PA 211 2nd Semester 2007-2008

The process of researching or analyzing public problems to give policy makers specific information about the range of available policy options and the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches

Five Major Steps for Rational Comprehensive Model of Policy Making Problem Identification Setting objectives and criteria Developing policy alternatives Analyzing and identifying expected impact of the various alternatives Ranking alternatives according to established criteria and choosing the best policy alternative

Why has the problem surfaced? Who is affected? How does this problem relate to similar problems? What policy options have already been tried? What is the range of policies that would be feasible, both economically and politically? What resources are available to support the analysis?

Sample Problem Identification
How can we provide adequate shelter to barangays who will be relocated by an entry of a new industry in the municipality? How do we reduce the incidence of malnutrition of children 0-5 years old by half in 10 years?

Sometimes, a policy problem is only vaguely understood at the outset Part of the analyst’s job is to develop a policy issue paper formulating the problem Gather information at the library, lay out history of the problem, discover approaches used in other jurisdictions and technical developments in the field

• Problems in selecting criteria: Criteria may differ among different levels of the organization (criteria used at one level must be consistent with those at another level) Criteria depends on individual perspective stakeholders have different criteria which compete for prominence)

The most creative phase of policy analysis Analyst must move beyond easy solutions and develop innovative approaches to public problems Different alternatives are derived from different assumptions about the problem, To develop a complete range of alternatives, the analyst must assume the perspectives of many different stakeholders

To develop far-ranging alternatives, policy analyst must consider the relationship between the particular problem and other similar issues (shelter for homeless is tied to issue of health care, etc.) Various interrelated concerns can be generated if analyst takes into account views of different stakeholders Q:Not “how can my org solve this problem?” but “how can this problem be solved?”

Having generated a number of realistic policy alternatives, the analyst must assess the likely impact each alternative will have Note: analyst can only make intuitive judgments based on own experience and the experience of others. One can gather specific data and analyze it by means of quantitative techniques

Occasionally, actual experiments with several policy options may be possible with an experimental design similar to that used in natural sciences Policy experimentation may be done by piloting. Success may tailor programs to local needs.

Final step in the analytic process Rank alternatives using established criteria for evaluation in terms of impacts Lay out expected results of each alternative in terms of various criteria and could use more sophisticated quantitative techniques

Example of quantitative techniques
Cost-effectiveness approach (permits analysts to compare and advocate policies by quantifying the total costs and effects (Dunn,1981) This is useful when the relative merits of competing proposals are being debated

Example of quantitative techniques
Cost- benefit Analysis involves identifying and quantifying both negative impacts (costs) and positive impacts (benefits) of a proposal, then subtracting one from the other to arrive at a measure of net benefit Seeks to establish both the monetary costs and total monetary benefits of a proposal