Transfair Engineering: Survey about CFC-free Refrigerator Production - Part 4
C o o lin g C ircu it C o n n e ctio n S ch e m e
A ccum ulator
Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits
Walter Dirk Adler Transfair GmbH Mörsenbroicher Weg 179 D-40470 Düsseldorf Tel.: (++49) 211-638811 Fax.: (++49) 211-638898 E-Mail: Transfair_GmbH@t-online.de
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents
1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4. 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.5. 1.5.1 1.5.2 INTRODUCTION Refrigeration Cycle -Definitions Designing of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits Standards and Climate Classes Refrigerator and Freezer Performance Standards Climate Classes Electrical Safety Standards Refrigeration Capacity Calculation of Thermal Losses and Freezing Power Measurement of the Cabinet Constant Reduction of Thermal Losses Foam Insulation Thickness Polyurethane Foam Tests Measurement of the Foam Density in Refrigerators and Test Shots Dimensional Stability Verification of Reaction Parameters, Cream Time, String Time, Rise Time Assurance of a Continuous Quality Thermal Bridges Sealing between Door and Cabinet Reduced Space between Food liner and Door liner Design of Door Gasket, Air Tightness Test of Door Gaskets 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16
2.1. 2.2. 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3. Replacements of CFC-12 Compressors Energy Efficiencies, Drop-in Solutions, Reliabilities and Lifetimes Compressor Dimensions and Spaces, Investments and Costs Compressor Capacities HP Value Nominal Displacement Refrigeration Capacity Coefficient of Performance Starting Characteristics Low or High Starting Torque, RSIR, RSCR, CSIR, CSR Start Capacitor, PTC, Relay, High Starting Torque Compressor, Run Capacitor Electrical Diagrams Lifetime Heavy Duty Evaporating Temperature LBP, MBP, HBP Comparison between R134a and R12 Compressors Pressure-/Enthalpy Diagram of R12 and R134a
2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3
A Comparison Test made by Danfoss Conclusions (Part 1)
A comparison Test made by National Matsushita Reciprocal Compressor Rotary Compressor
17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 23
Conclusions (Part 2): Needed Design Improvements
2.9. 2.9.1 2.9.2 Comparison Tests of R134a, R600a and R12 Compressors from Necchi Compressor COP Tests Fridge/Freezer Tests using R600a, R290/R600a Mixture, R134a and R12 Compressors Conclusions (Part 3) Cooling Capacities, Coefficient of Performances, R600a Displacement Increase, Charge Tolerances, R290/R600a Drop-in Solution, Noise, Overall Dimensions
25 25 25 26 26 26
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents
2.10. 2.11. 2.12. 2.10.
of Compressors, R134a Lubricant, R134a Sludge Formation, R600a Solubility and Foaming, R600a Flammability, Compressor Costs Energy Optimised Compressors Variable Capacity Compressor Compressor Performance Tests and Test Methods Labelling of Compressors with Flammable Gas (R600a, R290 etc.)
27 27 28 29 29
3.1. 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6. 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3. Static Condensers Wire-on-Tube Condensers Tube-on -Finned -Plate Condensers Condenser Constant Condenser Capacity Condenser Transmission Coefficient or U-Value Condenser Surface Skin Condenser Skin Condenser on a Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets Skin Condenser on a Chest Freezer Relation between Volume, Tube Length, Tube Distance and k-Value Necessary Increase of Insulation of Skin Condenser Refrigerators and Freezers Sheet Cover on Condenser Anti-Dew Coil Oil Cooling Condenser Fan Cooled Condenser Fin Coil Characteristics Possible Solutions for the Air Ducts Testing Condensers Calorimetric Measurement Comparison Test of Condenser Capacities Standards of condenser performance testing and test methods
31 31 31 31 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 40
4. CAPILLARY TUBE AND HEAT EXCHANGER
4.1. 4.2. 4.3. Capillary Tube Capacity Calculation Capillary Tube Capacity Tests Heat Exchanger
42 42 43 44
5.1. 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 Evaporator Capacity and k-Value Roll-Bond Evaporators Suction Accumulation Channel Cross Section Samples Evaporator Types, Sizes and Forms Cold Cabinets Evaporator Surface Screening and Drip Trays Two Temperature Cabinets Connection of Refrigerator and Freezer Evaporators in Series Tube-on-Sheet, TOP or Skin Evaporators Chest Freezers Evaporators Chest Freezer Pull-Down Test Chest Freezer Evaporator Tube Length Working Process to mount Chest Freezer Evaporators Aluminium Tube Evaporators, Steel Tube Evaporators Cold Cabinet Evaporators Flatted evaporator tube with vertical u-bend
5.1.5 5.2. 5.2.1
46 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53
5. Wire-on-Tube Freezer.3.3 7. Aluminium sheet or foils Working Process to mount Tube-on-Sheet or Skin Evaporators on Refrigerators Surface of Tube-on-Sheet Evaporator Freezer Part inside 2 Door Model.1. 5.1 5. Fridge-Freezers and Cabinets with or without Freezer Compartment
54 54 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 64 64 65 65 65
6.3 7. lg p-Diagram) of R600a Pressure enthalpy diagram (Mollier-h. Contents
p. Filter Dryer characteristic Refrigerant Dryer Test Standards and Methods
67 67 68
6. Cleaning process R134a Charging
70 70 71 71 72 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 78 78 79
.3. Corrosion and Service Cross Section Optimisation of Evaporators Evaporator Channels or Tubes and their Cross Sections Speed of refrigerant and Pressure Drop Measurement Liquid-Gas Separator and Accumulator Sizes of Upright Freezer Evaporators Pull-Down Test of Upright Freezers NO FROST Evaporators Surface of Fins and Air Charge Tube Size and Fin Distances Defrosting of No Frost Evaporators Air Ducts in NO Frost Refrigerators Damper Thermostat Tandem System Refrigerant Circuit Scheme.5 5. 5. Freezer up to and above 60l Tube-on-Plate Freezer Evaporator.3.3.4
5. 126.96.36.199.6 5. Chest Freezers.7.1. lg p-Diagram) of a R290/R600a Blend Purity and Cleanness Standards Cleanness Standards Measurement of Cleanliness and Purity Working with R134a in the Refrigerator Laboratory and in the Production R134a Refrigerant General Characteristics of R134a. Ester Oil Evacuation Pumps Cleaning Technology for Vacuum Pumps for R134a Polyol Ester Oil or PFPE Oil.2.2.8 7.1. 188.8.131.52 7.4 7.3.2. 7.6.1 5.4 5.2 184.108.40.206. 7. Processing and Painting.7.3.5. REFRIGERANT
7.1. Thermodynamic Characteristics of Different Refrigerants Efficiencies (COP-Coefficient of Performance) Volumetric Capacities Pressure Differences Pressure Ratios Suction Pressure Superheat Pressure Enthalpy Diagram (Mollier-h. Evaporators in Series Skin versus Roll-Bond Evaporators Cost Comparison.5 7. lg p-Diagram) of R134 Pressure enthalpy diagram (Mollier-h.5.1.3. 5.3.2 5.7. 5.1 7.2 5.2 7.8 220.127.116.11.7.5
5. Electrical Scheme Fridge ventilator Evaporator Tests Pressure Drop Tests Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Multi-Evaporator Systems with one Control Pull Down Tests Vertical Freezers.5.7 7.4. 5.3 18.104.22.168 7. 5.1 5. 6.5.3
Evaporators for one Door Refrigerator with Freezer Compartment Evaporators for one-Door ** Refrigerator Evaporators for one-Door*** Refrigerator Evaporators of two-Door Refrigerator Evaporator in the Refrigerator Part Tube-on-Sheet-Evaporator: Roll Formed Sheet-on-Tubes Evaporator.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.2. Aesthetic Aspects.
10 7. 8. Hazardous Situations Handling of Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Handling Precautions.4.6 7.4. 7.3
91 91 92 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 98
. Hydrocarbon Cylinders. Safety Approved Production Charging Equipment Exhaust and Ventilation of the Charging Area Alarm Board with Gas Sensors Fire Precautions and Fire Extinguishers Grounding and Anti-Static Floor Brazing Leak Detection Pressure Test.3.8 8.4.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Lamp Holders and Fluorescent Lighting Ballast and Starter Thermostat Fan Motor and Blades Defrost Heater and Thermal Fuse (in No Frost Models) Defrost Probe. Charging Liquid into Suction.7 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.3 188.8.131.52. Storage Evacuation Pumps R600a Charging Service Charging Equipment.9 8.5 7.1 8.11 8.6 8. 8.2 7. 8.1. Hydrocarbon Charging Boards. Charging by Sight Glasses Fine Tuning and Control of Charge Charging for Proper Superheat (Superheat Method) Charging for Proper Sub-cooling (Sub-cooling method)
79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 83 83 83 84 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 89
8.3. Charging by Weight.184.108.40.206 7.4.4 Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers Special Safety Requirements for Refrigerators using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Flammability and Hazardous situations Sealing of the System Potential Ignition Sources Separation of Ignition Sources from Potential Leaks Standard Defrost Models One Door Models Protected Electrical Components in Hydrocarbon Leak Areas Electric Connections Compressor Relay Compressor Overload Protector Compressor Start and Run Capacitors On-Off Switches and Light Switches Luminaries.8.2 7. Safety Requirements for Refrigerators . Temperature Cut-Out and Defrost Timer Control (in No Frost Models) Sealed Box (IP53 or higher) Manufacturer’s test of electric component. 7. Suction Oil Separators or Glass Trap in Vacuum Pump Working with R600a in the Refrigerator Laboratory and in the Production Flammability and Hazardous Situations Flammability of R600a.5.3 8.2.3 8. 8.4.3. 8.2. Contents
p.1 220.127.116.11 7.8 7. Transportation.5. 5
7. Conversion from R12 to R600a Refrigerant charging: Liquid or Vapour? Charging Accuracy Charging Methods Charging with Dial-A-Charge Cylinder.7 7.9 18.104.22.168. 7. 22.214.171.124 7.5.2 126.96.36.199.5.4.3.especially with HC-Refrigerant
8.4.1 7.2 8.12 8.4 7. Safety Precautions.5.3.2 8.3.3
7. Mass Spectrometric Leak Test Further Precautions Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity Conversion from R12 to R134a.4
Brazing Leak Detection Working with R134a Circuit Elements Mixed Production during Transition from R12 to R134a or from R134a to R600a: Anti-Suck Valves.10 188.8.131.52 8. conformity declacation and markings Labelling of Hydrocarbon Refrigerators Electrical Safety Tests and Controls Electrical Safety Test of all Household Appliances Pressure Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon Leak Simulation Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon
8. 8.3.7 7.3.3.
9.5 8.3 9.5 9. Durability of Hinges and Handles.2.1. Tolerances. Further Electrical Test Equipment. Power Consumption Measurement Power Measurement. SuperFrost. Mechanical Strength of Shelves and Similar Components 10. Testing of Storage Temperature 10.4.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. FINAL TESTS
Definitions.1 9. Supply.2.1.2. SuperFrost.a Story of Success 10. Water Vapour Condensation Test 10.5.1 9. 9.7 9. Energy labelling system 10.9 9.1. 3rd compartment near 0°C Temperature. Dial Layout Standard Thermostat Thermostat with Auxiliary Switch Thermostat with Heater Contact Thermostat with Signal Contact Thermostat with Semi-Automatic Defrost Push-Button Thermostat with Fast-Freeze Thermostat with Fixed Cut-In Temperature Thermostat with a 3-Way Solenoid Valve Control Thermostat with 2 sensors Bimetal Thermostat Electronic Control and Thermocouples “Child safe” Switch-off. Noise of cooling system 10.4. Power.1.4. Energy Consumption Test 10.3. Energy. Correlation between Adjustment Range and Switching Differential.2 9. Voltage Measurement.4 9.8 9.1.2.
108 108 109 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 110 111 111 111 111 112 113 113 113 113 113 113 113 114 116 117 117 117 117 117
.1. Flow Chart 10. control of variable compressor speed Special Controls for NO Frost Models Defrost Timers and Defrost Thermostats Damper Thermostats Temperature Control Tests
101 101 101 102 102 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 105 105
184.108.40.206 Thermo-insulated test room Dimensions.2.5.3. DuraFreeze.5 Test Packages 10. Lightening.1. Adjustment Range.2.6.5. Mechanical Tests Air Tightness of Door/Lid Seals. Freezing Test and Ice-Making Test Freezing Test Ice Making Test 10.1.5. Contents
p. LCD display control.8.4 8. Holiday. Frostmatic. Refrigerator Tests Room 10. Switching Differential.
Scratch Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon Testing of Standard Electric Components not Reachable by Flammable Refrigerant Testing and control of “n” Protected Electrical Components Used in Hydrocarbon Leak Areas
99 99 100
9. Ampere and Frequency Supply.1.
106 106 106 106
10.2. Opening Force of the Doors and Lids. 9.7. Pressure. No-frost freezer defrost control. Calculation of EU Energy Label Efficiency classes 10. Connection Panel 10. Voltage 10. fuzzy logic for running modes: SuperCool. Capillary Tube Thermostat Operation Range. Designs and Characteristics Test Conditions and Periods Percentage Running Time 10.6 9. Adjustment in the Refrigerator Factory and in Service.1. 6
8.3. Control Panel.2 9. Impact of EU Policy and Measures .1. Current. Temperature Rise Test 10.4 Test Data Logger Recording and Evaluation 10. Regulation Range Loads and Supply Places.6. ice and water spender control. Starting Current Voltage. TEMPERATURE CONTROL
9.4. Classifications.6.9.3 Measurement Ranges and Accuracy Temperature.5.6. OFF-Position.2 Measurement Equipment Energy Measurement.2.
12.14.14. European Commission DIRECTIVE 92/75/EEC Energy labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by household appliances Annex 1. Electromagnetic Compatibility Test 10.3 Extended Antoine Equation 10. Tables 10. Refrigeration Circuit Measurement Positions Evaporator Temperature. 12.1. Cooling Circuit Pressure Test according to PED 11.14.14. Refrigerator and freezer appliances Annex 1.14 Vapour Speed of Sound 10.2 R134a Liquid Density and Viscosity and Surf Tension 10.14.6 Saturated Liquid Enthalpy 10. Condenser Temperature Suction Condition. Liquid Return.16.2. ATEX User Directive 99/92/EC CE Marking process
10. High and Low Pressure 10. 11.14.1. 12.14. Acoustical noise. Thermal Conductivity and Speed of Sound 10. freezers and their combination
I like to thank Danfoss and his employees in the research for the strong technical support granted to me.3.1 Properties 10.8 Liquid Viscosity 10.10 Surface Tension 10.13 Vapour Thermal Conductivity 10.5.11 Saturated Vapour Density 10. without all these support this booklet could not have been written.4 Latent Heat of Evaporation 10.3 R134a Saturated Vapour Density and Viscosity.14. EU Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 97/23/EC EU ATEX Directives.12. Absorption refrigerator. 10.4. Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers. Refrigeration Performance Calculation 10.5 Ideal Gas Heat Capacity 10. 12.9 Liquid Thermal Conductivity 10. Valves. Compressor.4 R600a Saturated Vapour Pressure 10.2 Equation of State 10.14. the received data and detailed information.15. Contents
138 138 138 138 140 140 141 142 144 144 145 152
12. EU DIRECTIVE 2003/66/EC energy labelling of household electric refrigerators. ATEX Manufacturers Directive 94/9/EC.6.1 R134a Liquid and Saturated Vapour Enthalpy and Latent Heat 10.14.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.220.127.116.11. 7
Test of Absence of Odour and Taste Refrigerator Performance Test Calorimetric Tests 10. Condenser. Filter Dryer.18.104.22.168. Commercial refrigerator.15. Delivery Condition. 12. Converting Household Refrigerators Converting Household Refrigerators from CFC-12 to HFC-134a Systems Converting Household Refrigerators from HFC-134a HC-600a Systems Standards EN Standards for refrigerators Household refrigerator.15. Test Panel 10. 11.15.
117 118 118 118 119 119 119 120 121 121 121 121 121 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 123 123 123 123 123 124 125 127 131 131 132 132 133 135 135
22.214.171.124.7 Liquid Density 10. EMC Electromagnetic compatibility.2.15. Electric Components. EU Directives ISO Standards IEC standards Some selected US Standards for refrigerators For refrigerators relevant EU Directives EU DIRECTIVE 2003/66/EC Energy labelling of household refrigerators amending Directive 94/2/EC EU Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) as amended 93/68/EEC.12 Vapour Viscosity 10.
ANNEXES Annex 1.5 R600a Superheated Vapour Pressure Properties 10.
F.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndA irConditioning/Training+and+Education+New+design/ or on a profound level in: Althouse.) 1975..1. which we cannot repeat here.Y. Introduction: Refrigeration Cycle . Nordborg. and Bracciano.Definitions p. A.an Introduction to the basis. C.D. INTRODUCTION
1.: Principles of refrigeration.Definitions
Total Heat Rejected (Enthalpy difference between compressor delivery and expansion device inlet Isothermal condenser temperature High Pressure (Isobaric condenser pressure) Subcooling (the enthalpy drop
between the saturated liquid in condenser and expansion device inlet) Liquid Return (temperature at inlet of expansion device)
Superheat (enthalpy difference between compressor suction and evaporator saturated vapour condition) Heat of compressor (Enthalpy rises as result of the compression process) Compressor Delivery (enthalpy of the super-heated vapour at the end of compression/ at compressor discharge) Delivery Condition (Temperature at
end of compression)
Expansion Valve Enthalpy
(at the inlet of expansion device)
Pressure Ratio: derived from the condenser and evaporator pressure Refrigeration Effect (the
enthalpy difference between evaporator saturated vapour condition and the expansion valve condition)
Compressor Suction Enthalpy (of the
superheated vapour at the start of the compression process)
Suction Condition (compressor inlet
Volume Flow/Mass Flow (based on the Low pressure (isobaric evaporator pressure) Isothermal evaporator temperature End of Evaporation (saturated vapour condition at
the evaporation temperature and pressure) refrigeration duty and the specific volume at the compressor inlet condition)
Specific enthalpy are calculated at a number of points around the cycle (100KJ/kg 0°C liquid) Delta H Values: derived from specific enthalpy differences around the circle COP: Coefficient of Refrigerator Performance defined on the ratio of the refrigeration effect to the heat of compression. South Holland (Ill. Refrigeration Cycle .H. N..: Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
. 1981. http://www. 8
1. 1. March 1978. A.danfoss. Roy J. and Dossat. The basis of the refrigeration cycle and its circuit elements are explained in DANFOSS: Refrigeration .Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Turnquist.
IS (IST). not part of our booklet there exist adequate standards: EN ISO 23953 (2006) Refrigerated display cabinets – Part 1 Vocabulary. depending on which standard will be applied. IN (BIS). SI (SIST). < -6°C in a * freezer. CH (SNV). LT (LST). MT (MSA). In case of a freezer we have to add the power which is necessary to freeze down a quantity of lean meat in addition to the thermal losses of a cabinet or chest. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity. while 2002 already 47% as result of this labelling system. new 2006). Some reserves are needed because not all the circuit elements are optimal and such systems have also to cover ageing processes.5 kg lean meat (=Tylose package) per 100l volume in 24 h.3. ISO EN 5155 .). FI ( SFS). Normally freezing power is in the range of 8-12 kg/100l/24h.
Designing of Refrigerators and Freezer Circuits
The most important factor for a design of the refrigeration circuit. LV (LVS).. DK ( DS).
1. and other ISO member countries have same or similar standards like JP (JIS).Household refrigerating appliances Refrigerators-freezers' characteristics and test methods. PL (PKN). BR (ABNT). factory-assembled and cooled by internal natural convection or forced air circulation.
Often under same number this standard are translated in EU national standards like AT (ON). not only in Europe (EN) valid standards for refrigerators and freezers performance testing exists (for electric international standardisation it is the IEC. NO (SN). < +5°C (or <+7°C) in a refrigerator against an ambient temperature of 32°C or even 43°C for a tropical version. CZ ( CNI). condensers and capillary tubes can reduce the balances and heat transmissions and the used power of the compressor and can increase the consumption of energy. GB (BSI). 9
1. Not optimal conditions in evaporators. respective for >45l volume at least 2kg in 24h. IE (NSAI). SK (SUTN).3. Thermal Losses p. Electric Safety): ISO EN 15502 (2005) specifies the essential characteristics of household refrigerating appliances. < -12°C in a ** freezer. and Annex.Frozen food storage cabinet and food freezers characteristics and test methods. In 2002 20% of sold refrigerators were of class A (low energy consumption. see chapter 1.
Such standards regulate which kind of performance tests has to be applied on all refrigerators and freezers types (see chapter 11) to make type approval (CE etc. And for its energy labelling of commercial refrigerators it is EN 441. min 4. SE ( SIS). In standards it is fixed how much lean meat in which time has to be frozen down and to which temperature. which are now withdrawn: ISO EN 7371 . BE (IBN/BIN). IT (UNI). For absorption refrigerator there exists the EN 732 (1998): Specifications for dedicated liquefied petroleum gas appliances Absorption refrigerators. CY (CYS). HU (MSZT).2. and establishes test methods for checking the characteristics. LU (SEE). EE ( EVS).3. which ones on all refrigerators and which ones only on samples from the running production and how the volumes and consumption values have to be measured.
.Performance of household refrigerating appliances refrigerators with or without low temperature compartment. Part 2: Classification. FR ( AFNOR). refrigerators. is to face the thermal leakage of the refrigerator or freezer cabinet or chest to be kept under special temperatures (for example < -18° C in a *** freezer. refrigerator-freezers characteristics and test methods. CA (SCC) etc. RO (ASRO). For commercial refrigerators. and rules 92/75/EEC.6.1. requirements and test conditions. refrigerators and freezers exist in Europe EN153 (1995. US (ANSI/ASHREA/UL). So 2003 A+ and A++ classes were introduced and since 2004 a new labelling scaling are under consideration. the compressor power etc. DE ( DIN). RU (GOST). PT (IPQ).
Standards and Climate Classes
Refrigerator and Freezer Performance Standards
Following international (ISO). ISO 8187 EN 28187 . CN (SAC).worldenergy.
1. See Chapter 10. It revises the following 4 standards.Household refrigerating appliances . The system must be sealed to avoid leakage of refrigerant (see Transfair: Cooling circuit sealing chapter 5).Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. ES ( AENOR). In general the design of the refrigeration circuit depends on a quite considerable number of strictly connected variables. GR (ELOT).org ). These 2 factors together plus some reserves will decide about the size of the compressor power and the dimensions of other circuit elements. 1. ISO EN 8561 Household Frost free refrigerating appliances. For energy efficiency and labelling systems for household appliances. 94/2/EC and 2003/66/EC and in other arias similar regulations (see www.3. NL (NEN). for example according to one of the ISO EN standards.
For further details see chapter 8. 1. 8187. see chapter 8.
. Part 1: Safety of household and similar electric appliances. Electric apparatus with type of protection ‘n’". by quality controls and inspection. The electric safety of commercial refrigerators are described in IEC 60335-2-89 and of commercial dispensing appliances and vending in IEC 60335-2-75. Following meanwhile international valid safety standards exist for household refrigerators and freezers: . Standard 60335 (2002). The Amendment of 2007 did not touch test procedures. Models using Isobutane or Propane have additional safety demands on their design and type approval tests (see chapter 8.3. t3 [°C] tm [°C] ° ° 0 10 +5 0 10 +5 0 10 +5 0 10 +5 *** [°C] ° < -18 < -18 < -18 < -18 ** [°C] ° < -12 < -12 < -12 < -12 * [°C] ° < -5 < -5 < -5 < -5 Cellar compartment from [°C] to [°C] ° ° +8 +14 +8 +14 +8 +14 +8 +14
1. light switches. signal lights..IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc.to carry out risk assessment of flammable gar refrigerants according to CEN/TR 14739 (2004): Scheme for carrying out a risk assessment for flammable refrigerants in case of household refrigerators and freezers. Standard 60335. Vers. now withdrawn). light should be inspected and/or tested. 10
1. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity. 8561 and 5155. t2. but text and reference to other changes or cancelled standards.2 (2007). Standard 60335. . Furthermore the manufacturer has to insure that each produced refrigerator and freezer follow the requirement fixed for the type approval.2. Details see in chapter 8. functioning of all electrical components like switches. and . Amendment 1 (2005) and Amendment 2 (2007) or consolidated Standard 60335. thermostats.IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc. Part 2-89 (2007): Particular requirements for commercial refrigerating appliances with an incorporated or remote refrigerant condensing unit or compressor. The IEC 60335-2-24 and 2-89 was amended 2002 and 2005 to cover potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants.2. R290) following was integrated into this standard . which electrical components acc. to which electrical standard he can use in the appliances and which kind of approval he needs.
Electrical Safety Standards
There exist special standards which regulate the electrical safety requirements of refrigerators and freezers type approvals (CE etc.). Part 2-24 (2002): Particular requirements for refrigerators and food freezers.3.) Climate class Ambient Temperature from [°C] to [°C] ° ° Extended SN +10 +32 Temperate N +15 +32 Subtropical ST +18 +38 Tropical T +18 +43 Fresh food storage compartment t1. can defrost if kept in colder ambient as it’s climate class (see chapter 9.3. The above mentioned IEC 60335-2-24 amended in (2005-04) should be respected today in case Hydrocarbon is used as refrigerant.to control flammability risk according to CENELEC Test Schedule TS 95006. and . In addition other parameters like correct wiring. Part 2-24 Version 6.5. Such safety standard has to be applied in addition to the performance standards of refrigerators: EN ISO 15502 (previously the 7371. The safety standards specify which electrical safety rules the manufacturer have to respect. their control and testing. IP54 sealing. Thermal Losses p. 1. earth connection.-8. Often following electrical safety tests are applied on all produced refrigerators and freezers (class 1 with PE): • Earth test.
In these standards all refrigerators and freezers are classified according to the ambient temperatures under which they can conserve the requested inner temperatures (C°): A freezer in a fridge-freezer model often only temperature controlled in the fridge.2. It based on the application of the existing electrical safety standard IEC 60079-15 “Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres.5). continuity of electric bounding circuit test • High voltage Test (=flash test or Dielectric strength test • Insulation test and electric strength • Power and current absorbed test • Leakage current test • Residual Voltage test (if the refrigerator and compressor performance is improved by a capacitor).1. for refrigerators and freezers using flammable refrigerants (R600a.5.
thickness of single surface in m. after installing the circuit test runs have to follow to optimise the circuit. Such calculations and measurements are only a first approach.evaporator temperature: -26°C .thermostatic control from refrigerator: . See underneath "Measurement of the cabinet constant".Polyurethane with Cyclopentane in densities of 30-35kg/m³: . the thermal losses and needed freezing capacity can be measured (Chapter 1.insulation of refrigerator: 35mm .02 .Magnetic door gasket:
k= 0.0. m= length in meter of test specimen and °C = temperature displacement between the 2 sides of the test specimen A = surface in m² of area to be considered ∆t°= temperature displacement between the 2 sides of dispersant surface. mean temperature 5°C . Calculation of Thermal Losses and Freezing Power
According to the selected model.freezing capacity measured under 32°C ambient temperature The coefficients of transmission k are as following: .freezer capacity: 55l .compressor area 192x190x525mm . In case a cabinet or chest is already existing.compressor temperature: 88°C .06 .4. if no prototype is already available to measure.ambient temperature: 43°C (tropical) except 60°C compressor area and 55°C condenser area .1.) instead of calculated.condenser temperature: 55°C .2. the standard. Refrigerator Capacity
The first approach to determine the refrigeration capacity and out of it the compressor size for a new refrigerator or freezer is to calculate the thermal losses of a refrigerator. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity. if a prototype exists.pull-down and continuous run tests . 1.
Example: Double door refrigerator-freezer combination with
.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.
1. P = s = k =
To simplify the calculation an average thickness of sloping surface can be considered as well as an average material transmission coefficient [x mm polyurethane + y mm S/B (high impact polystyrene)].freezer inner dimensions: 495w x 480d x 231h .08
.0.refrigerator inner dimensions: 525w x 510d x 800h .freezer air temperature: -23°C .1).in case of a freezer .insulation of freezer: 50mm .025 k= 0. freezer or fridge freezer and to add . Thermal Losses p. the capillary tube length and the charging of the refrigerant by .outer dimensions: 595w x 600d x 1385 mm .Ice freeze test.refrigerator capacity: 195l .refrigerator temperature: 4°C-7°C. 11
1.cycling tests for class designation .4.4.4. Calculation of thermal losses and freezing power.Energy consumption tests . coefficient of transmission of insulating material adopted in kcal/ (h*m* °C) in which the variables h=hours.the needed freezing capacity (Chapter 1. the climate class to be applied following formula can be applied to calculate the thermal losses for each surface of the refrigerator and/or freezer: P= 1/s * k * A * ∆ t° ° whereby: power per each single surface in kcal/h.
8 x 0.07 Total transmission losses:
The various figures of ∆t in the different sections of the cabinet show that the insulation thickness on the backside of the cabinet and the compressor area should be increased to reduce thermal loss and that also the space for heat transmission through the door gaskets should be as much as possible reduced and the door gaskets should be improved to improve the refrigerators.525 x 0.02 Freezer upper area: (1/0.32 x 0.15 kcal/h = 8. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity.017) x 0.61 x 0.19 x 0.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.525 x 0.035) x 0.07 Freezer side area: (1/0.05) x 0.19 x 0.
1/thickness x k x Dimension(m²) x ∆t x pieces
The specific heat and the latent heat for lean meat (Tylose pack) values are as following: C = 0.61 x0.23) x x x x x x x x x x x x x 38 38 55 55 38 38 50 38 66 78 66 66 66 x x x x x x x x x x x x x 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2
= thermal losses
= 9.94 kcal/h 84.49 kcal/h = 3.525 x 0. These 84.04 kcal/h = 6. 1.48 x 0.48 x 0.5 x 0.23 x 0.02 Freezer back area: (1/0.02 x(0.21 kcal/h = 13. To obtain the thermal losses for an ambient temperature of 32°C we have to multiply the a.02 Refrigerator door gasket: (1/0.18°C to calculate freezing power per hour instead of freezing inside 24 hours.37 kcal/h * (100 +15)/62.23 x 0.035) x 0.05) x 0.8) x 0. The formula to determinate the power necessary to freeze 5 kg lean meat (Tylose packs) in 24 hours is following: P = 1/24[(G*C*∆ +t1) + (G*Cl) + (G*C*∆ t2)] ∆ ∆ whereby: P = G = c = ∆t1 = Cl = ∆t2 = 1/24 Input power in kcal/h weight to be frozen in kg specific heat in kcal difference between external temperature and 0°C latent heat in kcal/kg difference between 0°C and .
.05) x 0.51 kcal/h = 9.035) x 0.525 x 0.65 kcal/h = 3.035) x 0. but only in the range of 60-65% and 15% should be added as reserve for not optimal circuits.14 kcal/h = 4.5 x 0.02 Crisper back area: (1/0. 12
We neglect in the 2 door models the heat transmissions between refrigerator and freezer compartment as their sum is 0 kcal/h.48 x 0.02 Crisper supper area: (1/0.85 kcal/h
Refrigerator door area: (1/0.12 kcal/h = 3.525 x 0.77 kcal*32)+ (5*60) + (5*0.m. items instead of 38°C with 27°C in the refrigerator and instead of 66°C with 55°C in the freezer (only the refrigerator's backside remains at 50°C.29 kcal/h = 5.02 Freezer door area: (1/0.035 x 0.5 x 0.035) x 0.52 kcal/h This freezing power has to be added to the 84.02 Refrigerator back area: (1/0.77*18)] = 20.05) x 0.02 Compressor upper area: (1/0.34 kcal/h = 7.017 x 0. As a compressor should not run permanently.19 x 0.525+0. the compressor power should be in the range of 105.37 kcal/h.035) x 0.83 kcal/h = 7.88 kcal/h Transfair can provide an Excel simulation and optimization program to minimize thermal losses and foam consumption.5% = 193.14 kcal/h = 3.77 kcal Cl = 60 kcal/kg so in this case we come to following freezing power: P = 1/24 [(5*0.02 Refrigerator side area: (1/0.5+0. Thermal Losses p.51 x 0.85 kcal thermal transmission losses to determine the needed compressor power which is in this case 105.02 Crisper side area: (1/0.88 kcal/h are needed to face all dispersions at 43°C ambient temperatures.02 Freezer door gasket: (1/0. freezer's backside at 78°C and the compressor area at 55°C).51 x 0.02 x(0.
.the quality of manufacturing. Introduction: Cabinet Constant.95+20.6 .48*78+0.02(0.8598 kcal/h 1 kcal/h = 1. the cabinet constant and the energy consumption will be bad. Measurement of the Cabinet Constant
In case a prototype exists. Out of this measured cabinet constant we can calculate the total thermal loss multiplying the 2 constants of the refrigerator and freezer cabinets with the surface areas and the temperature differences in the different surface areas. A3. A2. t2. In case of a larger freezer it is recommended to use a heater with a ventilator and to add the 2 entered energies (E-heater + E-ventilator). A3..32*38+0.) SAMPLE: The 2 door model according to the calculation in previous chapter 1. 13
1. A2.* ∆ t1.the thickness of insulation..163Watt In our sample: Refrigerator cabinet constant = 10Watt/ (46-32°C) = 0. Reduction of Thermal Losses
If the thermal losses are higher than expected or if the cabinet constant should be better than comparable cabinets we should take a closer look to the insulation. t3.8)*38*2]+ 0.61*50+0.Thermal bridges.
1.35kcal/h+ 34.19*38 *2+ 0. .61*38*2+0.525*0.525+0. Several reasons could be responsible for the thermal losses: .23*66*2+0. the construction and the manufacturing of the cabinet. This measured or calculated refrigeration capacity determines the size of the compressor so that the selected compressor should be in the range of (102. calculations.48*66+0. * ∆t1. t2. .59[0. A system is as good as their weakest points! If in some areas the heat transmission will be increased..51*0.95kcal/h In this case the real thermal losses are 20% above the theoretically calculated losses.the air tightness of the door or lid seals. because of a construction or manufacturing faults..Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer …Circuits. The test will stop if the heater does not increase anymore the inside temperature. t3.6°C in the freezer.
.525*0.5*0. .m.23*66+ 0. To these losses the 20.525*0.52 kcal/h freezing power has to be added. the thermal losses can be measured in a test laboratory instead of a.1: Total heat loss = 0.51Watt/°C = 0. .23)*66*2=68.2.32°C) = 0.52kcal/h)*100/62.4.. In this case the cabinet constant is as following: Transmission losses K x A = E/∆ t ∆ = Watt/∆ t [Watt/°C] ∆ ° whereby: K is the cabinet constant KxA the transmission losses over surface A is the temperature difference between inside and outside the refrigerant ∆t Watt the entered energy (lamp energy or energies of used heater and ventilator).48*0.5.4. Total heat loss = refrigerator cabinet constant * sum (surface areas A1.5*0. 1.51*0.71Watt/°C = 0.83kcal/h °C Freezer cabinet constant = 10/ (51.19*55+0.525*0.60kcal/h=102..5+0. In this case a constant ambient temperature of 32°C is created in the test room and a 10 Watt bulb heater is put inside the closed refrigerator cabinet and in a second step inside the closed freezer cabinet..the quality of the foam. 1 Watt = 0.8*38+0.5% =198kcal/h.59 kcal/h °C Optimal insulated refrigerators and chest freezers should have cabinet constant values underneath of 1.02(0. Reduction of Thermal Losses p.5*0.) + freezer cabinet constant * sum (surface areas A1.525*0.19*55+0..83[0. . Let's suppose the reached inside temperature is 46°C in the refrigerator and 51.
Compression Strength. width. principle of Archimedes. • The skin is cut of both cover sheets so that only the core remains.) with a condensing temperature of +55°C instead of a environmental temperature of for example 32°C ∆t is increased by 23°C. e. A stick or wire is inserted into the foam block and without touching the vessel wall the block is dipped under the water of the vessel on the balance. thumb-rule: the core represents approx. Foam Insulation Thickness
The lower the temperatures to be reached are and the higher the ambient temperature can be the thicker the foam insulation should be. . Usually.Store one test specimen for 24 hours at -30°C. These test specimens serve to determine the core density. and then the volume is determined. length). 10 cm x 10 cm. Another point of insulation is the foam quality to be tested by foam tests. The procedure is as follows: Skin 30mm Example: Core 30mm Skin 30mm • A sample of approx. in case of a freezer with internal temperature of -18°C and an environmental temperature of 32° the ∆t would be 50°C without skin condenser. a sample of 10cm x 10cm x 10cm is cut from the middle of the foam produced in this way. so it is useful to increase in this areas the insulation thickness to ∆ avoid weak points.Remove the cover sheets. so that the Density d [g/ml] = Weight of foam block G [g] / Increase of weight on balance V [g]
Measurement of the foam density in case of test shots. Foam samples of about 30x30x30 up to 40x40x40mm of cabinet measured in 2 directions (in PU foam flow direction and 90° to flow direction).5. • Inner and outer cover sheets are removed. another one for 24 hours at +80°C. Usually. The increase of weight as measured by the balance after full dipping of the foam block is equal to the increase of volume (1g water=1ml). 10 cm x 10 cm is cut off the refrigerator.
1. approx. The measured weight has the value G. if we install on it a skin condenser of 55°C. 800 g of material are shot into a polyethylene bag. off the refrigerator. presenting a diameter of about 30cm.Cut/saw a test specimen.5.Circuits. .Determine the dimensions again afterwards. The quotient from mass and volume is defined as core density.2. 2 to 4 hours later. In case of a skin condenser (see chapter 3.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer . This test specimen is weighed and the weight either divided by the calculated volume or by the weight of water pushed away by the test specimen dipped in water according to the a. Inside the compressor compartment and in direction of the condenser the external temperature of the cabinet or chest will be slightly higher (∆t could be +5 till +10%). by plunging the sample into water. The dimensional stability can be determined in the following way: .Determine the dimensions of the test specimens (height. Introduction: Polyurethane Foam Tests.m. the ∆t in the area of the condenser would be increased to 73°C and in this area the thermal losses would be increased by 50%.
. size approx. 1/3 of the insulation. Thermal Bridges p. 14
1.1. A 2 l vessel with about one l l water is put on a balance and the balance with the vessel filled with water is set to 0g. This sample is weighed. sampling is effected at different spots of a refrigerator. The quotient from mass and volume is defined as free rise density. .
Dimensional Stability. Faster and more accurate is following method following the principle of Archimedes: Larger blocks of up to 10 cm sides are weighted. Polyurethane Foam Material Tests
Measurements of the Foam Density in Refrigerators. .g.
Following material and equipment is needed: • a beaker of hard paper of about 0. 2x1 in side walls of freezer compartment) 1 sample top. 10 sec. P. Kamphemann. Shot weight at least twice a day • Comparison of set and really reached Dimensional stability at least twice a day shot weight every day by random Compressive strength at least twice a day sampling. 5W.O. Fax: 0541. 600. non-waxed. • laboratory stirrer. water bath. 0. Tests: ● Cream Time is defined as time interval from start of stirring to visible volume expansion in the beaker. The mass indicated is divided by the volume of the beaker (660 cm ). • The stop-watch is started as stirring begins. 15
Sample on fridge-freezer combination:
2x4 foam samples taken of side walls 300mm from front side (2x2 in side walls of fridge compartment. After the foam surface has cured.Circuits. and component B is added subsequently in the corresponding mixing ratio. • The verification of the correct mixing ratio is also necessary. A continuous quality control should measure regularly the following: • Measurement of the foam reaction INSPECTIONS INTERVALS parameters of test shots: the free rise Free rise density of the core at least twice a day density and string time at least twice a String time at least twice a day day. 1. • Rise Time is defined as time interval from start of stirring to visible termination of volume expansion. the compressive strength as well. the foam is cut off directly at the edge of the beaker. 1 sample bottom. Such compression strength measurement replaces today in praxis more and more the foam density distribution measurements. knife/saw and glass bar to be used in following procedure to determine the reaction parameters: • The components are tempered in a water bath at 20°C +/. Volume 660 cm³ from Heinrich Kamphemann. • Component A is submitted first. • Raw Density. No.1g accuracy.Box 2604.23565.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer . 2x1 in middle separator. Thermal Bridges p.1°C. 1300/min) with disk 60-65mm. • Both components are then mixed at 1300m-1 for approx. Introduction: Polyurethane Foam Tests. 3 samples in back wall (2 in fridge back wall. • String Time is defined as time interval from start of stirring to the moment when it is possible to draw fibres out of the reaction mixture by means of a glass bar. the weighed-in quantity should be in total 70g. The beaker is put onto the balance. and if possible. For Cyclopentane/Isopentane driven PU foam minimum compression strength should be 135-140kPa. • laboratory balance 0. D-49016 Osnabrück. Tel.
Verification of the Reaction Parameters in the Laboratory. • The paper beaker is put onto the balance and tarred.
For Cyclopentane driven PU foam minimum compression strength should be 140-145kPa.: 0541-32037. 1 in freezer back wall).
Assurance of a Continuous Quality. Mixing ratio once a day • Dimensional stability: samples should be Distribution of core density once a day taken from refrigerators/doors every day in order to check the dimensional Operational compressions/pressures of the machine at least twice a day stability.
.6-1 litres (for examples Messrs.
Thermal Bridges p.m.bad seals holes for the electrical cable of the lamp-switch-thermostat combination inside the compartment. the door gasket area where the outer steel with high thermal conductivity of the cabinet and door comes very near to the cold area of the compartment only isolated by the door gasket. Sealing between door and cabinet. New ISO 15502 (previously according to chapter 11 of the a. Malgesso (Varese). 5155 and 8187 (see in chapter 10. of this booklet under “Mechanical tests”).3.2°C and a point feeler can be used. . and the door or lid closed normally on it.bad positioned anti dew coil. Thermal Bridges
To locate thermal bridges. A digital thermometer with a point feeler can measure colder surfaces caused by thermal bridges to the inside.metal sheets or tubes which connect the outside with the inside. should built up at least 3 further temperature zones between warm outside and cold inside. In cases that the steel continues to the inside we have a strong cold bridge. Design and quality of the door gasket. The appliances will be cooled down. The seal shall be assessed by checking that the strip of paper does not slide freely.bad designed or manufactured door or lid gaskets which allow warm air to enter into the refrigerator or freezer. or the Italian company ILPEA. for the capillary tube of the thermostat. ISO standards 7371. The test should be repeated after the durability test acc. . The purpose of this test is to ensure that the gaskets of the doors or lids of the appliance adequately prevent any abnormal ingress of the surrounding air.08 mm thick and with a suitable length shall be inserted at any point of the seal.
Testing of the air tightness of door or lid seals.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer . Last not least the design of the door gasket and the quality of their manufacturing and their welding is very important. One of the weakest point are the sealing between door and cabinet. The test are executed under an ambient temperature between 16-32°C on the switched off appliance with the same temperature inside the cabinet.3. A modern method uses thermo-graphical cameras. . A strip of paper 50mm wide and 0.
Only in freezer: AntiDew coil
. 1.Circuits. 16
1. But the space depends on design of the door profile. Only very few first class door gasket manufacturers can deliver such quality. good ones have even 4 zones in addition to the inside and outside. so called cold bridges a good digital thermometer with tolerances of 0. if it can absorb slight door tilting after use and from the strength of the hinges and their adjustment possibilities. Reduced space between food liner and door liner. Introduction: Polyurethane Foam Tests. Even after years of use the gasket should be flexible and close the door tight.5. We recommend co-operating with important and experienced door gasket manufacturers like the German company REHAU in Rehau. for the evaporator tubes or for the water drainage tube. in addition increased in case of a freezer or fridge freezer by a hot (+55°C) anti dew coil. separated by thin PVC walls touching the plastic liners. Weak points are often . Also by a small distance of about 5 mm between the food liner and the door liner in the conical area of the food. near Erlangen. The most unfavourable point can be found by lightening the closed cabinet from inside and checking the light from outside of all seals.and door liner the cold bridge can be reduced. the door will not close properly. If the space is too small and the construction cannot absorb tilting of door after use. In closed condition the door gasket profile sections.
Compressor dimensions and needed space. Investments and costs. manufacturing and servicing are different and need to be checked in each application and for the environment of the market and service conditions for which it is produced. HFC-134a and HC-290 (Propane) compressors reaches today excellent energy efficiencies and should – according to many research institutes . independently if R12. Energy efficiencies.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator …Circuits. Concerning the reliability and lifetime HC-600a (Isobutane) and HFC-134a are proven to be very reliable today while HC270 compressors because of higher pressure conditions are under stronger stress. have a much higher noise level. With moderate modifications and investments such compressors can be made in previous CFC-12 compressor factories. Compressor Capacity p.1. though some say that they heave evidence that the HC-600a also theoretically. Replacement of CFC-12 Compressors
Today all CFC-12 compressors in household refrigerators are replaced by HFC-134a or by HC-600a (Isobutane).10) as the old R12 compressors not as far optimised.
2. Drop-in solutions. R134a or R600a compressors were used. Such considerations should be part of compressor manufacturing study which is not part of our work. COMPRESSOR
In this chapter we can and will not consider how compressors can be developed or optimised using different geometrical. not only practically as seen today should have about 5 % higher efficiencies if other conditions are the same. Also the lifetime of compressors using the Isobutane-Propane mixture seems to have lower reliability and lifetime and have a much higher noise level than Isobutane compressors because of their demanding working conditions. The answer at moment is that the reached efficiencies are very similar if the compressor and cooling circuit were really optimised for the refrigerant. The first question for the user is if the R12 substitutes reach the same or better refrigeration efficiencies as the R12 compressor and which of the substitutes are better and more reliable. Because of about 70-80% bigger displacement volume needed in a HC-600a compressor the first R600a compressors became larger and the space for the compressor compartment could be a problem. HFC-134a compressors are very similar to CFC-12 compressors. But the specifications for the circuit elements and the specific problems of designing. But the mixture can have in some refrigeration applications problems concerning energy efficiency due to the temperature glide in condensation and evaporation of the 2 components. But pay attention: Using inflammable Hydrocarbon in a CFC-12 refrigerator needs a safety control of the design according to IEC 60335-2-24 (1997-08) and a design modification (see chapter 8). so that a wider range of capacities can already be reached without increasing the overall dimension of the compressor. In the last 5 years a lot of efforts were made to improve energy efficiency of HFC-134a and of HC-600a compressors which today reaches higher efficiencies (COPvalues. swap volumes etc. Also the switching from CFC-12 refrigerators to HFC-134a refrigerators is quite simple and does not need relevant design changes and investments. Reliability and lifetime. We only have to concentrate on the correct selection and use of already optimised compressors in the cooling circuit of household refrigerators. Replacement of CFC-12 Compressors. 17
2. Specially in the European market dominated by HC600a in the household refrigerator market. 2. see Chapter 2. but meanwhile this problem is diminished strongly because of new design developments. A mixture of HC-600a (Isobutane) and HC-290 (Propane) in the range of 40:60 has the advantage that it can replace CFC-12 in CFC-12 compressors without modifying the compressor design: Such a mixture matches R12 compressor designs because almost the same displacement volume can be used. electrical and other characteristics and different kind of refrigerants with different pressure ratios. the efforts made were so much that in practice R600a models reaches today significantly higher COP-values than equivalent R134a models. at least if we concentrate on smaller compressors used in household refrigerators. HC-600a (Isobutane). Compressor. Though HC600a compressor manufacturers have made bigger investments in research and factories the today’s price levels of HFC-134a and of HFC-600a compressors do not differ significantly.not differ in their energy efficiency (Coefficient of Performance) significantly. and a smaller lifetime.
Compressor Capacity p. 18
2. but never can reach high performance values without improving electrical supply.2. frequency and ambient temperatures. 38°C or 43°C according to American ASHRAE standard or without sub cooling (that means liquid temperature = condensing temperature) according to European CECOMAF standard.2. Refrigeration Capacity
Today the refrigeration capacity is used more and more for the size definition. depending which refrigerant is used. In Europe and in the USA there are standards to define the size of the refrigeration capacity of compressors under comparable evaporating and condensing temperatures. which are till today the most important figure to compare compressor capacities as long as the same refrigerant is used.4.2. Compressor water tray. But the refrigeration capacity is not easy to standardise and needs further definitions like evaporating temperature.2. The higher the COP value is the better the compressor perform.1. The motor sizes of R12 compressors and R600a compressors for the same refrigeration capacity are approximately the same while R134a compressors need often a slightly bigger size. See Chapter 2. If compressors with different refrigerants are compared to each other this parameter does not help. HP Value
The previously used HP designation has been more and more abandoned. The difference is that the European standard measures the cooling capacity under conditions without the sub cooling of the liquid while the ASHRAE states the capacity based on a sub cooling of the liquid to the ambient temperature (32°C).126.96.36.199.3. Nominal Displacement
In 1963 Danfoss introduced the compressor definition by the nominal displacement of refrigerant in cm³/rev. Compressor Capacity
There exists no standard system to define sizes of hermetic compressors used in the household application. Further important definition factors for compressors are:
. Today 2 different standards in the world are used to compare refrigeration capacities: the European standard CECOMAF and the American standard ASHRAE (see these standards for further details).
2. For example R600a has half of the volumetric capacity as R12 or R134a and needs a nearly double displacement to reach the same refrigeration capacity.
2. Coefficient of Performance
The most important value to compare efficiencies of different compressors under same ambient conditions and same temperatures to be reached in freezer or refrigerator (last can be only used if refrigerator is without a freezer) and same refrigeration capacity is the COP-Value: The Coefficient of Performance is the ratio between electrical power input and refrigeration capacity output under ambient temperature of 32°C. Compressor. condenser temperature. condenser temperature of 55°C and liquid sub cooling to ambient temperature of 32°C . but more or less common categories to characterise hermetic compressors. Replacement of CFC-12 Compressors. Higher performing compressors for tropical areas are just started to be developed.2. the so called CECOMAF or ASHRAE standards. 38°C or 43°C.
2. Last increases the nominal capacity by about 18-25%. Since more that 12 years European refrigerator manufacturers drain the cold condensed water from the evaporator at backside of the foodliner to a tray on top of the compressor to cool down the shell (see chapter 5.4. because the HP value does not define any refrigeration characteristics of the compressor.. 2.2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator …Circuits.
2. By this way about 12-15% of energy consumption could be reduced and the COP value increased.).-5. But high performance compressors needs good electrical conditions often not exist in tropical areas.
3.same PTC can be used for all compressor sizes. Important for the lifetime of the LST compressor is that the compressor have not to start to build up compression against high pressure in the condenser. but PTCs have a lot of advantages in comparison to relays: . . Therefore the system depends also on the standstill time defined by the thermostat settings which should be min. Electrical Diagram. depending on the size. for a larger one. .no radio or television noise. when the PTC is cold it permits current passing the semiconductor. Middle East. The cooling down time of a PTC is about 3.and under-voltages. like in India. Black Africa voltage drop > 1.50 more. 3 min.5 min. Lifetime
p. PTC starters allow the start winding to be cut-in only for a limited time. The line impedance (voltage drop during start) is normally < 1 V/A in developed countries while we aspect in many developing countries. In the past also current or voltage relays were used instead of a semiconductor PTC. if the start run-up is prohibited.the PTC function independently from over. . . 2. today mainly a PTC is added to the electrics of the compressor. 19
2. for a small compressor and 5 min. Inside of about 5 min the PTC is cooled down to allow a new start of the compressor. High starting torque compressors use a start capacitor to improve their life time in bad electrical environments like lower voltages as made for (for example 170V instead of nominal 230V) or unstable frequencies (clock problems). no overloading of the start winding is possible.easy conversion from LST to HST compressors by only changing the starting device. Starting Characteristics. For such electrical and climate conditions special models have to be selected with start capacitor.
. .Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and…Circuits. Start capacitor will cost about € 5-6. The more it is cooled down the longer it allows the cut-in in the subsequent start run-up.5 V/A – in addition to the severe tropical climate (>43°C). Starting Characteristics
In general the starting characteristics of compressors differentiate between low starting (LST) and high starting torque (HST):
Normally single phase AC motors are supplied in following 4 electrical versions:
RSIR: RSCR: CSIR: CSR: Induction motor with resistance (PTC) start Induction motor with resistance (PTC) start and run capacitor Induction motor with capacitor start Induction motor with run and start capacitor Low starting torque compressors are using normally PTCs without run capacitors (RSIR) or with a run capacitor (RSCR) while high starting torque compressors are using starting capacitors. but still for cost reason many refrigerator producers’ uses standard LST compressors with PTC instead of HST compressors with a start capacitor. During operation (current passing the PTC) it becomes heated and the resistant increases so that only sufficient current can pass to keep it warm. To avoid this heavy duty in the starting of a synchronous motor in the past a relays. The starting device PTC is a semiconductor with a positive temperature coefficient.higher lifetime because of no wear and no relay chatter. Compressor. a sufficient time to reach a pressure-equalised system.dependable protection of the start winding as above explained.
The motor must have sufficient breakdown torque to overcome the loads which occur in connection with start run-ups and during operation. A run capacitors in a RSCR or RSR system normally increases the efficiency (COP) of a compressor by 8-10 %.
2. condensing temperature must not exceed 60°C.
. often even 5 min. To allow refrigeration systems with LST compressors a pressure equalisation the stand still time is minimum 3 min. That is the main reason why the life time of compressors in developing countries are often less than 6 years while in developed countries it is very. 4. Compressor. The max. Long working life and problem free operations of hermetic compressors depend on 4 conditions: 1. In case of a HC-600a compressors with a general temperature decrease in the compressor the effect of the run capacitor is even significantly higher.6. at peak time 70°C in the highest ambient temperature. 120°C for an R134a system and 125°C for an R600a system plus 10°C during short peak loads. Lifetime
In general the compressor life depends on how far the compressor is protected against motor overloads. Starting Characteristics. very seldom that a compressor in a household refrigerator has to be replaced during the time the refrigerator is used (about 10-12 years in developed countries).Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and…Circuits. which must be insured by the thermostat. 2. Heavy Duty
That means such a compressor can even run if the supplied voltages are lower than the nominal and under bad environmental and electrical conditions. Especially R600a compressor made for this conditions are still rare. if it is under dimensioned the lifetime will be reduced. 2. a thorough assessment of the operating conditions of the compressor at expected limit of loads. 3.
2. Electrical Diagrams
All compressors in addition have an external or an internal (built-in winding protector) motor protection. The careful dimensioning of the refrigeration system. This can be reached by increasing the motor power of a compressor with the same nominal displacement capacity: Consequently such a system can be either used also for high evaporating temperatures or for low evaporating temperatures under unstable electrical supplies with under-voltages and frequency (clock) problems.4. Electrical Diagram. therefore it can reduce the energy consumption by 3-5 %. The compressor must have enough starting torque to overcome the pressure conditions in the refrigeration system at moment of start.
2. The winding temperature of the compressor motor should not exceed 110°C for a R12 system. 20
Pay attention: R134a and R600a COP optimised compressors are often not designed for developing countries with difficult electrical and climate conditions.5. Very important is the well-dimensioned condenser surface and a good ventilation of the compressor.
Compressors working with lower voltages as designed for increase their temperature during operation in a way that after few years running the compressor oil becomes greasy so that the mechanical resistance will even increase under the bad electrical power supply conditions and the compressor coil inside the oil will burn down. If it is over dimensioned the energy efficiency will be reduced.
The oversized compressor will surely increase the energy consumption. that means at a given capacity a lower mass flow.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. Therefore the efficiency differences to R12 systems are quite high:
.8. The less steepness of the R134a borderline indicates a capacity advantage in connection with a falling condensing temperature. The conditions have the following specification: Evaporating temperature: -25°C Condensing temperature: 55°C Inlet throttle device: 55°C liquid Outlet throttle device: super-heated to 32°C Ambient temperature: 32°C As it can be seen already on the diagrams the latent heat of R134a is considerably higher than the one of R12.
2. Heavy duty. made on a 5cc compressor. This test was one of the first tests made with R134a (1990) and the R134a compressor and systems where not yet optimised as today. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams of R12 and R134a
Such a refrigeration process as shown in the diagrams (next page) is normally used to determine the nominal LBP capacity on a calorimeter.2. MBP or HBP letters are used for low. medium and high back pressure to operate in low.8. 21
Often such heavy duty compressors are over dimensioned in comparison to the nominal refrigeration duty for such application. but will last much longer. Because of the different curves of the pressure and temperature crossing each other at 20°C the volumetric capacity of R134a is below the one of R12 at low boiling conditions while at high boiling conditions it is the opposite. Compressor. medium or high refrigerant evaporating temperatures. Furthermore different angles of inclination of the borderline between liquid and vapour can be seen in the diagrams.1. In our applications we only use LBP compressors but with different oils and sealing depending which refrigerants are used. for example mineral oil for R600a or R12 and Polyol ester oil for R 134a. A Comparison Test from Danfoss
Such differences can be taken out of the enclosed table from Danfoss (Hermetic LBP refrigerating systems for R134a.7.
2. September 1990.
2. Comparison between R134a and R12 Compressors
The thermodynamic properties of R12 and R134a are slightly different. The last is hydroscopic and can cause a lot of problems in the manufacturing of R134a refrigerators while the R600a refrigerant can burn and need special precautions regarding electrics to fulfil IEC 600335-2-24 (1997-08) standard. Comparison between and R12 and R134a Compressors
p.8. Evaporating Temperature
i1) x3600/1000 ) Gas temperature -inlet cylinder °C Specific volume m³/kg Volume flow .237 13. R134a systems with a sub cooling of 32°C increases the nominal capacity by about 23% while with R12 the nominal capacity is only increased by 19%. 6. The conditions before the throttling device differ between R12 and R134a. 7. Only by an increase of the displacement which means a bigger nominal capacity and if the previous used condenser was just sufficient it could be necessary to increase the surface of condenser. but in general it will be necessary to switch to the next bigger displacement.2 0. Sub cooling influences
Parameters Evaporating pressure (-25°C) bar Condensing pressure (55°C) bar Enthalpy i2 (-25°C/32°C) kJ/kg Enthalpy i1 (55°C liquid) kJ/kg Enthalpy difference i2.91 279 244 35 385. This can be easily checked if the superheat measured on the condenser side is too high (see in Chapter 3. Heavy duty.is Capacity with sub cooling to 32°C: Mass flow i2-is kJ/h Capacity without sub cooling to 32°C:Mass flow i2-i1kj/h Performance relation (i2.06 84 0. The Polyol ester oil is hydroscopic. Oil cooler.927 1.i1 kJ/kg Compressor capacity W kg/h Mass flow ( capacity/(i2.57 55 0. To avoid thermal effects all cross sections should be equal and oil pockets or unnecessary use of parallel channels should be avoided.6.4. This is for all refrigerants useful to improve the efficiency but for R134a a must. Therefore the dryer must be improved (Union Carbide XH7 as desiccant or similar materials with 3 Angstrom
. 4. The enthalpy difference is with R134a considerable larger than with R12. If the temperature at the inlet of the cylinder is known it is possible to calculate the volume flow.23
Conclusions (Part 1):
1. Enthalpy difference
2.66 373 254 119 95 2.5 313.i1 )
R12 1. In few cases it will be possible to use the same displacement with R134a as with R12.87 94 0. This means a relatively higher load on the condenser during the pull-down. Refrigerants.41 254 231 23 407.067 14. 3. Therefore the condenser surface of a freezer often have to be increased and some models under tropical conditions which in the past could work without oil coolers with R12 could need now oil coolers which means 30% bigger surface and half used for oil cooling. For further details see Chapter 7. Often the evaporator. 5. The volume flow with R134a is 80% of the volume flow with R12. Capillary tube. 3. In our case the temperatures based on practical measurement. For further details see Chapter 4. Also important is for a freezer the more steep inclination of the R134a system in comparison to the R12 system. The influence of using sub cooling before the throttling device is larger for R134a as for R12 systems.5 1. Not to be neglected in the evaporator and condenser design should be the cross sections of channels. Condenser. Compressor. that means that the resistance of the capillary tube must be increased and the capillary must be adapted to the needed higher pressure difference and lower mass and volume flow. The mass flow can be calculated out of the capacities which have been measured on the 5 cc displacement compressor. Please note the lower temperature level with R134a.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. 2. Testing condensers). 22
Sections 1. 2.2). An ideal system is operating in such a way that the refrigerant at the inlet of the capillary tube is as close as possible to the liquid/vapour borderline in the pressure/enthalpy diagram. 3.841 2.57 55 0. react with chlorine and mineral oil and therefore a much higher cleanness standard on all cooling circuit elements.5 341. however it is not as perfect as mineral oil for R12 or R600a.19
R134a 1. Mass flow differences
3. their fabrication and their assembly during the refrigerator production have to be applied (see Chapter 7.and freezer design used for R12 do not need to be modified for the use of R134a. Ester oil can pass the circuit.28 0.1 1.inlet cylinder m³/h Inlet throttling device °C Specific volume dm³/kg Volume flow dm³/h kJ/kg Enthalpy i1 (55°C liquid) Enthalpy is (32°C liquid) kJ/kg kJ/kg Enthalpy difference i1.is )/(i2. 8. Ester oil was selected for this reason to be used for R134a. As a thumb rule a given displacement with R134a will have a nominal LBP refrigerating capacity which is 88-90% of that of R12. The miscibility of refrigerant and oil is important. Volume flow at the throttle device 4. Comparison between and R12 and R134a Compressors
p.912 431 279 152 87 2.
In comparison to old R12 systems the new CFC free systems are much more efficient and the energy consumption much lower. Compressor. Comparison between and R12 and R134a Compressors
p. Further details can be taken in the following chapters. to JIS kWh/mo % Running time at 30°C % at 15°C % CFC-12 A RA48L 185 36. Therefore higher standards in soldering operations. If system components are not changed 10% less R134a charge are needed in comparison to R12. R134a reciprocal compressor comparison (on model D120LRAA 115V 6HZ0) R12 vs.0 32. 2.9 29. which should not exceed 1/10 of dryer capacity (about 1g).8
Evaporation Temperature HFC-134a A RA48L 185 38. R134a rotary compressor comparison on a 13 cu ft (370l) cabinet (Model NR-D37V1) kWh/day Energy Consumption Btu/h Kcal/h Capacity
Amount of Charge Refrigerant Condenser size Compressor model (100V 60 Hz) Refrigerant charge g Energy consumption acc. But the thermal reliability and stability of R134a/esteroil systems in comparison to R12/mineral oil systems are better.1 +1.8.6 Base 57. in sealing the circuit and in leak detection are needed. Heavy duty. R134a can escape through minor leaks than R12. 9.
By switching from R12 to R134a compressors and by switching from R134a to R600a compressors the leading manufacturers of compressors and also the leading refrigerator producers have made a lot of efforts to improve the energy efficiency of their systems.9
.0% 59. One severe quality problem of compressors is the humidity already in oil.0% 63.3. A Comparison Test of R134a and R12 Compressors from National Matsushita
Furthermore please find enclosed the 2 tables with comparison data of reciprocal using a piston and of rotary compressors of National Matsushita for CFC 12 and for HFC 134a refrigerants which came to similar results: R12 vs.3 A+B RA48L 190 37. 10. But some of this improvement cannot be used in developing countries with low voltages and clock problems as some of the new compressors are more sensitive in this aspect as old not optimised ones.
2.8 +6. that means 100mg water (125ppm for 280ml oil).Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits.5 31. 23
To avoid higher costs and energy consumption by switching from R12 to R 134a systems following steps should be made: 1) 2) 3) 4) Elimination of thermal bridges.
It will be described later how condensers and evaporators can be improved and the system can be optimised.0 -29. Following tests results were achieved:
.0 -15.0 36. Heavy duty.0 39.0 80.5 85. Optimisation of the system.
. often to be realised by an increase of the condenser surface. 24
At 30°C Cont.9 38.1 0. We only want to mention how thermal losses can be eliminated.0 -30.
2. Improving of evaporator efficiency. First the door gasket sector.6 0.02
-21.1 -15. especially to avoid oil pockets and reductions of cross sections. the 2 mayor suppliers of door gaskets in Europe. Last not least areas towards the backside condenser and towards the hot compressor department need bigger insulation as it could easily be seen on the calculation of thermal losses in the previous chapter. Comparison Tests of R600a. 2.84
Conclusion (Part 2): Needed Design Improvements
Compressors for R134a need higher power (+7-15%) to reach the same refrigeration capacity in comparison to R12 compressors. With all these efforts an increase of power of the compressor by switching from R12 to R134a systems can be avoided. The construction of this closing sector and of the door gasket can be improved by using specialised companies like Rehau in Erlangen/Germany or Ilpea in Malgesso/Italy.89
-23.2 -31. the construction but also the welding of the door gasket can be improved by avoiding air leakage in the corners and by reducing the space between door and cabinet.3 97.3 -29.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. Run
Freezer °C Fresh food °C Evaporator inlet °C Evaporator outlet °C Discharge –2 °C Shell °C Condenser outlet °C Condenser pressure kgf/cm²G(psig) Suction pressure kgf/cm²G(psig)
-24.9.0 10.4 -14.8 1.5 94.
We also recommend looking carefully at the construction of the door cabinet section of such refrigerators and freezers which have very low energy consumption to find an optimal own construction.0 -28.7 9. Improving of condenser efficiency (see National Matsushita table and effect).0 92. They have first tested the compressors only with a calorimeter. Comparison between and R12 and R134a Compressors
p. R134a and R12 Compressors from Necchi
Necchi has compared in test series different compressors already optimised for the refrigerant used.0 -29. than they have mounted them on household refrigerators from running productions. Compressor.5 90.9 9.
3 -9. R134a and R12 Compressors
Aim of these tests of Necchi was to identify the behaviour of refrigerators on charges of different gases and compressors.60 212 1.99/1.25 1.55 112 1.50 1.65 66 R290/R600a 50 5 5 -19.5 -18 1.Energy efficiency ment (cc) city (kcal/h) ratio (w/w) 3.28/1.12/1.08 47 51 43 42 52 47 48 37 40 43
Double Door Refrigerators
Nominal Volume Refrigerant Charge (g) Compressor type(cc) Fridge temperature(°C) Freezing temperature(°C) Energy conservation(kWh/24h) Running % 180 l + 60 l R12 110 5 5 -20.12 101 1.5 5.41 1.75 148 1.07 5.17 ETR5 HGTR8 8.86 1. Energy optimized p.5 -9. 25
2.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits.93 4. Comparison between R600a.5 1. 2.5 74 1.43 40 290 l 250 l 140 l R290/ R600a R290/ R12 R600a R12 R134a R600a R600a R600a 55 54 50 160 65 110 100 37 5.16 7. and the second with run capacitor R600a Model R134a Displace.6 140 1.16 1.30/1.39 ESR8 HGTR13 12.10/1.87 1.34 ESR7 HGTR11 10. Necchi uses refrigerator models from running productions.5 2.16 ETR4 HGTR6.5 HGTR15 15.7 60 0.32 63
Nominal Volume Refrigerant Charge (g) Compressor type(cc) Freezing temperature(°C) Energy conservation(kWh/24h) Running % 120 l R12 95 5.1 122 1. R134a and R12 Compressors (Necchi). the first without run capacitor.5 HGTR9 9.05/1.5 4 6 3 3 4.2.00 127 1.15
2.47 69 R290/R600a 8.21 ETR5.93 0.Cooling capa.Cooling capa.5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 -18 -17.37 1.06 1.52 58 260 l + 70 l R12 8.5 6.23/1.Energy efficiency Model ment (cc) city (kcal/h) ratio(w/w) HGTR4.98 5.
Single Door Refrigerators
Nominal Volume Refrigerant Charge (g) Compressor type(cc) Fridge temperature(°C) Freezing temperature(°C) Energy conservation(kWh/24h) Running % 140 l 170 l 190 l 140 l R12 R600a R12 R600a R12 R134a R600a R12 R134a R290/R600a 110 40 120 58 75 73 27 80 87 25 4 6. Compressor COP Tests
Compressor performance comparison of R600a and R134a were measured on a calorimeter.2 109 1.62 1.50 65 0.10 75 0.07 1.15 8.29/1.5 HGTR5. R290/R600a Mixture.24 49 35 40 55 62 56 55 51
.9.20 160 1.10 7.5 13 8.1.13 1.40 ESR11
Displace.1 203 1.48 1.5 1.41 ESR8.4 -8.5 4. Fridge/freezer Tests using R600a.1 -8.10 ETR3. Only the charge quantity and capillary tube were optimised while the evaporators and condenser were not modified. Compressor.17 10.5 5 -16.12 1.9.5 86 1.14 1.5 1. The R600a compressor performance values contain 2 figures.5 7 11 4 5 8 -18 -18 -18 -18 -18 -18 -18 -18 1.5 160 1.5 5 -13 2.7 -8.9.09 0.
which can be avoided by high vacuum before charging. The cooling capacity of R600a is approximately 50% in all evaporating temperatures that mean that the displacement of the compressor must be increased to reach the same performance on a given application.very sensitive on deviations from the optimal charge quantity. The difference even will be increased by applying run capacitors in so called high efficiency versions which seems to increase the R600a version slightly stronger than the R134a version. Any additive which can act as catalyst must be avoided. R134a needs the use of Polyol ester lubricant with some bad consequences in comparison to R600a and R12 systems: . etc. Chlorine in combination with heat decomposes ester with the same result as mentioned above. 26
Conclusions (Part 3)
Cooling capacities. But also the selection of mineral oil in R600a systems and the quantity of R600a in the oil is not unproblematic.
. If in big refrigerators the quantity of R600a becomes too high the lubricant viscosity can be strongly effected and microscopic foam can be built between the friction surfaces so that the film can break if traditional naphtenic lubricant were used. 160kcal/h can be obtained by 8 cc R134a or by 13 cc R600a. Such lubricant problems of R134a systems have bad effects on the performance as a result of the so called sludge formation of the capillary tube which does not exist in R600a or R12 systems. ester decomposition and their reaction with metal ions can be a metal salt. Run capacitors will even increase this effect. . Compressor. Reasons for the sludge formations are: . Energy optimized p.Excessive moisture content. Noise. Charge tolerances.9. The actual temperatures of compressors along the thermostatic controlled cycles were lower than calculated for R600a with the effect that the gas densities and consequently the volumetric efficiency of R600a compressors were better than calculated. R600a applications show in these tests better COP values than R134a applications. Sludge formation.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. Lubricant. R12 and R134a household refrigerator systems tolerate 10-20 g charge variations without a significant effect on the energy consumption while R600a reacts . but it improves the efficiency of all systems. if not compensated by higher quality requirements for ester oil for R134a as required for mineral oil for R12 and for R600a. So also the selection of lubricant is important for R600a compressors. Therefore chlorine often used in productions as cleaning material must be avoided and such pollution need to be controlled. But this needs further systematic studies. R600a compressors produce 2 dB(A) less noise than R12 compressors and 3-4 dB(A) less than R134a compressors. As final result of oxidation.limited material compatibility (chlorine etc. +/-5 g deviations changes the behaviour of the system very much. oligomers extracted from plastics. Under bad conditions higher temperatures are reached with R134a as with R600a systems. Such effects are strongly increased by impurities coming from system pollution (mineral oils.Chlorine.solubility. . The sensitivity on charge tolerances differ very strongly between R134a and R12 on one side and R600a on the other side. The increase of displacement of an R600a compressor cannot be always made inside the same housing and in some cases a step-up in the compressor family is required. R290/R600a drop-in solution.). not all ester oils get it at all temperature ranges. The stricter control on cleanness of all R134a refrigeration circuit components is vital for its long life. Overall dimension of compressors.not only because of a much lower quantity of charge .much higher hydroscopic in comparison to mineral oil used in R600a compressors. Comparison between R600a. Such higher temperatures causes deterioration on ester oil. R134a and R12 Compressors (Necchi). But on some models a slight increase in noise were noticed and the cause was not understood and need further studies. Through hydrolyse of the ester oil an acid can be produced which react to carbossilates (a metallic salt) This effect can be reduced by strong cleanness controls on all circuit components and by much more efficient dryers (3A pores on molecular sleeves). Coefficient of performances. -Excessive oxidation of the oil. R290/600a mixtures were very similar in this point to R12 applications. . .slightly lower thermal stability in connection with anti-wear additives. R600a displacement increase. Solubility of R600a in mineral oil and foaming. (Personal remark: Many refrigerator producers try to keep the charging tolerance of R600a household refrigerators in the limit of 1g). The R134a application is producing a slightly lower capacity than the R12. The needed increase of displacement of an R600a compressor was smaller than theoretical expected. 2. HC blends can be considered as drop-in solutions for existing appliances for R12 as long as the refrigerator fulfils the safety requirements and tests according to IEC600335-2-24 (1997-08). -Temperature.
2.11. Compressor costs. both should not exceed 1/10 of dryer capacity (about 1g).11.are not considered here.values of 1. specially the tube connection to the suction side was improved: Instead of using the complete shell volume to separate oil from gas only a limited gas volume is used in so called “semi-direct” and specially in “direct inlet”. manufacturing. By more compact coils and better designed electromagnetic fields less electrical energy is needed for same cooling capacity. E. will be considered in Chapter 8). The problem is that the energy optimised and high energy optimised models are developed till today for regions with stable voltages and frequencies and good impedance (ratio V/A) and not for developing countries with bad electrical supply conditions. but it is today practically impossible in the refrigerator factories to remove it from the refrigerant itself and from the compressor oil.the standard compressor versions as offered in the past with COP.2. 27
Humidity. Biscaldi: CFC substitutes (R600a and R134a): performance. ecological and efficiency point of view feasible and the global overall costs should be not higher than the one for R134a. A compressor with variable speed costs about double as much as a standard one while the high efficient one costs DM 3. Humidity can be removed from evaporator and condenser by dry air. especially for R600a models. that means for the compressor oil 100mg water (125ppm for 280ml oil). These are the 2 severe quality problems as it is already in the refrigerant and in the oil. 2. Necchi came to the conclusion that R600a systems for household refrigerators are under economical.1996. Flammability.7 to 1. especially the higher costs of the Polyol ester oil and needed the higher purity and cleanness standard for R134a the R600a compressor price should be equal or lower than the R134a compressor. Energy Optimised Compressors
In the last 3 years a lot of improvements. . and . but will be considered in Chapter 8). These design modifications improve the COP ratio by 5-7% without increasing significantly the costs. In addition the cylinder in and outlet. ECO-Refrigeration. considering the changes needed to prevent any risks coming from the flammability of the gas. Variable Capacity Compressor
p. saving energy consumption of 30-40% in comparison to standard versions.if needed in single cases of constructions . But in this field at lot of further progress can be reached. saving energy consumption of 5-7% in comparison to standard versions. 13-14.energy optimised systems (without using run capacitors) with COP-values in the range of 1.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. (Other costs concerning other electrical components of the refrigerator like ex-proof lamps or thermostats . But this cost calculation is only valid for displacement ranges reachable inside the same overall dimension so that no upsizing is needed. were made to reduce energy consumption. As consequences of the above mentioned items needed for R134a compressors. .45-1.9 to 2. On the compressor the risk can be prevented by using a flame-quenching overload protector and PTC starting device which eliminates any ignition point near the compressor.5 up to DM 8 more that the standard ones as result of the 4 µ capacitor.0 at –20°C evaporating temperature . The prices between standard and energy optimised ones differ today already in the ranges of price fights (DM0-2) and can be neglected.
. (Other measures to be taken concerning light and thermostat etc. but in this case stable electrical conditions are needed for high COP values.6 at –20°C evaporating temperature. and costs from the compressor point of view. The humidity is also a problem for R600a systems to reach high quality. Today we differ between 4 energy efficiency versions: .Variable speed compressors.last only reachable today by R600a systems.75 at –20°C evaporating temperature. Conference on Hydrocarbon Fluids in Domestic and Commercial Refrigeration Appliances. Only very few compressor manufacturers like Danfoss started already to optimise models designed for tropical areas with often higher Voltage fluctuation in the range of 185-230Vac instead of 198-254 Vac (Danfoss with their new FT models replacing the previous G models). saving energy consumption of 20 up to 33% in comparison to standard versions. Energy and High Energy Optimised Compressors.high-energy optimised systems by using run capacitors with COP-values in the range of 1. In the high energy efficient model a run capacitor is added to compensate the coil inductivity and reduce the cos phi phase shifting. The flammability of R600a is their weak point even it is relatively small risk because of the small charging quantity present in domestic appliances. Compressor.
Embraco VCC models.com/Germany/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Product+Selection+Tools+details/R Splus3. 28
2. It can archive optimal compressor and heat exchange pressures by eliminating or minimising stoppages and restarts with a result of strong energy savings of about 30% and a reduction of the noise level in comparison to conventional on-off compressors. 2. Often even the compressor’s size can be reduced. but still need to be verified.12. Variable Capacity Compressors
In 1996 a new generation of compressors with variable cooling capacity using electronically driven motors together with a reciprocating mechanism were developed. higher temperature stability and lower noise.11. With this kind of control the compressor runs continuously and modulating its capacity according to the needs. Variable Capacity Compressor
p.danfoss.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits.htm
. Also a longer lifetime for the compressor can be expected. Electronic controls as needed to control the variable speed of the compressors are normally also used to control the temperatures of the food compartments (by thermocouples instead of thermostats). The advantages for the consumer are lower energy consumption. faster freezing. better food conservation. Compressor.
Danfoss grant a program called RS +3 which allow to calculate and select the right Danfoss compressors upon fundamental cooling circuit data under
http://www. Energy and High Energy Optimised Compressors.
0 106 120 Power cons.23 1.7 103 134 147 173 218 Capacity in W 70.8 97. Labelling of Compressors with Flammable Gas (R600a.61 0. temp.61 1.67 Current cons.12.Performance testing and test methods . For example Danfoss NLE8.3 -20 -15 -10 -35 -30 -25 -23.63 1. 2.
.52 0.Rating conditions.48 1. This part 1 of the European Standard applies only to refrigerant compressors and describes a number of selected performance test methods.74 1. tolerances and the method of presenting manufacturer’s data for positive displacement refrigerant compressors.75 0.1 81. while the US ASHRAE COP measurement data includes subcooling. The COP data according to EN standard excludes subcooling. isentropic efficiency and the coefficient of performance. This is required so that a comparison of different refrigerant compressors can be made. This European Standard specifies the rating conditions.49 0. The data relate to the refrigerating capacity and power absorbed and include correction factors and part-load performance where applicable.Part 1: Refrigerant compressors.45 1.2 92.
The electric safety of compressors have to be controlled by compressor manufacturer according to IEC EN 60335-1 and IEC EN 60335-34 and a CE conformity declaration of compressor manufacturer including the conformity to EU Low Voltage Directive 73/22/EC and the EU PED 93/23/EC has to become part of type approval of the refrigerator. 29
2. It also applies to the methods of testing for rating single-stage positive-displacement refrigerant compressors and condensing units that (a) incorporate liquid injection that is controlled by a steady flow rate method and (b) are operated at subcritical (saturated) temperatures of the refrigerant. in A 0. power absorbed.13.51 1.14. These methods provide sufficiently accurate results for the determination of the refrigerating capacity.0 97. This standard applies only to performance tests conducted at the manufacturer's works or wherever the equipment for testing to the accuracy required is available. The type of measuring instrument and the limits within which measurements shall be made are listed in normative annex A. in °C 62.56 0. This standard applies to the methods of testing for rating single-stage positive-displacement refrigerant compressors and condensing units that (a) do not have liquid injection and (b) are operated at subcritical (saturated) temperatures of the refrigerant.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and freezer Cooling Circuits.18 1.3 -20 -15 Evap.52 0.4°C 32°C 32°C 32°C
-10 272 138 0.98
US-Standard ANSI/ASHRAE 23(2005): Methods of Testing for Rating Positive Displacement Refrigerant Compressors and Condensing Units.3 106 121 138 70.67 0.3 93.7 84.4 Energy-optimized Compressor R600a 220-240V 50Hz without run capacitor: EN 12900/CECOMAF ASHRAE -35 -30 -25 -23. tolerances and presentation of manufacturer's performance data. These include single stage compressors and single and two stage compressors using a means of liquid subcooling. in W 0.27 1.33 1.03 1. Compressor testing and performance data
p. R290 etc.09 1.2 81.58 0. Compressor testing and performance data
EN 12900 (2005): Refrigerant compressors .81 COP in W/W Typical test conditions for R600a compressor Condensing temperature Ambient temperature Suction gas temperature Liquid temperature EN 12900/CECOMAF 55°C 32°C 32°C no subcooling ASHRAE 54.8KK.56 0.89 1.0 110 120 141 179 223 76.58 0.49 0. refrigerant mass flow.
EN 13771-1 (2003 /2005): Compressors and condensing units for refrigeration .
Compressor testing and performance data
. 2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and freezer Cooling Circuits.12.
There exist tubing of 5mm or 6mm.
3. Skin Condenser on Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets
p.1. made by roll forming.1. different serpentine's radius and different distances and diameter of wires (pitches) welded on the serpentines (in case of wire-on-tube condensers is selected).33.1. There exist 2 types:
3. Tube-on-Finned-Plate Condensers
On a normally vertical tube serpentine finned plates. Wire-on-Tube Condensers
On a tube serpentine with normally a horizontal tube serpentine vertical wires are welded to increase the heat exchange surface.
3. Condenser. 31
3. Static Condensers
Static condensers are air cooled condensers mounted on the back side of a refrigerator or freezer.25/23 =10.25 -------------------------------∆t
Ks = whereby:
Ks = condenser constant in kcal/h °C ∆t = the temperature difference between the condensing temperature and the ambient temperature which is normally in the range of 23°C.2. In our sample the condenser should have the Ks value Ks = 190*1. Condenser Constant
In a first approach the following formula can be used for the calculation of the static condenser (for tube-on-finned-plate or wire-on-serpentine condensers): Compressor kcal/h*1. 3.1.4.
This Ks value allows us already to determine from the condenser suppliers' catalogue (for example Bundy or Benteler) which condenser with which Ks value can be selected inside the maximum size of the cabinet width and height.
3. Nowadays there exist high efficient condensers with smaller distances between the wires which allow a higher heat exchange on the same overall dimension of the condenser.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator … Circuits. are mounted. CONDENSER
188.8.131.52. Condenser Capacity
A second approach of selection of condensers allows the following formula. The condenser's capacity Qk can be calculated:
The first table described the U-value in dependence on the temperature differential at a tube spacing of 60mm.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator … Circuits. in this case the U-value is in the range of 10-11 kcal/h xm²x °C. By this way the condenser's capacity can be calculated out of the evaporator capacity or vice versa. The U.value is almost the same for the 2 condensers types. Condenser Transmission Coefficient or U-Value
The transmission coefficient or U-value describes the quantity of heat in kcal/h which can be removed per m² at a temperature difference of 1°C or 1 K. 3. The condenser capacity can also be expressed by the circulated quantity of the refrigerant in the following way: Qk = G * ∆i = G * (i1-i2) whereby: G= ∆i = t1 (i1) t2 (i2) the circulated quantity of refrigerant [kg/h] enthalpy loss from the condenser inlet to the condenser outlet [kcal/kg) designate temperature and enthalpy respectively at the compressor discharge connector/ condenser inlet.
The N and Qh values can be received from the compressor manufacturer for the selected compressors. The ∆t will be defined by the measured ambient and condensing temperatures. the condition at the condenser outlet.5.Qh (kcal/h) whereby: Qo = N = Qh = Evaporator capacity and increase of enthalpy up to the cylinder Compression work in kcal/h Heat emission from compressor pot. For an air-cooled condenser the condenser capacity Qk can be also calculated according to the formula: Qk = k * A * ∆t(kcal/h) whereby: k= A= ∆t = Transmission coefficient (Kcal/h x m² x °C) Effective condenser area (m³) Temperature difference between condensing temperature and air temperature in °C. Condenser.
Out of this data which can be taken from similar systems by measurement or during optimisation of the system itself we can calculate the effective condenser area in the following way: A= ( G*∆ i)/(k*∆ t) = [Gx(i1-i2)]/[k*(t2-t3)*m³] ∆ ∆
3.1. therefore we can calculate out of the needed condenser capacity value Qk the condenser size.
The transmission coefficient and the effective condenser area can be granted by the condenser manufacturer.
Qk = Qo + N .2. Skin Condenser on Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets
p. The temperature differential is in general in the range of 15-16°C for rear condensers. which has the maximum width of the refrigerator and the length according to the calculated condenser area. while t3 is the ambient temperature at the condenser's surface and air.
Often lowest relative material costs per output unit are reached with a tube spacing of 60 mm. The reduced charge inside a 5 mm condenser results in lower equalisation pressure and improves the starting conditions for smaller compressors during initial start-up. A good contact between tube and steel plate is important.2.2. Skin Condenser on Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets
p. The 5 mm needs fewer refrigerants but for a larger refrigerator or freezer it needs high maximum condensing pressure. Condenser. Under subtropical conditions normally the whole backside of a cabinet is sufficient if the tube spacing is in the range of 60-100mm. The wire spacing is economically at 6mm with wire diameter of 1. For example for tube spacing of 45 mm the U-value is nearly double as high as for tube spacing of 100mm. The tube size selected is normally 5-6 mm dia.5 mm. 50 HZ) can be used for a climate class N.6. Condenser Surface (acc. 3. The condenser tubes are mounted on the steel sheets by adhesive foils. to Danfoss)
To select a static condenser following graph of Danfoss for M/LBP compressor (2 poles. For A freezer an anti-dew coil is in addition needed. But the reduction of the tube spacing has limits and it strongly increases the material costs.
3. The given U-value anyhow can vary.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator … Circuits. But the 5mm condenser and discharge tube causes larger pressure drops and during start and pull-up of the compressor the starting capacity of the compressor will be reduced.
. For other climate classes the surface of a given condenser type with fixed coefficient can be recalculated for the smaller ∆ t in ST and in T class. 33
By varying the distance of the tube (see the next table underneath) the Uvalue of the condenser is influenced.
3. Skin Condenser
In a skin condenser the refrigerator or freezer outside walls are used as a condenser. depending on air circulation and type of material used in the condenser. The bigger tube results in longer pressure equalising time of the system and this can cause starting trouble. especially if it starts from high equalising pressure.1.
Condenser.2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator … Circuits. that means at an ambient temperature of 32°C the condensing temperature should be below 50°C and in tropical conditions underneath 60°C.
. oil or fan cooling of the compressor must be used to avoid strong reduction of the life time of the compressor. 34
3.2. Skin Condenser on Chest Freezers
The condensing temperature should be kept as low as possible in regards of the compressor's life time and energy consumption.2.1.
3.2. 3. Because of higher surface temperature in range of 40°C near the skin condensers the foam insulation must be increased to reach same energy efficiencies and energy consumption. If these conditions cannot be maintained. Skin Condenser on Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets
See sample sketches beside and construction. Skin Condenser on Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets
Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyp… Circuits. 3.2. Condenser, Skin Condensers on Chest Freezes, Condenser Capacity, Increase of Insulation p. 35
Skin type condenser for chest freezer (32°C ambient temperature): Relation between gross volume, tube length, tube distance and k-value (go along the array inside the 3 grids):
3.2.3. Necessary Increase of Insulation of Skin Condenser Refrigerators and Freezers
By switching from conventional condensers to skin condensers also the foam insulation thickness have to be increased. The heat transmission depends on the temperature difference between outside the cabinet and the inside (see Chapter 1.4.1.Thermal losses). If for example under subtropical climate conditions (38°C) the outer temperature is increase to the condensing temperature (55°C) of the outer cabinet walls an increase of 20% of heat transmission and energy consumption is expected. Only if the insulation will be increased by 20% plus the tube diameter of the compressor a similar energy consumption can be reached.
3.2.4 Sheet Cover on Condenser
Similar aesthetic results as with a skin condenser can be reached when a refrigerator backside condenser is covered by a steel plate. The bottom and the top side must be open to use for the ventilation of the condenser a chimney effect. If the steel plate itself is used as condenser the condensing surface of this plate has to be used to calculate the U-value.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Circuits. 3.6. Condenser, Testing Condensers, Condenser Capacity, Comparison Test p. 36
3.3. Anti-Dew Coil
Bad Cold Bridge Foamed Door
Tension and Quality problems Foamed Door
Door Gasket Upright freezer or fridge freezers need an anti-dew coil because of the high Magnetic Strip temperature difference between outside and inside to raise the temperature of the Plastic Liner cabinet front area beside the door to avoid dew fall. In addition this coil is a part of Plastic Liner Anti-Dew Coil Anti-Dew Coil the condenser which will reduce the condensing temperature. Important for the construction is to avoid thermal bridges between the inside and the outside Steel Side cabinet; this depends mainly on the link between the steel cabinet and the plastic Panel food liner. In so called cold bridges the heated steel warms up the inside. To insert it into the front profile can cause tension in the steel liner joint and can cause planetary problems. There are 2 ways of connecting this coil to the system: 1. the most efficient anti-dew way is to connect it between the discharge Foamed Door Foamed Door connector of the compressor and the inlet of the condenser. But it can cause a thermal bridge. 2. The other way is between condenser outlet Door Gasket Door Gasket Magnetic Strip Magnetic Strip and capillary inlet, in which anti- dew coil temperature is already Plastic Liner Plastic Liner lower.
Steel Side Panel
Steel Side Panel
Only if bad links are used and if insulation thickness is low the dew coil effect should be reduced by inserting the coil between the condenser outlet and the capillary inlet and their position should be placed more away from the front side. Optimal position of anti-dew coil and insulation to inside
3.4. Oil Cooling Condenser
In such oil cooling condenser compressor oil is cooled in the condenser to remove super- heat. A partial condensation of this refrigerant takes place in the oil cooling condenser. From the oil cooling condenser the refrigerant is conducted through the oil-cooling coil of the compressor where the enthalpy increases because the refrigerant absorbs heat from the compressor oil. Afterwards the refrigerant is drawn to the main condenser where the final condensation takes place as already described previously.
In the a.m. figure the Mollier diagram (i-log p) is shown and refers with t1, t2, t3 to the oil cooling condenser. In this diagram it can be seen that a large portion of the superheat of the compressed refrigerant between the t1 and t2 points are removed by the oil cooler. The optimum oil cooling is reached by dimensioning the oil cooling condenser to remove the superheat of the compressed gas and a partial condensation of the refrigerant is produced to prevent the thermal increase in the cooling coil from creating superheat. In his way the increased enthalpy of i3-i2 is achieved to reach the lowest temperature as possible in the entire oil-cooler and to reach an optimum value of the internal heat transmission coefficient of the oil cooling coil. To reach an optimum oil cooler the temperature's increase on the oil cooler coils between the oil cooler should be measured. It is recommended that 50% of the total condenser surface should be used for an oils cooling condenser. Oil cooling condensers need compressors with oil outlet and oil inlet tubes.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Circuits. 3.6. Condenser, Testing Condensers, Condenser Capacity, Comparison Test p. 37
3.5. Fan Cooled Condenser
Chest freezers in tropical conditions often use fancooled condensers to reduce superheat and if a statical condenser needs more space as available behind the chest. Such a unit consists of a condenser, normally a finned condenser, a fan and a compressor.
The advantages of such a fan cooled system are that the condensers need less space and it can be often easier installed or serviced. The disadvantage is the fan noise, more frequent services (fan failures, collected dirt in the condenser) and it is often more expensive than a static condenser. The U-value is highest when the condenser is mounted horizontally and lowest at vertical position. The capacity increases by the air velocity. (See: Literature: Cube, H.L.V., and Tofahr, G.: Formes économiques de condenseurs pour armoires frigorifiques ménagers).
3.5.1. Fin Coil Characteristics
The characteristics for such fin coils are: - the spacing of fins (2-10mm) - their thickness (0,2-0,5mm) - their corrugated or plan surface - their material - the method of fixing to the tube (around 10mm dia), the good thermal contact between tube and fin (fin holes with small flanges) and - the tube spacing between coils (25-30mm). It depends on the spacing how fast it needs cleaning. The U-value falls if the fin spacing is reduced so that a larger surface only gained by increasing the fin quantity in a given space will also reduced the utilised surface. Smaller spacing often increases the noise level. Like in case of all other condensers the tube layout of the finned condenser should ensure a minimum of pressure-equalisation time, which is achieved by locating the inlet on the top and the outlet on the bottom and by continuously declining of the tube coil so that liquid pockets can be avoided. To avoid in some cases a large pressure drop and to reduce in other cases the tube cross section a parallel flow system (2 tubes parallel passing the fin condenser) can be used. Examples for a finned condenser unit from Danfoss. Condenser area (32°C ambient temperature ) Condenser Code No. 119-0081 119-0082² Surface area m² 1.16 1.73 Compressor M/LBP R12 0-10 8.5-15 capacity cm³ HBP R12 0-5.5 4.5-8.5 displacement LBP R504 ² With cooling baffle 18 15.6 k-Value (kcal/h x °C x m²)
119-0085² 3.22 12-21 7.5-15 10-15 17.3
119-0088² 4.28 1812-21 12-18 18.7
2. only one single measurement per condenser size is possible and needed. By testing the condenser mounted on a refrigerator. By taking the data sheets of the condenser manufacturers and the requested value for the compressor power (already previously explained). Testing Condensers. By measuring the condenser alone the compressor is replaced by a heating element to keep the condenser inlet temperature constant at a superheat of 100°C. Testing Condensers
Condenser determination and selection. which is for household refrigerators not easily because of the low quantities of refrigerants. Calorimetric Measurement
3. Condenser.6. Since there is only one point of loading where this constant level in a given system occurs (position of equilibrium of the system).1.7x4. The table applies to a 2 poles 50 Hz compressor in the range of M/LBP (-40°C to .000mm). In this case the condenser capacity can be calculated by multiplying the circulated quantities in kg/h by the enthalpy difference between the compressed gas superheated to 100°C and the liquid at the lower limit curve:
3.6. To get defined conditions the suction pressure (evaporation pressure) and hence the circulated quantity of refrigerant are regulated until the liquid level is constant in the sight glass. For higher ambient temperature the compressor size and the condenser size have to be increased by using the calculation used in the last part of this chapter about condensers. There exist 2 possibilities to measure the condenser capacity now: One theoretical possibility is a flow meter to be mounted instead of the calorimeter. Possible Solutions for the Air Ducts
3. 2.5°C) and HBP (-5°C to +15°C). So we have following possibilities to determine the condenser: 1.5. The recommended condenser surface is sufficient for ambient temperature of up to 32°C and the air velocity at the condenser inlet is approximately 1m/sec. Comparison Test p. By measuring the condenser alone in the following way:
3.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Circuits. 38
The compressor capacity is expressed by the compressor displacement in cm³. Condenser Capacity.6. At the condenser outlet a capillary tube is fitted to remove the condensed refrigerant under fixed settings (for R 134a for example 0. 3.
3. Comparison Test of Condenser Capacity.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping … Circuits. Comparison Test of Condenser Capacities
To compare different condensers to each other a simple test set-up can be used and the a. In this case either the water is passed on a constant velocity and with a defined inlet temperature and the outlet temperature is measured or the temperature difference between inlet and outlet is recorded and the water flow is measured with the flow meter.
.2.6.6. 3. 39
Qk = G*(t2-t3) = K*A*∆ T=k*A*(t2-t3)[kcal/h] ∆ The U-value is calculated on the bases of the condensing temperature minus the temperature at the condenser inlet. Condenser performance Standards p.m. formula allows calculating their capacities.
It is easier for small household refrigerators (see figure) to use a calorimeter instead of the flow meter. so that the circulated quantity of refrigerant can be calculated out of the measured temperatures by the formula: Qk = G*C(t1-t2) whereby: G = Quantity of refrigerant (kg/h) C = Specific heat content (kcal/kg x °C) to be taken out of the data sheet of the refrigerant t1 = temperature at inlet (°C) t2 = temperature at outlet °C)
The same formula can be used to compare different condenser types by using water as refrigerant. So 2 condensers are easily compared by this method either by keeping the circulated quantity of water constant and recording the difference of temperatures (inlet/outlet) or by keeping the temperature difference constant and recording the circulated quantity of water. Condenser.
Forced convection air cooled refrigerant condensers.3.Performance testing and test methods .Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping … Circuits.Part 2: Condensing units. Standards of condenser performance testing and test methods
The following standards of condenser performance testing and test methods have to be applied in EU and many other areas: EN 13771-2 (2003 /2005): Compressors and condensing units for refrigeration .6.
. 3. Condenser performance Standards p. EN 13215 (2000): Condensing units for refrigeration . tolerances and presentation of manufacturer's performance data. 40
3. Comparison Test of Condenser Capacity. Condenser.Rating conditions. EN 327 Air cooled refrigerant condensers. Heat exchangers. Test procedure for establishing performance.6.
6.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping … Circuits. Condenser. Comparison Test of Condenser Capacity. 41
. 3. Condenser performance Standards p.
The evaporating temperature to be reached is -30°C and an absolute pressure of 0. .
4.e.476 m³/h = 7.liquid: 0.6 x 0.2245 x 1000 /60 = 9. to the Mollier diagram of R134a and the system is nearly ideal acc. i. 2. Practical and theoretical evaluations show that the resistance of the capillary tube must be increased when switching from R12 to R134a. 42
4. CAPILLARY TUBE AND HEAT EXCHANGERS
The capillary tube must be adapted to the changed refrigerant characteristics.vapour: 0. to the Mollier diagram for R134a.5 x l -0. that means the outlet of the capillary is vapour only. differential pressure. The switching from R12 to R 134a gas should not affect much the gas velocity.
For example a particular refrigerator operating at the condition -25°C and at super-heating to 32°C with a R12 compressor of 95W and an R134a compressor of 87W had following mass flow: R12-system: 0.93 l/min This would result in a tube with an internal diameter of 5mm to a gas velocity of 6. Heat Exchangers.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Cooling Circuits.2245 m³/kg.35 x √ p² -1 x d 2. The ideal system is operated in such a way that the refrigerant at the inlet of the capillary tube is as close as possible near the liquid-vapour borderline in the Mollier Pressure -enthalpy diagram. 4.864 kg/cm² acc. Capacity Calculation and Tests p. 3. The condensing temperature is 55°C.72 l/kg.07kg/h = 0.9m/sec for R12 and of 6. In a LBP refrigerating system with the same compressor capacity the change can be described as a 20-25% reduction of the flow if measured as Nitrogen flow at 10 bar inlet pressure.m.23m³/kg x 2.13 l/min R134a-system: 0. mass and volume flow etc. formula we assuming following condition: 1.6 kg/h of R134a. Capillary Capacity Calculations
There exist some calculation formulas about the capillary capacity Pc[l/min] = Pf [kg/h] x Psv [m³/kg] x 1000/60 whereby: Pf = value describes the refrigerant quantity produced by the compressor in kg/h Psv=value steam specific gravity quantity in m³/kg and the factor 1000 to transform m³ in litres and the factor 60 to transform hours in minutes.7m/sec for R134a.488 m³/h = 8. Capillary Tube. The selected compressor has a displacement of 2. This increased resistance of the capillary tube reached by prolongation of the tube or by reduction of the diameter will also increase the pressure equilibration time during the standstill period which can have effects to increase the restarting time and perhaps needs to modify the thermostat differential.17m³/kg x 2.5 whereby: Va = capillary capacity with Nitrogen gas passing in l/min
. In such a case following specific volumes can be assumed: . To explain the a.1. In such a case the Capillary capacity for R134a in l/min is as following: Pc[l/min] = Pf [kg/h] x Psv [m³/kg] x 1000/60 = 2.728 l/min There exist also a formula about the capillary capacity as a result of condensation pressure. diameter and length of the capillary using Nitrogen passing the capillary as follows: ________________ Va = 2.87 kg/h = 0.
4. If other system components are not changed in a LBP system and same compressor capacities are chosen and similar gas velocities are reached the refrigerant charge by switching from R12 to R134a refrigerant should be about 10 % less.9 bar at 55°C.2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Cooling Circuits.712.5 = 9. We recommend asking the supplier of the compressor which capillary tube diameter (normally 0. Capillary Tube Tests
By switching from R12 to R134a the length of the capillary has to be increased or the diameter to be reduced to increase the flow resistance and to reach similar gas velocities. 3.danfoss. so that real conditions as existing in a refrigeration circuit can be simulated.35 x √ p² -1 x d 2.5 mm= 9. It is possible to measure the pressure drop of a capillary tube.907² -1) x 0.684 l = 3. With such a test apparatus and variations of parts to be used different tests can be made: 1.424 ) = 0. 43
P = condensation pressure in kg/cm² at 55°C d = capillary internal diameter in mm l = length of capillary in mm _______________ ________________________ For example: Va = 2. If the same compressor capacity is used as for R12 such a change can be described as a 20-25% reduction of the flow if measured as N2 flow at 10 bar inlet pressure.35 x √ (14. a second manometer and the capillary tube to be tested. Capacity Calculation and Tests p.728l/min /(2.5 x l -0.) and which length (about 3-4 m for the R 134a) he recommends as minimum and maximum length and there seem to be no way as to determine the optimal length of the capillary but by laboratory tests. htm
4.5 x l -0. a capillary tube with known capillary characteristics. On this apparatus such a test can even be made with liquid R134a pressurised to the 14.5 l -0. Also R600a pressurized to 6. If the capillary tube C2 is not connected to the manometer 2 the pressure p2 on manometer 2 is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Danfoss grant a program to select upon cooling circuit data the right capillary tube diameter and length called DanCapTM 1.7bar at 55°C in water bath can be used .0 http://www.com/Germany/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Product+Selection+Tools+details/DanCap. Capillary Tube.728 l/min = 2.35 x 14. 2. if the capillary tube C2 to be tested is connected to the manometer 2 the difference between the now measured pressure p3 on the manometer 2 to the atmospheric pressure at the outlet of the tested capillary tube C2 is equal to the pressure drop inside the capillary tube C2. Like usually such test first test each refrigeration circuit element separate (see for example the testing method of capillary tubes) and after optimisation of each element the system in total have to be tested as later explained to control interference between the elements on each other.28 x 0.2 m But according to our experience such formulas are a first approach and the length and the diameter should be finally tested with methods as described in the next chapter. Heat Exchangers.71 or 0. By positioning of the gas bottle on a balance and removing the capillary C1 and manometer 2 it is possible to measure the weight of gas passing the capillary in time and to calculate the corresponding capillary capacity in l/min for the used liquid or gas.
But the capillary can be also optimised by varying their length or diameter and by measuring the reached pressure drop with following test apparatus consisting of a gas bottle. a reducer with a manometer.79mm inner dia. if R600a
and provides a standard procedure against which all other methods of tests may be checked. For this reason 1. Following standard can be applied: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 28 (1996) (RA 2006): Method of Testing Flow Capacity of Refrigerant Capillary Tubes.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Cooling Circuits. Heat Exchangers. So the size of this area filled liquid can be measured. Capacity Calculation and Tests p.5-2m of the capillary tube is welded along the suction tube. Capillary Tube. The sub cooling or a capillary tube should be in the range of 3K (while such a system for an expansion valve should be in the range of 5K). Also for R600a such sub cooling is strongly recommended to improve energy efficiencies. 44
is exhausted to open air. 4. So it is a must for a HFC-134a system. If a capillary tube is too short or has a too large diameter. Heat Exchanger
Optimum system efficiency can be reach by installing a heat exchanger between compressor suction tube and capillary to ensure sub cooling. It provides a uniform procedure for testing capillary tubes by determining the dry nitrogen flow capacity under specific test conditions so the procedures may serve as a primary standard for use by all test laboratories.3. Dual units of measurement. 4% more than in a CFC-12 model.
4. Sub cooling of HFC-134a increases the nominal capacity by about 23%. Provides a basis for agreement between capillary tube manufacturers and users.
. so that too much refrigerant liquid enters into the evaporator and reduces the evaporation surface can also be measured by the temperature increase in the entry area of the evaporator. Instead of welding also a PE shrink film can be used to connect the suction with the capillary tube.
Capillary Tube. 4. Heat Exchangers. Capacity Calculation and Tests p. 45
.Transfair Engineering: Designing and prototyping of Refrigerator… Cooling Circuits.
5. during low loads will evaporate before passing into the suction line and the compressor. The first is cheaper. with Freezer.
Evaporator capacity and k-value
As the heat transfer of the evaporator corresponds to the compressor capacity at the relevant operation conditions. EVAPORATOR
There exist different types of evaporators and it depends on the construction of the refrigerator which type can be used. They are electrolytic anodised or enamelled and the tube connectors are made with butt-welded Al-Cu tubes to connect on it steel tubes.
p. Suction Accumulators
R12 evaporators have suction accumulators on the last part of the evaporators or as an extension of the suction line after the evaporator to be able to receive refrigerant charge variations and to ensure that refrigerant which does not evaporate in the evaporator e. Roll-Bond Evaporators
In the past the mainly used evaporator for household appliances was the aluminium roll-bond type which has an excellent k-value of between 6-8 W/m²*°K. caused for example by pressure drops in the suction line.g. but the last one allows making a preferable gap between inlet and outlet temperature. The channel spacing for such types is normally approximately 30mm.1. the evaporator area can be calculated from the formula: Q = K*A* ∆t whereby: Q = evaporator capacity in Watt K = transmission value in Watt/m²*°K (k-value) A = surface in m² ∆t = mean temperature difference in °K between refrigerant and ambient air at the evaporator. TOP or Skin Evaporators. Leakage in this section will cause short circuiting and loss of capacity. Cold Cabinet Tube-on-Sheet.
This formula is only a first approach because it disregards certain thermal losses. In 2 tubes designs it is separated (see above picture). Evaporator.1. 46
5. In single tube designs (the most common design) the capillary tube is inside the suction tube.
5.Transfair Engineering: Designing … Cooling Circuits.1. In case of roll bond such accumulators are built in (normally 15-20% of the internal volume of the evaporator): In R600a evaporators such suction accumulators should be avoided to reduce the amount of charge into the system. The weak point is the seal of the capillary tube mounted in the evaporator inlet.
By this speed oil accumulation will be avoided. Channel Cross Section
There is an optimum size of the channel cross section. In R600a systems performance reductions because of pressure drops are even worse because of lower absolute pressure of R600a.
Samples: The channel cross sections are in the range of 22mm². To avoid such pressure drops with larger channels length. In general for all refrigerants optimised cross sections of channels improve strongly the efficiency. the evaporating temperatures are at this stage high and therefore the compressor circulated more refrigerant at high evaporating temperatures as at low ones: the pressure drop will be the largest at this stage.2. N. Such accumulation of oil can even put the oil pumps in the compressor out of order.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits.3. If the cross section is too large the speed of the refrigerant becomes to low and oil can accumulated in the evaporator with the effect that the evaporative capacity reduces. Pressure drops on evaporators can be measured: the temperature difference in a stable system (not during pull down) between the evaporator inlet and outlet should be in the range of 1 °K. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
In practice bent roll bond refrigerators always face pressure drops in the bent area because of reduction of the channel cross area on the bends.why roll bond evaporators which can have variable cross sections because of their way of manufacturing and which can have smaller cross sections in the bending area were replaced by tube-on-sheet evaporators with always correct cross sections. T in the beginning of this report). HCF-134a do not separate as good from Polyol ester oil as HC-600a from mineral oil or CFC-12 from mineral oil so that ester oil passes the whole refrigeration circuit much easier.1.2 Evaporator. A pressure drop across the evaporator corresponding to 1K in a stable condition (for example -30°C) is acceptable for refrigerator appliances. This was one of the reasons . ST.2m -depending on the compressor size and the evaporator temperatures. 47
5. the pressure drops too much across the evaporator with the result that the compressor capacity cannot be completely utilised. To avoid pressure drop a doubling of the channel to 2 parallel channels in the bending area or an increase of the channel size will help. the pressure drops will already strongly reduce the utilised capacity.beside of cost reductions . We mention "stable conditions" because the pressure drop is at the beginning of the pull-down of a freezer always high. size and form depends first on the temperatures to be reached inside the refrigerator and freezers and the ambient temperatures to be faced (see ISO and DIN standard classes SN.
How can pressure drops be measured?
Pressure drops can be easily identified when the temperatures are lower at the outlet of the evaporator than in the inlet. If it is too small. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators. Therefore the tube diameter is needed to receive a refrigerant speed of about 4-5m/sec and any reduction of cross sections should be avoided. The speed of the refrigerant should be in the range of 4-5m/sec. If by this cross section the channel length exceeds 8m +/. Sizes and Forms
The type. Evaporator Types.
. parallel flow has to be used. Therefore any reduction of the cross section or pockets in which the oil can be accumulated must be avoided in HCF-134a systems much more than in CFC-12 systems.
In case tubeon-sheet evaporators behind the inner liner are selected.1. Form C and D are typical for *star refrigerators and form E and F are typical for ** star refrigerators. the surface has to be increased by 10-15% if the inner liner are plastic and by 5-8% if the inner liners are metal (chest freezer or freezer compartment with metal inner walls) depending also if the tubes are fitted to the sheet with heat transmission paste or not. refrigerators without freezer compartment. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators. The values are valid for roll bond evaporators. With drip groove on the backside the water of the evaporator is caught and drained outside the cabinet. Cold Cabinets
Refrigerators without freezer compartments contain 2 types of roll-bond evaporators: rear wall and U-shape evaporators. "Cold cabinets" are normally provided with a thermostat with a constant cut-in temperature of above 0°C so that the evaporator is defrosting only during the stand still period: so called "cycle defrost cabinets".2 Evaporator.
5. To reduce for example costs for compressors and consumption of energy today often the evaporator size is increased by about 10-15 % to be able to use a smaller compressor. *** star refrigerators are made out of form E and F by adding a rear plate to E and side plates to F and to isolate the freezer section from the refrigerator section. and on the k-values of the materials between refrigerant tube and refrigerator and freezer inside. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
p.and ** star refrigerators (and the few *** star refrigerators with only one evaporator) to separate the temperature zones. normally on a tray on the top of the compressor for evaporative cooling of the compressor.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. This sizing must be increased in the same range of the compressor's capacity increase if sub-tropical or tropical climatic conditions are selected (see chapter of refrigeration capacities).
Roll bond forms A and B are typical for so called "cold cabinets". 5.
Screening and Drip Tray
Screens and drip trays are used in *. Normally *** star refrigerators have a separate evaporator for the refrigerator because it is very difficult to reach the different temperatures in the 2 sections of the *** star refrigerator by one evaporator and screening (see underneath chapter "Screening and drip trays"). fitted at the top of the cabinet on the rear or rear and sides:
The needed evaporator surface per cooled volume is in the following range for roll-bond evaporators: These are approximate values which can vary.4. But this can only be finally decided by a series of tests.
which also cause increased energy consumption. Ice is a very good insulator (Igloo-effect) and reduce evaporator efficiency.
What are technological the difference? *** star freezers needs compartments normally air tight separate by a door from fridge. If freezer and fridge is not air tight sealed. Therefore the dimensioning of the freezers in such models is very simple. 49
Example for a ** star refrigerator: Air circulation around the roll bond evaporator ensured in the typical ** star refrigerator by the distance of 25 mm between the roll bond evaporator and the inner walls. In general the evaporator of the freezer should have as much as cooled surface as possible to obtain the requested low temperatures. The refrigerant passes first the freezer evaporator and then the refrigerator evaporator. In combination with less freezer door openings as fridge door openings much lower ice needs to be defrosted in a model with sealed freezer in comparison to the described model above without air tight separated freezer. Energy labelling system often doesn’t reflect such customer use conditions. The defrosting of the refrigerator occurs during the stand still period (cycle defrost). one for the freezer (< -18°C according to ISO) and one for the refrigerator (0°till 5°C according to ISO).Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. In areas with high humidity and stronger use evaporator will be full of ice. while the freezer is defrosted manually and not automatically. manual defrost work and low energy efficiency.and for the old DIN standard also necessary. In freezers above about 60l it is recommended . During use normally fridge is opened at least 5 times more than the freezer. as you have described. 5. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators.
5. The new ISO/EN/DIN standards (see chapter standard) are weakening this request so that such vertical freezers can now be made only by using the 5 walls for freezing (see section tube-on-sheet or skin evaporators and vertical freezers). The fridge compartment is bigger than the freezer compartment so that main air humidity is already automatically removed without icing as water (fridge temperature <0°C). water from hot air from each opening of fridge will condense to ice on freezer evaporator. The simpler ones are -like the cold cabinet-cycle defrost thermostats only switched by the refrigerator temperatures (constant cut-in temperatures above °C).to divide the freezer by evaporator shelves in sections of about 60l. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
p. Each door opening the complete cold dry air is replaced by hot wet air. you would have 3*5=15 times less ice to be defrost as in a same model size with unsealed freezer.2 Evaporator. Suppose the freezer has 1/3 of volume of fridge and is opened in the average 5 times more frequent as the freezer.5. So normally all 5 walls of a freezer are containing evaporators (see section Tube-on-sheet or skin evaporators). Two-Temperature Cabinets
Such ***star refrigerators or refrigerator freezer combinations use 2 evaporators. Customers prefer *** star models (next chapter). But in such two temperature models the
. A modern fridge with back wall evaporator defrosts automatically all humidity from hot air (door opening) during compressor stop time.1. This type of models are meanwhile vanished in markets in developed countries because of icing. The freezer (<-12°C or <-18°C) volume is often much smaller than the fridge with less air volume and as result less humidity inserted by hot air during freezer door openings. So manual defrosting and re-cooling of warmed up refrigerator is often needed.
After developing tube-on-sheet (TOP) evaporators (see next chapter) for the refrigerator compartment and even for smaller and medium size freezer compartments there are other combination possibilities of the freezer and refrigerator evaporator. 50
dimensioning of the evaporator for the refrigerator is more difficult because of the interconnection between the 2 evaporators.50 per joining ring. not foreseen in such refrigerator constructions. 5. Tubes have to be delivered with one end extended or have to be extended on one side locally which is difficult. Therefore the refrigerator evaporator is always in the range of 12-15% smaller than the one in a refrigerator of a "cold cabinet" on the same size. But to use one compressor for cooling 2 different temperature zones the 2 evaporators have to be connected and there sizes dimensioned according to the temperatures to be reached and the sizing optimized in tests.
An alternative. but the version with roll-bond (see picture) is history. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
p. especially at lower ambient temperatures. Aluminium coating must be removed completely in both cases to avoid leakage. Hydraulic Press Lockring Assembly before and after Pressing
The problem with brazing (as well as the use of the Lockring system) is the Aluminium coated tubes.
Tubes are normally connected by brazing with silver alloy. The problem is to maintain -18°C in the freezer without letting the refrigerator temperature falling below 0°C. which for cost reasons is seldom used. which are cheaper and better.2 Evaporator. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators. These 2 problems have caused tremendous costs for example for Liebherr in their Chinese project in DXINGDAO. is Lockring tube joint method. The final size of the refrigerator evaporator in a two temperature refrigerator or 2 door model should be tested in a air conditioned room according to the operating temperatures (for example +12°C up to +32°C ambient temperature) requested on the market. practically no one anymore in use for cost reasons. to replace their construction to the conditions that Chinese use refrigerators in cold ambient temperatures in the winter time. which costs in the range of € 0.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. A two temperature refrigerator only thermostatically controlled by the refrigerator will not start freezing in lower temperature environment even if the freezer temperature goes above -18°C.
Connections of Refrigerator and Freezer Evaporators in Series
There exist following connection possibilities of the evaporators in 2 temperature refrigerators.
but for zinc coated steel tubes the foil is sufficient and it is the cheapest solution with the best quality after copper tubes:
Chest freezer . like some freezers. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators. The first application in which such evaporators were introduced were chest freezers. but in principle all aluminium roll-bond can be replaced by such tube-on-sheet evaporators. In the new standard 25°C is used while in the old standard 32°C ambient temperatures were used. Chest Freezer Evaporators
Chest freezer inner liners are normally made today out of aluminium sheets and behind the aluminium sheets you have zinc coated steel or aluminium tubes and PE foil. Tube-on-Sheet. 51
5. But also quality reasons like longer lasting of aluminised steel tubes in comparison to roll-bond better defined cross sections in a tube in comparison to roll-bond
were important. EVAPORATING TEMPERATURE Ambient Temperature Maximum 32°C -10°C 25°C -13°C
During crystallisation -21°C -24°C
At stationary conditions -31. The aluminium tubes can also be painted to protect it against Hydrochloric acid (HCl) which is always a little bit inside PUR foam.2 Evaporator. According to DIN 8953 or ISO 5155 the pull-down test will be made by 25 kg Tylose parcels per 100l chest volume.2. But today Zink coated steel tubes are more in use (see underneath). TOP or Skin Evaporators
For cost reasons expensive roll-bond evaporators are more and more vanished nowadays. but in practice not in all cases it is recommend and cheaper.
5. Today the Kvalues with tube-on-sheet evaporators are less than 5K. Especially by using R134a as refrigerant this effect can happen because such a gas does not separate completely from the ester oil so that small quantities of ester oil will pass the circuit.5°C
. In case of the expensive aluminium roll-bond evaporators there is a difference of 2 K between the evaporator surface and the air temperature in the chest. The chest freezers should reach following sequences of the evaporating temperatures. Skin evaporators use the refrigerator or freezer inside wall as evaporator. Still in some few applications. Roll bond channels not only in bending areas have partially reduced cross section with partial internal pressure increase (heating) of the evaporator.
Chest Freezer Pull-Down Test
Several chest freezers show following average values during a pull-down test with big loads. Not painted or otherwise protected aluminium tubes could be damaged by the Hydrochloric acid inside foam. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
p. which have to be cooled from inside and not only by the walls roll-bond remains as technical solution.tube-on-aluminium-sheet-evaporator
All the 4 side walls of the chest freezer are used as evaporators.5°C -33.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. TOP or skin evaporators named evaporators.2. 5.1.
For these reasons some manufacturers use evaporators coils divided in 4 sections.6W/m°k or thermal mastic with Lambda 0. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
p. but the first variation is better if reduction on cross sections can be avoided (see drawing with corner section beginning of this chapter). Aluminium tubes need butt-welded copper joints (protected against corrosion by a coat of PVC or enamel) to connect it to the copper or steel heat exchanger.
. No doubt the best would be copper tubes. 52
We can use this test and these values for a pull-down test to find out if a new developed chest freezer is suitable or need to be changed. but copper tubes are very expensive.and 3/8 inches (10mm) tube is used for larger tube lengths. 2. The most favourable evaporator coil design for chest freezers in the spiral with the inlet at the top and the outlet on the bottom. Better quality with a much longer lifetime as with aluminium tubes can be reached if zinc coated steel tubes or even aluminium-zinc coated steel tubes are used (see drawing at beginning of this chapter). 85mm is a suitable distance between the tubes as well as a maximum of 40 mm from the upper and lower edges to the evaporator’s coils. 3. The ISO and DIN standard also prescribes a pull-down test with smaller loads to determine the freezing capacity of the model (See standards). 5. To avoid even in this time any rust aluminium-zinc coated steel tubes for refrigerator evaporators with temperatures above 0°C can be used. In case of poor contact between the tube and the inner liner sheet it is necessary either to increase the length of the evaporator coil or to use contact compound (Terolan with Lambda 0. Delicate are the corners: Any cross section reduction should be avoided on these corners. Such aluminium zinc coated tubes also reduce thermo-element effects to the Aluminium sheet. To avoid even in this time any rust aluminium-zinc coated steel tubes for refrigerator evaporators with temperatures above 0°C can be used.8W/m°C). 4.
Chest Freezer Evaporator Tube Length
The tube length of the evaporators coils are described in the following table: An 5/16 inch (8mm) tube is normally used up to 28 m length. But if there are periods. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. Such aluminium zinc coated tubes also reduce thermo-element effects to the Aluminium sheet. Aluminium tubes need aluminium inner liners while aluminised or zinc coated steel tubes (or copper plated steel tubes) should get enamelled steel inner liners or aluminium sheets. .2 Evaporator. Today the tubes are not anymore copper for price reasons.08mm
Steel Tube Evaporators in 2 versions.above it will cause too much pressure drops. The coil must be protected by a Polyethylene foil to avoid that foam can be inserted between the tube and the inner liner and also to protect the aluminium tube against Hydrochloric acid which is in small quantities inside the foam in case Aluminium tubes are used. The distance between the evaporator coils and the mode of fixing is important. zinc coated steel will rust. Mounting Aluminium Sheets on a core Winding Aluminium or copper tubes around the core Fixing tube by scotch tape Protecting evaporator by PE foil of 0.
Working Processes to mount chest freezer evaporators of Aluminium or copper tubes
Version with Aluminium or copper tube winding machines:
1. that the freezer are not used. Zinc coated tubes cannot rust as long as the freezer is running and the tubes under low temperatures. The tubes are fixed by tapes.
Disadvantage of this tubes are the more difficult manufacturing process of steel tube evaporators. Also such serpentines (see picture beside) can be used. 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits.either tube on flat aluminium foil.2. TOP (=tube-on-plate) or skin evaporator can be used instead of roll-bond for cost and quality reasons.2. Either the tubes are pre-bent on a special machine to be placed on the liners horizontally with tubes as made like on the last picture and drawing or purchased and mounted by hand. Furthermore the flatted tube improves the heat exchange and reduces that ice can be built up between tube and Aluminium sheet: Variability of overall dimension: A = 250-450 mm B = (n-1) x p P = 42 or 50 mm N = 6 -16 as required. The flat serpentines can be bent by hand round the chest liner by turning a tube by 90° on a corner position:
5. 5. This is a high energy efficient version.
Flatted Evaporator tube:
.2 Evaporator. Cold Cabinet Evaporators
For refrigerator without a freezer compartment such a tube-on-sheet. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
p. The vertical loop prevents that liquid refrigerant can come into the suction and destroy the compressor an accumulator is not needed.
There are different ways of connecting the evaporator tubes and Aluminium sheet or foil to the inner liner Version with roll formed sheet is too expensive is the solution to insert tubes into a roll formed aluminium sheet (drawing right side). 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators.2 Evaporator. These are more ice makers than refrigerators and consume too much energy and should be stopped in production. Also a double adhesive tape (€1. Evaporators of one Door Refrigerators with Freezer Compartment
Evaporators of one Door ** Refrigerator
Traditionally a refrigerator with up to 2 star ** freezer compartment or ice tray has a roll bond evaporator inside the refrigerator with a tray for condensed water and for screening (see Chapter 5. the vertical bend is made.3.2.an adhesive Aluminium foil is most used (see its specification in next chapter 2 -Door Refrigerators). There exist few tube-sheet-evaporator models on the market made out of aluminized steel tubes of 6-8mm dia.1. To avoid that liquid refrigerant can return through the suction tube into the compressor.70/m²) is much more expensive as a hot melt glue (Teroson €7/kg 80g/m²) applied on aluminium sheet and cold pressed on the liner so that a hot melt roller press investment amortize inside 1 year if more than 2500000-300000 refrigerators are produced in a year. Vertical Freezer Evaporators
.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. On single adhesive aluminium foils covered by 0. which can be avoided by a 3 star *** model.especially in countries with higher salaries .50-1. All the wet hot air from each door opening are converted to ice on the evaporator.08 mm ethylene foil (see next page) in the following way:
Subcooling Heat Exchanger
The food liner will be formed with a tilted freezer block during thermoforming to allow sheet material to be inserted between freezer and refrigerator compartment.
5. In such models the liquid refrigerant enters directly into the refrigerator evaporator and could pass liquid into the compressor if there is no accumulator between. Today .4). Accumulators today are removed to increase efficiencies (class A-models). which could destroy the compressor. 5. 54
Today’s most used evaporator version for cold cabinets without freezer.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. 5.2 Evaporator, 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators, Vertical Freezer Evaporators
Evaporators of one Door *** Refrigerator
A refrigerator with good isolated *** star freezer compartment can be made with tubes-on-sheet-evaporators in the following way: Bending points
The tube distances are between 4050mm for a tube of 5/16inch (=8mm dia).
To the capillary tube -
To the Evaporator of the refrigerator box.
Flat serpentine Evaporator for freezer box of a 12 cu.ft Two-Door refrigerator, Tube: Single wall O.D. 8 x 0.7 mm hot-dip zinc coated
5.2.4. Two Door Refrigerator Evaporator in the Refrigerator compartment
Between inner liner and foam a tube-on-aluminium-sheet evaporator can be installed: So called Tube-on-Sheet-Evaporator or TOP (=Tube-on-Plate) Evaporator. The tube can be copper, aluminium or aluminium coated steel tubes with 6.35mm round or 8mm pressed to oval tubes. Zinc coated steel can not be used because of corrosion (wet air in time of manufacturing will condense on tube; tubes are not permanently frozen because of plus temperatures in the refrigerator, so a zinc coated tube can corrode). 1st solution: Roll formed aluminium sheet evaporator with aluminium coated steel tubes One of the first solutions developed was to have aluminium roll formed to enter tube inside channels (drawings), but under cost aspects it is not recommended. Second solution was to use a double adhesive tape (€ 1,4-1,6/m²) between Aluminium sheet and inner liner. But also this vanishes meanwhile for cost reasons and was first replaced by aluminium sheet made adhesive with hot melt glue (Teroson Q5707). 3rd Solution: Roller machine for hot melt glue on aluminium sheets
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. 5.2 Evaporator, 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators, Vertical Freezer Evaporators
4th Solution: Adhesive Aluminium foils TOP evaporator. Most used version today is adhesive Aluminium foils on tubes evaporator. Especially in countries with higher wages it is cheapest and therefore most used, as this can be done automatically. Transfair can provide a video of such machines.
Working Process to mount Tube-on-Sheet or Skin Evaporators
In the past such adhesive aluminium sheets and round tubes were used (see picture). But today we use adhesive aluminium foils and flatted tubes.
The adhesive Aluminium foil TOP evaporator are made as following: with spenders with Aluminium foil rolls, cut in length according to models are placed near the cabinet preassembly to facilitate mounting.
Surface of Tube-on-Sheet (=TOP) Evaporators.
The surface of tube on sheet evaporator is a little bit bigger (10-20%) than roll bond (see graphic of chapter 5.1.4.) because of larger pitch of 60 mm, but the procession is much simpler and cheaper. There is no need of painting and no special copper/aluminium joints are necessary, if steel tubes are selected. The adhesive Aluminium and PE foils should be pressed cold by a roller press with 4,5kp/cm². Transfair regularly supplies such evaporator roller press and can grant the production know how.
Freezer Part inside 2-Door Model Up to 60l freezer. A freezer up to 60l does not need inside the freezer compartment cooling evaporators; cooling from the wall (behind the inner liner) is sufficient.
In this case the same construction of tube-on-sheet evaporator like the freezer compartment as previously mentioned for the one door model can be used or the following construction: The surface of tubes is always frozen (-24°C), so that aluminium coating is not needed and zinc coating is sufficient, but in case such a system is not always running an aluminium coating is better.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. 5.2 Evaporator, 2-Door Tube-Sheet Evaporators, Vertical Freezer Evaporators
Freezers above 60l.
A freezer of 60l and above cannot be cooled from the walls of the inner liner if the old still valid DIN standards are applied. 1-3 evaporator trays are needed inside the freezer. Few existing tube-on-sheet solution for this (Zanussi) do not look as nice as roll bond evaporators and the investment on machines is very high. Depending from each model itself and the cost of the components and processing mixed solution could be in some cases useful.
Theoretically there should be nice solutions. But all solutions for vertical freezers really made till now according to the old DIN standard we can not recommend for smaller scale production, because of high investment costs. Therefore in this area roll bond is still better. To connect the roll bond evaporator tube by brazing special Aluminium Copper joint made by pulsed electrical induction are needed, which can be purchased. Even the a.m. Lockrings allow direct connection of the Aluminium tube to the steel or copper tube in the circuit. Freezers have the highest temperature at the top of the cabinet. To improve the freezer quality often the top evaporator coil are doubled or of a larger size; or higher number of wires or 2mm wires instead of 1,5 mm wires are used. Tube-on-plate freezer evaporator. A Tube-on-plate evaporator with 50mm spacing between the tubes has approximate a value of 6,9 W/m²**°K. The connection to the tubes is reached by some flanges of the plate being bent round the evaporator coil. Wire-on-tube freezer evaporator. A wire-ontube freezer evaporator with tube coil spacing of 6080mm and 1,5mm wires in distance of 10mm at both sides reaches a Lambda value of 8,5W/m²**°K.
Tube-on-Plate Freezer Evaporator
Wire-on-Tube Freezer Evaporator
2. Roll bond have to be painted.000. repairing is impossible.
Evaporator and condenser in tube version see page 32-34.2 W/m²**°K.5 Evaporator. Major advantage for tube on sheet evaporators is the lower cost as you need only . Aesthetic aspect.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator … Cooling Circuits. one door refrigerator with ice tray) roll bond is still recommended.aluminium sheets or foils. 5.5.5mm to avoid isolation between evaporator and refrigerator or freezer so that only modern thermoformers should be used.PE foils and no expensive roll bond evaporators. The inner liners should not be thicker than 2. tube-on-sheet evaporators not. Processing and Painting. 58
Evaporators in series. Instead of costly roll bond or already bent serpentine simple tubes can be used and cut and bent locally by special tube cutting and bending machines (line costs about USD 370.tubes (for making the serpentine locally) or tubes serpentine. and . Single evaporators are connected in series. To connect evaporator to steel. Till today aluminium tube-on-sheet solutions are not as nice from the surface as roll bond. A circuit with inlet in the upper section and outlet in the lower section should be selected. No Frost Damper Thermostat. In case of wrong processing of braze or Lockring connection of tube on sheet condenser behind the inner liner. This also reduces the cost of material.
5. Therefore all connections should be made outside the foam to be able to repair it if one time it will really be needed
. Corrosion and services. Therefore they are mainly used behind the inner liner. no special aluminium copper joints are needed.000 pieces per year in one shift). If you would place the roll bond behind the inner liner it still can not compete because PU foam contains Hydrochloric acid which will hurt unpainted aluminium tubes more than aluminium coated steel tubes (Al/Fe layer is more resistant against corrosion than Al or Fe alone). but need better bending tools than the roll bond. If you need evaporator inside the cabinet to be seen (large freezer.00 for 330. which has the advantage that you can clean easier the refrigerator or freezer. Aluminium coated steel tubes have less corrosion than roll bond especially if you take into consideration mechanical stresses on surface and acidic areas. . Steel tubes can be easier welded. Skin versus Roll-Bond Evaporators
The roll bond evaporator still has the highest Lambda value of approximate 10. Tandem System
p. Cost comparison.
are the improvement of cross sections reachable with evaporator tubes instead of roll bond channels.2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator … Cooling Circuits. But the mayor advantage . This effect can be increased by the use of R134a which does not separate as well as the R12 between gas and oil so that ester oil can pass the whole refrigeration circuit. By this speed oil accumulation will be avoided.3. Tandem System
p. but do not increase the diameter more than needed to avoid pressure drops to avoid speed reduction on the circuit caused by to big tubes. Both need an improvement of the channels and cross sections in comparison to R12 systems.3. If the cross section is too large the speed of the refrigerant – optimal at 4-5m/sec . Measurement of pressure drops. Such accumulation of oil can even put the oil pumps in the compressor out of order.beside of costs .5 Evaporator. 59
which is very seldom. In R600a systems performance reductions because of pressure drops are even worse because of the lower absolute pressure of R600a. There exist for each compressor displacement and system design an optimum size of the channel cross section. Overall because of costs. Therefore any reduction of the cross section or pockets in which the oil can be accumulated must be avoided in HCF-134a systems much more than in CFC-12 systems. Liquid-Gas Separator and Accumulator
A small vessel for example made from a tube with higher diameter as the evaporator tube can be used as gas-liquid separator to make sure that no liquid comes into suction tube and compressor and could damage compressor. If it is too small. Tubes do not have any reductions in bending areas which is very important for the performance efficiency especially if R134a or R600a as refrigerants are used.m. 5. The speed of the refrigerant should be in the range of 4-5m/sec. If it is larger it should be checked if their are reduced cross section.3. Speed of refrigerant and Pressure Drop
Speed of refrigerant. Cross section and efficiency. Therefore the tube diameter to receive a refrigerant speed of about 4-5m/sec and any reduction of cross sections should be avoided. the pressure drops too much across the evaporator with the result that the compressor capacity cannot be completely utilised. if not the diameter must be step by step increased till the temperature difference between inlet and outlet is in the range of 1°K. Pressure drops on evaporators can be measured: the temperature difference in a stable system (not during the pull down) between the evaporator inlet and outlet should be in the range of 1 °K. without increasing the evaporator tube. No Frost Damper Thermostat. Such a vessel also works as accumulator to allow cooling circuit to work more efficient under a much wider range of temperature and refrigerator/freezer load fluctuation. In general for all refrigerants optimised cross sections of channels improve strongly the efficiency.
5. depending on the discharge of the compressor and the length of the tubes or channels.
5.beside of cost reductions .becomes to low and oil can accumulated in the evaporator with the effect that the evaporative capacity reduces. Cross section.why roll bond evaporators which can have variable cross sections because of their way of manufacturing and which can have smaller cross sections in the bending area were replaced by tube-on sheet evaporators with always correct cross sections.1.3. so such an accumulator also allows refrigerator evaporator size and
.3. This was one of the reasons . The failure rate on-tube-on-sheet-evaporators behind the inner liner is much lower than with any roll bond evaporator solution. European refrigerator producers have already replaced roll bond in a. Evaporator Channels or Tubes and their Cross Sections
Since 1991 the R 12 refrigerant is replaced by R 134a refrigerant and size 1994 R134a refrigerant mainly in Europe is more and more replaced by R600a. Optimisation of Evaporators 5.
5. cases by skin or tube-on-sheetevaporators with the effect that the mayor European roll bond production were closed down.
5. Using an accumulator allow to shortening of evaporator tube length and size of fridge evaporator by 15-20% it increases the speed of refrigerator pull down time. 60
evaporator tube lengths reduction.6 m² evaporator surface and wire-on-tube-evaporators are suitable. The difference between the cabinet temperature and the evaporator coil temperature should not exceed 5 K. No Frost Damper Thermostat. Such accumulator even allow to charge slightly more refrigerant.
5. Modern high efficient fridge-freezer combinations with low energy consumption (A and A+ models) are often quite slow in pulldown of the refrigerator temperature cause by a quite long fridge evaporator tube length. Tandem System
p. but only if leak is really small.5°C
. Because of the reduction of the standard demand (DIN 8953) on the pull-down capacity of a vertical freezer in comparison to previous demands. but seldom in fridge-freezers. A pull down should be made at 32°C ambient temperature with a load of 25kg Tylose parcels per 100l volume. which in past often slow down refrigerator compartment cooling. if the evaporator size would be reduced without an accumulator. 3/8 inch (=10mm) should be used for longer tubes to avoid strong pressure drops and poorer utilisation of the compressor capacity. without reducing superheat (+3-4°K). To avoid that the frosting up of the evaporator will destroy the freezer door. Following average values for a number of upright freezers are reached during the various stages of the evaporating temperature during freezing: EVAPORATING TEMPERATURE Ambient Temperature Maximum During crystallisation 32°C -10°C -21°C 25°C -13°C -24°C The evaporator surface calculations were already made previously. without sucking liquid into compressor.4.5°C -33. In past it was used only in chest freezers and upright freezers. it is possible today to use only the inner cabinet as evaporator to achieve the standard and no additional evaporator shelves inside the freezer are needed:
At stationary conditions -31. The tube diameter and length should be selected in the following way: 5/16 inch (=8mm) dia are often used for evaporator coils up to 26 m.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator … Cooling Circuits.4. the evaporator should have a distance to the door of 20-30mm. without reducing coefficient of performance. Pull-Down Test of Vertical Freezers
To check if the evaporator on a freezer system is suitable we make the pull-down test already described for a chest freezer test. Sizes of Upright Freezer Evaporators
Per 100l cabinet volume a 0.1.5 Evaporator. So this accumulator is an instrument to compensate this bad side effect of energy saving efforts. in this case it will increase lifetime of such small leaking refrigerator. Roll bond evaporators with 22 mm cross sections used in upright freezers with a volume up to 400l should use 2 parallel flows via 2 channels and above even more parallel channels. while tube-on-sheet evaporators need about 20-25% higher surfaces per 100l volume. 5. which would happen. so the cooling system could tolerate even small leaks near 1g/a and by this slightly overcharging.
A special timer to start and stop automatically every 6-8h the defrosting heater for some minutes is needed inside a No-frost model. 61
5. 5. Tandem System
p.5. therefore such systems need 3 or 4 times per 24 hours defrosting. This could be easily realized by electric resistance heaters limiting the electric heating power per surface to 1. Surface of Fins and Air Charge
Following surfaces are needed for No-Frost cabinets: For a two temperature cabinet a surface of 0. but it can be limited by some tricks (chapter 9. In a HC-600a or HC-290 design the electrics must be “N” protected or outside the reach of a leak (see chapter 8.
5.3.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator … Cooling Circuits.4 to 0.4. Tube Size and Fin Distance
Normally the finned coil evaporator for such appliances has 3/8 inch (10mm) tubes and the K-value at natural air circulation is at 8W/m² x °K and at forced air circulation at 14 W/m² x °K as long as it is not frosted up. but not with IR heaters (see chapter 8.5. A fan is used to draw the warm air from the storage space across a finned coil evaporator and back to the storage.5.1.5 Evaporator. In case of HC-600a or HC-290 the surface temperature of the heater should never go above 350°C. the heater surface temperature should not go above 350°C (underneath the ignition temperature of HC-600a.
NO FROST Evaporators
No frost design separates the evaporator from the storage space and removes from time to time automatically the frosting from the evaporator finned coil by heat so no frost are visible inside the cabinet.9.). In addition the distance of fin at the air inlet is often double as much as at the outlet to avoid too much reduction of the air pressure.45 m² per 100l cabinet volume is suitable for subtropical areas.5W/cm² by resistance wire and limiters. For upright freezers it will be approximately 0. Such system exists for 2 temperature cabinets and for freezers. The defrosting of the coil is made automatically by electrical heaters and controlled by a timer. No Frost Damper Thermostat.3. During opening of doors the fan stops.1).2.
5.5W/cm² and additional limiters.5. which can be reached by limiting the electric heating power per surface to 1.1. These sizes apply for a charge of air of about 100m³/h. Heating up of coil evaporators to remove 3-4 times per day is the main reason why No-frost models increase energy consumption.).3. Defrosting
The frosting up is much faster than in a normal freezer evaporator. IR heaters cannot be used. The fin distances are not lower than 5 mm to avoid reduction of air pressure. This heater is passing the finned coil.5 m² per 100l freezer volume for the same conditions. furthermore the electric terminals should be outside the R600a leaking area (or with special fixings see chapter 8.).
This reduces energy consumption. 3.4. 62
5. In case of R600a or R290 models a sparking thermostat switch must be sealed by box (minimum IP54 if gas cannot acumulate in this area (see chapter 8. the freezer normally needs much more. Air Ducts of NO FROST Refrigerators
A lot of efforts in the design of NO FROST models are made in the air ducts of 2 temperatures models to distribute the quantity of cold air between the 2 sections in right proportions.5.
. No Frost Damper Thermostat. Dumper Thermostat
Good systems have a second thermostat constructed as a damper so that the air flow between the 2 sections and the 2 temperatures between the refrigerator and freezer can vary according to the real needs.5 Evaporator.) or placed outside leaking area of HC-gas.5.5.11.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator … Cooling Circuits. 5. Tandem System
Center for Environment Energy Engineering. Tandem System
Tandem system is an advance refrigeration cycle approach using 2 no frost evaporators in 2 temperature zones in refrigerator/freezer system. Such a tandem system takes advantage of transient operations.5. College Park MD 20742. No Frost Damper Thermostat. B.Kim. Rademacher: Experimental Research and Development of Tandem System Domestic Refrigerator. Rademacher. allows defrosting without electrical heaters by using the thermosiphon phenomenon between the 2 evaporators. University of Maryland.6. Department of Mechanical Engineering. With a sophisticated electronic control the temperature of each compartment can be controlled independently and the energy consumption can be significantly reduced in comparison to conventional No-Frost refrigerators. It was developed by K. Kim.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator … Cooling Circuits. which is the main advantage. Tandem System
. University of Maryland/USA and is used by Samsung/Korea.5 Evaporator. 5. 63
5. For example for a large 18 cuft 2 door No-Frost model using such technology 18% savings could be reached in comparison to conventional No frost models of the same size by applying the American Standard for energy consumption. Kopko and R. Refrigeration Circuit Scheme
For further details see: K. Kopco and R. B.
If the cross section is too large in comparison to the length of evaporator tube to be crossed the speed of the refrigerant becomes to low and oil can accumulate in the evaporator with the effect that the evaporative capacity reduces. Temperature Distribution. Evaporator Tests. Evaporator. But normally the evaporators are tested already mounted on a refrigerator system by following tests:
5.6. So they should be stored inside separate not ventilated area like inside a vegetable crisper or box.
. even some good defrost models have ventilators.6). door opening times) the ventilation in comparison to conventional model has following advantages: . Pressure Drop Test.Ventilation reaches lower set temperature to switch off compressor in about half of time and .the cooling down after door opening is nearly double as fast.6. Traditional fridges have different temperature zones with lower temperature in lower areas. The beverage cooling time would reduce to half. or .Longer storage time of food. Ventilation in fridge. so that fresh meat should be positioned on lowest tray etc. .3°C lower fridge temperature (2°C instead of 5°C). Pressure Drop Tests
There is an optimum concerning size of the channel cross section and total length of tubes the refrigerant has to pass in the evaporator or evaporators made in series in a multi temperature system. If the cross section is too small for the total length of the evaporator(s). Pull-Down Test p.Transfair Engineering: Designing … Cooling Circuits. Fridge Ventilators
Today not only No Frost models. Such warm air humidity entering during fridge door opening condensate to water drops. The fresh goods can be positioned anywhere. Too strong ventilation of fruits and vegetables would dry them.1. the pressure drops too much across the evaporator(s) with the result that the compressor capacity cannot be completely utilised. mainly to cold backside wall.
5. 5.7. if the compressor would run same time with same energy consumption. The speed of the refrigerant should be in the range of 4-5m/sec. Pressure drops on evaporators can be measured: the temperature difference in a stable system (not during pull down) between the evaporator inlet and outlet should be in the range of 1 °K. If multiple evaporator systems are measured such difference of 1°K can be accepted for each evaporator. Such accumulation of oil can even put the oil pumps in the compressor out of order. A ventilator distributes the air so that maximum 1°C temperature exists. By this speed oil accumulation will be avoided. Under same conditions (food load and environmental temperature.
Warm air contains more humidity as cold air. with effects on . By ventilation this water drops on fresh food would be reduced. They reach about 5°C refrigerator temperature during run though the fridge back wall surface temperature is < -7°C (if like in Europe on standard fridges the evaporator is mounted behind this wall). 64
5. which is much more than electric consumption of ventilator itself (~1W).7. Evaporator Tests
The efficiency of heat exchange of evaporators can be measured like condensers with calorimeters. Also comparison test with hot water is possible (see chapter 3.Less energy consumption and costs of cooling down (less time for compressor run). but also on already cold foods which in case of cheese and sausage can reduce their storage time.
Several chest freezers show following average values during a pull-down test with big loads. The chest freezers should reach following sequences of the evaporating temperatures. tm is the mean temperature of t1. A pull down should be made at 32°C ambient temperature with a load of 25kg Tylose parcels per 100l volume.3.Transfair Engineering: Designing … Circuits. Measurement of Temperature Distribution in MultiEvaporator Systems with one Control
Multi temperature cabinets with one or more evaporators have to reach defined temperatures in each zone. Following values of the evaporator should be reached according to the valid standards: Climate SN N ST T Ambient temperature 10-32°C 16-32°C 18-38°C 18-43°C Cabinet temperatures -1°C </= t1. Four star cabinets with large freezing sections normally have 2 independent systems or one system with separated control by a three-way valve. tm = max +7°C 0°C </= t1.3.5°C -33. tm = max +7°C t3 </= +10°C t3 </= +10°C t3 </= +12°C t3 </= +12°C Max. tm = max +5°C 0°C </= t1. ISO 5155. t2. Pull-Down Tests
p. Each compartment should reach the temperature values according to the standards and climate classes as described in Chapter 1. ISO 8187) which we will not repeat here.
. Evaporator Tests.7. Pressure Drop Tests. Pull Down Tests
Vertical freezer pull down test. t2. Evaporator.5°C
Chest freezer pull down test.2. According to DIN 8953 or ISO 5155 the pull-down test will be made by 25 kg Tylose parcels per 100l chest volume. temperature in freezer compartment (inside test packs) * . In the new standard 25°C is used while in the old standard 32°C ambient temperatures were used. Temperature Distribution. Ambient Temperature 32°C 25°C Maximum -10°C -13°C During crystallisation -21°C -24°C At stationary conditions -31. t2 and t3 are mean temperatures for top. t2 and t3 . tm = max +7°C 0°C </= t1. t2.6°C ** -12°C
*** -18°C **** -18°C and defined freezing capacity
t1. middle and bottom measured in copper cylinders. 5. If only one circuit and one temperature control exist the temperature distribution in different environments and loads should be tested to control if the selected different sizes of evaporators in the different zones and/or the screening between the zones are correct made. t2.
More detailed description how such pull down tests have to be executed are described in the ISO standard 5502 (in past ISO 7371.5°C -33. 65
Pull down test for fridge-freezers and cabinets with or without freezer compartment. Following average values for a number of upright freezers are reached during the various stages of the evaporating temperature during freezing: Ambient Temperature 32°C 25°C Maximum -10°C -13°C During crystallisation -21°C -24°C At stationary conditions -31.7.6.
Pressure Drop Tests.Transfair Engineering: Designing … Circuits. Temperature Distribution.6. Evaporator Tests. Evaporator. 66
. 5. Pull-Down Tests
like Siliporite H3R (CECA) can be used. Even under these precautions we still have regularly 2 sources of humidity the refrigerant and the compressor oil. For HFC-134a models the desiccant volume should be increased by about 20% in comparison to R12 dryer's volume in the same model. Furthermore is quality wise important to open the filter dryer and compressor. As a desiccant a molecular sleeve with pore sizes of 4 Angstrom like 4A-XH-5 of Union Carbide is used in household refrigerators and freezers working with R12 and R600a. 67
6. last moments before cooling circuit brazing to prevent entry of humidity.
Filter Dryer characteristic
The requests on dryers for R600a did not change to the ones for R12 systems.1. especially in humid climate. Standards and Tests
p. The dryer's volume in case of HC-600a models remains the same as for the same CFC-12 model.
. So also other dryers with desiccant using 3A molecular sleeve pores.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. specially the R134a compressor with hydroscopic ester oil. The total household refrigerator system should not contain more than 150mg moisture. to remove moisture on high and low pressure sides of the cooling system a filter dryer with a third 6mm tube is recommended to evacuate on both sides of the circuit parallel.
It is very important for R134a and for R600a refrigerators to dry the evaporators and condensers before assembly by dry air or dry nitrogen with dew point <-50°C. 6. types. Dryer/Desiccant.
6. For HFC134a refrigerant systems more efficient dryers with following desiccants are required: XH-7 or XH-9 (UOP-Union Carbide) which also can be used for R600a. In this case the molecular sleeve has pore sizes of 3 Angstrom. to speed up evacuation. To improve the quality of the refrigerator. In general the dryer should be selected in a way that the hygroscopic percentage level of a dryer is below 4% after operating the system and that the moisture level of the dryer remains below 10mg.
which both should be controlled with humidity measurement regularly.
Refrigerant Dryer Test Standards and Methods
Following standards to test filter dryers can be applied:
DIN 8949 (2000): Refrigerant filter driers . It applies to driers that employ a desiccant. The water capacity test method prescribed can be used to test a drier either "as received" or after being reactivated in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
ARI STANDARD 710:86 Absorption Capacity of dryers
It is useful to received from manufacturer of filter dryer corformity declaration to these standards and capability test results. Intended for use on both sealed model and replaceable element type suction line filters and filter-driers of all types. It prescribes a laboratory test method for evaluating the filtration capability of filters and filter-driers used in liquid lines of refrigeration systems. It prescribes test methods for determining flow capacity and water capacity performance characteristics of liquid line refrigerant driers. Dual units of measurement.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 63. Dual units of measurement.1 (1995) (RA 2001): Method of Testing Liquid Line Refrigerant Driers.
.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.Testing
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 35 (1992): Desiccants for Refrigerant Drying. 6. Dryer/Desiccant. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 63. 68
6.2 (1996): Method of Testing Liquid Line Filter-Drier Filtration Capability.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 78 (1985) (RA 2003): Method of Testing Flow Capacity of Suction Line Filters and Filter-Driers. It establishes a method for measuring the flow capacity of refrigerant suction line filters and filterdriers. types. Method of Testing. Standards and Tests
types. Dryer/Desiccant. 6.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 69
. Standards and Tests
Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. 7. Refrigerants, Thermal Characteristics; COP, Volume Capacities, Pressure Diff./Ratios, Superheat p. 70
Today the selection of refrigerant depends on following aspects: - environmental aspects (phasing our of CFC's like CFC 12) - high energetic efficiency - non toxicity - chemical stability in use - compatibility to other materials in use and last not least - costs and availability. REFRIGERANTS Dichlordifluormethan Propylene Propane Propadiene Cyclo-Propane Tetrafluorethan Dimethylether Isobutane Butene Butane R12 R1270 R290 R1250 RC270 R134a E170 R600a R600 Formula CCl2F2 C3H6 C3H8 C3H4 C3H6 C 2H 2F 4 C2H6O C4H10 C4H8 C4H10 Mol weight [kg/kmol] 120,93 42,081 44,094 40,065 42,081 102,030 46,069 58,124 56,108 58,124 Tnbp [°C] -29,8 -47,6 -42,0 -34,4 -32,8 -26,4 -24,8 -11,7 - 6,2 - 0,4 Tcrit [°C] 112,0 91,8 96,7 119,9 124,7 101,1 126,9 135,1 146,5 152,1 Pcrit [bar] 41,2 46,0 42,5 54,7 54,9 40,6 52,4 36,5 40,2 38,0
At moment only 2 CFC free refrigerants are used in the refrigerator household appliances - HFC-134 a (tetrafluorethane) and - HC-600a (Isobutane). Propane HC-290 which has also an excellent efficiency is not used in the household as it works under higher pressure which causes a higher noise and shorter lifetime for the compressors. Also the mixtures of propane and Isobutane (the so called Dortmunder mixture, invented by Prof. Rosin) and first used by the company Foron upon recommendation of Greenpeace, is now more and more vanished from the market in developed countries for noise reasons, problems of lifetime and in some cases efficiency problems caused by the temperature glide of condensation and evaporation; but it could be possible that it will have success in developing countries, specially in retrofitting of existing appliances if the retrofitted system can pass safety tests needed for using inflammable refrigerant or as replacement of R12 in R12 compressors because the thermodynamic behaviour (displacement volume) is similar to the one of R12 and so no mayor change in designs of the compressor or other circuit components – except electrics are needed. We concentrate on the development of new appliances and therefore on HFC-134a and HC-600a as refrigerants.
7.1. Thermodynamic Characteristics of Different Refrigerants
A good refrigerant for household appliances should be able to condense under not too high pressure at 40 °C and to evaporate at -25°C. The superheat should be at 30°C and it should be possible to use an internal heat exchanger if needed. In the following the most important data of refrigerants are compared to the ones of R12:
Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. 7. Refrigerants, Thermal Characteristics; COP, Volume Capacities, Pressure Diff./Ratios, Superheat p. 71
Following refrigeration efficiencies (COP-coefficient of performance) can be reached in comparison to the one of R12:
7.1.2. Volumetric Capacities
Following refrigerant volumes have to be displaced by the system in comparison to the R12:
Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. 7. Refrigerants, Thermal Characteristics; COP, Volume Capacities, Pressure Diff./Ratios, Superheat p. 72
7.1.3. Pressure Differences
Following pressure differences between the high isobaric pressure on the condenser and the low isobaric pressure on the evaporator are reached by the different refrigerants:
7.1.4. Pressure Ratios
The pressure ratio between the condenser and evaporator pressure is in the following range:
7.1.5. Suction Pressure
The suction pressure at the starting of the compression process reaches following values at different evaporating temperatures for the different refrigerants:
Pressure Diff.6. Superheat p. Pressure Enthalpy Diagrams of R134a.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits.1.7-9./Ratios. Superheat
The superheat (=enthalpy difference between the compressor suction and the evaporator saturated vapour conditions) for the different refrigerants reaches following values:
. R600a and R290
The 3 important refrigerants as used for new appliances have following pressure enthalpy diagram (Mollier-h. 7. Volume Capacities. Thermal Characteristics. 73
7. Refrigerants. lg pdiagram).1. COP.
Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. 7. 74
. Refrigerant. R134a Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams
Refrigerant.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. 75
. 7. R600a Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams _
7. Refrigerant. R270/R600a Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams (Care 30)
.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits.
Supplier for each batch of supply should approve it. evaporators.01vol. The mayor obstacle for the world-wide introduction of Isobutane as refrigerant.5 (99. 7. Refrigerant and oil humidity should not exceed 1/10 of dryer capacity (about 1g). It is a strong advantage for R600a that the compressor swept volume is 80% higher in comparison to R12. 77
7. Cleanliness Standards.ARI or German DIN standard. CO2 <20ppm < 0.3 Butadiene CH2:CH-CH:CH2 <1ppm < 10 ppm Water content Acids <1 ppm . Also the charging has to be made with a maximum tolerance of +/. high boiling or solid substances. condensers. to US.O 2. H 2 . humidity by capacitive Gold/Aluminiumoxid sensor or Karl-Fischer apparatus. Purity and Cleanliness.2 Refrigerant. solid residue measurement (scale) and non-condensable gas test also by gas chromatographic or by Oxygen sensor acc. because Hydrocarbon is more soluble inside mineral oil than R12. oil or oil additives and reduce the lifetime of a system.butane splitting are easier to use. especially <100 ppm -1. that the stress on moving parts is higher and that the housing of the compressor in same cases is bigger. The refrigerant value of <10ppm are often not reached by R600a suppliers. Purity and Cleanliness
High cleanness of a refrigerant and of all components used in the refrigeration circuit is always thermodynamically a big advantage. leak detection – 9/2003. which could block capillary: Isobutane impurity limits 2) Request of major refrigerator producers Major suppliers of Isobutane 2. Standards for the purity and cleanliness of R134a and of R600a refrigerants (in EU EN 378.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. especially in developing countries could be perhaps the service problem. compressors and suction accumulators (DIN8964.
. Flammability and Hazardous Situations
p.01vol. See Transfair Engineering: Refrigerator Laboratory and Quality Control.2. boiling test. Some pollution can react under heat with metals. if it does not contain any poison.5%)1)
<100ppm Non condensable gas . that means for the compressor oil <100mg water (<125ppm for 280ml oil).1 g because of the much lower charging quantities in comparison to R12. with in addition low limits on non-condensable gas. Materials used in food areas have to be known and controlled. Working with R600a.9ff) and moisture from evaporator and condensers by dry air. in Germany DIN8960) and for cooling circuit components. % 0 ppm 1 ppm 0 ppm <5000 ppm
Measurement of Cleanliness and Purity. The mayor analytic problem is the splitting of signals of N-butane in ppm quantities inside of Isobutane with concentration above 99. an English translation is in Annex).5% cleanliness). but it is difficult remove it from the refrigerant itself and from the compressor oil in the refrigerator factories. acids and other reacting substances. such as tubes. solution of soldering etc.5 (=99. capillary tubes. The cleanliness and purity can be measured by Gas chromatographs with FID and TCD (HWD) Sensors (mainly HC’s and critical non condensable gases). Charging without any adequate device as practised in the past in some developing countries from the informal sector cannot be made anymore. Acid by test titration. But meanwhile adequate equipment for a reasonable price is available. humidity. heat exchangers.CO. The selected viscosity grades are normally the same as for R12 or slightly higher. charging.N2 n-Butane n-C4H10 <2500 ppm Propane C3H8 <4000 ppm Unsaturated C4 .i. As hydrocarbons are mixable with all common types of oil except polyglycols there does not exist such problems like with R134a concerning humidity. but it is a disadvantage that the pressure difference is lower. Atom Emission Detectors in this area n. These are the 2 severe quality problems as it is already in the refrigerant and in the oil. Refrigerator companies normally use Isobutane 2. so only good laboratories in the world can measure correctly such small n-Butane quantities in Iso-Butane using Gas Chromatographs. % High boiling fluids 0 ppm Solid particles Sulphur 0 ppm 0 ppm Chlorinated and fluoridated HCs Total impurities <5000 ppm 1) Purity %age by weight 2) Impurities of other gases and liquids by volume
<15 ppm <50ppm <2500 ppm <4000 ppm <100 ppm <1ppm < 12 ppm <1 ppm < 20 ppm < 0. It is not only the problem of inflammability of hydrocarbons which will prevent the strong introduction in developing countries. Non-condensable gas from the circuit can be removed during evacuation (see Transfair Engineering: Evacuation. p.5%.
1. non.Box 90. Evacuation Pumps
Vacuum pumps filled with normal mineral oil cannot be used for the evacuation of R134a systems. Galileo recommend for all their pumps used for HFC-134a and for R600a charged cooling circuits the synthetic oil SH100 with low volatility: In the past they recommend for R134a the ester oil Rotoil ES68 with viscosity of 68 (ISO Vg 68).3°C. P.Box 1. non flammable. if: (a) the vacuum pump is in good condition. R134a (1. Bremen or Servo Delden BV. In addition the evacuation time is normally prolonged to 20-25 min. It is recommended to contact the producer of the pump to find out which oil he is recommending for its pumps. Leybold recommend for their pump serial Trivac D8B or D16B following oils: Hüls: Anderol RFC96N. R134a Refrigerant
General characteristics of R134a.3.1. P. in case synthetic oil cannot be used. 7. viscosity class ISO Vg 100 (Supplier: ICI Chemical Products. Furthermore the Safety data sheet and first aid recommendations of the supplier should be respected. Their toxicity is very low. To avoid freeze burn any direct contact with the refrigerant like with R12 have to be avoided and the same measures have to be taken (gloves.2-Tetrafluorethane) has a faintly ethereal odour.
7.3 Refrigerant. Also the removal of gas ballast (20-30 min. chemically stable. R134a can be mixed with Ester oil necessary for the compressor.3.5 bar. the boiling point at 1.O. and (c) the pumps should not have Viton gaskets. free of acid. We recommend using the same oil used for running the pump also for their cleaning. it is possible to clean the pumps and use them. each morning) out of the pump is more important as in the past when R12 was charged. gasses or moisture from the system. NL-7490 AA Delden. Working with R134a in the Refrigerator Laboratory and in the Production
7. Polyol ester oil or PFPE oil. Under normal temperatures it is a gas.3. In general the ester oil used for R 134a (or the special mineral oil with low volatility in case of pumps with anti-suck back valve) that will replace the mineral oil used for R12 should have the same viscosity as the one used for R12 according to Leybold (ISO Vg 100) while Galileo recommend to use for ester oil the viscosity of ISO Vg 68 instead of the mineral oil viscosity ISO Vg100.). Ester oil is hydroscopic.O. PFPE oil. which are not compatible with ester oil needed for R134a.005 mbar. Existing mineral oil filled pumps can be cleaned from refined mineral oil and reused in the evacuation of R134a systems. ICI Emkarate RL 68S. At 25°C it can be kept liquid only under pressure of 6. Evacuation pumps and cleaning
p. Working with R134a.
. 0031-540775055).013 bar is -26. to remove in the last stage any residuals.3. Wilton. can be used to evacuate such systems. because as a result of these contacts the ester oil will increase the acidity with drastical consequences for the life of the machine.3.irritating and non-corrosive.1. In addition such contacts will cause residue in the circuit which will block the capillary tube and stop the circulation.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. 78
7. it is absolutely important to avoid any contact of R134a to mineral oil and humidity (above the very low limits fixed). Fax No.2. viscosity class ISO Vg 100 ( Supplier: Chemie Mineralien KG. Cleaning Technology for Vacuum Pumps for R134a
If vacuum pumps which have been used for evacuating of CFC 12 systems have to be used for HFC 134a refrigeration systems. Eye glasses etc. (b) the pumps should have good final pressure of about 0.
7. is colourless. Ester oil. non explosive. Only pumps which are filled with Polyol ester oil or with synthetic oil of low volatility.
. it should only be used for HFC 134a refrigeration systems. Replace the hose from the vacuum pump to the connector (Hansen coupling) for the service tube of the compressor (or filter) with a new one: The connector (Hansen coupling) can still be used for HFC 134a refrigerator system. 79
Middlesbrough. Also the evacuation pump (see the last paragraph) and the refrigerant feeding pump must be cleaned and the sealing must be replaced before a charging board previously used for R12 can be used for R134a. R134a Charging
Charging boards used for R134a must be free of mineral oil. for R134a evacuation should be never used for re-evacuation of systems before filled with R12. it will be transferred to the HFC 134a refrigeration system and the capillary tube will be blocked after few minutes. Remove the oil out of the pump still warm from operation. How the brazing joints have to be designed and how to braze see Transfair: Cooling circuit sealing chapter 5).3.6. Cleveland TS6 8JE. Leak Detection
The leak testing standard for R134a has to be improved because of the size reduction of the molecule and of higher reactivity with brazing materials as R12. Start the compressor and let the system run for about one hour.3.
7. if there is no anti-sucking device mounted. Repeat step 3 3 times with new synthetic or ester oil. Remove the oil out of the pump. Connect the refrigeration system to the HFC 134a charging board and re-evacuate. which are used. Existing R12 charging boards can be cleaned from mineral oil.3 Refrigerant. Brazing
R134a is more aggressive to brazing materials as R12. charge the pump with new synthetic or ester oil up to the maximum level.3.
1. 2. At least a halogen leak detector which works with positive ion emission (thermo ionic method) and which is optimised for the detection of flour inside the halogen group should be used. Also the gas can pass smaller holes than R12. United Kingdom. The pumps. There exists a huge quantity of new R134a charging boards for all applications. Working with R134a. Let it run for minutes. The state of the art leak detection today is such a mass spectrometric measurement in connection with a charge and recovery of Helium. Note: If the vacuum pump has been washed with ester oil and not with the recommended synthetic oil with low volatility. Fax: 0044-642-432 444) or the synthetic mineral oil called PFPE 140 with very vapour pressure from Hüls for both systems.5. The selection of these materials and the way the joint are designed to avoid contact spaces are more relevant as in the past. 7.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. Newer model Inficon HLD5000 works with IR-sensor. like Leybold Inficon HLD4000A or Yokogawa Model H-25C. or R600a and vice versa. 5. 3. so that the system should be better sealed and controlled than in the past.
If some mineral oil or chlorine is still left in the vacuum pump on the suction side. Load the vacuum pump till tank minimum level (about 50-100cm² synthetic or ester oil) and start the vacuum pump. Production charging boards are working either with a mass flow meter or with a volumetric measurement. all sealing which can contain rest of mineral oil should be replaced. If it is used for the evacuation of R12 or R600a systems it should have an anti-suck device or at least an efficient suction filter to avoid that mineral oil of the compressor can enter into the pump. Connect the vacuum pump to an HFC 134a refrigeration system and evacuate the system down to the specified vacuum level. Charge again with the specified amount of HFC 134a. 7.4. The parameters of R134a must be programmable inside such a system converted from R12 to R134a which is normally possible. 8. Evacuation pumps and cleaning
7. Best would be for household refrigerators (and small other systems using capillary tubes the application of mass spectrometric systems like Inficon ECOTEC.
7. and not with a standard pump. 7. Use only material in the circuit and during the operations of welding. Don’t use any chlorine solvents for cleaning. removing of zinc or aluminium coatings. Working with R134a. special precautions has to be added to avoid charging of wrong refrigerant into the cooling system (R134a or R600a marking on the backside) and mixing of different oils from compressor and vacuum pump under normal operation and under power failure. Do not use water containing desoxydants during the welding or brazing to avoid that humidity enters in the circuit. evaporator. Recommended is an evacuation time of 25-30 min. 5. Use sufficient evacuation time of not less than 15 minutes. 8. A nitrogen flow to avoid oxidation is sufficient. Avoid as far as possible an overheating of parts during the welding or brazing. The vacuum pumps and the charging boards have to be specially made for R134a (filled with ester oil and only to be used for R134a and not anymore used for a refrigerant containing chlorine (except some multi charging pumps and boards with filters on pump and separate charging hoses specially made for charging of different refrigerants). refrigerant). in regions with high humidity not less than 25 minutes with a pump of more than 8 m /h capacity. under normal humidity conditions not more than 15 Minutes and under extreme high humidity conditions less than 8 minutes.3 Refrigerant. . condenser. Take special care during the welding or brazing operations.the other circuit elements by dry nitrogen or air (dew point < 40°C) for 20 sec.3.before welding or brazing of the filter and the compressor . In such evacuation lines with HFC-134a systems mixed with HC600a (or CFC12) either the pumps should be filled with ester oil or with the expensive mineral oil with low volatility (SH200). Suction Oil Separator or Glass Trap in Vacuum Pump
In cases such separation cannot be made in the production and the same evacuation and charging line have to be used for compressors charged with mineral oil and others charged with ester oil or both with synthetic oil of low volatility. dryer. Avoid that any pollution can enter the refrigerant circuit elements (compressor. Following rules and instructions of work have to be followed during the working process of integration of the refrigeration circuit elements using R134a: 1. Components made with mineral oil or grease must be completely cleaned from it.7.the border of the inner hole has to be without burrs which easily can remove and enter in the circuit.8. conditions for mixed evacuation lines: . Evacuation pumps and cleaning
p. The compressor which contains the hydroscopic ester oil should be opened in the last moment and welded or brazed first.3.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. charged with dry Nitrogen and closed by plastic cabs to avoid entry of humidity. Specially solvents or chlorine substances (R12 etc. Mixed Production during Transition from R12 to R134a or from R134a to R600a: Anti-Suck Valves. 6. dust etc.) should be avoided.a system already charged with R600a must be evacuated with a burst free evacuation pump. Use in all equipment which will come in contact with the refrigerant (not only the circuit elements. that . The time which is needed between opening of the circuit elements (removing the plastic cabs) and their closing by welding or brazing should be as short as possible. In cause of power failure the already evacuated refrigerator cooling system will suck back oil from the pump is there is no anti-suck back valve built inside the vacuum pump. burrs.
7. By this way even water and other liquid residues will be removed. capillary tube.5 torr. 80
7. evacuation and charging which are compatible with ester oil. For quality reasons it is even recommended to clean . Working with R134a Circuit Elements
In general all R134a circuit elements have to follow the new standard of cleanness DIN 8964 to avoid blockages of the capillary tube.it should be as far as possible orthogonal.
. in all cases in which mechanical work on the circuit elements are executed. The circuit elements have to be supplied according to the new cleanness standard.
9.m. suction tube.
4. but also during the processing of tubes. 2. Anti-suck back valve
To Refrigerator To pump
Oil Glas Trap for a mixed R600a-R134a Production
The repair of R134a and R600a on the same pumps is restricted by following conditions – in addition to the a. but never mineral oil or greasy substances. The cutting of the tubes and the capillary tube must be made in a way.the section of the hole should not be visibly deformed or oval. drawn from one side and a vacuum level less than 0. but also the vacuum pumps and the charging boards and the equipment to produce the circuit elements) ester oil or oil compatible with it. It can be controlled by tests described in the standard DIN 8964 to be on the safe side. heat exchanger. capillary tube. to avoid the risk of entering solid residues in the circuit.
Fire from outside which reaches Hydrocarbon filled equipment or their leaks can let explode and burn down the equipment filled with hydrocarbon.8 / 8.4.2. a surface temperature of 460°C or above can ignite or even can let explode the hazardous hydrocarbon/air mixture. that an oil separator on the suction line must be installed on the pump. [°C] 460 432 Explosion group II A IIA Temperature class T2 T2 LEL/HEL vol. The reason is that mineral and specially ester oil never completely separate from the refrigerant and will pass the cooling circuit and would enter into the hose and evacuation pump. 7. Any open fire. the R600a (or R12) ones on pumps with mineral oil and the R134a one on pumps filled with ester oil.15 -105 Ignition temp.1 % blend in air. Following hazardous situations which needs partially different safety measures can happen: 1. an electrical spark of electrical equipment or discharge of static electrical loading. Normally all hydrocarbon filled equipment and tubes are under pressure and so such implosion can not happen except on the filling tube of the charging equipment.4. Working with R600a or R290 in the Refrigerator Laboratory and Production
Depending of country
1. Refrigerant leaks into the surrounding air.
But it is possible to use the same evacuation pumps – even for systems which have run already and which have oil in the condenser and evaporator the conditions. Clear instruction have to be granted to the operators and maintenance staff of the equipment which can come into contact with Hydrocarbon and their following needs to be regular trained and controlled.1 / 9. 81
Refrigerators already running during evacuation as needed in case of R600a or during performance tests should be repaired on separate pumps. Handling of Hydrocarbon Refrigerant
Besides the a.m. goggles and protective clothing are needed to cover the body if refrigerant are handled in a way that liquid
Density (air=1) 2.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. Like R12 liquid Hydrocarbon on the skin will cause freeze burn and should be treated with cold water. ground channels.1. an electrical spark from an electrical component or discharge of static electricity or a surface hotter than 460°C. Production charging units therefore clean the tube with nitrogen to avoid any accident.4. A natural or artificial circulation (last one controlled by gas sensors and ventilator controls) of the air underneath the emission zones (R600a is heavier than air) should be insured and accumulations in the ground area or in a closed room should be avoided by using exhausts and ventilation.95% blend in air and the upper flammability limit (UFL) is 9.05 1. Flammability and Hazardous Situations
Isobutane and Propane safety data:
Media Isobutane Propane Flash point [°C] .
7.5 (35-165g in 1m³ air 2.56
For R290/R600a blends the LFL is 1. pits or other deepening is possible. Hazardous situations.83. Concentrations between these limit values can be hazardous in presence of an ignition source like an open flame. In all other cases the 3rd hazardous situation can be neglected. Important is that an explosive mixture can build up even below the calculable concentration if the equipment carrying hazardous gas or the surroundings are made in a way that an accumulation in dead spaces. 3. safety precautions further handling precautions for these refrigerants are needed similar to the ones used for R12 refrigerants: Handling precautions. Air leaks into equipment filled with Hydrocarbon. Working with R134a. Therefore gloves. and the used oil is a synthetic mineral oil with low volatility. Evacuation pumps and cleaning
7. Safety precautions. the pump must have an anti-suck back device.
p.Minimum 5-10 m around the area no ignition source (electrical installation) should exist and smoking. But as these rules differ strongly from country to country and the storage outside is always much safer we prefer not to describe such storage possibility to avoid generalisations. Let it only do from your qualified refrigerant supplier.protected from weather and direct sun by a roof and . Also in this case the pump discharge must guide into open air. electrical maintenance work or welding in this area in presence of the cylinders have to be prohibited (ISO labels like symbol B 3. Such guidelines build classes of risks by quantities of flammables gas. 45°C can be used.ensuring with a chain that the cylinder cannot fall down. 7. The discharge of the pump must be lead to the open air by a pipe. Evacuation Pumps
The same evacuation pumps as used in the past for R12 filled with mineral oil can be used for the evacuation of R600a systems.outside in an naturally ventilated area above ground and never underneath the ground. . There exist also guidelines to store such cylinders inside a building. Such cylinders should be transported in open or good ventilated vehicles only from drivers experienced.
7. The pressure gauge mounted on the cylinder is not exact.
.if the cylinder must be heated to remove the gas.2 acc.There should be neither a window nor a door.avoiding the exposure of the high pressure cylinder to high temperature (>45°C) and sun. well trained and authorised for the transportation of such hazardous goods. to transport and to store such gases which belongs the group of LPG gas. Afterwards the system can be evacuated as usual with a standard pump. Hydrocarbon cylinders. depending from the local rules.to check if a cylinder is empty a scale should be used and compared with the marked Tara weight on the cylinder. Working with R600a. Pay attention: A system already charged with R600a cannot be easily evacuated by a standard pump as there is a small chance that such a pump will explode. . In addition same rules as used for any high pressure gas cylinders have to be applied. Storage. upright. As they are heavier than air they will distribute on the ground level and can concentrate to a hazardous mixture in pits.inflammable with the ISO sign for it and marked with the . . Transportation. to ISO 3864 or others according to local rules).4. secured against falling down. The best would be if a water extinguisher is place in a way that it can be used even when there is a risk of explosion (behind a strong wall or corner.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. like .avoid decanting of the cylinder in smaller bottles. But R600a or R290/R600a blends are not toxic. Hydrocarbon replaces air so by escaping of relevant quantities are asphyxiate and can cause suffocation. Therefore such areas need an additional ventilation to avoid explosion.Closing the protection cap of the valve when cylinder is not in use. In all countries there exist rules and regulations how to use. natural or artificial ventilation.the cylinder or valve have neither to be modified or repaired. Leybold has developed a special ex-proof pump for this purpose. like R600a. R290 or R290/R600a 50/50 Blend. nor refilled again (for recovery special marked cylinders should be used). and approvals for the installations and authorisations of their use are always required. basement or channel near the storage area to avoid that leaked gas can accumulate into a closed room or into lower areas (R600a and R290 is heavier than air). . Such cylinders must be labelled being . . open fire. Such work needs special equipment and precautions. ground channels. The rules of transportation are the same as used for LPG. . It is needed to run the compressor during the first stage (10-15 Min. Handling of Hydrocarbon Refrigerants. nor any pit.the area should be closed by an air passing fence and locked so that no unauthorised person can enter and manipulate any valve.) to facilitate the removal out of the oil. and the valve and cap closed when not in use. Another solution is to use as pre-evacuation a venturi pump in the first stage to remove the hydrocarbon out of the system and compressor oil. 82
quantities can escape. fire protections and other precautions. . .Staffs have to be trained in handling of the cylinders and in case of accidents. basements or any vessels underneath the leak.3. only a water bath or a PTC heater with a no -sparking limiter of temperature to max. The best is to store the cylinders . . The storage should be made like other light and inflammable LPG gases.Fire extinguishers have to be installed in this area.type of refrigerant the cylinder contains. they normally require a gas alarm systems.4 Refrigerant. . .
Nitrogen flushing of the filling hose and a self closing quick reaction safety valve and overpressure relief valves for each section which can be closed by valves etc. like in the service of household refrigerators an exhaust and ventilation system is needed. A’Gramkow R600a Supply System) specially designed for Hydrocarbon refrigerants and approved from different safety auditors. between the Hydrocarbon tank cylinder and the machine. consisting of a gas sensor alarm system and a ventilator control (A´Gramkow Safe5+. CEI 64-2 and DIN VDE 165 and 105. This can be managed by using a short length of capillary tube between the hose and the system. 83
7. Galileo Cerberus) and if the charged Hydrocarbon quantity per hour is not very small. Working with R600a. Safety approved production charging equipment.3. If refrigerant is charged liquid into the suction part or into the compressor discharge line than it must be evaporated before it reaches the system to avoid compressor damage. or with the CEI 64-2) The artificial ventilation has to be dimensioned in a way to keep in normal operation cases the concentration of
. Part 16: Artificial ventilation for the protection of Analyser(s) houses. internal ventilation. For example electrical components following IP54 standard are sufficient (see the standard IEC60079-16: Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres. Their exist meanwhile from A’Gramkow (model Max 95F-1) and from Galileo (model Frigus H11) different production evacuation and charging boards with special feeding pumps (Galileo RP2 for HC. 7. Exhaust and Ventilation of R600a Charging Area
p. Such charging boards contains internal controls on leaks of sealing. for which only a exact electronic scale (like TIF 9050 deluxe or else) and a 4-way manifold (like Refco M4-3-BS-R600a) are needed. the 3 way valve and the refrigerator. In such a case the electrical safety requirements of electrical components around the emission zone are reduced. R600a Charging
Service charging equipment. and compare it to IEC60079-15 in Chapter 8. Fire extinguishers have to be placed in the charging area and the staffs have to be trained in the use. This is not necessary if liquid refrigerant is charged into the liquid line or liquid receiver.4. The operation of such Hydrocarbon charging boards in the production area needs further safety devices normally put inside an alarm board.) If electrical equipment is used underneath the IP 54 level special precautions have to be made to avoid that refrigerant can enter the electrical housing of the pump. In case R600a is used as refrigerant the existing service charging board can be used in the refrigerator laboratory as follows: But pay attention: A standard charging board as used in the past for R12 operated with an electrical pump which do not always fulfil the electrical safety requirement (IP54 for terminal boxes and switches and IP55 for motors) needed to use hydrocarbon (see chapter 8.4.4. To avoid any risks it is better to use units already designed for Hydrocarbon charging stations like Refco 10854: Charging liquid into suction.
7. the maintenance and in case of alarms and their skills have to be regularly controlled.2. Exhaust and Ventilation of the Charging Area
Artificial redundant ventilation can be used to increase the hazardous zone class from 0 to 1 200-500mm around equipment filled with hazardous gas and from class 1 to 2 outside the direct emission zones. and the following chapters of 8.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits.4. 15 and 16. Refrigerant.4. like German TÜV or Italian CESI following the required safety standards like IEC 60079-10. The process of evacuation by an pump with a motor which do not follow the IP55 protection can be completely separated from the Hydrocarbon charging. Hydrocarbon charging boards. A good ventilated area is needed and the distance between the gas cylinder and the refrigerator on one side and the pump motor on the other side should be 2 m and it is useful to position the electrical unit higher than the charging cylinder.
5. a second alarm (red light) on the 30% of the LEL. if an effective gas detector system is installed and if the machine controls their sealing and the safety quick reaction closing valve is closed automatically in case of leaks or alarms. In addition there exist under normal conditions rates of leakage on the manufactured refrigerators which will be minimised by a pressure rise test executed before charging can be executed. so that the larger amount of Hydrocarbon in the tank has not to be considered in case of leakage in the charging equipment. Using such machines to charge household refrigerators with charges of 15. If we consider a 5% leak rate.97/58. Alarm board with gas detectors for charging area
p. an average charge of 50g and a cycle time of 30 sec. In case of the Galileo charging machine Frigus H11 for example a dead space of 1.
7. so that emissions around the machine in such cases are strongly minimised under normal operation conditions.8 cm³ will be purged by Nitrogen into the atmosphere and have to be considered and in case of a leak in the machine only 100g Hydrocarbon can escape. So only the small emission of remaining small leaks not identified by such a test has to be added.8 % gas volume in air.4 m³ Hydrogen-air mixture on LEL level and the needed ventilation output should be minimum 24 m³/h to keep the concentration underneath 10% of LEL.40g for a small unit and 60-120g for large units a ventilation of the charging area is even not always needed. It also has a positive effect on the detectable rate of leaks because the leak detectors near to the charging area are not disturbed. Therefore it remains for the calculation of the required ventilation output the average emission of HC during the normal operation of the charging unit. Working with R600a. 120 * 15g = 1800 g Mair = Molecular weight of air = 28.97 g/Mol MHC = Molecular weight of R600a = 58. the emitted g Hydrocarbon per hour could be 120g which is about 2.8 * 100/20 = a * 6. the existence of gas alarms and other local factors.8 % volume d % = % to which one wishes to delude HC underneath The LEL = 20% Vc = a *60 * 28. that means doubling of the ventilators. than such a system have to be redundant. If artificial ventilation is safety relevant (depending from the released quantity. with reserves 100 m³/h. Such alarm systems have at least 2 alarm levels. and the ventilation has to be controlled (mechanical flow control inside the ventilation air stream or by measurement of the pressure differential.
. often even 3: A first. which will switch off the charging equipment. 84
hazardous gas underneath the lower explosion limit. But we still recommend the installation to avoid any accumulation and to increase the safety level. If a ventilation system is installed. Also leakage on the sealing of the machine itself have to be and are normally controlled by the machine itself which will cause a closing of the operation and closing of the quick action closing valves between the machine and the tank.9 m³/h Important for this formula is the amount of Hydrocarbon which can be released. 7. the ventilator control should be added to the alarm board. A third level alarm at 90 or 100% of the LEL will cause that all electric boards of the whole area will be switched off. Alarm Board with Gas Detectors
The concentration of inflammable gas in the Hydrocarbon charging area of a factory needs to be controlled by gas sensors.12 g/Mol pair = Average density of air = 1200 g/m³ LEL = Lower Explosion Limit = 1.4. we have to add further 300g HC-emissions and further 60 m³ ventilation to keep the level underneath of 10% of the LEL value.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits.12 * 1/1200 * 100/1. Standard electrical boards in the ex-zone area should be pressurised by air and the overpressure should be controlled by flow meters or differential pressure transducers to avoid entry of hazardous gas. In case of an alarm and operation interruption the work can be restarted faster if a ventilation system is installed. To reduce this amount their exist a lot of safety devices: Between the Hydrocarbon tank and the charging machine a self closing quick action safety valves are installed. so called pre-alarm (yellow light) for example when the hazardous gas concentration reaches 10% of the LEL value of 1. Refrigerant. The alarm board itself is built in a box following the IP54 standard. With a density of 0. The formula for the ventilation is the following: The refrigerator charging area in the production need following ventilator output: Vc = a * 60 * Mair/MHC * 1/pair *100/LEL * 100/d % wherein: Vc = Required ventilator output a = Average emission of HC (g/hour) = max.4. for example on the level of 20% of the LEL. totally 84 m³/h. in case of any failure of a ventilator motor.555 g/cm³ at 20°C and a cycle time of 30 sec.
How the brazing joints have to be designed and how to braze see Transfair: Cooling circuit sealing chapter 5). 8. RSA3000 from Stado or Ultraseal from Amtech) because of the flammability of R600a. In case of a larger leakage (gas tube) the staff have to make sure that the hole building has to be put out of electricity to avoid any sparks and that all open fires have to be extinguished and heaters to be stopped and that all doors and windows have to be opened to increase venting.5g/year.). Helium and Mass spectrometric leak tests.
7. Hydrogen leak detectors working with 5% Hydrogen in 95% Nitrogen as well as HC-combustible leak detectors are not sensitive enough to reach leak rates underneath 0. But today’s standard is to close the filling tube by e ultrasonic welding machines (like Viper from Stapla. the roller conveyer of this section and last not least the refrigerator cabinet which has to be charged must be grounded and the grounding should be measured (in the range of 0.
7. perhaps by a pneumatically driven one.
7. but also rules have to be established for the area around these zone to avoid any fire which can reach the risk zone. Powder fire extinguishers in areas with expensive equipment and water fire extinguishers for Hydrocarbon storage areas are therefore needed to protect this equipment against fire. 13 bars for R290/R600a blends. The fire protection measures need to be approved from the local authorities and the local fire brigades should be involved. all parts in this area should have the same potential). to avoid fire and in case of fire to avoid their spreading out to the hazardous zone. like a fire extinguisher on the spot. Grounding and Anti-Static Floor
All metals of the hazardous area. Any sparking should be avoided.4. Fire from outside which reaches Hydrocarbon filled equipment or their leaks can let explode and burn down the equipment filled with hydrocarbon. which allow the fire extinguishing even if the cylinders can explode.5 bar (10 bar) dry Nitrogen for R600a respective min.4.4. that often used Cyclopentane as blowing agent will case 50-100 times higher leak signals. The normally outside storage of the high pressure Hydrocarbon cylinders should be protected with water fire extinguishers fixed on a position. for example the welding or brazing of the refrigerator circuit tubes. because same mass fractions as detected for R600a are in the often
. The floor should be antistatic. it is possible to use normal welding to close even the filling tube. Even molecule fraction specific mass spectrometric leak detectors as often used (for example Leybold ECOTEC II) cannot work reliable on a sensitivity level of leak detection underneath of 0.4. Welding and Brazing. Any welding or brazing near the hazardous zone.. till the fire brigade reaches the area. the personnel should escape from the area and only good trained and experienced staff can continue to extinguish the fire from far distance and behind a protection wall resistant against explosion pressure. Working with R600a.6.5-1 Ohm.5g/year –even not by the method itself – beside the fact. If the R600a charging tube is good closed by a crimping tool to be applied twice per tube. Leak detection
Pressure tests.7. The fire protection of the whole building should be sufficient according to the local rules (for example the standard EN 2 and EN 3 in Europe). the presence of a supervisor able to use the fire extinguisher.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. needs a permission of the engineer responsible for the safety and special arrangements have to be established. We recommend to test every refrigerator not only by a leak test using leak detectors. Refrigerant. Special rules are not only needed in areas with potential leaks of Hydrocarbons. the equipment in the charging area.8. If fire has already reached such equipment filled with larger quantities of hazardous gas. Fire Protection Rules and Fire Extinguishers
To protect the personnel and equipment against fire special rules to prevent any fire have to be established and their application regularly controlled.9. 7. Further Precautions
p. The pressurised system should withstand the pressure without any pressure falls several minutes (3-5 min. Leak Detection. but also by a pressure test with min. better 50 kg on wheels should be placed around the charging area. the ventilation and exhaust tubes. the enclosure. 12 kg.4. In addition 2-3 powder fire extinguishers of min.
air conditioners or other cooling systems should be charged depends on the experience.5-1 g in case of R600a till the measured temperature at the evaporator outlet shows an increase caused by superheat (compare Mollier i-log diagram in Chapter 7. condenser or evaporator changes.
7. to IEC 79-15 standard with protection N or sealed acc. At the starting point of the test series the filled in quantity of refrigerant should be slightly less than calculated according to the volumes of evaporator. Refrigerant Charging: Liquid or Vapour?
How a single system of refrigerators. So we aspect a 16% less charge calculated by weight. not only in the Laboratory. Conversion from R12 to R600a. Refrigerant. 86
used Cyclopentane foam blowing agents already up to the level of 40-50g/year. This test of determining the optimal refrigerant filling quantity has always been repeated if the volume of the condenser suction tube. condenser. suction tube and compressor and the mass volume of the refrigerant.In a test room the ambient temperature will be kept at 32°C.
. Under these 3 conditions the quantity of refrigerant will be increased step by step of 2-3g in case of R134a and of 0.5.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. All electrics inside the charging area. and the Transfair documentation supplied with the equipment.The evaporating temperature will be adjusted to -20°C. to IP54 or even better removed out of this area.
1 Inlet Evaporator Outlet 2
7. the geometry of the model and existing charging devices. Liquid or Vapour Charging
p. So series of tests are needed to optimise the charging quantity in each single case. See Transfair Engineering text to Leak detection in the refrigerator industries today. temperature i). so that such a system will cause often failure alarm. On the other side we normally remove suction accumulators inside the system and we try to keep the R600a charge low to improve the performance. Further Precautions
To avoid any ignition from the refrigerator unit itself the refrigerator should not be connected to the electricity and the design of the refrigerator should be made for Hydrocarbon (see Chapter 8. light. Using R600a in the production. If an identical system will be converted from R12 to R134a the new refrigerant should have about the same volume.1. Conversion from R12 to R134a. other electrical equipment placed in this areas.5. Hydrocarbon refrigerants are very soluble in the mineral oil so that a greater percentage will remain inside the compressor. Charging. By reaching superheat measurable at the evaporator the optimal charge of refrigerant is reached. see Transfair Engineering: Evacuation. But in practice normally the condenser surface has to be increase so that the reduction of charge weight is lower than 16 %. The only reliable method in this case is Helium leak detection lines.10.
184.108.40.206.1. If we convert an identical system from R12 to R600a we aspect to charge R600a with a weight of about 40% of that of R12. These figures we can receive from the manufacturer of the compressor. R134a has a 16% less mass volume than R12. Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity. The refrigerant filling quantity can be determined in the following way: . We can receive a more accurate estimation if we take into consideration the different quantities of R600a respective R12 gases inside the used compressors. . A slightly superheated system (+ 3…4°K) is useful. If evaporator with capillary tubes was correct selected the temperature difference between inlet and out should remain in the range of 1°K under running condition. switches. 7. which can come in contact with the Isobutane in case of a leakage should be intrinsically safe or ex-proof acc.). not during pull down. all terminals. Detection and Performance Testing in the Household Industries Today 2006. Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity
Before systematic tests of refrigerator cooling circuits can be executed including the optimisation of the capillary tube diameter and length on an existing refrigerator system we have to optimise first the charging quantity of the refrigerant to be able to execute further test.
Undercharging causes flash gas to form upstream of the metering device. Charging Accuracy
Overcharging and undercharging will cause serious problems which should be avoided by using accurate charging methods. The high side pressure will increase in the condenser because of liquid backup in the condenser and will reduce the system capacity and efficiency. This accurate method of charging is used for servicing household application (limited charging quantity) and adjustments of charges in larger applications as the level of refrigerant to be viewed in the charging cylinder and its graduation scales permits to charge the correct amount (see operation manual of charging stations supplied) as long as the refrigerant is liquid under environmental temperatures. Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity. Liquid slugging will cause the compressor damage as well as a noisy operation. After the manifold hoses are purged.
7. Hydrocarbon charged
. Some larger refrigeration systems have a liquid charging valve between condenser and metering device.5. open the refrigerant cylinder valve and the high and low pressure manifold valves. 7. close the high pressure manifold valve and charge through the low pressure valve only. 87
In general a system can be charged either in liquid or vapour state. When 50-75% of the total charge has been entered the system starts the compressor if Hydrocarbon is not used to complete the charging. The compressor will cool down or even freeze the refrigerant cylinder. Liquid or Vapour Charging
p. Charging by weight. and after you have bled the manifold hoses. Refrigerant.3. to overfeed the evaporator so that liquid refrigerant floods back to the compressor. overheating inefficiency and wear.2. The evacuation can be done in a way that the liquid charged refrigerant passes a capillary tube (1 m) before it reaches the suction. the refrigerant cylinder valves are opened. When the whole charge does not go in. hook up the gauge manifold to the system in the normal way. warm the cylinder in a water bath up to 50°C or with PTC heater with thermal fuses to avoid overheat.5. Control the refrigerant weight scale or charging cylinder. Vapour charge is safer as it prevents that liquid is "slugging" the compressor. When it is obvious that the refrigerant is no longer entering the system or only entering very slowly. Pay attention: If liquid refrigerant is charged into the suction line the compressor will be damages if the liquid is not evaporated before entering the compressor. With the system compressor off. The upright refrigerant cylinder will allow saturated vapour charge. Overcharging causes fixed metering devices like capillary tubes or fixed orifices. the upside down cylinder saturated liquid charge. If the procedure will slow down. When you vapour charge a system that needs a complete charge. The utility hose is connected to the refrigerant cylinder. Liquid charging is always down in the high side of the system with the compressor off. This problem will increase if Hydrocarbon as refrigerant is used. Often the entire charge can be introduced by this way. Liquid charging is much faster than vapour charging. Charging Methods
Charging with Dial-A-Charge Cylinders. The accuracy should be within 0. close the high pressure and refrigerant cylinder valves.5.5% of the total system charge if non Hydrocarbon refrigerants are used. This starves the evaporator and will cause a low saturated suction temperature with excessive superheating of the suction gas with the effect of poor cooling of the hermetic compressor motor and thus endangers it. The discharge gas becomes overheated and the capacity and efficiency of the system are reduced.
7. But even for small quantities and for Hydrocarbon refrigerants which are gases under normal temperature and pressure there exists nowadays very exact scales with very high accuracy to allow the accurate charging of small refrigerant quantities as used for household refrigerators. For larger applications the charging by weight method is the best. turn the refrigerant cylinder upside down and introduce the remaining quantity in the vapour low side of the system with the compressor running.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. The system and the refrigerant cylinder are hooked up through a gauge manifold.
Such methods are sometimes used also in the service sector of large appliances. More charging increases the sub cooling and lowers the liquid line temperature. If the superheat is 2-3°C above the superheat value recommended for the system by the refrigerator design company and/or compressor manufacturer add .liquid refrigerant to the compressor inlet (compressor not running) or .Use the refrigerant pressure/temperature calculation program or table to determine the saturation temperature that matches the pressure for the suction line.5. This approach can only be used for systems with fixed metering devices like a capillary tube in the household refrigeration but not with throttle devices. by reducing the charge the superheat will increase.
Charging for proper superheat (Superheat method). .
. Probably performed the superheat method is a very accurate way of checking and adjusting the refrigerator charge: Only 1% changes of a system charge will cause a change of superheat by 1. Therefore this charging method allows only the charge starting from undercharging (clear sight glass caused by PURE gas or already bubbles caused by mixtures of gas and liquid refrigerant) till the sight glass. The charging is completed when the final weight is archived.Take inside refrigerator and freezer temperatures and environmental temperatures and read the pressure and the temperature of the suction line. Fine Tuning
p. .Install one thermocouple on the suction line and insulated the probe well. Refrigerant. In this case the manufacturer of the appliance has provided data for checking a system while it is in operation: like charging charts. In case of R600a the increase can be even higher. Often as much superheat as possible should be obtained between evaporator outlet and compressor inlet. . . By increasing the charge the superheat will drop.
7. Some manufacturers require an extra charge above the saturated level to establish the desired sub cooling leaving the condenser. A system with bubbles (mixture of liquid and gas) are undercharged. Some scales are even made to program the needed charge. One method to adjust the charging of a system already in operation and tested by performance test is to measure the refrigerant superheat in the vapour line. Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity.7 °C or more. Charging by sight glasses.5. remove vapour refrigerant.Run the system for 30 Minutes to allow system temperature and pressure stabilisation. . . But a clear slight glass can also indicate a severe undercharge if it is pure gas or an overcharge (liquid).Subtract the saturation temperature from the actual suction line temperature. After any charge adjustment repeat the measurements of temperatures and pressure to control if the system is adjusted to the required superheat.Install the pressure transducer in the suction line. 88
household refrigerators need an accuracy of +/-0. other manufacturers may instead indicate a desired liquid line temperature to be reached by adding smaller quantities during operation of the system.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. Only pure liquid should enter the metering device. if R134a is used. So pay attention in this method: clear sight glasses can be pure liquid (correct or overcharged) or purr gas (strongly undercharged).5 g. Superheat is the temperature added to the refrigerant vapour at the end of evaporation/compressor suction above its saturation temperature (typically for the household refrigerators: 2-5°C and for air conditioners: 5-8°C). charging calculations and performance charts. 7.vapour refrigerant through the low side service port with compressor running. Systems with sight glasses in the liquid line close to the inlet of the entering device allow identifying the correct charges.become clear. Do not move the gauge manifold and hoses during charging to avoid false weight indications. . They can be used to check a factory . compare it with the requested superheat of 35°C for household refrigerators respective 3-8°C for air conditioners. Fine Tuning and Control of Charge
Fine tuning and control of charge with charging calculation charts and already executed performance test can be made with the so called superheat and/or with the sub cooling method.charged system and to adjust the charging by measuring the inside and outside temperature as well as the refrigerant pressures and comparing these measured data with the charts or calculated data.
Measurement. When this will happen saturated liquid is obtained.4. It is too low by more than 2-3°C.after passing the bubble stage .The system should run as "cooling-only" (bridging of the thermostat cut off). Register the starting weight and calculate the final desired weight before starting of charging.
take the pressure readings there and subtract 0.7°C. less charge will reduce the sub cooling. add vapour refrigerant through the low-side service port with the compressor running. attach the high pressure hose to it and make your pressure readings there. Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity. This figure is the system's sub cooling value.Register the temperature and pressure in the liquid line. 7.
Measurement. Run the system for 20-30 Minutes to stabilise the pressure/temperature values with cooling-only (No thermostatic cuttings). If the sub cooling is too low by more than 1. In such cases the measurement can be made in the liquid line using the sub cooling method. After any adjustments of charges repeat the measurement procedures to be sure that the charge is within the correct range. Sub cooling is the temperature removal from a refrigerant liquid below its saturation temperature.5. 89
Charging for proper sub cooling (Sub cooling method).Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. remove vapour refrigerant through the high-side access port (use recovery units). The charts of the air conditioner manufacturer for the specific conditions and loads should be used for fixing the value of sub cooling which refrigerant charge should reached. If the system has a liquid charging valve. . -Use the refrigerant pressure/temperature calculation program or table to determine the saturation temperature that matches the pressure just found by the pressure transducer. The charge of systems using devices with thermostatic expansion valves (larger air conditioners and refrigeration machines) cannot be controlled by the superheat method as such devices maintain a constant superheat over a wide range of load and charge conditions. If you have only a high side system access port near the compressor discharge. A typical sub cooling value for a refrigerant entering the metering device (expansion valve) of an air cooler air conditioners' system is in the range of 3-8°C. If it is too high about more than 1. More charge will increase the sub cooling. Refrigerant.07 bar (10psig) to allow for condenser pressure drop. Fine Tuning
.7°C above the value recommended by the manufacturer. Subtract the actual liquid line temperature from the saturation temperature.
7.5.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Circuits. 90
. Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity. Refrigerant. Fine Tuning
contain version 6 (2002) and Amendment 1 (2005). Meanwhile there is another amendment 2 (2007) as result of changes in referred standards (ISO15502. Electric Safety Tests
p. R290 or R290/R600a blends are already introduced. New safety standards for refrigerators filled with Hydrocarbon refrigerant like R600a. Safety Requirements of Refrigerators – especially with Hydrocarbon Refrigerant
Such standards have to be applied in addition to the performance standards of refrigerators as described in the next chapter and in addition to the electrical standards IEC/EN for each used electrical part and in Europe the EU Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) as amended 93/68/EEC. Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers
The safety standards specify which electrical safety rules the manufacturer have to respect. Part 2: Particular requirements for refrigerators and food freezers.2. Standard 60335.1 to carry out risk assessment and test procedures for inflammable refrigerants. In 1995 the CENELEC committee recommended to amend the existing IEC 335-2-24 (3rd edition) to cover potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants and to integrate a special CENELEC Test Schedule TS95006 for such refrigerators into the standard. etc. ISO3864 and IEC60079-15). Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators.
. by integrating risk assessment rules CEN/TR 14739 (2004) and test procedures TS95006. Safety requirements. like R600a. Part 1: Safety of household and similar electric appliances. the ones of motor-compressors in IEC 60335 part 2-34.1. which electrical components acc. Consequently certain safety instructions should be observed. (This version 6. standard for the safety of household refrigerators and freezers was amended. It based on the application of the existing electrical safety standard for equipment exposed to explosive atmospheres IEC/EN 60079-15 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmosphere. Part 15: Electrical apparatus with type of Protection “N” and explosion limits applicable for R600a and R290. With the 2002 amendment it meanwhile became a worldwide valid standard: IEC/EN/UL/J/GOST 60335-2-24(2005): Safety of household and similar electrical appliances.
8.1.m. 8. Standard 60335. and IEC/EN/UL/J/GOST etc. The electric safety of commercial refrigerators is described in IEC 60335 part 2-89 and of commercial dispensing appliances and vending systems in IEC 60335 part 2-75. Special safety requirements for refrigerators using a Hydrocarbon refrigerant
After the introduction of Hydrocarbon as refrigerant the a. Use of flammable refrigerants. In 2004 this standard was again amended (Amendment 1) by EU CEN/CENELEC and IEC now version 6.) and to which production quality control tests must refer. to which electrical standard he can use in the appliances and which kind of tests he needs to make on prototypes for the declaration of conformity (CE. 91
8. Part 2-24(2005-04): Particular requirements for refrigerator appliances and ice makers. Following international valid safety standards exist for refrigerators and freezers: IEC/EN/UL/J/GOST etc.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. R600a (C4H10) and R290 (C3H8) are flammable refrigerants and have been classified A3 in accordance with ANSI/ ASHRAE 34.
In this chapter these special design problems and their solutions will be described. The 2nd situation can be avoided.109 allow maximum surface temperature to be exposed to leakage of flammable refrigerator 100K underneath above mentioned ignition temperature >350°C. It would be very rare that there exist sufficient air inside the system for combustion. A small modification of IEC60335-2-24 become valid with amendment 2 on 2007-01 (compressor sound.inside the food compartment or if the evaporator is . But the sealing must be tested (see underneath).95% blend in air and the upper flammability limit (UFL) is 9. Flammability and Hazardous Situations
Isobutane and Propane safety data:
Flash point Ignition Explosion Temperature LEL/HEL vol.83. 8. More important than the fire it was the observation on the fumes. Refrigerant leaks into the food compartment. Important is that an explosive mixture can build up even below the calculable concentration if the refrigerator construction is made in a way that an accumulation in dead spaces or deepening is possible. normally closed. IEC60335-2-89 was slightly amended in 2005 and in 2007. warm damp equable climates). % Density Depending of country [°C] temp. according to tests executed by Liebherr and others the maximum pressure peak of 12 bars created during explosion in the cooling circuit remains under the critical load of any cooling circuit components. Electric Safety Tests
p.foamed-in behind the food liner.
. Even if combustion inside the system could happen. fire tests executed by Calor Gas in Britain on commercial ice cream freezers showed that there was no significant difference in the fire intensity and fire duration of refrigerators filled with hydrocarbon in comparison to R12 filled systems. so that a concentration above the lower flammability limit can easily be reached. Last can only happen if the evaporator is . The 3rd hazardous situation.8 / 8.2. air leaks into the system (as the suction pressure is underneath the atmospheric pressure) can be neglected. (See Calor Gas: Fire Test Report Application of CARE Refrigerants.
The IEC60335-2-24 (2005) Para 22.15 494 IIA T2 1. Warwick 1997). Failure occurred through brazing joints.56 For R290/R600a blends the LFL is 1. which in case of R12 is an important risk increase not existing with hydrocarbons. . Safety requirements. Refrigerant leaks into the surrounding air. On the refrigerator appliance we can identify 2 potential hazardous situations which need partially different safety measures: 1.5 (38g in 1m³ air) 1. if the construction is made in a way that no leaks can go into the food compartment.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. that is why we specify T2<300°C and not only T1<450°C. Its actual version in 2010 is Edition 7. 92
So refrigerators with inflammable R600a and R290 refrigerants need some special designs and precautions and type tests which can differ from the previous considerations of designing and specifications. has joints in the evaporator pipe work and if the inner compartment is not completely sealed. Normally defrost models today are made in this way in Europe. In 1997. The compressor withstood the fire. an electrical spark from an electrical component or discharge of static electricity or a surface hotter than 470°C respective 494°C.05 Propane -105 470 IIA T2 2. Its actual version in 2010 is Edition 2
8. High fire intensity was required for failure of the pressure system. In comparison to conventional R12 or R134a refrigerators the risk to be injured is even lower.1 % blend in air.1.5 (43-165g in 1m³ air) 2. [°C] group class 1) (air=1) Isobutane .1 / 9. Also some user instructions were to place the refrigerator in the household and labelling of the refrigerator is needed.
Concentrations between these low and high explosion limit values can be hazardous in presence of an ignition source like an open flame. Also the 4th hazardous situation that fire from outside will burn down a hydrocarbon filled refrigerator can be neglected. People in case of fire are seldom killed by the fire itself but by toxic fumes. A natural circulation underneath the refrigerator cooling circuit should be insured by using the temperature differences during running. for example if there are holes for the thermostat capillary tube and for the power supply cable of the light-switch combination. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators.110 respective 89 (2002) Para 22. 2.
etc. Thermostat. charging. on/off switch. where joint are placed. Standard defrost models often install evaporator behind the foodliner and keep standard sparking thermostat. electrics can be sealed or by other means mentioned in IEC60079-15 to prevent sparks and hot surfaces (IEC60335-2-24 clause 22. the ultrasonic welding or the mechanical closing with lock rings or else. Electric Safety Tests
p.107. power cable. More in use are following modified electrics: “N” protected electrics (1).2 require a scratching tool test that double layer are mechanically strong enough. Light and light switch. Others relocate such electric parts with ignition sources (electric sparks. Safety requirements. unsealed compressor relay. thermostats. Sealing of the System
Such systems require much more care on the sealing of the system as in R12 or R134a systems.89 clause 22.109 (2005) or IEC60335-2-89 (2002) clause 22. Even some joints can be and should be avoided. Even with highest efforts in this field of sealing ignition sources must be avoided in areas where hydrocarbon leaks can occur. Sealing). Also how the necessary tube joints are made inside the manufacturing is important.1. Nevertheless each joint must be more carefully and with much more sensitive and selective methods tested on any leakage as in the past. Evaporator behind foodliner (3). Meanwhile very seldom is the use of double layers components. start and run capacitor with unprotected leads.108 and Annex CC or IEC60335-2-89 clause 22. quantities or shape and the used flux are very important (see Transfair Engineering: Evacuation. 8.4. for example between 2 evaporators or some prolongation tubes in the compressor compartment. Mass spectrometric leak tests. the experience and quality efforts and control of workers doing the brazing. IEC-600335-2-24. In a type test it has to be checked that no flammable refrigerant can touch such electric item according to IEC60335-2-24 clause 22. switches.) unsealed compressor overload protection (Klixon). defrost thermostat) Fan motor and blade.).108.2. Important is how each tube joint itself is made to avoid mechanical damage. clause 22. 93
8. how they and specially the capillary tube are protected against mechanical damages during packing and de-packing. Electric component in top (2). The foodliner prevents that flammable refrigerant can come into touch with this standard electric components (see underneath chapter 8. leak detection and performance testing chapter 5. On appliances where leaks can enter the food compartment additional ignition sources must be considered: Thermostat. The brazing alloys.3.107. Let’s take a closer look to the potential ignition.107).106.2. terminal blocks. the mentioned strategies to avoid explosion and required type tests:
8. door switch. transportation or use through cleaning or de-icing. In the design of the cooling system is already important. light. Double layer refrigerant carrying components.2.1 or IEC60335-2.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. If separation is difficult. leak tight closing of holes for the thermostat capillary tube and for the power supply cable is here essential. like double layer roll bond.2 or IEC600335-2-89. double wall No Frost coil evaporators.2. for example in refrigerator top. because of their high prices. or even helium leak tests are recommended. In case of No Frost: Defrost thermostat and temperature control
. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators. hot surface) outside cooling compartment.106. In case of NO frost models in addition: defrost heater and defrost control (timer. their positioning. clause 22. Potential Ignition Sources
Refrigerators can have following ignition sources: Loose electrical connections (terminals. plugs and sockets on compressor electrical box. light switches and hot light inside compartment. but tightness has to be type tested by a leak simulation test according to IEC60335-2-24 clause 22.
Further details of such components see next chapter:
8. 8. Separation of Ignition Sources from Potential Leaks
One often used and for many models the least expensive way of minimising any risk is to modify the construction in a way that electric sparking components are placed in areas where no explosive mixture can be built up in case of any leakage. Holes to allow the passing of the cable and/or the capillary tube of the thermostat should be avoided or specifically sealed and controlled. light switch and terminals can be removed from inside the food compartment and built in the upper front plate.108 (2002). But such ‘n’ protected parts have to be tested by the component manufacturer. separation cannot be made or where it is cheaper to use such spark free components (see next chapter) instead of the separation of flammables from electrics.3. Concerning the R600a or R290 compressor and the needed tube joints in the compressor compartment. Important for such a construction is that the food liner is closed. See chapter 8. which is meanwhile standard for all compressor manufacturers according to actual version of IEC60335-2-34 for compressors. One door models or freezer compartment with inside evaporator. In case of any leakage on the backside of refrigerator or freezer the small quantity of R600a will be rarefied in ground direction. It includes the requested test methods. Safety requirements. In such a case all electrics (thermostat. requests of Manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity and approvals of new models and components.5. By opening the door the heavier gas and heavier cold air will move to the ground area and rarefied so that no explosive mixture can be built up on the level of the upper front plate. underneath. Freezer compartment in 2 door models seldom have any electrics. underneath. 94
Fan motor and blade.1. light.107.5.108 and Annex CC for household refrigerators and IEC60335-2-89 clause 22. See chapter 8. Important: Refrigerator manufacturers should not use any electric components inside areas with potential leaks of flammable refrigerant without such manufacturer’s type tests and its declaration of conformities or approvals of 3rd party authorized bodies according to IEC 600079-15.2. He has to declare the conformity of his model parts with the standard IEC60079-15 or to present a conformity declaration of an authorized body according to IEC60335-2-24 clause 22.
. Such models have to be type tested by a leak simulation test according to IEC60335-2-24(2005) clause 22. there exist no electrics anymore inside. R290 and their blends are heavier than air. Also joints in the foamed in evaporator should be as far as possible avoided and not near to sealed holes.109 or 89 clause 22. In case of a leak inside the compartment.220.127.116.11.).107 for commercial refrigerators. R600a.
8. In standard defrost model the evaporator can be mounted outside the food liner and foamed in so that no leak can enter inside the food compartment and no special protection or precautions are needed for the electrical components inside the food compartment.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. Such models have to be type tested by a leak simulation test according to IEC60335-2-24 or 89 clause 22. Another solution exist for one door models or freezer compartment with standard defrost if the evaporator is left inside the food and/or freezer compartment without using expensive double layer evaporators (the disadvantages of roll bond evaporators often used in such cases are described in chapter 5. All No frost models do not allow such a separation and need special selected electrical components which have to follow the IEC standard 600079-15 or must be replaced by components without electrical sparks like solid state switches (PTCs) or the sparking components must be completely sealed.2.m.4. before they can be used in the refrigerator. In some models relocation of thermostat or switch are more expensive as its enclosure and sealing according to “n” protection. there is no chance of such a separation so that all electrics in this area must be protected or spark free (see next chapter). Such spark free components must be chosen for all electrical components in the compressor area and even in the food compartment when the a. Electric Safety Tests
p.108 and Annex CC or IEC 60335-2-89 (2002) clause 22. Standard defrost models. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators. “n” Protected Electrical Components in Hydrocarbon Leak Areas
The requirements of electrical components installed in areas with potential leaks of hydrocarbon like R600a or R290/R600a blends should follow strictly the new amendment of the IEC 60335-2-24 clause 22. which both following now the IEC 600079-15 standard about electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres type protection ‘n’ to be applied to on refrigerators and freezers using flammable refrigerant. A risk assessment and approval tests have to be carried out according to actual version of standard.
PTCs are better than sealed boxes because seals can be damaged by incorrect repairs. tubular fluorescent or other discharge lamps can fulfil this condition. 95
The best is to use a sealed or solid state (PTC) relay which cannot give any spark. they should be placed as far as possible away from the refrigeration circuit in the upper area of the refrigerator to avoid the risk being in flammable atmosphere. Plugs and sockets are acceptable if the separation force exceeds 15N and if they meet in their construction the standard IEC600079-15. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators. which integrated the Hydrocarbon safety requirements so that the refrigerator manufacturer does not need to make own constructions.6. to IEC 600079-15.4 and IEC60079-15.1. International compressor manufacturers are supplying the HC compressors with approved electrical devices like terminals.4. vibration or accidentally.
8. to the new standard IEC 60335-2-34.5.. Brazed or welded wire connections are acceptable.
Compressor Start and Run Capacitors
Even if the capacitors themselves cannot produce sparks the leads connected to them can! So called integral leads (flying leads) can fulfil the requirements of IEC 600079-15 and have to be used to fulfil IEC60335-2-34.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. Filament.-8. relays.5. torque
. overload protectors and. Lamp Holders and Fluorescent Lighting Ballast and Starter
First condition is that the temperature of the lamp is not exceeding 350°C.3. Other solutions with a sparking relay in a sealed box need an approval acc. tests and approvals on this components according to chapter 8. After the relocation it has to be tested that no explosive gas can reach it (chapter 8. Solid state or sealed protectors without any sparking can be used.3.3.
8. The quantity of electrical terminals in the hazardous area should be limited.3. if part of compressor. Their construction have to follow IEC600079-15 Paragraph 21 and requires enclosure and special fixing. The lamp rating concerning temperature class T2 must be printed on the lamp and confirmed by the manufacturer. shall be made in a way that arc.3.5.109 or IEC60335-2-89 clause 22. Also special combined compressor relays and overload protectors made. Safety requirements. to the IEC 600079-15 can be used.
8. Also wires with crimped terminals screwed to a contact.3.
Electrical connection are considered as not normally sparking if they are made in a way that they cannot be disconnect by use.).3. which are non-sparking in normal operations. 8.
Compressor Overload Protector
Standard external overload protectors (like Klixons) cannot be used except in sealed and approved boxes. sparks or hot spots are minimised.
Luminaries. sealed and approved acc. Even lamp holders.4. to the valid standard like IEC 600079-15 and EN 60730-18.104.22.168). especially chapter 14. IEC60335-224 clause 22. If this separation from hazardous areas is not possible standard sparking switches cannot be used and must be replaced by non-sparking sealed versions as used out doors in a waterproof version and approved acc.
8.1-4) acc.3. capacitors (chapter 8.2. Today’ R600a and R290 compressor models have to comply with IEC603352-34 and are not critical anymore. In single cases if they are still needed. The same has to be applied for the door light switch: If it is not placed inside the food compartment or outside the door in an area leaks can reach according to executed type tests only sealed door switches can be used (see Chapter 8. Electric Safety Tests
On-Off Switches and Light Switches
On-off switches of refrigerators are often not needed and can be easy eliminated.
Important is that the sealing gasket is permanently
.25Nm into its lamp holders shall withstand a push force and a pull force of 10N+/-1N for 1 min in direction of the axis of the lamp holder. so that they do not need to be replaced in case hydrocarbon refrigerant is used.) have such sealed models with certificates from authorized bodies in the supply program with nearly same price as their standard thermostat version.15Nm or a E27 respective B22 lamp to be fixed with 0.3. Starters are tested by lamp manufacturers according to IEC60079-15 Para.
8.3. Temperature Cut-Out and Defrost Timer Control (in No Frost Models)
The existing defrosting probe.
8. Fluorescent lighting ballast and starter are normally made not to be ignition sources. DC-motors with commutator and brushes are forbidden. but good thermostat manufacturers (Invensys. Sealed Box IP54 or higher
Instead of replacing sparking electrical components by non-sparking or sealed ones it could be in some cases cheaper to enclose such components in a sealed box which follow at least the IP54 rating for sealed components. 350 °C can be used. Fan Motor and Blades
The major fan motors to ventilate air on fin coil evaporators (No Frost models) or on fin coil condensers uses today sealed induction motors (squirrel cage shade pole motors) following already the IEC 600079-15 with “n” protection.9.7. the way of its fixing and terminal connection should follow this standard. 96
strength of screw lamp holders and other specifications. Thermostat
Standard thermostats have bodies with open contacts which can spark and cannot be used in hazardous areas.3.
8. temperature and defrost timer controls as used on No Frost models can spark under normal operation conditions.10.8. Also the fan blade should be made of a material that there is no sparking possible (not iron). Often screw lamp holders with a rubber lid for water proof are fulfilling the requirements of this standard. Safety requirements. But there exist often the possibility to relocate parts like timers in areas where no explosive mixture can be built up (for example in the table top) which should be checked first and tested according to the mentioned IEC 60335-2-24 standard clause 22. Danfoss etc. 33. Either the thermostat is relocated outside the ex-zone and their position is type tested according to the standard. Defrost Probe. Even a standard thermostat can be used if it is inserted in a sealed box following the IEC 600079-15 standard.3.3. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators.10 and declared to be confirm: Normally only sparks can happen on loose contacts.1 has to be applied.5.11.
8. but only if the gas cannot accumulate in this area. Electric Safety Tests
p.5W/cm² with special limiters to limit the temperature to max. Resistance heater limiting the electric heating power per surface to 1.) to avoid often more expensive electrical components following the IEC 600079-15 standard. IP54 components are dust and splash proof and are considered by European specifiers sufficiently sealed to reduce significantly the probability of combustion in the event of a leak. that leaked refrigerant can not stagnate in areas with such a sparking component or only sealed or solid state thermostats can be used which follow the requirements of IEC 600079-15. 8. A lamp holder used in a hazardous area.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. like non-sparking plugs and sockets Para 20: A E14 respective B15 lamp to be fixed with 0.108 (our chapter 8. Defrost Heater and Thermal Fuse (in No Frost Models)
Asian and American No Frost models are normally using infrared defrosting heaters. European resistance heater.3. Parts which are placed in areas with potential leaks must be replaced by ones which meet the IEC 60007915 requirements. Bimetal temperature probes can be quite easily sealed. The rule is that the surface temperature should be 100°K underneath the ignition temperature. Infrared heaters often above 350°C are forbidden. but anyhow rarely used in such an application. Furthermore the fan motor should not reach excessive temperature (<350°C for R600a) if the motor locks or could not start (locked-rotor test to be executed according to IEC 60335-2-24 Annex AA). terminals plug and sockets so that the considerations of chapter 8.
8.3.1 in 2-5s. The cable entries should be made via terminals permanently fixed to the box and through glands. . the refrigerator has to be positioned outside a building or in an well ventilated area. 97
fixed and that it cannot be removed during service or that it cannot be wrongly positioned. electric tests and inspection of correct mounting etc.the refrigerant is inflammable (previously ISO 3864 symbol B 3.
8. This sample of sealed box and service precautions shows the problem which we can face in areas with informal refrigerator services. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators. Furthermore the manufacturer has to insure that each produced refrigerator and freezer follow the requirement fixed for the type approval.). resistance against moisture (para 15).5. Labelling of Hydrocarbon-Refrigerator
Appliances charged with Hydrocarbons must have a label stating in local languages of the market as well as in common foreign language that the refrigerant is flammable. grant the conformity declaration for it and mark its product including temperature class T2 or higher to allow refrigerator manufacturers to use them in such hazard zones. by quality controls (leak test.4. Electrical Safety Tests for all Household Appliances
There exist special standards like the IEC60335-1 and 2-24 or 2-89 which regulate the electrical safety requirements of refrigerators and freezers. unsealed electric equipment or other equipment which can spark or with surfaces above a temperature of 350°C should be within 2 m around the refrigerator positioned in a ° ventilated area. Components not tested and approved according to IEC60079-15 or other IEC60079 clauses are not allowed to be used in these potential leak areas. not here described. It also should explain how such a system has to be repaired. Beside of the specific ones concerning hydrocarbon refrigerant there are several tests and controls to be executed (see these standards) like in past with no flammable refrigerants. Often following electrical safety tests are applied on all produced refrigerators and freezers (class 1 with PE): • Earth test with <12Vac/25A and threshold R-PE<0. . The label should have following information: . heat and fire (para 30). 31) etc. pressure test. heating (para 10). all needed for type testing.if the refrigerant has to be vented or the refrigerator to be charged with Hydrocarbon refrigerant. Any possibility to use other. like Protewction against access to live parts (para 8). conformity declarations and markings
The manufacturer of all electric components used in potential leak zones of flammable refrigerant must execute type tests according to IEC60079-15 mainly para.33.
.2). Any solution which separate the leak risk areas from the electrics by relocations and which can use standard electrical components are preferable to solutions which depend on qualified service which will not destroy the sealing. R290 or R290/R600a blend in 50/50% by weight or else and the amount of charge needed.12. It is absolutely necessary to mark the lid of such sealing boxes with a label showing the importance of replacing the lid to maintain the sealing. their control and testing for type conformity approval (CE etc.).
8. Manufacturer’s test of electric component for flammable gas atmosphere.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. Safety requirements.refrigerant type and/or composition like R600a.5. 8. rusting (para. Electrical Safety Tests and Controls
8. not sealed entries as the protected ones should be avoided by the construction of the box. cigarettes. no flames.1. Electric Safety Tests
Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. in both cases the food compartment contain electrical components which do not comply with the IEC 600079-15 requirements ("n” protection. if possible.
. without any leakage with 35bar rel.
In all these cases leakage have to be simulated and the Hydrocarbon concentration to be measured near electric components by Hydrocarbon leak detectors. Pressure tests. See chapter 10. Appliances without protected hydrocarbon charged cooling systems where the unprotected electrical components (thermostat. IP54 sealing.) and the separation tested by leak simulation tests for type approval. Also the EU PED Directive requires such tests. The pressures are gauged pressures.5mA and/or Insulation test with 500Vdc and threshold between L-N and PE>1M (basic insulation) or >7M (reinforced insulation) Absorbed current and power test with threshold value to be fixed per model to assure energy labelling class values. executing pressure test on all R600a refrigerator during production at time of Helium leak test at 35 bar respective 10bar to stress brazed joints and to reduce leaks and returns from the market.3.
Leak Simulation Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon
Electric components and cooling circuits must be separated by construction (see our chapter 8. which electrical components acc. R600a and R290 in household and commercial refrigerators are category 1 (<50p*V at saturated low and high pressure). 5 times of the saturated vapour pressure of the refrigerant at 20°C for parts exposed to the low side pressure during normal operation. that means 10bar relative. signal lights. are relocated outside the cooling department in areas supposed to be free of refrigerants in case of leakage. They should withstand an absolute pressure of 3.5mA. Leakage current test with 1. This IEC/EN 600335-2-24 section 22.2.108 describes test of unprotected cooling circuits in combination with “n” protected electrical components (IEC/EN 600079-15 n protection. 8. on high pressure side and with 10 bar on low pressure side. Electric Safety Tests
p. light switches. IP54). Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators.2. but with electrical components which do not comply with the IEC 600079-15 requirements (“n” protection. 0. or the cooling system inside the food compartment is built into a separate enclosure. inside food compartment and clause 22.107 describes test of protected cooling circuits in combination with unprotected electrical components which can cause arcs. each of min. light should be inspected and/or tested. item 2 is practically not used.5. that means 35bar rel.
8. earth connection.5. IP54).
In addition other parameters like correct wiring. We recommend. the bounded seams must have a minimum width of 6mm.7 requires a pressure test on circuit components at least as type approval. IEC/EN600335-2-24 in clause 22.3.
3. functioning of all electrical components like switches. Appliances with protected hydrocarbon charged cooling systems without any part of the cooling system inside the food storage compartment. if their location cannot anymore be reached by leaking refrigerant. light switch. Pressure Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon
The IEC/EN 600335-2-24 section 22. light etc. Appliances with protected hydrocarbon charged cooling systems where the cooling circuit parts located inside the food compartment are constructed with an additional at least double layer. The safety standards specify which electrical safety rules the manufacturer have to respect. Safety requirements.. Residual voltage test (only needed for on models with capacitor) with rated voltage and threshold value <60V to avoid electrical shock on de-plugging. certified by component manufacturers. 98
• • • •
High voltage (Dielectric strength) test at ≥1000V (often at 1250V) for basic insulation or ≥3750V for reinforced insulation with threshold <3. thermostats.-8.
8.7 requires a hydraulic pressure test on R600a in the type approval for 1 min. receivers) could deform by such pressure on samples.17.1 mm thickness.5 times of the saturated vapour pressure of the refrigerant at 70°C for parts exposed to the high side pressure during normal operation.109 the test of standard electrical components allocated to outside food compartment. But pay attention: flat aluminium (Roll Bond) or copper parts (accumulators.06x rated voltage I-PE <3.
2. IEC/EN 60335-2-24 Annex CC). so pressure test have not be repeated during refrigerator lifetime. We have to execute such tests for 3 different groups of appliances: 1. to which electrical standard he can use in the appliances and which kind of approval he needs. So a compromise must be made. sparks or hot surfaces while clause 22.
The measured value should not exceed 75 % of the LEL of the refrigerant and 50% of the LEL for a period exceeding 5 min. to the standard IEC 600335-2-24.5. the gas volume is 0.7 +/. Testing of standard electric components not reachable by flammable Refrigerant
Sparking electric components can be positioned for example in refrigerator top. Doors and lids should be closed during test to check if hazardous gas can be accumulating inside the compartment. as it is avoidable. 3 sec.5 g is injected in a draught-free location from the nearest external pipework joint to the electric component to be tested into the considered area over a period of 1h in constant rate. which we will not repeat hear as it is described in this standard. In this case we have to inject 1g/min.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. Best are IR sensors with gas flow control and return of sampling gas into the area.
8. The measured value shall not exceed 75 % of the lower explosive limit of the refrigerant as specified in above table about LEL values of R600a or R290. gas chromatographs or mass spectrometer should have a reaction time of max. All interconnecting points are considered as critical points as well as locations of a capillary tube which can be destroyed mechanically. The gas should be taken from the vapour side of a bottle with a temperature of 32 +/-1 °C if leakages are simulated on low pressure side and 70 +/.0. 99
The leak simulation should be made from all critical points.4. from which gas was taken (Dräger PIR 7000 Type 334 with gas probe inlet and return system IWS). to pass this test.
8.232l/min. In case of blends this test has to be executed with the fraction which has the lowest LEL value.=1g/min on scale to be calculated (see chapter 4. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators. after gas injection into close compartment is finished the door or lid is opened by 90° for 2-4s every 30s.5. Sample: Let’s suppose the charge of the model to be tested is 120g R600a. In case a joint is foamed in also the leak capillary tube has to be foamed in. 80% of the nominal charge of appliances should be injected or the maximum which can be injected inside of 1 hour.2 with tools described in Figure 102 with specified parameters and criteria of pass and fail.1. The instrument which measures the gas concentration. Safety requirements.05 mm and 2-3 m length.108. and sampling should be take at least every 30 s inside and outside the compartment near electrical components for 1 h after injection of gas has stopped.5g of flammable refrigerant are not considered to cause a fire or explosion hazard in the event of a leakage of the component itself acc. if Inficon Ecotec is used. Sampling must be limited to maximum 2 ml every 30 sec. We do not recommend such solutions for cost reasons.5. In a type test it has to be checked that no flammable refrigerant can touch such electric item according to IEC60335-2-24 clause 22.
. At these points the leak has to be simulated through a capillary tube of 0. like calibrated infrared sensors. 30 min. Scratch Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon
On multi-layer cooling circuit systems in addition a scratch test have to be applied on all accessible surfaces according to standard IEC600335-2-24 section 22-107.1 °C if leakage is simulated on the high side pressure circuit. Separate components such as thermostats which contain less than 0. and shall not exceed 50 % of the lower explosive limit of the refrigerant as specified in this LEL table for a period exceeding 5 min.57bar rel. At the end of the test there must be liquid refrigerant left in the bottle. Electric Safety Tests
p.) and tested using adequate capillary tube diameter and length. 8. not to influence test results (on/off valve on inlet to gas chromatograph or mass spectrometer.. but in a way that the tube will not be blocked by foam.232l/g and we need a flow rate of 0. If the R600a bottle is inserted into an ice-water bath (0°C) on a balance R600a gas phase pressure is 0. The concentration of leaked refrigerant as close as possible to the electrical component is measured at least every 30 s by IR gas sensors from the beginning of the test until 15 min after a sustained decrease is observed. The test is performed in a draught-free location with the appliance switched off or on (first run without powering the electric part to be tested) whichever gives the more unfavourable result. remove capillary flow alarm setting during such tests). Such test records should be stored to adapt capillary tubes lengths to other rates for other models.109 or IEC60335-2-89 clause 22. A quantity equal to 50 % of the refrigerant charge ±1.
internationally reputed test institute. better. 8. test reports of a good.m. 100
8. If the refrigerator manufacturer has a well equipped laboratory he can do such tests according to IEC600079-15 himself.5. Testing and Control of "N” Protected Components Used in Hydrocarbon Leak Areas
In cases where electric components are placed in areas in which potential leaks can happen or in which the a. Safety requirements. Special Safety Requirement for HC-Refrigerators. In case of any doubts it is better to insist of another independent test report or to replace such items by ones without any reserves.6. Electric Safety Tests
p.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. appliances could not pass the leak simulation tests or the scratch test the electric components must fulfil the requirement of IEC 60079-15 with the protection “n”. Refrigerator producers have to insist on their suppliers of these electrical components to receive at least a declaration of conformity for the component and.
Different types and kinds of temperature controls can be used to control the operation of refrigerators and freezers. The switching differential is the difference between cut-in and cut-out point of the temperature control.1.
9. The temperature control is set in the thermostat factory according to specified temperature values. The adjustment range is the difference between the cut-in point in warmest control positions to cut-in point in coldest control position. Adjustment range. The whole needed temperature ranges in the household refrigerator section cannot be covered by one control type only.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. The 2 temperature values of cut-in temperature range and the 2 of the cut-out temperature range are normally printed on the thermostat casing. Tolerances. This change is converted to a travel via a diaphragm or corrugated tube. if a standard thermostat is used which allows adjustment on the cut-in position. There exists a permissible deviation from nominal operating point. The operating range of a thermostat describes the temperature range in which the thermostat can operate. Correlation between adjustment range and switching differential. Temperature Control. but not the switch differential. There a certain correlation between adjustment range and switching differential. the indicated limits cannot be assigned optionally. Adjustments in the refrigerator factory and in the service. Capillary Tube Thermostat
Most common types of temperature controls are electromechanical thermostats using a mainly vapour filled capillary tube as temperature sensor: A temperature change causes a pressure change of the fill. i. In such a case the adjustment range is the difference from cut-out point in warmest control position to cut-out point in coldest control position. 9.
Following terms are used: Operating range. Switching differential. but only on the range screw or the temperature screw: Such an adjustment will change the cut-in and cut-out value to be shifted in direction of cold or warm. such adjustment will change the cut-out position and therefore in
. In case of a thermostat with constant cut-in is used. There exist some exceptions used in chest freezers with a constant cut-in feature. In the refrigerator factory adjustments never should be made at the switch differential screw. Capillary Tube Thermostat
p.e. so different types working with different ranges are needed. A mayor group of thermostatic controls are adjustable inside their operating ranges. actuated by a lever system which mechanically closes a switch on temperature rise above a set value and opens the switch again on temperature fall underneath a set value.
But an electrical heater can be added on terminal (6) to allow heating at OFF-position of the thermostat.
9. Temperature Control.2. The new set point must be temperature controlled to ensure the correct operation of the thermostat. 102
addition the temperature differential. but have in addition an auxiliary switch (terminal 3-6) connected in series with the main switch which breaks the current circuit as soon as the temperature control is set to OFF position The function of this thermostat is the same as the last one.A clockwise rotation of the dial shaft causes colder control settings.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. Capillary Tube Thermostat types
p. 9.1.1. The OFF-position will interrupt the operation even when the temperature is above the cut-in position. Such thermostats can be made adjustable with a spindle and dial knob or for fixed temperature values without such a knob. automotive air conditioners and other appliances. .Dead angle: For thermostats without OFF positions: 90° For thermostats with OFF position 45° and OFF position at 45° Following types of thermostats used for household refrigerators are on the market:
9. Adjustment range is normally from 5°C to 20°C inside the operation range of -40°C to +15°C.Total adjustable range: 270° .1. It seems that all manufacturers of adjustable capillary tube thermostats for household refrigerators follow the same dial layout: . OFF-position. Dial layout.
. Thermostat with Auxiliary Switch
Typical Electrical Wiring diagram Typical function chart Such types are the same as the first ones.The standard dial angles are the following: . Temperature controls are available with and without OFF-position. Standard Thermostat
Typical function chart Typical Electrical Wiring diagram Such standard types execute only simple cut-in and cut-out operations. They are used for simple refrigerators and freezers.
Thermostat with Heater Contact
Typical function chart Such types are more used in ice makers and air conditioners.
9. Thermostat with Semi-Automatic Defrost Push-Button
Typical function chart Typical Electrical Wiring diagram Such types are used in some refrigerator types. By initiating the defrost the main switch is opened and later automatically closed when the set defrost temperature. The function of this thermostat is the same as the 3rd one with signal lamp. But in addition there exists an auxiliary function to initiate fast-freeze/deepfreeze cycle till a specified temperature value is reached by actuating the pressure pin or a bush-button signal lamp. Temperature Control.1. Standard Thermostats with Auxiliary Switch p.
Typical Electrical Wiring diagram
9. normally +6°C (between +2 and +10°C possible) in reached. Thermostat with Fast Freeze
Typical function chart Typical Electrical Wiring diagrams Such types are used in today in vertical freezers and deep freezers.5.1. 103
9. But in addition to the cut-in and -out switches a contact for a warning signal lamp is closed in case of higher temperature. The specific fast freeze
. The function of this thermostat is the same as the last one.1. The function of this thermostat is the same as the first one.Transfair Engineering: Designing…Cooling Circuits. 9. Capillary Tube Thermostat. The function of this thermostat is the same as the first one.3. But an electrical heater can be added on terminal (6) to allow heating at OFF-position of the thermostat. But in addition to the cut-in and –out switches a push-button for semiautomatic defrost function is added to allow a manually initiated automatic defrost cycle.4. Thermostat with Signal Contacts
Typical function chart Typical Electrical Wiring diagrams Such types are used in freezers.6. In addition it is possible to get an operation signal if needed.1.
so that the system will go back to the standard cut-in cut-off control. the system automatically resets this lock. When the thermostat is switched off the electricity can pass the heater and the compressor coil. Thermostat with 2 Sensors
Typical Electrical Wiring diagram Typical function chart There exist also thermostats with 2 capillary tube sensors.
9. Terminal 3-4 closes at temperature rise.
9. In addition a manually reset is possible by turning the dial shaft to OFF position. The system controls a 3 ways solenoid valve. but with an so called SPDT switch instead of an SPST switch between the terminals 23 a solenoid 3 way valve can be switched to control in function of the refrigerating part temperature and with that the refrigeration cycle to the evaporator of the freezing or of the freezing and refrigeration part. In this case it is necessary that the heater is not switched off in the OFF position of the thermostat. This type comprises all features of the last type. During cut-offs the refrigerator evaporator defrosts and the water is drained to the outside normally on a tray above the compressor. Further details can be granted from Danfoss about Thermostat type 077B63 and their 3 way valve or from Ranco about thermostat type K61. Thermostat with Fixed Cut-In Temperature
Typical function chart Typical Electrical Wiring diagrams Such types are used today in refrigerators and 2 door fridgefreezers. The main switch is manually locked with starting the fast freeze cycle and if the fast freeze temperature is reached.
9.1. but the cut-in temperature which is above 0°C remains fixed. Terminal 3-6 opens in OFF position.1. The advantage among others can be energy savings. The last wiring diagram shows a version which allow a separate switch off of the defrost heater. Therefore another terminal on the thermostat is needed. Thermostats with Defrost Push Button. 104
temperature value can be fixed separately or parallel with the cut-off characteristic of the thermostat. Because of the ratio of resistances in the heater and compressor coil the power is mainly used in the heat resistance and not in the coil. equipped with one compressor but 2 separate refrigeration cycles for the refrigerating and the freezing part.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. almost unaffected control temperature in the *** freezing and refrigerating compartment at ambient temperature changes between + 15°C
. Typical function chart Typical Electrical Wiring diagrams
Terminal 2-3 opens at temperature rise. Thermostat with a 3 Ways Solenoid Valve Control
Such types are used in 2 door fridge-freezers. In such systems the cut-out temperature can be adjusted.1.8.7. The defrosting can be made by natural temperature increase (used normally in standard defrost models) or even by a heater on the evaporator (used in No frost models) during the stand still time of the compressor. Sensor A normally fixed on the evaporator taking over the cut-in function and sensor B normally placed in the inside the cut-out function.9. controlled only by the temperature of the refrigerator. Fast Freeze
p. Temperature Control. 9.
No-frost freezer defrost control. Holiday etc. EEPROMS. Temperature Control. Their dimensions are very small. Warning buzzers. If in addition a storage temperature near to 0°C (0°…+3°C or even -3°C…*3°C) can be reached
. if it is produced in large scale. is reached) and in case of No Frost with increase Ventilation speed Holiday is a mode to run only the freezer.5kg/100l load). Even a version with crossing cut-in and cutout exists. operation mode display in clears words (SuperCool.2. 105
and +32°C. With Fuzzy logic. SuperFrost push button with lamp (permanent run till a fixed temperature. With an electronic control additional controls and operation modes can be realized. vitamins and minerals. The SuperCool function reduces the fridge temperature for 6h to +2°C after shopping to speed up cooling of higher fresh food charges. SuperFrost. Price wise such systems became more and more comparable with conventional electromechanical controls as long as similar features are compared. “Frostmatic” (time temperature controlled permanent run for about 24-52h in case of high new load of minimum 4. but also this can change in the future. LED’s. There are different versions with fixed cut-in or with adjustable cut-in. In areas with bad electrical supply conditions electronic controls are not as reliable as the electromechanical controls used in the past. temperature needs and conditions. if compressor don’t start and temperature still increase above set value Warning buzzers Doors not closed or voice Please close door in different languages. The DuraFreeze can be switched on if needed. DuraFrost. 9. in No Frost models with increase ventilation speed. and in case of No Frost with increase Ventilation speed Warning buzzers or voice Temperature too high. to preserve vitamins. But electronics allow much more features and controls to be added. But their functions and applications are still limited comparable with adjustable capillary thermostats. Temperature zone near 0°C as 3rd compartments. LCD display control with actual temperature measured by cheap thermocouples instead of capillary thermometers and programmed temperature in refrigerator and freezer. electronic timers verbal speech etc.3. In SuperFrost mode (often push button with lamp) the temperature of food to be frozen are stronger pulled down to a temperature same or even deeper than the normal cut-off (last only in electronic control). temperature LCD displays. can be easier integrated as with conventional methods. SuperFrost. to reduce temperature of freezer to -28°C. The cost of an electronic temperature control for a fridge-freezer with a light switch combination and a visual and acoustical warning signal are nowadays not more expensive as the same in an electromechanical version.) Fuzzy logic for extended controls like SuperCool after Shopping (time temperature controlled permanent run for about 6h at +2°C in case of high new load after shopping. Bimetal Thermostat. DuraFreeze (only with electronic control and variable speed compressor). ASICS. aromas.
9. In such cases temperature are measured by cheap thermocouples instead of mechanical thermostats. minerals and aromas in food. To save energy the defrosting of evaporator coil is not made by timer 3-4 times per day but by defrost temperature control to switch on and off the heating.10. Thermostat with 2 Sensors. Bimetal Thermostat
American and Japanese refrigerator producers use in their No Frost bimetal thermostats. With an electronic device sophisticated controls can be executed. The refrigerator part is emptied and their temperature kept on +15°C with closed door to avoid any bad odours and mold.
9. which can be different from the normal cutoff. Electronic Controls
p. like: “Child safe” Switch-off: 3sec activation of ON/OFF push button SuperCool (only with electronic control). compressor speed control (see chapter 2. Variable capacity compressor) further important parameters can be controlled in a way that the system can be much better adjusted to the actual environment. Electronic Controls and Thermocouples
Nowadays more and more electronic controls are developed for freezers and fridge freezers to improve the control on frozen food and to reduce the power consumption.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. preserve the taste. which doubles the freezer storage time.
vegetables and fruits remain 2-3 times longer fresh.6 mm Hg= 0.4. On side-by side models it is today’s standard. In a multiple evaporator system defrosting by a reverse valve or by using thermosyphon effects is less energy consuming as electrical heaters (see chapter 5.6 °C (reference point is 736. 2-3 no-load cycles of on and off switching have to be executed. To reduce energy consumption the defrost cycle should be stopped when the ice is removed. if any.5°K/min. This can be realized with a 3 door model. The operation needs further controls which can be integrated into the electronic control (temperature. levels.). Near the on and off point respective the signal point. milk products. On 1500m we aspect about 634 mm Hg and on 300m about 526 mm Hg. -1°C for meat.98 bar = about 263m above sea). Normally gas filled capillary tube sensors work in the range of 0600m above sea level with the deviation of +/-0.
9.5. The temperature change in the bath should be 0.2 Damper Thermostat
Standard No Frost fridge-freezers controlled only by one thermostat in the refrigerator are consuming much more energy than systems which keeps control on the reached temperatures in both compartments.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. Temperature Control. but it needs in this case a separate temperature control on this food storage part which can be easier and cheaper realized by an electronic control. It is sold as lifestyle product (party house bar).6.very accurate .4. if as often done the refrigerator is connected to tap water). but still not enough reflected in the Energy labelling system as it needs this additional model group to be compared and not to be compared with standard fridge-freezers.4. Testing p. Before recording the actual operating points. No Frost Defrost Timers and Thermostats. The temperature feelers of a same group of temperature controls should be dipped in a well circulated water bath. >18°C) can be kept already by evaporator and insulation designs without separate temperature controls up to a certain deviation range or . Damper Thermostats. The different temperature zones (5-12°C. A simple possibility to optimise such a system is to introduce in the air channel a damper thermostat which distributes the cold air flow between the freezer and the refrigerator according to the needs. Testing of Temperature Controls
The settings of temperature controls should be tested by random system in the following way: The dial shaft should be positioned on test position. the min. 106
instead of 5°…8°C fresh meat. If a variable compressor is mounted the speed control can be integrated into the electronic control to let the compressor run according to temperatures and load conditions.
9. vitamins and minerals. keeps 3 times longer taste.
9. a part of fridge remain on -1°-3°C temperature while in the past only on 5-8°C. a 2 door model with movable or not movable inner insulation separators. aromas. +2°C vegetables and fruits would be best. fish. Defrost Timer and Thermostat
The simplest way is to start the defrost cycle and to heat the evaporator by a timer. for examples 3-4 times per day. Special Controls for NO-Frost Models
No frost models need special controls to execute automatic defrost on the coil evaporator.by temperature controls on each zones with refrigerant valve or separate circuits and compressors (expensive solution). which could be measured by a defrost thermostat on the evaporator. if necessary. A++). barometric corrections have to be calculated. This often can save 2033% of energy in comparison to conventional compressors with 1 speed to reach energy saving models (A+. But such 3 temperature zone models will consume more energy as a 2-door (2-temperature) model. Even a temperature range of -3°C for fish. Control of variable compressor speed. This temperature zones are under freshness of food a very relevant aspect. 0-3°. Ice and Water Spender. 9. refilling of ice maker by tap water. depth of immersion of a capillary tube feeler is 160mm. That means that a vapour -filled thermostat with a
Therefore the customer should be warned in the operation manual or by a warning sign to insure minimum ambient temperature to ensure functioning of freezer.and to establish mounting and handling precautions to prevent damage of such thermostats during assembly. But up to 0.5° at 1500m respective a 4 +/-0. if made for SN climate class. so the thermostat of all refrigerators cannot be tested by the short performance test and even not by the 2-4h performance test on samples. Most fridge freezers will only operate satisfactorily in an ambient temperature down to +10 °C.2. No Frost Defrost Timers and Thermostats. insulation test and electric strength 500Vdc (0-180 sec) 3-50 MOhm.
Relevant remarks in operation manual of fridge/freezers with single temperature sensor control: Freezer defrosts in a fridge/freezer. or +18°C if made for N climate class (see chapter 1. depending with which gas it is filled. This may seem strange but the fridge thermostat governs the operation of the freezer and if the ambient temperature drops to either of the figures above the fridge will switch off. Damper Thermostats.6 mm Hg) will cut-in already on a 2+/-0.5% and not higher. That will not be a problem for the fridge which should be cool enough to keep its contents safe but it will mean that the freezer will cease to work and that will create a problem. so defrosted frozen food will spoil. The supplier of temperature control should guarantee a maximum failure rate of 0. normally at 1000Vac. so that statistical sampling and additional control tests inside the refrigerator factory are sufficient . like current (6A on main contact. All temperature switch settings of a system should be tested in this way. In a cold location the freezer may begin to defrost or even completely defrost.7% and the measured rate should be in the range of 0. Modern energy saving refrigerators for N and SN climate class need several hours for cut-off after first time of refrigerator running and often 1-2 days to cut-in again with closed doors. depending which temperature control is used.
.7 % is already a high failure rate of such temperature controls and cost relevant for maintenance service during guarantee – beside of damage of trade mark by such a failure. We strongly recommend to do such 100% test .). Temperature Control. Testing p.1 on signal contact) flash test 0-400Vac (0-180 sec). 9.
100% control on temperature control device. the feeler should be place in a plastic tube when it will be foamed in to allow the exchange of the unit. Therefore good refrigerator manufacturers control cut-in and cut-off functioning and temperatures of 100% of used thermostats to reduce these high guarantee costs. 0. To allow replacement already after the performance test inside the factory and in case of service.5°K at 3000m lower temperature as calibrated.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits.3. 107
cut-in temperature of -20°C (at 736. In addition electrical tests should be executed.best inside factory of supplier of such controls.
The test period must be minimum 24h. Definitions.).).5. calorimetric tests to optimise compressors (chapter 2. Classifications. heat exchangers or evaporators (same like chapter 3. 5.m. FINAL TESTS
In previous chapters we have described tests to be executed to optimise each single refrigeration circuit element separately. chapter 5. Many final tests to be executed are described in the a. design and manufacturing.1. the required characteristics. Test conditions and periods.6.
10. Definitions. the measurement means. fridge freezers (previous ISO 8187) and freezers (previous ISO 5155) describe all relevant definitions. 108
In this chapter we will describe the final tests to be executed to optimise a refrigerator and/or freezer circuit after each circuit element was already optimised and tested and tests to be executed according to the applied standards. 5155.1) capillary tests (chapter 4.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. The 24h test period must be prolonged to 48h if there is inside the first 24h not a single defrost period..4. pull down tests (chapter 5. Percentage running time. like Testing of reached temperatures in the refrigerator and freezers Testing of storage temperatures Water vapour condensation test Energy consumption test Ice making test Test of percentage running time Temperature rise time (freezer) Freezing test (freezer)
The relevant standards are describing these tests in all needed details so that we have not to repeat them in this chapter in all details. For 2 temperature storage with 2 independent systems 2 R values have to be determined. D = the whole duration of cycles. testing of the air tightness of door and lid seals (chapter 1. where and how to measure the temperatures and the test period. Characteristics of Household Refrigerators p. classifications and characteristics in their first chapters: the appliances and important parts of them are defined and classified.4. Final Rests. areas and performances.).5.2). condensers (chapter 3.2.) refrigerant charge quantity tests and fine tuning (chapter 7.2. Designs and Characteristics
The ISO standard 15502 for household refrigerators (previous ISO 7371). Under given conditions of ambient temperature and internal storage temperatures is the percentage of running time R for the appliance with on/off control the ratio R = d/D *100 where d = the duration of the refrigerating system operation during the whole number of cycles. foam insulation tests (chapter 1. Furthermore these standards describe general test conditions. Also the method how to measure the dimensions and volumes are determined (for details see these standards).2.5. which replaces ISO 7371. temperature control tests (chapter 9. the used Tylose test packages. the volumes. 8187.
.). like cabinet constant test to determine the thermal losses (chapter 1.2). Classifications. the used materials. 10. refrigerant and circuit components purity and cleanliness tests (chapter 7.).3). ISO standard 15502.).6. the test room.22.214.171.124. electrical safety tests (chapter 8.
Definitions.Cold and hot water (also for humidifying plant) . Characteristics of Household Refrigerators p.) and 0 . The proposed equipment and their specification will allow testing refrigerators and freezers according to a wide variation of condition. and 3x 380V. Final Rests. established standards and power supplies existing in countries all over the world. the full range of condition variations are often not needed and can be reduced for cost reasons.4V/A and .a frequency converter from 50 to 60 Hz with control and .115 V 60 Hz with a regulation range: +/. The ventilation of the room must be placed in a way that the natural air circulation around the cabinet and the refrigeration system is not obstructed.50W (min. To fit the a. Classifications.230 V 50 Hz . Designs.m.230 V 60 Hz . Light intensity 500 lux measured 1 m above the floor. allowed main impedance is: . and chest freezers with up to 800mm depth the test room should have minimum following inner dimensions: 2400mm height. The max.110 V 50 Hz .3K from the constant value and from the varying heat load in the room (intermitting operation).Voltage supply of 220V and 50 Hz.1 AHAM/ANSI DH 1-1986). The maximum deviation from the set value is +/.a voltage regulator and control Nominal voltage and frequency outputs (Un) are: .900W Q (variable) = 0 . if the customer wants. For limited market with smaller variation of conditions.for 220 V and 230V: -0. the max.1. Regulation ranges.240 V 50 Hz . Light.4V/A.5% in the a.1%. 109
10. Refrigerator Test Room
In this chapter we describe a test room specification and requirements according to the established standards for test rooms (DIN 8953 draft 1987.500W (max. Supply. Thermo-Insulated Test Room
Dimensions.Drain from the vacuum pump .2. The test room's temperature should be adjustable to constant values in the range of 10 till 48°C. 50 Hz (three phases current). Voltage regulator and frequency converter.0. Such heating and air conditioning equipment including humidifier/dehumidifier can be purchased.25m/sec. The max.
10. ISO/DP 5155 and American standard B 149. Following loads and supply places are needed:
. regulation range for test temperatures. 115V and 60 Hz.20%.Drain channel . The demands must be met by the measurement object for the following heat emissions: Q (constant) = 50 . The American standard allows only 0.Air (low pressure) . voltage and frequency deviation allowed is +/.for 110 V and 115 V: -0. for example from Danfoss with requested regulations. 10. The test room needs following service supplies: . 2400mm width and 4000mm length.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits.m. 800mm width and 800mm depth.) The relative humidity must be adjustable in the range of 40-90% relative by +/. permissible air speed according to the ISO and DIN standard is 0. The door should have the dimensions of 2100mm height and 1000mm width and placed in a way that freezers and refrigerators can be transported from and to the test room without removing a 2nd refrigerator. voltages and frequencies it is necessary to have .2m/sec. Loads and supply places.2. To be able to test refrigerator and freezer cabinets with up to 1800mm height.
At Un = 110 V and 115 V: 36 A . Power measurement.
Starting current. Transducers are to be installed for measuring power to measurement object under the before mentioned conditions with accuracy of +/.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits.0) with an accuracy of +/.6-1.6-1.Switch for start and stop of measurement object .2.5% of the actual value. Control panel (outside test room). For some electrical tests ampere and power converters. The signal has to be transferred to the data collecting equipment. Final Tests. The power consumption (W) measurement by built in transducers (without measuring of secondary supplies) should be in the range of 100-1200W (co sinus phi: 0.5 % accuracy of the actual value. The signal of the transducer should be transferred to the data collecting equipment.Digital display for passed time and relative operation time of the measured object .2.0. 110
Measurement object: 1. Following starting currents are needed: . Düsseldorf 2000
Analog-Digital Data Logger
10. vario and current transformer and frequency. Hz
Thermoregulated Room Refrigerator to be tested Plug Box
Electrical Data Interface
Terminal Board Humidity sensor
See Transfair Engineering: Refrigerator Test Room Equipment and Manuals. No. Refrigerator Thermo-Insulated Test Room and Measurement Equipment
p. Measurement Equipment
Energy measurement. Cos Phi. Further electrical tests. The signal has to be transferred to the data collecting equipment. Transducers are to be mounted for voltage measuring to the measuring object.0 kW Co sinus phi: 0.At Un = 220 V and 230 V: 18 A
Voltage. Voltage measurement. V. 10.Equipment for the regulation of voltage to the measurement object .1 % of the actual value. The accuracy should be 1% at nominal voltage and frequency. Power consumption measurement. A. The installation must contain kWh-meters for the measurement of the energy consumption to the measurement object. This panel should have following facilities: .Switch for manual cut-in and cut-off of the kWh meters
. WM 150) and a test cord (Refco Art. 13575) to bridge the thermostat switch are needed. No.Digital voltmeter to display actual voltage of the measurement objects . Ampere and frequency supply flow chart
Refrigerator Test Room Data Recording Scheme
50-60HZ Generator VarioTranformer 110-250V
Wh. voltage and Ampere meters and digital temperature meters are useful.0. For testing the compressor a clamp tester (Refco Art.2 kW Auxiliary functions: 1. Further units can be made locally. The meters must be provided with revolution counters in order for the data collection equipment to register the actual energy consumption. The measuring ranges are 90 V -255 V with +/.
60-270 V. to be registered into PC. 50 and 60 Hz Range 2: 0 .Voltage supply . Digital/analogue output.5 A at Un = 220 and 230 V. Test Data Loggers.10 A at Un = 110 and 115 V.2.1200 W.0% of measured value
Range: 0 . Inside the test room on the backside wall there should be positioned a panel to connect the measurement signals and the power supply to the refrigerator(s). energy transducer (0. Option: 1 pce. 50 and 60 Hz Range 2: 60-140 V. Such a system consists of the following: 1 pce with actual Intel or AMD processor..1200 W Accuracy: +/. The quantity of measurement channel per test place and session depends on the models to be testedTo permit preparation and execution of 2 or 3 independently recorded tests it is much more convenient to use 2-3 interfaces each of 8 channels for simpler units up to 30 channels for Coca-cola or Pepsi cola vendors. humidity. 170-270 V. high and low pressures.Connection of minimum 16 pcs. 2 pcs. +/./min) on kWh meters All or parts of it can be integrated in a registration programme instead of the control panel.5% of measured value. 50 and 60 Hz). etc. humidity and electrical data and to register it. Range 1: 170-270 V. max load 1A). USB and serial ports.82 or type J) with standardised plugs and plug sockets should be chosen.1. 60-140 V.8 digital inputs (8 signals. Recording and Evaluation
Today A/D interfaces on PCs are used to test refrigerators and to record test data (pull down temperatures.1% of measured value Measurement with approved gauges in the a.1. pressure transducers for example 1 pce -1/ +2 bar.0.82/1. large hard disk.Option: 8 digital outputs (8 signals.0.0. Connection panel (inside test room). Final Tests.
10.. 1 pce. colour display. +/.0.1.3.2.0. 1pce colour printer.1% or higher if needed from model side. 1 pce. 16 temperature transducers: thermo-elements like type T (Cu/Ko) or K (NiCr-Ni) specification according to ANSI standard 96. current transducer 0-10 A. . cos phi.4. 1 pce data recording and evaluation software like AMR measurement software. 111
The selected Voltages and Frequencies depend for which market the refrigerators are developed.Electronic counters with BCD outlet for measuring speed (rev.m. There are different ways possible to register the measured temperatures. 1 pce power transducer 0-1200W. electric power absortion. -1 < P < 10 bar 1 < P < 20 bar 1 < P < 50 bar +/.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. . thermo-elements cu/ko (for example type T specifications according to ANSI 96. pressures.5% or higher if needed from model side. Refrigerator Thermo-Insulated Test Room and Measurement Equipment
p. This panel should have following facilities: . 50-60 Hz).75 in the range -50 < t < -25°C and 50 < t < 200°C. 220 V.5% of measured value Range 1: 0 .5 in the range -25 < t < 50°C +/. 50 and 60 Hz Accuracy: +/. 50 Hz.
10. 50 and 60 Hz Accuracy: +/. range of power and current and the accuracy of 1% at actual load. Measurement Ranges and Accuracy
Temperature: Range: Accuracy: Range 1: Range 2: Range 3: Accuracy -50 < t < + 200°C +/. pressure transducers (for example Hottinger & Baldwin type PM3) . 50 and 60Hz.Connection for 2 pcs. 0-10A or higher if needed from model side):
. 2 pce A/D interface each with at least 8 analogue input channels and 1 digital input (8 signals. 1 pce 0/20 bar or higher if needed from refrigerant side.
5 kg each)
10. Mechanical Tests
Several mechanical tests have to be applied on the household refrigerators and freezers. 3 units 24 channels etc.durability of hinges and handles.3.6 Test Packages
For all the 3 methods of performance tests following test packages which simulate lean meat have to be added: 350 kg Tylose test packages 200x100x50mm (1kg each package)) 150 kg Tylose test packages 100x100x50mm (0. Un = 110 V/115 V and 50/60 Hz or max = 18 A for 5 sec.mechanical strength of shelves and similar components.m.5 kg each package) 50 kg Tylose test packages with thermocouples in geometric centre 200x100x50mm (M-Package of 1kg each) 50 kg Tylose test packages with thermocouples in geometric centre 100x100x50mm (M-Package of 0. 5155.
10. at Un = 220/230 V and 50/60 Hz This equipment is normally sufficient to measure 2 refrigerators or freezers for designing and optimisation purpose independently from each other. 10. = 36 A for 5 sec. 112
1 pce voltage transducer (60-270 V. load for all a. concerning: . See Transfair Engineering: Refrigerator Test Room Equipment and Manuals – Description.
10.2. 2 units 16.opening force of the doors and lids. How to prepare the appliance.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. .5.and software by combining reliable and cheap standard components. Details for executing these tests can be taken from the standards.
. only limited by the measurement channels (each proposed interface has 8 analogue inputs. . 50-60 Hz).air tightness of door and lid seals. but in this case more refrigerators can be measured parallel. transducers are: max. Final Tests.
10. how to storage the food into the freezer and where to position the temperature probes are described in ISO standard 15502 (under chapter 13 of previously valid ISO 7371. The test conditions and procedures are described in chapter 14 of these standards. Water Vapour Condensation Test
The Water vapour condensation test is made to determine the extend of condensation of water on the external surface of the cabinet under specific ambient conditions and humidity.4. For performance tests to control the reached quality of the production the same equipment can be used. Manuals.). Testing of Storage Temperature
The purpose of this test is to check if the appliance fulfils the storage temperature requirements under the ambient temperature of the selected climate class. 8187. . Düsseldorf 2000. Refrigerator Thermo-Insulated Test Room and Measurement Equipment
p. Transfair has developed such computerised measurement hard. Technical Documentation.
643 0.2. Water Vapour.472 (1)
Nα 245 245 245 191 245 303 303 315 286 (1)
.233 0. Energy Consumption Test and Labelling
The energy consumption test tests the energy consumption (W/24h) of an appliance over a period of 24h running under stable conditions at the ambient temperature for which the appliance was designed for (Climate class N.6.75<Iα<0. 113
10. BI and CH values see table 3
Thus. Many countries (EU and neighbour countries. Calculation of EU Energy Label Efficiency classes
For cold-appliances the efficiency class grades A to G were defined for each product category in terms of an energy efficiency index I (defined as the tested model electricity consumption divided by the prescribed "average" model consumption for a unit of the same adjusted volume) as given in Table 1. Energy labelling system
To reduce energy consumption many countries have introduced energy consumption labelling systems for household products in which the groups of household equipment on each market are compared with each other concerning their energy consumption. In Europe the labelling system is according to EU rules 94/2/EC amended with 2003/66/EC (by introducing A+A++ classes) and the test procedure to be applied is according to the EU standard EN 153 (1996. Canada.10<Iα<1. ST.233 0.6.00 5 Iα < 1. 5155.25 ≤ Iα B C D E F G Completely Phased out in EU 2004 SCa= Ma * Σ (Vc *(25-Tc)/20 *FF*CC*BI) + Na *+ CH where: Vc is the net volume [l] of compartment Tc is the design temperature [°C] of the compartment Ma and Na values see table 2 FF. while an A class model uses less than 55% of an average appliance of the same type and adjusted volume.90 0. T with 32°C 38°C or 43°C). Japan.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. 10.6.539 0.450 0. 8187) and in Europe it has to follow EN153 (2006) for classification in group A-G (see Annex). Table 1: Relative efficiency grades used in the EU energy label for cold-appliances Calculations: Energy Efficiency Energy Index Iα Efficiency Class Iα=AC/SCa *100 30>Iα A++ where: AC= annual energy consumption of appliance A+ 42>Iα≥30 SCa= standard annual energy consumption a of appliance A 42>Iα≥55 0. Energy Consumption.
10.75 0. a G class model uses 125% or more energy of an "average" cold-appliance of the same type and the same adjusted volume.10 1.25 1. Korea have agreed of labelling classes A to G. revised prEN153 2005) and will be checked once per year (see Annex).90 5 Iα < 1.233 0. How to execute this test can be taken from ISO standard 15502 (chapter 15 of ISO 7371. The energy consumed by an average appliance of a given type and adjusted volume is calculated from the appropriate average performance reference line equation given in Table 1 and based on the values measured under the norm EN 153.777 0. Mechanical. CC.00 1.777 0. Table 2: Type of appliance and Ma and Na factor values Type of appliance Temperature of coldest compartment 1 Larger Fridge > – 6 °C 2 Refrigerator/chiller > – 6 °C 3 Refrigerator no star > – 6 °C 4 Refrigerator * ≤ – 6 °C * 5 Refrigerator ** ≤ – 12 °C ** 6 Refrigerator ***/ ≤ – 18 °C ***/*(***) 7 Fridge-freezer *(***) ≤ – 18 °C ***/*(***) 8 Upright freezer ≤ – 18 °C *(***) 9 Chest freezer ≤ – 18 °C *(***) 10 Multi-door or other appliance
Mα 0. Storage Temperature. USA.1.55<Iα<0.
10.rise p. Temp. Final Tests.
Energy Consumption.2. A chill compartment is useful for storage of “delicate” foodstuffs e. (In the current EN ISO 8561. beer and wine. vegetables. 114
(1) For these appliances. Chill compartments are normally only available with frost-free fridge-freezers. It concerns following changes: • The fridge mean temperature for the “storage test” (Table 2) is 4°C with allowed maximum and minimum temperatures of 8°C and 0°C. • The new test voltage will be 230 V.5K of the ambient temperature (Clause 8. the room ambient must be 25 ± 0. • The temperature below the test platform is measured and should be within 1.2 1. • After the first stabilisation and test period. • The energy consumption is adjusted by an ambient temperature correction factor (Clause 15.2 1 CH (chill 50 Kwh/y compartment) 0
Condition For “frost-free” (ventilated) frozen food compartments Otherwise For “tropical” appliances For “subtropical” appliances Otherwise For built-in appliances (1) of under 58 cm in width. one slightly above and the other slightly below the characteristic temperature. The current EN 153 specifies 220 V.2 1 CC (climate class) 1. Storage Temperature. and tested as such.5°C).
Table 3: Correction factor Correction factor Value FF (frost-free) 1.g.4). fish. it can freeze down fresh food from room temperature and will have a freezing capacity – an amount in kg which can be frozen in 24 hours declared on the rating plate. (This is currently not measured. 10. • Two tests and an interpolation can be carried out for forced-air (frost-free) appliances. The freezing capacity test is also covered in EN 153. Otherwise For appliances with a chill compartment of at least 15 litres Otherwise
(1) An appliance is “built-in” only if it is designed exclusively for installation within a kitchen cavity with a need of furniture finishing. Water Vapour. Appliances with – 18 °C *(***) compartments shall be considered as fridge-freezers *(***).rise p. the temperature and star rating of the compartment with the lowest temperature will determine the values of M and N.
New EN153 2006.e. Final Tests. Temp. once the region of the characteristic temperature has been found two 24 hour tests will be carried out. The market share for these is very small. The revised version EN153 2006 as result of new EN 15502 (2003) is still under vote and being expected to become valid End of 2006. meat and shellfish. a further test should be carried out which must be within a temp of 0.5°C and the energy should be within 3%. The storage time for the various star compartments will be indicated on food packaging but typically it is: 1 star 1 week 2 star 1 month 3 star 3 months A 4 star compartment is a true freezer i. An interpolation will determine the energy consumption at the precise temperature. (The fridge mean temperature for the energy test (Table 5) remains at 5°C and must operate between 10°C and 0°C).Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. only one test is allowed so that there is no temperature deviation warmer than –15°C during the defrost cycle). Exempting frost-free appliances cooled by forced air.
.1). Background. The test for all appliances involves setting each compartment(s) to the characteristic temperature as follows: COMPARTMENT CHARACTERISTIC TEMPERATURE Cellar +8 to +14°C Fresh food compartment (Fridge) mean of +5°C Chill -2 to +3°C 1 star No warmer than -6°C 2 star No warmer than -12°C 3 star No warmer than -18°C 4 star (Freezer) No warmer than -18°C A cellar compartment is useful for storing fruit.1 1 BI (built-in) 1. Mechanical.
(The US test standard uses a sawdust mixture and the Australian standard uses nothing – the compartment is empty!) The volume of the compartment is measured. A+. One possible solution therefore would be to have a door opening condition for (some) frost-free appliances during the test for energy. This does not matter for timed frost-free appliances.
10. It is disappointing that the mean for the energy test in either the prEN 153 or ISO 15502 also has not moved to 4 or even 3°C. Impact of EU Policy and Measures .6. Comparative tests between door opening and doors shut have been conducted (See BNC11). Door opening. Fit for purpose.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. these appliances could loose their favourable “1. 115
Compartments cooled by forced air are normally frost-free and currently undergo only one test run. With the doors shut for the 3 days of the test. Yet in normal use. This may change with the introduction of the combined standard (ISO EN 15502). Appliances with longer cycling times may find it difficult to keep a mean of 4°C within the boundaries of 0 and 8°C. there is an argument that this presents a similar situation to heat ingress that would be experienced with door opening. A++.
.2010 EU forbid sales of household refrigerators class B-G and only allow sales of class A . automatic or sensor frost-free appliances may not defrost for 75 hours. Mechanical. 10. MTP research comparing the standard energy test with a 'real use' scenario shows that some fresh food compartments (fridges) do not quickly recover their correct temperatures. Unlike the test for commercial refrigeration (EN 441).a Story of Success
The efficiency spread indicated in these classes is based on several considerations: 1) The efficiency of models on the EU cold-appliance market tends to be distributed like a slightly skewed
Gaussian function except that there is a long tail on the side of the inefficient models while the efficiency of the most efficient model is bounded. they will defrost every 10-24 hours anyway. so that A+++ is 60% more effective as A. neither the current or proposed EN 153 has any door opening aspect. Since the ambient temperature is 25°C. MTP research suggests that energy consumption measured for energy label information reflects ‘real use’. Similar labelling system exists for commercial refrigerators.7. For the energy label consumption of the appliance on test is compared with a “standard energy consumption” for an appliance of that type and size or net volume. this crucial to the energy label calculation. Energy Consumption. Fridge temperatures are obviously important for food safety and therefore storage temperatures colder than 5°C are to be welcomed. Temp. Alternatively. This defrost cycle has temperature and time restrictions. Each extra + means a 20% higher efficiency respective a 20% less energy consumption. This net volume is typically 10 – 15% greater than the volume which can be realistically used by the consumer. including compensating for a lack of any door openings and the more typical UK 20°C ambient. Frozen food compartments are packed full of “tylose” which represents the thermal characteristics of lean beef. Final Tests. Energy Labelling EN 441 for commercial refrigeration.2 factor” in the energy index calculation. Storage Temperature.rise p. Since 1. furthermore the class is split into 4 groups A.3. However the energy label testing cannot present ingress of humidity – particularly important for automatic frost-free appliances1. Further research is necessary to consider this issue. these will easily show defrost peaks twice per day. A+++. Water Vapour.
10. Test of Absence of Odour and Taste
With this test the absence of odour and taste in an appliance is tested. reaching the EEI=52 level by 2006. Alternatively it also can describe the time a water filled tray with a defined quantity of water needs to freeze.5 bar underneath the atmosphere.10. If the noise is higher. Storage Temperature.
10. A new scaling is under negotiation in EU to be established soon. Mechanical. Correct made R600a systems have low noise as result of low pressures. Final Tests. 5155.
. 10. 5155.. The test conditions and procedures are described in ISO standard 15502 (chapter 19 of the previously valid standards ISO 7371. justifying the principle of leaving the top efficiency class almost empty when a new labelling benchmark is set. Noise of cooling system
Also the noise of a refrigerator of the refrigerator should be tested. 116
2) The aim of the label is to encourage people to buy more efficient appliances . 8187). The freezing capacity is the capacity of freezing down food simulated with Tylose test packages in a defined time or quantity under the ambient temperature of the selected climate class. The test conditions and procedures are described in new EN ISO standard 15502 (as well as in not more valid ISO 5155. Thirdly.rise p. that the highest efficiency class needs to be theoretically attainable even if it is not attained by any model at the time the label is introduced.
10. Temp. 8187. Meanwhile C-G models vanished completely from the market mainly already as market result. The ice making capacity described the quantity of ice a system is able to produce during 24h. Ice making test (only for refrigerators). An EU Voluntary Commitment for cold appliances is negotiated with industry. for example according to European rule 86/594/EEC and according to test procedure standard EN 28960.
10. but rather in such a way that it is a compromise between reflecting the real efficiency distribution of the market at the time that the label is introduced and the efficiency distribution one may hope to achieve after some years. weighted according to the sales of the different models for each manufacturer) average efficiency of new products. When the cold-appliance energy label was introduced in 1994 there were almost no models in the A efficiency class available on the market. Water Vapour.this means that it is not necessary to set the width of the efficiency classes such that there are an equal number of models in each class. Since that time several hundred A class models have become available on the EU market. when the operation of a refrigerating system is interrupted. a detailed engineering analysis had shown that it was quite possible to manufacture A class models. The temperature rise time is the period between the moment when the warmest M package in the food freezer compartment reaches -18°C to the moment when any of the M-packages (excluding ** sections) first reach a temperature of -9°C. For refrigerators with temperature areas underneath 0°C (* or ** compartments) an ice making test instead of a freezing test have to be executed according to ISO standard 15502 (chapter 17 of previously valid ISO 7371). Energy Consumption. In Europe it is part of the required label. with is -0. it contains air or other non condensable gases from the beginning or as result of leak in the low pressure side.7.8.e. wherein the current C class appliances are phased out as per January 2004 followed by a "fleet" (i. Temperature Rise Test
The purpose of this test is to check the time for the temperature rise of test packages in food freezers and frozen food compartments (***) under special test conditions. however.Transfair Engineering: Designing …Cooling Circuits. chapter 17.9. How to execute this test can be taken from EN ISO standard 15502 (chapter 16 of ISO 7371. Freezing Test and Ice-Making Test
Freezing test (only for refrigerators with freezer compartment and freezers).
2KW -25°C +55°C +52°C +60°C +24°C
10. We only describe here where to position the temperature thermocouple feelers and the pressure manometers to measure the refrigeration circuit elements on the models to optimise the refrigeration circuit. Refrigerator Performance Tests
Calorimetric tests. the quantity of Tylose packs. For example: 0. The whole refrigeration circuit can be measured and optimised by the same test configuration.5. In practise the temperatures of the refrigerant at the inlet of the capillary tube or expansion valve are not on the left curve of the InPi-diagram.12. Refrigerator circuit measurement positions
The measurement of the temperatures of cooled or frozen goods. the temperatures on the oil cooler. the temperature of the environment and which performance tests have to be made and how. Condenser temp. See for the determination of the refrigerant filling quantity chapter 7. temperature measurements on the refrigerator system and the maintaining of the temperature in the cabinet according to the applied class of the standard we can calculate the reached performance. R600a Properties Tables
p. the position of the Tylose packs with thermocouple probes. This test of determining the optimal refrigerant filling quantity has always been repeated if the volume of the condenser suction tube. condenser or evaporator changes. Already out of these a. The second measurement stage has relations to the operation conditions which we find at the stage just before the thermostat cut off to determine the standard energy consumption.
.in the cabinet according to the supplied standard and class following ENTRY DATA set: Entry Data: Refrigerator duty Evaporator temperature Condenser temperature Suction condition Delivery condition Liquid return temperature High pressure Unit kW °C °C °C °C °C bar abs. For comparison reasons the CECOMAF GT4-001 standard request to recalculate all results to be on the left curve of the Mollier diagram (InP-i-diagram) to gain following 2 standard conditions for the calorimetric measurements: Measurements 1 2 Evaporator temp. 117
10. if existing. To improve the data set for performance calculation we should also register the high pressure reached on the condenser and. but slightly lower.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. A calorimetric test was already described in the chapter "Condenser" under "Testing the condenser mounted on a refrigerator".m. So we will have .beside of the maintained temperatures . But before we describe a systematic testing of the system necessary for optimisation of single components including capillary tube we have to optimise first the charging quantity of the refrigerant to be able to execute further tests.11. -25°C 55°C 32°C 32°C -30°C 40°C 32°C 32°C
The first measurement stage is recommended by CECOMAF GT4-001 as basis for the catalogues' values of LBP compressors (LBP = Low Back Pressure = low evaporating temperature as used for our applications). all these variables are described in all details in the ISO standards (see chapter "STANDARDS" and the relevant ISO standard tests and drawings). to DIN 8977 with type "Secondary-liquid-calorimetric procedure A“ as described in details in this standard.) All measurements with a calorimeter can be made acc. Final Tests. Superheat Ambient temp. 10.
But the final diameter and length of the capillary tube under the selected standard and classes to be fulfilled and the optimal charge with refrigerant can only be gained by systematic tests. LT-66 (10mm. Test Panels
It is not possible to describe for all variations of designing and development a systematic test panel. but only for each single refrigerator model design and its problem. Thermocouple feelers have to be positioned on the evaporator on the inner wall of the chest freezer or freezer's compartment of the refrigerator and on the refrigerator's evaporators as follows: .1 at the exist point of the condenser. Delivery Condition. A-31910 can be used. LT-46 (6mm. Final Tests. 1/4" ). Condenser Temperature. . 3/16"). Often chest freezers have the capillary tube inside the foam. . High Pressure. Low Pressure. A thermocouple has to be positioned on the delivery tube of the compressor.and software to measure systematically the relevant data and to evaluate the data under the reached performances of the refrigeration system. with soldering also the cheap connectors Refco A-31905.1 at the middle of the length of the coil and . Many components can be dimensions already according to experience and calculation as described in the previous chapters.1 at the entry point of the condenser . A small tube inside the foam beside the suction tube from the compressor compartment's side has to be made to place a thermocouple probe on the suction tube. 118
Evaporator Temperature.m. In case of the chest freezer also a hole can be pierced in the filter-dryer and a connector tube can be soldered to this hole.1 probe at the exit of the evaporator (often at the bottom of the evaporator). data and then to calculate their performance results out of these data.
. In this case the same hole as the one for the suction condition can be used to position the thermocouple probe. or Refco Tupper valve E2 36-1 or Refco supper rap LT-36 (5mm. To optimise a given system we have to vary components which seem not yet optimal selected and to measure the a. A-31906. We can supply our clients with computerised measurement hard. For example: Refco tube piercing valve HP-41. R600a Properties Tables
p. LT-56 (8mm. After several trials the 3 measurement points can be replaced by 1 measurement point if the point represents the mean temperature of the condenser. 5/16"). Suction Condition. Therefore we will only mention proceedings normally used. On the tube between compressor and condenser a small hole can be pierced with a special piercing tool and connector valve without soldering. A vacuum gauge on the compressor filling tube will be connected to measure the low pressure side with a vacuum gauge. A-31908. measure and optimise each component used in the refrigerator was already described in the previous chapters.1 probe near the entry point of the evaporator coil (Top). 3/8). Thermocouples' probes have to be positioned on the tube coils of the condenser.1 probe on half height (in case of horizontal coils) or in the middle of the side wall behind which the half of the length of the evaporator tube is positioned (in case of vertical serpentine tube evaporator) and . A valve pressure gauge has to be connected to this valve. if accessible. How to test.
10. Test panels and test proceedings cannot be designed for all variations of models. Between the limits of pre-tests performance tests can be performed to optimise the single refrigerator model.13. The test panel should be selected in the way that we start to vary components from which we believe that it weakens the most our system balance. to measure the liquid return temperature. After optimising each component we vary the next one and so on. 10. The 3 probes can be replaced by one probe if the position of the probe represents the mean temperature of the evaporator according to different measurements.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Liquid Return. The connection between tube and gauge can be a Hansen coupler to be able to fill the system again when needed. A thermocouple can be positioned at the inlet of a capillary tube.
The comparison of measured data with these calculated optimal data allow the systematic improvement of the circuit by intervening in the areas with higher deviations.14.Superheat .67 36.Refrigeration Effect .5 0. R600a Properties Tables
p. Final Tests.0 40. Flow (suction): Mass flow: High pressure: Low pressure: Pressure ratio: Pressure difference: m /h kg/sec bar abs.124 44. bar abs.6 1.Expansion valve/Capillary Delta Hs .gov/srd/webguide/nist23-7/23v7.7 -42.95*10-3 (0°C) 810 814
MOhm.70 1.221 3. measured entry data the reached performance of the refrigerator under good conditions.9bar) Acentric Factor Dielectric Constant (VAP)(25°C/1 atm) Dielectric Strength (R12=1) Specific Resistivity (LIO) AC UNITS °C °C °C bara kg/I bara kJ/kg kg/m3 kJ/kg.m. (LIO. entry data the important performance results of a refrigerator.
10.6 135. Refrigeration Performance Calculation and Evaluations
There exist different refrigerator system calculation programmes on the market which allow calculating out of the a.22 -101 101 . bar abs.htm#2. Results COP . 10.5 180 R600a R290 58. It can be purchased online for US$ 200 at http://www.8783 0. 20°C) Speed of Sound (sat. The US-National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have issued such a program with a database “Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP)” which allows the calculation of thermodynamic properties under ideal conditions of different refrigerants.htm and the Manual can be seen at http://www.50915 6. cm
. R600a and R290
PROPERTY Molecular Weight Boiling Point (1 atm ) Melting Point Critical Temperature Critical Pressure Critical Density Vapour Pressure (25°C) Latent Heat of Vaporisation at nBpt Saturated Vapour Density at nBpt Trouton's Constant Coeff.coefficient of refrigerator performance Vol.231 0.63 217 5.Sub cooling Unit kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg Unit kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg
Such performance calculation bases on measurements and following refrigerant properties and formulas: FOR EXAMPLE FOR HFC 134a following calculations and tables are used. Vol.003003 (20°C) 702 1.86 1.04 -159.m.03 -26.nist.096 -11.142 0.3256 1 .
Such programs can also be received through the suppliers of refrigerants. PROPERTY R134a.1.Compressor Work . 119
10.55 0. Therm.Total Heat Rejected . depending on which refrigerant were used.014 0. For our customers we add a programme which can be used to calculate out of the a. like Specific Enthalpies: End of Evaporation . Exp.nist.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.Compressor Delivery .14.K K-1 m/s R134a 102.81 2. LIQ)(25°C) Adiabatic Exponent (VAP)(25°C/2.%20INSTALLATION .Compressor suction .gov/srd/nist23.5 362 405 2.1 96.
Specific Resistivity (LIQ) DC Purity Solubility In Water (20°C/latm)
MOhm.5423 B = -5763.0713498381
C1 = -467.27189635 A3 = -11. For R600a:
Cp(ideal) kJ/kg.14.72969406 B1 = 5.964058842(I/kg) A1 = -10.953119 A4 = 3.56068 For R134a: For R600a:
A =0 B = 225. Tc = Critical temperature K . Vr = V/Vc = V x RHOc
X = 3.4 (Vr-B)
where Tr = T/Tc .4. Tc = Critical Temperature K.65826
10.82825 B = 0.143897 B = 0. Hliq kJ/kg C = 58.5.3711553933 C4 = -620.0773
>/= 99. T = Temperature K .0054
where x = (1.+ DT + ELn(T) where P = vapour pressure bara. Tc = Critical temperature K. 10.14. T = Temperature K.0304565 C=0 E = -19.3. IDEAL GAS HEAT CAPACITY Cp(ideal) = A + BT + CT² + DT³ + E/T² C =-2.15(K) Pc = 40.14.98 0.15522467 A2 = 14.9303 D = -610.8. EQUITY OF STATE (MARTIN-HOU)
Pr = XTr +
∑ Aj + BjTr + Cj exp (-KTr)
i=1. LIQUID VISCOSITY Ln µliq = A + B/T + C/T² + D/T³
T = Temperature K . dliq kg/m³ C = 637.003005 D = 1. T = Temperature K .201606791 B4 = -2. LIQUID DENSITY dliq = A + Bx + Cx² + Dx² + Ex4 For R134a:
A = 509. cm % wt % wt
66000 99.14. EXTENDED ANTOINE EQUATION B Ln(P) = A + ----.7. DHvap kJ/kg C = 194.6.55224
10.14.321632367 B3 = 8.6811368103 C2 = -679.7812019E-09 E=0
where T = Temperature K .866246E-06 For R134a:
A = 0. LATENT HEAT OF VAPORISATION DHvap = A + Bx + Cx² + Dx³ + Ex4 where x = (1.
10. Pc.14.034313767 B2 = -8.250023581 Tc.(T/Tc)) (1/3) .49
D = 0.09745 For R600a:
D = -504. Final Tests.0404407351 C3 = 1661.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.766
10.2124913803 K = 7.5 0.9851 E = 57. SATURATED LIQUID ENTHALPY Hliq = A+Bx+Cx²+Dx³+Ex4 where x = (1.3096 E = 415.
Pr = P/Pc .00842 D = -142.(T/Tc)) (1/3) .55(bara) Vc = 1.K
10.14. Vc = 374.162283 For R134a: For R600a:
A = 289. R600a Properties Tables
p.8266 E = 166.6766 B = -120.(T/Tc)) (1/3) . T = temperature K
A = 123.14972 B = 902.
0 -10.52527 B = 2984.2507 273.23 SAT VAP LIQUID ENTH cP -----kJ/kg K--267. 121
A =-8.265347 D=0
10.26 For R134a: A = 60.14. SATURATED VAPOUR DENSITY dvap = A + Bx + Cx² + Dx³ + Ex4 where x = (1.45416 B = -493.82 1.14.98 1.13 1.0 -40.14.7113 0.3463 303. VAPOUR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY(SAT.1827 E = -1108.0 LIQUID LATENT ENTH HEAT -----------kJ/kg----------35. LIQUID THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY Kliq = A+Bx+Cx²+Dx³ where x = (1.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.10.604876E-07 D = 3.53 212. dvap kg/m³ For R134a: -50° to 0°C 0° to +80°C For R600a:
A = -403.09279E-04 C = -1 .GAS cP 0. VAPOUR) µvap = A + BT + CT² + DT³ where T = Temperature K.12.366
10.15.9. T = Temperature K .65 205.4 For R600a: 10.3723 ID.00 47.VAPOUR) K gas = A + BT + CT² + DT³ where T = Temperature K. Tc = Critical temperature K .24 1. K For R134a: For R600a:
A = 0.8055
.2666 279.11.0 0.(T/Tc)) (1/3) .1
10.049881 1323 B = 6. Kliq W/m. 10.15.63 D = 17151. SURFACE TENSION where T = Temperature K .9036 C = -14972.00 198.39 73.14. R600a Properties Tables
p.9099E-05 E =-171017.522 A = 455.3233 298.66 86.078573 B = -0.1 R134a LIQUID AND SATURATED VAPOUR ENTHALPY AND LATENT HEAT
TEMP °C -50. Kgas W/m. δ mN/m δ= A(1-T/Tc)1. Tc = Critical temperature K .T = Temperature K .2838 286. VAPOUR SPEED OF SOUND (SAT. Tc = Critical temperature K . VAPOUR VISCOSITY (SAT.21507E-06 D = 2.146406 C = 0.14725 D = -3.18 1. C = 0.85 225.67 1.14.0 -20.8403 C = -1740 D = 2957.19 B = -14.26 1.(T/Tc)) (1/3) . Final Tests.239809E-04 C =-2.7872 0.0344 B = 5002. For R134a: For R600a:
A = -.14.3026 292.7308 0.7687 0.012605 B = 1 .14.26 232. VAPOUR) µ = A + BT + CT² + DT³+ E/T where T = Temperature K.0 -30.088 E = -6831.60 219.0 10.59 100.82253899E-09
C =-275736 D=0
10.13.K For R134a:
A = -.59 190.7499 0.037823 For R134a: For R600a:
A = 2619.13 113.6916 0. Tables
116 16.44 6.669 10.081 26.0185 SAT.10 LIQ.111 0.8694
0.0 70.88 139.0165 0.086 0.0104 0.0080 143.0 -10.924 4.23 171.0115 0.0097 146. Final Tests.51 141.0115 146.K m/s 0.13 0.115 0.5323 1.0 20.VAPOUR VISCOSITY cP 0.60
10.78 8.0 60.58 125.08
1.78 86.72 329.05 14.294 0.136 5.061 SURF TENSION mN/m 19.20
181.15 0.095 0.0124 146.19 27.45 153.4022 1.93 203.2 8. from NIST REFPROP Version 4 of IIR thermodynamic basis.107 0.4794 1.0175 0.9 0.7028 1.42 20.80 151.742 21.0106 146.0 0.90 3.099 0.3 0.078 0.79 177.118 13.2 0.650 2.THERM COND W/m.0 70.16 326.45 0.0124 0.24 37.0 40.11 7.1 0.0 -40.0 VAPOUR PRESS Bara 0. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND SPEED OF SOUND TABLE:
TEMP °C -50.0 60.COND OF SOUND W/m.512 0.0 -30. R600a Properties Tables
p.0 60.8586 0.VAPOUR DENSITY kg/m³ 1.62 1. 122
20.11 0.0110 0.19 0.7 0.15.0 30.25 311.328 2.0 -20.84 314.0 50.0
127.0 25.0 80. 10.4372 1.0183 125.27 0.0 20.0150 0. Therefore we publish it inside this booklet:
.2 0.50 0.229 LIQUID DENSITY kg/m³ 1444 1416 1388 1358 1327 1295 1261 1226 1207 1188 1147 1103 1053 997 929 LIQUID VISCOSITY cP 0.6 0.9262
10.0172 131.0143 0.772 4.0088 144.0 50.0128 0.88
309.8928 0.8411 0.0162 136.0133 145.24 0.8758 0.1 0.6023 1.0 -10.8234 0. For R134a a wide range of offers of such data programmes and tables exist already on the market while such data for R600a and mixtures are not as available as for R134a.0 0.20 0.7 0.0 40.VAPOUR SPEED THERM.16 0.0 25.103 0.084 0.42 221.1 11.35 319.074 0.8 0.0 SAT.21 0.0 0.6 13.40 0.0152 140.1 14.62 114.0119 0.0 -20.791 10.005 2.0 10.0 -40.7 0.0 10.K 0.65 156.0141 0.70 162.72 2.844 1.431 6.0 50.0193 118.0 25.091 0.3 17.33 172.6 10.14 4.069 0.46 SAT.697 6.0 80.46 134.35 0.8323 0.0133 0.0 30.03 323.4189 1.0 30.0 40.0142 143.38 49.15.2 R134a LIQUID DENSITY AND VISCOSITY AND SURF TENSION TABLE:
TEMP °C -50.628 7.28 186.0157 0.31 0.70 32.082 0.0138 144.7 16. from different programmes of the refrigerant supplier and their tables.80 65.1 0.0 80.3 R134a SATURATED VAPOUR DENSITY AND VISCOSITY.0072 140.30 107.51 328.0138 0.0 -30.9096 0.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.065 0.9 0.0 70.2
Further details for R134a can be take from Transfair Calculation Performance Programme.
788 0.7 659.329 2.73 228.9 40.8 338.400 1.8 341.74 194.9 546.91 1.327 2.61 949.9 655.4 6l3.5 168.4 373.354 2.6 I.691 0.3 756.744 0.0 272.5 319.7 321.70 289. SATURATED VAPOUR PRESSURE OF R600a and R290
Saturated Vapour Pressure of R600a
t °C -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -I8 -17 -I6 -I5 -14 -I3 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 I8 19 20 p kPa 28.325 2.2 1.7 365.0 206.7 1.359 1.3 251.5 652.9 40.4 216.8 33.8 291.9 117.5 330.9 322.8 377.3 47.63 669.2 550.753 0.352 2.6 I80.5 621.65 524.69 333.8 1.98 1.0 131.7 521.717 0.314 2.3 1.9 661.4 307.6 383.85 1.1 200.321 2.4 620.329 2.831 0.7 389.5 35.6 388.596 1.205 1.82 1.4 312.376 2.6 358.64 6l6.3 371.538 1.310 2.l 45.3 246.304 2.88 1.033 1.008 1.2 310.6 l.87 1.369 2.9 364.333 2.9 387.319 2.06 2.4 506.1 244.865 0.7 75.8 75.0 650.310 1.8 266.86 1.7 276.1 256.9 627.7 589.l 58.8 652.3 159.7 138.6 511.93 1.383 1.7 545.0 662.5 658.98 1.646 1.339 2.7 343.7 333.1 375.302 1.74 207.9 54.303 2.4 1067.2 32.4 151.7 1.3 85.7 91.89 1.0 300.899 0.9 1.655 0.2 1.5 504.0 568.0 538.79 135.3 336.3 609.9 70.9 33.630 l.8 79.4 104.3 657.6 1189.71 261.83 1.992 1.958 0.79 131.555 1.310 2.303 2.5 148.65 545.408 1.75 188.916 0.4 61.588 1.4 I.074 1.351 2.8l 1.2 46.4 1.4.7 793.99 2.3 1115.0 557.00 2.5 s' s" kJ/kgK kJ/kgK 1.318 2.6 61.547 l.71 270.5 348.2 162.1 703.4 1.2 283.708 0.3 368.066 1.349 2.303 2.340 2.74 200.4 195.65 567.0 323.9 28.5 I64.62 830.7 49.72 244.4 155.4 328.3 293.0 509.73 214.164 2.7 357.9 309.3 256.2 628.8 l.S 851.9 157.3 1.94 1.9 534.5 202.303 2.814 0.6 295.3 288.7 465.7 541.35l 1.68 385.326 2.7 123.91 1.6 179.8 912.891 0.5 389.7 332.2 1.08 2.2 505.362 2.9 340.4 127.4 31.0 560.3 52.7 30.4 1.7 120.3 576.2 362.7 382.9 42.356 2.63 698.0 608.303 2.8 l68.350 2.10 2.4 312.197 1.366 2.2 209.2 1.64 642.563 1.3 318.309 2.3 31.700 0.5 359.481 1.9 146.8 292.307 2.15.6 525.1 190.9 284.4 1139.5 1.8 49.4 686.3 361.7 86.254 1.933 0.6 104.9 267.2 478.11 2.0 43.6 1.69 345.8 386.2 641.85 1.124 1.2 36.770 0.304 2.6 317.320 2.4 1.92 1.84 1.8 1.4 440.2 142. Final Tests.303 2.7 40.310 2.2 352.78 147.4 452.307 2.107 1.8 213.2 63.5 144.0 193.779 0.246 1.319 1.6 407.2 319.8 126.63 729.156 1.762 0.78 139.306 2.1 656.2 1.2 177.473 1.0 125.64 591.4 290.0 314.01 2.2 I.335 1.1 6I6.9 96 7 100.9 504.66 484.6 268. 10.9 623.4 225.8 351.2 514.5 366.0 1021.6 223.75 182.3 121.4 66.7 261.0 63.4 367.3 379.017 1.580 1.1 504.2 36.9 553.7 120.0 239.7 220.2 330.9 593.9 304.840 0.6 333.8 1.316 2.1 1349.0 381.9 636.4 84.1 325.5 77.6 607.309 2.058 1.7 393.9 96.5l4 1.6 955.7 89.3 587.303 2.0 118.7 286.5 1.9 669.0 1.0 522.7 334.489 1.638 1.317 2.0 1.9 260.3 531.77 156.66 503.796 0.2 305.0 338.5 101.8 615.0 363.7 366.2 375.324 2.3 351.7 112.5 617.2 565.7 345.6 1.4 569.62 868.942 0.8 336.605 1.9 1.2 25l.8 635.5 602.4 186.5 1267.7 1.320 2.3 92.2 327.315 2.69 321.7 638.8 549.311 2.4 181.5 551.3 140.0 542.4 1.73 221.0 645.6 313.9 530.5 325.530 1.6 320.70 299.2 166. R600a Properties Tables
p.97 1.6 293.0 1.12 2.60 1090.346 2.9 220.5 28.7 1091.0 39.1 519.1 561.84 l.8 153.82 1.440 1.2 553.316 2.4 263.1 601.3 651.735 0.307 2.313 2.94 1.8 s' s" T p kJ/kgK kJ/kgK °C kPa 0.4 302.5 871.6 304.1 1.7 653.9 322.368 2.9 575.347 2.1 590.5 582.5 1241.7 1.363 2.5 891.5 933.4 350.303 2.1 518.3 327.983 0.6 44.0 370.2 278.360 2.4 114.9 604.5 591.343 2.2 1.4 812.270 1.4 35.7 600.1 636.306 2.6 303.9 4l.6 404.1 354.1 1.115 1.343 1.4 1.2 720.326 2.1 369.5 531.6 528.2 235.306 2.312 2.306 2.0 283.80 1.2 380.5 175.93 1.0 51.6 372.448 1.6 r kJ/kg 390.4 I.8 1164.304 2.6 1.8 364.6 1l0.3 385.173 1.5 515.456 1.6 346.6 274.6 738.5 378.950 0.303 2.3 535.8 1.6 331.95 1.132 1.3 523.2 h' kJ/kg 249.2 273.303 2.5 275.8 1.2 259.9 1.8 571.967 0.2 275.2 620.5 1.304 2.1 386.303 2.571 1.083 1.975 0.1 632.328 2.323 2.05 2.9 112.0 376.306 2.337 2.5 129.6 135.9 1.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.80 127.331 2.6 556.60 1142.391 1.2 136.367 1.8 619.882 0.6 230.432 1.0 286.2 116.4 774.5 107.5 1.6 398.0 1.03 2.13 123.0 355.874 0.1 1.1 204.66 448.5 1.0 133.88 I.0 I.8 60.321 2.3 374.091 1.355 2.1 237.2 358.6 428.67 431.370 2.7 h" kJ/kg 585.8 116.664 0.8 644.6 401.67 415.4 384.342 2.75 176.0 1.682 0.1 546.9 113.5 629.8 371.8 71.8 363.1 416.5 633.01 2.348 2.4 83l.0 1.0 586.1 I41.5 329.8 277.6 647.6 532.7 1.4 1.6 299.2 1.317 2.1 37.6 170.304 2.7 341.4 299.7 578.3 539.4 558.5 48.8 517.6 56.5 285.2 326.89 1.9 296.5 73.9 1294.72 252.7 6ll.5 288.8 271.025 1.52 1.2 29.2 594.2 317.2 1.181 1.305 2.02 2.8 387.8 57.5 v' v" 1/kg l/kg h' kJ/kg h" kJ/kg 502.9 564.2 353.332 2.312 2.0 206.71 279.925 0.61 1040.90 1.05 2.62 794.303 2.309 2.5 625.262 1.9 330.140 1.7 281.7 392.00 2.308 2.7 157.66 465.7 308.6 1.67 400.3 1.2 265.1 193.148 1.1 378.1 I51.3 527.7 344.8 309.522 1.5 34.83 1.4 547.338 2.3 297.10 2.9 382.4 598.041 1.63 761.l 491.6 395.321 2.3 58.000 1.308 2.6 513.375 1.09 2.6 537.3 554.8 69.2 146.3 302.70 310.4 213.5 642.327 1.319 2.908 0.6 347.8 340.9 I.90 1.97 1.857 0.6 46.1 572.0 380.04 2.1 605.7 184.0 38.344 2.8 631.314 2.4 637.305 2.311 2.2 306.7 377.0 242.0 361.305 2.313 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 311.341 2.92 1.6 174.424 1.8 405.6 42.5 281.9 30.304 2.8 999.8 356.189 1.9 296.1 197.322 2.0 315.1 590.613 1.8 649.221 1.80 l.7 187.294 1.4 355.9 228.371 2.5 263.7 508.3 268.315 2.77 151.3 510.76 171.328 2.416 1.4 543.315 2.307 2.9 349.726 0.9 66.304 2.8 321.2 93.2 293.9 280.4 575.673 0.4 580.4 200.96 1.9 1215.0 526.5 218.5 562.8 337.4 131.68 371.5 162.359 2.2 267.5 258.5 573.848 0.357 2.324 2.7 v' v" 1/kg l/kg 1.9 356.278 1.0 82.8 339.376 1.87 1.1 68.4 344.9 261.3 270.6 98.07 2.9 383.68 358.85 1.6 254.213 1.7 211.6 53.2 624.76 166.050 1.7 560.465 1.822 0.330 2.8 1322.86 1.305 2.6 596.4 254.4 234.5 369.9 640.309 2.2 r kJ/kg 335.7 72.497 I.0 579.7 33.3 646.2 346.372 2.0 597.0 50.312 2.4 227.7 371.62 907.8 1.505 l.6 65.2 605.655 2.9 289.238 1.099 1.76 161.6 108.8 342.286 1.7 352.2 53.323 2.0 360.5 l044.9 79.8 30.373 2.303 2.367 2.72 236.0 976.81 1.6 188.339 2.3 372.1 81.6 567.95 1.805 0.03 2.364 2.5 3l4.4 360.9 38. 123
10.07 2.359 2.3 55.2 88.9 1.2 173.61 994.0 301.334 2.365 2.229 1.9 232.7 243.1 258.9 382.5 349.4 278.621 1.l 612.8
18 2.1 1.295 1.2 387.4 461.0 336.3 1.464 2.3 332.401 2.9 1.3 80.6 430.8 607.356 2.238 1.7 606.9 613.767 0.7 146.057 1.5 1.490 1.2 349.403 2.496 2.5 1.58 2.7 37.7 141.9 363.0 176.7 1.9 251.321 2.449 2.0 579.2 138.3 326.9 317.3 133.701 1.0 572.371 2.9 424.2 323.6 604.5 22.8 199.667 1.4 224.7 406.6 569.8 1.636 0.324 1.9 14.807 0.6 179.9 189.8 419.2 48.82 -14 297.1 277.4 354.7 955.4 369.8 39.1 447.2 1.400 2.8 1.378 2.80 -20 240.228 1.1 629.1 359.1 15.435 2.797 0.401 1.0 133.5 313.1 220.6 433.5 232.8 617.5 292.4 13.77 -26 191.90 3 517.5 443.7 343.1 33.9 1.8 609.7 379.3 18.9 57.71 -43 93.41 2.9 565.372 2.79 -21 231.405 2.15 2.8 1.5 575.2 361.8 1.3 589.3 246.31 2.9 1.382 1.0 202.7 129.4 1.7 310.1 29.395 2.5 1.737 0.747 1.7 627.2 153.437 2.9 640.3 20.9 47.370 2.285 1.8 391.511 2.4 352.4 206.1 87.02 2.6 117.4 906.17 2.757 0.1 412.378 2.32 2.412 2.9 126.381 2.690 1.63 2.9 41.687 0.7 533.9 633.520 1.0 596.7 642.6 283.393 2.585 0.2 636.770 1.1 425.8 443.795 1.981 0.2 560.9 186.532 0.971 0.337 2.3 1.0 641.6 373.3 92.93 9 617.345 2.2 336.2 299.4 200.9 92.3 163.5 639.343 2.385 2.365 2.4 393.09 2.5 602.377 2.381 2.7 631.346 2.4 1.616 0.2 642.5 292.83 -13 308.480 2.92 7 582.1 435.04 2.1 181.7 157.846 0.334 2.8 136.2 281.94 10 635.6 323.7 1.343 1.4 405.76 -30 163.181 1.2 301.77 -27 184.373 2.4 45.257 1.369 2.2 1.354 2.5 102.3 311.4 561.466 2.4 642.7 277.3 599.73 -37 122.99 1.0 815.5 364.1 23.8 539.5 31.038 1.510 1.364 2.2 396.376 2.5 298.439 2.8 794.2 84.0 218.0 174.5 395.362 2.4 1.7 410.54 2.374 2.95 12 672.67 2.483 2.807 2.3 r kJ/kg 449.0 366.7 605.8 364.7 352.60 2.392 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 97 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 731.06 2.2 430.0 34.3 557.35 2.1 389.92 6 565.425 2.5 549.17 2.4 641.408 2.441 2.2 143.9 586.5 65.592 1.7 537.76 -31 157.0 540.3 330.5 1.87 -3 429.7 642.5 73.5 286.7 315.1 98.6 634.8 109.9 62.7 85.5 621.5 1.4 69.7 24.06 2.7 197.1 116.402 2.2 573.385 2.367 2.3 82.28 2.37 2.5 363.5 301.6 438.124 1.2 1.5 258.3 430.9 429.5 261.5 304.88 -1 457.65 2.98 1.1 248.3 180.9 17.38 2.386 2.12 2.391 1.5 1.7 584.8 80.5 1.8 274.72 -40 107.1 580.8 190.0 371.8 930.6 562.9 294.406 2.8 306.7 1.2 214.904 0.9 230.777 0.399 2.3 328.5 50.09 2.5 395.380 2.70 -46 81.7 28.351 2.7 376.8 19.9 614.3 235.500 0.2 82.3 400.83 -12 319.07 2.52 2.0 642.3 581. R600a Properties Tables
p.4 106.390 2.3 1.656 1.9 351.5 418.6 642.0 319.574 0.9 611.4 582.747 0.324 2.7 30.7 619.3 12.522 0.8 346.6 530.72 -41 102.7 444.8 637.8 313.0 639.40 2.6 423.382 2.487 2.2 541.9 238.6 304.70 -47 77.6 307.9 1.5 342.86 -6 389.8 54.1 99.02 2.24 2.143 1.0 1.6 26.9 635.9 392.2 147.7 151.42 2.87 -4 415.383 2.647 2.4 583.4 434.14 2.3 24.90 2 501.247 1.5 295.3 554.314 1.3 642.0 42.4 414.372 1.5 89.89 0 471. 10.396 2.6 438.8 593.1 338.1 1.431 1.1 13.503 2.4 632.5 391.384 2.2 632.6 642.392 2.6 583.75 -33 144.2 386.3 208.5 536.6 119.678 1.190 1.5 590.8 860.2 426.7 550.727 0.1 248.0 587.6 1.388 2.6 414.4 542.81 -18 258.333 1.0 320.398 2.9 638.543 0.0 625.3 216.9 373.45 2.7 406.78 -24 207.8 229.341 2.603 1.2 1.9 171.3 s' s" kJ/kgK kJ/kgK 1.0 77.759 1.44 2.5 591.1 547.431 2.0 25.4 883.723 1.49 2.1 266.2 44.962 0.990 1.5 639.8 36.6 205.5 488.9 358.04 2.0 546.0 445.1 308.80 -19 249.34 2.1 534.9 402.067 1.2 377.6 213.6 388.380 2.5 278.5 345.27 2.606 0.7 333.0 121.4 286.421 1.4 28.6 1.395 2.8 299.91 4 532.1 588.7 161.885 0.97 1.3 640.3 252.19 2.4 267.7 382.4 409.11 2.209 1.350 2.933 0.69 -49 70.2 416.96
.71 -45 85.0 240.5 125.5 14.707 0.1 979.8 1.5 77.635 1.0 16.93 8 599.105 1.5 410.477 2.4 601.3 142.9 533.5 58.413 2.8 20.8 578.82 -15 287.6 1.8 571.8 107.5 89.1 226.7 379.22 2.85 -8 365.01 2.5 398.70 63.4 123.2 383.3 326.3 180.2 111.3 336.8 1.460 1.507 2.397 2.1 374.2 324.551 1.7 641.8 114.6 138.7 184.219 1.7 1.6 280.2 158.5 264.430 2.00 2.414 2.3 422.3 574.327 2.3 26.5 16.2 598.6 603.362 1.4 437.1 407.0 772.417 2.374 2.952 0.05 2.20 2.3 442.4 17.8 40.7 75.79 -23 215.4 427.5 752.0 273.86 -5 402.8 13.387 2.81 -17 268.9 1.9 415.3 19.369 2.480 1.836 0.9 595.3 634.8 35.94 11 653.305 1.10 2.943 0.4 369.440 1.71 -44 89.4 104.84 -9 153.9 399.379 2.72 -42 93.500 1.8 545.6 243.51 2.0 168.360 2.73 -38 117.8 21.361 2.9 22.9 271.7 38.8 368.445 2.26 2.4 71.6 543.73 -39 112.3 548.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.076 1.3 14.0 559.7 576.8 1.0 268.383 2.553 0.500 2.416 2.92 6 565.9 612.389 2.8 558.162 1.029 1.8 563.420 2.646 1.0 1.2 1.9 456.561 1.6 374.4 67.8 439.8 254.9 30.352 2.5 329.2 238.3 55.470 1.359 2.7 642.4 529.84 -10 341.8 616.783 1.16 2.74 -35 133.433 2.3 1.8 626.33 2.450 1.2 447.348 2.1 625.78 -25 199.318 -50 67.4 1.0 1.5 1.95 13 691.3 212.582 1.9 610.96 14 711.5 642.8 615.399 2.200 1.3 52.4 637.511 0.923 0.8 356.624 1.6 636.677 0.3 r kJ/kg 359.454 2.2 148.08 2.1 641.421 2.2 110.0 27.47 2.389 2.9 224.8 468.6 620.3 1.391 2.3 263.7 156.84 -11 330.2 339.5 628.91 5 549.3 413.330 2.8 171.3 1.4 347.914 0.1 440.426 2.613 1.5 510.1 597.0 411.4 1.1 203.1 257.7 114.6 257.057 1.9 1.4 432.456 2.712 1.3 186.8 608.0 237.2 185.8 18.8 1.4 288.2 270.03 2.9 210.6 1.7 221.459 2.3 17.276 1.12 2.9 35.2 1.88 -2 443.647 0.171 1.366 2.1 553.99 2.626 0.419 2.856 0.4 1.2 380.1 420.0 216.98 1.0 12.5 289.7 1.7 1.667 0.447 2.3 32.717 0.1 194.56 2.048 1.7 531.6 1.5 384.2 624.7 618.76 -29 170.8 395.490 2.6 1.6 227.9 317.6 311.4 296.3 267.095 1.407 2.7 402.363 2.4 21.85 -7 377.2 334.572 1.9 1005 1031 1057 1084 1111 1139 1167 1196 1225 1255 1285 1316 1347 1379 1411 1444 1478 1512 1546 1581 1617 1654 1690 1728 1766 1805 1844 1884 1925 1966 2008 2050 2094 2137 2182 2227 2273 2319 2366 2414 2463 2512 2562 2612 2664 2716 2769 2822 2877 2932 2988 3044 3102 3160 v' v" h' 1/kg 1/kg kJ/kg 1.353 1.2 101.423 2.8 166.3 168.3 152.4 260.375 2.9 1.875 0.428 2.7 641.368 2.79 -22 223.0 289.00 2.4 622.4 174.443 2.77 -28 177.5 568.404 2.29 2.8 192.7 15.387 2.0 340.9 434.411 1.4 1.2 528.5 192.3 94.152 1.461 2.3 535.8 87.9 51.409 2.70 -48 74.5 642.3 216.6 1.000 1.8 276.23 2.372 2.4 451.7 '27.2 398.4 448.5 121.3 1.493 2.817 0.3 418.7 350.451 2.564 0.2 60.9 245.266 1.7 385.2 247.3 1.894 0.394 2.2 448.2 162.735 1.6 242.339 2.787 0.472 0.4 255.74 -36 127. 124
Saturated Vapour Pressure of R290 (Propan)
t °C p kPa v' v" 1/kg 1/kg 610.6 46.1 349.514 2.8 h" kJ/kg 524.826 0.74 -34 139.657 0.411 2.9 630.25 2.7 235.697 0.2 422.4 222.2 366.1 95.0 104.2 231.3 623.358 2.355 2.4 590.2 1.1 1.5 555.7 12.114 1.4 377.086 1.2 356.4 194.133 2.7 82.376 2.6 s' s" T p kJ/kgK kJ/kgK °C kPa 0.7 428.531 1.7 837.1 322.7 h' kJ/kg 75.9 526.865 0.4 128.6 592.541 1.9 199.0 403.332 2.010 1.21 2.0 h" kJ/kg 600.9 342.0 380.9 552.1 566.2 1.3 629. Final Tests.3 207.595 0.475 2.0 527.81 -16 277.89 1 486.9 1.75 -32 151.3 567.8 284.13 2.019 1.6 556.
8 125 777.1 567.6264 30 917.6 759.7381 50 979.56 689.7 75 450.17 717.0793 3.3613 0 425.2 kPa t v Enth h Entr s t v Enth h Entr s t v Enth h Entr s t v Enth h Entr s t v Enth h Entr s t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK -25 591.9449 758.7 kPa Ts=-5°C p=131.1088
-10 333.5 75 677.6 85 867.3352 2.4241 559.29 3.7103 45 964.3 120 953.4741 613.66 2.8 95 394.19
2.2 kPa Ts=0°C p=157.3328 .8947 2.9193 100 591.2 75 309.32 632.42 2.69 2.7 100 727.64 758.7 10 545.5586 640.0794 832.99 2.3315 557.0 20 255.6 65 299.3 95 328.8 30 265.7
542.68 582.8 40 402.3 574.09 2.5090 583.54 2.92 566.3102 529.9443 2.85 2.4 748.7 5 667.9766 3.8673 2.17 2.8357 736.7293 2.3957 551.3 70 829.16 679.5 130 361.50 605.63 3.6 145 375.5 -20 604.43 748.79 572.0 15 251.0949 115 1181.0 120 351.5 515.4 95 891.2 110 497.8 100 904.5934 608.21 2.84 3.3027 2.63 2.0550 125 632.0 615.98 2.59 623.1 90 470.8765 75 1057.07 2.8 85 318.2 728.20 2.3 537.23 2.88 670.6 90 707.8398 2.14 597.6138 2.9 45 617.8 616.3921 2.8489 70 1041.4005 -10 792.9721 768.7 738.4451 2.9 15 556.3598 2.9862 95 1119.21 3.74 574.6433 50 508.4 70 304.72 2.90 2.6494 625.3 598.0819 130 640.6 85 697.7 110 411.0 80 313.4 .50 2.6976 669.9171 2.6 35 596.5023 622.0280 120 624.1 550.5336 2.46 2.5054 2.9 566.6457 2.13 650.7250 2.5016 2.9 70 443.08 2.7544 70 541.33 2.12 2.3313 2.1219 Ts=-25°C p=58.8 135 439.1 20 566.07 3.9 135 531.99 614.1062
.4489 2.6773 634.3 115 417.74 2.7659 55 995.5305 631.1 10 246.71 660.6 125 428.7 25 314.3898 5 433.59 2.0
549.16 3.9 679.2 130 524.24 3.3
556.0 55 289.0678 110 1165.40 2.2 738.2 60 647.08 2.6145 658.5 417.8437 689.17 2.8903 757.18 822.35 728.35 2.79 2.0406 105 1150.33 2.79 2.17 641.92 564.3 85 464.5861 632.4453 589.5 80 457.5 642.2 105 916.3066 2.6980 687.5 80 687.9175 767.22 2.7 120 511.94 2.1 55 637.7015 2.74 590.6712 55 517.0079 748.4856 5 839.5 558.68 2.6 kPa Ts=-20°C p=72.7 kPa Ts=-15°C p=89.0 727.8 105 337.62 2.3 65 657.9 25 717.6 529.68 2.7 -10 505.60
2.9714 2.6824 40 948.72 3.9 25 260.0801 811.73 678.27 2.43 2.4573 0 823.0257 810.74 642.3601 565.8626 2.3 5 354.4 55 423.19 2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.3 0 347.3672 544.3033 563.6 600.01 2.2 689.8 575.44 2.96 3.4736 598.71 2.8 40 606.66 2.7 75 842.9985 3.25 3.91 2.19 2.56 2.06 3.7530 688.6178 2.8 15 692.0351 759.78 2.8 769.8213 65 1026.6 110 929.6699 659.3319 571.4465 15 450.63 2.93 599.2 50 285.54 2. Superheated Vapour pressure
Superheated Vapour pressure of R600a (Isobutane)
Ts=-30°C p= 46.4 20 704.00 2.5581 623.50 800.1 0 654.6 90 323.8096 80 558.1 80 854.8077 2.1 -15 616.0 35 742.9718 789.7885 670.4748 20 459.66 2. Final Tests.7 718.92 3.5859 2.97 2.0 515.15 2.1 105 405.96 769.6 582.4 559.36 2.03 2.6736 2.4290 .3890 588.9988 799.7256 696.4772 2.66 651.9314 85 1088.6973 2.80 3.8 115 757.8899 2.8 105 737.78 2.67 3.9534 728.6696 2.25 2.0 30 388.7806 697.7 125 356.1 652.9177 747.1 90 388.4 140 445.32 2.18 2.6 35 270.4205 2.7 65 360.72 2.79 2.6141 641.3 10 679.9738 110 607.9 20 308.4182 10 442.11 2.0134 100 1134.9261 718.5874 40 492.8 120 767.5 30 730.79 2.29 2.6420 650.8 80 377.7936 60 1010.9494 2.0 60 354.00 2.3 kPa Ts=-10°C p=108.1119
-15 400.1 5 241.1 670.68 2.6 110 342.0 634.0 779.3387 536.31 2.8631 727.5312 30 475.98 2.7267 65 533.29 811.70 3.0262 789.52 2.3 55 349.5702 20 886.8920 95 583.8712 699.50 2.4807 575. R600a Properties Tables
p.7 699.94 790.3886 573.4 -15 494.6 50 343.0893 780.8356 717.4 60 804.71 2.9807 738.5617 2.9 642.29 2.5 340.6 708.09 698.5031 25 467.08 737.6990 60 525.24 2.2 535.7 95 717.2 0 525.76 2.8 45 337.64 2.58 2.39 707.0580 3.6702 677.8083 726.90 2.6 45 409.3042 -10 408.5898 2.4 50 779.6 661.90 589.76 2.77 2.9992 779.8371 85 566.25 543.8 522.8630 746.52 2.36 2.0 590.6417 2.3883 2.59 2.29 2.72 697.7527 2.0 120 422.17 556.5 30 586.4 45 280.8987 708.6424 668.6 543.72 3.92 2.8161 679.3 10 297.4 105 491.3 115 347.50 2.0 115 941.59 3.91 2.90 2.3151 -25 744.8 717.36 2.8646 90 574.6 758.9447 778.65 2.4168 2.5984 25 901.46 2.22 2.7254 678.8122 2.4 100 400.24 558.97 2.1 100 332.9466 105 599.5653 599.71 3.9 35 395.5 5 535.48 3.90 2.23 2.32 2.6 100 484.42 2.5 807.5139 10 854.76 2.3436 -20 760.8904 737.17 687.4 5 291.90 3.9 95 477.0009 115 615.63 3.6544 35 932.59 2.5018 606.79 768.0850 3.5298 2.7821 75 550.4175 596.84 2.7570 2.7052 643.7 552.7330 652.0309 3.4734 2.3605 580.0526 821.56 2.9588 90 1103.4524 567.51 2.0 591.5866 649.47 2.63 2.4458 605.6214 616.72 708.0 45 767.76 2.0 90 879.6 0 285.2 15 368.6 669.5421 15 870.25 778.0255 3. 125
10.21 747.7808 716.1 769.1162
-20 484.07 2.4 70 667.1 75 371.72 2.3637 2.1 749.2 130 433.0038 3.3 25 576.5.2 10 361.0524 3.70 2.8082 707.4 660.7 680.42 668.37 2.7608 661.0 .5 50 416.9040 80 1072.8
528.18 2.2 .1 40 331.5 40 755.5300 615. 10.8 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK -30 729.92 2.3 801.13 2.93 633.4 85 383.3029 549.1069
-5 279.3 624.2 60 430.18 2.40 779.77 2.1 25 382.3721 -15 776.0 544.0622 769.6154 45 500.1 15 302.94 536.44 757.1 651.41 2.9221 2.7802 2.8 110 747.4 70 366.5372 591.92 3.25 624.7846 2.11 2.1061
0 236.8352 2.2 608.1 20 375.4 583.4 698.88 3.09 2.4 625.9 140 370.25 607.3 35 326.4170 581.1 688.65 2.55 2.6 633.04 2.48 2.07 727.69 616.54 2.68 551.0 65 436.33 738.9 115 504.9 55 792.05 2.7 522.8 -10 629.5 40 275.5579 2.15.8 65 817.0 50 627.7533 706.5 643.0532 800.5 125 518.5 30 320.21 659.70 2.76 2.31 2.48 718.82 789.2 135 365.8 60 294.1 790.30 2.24 2.5593 35 484.11 2.78 580.2 709.7 607.
5 112.4810 2.6 850.3842 89.5
583.8 135.0 192.6064 2.7845 2.0 761.6 221.7 159.8731 2.9 154.3 131.5656 2.03 2.82 774.33 2.4563 2.0 151.2 148.42 2.19 702.8185 2.0 908.91 2.5321 50 238.37 606.70 773.69 852.9480 2.2 248.7 120.8916 115 290.98 2.2 196.8 756.3047 10 204.8 767.3214 2.7637 2.6 686.66 663.39 784.06 644.8603 119.6 816.4527 2.3 658.40 840.5039 45 234.42 839.9093 2.3672 2.37 627.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.08 725.3 660.3 146.09 806.65 654.46 786.9045 2.4 184.7325 2.7600 2.8 182.7 562.5 740.5062 2.0289 3.1 199.74 2.12 818.32 2.97 664.1 150.4131 91.48 2.0 207.2 265.8 245.29 886.4321 2.6 252.7 214.4474 35 225.6439 70 254.1072
Ts=10°C p=220.0 145.7 736.4190 30 221.4418 93.7680 2.6623 2.7453 2.30 681.7012 2.8 132.3 861.0048 3.4 782.2 210.3553 87.25 3.27 2.5502 2.70 2.18 765.59 875.32 3.55 852.7 134.4989 97. 10.0 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK 5 200.6 200.2 187.7294 2.7 156.09 2.8330 118. Final Tests.74 603.5 699.08 2.3504 2.8
597.4 142.0971 3.39 692.4497 2.21 797.1 202.6 172.40 673.14
2.3 709.56 3.1287
.0824 3.8003 2.7 604.7507 113.6 175.3 169.10 2.02 690.3707 2.7 106.00
2.95 2.9509 2.4 258.0 873.66 2.7271 85 266.9 164.77 755.66 628.7 173.8 799.0 166.9 176.6 136.7 885.83 819.8277 2.40 704.3 117.8 130.7570 2.97 854.2 184.3 896.4081 2.0 202.19 795.2 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160
147.33 733.4035 2.04 2.7 151.0391 3.58 755.0 189.7875 2.0 231.9 118.31 705.0 272.47 777.3993 2.0925 3.0 129.1 196.9955 128.1 169.6493 2.86 657.3419 2.64 3.5 138.9 115.42 2.99 2.66 646.70 776.8 112.9416 124.1236
35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170
110.27 741.9586 2.5 140.44 2.0618 3. 126
Ts=5°C p=187.5172 2.48 744.12 762.35 636.30 853.47 642.9 143.14 715.9 114.2 140.8773 2.10 830.5093 2.30 653.0537 145 314.47 742.5 595.95 683.77 652.9 804.0316 3.21 829.5272 98.3 587.6344 2.8 177.0223 130.2 175.24 713.5625 2.8 128.9316 2.8 262.9188 120 294.0 165.69 638.7 715.9750 3.19 3.4 124.6 138.6741 2.98 616.22 724.84 2.6 269.82 753.50 618.23 2.30 745.04 842.2 174.8501 2.30 611.92 635.27 841.3793 2.7 705.8 777.6808 2.4367 2.8938 2.3 130.6717 75 258.4 190.3334 15 209.6161 65 250.78 629.9 126.6771 2.9730 130 302.1 169.7729 2.6118 104.2 190.6 146.9855 3.92 2.40 2.9633 2.8422 2.68 671.29 633.1190
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175
96.6852 2.15 2.9 210.1022 135.35 2.4757 40 229.9 570.92 2.7 222.3928 2.9 622.5 167.4 100.9 679.6 225.2 639.9 838.27 763.5601 55 242.1 156.7547 90 270.26 796.21 624.5905 2.8822 2.07 787.9 153.1 172.03 3.8875 121.17 661.2 147.5 200.9 120.10 600.0350 3.6397 106.4 186.12 665.3170 2.3 234.3 648.8 110.90
2.8550 2.3261 86.4213 2.83 656.87 3.07 808.7 725.79 798.8097 100 278.9 122.6 153.7048 2.67 865.8 216.0000 135 306.9544 2.2 178.6 696.5973 2.61 809.47 2.9 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 171.6 228.7 641.0490 131.01 731.7085 2.8 182.9 621.67.28 764.76 577.8057 116.81 3.89 808.23 615.6295 2.98 620.3748 2.28 3.35 2.3 179.66 2.72 842.4 144.3097 2.3643 2.16 2.3620 20 213.97 766.60 693.2 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
Ts=20°C p=302.4 667.6574 2.66 694.9902 3.1 224.87 2.3 161.0705 3.12 722.24 732.4 569.0 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
Ts=30°C p=405. R600a Properties Tables
p.32 2.49 785.74 609.5 102.7782 114.8 631.60 637.7 689.8695 2.00 2.7 843.17 3.4 150.88 2.8 159.0 255.4243 2.09 863.0 197.64 752.7362 2.9814 3.5344 2.5 140.6252 2.7 127.64 2.4780 2.41 876.10 817.3131 2.7129 2.6184 2.29 2.20 828.5 149.7231 111.5375 2.2 138.0 122.4704 95.76 2.86 754.52 675.82 775.8 729.7 821. 2.2 178.6 160.5 195.6 133.9778 3.1 132.2
576.9 187.5 650.29 734.8 612.9 124.9 116.32 787.9686 126.0123 3.6995 80 262.0170 3.64 2.4847 2.57 592.80 2.51 602.8 163.2 793.66 585.50 675.3 827.9274 2.3385 2.67 874.6531 2.7405 2.3069 2.54 743.3958 2.2 181.6676 107.10 2.0757 133.0438 3.8 746.7954 2.9 151.8149 2.5 676.73 851.6954 109.80 710.44 645.44 2.5412 2.9363 2.9238 2.4652 2.6016 2.5555 100.8967 2.7822 95 274.5 154.9146 123.0 613.90 625.8228 2.2 167.14 807.5 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
Ts=25°C p=351.0269 140 310.84
2.3 750.4889 2.3905 25 217.1 156.4 158.9 163.4937 2.37 703.8393 2.7 143.58 831.03 593.8666 2.02 897.5837 102.83 619.8119 2.0658 3.5784 2.9209 2.7 219.5130 2.5693 2.1 579.91 2.3 241.7 810.0584 3.14 735.83 2.7912 2.2 203.4279 2.1
590.13 672.88 831.20 886.2 217.3459 2.1 630.0 719.8371 105 282.17 607.6463 2.02 2.15 862.0557 3.0851 3.71 682.4 231.39 2.54 820.2 193.5220 2.25 714.1 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
Ts=35°C p=465.6 104.7 772.6 193.23 723.05 797.29 594.2 98.9 238.1 205.0885 3.33 2.2 148.99 685.1 604.9459 125 298.5881 60 246.62 2.12 666.0020 3.75 2.4605 2.1 669.33 2.8644 110 286.0805 150 318.11 610.7177 2.93 864.5 228.9 213.5454 2.86 700.8459 2.72 647.5936 2.7 108.03 819.7 207.97 586.6215 2.3356 2.5736 2.9003 2.5 234.10 712.9 136.5 171.82 2.6900 2.03 684.8 788.47 599.85 721.1091
Ts=15°C p=259.59 695.1117
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165
127.7 832.0082 3.
0 914.7012 96.0 73.9333 2.4301 2.1 77.9746 69.64 2.2 774.11 847.8 667.45 789.39 2.38 2.6 57.13 960.72 836.7487 2.6 38.05 665.8666 65.78 2.63 663.60 2.8244 2.29 745.6734 94.23 3.2 763.97 650.31 701.9942 3.9 64.4654 2.8 68.6 37.7281 60.38 929.9 939.08 685.89 754.92 681.8 611.6 70.77 903.54 780.55 696.31 725.1010 3.4 86.9 46.6 837.5 907.5955 2.70 703.9 59.6087 2.4943 2.04 817.5612 88.6175 91.0 637.7903 2.5 83.9603 2.82 891.04 654.0551 71.05 692.2 66.59 941.1423 3.66 798.5673 2.49 3.3 79.05 2.0547 116.0875 3.9631 2.6 65.1 848.0893 3.85 838.4781 50.8 92.97 928.0 84.7 688.1405
Ts=55°C p=774.6369 2.8 96.9009 2.51 673.7628 2.4 43.3 80.5894 90.7 72.30 724.9673 2.2 796.49 800.3951 2.3 46.6 770.4 66.9204 108.7355 2.5942 2.75 758.8996 2.9476 68.5104 2.28 886.80 923.5 59.5 36.2 65.8790 2.1083 73.7694 2.99 761.6439 57.9901 3.5 49.93 756.07 691.84 2.15 2.1 76.1 45.1 91.20 736.83 671.9 738.48 975.2 854.54 952.75 646.41 682.7352 2.28 726.1 866. R600a Properties Tables
p.0627 3.6222 2.33 664.87 660.4 80.9 78.1 52.5045 85.0342 3.7 104.4 728.19 834.31 888.8518 2.2 842.7 62.15 2.3 49.5872 55.6 58.02 772.0 45.8661 105.3592 2.8314 2.1470
55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200
50.3 45.95 714.0609 3.7 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
Ts=60°C p=871.2 61.75 973.4818 2.74 735.8 699.0074 3.2 808.6869 2.51 778.1 kPa t v Enth h Entr s t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 65.43 2.9205 67.09 2.1 69.1 752.6236 2.7074 2.0 65.28 660.0 919.0675 3.5329 87.13 2.5367 2.3 44.97 844.1611
65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210
40.5 66.8 88.3366 2.8387 64.04 2.8 kPa Ts=70°C p=1091.7209 2.03 2.8 718.6 697.5077 2.6 678.3535 46.58 776.6 40.4 54.8451 2.5452 2.18 739.20 867.0280 114.6796 2.1158 3.29 874.66 2.5803 2.8462 2.4
650.0744 3.4 kPa t v Enth h Ent r s t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195
57.1205 3.24 780.72 695.4591 2.1 61.8112 63.6 39.89 2.8 72.3895 78.7565 99.0 51.69 894.1765
.67 767.1275 3.21 870.0817 72.71 717.6721 58.81 3.81 2.1344
Ts=45°C p=605.8 56.3 54.4 102.9062 2.6930 2.1 42.0 902.81 705.1 51.65 806.66 815.1 101.37 876.7289 98.7633 2.2 819.05 3.6512 2.5518 2.6
624.1 872.7836 62.8736 2.6455 93.2 79.2 43.7841 101.47 2.4473 82.7151 2.9822 3.16 747.0 55.8933 66.48 2.5 75.5 677.9 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 73.8933 107.3421 2.6582 2.8540 2.4070 2.5 658.1687
70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215
35.4131 48.9 74.4759 83.4880 2.02 2.60 2.55 2.1 69.6 61.0091 3.6 81.4554 2.86 823.14 643.1 97.27 917.7 52.1 895.8 100.97
2.75 2.8389 104.45 2.8 951.0015 70.1 826.6 883.2 59.54 856.15 857.0359 3.21 826.3659 2.4426 49.0972 3.1 93.6517 2.78 869.9537 2.4010 2.4 42.7 81.4363 2.3 92.1 58.1 72.4255 2.59 948.8724 2.4 617.00 937.2 647.3 657.1237 3.5 69.14 3.61 2.0140 3.2 51.5389 2.6650 2.79 3.5231 2.5 94.8 52.6 87.64 2.0 62.2 74.1140 3.3953 2.7763 2.92 3.7140 2.6586 2.6794 2.83 2.1
644.84 653.1 89.04 749.0 53.0 58.14 640.3312 75.48 683.67 675.14 783.4242 2.5727 2.74 703.1079 119.7417 2.82 2.69 925.0170 3.3 48.82 915.7911 2.0 75.7988 2.7001 59.33 893.04 3.59 906.40 949.2 785.69 765.1 53.3 79.17 2.5586 54.7 60.9806 3.4 76.8 63.0438 3.5009 51.15
2.5 98.61 859.0012 113.8178 2.3604 77.2 50.19 2.9 639.50 832.1 62.3 50.5656 2.45 769.9474 110.42 824.52 864.0408 3.21 758.0813 117.0706 3.1 730.61 2.41 3.21 940.36 898.60 2.50 3.3 58.2 629.9872 3.34 900.09 706.75 3.4193 2.5 620.45 2.8039 2.6 48.1 741.2 707.8 47.4 81.35 794.66 930.8265 2.3894 2.8815 2.9 90.8587 2.0940 3.86 2.10 840.54 693.4 90.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 127
Ts=40°C p=531.20 803.62 2.15 935.1 82.76 852.1539
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205
45.71 2.58 733.1502 3.89 962.55 2.0 66.7 88.89
2.6019 2.19 743.53 634.1 105.9 54.83 2.22 813.40 728.6 648.4490 2. Final Tests.49 714.1347 74.4185 80.4530 2.8 83.1 878.2 78.7 57.9267 2.9088 2.4 68.0 760.3834 47.57 787.57 850.0210 3.9 709.25 905.6015 2.7075 2.8 56.9281 2.72 2.24 636.99 716.84 675.4784 2.33 769.7 64.7 76.68 2.5 55.38 862.28 2.85 670.6 814.9132 2.27 2.5 62.6 53.73 685.01 2.51 881.6301 2.46 986.5166 2.3 67.53 829.4851 2.7431 2.64 712.8187 2.82 2.3 kPa Ts=50°C p=686.9403 2.2 55.90 882.1 803.9552 2.26
2.5 93.9 78.3 58.0 41.5145 2.5 68.66 2.9 926.6 792.57 918.3 86.3 67.9744 111.2 658.1 687. 10.26 2.3775 2.6301 2.3 60.4 82.92 2.7 71.68 3.5298 52.1 890.84 810.6861 2.7969 2.8860 2.8 57.9 85.9 64.3477 2.3 47.06 722.13 791.5
631.7 964.2 85.16 3.83 792.5 83.82 627.8 60.4 70.6 71.35 656.96 879.4 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
Ts=65°C p=976.12 821.17 747.4 60.5 41.7710 2.2 44.05 2.2 831.62 811.3716 2.9360 2.67 737.5 749.5 74.62 846.0478 3.9 55.0 75.8115 102.0 53.47 912.7559 61.3648 2.1 781.0 720.13 802.6 860.5736 2.0283 71.6156 56.5437 2.54 910.
8231 37.04 2.95 2.4377 30.3 879.9 984.45 2.90 2.63 2.7 929.4619 95 35.18 2.4317 90 34.3 842.09 2.3 725.9251 43.8786 38.43 2.4436 27.6 931.0066 45.1403 48.13 2.1533 220 54.0 954.0871 47.9712 185 49.5 969.7387 35.6 967.03 2.8345 160 45.83 2.4984 32.4012 85 33.2 944.45 3.4682 31. Final Tests.02 2.7670 35.4 824.2 662.1223 43.7 812.2 906.64 3.46 2.5 903.5 1008.2016
.5214 105 37. 128
Ts=80°C p=1349.32 2.51 2.1137 48.41 2.8895 170 47.9 956.0520 200 51.7 794.46 2.62 2.6451 36.4745 28.62 3.9 1019.5 688.6162 35.7589 39.5871 35.3803 26.7307 38.81 2.65 2.44 2.9 896.0421 42.1 789.9 891.37 2.79 3.71 2.7951 36.7 755.6946 135 42.5507 110 38.6816 33.3755 29.4068 30.7509 145 43.0 732.5282 33.9 918.0 783.2 869.5 958.9 744.3 921.74 2.08 3.01 2.7024 38.02 2.8509 37.6 866.57 2.1 736.58 2.48 2.79 2.6376 125 40.01 2.7102 34.13 3.1753 44.5 766.51 2.9 695.8148 40.2 786.1 684.4 872.6 894.76 3.5 857.8 993.63 2.8 706.9609 40.2 721.6 713.9524 44.8977 42.4 699.8 845.6237 32.2 971.83 2.6 908.61 3.87 2.6652 130 41.86 3. R600a Properties Tables
p.8 748.8 702.4 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 28.0 751.8 995.6 678.1 933.59 3.48 3.1319 215 53.3 771.72 2.6 718.1 916.4 806.9336 39.8 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK
85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230
25.6088 120 39.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.5799 115 38.5050 29.87 2.64 2.6 759.7228 140 42.90 3.9881 40.38 3.5 774.2 673.09 2.45 3.94 2.8426 41.4917 100 36.80 2.0 818.80 2.6 667.45 3.7729 150 44.05 2.3 778.32 2.15 2.5578 34.4 729.9 801.6 997.16 2.47 2.15 2.73 2.9 690.1 679.67 2.53 3.1930
Ts=85°C p=1494.35 3.19 3.59 2.9 848.5649 30.54 2.2 836.7 809.18 2.4 941.8 763.08 3.45 3.35 2.1667 49.0 854.9795 44.26 2.0252 195 51.55 2.0335 46.5944 31.2 982.4122 26.08 2.6 kPa t v Enth h Entr s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK 75 31.3703 80 32.7 859.0151 41.8620 165 46.39 3.51 3.26 2.7869 40.9168 175 48.2 740.8702 42.6738 37. 10.33 2.60 2.47 2.9982 190 50.2 884.6528 33.7 656.2 667.5351 30.0604 46.9 881.1488 44.0689 42.0957 43.8067 155 45.32 3.07 2.93 2.4 821.79 2.2 980.36 2.1 833.7 830.99 2.3 1006.8 946.1053 210 53.16 2.0 798.3 710.0787 205 52.9441 180 48.9061 38.
6 669.1780 3.9023 2.1 604.18 3.12 25 273.00 105 658.0 661.8 689.87 3.80 65 382.16 689.95 2.7276 2.8 100 817.6990 2.2 795.0 816.6125 2.57 30 278.24 776.00°C p = 199.9862 3.6 50 704.9163 25 826.9 5 603.9 572.5827 -10 361.5705 2.4 551.6014 -30 668.2790 90 1011.8027 5 769.2 85 783.82 100 424. 10.3 550.2 25 648.42 2.7 744.77 20 328.7 564.00°C p .3339 ts = -45.4955 -25 338.5kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg J/(kgK) -45 488.8283 2.09 2.0290 45 883.0 530.45 3.46 -20 227.7431 2.5 660.0669 3.8260 2.0 628.8000 2.93 75 322.76 95 418.2 633.3kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
-40 395.80 717.69 2.33 551.6752 2.0570 50 897.6 645.57 3.2 697.88 2.6 70 749.7 776.1 548.2607 3.55 3.0247 3.85 3.5677 2.8405 35 427.5254 2.9690 2. Final Tests.05 -15 285.7 570.7691 2.0390 3. v h ts = -30.4 612.08 -5 298.0695 3.2 668.31 558.2 659.2056 3.7 556.76 60 308.3 670.04 2.39 80 613.7610 2.0110 3.8177 2.59 15 322.8984 2.8133 2.9251 50 449.6832 2.81 75 605.6 542.3 -15 557.7 619.6256 2.2614
2.19 680.4803 2.7 -10 569.5 30 659.6980 10 390.8969 45 442.0418 3.1 608.9583 2.50 746.2 754.58 2.9109 2.66 573.04 3.6544 2.2515 85 397.4 524.01 65 587.5014 2.00°C p = 133.9 55 716.85.5 557.1619 3.6 745.79 2.75 537.49 10 258.0 581.4 595.7 571.85 -5 460.9969 3.99 653.8 796.8 584.1 765.0510 3. 129
Superheated Vapour pressure of R290 (Propane)
ts = -50.8880 20 812.82 45 551.42 70 318.28 2.5537 -15 353.7 576.14 35 283.0 698.7405 2.8 716.53 588.0972 3.9 592.0141 3.68 -20 432.9304 2.2170 3.5597 2.4 45 693.8 755.2 650.5 563.1 593.50 644.78 60 578.4 626.9 736.93 -5 242.9812 60 464.6405 0 376.6 611.08 85 622.4 90 794.53 3.1895 3.2 579.7119 2. R600a Properties Tables
p.49 45 358.3155 ts = -40.0648 75 486.30 20 505.60 3.6176 2.85 100 649.38 2.7145 2.7837 25 413.2 708.8742 2.8121 30 420.81 90 412.5095 2.1 594.2 549.4 561.5306 2.52 5 253.5 603.0009 40 869.2723
-25 222.1 579.0802 3.15 2.5967 2.09 95 342.04 35 346.6592 -20 697.98 2.58 15 263.8 75 761.81 3.5 602.1 686.2 616.5 706.2342 3.9 -30 523.2 625.5 678.28 85 332.45 2.7741 0 754.1 60 727.0 670.8 755.49 2.55 80 327.0 585.5 634.6702 2.1478 90 507.59 5 310.08 2.8 635.33 671.7563 2.53 10 316.2 601.62 3.6 15 625.08 2.5123 2.8kPa h s s t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/(kgK) J/(kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/(kgK) J/(kgK °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) ts = -25.0 714.00°C p=67.7894 2.1 696.6283 2.17 70 388.9 653.21 2.5 0 591.65 -35 405.6693 5 383.07 40 542.8596 15 797.4 717.42 565.26 5 478.1226 3.80 2.2 554.8312 10 783.57 3.6414 2.0 726.18
2.0 688.0 707.2028 100 522.19 3.1754 95 515.04 2.3 555.03 580.32 -10 237.7 573.89 603.2576 110 536.76 611.54 60 376.9 688.1 725.6571 2.70 40 352.50 -10 291.37 3.81 95 640.4 784.2 642.2 10 614.8 35 671.4721 2.89 30 631.7715 2.33 3.3 609.9830 3.1079 3.5414 2.0948 3.6117 -5 368.7848 2.4427 2.1343 3.3 618.21 766.2070 3.0 698.0925 80 493.25 726.8 654.60 662.44 2.8 806.2302 105 529.7 536.4830 2.8 736.8701 2.60 2.39 3.33 -10 451.26 80 400.0 80 772.4662 -30 331.6 586.4 643.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.66 75 394.9548 2.39 50 364.8543 2.79 20 268.5 687.69 50 560.00°C p = 163.07 25 334.9951 3.4 538.6465 2.9 724.9 20 637.0 705.7 620.7039 2.4537 2.3 744.53 -30 414.9267 2.56 25 514.26
2.4kPa v ts = -35.0 635.5142 -45 624.4 617.1962 75 968.7325 2.26 698.95 -15 441.7 786.50 2.76 3.5724 -35 653.3 566.2 677.60 2.0370 70 478.1796 3.9 795.95 2.4963 2.7168 -10 726.2849
-30 267.8826 2.2451 3.67 0 247.1685 70 954.76 619.3 -25 534.1522 3.06 115 362.65 3.7552 20 405.1904 3.0850 55 911.1354 3.03 65 313.6 679.4 65 738.15 10 487.1 -5 580.6 569.2239 80 982.67 115 441.9728 35 854.28 2.83 -15 232.68 55 569.8 765.60 55 303.2 564.8 559.71 2.5 696.2881 3.9390 2.16 15 496.1202 85 500.61 2.9446 30 840.35 70 596.16 100 347.9410 2.47 707.13 636.35 105 352.9 610.83 40 288.26 2.1 662.9532 55 456.4 766.6 785.8460 2.56 50 298.8 -20 546.7266 15 398.1 774.5434 -40 639.6880 -15 711.5887 2.2332 3.54 -25 423.2 764.58 120 367.1503 3.9671 2.0 661.82 736.21 2.8687 40 435.47 544.1247 3.18 3.5 774.0 600.9 745.2445 3.37 2.50 30 340.5 651.5545 2.98 85 406.30 756.3 -35 511.2719 3.62 2.3064 95 1025.0788 3.0 746.1 40 682.8418 2.88 2.9 544.09 2.43 2.26 2.41 55 370.8566 2.2992
-35 323.3 636.5 706.4 588.57 3.72 -20 279.8 -40 500.7455 -5 740.8848 2.5246 -20 346.3kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/(kgK) J/(kgK) -50 610.0525 3.0231 3.13 90 337.7976 2.5387 2.52 -25 273.7 652.45 2.1407 65 940.6 727.5994 2.2 587.6 626.99 105 430.9 531.1129 60 926.27 110 435.88 628.00°C p = 107.0091 65 471.2 756.15 595.86 3.2178 3.77 0 304.8 596.28 3.6 764.9 644.45 35 532.4 734.3 735.41 2.1 805.8 578.1630 3.6 95 805.1066 3.6 680.4 715.0 785.6304 -25 682.6858 2.64 3.65 110 357.0 716.8 734.3 671.9129 2.49 0 469.3 775.0 679.5 643.94 30 523.4 725.7 754.63 45 293.5836 2.8 627.0 543.81 3.
79 738.6 130 184.6 731.53 3.4 815.9293 2.8854 2.0 5 119.1154 105 291.8 145 162.57 120 130.57 856.0248 3.84 661.1 773.4764 2.8788 2.4245 2.2520
ts = -15.02 614.8506 2.2 783.4 55 123.5291 2.1 35 135.1227 3.37 70 182.0046 3.71 631.51 689.6 843.9 75 156.7 179.42 762.9971 3.6003 2.4 612.0 599.95 75 185.07 2.4625 -10 195.4048 2.0 30 112.88 3.3 182.18 85 116.2 207.8290 2.98 586.7 204.9769 3.8 597.49 666.9 753.3 161.7724 2.53 135 220.8 846.8 25 130.3 604.09 636.1 200.5 751.47 3.1 95 166.4330 -15 190.17 -5 136.9526 2.89 15 88.95 699.0734 3.4171 2.5196 2.6 55 146.64 2.6945 2.71 2.8 85 137.8123 2.56 684.30 574.4 778.2249 125 307.4300 2.3 35 114.7555 2.2 50 121.75 732.0 164.91 115 128.1 235.6 10 102.10 703.7 656. Final Tests.39 2.37 770.9
583.4647 2.1182 3.84 682.5 761.7 647.8 65 151.74 592.9 727.44 85 131.70
2.7 572.08 814.1728 3.3 804.85 606.13 25 93.8732 2.4541 2.3 649.8kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = 5.9692 2.5643 2.0 193.2 0 117. R600a Properties Tables
p.6 638.7941 2.5058 2.62 657.5 30 133.0 707.3 70 153.0 685.61 663.9 186.55 610.1 115 176.5 658.0 50 143.6117 2.0403 3.1 813.9771 80 270.6166 2.4944 2.1896 3.3 865.61 3.1075 3.1 641.1 688.53 772.6407 2.49 2.0 85 161.7657 2.65 2.4468 2.4 771.2 794.30 55 173.2 259.15 718.63 866.92 3.7 211.5 135 158.1692 3.84 589.41 3.7 702.7 665.1999 3.7 567.8008 2.53 713.00°C p=471.4 172.8968 2.7518 40 237.6076 2.2 596.63 834.8086 50 245.07 5 143.17 50 170.8406 2.1976 120 303.77 105 203.79 597.6513 2.27 2.6372 20 220.5239 2.0 90 139.9904 3.2 70 130.13 691.9 606.8572 2.70 150 141.7 674.12 110 206.6 120 179.1 135 186.90 30 95.5 615.6 723.87 617.6 741.0873 3.8 256.8 743.5713 2.47 628.4105 2.9804 3.9492 75 266.0603 95 283.0598 3.7802 45 241.2 695.5 190.59 115 209.3 130 156.7 110 147.2270
5 84.09 793.5 90 164.2316
0 98.48 855.00°C p = 402.11 812.9414 2.0908 3.9 717.8 40 138.7 218.81 2.1 678.13 2.28 3.09
2.35 3.0 810.88
2.21 90 118.7 667.5129 2.94 643.2 641.0082 3.6 110 174.8651 2.0358 3.4 100 143.07 594.0 242.5875 2.1 632.66 2.64 720.4997 2.5 15 125.8651 60 254.4836 2.26 2.33 95 120.00°C p = 341.84 2.39 608.86 759.76 20 152.8kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = 0.8932 2.74 825.03 710.53 742.16 120 212.5584 2.6 80 134.23 639.7 25 110.1 5 100.00°C p =287.00°C p = 240.7 733.45 626.42 145 139.77 790.6 100 169.5 621.75 70 111.06 769.7233 35 233.0 588.49 833.7316 2.64 80 188.46 75 112.84 125 215.2 803.46 20 91.29 800.39 2.7 721.7 10 122.2 125 154.0049 85 274.1623 3.15 750.92 811.3 704.6292 2.0 763.1455 3.8451 2.5934 2.82 823.3998 2.6983 2.7518 2.9013 2.2234
.5533 2.7 168.5kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) -20 186.9 65 128.0 575.2372
-5 114.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.6868 2.1009 3.90 65 179.55 2.6224 2.4 75 132.4 583.2 60 148.0 824.66 60 107.2 650.37 2.9212 70 262.38 95 197.2 877.9 821.0879 100 287.6 239.51 802.0
577.19 130 133.33 125 131.77 35 97.7840 2.00°C p=549.2168 3.6 140 160.6800 2.45 35 161.01 2.84 652.01 581.9491 2.1963 3.57 100 122.63 130 217.26 602.6084 15 216.9 676.8086 2.36 779.1146 3.3 788.51 836.3 782.18 680.6743 2.7270 2.6 566.2045 3.41 10 86.8169 2.6 629.0 175.2440
ts = -10.3 252.96 671.2 20 127.7439 2.5 826.8 737.93 2.9571 2.2 607.7 225.8687 2.6367 2.20 740.2 221.6660 25 224.5826 2.0326 30 278.4 714.5 105 145.7 711.1kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
-10 133.8369 2.21 25 155.8932 65 258.0458 3.4601 2.0182 3.36 110 126.65 822.6581 2.1 125 181.27 80 114. 130
ts = -20.7 589.7373 2.9348 2.7154 2.7kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 157.9 15 105.7 683.36 30 134.95 619.50 709.4404 2.7 60 125.6455 2.06 0 140.31 3.8224 2.0678 3.77 694.7601 2.1 697.9134 2.7886 2.15 65 109.6 757.1 105 171.24 40 164.6kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = -5.7 692.82 645.8 832.9248 2.7 747.87 648.77 30 158.5794 10 212.4701 2.1500 3.14 634.4899 2.3 20 107.0953 3.77 748.53 804.0126 3.17 135 135.7 591.5422 2.1283 3.43 844.01 600.2 659.31 622.1419 3.66 654.09 2.2 228.40 2.19 10 146.33 3.37 730.3 632.9 115 150.41 15 149.1350 3.9 45 119.3 835.0633 3.54 845.5784 2.6 232.6 140 189.6 40 116.7232 2.6696 2.1703 115 299.59 2.52 100 200.82 45 101.64 781.08 722.99 50 103.24 140 137.5212 0 203.9212 2.0322 3.9849 3.2 669.7087 2.20 760.9626 2.28 55 105.2 214.5 854.0 615.2 799.9068 2.2 95 141.2 792.6947 30 229.1556 3.5 245.7803 2.5 767.6656 2.42 752.5351 2.5 80 159.6 197.1773 3.4 45 141.91 105 124.47 675.5503 5 208.8369 55 250.53
2.1429 110 235.3 560.0 120 152.9 249.92 728.54 60 176.0524 3.67 672.7 624.7030 2.75 783.4919 -5 199. 10.15 45 167.0800 3.1 623.74 40 99.1829 3.4349 2.02 791.2101 3.9 580.52 701.59 2.5491 2.
88 2.3 618.9 783.84 3.0 753.34 2.0 774.53 715.9 796.4258 20 77.99 2.4828 70.8603 90.9444 94.27 776.56 2.16 2.10 676.0 713.1362 92.00°C p=955.2 79.5382 2.79 887.9 874.76 2.33 3.7202 70 34.6600 80.36 2.3 725.5681 2.43 2.6289 68.0846 135 116.7 108.30 2.9 627.43 2.52 3.7 61.62 2.41 2.0 667.7727 2.45 621.54 3.5128 72.56 686.5 764.7 745.4258 2.8 676.17 718.0 111.7774 80 98.28 2.19 2.9 63.8298 2.5699 66.00°C p = 635.00°C p=837.3 55.35 798.4496 60.8058 85 100.8 91.5 703.2 612.59 2.3 838.1905 94.0535 3.0 753.8058 2.1936 3.6600 80.1646 106.67 2. R600a Properties Tables
p.06 917.1119 140 118.7466 84.5 686.4 123.75 841.3 633.3.0295 125 113.5401 64.2 79.1 851.62 2.8 655.2 652.3 885.17 2.00 749.7150 2.5 681.7439 2.35 2.4 80.06 864.1646 106.8 864.75 3.4 75.0571 130 114.88 3.42 2.4800 61.1 872.2 88.11 3.52 894.6581 70.8341 90 101.0 621.0 827.2206
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160
63.9988 86.37 3.9 76.42 2.5kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) 10 73.1100 103.11 2.0019 120 111.8904 2.11 695.84 2.6 118.7488 75 96.8623 35 103.1kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155
73.1 851.0264 87.66 2.42 792.11 3.2 645.8 655.42 2.96 2.2 829.0 54.1634 93.1100 103.5 743.9 82.34 648.0
594.7752 86.5722 75.32 2.6 98.35 2.7 639.5426 73.3 664.27 803.4 787.9 674.9464 2.3 618.5 743.8884 92.8306 78.76 639.2170
.25 825.61 755.59 2.4526 68.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.1089 91.4222 67.00°C p=635.2 71.30 3.5 862.43 2.6016 76.6890 81.30 2.08 698.4776 2.1 70.9 600.5455 40 84.59 2.8589 79.7466 84.2 34.0259 3.17 3.9 690.79 2.85 3.4 110.62 847.10 2.6914 2.7488 2.5 81.8 897.61 2.22 3.5 703.46 760.0827 102.9145 2.2187
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 35 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165
55.8603 90.6 53.85 853.15 3.16 2.43 2.73 2. 131
ts = 10.8320 89.6 710.9 50.86 2.1 78.19 2.94 2.80 2.67 612.2 119.5 764.6 636.66 2.5102 63.1392 3.89 3.79 3.74 830.24 906.9152 82.5 723.88 2.3 614.9 874.90 658.27 2.9431 83.33 2.6860 2.4 683.77 2.7 103.6335 55 89.4 875.34 2.6309 78.42 2.32 630.1917 107.0815 89.8904 100 105.7162 72.3954 2.8 642.9 720.29 3.6914 65 93.35 2.52 2.0 735.8320 89.2 657.7202 2.37 3.1 106.33 3.6625 2.6872 71.4 755.87 620.9 751.3 96.6625 60 91.6 82.7 83.0 733.9 830.25 2.7752 86.67 781.4 683.4469 2.6043 50 88.1665 150 121.6043 2.7 74.4189 58.6335 2.52 3.84 3.4 594.9 116.89 766.62 2.30 2.0 713. Final Tests.9464 110 108.7450 74.75 667.63 739.8581 2.43 745.8871 80.8kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = 25.5995 67.6 841.1357 3.4561 2.3915 65.0846 3.6 715.1936 155 123.4526 68.57 668.02 770.97 2.30
2.9165 93.6 840.08 708.8 897.5 723.5426 73.6 840.0276 99.5455 2.9184 2.04 808.4 60. 10.32 678.28 2.54 3.5kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 63.76 787.3954 15 75.8 818.0 774.2 59.9 630.2206
ts =5.8013 2.74 3.0552 100.06 3.4159 2.7 84.7 816.3 114.0 733.43 2.4828 70.9165 93.28 2.9710 84.2 853.97
2.6568 2.34 2 .12 2.5 66.7774 2.9184 105 106.8884 92.3 664.89 2.3 807.7178 83.3 100.5979 2.3 705.9722 96.4861 2. 819.1665 3.5722 75.95 859.36 735.3915 65.96 2.1 64.8 818.2187
ts = 10.17 3.6016 76.8 907.7 113.39 2.0 693.8341 2.50 2.8 605.5159 2.43 2.77 705.39 725.3 731.84 2.0 80.7 661.0019 3.0276 99.75 2.9 600.6274 2.16 688.1392 145 119.3 885.9 674.8
610.7 776.6 73.9444 94.3879 57.3 77.90 882.2 794.5750 2.9704 2.5 86.15 2.0 887.6 636.15 3.5kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = 20.75 3.0 101.5080 2.1373 104.98 2.30 3.0 693.9 69.5750 45 86.53 2.5kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = 15.1373 104.4 105.1900 3.2175
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170
48.71 3.0000 97.9 58.37 875.42 2.2 645.84 819.98 2.1084 3.5 93.00°C p = 731.6 895.1119 3.04 3.0827 102.0295 3.47 2.3 884.5159 35 82.8 861.0 89.3846 2.2 762.79 2.89 3.0000 97.7 808.3 51.3 807.5 648.7 67.9 796.89 2.1 766.6 609.6 56.2 695.35 2.6 741.0540 88.4 72.4 785.0 77.9722 96.33 2.1917 107.0810 3.6 609.3 65.8036 87.4222 67.59 2.6 772.0571 3.6890 81.7178 83.1 671.34 2.8 121.3 603.37 870.2 700.8623 2.8864 2.88 3.5128 72.4 785.38 836.9742 115 110.30 3.97 3.8 624.4 805.0 798.45 2.34 2.9982 3.00°C = 731.8022 76.9425 2.7736 75.6309 78.29 629.4861 30 80.2 829.28 639.5 849.98 603.50 657.21 814.9742 3.56 3.99 2.9 627.36 728.4561 25 79.0552 100.29 648.5 862.28 2.8036 87.79 2.1629 3.52 2.
10.5324 80 31.91 902.59 941.5958 701.0030 160 43.3 45.7722 765.4 52.9 46.3814 625.2178
ts=40.4445 645.5 699.9451 2.9750 155 42.14 784.0012 3.4329 2.5643 2.49 2.56 693.8 38.0Pa t v h s °C dm3/kg J/kg kJ/(kgK) 35 37.9 732.0610 3.4401 2.27 879.70 966.9 655.1 56.6 105 52.5 40.0535 868.03 2.1 46.7 677.9429 832.6 38.74 708.0 968.4 31.7 788.8600 2.1711 3.3
624.33 3.39 676.0541 878.6264 705.14 2.3 130 57.23 795.12 2.00° C p=1728.17 2.2255
.6 80 47.71 2.5 36.33 909.87 2.6 100 51.3 956.16 2.89 682.3716 2.90 924.5046 670.5 40.53 814.5316 2.0887 3.47 838.6554 722.5 53.61 2.0265 866.87 2.80
2.9 41.9998 3.56 2.5006 75 30.7 54.10 784.7144 736.79 2.4 71.46 3.9 36.2 45.0568 3.8010 776.7745 120 37.87 2.32 2.5633 2.8 53.64 796.7434 746.53 2.00°C p= 1379.0275 3.1 37.51 2.7 47.12 3.4 65 44.0 42.6 688.1 39.1139 180 46.6 49.5 175 65.5949 2.04 3.4 800.4 70.2 28.37 891.6554 2.27 704.9 29.92 659.41 840.67 736.7 58.6 870.56 903.9 38.24 693.0 59.1686 190 47.4 30.9 49.22 3.39 3.9708 843.7143 2.96 2.9771 3.0052 3.3783 630.4 73.OkPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 42.4665 2.5649 2.1376 3.14 3.5 115 54.25 2.9 24.1958 195 48.9987 855.1637 926.6 90 49.7758 2.5353 681.8 43.5 70 45.5 46.41 2.3631 2.7 26.1937 3.15 727.7 40.9704 834.56 704.2 61.4 35.1630 916.8 48.9 666.9718 2.7 43.9 23.6256 2.4 125 56.07 2.0 45 40.30 718.1 60.99 635.8 52.8009 768.24 867.4993 2.56 3.1 721.5638 85 32.8016 2.22 671.3 64.0 52.6 85 48.76 3.82 2.4 615.3985 2.86 650.1 51.46 2.97 2.67 3.11 2.1084 892.6 37.76 2.65 817.5 27.0 46.0259 857.22 2.3 40.4 180 66.8632 2.OkPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts=50.5947 90 33.3 65.5 53.78 2.6 75 46.0864 175 45.5967 694.6 110 53.0 894.7 54.0810 880.5667 684.2 37.9468 150 41.1 31.6 39.9424 823.3 620.1908 938.8885 2.6 95 50.7722 757.67 656.8037 125 38.3 44.0290 3.03 3.5 42.2 140 59.56 758.17 2.1665 3.9 34.8025 2.07 2.4 69.5 41.3 919.3
636.34 645.98 3.2 765.4755 654.0817 890.79 687.84 3.5032 2.7727 2.1920 3.7 39.58 747.1983 3.52 2.71 2.14
2.6849 2.5 42.2 35.46 670.9185 145 41.3 51.6 47.8 823.20 2.77 2.84 911.10 953.1649 3.8343 2.82 725.6253 2.4105 640.95 946.05 2.2229
55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200
22.91 2.75 861.6254 2.3 35.38 751.6557 100 34.4 43.15 2.00°C p=1084.37 979.8589 2.0 632.40 3.8 40 39.40 3.0309 165 44. 132
ts=30.5 44.1 811.2 45.92 852.5947 2.1 42.4051 2.5366 674.9 32.4736 660.19 3.88 2.31 897.55 2.45 921.0 931.9 57.3
629.47 738.2 36.20 647.4 31.5 834.22 2.21 2.0 58.8873 2.3 56.82 916.16 928.6852 2.8 160 62.6559 715.6254 95 33.4701 2.6 50.66 2.5657 691.48 3.0552 3.7142 743.9489 2.89 3.OkPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts=45.7436 2.0332 3.23 2.9 49.45 2.3 63.7 906.83 3.4684 70 29.3751 2.85 2.4 51.6562 2.4131 635.7 30.61 2.65 933.6849 733.28 2.18 803.5 50. 10.0587 170 44.20 761.7 165 63.6852 725.1413 185 46.00 887.21 3.22 762.0844 3.7442 2.54 2.4 60 43.1163 3.28 948.7156 110 36.3 34.82 750.12 3.07 2.4422 650.8295 778.12 639.1438 3.39 806.4 754.61 2.9 44.8303 2.5342 2.1 50.5 55.5 120 55.2 51.2 52.88 899.8313 2.6 170 64.00°C p=1225.77 2.8052 2.2 55 42.62 740.8865 809.8901 140 40.2 62.3 710.4 74.7166 2.5 59.6553 2.40 2.1 145 60.8579 789. 0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185
33.60 769.0 644.6257 712.22 876.58 3.8919 2.4 72.92 729.62 831.0828 3.8 25.53 2.21 2.1358 904.4 33.9 47.53 864.1364 914.9169 2.7433 754.42 843.89 819.2 33.0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts = 55.7463 2.4 41.1901 928.9205 2.4 34.6 33.14 773.4 28.7451 115 36.4 66.7734 2.1119 3.45 2.88 682.02 714.96 826.1393 3.37 885.9 57.16 2 .4 68.4020 60 27.4355 65 28.5333 2.1 45.31 2.2 42.8326 130 39.00°C p= 1546.2208
45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190
29.91 792.19 3.3676 55 27.75 2.02 666.4 67.9982 845.8614 135 39.5 37.61
2.6865 2.6858 105 35.4719 2.0 150 60.91 2.1103 3.8297 787. R600a Properties Tables
p.4379 2.18 2.30 855. Final Tests.5019 2.98 829.55 661.8 55.3 135 58.04 936.31 2.51 873.6 35.7148 2.2 846.9 155 61.7 943.4079 2.36 3.64 2.7 743.0 37.8862 800.3 882.24 697.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.85 716.9732 3.33 958.5 39.5062 664.9156 2.90 2.06 2.4 48.5953 2.9147 820.17 2 .8582 798.32 3.62 773.9 777.68 2.9144 811.2172
ts= 35.5 32.72 780.1 48.23 807.9 858.9438 2.00°C p = 1925.07 849.1 50 41.
0 13.8362 140 31.33 910.2 33.29 659.3 25.9885 914.1739 200 38.7 830.6897 23.63 2.5947 21.8965 2.7 641. 10.1052 3.9 913.5945 2.2 1029.9 22.0771 3.0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts=80.00°C p=2877.3 25.6585 22.6 24.6 803.5946 750.99 989.7
2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.09 2.2 35.1 27.3577 65 21.7510 24.23 2.0 721.7
642.9 827.3 710.86 2.24 823.30 2.54 884.00 730.2117 1019.91 2.7205 24.1531 31.5 3.26 787.43 763.79 3.7 35.1883 3.7855 2.91 858.7 23.54 3.2431
.00°C p=3160.03 3.0489 3.2284
ts = 65.0 16.12 2.6277 2.53 962.6 863. Final Tests.71 689.00°C p=2137.0170 927.9567 28.7 656.76 2.9 23.1 17.5 27.1 31.32 936.8133 838.8755 2.01 2.7 687.7 23.53 751.9 29.92 2.72 2.1 663. 133
ts=60.7 642.56 3.63 2.7832 825.6264 2.7 1016.4 20.4299 75 22.98 679.5947 100 26.19 2.4643 80 23.5605 2.9310 889.4618 2.6577 2.0078 170 35.4 24.8383 2.1 32.35 2.60 2.29 782.9019 876.9 675.4 900.7 768.21 811.5 21.1771 3.1291 979.3 28.5 781.16 3.5947 2.4978 85 24.0 30.22 799.9 26.7 880.38 833.8 19.41 2.0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) 60 20.9 29.10 654.54 3.2012 205 39.3180 2.0666 3.6603 2.8458 2.2158 3.39 717.7477 125 30.88 807.9 20.3838 17.0205 3.8 14.2 651.1 733.1568 992.63 820.1466 195 38.9823 3.32 743.2 3.7 745.5307 90 25.0734 953.93 2.4962 2.7 17.4 19.35 999.13 2.2351
75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220
13.78 2.0914 185 37.4 780.0 26.6260 105 27.5271 725.6 950.39 2.4919 712.78 2.4 24.28 3.20 934.9050 2.8 25.9 19.9539 2.46 2.50 2.8069 135 31.5 670.64 2.57 2.4 18.2390
80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225
12.3320 658.6885 2.45 2.8652 145 32.83 2.48 2.6923 2.6 33.8089 2.46 973.1255 31.9342 2.8726 863.1843 1006.3 21.2 868.6 20.7 20.01 674.7 905.7 855.0 791.7221 800.68 727.8 26.2 843.8158 2.58 2.7 15.2 918.9796 165 34.7237 2.7528 813.2 818.31 1002.4589 19.97 2.21 2.9280 27.6569 110 28.74 2.53 2.9632 2.10 3.12 2.32 2.8 25.4893 2.8 888.9227 155 33.0136 29.2 944.2 22.3 21.37 3.79 2.65 859.8 18.4 745.8 22.5613 738.1 970.7 27.00°C p=2366.9 14.1 19.92 2.1 996.1221 3.9919 3.5 1009.14 845.61 897.9 18.0978 30.60 922.0 24.8 708.0699 30.2 26.6909 788.39 2.0453 940.2 815.47 3.4113 2.5297 2.3 683.12 3.7 931.6 983.7548 2.9253 2.8406 26.37 703.46 847.2 20.2079 32.4173 686.60 3.9853 28.1 695.07 909.8941 150 33.0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215
15.88 947.3945 70 22.7 976.30 3.3510 2.64 2.19 3.7 15.5 839.8431 851.2 34.0637 180 36.73 975.45 3.0106 3.62 739.5 698.91 872.60 3.7 28.00°C p=2612.34 2.6268 22.34 775.27 666.0418 29.56 3.1497 3.42 2 .3678 2.4 17.6 806.6 28.3 757.49 3.4 22.7811 25.22 2.1 794.41 2.9599 901.4942 19.39 949.7792 2.3 22.7774 130 30.4 30.71 871.8 21.5 31.1 851.4514 2.5629 95 26.3 17.0945 3.1 27.24 3.0 24.08 2.4 16.11 794.4264 2.59 2.2316
ts=70.0 756.45 2.2 893.69 715.6875 115 28.61 703.7177 120 29.7493 2.63 960.4223 18.5285 20.0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 17.0387 3.2 963.6594 775.1608 3.36 986.9 24.0 13.98 2.10 3.97 2.4 23.3427 16.30 2.4 19.5255 2.94 3.3 638.06 2.6273 763.8110 25.32 835.4555 699.0358 175 35.57 2.71 3.8 18.86 3.2 875.96 2.67 2.4 28.30 923.7191 2.1191 190 37.68 2.41 897.7 34. R600a Properties Tables
p.3 29.5619 21.8675 2.35 2.02 2.1 23.5625 2.7 957.8700 26.4 720.7 733.4 24.3896 2.98 2.0 22.41 769.39 691.4 26.1330 3.0kPa t v h s °C dm3/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
ts=75.8 27.6 16.27 2.1806 32.0 28.66 2.1013 966.23 884.6 26.34 3.2 25.8991 27.78 2.3766 672.2
641.9 769.2044 3.9512 160 34.1 938.9 21.83 2.6 32.95 2.37 2.6 3.62 2.7 25.5 925.43 756.3 989.
that means 10 bar relative. EN 55014-1:2001—Electromagnetic compatibility—Requirements for household appliances.16. which reduce costs.7 requires a pressure test on circuit components for flammable refrigerants.17. The new EU Directive 2004/108/EC will repeal Directive 89/336/EEC as from 20 July 2007. 134
10.7. in Transfair Engineering: Evacuation. evaporators and tubes) and have to execute refrigerator type pressure tests for type approval and . Also the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 97/23/EC from 29 November 1999 requires that all items of pressure equipment placed on the market in the European Economic Area (EEA) after May 2002 must comply with this directive. and similar apparatus—Part 2: Immunity—Product family standard. electric tools. But the manufacturer do not depend anymore on authorized bodies for product approval like in past and can make assessment on its own and concentrate of electro smog. The pressures are gauged pressures. So the complete cooling circuit. Charging. 5 times of the saturated vapour pressure of the refrigerant at 20°C for parts exposed to the low side pressure during normal operation.
10. valves. The IEC/EN 600335-2-24 section 22. that means 35 bar relative. even the ones filled without flammable refrigerants. We should add a 50% reserve before bursting. and similar apparatus—Part 1: Emission—Product family standard. Products must be constructed so that they do not cause excessive electromagnetic interference and are not unduly affected by electromagnetic interference. all without pressure relieve valve must be able to withstand the maximum pressure. They should withstand an absolute pressure of 3.to control the type approval conform manufacturing process .15 EMC Tests 10. Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current < 16 A per phase) and part 3-3 Voltage fluctuation and flicker limits This process will ultimately lead to affixing of a CE mark on the product when coupled with all other relevant requirements of applicable new approach directives. for example during Helium leak test (see Chapter 4. filter dryers.
Cooling Circuit Pressure Test
Even if Isobutane explode inside the system. Electromagnetic Compatibility Tests (EMC)
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility of household refrigerators become part of CE certification. How this new directive will apply to household refrigerators. Leak Detection and Performance Testing in the Household Refrigerator production Today 2006.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. to stress the joints. but it deforms Aluminium Roll Bond and other flat copper or aluminium components.5 times of the saturated vapour pressure of the refrigerant at 70°C for parts exposed to the high side pressure during normal operation. EN 55014-2:1997—Electromagnetic compatibility—Requirements for household appliances. which can be built up inside the circuit. Such pressure is normally not critical for household refrigerator cooling circuit components and correctly made brazing and other joints. which really can be generated by the appliance.at least pressure tests on samples or on all refrigerators. which theoretically could happen. if no deformation will happen. like flat accumulators or receivers. accumulators. condensers.16 Cooling Circuit Pressure Tests
p. electric tools. which tests has really to be executed it still has to be clarified. 10.
. EN 61000-part 3-2 (2006): Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). A refrigerator manufacturer should insist today on the conformity declaration of components manufacturers (compressor. according to tests executed by Liebherr and others the maximum pressure peak of 12 bars are created during explosion in the cooling circuit and this pressure should remains under the critical load of any cooling circuit components and joints.
that an about 30% bigger condenser with oil and with a gas circuit and other compressor types with 5 tube joints are needed.1.3. in the evaporator the efficiency is best. Only in few freezers made for tropical conditions. that means the temperature difference between evaporator inlet and outlet in stable. Oil pockets in which oil can accumulate should be avoided.
Converting Household Refrigerators from CFC-12 to HFC-134a Systems and from HFC-134a to HC-600a Systems
11. Because of the a. 1. (see chapter 7.). the super heat is so high (see chapter 3. which allow to reach a refrigerant gas speed of 4-5m/sec. 6. In the last 5 years many energy optimised models are available. but the cleanliness standard to be kept on purchased components and during operation are much higher (compressor and dryer loaded with dry Nitrogen. Capillary tube selection: The tests should start with the size and length of capillary tube as recommended by the compressor manufacturer. oil cooling condensers). which reduces the condensing demand and energy consumption by about 15%. the capillary capacity (l/min) near
. Converting refrigerators to 134a and to R600a Systems
p. 3. not reduced in bending areas or because of bad quality. 2. the maximum pressure drop is limited.6.2.) with HCF-134a at 14.4. of 3-4 m length). The condenser can be tested acc. If the existing model was not very good it is much better to redesign the complete system according to this booklet.9 bar and 55°C condensing temperature and after sub cooling (see item 7). 11. Compressor selection: The R134a –compressor to be selected should have the same capacity according to ASHRAE or CECOMAF standard as the one used for the R12 system. following fast approach for the conversion from CFC-12 to HFC-134a can be made. lower mass flow and volume flow much longer (0. 4. A tray on top of the compressor should be installed. therefore the Roll-Bond was often replaced by tubes-onsheet evaporators during this conversion. like XH7 or XH-9 from Union Carbide or Siliporite H3R. The pressure drop through the capillary should be according to the evaporating temperature to be reached (see table or use program). even now for tropical regions which should be preferred selected (see chapter 2.m. 5. Filter dryer selection: HFC-134a systems needs more efficient filter with molecular sleeves of 3Å instead of 4Å. or refrigerator models made for tropical climate classes needs regularly a larger condensing surface. The cross section of channels should be equal. Converting Household Refrigerators from CFC-12 to HFC-134a Systems
Under the condition that the CFC-12 model was working already quite optimal for the climate class designed for. and than optimized in length under following conditions: In the first step the capillary capacity can be measured with test apparatus (chapter 4. Such cross section size must be selected. higher compressor displacement. These are typical problems of Roll-Bond evaporators. which is because of higher pressure difference. In opposite they reduce needed optimal refrigerant speed. The quantity should be about 20% bigger or the same as used in past if it was good dimensioned. Evaporator selection: The miscibility of refrigerant and oil differ in R12 and R134a systems. that means that the displacement of the R134a is 8-12% higher.71mm inner dia. the U-value of condenser theoretically should be increased. not in pull down conditions should be kept in the range of 1°K). if the condensing capacity and U-value of the CFC-12 model was not near the technical border in the past. 135
11. By this optimal speed of 4-5m/sec.10). condenser and evaporator cleaned with dry air(dew point -45°C) etc. Also unnecessary parallel channels (in bending areas often used) do not help. than to modify single items already not good designed. Compressor water evaporation tray: Especially a refrigerator without freezer or freezer hermetically separated from the refrigerator should drain the condensed water from the evaporator by a tube to cool the compressor shell. to Chapter 3. Condenser selection: In the first stage of development often the same condenser (and evaporator) can be used in a HFC134a household refrigerator as used for CFC-12.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. In HFC-134a systems more ester oil is passing the circuit as in the past done by Mineral oil used in CFC-12 systems. In praxis freezers and refrigerators with large freezers for subtropical and tropical climate classes.
The conditions for different models and climate classes are varying so much that some single items cannot be recommended in this chapter and therefore it is useful to go through all chapters and recommended measurements and tests again for the development of an optimal system. 2. The capillary tube should be winded round the cold suction tube of the compressor covered by a shrink film sleeve. etc. The behaviour is changing not only by changing of capillary tube length.5. Few relevant aspects should be taken first into consideration before the design conversion to HC-600a models should start: 1.-8. Last not least all manufacturers – though they don’t like to admit it – test regularly the models of their best competitors and compare their efficiency values with the ones of their own products to identify own weak areas to be improved.1. environmental temperatures and loads.
11.4.).5. The cabinet.
7. Sub cooling heat exchanger: Sub cooling of HFC-134a increases the nominal capacity by about 23%. 9. HFC. the higher demand on the brazing quality. filter and evaporator would be the same).2.5.). The additional requirements on cleanliness in circuit components and during processing. and Transfair Engineering: Evacuation.2. 11. Charging. otherwise special protected electrical component must be used. but 13 cc HC-600a. 10.Refrigerant charge quantity: The optimal HFC-134a charge quantity is the one which reaches 3-5°C superheat above the saturated temperature which matches the measured pressure (see table or use program) between evaporator outlet and compressor inlet. 136
the ideal conditions according to the table or program and the calculation in chapter 4. Additional tests have to be made on the design (Chapter 8. the limited time of opening the compressor and filter dryer.4. max. Leak detection and Performance Testing in the Household Refrigerator Industries today. cooling circuit and electrical design: Most important is the separation of electrics and cooling circuit.5.10).3.2. eliminate accumulators by using vertical u-bends in refrigerator evaporator (chapter 5. So it is a must for a HFC-134a system.2. 4% more than in a CFC-12 model.3. Fine tuning of charge quantity is needed (see chapter 7.1. Düsseldorf 2001). so that all tests must be repeated several times till all parameters are optimal. In some cases the foreseen compressor compartment size must be increased for a HC-600a compressor with 70-80% bigger displacement volume.). Converting Household Refrigerators from HFC-134a to HC-600a Systems
A fast track approach for the conversion from HFC-134a to HC-600a models as made from CFC-12 to HFC-134a in chapter 11. elimination of thermal bridges (Chapter 1. Defrost models with foamed in tube-onsheet (=TOP) evaporators behind the liner are safe. So also such an approach is strongly recommended. 8. the cleaning of condensers and evaporators. Safety precautions during charging of HC-600a refrigerators and working on the circuit filled with HC-600a must be made to prevent explosion (see Chapter 7. (to be measured by identification of temperature zones in the evaporator inlet). compressor. efficient and cheap to be made. It is always useful to use the conversion to optimize the refrigerator in all areas. specially all their joints. which must accompany the introduction of R134a model manufacturing (see Chapter 7.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. For example a 160kcal compressor needs about 8cc HFC-134a. is not possible for the conversion from HFC-134a to HC-600a household refrigerators. which are often more expensive and sometimes have the chance that their protection will break. And the HC-600a system must be marked for service reasons. The behaviour of the HC-600a refrigerant is so different from the one of HFC-134a that nearly all cooling circuit components must be redesigned.). 7 % of evaporator in worse conditions should be liquid filled. using energy optimized compressors (chapter 2.) 3. Converting refrigerators to 134a and to R600a Systems
p.) that vapour come out of capillary (temperature difference of liquid and vapour at evaporator inlet).5. It is about 10% less than the CFC-12 charge quantity (if all condenser. Therefore it does not make sense now to repeat the booklet. but also it depends from refrigerant charge quantity to be optimized. The
. stating from thermal insulation.2. that even in case of a leak no explosion can happen (chapter 8.5) and on each produced refrigerator (Chapter 8.4.). all this can only be reached by strict quality control measures. By modifying other circuit parts the test must be repeated.
the charge accuracy must be inside the range of 1g and the leak detection inside the range of 1 g per year.
Except the a. if all other conditions are comparable. 5.m. grease and mineral oil). points the designing of R600a is a standard refrigerator engineering work.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping … Cooling Circuits. The requirement on fine tuning of charge quantity. Charging. 11. oxidation. Because of much lower refrigerant quantity same absolute impurity has higher thermodynamic effects if it is a gas or can be vaporized. But the demand on cleanliness has not been diminished. even less than expected from the lower charge quantity. Normal mineral oil can be used in the HC-600a compressors and this eliminates a lot of cleanliness problems using HFC134a systems with hydroscopic ester oil (humidity. Only by high cleanliness the efficiency advantage can be reached. Düsseldorf 2001). only changed. All non-condensable gases – even diluted inside the compressor oil. Leak detection and Performance Testing in the Household Refrigerator Industries today. must be removed by special evacuation processes under compressor run (see Transfair Engineering: Evacuation. 6. The charge tolerances of HC-600a is much smaller. chlorine.
electric coil and energy consumption by different cylinder sizes of HFC-134a and HC-600a are practically the same for the same cooling capacity. 4. Converting refrigerators to 134a and to R600a Systems
p. In addition in can be stronger improved by a run capacitor as HFC-134a models. If all are optimized HC-600a systems today are at least 5% more efficient as the HFC-134a models. Too high charge can cause oil film break on the cylinder.
ISO 8187 EN 28187 . Fan motor electric safety EN 60335-2-80 and EN60335-2-24 Annex AA: locked-rotor test fan motor Pressure switch EN 60730-2-9 Compressor electric safety: EN60335-1 and 2-34 Electric terminal box on compressor and in zone with potential R600a leaks must be made in accordance with “n” protection (class IP 54 if flammable gas cannot accumulate or higher) according to IEC60079-15 and correspond to the required "Zone 2" regulations. The wires (PTC control circuit) between terminals) and compressor terminal plate must be either shielded or twisted cable (danger of inductance). Standard 60335. Standard 60335. together with associated characteristics
Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers . The new EMC Directive has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union. 12.Characteristics and test methods (ISO 15502:2005). 31 December 2004. Following international or relevant national standards exist for refrigerators and freezers:
EN ISO 15502 (2005): Household refrigerating appliances . which tests has really to be executed it still has to be
. DIN 8964 (1996/2002): Circuit components for refrigerating systems . Requirements. Part 2: Sealed systems. Standard 60335. Part 1: Safety of household and similar electric appliances. Products must be constructed so that they do not cause excessive electromagnetic interference and are not unduly affected by electromagnetic interference.IEC/EN/UL/J/GOST etc.Frozen food storage cabinet and food freezers characteristics and test methods. food freezers and their combinations. 12. For flammable refrigerants (R600a) these standards specify to carry out risk assessment to control flammability risk by tests clauses 22.Refrigerators-freezers' characteristics and test methods. IEC and EN Standards
p. Vers. How this new directive will apply to household refrigerators. as already mentioned in the booklet and applied. refrigerator-freezers characteristics and test methods. specify which tests according to which methods the household refrigerator manufacturer have to execute for household refrigerator type approval in Europe for example to issue CE conformity declaration. L 390/24.
EN 153 (2006): Methods of measuring the energy consumption of electric mains operated household refrigerators. 1. and will repeal Directive 89/336/EEC as from 20 July 2007.2.IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc. The protection device must be connected according to the wiring diagram.refrigerators with or without low
temperature compartment. Requirements To be applied on complete cooling circuit EU PED -Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC by pressurization of the circuit by 15bar for R600a and 23 bar for R134a. ISO EN 8561 Household Frost free refrigerating appliances. (2002): Part 3: Closed systems.Household refrigerating appliances . Part 2-89 (2007): Particular requirements for commercial refrigerating appliances with an incorporated or remote refrigerant condensing unit or compressor.
Electrical standards of IEC/EN for each used electrical part and in Europe the EU Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) as amended 93/68/EEC. on manufactured samples or all made refrigerators to insure that his production is conform with type approval.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility Directive 2004/108/EC.Household refrigerating appliances .
Standards EN Standards for refrigerators
The standards.IEC/EN/UL/J/GOST etc. . frozen food storage cabinets. refrigerators. it replaced the 4 withdrawn standards: ISO EN 7371 . ISO EN 5155 . and .Part 1: Testing. Part 2-24 (2005): Particular requirements for refrigerator appliances and ice makers.7.Performance of household refrigerating appliances . 138
it is harmlessly vented away so that no explosive mixture can occur.EN 732 (1998): Specifications for dedicated liquefied petroleum gas appliances .Compressor electric safety: EN60335-1 and 2-34 . Additionally. steps are to be taken that in case of a refrigerant leak. individual authorisation from the industrial regulatory authority may also be required. But the manufacturer do not depend anymore on authorized bodies to approve and can make assessment on its own. The present standards only cover design regulations for stationary plants. EN 61000-part 3-2 (2006): Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The type of measuring instrument and the limits within which measurements shall be made are listed in normative annex A. operation and maintenance of refrigeration plants with flammable refrigerants (Group L3). EN378: For design. amongst other things. qualified instruction is required. which reduce costs. EN 55014-1:2001—Electromagnetic compatibility—Requirements for household appliances. With the present regulations. a separate agreement is to be met between the plant contractors and the operator.Rating conditions. energy labelling of commercial refrigerators. power absorbed.
Compressor safety . EN 13771-1 (2003 /2005): Compressors and condensing units for refrigeration .Anforderungen. electric tools. requirements and test conditions. EN 55014-2:1997—Electromagnetic compatibility—Requirements for household appliances. EN 441: Methods of measuring the energy consumption. Part 2: Classification. 139
clarified. EN378 / In Germany VBG20 / draft DIN 7003 / DIN VDE 0165 / VDE 0100. and similar apparatus—Part 1: Emission—Product family standard. Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current < 16 A per phase) and part 3-3 Voltage fluctuation and flicker limits
This process will ultimately lead to affixing of a CE mark on the product when coupled with all other relevant requirements of applicable new approach directives.Sicherheitstechnische und umweltrelevante Anforderungen Kältemittel-Verdichter
. 12.Ventile . are special protection devices against excessive pressure and special features in design and arrangement of electrical equipment. special safety regulations apply. e. and similar apparatus—Part 2: Immunity—Product family standard.
.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. These methods provide sufficiently accurate results for the determination of the refrigerating capacity.Absorption refrigerators.EN 12693 (1997) Kälteanlagen und Wärmepumpen . refrigerant mass flow. for the operating personnel. This standard applies only to performance tests conducted at the manufacturer's works or wherever the equipment for testing to the accuracy required is available. electric tools. tolerances and presentation of manufacturer's performance data. According to the design and refrigerant charge. Prüfung und Kennzeichnung
EN 12900 (2005): Refrigerant compressors . Belonging to these regulations. The exact design regulations are determined in the Standards. the designer of such plants must be certified in dealing with flammable refrigerants. Moreover.g.Performance testing and test methods Part 1: Refrigerant compressors. This part 1 of the European Standard applies only to refrigerant compressors and describes a number of selected performance test methods. isentropic efficiency and the coefficient of performance.
. IEC and EN Standards
p.EN 12284 (2004): Kälteanlagen und Wärmepumpen .
EN ISO 23953 (2006) Refrigerated display cabinets – Part 1 Vocabulary.
IEC and EN Standards
p. EN 327 Air cooled refrigerant condensers.bsi-global. Genova 6. maintain. test and commission.Part 1: Vessels .General requirements. I-20133 Milano TEL: +39 270 0241 FAX: +39 270 106 106 Spain: Asociación Espanola de Normalización y Certificación (AENOR).int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/harmstds/reflist. http://www.eu. D-10787 Berlin.Performance testing and test methodsPart 2: Condensing units.de/ Italy: Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (UNI). install.
EN Standards can be purchased from the following Institutions:
Great Britain: British Standards Institution (BSI). 12. Tel: +44 20 8996 9001.Methods for calculation. This European Standard establishes procedures for achieving and assessing the competence of persons who design.eu. Via Battistotti Sassi 11/b.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.html
. PO Box 16206. Forced convection air cooled refrigerant condensers. TEL: +49 302601 2260. Test procedure for establishing performance. This European Standard does not apply to those persons who carry out work on the basis of instructions if they are supervised by a competent person. F-92049 Paris La Défense CEDEX TEL: + 33 142 91 55 33 FAX: + 33 142 91 56 56 Germany: Beuth-Verlag GmbH.xalter France: Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR). EN 13215 (2000): Condensing units for refrigeration . E-28004 Madrid TEL: + 34 14 32 60 00 FAX: + 34 13 10 45 96
http://europa. Tour Europe. London W4 4ZL (cash with order) or by internet http://www. EN 14276 (2002): Pressure equipment for refrigerating systems and heat pumps . "Qualite de la Vie" (SQV). EN 13136 (2005): Refrigerating systems and heat pumps .htm http://europa. Heat exchangers. 140
EN 13771-2 (2003 /2005): Compressors and condensing units for refrigeration . safety. Order by Fax: +44 20 8996 7001 (with credit card details). FAX: +49 30 26011260. by post: BSI Customer Services c/o Cash Office.Pressure relief devices and their associated piping . repair and dispose of refrigerating systems with respect to health. EN 13313 (2002): Refrigerating systems and heat pumps . tolerances and presentation of manufacturer's performance data.Competence of personnel. Serv.Rating conditions.int/comm/enterprise/electr_equipment/legislat.
DIN 8949 (2000): Refrigerant filter driers – Testing
EN 28960 (1993) Refrigerators. frozen food storage cabinets and food freezers for household and similar use.com/index. measurement of emission of airborne acoustical noise (ISO 8960:1991). Burggrafenstrasse 4-10. environmental and energy conservation requirements.beuth.
and test definitions. 2006 .
IEC Standards can be received by http://www. Part 2-24 (2005): Particular requirements for refrigerator appliances and ice makers. and safety recommendations. . The US-UL signed the above IEC 60335 1 and 2-24. see ASHRAE Guideline 3-1996. changes were made to the requirements for pressure vessel protection and references were updated. The reader is referred to that addendum as well as Appendix J of this standard for changes that have been made since the original publication of ANSI/ASHRAE 15-2001. and includes requirements that improve the consistency of ambient temperatures. This standard should be useful to the design engineer responsible for rating open or closed commercial refrigerators.ANSI-NSF 7-2001: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers Electric safety standards: . methods for determining energy consumption and energy factor.
Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers . refrigeration load. In addition there exists ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2004 – Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems.
12. This standard is directed toward the safety of persons and property on or near the premises where refrigeration facilities are located.iso. ANSI/ASHRAE 15-2004 is the newest version of one of ASHRAE’s oldest standards. shelf loading.UL 621Standard for Ice Cream Makers -
.UL 60335. durability test procedures. including correction of an omission in the 2001 standard. product temperature performance.UL 563Standard for Ice Makers . This version is a republication of ANSI/ASHRAE 15-2001.iec. For information on the environmental effects of refrigerant emissions. .10. 12. the suction pressures required. It includes specifications for fabrication of tight systems but does not address the effects of refrigerant emissions on the environment.9.org/
12. and . RefrigeratorFreezers and Freezers. This revision of Standard 72 combines Standard 72-1998 for open refrigerators and Standard 117-2002 for closed refrigerators.UL 60335.UL 471Standard for Safety Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers. In addition.UL 399 Standard for Drinking-Water Coolers . methods for computing volumes and shelf areas. The purpose of this standard is to establish a uniform and repeatable procedure or standard method for measuring specified product characteristics of household refrigerators. IEC and EN Standards
p. It prescribes a uniform method of testing open and closed commercial refrigerators and freezers for rating so that comparative evaluations can be made of energy consumption.
ISO Standards are at least in our areas identical with EN and can be received by http://www. including addendum a.UL 541Standard for Refrigerated Vending Machines . Performance and Capacity of Household Refrigerators. performance test procedures.1. The standard also clarifies door opening requirements. methods for determining volumes of special features. and other performance factors. 141
12. Among those changes were changes to the treatment of flammable refrigerants.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.ch/ or by the national standard institutes of member countries or their publishers. Part 1: Safety of household and similar electric appliances.
Some selected US Standards for refrigerators
ANSI/AHAM HRF 1 (2004): Energy. household wine chillers and household freezers.UL 250: Standard for Safety Household Refrigerators and Freezers
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 72 (2005): Method of Testing Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers. This standard covers definitions.8. Reducing Emission of Halogenated Refrigerants in Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Equipment and Systems. In EU from the institutes or publishers as already mentioned in chapter 12.
Errata lists are issued occasionally and may be downloaded for free at the following address: http://www. It establishes a method for measuring the flow capacity of refrigerant suction line filters and filter-driers. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 63. This standard applies to all of the refrigerants listed in the ASHRAE Handbook — Fundamentals and in ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 342 that fall within the scope defined above. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 78 (1985) (RA 2003): Method of Testing Flow Capacity of Suction Line Filters and FilterDriers.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 35 (1992): Desiccants for Refrigerant Drying.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 20-1997 (RA 2006): Method of Testing for Rating Remote Mechanical-Draft Air-Cooled Refrigerant Condensers. issued by the sponsoring technical committee.ansi. and provides a standard procedure against which all other methods of tests may be checked.ashrae.org/template/TechnologyLinkLanding/category/1631 . When they are available. The water capacity test method prescribed can be used to test a drier either "as received" or after being reactivated in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. This standard is under continuous maintenance. 142
ANSI/ASHRAE 23(2005): Methods of Testing for Rating Positive Displacement Refrigerant Compressors and Condensing Units. This standard applies to the methods of testing for rating single-stage positive-displacement refrigerant compressors and condensing units that (a) do not have liquid injection and (b) are operated at subcritical (saturated) temperatures of the refrigerant.2 (1996): Method of Testing Liquid Line Filter-Drier Filtration Capability. air-cooled refrigerant condensers for refrigerating and air conditioning. these addenda can be downloaded for free at the following page of the ASHRAE web site: http://www. It prescribes a laboratory test method for evaluating the filtration capability of filters and filter-driers used in liquid lines of refrigeration systems. Dual units of measurement. or revisions. It applies to driers that employ a desiccant. The objective is to ensure uniform performance information for establishing ratings. Method of Testing.asp
.org/template/TechnologyLinkLanding/category/1685 ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 63. interpretations of the standard. Provides a basis for agreement between capillary tube manufacturers and users. ARI STANDARD 710:86 Absorption Capacity of dryers
ANSI Standards: http://webstore. which is a process ASHRAE uses to keep standards current through the issuance of addenda. 12.ashrae. When they are available. Dual units of measurement.org/template/TechnologyLinkLanding/category/1686 . Dual units of measurement.1 (1995) (RA 2001): Method of Testing Liquid Line Refrigerant Driers. This reaffirmation of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 20-1997 prescribes methods of laboratory testing to measure the heat rejection capabilities of remote mechanical draft.org/ansidocstore/default. Intended for use on both sealed model and replaceable element type suction line filters and filter-driers of all types. The changes made for the 2006 reaffirmation were that the references were updated. UL 894: Safety of hermetic compressors.ashrae. It also applies to the methods of testing for rating single-stage positive-displacement refrigerant compressors and condensing units that (a) incorporate liquid injection that is controlled by a steady flow rate method and (b) are operated at subcritical (saturated) temperatures of the refrigerant. It prescribes test methods for determining flow capacity and water capacity performance characteristics of liquid line refrigerant driers. It provides a uniform procedure for testing capillary tubes by determining the dry nitrogen flow capacity under specific test conditions so the procedures may serve as a primary standard for use by all test laboratories. also may be downloaded for free at the following address: http://www.
ANSI/ASHRAE 28 (1996) (RA 2006): Method of Testing Flow Capacity of Refrigerant Capillary Tubes. IEC and EN Standards
p.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits.
As a result. It was already described in chapter
10. The manufacturer or the authorised representative must affix the CE marking
LVD Services Offered
• • • • •
Advice on the applicability and completeness of standards to products Testing to harmonised.2. international.
The Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) as amended 93/68/EEC. the manufacturer may construct the product in conformity with the essential requirements (safety objectives) of the LVD. All items of pressure equipment placed on the market in the European Economic Area (EEA) after May 2002 must comply with the Directive and have evidence of compliance by carrying the CE marking as applicable. and ergonomic aspects as far as ergonomic requirements are necessary to protect against hazards in the sense of the Directive. appliance couplers and cord sets. This can result in savings on the cost for statutory inspection as required for Member States such as France. lighting equipment including ballasts. 12.html The Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations (LVD) applies to all electrical equipment designed for use with a voltage rating of between 50 and 1000 V AC and between 75 and 1500 V DC. and electrical equipment intended for incorporation into other equipment such as transformers and motors. chemical (such as. including in particular electrical appliances. etc.
EU Low Voltage Directive. electrical installation equipment. In such a case the product will not benefit from presumption of conformity and therefore the manufacturer must include in the technical documentation a description of the solutions adopted to satisfy the safety aspects of the Directive. Why apply the PED? Legislation across the EEA requires that all applicable items of pressure equipment must be fully compliant with the PED. The relevant Harmonised Standards listed on the following web-site address http://europa. product testing. electric wiring.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/harmstds/reflist. placing the CE marking on their pressure equipment means that equipment has a passport to free trade and must go into service in all Member States of the EEA. material selection. Before a product is placed on the market the following must happen:
• • •
The manufacturer must put together a technical documentation which makes it possible to assess whether the product complies with the directive The manufacturer or the authorised representative must draw up a ‘declaration of conformity’. The LVD lays down eleven “safety objectives”.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Assessment for compliance with the LVD Assessment of the technical documentation A notified body report in accordance with article 11 of the LVD. Germany and Italy. Alternatively. How do I comply with the PED? The PED offers manufacturers of pressure equipment 14 different conformity assessment options which permit the pressure equipment manufacturer to demonstrate compliance by variants on Quality Assurance. which represent the essential requirements of this Directive.11. national standards. without the need to comply with current National Regulations. in particular. without applying harmonised. emission of aggressive substances). For those manufacturers who were compliant prior to May 2002.6.
Pressure Equipment Directive (PED)
The European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 97/23/EC came into force on 29 November 1999. Broadly the scope of the LVD covers consumer and capital goods designed to operate within those voltage limits. freezers and their combinations. or client’s own specification. switch gear and control gear. health aspects of noise and vibrations. international or national standards. including not just electrical ones but also mechanical. The PED encompasses design verification.eu. Direct Inspection or Surveillance of Testing offered by the Notified Body. Products are presumed to conform to the safety objectives of the LVD where the equipment has been manufactured in accordance with a harmonised standard. manufacturing/fabrication practices and qualification. The Directive covers all risks arising from the use of electrical equipment. product marking and user instruction compilation.
. IEC and EN Standards
p. manufacturers must revise their working practice and develop the appropriate Technical Files for their full product range. 143
12. Relevant EU Directives for refrigerators
EU Energy labelling of household refrigerators DIRECTIVE 2003/66/EC of 3 July 2003 amending Directive 94/2/EC implementing Council Directive 92/75/EEC with regard to energy labelling of household electric refrigerators.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. or intrinsic safety). which are given in the directive.
• • •
A complete compliance service on products including design assessment (modules B/B1).
• • • • • • •
Assistance with technical file preparation PED compliant quality system preparation Gap analysis visits. ATEX User Directive 99/92/EC This directive is concerned with the health and safety of workers with relation to potentially explosive atmospheres.2b Specially arranged training courses and seminars on compliance tailored specifically to your needs. Note: This directive may also be heard described as ATEX '100a' or today as 'ATEX 95'. classification and documentation of their workplace and personnel. Notified Body services under the PED QA approaches. from fire extinguishers to major industrial installations. The main responsibility of the manufacturer is to prevent the formation and ignition of explosive atmospheres.
. Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations From July 2006 employers must have completed the risk assessment. or by proving compliance directly against a set of 'essential health and safety requirements'. 144
Companies already ISO 9000 compliant can take advantage of their current quality systems and use this as a foundation to satisfy the Essential Safety Requirements of the PED. Typical responsibilities include:
• • • • •
The assessment of risks Hazardous Area Classification Mitigation &/or removal of Risks Preparation of an Explosion Protection Document The provision of suitable warning signs for areas where explosive atmospheres may form
Note: This directive may also be heard described as ATEX '137'. after the enabling articles of European treaties. inspections/audits focused on how the required standards can be implemented into today’s engineering practices and consideration to keeping your costs down. In which case compliance can be achieved through QA assessments from their appointed Notified Body only. technical file preparation and compliance quality system preparation. An expert and dedicated PED team to support you through every step of the certification process. It places responsibilities on an employer. IEC and EN Standards
p. Our understanding of the commercial realities under which you operate mean we help you achieve PED compliance with minimal or no interruption to production.
EU ATEX Directives
ATEX Manufacturers Directive 94/9/EC. rather than by third party Notified Body product inspection. This directive defines each of the following product groups for use in potentially explosive atmospheres:
• • • •
Electrical and non-electrical equipment Electrical and non-electrical protective systems Electrical and non-electrical components Electrical and non-electrical safety devices
The directive places responsibilities on the manufacturer of these products. This may be achieved by using one of the well-established protection concepts (such as flameproof protection. 12. If the manufacturer has not been formally accredited to the ISO 9000 series. Welding procedure qualification to ASME IX and/or EN ISO 15614 and welder qualification to ASME IX and/or EN 287 Brazing procedure qualification to both ASME IX and EN 13134 and brazer qualification to both ASME IX and EN 13133 Particular Material Appraisal approval to Annex 1 section 4. after the enabling article of the Treaty of Rome.
assembly and process quality procedures as established in branches and sections to be useful to reach highest qualities. or some aspects of it. The Declaration of Conformity along with the Technical Documentation of type approval and essential quality control of production should be available to Competent Authorities (EU Members) upon request. Step 7: Maintain Technical Documentation required by the Directive(s) and EN Standards. CE Marking process
The CE marking. even to establish own quality standards in areas not fixed by standards or not sufficiently fixed. Whenever possible or appropriate. The majority of directives and EN standards are already in force. Remarks: The EU Directive and EN standards do not cover all quality relevant aspects of a good household refrigerator and good household refrigerator manufacturing practices. All these could be added to the type test and production control as non obligatory part. EU Directives and EN standards in respect of which you will be use CE marking. Step 4: Identify if there are any Harmonised European Standards applicable to refrigerators and its components. it is an offence to place a product on the market without all needed type tests for CE marking because it indicates a presumption of conformity with all relevant Legislation. In these cases. Step 8: Prepare the Declaration of Conformity and the required supporting evidence. labelling or packaging requirements and waste regulation.12. This will be the date that the Directive and EN Standards comes into force. Step 6: Identify whether independent assessment of your refrigerator type or of its components have conformity to the Directive. This could concerns components in contact with flammable refrigerant like Isobutane (Ex zone 0 and 1). Take appropriate measures of tests for type approval and production quality control on samples and on all refrigerators. You must not affix CE marking to your product until all necessary certifications have been obtained from the Notified Body. 145
12. respective tests on used components and materials to comply with these standards and identify needed quality control data and test reports. that they issue a declaration of conformity for their supplied components is useful. to use machine.
. manufacturers should follow these harmonised EN standards. Therefore it is useful to use further national standards (like the US or German ones) to cover a wider areas of a good product and production control features. Annex 2. is required from a Notified Body. Step 5: Ensure the product complies with all the essential requirements of the Directive(s) and EN Standards. It is essential to retain this documentation for type approval and for the quality control that your production is in accordance to the type approval. type approval and Production Control Process
Step 1: Identify the EU Directive(s) (see last chapter above) and EN Standards (see chapter 12.1. if needed. Step 3: Determine the dates by which you must take action. Step 2: Identify the conformity assessment procedure that must be taken. These may include national standards. The control that all EU Directives and EN Standards are followed by component manufacturers. Step 10: Affix CE marking on your product and/or its packaging and accompanying literature as stated in the directive and the established EN standards. Step 9: Check that no other purely national requirements exist in the countries where the refrigerator will be sold. This will be stated in the directive and is dependent upon the product you are CE marking. inspection or quality system assessment by yourself or from a Notified Body or a combination of these.) that are applicable to your refrigerator types. which you consider quality relevant and useful for your high quality product to be establish to guarantee product and production quality and state-of-art product and technology. involve testing.
p. The conformity assessment procedure will differ depending on refrigerator type. This could be self-declaration. You can download these directives free of charge from the European Union website and the main EN standards are mentioned in this booklet. Your technical documentation should support your compliance with the requirements of the Directive and EN Standards.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits.
forecasting a complete rescaling of the A to G scale: the old energy efficiency class A is split in 5 new classes. named Minimum Energy Efficiency Requirement and Voluntary Agreement Target. the only policies directly influencing the energy efficiency of the cold appliance market are the energy labelling and the mandatory minimum efficiency requirements. from January 2004. is continuing even if weakening. Scenarios were built taking into considerations the energy policy measures at present under discussion between the European Commission and EU Member States. called "A+" and "A++". class A is split into 3 classes (A. Seven EPS were built for cold appliances and three for washing machines.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits.Labelling Option 1 and Labelling Option 2 .were set along with two efficiency targets.
Energy Label Option 1 (EL1)
Energy Label Option 1a (EL1a)
Energy Label Option 2 (EL2)
Energy Label Option 1 + Minimum considers the enforcing of an EU-wide mandatory minimum energy efficiency Energy Efficiency Requirement requirement at EEI=55 from January 2007 (via the revision of the Directive 96/57/EC) along with the upgrading of the energy labelling directive 94/2/EC according to the labelling scheme described in scenario EL1 starting January 2004. This considers the introduction from January 2004 of the same revised energy labelling scheme set in scenario EL1. The combination of these basic options leaded to the design of six scenarios for these products. Refrigerator and freezer appliances
Several Energy Policy Scenarios (EPS) were set for cold appliances (i. . (EL1+MER)
. It is generally assumed that the Directive 96/57/EC has no further direct influence on the market after its coming into force in autumn 1999. via the revision of Directive 94/2/EC. of a revised energy label scheme forecasting the maintenance of the present A to G scale with its EEI thresholds and the addition "on-top" of two new classes. For cold appliances. assumed to stay unchanged. considers the impact of the introduction. Annex 2. again from January 2004. representing respectively the proposal for a mandatory legislation and for a negotiated agreement. These consist in an energy labelling scheme .e. of a revised energy labelling scheme. The energy-label scheme continues to exert its pressure to raise cold appliance efficiency.set according to the framework Directive 92/75/EEC and relevant implementing Directives . This considers the introduction. 146
Annex 1. apart from preventing the return of less-efficient appliances and that the influence of the labelling directive. Under this scenario. Once defined for the European Union as a whole. two labelling schemes . refrigerators and freezers) and washing machines under the E-GRIDS project. resulting in practically all models belonging to class A in 2010. In practice this scenario represents the building of mandatory minimum energy efficiency requirements on top of the revised labelling scheme. but with a less effective implementation due to the major confusion in consumers created by the downgrading of the models during the rescaling procedure. to forecast the evolution of their energy efficiency and consumption up to 2010. to indicate the best models available on the market.to be applied either voluntarily via a negotiated agreement with manufacturers or compulsorily via specific directives.
p.and an energy efficiency target . the old class B becomes the new F and the old classes from C downward (where still existing) become the new class G. namely: Baseline (BSL) This is the energy profile under the hypothesis of no new policy measure. Comparing the new scheme with the present energy labelling. from A to E. EPS were applied also to Member States and to European economic area countries. A+ and A++).
the operation of market forces alone will fail to promote the rational use of energy for these appliances.e. whereas it will also. Whereas Article 130r of the Treaty requires prudent and rational utilization of natural resources. Contemporarily the labelling scheme described in scenario EL2 is enforced through the revision of Directive 94/2/EC.1. European Commission DIRECTIVE 92/75/EEC of 22 September
1992 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by household appliances THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. whereas it is therefore now necessary to learn from the experience acquired and to strengthen the provisions of that Directive. Again. only one implementing Directive for electric ovens has been adopted and few Member States have introduced this label. Annex 2. whereas. Whereas to this end the energy consumption of and other information concerning each type of appliance must be measured in accordance with harmonized standards and methods and the application of these standards and methods must be monitored at the marketing stage. indirectly. Whereas Directive 79/530/EEC (4) sought to promote these aims in the case of household appliances. weighted according to the sales of the different models for each manufacturer) average efficiency of new products. Whereas the provision of accurate. whereas the existence of a number of compulsory national schemes would create barriers to intra-Community trade. and thus have no opportunity to see the label.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. whereas. Whereas certain Member States already have their own voluntary schemes for energy labelling and the provision of other energy consumption information for household appliances. and other Member States are considering such introduction. 147
Energy Label Option 1a+Minimum Energy Efficiency Requirement This is the repetition of scenario "EL1+MER". in the absence of this information. whereas one Member State has formally proposed introducing its own compulsory labelling scheme. are also supplied with this information. Whereas measures should be taken progressively to achieve the internal market by 31 December 1992. to provide potential purchasers with supplementary standardized information on those appliances' costs in terms of energy and the consumption of other resources and to take measures to ensure that potential purchasers who do not see the appliance displayed. whereas the rational use of energy is one of the principal means by which this objective can be achieved and environmental pollution reduced. Having regard to the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee (3). wherein the current C class appliances are phased out as per January 2004 Agreement Target followed by a "fleet" (i. however. whereas Directive
. the voluntary target is built in parallel (EL2+VAT) with the revised labelling scheme
Annex 1.. relevant and comparable information on the specific energy consumption of household appliances may influence the public's choice in favour of those appliances which consume less energy. encourage the efficient use of these appliances. In cooperation with the European Parliament (2). and in particular Article 100a thereof. reaching the EEI=52 level by 2006. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community. in which the labelling scheme is applied less effectively (EL1a+MER) Energy Label Option 2 + Voluntary This assumes that a Voluntary Commitment for cold appliances is negotiated with industry. Having regard to the proposal from the Commission (1). thus prompting manufacturers to take steps to reduce the consumption of the appliances which they manufacture. Whereas information plays a key role in the operation of market forces and it is therefore necessary to introduce a uniform label for all appliances of the same type.
supplier means the manufacturer or his authorized representative in the Community or the person who places the product on the Community market. HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE: Article 1 1.
5. Annex 2. Article 2 1. of information on the consumption of energy and of other essential resources. Further types of household appliances may be added to the list in this Article in accordance with Article 9 (b). hires.
. 3. whereas provision must therefore be made for the incorporation of any other information and labelling covered by Community schemes.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. There shall be no obligation to label or to provide fiches in respect of models of appliances of which production has ceased before the relevant implementing directive comes into effect. freezers and their combinations.
2. driers and their combinations. 148
79/530/EEC must therefore be replaced and Directive 79/531/EEC (5) applying to those electric ovens should be revised and subsequently integrated into the present scheme. washing machines. This Directive shall not apply to the rating plate or its equivalent affixed for safety purposes to such appliances. other forms of energy and other essential resources and supplementary information shall be brought to consumers' attention by means of a fiche and a label related to household appliances offered for sale. even where these are sold for non-household uses: refrigerators. whereas the present scheme must therefore ensure that for all the appliances concerned. with the risk that this might result in confusion for some consumers. This Directive shall apply to the following types of household appliances. supplementary information means other information concerning the performance of an appliance. or second-hand appliances. thereby allowing consumers to choose more energy-efficient appliances. its use of energy or other essential resources. For the purpose of this Directive: dealer means a retailer or other person who sells. dishwashers. other essential resources means water. where appropriate. or is helpful in evaluating. Whereas a completely voluntary scheme would lead to only some appliances being labelled. the energy consumption is indicated by labelling and standard product fiches are provided. with electricity and gas being the most important. ovens.
p. Information relating to the consumption of electric energy. hire-purchase or displayed to end-users. Whereas Council Directive 86/594/EEC of 1 December 1986 on airborne noise emitted by household appliances (6) provides for an indication of noise emission to be included on energy labels. or supplied with standard product information. offers for hire-purchase or displays household appliances to endusers. 4. and additional information concerning certain types of household appliances. which relates to. lighting sources. The purpose of this Directive is to enable the harmonization of national measures on the publication. chemicals or any other substance consumed by an appliance in normal use. whereas this Directive must therefore in principle cover appliances using any form of energy. air-conditioning appliances. water heaters and hot-water storage appliances. Whereas only those types of appliances whose aggregate energy use is significant and which afford adequate scope for increased efficiency need be included. particularly by means of labelling and of product information. Whereas household appliances use a wide variety of forms of energy. hire. information sheet means a standard table of information relating to the appliance in question.
to dealers referred to in paragraph (a). Article 4 In respect of labelling and product information. the results of design calculations carried out. Where these are not provided by the supplier. Article 3 1. where such information is provided pursuant to Directive 86/594/EEC and of other public information relating to the relevant appliance. he shall supply fiches with other literature provided with the appliance. 149
2. Article 7 Member States shall take all necessary measures to ensure that: a) all suppliers and dealers established in their territory fulfil their obligations under this Directive. the implementing directives shall make provision to ensure that potential customers are provided with the essential information specified in the label or the fiche before buying an appliance. The supplier shall make this documentation available for inspection purposes for a period ending five years after the last product has been manufactured.
4. Article 6 The implementing Directives shall make provision for the inclusion on the label or on the fiche of information on airborne noise. the following provisions shall apply: a) whenever an appliance specified in an implementing directive is displayed. The labels used shall in all respects comply with this Directive and with the implementing directives. suppliers shall provide a product fiche. which is provided pursuant to other Community legislation. The supplier shall be deemed to have given his consent to the publication of the information given on the label or the fiche. hire or hire-purchase by mail order. dealers shall attach an appropriate label. In addition to the labels. where a dealer sends a request for labels. Details relating to the label and the fiche shall be defined by directives relating to each type of appliance adopted pursuant to this Directive in accordance with Article 9. b) the supplier shall supply the necessary labels free of charge. in the clearly visible position specified in the relevant implementing directive. where values are derived from those obtained for similar models. This fiche shall be contained in all product brochures. where available. Annex 2. The supplier shall establish the technical documentation described in paragraph 3. All suppliers placing on the market the household appliances specified in the implementing directives shall supply a label in accordance with this Directive. 3. the same information for these models.
Article 5 Where the relevant appliances are offered for sale. by catalogue. Suppliers shall be responsible for the accuracy of the labels and fiches that they supply. where these are relevant.
. It shall include: a general description of the product. Suppliers are free to choose their own system for delivery of labels. 4. 3.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. and in the relevant language version. 2.
p. The fiches used shall in all respects comply with this Directive and with the implementing Directives. To this end it may use documentation already required on the basis of relevant Community legislation. However. the supplier must ensure that the requested labels are delivered promptly. Technical documentation shall be established which shall be sufficient to enable the accuracy of the information contained in the label and the fiche to be assessed. including those carried out by relevant notified organizations as defined under other Community legislation. test reports. or by other means which imply that the potential customer cannot be expected to see the appliance displayed.
on the expiry of three months from the date of referral to the Council. Member States shall neither prohibit nor restrict the placing on the market of the household appliances covered by an implementing directive. They may require suppliers to furnish evidence within the meaning of Article 2 (3) concerning the accuracy of the information supplied on their labels or fiches when they have reason to suspect it is incorrect. 2. by a simple majority. Article 11 After the expiry of a period of three years from the application of this Directive. Article 10 The Commission shall be assisted by a committee composed of representatives of the Member States and chaired by the representative of the Commission. the measurement standards and methods to be used in obtaining the information referred to in Article 1 (1). If. Unless they have evidence to the contrary. 150
b) if this is likely to mislead or confuse. Article 8 1. Member States shall deem labels and fiches to comply with the provisions of this Directive and the implementing directives. symbols or inscriptions relating to energy consumption which do not comply with the requirements of this Directive and of the relevant implementing directives is prohibited. marks. If the measures envisaged are not in accordance with the opinion of the committee. Article 12 The implementing directives shall specify: a) b) c) d) the exact definition of the type of appliances to be included. save where the Council has decided against the said measures. c) the introduction of the system of labels and fiches concerning energy consumption is accompanied by educational and promotional information campaigns aimed at encouraging more responsible use of energy by private consumers. without delay. The opinion shall be delivered by the majority laid down in Article 148 (2) of the EEC Treaty in the case of decisions which the Council is required to adopt on a proposal from the Commission. the proposed measures shall be adopted by the Commission. The Commission shall adopt the measures envisaged if they are in accordance with the opinion of the committee. Article 9 The measures relating to the establishment and operation of the scheme shall be adopted and adapted to technical progress in accordance with the procedure set out in Article 10. details of the technical documentation required under Article 2 (3). The votes of the representatives of the Member States within the committee shall be weighted in the manner set out in that Article.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits.
. b) the addition of further household appliances to the list in Article 1 (1) where significant energy savings are likely to be achieved. Annex 2. The assessment shall be the subject of a report to be submitted to the European Parliament and the Council. The Council shall act by a qualified majority. submit to the Council a proposal relating to the measures to be taken. the Commission shall make an assessment of the implementation thereof and the results obtained. the display of other labels. the Commission shall. These measures are: a) the implementing directives.
p. the Council has not acted. or if no opinion is delivered. The chairman shall not vote. the design and content of the label referred to in Article 2. which as far as possible shall have uniform design characteristics. Where the provisions of this Directive and of the implementing directives are satisfied. The committee shall deliver its opinion on the draft within a time limit which the chairman may lay down according to the urgency of the matter. This prohibition shall not apply to Community or national environmental labelling schemes. The representative of the Commission shall submit to the committee a draft of the measures to be taken.
the location where the label shall be fixed to the appliance. 13. p. Article 14 1. 2. For the Council The President R. 1979. 22 September 1992. 1979. 18. 6. 7. NEEDHAM (1) OJ No C 235. Where appropriate they may provide for the label to be attached to or printed on the packaging. Annex 2.
p. 1986. 13. p. Article 13 Directive 79/530/EEC is hereby repealed. The information on the label shall also be included on the fiche. 10. however Member States may refrain from its compulsory introduction. When Member States adopt these measures. g) the information to be provided in the case of offers for sale covered by Article 5. f) the content and where appropriate the format and other details concerning the fiche or further information specified in Article 3 (2). Member States shall communicate to the Commission the main provisions of domestic law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. 3. 12. 24. 1991. II. 9. Article 15 This Directive is addressed to the Member States. (2) OJ No C 125. p. with effect from 1 January 1994. p. Supplier's name or trade mark. 5. 6. p. 9. Directive 79/531/EEC shall be considered as implementing this Directive for electric ovens. (3) OJ No C 49. The label shall be in accordance with the following illustrations: Notes on label 2. 24. They shall immediately notify the Commission of these measures. until a date set in a revised implementing directive concerning ovens passed in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 10. 5. 1992. they shall contain a reference to this Directive or shall be accompanied by such reference on the occasion of their official publication.
ANNEX I THE LABEL Label design 1.
. Member States shall adopt the provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 1 July 1993.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. p. Done at Brussels. 1. They shall bring these provisions into force by not later than 1 January 1994. 32. Suppliers model identifier. The following notes define the information to be included: Note: I. 1992. 2. (5) OJ No L 145. (6) OJ No L 344. 172 and OJ No C 241. and the manner in which it is to be provided. 21. 6. The methods of making such a reference shall be laid down by the Member States. (4) OJ No L 145.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. Annex 2.
III. The energy efficiency class of an appliance shall be determined in accordance with Annex V. The appropriate letter shall be placed at the same level as the relevant arrow. IV. Without prejudice to any requirements under the Community Eco-label award scheme, where an appliance has been granted a 'Community Eco-label award' pursuant to Council Regulation (EEC) No 880/92 (1) a copy of the Eco-award mark (the flower) may be added here. The 'refrigerator/freezer label design guide' referred to below, explains how the Eco-award mark, may be included in the label. V. Energy consumption in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2) but expressed in kWh per year (i.e. per 24 hours × 365). VI. Sum of net storage volume of all compartments that do not merit a star rating (i.e. operating temperature > - 6 °C). VII. Sum of net storage volume of all frozen food storage compartments which merit a star rating (i.e. operating temperature = - 6 °C). VIII. Star rating of frozen food storage compartment, in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2). Where this compartment does not merit any stars, this position shall be left blank. IX. Where applicable noise measured in accordance with Directive 86/594/EEC. NB: The equivalent terms in other languages to those described above are given in Annex VI. Printing 3. The following defines certain aspects of the label: >REFERENCE TO A GRAPHIC> Complete printing information is contained in a 'refrigerator/freezer label design guide' obtainable from: The Secretary of the Committee on Energy Labelling and Standard Product Information for Household Appliances Directorate-General for Energy DG XVII, Commission of the European Communities, 200 Rue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels. (1) OJ No L 99, 11. 4. 1992, p. 1. ANNEX II THE FICHE The fiche shall contain the following information. The information may be given in the form of a table covering a number of appliances supplied by the same supplier, in which case it shall be given in the order specified, or given in the description of the appliance: 1. 2. 3. Supplier's name or trade mark. Supplier's model identifier. Type of appliance as follows: o Larger Fridge o Refrigerator/chiller o Refrigerator no star o Refrigerator * o Refrigerator ** o Refrigerator ***/ o Fridge-freezer *(***) o Upright freezer o Chest freezer o Multi-door or other appliance The energy efficiency class of the model as defined in Annex V, expressed as 'Energy efficiency class . . . on a scale of A (most efficient) to G (least efficient)'. Where this information is provided in a table this may be expressed by other means provided it is clear that the scale is from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient). Where the information is provided in a table, and where some of the appliances listed in the table have been granted a 'Community Eco-label award' under Regulation (EEC) No 880/92, this information may be included here. In this case the row heading shall state 'Community Eco-label award', and the entry shall consist of a copy of the Eco-award mark (the flower). This provision is without prejudice to any requirements under the Community Eco-label award scheme.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. Annex 2.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Energy consumption in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2) but expressed in kWh per year (i.e. per 24 hours × 365), described as: 'energy consumption XYZ kWh per year, based on standard test results for 24 h. Actual energy consumption will depend on how the appliance is used and where it is located.' Net storage volume of fresh food storage compartment (5 °C) in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2) omit for classes 8 and 9. Net storage volume of frozen food storage compartment, in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2) - omit for classes 1, 2 and 3. For class 3 appliances the net volume of the 'ice box'. and 8. For classes 2 and 10 the net volume of each compartment should be listed, in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2). Star rating of frozen food storage compartment, if any, in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2). The mention 'no frost' may be included here when in accordance with the definitions given in the standards referred to in Article 1 (2). 'Power cut safe Z h' defined as 'temperature rise time' in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2). 'Freezing capacity' in kg/24 h in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1 (2). 'Climate class' in accordance with the standards referred to in Article 1 (2). Where appliance is of 'temperate' climate class this may be omitted. 'Noise', where applicable, measured in accordance with Directive 86/594/EEC.
Where an appliance contains compartments other than a single fresh food compartment and a single frozen food compartment, extra lines may be added at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 to include the information in respect of these compartments. In this case the naming and order of listing of the compartments shall be consistent. Where the design temperature of a compartment does not conform to the star rating system, or the standard fresh food compartment temperature (5 °C), this design temperature shall be given. The information contained in the label may be given in the form of a copy of the label, either in colour or in black and white. In this case the further information given only in the fiche must still be included. Note: The equivalent terms in other languages to those described above are given in Annex VI. ANNEX III MAIL ORDER AND OTHER DISTANCE SELLING Mail order catalogues and other printed communications referred to by Article 2 (5) of this Directive shall contain the following information, given in the order specified: 1. Energy efficiency class (Annex II, point 4) 2. Energy consumption (Annex II, point 6) 3. Net volume of fresh food compartment (Annex II, point 7) 4. Net volume of frozen food compartment (Annex II, point 8) 5. Star rating (Annex II, point 9) 6. Noise (Annex II, point 14) Where other information contained in the product information fiche is provided, it shall be in the form defined in Annex II and shall be included in the above list in the order specified for the fiche. The size and font, in which all the information referred to above is printed, shall be legible. Note: The equivalent terms in other languages to those described above are given in Annex VI. ANNEX IV CATEGORIES The appliances covered by this Directive shall be divided into the following 'categories': 1. Household refrigerators, without low temperature compartments. 2. Household refrigerator/chillers, with compartments at 5 °C and/or 10 °C. 3. Household refrigerators, with no-star low temperature compartments. 4. Household refrigerators, with low temperature compartments *. 5. Household refrigerators, with low temperature compartments **. 6. Household refrigerators, with low temperature compartments ***.
Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. Annex 2.
7. Household refrigerator/freezers, with low temperature compartments *(***). 8. Household food freezers, upright. 9. Household food freezers, chest. 10. Household refrigerators and freezers with more than two doors, or other appliances not covered above. ANNEX V ENERGY EFFICIENCY CLASS The energy efficiency class of an appliance shall be determined in accordance with the following Table 1: (not more valid, see Annex 1.1) Where: 'energy efficiency index' (expressed as a percentage) = annual energy consumption of appliance (1) / standard annual energy consumption of appliance 'standard annual energy consumption of appliance' (expressed in kWh/year) = M × adjusted net volume + N and adjusted net volume (expressed in litres) = net volume of fresh food compartment + ` × net volume of frozen food compartment. The values of M, N and ` are taken from Table 2. (not more valid) (1) In accordance with Annex I, note V. ANNEXE VI EMPLACEMENT TABLE (not more valid)
Annex 1.2. European Commission DIRECTIVE 2003/66/EC of 3 July 2003
amending Directive 94/2/EC implementing Council Directive 92/75/EEC with regard to energy labelling of household electric refrigerators, freezers and their combinations (Text with EEA relevance) THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, Having regard to Council Directive 92/75/EEC of 22 September 1992 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources of household appliances (1), and in particular Articles 9 and 12 thereof, Whereas: (1) Electricity use by refrigerators, freezers and their combinations accounts for a significant part of total Community household energy demand. The further scope for a reduction of energy use by these appliances is substantial. (2) (2) The success of the labelling scheme introduced by Commission Directive 94/2/EC (2), in conjunction with Directive 96/57/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 September 1996 on energy efficiency requirements for household electric refrigerators, freezers and combinations thereof (3) has led to a rise of the efficiency index of new refrigerators and freezers by over 30 % between 1996 and 2000. (3) About 20 % of the cold appliances sold in 2000 were in the most efficient class A, and in some markets the proportion was more than 50 %. The market shares of A class appliances are rising rapidly. Consequently, there is a need to introduce two additional classes, to be designated as A+ and A++, as an interim arrangement until a comprehensive revision of the energy labelling classes takes place. (4) (4) The effect of labelling on energy efficiency will diminish, or disappear, unless further and more efficient classes are defined. (5) (5) Directive 94/2/EC should therefore be amended accordingly. By the same occasion, it will be possible to align that Directive on similar directives recently adopted, implementing Directive 92/75/EEC. (6) (6) The measures provided for in this Directive are in accordance with the opinion of the Committee set up under Article 10 of Directive 92/75/EEC, HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:
fiches and communications referred to in Article 2(5) of Directive 94/2/EC comply with the revised models. Article 3 Member States shall adopt and publish the provisions to comply with this Directive no later than 30 June 2004. and/or extrapolation from other combinations. the following subparagraph is added: ‘Where the information relating to a particular model combination has been obtained by calculation on the basis of design.’ (b) Paragraph 5 is replaced by the following: ‘5. containing the information as revised by this Directive. hire or hire purchase by means of a printed or written communication. In Article 1. such as a written offer.
. When Member States adopt those provisions. CENELEC. III. Annex VI is deleted.
p. II and III requiring the giving of information relating to noise shall apply only where that information is required by Member States under Article 3 of Directive 86/594/EEC. II. This information shall be measured in accordance with that Directive. no later than 1 July 2004. 2.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits. they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. Member States shall determine how such reference is to be made. Article 4 This Directive shall enter into force on the 20th day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. 3 and 4 are replaced by the following: 2. and of tests undertaken to verify the accuracy of the calculations undertaken (details of mathematical model for calculating performance and of measurements taken to verify this model). a mail order catalogue. Annex 2. Where the appliances are offered for sale. Article 2 Member States shall allow the circulation of labels. or by other means which imply that the potential customer cannot be expected to see the appliance displayed. 155
Article 1 Directive 94/2/EC is amended as follows: 1. Annexes I. no later than 31 December 2004. ETSI) under mandate from the Commission in accordance with Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (*). 4. the documentation should include details of such calculations and/or extrapolations. Article 2 is amended as follows: (a) In paragraph 1. fiches and communications referred to in Article 2(5) of Directive 94/2/ EC. that communication shall include all the information specified in Annex III. and V are amended as shown in the Annex to this Directive. the reference numbers of which have been published in the Official Journal of the European Union and for which Member States have published the reference numbers of the national standards transposing those harmonised standards. The provisions in Annexes I. paragraphs 2. advertisements on the Internet or on other electronic media. They shall immediately inform the Commission thereof. 3. They shall ensure that all labels. The information required by this Directive shall be obtained by measurements made in accordance with harmonised standards adopted by the European Standardisation Bodies (CEN. In this Directive the definitions set out in Article 1(4) of Directive 92/75/EEC shall apply.’ 3. 4.
in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1(2) — omit for classes 1. 21. the final sentence ‘NB: the equivalent terms in other languages to those described above are given in Annex VI’.
p. commencing with the words: ‘Complete printing information is contained in a “refrigerator/freezer label design guide” …’ is deleted. 36. Where this information is provided in a table this may be expressed by other means provided it is clear that the scale is from A++ (most efficient) to G (least efficient).1992. 13. (3) OJ L 236.7. p. (2) OJ L 45. is deleted. The energy efficiency class of the model as defined in Annex V. (1) OJ L 297.
.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits.
ANNEX (1) Annex I is amended as follows: (a) under the heading ‘Notes on label’. For the Commission Loyola DE PALACIO Vice-President _____________________________ (*) OJ L 204. 156
Article 5 This Directive is addressed to the Member States. p.10. If the model is produced in order to be built-in.’ (d) the final Note is deleted.’ (c) the following point 15 is added: ‘15. (b) under the heading ‘Printing’: (i) the following text is inserted after the illustration: ‘The indicator letter for A+ and A++ appliances shall be in accordance with the following illustrations. and of chill compartment when available. 18. (3) Annex III is amended as follows: The final Note is deleted. 1. 16. Net storage volume of frozen food storage compartment. 37.1998. 3 July 2003. p. (2) Annex II is amended as follows: (a) point 4 is replaced by the following: ‘4. 2 and 3. where the energy efficiency index alpha (Iα) is within the ranges specified in Table 1.’ (b) point 8 is replaced by the following: ‘8.1996. Done at Brussels. Annex 2.2.1994.9. expressed as “Energy efficiency class … on a scale of A++ (most efficient) to G (least efficient)”. this should be stated. p. For class 3 appliances the net volume of the “ice box”. and shall be placed in the same position as the A indicator for A class appliances
’(ii) the final text. 17. (4) In Annex V the following text is inserted after the title ‘ENERGY EFFICIENCY CLASS’: ‘PART 1: Definitions of Classes A+ and A++ An appliance shall be classified as A+ or A++.
Table 3 Correction factor FF (frost-free) Value Condition 1.643 191 5 Refrigerator ** ≤ – 12 °C ** 0. Annex 2. the temperature and star rating of the compartment with the lowest temperature will determine the values of M and N.Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping …Circuits.1 For “subtropical” appliances 1 Otherwise BI (built-in) 1.777 303 8 Upright freezer ≤ – 18 °C *(***) 0. it shall be classified in accordance with Part 2.450 245 6 Refrigerator ***/ ≤ – 18 °C ***/*(***) 0.233 245 4 Refrigerator * ≤ – 6 °C * 0.777 303 7 Fridge-freezer *(***) ≤ – 18 °C ***/*(***) 0.
p. If an appliance is not A+ or A++. BI and CH are given in Table 3 Table 2 Type of appliance Temperature of coldest compartment Mα Nα 1 Larger Fridge > – 6 °C 0.539 315 9 Chest freezer ≤ – 18 °C *(***) 0.2 For “tropical” appliances 1. The values of Mα and Nα are given in Table 2 and the values of FF.472 286 10 Multi-door or other appliance (1) (1) (1) For these appliances. Appliances with – 18 °C *(***) compartments shall be considered as fridge-freezers *(***).233 245 3 Refrigerator no star > – 6 °C 0. 157
Table 1 Energy efficiency index α (Iα) 30 > Iα 42 > Iα ≥ 30 Iα ≥ 42 In Table 1 “Energy efficiency class” A++ A+ A to G (see below)
where: AC = annual energy consumption of appliance (in accordance with Annex I. CC.2 For “frost-free” (ventilated) frozen food compartments 1 Otherwise CC (climate class) 1. 1 Otherwise CH (chill compartment) 50 KWh/y For appliances with a chill compartment of at least 15 litres 0 Otherwise (1) An appliance is “built-in” only if it is designed exclusively for installation within a kitchen cavity with a need of furniture finishing. Tc is the design temperature (in °C) of the compartment.
PART 2: Definitions of Classes A to G
. and tested as such. note V) SCα = standard annual energy consumption α of appliance SCα is calculated as
where: Vc is the net volume (in litres) of the compartment (in accordance with standards referred to in Article 1(2)).233 245 2 Refrigerator/chiller > – 6 °C 0.2 For built-in appliances (1) of under 58 cm in width.