Table of contents

Construction and use of the Preterit* (Past ...Simple) Regular and Irregular Verbs The Present Perfect Differences between Present Perfect and ...Preterit* (Past Simple) Unit 1 Present The Present Perfect Continuous The verb ‘to be’ and contractions ‘For’ /‘Since’ / ‘Ago’ The verb ‘to have’ Present Simple 'Ever' / 'Never' The negative form – verb ‘to be’, Present Expressions with the Present Perfect ...Simple Tags- short answers – verb ‘to be’, Present The Preterit Continuous* (Past ...Continuous) ...Simple The Present Simple vs. Present Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous The Present Continuous ‘Used To’ The Affirmative Imperative The Negative Imperative Unit 3 Future Verbs without a continuous form Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions The Near Future be + -ing* (Present ...Continuous for Future) ‘Always’ + Present Continuous The Future – ‘Will’ Future Continuous – ‘Will be doing’ The Future – ‘Will’ + ‘To be going to’ Future Perfect – ‘Will have done’ The Future with ‘be’ + Infinitive

Unit 2 Present Perfect and Past

*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.


Unit 4 Modals

‘Can’ – ability and likelihood ‘Can’ – perception and knowledge ‘Can’, ‘could’, ‘to be able to’ ‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: advice ‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: probability ‘Must’ and ‘have to’ Using ‘must’ for obligation Strong probability using ‘must’ Absence of necessity ‘May’ and ‘Might’ ‘Shall’ ‘Would like’: expressing wishes Modal Auxiliaries Near certainty in the past: ...‘must have/ can’t have’

Unit 5 Questions

Questions without interrogative words Interrogative Words ‘How long...’ Past Interrogatives Question Tags ‘Which’ / ‘What’ ‘How long…..(for)’/ ‘Since when' Short Questions Definite and Indefinite Articles The Plural Names of Countries: Capitals Countable and Uncountable Nouns Exclamations with ‘what a’ Construction of Compound Nouns The use and omission of ‘the’ Definite articles with geographical names Nouns without singular forms Negation of the indefinite article

Unit 6 Articles and Nouns


nor’ ‘Everybody’ / ‘Nobody’ ‘Everybody’ / ‘Somebody’ / ‘Nobody’ ‘Each other’ / ‘One another’ Different meanings of ‘all’ ‘A little’ / ‘A bit’ Use of ‘both’ Unit 8 Relative Clauses and Dependent Clauses Relative Pronouns and Adverbs ‘That’ and Dependent Clauses When ‘that’ may be left out ‘To hope’ + Dependent Clause Possessive Adjectives ‘Too’ / ‘Too Much’ Placement of ‘Enough’ ‘Also’ / ‘As well’ / ‘Too’ Adverbs of Time / Frequency The Adverb ‘that’ ‘Yet’ / ‘Not yet’ ‘Still’ / ‘Yet’ Compound Adjectives Adjectives ending in –ing and –ed Adjectives ending in –ing The Past Participle as an adjective Adverbs of Degree Adverbs and Adjectives Uses of ‘so’ The placement of ‘even’ ‘Even though’ / ‘Even if’ ‘Quite’ / ‘Quite a few’ Unit 9 Adjectives and Adverbs 5 .Unit 7 Pronouns and Determiners Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns ‘No’ / ’None’ The Possessive More uses of the Possessive The Indefinite Possessive Use of Pronoun ‘one’ Demonstrative Pronouns ‘Here’/ ‘There’ ‘Some’ and ‘Any’ ‘How much’ / ‘How many’ ‘As much as’ / ‘As many as’ ‘Some’ / ‘Any’: singular or plural? ‘Either……or’ ‘Either……. or’ / ‘Neither …….

Speech) *This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.Unit 10 Comparatives and Superlatives Unit 13 Gerunds and Infinitives Comparing equals using ‘as….. Second) The Perfect Conditional* (Third Conditional) The Perfect Conditional using ‘should’ Unit 15 Subjunctive and Wishes Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive Wishes and Regrets Unit 16 Passive The Passive Voice The Impersonal Structure Unit 17 Reported speech The Sequence of Tenses* (Reported .as’ Regular and Irregular Comparatives Regular and Irregular Superlatives ‘The more ..... . the more’ A use of the comparative Prepositions of Time Prepositions of Place Final Prepositions Verbs + prepositions Conjunctions Use of ‘so’ to express a goal ‘So that’ + ‘may’ or ‘can’ Similarity: ‘like’ and ‘as’ Unit 11 Prepositions Gerunds and Infinitives Use of ‘be used to’ Use of ‘get used to’ Verbs: Reactions and Preferences Verb + Infinitive Clause Verbs expressing a wish to act Expressions followed by the gerund Verbs introducing a second action Unit 14 Conditionals Unit 12 Conjunctions Present Conditional* and Sequence .of Tenses with ‘if’* (Zero. First. 6 . .

7 .Unit 18 Phrasal Verbs The Main Postpositions* (Common phrasal .....verbs) Phrasal Verbs Unit 20 Other Unit 19 Expressions ‘To get’ + Adjective ‘To look forward to’ ‘Kind of’ followed by a noun ‘To be likely’ ‘To be left’ / ‘To have left’ ‘For the sake of’ Expressions with ‘to have’ Baseball Expressions ‘To be at stake’ Expressions of Increase ‘There is/are’ Time ‘Have’ or ‘make’ without ‘to’ ‘To let’ ‘When’ / ‘while’ + Present ‘How’ + Adjective or Adverb ‘Had better’ / ‘Would rather’ Expressions of Preference Words ending in ‘ever’ ‘Whether’ Emphatic 'do’ Verbs expressing impressions .and feelings ‘I am told’ *This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.

Examples Do you have 2 brothers? Does he have 2 brothers? 8 . The verb ‘to have’ I You He /She / It We They I don’t have You don’t have He/ She/ It doesn’t have We don’t have They don’t have The verb ‘to have’ Negative ‘to have’ Question Do + I + have…? you we they Does + he + have? she it Examples I have 2 brothers. Negative ‘to be’ I You He /She /It We They am not are not is not are not are not I’m not You’re not or You aren’t He’s / She’s / It’s not or He / She / It isn’t We’re not or We aren’t Negative contraction ‘to be’ Question Am I? Is he/ she/ it? Are we / you / they? They’re not or They aren’t The verb ‘to have’ is used to express possession. He is my brother. or occurrence. He has 2 brothers. ownership. action. He doesn’t have 2 brothers. qualities or characteristics. Examples I don’t have 2 brothers. Conjugation of ‘to be’ I You He /She /It We They am are is are are The verb ‘to be’ and contractions Present Contraction of ‘to be’ I’m You’re He’s / She’s / It’s We’re They’re Use + examples ( as a stative verb) I am a student. He’s my brother.1 GRAMMAR BOOK The verb ‘to be’ expresses existence. I’m a student.

Examples Do you work everyday? Does he work everyday? Examples Third person (He / She / It) Spelling You must always add an –s to the verb. Verbs ending in: –s / –sh / –ch pass : passes add –es Verbs ending in : –y study : studies add –ies Except when the verb is preceded by a vowel. finish : finishes try : tries play : plays Also do : does go : goes 9 . I don’t work everyday. events or habits I You He /She / It We They Present simple affirmative work work works work work I You He / She /It We They Present simple negative don’t work don’t work doesn’t work don’t work don’t work Do + I + work…? you we they Does + he + work? she it Present simple question Examples I work everyday. He doesn’t work everyday. He works everyday.eClass English Present Simple We use the present simple for: ◌ things that are true in general ◌ things that happen sometimes or all the time ◌ to describe regular actions.

Am I a teacher? Are you a teacher? Is he a teacher? Is she a teacher? Are we teachers? Are they teachers? Tags – short answers The verb ‘to be´ Yes. doesn’t work. No. she’s not. don’t work. he’s not. they do. he does. Yes. you. No. we’re not. she. Yes. No. Yes. Yes. / they aren’t. Yes. we do. No. No. they) (he. we are. he doesn’t. He is not my brother. No. I You He / She /It We They don’t work. you’re not. we don’t. No. I am. you do. Yes. I do. we. don’t work. you don’t. Present Simple Do I like football? Do you like football? Does he like football? Does she like football? Do we like football? Do they like football? 10 . they are. Yes. No. No. or non occurrence of an action. He doesn’t go to university. Structure The verb ‘to be’ Examples I You He /She /It We They am are is are are not not not not not (aren’t) (isn’t) The Negative Form Add : not or n’t to contractions Present Simple Add : do not or don’t does not or doesn’t (I. they don’t. / you aren’t. she is. it is usually followed by a tag which is a repetition of the verb ‘to be’ or an auxiliary. Yes. don’t work. I’m not. / he isn’t. Yes. you are. nonaction. he is. / she isn’t. she doesn’t.GRAMMAR BOOK The negative form of the verb to be expresses the nonexistence. she does. it) They are not my friends. When we answer a question with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. I don’t play football on the weekends. No. I don’t. Yes. Yes. No. No. / we aren’t. they’re not.

Catherine wants to work in Italy. Banks lend money to make profits.eClass English The present simple describes a present condition. He often has English class.The action is not happening at the time of speaking. . never etc. 11 . I always eat eggs for breakfast.When talking in general . Banks are lending more money (these days) to encourage businesses to expand.For temporary situations I’m eating. (but perhaps she isn’t learning exactly at the time of speaking) He is having English class at the moment.Often used with adverbs of frequency – sometimes. The Present Simple and Present Continuous The Present Continuous . . so she is learning Italian. always. often. regular or general action.Now . The Present Simple Use Examples . the present continuous describes the action that is currently taking place.Regular actions or events .Facts .

tie – tying 12 .GRAMMAR BOOK The Present Continuous Present continuous: something is happening now / at the moment / currently Past Now Future I’m working. write – writing. Question: What are you doing now? What is he doing now? I’m eating. Structure + Examples I am He/she/it is We/you/they are The verb ‘to be’ + verb –ing (not) (not) (not) verb-ing verb-ing verb-ing I am working. Chris is writing a letter. We are running. add –ing Make – making. They’re watching television. Spelling Verbs that end in –e drop the ‘e’ . He’s playing football. It is raining. come – coming. We’re having dinner. die – dying. dance – dancing Verbs that end in –ie change to –ying Lie – lying.

Let’s (us) go to the beach. she. they Structure Infinitive without ‘to’ Examples Let + object pronoun + infinitive without ‘to’ Let + noun phrase + infinitive without ‘to’ Be Quiet! Walk down the street Let me check in the dictionary. You can use the imperative form to give an order. Let them do what they want. Don’t let the children fall asleep. she. 13 .eClass English The Affirmative Imperative Sit down. a warning or advice. we. Let Mark sit there. Negative Imperative you (singular + plural) I. The negative imperative form is used to give an order. he. they The Negative Imperative Structure Do not (don’t) + Infinitive without ‘to’ Do not (don’t) let + object pronoun + infinitive without ‘to Do not (don’t) let + noun phrase + infinitive without ‘to’ Examples Don’t be quiet! Don’t walk down the street Don’t let me fall asleep. Affirmative Imperative you (singular + plural) I. he. we. warning or the advice to NOT perform a specific action.

Mental and emotional states To believe Verbs without a continuous form To doubt To feel (= have an opinion) To imagine To know To (dis)like To love To hate To prefer To recognize To remember To see (= understand) To suppose To think (= have an opinion) To understand To want To wish To realize To appear To hear To look (=seem) To see To seem To smell To sound To taste To agree To deny To impress To please To satisfy To mean To disagree Use of the senses Communicating and causing reactions 14 .GRAMMAR BOOK Some verbs are never or hardly ever used in continuous forms. Many of these non-continuous verbs refer to states rather than actions.

eClass English Certain verbs which do not normally take the continuous form may take it in some cases. NOT I’m seeing what you mean Expressing notions of belief. preference. To talk about unexpected or unplanned events. Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions To see To hear To feel To smell To taste Verbs of perception When they express ‘voluntary actions’ I’m seeing Lynn tomorrow. (a regular. sometimes it is used with the present continuous in these situations: To express a repeated action which has an effect on the speaker. ‘Always’ + Present Continuous Use You’re always running late! Compare: When Alice comes to see me. . I see what you mean. planned arrangement) I’m always meeting Mrs. Stative verbs To think (to reflect) What are you thinking about? NOT to think ( have an opinion) What are you thinking of it? What do you think of it? ‘Always’ is normally used with the simple present. feelings or an intellectual activity. Jones at the supermarket. (accidental. However. I always meet her at the station. unplanned meeting) Example 15 .

For regular verbs add –ed For regular verbs ending in –y . Here are some important irregular verbs: began broke brought built bought caught came did drank ate fall find fly forget get give go have hear know fell found flew forgot got gave went had heard knew leave lose make meet pay put read ring say see left lost made met paid put read(red) rang said saw sell sit sleep speak stand take tell think win write sold sat slept spoke stood took told thought won wrote .2 begin break bring build buy catch come do drink eat 16 GRAMMAR BOOK Present Perfect and Past Simple USE To talk about completed actions or finished events that happened at a specific time (yesterday. I didn’t watch television last night. Did you watch television last night? Irregular Verbs: There is no rule for the construction of irregular verbs in the past. therefore you must memorize them. add –ied I You He/she/it We They watched watched watched watched watched I You He/she/it We They didn’t watch didn’t watch didn’t watch didn’t watch didn’t watch Did you watch? he/she/it we they Regular Verbs: Examples I watched television last night.) The Preterit (Past Simple) I watched television yesterday. etc. last year. drop the –y .

Here are some common irregular verbs: Irregular Verbs Verb be begin catch choose do drink eat fall fly give have Past Tense was/were began caught chose did drank ate fell flew gave had Past Participle been begun caught chosen done drunk eaten fallen flown given had 17 .eClass English For the preterit (past simple) and past participle of regular verbs add -ed However. for irregular verbs there are no rules. You must memorize them.

’ Describes an action that started in the past and continues in the present. Shows that an action has recently happened.GRAMMAR BOOK The Present Perfect is used to indicate actions that happened in a unfinished period of time. They are going out. I have lost it. -I have (just) finished a great book! They are at home. -I have always studied a lot in university.’ (She is at the mall now.) ‘I don’t know.? past participle…? The Present Perfect Past Participles go have take eat drink sing gone had taken eaten drunk sung I/you/they/we + he/she/it + Uses Shows there is a connection with now. -Ouch! I have (just) cut my finger. There has (just) been an accident. she has gone to the mall. -The road is closed.) -I have tried to learn French. Examples -‘Where is your key?’ (I can’t find it now.(Just is used to show that something happened recently) -‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No. An action in the past has a result now. (=They are not at home now) 18 . They have gone out. Structure Have Has I/you/we/they have He/she/it has + + past participle past participle past participle…. . but haven’t succeeded.

Present Perfect ‘For’ and ‘since’ are used when we want to indicate the period of time that the action has been occurring. so more actions in this time period may take place). (the action has finished in a specific time period in the past). 19 . Martin crashed his car again. Past Simple To indicate “old” information Present Perfect When giving recent news Past Simple When the time of the action is clear Present Perfect When the time of action is not specific Past Simple ‘For’ ‘For’ is used in the past simple when we want to indicate the period of time that the action occurred but has already finished. I have seen three movies this week. though the action has not finished yet. I have lived in Victoria for five years. Martin has crashed his car last year. (no specific day or date of the action) I lived in Victoria for five years. I saw that movie on Thursday. (the week has not finished. (specific day) I have already seen that movie.eClass English Differences between the Past Simple and the Present Perfect Uses Past Simple When the time period has finished Present Perfect When the time period has not finished Examples I saw three movies last week.

GRAMMAR BOOK We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until this moment in the present. It is raining now.? He/she/it n + verb – ing …? e bee I/you/they/w been + verb – Have he/she/it Has Uses Describes an action that has recently stopped and has a connection with now. Examples -Paul is very tired. How long has it been raining? It has been raining for two hours. We often use the present perfect continuous in this way. for… and since…The activity is still happening (as in the example) or has just stopped. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. 20 . He has been working hard. The Present Perfect Continuous Structure rb –ing been + ve rb –ing have been + ve you/we/they has I/ ing …. -Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? -I have been learning English for three years. -She has been playing basketball since she was 6 years old. -They have been traveling to Europe every summer since 1995. especially with How long. Describes an action that has been repeated over a certain amount of time.

eClass English ‘For’ / ‘Since’ / ‘Ago’ For. since. ‘Ago’ = expression of time + ago is usually used with the past tense six weeks ago a long time ago two days ago I studied English 5 years ago. 21 . ‘Since’ = the start of a period 8 o’clock Monday 12 May April 1977 Christmas lunchtime they were at school I have been studying English since 2000. ‘For’ = a period of time Use Examples two hours 20 minutes five days six months a week 50 years a long time ages I have been studying English for 3 years. ago = to say how long something has been happening.

(superlative) Visit the Eiffel Tower if you ever go to Paris.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Ever’ – ‘Never’ ‘Ever’ = at some/any time up to now ‘Never’ = not ever Structure Question – ‘Ever’ Used in present simple and present perfect Auxiliary + subject + ‘ever’ + main verb Affirmative – ‘Ever’ Used with ‘if’ or superlative Negative – Negative ‘Never’ + verb in affirmative Examples Do you ever play tennis? Have you ever been to Argentina? She’s the nicest person I’ve ever met. 22 . (if) I never drink and drive. I’ve never been to Argentina.

Examples He’s been in a bad mood all day. We cannot use these expressions with the present perfect: Two months ago One year ago Last week Yesterday When I was a child They refer to a time in the past that is over. I haven’t studied in the last two months. I’ve just started the class. I haven’t heard about it so far.eClass English The Present Perfect is used to indicate unfinished past actions. and when a past action is relevant now. past actions when the time is not specified. I’ve visited my grandmother 2 times this week. Expressions with the Present Perfect Structure + Use We can use these expressions with the present perfect: Today All day This week This year Already Just Yet Lately Recently In the last two months All my life So far Ever Never They refer to a period of time that is not yet over or is recent. 23 .

She was playing tennis.GRAMMAR BOOK The Preterit Continuous (Past Continuous) Preterit Continuous = to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. Positive she/it was + verb –ing Negative I/he/she/it was not (wasn’t) + verb –ing Question Was I/he/she/it + verb –ing? We/you/they were + verb -ing We/you/they were not (weren’t) + verb -ing Were we/you/they + verb-ing? It was raining. She is watching television. At 4 o’clock she wasn’t at home. Sarah 4 O´clock Sarah 6 O´clock It’s 6 o’clock now. It wasn’t raining. Sarah is at home. Was it raining? 24 .

but they didn’t see each other.) + + past participle past participle (gone. To express an action completed before a given time in the past.) The Past Perfect Use 1. Paul went to the party too.) (= he’d etc. Paul went home at 10:30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o’clock. Examples 10 9 8 11 12 1 7 6 5 2 3 4 Bye 10 9 8 11 12 1 7 6 5 2 3 4 Half an hour later Hello Paul Sarah Sarah went to a party last week. finished etc. A state or action beginning in the past continuing until some later time in the past. He had gone home. seen. 2. I had never seen a movie before then. 25 . They had been friends for ten years when he left. Paul wasn’t there. So: When Sarah arrived at the party.eClass English For actions that happened before related past events or times. Structure I/we/they/you + He/she/it + had had (=I’d etc.

Uses Examples Mary had been talking with John for 15 minutes until Lindsey arrived. listening. Structure I/you/we/they He/she/it I/you/we/they He/she/it Had I/you/they/we he/she/it had been had been + + verb –ing verb –ing (studying. etc. etc. talking.GRAMMAR BOOK The Past Perfect Continuous The Past Perfect Continuous is used for actions that were unfinished when another action took place.) had not been + verb-ing had not been + verb-ing been + verb –ing …. working. etc.? been + verb –ing …? To show that something started in the past and continued up until the moment that something else happened.) (helping.) (sleeping. To show cause and effect. playing. eating. 26 . reading. Jason was tired because he had been jogging.

In this sense it is used as a modal auxiliary. Examples I am used to reading before going to sleep. Is used for expressing habits or things which you are comfortable with or accustomed to. For expressing a point in the process of becoming accustomed to something. For expressing actions that were habitual in the past and implies that the action no longer takes place. but now I prefer meat. I used to eat seafood. I have gotten used to walking to work. 27 .eClass English ‘Used To’ Structure + Use I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they + ‘to be’ + used to + verb + ing+ object.

eat? The Future – ‘Will’ Subject + ‘will’ + infinitive (without to) Examples: I will be at home tomorrow.’ ‘I’ll close the window’ ‘What would you like to order?’ ‘I’ll have the beef please.) I/we/you/they He/she/it will (‘ll) will not (won’t) I/we/you/they He/she/it be eat etc. I am You are He/she/it is We are They are (not) (not) (not) (not) (not) I’m playing tennis tomorrow We use ‘will’ for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.3 GRAMMAR BOOK Future for the future (tomorrow / next week) eating eating eating eating eating for fixed future arrangements The present continuous for future indicates that a specific action will be taking place at a specific time in the future. ‘It’s cold in here. Structure ‘To be’ + verb-ing The Near Future ‘be’ + –ing / Present Continuous for Future Use Examples What are you doing tomorrow evening? I am staying at home.’ 28 . win be? win? etc. Will you be at home this evening? Will We use ‘will’ when we make a decision in the moment of speaking.

Kevin will be watching the game. 29 . can you ask her to call me? A: Sure.eClass English The Future Continuous – ‘Will be doing’ Structure ‘will’ + ‘be’ + gerund Use This is used to say you will be in the middle of doing something. It’s going to rain. Example: There is a black cloud in the sky. ‘I’ll close the window’ ‘To be’ + ‘going to’ + infinitive ‘I am (not) going to’ + verb Future plans and intention I am going to meet Jill for lunch today. so I’ll tell her then. It’s going to rain. Examples The Future – ‘Will’ vs. ‘To be going to’ ‘Will’ + infinitive I. At 8:15. It is used to talk about complete actions in the future. you etc. I’ll be seeing her this evening. Q: If you see Sally. Examples When we make a decision in the ‘It’s cold in here’. (infinitive without to) (I’ve decided to do something. We also use ‘to be going to’ when there is evidence in the present that something is going to happen in the future. The football games at 7:30 and ends at 9:15. my intention is to do it) He is not going to finish the project on time. you etc. It is clear now that it is sure to happen.+ ‘will not’ (won’t) + verb (infinitive without to) Structure Use Indefinite future predictions Next year I think I will go to New York.+ ‘will’ + verb (infinitive without to) I. moment of speaking.

Use Examples You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the USA. The medicine is to be taken twice a day.) An action which should be done An imposed action / a strict order Instructions and directions for use ‘To be’ + passive infinitive Examples We’re to see them tomorrow. To show that something will continue up until another action in the future. The Future with ‘be’ + infinitive Structure Use ‘To be’ + infinitive with ‘to’ This is used to express the idea of the future in the following situations: A planned or agreed action Present: ‘To be’ (present) + infinitive with ‘to’ Past: ‘To be’ (past) + infinitive with ‘to’ (This is a planned or agreed action that was not done. I was to become a priest.+ ‘will’ + ‘have’ + past participle To indicate that something will occur before another action in the future. Susan will have had my book for a month. By Monday.GRAMMAR BOOK The Future Perfect – ‘Will have done’ Structure ‘Will have’ + past participle I. you etc. 30 . (but I didn’t) What’s to be done? You’re not to read that letter.

(I certainly is not true.) It can’t be true. 30 K Structure Question Can + I / we / you / they he / she / it + can + cannot (can’t) + verb verb I / we / you / they he / she / it Example: Can you swim? 31 .4 ‘Can’ ability . ‘Can’ likelihood / possibility Example: Sometimes when the weather is bad it can be able to do something. there is no possibility that it is true. Example: He can carry the bag. ( It is possible that this happens.) Structure Use ‘Can’ – ability and likelihood Use Modals eClass English Examples g.

to feel. to see.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Can’ . ‘Can’ perception .with verbs of perception such as to hear. 32 .perception and knowledge ‘Can’ ability / knowledge . Example: I can see Sarah coming. Use Structure Question Can + I / we / you / they he / she / it + can + verb cannot (can’t) + verb I / we / you / they he / she / it Example: Can you swim? I can play the piano .to know how to do something Example: I can play the guitar.

to meet with ve early because I will be able e able to lea . ‘Could’. n speak 5 laery well. might be ab be able to To you later. I ca gv He can’t sin e piano. b They won’t finish their homework be able to be able to Will ) they have to ill not (won’t W 33 . She out your pro n’t ne ab Could Ask Catheri le to help you. a child I c Can’t When I was o to class yesterday b I couldn’t g uld Co blem.eClass English The modal ‘can’ has the following form ‘Can’. Can ould play thecause I was sick. ‘To be able to’ Present Past Infinitive Future nguages.

Tom shouldn’t go to bed so late. infinitive without to infinitive without to ‘should’ or ‘ought to’ + ‘have’ + past participle = to express regret or reproach We should have gone to the mountains. she. I. she. .GRAMMAR BOOK Use To give advice ‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: advice You shouldn´t watch TV so much Should / ought to = It is a good thing to do. Should not / ought not to = It is not a good thing to do. it Examples: Carol ought to buy some new clothes. You should go and see it. we. They ought to have invited her. ‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: probability Structure ‘Should’ subject + ‘should’ + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘Ought to’ subject + ‘ought to’ + infinitive without ‘to’ 34 Use To show something that is desirable or probable Implies an expectation or assumption Example The train should arrive soon. He is intelligent. they + should (not) + he. I. it is the right thing to do. we. they + ought (not) to + he. He ought to pass the exam. You ought not to eat so much. it Examples: It’s a good film. you. you.

you. she. we. you. they + have to + infinitive without to Example You have to finish the assignment by tomorrow. Don’t have to Doesn’t have to Structure He. Structure I. we. it + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’’ Example You mustn’t smoke in the elevator. we. it is optional) I. You don’t have to do the homework if you don’t want to. it + must + infinitive without to Example You must wash your hands before eating. It is optional. Must not Structure I. it = NO obligation to do something. they + don’t have to + infinitive Example without ‘to’ + doesn’t have to + infinitive without ‘to 35 . we. You must not do it. you. Mustn’t = an obligation to NOT do something. she. ( You can either do it or not. she. they + must + infinitive without to He. they + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ He.eClass English ‘Must’ and ‘Have to’ Must = a need or obligation to do something Structure I. NO SM OK ING Have to = a need or obligation to do something. you.

she. you. we. they + must + infinitive without ‘to’ He.GRAMMAR BOOK Using ‘must’ for obligation Must = a need or obligation to do something. Please keep off the grass 36 . you. it + must + infinitive without ‘to’ You must wash your hands before eating. they + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ He. she. it + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ You mustn’t walk on the grass. we. Mustn’t = an obligation NOT to do something. I. I.

You can’t be Maggie’s mother.eClass English Strong probability using ‘must’ Must = strong probability or near certainty. It expre st have Example: He mu 37 . My sister has told me all about you. Brown. Structure Subject + must + verb (infinitive without ‘to’) Negative: Subject + cannot + verb (infinitive without ‘to’) Subject + can’t + verb (infinitive without ‘to’) Example You must be Mr. you’re not old enough! : The past form is ast participle must + have + p ty in the past. sses near certaingone out.

Subject + ‘don’t’ / ‘doesn’t have to’ + infinitive without ‘to’ This can imply the speaker’s opinion or not. it’s not that far. You don’t need to bring your bike. Examples You needn’t bring your bike. Absence of necessity Structure Subject + needn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ Subject + don’t / doesn’t need to + infinitive without ‘to’ This expresses the opinion of the speaker. You don’t have to do your homework. 38 . It shows an absence of necessity.GRAMMAR BOOK To say it is not necessary to do something or it is optional you can use ‘needn’t’ and ‘don’t have to’.

+ may + verb (infinitive To say that something may not without ‘to’) is about 50% possible.eClass English To say it is not necessary to do something or it is optional you can use ‘needn’t’ and ‘don’t have to’. 39 . May I. you. Might I. you. He might have a meeting. These other structures are also possible. etc. He may call her. ‘May’ and ‘Might’ Use Examples I may go to the cinema later. He might know. may/might + have + past participle to talk about uncertain events in the past She may have been asleep. + might + verb (infinitive To say that something might not without to) is less than 50% possible. etc. She might have left it in the shop. He might be having lunch. may/might + be + verb –ing to talk about present or future I may be working at that time. The uses of ‘may’ and ‘might’ above are to talk about the present or future. It shows an absence of necessity.

‘Would like’ + infinitive Example: I would like to go to the movies. In American English. ( I will be late) Shall we go to the museum later? ‘Shall’ Do NOT use ‘shall’ with you/they/he/she/it Tom will be late. ‘have to’). Interrogative ‘would like’ Example: Would you like a coffee? more polite form of (do) want 40 . (not ‘Tom shall be’) ‘Shall’ can express obligation. ‘shall’ can be used for ‘will’ to express the future. It is used in legal texts and official rules. This is stronger and more formal than other modals of obligation (‘must’. The insurance holder shall pay back the full amount within three years.GRAMMAR BOOK In British English. it is not often used. ‘Would like’ + noun or noun phrase Example: I would like a drink. Examples: 1. Use ‘shall’ with I/ we I shall be late tomorrow. ‘Would like’: expressing wishes ‘Would like’ expresses a wish or desire. Students shall not play loud music after 10PM. 2.

Could I open the window? I may go to the cinema later. (to make suggestions) Permission To say that something is about 50% possible. Obligation Negative: mustn’t Deduction Negative: can’t Example He can play the piano. May I open the window? He might have a meeting. you can’t be tired. She may have missed her train. To say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. the following verb is in the infinitive minus ‘to’ form. Polly’s very late. To say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. You’ve been sleeping all day. BUT did not happen. Permission To say that something is less than 50% possible. Can I leave the room? When you go to New York you could stay with Jane. 41 . You must go to the bank You mustn’t go to the bank. You might have killed yourself. Could + have + past participle May + have + past participle Might + have + past participle Possibility in the past. You were stupid to try climbing up there. You’ve been travelling all day. Modal Can Modal Auxiliaries Use Could May Might Must Ability Negative: cannot / can’t Past: could Future: will be able to Permission Possible actions now or in the future. I could have studied Architecture in university. Something you could have done but did not do / did not attempt to do. you must be tired. When a modal is used.eClass English A modal auxiliary is a verb used with other verbs to express mood or tense.

we can use these expressions to indicate an assumption of the event that probably took place in a past moment.GRAMMAR BOOK When we are unsure of occurrences in the past. Structure Deduction Near certainty in the past Use Use subject + can’t have + past participle Example: I saw John in the pub. Near certainty in the past: ‘must have’ / ‘can’t have’ Structure subject + must have + past participle Example: John wasn’t in class yesterday. He can’t have been sick. A deduction about something that didn’t happen in the past. He must have been sick. 42 .

5 Questions Questions without interrogative words The Verb ‘to be’ ‘To be’ + subject Am I? Are you? Is he / she / it? Are we? Are they? eClass English Examples Are you married? Is John a policeman? Present Simple Do + subject + verb Does Do you / we / they? Does he / she / it? Does he study English? Do they have television? 43 .

etc.GRAMMAR BOOK Interrogative words are used to ask very specific questions related to the person. reason. place. Interrogative Words Interrogative word Who Which What How Why Where When Whose refers to people refers to people or things when there is a choice refers to things refers to manner or means asks about reason refers to location refers to time or date refers to possession Use Example Who is he? Who do you know? Which do you prefer tea or coffe What sport do you play? anner) How do you spell your name? (m) How do you go to work? (means Why don’t you like her? Where is the museum? When does the store open? When do you leave? Whose pen is this? e? 44 . that an action occurs.

eClass English ‘How long’ is used to ask questions about duration. ‘How long’ + ‘to be’ ‘How long’ + present simple ‘How long’ Structure ‘How long’ + ‘is’/’are’ + noun How long is your vacation? How long are the books? How long do you take to eat breakfast? How long does it take to get to work? Example ‘How long’ + ‘do’/’does’ + subject + verb Beginner level should only study the two structures above. Below are some examples of ‘how long’ with other tenses. ‘How long’ + preterit (past simple) ‘How long’ + present perfect ‘How long’ + present perfect continuous ‘How long + ‘did’ + subject + verb How long did you spend in Italy? ‘How long’ + ‘have’ / ‘has’ + subject + past participle How long’ + ‘have’ / ‘has’ + subject + ‘been’+ gerund ‘ How long have you had that car? How long have you been studying English? Structure Example 45 .

GRAMMAR BOOK Past Interrogatives The verb ‘to be’ was ‘Was’ / ‘were’ + subject I? he? she? it? we? you? they? Where was Ann yesterday? Was the weather good? Were they expensive? were The Preterit (Past Simple) ‘Did’ + subject + verb I you he she watch? it we they What did you do yesterday? Where did he go on holiday? Did it rain on Saturday? Did 46 .

don’t they? She doesn’t eat meat. The meaning of a question tag depends on how you say it. 47 .eClass English Question tags are ‘mini-questions’ placed at the end of a sentence. Example: It’s a beautiful day. isn’t it? Yes. Example: You didn’t see Mary. I’m afraid not. lovely. Your teacher will give you examples for the tenses you have learned so far. Goes up You are asking a real question. didn’t he? They didn’t work yesterday. did you? No. you are only inviting the listener to agree with you. You aren’t really asking a question. isn’t it? Yes. aren’t you? He is not here today. If your voice Goes down It’s a beautiful day. isn’t he? You’re not meeting Jim. lovely. A positive sentence A negative sentence Examples The verb ‘to be’ You’re a doctor. does she? Present Continuous He is studying English. is he? Present Simple They work together. did they? Questions – Tags A negative question tag A positive question tag Question tags can be formed for all tenses. are you? Preterit/ Past Simple He went on vacation.

lunchtime etc. 48 . What = both are used for choices. 1990. What . They are often used interchangeably. (two hours.(for)’ / ‘Since when’ Structure ‘How long’ + ‘have’/’has’ + subject + ‘been’ + verb -ing + ‘for’? We use ‘for’ when we say a period of time. (8 o’clock.) Q: ‘Since when has it been snowing?’ A: ‘It has been snowing since yesterday’. a week. Examples Q: ‘How long have you been waiting for?’ A: ‘I have been waiting for over an hour’. Monday.a choice between or among things. 20 minutes. six months etc.. (usually objects) Which – a choice between or among a limited number of things/possibilities (usually objects and people) What books do you prefer? What kind of services do you want? Which do you prefer: romance novels or science fiction? Which of these shirts is yours? ‘How long….) ‘Since when’ + ‘have’/‘has’ + subject + ‘been’+ verb –ing We use ‘since when’ we say the start of a period of time. 12 May.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Which’ / ‘What’ Which.

49 . make requests and verify agreement.eClass English In informal everyday and professional situations. please? Sorry? I didn’t hear what you said. please? Sorry? Possible complete form Do you have any thoughts on what I just said? Do you have any suggestions? Can you give me some ideas? Have you been having any problems? Does anyone have any objections to my proposal? Are the problems serious? Could you speak a bit louder. Short Questions These are questions formed with incomplete sentences. you may use short questions. You can only use them when the context has been clearly established. ask for clarification. Here are some examples: Short Questions Any thoughts? Suggestions? Ideas? Any problems? Objections? Anything serious? Louder. They ask for feedback. ask for advice / suggestions. check understanding.

. with vowels (a.o. Language Use Example Definite and Indefinite Articles The indefinite article A The definite article The . .u) or vowels sounds It’s an honor.6 GRAMMAR BOOK Articles and Nouns An article is a word that is combined with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.a noun in a specific context. An indefinite article indicates that its noun is not yet a particular one. He is a teacher. with consonants. He is the teacher. Language The indefinite article A The indefinite article An is used before words that begin I am a man. Use Example Exceptions: an hour (h is not pronounced: an (h)our) a university (pronounced yuniversity) a European country (pronounced yeuropean) 50 .one thing or person.i. is used before words that begin This is an orange.e.a noun in a general context. A definite article indicates that its noun is a particular one.

eClass English The Plural Plural rules To make a noun plural add Examples –s a flower a book two flowers two books For nouns ending in: –s / –sh / –ch / –x – es bus : buses dish : dishes box : boxes church : churches Also: potato : potatoes tomato: tomatoes For nouns ending in: –y but –ay / –ey / –oy For nouns ending in: –f / –fe – ves shelf : shelves wife: wives man woman foot child person men women feet children people – ies – ys baby : babies day : days party : parties monkey: monkeys Some nouns have irregular endings 51 .

He’s a friend from France. I am from the United States! 52 . They live in Spain.GRAMMAR BOOK Names of Countries: Capitals a university (pronounced yuniversity) a European country (pronounced yeuropean) Names of countries have capital letters.

eClass English Countable and Uncountable Nouns a university (pronounced yuniversity) A noun can be countable Countable nouns or uncountable (a) car (a) man (a) house (an) idea I have a car. I have two cars. Examples Uncountable nouns are always singular. Exclamations with ‘what a’ ‘What a /an’ (+adjective) + singular countable noun ‘What’ (+ adjective) + uncountable / plural noun What a rude man! What a nice dress! What beautiful weather! What lovely flowers! 53 . You cannot use ‘a’/ ‘an’ + uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns only have one form. water rice money salt music I have money. I have some money. You can use one/two/three etc. + countable nouns. Examples Uncountable nouns You cannot say one/two/three etc. (you can count them) Countable nouns can be singular or plural.

The two words are joined together. Example: check-in 3. Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom 2. Example: full moon Other Examples: ski boots. alarm clock . paste: toothpaste Compound nouns can be written in these ways: There are not many rules for joining compound nouns. You must check a dictionary for the correct form. 1.GRAMMAR BOOK Construction of Compound Nouns A compound noun = two nouns joined together. They are joined using a hyphen. One noun modifies the other. They appear as two separate words. housework. Example: tooth. great-grandfather 54 .

The Atlantic Ocean is very big. ‘Kingdom’.eClass English The use and omission of ‘the’ The We use ‘the’ before plural nouns or uncountable nouns when we are thinking of one particular thing. islands. countries. we do not use ‘the’. regions. mountains. When we are talking about things or people in general. seas. No ‘the’ No ‘the’ The 55 . ‘States’. continents. She is from the Republic of Ireland. oceans. rivers and canals. But we do use ‘the’ in names with ‘Republic’. We do not use ‘the’ with names of people. states. (children in general) I visited Europe last year. (not the dogs) Children learn a lot from playing. (not the Europe) I live in the USA. (a particular chair) I’m afraid of dogs. cities. (perhaps one of many chairs) Tom sat on the chair nearest the door. Use Examples Tom sat down on a chair.

continent or region. The Republic of Ireland. the USA. The United Kingdom The Abbreviations of countries. monuments and parks. continents and regions. Examples France. ( generally) Carnaby Street. Hyde Park. Spain The Plural name of a country. the Philippines The But we do use ‘the’ in names with ‘Republic’.GRAMMAR BOOK Definite articles with geographical names No ‘the’ Use Singular name of a country. The United States. the Congo. the West Indies. The UK. Exceptions: the Sahara. the EU No ‘the’ The names of streets. ‘Kingdom’. the South Pole. The British Isles. Wesminister Abbey 56 . squares. Great Britain. ‘States’.

pyjamas Nouns without singular forms When used as a countable noun. glasses. people. use ‘pair of’ Some collective nouns Clothes. tights.a’ With plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns ‘Not………………any’ Negation of the indefinite article Examples I haven’t got a pen./ I don’t have a pen. cattle. It doesn’t require any equipment. trousers. goods. 57 . Nouns referring to objects composed of 2 symmetrical parts Scissors. There aren’t any buses here.. jeans. savings The negative form of the indefinite article is expressed like this: Structure With a singular countable noun: ‘Not………. shorts. police.eClass English Some plural nouns have no singular forms.

They’re nice.7 GRAMMAR BOOK Pronouns and Determiners Subject Pronoun I You (singular) He She It We You (plural) They Subject Pronouns s Object Pronouns Object Pronouns (subject pronoun) I You He She It We They (object pronoun) me you him her it us them Examples Ann knows me. Ann knows her. Ann knows them. I like them. Ann knows us. I Iike it. Ann knows him. Use We use: a verb + object pronoun It’s nice. Ann knows you. 58 . Ann knows it.

We blame ourselves for the results of the test. 59 .eClass English Possessive Pronouns Mine Ours Yours His Hers Theirs I you he she we they my your his her our their (possessive pronoun) mine yours his hers ours theirs We use my/your etc. We use mine/yours etc. + a noun My hands are cold. Reflexive Pronouns I You He She It We You They Reflexive Pronouns myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves Use We use reflexive pronouns when the subject and object of a sentence are the same person or non-person. Examples I talk to myself when I am nervous. It saw itself in the mirror. without a noun Is this book mine or yours? Possessive pronouns show possession and answer the question ‘whose’.

When she returned to the office. . Use Use . Chile’s economy is doing well. sorry. not even a group of people or a small amount of something. Examples Examples None ‘None’ The Possessive To show possession for people. . When none exists. none of us recognized her with her new haircut. groups and institutions we use –’s Examples: It is John’s birthday. . When no part of something is left. (not the birthday of John) It’s my mother’s umbrella.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘No’ / ‘None’ No ‘No’ + noun When we want to exclude all possibilities. countries.We have no bread. friend’s and friends’ My house Our house My friend’s house = one friend (=his house or her house) (singular) My friends’ house = 2 or more friends (= their house) (plural) 60 .There were no problems.Do you have any more pie? No. I have none.

ours. ( a. that = determiners) 61 . hers. his. yours. Structure determiner + noun + of + possessive (’s) determiner + noun + of + possessive (mine. for example: plural nou Dates Sunday’s weather Tomorrow’s flight Next year’s budget Three weeks’ vacation A hundred miles’ drive Durations Distances The Indefinite Possessive Use We can’t usually put a possessive before another determiner and a noun. Have you heard this new idea of your boss’s? ( a. So we use these structures. We can say ‘my friend’ but not ‘a my friend’. du it be used wd distances. theirs) Examples I met a friend of Lucy’s.eClass English More uses of the Possessive n also essive –’s ca rations The poss h dates. an u r noun ’s to a singe la’) to a We add postroph ( and an a n. this = determiners) How’s that brother of yours? Peter is a cousin of mine.

GRAMMAR BOOK Use of the pronoun ‘one’ The pronoun ‘one’ or ‘ones ‘ is used after an adjective to replace: •a countable noun already expressed •a noun that hasn’t been expressed These chocolates are nice Would you like one? Would you like one? = Would you like a chocolate? One = a /an (a chocolate / an apple etc.) Which one do you want? This one One (singular) Which one? = which hat? Which one do you want? The white ones Ones (plural) Which ones? = which flowers? 62 .

‘Here’ / ‘There’ ‘Here’ is used for something that is near to us. There is the bank. Here is the money (in my hand). Position a) Before a noun. Do you remember that wonderful day in June? I’ll never forget this. these. ‘Those’ The demonstratives this. This one is more expensive. b) Before the word one. that. Examples: This car looks cleaner than that car.eClass English Demonstrative Pronouns: ‘This’. ‘There’ is used for something that is far from us. those show where an object or person is in relation to the speaker. ‘That’. d) Alone when the noun is understood. 63 . ‘These’. c) Before an adjective + noun. about 2 blocks away. this This (singular) These (plural) that these those Refers to an object or person near the speaker Examples: Is this John’s house? This is a nice surprise! That (singular) Those (plural) Refers to an object or person further away Examples: Who owns that house? That’s nothing to do with me.

64 . I have got some money. or restriction. ‘Some’: in positive sentences. offers and requests.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Some’ / ‘Any’ Use ‘some’ / ‘any’ to describe an undetermined quantity. permission. possibility. ‘Any’: to express total Feel free to ask questions at any time. $ ‘Any’: in negative sentences and questions I haven’t got any money. ‘Any’: to express possibility or indifference. Do you have any information? I don’t have any money. Use with both countable and uncountable nouns. Any of these designs are fine. Would you like some water? (offer) Can I have some bread? (request) I have some money.

Use ‘many’ with count nouns in negative sentences. Ann has a lot of meetings. ‘Much’ / ‘Many’ Use ‘a lot of’ with mass and count nouns in positive sentences. I have a lot of work to do. Use ‘much’ with mass nouns in negative sentences and in questions. Did many people come to the party? 65 . negative sentences and questions. How much coffee did you drink? I don’t have many classes today. Ann doesn’t have much time to see New York.eClass English ‘A lot of’. positive sentences and in questions.

countable nouns Examples: You have as much money as I do. There are as many parks in Santiago as there are in Buenos Aires. uncountable nouns ‘not as much as’ ‘as many as’ ‘not as many as’ plural.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘How much’ / ‘How many’ ‘How much/many’ = to ask questions about quantity ‘How much’ + uncountable nouns ‘How many’ + plural countable nouns How much money do you want? How much time do you have? How many friends do you have? How many books are there? ‘As much as’ / ‘As many as’ To compare two things that are the same. (= the same amount) You don’t have as much money as I do. ‘as much as’ Use with: singular. There aren’t as many parks in Santiago as there are in Buenos Aires. It’s twice as much as the rent. Here the comparative refers to the previous clause or an implied or previously stated noun. (=It’s twice as much money as the rent) 66 . We can use ‘as much as’ + ‘as many as’ without a noun also.

(not ‘I’m not …too’) I’m not happy. Examples: Some of the meal was really good. the verb is singular. It means ‘too’ / ‘as well’ I’m not happy. None of the presentation is interesting. I can’t cook either. we use ‘either’ after a negative verb. ‘all’. Some of the books are quite funny. I can’t cook.eClass English ‘Some’ / ‘Any’: singular or plural? ‘Some’. ‘Either…or’ A negative clause must never contain more than one negation. I’m not happy either. I’m not happy either. So. ‘any’. ‘most’ When they refer to a singular noun. ‘Either’ is always placed at the end of a clause. (not ‘I can’t …too’) 67 . When they refer to a plural noun. None of the stories are interesting. the verb is plural. ‘none’.

GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Either……. She’s neither nice nor helpful. ‘Everybody’ / ‘Nobody’ ‘Everybody’ (everyone) (all the people) singular Everybody needs friends. Either you come to class or you do the work at home. or’ / ‘Neither ……..or’ A choice between 2 things Example I want either fruit juice or coffee.nor’ neither (not + either) To exclude 2 things I can neither read nor write French. ‘Nobody’ (no one) (no people) singular Nobody is here. All the people need friends. 68 .nor’ Use ‘Either……. No people are here. ? or ? Either ‘Neither…….

the tag Everybod ey are fo However.llowed by a question tag. owed by singula is in the plural. if th s Everybody needey? r singula friends. don’t th y (everyone) Everybod (all the people) one) Somebody (some singular now who) singular don’t k a person but we ( Nobody (no one) s go Somebody han’tto ey? shopping. (no people) ple: Nobody likes form. Exam rb in the positive Nobody + ve 69 . nobody are foll y.eClass English ‘Everybody’ / ‘Somebody’ / ‘Nobody’ with question tags r verbs. somebody. Nobody really kn they? do Mike. do th ows.

Formerly. Maria and Jorge love each other. (More than two subjects) 70 . We often meet at one another’s places. it was said that ‘each other’ was used for a relationship between two subjects whereas one another was used for a relationship between more than two subjects. (Two subjects) The children are sitting opposite one another. They took each other’s hands. (= John looked at Paul / Paul looked at John) ‘Each other’ and ‘one another’ can be used in the possessive. Today. however. John and Paul looked at each other. most do not observe this distinction. They show a reciprocal relationship between the subjects in the sentence.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Each other’ / ‘One another’ ‘Each other’ and ‘one another’ can be used interchangeably.

(possessive adjective) All cities have the same problem. I have spent all my money. 71 . Have you read these books? I’ve read them all. ‘All’ + noun ‘All (of)’ + the this/that/these/those (demonstrative) my/your etc. All these books are mine. Personal Pronouns personal pronoun + ‘all’ ‘all of’ + personal pronoun with Subject Pronouns Subject (pronoun) + ‘all’ + simple verb Subject (pronoun) + modal auxiliary / ‘to be’ + ‘all’ With a singular countable noun = ‘every’ Every student in the class passed the exam. I’ve read all of them. All the children at this school are tall. It is used with uncountable or plural countable nouns. They are all ready to go. Every country has a national flag. We will all have some juice. The girls all left.eClass English Different meanings of ‘all ‘All’ = all of something limited.

I have little time to finish the report. This tooth aches a little. Often replaces ‘ a little’ as an adverb.’ I am lonely. 72 .’ We want a bit of fresh air. Use We want a little fresh air. please. Adverb of degree. Use with uncountable nouns. It can also replace the noun to avoid repetition. Can you drive a bit slower? I have a few books I can lend you. ‘How many science fiction novels do you have?’ ‘A few. Use with countable nouns. Examples ‘A bit of’ ‘A little’ ‘A little’ + adjective Verb + ‘a little’ Little (negative connotation) ‘A bit’ ‘A few’ ‘Few’ (negative connotation) Use with countable nouns. Use with countable nouns. I have few friends. We’re a little busy today.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘A little’ / ‘A bit’ = a small quantity ‘A little’ / ‘A bit’ Structure ‘A little’ Use with uncountable nouns. It can also replace the noun to avoid repetition. ‘Do you want some coffee?’ ‘A little.

you. him. her. it. this. us. your. them) Use ‘both of’ before the pronoun. Both shirts are good. I want both books. I want both (of) those books.) ‘both’ and ‘both of’ are possible. Both of them are my sisters. 73 . We both want to go. those etc. With verbs Both goes after auxiliaries and before other verbs. She has invited both of us. ‘Both’ can be put after object pronouns. my. She has invited us both. Both (of) the books.eClass English Use of ‘both’ ‘Both’ = two elements With nouns With determiners Before a noun with a determiner (the. We have both gone to the beach. With object pronouns (me.

WHOM people (but when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause) The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. relative clause A relative clause joins two sentences: I met a woman. she who I met a woman who speaks two languages.) A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. She speaks two languages. WHO people I know a lot of people who live in London. WHERE a place That is the hotel where Tom got married.8 GRAMMAR BOOK Relative pronouns are used in relative clauses. WHICH things Emma lives in a house which is 500 years old. A ‘relative clause’ tells us which person or thing the speaker means. Barbara works for a company that makes computers. A ‘clause’ is part of a sentence. WHOSE possession (instead of his/her/their etc. ( I wanted to see her) Relative Pronouns and Adverbs Relative Clauses and Dependent Clauses 74 . THAT things or people The man that lives next door is very friendly. The woman who lives next door is a doctor.

We use commas. Non. or thing the speaker means. (We already know which thing or person is meant. The relative clause tells you which person or thing The relative clause does not tell you which person the speaker means.defining Relative Clauses My brother Jim. We do NOT use commas. is a doctor.eClass English There are two types of relative clauses. who lives in London. 75 .) This is extra information about the person or thing. Defining Relative Clauses The woman who lives next door is a doctor.

‘that’ + verb (makes) = subject pronoun. (see reported speech) ‘That’ and Dependent Clauses Relative Clauses – (Omission of ‘that’) ‘That’ is used as a relative pronoun in relative clauses. ‘that’ + noun (Ann) = object pronoun. the apple that is laying on the table Object Pronoun = the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or pronoun. We stayed at the hotel (that) Ann recommended. This is a defining relative clause. This morning I met somebody (that) I hadn’t met for ages. When the main clause is in the preterit.GRAMMAR BOOK A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. the dependent clause (introduced by ‘that’ or a relative pronoun) is also in the preterit. If it is in the present. When the relative pronoun is an object pronoun it can be omitted in a defining relative clause*. ‘that’ + pronoun (I) = object pronoun. Reported Speech When ‘that’ is used in reported speech. This is a defining relative clause. the dependent clause should follow the rule of agreement. 76 . *see ‘relative pronouns and adverbs’ for an explanation on the difference between a defining and non-defining clauses. Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. It is usually attached to an independent clause. Subject or Object Pronoun? Subject Pronoun = the relative pronoun is followed by a verb. the apple (that) George laid on the table Examples of when ‘that’ can/ cannot be omitted. then the dependent clause is in the present also.

‘That’ can be left out in an informal style in some common two-word conjunctions such as: ‘so that’ ‘such…that’ ‘now that’ ‘providing that’ ‘provided that’ ‘supposing that’ ‘considering that’ ‘assuming that’ Relative structures Leave out the relative pronoun ‘that’ when it is the object in a relative clause. After adjectives Conjunctions In ‘that’ clauses after some adjectives. ‘that’ can be left out. thought.eClass English ‘That’ may be left out in the following situations:. James replied that he was feeling better. *See ‘that + dependent clauses’ Look! There are the people (that) we met in Brighton 77 . I’m glad (that) you’re all right. shouted. disagreed James said (that) he was feeling better. ‘that’ cannot be dropped after certain verbs Examples: replied. When ‘that’ may be left out Reported speech After many reporting verbs ‘that’ can be left out. I was having such a nice time (that) I didn’t want to leave. suggested However. Examples: said. Come in quietly so (that) she doesn’t hear you.

I hope the water is not 78 . He hopes the traffic is too cold. I hope you won’t have all right.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘To hope’ + Dependent Clause Structuree ‘To hope’ + future mple ‘To hope’ + present si (refers to the future) Examples She hopes he’ll come. any problems getting home.

It likes its food.9 Adjectives and Adverbs Possessive Adjectives Possessive adjectives (subject pronoun) I You He She It We They my your his her its our their eClass English A possessive adjective is used with a noun to indicate possession. Examples We use: I like my job. You like your job. Use possessive adjective + a noun to show possession my hat our hats your hat her hat their hats 79 . (The dog) We like our jobs. They like their jobs. He likes his job She likes her job. ownership or close relationship.

80 . more than is good. ‘Too many’ + plural countable nouns She has too many books. Examples ‘Too much’ + uncountable nouns There is too much sugar in my tea. Structure ‘Too’ + adjective/adverb The music is too loud.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Too’ / ‘Too much’/ ‘Too many’ ‘Too’ / ‘too much’ / ‘too many’ = More than you want. This is a negative concept.

She is also tall. Examples ‘Also’ / ‘As well’ / ‘Too’ Before a verb and after ‘to be’ I also have a dog. too. Structure After adjectives and adverbs Before nouns and noun phrases After verbs (including past participles) I’m not tall enough. She. She is tall as well. She also studies English. have a dog. As well At the end of a clause or for emphasis (with commas) I have a dog too. She is tall too. studies English. too. We are Chinese as well. She studies English too. He doesn’t work enough. I’ve eaten enough. There isn’t enough time. is tall.eClass English Placement of Enough ‘Enough’ = sufficient. Too 81 . We. I. too. too. You drive fast enough. We are also Chinese. adequate He can’t reach the shelf. are Chinese. We are Chinese too. She studies English as well. He’s not tall enough. She. Also At the end of a sentence I have a dog as well.

we do not keep the /e/ before the /ly/ Simply Simply. *Sometimes can also go before the subject. ‘when’ or ‘where’ the action took place. we keep /e/ before the /ly/ Polite Politely. never seldom/rarely sometimes* often usually aways 0% Before a verb 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adverbs of Time / Frequency Adverb placement Examples I never go to the mall. late. Extreme Extremely -If the adjective end in /le/. After verb ‘to be’ 82 I am always tired. fast. Terrible Terribly Adverbs of time or frequency are adverbs that tell us ‘how often’ we do something. I always play basketball on the weekends. . early Good (adjective) well (adverb) Your English is very good. Spelling Rules -If the adjective ends in /y/ add –ily Easy Easily. How often do you go to the mall? I sometimes go to the mall. To make an adverb: Adjective + –ly Examples: Accidently Quickly Angrily Safely Badly Adverbs Exceptions and Irregular adverbs: These are some words that are adjectives and adverbs: hard. She is usually late for English class.GRAMMAR BOOK An adverb modifies a verb. It helps to tell ‘how’. You speak English very well. She often practices English. Heavy Heavily -If the adjective ends in /e/.

Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens or how somebody does something. (Describes the game which is a noun) -I am nervous. (Describes how the team played) -I waited nervously. -It was a bad game. Examples: The train stopped suddenly. Adverb 83 . (Not speaks very quiet) -Our team played badly. Adverbs of Manner Be careful with the differences between adjectives and adverbs: Adjective -Sue is very quiet.eClass English The Adverb ‘that’ ‘that’ as an adverb Structure ‘That’ + adjective/ adverb To intensify the meaning of the adjective/ adverb Use Example Are you that afraid? I had no idea I was that far from home. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object. I opened the door slowly. -Sue speaks very quietly.

. Examples Where is Diane? She isn’t here yet. They are still waiting for Bill. 84 . Yet Use Use in negative sentences and questions ‘Yet’ is usually at the end of a sentence. not yet.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Yet’ / ‘Not yet’ ‘Yet’ = until now Bill will be here soon. Bill hasn’t come yet. Are you ready to go yet? No. Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill. Where’s Bill? He’s very late.

Yet Use Use in negative sentences and questions ‘Yet’ is usually at the end of a sentence. He’s very late. 85 .eClass English ‘Still’ / ‘Yet’ Still = something is the same as before THE RAIN HASN´T STOPPED An hour ago it was raining. Bill hasn’t come yet. They are still waiting for Bill. Are you ready to go yet? Not yet. (= I was hungry before and I’m hungry now) Yet = until now Bill will be here soon. Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill. It is still raining now. Example: I had a lot to eat but I’m still hungry. Examples Where is Diane? She isn’t here yet. Where’s Bill.

The second part of the compound adjective may be: An adjective A present participle A past participle A noun + ed Irregular (Do not follow the structures above) ice-cold heartbreaking well-deserved old-fashioned second-hand HEART BREAKING 86 .GRAMMAR BOOK Compound Adjectives A compound adjective is formed when two or more adjectives work together to modify the same noun.

When the adjective ends in –ed. Examples Ending in –ed Subject + verb ‘to be’ + adjective + –ed Use Snakes terrify me. Adjectives ending in –ed Tells you how somebody feels. The news was shocking. Examples Some adjectives are made by adding –ing to the verb. Everyone was surprised that he passed the exam. They’re terrifying. It was surprising that he passed the exam. We were shocked when we heard the news. Examples: I’m bored with my job. I hate snakes.eClass English Adjectives ending in –ing and –ed Ending in –ing Subject + verb ‘to be’ + adjective + –ing Use When the adjective ends in –ing. I am always terrified when I see one. 87 . it means that the particular person or thing causes a particular effect. Examples: Disgust Bore Interest Depress Surprise disgusting boring interesting depressing surprising Adjectives ending in –ing Adjectives ending in –ing Tells you about the situation Examples: My job is boring. it means that the particular person or thing experiences a particular effect.

finished. 88 . boiled Irregular Verbs No general rules The past participle as an adjective break write fall give take fly swim Some common irregular past participles broken written fallen given taken flown swum drive eat forget see know drink throw driven eaten forgotten seen known drunk thrown Examples: That is a broken cup. Regular Verbs add –ed or –d Examples: worked.GRAMMAR BOOK Some past participles can be used as adjectives. We are visiting the forgotten city of the Incas.

Example The water was extremely cold. They answer these questions: ‘How much .?’ Highest Intensity totally completely entirely thoroughly absolutely definitely positively +++ almost very extremely really quite practically ++ somewhat somehow fairly rather kind of Lowest Intensity hardly scarcely barely Adverbs of Degree + slightly a bit a little Use / Structure Place the adverb before the adjective or adverb they are modifying Place the adverb before the main verb Examples: I’m really enjoying working on this project. which means we can intensify them. She has almost finished.. He has barely worked this year..eClass English Describe the strength or intensity of something that happens. The exam was fairly easy.. Many adverbs are gradable.?’ or ‘How little. 89 .

nthly. early. Refer to the chart below for examples: Adverbs and Adjectives Adverb Adjective Other uses ) deeply (feeling ) directly (=soonm) hardly (=seldove) highly (figuratitly) lately (=recen lly) mostly (=usuast) nearly (=almo prettily ) shortly (=soon good difficult public deep direct hard high late most near pretty short little. enough. adjectives or other adverbs. fast. o es are long. yea sed also u tion) rmation ithout modifica (w give extra info o used to adverbs are tialss (or other adverbs). low. fa daily. about adjec ve well with difficulty publicly deep (place) direct hard high (place) late most near pretty (=rather) short 90 . straight. mrly. hourly.GRAMMAR BOOK Adverbs are used to modify nouns. This way we can indicate how things are done. … owing adjectivs The foll as adverb weekly. much. r. verbs.

We thank you for flying with us and hope you’ll do so again. (not It was very cold that we stopped playing) He was driving so fast that he went through a red light. 91 . The weather is stormy and will remain so over the weekend. Substitute word ‘So’ can be used in some structures instead of repeating an adjective or adverb.eClass English Uses of ‘so’ Structure + Examples ‘So’ + adjective or adverb = an exclamation You’re so kind! Don’t be so sensitive! ‘that’ clauses so…………that It was so cold that we stopped playing.

but John got up even earlier. Even you can come. even the bathroom. Position of even ‘Even’ + nominal group* / pronoun + verb Even my sister will be there. *A nominal group typically comprises a noun surrounded by other words that all in some way characterize that noun. She has a TV set in every room of the house. Auxiliary + ‘even’ + verb I don’t even know you. 92 . I have even invited John.GRAMMAR BOOK The placement of ‘even’ Use We use ‘even’ to say that something is surprising or unusual. Use We can use ‘even’ + a comparative (cheaper / more expensive) Example I got up very early. Example Tina loves watching television.

Quite a nice day.’ (= completely sure) With theses adjectives. Even if you were my friend. she fell twice. ‘Quite’ / ‘Quite a few’ Use ‘Quite’ = less than ‘very’ but more than ‘a little’ ‘Quite’ goes before a/an It’s quite cold. A contradiction of some hypotheses. I can’t trust you. Quite also means ‘completely’. ‘quite’ means ‘completely’: sure right true clear different incredible amazing certain wrong safe obvious unnecessary extraordinary impossible 93 .eClass English ‘Even if’ and ‘even though’ mean basically the same thing: ‘although’. (not a quite nice day) Examples ‘Quite a few’ = modifies plural nouns to indicate large quantities. Example: I have quite a few letters for you. They have the following distinct meanings: Structure ‘Even though’ ‘Even though’ / ‘Even if’ Use Concession. quite sure. He won’t transfer to Africa. You’d better put a coat on. even if they double his salary. Describes a reality that seems to contradict main clause. Even though you’re my friend. Examples ‘Even if’ Something hypothetical or theoretical. Even though she tried her best. All conditional forms can be used. I wouldn’t trust you. Example: ‘Are you sure?’ ‘Yes.

Examples My brother is as tall as my dad. I’m as old as you are. 94 .10 GRAMMAR BOOK Comparatives and Superlatives Comparing equals using ‘as…as’ Structure Use ‘as’ + adjective / adverb + ‘as’ To compare two people or things according to a common trait.

English is easier than Russian. You can use sentences with ‘than’. (Double the consonant. Helen is more beautiful than Jane. 40 KG old older heavy 50 KG heavier Comparatives are used to compare two things.) hot hotter big bigger fat fatter Irregular Comparatives good bad far much/many little better worse farther/further more less 95 .eClass English Regular and Irregular Comparatives S I’m 93. 1 syllable adjectives old add -er older My brother is older than my sister. or you can use a conjunction like ‘but’. I’m 92. 2 syllable adjectives ending in ‘y’ add -ier easy easier 2 or more syllables beautiful add more (before the adjective) more beautiful Spelling Rules Example: Words with one syllable ending with a vowel and a consonant at the end.

Box A is the biggest box. Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Spelling Rules Example: hot – hottest good bad far much/many little 96 Words with one syllable ending with a vowel and a consonant at the end double the consonant. Box A is bigger than all the other boxes. Superlative sentences usually use ‘the’. English is the easiest language to learn. big – biggest the best the worst the farthest/ the furthest the most the least fat – fattest Irregular Superlatives . because there is only one superlative.GRAMMAR BOOK Regular and Irregular Superlatives Box A is bigger than Box B. 1 syllable adjectives old 2 syllable adjectives ending in ‘y’ easy 2 or more syllables beautiful add the -est the oldest add the -iest the easiest add the most (before the adjective) the most beautiful Helen is the most beautiful in her family. My brother is the oldest of my siblings.

. A use of the comparative Structure ‘the’ + comparative The younger generation (as opposed to ‘the older generation’) This class is for the more intelligent students (as opposed to ‘the slower students’) Examples Use Sometimes a comparative may express an opposition between 2 elements without actually stating both elements (the second element is implied) 97 ...... . . the more I know..eClass English ‘The more ....’ to say things change or vary together....the.. ‘the’ + comparative Parallel progression: we use comparatives with ‘the. the easier it is to learn a language.. the more’ Structure ‘the’ + comparative. the happier I am.. The more I learn... The older I get.. Examples The younger you are...

on Tuesday afternoon etc. I go home on Christmas Day. Example On Days of the week Specific dates New Year’s Day etc. Preposition At Prepositions of Time Use I start work at 9 o’clock.11 GRAMMAR BOOK Prepositions Time A preposition of time connects words in a sentence showing the relationship of a noun and the moment/day/time/date of the action. My birthday is on May 25th. in the afternoon. Fixed expressions: in the morning. At the weekend (British) / On the weekend (American) At night At the moment 98 . In MT W TFSS 1 8 15 22 29 2 3 9 10 16 17 May 23 24 30 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28 Months Seasons Years My birthday is in June. The shops close at 5. It will be ready by the summer. By To show ending date or period.30. I need to finish the report by Friday. in the evening But on Monday morning. I take vacation in the summer. I go to bed at midnight. I have class on Tuesdays. I was born in 1980.

on above over in front of beside behind under below 99 . At •General location •Precise point in larger space at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the front desk Prepositions of Place In •Inside of a place •Country. district something is located in in the garden in London in France in a car On •Surface on the wall on the ceiling on the door on a page Here are some prepositions of place. city.eClass English A preposition of place connects words in a sentence showing the relationship of a noun and the location/area/position/surface of an object.

She has nothing to complain about. That’s what I’m worried about. Examples: Listen to Look at Look for (search for. try to find) Look after (take care of) Talk about Talk to Worry about Pay for Depend on Complain about Go to Go for Go on Go in In some structures we put the preposition at the end of the sentence: Interrogative questions (when the question word is the object of the preposition) Relative clauses (when the relative pronoun is the object of the preposition) Infinitive clauses What are you looking at? What kind of music do you like to listen to? This is the house that I am talking about. Verb + preposition Some verbs are commonly followed by a preposition in order to indicate a common action. I’ve got lots of music to listen to.GRAMMAR BOOK Final Preposition A final preposition is a word which comes after the verb and requests the results between the action performed and the subject or object of the sentence. 100 .

She is a simple. They may yet win the game.12 ‘And’ ‘Yet’ Conjunctions Examples: Karen sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response. -To suggest an element of surprise. more of something. and you’ll soon find yourself deep in debt.To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another. Conjunctions The story is unbelievable. -To suggest a kind of ‘comment’ on the first clause. My lazy friend Charlie failed the math test and that didn’t surprise anyone.To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another. Juan is brilliant. and Sandra has a pleasant personality. eClass English A conjunction is a word that “joins” the words in a sentence to each other in order to send a logical message. It literally connects parts of a sentence. conditionally. Frequently Used Conjunctions: . yet very intelligent woman. Use your credit cards frequently. -To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another. 101 . -To suggest addition. even though -To indicate that something can ‘eventually’ occur. -Despite. . Melipilla is a beautiful town and suffers from severe pollution. yet supposedly it’s all true. Kevin heard the weather report and packed his camping gear. -To suggest that one idea is the result of another.

GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Nor’ -Used with ‘neither’ for negative sentences. we can use ‘for’ as a conjunctive when we introduce the reason for the preceding clause. . . (= only one of these things can happen) We can broil chicken on the grill tonight.To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative. The students never studied for the test.To suggest that only one possibility can be achieved.0 grade for class participation. Either you participate in class or get a 1. . Smart English is the best language center in the country.To suggest a refinement of the first clause. .To use with the meaning of ‘with the exception of’. . but used their notes to work on the assignment in class. There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon. They must like her style or they wouldn’t keep asking her to design the uniforms each year. John thought he had a good chance to get the job. excluding one or the other. ‘For’ Though used as a preposition. ‘But’ . Joey lost his job last year. That is not what I meant. or so it seems to most students at the UAI. He is neither young nor ambitious. for his father was on the company’s board of trustees. or we can eat hamburgers.To suggest a negative condition. .To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way. but he still seems able to live quite comfortably. -Used with other negative expressions.To suggest a restatement or ‘correction’ of the first part of the sentence. nor should you misinterpret my statement. 102 . Everybody but Mark is trying out for the team. or so our guide tells us. You can study hard for this exam or you can fail. .To suggest a contrast that is unexpected based on the first clause. ‘Or’ .To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives.

. and his aunt Sally. so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds when he is at the beach.To connect two independent clauses together with a comma. does. Steve has always been nervous in large gatherings. 103 . John is not the only Olympic athlete in his family. and when it from the custody of his parents. ‘so’ will act as a So. the sheriff promptly removed the child kind of summing up device or transition. sister. .To indicate ‘as well’ or ‘in addition’.At the beginning of a sentence.eClass English ‘So’ . so are his uncle. it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma.

He stayed after school so that he could help me with my homework. 104 . She gave him more time so he could finish the assignment. I wrote it in my daily planner so that I wouldn’t forget. ‘that’ is often dropped. In an informal style. Example: I’ve come early so I can talk to you.GRAMMAR BOOK Use of ‘so’ to express a goal Examples: I’m saving money so I can travel in the summer. Objectives are expressed using ‘so that’ followed by: Structure Example ‘So that’ + ‘may’ or ‘can’ Present simple ‘May’ / ‘might’ ‘can’ / ‘could’ ‘Will’ / ‘would’ He’ll take a taxi so that he arrives on time.

She’s good at scientific subjects. Like the manager (Br ‘Like’ – Mary Stone is make important decisions. nager) (‘As the manager’ = in her position as the ma enda Casey). ny Compare: pany. like chemistry. she has to make ma ‘As’ – Brenda Casey is the manager of a com important decisions.eClass English Similarity: ‘like’ and ‘as’ Use We can use ‘like’ or ‘as’ to say that things are similar. He ran like the wind. As the similar to a preposition •Like + noun / pronoun •We can use ‘like’ to give examples ‘As’ . Structure ‘Like’ . (‘Like the manager’ = similar to the manager) 105 . He worked as a taxi driver. s but ‘Like’ and ‘as’ can both be used as preposition ‘Like’ = ‘similar to’ ‘As’ = ‘in the position of’. ‘in the form of’ have different meanings. she also has to the assistant manager. They did as they a conjunction •‘As’ + clause (subject + verb) •‘As’ comes before nouns designating tittles and functions Example You look like your sister.

The gerund (verb ending in –ing) is used: • After prepositions (see below) He’s made a lot of friends by joining the tennis club. • As non-count nouns Climbing is safer than it looks PREPOSITIONS: after before by for on despite without since If verbs are followed by another verb.13 GRAMMAR BOOK Gerunds and Infinitives Gerunds and Infinitives The infinitive (‘to’ + verb) is used: • To say why you do something I go to the gym to get some exercise. • To say why something exists Here’s an example to help you. that verb is either in the infinitive or the gerund form. Verbs Followed by an Infinitive She agreed to speak before the game. agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin bother care choose consent continue dare decide deserve expect fail forget get happen have hesitate hope hurry intend leap leave long mean neglect offer ought plan prefer prepare proceed promise propose refuse remember say shoot stop strive swear threaten try use wait want wish 106 . • After ‘too’ and ‘enough’ It’s too cold to go swimming.

admit to depend on approve of disapprove of argue about discourage from believe in dream about care about feel like complain about forget about concentrate on insist on confess to plan on Expressions followed by the gerund It’s no good It’s not worth It’s a waste of time Can’t stand Can’t help Verbs followed by either an infinitive or a gerund begin love continue like prevent (someone) from refrain from succeed in talk about think about worry about It’s no use Can’t bear dislike hate prefer start 107 . advise choose have order send allow command hire pay teach ask dare instruct permit tell beg direct invite persuade urge bring encourage lead prepare want build expect leave promise warn buy forbid let remind challenge force motivate require Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object. admit delay advise deny appreciate enjoy avoid escape can’t help excuse complete finish consider forbid get through have imagine mind miss permit postpone practice quit recall report resent resist resume risk spend (time) suggest tolerate waste (time) Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund We concentrated on doing well. Verbs Followed by a Gerund They enjoyed working on the boat.eClass English Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive Everyone expected her to win.


We use ‘get used to’ to say that an action or situation becomes less strange or new. We can use the expression in present simple, interrogative and present continuous forms. Structure: ‘get used to’ + noun or gerund It took them a long time to get used to the new office. Have you got used to driving on the left side of the road yet? She is getting used to waking up early for her new job.

‘Get used to’

We use the expression ‘be used to’ to say that we have already become familiar with something/someone which was in the past new or strange. We can use the expression in the present simple, negative and affirmative sentences, in question form and when the object involves a verb, we use the gerund form. Structure: subject + be + used to + object. Mary is used to horses. Kurt is not used to horses. Are you used to horses? We are used to taking the bus.

‘Be used to’


eClass English

Some verbs that express reactions and preferences are followed by a verb in the gerund (verb ending in –ing). Some are followed by a verb in the infinitive (‘to’ + verb) or a gerund.
Followed by the gerund To enjoy To mind To resent To object to To miss Cannot stand They enjoy dancing very much. I miss going to my English class.

Verbs: Reactions and Preferences

Followed by gerund or infinitive

To like To love To dislike To hate To loathe To prefer Cannot bear I love eating. I love to eat.



Verbs that express a command, wish, preference and prohibition follow this structure. Verbs: allow, command, forbid, hate, instruct, like, love, need, oblige, recommend, want verb + object + infinitive
Examples: He wants John to rent a car. They don’t allow people to smoke.

Verb + Infinitive Clause

Many of these verbs can also be used in the passive structure.

Subject + passive verb + infinitive
Examples: We were advised to come early. We were instructed to put down our pens.


it is very dangerous. make an effort to ) To try (do something as an experiment or test) To agree To consent *A gerund with this verb is only used in British English. Infinitive or gerund* He intends to go to New York.* What did he propose doing? What did he propose to do? I am trying to do this exercise.eClass English Verbs expressing a wish to act may be followed by infinitives (‘to’ + verb) or gerunds (verbs ending in –ing). 111 . She consented to go with her. Infinitive or gerund Infinitive Gerund I wouldn’t try rafting. Verbs expressing a wish to act To intend To propose To try (attempt to do. Infinitive Infinitive He agreed to help her. He intends going to new York.

Laugh / smile AT Aim / point AT -Why are you looking at me? -I was laughing at his joke. Verb + ‘to’ Talk / speak TO Listen TO Write TO Invite (somebody) TO Explain (something) TO (someone) Apologize TO (someone) -Can I speak to Jane please? -I invited 200 people to my wedding. but there is a difference in meaning.GRAMMAR BOOK Verb + Preposition ‘at’ / ‘to’ Verb + ‘at’ Look / have a look / stare / glance AT. Some verbs can be followed by at or to. Shout AT somebody – when you are angry Shout TO somebody – so that they can hear you Throw something AT somebody/something – in order to hit them Throw something TO somebody – for somebody to catch 112 . -I need to apologize to my friend because I shouted at her yesterday.

Used to describe a situation that is not likely. I will go to the beach. subject + present simple If water boils. see ‘second’ in table below. subject + ‘would’ + infinitive without ‘to’ If’ I won a million pounds. and Second Conditionals (Sequence of tenses with ‘if’)* * For ‘construction of the present conditional’. subject + ‘will’ + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘If’ the weather is good. I would buy a house. 113 . Structure Examples Uses Used to describe something that is generally or always true. Describes a hypothetical situation in the present. subject + ‘would’ + ‘have’ + past participle If I had won the lottery. Used to describe a hypothetical situation in the past.14 Zero First Second (present) Third (perfect) Zero. ‘If’ + subject + past perfect. Conditionals Conditionals eClass English Conditionals are used to talk about possibility. Conditional ‘If’ + subject + present simple . second and third’ below. It describes a situation that is impossible. first. ‘If’ + subject+ present simple. I would have bought a car. ‘If’ + subject + past simple. it reaches 100 degrees. First. For ‘sequence of tenses with if’ see ‘zero. Used to describe a situation that is likely.

subject + ‘would’ + ‘have’ + past participle If I had seen you. I sent it half an hour ago. (reproach) (unfulfilled) expectation or assumption regarding the past You should have received my e-mail. They met a few days ago. The Perfect Conditional using ‘should’ Structure ‘Should’ + ‘have’ + past participle Use Regret or reproach (to blame someone) Example I should have studied harder.’ What Liz said is hypothetical because the real situation is that she didn’t know he was in hospital. (regret) You should have gotten up earlier. Example: Last month Gary was in hospital for an operation. Liz said: ‘If I had known you were in hospital. Liz didn’t know this. These situations are in the past and therefore they are impossible and never happened. I would have gone to visit you.GRAMMAR BOOK The Perfect Conditional / Third Conditional ‘If’ + subject + past perfect. so she didn’t go to visit him. Describes hypothetical situations in the past. I would have said hello. 114 .

but it is noticeable in the he/sheform of the verb. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF ‘TRY’ IS NOTICEABLE: •It is important that he try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF ‘TRY’ LOOKS THE SAME: •It is important that you try to study often. HE-FORM OF ‘TRY’: •He tries to study often. 115 . The Subjunctive is used to emphasize urgency or importance.15 FORM USE Present Subjunctive Subjunctive and Wishes eClass English Use the simple form of the verb. Examples: YOU-FORM OF ‘TRY’: •You try to study often. The simple form of the verb ‘to go’ is ‘go’. The simple form is the infinitive without the ‘to’. It is used after certain expressions (see below). The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. • Is it essential that we be there? • Don recommended that you join the committee. the Subjunctive is not noticeable in the you-form of the verb. Examples: • I suggest that he study. NOTICE: The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. In the examples below.

Examples 116 . Examples Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions: It is best (that) It is crucial (that) It is desirable (that) It is essential (that) It is imperative (that) It is important (that) It is recommended (that) It is urgent (that) It is vital (that) It is a good idea (that) It is a bad idea (that) •It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives. •Donna requested Frank come to the party. •The teacher insists that her students be on time. •It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.GRAMMAR BOOK Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs: to advise (that) to ask (that) to command (that) to demand (that) to desire (that) to insist (that) to propose (that) to recommend (that) to request (that) to suggest (that) to urge (that) •Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the month. •It is important she attend the meeting.

* *This is also a second conditional.eClass English Negative Forms of Subjunctive The Subjunctive can be used in negative. Present: The President requests that they stop the invasion. Past: The President requested that they stop the invasion. It’s not as if I were ugly. Examples: •The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting. However. If I were seven feet tall. •The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours. I’d be a great basketball player. In this example. 1 2 117 . I wish I were thinner. (‘was’ is often used informally in speech) Examples He wishes he were a better student. ‘as if’. I would buy a new car. we usually use the subjunctive ‘were’ instead of ‘was’ after ‘if’ and other words with similar meanings. See below. Note: Some sentences combine a past subjunctive with a conditional. The Past Subjunctive Past Forms of the Subjunctive The past tense of the subjunctive has the same forms as the indicative. The past subjunctive is commonly used with these expressions ‘if only’. ‘suppose’. part 1 is a subjunctive and part 2 a conditional. If only I had more money. ‘I wish’. Suppose she were married. continuous and passive forms. Examples If only I had more money. •I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.

Situation: I can’t play a musical instrument. For the verb ‘to be’.) 118 . Wish: “I wish she were tidier. Wishes in the present To make wishes about the present. Situation: He sings in the office. Situation: My sister is untidy. Wish: “I wish I could play a musical instrument. use the past tense. Wish: “I wish I had gone on a vacation this year. use ‘were’.” (In this sentence you are stressing the fact he wants to sing and makes a habit of it. Wish: “I wish he wouldn’t sing in the office. Situation: I didn’t go on a vacation this year. use the past perfect.GRAMMAR BOOK Wishes and Regrets Wish = To show you want a situation to be different Regret = To feel sorrow or remorse for something you did/did not do.” Wishes in the past (regret) To make wishes about the past.” Wishes about ability To make wishes about ability use ‘could’.” Wishes about habit and free will To make wishes about habit and free will use ‘would’.

The room is going to be cleaned by him. He is cleaning the room. We use an active verb to say what the subject does. He was cleaning the room. He has cleaned the room.16 Tense The Passive Voice Passives eClass English Passive Voice = ‘To be’ + past participle The passive exists in every tense. we use ‘by…’ Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Future simple ‘will’ ‘To be going to’ future Present Perfect Past Perfect He cleans the room. The room was being cleaned by him. The room will be cleaned by him. Passive 119 . He cleaned the room. If we want to say who does or what causes the action. We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject. ‘who’ or ‘what’ causes the action is often unknown or unimportant. He will clean the room He is going to clean the room. Active The room is cleaned by him. The room was cleaned by him. When we use the passive. He had cleaned the room. The room has been cleaned by him. The room is being cleaned by him. The room had been cleaned by him.

It was strange to say that Russian is easier than English. Someone is on the phone for you. (the listener is included) They are very friendly in Ireland. Passive form without the agent The personal pronouns ‘we. Playing tennis is excellent exercise.GRAMMAR BOOK An impersonal structure is used to talk about people in general. 120 . The Impersonal Structure Other Impersonal Structures: gerund + object + ‘to be’ conjugated + (adverb of frequency) + adjective It + ‘to be’ conjugated + (adverb of frequency) + adjective + infinitive Reading English newspapers is often difficult. (Somebody expects us) We drive on the left side of the road. Here are some different ways to form an impersonal structure. It is sometimes exciting to walk in the pouring rain. they’ We are expected at 7pm. (the speaker is included in the group of people in question) You drink a lot of tea in Britain. (neither the speaker nor listener is included) People (plural meaning) Somebody/someone (singular meaning) People in Ireland are very friendly. you.

” She said “I must watch TV.” Reported speech She said (that) she watched TV every day.” She said “I can watch TV. She said she was going to watch TV. Here are the changes in tense (sequence of tenses) in reported speech: Direct speech She said “I watch TV every day.” She said “I am watching. She told someone to watch TV. Tom said that he was feeling ill. She said she might watch TV. Reported speech: -The main sentence of the verb is usually in the past tense.” She said “I should watch TV.” She said “I may watch TV. ‘I’m feeling ill’ 2. * *The imperative changes to the infinitive. She said she would watch TV. She said she had watched TV. The Sequence of Tenses / Reported Speech You want to tell someone else what Tom said. (each tense goes a step back in time) -‘That’ is optional. but without using the exact words.” She said “I ought to watch TV.17 Reported Speech I’m feeling ill. She said she should watch TV. She said she had watched TV. (said.” She said “I will watch TV. ‘Tell’ is usually used instead of ‘say’. There are 2 ways of doing this: 1.” She said “I am going to watch TV. She said she had to watch TV. You can use reported speech. She said she ought to watch TV. 121 . You can repeat Tom’s words (direct speech) Tom said.” She said “I watched TV.” She said “Watch TV.” She said “I have watched TV. She said she was watching TV. eClass English Reported Speech is used to communicate what someone else said. told) -The rest of the sentence is usually in a past tense too. She said she could watch TV.

sometimes in spoken English no change is made if the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said. Jones give any assignments? He said he wanted us to read Chapter Six. 2. This formal sequence of tenses is used both in speaking and writing. She said that Alaska is the largest state in the USA. If the sentence is a general truth. sometimes the present tense is retained. The past simple can stay the same in reported speech or you can change it to the past perfect. I didn’t go to the class yesterday. Did Mr. 122 . 3. 4. However. Immediate Reporting: Later Reporting: What did the teacher just say? He said he wants us to read Chapter Six.GRAMMAR BOOK General Guidelines for Reported Speech 1.

Preposition Estrangement: to go away Disappearance: to sweep away Backward movement: to stand back Return to point of departure: to bring back Reply: to answer back Downward movement: to go down Writing: to write down Decrease: to turn down Inward movement: to get in Visit: to drop in Averting: to put off Departure: to go off / to take off Start: to turn on / switch on Continuation: to go on Outward movement: to move out Outside: to eat out Distribution: to give out Repetition: to say over Action done with care: to think over Upward movement: to climb up Increased volume: to speak up All evidence of the crime was swept away. The Main Postpositions / Common Phrasal Verbs Please turn down the radio.18 Away Back Down In Off On Out Over Up Phrasal Verbs Use Example eClass English A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a preposition or adverb that modifies or changes the meaning. I will have to think over your offer carefully. The student answered back to the teacher. it is very loud. I will drop in later and see how you are doing. I can’t hear you. Can you turn on the fan please? I always eat out on Fridays. because I have a class. Here are some common phrasal verbs in English. Speak up. I have put off my dental appointment. 123 .

RUN + INTO = MEET He ran away when he was 15. A transitive verb can be followed by an object. Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed after the preposition. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object. Example: He suddenly showed up. ‘Story’ is the object of ‘made up’. Example: I ran into an old friend yesterday. RUN INTO = MEET BY CHANCE Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places. Example: I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition. RUN + AWAY = LEAVE HOME Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. Example: I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. SHOW UP cannot take an object. Some phrasal verbs are transitive. 124 . Example: I made up the story. TALK INTO = PERSUADE Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. I looked up the number in the phone book. Example: I looked the number up in the phone book.GRAMMAR BOOK Phrasal Verbs A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a meaning different from the original verb.

CORRECT I looked it up in the phone book.eClass English WARNING! Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both places. INCORRECT 125 . Example: I looked the number up in the phone book. you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if the object is a pronoun. CORRECT I looked up it in the phone book. CORRECT I looked up the number in the phone book.

show a change of state Examples: It gets dark early in winter. I’m getting tired of working such long hours. He is looking forward to seeing you. It is getting warmer.19 GRAMMAR BOOK Expressions ‘To get’ + adjective : to become. Structure Verb ‘to be’ + ‘look forward to’ + gerund Examples: I look forward to hearing from you. ‘To look forward to’ 126 . Some adjectives used with ‘get’ get hungry get thirsty get tired get ready get serious get wet get better get prepared get dressed get bigger ‘To get’ + Adjective The verb ‘to get’ has many different meanings such as: To obtain To receive To buy To reach To arrive (at a place) To become Get dressed ‘To look forward to’ = To think of a future event with anticipation Structure Verb ‘to be’ + ‘look forward to’ + noun Example: I am looking forward to the vacation.

eClass English

‘Kind of’ followed by a noun

‘kind of (a/an)’ + noun
When you ask for a more precise definition or description of something. What kind of (a) problem are you having?* What kind of experience do you have? * It is more informal to include ‘a’ To describe something in an approximate way, not precise. She’s kind of rude. It’s a kind of telephone but plays music as well. It looks kind of like an earring, but is much bigger. What sort/type of computer is that? = What kind of computer is that?

‘Kind of like (/a/an)’ + noun
approximate or partial way.

To compare one thing to another in an

‘Kind of’ = sort of / type of



‘To be likely’

‘To be likely’ = high probability of something happening.

Present ‘To be likely’ + infinitive Past ‘To be (was/were) likely’ + infinitive Negative ‘To be unlikely’ + infinitive Related expression ‘It is likely that’

He is likely to pass the exam. The meeting is likely to be very long. The meeting was likely to be very long.

He is unlikely to come. It’s likely that it will rain. It’s unlikely that it is very cold there.

‘To be likely’ + ‘to have’ + past participle = an opinion about a past event.

He is likely to have forgotten about the appointment. They are likely to have finished early.


eClass English

‘To be left’ / ‘To have left’
‘To be left’ /‘to have left’ = remaining, not used, still there
‘to be left’ Subject + ‘be left’ to have left This is an active structure. Do you have any rooms left? Yes, we have some rooms left. This is a passive structure.

The weather was bad. Few people were left on the streets.

Subject + ‘have’ + direct object + ‘left’

‘For the sake of’
‘For the sake of’ = in the interests of
‘For’ + noun / noun phrase +’ -’s sake’ ‘For’ + possessive adjective + ‘sake’ ‘For the sake of’ + noun / noun phrase / gerund


For John’s sake For the children’s sake For his sake For their sake For the sake of the children For the sake of saving


GRAMMAR BOOK Expressions with ‘to have’ Use Here are some fixed expressions with the verb ‘to have’ To have a bath To have lunch To have a rest To have a look ‘To have reason to’ + infinitive ( to analyze causes and consequences) ‘To have to do with something’ ( to say what the topic is) Examples Did you have a bath yesterday? We will have lunch later. I’d like to have a rest before going out. 130 . The report has to do with our financial results for the last quarter. Have a look at this! We have reason to hope for continued success.

Now that more companies have made offers. This is a complicated transaction. Our new attorney seems to be on the ball. I can only give you a ballpark figure.eClass English Baseball is an important part of American culture. Dan started criticizing right off the bat. we’re dealing with a bigger playing field. Its influence is so strong that it has become the source of many expressions that are used in informal and business contexts. We’re going to have to play hard ball if we want to get this deal. Jenny hit a home run with that deal. The offer isn’t in the ballpark yet. Expression Touch base Playing field On the ball Ballpark figure In the ballpark Big league To cover one’s bases Home run Play hard ball Right off the bat It’s good to touch base with clients regularly. Baseball Expressions Example 131 . make sure to cover your bases. We’ll move into the big league if we secure this deal.

our financial stability will be at stake. To creep up To edge up To inch up To take off To skyrocket To shoot up To soar To go through the roof To describe sharp and sudden increase. Stocks are skyrocketing following economic recovery. Next year. Stocks crept up last quarter. To talk about slow or gradual increase. 132 . but it has really taken off. ‘to be on the line’. productivity should climb sharply. The company is only two years old. To describe increase in a general way. Use Example If we don’t respond to this crisis now.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘To be at stake’ Structure ‘To be’ + ‘at stake’ To be threatened or endangered. The firm’s reputation is at stake following the recall of its latest product. Expressions of Increase Use To rise To climb Expression Example Share values rose steadily last quarter. Prices are inching up due to inflation. This may be used to talk about threats to someone or something’s well-being or reputation. ‘to be at risk’ There are several different words and expressions to describe increase. These expressions are similar in meaning ‘to be at stake’: ‘to be in jeopardy’.

? Plural: There are Examples: Are there…. 133 .? STATION There’s a man on the roof.20 Other eClass English ‘There is’ / ‘There are’ Affirmative Singular: There is Negative There is not There isn’t There’s not There are not There aren’t Question Is there…….. MT W TFSS 1 8 15 22 29 2 3 9 10 16 17 May 23 24 30 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28 There are seven days in a week. There’s a train in the station.

Tenth 10th… 20th. 21st. 23rd …. Ninth 9th. Second 2nd. years are pronounced in two parts: 1925 = 19part1 25part2 = ‘Nineteen1 twenty-five2’ 1998 = nineteen ninety-eight 2010 = two thousand (and) ten (‘twenty ten’ is also becoming popular) Date (written form) 1: American format = July 2. 33rd…. Fifth 5th. Seventh 7th. Eighth 8th. 22nd. Sixth 6th.GRAMMAR BOOK Dates First 1st. 31st. 2010 month / day / year = 07/02/2010 2: British format = 2 July 2010 day / month / year = 02/07/2010 134 . Days Weekly Calendar Sunday Monday Tuesday Week of_______________ Saturday Wednesday Thursday Friday Years Up until the year 2000. 32nd. Third 3rd Ordinal Numbers Fourth 4th. 30th.

eClass English Time What time………? = what time of day? What time is it? What time do you get up? O’clock The time + o’clock = indicates an exact hour. 11 10 9 8 7 12 1 2 3 4 9 8 7 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 9 8 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 6 5 6 5 7 6 5 It’s twenty past four. 135 . To express a time after the half hour and before the hour we use ‘to’. It’s quarter past three It’s half past twelve. 11 10 9 8 7 12 1 2 3 4 9 8 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 6 5 7 6 5 It’s ten to two. It’s quarter to five. British English To express a time after the hour we use ‘past’. It’s six o’clock.


American English

To express a time after the hour we use ‘after’. (except for the half hour)

11 10 9 8 7


1 2 3 4 9 8 10



1 2 3 4 9 8 10



1 2 3 4









It’s twenty after four.

It’s quarter after three.

It’s twelve thirty.

To express a time after the half hour and before the hour we use ‘to’.

11 10 9 8 7


1 2 3 4 9 8 10



1 2 3 4






It’s ten to two.

It’s quarter to five. In both British and American English
You can also tell the time by reading the hour and then the minutes. 6:05 6:10 6:15 6:20 6:30 6:45 6:55 It’s six o five. It’s six ten. It’s six fifteen. It’s six twenty. It’s six thirty. It’s six forty-five. It’s six fifty-five.


eClass English

‘Have or ‘Make’ without ‘to’
To cause someone to do something


to ‘have’ or ‘make’ + direct object + infinitive without ‘to’


I had him service my car. He made me laugh so much.

To cause something to be done

‘to have’ + direct object + past participle

He had his car repaired. She had her hair cut.



‘To Let’

‘Let’ means the same as ‘to allow’ or ‘to permit’ but is more informal.

‘Let’ + object + infinitive without ‘to’ Example: Please allow me to buy you a drink. Please let me buy you a drink. Example: My parents don’t allow me to go out at night. My parents don’t let me go out at night. Remember, in the third person present we use ‘lets’ but in the past simple we use ‘let’. Conjugation of ‘to let’ The present I You He/She/It We They let let lets let let The past simple I You He/She/It We They let let let let let


eClass English With conjunctions of time. / I’m 1. like ‘when’ and ‘while’. / It’s 8848m How often do you go to the cinema? I hardly ever go. we use the present tense. Structure ‘Will’ + verb. ‘When’ / ‘While’ + present after as soon as as long as as much as before while Conjunctions of time once until when whenever wherever ‘How’ + Adjective or Adverb Structure ‘How’ + adjective or adverb Use Forms an open question. conjunction of time + present simple Examples: They will eat when they arrive. I’ll call you.60m How high is Mt Everest? It is extremely high. (you can’t answer yes or no) Examples How tall are you? I am very tall. While I am in Santiago. 139 .

I’d prefer to talk to someone else. Would you prefer to stay at home? Examples ‘Would rather’ He’d rather be on the beach. You had better not finish the cake! ‘Would rather’ Subject + ‘would rather’ + infinitive without ‘to’ Subject + ‘would rather’ + not + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘Would’ + subject + ‘rather’ + infinitive without ‘to’ -To show preference I would rather go for a swim. I would rather not go for a swim. Structure Expression of Preference ‘Would prefer’ Subject + ‘would prefer’ + infinitive with ‘to’ (‘d) Subject + ‘would rather’ + infinitive without ‘to’ (‘d) Used mainly in speech.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Had better’ / ‘Would rather’ Structure Subject + ‘had better’ + infinitive without ‘to’ Subject + ‘had better’ + not + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘Had better’ Use -A firm suggestion -An order Examples You had better tell her the bad news. Would you rather go for a swim? These expressions are used to talk about preference. Would you rather stay here or go away? 140 .

eClass English The words whoever. wherever mean it doesn’t matter who/ what / which etc. Whenever I go to London. whichever. tell them I’m out. Wherever you go. however. 141 . you’ll find Coca. or ‘the unknown person who’. ‘any thing that’ etc. Choose whichever book you like. I’ll always love you. ‘the unknown thing that’) Words ending in ‘ever’ Word ending in ever Examples Whoever Whatever Whichever However Whenever Wherever Whoever comes to the door. I try to see Vicky. However you travel.Cola. whenever. (‘any person who’. whatever. it will take you at least 3 days. Whatever you do.

(the son having dessert depends on consumption of dessert. Like ‘if’ it expresses uncertainty. You can have dessert if you eat your vegetables. Use ‘whether’ with infinitives that come after ‘to’. Answer yes or no questions with ‘whether’ or ‘if’. It’s becoming increasingly popular to use ‘whether’ and ‘if’ interchangeably in certain situations. I don’t know whether we should invest right now or not. I am uncertain whether we should go to the dinner party. OR I’m not sure whether I can go shopping with you tonight. 142 . so this is conditional) To discuss two or more alternatives. Jenny doesn’t know whether to study for her test or go to a movie with friends. Sally asks: ‘Can you go shopping with me tonight?’ I’m not sure if I can go shopping with you tonight. Whether Use ‘whether’ after prepositions. The differences between ‘whether’ and ‘if’: If For situations with only one condition.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘Whether’ ‘Whether’ = to talk about choices or alternatives. it is not considered grammatically correct to interchange them. Although this might be acceptable in casual conversation.

143 . ‘I can’t do it! It’s too difficult!’ ‘Do try again!’ Emphatic ‘do’ Examples Verbs that express impressions and feelings are: to look. Confirmation of what precedes. It sounds like you’re angry. He looks happy. to feel etc. to taste. Use Insistence on speaker’s point of view. to sound. He did come. to smell. He said it would rain and it did rain. This ice cream tastes good. It sounds as though you aren’t listening to me. He didn’t come to the party yesterday. Contradiction Persuasion using the imperative She does look pretty. They may be followed by: Structure the preposition ‘like’ He looks like his father. Verbs expressing impressions and feelings Examples ‘as if’ / ‘as though’ an adjective You look as if you don’t understand me. but he didn’t stay long.eClass English For emphasis we can put do in an affirmative clause.

What time is the match tonight? I forget. as in: ‘I am told’ (= I understand ) Instead of ‘I’ve been told’ ‘I forget’ (= I can’t remember) Instead of ‘I’ve forgotten’ ‘I hear’ Instead of ‘I’ve heard’ Structure I am told that you are in charge of the sales department. I hear you have been promoted.GRAMMAR BOOK ‘I am told’ The present sometimes stands in for the present perfect. Examples 144 .

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