of a 690/400 V, 250 kVA transformer with uk% = 4 %.

where: • Ur is the rated voltage of the transformer [V]; • ZNet is the short-circuit impedance of the network [Ω]; • Zt is the short-circuit impedance of the transformer; from the rated power of the transformer (Sr [VA]) and the percentage short-circuit voltage (uk%) it is equal to:
Zt = uk % U r2 ⋅ [Ω] 100 Sr (2)

T4N250 PR221 In=250 A

10 s

2

10 1 s
250 kVA Trafo

Considering the upstream short-circuit power of the network to be infinite (ZNet=0), formula (1) becomes:
Ur Ik = = 3 ⋅ ( Zt ) Ur 100 Sr = [A] ⎛ uk % U r2 ⎞ 3 ⋅ uk %⋅Ur ⎜ ⎟ 3⋅⎜ ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 100 Sr ⎠ (3)

1s

10-2s

The diagram below shows the inrush current curve for a 20/0.4 kV of 400 kVA transformer (uk% = 4 %) and the point referred to the thermal ability to withstand the short-circuit current (Ik; 2 sec.).

10-1 kA

1kA

10kA

Criteria for the selection of protection devices
For the protection at the LV side of MV/LV transformers, the selection of a circuit-breaker shall take into account: • the rated current at LV side of the protected transformer (this value is the reference value for the rated current of the circuit-breaker and the setting of the protections); • the maximum short-circuit current at the point of installation (this value determines the minimum breaking capacity (Icu/Ics) of the protection device). MV/LV unit with single transformer The rated current at the LV side of the transformer (Ir) is determined by the following formula: 1000⋅ Sr Ir = [A] (4) 3 ⋅ U r 20 where: • Sr is the rated power of the transformer [kVA]; • Ur20 is the rated LV no-load voltage of the transformer [V].

1s

10-1s

10-2s

1kA

10kA

132

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

1SDC010023F0001

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

133

1SDC010024F0001

10-1s

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3 Protection of electrical equipment
The full voltage three-phase short-circuit current (Ik), at the LV terminals of the transformer, can be expressed as (assuming that the short-circuit power of the network is infinite):
Ik = 100⋅ I r [A] uk % (5)

3 Protection of electrical equipment
For a correct dimensioning, a circuit-breaker with a breaking capacity higher than twice the short-circuit current of one of the transformers must be chosen (assuming that all the transformers are equal and the loads are passive). The circuit-breakers positioned on the outgoing feeders (circuit-breakers B) shall have a breaking capacity higher than the sum of the short-circuit currents of the three transformers, according to the hypothesis that the upstream network short-circuit power is 750 MVA and the loads are passive.

where: uk% is the short-circuit voltage of the transformer, in %. The protection circuit-breaker must have: In ≥ Ir; Icu (Ics) ≥ Ik. If the short-circuit power of the upstream network is not infinite and cable or busbar connections are present, it is possible to obtain a more precise value for Ik by using formula (1), where ZNet is the sum of the impedance of the network and of the impedance of the connection. MV/LV substation with more than one transformer in parallel For the calculation of the rated current of the transformer, the above applies (formula 4). The breaking capacity of each protection circuit-breaker on the LV side shall be higher than the short-circuit current equivalent to the short-circuit current of each equal transformer multiplied by the number of them minus one. As can be seen from the diagram below, in the case of a fault downstream of a transformer circuit-breaker (circuit-breaker A), the short-circuit current that flows through the circuit-breaker is equal to the contribution of a single transformer. In the case of a fault upstream of the same circuit-breaker, the short-circuit current that flows is equal to the contribution of the other two transformers in parallel.

Ik1

Ik2

Ik3

Ik2 + Ik3

A B
Ik = Ik1 + Ik2 + Ik3

134

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

135

1SDC010025F0001

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3 Protection of electrical equipment
Selection of the circuit-breaker
The following tables show some possible choices of ABB SACE circuit-breakers, according to the characteristics of the transformer to be protected.

3 Protection of electrical equipment

Table 1: Protection and switching of 230 V transformers
Transformer Sr uk Trafo Ir [A] 158 158 251 251 314 314 402 402 502 502 628 628 791 791 1004 1004 1255 1255 1581 1581 1581 2008 2008 2008 2510 2510 2510 3138 3138 3138 Busbar Ib [A] 158 316 251 502 314 628 402 803 502 1004 628 1255 791 1581 1004 2008 1255 2510 1581 3163 4744 2008 4016 6025 2510 5020 7531 3138 6276 9413 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 3.9 3.9 6.3 6.2 7.8 7.8 10.0 9.9 12.5 12.4 15.6 15.4 19.6 19.4 24.8 24.5 30.9 30.4 38.7 37.9 74.4 39.3 38.5 75.5 48.9 47.7 93.0 60.7 58.8 114.1 Circuit-breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit-breaker T1B160 T1B160 T4N320 T4N320 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 S6N800 S6N800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E3S1600 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E3N3200 E3N3200 S8V3200/E6V3200 Release size setting In=160 1 In=160 1 In=320 0.9 In=320 0.9 In=400 0.9 In=400 0.9 In=630 0.7 In=630 0.7 In=630 0.9 In=630 0.9 In=630 1 In=630 1 In=800 1 In=800 1 In=1250 0.9 In=1250 0.9 In=1600 0.9 In=1600 0.9 In=1600 1 In=1600 1 In=1600 1 In=2500 0.9 In=2500 0.9 In=2500 0.9 In=3200 0.8 In=3200 0.8 In=3200 0.8 In=3200 1 In=3200 1 In=3200 1 Busbar Ik [kA] 3.9 7.9 6.3 12.5 7.8 15.6 10.0 19.9 12.5 24.8 15.6 30.9 19.6 38.7 24.8 48.9 30.9 60.7 38.7 75.9 111.6 39.3 77.0 113.2 48.9 95.3 139.5 60.7 117.7 171.2 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T2N160 T1C160 T2S160 T2L160 T1C160 T2S160 T2L160 T1N160 T2H160 T4L250 T2N160 T2L160 T4L250 250 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T4L250 T3N250 T3S250 T4L250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4L250 T4L250 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5L400 T5N400 T5S400 T5L400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5N400 T5L400 T5L400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 T5L630 T5N630 T5S630 T5L630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5N630 T5L630 T5L630 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6S800 S6L800 S6N800 S6S800 S6L800 S6N800 S6H800 S6L800 S6N800 S6L800 S6L800 S7S1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7S1250/E2N1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1250/E2L1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E2L1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7H1250/E2L1250 S7L1250 S7S1250/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7L1250 S7S1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 S7S1600/E2L1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2L1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2L1600 S7L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7L1600 E3H2000 E3H2500 E3L2000 E3L2500 E6V3200 E3H2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E6V3200 E2N2000 E3L2000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E6V3200 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3N2500 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000
1SDC010035F0201

Circuit-breaker "B" (Feeder circuit-breaker ) Feeder circuit-breaker type and rated current 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A

[kVA] % 1 x 63 4 2 x 63 1 x 100 4 2 x 100 1 x 125 4 2 x 125 1 x 160 4 2 x 160 1 x 200 4 2 x 200 1 x 250 4 2 x 250 1 x 315 4 2 x 315 1 x 400 4 2 x 400 1 x 500 4 2 x 500 1 x 630 4 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 5 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 5 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 5 3 x 1250

136

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

137

95/0.95 0.25 E3H2500 E3L2500 E3N2500 E3S2500 E3H3200 E6V3200 E3N3200 E3S3200 E4H4000 E6V4000 E4S4000 138 ABB SACE .9 17.8 0.95 0.95 0.6 11.1 8.95 0.8 67.95/0.3 85.8 80.2 4.8 0.3 42.25 6.95 0.7 5.6 67 44.7 17.7 69.9 54.7 Circuit-breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit-breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T4N320 T4N320 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630/S6N800 T5N630/S6N800 S6N800/S7S1250 S6N800/S7S1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E3S2000 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3S2000 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E4S4000 E6H5000 Release size In=100 In=100 In=160 In=160 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630/800 In=630/800 In=800/1000 In=800/1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=2500 In=2500 In=3200 In=3200 In=3200 In=4000 In=5000 setting 0.25 6.Electrical devices 139 .8 22.3 21.2 4.6 7.2 14 17.2 11.4 53.3 65 28.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 2: Protection and switching of 400 V transformers Transformer Sr [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 uk % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Trafo I r [A] 91 91 144 144 180 180 231 231 289 289 361 361 455 455 577 577 722 722 909 909 909 1155 1155 1155 1443 1443 1443 1804 1804 1804 2309 2309 2309 2887 2887 2887 3608 4510 Busbar Ib [A] 91 182 144 288 180 360 231 462 289 578 361 722 455 910 577 1154 722 1444 909 1818 2727 1155 2310 3465 1443 2886 4329 1804 3608 5412 2309 4618 6927 2887 5774 8661 3608 4510 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 2.96 0.2 7.5 8.95 0.3.6 3.8 0.8 0.95 0.2 3.92 0.1 14.96 0.2 28 17.2 14.95/0.8 42.7 98.1 43.6 22.2 2.6 81.6 44.8 67.4 5.8 11.95 0.7 34.2 100.95 0.95 0.95 0.8 65.25 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T4H250 T3N250 T3S250 T4H250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5H400 T5N400 T5S400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5L400 T5V400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 T5H630 T5N630 T5S630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H400 T5L630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5L630 T5V630 T5H630 T5H630 S6N800 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6H800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E2N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 E2L1250 S6H800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E2N1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 E2L1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E3S2000 E3H2000 E3S2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3S2000 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3S2500 E3H2500 E3S2500 E3L2500 E3H3200 E3S3200 E3H3200 E3S3200 E6V3200 E4H4000 E4S4000 E6V4000 ABB SACE .8 5.5 34.6 4.2 14.7 11.95/0.95 0.95 0.4 35.95 1 1 Busbar Ik [kA] 2.1 122.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.Electrical devices 1SDC010036F0201 6.9 22.95 0.8 0.92 0.6 64.4 3.3 43.2 22.95 0.95 0.6 44.1 27.9 67.95 0.8 0.95/0.95 0.1 54.5 22.7 7.95/0.2 22.4 7.6 35.95 0.95 0.8 0.95 0.5 4.8 54.7 35.7 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T1N160 T1C160 T2S160 T2H160 T1C160 T2S160 T2H160 T1N160 T2H160 T2L160 T1N160 T2H160 T4L250 T2N160 T2H160 T4L250 T2S160 T4L250 T4L250 T2H160 T2H160 250 A 400 A 630 A 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit-breaker "B" (Feeder circuit-breaker ) Feeder circuit-breaker type and rated current 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A 5 5 5 6.9 8.95 0.4 28.95/0.9 33.2 8.8 0.2 34.95 0.95/0.

3 77.5 8.1 3.2 5.85/0.25 ABB SACE .9 31.4 111.3 3.7 61.9 0.9 Busbar Ik [kA] 2.2 19.1 4.25 6.7 0.9 0.9 25.8 61.9 91.9 0.7 0.9 40.88 0.1 8.9/0.25 E3N3200 140 ABB SACE .2 6.5 12.9 0.9 0.9 20.8 38.6 20.3 6.88 0.2 20.9 0.3 59.1 8.9 0.1 10.6 32.1 10.9 0.6 31.5 6.88 0.7 0.8 61.Electrical devices 1SDC010037F0201 6.9 0.9 0.3 38.9 0.1 2.7 30.2 25.9 0.9 20.4 40.9 0.9 0.9 0.1 16.1 4.9 0.1 39.9 0.7 20.4 6.5 25.5 4.25 6.3 20.7 58.5 31.9 0.2 12.6 49.9 0.9 0.9 48.9 0.9/0.9 0.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3: Protection and switching of 440 V transformers Transformer Sr [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 uk % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Trafo I r [A] 83 83 131 131 164 164 210 210 262 262 328 328 413 413 525 525 656 656 827 827 827 1050 1050 1050 1312 1312 1312 1640 1640 1640 2099 2099 2099 2624 2624 2624 3280 4100 Busbar Ib [A] 83 165 131 262 164 328 210 420 262 525 328 656 413 827 525 1050 656 1312 827 1653 2480 1050 2099 3149 1312 2624 3936 1640 3280 4921 2099 4199 6298 2624 5249 7873 3280 4100 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 2.9 0.2 10.9 8.6 24.9 0.5 32.9 0.3.9 0.8 59.8 72.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.5 Circuit-breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit-breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T3N/T4N250 T3N/T4N250 T3N/T4N250 T3N/T4N250 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 S6N800 S6N800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E2N2000 E2N2500 E2N2500 E2N2500 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3S3200 E4S4000 E6H5000 Release size In=100 In=100 In=160 In=160 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=800 In=800 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=2500 In=2500 In=3200 In=3200 In=3200 In=4000 In=5000 setting 0.1 31.9/0.5 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T1N160 T1C160 T2N160 T1N160 T2S160 T1N160 T2S160 T2L160 T1N160 T2S160 T2L160 T2N160 T2H160 T2L160 T2S160 T2L160 T4L250 T2S160 T2L160 T4L250 T2S160 S4L160 T4V250 T2H160 T2L160 250 A 400 A 630 A 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit-breaker "B" Feeder circuit-breaker Feeder circuit-breaker type and rated current 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T4H250 T3N250 T4H250 T4H250 T3S250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4H250 T4L250 T4H250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5N400 T5S400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5H400 T5L400 T5H400 T5L400 T5V400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 T5N630 T5S630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5H630 T5L630 T5H630 T5L630 T5V630 T5H630 T5H630 S6S800 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1B800 S7H1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6L800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7H1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E1N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7H1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 5 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3S2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E2B2000 E3H2000 E6V3200 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 E4S4000 5 E3S2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3H2500 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3S3200 5 E3H3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E3H3200 E4H4000 E4H4000 E4H4000 E6V4000 6.6 40.8 16.9 0.7 0.2 10.5 89.3 4.5 62.7 74.85/0.4 49.9 12.1 12.1 5.9 0.1 15.1 5.9/0.1 3.6 16.88 0.4 60.Electrical devices 141 .2 39.7 49.9 0.

9/0.2 Circuit-breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit-breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1C/T2N160 T1C/T2N160 T3N250/T4N250 T3N250/T4N250 T3S250/T4N250 T3S250/T4N250 T4N320 T4N320 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 S6N800 S6N800 S6L800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7L1250/E1B1250 S7H1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 E2B1250 E2B1600 E2B1600 E2B1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E2B2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 Release size In=63 In=63 In=100 In=100 In=160 In=160 In=160 In=160 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=800 In=800 In=800 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=3200 setting 0.9/0.2 5.9 12.2 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A T1B160 T1B160 T1B160 T1N160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T2S160 T1N160 T2L160 T1N160 T4N250 T2S160 T4N250 T2L160 T4N250 T4N250 T4S250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4L250 T4L250 T4H250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 A 250 A 400 A 630 A 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit-breaker "B" Feeder circuit-breaker Feeder circuit-breaker type and rated current 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4S250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4L250 T4L250 T4H250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5N400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5L400 T5L400 T5H400 T5L400 T5V400 T5H400 T5H400 T5S630 T5H630 T5H630 T5H630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5L630 T5L630 T5H630 T5L630 T5V630 T5H630 T5H630 S6L800 E2B1600 S7L1250/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S8V2000/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2N1600 S6S800/E1B800 S8H2000/E2B1250 S8H2000/E2B1600 E3N2500 S6S800/E1B800 S8V2000/E2B1250 S8V2000/E2B1600 E3N2500 S6L800/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S8V2000/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2N1600 E2L1250 E2L1600 S7L1250/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S7L1600/E2B1600 S8H2000/E2B1250 S8H2000/E2B1600 E2B1600 5 5 E2N2000 5 E3N3200 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3S2000 E3S2500 E3S3200 E4S4000 E2B2000 6.9 0.92 0.9 0.1 12.7 40.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 24.9 31.9 25.2 31.7 20.5 31.7 0.2 19.2 10.9/0.3 71.8 39.3 25.9 0.9/0.25 6.88 0.3 1.3 2.25 142 ABB SACE .7 0.8 25.9 0.9 0.3 5.2 2.7 47.3.9 0.2 57.8 46.1 5.5 8.3 3.9 25.25 E2B2000 ABB SACE .7 16.3 4.Electrical devices 1SDC010037F0201 6.9 0.9 0.6 3.9 0.9 0.3 10.3 31.1 12.7 49.2 39.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.9 0.9 0.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: Protection and switching of 690 V transformers Transformer Sr [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 uk % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Trafo I r [A] 53 53 84 84 105 105 134 134 167 167 209 209 264 264 335 335 418 418 527 527 527 669 669 669 837 837 837 1046 1046 1046 1339 1339 1339 1673 1673 1673 2092 2615 Busbar Ib [A] 53 105 84 167 105 209 134 268 167 335 209 418 264 527 335 669 418 837 527 1054 1581 669 1339 2008 837 1673 2510 1046 2092 3138 1339 2678 4016 1673 3347 5020 2092 2615 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 1.3 15.1 2.1 20.9/0.88 0.2 13.8 39.8 0.9/0.25 6.3 10.6 2.5 6.92 0.2 8.9/0.2 12.2 3.0 20.3 20.9 0.9 0.0 20.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9/0.9 8.3 6.88 0.5 12.9 0.1 6.6 38.1 25.2 16.3 8.88 0.3 2.1 2.7 0.9 0.9 0.9/0.6 2.5 20.6 5.7 37.1 38.2 4.9 0.72 0.Electrical devices 143 .2 10.3 6.9/0.3 37.6 24.1 58.72 0.1 4.3 16.6 4.9 Busbar Ik [kA] 1.8 13.

the decision to use limiting circuitbreakers etc. Refer to the relevant chapters for selections appropriate to the various cases.4 kV with uk% equal to 4% and outgoing feeder circuit-breakers B1/B2/B3 of 63-400-800 A: Level B circuit-breakers (outgoing feeder) • Busbar Ik (64.2 kA) is the short-circuit current due to the contribution of all three transformers. Example: Supposing the need to size breakers A1/A2/A3. • S7S1250 or E1N1250 is the size of the transformer circuit-breaker. read circuit-breaker B3 Isomax S6L800 or E2N1250. it can be read that: Level A circuit-breakers (LV side of transformer) • Trafo Ir (909 A) is the current that flows through the transformer circuit-breakers. other factors such as selectivity. it is essential that the design engineers carry out precise checks. • In (1000 A) is the rated current of the transformer circuit-breaker (electronic release chosen by the user). 63 A 400 A 800 A 144 ABB SACE .Electrical devices ABB SACE . • corresponding to 63 A. Therefore. read circuit-breaker B1 Tmax T2H160. • corresponding to 800 A.3.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment NOTE The tables refer to the previously specified conditions. read circuit-breaker B2 Tmax T5H400. • Busbar Ib (2727 A) is the maximum current that the transformers can supply. For a correct selection.95) indicates the set value of function L of the electronic release. back-up protection.8 kA) is the value of the short-circuit current to consider for the choice of the breaking capacity of each of the transformer circuit-breakers. on the LV side of the three transformers of 630 kVA 20/0. It must also be noted that the short-circuit currents given are determined using the hypothesis of 750 MVA power upstream of the transformers.Electrical devices 145 . must also be considered. 1SDC010026F0001 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 The choice made does not take into account discrimination/back-up requirements. the information for the selection of circuit-breakers is supplied only with regard to the current in use and the prospective short-circuit current.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3. • corresponding to 400 A. • Trafo Feeder Ik (42. corresponding to the row relevant to 3x630 kVA transformers. • Setting (0. 3 Protection of electrical equipment From Table 2. disregarding the impedances of the busbars or the connections to the circuit-breakers.

Resistance welding: .9 1. light and/or thermal).4. In the most common case.6 0.3÷1. the current absorbed by the user can be represented by two components: .15 0.uncompensated Mercury vapour lamps Sodium vapour lamp AC DC converters DC drives AC drives Resistive load cosϕ power factor 0.65÷0.9 0.85 0. It results: cos = IR P (1) = S I The reactive demand factor (tanϕ) is the relationship between the reactive power and the active power: tan = Q (2) P The power factor correction is the action increasing the power factor in a specific section of the installation by locally supplying the necessary reactive power.95 0. but not available to the user. which is essential for the conversion of electrical energy.75÷0.7÷0.5 0.6÷0.3 0.2÷0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .9÷0. so as to reduce the current value to the equivalent of the power required. both the line as well as the supply generator can be sized for a lower apparent power value required by the load. and therefore the total power absorbed from the upstream side. .9 0.75 0. . The complex of the power generated and transmitted constitutes the apparent power S.6 2.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction 4.3÷0.5 2.3÷0.35÷0. increasing the power factor of the load: .6 0. in phase with the supply voltage. mechanical. In detail.Arc welding compensated .Arc melting furnace Fluorescent lamps .increases the transmittable active power and decreases the losses. Table 1: Typical power factor Load Transformers (no load condition) Motor (full load) Motor (no load) Metal working apparatuses: .0÷0.33÷0. as shown by Figure 1 and Figure 2.15 0. the total current (I) lags in comparison with the active component IR. Thus. is directly correlated to the output (and therefore to the part of electrical energy transformed into energy of a different type. it is necessary to generate and transmit.3 1.5 0.4÷0.3 1.3÷1.97 1 tanϕ reactive demand factor 9.75 2. In an electrical installation. Without this. other than the active power P.7 1.62 6.6 1.7÷1. usually electrical with different characteristics.4÷0.compensated . such as in the core of a transformer or in the air gap of a motor.the reactive component IQ. is used to produce the flow necessary for the conversion of powers through the electric or magnetic field. ϕ is the phase shifting between the voltage U and the current l.Arc welding . in quadrature to the voltage.7÷0.0÷0.Electrical devices 147 .9 0.the active component IR.decreases the relative voltage drop urp per unit of active power transmitted.1 General aspects U 4 Power factor correction Table 1 shows some typical power factors: IR I P S IQ Q In alternating current circuits.75 0.25 0 Power factor (cosϕ) is defined as the ratio between the active component IR and the total value of the current l. there could be no flow of power.8 0. 146 ABB SACE .95÷0.9÷6.6 0. a certain reactive power Q.1÷0. in the presence of ohmic-inductive type loads. the other dimensioning parameters remaining equal.3 2.4÷0.

1SDC010039F0201 Cable cross section Relative voltage drop In the case of a sinusoidal waveform. and therefore has a series of further inconveniences which can be summarized as: .50 Load power factor Figure 2: Transmittable active power Active power increase with equal dimensioning factors 1000 original power factor 0.Q1 = P ⋅ ( tan where: P Q1. .90 1.Electrical devices 149 . The distribution authority generally does not allow others to supply reactive power to the network. are the reactive power and the phase shifting after power factor correction.7 0.00 148 ABB SACE .tan 2 ) (3) 1 0. a leading power factor when the power factor corrected device is working with a low load. the reactive power necessary to pass from one power factor cosϕ1 to a power factor cosϕ2 is given by the formula: Qc = Q2 . The power factor is an excellent index of the size of the added costs and is therefore used by the distribution authority to define the purchase price of the energy for the final user.4 0. also due to the possibility of unexpected overvoltages.oversizing of the conductors and of the components of the transmission lines.ϕ2 Qc 1 .9 is the active power.ϕ1 Q2.70 0. are the reactive power and the phase shifting before power factor correction.6 0. Active Power % increase 100 P Q2 S2 P Qc Power factor correction unit (reactive power generator) Q2 S2 Q1 Qc S1 10 P Q1 S1 Motor 1SDC010041F0201 1 0.80 Improved power factor 0.higher Joule-effect losses and higher voltage drops in the components and lines.Electrical devices 1SDC010040F0201 ABB SACE .1 General aspects 4. The ideal situation would be to have a cosϕ slightly higher than the set reference so as to avoid payment of legal penalties.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction Figure 1: Relative voltage drop Voltage drop per unit of active power transmitted 10 4 Power factor correction The distribution authority is responsible for the production and transmission of the reactive power required by the user installations.8 0. is the reactive power for the power factor correction.5 0.4. with a cosϕ too close to the unit. and at the same time not to risk having. The same inconveniences are present in the distribution installation of the final user.

706 0.698 0.186 0.400 0.447 0.77 0.715 0. and the row corresponding to the starting power factor (0.713 0. especially for an installation which already exists.515 0.220 0.843 0.364 0.477 0.484 0.265 0.91 0.484 Q K c = c = tan P 1 .135 0.262 0.474 0.IEC 60831-1 “Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.774 0.88 0.60 0.086 0.275 0.970 0.145 0.302 0.078 0. simply supplying in parallel different combinations of components. the value of Kc (0.328 0.8).538 0.807 0.593 0.660 0.400 0.623 0.938 0.519 0.652 0.72 0.130 0.242 0.546 0. 150 ABB SACE .361 0.495 0.683 0. testing and rating .85 0. is installing capacitors.821 0.062 1.015 0.458 0.Performance.970 1.426 0. From Table 2.407 0.335 0.941 0.419 0.105 0.613 0.026 0.257 0.998 0.713 0.581 0.488 0.082 0.686 0.433 0.536 0.4.686 0.68 0.421 0.679 0.337 0.837 0.079 0.460 0.617 0.ease of installation and maintenance.982 0. systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V .787 0.238 0.65 0.526 0.333 1. P = 0.503 0.766 0.777 0.5 W/kvar in low voltage).686 0.743 0.578 0.328 0.289 0.563 0.398 0.473 0.355 .358 0.882 0.443 0.214 0.573 0.646 0.387 0.104 0.713 0.329 0.93 0.266 0.204 0.190 0.344 0.805 0.130 1.605 0.692 0.779 0.084 0.083 1. Characteristics of power factor correction capacitor banks The most economical means of increasing the power factor.214 0.714 0.84 0.the possibility of covering a wide range of powers and different load profiles.877 0.553 0.683 0.761 0.188 0.61 0. Table 2: Factor Kc Kc cosϕ1 0.654 0.Part 1: GeneralPerformance.8 to 0.657 0.798 0.878 0.500 0.425 0.058 1.233 1.992 0. Capacitors have the following advantages: .005 0.672 0.114 0.049 1.537 0.167 0.70 0.291 0.c.624 0.802 0.652 0.907 0.117 0.937 0.451 0.221 0.234 0.369 0.169 1. The disadvantages are sensitivity to overvoltages and to the presence of nonlinear loads.672 0.IEC 60931-1 “Shunt power capacitors of the non-self-healing type for a.996 0.541 0.156 0.tan 2 (4) for different values of the power factor before and after the correction.298 0.483 0.935 0.966 0.480 0.64 0.631 0.272 0.75 0.324 0.92 0.552 0.292 0.007 0.511 0.829 0.93 the power factor of a threephase installation (Ur= 400 V) which absorbs an average power of 300 kW.888 0.371 0.078 1.183 0.817 0.316 0.90 0.608 0.904 0.193 0.97 1. The reactive power Qc which must be generated locally shall be: 1 1.966 0.020 0.870 0.549 0.87 0.83 0.590 0.748 0.138 1.184 0.265 1.565 0.429 0.164 0.581 0.030 0.317 0.716 0.599 0.294 0.216 0.776 0.569 0.395 0.700 0.594 0.635 0.909 0.682 0.225 0.251 0.847 0.714 0.029 0.248 0.246 0.456 0.413 0.406 0.846 0.177 0.904 0.121 0.950 0.757 0.76 0.132 0.78 0.283 0.191 1.828 0. The Standards applicable to power factor correction capacitors are as follows: .547 0.85 0.96 1.reduced losses (less than 0.724 0.499 0.733 0.919 0.597 0.750 0.453 0.Guide for installation and operation”.309 0.99 1.62 0.815 0.369 0.466 0.521 0.162 0.172 0.645 0.849 0.355 0.549 0.712 0.417 0.838 0.870 0.729 0.720 0.459 0.743 0.855 0.94 0.566 0.303 0.211 0.739 0.318 0.565 0.530 0. at the intersection of the column corresponding to the final power factor (0.770 0.810 0.80 0.299 1.230 0. testing and rating .481 0.469 0.90 0.540 0.048 1.620 0.71 0.74 0.508 0.608 0.380 0.936 0.277 0.95 0.027 0.583 0.80 0.424 0.108 1.235 0.439 0.875 0.347 0.Guide for installation and operation”.567 0.69 0.5 kvar Due to the effect of power factor correction.320 0.055 0.86 0.Safety requirements .623 0.63 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .634 0.905 0.594 0.794 0.907 0.201 1.964 0.810 0.654 0.903 0.397 0.514 0.663 0.373 0.741 0.512 0.580 0.198 0.857 0.66 0.525 0.281 0.388 0.536 0.c.309 0.Part 1: General .090 1. .849 0.028 0.209 0.573 0.73 0.372 0.109 0.052 0.343 0.974 0.936 0.370 0.629 0.81 0.low cost compared with synchronous compensators and electronic power converters.745 0.149 0.089 cosϕ2 0.052 0.270 0.652 0.Electrical devices 151 .350 0. .342 Qc = K c .344 0.Safety requirements .625 0. 300 = 106.058 0.98 1.403 0.873 0.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction Table 2 shows the value of the relationship 4 Power factor correction Example Supposing the need to change from 0.452 0.343 0. the current absorbed decreases from 540 A to 460 A (a reduction of approximately 15%).89 0.601 0.593 0.816 0. systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V .432 0.242 0.775 0.096 1.194 0.487 0.395 0. .936 0.289 0.806 0.483 0.79 0.355) can be read.685 0.93).789 0.123 1.556 0.510 0.67 0.390 0.840 0.299 0.750 0.508 0.447 0.451 0.775 0. each with a relatively small power.381 0.111 0.141 0.156 0.240 0.626 0.421 0.492 0.354 0.057 0.159 0.026 0.138 0.519 0.157 1.042 1.679 0.839 0.909 0.1 General aspects 4.429 0.376 0.82 0.646 0.316 0.872 0.262 0.745 0.268 0.658 0.878 0. .781 0.

4. the motor will continue to rotate (residual kinetic energy) and self-excite with the reactive energy supplied by the capacitor bank. if the voltage is expressed in volts. •rated power Qc. the voltage is maintained on the load side of the switching and control device. the star-connection requires a capacity 3 times larger and subjects the capacitors to a voltage and a current times less than the analogous delta-connection. as stated in the reference Standard. The capacitor units or small lighting capacitors are connected directly to loads. From this data it is possible to find the size characteristics of the capacitors by using the following formulae (5): Starter 4 Power factor correction Individual PFC of motors The usual connection diagrams are shown in the following Figure: Starter Single-phase connection Three-phase star-connection Three-phase delta-connection Starter Capacity of the capacitor bank C= Qc 2 2 π fr ⋅ U r C= Qc 2 2π f r ⋅ U r C= Qc 2 2π f r ⋅ U r ⋅ 3 1SDC010005F0901 1SDC010028F0001 Rated current of the components Line current Irc = 2 π f r ⋅ C ⋅ U r Irc = 2 π f r ⋅ C ⋅ U r / 3 I l = Irc I rc = 2 π f r ⋅ C ⋅ U r M Diagram 1 c M Diagram 2 c M Diagram 3 c I l = I rc I l = Irc ⋅ 3 With three-phase systems.1 General aspects 4. ABB SACE . the current absorbed I0 [A] is solely reactive. The adjustment of cosϕ is systematic and automatic with benefit not only to the energy distribution authority. the normal procedure is to connect the PFC bank to the motor only when it is running. in the case of diagram 3.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction The characteristics of a capacitor. are: • rated voltage Ur. 152 ABB SACE . with the risk of dangerous overvoltages of up to twice the rated voltage value. Installation is simple and economical: capacitors and load can use the same overload and short-circuit protection. Individual PFC is usually applied to motors and fluorescent lamps.9 ⋅ Q0 = 0. acting as an asynchronous generator.2 Power factor correction method Single PFC Single or individual power factor correction is carried out by connecting a capacitor of the correct value directly to the terminals of the device which absorbs reactive power. for the same reactive power. to avoid the risk detailed above. and are connected and disconnected simultaneously. which the capacitor must withstand indefinitely.Electrical devices As a general rule.9 ⋅ 3 ⋅U r ⋅ I 0 [kvar] (6) 1000 The current I 0 is generally given in the documentation supplied by the manufacturer of the motor. generally expressed in kvar (reactive power of the capacitor bank). and to disconnect it before the disconnection of the motor supply. In the case of direct connection (diagrams 1 and 2) there is a risk that after disconnection of the supply. Considering that under no-load conditions. In this case. This type of power factor correction is advisable in the case of large users with constant load and power factor and long connection times. it results: Qc = 0. However. calculated so as to reduce the residual voltage at the terminals to 75 V in 3 minutes. it is advisable to use a PFC with reactive power Qc below 90% of the reactive power absorbed by the no-load motor Q0. given on its nameplate.4. at rated voltage Ur. for a motor with power Pr.Electrical devices 153 . • rated frequency fr (usually equal to that of the network). Capacitors are generally supplied with connected discharge resistance. but also to the whole internal distribution system of the user. to avoid a leading power factor.

83 56 0.94 0.94 0.8 249.96 0.83 20 0.3 7.9 252.3 122.5 59.84 20 0.93 0.9 181.88 5 0.93 0.79 15.5 0.4 24.96 12.82 0.2 25.77 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 0.2 317.81 43 0.96 0.86 20 0.81 5 0.93 0.95 0.6 318.Electrical devices ABB SACE .95 0.9 18.91 0.2 514.88 30 0.83 69 0.88 15 0.Electrical devices 155 .4 507.94 0.2 178.5 31.5 0.5 35.9 36.76 0.97 0.97 0.0 62.2 87.88 15 0.92 400V / 50 Hz / 4 poles 2.6 24.94 0.9 174.98 0.9 20 26.95 0.98 0.4 0.7 18.91 5 0.5 11 15 18.5 7.84 565 400V / 50 Hz / 8 poles 0.8 209.5 29 37 45 59 74 90 104 140 167 202 250 After PFC cosϕ2 I2 [A] 7.95 0.7 30.1 86.98 0.83 240 0.2 399.89 30 0.5 0.84 10 0.82 141 0.4.79 0.98 0.94 0.92 50 0.8 75.78 0.84 7.97 0.6 154 ABB SACE .78 23 0.86 5 0.92 0.87 40 0.2 120.89 15 0.93 0.4 60.97 0.8 / 750 r/min 18.96 0.97 0.5 7.83 202 0.96 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.5 0.5 11 15 18.84 450 0.5 53 64 79 95 131 152 194 228 269 334 410 510 / 1500 r/min 14.9 122.94 0.93 0.81 36 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 5 7.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Table 3 shows the values of reactive power for power factor correction of some ABB motors.9 7.84 82 0.83 0.9 58.2 29.78 31 0.9 5 0.97 0.86 30 0.6 146.79 0.6 88.97 0.6 257.87 40 0.5 7.4 19.7 0.84 163 0.83 15 0.9 40 0.5 11 15 18.87 0.95 0.95 0.7 35.0 404.82 0.8 214.96 0.88 10 0.94 0.5 15 20 20 30 30 35 50 0.92 0.5 50.8 47.1 71.2 21.86 50 0.5 391. Table 3: Reactive power for power factor motor correction Pr [kW] Qc [kvar] Before PFC cosϕr Ir [A] / 3000 r/min 13.5 0.6 178.3 30.9 144.89 10 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 400V / 50 Hz / 2 poles 2.7 18.93 12.95 0.85 355 0.92 0.95 0.5 10 10 12.4 90.87 60 0.5 11 15 18.96 0.89 2.1 23.5 10 12.94 0.97 0.5 37.2 143.95 0.85 280 0.94 0.1 47.98 0.5 49.89 12.95 0.95 0.8 145.96 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.5 28.92 12.83 15 0.8 210.86 50 0.7 123.94 0.96 0.86 20 0.84 101 0. according to the power and the number of poles.4 7.93 0.5 35 41 56 68 83 98 135 158 192 232 282 351 430 545 After PFC cosϕ2 I2 [A] 4 Power factor correction Pr [kW] Qc [kvar] Before PFC cosϕr Ir [A] 400V / 50 Hz / 6 poles / 1000 r/min 0.5 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 60 70 75 0.5 32 38.0 486.4 320.3 25.2 Power factor connection method 4.82 0.8 72.81 0.78 0.0 210.93 13.8 72.95 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 5 5 7.94 0.87 30 0.9 20 0.

4 9. the result is: 2 2 2 2 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 Cast Resin Distribution Transformer MV-LV 2.00 33.6 6.3 10 13 16 20 25 40 49 61 77 90 111 157 212 2.80 18.5 11 13 16 20 24 30 31 37 48 73 1.65 2.50 24 3.5 2.50 15 23 0.1 1.6 12 1 2.75 0 1 where KL is the load factor. defined as the relationship between the minimum reference load and the rated power of the transformer.7 1.45 10.7 4.4 10 13 16 19 23 29 35 43 52 67 82 101 159 8 12 15 19 24 29 36 45 56 69 85 109 134 166 269 Example ⎛i % ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ 1.80 4.1 7.70 24.9 2.7 5.80 6.25 1.35 2.95 3.2 Power factor connection method 4.2 0. From the data on the transformer nameplate: i0% = 1. the iron losses Pfe and the copper losses Pcu [kW].7 9.8% uk% = 4% Pcu = 8.40 6.7 1. the necessary PFC power is 17 kvar. Example Supposing the need for PFC of a 630 kVA oil-distribution transformer which supplies a load which is less than 60% of its rated power. the PFC power suggested in the table is 30 kvar.00 16 2. In particular.5 8.20 8.25 9.25 0.4 1.70 2.5.20 21.5 2.7 5.30 4.Electrical devices 157 .94 8.1 1.3 4.9 12 14 17 20 25 29 38 45 54 81 5. in installations constituted by several transformer substations.10 16. 156 ABB SACE .2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Example For a three-phase asynchronous motor.48 3.8 kvar ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ while. In general.Electrical devices ABB SACE .60 14 1.85 6.8 7 8.8 4. is often constantly in service.1 1.3 0.4 5.85 2.2 11 14 18 22 28 35 60 74 93 118 142 175 252 333 ⎛i % ⎞ 2 2 ⎛u % ⎞ ⎛ 4% ⎞ ⎛ 1.45 5.5 0.3 0.00 56 1. due to the system requirements.62 ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 630⎟ = 20.4 poles).00 34 4.50 5.4 Oil Distribution Transformer MV-LV 0.8 8.80 38.6 1.55 3. the percentage value of the no-load current i0%.80 5.2 −+ 0.00 20 2.50 17 26 0.9 3.4 1.3 1.6 2 0.00 18 34 3. the PFC power required is approximately: ⎛i % ⎞ ⎛u % ⎞ ⎛i % ⎞ ⎞ 2 2 2 2 ⎛u % Qc = ⎜ 0 ⋅ Sr ⎟ − Pfe + K L ⋅ ⎜ k ⋅ Sr ⎟ − Pcu ≈ ⎜ 0 ⋅ Sr ⎟ + K L ⋅ ⎜ k ⋅ Sr ⎟ [kvar] (7) ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ 2 2 4 Power factor correction Table 4 shows the reactive power of the capacitor bank Qc [kvar] to be connected on the secondary side of an ABB transformer.05 4.60 7.75 13.8 3.8% ⎞ 2 2 Qc = ⎜ 0 ⋅ Sr ⎟ − Pfe + K L ⋅ ⎜ k ⋅ Sr ⎟ − Pcu = ⎜ ⋅ 630⎟ 1.4 0.8% ⎞ ⎛ 4% ⎞ 2 ⎛u % ⋅ 630⎟ + 0. Individual power factor correction of three-phase transformers A transformer is an electrical device of primary importance which.1 9.4 1.20 3.2 kW The PFC power of the capacitor bank connected to the transformer is: 50 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 2.9 kW Pfe = 1.20 5.62 ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 630⎟ − 8.5 1.9 1.50 1.00 8 10 1.7 1.60 15.61 4.00 7.9 5.90 11 1.00 27 4.3 1. 110 kW (400 V .4 0.3 6.2 2.80 9.00 19.9 0.7 13 0.5 0.7 1.3 5 6.6 8.6 1. according to the different minimum estimated load levels.40 9.30 13.6 0.35 1.20 4.30 2.00 14.9 1.9 4. when using the simplified formula.8 5. Table 4: PFC reactive power for ABB transformers Sr [kVA] uk% [%] io% [%] Pfe [kW] Qc [kvar] Pcu [kW] load factor KL 0.4 1.2 1.1 3.20 17. the PFC power (Qc) for a transformer with rated power Sr [kVA] should not exceed the reactive power required under minimum reference load conditions. it is advisable to carry out power factor correction directly at the transformer. the percentage value of the short-circuit voltage uk%. Reading the data from the transformer nameplate.2 2.9 7.8 1.72 5.3 2.00 24 3.1 2 1.3 1.6 1.5 6.92 =19.90 3.50 Hz .50 7.8 8.40 3.5 1.00 11 15 0.20 8.3 6.1 11 14 17 25 31 38 47 53 64 89 125 2.8 0.50 14 20 0.7 4 4.4.4 kvar Qc = ⎜ 0 ⋅ Sr ⎟ + K L ⋅ ⎜ k ⋅ Sr ⎟ = ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 For a 630 kVA oil-distribution transformer with a load factor of 0.

3. In particular. also with high frequency. since only the line downstream of the installation point of the capacitor bank is not correctly exploited. withstand the transient currents which occur when connecting and disconnecting the banks.5 ⋅ I rc (8) 3 ⋅U r Therefore: .the setting of the instantaneous short-circuit protection must not cause unwanted trips.Electrical devices 159 . 1SDC010029F0001 Group of loads to be power factor corrected 4. . In installations.4. with high peak (25÷200 Irc).a tolerance of +15% on the value of the capacity is allowed. Centralized PFC C LV Feeders The daily load profile is of fundamental importance for the choice of the most suitable type of power factor correction. of short duration (1÷3 ms). 4. 2. similar to a closing operation under shortcircuit conditions. . . In the case of installations with many loads occasionally functioning. 158 ABB SACE . Standards IEC 60831-1 and 60931-1 state that: . The connection of a capacitor bank.15⋅ Qc ≈ 1. The main disadvantage of centralized PFC is that the distribution lines of the installation. Therefore: . The maximum current which can be absorbed by the capacitor bank Icmax is: This consists of local power factor correction of groups of loads with similar functioning characteristics by installing a dedicated capacitor bank. thus having a high installed power and a quite low average power absorption by the loads which function simultaneously.circuit current values of the installation.the rated current of the circuit-breaker shall be greater than 1.the capacitors shall normally function with an effective current value up to 130% of their rated current Irc (due to the possible presence of voltage harmonics in the network). be coordinated with any external device (contactors). directly installed in the main distribution switchboards.the circuit-breaker shall have an adequate making capacity.3⋅ 1. the use of a permanently connected capacitor bank is only possible if the absorption of reactive energy is fairly regular throughout the day.5⋅Irc.5⋅Irc. the making and breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker must be adequate to the short. ABB SACE . the solution of using single PFC becomes unsuitable as many of the capacitors installed could stay idle for long periods. Furthermore. This method achieves a compromise between the economical solution and the correct operation of the installation. associated with transient currents with high frequency (1÷15 kHz).Electrical devices 1SDC010030F0001 Ic max = 1. the instantaneous magnetic and electronic releases shall not trip due to these peak currents. withstand the periodic or permanent overcurrents due to the voltage harmonics and to the tolerance (+15%) of the rated value of capacity.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction PFC in groups 4 Power factor correction Centralized PFC normally uses automatic units with capacitor banks divided into several steps. downstream of the PFC device.the overload protection setting shall be equal to 1. must be dimensioned taking into account the full reactive power required by the loads.2 Power factor connection method 4.3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks The circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks in LV shall: 1. perform a high number of no-load and on-load operations. the use of a single PFC system at the installation origin ensures a remarkable decrease in the total power of the capacitors to be installed. in which not all loads function simultaneously and/or in which some loads are connected for only a few hours a day.

3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks 4.Electrical devices 161 .1 “General characteristics”.Electrical devices ABB SACE . Chapter 3. refer to Volume 1.4. Hereunder. and to a voltage of 440 V for Emax air circuit-breakers (Table 7). Table 5: Selection table for Tmax moulded-case circuit-breakers InCB Irc QC [kvar] Nmech fmech [op/h] 240 240 240 240 240 120 120 Nel 8000 8000 8000 8000 6000 7000 5000 fel [op/h] 120 120 120 120 120 60 60 CB Type [A] [A] 400 V 440 V 500 V 690 V T1 B-C-N 160 160 107 74 81 92 127 25000 T2 N-S-H-L 160* 160 107 74 81 92 127 25000 T3 N-S 250* 250 167 115 127 144 199 25000 T4 N-S-H-L-V 250 250 167 115 127 144 199 20000 T4 N-S-H-L-V 320 320 213 147 162 184 254 20000 T5 N-S-H-L-V 400 400 267 185 203 231 319 20000 T5 N-S-H-L-V 630 630 420 291 320 364 502 20000 * for plug-in version reduce the maximum power of the capacitor bank by 10% 4 Power factor correction Table 7: Selection table for SACE Emax air circuit-breakers InCB CB Type E1 B N E2 B-N E2 B-N E2 B-N E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E4 S-H E6 H-V [A] 1250 1250 1600 2000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 3200 3200 Irc [A] 834 834 1067 1334 834 1067 1334 1667 2134 2134 2134 400 V 578 578 739 924 578 739 924 1155 1478 1478 1478 QC [kvar] 440 V 636 636 813 1017 636 813 1017 1270 1626 1626 1626 500 V 722 722 924 1155 722 924 1155 1444 1848 1848 1848 690 V 997 997 1275 1594 997 1275 1594 1992 2550 2550 2550 Nmech 25000 25000 25000 25000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 15000 12000 fmech [op/h] 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Nel 10000 15000 12000 10000 12000 10000 9000 8000 6000 7000 5000 fel [op/h] 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 Table 6: Selection table for SACE Isomax S moulded-case circuit-breakers InCB S6 N-S-H-L 800 S7 S-H-L 1250 S7 S-H-L 1600 S8 H-V 2000 S8 H-V 2500 S8 H-V 3200 800 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 Irc 533 833 1067 1333 1667 2133 369 577 739 924 1155 1478 QC [kvar] 406 635 813 1016 1270 1626 462 722 924 1155 1443 1847 637 996 1275 1593 1992 2550 Nmech 20000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 fmech 120 120 120 120 120 120 Nel 5000 7000 5000 3000 2500 1500 fel 60 20 20 20 20 10 160 ABB SACE . .Nel = number of electrical operations with reference to a voltage of 415 V for Tmax and Isomax moulded-case circuit breakers (Tables 5 and 6).QC= power of the capacitor bank which can be connected [kvar] with reference to the indicated voltage and 50 Hz frequency.3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks 4 Power factor correction The second condition is generally respected: • for thermomagnetic releases.InCB = rated current of the protection release [A].Irc= rated current of the connected capacitor bank [A]. . . the magnetic protection shall be set at a value not less than 10⋅Icmax Qr I3 ≥ 10 ⋅ I cmax = 15⋅Irc=15⋅ (9) 3 ⋅ Ur • for electronic releases. the selection tables for circuit-breakers: for the definition of the version according to the required breaking capacity. . the instantaneous short-circuit protection shall be deactivated (I3 = OFF). The following symbols are used in the tables (they refer to maximum values): .fel = frequency of electrical operations [op/h]. .fmech = frequency of mechanical operations [op/h]. .Nmech = number of mechanical operations.

by Joule effect. This anomaly may become an irreversible phenomenon since it persists even when the stimulus has ceased. The Standard IEC 60479-1 “Effects of current on human being and livestock” is a guide about the effects of current passing through the human body to be used for the definition of electrical safety requirements.1 0. * For durations of current-flow below 10 ms. Probability of ventricular fibrillation up to about 50%. AC-4 Above curve c1 c1 .000 2. The electrical impedance of the human body depends on many factors. The effects are: .2 AC-4. the involuntary contraction of these muscles alters the normal respiratory process and the subject may die due to suffocation or suffer the consequences of traumas caused by asphyxia. The above mentioned Standard gives different values of impedance as a function of the touch voltage and of the current path.3 Usually no organic damage to be expected. induce alterations of the cardiac cycle. Probability of ventricular fibrillation increasing up to about 5%. 5 Protection of human beings Figure 1: Time-current zones of the effects of alternating current on the human body a 5. By applying Ohm’s law it is possible to define the safety curve for the allowable voltages.2 AC-4. 162 ABB SACE . Likelihood of cramplike muscular contractions and difficulty in breathing for durations of current-flow longer than 2 s.tetanization: the muscles affected by the current flow involuntary contract and letting go of gripped conductive parts is difficult.000 10.000 5. when the body touches such currents.1 General aspect: effects of current on human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5. on a time-current diagram. This Standard shows.1 AC-4. breathing arrest and severe burns may occur in addition to the effects of zone 3. the muscular contraction is so sustained that the involuntary muscle movements generally throw the subject away from the conductive part.burns: they are due to the heating deriving.1 AC-4. Probability of ventricular fibrillation above 50%.ventricular fibrillation: the most dangerous effect is due to the superposition of the external currents with the physiological ones which. Note: very high currents do not usually induce muscular tetanization because.000 mA AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 . four zones to which the physiological effects of alternating current (15 ÷100 Hz) passing through the human body have been related.5. dangerous pathophysiological effects such as cardiac arrest. AC-3 Zone limits Up to 0.2 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 mA up to line b* Line b up to curve c1 Physiological effects Usually no reaction. Usually no harmful physiological effects. once the human body impedance has been calculated.1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings Danger to persons due to contact with live parts is caused by the flow of the current through the human body. . by generating uncontrolled contractions.3 1.000 Duration of current flow t b c1 c2 c3 AC-4. the limit for the body current for line b remains constant at a value of 200 mA. Zone designation AC-1 AC-2 .5 mA line a 0.000 . Increasing with magnitude and time.Electrical devices 163 1SDC010042F0201 ms 10. from the current passing through the human body.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 Body current IB 500 1.c2 c2 . including atrial fibrillation and transient cardiac arrest without ventricular fibrillation increasing with current magnitude and time.000 2. This Standard gives also a related figure for direct current.000 500 AC-1 200 100 50 20 10 0.breathing arrest: if the current flows through the muscles controlling the lungs.c3 Beyond curve c3 AC-4. Reversible disturbances of formation and conduction of impulses in the heart.

are strictly related to the neutral conductor arrangement and to the connections of the exposed conductive parts. with zero potential). is present between a conductive part and a point of the ground sufficiently far.5.S: protective function is provided by a conductor separate from the neutral conductor. due to an insulation failure.C: neutral and protective functions combined as a single conductor (PEN conductor).2 Distribution systems The earth fault modalities and the consequences caused by contact with live parts.e. in alternating current systems. The second letter represents the relationship of the exposed conductive parts of the installation to earth: .Electrical devices 165 1SDC010033F0001 From this safety curve it results that for all voltage values below 50 V. This represents the maximum no-load touch voltage value. it is necessary to ensure that such breaking is carried out in compliance with the safety curve for any distribution system.Electrical devices ABB SACE . The first letter represents the relationship of the power system to earth: . Therefore.I: all live parts isolated from earth. the most unfavorable condition is taken into consideration for safety’s sake. . in particular locations. the voltage which. The curve shown in the figure refers to an ordinary location. . connected to earth through an impedance. if any.N: direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed point of the power system. For a correct choice of the protective device. represent the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: . 5 Protection of human beings 5. in alternating current systems.1 General aspect: effects of current on human beings 5 Protection of human beings The Standard IEC 60479-1 has adopted precautionary values for the impedance reported in the figure so as to get the time-voltage safety curve (Figure 2) related to the total touch voltage UT (i. at 50 V the tolerance time is 5 s. generally the neutral point. or one point. generally the neutral point.T: direct connection of one point to earth. IEC 60364-1 classifies the distribution systems with two letters. thus. it is necessary to know which is the distribution system of the plant. the tolerance time is indefinite. . Three types of distribution system are considered: TT System Figure 2: Safety curve 2 t [s] 10 10 1 10 -1 1SDC010031F0001 PE 10-2 10 10 2 10 UT [V] 3 TN System L1 L2 L3 PEN (TN-C) (TN-S) 164 ABB SACE . the touch resistance of the human body towards earth changes and consequently the tolerable voltage values for an indefinite time shall be lower than 25 V. if the protection against indirect contact is obtained through the disconnection of the circuit. Subsequent letters. N PE 1SDC010032F0001 L1 L2 L3 N .T: direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to earth.

TN-S neutral and protective conductors are always separated. 2.2 Distribution systems 5 Protection of human beings IT System L1 L2 L3 1SDC010034F0001 5 Protection of human beings In TN systems. 166 ABB SACE .2 Distribution systems 5. where the absence of the supply can cause hazards to people or considerable economical losses. Exposed conductive parts shall be earthed individually. The exposed conductive parts. TN-C neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor (PEN conductor). useful for single-phase load supply. but they can be earthed through a sufficiently high impedance. The neutral conductor is directly earthed in the substation. 1): . The earth fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through the earthing electrode and the line conductor capacitance (Figure 3). the neutral conductor is connected to the supply star center. are locally connected to earth. TT systems are generally used for civil installations. In these cases.5.Electrical devices 167 1SDC010036F0001 In TT systems. the exposed conductive parts are connected to the same earthing point of the neutral conductor. 1SDC010035F0001 Figure 3: Earth fault in IT systems L1 L2 L3 Ik C3 C2 C1 1SDC010037F0001 RB Ik RA In TT installations. an insulation monitoring device shall be provided for optical or acoustic signalling of possible earth faults. where the continuity of supply is a fundamental requirement. on the contrary. the fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through earth (Fig. the neutral conductor and the exposed conductive parts are connected to earth electrodes electrically independent. TN systems are typically used when the power supply is distributed to loads having their own electrical substation. the fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through a solid metallic connection. ABB SACE . Three types of TN system are considered according to the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: 1. 230 V) available. TN-C-S neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor in a part of the system (PEN) and are separated in another part (PE + N). it is usually distributed and has the function of making the phase voltage (e. practically without involving the earth electrode (Figure 2). and can be locally earthed.Electrical devices Ik These distribution systems are used for particular plants. in groups or collectively to an independent earthing electrode. or failure of the supplied equipment. or where a low value of a first earth fault is required. 3. singularly or collectively. Figure 2: Earth fault in TN systems Ik L1 L2 L3 PEN (TN-C) Ik PE N (TN-S) N PE 0 Figure 1: Earth fault in TT systems Ik L1 L2 L3 N IT systems have no live parts directly connected to earth.g.

but not an intentional contact by the removal of the obstacle without particular tools. 168 ABB SACE .earth-free local equipotential bonding: locations where the exposed conductive parts are connected together but not earthed. in fact in PELV circuits. . 2) there are no earthed points. A SELV circuit has the following characteristics: 1) it is supplied by an independent source or by a safety source. for this purpose.placing out of reach: simultaneously accessible parts at different potentials shall not be within arm’s reach. the following measures provide combined protection against both direct and indirect contact: . for horizontal surfaces the degree of protection shall be of at least IPXXD or IP4X (for the meaning of the degree of protection codes please refer to Volume 1. The measures of protection against direct contact are: . .the rated voltage shall not exceeds 50 V ac r.g. Independent sources are batteries or diesel-driven generators. .s. 3) it shall be separated from other electrical systems. An additional protection against direct contact can be obtained by using residual current devices with a rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA.FELV (Functional Extra Low Voltage) system.non-conducting locations: locations with a particular resistance value of insulating floors and walls (≥ 50 kΩ for Ur ≤ 500 V. etc. The protection against both direct and indirect contact is ensured if the requirements stated in 411 from IEC 60364-4-41 are fulfilled.indirect contacts.Electrical devices 169 . Safety sources are supplies obtained through an isolating transformer.obstacles: the interposition of an obstacle between the live parts and the operator prevents unintentional contacts only.Electrical devices ABB SACE . Finally.automatic disconnection of the supply: a protective device shall automatically disconnect the supply to the circuit so that the touch voltage on the exposed conductive part does not persist for a time sufficient to cause a risk of harmful physiological effect for human beings.the supply shall be a SELV or PELV source. particularly: .direct contacts. usually live (bare conductors. e. A contact is indirect when a part of the human body touches an exposed conductive parts. except for the prohibition of earthed points. by the use of Class II components. ≥ 100 kΩ for Ur > 500 V) and without protective conductors inside . e.SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) system and PELV (Protective Extra Low Voltage) system.g.1 Electrical switchboards).g. and 120 V ripple-free dc. usually not live.m. The earthing of both the exposed conductive parts as well as of the live parts of a SELV circuit is forbidden. The measures of protection against indirect contact are: . but with voltage presence due to a failure or wear of the insulating materials.).barriers or enclosures: live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers providing at least the degree of protection IPXXB or IP2X. . the conductors of the SELV circuit may be contained in multiconductor cables or may be provided with an additional insulating sheath. The separation of a SELV system from other circuits shall be guaranteed for all the components. terminals. by using an isolating transformer to supply the circuit. at least one point is always earthed.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact 5 Protection of human beings 5.5. .electrical separation. cable insulation). . A direct contact occurs when a part of the human body touches a part of the plant.all the installation conditions provided for such types of electrical circuits shall be fulfilled. A PELV circuit has the same prescription of a SELV system.supplementary insulation or reinforced insulation. . .insulation of live parts with an insulating material which can only be removed by destruction (e. Chapter 6. It must be remembered that the use of a residual current device as a mean of protection against direct contacts does not obviate the need to apply one of the above specified measures of protection.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact Contacts of a person with live parts can be divided in two categories: . 5 Protection of human beings . .

within one second.s.Electrical devices 1SDC010043F0201 where: Rt is the total resistance.5. the fault resistance. if the touch voltage reaches harmful values for the human body. b) protection against indirect contact shall be provided by: . for 1 min. Assuming 50 V (25 V for particular locations) as limit voltage value. they require compliance with the following rules: a) protection against direct contact shall be provided by either: . ABB SACE .. I∆n is the rated residual operating current. equal to the sum of the earth electrode (RA) and the protective conductor for the exposed conductive parts [Ω]. the condition to be fulfilled in order to limit the touch voltage on the exposed conductive parts under this limit value is: safety isolating transformer or equivalent source. no earthing SELV Class II equipment PELV circuit PELV E Rt ≤ 50 Ia or Rt ≤ 50 I ∆n FELV FELV circuit voltage limits for extra-low voltages: 50 V ac 120 V dc E PE earth connections by estraneous conductive parts.insulation corresponding to the minimum test voltage specified for the primary circuit. Ia is the current causing the automatic operation within 5 s of the overcurrent protective device.m.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact 5 Protection of human beings FELV circuits are used when for functional reasons the requirements for SELV or PELV circuits cannot be fulfilled. the protective conductor and the earth electrode resistance (plant earthing system (RA) and earthing system which the neutral is connected to (RB)). Figure 1 shows the main features of SELV. e.4 TT System An earth fault in a TT system involves the circuit represented in Figure 1: Figure 1: Earth fault in TT system Ik L1 L2 L3 N RB Ik RA Figure 1: SELV. PELV and FELV systems. the phase conductor. . 5 Protection of human beings 5.connection of the exposed conductive parts of the equipment of the FELV circuit to the protective conductor of the primary circuit. read from the tripping curve of the device [A]. the protective devices must be coordinated with the earthing system in order to rapidly disconnect the supply. connection to earth is admissible The fault current involves the secondary winding of the transformer.barriers or enclosures with degree of protection in accordance with what stated above (measures of protection against direct contact). the insulation of accessible nonconductive parts of the equipment shall be reinforced during erection so that it can withstand a test voltage of 1500 V ac r. If this test is not passed. FELV systems safety isolating transformer or equivalent source.connection of a live conductor of the FELV circuit to the protective conductor of the primary circuit provided that an automatic disconnection of the supply is applied as measure of protection. c) plugs of FELV systems shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of other voltage systems. provided that the latter is subject to one of the measures of protection against direct contact. 170 ABB SACE . of the circuit-breaker [A]. and plugs of other voltage systems shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of FELV systems. PELV. According to IEC 60364-4 requirements.g. by metal pipe or structural steelwork protective conductor earth electrode Note 1: Overcurrent protective devices are not shown in this figure. .Electrical devices 171 1SDC010035F0001 . connection to earth is admissible L1 L2 L3 N PE PE PE E no safety source.

4 TT System 5. it is necessary to obtain very low earth resistance values (usually less than 1 Ω) since the 5 s tripping current is generally high. In fact.6 Ω 0. So: 10-2 s 750 A 0. which are easier to be carried out. the worst case . by using the same circuit-breaker mounting ABB SACE RC221 residual current release. all the advantages deriving from the use of residual current releases are nullified.03 0.Electrical devices 173 1SDC010038F0001 . On the contrary.represented by the device with the highest tripping current . with rated residual operating current I∆n = 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE .06 Ω 750 In an electrical installation with a common earthing system and loads protected by devices with different tripping currents.01 0.06 Ω. is about 750 A. which is not an easily obtainable value. for the achievement of the coordination of all the loads with the earthing system. with the former. it is advisable to protect all the loads of a TT system by means of residual current circuit-breakers coordinated with the earthing system to obtain the advantages of both a quick disconnection of the circuit when the fault occurs as well as an earthing system which can be easily accomplished.5.5 3 10 30 Rt [Ω] 5000 1666 500 166 100 16 5 1.1kA 1kA 10kA Rt ≤ 50 = 0. since the Rt shall be calculated on the basis of the I5s of the overcurrent device and since it is the highest tripping current between these two kind of devices.4 TT System 5 Protection of human beings From the above. the required value of earth resistance is: Rt ≤ 50 = 1666. with the latter. it is possible to realize earthing systems with resistance value of thousands of ohms. As a consequence. 172 ABB SACE . with reference to an ordinary location (50 V): Table 1: Earth resistance values 10s I∆n [A] 0.6 5 Protection of human beings 104 s 103 s 102 s 5s 1s 10-1 s Example: Assuming to provide protection by using an automatic circuit-breaker Tmax T1B160 In125. it is clear that Rt value is considerably different when using automatic circuit-breakers instead of residual current devices. Table 1 reports the maximum earth resistance values which can be obtained using residual current devices.1 0.03 A. In order to provide the required protection. when some feeders are protected by overcurrent devices and some others by residual current devices. whereas.3 0. when starting from cold conditions (the worst case for thermomagnetic releases). it must be necessary to carry out an earthing system with an earth resistance Rt ≤ 0.03 which can be easily obtained in practice.shall be considered. the trip current value in less than 5 s. read from the tripping characteristic curve. Therefore.

8 0.2 0.5 TN System An earth fault in a TN system involves the circuit represented in Figure 1: 5 Protection of human beings In TN installations. U0 is the nominal ac r. for distribution circuits. thus limiting the short-circuit current.5. the following condition shall be fulfilled: I a ( 0. a conventional disconnecting time not exceeding 5 s is permitted [A]. the live conductor up to the point of the fault and the protective conductor between the point of the fault and the source [Ω]. it is important to highlight the fact that the residual current devices cannot be used in TN-C system. voltage to earth [V].0 kA . if the protection is provided by means of a residual current device. To provide a protection with automatic disconnection of the circuit. Ia is the rated residual operating current I∆n.1 U -U1 Ur = 400 V LLLN / TN-S -QF1 T1B 160 In125 L ABB SACE . the earth fault current is: IkLG = 3 kA The rated voltage to earth is 230 V.0 A L = 20 m -B1 IkLG = 3.4 0.m. according to IEC 60364-4 prescriptions.Electrical devices Sr = 70. Finally. as a function of the rated voltage U0 or. due to the low value of the impedance of the fault loop. The use of residual current devices improves the conditions for protection in particular when the fault impedance doesn’t have a low value. therefore.90 174 ABB SACE . Table 1: Maximum disconnecting times for TN system U0 [V] 120 230 400 > 400 Disconnecting time [s] 0.4s) ≤ Figure 2 U0 = I kLG = 3 kA Zs Z s . since the neutral and protective functions are provided by a unique conductor: this configuration prevents the residual current device from working.s. this current can persist for quite long time causing overheating of the conductors and fire risks.5 TN System 5 Protection of human beings 5. Ia is the current causing the automatic operation of the disconnecting protective device within the time stated in Table 1. an earth fault with low impedance occurring on the LV side causes a short circuit current with quite high value. The protection against indirect contact can be provided by automatic circuit-breakers: it is necessary to verify that the operating current within the stated times is lower than the short-circuit current. according to Table 1.38% Iz = 134. 1SDC010036F0001 Figure 1: Earth fault in TN system Ik L1 L2 L3 PEN (TN-C) Ik PE N (TN-S) 0 Example: In the plant represented in Figure 2. I a ≤ U0 where: Zs is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the source.00 kVA cosϕ = 0.Electrical devices 175 1SDC010039F0001 -WC1 3x(1x50)+1x(1x25)+1G25 PVC Cu dV = 0. it shall be verified that: The fault loop does not affect the earthing system and is basically formed by the connection in series of the phase conductor and of the protective conductor.

the first earth fault is characterized by such an extremely low current value to prevent the overcurrent protections from disconnecting. Id is the fault current.0 kA 5 Protection of human beings 5. tolerable by the human body for an indefinite time.5 TN System 5 Protection of human beings From the tripping curve (Figure 3).4 s for a current value lower than 950 A. an insulation monitoring device shall be provided to 950 A 0. the protection against indirect contact is provided by the same circuit-breaker which protects the cable against short-circuit and overload. the earth fault current in an IT system flows through the line conductor capacitance to the power supply neutral point.1 “General aspects: effects of current on human beings”).1kA 1kA 10kA 176 ABB SACE . the touch voltage value on the exposed conductive parts is lower than 50 V. In IT system installations.5.Electrical devices ABB SACE .Electrical devices 177 . as shown in the safety curve (see Chapter 5. If this condition is fulfilled. the deriving touch voltage is very low. For this reason. As a consequence. Figure 3: LG Time-Current curves IkLG=3. it is clear that the circuit-breaker trips in 0.4s 10-1 s 1SDC010040F0001 Rt . of the first fault of negligible impedance between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part [A]. the automatic disconnection of the circuit in case of the first earth fault is not necessary only if the following condition is fulfilled: 1s 0.6 IT System As represented in Figure 1. I d ≤ U L where: Rt is the resistance of the earth electrode for exposed conductive parts [Ω]. without the necessity of using an additional residual current device. UL is 50 V for ordinary locations (25 V for particular locations). after the first fault. Figure1: Earth fault in IT system L1 L2 L3 104 s 103 s 3x(1x50)+1x(1x25)+1G25 Ik C3 C2 C1 1SDC010037F0001 102 s T1B160 In125 101 s Ik According to IEC 60364-4.

• Zs is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the phase conductor and the protective conductor of the circuit [Ω]. the vectorial sum of the currents I∆ is equal to zero. whether suddenly applied or slowly rising. or within 5 s for distribution circuits.Electrical devices 179 .7 Residual current devices (RCDs) Generalities on residual current circuit-breakers The operating principle of the residual current release is basically the detection of an earth fault current. in case of an earth fault if the I∆ value exceeds the rated residual operating current I∆n.6 IT System 5 Protection of human beings indicate the occurrence of a first earth fault.A type: tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents and residual pulsating direct currents. R T 1SDC010041F0001 Table 1: Maximum disconnecting time in IT systems Rated voltage U0/Ur [V] 120/240 230/400 400/690 580/1000 disconnecting time [s] neutral not distributed neutral distributed 0. In absence of an earth fault.4 0.AC type: the tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents. the protection of every supplied load shall be provided by means of a residual current device.2 0. b) where exposed conductive parts are interconnected by a protective conductor collectively earthed. Another classification referred to the operating time delay is: .4 “TT system”). • Z’s is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the neutral conductor and the protective conductor of the circuit [Ω].undelayed type.8 5 0.B type: tripping is ensured for residual direct currents. in the event of a second fault.5. whether suddenly applied or slowly rising. the following conditions shall be fulfilled: if the neutral is not distributed: 5 Protection of human beings 5.4 0. by means of a toroid transformer which embraces all the live conductors. . • Ia is the operating current of the protection device in the disconnecting time specified in Table 1.2 IEC 60364-4 states that. the circuit at the secondary side of the toroid sends a command signal to a dedicated opening coil causing the tripping of the circuit-breaker. the conditions of a TN system apply. the conditions for protection are the same as for TT systems (see Chapter 5. included the neutral if distributed. in particular.8 0. . 0 2 Ia where • U0 is the rated voltage between phase and neutral [V]. Figure 1: Operating principle of the residual current device U Zs ≤ . The residual current device threshold shall be carefully chosen in order to avoid unwanted tripping. r 2 Ia if the neutral is distributed: L N U Z 's ≤ . another sound line with higher capacitance could be affected by a higher fault current value). if the requirements mentioned at point b) cannot be fulfilled by using an overcurrent protective device. the supply shall be disconnected according to the following modalities: a) where exposed conductive parts are earthed in groups or individually.1 0.time delayed S-type. A first classification of RCDs can be made according to the type of the fault current they can detect: . 178 ABB SACE . • Ur is the rated voltage between phases [V]. for residual sinusoidal alternating currents and residual pulsating direct currents. whether suddenly applied or slowly rising.Electrical devices ABB SACE . . due also to the particular path followed by the first fault current through the line conductor capacitance to the power supply neutral point (instead of the faulted line.

This discrimination can be achieved by selecting and installing RCDs in order to provide the disconnection from the supply by the RCD closest to the fault.5 s I∆ I∆ 0. . the maximum disconnecting time at I∆n shall not exceed 1 s (IEC 60364-4-41. in case of earth fault. 1.the rated residual operating current on the device located on the supply side shall be higher than that of the residual current protective device located on the load side.the non-actuating time-current characteristic of the residual current protective device located on the supply side (upstream) shall lie above the total operating time-current characteristic of the residual current protective device located on the load side (downstream). . located on the supply side.for S type residual current circuit-breakers.5.residual current circuit-breakers with overcurrent protection (RCBOs): they are the combination of a thermomagnetic circuit-breaker and a RCD. They must be coupled with thermomagnetic circuit-breakers or fuses.pure residual current circuit-breakers (RCCBs): they have only the residual current release and can protect only against earth fault. to provide continuity of supply to the parts of the installation not involved by the fault. RCQ) by choosing the upstream device with time and current thresholds directly greater than the downstream device. in addition to the coordination with the earthing system.for I∆ > I∆n the RCD shall operate. They are composed by a release connected to an external toroid with a winding for the detection of the residual current. keeping carefully into consideration the tolerances (see Vol.vertical discrimination: it is realized by using RCDs connected in series.3: Type of release). . According to IEC 60364-5-53.for I∆ < 0. with other devices.3 A t 0.I∆n) involves the residual current circuitbreaker without causing the tripping. if any. or not. Chapter 2.03 A t inst. these devices shall satisfy both the following conditions: .5⋅I ∆n < I∆ < I∆n the RCD could operate. Figure 2: Horizontal discrimination between RCDs 5 Protection of human beings Figure 3: Vertical discrimination between RCDs I∆ 1 A t1s I∆ I∆ I∆ 0. by choosing general type circuit-breakers located downstream with I∆n equal to one third of I∆n of the upstream ones. For the choice of the rated operating residual current. since the other RCDs do not detect any fault current.§ 413.for electronic residual current releases (RC221/222/223. As a conclusion.5.3 A t 0.5⋅I ∆n the RCD shall not operate. . For the protection against indirect contacts in distribution circuits in TT system.residual current circuit-breakers with external toroid: they are used in industrial plants with high currents. only the faulted line is disconnected. it is possible to distinguish among: . Given I∆n the operating residual current. it is necessary to consider. However. The non-actuating time-current characteristic is the curve reporting the maximum time value during which a residual current greater than the residual non-operating current (equal to 0.5⋅I∆n.5 s I∆ I∆ 0.5 I∆n.5 s 180 ABB SACE .7 Residual current devices 5.7 Residual current devices 5 Protection of human beings RCDs can be coupled. in order to avoid unwanted tripping. Therefore. . it is possible to conclude that: .for 0. a signal commands the opening mechanism of a circuit-breaker or a line contactor. for the protection against thermal and dynamical stresses. also the whole of the leakage currents in the plant. There are two types of discrimination between RCDs: . to ensure discrimination between two residual current protective devices in series. particularly when safety is involved.3 A t 0. their vectorial sums on each phase shall not be greater than 0. it is equal to 0. which represents the maximum value of the residual current which does not cause the circuit-breaker trip. .horizontal discrimination: it provides the protection of each line by using a dedicated residual current circuit-breaker. they provide the protection against both overcurrents as well as earth fault current. discrimination between two RCDs connected in series can be achieved: . Discrimination between RCDs The Standard IEC 60364-5-53 states that discrimination between residual current protective devices installed in series may be required for service reasons. in this way. time-delayed type. (complying with IEC 61008-1 and IEC 61009).Electrical devices 181 . . for this reason.1) I∆ I∆ 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE . a very important parameter for residual current devices is the residual non-operating current. it is necessary to provide protective measures against indirect contacts in the part of the switchboard and of the plant upstream the RCD. in case of earth fault.

.m1= SN ⋅ n is the ratio between the total neutral conductor cross section SPE (single neutral conductor cross section SN multiplied by n.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min L1 L2 L3 N PE PE PE Ik REN N L3 L2 L1 1SDC010043F0001 (single phase conductor cross section S multiplied by n.SPE is the protection conductor cross section.8 is the coefficient representing the reduction of the voltage.L is the length of the cable. .k1 is the correction factor which takes into account the reactance of cables with cross section larger than 95 mm2. The minimum short-circuit current occurs when there is a short-circuit between the phase and the protective conductors at the farthest point on the protected conductor. an approximate method can be used.5 is the coefficient representing the increasing in the resistance.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 1.the conductor reactance is considered only for cross sections larger than 95 mm2.5. number of conductors in parallel) and the protective conductor cross section SPE assuming they are made of the same conductor material.90 150 0. is accepted. It is necessary to separately examine installations with neutral not distributed and neutral distributed. the Standards give indications about the maximum disconnecting time for the protective devices.5 ⋅ 1.a 50 % increasing of the conductors resistance.1. TN system The formula for the evaluation of the minimum short circuit current is: I k min = and consequently: 0.m= is the ratio between the total phase conductor cross section SPE 5 Protection of human beings .5 ⋅ 1.k2 is the correction factor for conductors in parallel.80 240 0. . For the protection against indirect contact. . .1. Legend of the symbols and constants of the formula: . S⋅ n .8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5. number of conductors in parallel) and the protective conductor cross section SPE assuming they are made of the same conductor material. obtainable from the following table: Phase conductor cross section [mm2] k1 120 0. .2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L L= Dy 0. .SN is the neutral conductor cross section. it shall be verified that the circuitbreaker trips within a time lower than the maximum time stated by the Standard. in order to avoid pathophysiological effects for people touching live parts. For the calculation of the minimum short-circuit current. .85 185 0.0. The formula below is obtained by applying Ohm’s law between the protective device and the fault point. .72 IT system The formulas below are valid when a second fault turns the IT system into a TN system. due to the overheating caused by the short-circuit current. obtainable by the following formula: k2 = 4 n−1 n where n is the number of conductor in parallel per phase.75 300 0.ρ is the conductor resistivity at 20 °C.2 is the magnetic threshold tolerance allowed by the Standard.S is the phase conductor cross section. .8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings As described in the previous chapters.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 1. assuming that: . .U0 is the rated voltage between phase and ground.Electrical devices 183 182 ABB SACE .Electrical devices . with respect to the 20 °C value. .Ur is the rated voltage between phases.a 80 % reduction of the supply voltage is considered as effect of the short-circuit current. . this verification is carried out by comparing the minimum short-circuit current of the exposed conductive part to be protected with the operating current corresponding to the time stated by the Standard. ABB SACE .

5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings

5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings

5 Protection of human beings
Neutral not distributed When a second fault occurs, the formula becomes:

5 Protection of human beings
Dy L1 L2 L3 N PE

I k min
and consequently:

0.8 ⋅ U r ⋅ S = ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L

L=
Dy

0.8 ⋅ U r ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min
L1 L2 L3 PE

PE Z Ik L3 L2 L1

PE Ik N L3 L2 L1
1SDC010045F0001

PE

REN

A

B

PE Z Ik L3 L2 L1

PE Ik L3 L2 L1

Note for the use of the tables The tables showing the maximum protected length (MPL) have been defined considering the following conditions: - one cable per phase; - rated voltage equal to 400 V (three-phase system); - copper cables; - neutral not distributed, for IT system only; - protective conductor cross section according to Table 1:

PE

REN

Neutral distributed Case A: three-phase circuits in IT system with neutral distributed The formula is: Table 1: Protective conductor cross section
Phase conductor cross section S [mm2] S ≤ 16 16 < S ≤ 35 S > 35 Protective conductor cross section SPE [mm2] S 16 S/2

I k min =
and consequently:

0.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L

L=

0.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min

1SDC010044F0001

Note: phase and protective conductors having the same isolation and conductive materials

Case B: three-phase + neutral circuits in IT system with neutral distributed Whenever the S function (delayed short-circuit) of electronic releases is used for the definition of the maximum protected length, it is necessary to verify that the tripping time is lower than the time value reported in Chapter 5.5 Table 1 for TN systems and in Chapter 5.6 Table 1 for IT systems.

The formula is:

I k min =
and consequently:

0.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ SN ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅1.5 ⋅1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m1) ⋅ L

L=

0.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ SN ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m1) ⋅ I k min
ABB SACE - Electrical devices

For conditions different from the reference ones, the following correction factors shall be applied.

184

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

185

5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings

5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings

5 Protection of human beings
Correction factors Correction factor for cable in parallel per phase: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor:
n kp 2 2 3 2.7 4 3 5 3.2 6 3.3 7 3.4 8 3.5

5 Protection of human beings
TN system MPL by MCB
CURVE In I3 S 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25

Table 2.1: Curve Z
Z ≤10 30 Z 13 39 133 221 354 532 886 1419 1730 Z 16 48 108 180 288 432 721 1153 1406 Z 20 60 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 Z 25 75 69 115 185 277 461 738 900 Z 32 96 54 90 144 216 360 577 703 Z 40 120 43 72 115 173 288 461 563 Z 50 150 Z 63 189

n is the number of conductors in parallel per phase.

Correction factor for three-phase voltage different from 400 V: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor:

SPE 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16

173 288 461 692 1153 1845 2250

58 92 138 231 369 450

45 72 108 180 288 352

voltage [V] kV

230 0.58

400 1

440 1.1

500 1.25

690 1.73 CURVE In I3 S 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 B ≤6 30 SPE 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16

Table 2.2: Curve B
B 8 40 B 10 50 B 13 65 B 16 80 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 B 20 100 52 86 138 208 346 554 675 B 25 125 42 69 111 166 277 443 540 B 32 160 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 B 40 200 26 43 69 104 173 277 338 B 50 250 B 63 315 B 80 400 B 100 500

For 230 V single-phase systems, no correction factor is necessary.

Correction factor for aluminium cables: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor:
kAl 0.64

173 130 104 80 288 216 173 133 461 346 277 213 692 519 415 319 1153 865 692 532 1845 1384 1107 852 2250 1688 1350 1039

35 55 83 138 221 270

27 44 66 110 176 214

Correction factor for protective conductor cross section SPE different from the cross sections stated in Table 1: the value of the maximum protected length shall be multiplied by the coefficient corresponding to the phase conductor cross section and to the ratio between the protective conductor (PE) and the phase cross sections:

35 52 86 138 169 190

28 42 69 111 135 152

Table 2.3: Curve C
CURVE In I3 S 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 C ≤3 30 SPE 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 173 288 461 692 1153 1845 2250 C 4 40 130 216 346 519 865 1384 1688 C 6 60 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 C 8 80 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 C C C C C C C C C C C C 10 13 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 100 130 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 52 86 138 208 346 554 675 40 67 106 160 266 426 519 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 21 16 13 43 35 27 22 17 14 69 55 43 35 28 22 104 83 65 52 42 33 173 138 108 86 69 55 277 221 173 138 111 88 338 270 211 169 135 107

SPE/S S ≤16 mm2 25 mm2 35 mm2 >35 mm2

0.5 0.67 0.85 1.06 1.00

0.55 0.71 0.91 1.13 1.06

0.6 0.75 0.96 1.20 1.13

0.66 0.80 1.02 1.27 1.2

0.75 kPE 0.86 1.10 1.37 1.29

0.87 0.93 1.19 1.48 1.39

1 1.00 1.28 1.59 1.5

1.25 1.11 1.42 1.77 1.67

1.5 1.20 1.54 1.91 1.8

2 1.33 1.71 2.13 2.00

Correction factor for neutral distributed in IT systems (for Table 3 only): the value of the maximum protected length shall be multiplied by 0.58.

17 26 43 69 84 95

14 21 35 55 68 76

11 17 28 44 54 61

186

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

187

5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings

5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings

5 Protection of human beings
TN system MPL by MCB
CURVE In I3 S SPE 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 4 4 6 6 10 10 16 16 25 16 K ≤2 28 185 308 492 738 1231 1969 2401 K ≤3 42 123 205 328 492 820 1313 1601

5 Protection of human beings
TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.6: TmaxT1 TMD
T1 ≤50 500 A 6 10 15 23 38 62 75 84 128 179 252 T1 63 10 In T1 80 10 In T1 100 10 In T1 125 10 In T1 160 10 In

Table 2.4: Curve K
K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 4 4.2 5.8 6 8 10 11 13 15 16 20 25 26 32 37 40 41 45 50 63 56 59 81 84 112 140 154 182 210 224 280 350 364 448 518 560 574 630 700 882 92 88 154 146 246 234 369 350 615 584 984 934 1201 1140 64 106 170 255 425 681 830 62 103 164 246 410 656 800 46 77 123 185 308 492 600 37 62 98 148 246 394 480 34 56 89 134 224 358 437 28 47 76 114 189 303 369 25 41 66 98 164 263 320 23 38 62 92 154 246 300 18 31 49 74 123 197 240 15 25 39 59 98 158 192 14 24 38 57 95 151 185 12 19 31 46 77 123 150 10 17 27 40 67 106 130 9 15 25 37 62 98 120

15 24 36 60 96 117

14 22 33 55 88 107

20 30 49 79 96

16 23 39 63 76

S 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95

In I3 SPE 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50

12 18 31 49 60 67 102 142 200

10 14 24 38 47 53 80 112 157

8 12 19 31 38 42 64 90 126

6 9 15 25 30 34 51 72 101

7 12 19 23 26 40 56 79

Table 2.5: Curve D
CURVE In I3 S SPE 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 4 4 6 6 10 10 16 16 25 16 35 16 D ≤2 40 130 216 346 519 865 1384 1688 D 3 60 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 D 4 80 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 D 6 120 43 72 115 173 288 461 563 D D 8 10 160 200 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 43 69 104 173 277 338 D 13 260 20 33 53 80 133 213 260 D 16 320 16 27 43 65 108 173 211 D D D D D D D D 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 400 500 640 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 13 10 8 22 17 14 35 28 22 52 42 32 86 69 54 138 111 86 169 135 105 6 11 17 26 43 69 84 S 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 T2 T2 In 1.6 2 I3 10 In 10 In SPE 1.5 246 197 2.5 410 328 4 655 524 6 983 786 10 1638 1311 16 2621 2097 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95

Table 2.7: Tmax T2 TMD
T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 2.5 3.2 4 5 6.3 8 10 12.5 16÷50 63 80 100 125 160 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 500 A 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 157 262 419 629 1048 1677 123 205 328 491 819 1311 1598 98 164 262 393 655 1048 1279 79 131 210 315 524 839 1023 1151 62 104 166 250 416 666 812 914 49 82 131 197 328 524 639 720 1092 39 66 105 157 262 419 511 576 874 31 52 84 126 210 335 409 460 699 979 8 13 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526

9 14 21 35 55 68

7 11 16 27 44 54

9 13 22 35 42 47

7 10 17 28 34 38

17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418

13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329

10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263

8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211

10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165

188

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

189

.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (5.5.5 In 31 52 84 126 210 335 409 460 699 979 1374 1669 2073 2106 T2 63 5.10 In 5.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 T4 T4 20 32 320 A 10 In 14 23 36 54 90 144 176 198 300 420 590 717 891 905 1081 1297 14 23 36 54 90 144 176 198 300 420 590 717 891 905 1081 1297 T4 T4 50 80 10 In 5..5 2.10: Tmax T5 TMA In I3 SPE 1.10 In 9…4 14…7 23…12 35…17 58…29 92…46 113…56 127…63 192…96 269…135 378…189 459…229 570…285 579…290 692…346 830…415 T4 125 5.5 2.Electrical devices 191 ..8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2..5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 Table 2.10 In 7…3 12…6 18…9 28…14 46…23 74…37 90…45 101…51 154…77 215…108 302…151 367…184 456…228 463…232 554…277 664…332 T4 160 5.........10 In 1…1 2…1 4…2 5…3 9…5 15…7 18…9 20…10 31…15 43…21 60…30 73…36 91…45 92…46 110…55 132…66 Table 2.10 In 4…2 7…4 12…6 17…9 29…14 46…23 56…28 63…32 96…48 135…67 189…94 229…115 285…143 290…145 346…173 415…208 T4 T4 250 320 5.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5).8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 2.10 In 3…1 5…2 7…4 11…5 18…9 29…14 35…18 40…20 60…30 84…42 118…59 143…72 178…89 181…90 216…108 259…130 T5 400 5.5 2..5 2.5 In S 1..5 In T2 160 5..5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 T5 320 5.9: Tmax T4 TMD/TMA In I3 SPE 1.10 In 9 14 23 35 58 92 113 127 192 269 378 459 570 579 692 830 11…5 18…9 29…14 43…22 72…36 115…58 141…70 158…79 240…120 336…168 472…236 574…287 713…356 724…362 865…432 1038…519 T4 100 5..8: Tmax T3 TMD T3 63 10 In 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 499 T3 80 10 In 13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 393 T3 100 10 In 10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 315 T3 125 10 In 8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 252 T3 160 10 In T3 200 10 In T3 250 10 In S 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165 197 8 13 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 130 132 157 10 17 20 23 35 49 69 83 104 105 126 S 1..11: Tmax T2 with PR221 DS-LS In I3 SPE 1.5 In 12 21 33 50 83 133 162 183 277 388 545 662 823 836 T2 100 5..10 In 5…3 9…5 14…7 22…11 36…18 58…29 70…35 79…40 120…60 168…84 236…118 287…143 356…178 362…181 432…216 519…259 T4 200 5.5 In 79 131 210 315 524 839 1023 1151 1747 2446 3434 4172 5183 5265 T2 25 5..5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 10 5.. 190 ABB SACE .10 In 3…2 3…1 6…3 5…2 9…5 7…4 14…7 11…5 23…12 18…9 37…18 29…14 45…23 35…18 51…25 40…20 77…38 60…30 108…54 84…42 151…76 118…59 184…92 143…72 228…114 178…89 232…116 181…90 277…138 216…108 332…166 259…130 S 1.. the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value..5 2.10 In 2…1 4…2 6…3 9…4 14…7 23…12 28…14 32…16 48…24 67…34 94…47 115…57 143…71 145…72 173…86 208…104 T5 500 5.10 In 2…1 3…1 5…2 7…3 12…6 18…9 23…11 25…13 38…19 54…27 76…38 92…46 114…57 116…58 138…69 166…83 T5 630 5.

5 In T5 630 6.5 4 6 10 16 16 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 Table 3.5 150 112 2.5 2. using function S the MPL shall be multiplied by 1.5 In T4 250 6.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 In I3 SPE 1.1.5 In T5 320 6.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 29 48 77 94 106 161 226 317 385 478 486 581 697 18 30 48 59 66 101 141 198 241 299 304 363 435 19 31 38 43 65 90 127 154 191 194 232 279 24 30 33 50 71 99 120 150 152 181 218 24 30 33 50 71 99 120 150 152 181 218 19 24 27 40 56 79 96 120 121 145 174 15 17 26 36 50 61 76 77 92 111 50 80 120 200 320 390 40 63 95 159 254 309 Table 3.5 2.3: Curve C CURVE C C In ≤3 4 I3 30 40 S SPE 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 B ≤6 30 SPE 1. the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.5 250 187 4 4 400 300 6 6 599 449 10 10 999 749 16 16 1598 1199 25 16 1949 1462 35 16 C 6 60 75 125 200 300 499 799 974 C 8 80 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 C 10 100 45 75 120 180 300 479 585 C 13 130 35 58 92 138 230 369 450 C 16 160 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 C 20 200 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 C 25 250 18 30 48 72 120 192 234 C 32 320 14 23 37 56 94 150 183 C 40 400 11 19 30 45 75 120 146 C 50 500 C 63 630 C C C 80 100 125 800 1000 1250 20 28 39 48 59 60 72 86 22 31 38 48 48 58 69 18 25 31 38 39 46 55 14 20 24 30 30 36 43 14 20 24 30 30 36 43 16 19 24 24 29 35 13 15 19 19 23 28 10 12 15 15 18 22 15 24 36 60 96 117 12 19 29 48 76 93 15 22 37 60 73 82 12 18 30 48 58 66 10 14 24 38 47 53 Note: if the setting of function S or I is different from the reference value (6).5 In T4 320 6. Besides.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 1.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 S6 800 6 In S7 1000 6 In S7 1250 6 In S7 1600 6 In S8 1600 6 In S8 2000 6 In S8 2500 6 In S8 3200 6 In 30 48 72 120 192 234 24 38 57 95 152 186 S 2.5 In 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCB CURVE In I3 S 1.5 In T4 160 6.Electrical devices 193 . the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.PR212 In I3 SPE 2.13: SACE Isomax S6÷S8 with PR211.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 30 45 75 120 146 165 24 36 60 96 117 132 Table 3.5 2.5.1: Curve Z Z 10 30 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 Z 13 39 115 192 307 461 768 1229 1499 Z 16 48 94 156 250 375 624 999 1218 Z 20 60 75 125 200 300 499 799 974 Z 25 75 60 100 160 240 400 639 780 Z 32 96 47 78 125 187 312 499 609 Z 40 120 37 62 100 150 250 400 487 Z 50 150 Z 63 189 S 1.5 2.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 B 8 40 112 187 300 449 749 1199 1462 B 10 50 90 150 240 360 599 959 1169 B 13 65 69 115 184 277 461 738 899 B 16 80 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 B 20 100 45 75 120 180 300 479 585 B 25 125 36 60 96 144 240 384 468 B 32 160 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 B 40 200 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 B 50 250 B 63 315 B 80 400 B 100 500 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (6.5).5 2. Table 2.5 2.5 In T5 400 6.12: Tmax T4-T5 with PR221 . 192 ABB SACE .2: Curve B CURVE In I3 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 Z ≤8 30 SPE 1.PR222 T4 100 6.

5 3.4: Curve K K K K 4 4.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 Table 3.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 T2 1.5 2.5 16÷50 63 80 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 500 A 10 In 10 In 68 113 182 272 454 726 886 997 54 90 144 216 360 576 703 791 43 71 113 170 284 454 554 623 946 34 57 91 136 227 363 443 498 757 27 45 73 109 182 291 354 399 605 847 7 11 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 T2 T2 T2 100 125 160 10 In 10 In 10 In 7 12 18 30 48 58 6 10 14 24 38 46 7 11 19 30 37 41 6 9 15 24 29 33 170 136 284 227 454 363 681 545 1135 908 1816 1453 106 85 177 142 284 227 426 340 709 567 1135 908 1384 1107 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 7 11 9 18 14 29 23 35 28 40 31 61 47 85 66 119 93 145 113 180 140 182 142 194 ABB SACE .5.5 4 4 6 6 10 10 16 16 25 16 K ≤2 28 K ≤3 42 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCB CURVE In I3 S SPE 1.Electrical devices 195 .5 1.5 2.6 2 10 In 10 In 213 355 567 851 1419 2270 Table 3.3 8 10 12.7: Tmax T2 TMD T2 T2 2.5 1.5 2.6: Tmax T1 TMD T1 ≤50 500 A 5 8 13 20 33 53 65 73 111 155 218 T1 63 10 In T1 80 10 In T1 100 10 In T1 125 10 In T1 160 10 In 161 107 80 268 178 134 428 285 214 642 428 321 1070 713 535 1712 1141 856 2088 1392 1044 13 21 31 52 84 102 12 19 29 48 76 93 17 26 43 68 84 14 20 34 54 66 S 1.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 187 125 4 4 300 200 6 6 449 300 10 10 749 499 16 16 1199 799 25 16 1462 974 35 D 4 80 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 D 6 120 37 62 100 150 250 400 487 D 8 160 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 D 10 200 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 D 13 260 17 29 46 69 115 184 225 D 16 320 14 23 37 56 94 150 183 D 20 400 11 19 30 45 75 120 146 D 25 500 9 15 24 36 60 96 117 D 32 640 7 12 19 28 47 75 91 D D D D D 40 50 63 80 100 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 6 9 15 22 37 60 73 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 11 16 26 42 52 58 88 123 173 8 12 21 33 41 46 69 97 136 7 10 17 27 32 37 55 78 109 5 8 13 21 26 29 44 62 87 6 10 17 20 23 35 49 68 Table 3.8 56 59 81 76 127 204 306 510 815 994 55 92 148 221 369 590 720 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 6 8 10 11 13 15 16 20 25 26 32 37 40 41 45 50 63 84 112 140 154 182 210 224 280 350 364 448 518 560 574 630 700 882 54 89 143 214 357 571 696 40 67 107 161 268 428 522 32 54 86 128 214 342 418 29 49 78 117 195 311 380 25 41 66 99 165 263 321 21 36 57 86 143 228 278 20 33 54 80 134 214 261 16 27 43 64 107 171 209 13 21 34 51 86 137 167 12 21 33 49 82 132 161 10 17 27 40 67 107 130 9 14 23 35 58 93 113 8 13 21 32 54 86 104 Table 3.5 112 75 2.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 In I3 SPE 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.2 5.5: Curve D CURVE D D In ≤2 3 I3 40 60 S SPE 1.2 10 In 10 In T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 4 5 6.

.10 In 7…4 12…6 20…10 30…15 50…25 80…40 97…49 110…55 166…83 233…117 327…164 397…199 494…247 502…251 599…300 719…360 T4 125 5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5....8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB In I3 S 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB Table 3.5 In 27 45 73 109 182 291 354 399 605 847 1190 1445 1796 1824 T2 63 5...5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 10 5.11: Tmax T2 with PR221 DS-LS In I3 SPE 1.5 2.5 2.10 In 4…2 6…3 10…5 15…7 25…12 40…20 49…24 55…27 83…42 117…58 164…82 199…99 247…123 251…125 300…150 360…180 T4 250 5.5 2..5 In T2 160 5.10 In 2…1 4…2 6…3 9…5 16…8 25…12 30…15 34…17 52…26 73…36 102…51 124…62 154…77 157…78 187…94 225…112 S 1..5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 Table 3. the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.8: Tmax T3 TMD T3 63 10 In T3 80 10 In 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 340 T3 100 10 In 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 272 T3 125 10 In 7 11 18 29 35 40 61 85 119 145 180 182 218 T3 160 10 In T3 200 10 In T3 250 10 In SPE 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 432 9 14 23 28 31 47 66 93 113 140 142 170 7 11 18 22 25 38 53 74 90 112 114 136 9 15 18 20 30 42 59 72 90 91 109 S 1..5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (5..10 In 5…2 8…4 12…6 19…9 31…16 50…25 61…30 69…34 104…52 146…73 204…102 248…124 309…154 313…157 375…187 449…225 T4 200 5.10: Tmax T5 TMA In I3 SPE 1.5.5 In S 1.10 In 3…1 5…2 8…4 12…6 20…10 32…16 39…19 44…22 67…33 93…47 131…65 159…79 198…99 201…100 240…120 288…144 T4 320 5....Electrical devices 197 .10 In 9…5 16…8 25…12 37…19 62…31 100…50 122…61 137…69 208…104 291…146 409…204 497…248 617…309 627…313 749…375 899…449 T4 100 5.5 In 11 18 29 43 72 115 141 158 240 336 472 573 713 724 T2 100 5.10 In 2…1 3…2 5…2 7…4 12…6 20…10 24…12 27…14 42…21 58…29 82…41 99…50 123…62 125…63 150…75 180…90 T5 500 5.....5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 T4 T4 T4 20 32 50 320 A 10 In 10 In 12 20 31 47 78 125 152 171 260 364 511 621 772 784 936 1124 12 20 31 47 78 125 152 171 260 364 511 621 772 784 936 1124 7 12 20 30 50 80 97 110 166 233 327 397 494 502 599 719 T4 80 5.10 In 6…3 10…5 16…8 24…12 40…20 64…32 78…39 88…44 133…67 186…93 262…131 318…159 395…198 401…201 479…240 575…288 T4 160 5..5 2.5)..Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 2.5 2.5 In 68 113 182 272 454 726 886 997 1513 2119 2974 3613 4489 4559 T2 25 5.10 In 1…1 2…1 3…2 5…2 8…4 13…6 15…8 17…9 26…13 37…18 52…26 63…32 78…39 80…40 95…48 114…57 Table 3.9: Tmax T4 TMD/TMA In I3 SPE 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 3.10 In 2…1 4…2 6…3 9…5 16…8 25…12 30…15 34…17 52…26 73…36 102…51 124…62 154…77 157…78 187…94 225…112 T5 400 5.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 T5 320 5.10 In 1…1 2…1 4…2 6…3 10…5 16…8 19…10 22…11 33…17 47…23 65…33 79…40 99…49 100…50 120…60 144…72 T5 630 5.. 196 ABB SACE ...

Besides. Note: if the setting of function S or I is different from the reference value (6).8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 1.5.5).5 In Table 3.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB T5 400 6. the MPL shall be multiplied by 1.5 2. the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value. using function S.1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 3.Electrical devices 199 .5 In S 2.5 In T4 320 6. 198 ABB SACE .13: SACE Isomax S6-S8 with PR211-212 S6 800 6 In S7 1000 6 In S7 1250 6 In S7 1600 6 In S8 1600 6 In S8 2000 6 In S8 2500 6 In S8 3200 6 In S 1.5 In T5 320 6.5 2.Electrical devices ABB SACE .12: Tmax T4-T5 with PR221-PR222 T4 100 6.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 17 24 34 41 51 52 62 75 19 27 33 41 42 50 60 16 22 26 33 33 40 48 12 17 21 26 26 31 37 12 17 21 26 26 31 37 14 17 21 21 25 30 11 13 16 17 20 24 9 10 13 13 16 19 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (6.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 25 42 67 82 92 140 196 275 333 414 421 503 603 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 208 259 263 314 377 17 27 33 37 56 78 110 133 166 168 201 241 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 129 132 157 189 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 129 132 157 189 17 20 23 35 49 69 83 104 105 126 151 13 15 22 31 44 53 66 67 80 96 In I3 SPE 2.5 In T4 250 6.5 In T5 630 6.5 In T4 160 6. the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.

1 Slide rules These slide rules represent a valid instrument for a quick and approximate dimensioning of electrical plants. In addition. a diagram for the calculation of the short-circuit current on the load side of elements with known impedance. impedance and voltage drop of cables. . All the given information is connected to some general reference conditions. Side Calculation of the short-circuit current for three-phase fault on the load side of a cable line with known cross section and length. the calculation methods and the data reported are gathered from the IEC Standards in force and from plant engineering practice.orange slide rule: cable verification and protection.1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools A. 200 ABB SACE .blue slide rule: motor and transformer protection. . These two-sided slide rules are available in four different colors.yellow slide rule: cable sizing.A.Electrical devices ABB SACE . easily identified by subject: . Annex A: Calculation tools Yellow slide rule: cable sizing Side Definition of the current carrying capacity.green slide rule: protection coordination.Electrical devices 201 1SDC008059F0001 . The instruction manual enclosed with the slide rules offers different examples and tables showing the correction coefficients necessary to extend the general reference conditions to those actually required. .

A. Annex A: Calculation tools Green slide rule: protection coordination Side Selection of the circuit-breakers when back-up protection is provided.Electrical devices 203 1SDC008061F0001 .1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools Orange slide rule: cable verification and protection Side Verification of cable protection against indirect contact and short-circuit with ABB SACE MCCBs (moulded-case circuit-breakers). 1SDC008060F0001 202 ABB SACE . Side Definition of the limit selectivity current for the combination of two circuit-breakers in series. Side Verification of cable protection against indirect contact and short-circuit with ABB MCBs (modular circuit-breakers).1 Slide rules A.Electrical devices ABB SACE .

Drawing and definition of networks Creation of the single-line diagram. with or without voltage regulator. a diagram for the calculation of the short-circuit current on the load side of transformers with known rated power.A.or twophase loads.1 Slide rules A. Side Sizing of a transformer feeder.2 DOCWin DOCWin is a software for the dimensioning of electrical networks. • Calculation of the active and reactive power required by each single power source. according to the requirements. Networks can be completely calculated through simple operations starting from the definition of the single-line diagram and thanks to the drawing functions provided by an integrated CAD software. In addition. Meshed networks can also be managed. MV/LV and LV/LV transformers. • The diagram can be divided into many pages. The software can manage networks with multiple slacks and unbalances due to single. • The program controls the coherence of drawings in real time. Magnitude and phase shift of the node voltage and of the branch current are completely defined for each point of the network. with no limits to the network complexity. ABB SACE .2 DOCWin Annex A: Calculation tools Blue slide rule: motor and transformer protection Side Selection and coordination of the protection devices for the motor starter. Annex A: Calculation tools A.Electrical devices 205 1SDC008062F0001 204 ABB SACE . with two or three windings. for both MV as well as LV. with low or medium voltage supply.Electrical devices . Network calculation • Load Flow calculation using the Newton-Raphson method. Supplies • There are no pre-defined limits: the software manages MV and LV power supplies and generators. • It is possible to enter and modify the data of the objects which form the network by using a table. • It is possible to define different network configurations by specifying the status (open/closed) of the operating and protective devices. DOL start-up (type 2 coordination in compliance with the Standard IEC 60947-4-1).

The calculation is also carried out for MV sections. transformers. • Automatic sizing of busbar trunking system. • Verification of the maximum voltage drop at each load. • Possibility of setting.2 DOCWIN A. Cable line sizing • Cable line sizing according to thermal criteria in compliance with the following Standards: CEI 64-8 (tables CEI UNEL 35024-35026). in compliance with the Standards IEC 60909-1. the maximum allowed voltage drop. Annex A: Calculation tools • Representation of the curves of circuit-breakers. IEC 61363-1 (naval installations) or with the method of symmetric components.time / current curves (I-t). • Possibility of entering the curve of the utility and of the MV components point by point. IEC 60364. 206 ABB SACE . motors and generators. VDE 2984. taking into account also the time-variance contribution of rotary machines (generators and motors).Electrical devices 207 . • Calculation of switchboard overtemperature in compliance with Standard IEC 60890. phase-to-phase. and can be considered as a function of the rated current or of the load current. • Verification of the protection devices. IEC 60092 (naval installations) and IEC 60890.current limiting curves (peak): visual check of the effects of the settings on the trip characteristics of protection devices. phase-to-ground faults. • Short-circuit current calculation for three-phase. the economic criteria stated in the Standard IEC 60827-3-2.2 DOCWin Annex A: Calculation tools • Management of local (motors) and centralized power factor correction with capacitor banks. • Possibility of setting.current / let-through energy curves (I-I2t). with control over the setting parameters of the adjustable releases (both thermomagnetic as well as electronic). • Sizing and check on the dynamic withstand of busbars in compliance with the Standard IEC 60865. to verify the tripping discrimination of protection devices. NFC 15-100. phase-toneutral.Electrical devices ABB SACE . as additional calculation criterion. as additional calculation criterion. • Management of the demand factor for each single node of the network and of the utilization factor on the loads. • Discrimination and back-up verification also through quick access to coordination tables. cables. Selection of operating and protection devices • Automatic selection of protection devices (circuit-breakers and fuses) • Automatic selection of operating devices (contactors and switch disconnectors) • Discrimination and back-up managed as selection criteria. with discrimination level adjustable for each circuit-breaker combination. Curves and verifications • Representation of: . The power dissipated by the single apparatus is automatically derived by the data files of the software. . .A.

46 185.09 7.28 2. Table 1: Load current for three-phase systems with cosϕ = 0.53 96.60 3.06 0.60 600 0.16 43.66 139.27 111.30 138.11 0.92 7.2 DOCWIN Annex A: Calculation tools • Motor coordination management through quick access to ABB tables.86 130.08 48.46 2.04 0.93 1.78 65.53 204.58 170.22 145. for different power factors.08 74.05 0.A.15 0.68 160.5 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 0.32 72.38 213.49 55.69 291.41 192.77 1.83 25.17 0.09 0.29 92.06 0.24 223. The table has been calculated considering cosϕ to be equal to 0.67 111.69 21.86 4.75 108.83 77.10 0.80 160.49 51.26 128.55 3.83 690 0.23 106.64 131. • Ur is the rated voltage [V] (for three-phase systems it is the line voltage.59 500 0.81 102.30 141.35 195.15 80.53 1.64 1.21 0.35 10.75 415 0.92 46.90 87.07 2.04 0.04 185.02 16.87 309.38 32. Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib Generic loads The formula for the calculation of the load current of a generic load is: Ib = P k ⋅U r ⋅ cos ϕ where: • P is the active power [W].46 30.91 306.21 8.79 5.19 96. curves and reports of the single components of the network can be printed by any printer supported by the hardware configuration.38 174. for single-phase systems it is the phase voltage).95 189.11 0.Electrical devices 209 . Table 1 allows the load current to be determined for some power values according to the rated voltage. 230 P [kW] 0.05 0.64 115.03 0.41 231.77 53.67 92.1 0.89 55.74 58.30 18.58 29.04 0.06 116.16 0.16 Ur [V] 440 Ib [A] 0.38 83.20 123.06 0.73 1.42 12. • All print modes can be customized.13 0.45 256.04 0.48 102.95 216.57 139.57 6.30 144.04 0.9. • k is a coefficient which has the value: .08 42.1 for single-phase systems or for direct current systems.62 192.49 224.29 0.15 76.89 37.46 0.05 0.11 64.70 362.66 38.83 400 0.06 0.16 139.19 46.09 0.65 9.80 1.78 83.73 15.03 0.13 153.38 176.28 0. • cosϕ is the power factor.98 89.32 64.59 390.11 218.09 0.19 0.03 0.56 320.61 128.49 200.94 208 ABB SACE .02 278.15 74.39 2.57 120.Electrical devices ABB SACE .04 32.96 166.31 0.29 14.56 1.34 160.79 179.46 167.92 117.37 557.12 154.84 85.15 0.53 240.08 0.14 5.06 0.97 102.47 128.26 0.06 0.46 64.37 61.9 Printouts • Single-line diagram.23 112.13 251.45 208.08 0.2 0.58 13.95 27. the value from Table 1 must be multiplied by the coefficient given in Table 2 corresponding to the actual value of the power factor (cosϕact).99 149.48 418. for three-phase systems.59 27.32 0.80 334. • All information can be exported in the most common formats of data exchange.

00 600.83 604.04 4130.50 694.60 772.00 50.40 1090.80 833.82 204.053 0.25 337.81 1283.96 748.25 2.47 1004.29 0.14 0.23 0.7 1.42 1231.00 625.67 481. kcosϕ = Lighting circuits 1 cos ϕ act The current absorbed by the lighting system may be deduced from the lighting equipment catalogue.1 for star-connected lamps.22 2649.06 289.27 1686. .00 2.77 790.00 1900. • nL is the number of lamps per phase.92 1391.05 513.00 900. the value from Table 3 must be multiplied by the coefficient given in Table 4 corresponding to the actual value of the power factor (cosϕact).26 1312.00 2000.00 325.87 2.00 2000.49 28.00 600 0.1 0.67 3.00 1300.0.00 1200.29 96.20 1115.67 183.9 cosϕact kcosϕ* * 1 0.45 2159.80 697.95 1.059 0.00 700.42 801.78 Ur [V] 440 Ib[A] 364.86 362.74 565.75 1.03 0.87 304.05 1159.18 90.35 8.00 100.75 374.50 705.90 7.00 800.00 225.23 929.00 Ur [V] 415 440 Ib [A] 0.85 1283.13 0.06 0.22 608.74 1739.45 2.48 3260.16 1385.125 0.87 3478.00 180.67 33.09 3043.37 963.03 1014.25 0.67 750.69 801.00 220.15 0.30 434.68 2789.00 200.00 66.1.4 for lamps without compensation.333 0.18 340.71 1069.26 521.00 12.48 144.71 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 130.00 1375.57 942.41 722.11 1394.8 1.43 144. ABB SACE .82 795.33 100.00 40.26 3695.67 83.33 690 0.57 1086.83 391.09 0.39 2091.47 1166.35 1521. • cosϕ is the power factor of the lamps which has the value: .94 481.67 500.19 45.25 1026.10 962.63 1202. The table has been calculated considering cosϕ to be equal to 1.Electrical devices PL nL kBkN U rL cos ϕ 211 .23 1927.24 0.17 0.33 16.06 0.00 400.88 882.50 25.00 1250.17 0.48 1812. .34 1236.43 4347.10 0.64 136.13 1956.18 1931.39 289.64 1477.45 909.67 1500.45 115.1 for lamps which do not need any auxiliary starter.45 318.48 86.76 1082.00 4.25 1015.67 1020.55 568.52 2173.35 1376.90 217.65 1255.57 1534.17 690 Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib 230 P [kW] 232.91 325. or approximately calculated using the following formula: Ib= 210 ABB SACE .44 1122.73 500 60.25 0.96 265.74 883.27 4.13 561.00 2500.00 1750.33 1416.286 For cosϕact values not present in the table.00 1875.78 1566.89 850.33 1166.49 437.28 836.70 2826.00 1500.04 0.65 3913.96 500 320.98 801.64 68.111 0.70 652.05 11.96 1159.90 449.91 454.25 for lamps which need auxiliary starters.88 855.67 192.00 150.00 500.91 188.02 618.04 641.00 350.09 2272.30 2608.429 For cosϕact values not present in the table.Annex B: calculation of load curremt Ib Annex B: calculation of load curremt Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib 230 P [kW] 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 697.33 0.87 240.31 2370.58 168.36 159.70 21.39 260.45 500 0.33 1666.38 1523.94 1952.30 1445.70 1218.00 166.00 275.00 250.00 216.75 1807.17 4.00 10.67 133.00 1100.27 1590.00 2375.18 681.55 1154.29 320.947 0.33 908.82 4.00 175.49 1545.176 0.19 1443.74 43.88 1304.71 652.00 400 Ur [V] 415 440 Ib [A] 72.21 427.67 2289.32 434.00 260.9 for lamps with compensation.25 14.8 1.02 1673.00 583.81 1449.5 1 2 5 10 20 0.08 0.9 1 0.13 534.00 1625.36 1239.16 2409.20 0.00 2125.08 0.85 2231.00 100.36 1250.73 295.96 1304.88 874.00 120.2 0.42 173.74 541.00 1500.43 173.04 0.82 2045.31 695.93 159.82 1325.09 181.10 0.33 150.39 510.67 1000.00 80.73 48.18 656.78 478.45 463.50 1.71 2048.40 1.88 418.00 1333.91 113.28 583.31 650.83 1.33 666.48 57.20 1.41 202.28 Table 2: Correction factors for load current with cosϕ other than 0.06 0.14 0.16 313.00 1583.7 1.75 415 386.95 0.43 278.0.00 1363.79 962.34 1204.08 728.06 962.00 1800.07 0.77 216.00 1700.35 641.91 1704.00 272.21 1468.07 0.05 0.9 cos ϕ act Table 4: Correction factors for load current with cosϕ other than 1 cosϕact kcosϕ* * Table 3 allows the load current to be determined for some power values according to the rated voltage.2 0.00 833.06 1457.19 2168.50 721.00 1125. Table 3: Load current for single-phase systems with cosϕ = 1 or dc systems 230 P [kW] 0. for different power factors.67 233.85 1.00 300.94 130.45 481.27 250.14 2.39 120.00 20.76 2510.89 843.Electrical devices where: • PL is the power of the lamp [W].00 1363. kcosϕ = 0.00 2250.18 927.00 500.37 464.67 1250.17 869.73 1136.00 240.10 22.25 836.75 384. • kN is a coefficient which has the value: .48 0.33 416.55 1818.96 400 0.00 300.00 280.00 600 50.41 2.86 1084.31 641.83 75.00 1083.99 1 1 0.36 24.9 1.49 1086.10 869.40 371.00 1000.14 0.35 361.25 579.43 0.09 0.72 1.33 916.50 5.00 116.20 577.33 200.45 1.55 12.25 1042.86 511.96 101.46 86.10 0.77 947.00 1000.91 2391.93 602.63 1313.28 743.95 898.00 140.00 1600.00 200.56 1603.00 600 267.75 1.00 333.64 797.26 0. • kB is a coefficient which has the value: .00 375.9 0.97 72.00 875.67 690 43.09 1022.13 400 400.00 750.65 769.55 227.33 8.00 160.34 557.17 724.85 1.00 1400.07 0.35 347.12 0.78 507.57 1093.91 217.00 125. for delta-connected lamps.33 250. • UrL is the rated voltage of the lamps.74 976.58 588.

5 4.24 0.1 6.1 16.9 67 73.40 2 2. • ZPE protective conductor impedance.4 49.85 1.59 0.4 28.1 42.5 7.2 58.4 29.4 10.9 12.6 64.8 10 11 12.3 35.7 8.2 8.1 9 9.5 14.2 8.93 2.6 7. • Ur rated voltage.88 1.4 66. according to the rated voltage. Motors Table 5 gives the approximate values of the load current for some three-phase squirrel-cage motors.3 12 13.3 3.9 7.3 40.46 0.3 3.1 90.5 3 3.7 114 123 136 154 166 178 226 241 268 297 327 384 393 416 432 471 530 541 589 647 736 756 868 927 1010 1130 1270 1340 1420 1580 – – Rated current of the motor at: 380-400 V [A] 0.2 48. and may vary according to the motor manifacturer and depending on the number of poles Table 5: Motor load current Motor power [kW] 0.1 54. • ZN neutral conductor impedance.4 68 77.5 73.6 3.8 7.6 8.5 6.4 4.5 8.2 15.66 2. • phase to PE fault.42 0.33 0.22 0.12 0.8 32 39.2 43.3 96.5 15 18.1 19.5 8.3 23.9 26.31 4.1 45.7 79 85.8 7.60 0. The following table briefly shows the type of fault and the relationships between the value of the short-circuit current for a symmetrical fault (three phase) and the short-circuit current for asymmetrical faults (two phase and single phase) in case of faults far from generators.5 11.06 1.1 1. • ZL phase conductor impedance.5 6.3 32 34.2 2.9 1.1 2.7 9.1 5.6 3.8 90.9 10.5 5 5.9 37.3 4.4 2.55 0.4 101 124 134 150 168 181 194 245 260 292 325 358 420 425 449 472 502 578 590 626 700 803 826 948 990 1080 1250 1410 1490 1570 1750 – – 240 V [A] 0.7 18.8 11.50 0.4 10 11 12.6 23.7 13.3 18.87 IkLLL 2Z L 2 212 ABB SACE .5 15 17 20 25 27 30 34 40 50 54 60 70 75 80 100 110 125 136 150 175 180 190 200 220 245 250 270 300 340 350 400 430 480 545 610 645 680 760 810 910 220-230 V [A] 0.2 71.8 4.5 5 5.1 7.9 20.1 4.6 37.6 6.9 5.27 0.5 21 23 25 28 33 42 44 49 56 60 66 82 86 98 107 118 135 140 145 152 170 190 200 215 235 268 280 320 337 366 410 460 485 510 570 610 680 Three-phase fault ZL ZL ZL ZN IkLLL IkLLL 2 2 ZC = R C + X C IkLLL Two-phase fault ZL ZL ZL ZN IkLL IkLL = 3 Ur = IkLLL = 0.75 1.7 0.3 5.55 0.12 0.5 3.5 25.5 20 22 25 30 37 40 45 51 55 59 75 80 90 100 110 129 132 140 147 160 180 184 200 220 250 257 295 315 355 400 450 475 500 560 600 670 PS = hp 1/12 1/8 1/6 1/4 1/3 1/2 3/4 1 1.30 0.68 1 1.37 0.09 0.16 3.5 8 9 11 12. 1500 rpm at 50 Hz.7 27.1 8.5 30.06 0.35 0.56 0.28 0.8 19.59 4.9 8.55 0.6 13 15 17.22 1.48 2.5 16.16 0.Electrical devices 213 .40 0.25 1.6 14.7 6.2 5.5 6.Electrical devices ABB SACE .22 1.5 2 2.5 10. In the formulas.7 9.9 123 131 146 162 178 209 214 227 236 256 289 295 321 353 401 412 473 505 549 611 688 730 770 860 920 1030 500 V [A] 0.33 0.25 5. For more accurate calculation.9 6 6.5 14 15.3 96.9 16.8 52.9 21. • two-phase fault.2 84.22 3.21 0.2 18.6 33 38 44 54 60 64.9 10.3 75.03 4.7 19 22.1 2.40 0.19 0.20 1.85 1.3 22 25 30 37 40 44 50 60 72 79 85 97 105 112 140 147 170 188 205 242 245 260 273 295 333 340 370 408 460 475 546 580 636 710 800 850 890 1000 1080 1200 415 V [A] 0.1 1.2 61.38 0.76 1.4 11.9 3.76 1.9 83.5 7.67 2.4 27.2 6.02 1.4 15.Annex B: calculation of load curremt Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current A short-circuit is a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions.7 4 5 5.6 9.4 4 5 5.18 0. the use of DOCWin software is recommended. • phase to neutral fault.25 0.1 61.5 28.2 92.3 107 119 131 153 157 167 173 188 212 217 235 260 295 302 348 370 405 450 508 540 565 630 680 760 660-690 V [A] – – – – – 0.64 0.7 10.6 14.77 1.5 8.8 26.9 6.1 50.7 3. the following symbols are used: • Ik short-circuit current.20 0.7 63.3 106 112 128 143 156 184 186 200 207 220 254 259 278 310 353 363 416 445 483 538 608 645 680 760 810 910 600 V [A] 0.6 13 14 17.6 11.9 10.5 13.5 8.8 15.1 1.2 30.26 3.5 2 2.5 2.37 0.15 1.8 24.3 21.38 1.5 2 3 3. Note: these values are given for information only. Fault typologies In a three-phase circuit the following types of fault may occur: • three-phase fault.4 17 21 23 28 35 37 40 47 55 66 72 80 90 96 105 135 138 165 182 200 230 242 250 260 280 320 325 340 385 425 450 500 535 580 650 740 780 830 920 990 1100 440 V [A] 0.9 69.

58IkLL (ZL = ZPE) IkLPE=0.5ZPE) ILPE=IkLLL (ZPE ≅ 0) IkLPE=0.Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Determination of the short-circuit current Phase to neutral fault ZL ZL ZL ZN IkLN IkLN = Ur 3( ZL + ZN ) Ur Ur = = 0.16IkLL IkLLL=2IkLN (ZL = ZN) IkLLL=3IkLN (ZL = 2ZN) IkLLL=IkLN (ZN ≅ 0) IkLL=1.5ZN) ILN=IkLLL (ZN ≅ 0) IkLN=0.38IkLL (ZL = 0. For more accurate calculation.Electrical devices 215 .38IkLL (ZL = 0. calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point.87IkLN (ZN ≅ 0) IkLN 214 ABB SACE . motors.16IkLL (ZPE ≅ 0) IkLLL - IkLL IkLLL=1.).58IkLL (ZL = ZN) IkLN=0.Electrical devices ABB SACE . the resultant value is generally acceptable. 2. all the elements of the network shall be taken into account.33IkLLL (ZL = 0. The procedure for the calculation of the short-circuit current involves the following steps: 1. motors and large section cables etc. limit condition: IkLPE = The following table allows the approximate value of a short-circuit current to be found quickly.5I kLLL (ZL = ZPE) ILPE=0. which may be: • elements which contribute to the short-circuit current: network.33IkLLL (ZL = 0. generators. the use of DOCWin software for the dimensioning of installations is recommended. calculation of the short-circuit power for the different elements of the installation.6IkLN (ZL = 2Z N) IkLL=0. 3. To determine the short-circuit apparent power Sk. However.5 IkLLL 3( ZL + ZN ) 3(2ZL ) Ur Ur = = 0. the more similar the power factors of the considered components are (network.16IkLL (ZN ≅ 0) - Phase to PE short-circuit (TN system) IkLPE ILPE=0. This method allows the determination of the approximate shortcircuit current at a point in an installation in a simple way.5ZPE) IkLPE=1.5IkLLL (ZL = ZN) ILN=0.33I kLLL 3(ZL + ZPE ) 3(3ZL ) Ur Ur = = IkLLL 3( ZL + ZPE ) 3 (ZL) If Z PE = 2Z L (cross section of protective conductor half to the phase conductor one): IkLPE = If Z PE ≅ 0 where: • Sk is the short-circuit apparent power seen at the point of the fault.73IkLN (ZL = ZN) IkLL=2. Calculation of the short-circuit power for the different elements of the installation The short-circuit apparent power Sk shall be determined for all the components which are part of the installation: Network An electrical network is considered to include everything upstream of the point of energy supply. this method is not conservative and gives more accurate values. generators.33IkLLL 3( ZL + ZN ) 3(3Z L ) Ur Ur = = I kLLL 3( ZL + ZN ) 3( ZL ) If Z L = Z N (cross section of neutral conductor equal to the phase conductor one): IkLN = If Z N = 2Z L (cross section of neutral conductor half the phase conductor one): IkLN = If Z N ≅ 0 limit condition: IkLN = In order to determine the short-circuit current the “short-circuit power method” can be used.5ZN) IkLN=1. transformers. Note Three-phase short-circuit IkLLL Two-phase short-circuit IkLL IkLL=0. calculation of the short-circuit current. • Ur is the rated voltage.87IkLLL Phase to neutral short-circuit IkLN ILN=0.5I kLLL 3( ZL + ZPE ) 3(2ZL ) Ur Ur = = 0. • elements which limit the value of the short-circuit current: conductors and transformers. The “short-circuit power method” calculates the short-circuit current Ik based on the formula: Three-phase short-circuit Ik = Sk 3 ⋅ Ur Sk 2 ⋅ Ur Phase to PE fault IkLPE = ZL ZL ZL ZPE IkLPE Ur 3( ZL + ZPE ) If Z L = Z PE (cross section of protective conductor equal to the phase conductor one): Two-phase short-circuit Ik = IkLPE = Ur Ur = = 0.

the energy distribution authority supplies the short-circuit apparent power (Sknet) value at the point of energy supply. Typical values can be: .6 32.3 63 4 1.4 8.0 5. the worst case is considered. electric motors contribute to the fault for a brief period (5-6 periods).5 %): Cables A good approximation of the short-circuit power of cables is: S kcable = where the impedance of the cable (Zc) is: Ur Zc 2 ZC = Sr [kVA] Skgen [MVA] 50 0. . The power can be calculated according to the short-circuit current of the motor (Ik). by using the following expression: S knet = 3Ur Iknet where Ur is the rated voltage at the point of energy supply. for three-phase systems.Electrical devices 217 .Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Generally. according to the supply voltage (cable length = 10 m): 216 ABB SACE .3 Zd = Ur Sr 2 where Ur and Sr are the rated voltage and power of the generator. and 7 for larger motors). if the value of the short-circuit current Iknet is known. . the value of the power can be obtained by using. according to the instant in which the value of the short-circuit power is to be evaluated.Xd’ from 15 % to 40 %.6 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 3.1 4 5 6. the reactances are expressed in percentages of the rated impedance of the generator (Zd) given by: Sr [kVA] 50 uk% 4 Sktrafo [MVA] 1.0 20. the values for Sknet given in the following table can be taken as reference values: Net voltage Ur [kV] Up to 20 Up to 32 Up to 63 Short-circuit power Sknet [MVA] 500 750 1000 Skmot = 3 ⋅U r ⋅ I k Typical values are: Skmot= 5÷7 Srmot (Ik is about 5÷7 Irmot: 5 for motors of small size.0 1.0 12. the following formula: Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Asynchronous three-phase motors Under short-circuit conditions. In general. Transformers The short-circuit power of a transformer (Sktrafo) can be calculated by using the following formula: Generator The short-circuit power is obtained from: Sktrafo = 100 ⋅ Sr uk % S kgen = S r ⋅ 100 X * d% The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of transformers: where X*d% is the percentage value of the subtransient reactance (Xd”) or of the transient reactance (Xd’) or of the synchronous reactance (Xd).8 16.5 15. that being the subtransient reactance.3 8 10 12.Xd from 80 % to 300 %.6 2.7 33.4 63 0.2 4.Xd” from 10 % to 20 %. If the aforementioned data are not available.6 3. at 50 and 60 Hz.0 25. The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of generators (Xd” = 12.0 10.3 1.0 RC + X C 2 2 The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of cables. However.0 2. Normally.0 6.Electrical devices ABB SACE .5 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 1.8 16 20 25 26.

Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current
230 [V] S [mm2] 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 0.44 0.73 1.16 1.75 2.9 4.6 7.2 10.0 13.4 19.1 25.5 31.2 36.2 42.5 49.1 54.2 400 [V] 440 [V] 500 [V] Skcable [MVA] @50 Hz 1.32 1.60 2.07 2.20 2.66 3.44 3.52 4.26 5.50 5.29 6.40 8.26 8.8 10.6 13.8 14.0 16.9 21.8 21.9 26.5 34.2 30.2 36.6 47.3 40.6 49.1 63.4 57.6 69.8 90.1 77.2 93.4 120.6 94.2 114.0 147.3 109.6 132.6 171.2 128.5 155.5 200.8 148.4 179.5 231.8 164.0 198.4 256.2 690 [V] 3.94 6.55 10.47 15.74 26.2 41.5 65.2 90.0 120.8 171.5 229.7 280.4 326.0 382.3 441.5 488.0 230 [V] 0.44 0.73 1.16 1.75 2.9 4.6 7.2 10.0 13.3 18.8 24.8 29.9 34.3 39.5 44.5 48.3 400 [V] 440 [V] 500 [V] Skcable [MVA] @60 Hz 1.32 1.60 2.07 2.20 2.66 3.44 3.52 4.26 5.50 5.29 6.40 8.26 8.8 10.6 13.7 13.9 16.9 21.8 21.9 26.4 34.1 30.1 36.4 47.0 40.2 48.7 62.9 56.7 68.7 88.7 75.0 90.7 117.2 90.5 109.5 141.5 103.8 125.6 162.2 119.5 144.6 186.7 134.7 163.0 210.4 146.1 176.8 228.3 690 [V] 3.94 6.55 10.47 15.73 26.2 41.5 65.0 89.6 119.8 168.8 223.1 269.4 308.8 355.6 400.7 434.7

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current
Calculation of the short-circuit current
To determine the short-circuit current in an installation, both the fault point as well as the configuration of the system which maximize the short-circuit current involving the device shall be considered. If appropriate, the contribution of the motors shall be taken into account. For example, in the case detailed below, for circuit-breaker CB1, the worst condition occurs when the fault is right upstream of the circuit-breaker itself. To determine the breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker, the contribution of two transformers in parallel must be considered.

Fault right downstream of CB1

CB1

CB2 Fault

CB3

With n cables in parallel, it is necessary to multiply the value given in the table by n. If the length of the cable (Lact) is other than 10 m, it is necessary to multiply the value given in the table by the following coefficient:
10 L act

Calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point The rule for the determination of the short-circuit power at a point in the installation, according to the short-circuit power of the various elements of the circuit, is analogue to that relevant to the calculation of the equivalent admittance. In particular: • the power of elements in series is equal to the inverse of the sum of the inverses of the single powers (as for the parallel of impedances);

Fault right upstream of CB1 (worst condition for CB1)

Fault CB1 CB2 CB3
1SDC010051F0001

1 ∑S i • the short-circuit power of elements in parallel is equal to the sum of the single short-circuit powers (as for the series of impedances).
Sk = ∑ S i
The elements of the circuit are considered to be in series or parallel, seeing the circuit from the fault point. In the case of different branches in parallel, the distribution of the current between the different branches shall be calculated once the short-circuit current at the fault point has been calculated. This must be done to ensure the correct choice of protection devices installed in the branches. Once the short-circuit power equivalent at the fault point has been determined, the short-circuit current can be calculated by using the following formula:

Sk =

1

Three-phase short-circuit

Ik =

Sk 3 ⋅ Ur
Sk 2 ⋅ Ur
219

Two-phase short-circuit

Ik =

218

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

1SDC010050F0001

Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current
As a first approximation, by using the following graph, it is possible to evaluate the three-phase short-circuit current downstream of an object with short-circuit power (SkEL) known; corresponding to this value, knowing the short-circuit power upstream of the object (SkUP), the value of Ik can be read on the y-axis, expressed in kA, at 400 V.

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current
Examples:
The following examples demonstrate the calculation of the short-circuit current in some different types of installation. Example 1
U A

Figure 1: Chart for the calculation of the three-phase short-circuit current at 400 V
Ik [kA] 150 140 SkUP = 1000 MVA 130 120 110 SkEL 100 90 Ik 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SkEL [MVA] SkUP = 50 MVA SkUP = 100 MVA SkUP = 250 MVA SkUP SkUP = ∞ SkUP = 750 MVA SkUP = 500 MVA

Upstream network: Ur = 20000 V Sknet = 500 MVA Transformer: Sr = 1600 kVA uk% = 6% U1r / U2r =20000/400 Pr = 220 kW Ikmot/Ir = 6.6 cosϕr = 0.9 η = 0.917 IrL= 1443.4 A cosϕr= 0.9
M

CB1 B
1SDC010053F0001

Motor:

CB2

CB3

Generic load:

L

Calculation of the short-circuit power of different elements Network: Sknet= 500 MVA
100 ⋅ S r = 26.7 MVA uk %

Transformer:

S ktrafo =

SkUP = 40 MVA SkUP = 30 MVA
1SDC010052F0001

Motor:

S rmot =

Pr = 267 kVA η ⋅ cos ϕ r

SkUP = 20 MVA SkUP = 10 MVA

Skmot = 6.6.Srmot = 1.76 MVA for the first 5-6 periods (at 50 Hz about 100 ms) Calculation of the short-circuit current for the selection of circuit-breakers Selection of CB1 For circuit-breaker CB1, the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. In the case of a fault right upstream, the circuit-breaker would be involved only by the fault current flowing from the motor, which is remarkably smaller than the network contribution.

220

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

221

Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current
The circuit, seen from the fault point, is represented by the series of the network with the transformer. According to the previous rules, the short-circuit power is determined by using the following formula:
S kCB1 = S knet ⋅ S ktrafo = 25.35 MVA S knet + S ktrafo

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current
Selection of CB2 For circuit-breaker CB2, the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. The circuit, seen from the fault point, is represented by the series of the network with the transformer. The short-circuit current is the same used for CB1.

the maximum fault current is:

S kCB1 = 36.6 kA 3 ⋅ Ur The transformer LV side rated current is equal to 2309 A; therefore the circuitbreaker to select is an Emax E3N 2500. Using the chart shown in Figure 1, it is possible to find IkCB1 from the curve with SkUP = Sknet = 500 MVA corresponding to SkEL = Sktrafo = 26.7 MVA: IkCB1 =
Ik [kA] 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 Ik = 36.5 kA 40
1SDC010054F0001

S kCB1 = 36.6 kA 3 ⋅ Ur The rated current of the motor is equal to 385 A; the circuit-breaker to select is a Tmax T5H 400. IkCB1 =
Selection of CB3 For CB3 too, the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. The circuit, seen from the fault point, is represented by two branches in parallel: the motor and the series of the network and transformer. According to the previous rules, the short-circuit power is determined by using the following formula: Motor // (Network + Transformer)
S kCB3 = S kmot + 1 1 S knet + 1 S ktrafo = 27.11 MVA

SkUP = 500 MVA

IkCB3 =

S kCB3 = 39.13 kA 3 ⋅ Ur

The rated current of the load L is equal to 1443 A; the circuit-breaker to select is a SACE Isomax S7S 1600, or an Emax E2N1600.

Example 2 The circuit shown in the diagram is constituted by the supply, two transformers in parallel and three loads.
U A

30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 SkUP = 26.7 MVA

Upstream network: Ur1=20000 V Sknet = 500 MVA Transformers 1 and 2: Sr = 1600 kVA uk% = 6% U1r /U2r =20000/400 Load L1: Sr = 1500 kVA; cosϕ = 0.9; Load L2: Sr = 1000 kVA; cosϕ = 0.9; Load L3: Sr = 50 kVA; cosϕ = 0.9.
L1

Trafo 1 CB1

Trafo 2 CB2 B

100

CB3

CB4

CB5

SkEL [MVA]

L2

L3

222

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

223

1SDC010055F0001

100 = 26.4 2.7 5. Selection of CB3-CB4-CB5 For these circuit-breakers the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breakers themselves.7 2.0 92 83 75 66 57 48 39 34 29 24 20 15 12 10 7.1 0.2 2.4 5.1 7.9 1.3 7.3 1.8 3.5 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 2x120 2x150 2x185 3x120 3x150 3x185 Length [m] 0.2 12 14 17 19 22 24 29 34 38 43 51 58 1.3 1.8 7.9 2.9 1. Cable section [mm2] 1.7 3.5 2.0 3.8 6. is equivalent to the parallel of the two transformers in series with the network: Network + (Trafo 1 // Trafo 2).2 8.4 10 0.2 1.6 6.5 4.6 8. is distributed equally between the two branches (half each).9 65 61 57 53 47 41 34 31 27 23 18 14 11 9.3 7.0 2.8 5.7 7.8 1.6 7.5 2.3 1.7 MVA uk % Transformers 1 and 2 S ktrafo = Selection of CB1 (CB2) For circuit-breaker CB1 (CB2) the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself.2 3.0 82 76 69 62 54 45 37 33 28 24 19 15 12 10 7.7 7.9 3.7 2.6 2.6 2. are Emax E3N 2500.9 6.5 3.3 8. S knet ⋅ (S rtrafo1 + S ktrafo2 ) = 48.9 5.7 3.8 9.9 2.2 4.7 2.4 7.the three-phase short-circuit current upstream of the cable.7 7 12 19 29 40 57 77 100 120 141 160 183 200 240 281 320 360 422 480 2.3 3 3.9 43 42 40 38 36 32 28 26 23 21 17 13 11 9.4 2.8 3.0 5.5 5.78 kA 2 0.2 4.9 1.5 2.3 1.8 2.8 2.9 1.4 7.8 3.6 2.3 8 10 11 13 14 17 19 0.8 2.6 5.7 5.4 2 2.0 8.8 2.4 9 12 16 19 23 26 29 32 38 45 51 58 68 77 0.5 5.7 3.2 5.0 6.8 1 1.9 1.7 12 17 23 30 36 42 48 55 60 72 84 96 108 127 144 1 1.2 1.6 2.4 3.8 2.2 7 11 17 24 34 46 60 72 84 96 110 120 144 169 192 216 253 288 1.3 1.0 4.9 1.8 3.7 2.8 4.4 14 23 37 58 80 113 154 200 240 281 320 366 400 481 563 5.6 5.8 5.7 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 32 36 42 48 0.5 3.8 5 6 7 8 9.3 1.2 1.6 1.4 5.3 3.Electrical devices ABB SACE .2 3.6 3.7 5.9 224 ABB SACE .9 1.0 3.6 4.9 4.2 3.5 4.3 6.4 2.Electrical devices 225 .9 1.4 10 11 13 14 1.6 2.3 5.3 1.4 15 23 32 45 62 80 96 113 128 146 160 192 225 256 288 338 384 1.1 2.9 9.2 4.7 3.9 2.5 10 14 20 27 35 42 49 56 64 70 84 98 112 126 148 168 1.56 kA The circuit-breakers to select.1 2.4 2.1 1.6 4.6 2.2 1. the circuit seen from the fault point.0 2.4 7.4 7.9 3.8 5.0 2.2 7.5 6.8 6.3 1.4 1.0 1.5 5.7 2.1 1.4 3.9 1.7 3.9 2.0 5.7 7.1 4 4.3 1.1 6.9 50 48 46 43 40 35 31 28 25 21 18 14 11 9.7 4.7 2.0 7.Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Calculation of the short-circuit powers of different elements: Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Determination of the short-circuit current Ik downstream of a cable as a function of the upstream one The table below allows the determination.8 2.9 4.5 12 16 23 31 40 48 56 64 73 80 96 113 128 144 169 192 0.0 85 78 71 63 55 46 38 33 29 24 19 15 12 10 7.5 2.1 1.6 4.5 6 7.9 5. According to the previous rules.7 2.3 8.5 4.9 3.5 8. The short-circuit current obtained in this way corresponds to the short-circuit current at the busbar.2 1. of the threephase short-circuit current at a point in a 400 V network downstream of a single pole copper cable at a temperature of 20 °C.5 5.4 5. Known values: .9 5.2 5.0 1.6 9.1 7.8 9. are: CB3: Emax E3S 2500 CB4: Emax E3S 1600 CB5: Tmax T2H 160 Ik upstream [kA] 100 96 90 86 80 77 70 68 60 58 50 49 40 39 35 34 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 12 12 10 10 8.8 5.2 8.6 1.9 4 5. This current.0 2.0 2.7 20 20 20 19 19 18 17 16 16 14 13 11 9.2 3.8 7.1 2.5 7.2 1.0 4.9 Ik downstream [kA] 36 31 27 24 35 31 27 24 34 30 27 24 33 29 26 23 31 28 25 23 29 26 23 21 26 24 22 20 24 22 20 19 22 20 19 18 19 18 17 16 16 15 15 14 13 12 12 12 11 10 10 10 8.7 5.1 7.4 16 25 38 63 100 155 216 303 413 14 24 38 56 94 150 233 324 455 Network S knet = 500 MVA Sr .3 3.7 5.3 1.8 5.8 8.5 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 9.7 2.0 6.2 1.8 5.2 MVA S knet + (S ktrafo1 + S ktrafo2 ) S kbusbar = I kbusbar = S kbusbar 3 ⋅ Ur = 69.3 1.7 6.8 1.7 3.8 7.4 2.6 2.5 5.2 1.3 3.6 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 8.1 6.1 6.1 5.3 1.8 2.8 8 11 15 20 24 28 32 37 40 48 56 64 72 84 96 1.6 2.3 3.3 1.2 4.6 3.7 7. The current which flows through CB1 (CB2) is therefore equal to half of that at the busbar.5 4. with reference to the current of the loads.0 71 67 62 56 50 43 35 32 28 23 19 14 12 10 7.5 2.3 14 20 28 38 50 60 70 80 91 100 120 141 160 180 211 240 1. with reference to the rated current of the transformers.5 3.4 10 11 12 14 17 19 22 25 29 0. the short-circuit current to be taken into account is that at the busbar: IkCB3 = Ikbusbar = 69.9 60 57 53 49 45 39 33 30 26 22 18 14 11 9.5 6.8 4.4 1.8 2. given the symmetry of the circuit.56 kA I kCB1(2) = I kbusbar = 34. .4 7.5 7.1 2.2 8.7 17 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 12 10 8.8 1.9 5.8 6.7 4 4.4 2.0 3.3 2. Therefore.6 10 16 26 41 56 79 108 140 168 197 224 256 280 336 394 448 505 3.4 2.9 1.8 2 2.9 3.2 7.6 5.6 6 7.0 78 72 66 60 53 44 37 32 28 24 19 14 12 10 7.5 2 2.2 5.1 1.2 4. in a conservative way.7 7.9 3 4.2 1.8 2.6 6.3 3.4 4.7 1.4 2.7 2.0 8.3 5.8 2.9 1.8 4.5 2.4 3.1 5.5 5.2 8 10 11 13 15 16 19 23 26 29 34 38 1.1 3.0 2.8 14 21 35 56 87 121 170 231 300 360 422 480 549 7 12 19 28 47 75 116 161 226 308 400 481 9.3 9.6 6.0 2.0 6.3 3.the length and cross section of the cable.6 7.0 89 81 73 65 56 47 38 34 29 24 20 15 12 10 7.9 3.4 2.6 2.1 10 12 14 16 18 21 24 1.2 10 14 19 25 30 35 40 46 50 60 70 80 90 105 120 The circuit-breakers CB1(CB2) to select.

These approximations allow calculations which favour safety.45⋅10-3 2. it is possible to determine the conductor minimum section S. • θf final temperature of conductor [°C].θi B+θi ) (2) 120 mm2 1SDC010056F0001 Cu/PVC L = 29 m Ik downstream = ? Table 1: Value of parameters for different materials Material Copper Aluminium Lead Steel B [°C] 234.m. the length must be divided by the number of cables in parallel. which can flow through the protective device [A]. √ Qc (B+20) ρ20 ln 1+ ( θf . Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables (k2S2) By using the formula (1). the value right below for the cable length. • t is the operating time of the protective device for automatic disconnection [s]. it is possible to find the column for a length equal to 29 m or right below (in this case 24). From the intersection of this last row with the previously identified column.5 228 230 202 Qc [J/°Cmm 3] 3. the value of the downstream shortcircuit current can be read as being equal to 26 kA. In the column of upstream short-circuit current it is possible to identify the row with a value of 32 kA or right above (in this case 35). • In the case of cables in parallel not present in the table. • θi initial temperature of conductor [°C]. in the hypothesis that the generic conductor is submitted to an adiabatic heating from a known initial temperature up to a specific final temperature (applicable if the fault is removed in less than 5 s): S= √I t 2 k (1) Example Data Rated voltage = Cable section = Conductor = Length = Upstream shortcircuit current = 400 V 120 mm2 copper 29 m where: • S is the cross section [mm2].45⋅10-3 3. k can be evaluated using the tables 2÷7 or calculated according to the formula (2): k= 32 kA 400 V Ik upstream = 32 kA QF A where: • Qc is the volumetric heat capacity of conductor material [J/°Cmm3] at 20 °C. • I is the value (r. 226 ABB SACE .8⋅10-3 ρ20 [Ωmm] 17.s) of prospective fault current for a fault of negligible impedance. • B is the reciprocal of temperature coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C for the conductor [°C].241⋅10-6 28. • ρ20 is the electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20 °C [Ωmm].Annex C: calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Note: • In the case of the Ik upstream and the length of the cable not being included in the table.264⋅10-6 214⋅10-6 138⋅10-6 QF B QF C √ Qc (B+20) ρ20 226 148 41 78 Procedure In the row corresponding to the cable cross section 120 mm2.Electrical devices ABB SACE .Electrical devices 227 . Table 1 shows the values of the parameters described above. it is necessary to consider: the value right above Ik upstream.5⋅10-3 1.

Final 200 200 200 200 220 200 250 141 128 128 144 140 135 135 This value shall also be used for bare conductors exposed to touch or in contact with combustible material. Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.Electrical devices ABB SACE . metallic sheath.Electrical devices 229 . Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. armour. etc. Temperature °C Copper Initial 60 80 80 55 75 70 105 a Material of conductor Aluminium Lead Value for k 93 85 85 95 93 26 23 23 26 26 Steel 51 46 46 52 51 - Initial 30 30 30 30 30 30 Final 160/140 160/140 250 200 220 350 a a 143/133 a 143/133 a 176 159 166 201 b The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2 .g. concentric conductor. Table 3: Values of k for insulated protective conductors not incorporated in cables and not bunched with other cables Temperature °C Conductor insulation 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicone rubber a b Material of conductor Copper Aluminium Value for k 95/88 a 95/88 a 116 105 110 133 Steel 52/49 a 52/49 a 64 58 60 73 Conductor insulation 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Mineral PVC covered a Mineral bare sheath Table 6: Values of k for protective conductors as a metallic layer of a cable e. Conductor insulation Visible and in restricted area Normal conditions Fire risk Maximum Maximum Maximum Initial temperature temperature temperature temperature k value °C k value °C k value °C °C 228 500 125 300 82 500 30 159 200 105 200 58 200 30 138 150 91 150 50 150 30 228 ABB SACE .Annex D: calculation for the cables Annex D: calculation for the cables Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables (k2S2) Table 2: Values of k for phase conductor Conductor insulation PVC ≤ 300 mm2 70 160 115 76 115 a Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables (k2S2) Table 5: Values of k for protective conductors as a core incorporated in a cable or bunched with other cables or insulated conductors Initial temperature °C Final temperature °C Material of conductor: copper aluminium tin-soldered joints in copper conductors PVC ≤ 300 mm2 70 140 103 68 - EPR XLPE 90 250 143 94 - Rubber 60 °C 60 200 141 93 - Mineral PVC 70 160 115 Bare 105 250 135/115 a Conductor insulation 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicone rubber a Temperature °C b Copper Initial 70 90 90 60 85 180 Final 160/140 a 160/140 a 250 200 220 350 115/103 a 100/86 a 143 141 134 132 Material of conductor Aluminium Value for k 76/68 a 66/57 a 94 93 89 87 Steel 42/37 a 36/31 a 52 51 48 47 This value shall be used for bare cables exposed to touch. b The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2 . Table 4: Values of k for bare protective conductors in contact with cable covering but not bunched with other cables Temperature °C a Copper Cable covering PVC Polyethylene CSP a Table 7: Value of k for bare conductors where there is no risk of damage to any neighbouring material by the temperature indicated Material of conductor Copper Aluminium Steel Material of conductor Aluminium Value for k 105 91 110 Steel 58 50 60 Initial 30 30 30 Final 200 150 220 159 138 166 Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.

7 W T[K] = 273. rad 1 Hz = 1/s ω = 2pf 1 km/h = 0. β.15 + (5/9)⋅(T [°F]-32) kilometre per hour mile per hour kn lb pound 1 lb = 0.4 mm i ft = 30. volume Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Main quantities and SI units SI unit Symbol Name Other units Symbol Name in ft fathom mile sm yd a ha l UK pt UK gal US gal ° inch foot fathom mile sea mile yard are hectare litre pint gallon gallon degrees Conversion l length m metre A V area m2 square metre Metric Prefixes for Multiples and Sub-multiples of Units Decimal power 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10 Prefix yotta zetta exa peta tera giga mega kilo etto deca Symbol Y Z E P T G M k h da Decimal power 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-24 Prefix deci centi milli mikro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto Symbol d c m µ n p f a z y volume m3 cubic metre 1 in = 25.344 m 1 sm = 1852 m 1 yd = 91.7855 dm3 Angles α. γ Ω Mass m ρ υ M Time t f ω v plane angle solid angle mass.44 cm 1 a = 102 m2 1 ha = 104 m2 1 l = 1 dm3 = 10-3 m3 1 UK pt = 0.Electrical devices ABB SACE . power F force N Q quantity of heat S entropy Photometric quantities I luminous intensity L luminance Φ luminous flux E illuminance 1 lm = 1 cd⋅sr 1 lux = 1 lm/m2 230 ABB SACE .8288 m 1 mile = 1609. energy.2777 m/s 1 mile/h = 0.15 + T [°C] T[K] = 273.5144 m/s Force.Electrical devices 231 . weight density specific volume moment of inertia duration frequency angular frequency speed rad sr kg kg/m3 m3/kg kg⋅m2 s Hz 1/s m/s radian steradian kilogram kilogram cubic metre for kilogram kilogram for square metre second Hertz reciprocal second metre per second km/h mile/h knot g acceleration m/s2 metre per second squared newton kgf p pressure/stress Pa J W K J J/K cd cd/m2 lm lux pascal bar W energy. work P power Temperature and heat T temperature joule watt kelvin joule joule per kelvin candela candela per square metre lumen Hp °C °F bar horsepower Celsius Fahrenheit 1 N = 1 kg⋅m/s2 1 kgf = 9.45359 kg 1°= 180 π .48 cm 1 fathom = 6 ft = 1.Annex E: main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas The International System of Units (SI) SI Base Units Quantity Length Mass Time Electric Current Thermodynamic Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Symbol m kg s A K mol cd Unit name metre kilogram Second ampere kelvin mole candela Quantity Symbol Name Length.5461 dm3 1 US gal = 3.80665 N 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 bar = 105 Pa 1 J = 1 W⋅s = 1 N⋅m 1 Hp = 745.5683 dm3 1 UK gal = 4. area.4470 m/s 1 kn = 0.

208 0.067 0.06 χ20=1/ρ20 ρ [m/mm2Ω] 34.5 10 to 6.06 1 2.5 16. CuZn 40 Constantan Copper Gold Iron wire Lead Magnesium Manganin Mercury Ni Cr 8020 Nickeline Silver Zinc R U U G 232 ABB SACE .2⋅10-3 module admittance phase admittance Aluminium Brass.95⋅10-3 3.26 2. conductivity and temperature coefficient at 20 °C of the main electrical materials conductor conductivity resistivity ρ20 [mm2Ω /m] 0.8⋅10-3 2⋅10-3 -3⋅10-4 3.043 0.5⋅10-4 2.8⋅10-3 4.9⋅10-3 4.81 23.1 to 0.7 4.7 temperature coefficient α20 [K-1] 3.016 0.Annex E: main physical quantities Annex E: main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Main electrical and magnetic quantities and SI units Quantity Symbol I V R G X B Z Y P Q S Q E C H B L Name current voltage resistance conductance reactance susceptance impedance admittance active power reactive power apparent power electric charge SI unit Symbol Name A ampere V volt Ω ohm S siemens Ω S Ω S W var VA C ohm siemens ohm siemens watt reactive volt ampere volt ampere coulomb volt per metre farad ampere per metre tesla henry G gauss 1 F = 1 C/V 1 T = 1 V⋅s/m2 1 G = 10-4 T 1 H = 1 Ω⋅s Ah ampere/hour 1 C = 1 A⋅s 1 Ah = 3600 A⋅s Other units Symbol Conversion Name Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Main electrotechnical formulas Impedance resistance of a conductor at temperature ϑ Rθ=ρθ⋅ S G = 1/R XL = ωL XC =-1/ωC BL = -1/ωL BC = ωC S 1 conductance of a conductor at temperature ϑ Gθ= R = χθ ⋅ θ resistivity of a conductor at temperature ϑ capacitive reactance inductive reactance impedance module impedance phase impedance conductance capacitive susceptance inductive susceptance admittance ρϑ= ρ20 [1 + α20 (ϑ – 20)] XC= -1 = ω ⋅C 1 2 ⋅π ⋅f ⋅C XL= ω ⋅ L = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ L Z = R + jX Z = R2 + X2 ϕ = arctan R X G= 1 R BC= -1 = ω ⋅ C = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ C XC 1 BL= -1 = – 1 = – 2 ⋅π ⋅f ⋅L ω ⋅L XL Y = G – jB Y = G2 + B2 ϕ = arctan B G + Z jXL R X – + Y jBC G B – + -jBL + -jXC electric field V/m strength electric capacitance F magnetic field A/m magnetic induction T inductance H Resistivity values.43 0.023 0.3⋅10-4 3.8⋅10-3 4.33 1.43 0.50 0.0175 0.Electrical devices 233 .14 43.Electrical devices ABB SACE .2⋅10-4 2.941 1 0.1⋅10-3 4⋅10-6 9.0287 ≤ 0.33 62.15 0.84 ≥ 15 2 57.5⋅10-3 3.

Electrical devices 235 .Electrical devices ABB SACE .Annex E: main physical quantities Annex E: main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Indipendences in series Z = Z1 + Z 2 + Z 3 + … Admittances in series 1 Y= 1 1 1 + + +… Y1 Y2 Y3 Indipendences in parallel Z= 1 1 1 1 + + +… Z1 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z2 Z3 Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Transformers Two-winding transformer rated current Ir = Sk = Ik = ZT = RT = XT = Sr 3 ⋅ Ur Sr uk% Sk 3 ⋅ Ur uk% 100 pk % 100 Y1 Y2 Y3 short-circuit power short-circuit current longitudinal impedance longitudinal resistance longitudinal reactance ⋅ 100 = ⋅ ⋅ Ir ⋅ 100 uk% Sr u% U2r = k ⋅ 100 3 ⋅ I2r Sr U2r Sr p% = k ⋅ 100 3 ⋅ I2r Sr 2 2 ZT – RT Admittances in parallel Y = Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3 + … Y1 Y2 Y3 Three-winding transformer 1 Z1 Delta-star and star-delta transformations 1 3 2 Z12 = u12 100 u13 100 u23 100 ⋅ Ur2 Sr12 Ur2 Sr13 Ur2 Sr23 Z1 = 1 2 1 2 1 2 (Z12 + Z13 – Z23) Z3 Z2 Z1 Z13 Z3 0 Z2 Z13 = Z12 ⋅ Z2 = (Z12 + Z23 – Z13) 3 Z23 Y→∆ Z12 = Z1 + Z2 + Z1 ⋅ Z 2 Z3 Z2 ⋅ Z 3 Z1 Z3 ⋅ Z 1 Z2 ∆→Y 2 Z23 = ⋅ Z3 = (Z13 + Z23 – Z12) Z1 = Z12 ⋅ Z13 Z12 + Z13 + Z23 Z12 ⋅ Z23 Z12 + Z13 + Z23 Z23 ⋅ Z13 Z12 + Z13 + Z23 Z23 = Z2 + Z3 + Z2 = Z3 = Z13 = Z3 + Z1 + 234 ABB SACE .

Electrical devices .Annex E: main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Voltage drop and power single-phase voltage drop percentage voltage drop active power reactive power apparent power power factor power loss ∆U = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ ⋅ (r ⋅ cosϕ x ⋅ sinϕ) ∆u = ∆U Ur ⋅ 100 three-phase ∆U = 3 ⋅ I ⋅ ⋅ (r ⋅ cosϕ x ⋅ sinϕ) ∆u = ∆U Ur ⋅ 100 continuous ∆U = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ ⋅ r ∆u = ∆U Ur ⋅ 100 P = U ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ Q = U ⋅ I ⋅ sinϕ S=U⋅I= P +Q cosϕ = P S 2 2 P = 3 ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ Q = 3 ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ sinϕ S= 3⋅U⋅I= P +Q cosϕ = P S 2 2 P= U⋅I – – – ∆P = 2 ⋅ ⋅ r ⋅ I2 ∆P = 2 ⋅ ⋅ r ⋅ I2 ∆P = 3 ⋅ ⋅ r ⋅ I2 Caption ρ20 resistivity at 20 °C total length of conductor S cross section of conductor α20 temperature coefficient of conductor at 20 °C θ temperature of conductor ρθ resistivity against the conductor temperature ω angular frequency f frequency r resistance of conductor per length unit x reactance of conductor per length unit uk% short-circuit percentage voltage of the transformer Sr rated apparent power of the transformer Ur rated voltage of the transformer pk% percentage impedance losses of the transformer under short-circuit conditions 236 ABB SACE .

111 . the characteristics and dimensions specified in this document may only be considered binding after confirmation by ABB SACE.Telefax: +39 035. Breakers Via Baioni.abb.Due to possible developments of standards as well as of materials. An ABB Group Company L.395.395.Italy Tel.V.: +39 035.com 1SDC010001D0202 Printed in Italy 02/04 .p. 35 24123 Bergamo .A.306-433 http://www. ABB SACE S.

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