An Introduction

to Semiconductor






·ysta· Structure of So ids


his text d.eals xvi th .the electrical prnpcni.e~ and characteristics of semicolldL.lct{~r materials and devices. The electrical properues ol solids are therefore 01 Primary interest. Since the semiconductor is in general a single-crystal material and since the electrical properties of a si ngle-crystal material are determined not only b) the chemical composition but also by the arrangement of morns ill the sulid. ,\ brief study of the crystnl structure or solids is warranted. This introductory chapter provides the necessary background in single-crystal materials and crystal growth for a basic understanding of the electrical properties of semiconductor materials and

In this chapter, we will materials.
of solids: amorphous,

1. List and describe semiconductor
2. Describe crystal. three classifications


and single structure.

3. Describe basic crystal structure .. crystal planes. and the diamond 4. Discuss differences 5. Describe 6. Descri be processes materials. 7. Describe in atomic bonding between various solids. imperfections and impurities vnrious single-crystal

in solids.

that are used to create single-crystal


the formation

or an

oxide on si Iicon.



Solid State Physics: An lntroduction

to Semiconductor





The Crysta S:rLl::1L1reofS:Jh(J~

1'1'\1111inding l tll linding gi1l1d or nuucriuls arc Iundumcruul in the design ul' capaciror: anti magnetic properties 0[' nuueriuls .irc fundarncrual in the design llf clccrromagnct: or pcrmuncnt magnets. Cr 'aling highpurity single-crystal semiconductor materials has been crucial to the dcvclopmenr of till' vnst semiconductor industry,
glH1d conductors or clcctricuy iluu can handle hundreds or ampereinsulators rluu can handle thousands Ill' volr-. Dielectric properties


have alway~ been an integral

part of clcctri

',II engincering,

Present -Day Insight
conrinuc to be a tuml.unenral component of electrical cngmccnug. ingle-crysml silicon semiconductor \\ uler: that arc 12 inches ill diameter and, at the other end or the scale, creating layer- of different semiconductor m.ucriMaterials Crcauug

als rhut arc UJl till' order or ten~ of angstroms thick arc continuing topic:-- or research. Till' properties 01' high-purity single-crystnl nuucriuls nrc I'll ndamcnta I [(l the design or the vast number of SCIll iconductor devices,

Objective: List and describe



Semiconductors arc a group materials having conducii vitics bet ween those of metals and insulators. One fundamental characteristic of a semiconductor nuucrinl is that the conductivity can he varied over several orders of magnitude by adding controlled ,11no U IllS of impurity atoms, The ability to COil t I'll Ianti change the conducti vity of a semiconductor material allows I'm the design or the vast number or .emiconducror devices,



Bil1ar~ sem icuuducto


TCI"Il:lI'Y Sl~11lito

nductn r

Two general clussific.uions of semiconductors arc the elemental semiconductor materials, luund in group IV (11' the periodic table. and the compound semiconductor materials. most or which are formed from special combinations or group [II and group V clements. Table J ,I shows a portion or the periodic table in which the more couuuon semiconductors arc round, and Table 1,:2 lists a tew or the semiconductor materials. (Semiconductors can abo be Iormed from combinations or group [I and group VI clements. but in general these will not he considered in this tcxt.) The elemental materials. those that arc composed 01' si nglc species or atoms, are silicon and germanium. Silicon dominates the semiconductor commcrciul market. The vast majority or i ntegrutcd circuits (ICs) arc fubricutcd in si I icon. so si licon wi II be emphasized to a great extent in this text. The two-element. or binarv. compounds such as gullium arsenide or gallium phosphide are formed h~ combining one group !II a IIII one group V element. Gallium arsenide is one or the more common of the compound semiconductors. 11is used to rnuke light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, GaAs is also used in specialized applications in which, for example. very high speed is required, \"'e can also lorm a three-element. or ternury. compound semiconductor. An example is AlxGai-xAs, in which the subscript .r indicates the fraction or till' lower atomic number element componentv More complex semiconductors can also be lonned tluu provide flexibility when choosing material properties,

An Introduction

to Semiconductor



1 .2

Types of Sallcls


Tal.ll· 1.1 I A portion of the periodic tahl<' showing ell'll1l'Ill" Group

u~t'd in sc'll1icnntiuL'tnr ll1~tlcriab



C Carbuu
5i Silicon




Oxv gen S
Sui fur

Aluminum Zn Zinc Cd Cadmium

Phosphoru-, ,-\s

Gullium In IIlU!lIm

Geunanium SI] Tin

Aiscnir Sh





1.21 A partial list nlsemiconducror

marerials JV Compound Semicunducturs carbide germaniulll




Germanium Binurv III-V Compounds
AIA~ AlP ,\ISb Aluminum urscnidc Aluminum phosphide Aluminum antimonide Gallium arseuide Gallium phosphide Gallium amimunide Indium arsenide Indium phosphide Compounds .As Aluminum gallium

SiC SiGc


Binary II-VI Compounds
CdS CdTe 1-lgS ZnS ZnTt'



GaAs GaP
GaSb InA,

Cadmium telluride Mercury sulfide Zinc sulfide Zinc telluride


Quaternary AI,Gal_,A\Sb,_, G,I,IIl! ,A~I

Compounds Aluminum gallium ursemc arimonide Gallium indium arsenic

GM\~! _, P,

arsenide Gallium arscni«


Objective: Describe three clnsslficatlons and single crystal. of solids: amorphous, polycrystallme,

In Section 1.1, we simply listed various semiconductor materials. Since semiconducused III discrete device or Ie fabrication are generally single-crystal materials; it is worth while discussing various types of crystalline structures, V'le will describe the spatial arrangement or atoms in crystals and attempt to visual izc the three-dimensional configurations. The arrangement of atoms. as well as the chemical composition. affect

the electrical




Amorphous. polycrystalline, solids. Each type is characterized

by the size of an ordered

and single crystal are the three general types or region within the material.

or singlecrystal reg ions.ACE LATTICES Objective: structure. Single-crystal materials. The tran ..2 can be translated a distance £I 1 in one direction and a distance b. while polycrysialliue materials have a high degree of order over many atomic or molecular dimensions. An ordered repionis a spatial volume ill which utoms or molecules have a regular gL'O- metric arrangement or periodicity. in a second nnncolinear direction to generate the two-dimensional lauice. since grain boundaries tend 10 degrade the electrical characteristics . otr . The advantage of a single-crystal material is rhut.1 l.Each lattice pointin Figure 1. Tile singlecrystal regions are called grains anti arc separated from one another by grain houmlnrics. Describe basie crystal structures..3.nuice pnint We can represent a particular atomic array by a dot that is called a tauicc point.2 shows part or an intini te t we-dimensional array or lattice poi nts.l I Two-dimensionul schematics or three g~llerall~ pe~ or solids: (al amorphous. or regular geometric periodicity. and single-crystal materials arc shown in Figure 1. or group 0(" atoms.. its electrical properties are superior to those or a nonsingle-crystal material. we do not need to consider the enure lattice.. (hi PLllYlTyslallillt·.8 Solid State Physics: An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 4 C I-IiAPT E.n Ihl I. 1. pol ycrystullinc.1. and (e) xingle crystnl. vary i 11 size and orientation with respect to one another.R 1 Tne Cr\Si2. The periodic arrangement of atoms in the crystal i:. called the lattice. ideally. Since the three-dimensional .!(urel. Two-eli mcnsioual rcprescnuu ions or amorphous.icture oi Sohos II II 0 II 0 'II 0 II CI I. in general. crystal planes.uuice is a periodic repetition or a group or atoms.. bUI only a fundamental unit that is being . lation directions need not be perpendicular. throughout the entire volume of the material.. 1. These ordered regions. The si mplesi mean-. A third uoncolineur translatiou will produce (he three-dimensional lattice. is repeated at regular intervals in each of the three dimensions to [orrn the single crystul. Figure 1. or repeating an atomic atTa~' is hy translation .: I Fi.1 Primitive and Unit CeI. and the diamond Lutticc Our primary concern will be the single crystal with its regular geometric periodicity ill the atomic arrangement. Amorphous materials have order (lilly within H lew atomic 01" molecular dimensions.3 I SP. A representative unit. have a high degree of order..

.... A generalized three-dimensional unit cell.. .3 Space t. is shown in Figure I A. _.q ..:1 can also be used 10 construct the entire lau icc by using the appropriate uunshuions. lor example.- . it is more convenient ui lise a unit cell thai is not a primitive cell. [y.n we will let where Ii.. Fi.. i.. luuice ~ho\\'illg various pll~~ihk unit cell». .. Si nee the location of the origin is arbitrary.. . -. .. . FigLJI"l' ]._ .... -~/.' nnd h. and C.. Unit cells may be chosen that have orthogonal sides. wh ich need not be perpendicular andwhich may 01" may not be equal in length. rcpctued. A uui! celt is a small volume of the crystal tluu eun be used [0 reproduce the entire crystal.-11 A generalized primitive unit cell. .'"IJI . whereas the sides of a primitive cell may be nonorthugonal. . .. . e • -'.... B~ I I ... ... .'" ..J 1Two-dimensional . The unit cell A call be uunsl... the unit cell B can be translated in directions (/.~ "1 . /l and s are irucgers.. The rehuionship between this cell and the lattice is characterized by three vectors ii.An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 9 1 ..tl_t . . .. . .21 Two-dimensional represenuuirm ul a ~jllgk-l'ry~lal rcprl'\l'l1tation or a singll"lT: surl lauicc..atuces -.... A uni I cell is not a unique enti iy. ..!ul"l' 1. A primitive ceil is the smallest unit eel I thai can be repealed 10 form the lattice.. ....ued ill directions «: ami b2.. - . The unit cells C and 0 in Figure 1. . - . This discussion or two-dimensional unit cells Gill casi ly be extended 10 three dimensions 10 describe a real singlc-crystul mnterial. and the entire two-dimensional lattice can be constructed by the uunslations of either or these unit cells. . Figure 1. Every cquivalentlauice point in the three-dimensional crystal can be round using the vector L'nit nil Prirniti ve l'{'11 r = pa + qlJ + sc (r.. /). .. and s be positive integers I'm simplicity. ..:1shows several possi ble IIIl it cells in a rwo-dimensioual lauice.. . .. 5 . Figure 1..... . In many cases...

1. Each race atom is shared by t\\'o unit cells that meet at each side.rucd at each corner: the badv-centcre»! cubic (bee) structure has an additional .' . and facecentered cubic structures.. .are perpendicular to each other and the lengths are equal. let LI~ consider the chuructcrisiics of three basic cubic structures.1 OBJECTIVE Determine the volume d~11Sily or atoms ill a crvstul.!) -ccnlcred cubic.5 show!'...rt'tll'lIhir. Each corner atom is shared by ciglu unit eel" that meet nt the corner. hut. Fur eXH111p!..:.111 equivalent olonc atom ro the unit cell. Figure 1.. By knowing the crystal structure of a nuucriul .- (10 = 3.0 each corner atom effectively atoms Solution The volume density of atoms is then found hy dividing rhe number of unit cell utoms bv the unit cell volume..Hull1~ In the unit cell. The eight then COllll"iil.1 Basic Crystal Structures Simplc cubi« Bod) -ccnt cred ('11 hie Fnce-ceutered cu hie Before wc discuss semiconductor crystals.._ .. __ -\ I I I / I \ .uom at till' center or the cube: and the facecentere«! cubic (Icc) structure has an additional atoll! at the center or each race plane.lItt' . the si 111 ple cubic. h..3.AP TE R 1 Tile Crvsia' ~lluC'lllr..•nd it. und (.5 IThree luuicc IVPL'~:1.!ul'l' 1.uerial that i~ il tare-centered cubic with a lattice consuuu (In = :'iA = :'i x 10-· em.c oi Soads I\ I\ I\ I \ \ .. 1. Consider a single-crystul m.~ x IO~2 moms per {'In3 . EXAMPLE 1..? I . corner contributes nne-eighth or its volume 10 each unit cell.. Each unit cell of . we call determine scvcrnl chaructcrisrics or the crystal. 1--.10 Sohd State Physics: An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 6 C H. The simp!« cubic (5<:) structure has an .uoms ihen conrriluue un cquivaleut of three . we can choose unit cells such that the general vectors a. For these simple structures. or Volume deusitv or Volume density - 4 at 0111 S = --. (hI hudy-rcntcrcd cubic.11 ximplc cuhic. we can determine the volume density or atoms. so each race atom effectively contribute: one-hall' of its volume to each unit cell.__ \ \ _ :: f'/ // /" 1/ \ \ \ I In I \ Ie) Ihl I../ .J...'" \ I .I Iacc-ccutcrcd cubic then effectively contains four atoms...lattice dimensions.'/L. :In<l lei rae~'-Ll'llI<.HOI11 In .i. The xix race . .

can be described by first considering the intercepts or the plane along the a .I cry~t. we write the reciprocals of the intcrcepts as ( I. Till' artuul L1l'II~it) i~ a [unction of lilt' crvstul typc und crystul structure ~illl'<: till' packing dcnsity-c-uumbcr uf mom. b.3 Crystal Planes and i\lillcl' Indices arc nut infinitely large.\CS IISl'd lu describe the luuice. so till' surface propcrt ics lite device characlcrixticsv Wc would like to be uhlc to describe Since real crystuls Semiconductor Inay influence these . EXI. D.3. respectively. and (. i.«xes at points po.::!) ii Figul'l' 1. qb . q.6 I General luuice plant' intercepting [he ii. lite) eventually terminate ut a surface. Dcicnuiue tile volume dl'llsily of atoms. Surluccs. ant! s are integers. <I III I c: a. devices me [abricated HI or near a surface. ]lL'r unit l'L'II-tk'Jlc'lld~ (Ill cr~ ~la] xtructurc.3 Space Lattices 7 Comment This value of the volume UCltsity of atoms in .75A. o . ..1 Tile lauire consnun ufa body-centered I .IJ represents the order or magnitude or dell~il\ rOf most m. and sc._111:) cubic structure ~~O] x .An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 11 1 .0 shows a general plane intercepting thl' ii. or planes through the crysrul. /'.1I1d s. 1.urfaces in terms or the luuice.. and f: axes at . Figure 1. To describe the plane.ur] 'SLI\'1 i~!lll = -1-.ucriul-. where 11.

uiou \'0\\ multiply by the lowe _t ("01111110n denomiuamr. .i~ then referred to as till' 13~31 plunc. The integers arc referred 10 as the Miller indict' . Anv parallel plane b entirely equivalent 10 an~· other. and (" nxcs only. I I f f I I I I I I I I I I I 1 Figurl' 1. Thc luuice pnints in Figure . .m denominator. (rum Equ. The purumcrers h . \\C obtain it set of numbers such a~ (111.7 I A crvstal-Iauice plane for Example I.q = ~.lilkr indices are obtained fllr 'In~· plane tluu i parallel to the shown in Figure 1..7 urc shown altlng the Ii..7. Solution Frnm Equation tilt' rcciproculs I 1.7./ J. the intercepts of of the plane cnrrcspuud \ I.~l.1 J. and ( arc rclcrrcd to as the Miller indices. of Soh :I~ lvlultiplying :\ I ilh-r indicl's by till' lo\\' '~I cumm.2 OBJECTIVE [)e~l'rihl' thl' plane shown in Figure' 1. which ill this rase i~6. :'. Comment We can shov (Jill' that the varnc three r. k .12 Solid State Physics: All Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 8 C HAP T E R 1 TIle Crystal SUUCll.I = :' Wrill' the intercepts. EXAMPLE 1. C z.and . <IS to I' = ~. The plane i~ then rc [erred to a~ till' tk]: II plane.~. to obtuin I J. J I.~. The plunc in Figure I . We II i' rctcr to a gClleral plm1l' a the r IIk11 plane.

] Three planes that are couuuonly considered ill a cubic crystal me shown shaded in Figure I..J I Each face plane or the cubic structure shownin Figure] . .Se. so the plane: shown in Figure I. we can avoid the use ofinfinity in the . OJ. we obtain the Miller indices as ( I.and(~..8a is entirely equivalent.(bISkl·tl"hlh~planc.. q = -x:. ~I' I a 13.. there is a high degree or symmetry.An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 13 '1 .. The intercepts or the plane shown in Figure 1. -Ie) II (I (11) Figllrl' Ull Three lnuice planes in a simple cubic lattice: (a) 1100) plane. However. the body-centered cubic. we would obtain intiniry as one or more uf the Miller indices after taking the reciprocal of' the intercepts. 8. Again. the location or the origin of our system is entirely arbitrary and so. \Ve may also consider the planes shown in Figures 1. Space Lattices 9 EX 1. and the face-centered cubic.The ]VI iller indices CD."(" = I}'I) = Ii (1l1'~1I\.. q = I.. These planes are grouped together and arc referred to as the f 100) set ol' planes. (b) (IIOJ plane. O.8b and I.8a and separated by all inrc121'<11 umber of lauice constants n is equivalent ami is referred to as the (I UO ) plane.Ra is parullcl to the b and C axcx so the intercepts are given as /1 = I..21plane.2 A plane in a ximpl« cubic crvviul i~described C~pl~ollth~it. and x = cc. One advantage to taking the reciprocal of the intercepts to obtain the Miller indices is that the lise 01'1n11nit)' is avoided when describing a plane that is parallel to an axis.8b are (J = I. Fur the simple cubic structure.I~.lX~~.Xa is referred to as the (100) plane....1) as i = flU + qb + si: (I.----/ / / / I I / I I I I I I I / I/ I I I I f). The plane ill Figure I .- - ?iOl>------- 1'--- 1/ / . If we were [0 describe u plane passing through the origin or our system. allY plane parallel tt) the one shown in Figure . and s = x .ct or Miller Indices. and rc) (III) plane. The axes call be rotated by 90° in each ol' the three dimensions and each lattice point can again he described by Equation [1. ({Ii Wlw( are the inter[~= . by translating the origin to another equivalent lauice point. Taking the reciprocal.I.

14 Solid State Physk s: An truroducuon lO Semiconductor Devices 10 CHA'PfER 1 Tile Cr:.3 . so each corcontriluuc-..nrcs: equivalent parallel plan's. the plant' shown in Figure 1. --80(1)r rT\nrT\ --~~(/ I . II EXAMPLE OBJEC Culcul.1)I (a) The (110) plane ill a face-centered cubic and (b) the atoms cut by the f 110) plane ill a face-centered cubic. in Figure' l. a :-. a~ a result. will vlu" on the surlucc (lfa semiconductor material.miculur plane 111 a crystal.r. number per square centimeter 1#/CI112)..ll'l' 1.ingk-crystal semiconductor is not infinitely large and must terminate at some surface. and.uoms on till': p.1\ imlic.luuicc plane' . Till' atom at eurh corner is shared hy four similur equivalent lattice planes.Slal Suucture 01 Salt(ls an: round b) taking the reciprocal Dr these intercept. The two face atolll~ then l'I'i'ccti\'l. such as an insulator.:'i A= -J.8c i~ referred 10 a~ the ( III ) plane. The Iour corner uiom then effectively contribute one al0111 ro lhi~ Inuicc plane.9h.luuucteristic (If a crystal thai can be determined i~ the distance bel ween . this plant' i~ referred III as the (110) plane. One .uion or uioms. that are cut hy a particular plane. comnins 1\1 o atoms. nne-fourth of i'~ area 10 this luuicc plane.ued ill the figure.:) x IO-x CIIl. Consider tuce-ccmcred cubic 'lHlCIUI'(' and till' (110) pLllle shown the atoms cun be represented a\ hurd spheres with rhe closest atoms touching' each 11[IIL'rand that llll' luuicc constant i_ au -\. so each race' atom cuectivelv contributes one-half of its area lO thi . Anuthcr charactcristic is the surface conccmr.lJa. ill determining huw another material. Again. then.. The lauicc plant' ill ncr atom cffertively Figure 1.' plane i~ shared by two imilar cquivalcnt luuicc plane .!)b show» hoI\' the = atoms arc CUl h~ thr ( 110) plane.1 IVE lhl' xurlucc Jen~il~' uf . The surface dcnsiiv or atoms mny be important. . I'm example.'ly conuihute one atom III lhi~ lauicc plane. I-<l"\'~-I I Ih) Figl. The morn on each fact.uc ASSUIllt' 1. Figure I. In a similar ""y. iI~ indicated ill lilt' Iigurc.

3 Space Laruces 11. . ~_Ul.1 di.2 .ill this Cl\l' h. 1.-llI. (b) (110) plane and [11 OJ direction.10. The brackets arc used to designate direction as distinct lrom the parentheses used for the crystal planes.An Introciuction to Semiconductor Devices 1S 1 .~ 1'101 x [1:'91(/1 .11pluuc 1\1 auother. The three basic directions ami the associated crystal planes Ior the simple cubic structure are shown ill Figure 1. mill Surface lkll. !l. The direction can be exprc: sed as a set of three integers which are the components or a vector ill rh. Thi» perpendicularity may not hL' true ill noucubic lattices.75 IO-b em. Note that in the simple cubic lattices.nllin: direction [IIU] I. I.) 1101 ~Tt P') ·~tlV] In addition to describing crysurl planes in a lattice. and (c) (111) plane and [111 J direction.=:- {<lII)[(/nJ'51 or Till' surface (kn'it)' of atonu i~ a function or the particular ernlly vurie» I'rOI11 one cry '1. the [1Ik/] di rcction is perpendicular ((1 [he (hI:!) plane. The hotly diagonal is then described as the [1111 direction. we may want to describe a particular direction in the crystal.urfact' dl'n. I. • Solution Wt' lind till' .tal plane in the lauice and gC'Il' EX 1..L\ = -1. Calculate the surface dCIl~ily or alOllb for ((I) a (]OO) plane and (bl a III()) plaill'.jly = . eel or vector components I.3 The lau icc cunstaru or a hody -ccntcrcd cubic structure I' (lu = -L75 . For example.1 n I Three lattice planes and directions ill a simple cubic lattice: (al f 10m plane and 11001 direction.]) (b) (c) Figure 1.u direction.iding the number III lauicc all1m' b~ Iht' surface nreu. Comment cry. the body dingonul in a simple cubic lattice is cumpo.111l11l~ -----.

described by the cmnpunents or till' \ L'L'IUr.l = -I.\\ 'slIvl 1.•-•. direction. the direction in the lauicc i~ perpendicular to thl' (. for Exercise . The imcrb) lilt' leas: = -I. thl' C-III uf (~-ll J ccpts or the plane art' then found by tuk ing tilL' reciprocal \Ve find and nlllllirl~·jn~ or f1 = 2.1 I. and s = lor [1-111 direction. = II ml. 1)c\L'I'ibL' this lanicc eli rert ion und the corresponding luuicc plane rluu I~pcrpcudiculur to till.>Jl]1 11.4 OBJECTIVE Describe ~Idirection in a lauicv and the CllITl'~pOlidilig luuirc plane.16 Sohd State Physics: An lmroducrion to Semiconductor Devices '12 CHAPT.ho\\ II in Figure 1. II Figun' 1.'11 J Describe lilt' l.1 __ y \:/11.-1.j EX 1.12 and is pcrpcndiculur Il) the vee- tur ho« II ill Figure 1.IIlJ.'§I.1 J and the curre~]loIlJing .1 J I l. or /) = ~. EXAM LE 1. plane. Solution The direction if or' tilt' "ector hO\\'11 i-. to this direction i~ abo described a. _1.] I.urice direction lauice II = ~'I11Il~'r =" "t 11)this direction. CttGID@iU.11 I l. Figure 1.1.auice direction Example lA.auice direction Problem EX 1. C unsidcr the lnuicc dirccriuu . for Fiaure 1.llllItJl!.4 plane perpendicular ------------------shown in Figure.ER 1 The Crystal Siructure oi Solids . q = I. Tilt' plane perpendicular common dcuominuuu.OIT'-'~IH)[}ding plane. ~IHI\\'n in Figure 1.11. for a simple cubic structure.)]. Comment As mentioned.'1.12 I Plane perpendicular 10 tile direction shown ill Figure I.'1Ul:ld ltl11 '1I0!P. . Thi» plane i.

15 I TilL' tetrahedral suuciure or closes: nl'i~hhLlr~ in the diamond lauice.uoms miss. . 7.3A The Diamnnrl Stn..An lntroduction to Senuconductor Device. . Figure 1. is more compl icutcd than the si mple cubic structures that we have considered UJl [(1 this poi nt.16a sh(l\\'~ two body-centered cubic.- 1/ II " 1/ ---___y la) Ib) Figure L 16 I Portions or tilt' diamond lattice: (u) bottom hal r and (b) [OP hal r.wlul"(' Diumnnd lutfice b the most cummon semiconductor material. Silicon is referred to as . Figure 1. i·\ unit cell of the diumond structure. Germanium i~ al~(l a group [V element and ha:-. We can begin 10 understand the diamond lattice by considering the tetrahedral structure shown in Figure 1.I / / / ~-------. silicon There arc several ways to visualize the diamond structure.nJcLUre~ diagonally adjacent tu each -[ (//:' _I Figure 1. shown in Figure 1..16. a diamond crystal structure. or tetrahedral.1 group IV element and ha-.. 17 1.1-1-. : I I'~/ // --". One way to gain a further understanding or the diamond lattice is by wnsidering Fig ure 1. SI._ I I I I /1ll-----1. the :-. This structure i~ basically a body-centered cubic with luur ul the corner .15...1-11 Tile diamond structure.<l11l1: diamond structure. Every atom in the tetrahedrul structure has Iour neare~l neighbors and it is this structure that is the basic building block of the diamond r\~ already staled.-.-.

Zincblcude luuicc other.1X I Thl' rctruhe lrul structure of closest neighbors Figun' 1. its nearest Assurru: Ih~11 the .18 Solid Stale Physics: An lntroducuon 10 Sernirouductor Devices 14 C Iii APT E n 1 The Crystal SIr d:wr".1611 rcprescnts the top hal I' of the diamond structure. TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING TYl1. The OpL~11 circles represent atoms ill the luu ice that are generated when the structure is translated t(l the right or left . I\-(~t·[ TVUl.8:.1 i I Thl' ziuchlcndc ( pnleritc j luuicc or GaA~. Figure 1. The top half agni n consists or two terrahcdral structures joined diagonally.. Fiuure 1. Figure 1. An impuruun chuructcri-t ic of the diamond lattice is that any atom wiihi 11 the diamond structure will have Iuur nearest neighboring aIOIllS.3 The lunice constant of is (fo = 5. The imponunt leaturc of both the diamond and the zi nchleudc structures is that the atoms nrc joined together III flll'lll a tetrahcdroll. Culculate the volume density of silicon atoms. in the zincblcnde luuice.'i I(]'~ em>'. (110) planes in a simple cubic lnuice = . 'SlI\f) . (V [tit' ltV) TV l.17.18 show» the basic tctrahcdrul structure or Gal-\s in which each Gu atom has luur nearest As neighbor» and each As . The zincblendc (sphalerite) structure differs lrom the diamond structure only in that there are two different tvpe: or atoms in the lattice. (~_1l1.1·Y trY = Determine the distance b 'lweennl:arl'sl silicon with a Iauice constant of liD = 4..uom: are hard spheres with each atom touching neighbor.uom has luur ncare I Ga neighbors.t. A.1 Till' \'01111111:' dcusity or ntorns 1'01' a body-cerucred cubic Janice i~.2 Determine the lauice OJ) 'SllV) L'0l1s1:1111 and the effective radius of the atom. hut which are at SJ() with respect to tile bouorn-half diagouul..01 x _.4:1 A. The diamond structure refers to the particular lauicc in which all atoms are olthe same species. Compound semiconductors .1 . such as silicon or germanium. This ligure also begins to show the interpenetration PI' two suhlauiccs that can he used 10 generate the diamond or zinchlcnde lauice. Wt: will note this churactcrisuc again in our discussion or atomic bonding ill Section I . a. J' Solids. have the zincblende structure shown in Figure 1. one lattice constant. such as gallium arsenide.

while the elements in group VII tend to gain an electron and become negatively charged. negatively charged ions tend 10 be surrounded by IJlI iti vely charged ions and positively charged ions tend III be . such as silicon and germanium. are shown in Figure 1. In the actual three-dimensional structure. single-crystal structures. These oppositely charged ions then experience a coulomb attraction and form a bond referred to as an ionic bond. urrounded by negatively charged ions. Atoms in group JV of the periodic [able. an example of which is Iound in the hydrogen molecule. the quantummcchnnical description 01"the atomic bonding interaction is still beyond the SCLlpC or this text. with each neighbor atom contributing one valence electron tu be shared. so a periodic array of the atoms is formed 10 create the lauice. thus lorming ions. Each of these elements has four valence electron and needs tour more electrons 10 complete the valence energy shell.. The type of" hnnd. Ascheuuuic ultwo nonintcructing hydrogen atoms.::!Obshows a Iwe-dimensional representation of the covalent bonding of silicon atoms.. lor example.An lrnroducuon to Semiconductor Devices 19 1 . These ions then essentially have complete outer energy shells. depends on the pan icular . ha~ lour nearest neighbors.I :\'1'0 Objective: wh~ one nc BONDING in atomic bonding between various solids. electrons or an atom. so tluu in effect the valence energy shell of each atom i full.. The clements in group 101"Ihe periodic table tend to lose their one electron and become positively charged.19. Another atomic bond that tends 10 achieve closed-valence energy shells is covalent bonding. The aroms at the (WLl extremes of the period ic table (excepting the inert clements! tend to lose or gain valence electrons. and the hydrogen molecule with the covalent bonding. The center a1UIl1 has eight shared valence electron .20b. between atoms.HL11ll or atoms in the crystal.4 Arorrur 8011(lIn9 15 1. Figure 1. . a repulsive force would become dominant. IT IhL' ions were 10 gel 100 close. A lundamcuurl la\\ of nature is that the total energ~ lll" a system in thermal equilibrium tcnd-.20a schematically shows live noninterucring silicon atoms with the four valence electrons around each atom.u occurs between atoms 10 form a solid and III reach the minimum total energy depends 011 tile I~Jlc of utorn or atoms involved. The question arise» us ttl particular crystul structure is luvorcd over another 1"01' particular asscmhlv a Pi" '11()11l~. then. ThL' interaction of atoms tends to form clo Tel valence shells such as we see in ionic bonding. The interaction th. In a crystal. A clus: ic example of ionic bonding is sodium chloride. A two-dimensional representation or the covalent bonding in silicon is shown in Figure 1. \Vc can neverthcle ~ obtain a qualiuuivc understanding of how various uuuns interact by considering the valence. the atoms are arranged in a \Vc huvc been consider] Ionic bondinu Cnvalent hnndim. II" a silicon atom. also lend to form covalent bonds. II' there is Iwl a strong bond between atoms. Discuss differences ng \ ariou-. so an equilibrium distance results between these two ions. or interaction. A hydrogen atom has one electron and needs one more electron tu complete the lowest energy shell. Although un introduction to quantum mechanics is presented in Chapter 2. then the center atom will in effect have eight electrons in its outer shell. to reach a minimum value. or outermost. The intcructiou bet ween <110msCHnbe described hy quantum mechanics. they will Iltll "stick together" to create a solid. Covalent bonding results in electrons being shared between atoms. Figure 1.

solids formed by the Van del' Waals bonds have [l relatively low melting temperature-c-in fact. :'ll'tallit: hnndinj. iguiticunt difference between the covalent bonding of hydrogen anti or silicon is that. This nonsymmetry ill the charge distribution results in a small electric dipole iluu call interact with the dipoles of orhei !-IF molecules. A hydrogen tiuoridc (!-IF) molecule. fur cxurnplc. Solid sodium has a body-centered cubic structure. is l'ormed hy an ionic bond. most of these materials are in gao eo LIS form ru room temperature. Group T elements have one valence electron. when the hydrogen molecule is lormcd . ilicon vulcnce elccirons representation and (h) covalent Ill' hunding in the silicon crystal. U' two sodium atoms (Z = II \. The lour nearest neighbors in silicon Iornung the covalent bond correspond 10 the tetrahedral structure and the diamond lattice. called the \lUll del" ll'cllds bond. a~ \\'a~ shown in Figure 1. The effective center of the positive charge or the molecule is not the same as the effective center of the negative charge.20 ITwo-dimensional (a). so each mom has eight nearest neighbors with each atom sharing man)' vulen . the valence electrons interact in a way similar to that in covalent bonding.20 Solid Slale Physrcs: An lntroducuon to Seuuconductor Devices 16 ell A PTE R 1 -ll8 Crystat Structure 0' S::: 1(13 -(9I I I -(9- -(9I I -(9I I -(9I I I II I -@=@)=@I ® I II I @- -@ @=@ -(9I (h) Figlll'l' 1. With these weak imcractions. i" the weakest 01" the chemical bonds. with each silicon atom having lour nearest neighbor» and eight shared electrons. the vulcncc electrons can also inrcruct and continue to lonn a hond. while the outer silicon uiums always have valence electrons available Ior additional covalent bonding. are brought into close proximity. for example. the solid being held together by the electrostatic forces.e electrons. II he useful ill much of the discussion .1') I R<?]1rc·~t'llIa(Jl1n (a) h\'urog<'1l \'al<'llL:~ electrons and (h) cnvnlent bonding in a hydrogen molecule. it has no additional electrons to form additional covalent bonds. When a third sodium arom is brought intu close proximity with the lirst two. A . However.. The third major atomic bonding scheme is referred tll as metallic bUlldillg. Atomic bonding and crystal structure arc obviously directly related. or Fiuu re 1.1-1. reprcsentat ion w] tetrahedral configuration. This description gives a quulilulive picture ( f the mctullic hondo A fourth type of atomic bond.15. the lwo-dimensional or sern iconducior behavior.he positive metallic ions as being surrounded hy <I sea of negative electrons. respect ivcly. V'le can think of I.15 and 1. which were shown in Figures 1. The silicon array may then he funned into an infinite crystal.

21 I Two-dirncn: ional repre entation at" a single-cry tal lauice showing raj a varuncy defect an iruersritial defect. ill some cases.. In a reul the luuicc i~ IHH perfect.21 a. (:ll / I r ~ --/ I ~ . .-~-.. 10 Up TYSWI.-----.. Describe various AND I [Pl. . the conductivity Dr the uuucriul can he signilicnntl~' changed in a luvoruhlc manner.-""" I I . nether type or detect is called a point deice)..-. as we will sec later in our discussion or semiconductor material characteristics. the atoms an: arranged in a perfect periodic arrangement..RITIES imperfections IN SOLIDS single-crystal and impurities this point. ."I> ---~ I .. Imperfections rend to alter the clccuicul prupcrticx (11' a material and. 1-\ Yaca Ill'y defect Interstitial dl'i'I. in an ideal singlc-crystul lattice.This imperfection.. .. Wc will sec in Chapter J..J .. an atom may be missing from a particular lattice site. There arc several of this type that we need [0 consider.:. called Iuttice vibrations. I -I" I I / .//' / I I rhl figure and t b) 1.~ .. controlled concenruuions 0[' a specific impurity atom in a semiconductor. Aeain.. However. an atom muy be located between luuicc sites. .5 lmpertecuons and Irnpunues In Solids '17 1. the atoms separated from each other by a distance we have assumed to be constant.-(" . the perfect geometric peri()dicil~ i~ disrupted in sumc manner.. have a certuin thcrmal energy. b) adding small..rlcctiuns or defects: tluu is.. ..~ I I I I I I I / I I lrucrsutial / -~------+ I/'- . we have been considering an ideal singlc-crvstul structure. however.:l't . electrical parameters can be dominated by these defects or impurities.. .5 I II\lPEH.[ Imperfections ill Solids One type of imperfection that nil crystals have in common is atomic thermal vibration. [. This defect is referred to as a 1'{/("(1I1C_\": it is schemat ically shown ill Figure 1. but contains imp .. but also the ideal chemical bonding between atoms is disrupted..a ---=. ._... In [he case or vacancy and interstitial defects. which tends to change the electrical properties or the material. not only is the perfect geometric arrangement otutoms broken.fECT]ONS Objective: in solids.. in a real crystal.I / /' I I - I // -. iluu..21 h. The atoms in a crystal.--I - I . ultects some electrical parameters. A perfect single crystal conuiins atoms at particular lauice silt's. I I / --c. which is a function of temperature. The thermal energy causes (he atoms to vibrate in a random manner about all equilibrium lattice point This random rhermal mmion causes the distuncc between arums to randomly fluctuate. This defect is referred III as an interstitia! and is schematically showu in Figure 1.---t J ~--. I -------. In another situation.An Introductlon to Semiconductor Devices 21 1 .--.5. slightly disrupting the perfect geometric arrangement 01" atoms . . .

... .... l1la). also known as a Frenkel defect. . ..5. more complex defects may occur.~2.unuunts or particular impurity atoms. ill which case they nrc called inter titiat impurities... I I I . [11 torming occurs \\'11(.......2 Substitutiounl iurpuritv Impurities in Solids Doping Diff'usiun Foreign arums.. in general.221Two-tlimensioual rcprescnuuion (II' a line dislocation. • I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I \ \ I I I I I I ~ I I I I I I I I Figul"l' 1.. Other complex dislocurions can also occur ill a crystal lauicc.. ...11 all entire row or I~ referred to as a line dislocation and is shown in Figure 1. Slime impurities.H1C~' and imersutiul Ill<ly be in close enough proximity tu exhibit an interaction hetween rhe two point defects. such a. Impurity atoms Illa}' be located at normal lattice sites.' gold or phosphorus ill silicon.. .0 present a few or the basic types of defects. . .. and to show that a real crystal is not neccxsarily a perfect lattice structure. + + .rvstal materials. a line dislocation disrupts both the normal geometric periodicity or the lauicc <Inti the ideal atom ic bomb in the crystal. . Impurity atoms may also be located between normal sites. . impurity diffusion occurs when a semiconductor crystal is placed ill a hightemperature (::::::1000-C) gaseous atmosphere containing the desired impurity atom. tend to be essentially inert: however.. . The technique (11' adding impurity atoms 10 a semiconductor material to change its conductivity i: called doping.. The actual diffusion process depends LO some extent on the material but.. ... . . the electrical characterisucs or a semiconductor material call he luvornbly altered. .?3. produces different effects than the simple vacancy (I]' interstirinl... This dislocation can also alter the electrical properties or the material...... Til' point defects involve single atoms or single-atom locations. . . . As with a point defect. . h) adding controlled . Both these impurities arc lattice defects and an: schematically shown in Figure 1.... other impurities. .. + . I'llI' example. . such as oxygen in silicon. A line defect.. The effect or these imperfections on the electrical prupenies or a semiconductor will be con idcrcd in Chn] tel 8. This vacancy-interstitial defect..... . .. thi~ in troductory discussion i~ intended only 1.. . .. . . • • . be present in a crystul lauicc. + . single.. .... ..... 1I sually in a less prcdicrublc manner than the simple point defects... + • . call drasucully alter the electrical properties or the material.. .. • • • • .. However. .stal SlIlIG!urE' of Sohns ..... . atoms is missing lrom its normal lauice site. This defect 1. • " • . .22 Solid Slall? PhySICs: n lruroducuon to Semiconductor Devices A 18 CNAPT. There are two general methods or doping: solid/gas source doping and ion implantation. . in which case the) are called substitutiona! impurities.... .. or impurity atoms. . \'ac....ER 1 The Cr:... III ChapterJ we will see tluu.

..__ --- r I __ ---.:.. the impurity atoms become permanently frozen into the substitutionul lauice sites.6 Gr::)'.. ginn of high concentration ncar the .. Diffusion of various impurities into .--I I -.23 I T\\'lI .liIUliullill ililpUlil~ II1I~rstili:1I impuritv J I :.:6 .. or understanding r-f semtcnuductor . urlace to a region of lower concentration within the crystal. other._ / I ~/_-..~ -~----1' I . Thermal annealing is a required step alter implantation.. imensional d and (hI all il1lL'Nili:ti impurity rcpre entat iun I I' a sill~k"l'I'y~tallallil'e shuwi Ilg t a) it xuhstitutiunal i mpuritv At this high temperature.. ill which the rernpenuure or the cry tal is raised for a shun lime.t • J I <6.. Ion impluntmion generally takes place at 11 lower tcmper. . ~I Ion impluntntinn 1. ... Vacancies may be created by this random motion 0 iluu impurity atoms can move through the lattice by hopping lrom cnc vacancy to all ... causing luuice-displacemcnt damage . -- ~-~-~---~---~---~ I / I I /. The success in fabricating very large scale integrated (VLSn circuits is a result. Sern iconductors are some of tile purest I:!: IlHtic31~<. The highenergy irnpuri t)' ions enter the cry.elected regions of 11 semiconductor enables LIS to lubricate ccmplcx electronic cir . but mav be ... A disadvaruage or this technique is that the incident impurity atoms collide with the crystal atoms.kipped the first li me through the text. those sections Ihal "'ill aid in the total summation devices. most or the lauicc damage can be removed by thcrmul annealing.nurc than dilfusicn. -"1'.. . Impurity diffusion is the process by which impurity panicles move from a rc ./ I I I / I I / I / I r I SUI'.-.t' J I I I I I I .../-__.. to a large extent.All Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 23 1 ... is accelerated 10 kinetic energies in the range of 50 kc V or greater and then directed to the surface of the semiconductor. When the temperature decreases. (iI) 7-------f-I I I I I .6 I GRO\Vl H OF SE1\'l1CONIDUCTOl~ MATERIALS Objective: Describe processes that are used to create single-crvstal scm iconductor materials. of the development or and improvement in the formation or growth of pure si ng le-crystal semiconductor materials.·}!ll of Senucorrhrctor ivlatenals 19 - - ---. tal and come tll rest at some average depth from the surface.!!un' 1.--1[» // __ ri. cuits ill 11 single semiconductor crystal..A collimated beam or impurity ion. many of the crystal morns can randomly I11IlV": in and out u! their singte-crvstnl Iauicc sites. .. However...... One advamuge of ionimplanuuion is that coutrollcd numbers of impurity mums can be introduced into specific regions of the crystal.

The parameter that describes this distribution is called the segregation coefficient: the ratio of the concentration or impurities in the solid tll the concentration in the liquid. till' impurities are driven along with the liquid. rnuy be added io the melt '(1 that the grown semiconductor crystal is intentionally doped with the impurity atom. or the zone-refining technique. . Silicllll.Jb.I r-r .' al the end 01. to provide a slight stirring action to the melt.(1.the boule is mechanicn II)' trimmed 10 the proper diameter and a lint is ground over the entire length ')1' the boule to denote the crystal orientauon. is xlowly passed along ihc length of lite boule. Figure I. The temperature induced by the coil is high enough so that thin layer or liquid is is being pulled. is brought i nro coruact with the surlucc or the same material in I iquid phase. the surface must be removed by chemical etching. ~11E: Crystat Structure of Sol rl~ nuucrial . resulting in a more uniform temperature. The boule is (hell . till: conccntr. or r-r induelion cui].u in the olid. sually the crystal is also rouued slo« Iy a:-.1. Controlled urnounts or specific impuriry uioms. known as a seed.liccd into waters. Since the lapping procedure can leave a surface damaged and coniaminrucd by the mechunicul operation. . most impuritiex an.ucriul. Till: final step is polishing.. The mechanics ami kinetics or crysurl growth arc extremely complex and will he described in only very general terms in this text. Tile high-puruy requirement means that extreme care i" necessary in rhc ~:!I'O\\ih and the ucauncm or the matcriul .uion or impurities in the liquid i-. The flat is perpendicular to the [1101 direction or indicates the (110) plane. The moving molten zunc. u gcncral knowledge or the growth techniques and ierminolugv i" valuable. However.1 H Cwrhrnlski method growth A C(IIllIIHlIl technique lor growing siuglc-cryxtul rnareriuls is callctl the C:ocllmlski method.2. A high-temperature cuil. Arter several passes ur lite coil. Growth from i\Icll 1. As tile liquid zone moves through the m. /-\riel' the semiconductor is grown. [or example. II' the segregation coefficient is 0. the seed is slllwl) pulled.oliditlcution occurs ulong the plane het ween the sol id-Iiq uid interface. (See Figure 1. This final serniconduclor wafer is called the substrate material. lur example.::!--la shows a schematic Dr [he Czorhralski growth proeess and a silicon ingot nr boule grown by this process. Zone relining is a com mou technique lor purifying material. At the solid-liquid interface is a distribution or impurities between the two phases. has conccnuatinns of movt impurities or Ie~~ than I pan in 10 billion. [11 this technique. The wulcr must he thick enough to mechanically support itself. This provides a smooth surface Oil which devices Illa~' be fabricatcd or fun her growth processes may be carried out. a small piece 01' single-crystal material.. Some impurities may be Jlre~'~1ll ill the ingot that are undesirable.'the bar. which cau ihcn be cut off.) Thisthen enables the individual chips to be lubricutcd alLlllg given crystal planes so that the chips can be sawed apart more easily. . and then xlowly pulled from the melt. A mechanical two-sided lapping operation produces a llat wafer or uniform thickness.1 each step or the lubricurion process.24 Solid State Physir s: An lniroducuon to Semiconductor Devices 20 C HAP T E R 1. can result ill considerable puri licuuun. a luctor 01' 10 greater than rh. such a~ huron or phosphorus.

:oncfu:tor Matenals 21 fbi Fiuur« 1.An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 25 1 .6 Grov.]1 the bottom of the phntognlph the [ 110] direction.) i~ perpendicular 10 . (Photo courtesy ofIntel of Sem.241 (a) Schematic of a crystal puller and (b) photograph of a silicon wafer with an array of iruegrated circuit. The circuits art' tested on the wafer then sawed apan Into chips that art' I11LJlIllleU into packages. The llat .

I heterocpituxy process. a relatively 10\\' temperature compared with many semiconductor-processing steps. This technique. The semiconductor substrate is held in the liquid compound and. the substrate docs not melt. although the procl':-'s takes place lar below the melting rcmpcmtureWhcn an epitaxial layer is grown on a substrate of the same material. Silicon epitaxial layers. Many layers of various types of epitaxial compositions can be grown on a substrate in this manner.11 Epitaxial Gnl\llh A common and versatile growth technique tluu is lIsed cxrcnsivclv in device ami integrated circuit lubrication is epitaxial growth..1 singk-LT) sial suhstnue. Growing epitaxial layers or the ternary alloy AIGaAs nil a Gaf\s substrate is (lilt: example 01.6. Chemical.1l 01.lex doping profiles. Liquid-Phase Epitaxy Liquid-phase ('/Ji/ox_\. As the solution is slowly cooled. The sil icon atoms are released in the reaction and can he deposited onto (he substrate. since the temperature of the melt is lower than the melting temperature of the substrate. A sharp demarcation between the impurity doping in the substrate and in the epitaxial layer can be achieved using the CVD process.00' C. a single-crystal semiconductor layer grows on the seed crystal.1 homucpitaxy process. the two crystal suuct urcs should be very similar ir single-crystal growt h i~ ru he obtained and if a lar~e number of defects arc to be avoided at the cpituxial-su hstraie intcrlucc. This technique allows great flexibility in tile fabrication of semiconductor devices.1 the surface uf . tile dopi ng can be precisely controlled. Semiconductor and dopant atoms are then evaporated onto the surface or the sub traie. or . can be grown 011 substrates. Complex ternary compounds. while the other chem ical rcuctant. Epituxi«! p. the process is term cd 1IOIIJO!?/li/u.' . such as AIGaAs. such as GaAs. for example. where abrupt changes in the crystal composition are desired.H'Cl. silicon tetrachloride reacts with hydrogen at the surface of it heated substrate. Growing silicon Oil a silicon substrate is one example of . resulting in ver 'comp.\T. A compound of the sem iconductor wi til another element may have a multi Ilg temperature lower than that of the semiconductor itsel r. ulrhough the substrate and epuaxiul nuuerinls nrc IWI the same. A substrate . In the cpituxiul pruccs». These structures are extremely beneficial in optical devices such as laser diodes. a greal deal or work i~ being done with lie/em£'j)i/cur. In this technique. the single-crystal substrate ach a~ the seed. In a heterocpitaxy process. is useful in growing group HI-V compound semiconductors. is i 11 guseous form and is swept out Ill' the reactor.26 Solid State Physics: An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 22 eN APTE II=! 1 The Crystal StrU:lure of Soitcl3 1. Vapor-Phase Deposition One epitaxial growth technique that has been used extensively is called chfll1im/l'£lpor-p/wsl' deposition ((VDI. At held in vacuum at a icmpcrature normally in the range -H10 10 [0.2 Epit:l\ial grol\ 1. In one method.mlL'11J j~ a pl"\ll'e~~ II hereby a thin. which occurs at a lower temperature than the Czochralski method. are grown on silicon substrates h~ the controlled deposition of silicon atoms onto the surface from a chenucal vapor containing silicon. single-crystal layer of material is grll\\. is another epitaxial growth technique. Molecular Beam Epitaxy A vcrsurile technique for growing epitaxial layers is the molecular beam {'pilary (M BE) process.

is the Iactrhat an excellent narive oxide.SS Dr silicon I \.thc oxide is an integral part or this electronic device.25.'I o.ilicon in:-- Diftu-run . Metal interconnect lines that electrically connect vurious electronic devices nil the chip G11l be placed on top of the licit! ox Ide. we discuss one such process-c-rhcrmal oxidation. can be formed on the surface or xilicun. the ox ide is used as un insulator.II'b1l'1I ('1'( J: Ihrr'"~h cXl~lillg oxide 10 silicon .7 De'. between devices. This oxide i\ used .25 I Schematic or the oxidation process indicating the diffusion of oxygeu rhrnugh the exi ting silicon dioxide. called a Fec/IiW/()gL In basic fabrication processes arc given throughout tile text where up- propri. [11 addition. As we will sec ill Chapter 6.. Silicon dioxide is an important material in the fubricatiun process Ior devices. lor making an l C i-. known a\ the field oxide. oxygen molecules must diffuse through the existing oxide to reach the silicon surface where the reaction occurs. isior (lv[()SFET1. a~ we will sec throughout the text. .An Introducrion 10Serruronductor Devices 27 1 .23 1 1. A major reason for the SIICCr. urr~Il"l· Figur~ 1.layer 1). After all oxide layer forms on the surface of the silicon. Here.1" a galL' insulator in the metul-oxidc-scmiconductor field-effect trail.'_'111S1 other semiconductors do not form nrui vc oxides that arc of sufficient qunluy tu he used ill device tubricruion. This process i shown in Figure 1. silicon dioxide rSiOe).7 I DEY]CE FABRICATION OXIDATION Objective: Describe the formation of an oxide ThCHNIQUES: Oil silicon. .uc.. The probability or Si diffusing through the Dry uxirlntiun SiO~ S. ThL' thermal oxidation 0[" Silicon ill an uunosphcre of oxygen proceeds according [0 the reaction This process I~ called a drv oxidation since oxygen is present without ally water vapor. The integrateu niqucs needed III luhricutc the transistor The total collection of these processes Introductions circuit is a direct result of Ihe development or various prol'l::~~i 111.' techand interconnect lines on tile ~Ingk chip.. Slagllanl g~l:.I:'" Fabncanon Techniques: Olclallol' .

The figure also shows that .26 I Silicon dioxide grows over bare ilicun.0 I lowe is typical for thermal oxidation. the oxide thickness is directly propurtionul ro the oxidation time. as shown in thc figure. The oxidation may also occur in an ambient conuunmg water vapor. However.·· ..u i~ inserted in a resistive-healed lurnncc. To create a thermal oxide. for this reason. when the oxide thickness reaches approximately 25 A. The silicon dioxide only grows Oil bare silicon. A temperature in the runge ROO 1. Pigurc 1. there the WeI oxidation Si02 is mall.· the thickness of the final oxide. the reaction effectively stops since the diffusion coefficient oro~ in SiO~ at room tcmpenuurc is extremely small. a "hinls beak" region Iorms as SI10Wll. For very thin oxides. as mentioned.:~illn l)\idi/~d rt'~illJ1 FigllrL' 1.26 shows au example ola finished oxidation process.If. Since silicon dioxide b11111l"nnS\lI1lL'~ xilicun and grows in thickne ~. The umount 01.~N~) ucrs a a mask soSi()~ will not grow over this region. whereas for thicker . the chemical reaction occurs at LhL:Si-Si02 iutcrlucc. The wet oxidation process proceeds according to the reaction This wet ox idation rcuciion proceeds fa. the oxygen or water molecule diffuse through the previously created oxide. Alter an oxidation process.ilicon is consumed during the growth process but that the final surface or the silicon dioxide is above the original silicon surface. the silicon wafer is placed in a quartz tube th.· silicon consumed during the chemical reaction is about 44 percent 01. A native ox ide lorms on the surface or si licon at mom temperature.28 Solid Stale Physics:An lntrodur tion to 5 nuconductor Devices 24 C HAP T 15 1 R Tne Cr/S13 Structure of Solids ··Bml". tilt' Si()~ will tend LO grow luterally Linder the edge of the Si3N~ In 1"01"111 11 "bircls beak" region. hc. tcr than the dry ox idauun and is used to form thick layers ol' silicon dioxide. This proces: is called a 11"£'1 oxidation.ucrul grO\\ 111IIIKh:r till' silicon nitride mask." orders or magnitude smaller than the probability 01"02 elirl"using through Si02. Thicker oxides call he termed at elevated temperatures. As the silicon dioxide lor IIIs. The chemical reaction occurs raster at higher tempcnuures. Silicon nitride (Si. However. However. will he some l. (0 form additional Si02.. the surface or IIlL:semiconductor may not be exactly lhu.

-------.U IU IOU Figure 1. a function of oxidation rime and rcmprnuurc for ( III1 oriented silicon.. The ox ide thickness is a strong function 01.. However. or .An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 29 1 ... Silicon dioxide layers can also be formed by deposition. has stable and courrolled electrical characteristics. ---' U. Chlorine reacts with metallie contaminants so CI has the effect olclenning the gas ambient. chlorine muy be incorporated in the oxygen atmosphere.l I.8 SUn1nElTV 25 III . dry oxidation. Solid IIn('~. as we will see in Chapter 6. There are several liner details thut are usually incorporated in the oxidation process. references oxidru ion detai Is can be round in the various fabrication lound at the end or the chapter. thermally grown oxides are gcnerallv higher-quality oxides than deposited oxides. as we will see in Chapter :. A list some COI11l11l111 semiconductor materials was presented. but is also a function or the silicon surface orientation.' temperature..-------. Additional interface characteristics. wei oxidation: dotted lines. The conductivity or n semiconductor can be varied by orders or magnitude . in general. The quality ulthe Si-SiO~ interface is an important characteristic in the fabrication of the MOSFET. i. This discussion presents the basic concepts ur thermal oxidation. Chlorine also produces better 5i-SiO._ L.0 C (l.. The ox ide thickness versus oxidation lime for dry and wet oxidation processes lor a couple of oxidation temperatures are shown in Figure 1. Thermally grown oxides me strnngly bonded 10 the silicon surface... For example. 1Il:.s I SUMIVIAR) 1.tll'-- J.:'7 I r\ I't'\'. curves showing xilicon dioxide thickness a. and the interface between the Si and SiO.. till: oxide thickness is approximutely proportional III the square root of the oxidation lime.--------.27. Silicon is the mOSI common semiconductor material.-. oxides. but other semiconductor murerinls are useful in specialized applications.

The ".uoms for various III' a crvstnl-lauice 1~1I1il'o. sial Structure or Sohos 2. The unit cell 1" a lalgl' volumc ofihe extent hv the siuglc-crystul simple i. Small amoum« of subsiiuuional irnpuriiivs can ral orably alter semiconductor prupcuic-. . using the Czorhrulski mel hod. TI1L"<' planes call he used 10 describe the ~L1rl'aL'l' ut' a scmiconductur m. 13. luuicc nuucriul.rilkr indices arl' also used 1Ll dcscrilu.und interstitial impuru ics. The rherrnal the text. man-rial nuuvrials h:I\'L' l'~'l'llti:dl~ nil r'glliar gl'lllllciril" prriudicitv. Pl11\ lT~stulline. 11f :1l111ll~ ur molvculvs. Epitaxial growth can hc used 10 control the surface properties of a scmicouductor. ThL' inteructiun between ilicon atoms forms COI'aiL'1lI bonds. semiconductor elemenml semiconductor m. C. 6..illgk'-rr~'l<Il have a high degree of llL'ritldiL'il~' throughout rue entire \ 01 11 1Ill' III nf cmiconductor-. A. bonding rcsult-. fur example. Understand 6. s plane und sketch a lattice plane plant'.u i~ used 10 rcprrnlucc the entire L'I'Y'I:l1. Atums are furmcd ill a tetrahedral conligurution with fuur nearest-neighbor atom-.illinc. which i~ h.rvicallv lhe same a~ the diamond lauice. De cribe what is 5. A lew utrhese imperfections arc substiuuionul impuritic . Determine the surface density 01':llOJl1Son a given crysral-Iauicc Describe the diumond lnuicc. . The properties and other mnrcriuls arl' dcu-ruuned uucture. Devices 26 C ~IAPT E RI The Cr.5. Covulcm ill electrons being shared between atornx. A brief description of semiconductor gn1\I'lh methods was gll'CIl. Till' ch . I11C:lIlI 4. I. 7. as will see ill ChaprerJ. hupcrfectiuns vacancies cruurollcd WL' do exist ill xcmicuuductor marcrials. j\. Describe IhL' differences between amorphous. A. C. oxidation process 01'silicon.blcnde luuice. ill all . tl1lm. and describe the thermal the basic epitaxial process.: tructures.ucrials . vlillcr indicc-. -I. Bulk grll\\'lh. and larc-ccntcrcd cuhic.ucrial.IIlU ~ingk-LT_\'\tallllateri"b art:' 01 the ordered rcgion-. oxid. . direct inn» ill :1 crvxtul. are used to describe plnnes in u crvstul lnuicc. various d 'kcl growth in u single-crystal lauice.'IO~L semiconductor devices arc Iahricmcd in the cpituxial laver. Three basic unit cdb arc the I·!. Till' binurv semiconductors huv c ~I zim.ingle-LT~' tal nuucrials. Describe 7. Determine Determine gil't'n the volume dcnsiiv the \ I iller indices of .racLL'ri. produces the laning semiconductor nuucrial or substrate. while . and . The oxidation process in semicunductur device lubricntion a-we' will sec throughout CHECKPOINT After ~llIdying this chapter. J. List lWO the reader huuld have Ihl' ahilil~' 10 mutcriuls and scvcrul compouud polvcrvst. Describe by covalent bonding. 2. Si lirun has the diamond cryxtnl -tructurc. cubic. 3.tio dvliucd in rcrms of amnrphou .unorphou-. body-centered cuhir. a '111<111 crystal th. D.u ion of rhc silicon surface is used cxrcnsivelx was described. the Miller indices.30 Solid State Physics: An unroducuon 10 Seuuconducto.

II» hndy- lauicc. Dcsciibe Lhe procedure fur lilllling the volume dl·m. Why docs the lllL'l'I1WI oxidation oxide has formed'! llf silicon orcur at 111l'Si-Si()~ inu-rtuce even ulteran PROBLEIVIS Section 1. r Assume 100 percent parkin!. lilt' volume densiiv or germanium is 5. A and B. J. Considcr 1.1[ i l'i'l'lcnliaLe~ an amorphous d Sketch three luuice structures: la) simple cubic (ill body-rentcred cubic and lei fucc-ccrucrcd cubic. Determine the volume of coffee alter the colfee beans haw been t« o clcmcntal Dexcrihc ~l'lniCOllduelOr lllall'rial~ and twu rumpouml scmicouuucuu material nuucriuls. 1. A. und (cJlhe muss density tgrams/cnr') or silicon. that describe a plane in the crystal.IL'lure and (lJ) the volume density (#lemol or both A. is composed or iHI Icc lauice with a lauicc COI1Sl<IIIl of 2. 1M a tuce-ccnrcrcrl cubic lauice. What is the distance (centl:r·[ll-centcr) b<'!LW('L'f] nearest Ga and A~ atoms' 1. Calculate (iI) the maximum radius of the B-lype aturn rluu will lit inlO this SlIl. (e} a hody-ccnrurcd cuhir lattice. Sketch a two-if mcnsional rcprcsenturion valence electrons . Wh.5 Gu/vs. covalent xilicou lattice showinp the Whal is meant hy a uhstiuniunul impurity'. or GaAs is 5.-type atoms and Bvtype atoms. A crystal i~ composed of 1\\.. 111. B.8 .1 1.) If the luuicc constant of silicon is S.. deuxit y of the ground colfee. 4. C. ~U1d u/) a diamond l. (il) the number clel1~iLy of silicon urnms ( #/(. The "nioms'tin this material me actuallv coffee beans.0 elements.65 A . What i~ meant hy epitax ial grow th? 7.I A Assume that each atom is a hard sphere with the surface of each atom in contact with the surtuce or it~ Ilea rest neighbor.7 1.u i.3 1. D.0 A material. and I (") diamond per unit cell in" III) raL"l~-renlert'd cubic. Describe LIlL'proredurc for obtaining tlu: 1>.jJ A.lilll'r indirc-.m A. Tilt' lauice Determine constunt atoms per em'. eulculaie (0) the distance from the center or une silicon alum m the center or its nearest neighbor. lrum n Lile primary churacteristi« ~ingk-l'r\'~\al material.111'1.65 A.' impurity ill whm i\ meum hy an imersririul O... Determine the percentage or total unit cell volume lhat i~ occupied in la) a simple cubic lattice. l.ILoI11~ ill a crystal. aI0111S in a germanium The lallin' constant or gerlllaniulll . ASSUIllt' the elements are bard spheres with the surface of each A-type atum in tOIlLaCI with the surface of it~ nearest A·type neighbor.J Determine Cl'lllCIT:J Space Lattices the number ormoms cubic.iLy of .uticc. Determine the number or Ga atoms and As sumironducuu. with a volume ul I CIl1"'.An lntroducuon to Semiconductor Devices 31 Probl EIl1S 27 REYIE"I QUESTIONS I. The effecti ve radius of element A is l. Describe till' procedure tor finding the surface density of a singlc-crystnl a crystal bonding" l1r atoms ill a crysrul plane. Assume [he coffee beans are hard spheres with each bean touchinyits nearest neighbor. 5.2 I.5 111Ill. The basic crystal structure is a facecentered cubic with element A at each of the corners and element B in the face plant'.

J' = ~.cubic lauicc with the '\a and CI utums . Wluu comparison can 11L' ade or Lh.III\.'\'Iilkr indices lor the plane. Determine lhe lattice runsuuu und the volume densities of r\ atoms anti 13.' luuicc r\ -urnc the radiu-.'11. rlu: surface between nearest plane. (lil \\Ihit'll plane h.Ire' hard sphere Calculate the volume denxitv or atoms or the .21 The structure or GaA is the zincblende lauicc. shown in the distance rhe distance ora ~illlJlk cubic cell i~ :'i. Till' lauice i.l7 r.Ifan consi. .m be made ur the materials ill paris 1(/1 and (h).)f each lnuicc al[1111 Till' uiom i' placed ill ximplc cubic. rhl Compare the result. and II1I ) plane.IIlU . c.I. 1. and likewise each CI atom i\ <urrouuded hy xix N.uoms.holl'n "1 Figure 15a wilh lilt' "IIIlt' luuicc runst. (i) [1101. hcc. and (e) (III) planes.ll in pan.l atoms. r\IOi11 Aha. (bl Assume thc all.13 at IhL' corners .uoms.1 lattice const.110111 with the is ~. 1(1) antllh).u density 1. of pan (1I1 to the result: for the en: e or the simple cubic structure .~ A.uu equal 10 lIo.20 Calculate 1. Calculruc (100). (ii) (130). fcc. 1(/I Sketch the arums ill a ( I(JUI plane. Fnreach case.13 lenA simpit' cubic structure consists or a single atom in the center or the cube.ue the surface UL'Il.'I. an effective radius ul 2.uc the volume density 1. and reI fill) neighbors touching. Determine Ihe lauicc constant. Tile erfccrivc radius "I '-in i.uorns ill the 1110) plunc.~) A.uu..1.uom A ill the center. the radius (IOUl. The lattice Calculate the density or valence elect rons in Ga/vs.iJ i. Determine IhL' \ olumc density of mOIl1~ and the surface Lkll~ity or atoms ill the ( II m plane. between between 1.uu .1 I.rhern. Assume a hody-centcred or the nearest cul ic lauicc. determine Fi~urePI.20 A. Calculate planes. (el '\'hall'lll1lpari~LlIl c.)1 uud Cl .i-.g A.t. Ie) Calculate (/I) Calculate the distance clen~ilY or <HOIll~Oil the (110) Section 1A Atomic the density Bonding of valence electrons ill silicon. .I A und can he rcprcscmcd n.15 Consider roll(l\\'ing a thrcc-di mcnsional directions: cubic lnuicc with .1 () T'IH' crvsial structure llr sodium chloride (0'aCII is a sirnph.65 .unoud 1.19 Consider surfuces (a) ora (lI) simple cubic cell i~ ). a hrc with moms A at the curners and morn H in IIIL' center.12 Cousidcr the materials described ill Problem I..16. in silicon.1( i~that density? (b) Which plane h.. (1'1 Culcul.0. ill the crystal..1 A and aunn B ha.. (. A' ume the moms . the hight'st surface density (If atoms Wh.a hurd ~pilcre.ilcul.lJll~ arc hard sphl'll'~ \\ ith I1<:: <I revt neighbors touching. lauicc .11i~ til. 1. Ib) Sketch tile 1. TIll' luuicc constumis 110 and the diameter of thr atom is {III.32 Solid Stille Physics: An Introduction lO Semiconductor Devices 28 l. (1101.uoms. Fur .14 Consider Ih. un dkl·tin' radius or l. and di. .'SI surtacc density of aLOIIl~'1What i th.' (100). The lattice constunr (he' nearest parallel (1I) the . i~ ).' 1. fbI (1101. and (iii) (103).18 Till' lattice constant the nearest parallel 1.~5 f\. [(I) Sketch the following planes: Ii) (100). Iii) [3111· and (iii) [I ~. (h I Repeat part (ul with urom. (h) (110).1 10) A matt' rial i~ composed of two lypl'~ uf . COil 'WIlL 1."-.' 1\\'0 nuueriuls" m 1. Each Na atom b surrounded [1\ ix CI aIOI1l~.uinp pl"ilil11l . Calculate Nu the mas" density or NaCI.-\ and the t'i'kl'til'l' radius ofCl i~ I. 1110) planes.I simple cubic lauice. the ' lli' A atoms and R .. 1.

) READING LIST 1. If ~ " 1015 gold atnms per cur art' added to intrinsic silicon a~ a . Azuroll. L. Electronic Processes ill Muterials.:ure PI.2-1 (al II' -I IOH• arsenic . .16.uon» arc disuibutcd homugeneuusly thrnuuhout the silicon sample. and J.161 1. Assume silver is a simple cubic the angle between the teuuhcdrul bonds urc. 1996.. Oxford lniversiry (111(/ New York.1I p.5 Imperfections and Impurities ill Solids 1.u i. /" " I / I r // " . I \ -101 '\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ J I \ \ I I r I ~'! I I I J J I \ \ \ \ "- r I I --- 3" I .ilicon atoms arc displaced ill the singll' crvstul lauice. Campbell. 2. S. determine the distance between gold <110111' ill Lerlll~ olthc silicon lattice constant. Brophy. arc added 10 the m. till' density 01' \ alene" <'It'l'tron~ in silver. or 1. determine what percc'l1Lage of the ." r-----~----~----~------\" -: . 29 J J J .1I'I lell if ~ x 10" boron <lHHlJ!.Anlntroducuon to Semiconductor DevICE's 33 ReRcllllgL..22 J . v . /-10 (hi Fi.I%3. 1I. . at a cunccmration or') x 10'10 CI11-·1. Wh.r (~.25 Phosphorus aLOIl1~.. determine the fraction by weight of boron. A. Assume the phosphorus . are add cd to a pure ample u! intrinsic silicon.. ubstitutioual i III puri Iy und are distributed uni Iorrnly throughout Lh(' semiconductor. Determine or a <ilicon lauicc.) (/J) II' boron 'lLOIllS. Section 1.kGmw-Hill. r I I .2(. J. (Ii) Rl'pe.23 Determine SU'llCL Figure rnr Problem ..ucriul ill part [(/1. 1. ru a conccnuuriou lOiS em>'. . The Scicurr :--leI\' York. Pre Engineering o/Micl'Uelecrrorlic Fabricatiou. t Assuruc the gold atoms art' disuibuted ill a rectangular or cubic urrav.s. :::!o // \ // //' // .. pl~r cur' art' added LO intrinvic ((I) silicon.1.. the Iruction hy weiglu ofphosphnru .uoms per em' arc added 10 intrinsic silicon as a suhstiuuiunul impurity.

RUIlI'<1Il. Nt'\\ Yurk: \·IrGr~I\I. Saddl./1111)(' Sulnuicron A/OSFET. S"lllici>IIl/U('/(J)' /(J .: River. Upper :--':l'\\ SLl'. IIt(' \'LSJ [I'll. 2001. «1Il1 . ~(]()::" Sunset Beach. \Voir. :!O(lO. G . Be. S. \\'olre. 1::1. 19')5. ':'-1. C A: Lnuicc J tcvices: Phvsic« 011.stat Structure 0: Solids J.\\'e~k\. Sli1l111~1I1. II. Nl'l\ Singh. :'lnt! ed. 1.. Seuuccnuhutor //IIl'gl'<I/f'd T. \1.. I Yl)il. 6. 3-Th{' York: John 12. Strccunun..'dt//(J/[J~y.Vl'i'la~. and K.SpJid S/(//(' fJI/. E. NJ: Prentice-Hull. ~. Sprill_. \\'.lIIic(l1Il11I1'101' Wiky and Suns. Pierret. Sth ed.ui. (~r St'lIJiCOlldll{'/Ors. EIIglc-lI'tHld C'lirr~. 1(. S'"lid StutcPhvsics tor CI/"ill""l'ill~ FL: Krieger. 1l)l)_1" Ncumcn. \ L-\: Addison. S(. 5.!cr. 'l. and S."kKch'l'I.\ 1/\: Addi OIl-W(:~Ic-). S.. Phninli Electronic». l lolonyuk. 1989.Hill. E. S. R. 7.I'\/C\. Pres . Jr. ircuit PJ{J('C'. /)('I'il'<' . :'lOO. S. . C'. Fumknnental». KiHd. C. lnnmlnctiou Li.34 Solid Slale Physics: An Introduction to Semiconductor Devices 30 CHAP TE R 1 II'S 2r . 7th "l'll l'd Hertin. S('lIIic(IIu/uc/OI' Phvsu:» <II/(I Devices: Basi: Principles. Silicon Pmc"~"ill~fill' ':'tJ. Semiconductor Dcvicrs: Basii Principles. ReaJill~. JI)ln. \JJ: Prl'111icc-Ha . F. Yurk: Plenum I'rt'~~.Hilll! iuu} R . 1'. ~Ialahar. I ':Jl)_\. \ 1..'. Rl'adillg. D. 10. Semiconductor 19\)(1. alld C. Pliysica! Proprrtie» II .1 Scil'II"('.\fWl'l'illl.lrd cd. A. York: Juhn Wiley and Suns. J. Banerjee. .1 Tl'dlllolog_". Solid SW/(' Electroni« Drvicc». \I.

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