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Images Vanillin

Images Vanillin

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1.

VANILLIN

1. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

Alternate names : 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde,
Vanillic aldehyde,
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde.

Vanillin is in the Iorm oI white crystalline powder with pleasant aromatic vanilla odour
and taste. It is non hygroscopic in nature.

Occurrence in nature : In cured vanilla pods, peru & tolu balsams and in styrax
and benzoin

Appearance : Colourless crystals

Odour : Sweet, balsamic, powdery, vanilla-like

Chemical behaviour : Stable iI stored properly. Darkens on exposure to light,
Discoloured by iron.
Reactive with indole & anthranilates to Iorm
highly coloured compounds.

Chemical Iormula : C
8
H
8
O
3


Molecular weight : 152.14

Volatility : Very low, sublimes

SpeciIic weight at 20 deg.C
(product melted then solidiIied) 1056 kg/m3
Bulk density Around 0.6
Flash point 153 deg.C
Boiling point under 760 mmHg 284-285 deg.C
under 10 mmHg 154 deg.C
Melting point 81 to 83 deg. C

SpeciIications

SpeciIications Ior Vanillin produced by UBE Industries Ltd., Japan

Assay min 99.5°
Loss on drying max. 0.5°
Residue on Ignition max. 0.05°
Arsenic (as As) max 3 ppm
Heavy metals (as Pb) max. 10 ppm

. PRODUCT APPLICATION

Vanillin is widely used in the production oI chocolates, cookies, bakery products, ice
creams, perIumes, agarbathies, drugs, chewing gum and milk. It is also widely employed
in many perIumes where its strong pleasant aroma is greatly appreciated.

The Vanillin is used Ior providing Aroma Ior

* Chocolate, ice-cream, conIectionery, cocoa drinks, soIt drinks, bakery goods and
other Iood products

* PerIume and Iragrance Iormulations Ior personal care, detergence and others

* Food Ilavour Iormulations Ior the Iood industry

Vanillin is used in above sector as Iollows.

As an ingredient in Iood Ilavours
As an pharmaceutical intermediate
As an Ilavouring agent in conIectionery
Beverages and in perIumery.

In addition to its use as a constituent oI perIumes, Vanillin has become important as
deodorant to mask the unpleasant odour oI many manuIactured goods, like wearing
apparel, rubber goods, paper products and plastics etc.

Until recently, about 85° oI Vanillin has been used as Ilavouring agent in ice creams,
candies, puddings, cake mixes, gelatine desserts and soIt drinks etc. Rest is used in
deodorants, perIumes and other Iixatives and as chemical intermediates.

In careIully controlled dosages, it is a useIul sweetening agent, Iixative, modiIier and
blender.

3. IMPORTS Around 250 tonnes per annum

4. EXPORTS Nil

5. INDIAN MANUFACTURERS

Vanillin is not produced in the country at the moment.

A Iew attempts were made in the past to put up Iacilities Ior the production oI Vanillin.
The details are given below.

1. M/s. Vanillin & Fine Chemicals Ltd., (VFCL) put up a unit Ior the manuIacture oI
Vanillin in Andhra Pradesh. The unit is not in operation now. The company is under
BIFR.

2. IDL Ltd.,

IDL Chemicals Ltd., wanted to put up a project Ior the manuIacture oI 150 tonnes per
annum oI Vanillin and 50 tonnes per annum oI Ethyl vanillin at Medak Dist. in Andhra
Pradesh costing Rs.300 lakhs. The Letter oI Intent was given to the project on 13.4.1988.
IDL Chemicals also put up a pilot plant, which was established in 1990-91.

The company has not proceeded with the project.

6. DEMAND SUPPLY TRENDS

Indian demand Around 250 tonnes per annum

Estimated growth rate in demand 8 to 9° per annum

Consumption pattern in India

Sector in º
Biscuit 11.50
Ice-cream 4.80
PerIumery/Ilavours 27.90
Agarbathi 52.00
Pharmaceutical 2.80
Miscellaneous 1.00

7. MANUFACTURING PROCESS

There are various routes Ior the manuIacture oI Vanillin.

* The important route is Irom Phenol through Guaiacol.
* Vanillin can also be manuIactured Irom Aniline and Waste Sulphite Pulp.

Starting with guaiacol, numerous Vanillin synthesis are possible.


Guaiacol can be made Irom O-dichlorobenzene. The ortho compound is treated with
alkali to Iorm catechol, which upon methylation gives good yield oI Guaiacol.

8. GLOBAL SCENARIO

Global ManuIacturers oI Vanillin

* Brichima SpA, Italy
*. Toyotoma PerIumery Co.Ltd.,Japan
* Bush Boake Allen Ltd., U.K.
* ICI Katalco,USA.
* Rhone Poulenc Inc.,USA.
* Monsanto Co,USA
* Ritter International ,USA
* Ungerer & Co., Inc.USA
* Eastman Fine Chemicals,USA.
* Ube Industries,Japan.
* Euro Vanillin,Norway.

Euro Vanillin Iinished with the Iirst phase oI the expansion increasing capacity by 20°
by 1997. A second phase is being studied. Upon completion oI both phases, Euro
Vanillin's capacity, including existing guaiacol based Vanillin, will total more than 3000
metric tonnes.

World demand Ior Vanillin:

The world production oI Synthetic Vanillin is estimated to be around 3000 tonnes per
year. II the current growth rate (5.75° annually) continues, the global demand is likely to
touch 3500 tonnes by the year 2000.

Demand Supply Scenario in USA:

The USA is the single largest importer, accounting Ior consumption oI halI oI the world's
production. Though vanilla comprises oI only 0.75° oI the international spice market, it
earns six to seven percent to the total value. This could increase in line with higher
production.

International trade in Natural Vanilla:-

The natural Vanillin meets hardly 15° oI this demand. Hence the scope Ior vanilla
orchid is considered bright.

The international trade in natural vanilla is around 300 million US dollars annually.
Madagascar (Malagasy Republic), Comoro and Reunion, Indonesia. Trust Territory oI
PaciIic Islands and Tahiti, Seychelles, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, Jamaica, Qudeloupe and
Mexico, Ugands and Tonga are the main players in the international trade. The Bourbon
vanilla Irom Madagascar commands a premium price and in Iact, 70° oI world supply is
Irom Madagascar. Other countries producing Bourbon vanilla are Comoro and Reunion.

In Indonesia, the second largest producer, Vanilla is cultivated in Java and Bali Islands,
Leading importing countries are the US, Germany, France, Canada, Japan, the UK, Italy,
Australia and Singapore.

Natural vanillin

Natural Vanillin versus Synthetic Vanillin

There is an ongoing eIIort to substitute Natural Vanillin Ior Synthetic Vanillin, which
costs only $15 a kg compared to $82 a kg oI Vanilla bean.

It is reported that the growth rate Ior Synthetic Vanillin would stabilise internationally, in
view oI the undoubtedly superior quality oI Natural Vanilla beans. Even iI at least 5° oI
the demand Ior Synthetic Vanillin is substituted by Natural Vanilla bean, there would be
an additional demand Ior 70,000 tonnes oI vanilla beans by the year 2000. To produce
this quantity, 2.38 lakh hectares have to be brought under Vanilla.

. RECOMMENDATION

Vanillin is an excellent import substitution project and should be Iavourably considered
Ior investment.

Recommended capacity 600 tonnes per annum

Estimated project cost Rs.15 crores

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