BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY PROFILE Prepared for the Inward Investment Facility Linden Economic Advancement Programme

DUCK FARMING

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION REGION 10 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE OPPORTUNITY: DUCK FARMING PRODUCTION PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR FACTORY SETUP ANNUAL FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS FINANCING SOURCES 3 3 4 5 6 7 12 14 16 2 .

agro-processing. thereby transforming the town into a centre for industrial 1 Census 2000 – Statistical Bureau 3 . LEAP Inward Investment Facility (IIF) recognizes that potential investors need information on business opportunities. tourism. It has abundant land and natural resources. and construction. potential markets. Great Falls. the town is situated on the two banks of the Demerara River. estimated investment and production costs.miles).miles) it is centrally located and contiguous to most other administrative regions. and is the natural gateway into the hinterland’s forest and mineral reserves. logging.INTRODUCTION There are numerous exciting business opportunities in Region 10 for investors who wish to invest in agriculture. Aware that the time of the “Bauxite economy” is over. logging. At present. or services to name a few.500sq. fishing. sawmilling. THE TOWN OF LINDEN Linden. Spread over an area of 142sq. small-scale mining. financing plans. Besides the town of Linden there are significant communities in Coomacka. These profiles address generic issues such as the appropriate technology involved and where possible. This series of Business Opportunity Profiles is intended to help investors identify viable opportunities in the various sectors. REGION 10 Region 10 is the logical hub for Guyana’s development.km (55sq.0001 is the Region’s main population centre and is located inland from the coast. with a population of approximately 30. Anarika. Old England. Mabura. Aroima and Kwakwani. feasibility studies and other related issues remain the responsibility of the investor. furniture manufacture.835sq. Rockstone. 107km (66miles) from the capital city Georgetown. With an area of over 16. manufacturing. whose economy had been based on the bauxite industry. agriculture. the town is redefining itself as a key port of call in and out of the hinterland. Selection of technology. Originally a mining town. However they are not intended to be replacements for project feasibility studies.km (6. transportation and distribution along with manufacturing and construction. Ituni. it is also the natural choice for Atlantic–bound South American trade. transportation industry. Boasting excellent river and road transport links out to the coast. the main economic activities are mining. the population is increasingly involved in small business activities like merchandising.

For manufacturing and agricultural investments. machinery. • 4 . The town itself possesses abundant natural potential in mineral and forest resources in its immediate environs. and land is available for potential development. • • • BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The Government of Guyana has approved various general and sectoral incentives as part of its comprehensive strategy aimed at reviving the economic fortunes of Region 10. 1 of 2004 Customs Duties (Amendment) (No. Linden has an essentially young population with 85% of its residents under 45 yrs.1) Order 2004. waiver of Customs duties and Consumption taxes on vehicles imported exclusively for use in the business. The location of the town on both banks of the Demerara River provides for easy transportation arrangements and lends itself to development of an entrepôt facility for Atlantic-bound Brazilian goods. Ituni and Kwakwani are: • Waiver of Customs duties and Consumption taxes on all imported items of plant. water supply and telecommunication services. Linden is also a supply centre for hinterland communities and itinerant miners. Special Incentives for Region 10 and specifically for Linden. 6 of 1999. There is a well developed network of utility services including stable electric power. equipment and spare parts. Some of its specific strengths are: • • • The size and layout of the town lends itself to easy manageability of its resources.and service activities. Linden-based Industries are less prone to natural disasters than those along the coastal areas. These incentives can be found in: • • • Customs (Amendment) Act No. Investment Act No.

ranging from backyard scavenger type operations where the birds forage for scraps and feed to large commercial duck farms. There are a few duck farms on the coast and these cater to the coastal and Georgetown markets. Although ducks can spend most of their time outdoors. There are additional government incentives for agro-processing operations. 3. Clean water for drinking. 6. A diet that provides all of the duck's daily nutritional needs. An operation that can supply the meats at prices that make it comparable to chicken will capitalize on the high local demand for the product. There are highly intensive modern commercial duck producing systems particularly in North America. Advantages to investing in this industry: • • • • • • Good average returns on investment over the life of the project. 5. rest. dry sheltered area. Protection from extremes in weather conditions and predators. but can be beneficial in areas where temperatures are high.e. local consumption of duck meat has increased significantly in recent years. especially for layers. water that is free of germs and toxins harmful to ducks. A clean. Protection from disease established and maintained by a bio-security program that will prevent the introduction of diseases into the premises where ducks are kept. as it is nearly twice the price of chicken. This project predicates sales at wholesale chicken prices that put the meat at the reach of the average buyer. i. Regardless of the category of duck keeping however. Demand & Market Potential In keeping with an international trend. they require a clean dry sheltered area where they can retreat. Linden has the lowest cost of commercial electricity in the country. there are some basic requirements in duck farming: 1. Water for swimming is not essential. on ponds or in wet areas. 4. Adequate light stimulation. which protects their skin from injury and helps keep their body warm. The labour involved is not expensive. clean and preen their feathers. as it is mostly unskilled and widely available. working capital and financing requirements etc. A duck farming operation may be set up for as little as $2 million. These are raised under a wide variety of conditions. 2. only the non-availability of the meat and its consequent high price keeping it out of the reach of many. A full feasibility study will be required prior to startup to determine actual startup costs.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Worldwide ducks are increasingly being reared as viable alternatives to chicken as poultry meat. Recovery of investment less than 5 years Year round availability of cheap feed materials. 5 . This allows them to waterproof their plumage. No farms exist in the Region 10 area that can cater to the demands of hinterland communities.

the most common being the muscovy which originated in South America and the peking which originated in China. The area has all the requirements for successful poultry fowl production. As with all livestock there are dangers and risks involved but once reasonable care is taken to ensure good husbandry practices. Yield Since the yields of the different types of duck vary widely. An excellent opportunity exists for establishing farms that can meet potential and actual demands for this increasingly popular meat. Though there are about 50 species of these short-legged water birds with webbed feet and flattened bills. are an acquired taste. and shoveler. There are numerous species of the muscovy. Locally as well. Worldwide experience has shown that almost anyone can rear a few ducks successfully as these are hardier fowl than chickens. as witnessed by the numerous poultry farmers in the area. Ducks can either be sold live or plucked. but many commercial duck industries worldwide use the peking duck that has a better feed-conversion ratio and is therefore more profitable for commercial duck farming. ducks are an assured investment. Duck farming is undertaken mainly for meat production since the eggs that have a higher level of cholesterol than chicken eggs. and duck farming is increasingly employed as an alternative occupation for low-income people around the world. peking. Although the fattening of ducks can be undertaken with minimum training and experience. Linden has no local duck farms and there are none to serve the hinterland communities. the latter being the preferred delivery method. muscovy. the choices are essentially between the peking and the muscovy. (which also includes the larger geese and swans) the most popular species in the tropics are the mallard. Duck farms are still few in number and those that exist cater to the demands of the coastal communities and the capital city Georgetown. 6 . shelduck. Hinterland communities are completely unserved by any suppliers local or foreign. it may be profitable to offer the local market some quantity of the latter. In terms of feed conversion efficiency the peking is a better commercial item but as some consumers prefer the lower fat level of the muscovy. THE OPPORTUNITY: DUCK FARMING In recent years worldwide consumption of duck meat and eggs has increased steadily. Crosses between the muscovy and the peking grow faster than both parents but are called ‘’mule ducks’’ because they are unable to reproduce.. whole festivals and competitions are arranged around duck consumption. effective breeding of ducks requires a fair amount of practical experience in duck rearing. It is an excellent area of business in which to invest. A labour force of two [2] permanent workers is required for a fattening unit of 1000 to 1500 ducks. which is also known as the ‘’common duck’’.

When properly designed and managed. Ducks over 4 weeks of age may spend much of their time outdoors with minimal use of shelter. care must be taken to ensure that free ranging exposure does not lead to their contracting any of a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The peking duck has a better feed-conversion ratio and is therefore more profitable for commercial duck farming. particularly the Far East. is very helpful when designing buildings. Floor design is usually one of two types: all wire mesh. The advice of an agricultural engineer or experienced agriculture extension worker. Commercial duck housing is usually one of two types: total confinement and semiconfinement. However. extra demand is placed on the ventilation and heating system to remove the extra moisture and maintain proper temperatures. either in separate buildings or in separate rooms with solid partitions between them.PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DUCK FARMING The peking duck reaches market size at the end of eight (8) weeks whereas the muscovy reaches market size at the end of twelve (12) weeks. or a combination of litter and wire mesh with waterers located on the wire. Ventilation systems are usually the negative pressure type with adjustable or automatically controlled air inlets and exhaust fans located along the sidewalls. Semi-confinement duck housing is similar to the above in many respects with the exception that ducks over 2-3 weeks of age are allowed outdoors during the day. its fat content is higher than the muscovy and there is often a higher demand for the muscovy because of its leaner (and also tougher) meat. The production system common in tropical countries is semi confinement as the ducks are fed on ration indoors for part of the day and. The experience of duck farmers in other tropical countries. well insulated and mechanically ventilated. the females that may account for about 50% of the flock. The main disadvantage of the muscovy duck is that after its optimum growing period of twelve (12) weeks. In addition to allowing year-round production and marketing at an earlier age. is that serious losses can result if ducks 7 . and then allowed a period of time out doors to forage for additional food. weighs substantially less than the male. The ability to exclude wild birds from buildings is alone a large factor in preventing the introduction and spread of diseases. Similarly to full confinement systems. Although the fattening of ducks can be undertaken with minimum training and experience. A labour force of two [2] permanent workers is required for a fattening unit of 1000 to 1500 ducks. who is familiar with duck housing. benefits include improved feed conversion and more predictable and usually better weight gain. Age groups are kept isolated. And because waterfowl typically drink and excrete more water than land fowl. Modern total-confinement housing is usually of the clear-span-truss construction. effective breeding of ducks requires a fair amount of practical experience in duck rearing. modern duck housing provides ducks with a high degree of protection from the detrimental effects of extremes in weather and entry of duck diseases.

these are usually preferred by commercial duck producers. resistance to diseases and allergies. but they can be raised acceptably on poultry ration. botulism and coccidiosis. Once the activity is on a commercial basis there are a number of choices of feeding practices: (1) If feeds are available and affordable. The grain can be purchased from rice farmers and the wheat milling company. (3) For those with sufficient knowledge of nutrition and feed formulation. mined-out ponds. fungal and parasitic diseases. However as requirements more closely tailored to ducks. high or low energy can be calculated using widely available nutrient / energy ratios. complete duck rations may be mixed on the farm. 8 . which when fed with additional grain constitute a nutritionally complete diet. on scavenging diets common in backyard operations. bacterial.are left to forage in semi-scavenging style in and around backyards. This approach is dependent upon the availability of feed ingredients and vitamin and mineral premixes at affordable prices. Essentially they require the same nutrients as chickens. are available at a reasonable price. however. commercial production requires scientific approaches to optimise yields. particularly in terms of the ratio of each nutrient to the energy concentration of the diet. and even appear to thrive. and even to each particular breed. Aspergillosis which is a serious respiratory problem for ducklings is encouraged by mouldy environments and feeds. Because correct nutrient levels for a particular ration depend on the energy level of that ration (ducks eat progressively more feed as the energy level is lowered and progressively less as it is raised). If duck rations are not available. lakes. are available. Energy Like chickens. rice and paddy fields. Ducks scavenging feeding habits make them particularly susceptible to endoparasites (worms) as well as paratyphoid. they will serve as a satisfactory substitute. each type of ration. pasteurellosis. which cause severe economic losses in ducks is spread by loose control of birds and consequent cross-contamination without vaccinations. Attention has to be paid to energy requirements (they are active birds much more so than chickens) protein and mineral / vitamin requirements. Commercial farming demands stricter control of the husbandry involved in duck rearing to eliminate the losses due to multiple and complex infections which lead to both high mortality and low yields. but in slightly different amounts. farmers should purchase nutritionally complete commercially prepared duck feeds. canals and streams where they are prone to contracting viral. (2) If poultry feed concentrates. In contrast to chickens. Small batches can be mixed by turning the feed on a clean floor with a shovel. a form of cholera. ducks have simple stomachs. this may be a good option. ducks over 4 weeks of age have an exceptional capacity to consume large quantities of foodstuffs. lignin). and therefore cannot digest appreciable amounts of dietary fiber (cellulose. Nutrient requirements of ducks Though ducks are hardy birds and will survive. and nutrition related ailments. and chicken feeds are.

and often the most economical as well. and should not be included in duck rations. If neither of the above choices are feasible. The proteins in the diet are broken down during digestion to amino acids that are absorbed and used by the duck to make its own body proteins. Peanut meal is often contaminated with aflatoxin. however. such as cereal by-products. are available at favorable prices. ducks may be able to consume enough of such foodstuffs to partially or even fully meet their energy requirements. in the ration.) is available to poultry. Generally. the next best choice is to purchase the vitamin and mineral sources and make your own premixes. so long as the ration is well balanced. A large amount of the phosphorus in plants is bound in the form of phytic acid that is unavailable to ducks and other fowl. 9 . Books on duck and poultry nutrition provide helpful advice for preparing vitamin and mineral mixes. like other poultry. primary attention is paid to meeting the ducks essential amino acid requirements. depending upon the amino acid content of the ingredients used in each formulation. Genetically improved varieties of rapeseed (Canola) contain much lower levels of these toxins. Protein Ducks. it will be necessary to include foodstuffs. soybean meal etc. called essential amino acids. Protein levels that meet the ducks amino acid requirements may vary slightly. high in the vitamins and minerals that are lacking. Minerals and vitamins Close attention should be paid to calcium. If it is not possible to use prepared premixes. If a duck producer mixes his own feed. they can be incorporated into duck rations at fairly high levels. a toxin to which ducks are highly sensitive and should not be used unless tests have proven it to be free of aflatoxin. When formulating feeds for ducks. ducks grown for meat are more likely to attain optimal performance when their diet contains a high proportion of cereal grains that are high in available energy such as corn. Rapeseed meal is another feedstuff that is potentially toxic to ducks. Some older varieties of rapeseed meal contain erucic acid and goitrogens at levels high enough to be harmful to poultry. Feed quality and toxicity Some feed ingredients contain substances that are toxic to ducks. do not actually require "protein" but the individual amino acids dietary proteins contain. must be supplied in the diet because the duck cannot make them from other sources. Close to 100% of the phosphorus in inorganic (mineral) sources such as dicalcium phosphate is available. Such diets will also result in better feed-conversion (less feed required to produce a pound of duck).When such foodstuffs contain even small amounts of available energy. A rule of thumb used by nutritionists is that only about 1/3 of the phosphorus in foodstuffs of plant origin (cereal grains. such as those in muscle and feathers. phosphorus and sodium. Ducks are much more sensitive to erucic acid than are chickens and turkeys. Note that the phosphorus requirement is expressed in terms of available phosphorus. the simplest way. is to add vitamins and trace minerals in the form of commercially prepared premixes. Certain of these. However when low energy foodstuffs.

when fed pelleted rations than when their feed is in mash form. If table scraps. it will likely become moldy. If grains that are too high in moisture are stored. and in the case of market ducks. especially in hot climates like ours. taking care to mix only what ducks will clean up within a day. providing some water for wading or swimming can be beneficial. In attempting to free their bills of caked feed. until the temperature has dropped below 27°C (80° or else made available all night. it has been shown that they benefit from being able to wade around. Water Plenty of clean drinking water should be available to ducks at least 8-12 hours per day. reduces their growth rate. ducks make frequent trips to water to wash their bills. During periods when temperatures are above 32° (90° drinking water should be available in the evening C F). F). the grain will heat up and mold and some of its nutritive value will be destroyed. which cakes and accumulates on the outer ridges of the mouth. bakery waste. The problem with feeding dry mash to ducks is that it forms a sticky paste when mixed with saliva.One of the most common causes of poor feed quality is failure to dry grains and other feedstuffs properly before storage. this practice is not harmful and has no effect on performance during periods of moderate temperatures. If done properly. and utilize their feed more efficiently. This applies to breeder ducks or market ducks over 3 weeks of age. For small flock owners who are not able to pellet their duck feeds. without turning or aeration. Thus. Feedstuffs that are to be stored for long periods should contain no more than 10-12% moisture. Make sure that the grains and other foodstuffs used in duck feeds are properly dried and are free of molds and other contamination. Ducks can expel excess heat through their bill and feet when allowed contact with water that is appreciably below their body temperature 41. one solution to the problems of feeding dry mash is to feed wet mash. Feeding mash also reduces feed intake. Water temperatures of 10-21°C (50-70° are ideal for ducks. The more critical issue regarding F) the need for water has to do with the feeding of pelleted feeds. feed only what ducks will clean up in a day. Pelleting all duck rations is common practice in commercial duck production. causing feed wastage. If such feed remains in troughs longer. wet mash or other feeds high in moisture are fed.7°C (107° F). In some management systems it is advantageous to shut off feed and water at night to help maintain litter inside buildings in a dry condition. Phases of Duck rearing There are three phases in the production process as follows: (1) (2) (3) Breeding and Hatching Brooding Growing/Fattening 10 . Mash or Pellets It is a well established fact that ducks grow faster. Enough water is mixed with the mash just before to form a thick mush without making it watery. Though ducks do not require water for swimming in order to grow and reproduce normally.

It is best to provide clean drinking water each day for all ducks. 33m² (3 ½ sq. though ducks are nocturnal and can find feed and water in the dark.) yard space is required per duck. The muscovy is sexually mature in 6 months. artificial light is important the first few days to assist ducklings in getting started drinking and eating. Drakes for breeding should replaced from outside of flock to prevent inbreeding that may lead to reduced fertility.ft. Note that the peking reaches market size at the end of 8 weeks with an average market weight of 3.0m² (11 sq. sacking or cardboard can be used to protect the ducklings from strong winds. Also. Each breeding duck requires a pen space of 0.ft. Typical requirements are: Type of feed: 16% to 17% protein and 2. while the muscovy reaches market size at the end of 12 weeks.4m [height] (12”x12”x 15”) should be constructed in long rows. Adequate litter must be provided on floor and pens should be cleaned. selection being based on those that have the best weight and vigor at that age. Curtains made out of industrial plastic.) living space and 0. Adequate litter must be provided on floor.Breeding / Hatching Breeding stock is usually chosen from fattening stock at 7 to 8 weeks old. Ducklings are fed a high-energy starter with 20 crude proteins until two [2] weeks old.) and a maximum of 500 ducklings should be kept together as this helps in reducing mortality rates. The average weight of the muscovy female is 2. most farmers feed ad lib but the feed conversion ratio should not exceed 3:1.1m² (1 sq. and is a nervous setter that lays up to 130 eggs per year. and it is recommended that some supplemental light is provided for at least the first 2 to 3 weeks.3m x 0.3m x 0. Space required for each duckling is 0. but is a calm setter that will lay up to 200 eggs per year. On large farms eggs are usually incubated artificially but on most small farms.) and yard space of 1.3kg (9lb8oz).5kg (5lb8oz) and the male is 4. Growing / Fattening In practice many farmers undertake the brooding and fattening phases in the same pen where 0. Ratio of 1 drake to 4 hens.ft.ft. eggs are naturally incubated.2m² (2 sq. The peking is sexually mature in 5 months. disinfected and rested 5 to 7 days between batches to help in preventing diseases.) for foraging. Brooding Requirements Move ducklings from breeder pen to brooding pen as soon as possible keeping ducklings warm at an average room temperature of 28-30° (82-86° C F).1m² (1 sq.75% calcium Simple nest boxes 0. In practice. Up to 500 breeders can be kept together but smaller flocks of 50 to 100 produce a higher percentage of fertile eggs. 11 .ft.0kg (6lb9oz).

A finer mesh wire should be placed along the perimeter of the fence. For smaller operations such as that being considered. 2. Ventilation systems for ducks should deliver a minimum of 0.5m (20”) in height for added protection from predators. 3. experience has shown that the presence of ponds / troughs help to maintain ducks in healthier condition. The height of the pen should be at least 1. Ponds/water troughs should be located at the end of the yard opposite the pens. some forced air ventilation may be necessary when ducks are kept in a house enclosed on all sides. Building While duck houses or shelters for small flocks usually do not require mechanical ventilation as used in large commercial duck buildings. Proper ventilation of commercial duck buildings requires the expertise of an agricultural engineer or someone with knowledge and experience in designing and ventilating poultry buildings. from the floor up to 0.02 inches static pressure. Pens should be constructed in an East – West direction to protect the birds from direct sunrays and reduce the amount of rain that can be blown into the pens. yard space for foraging and ponds / water troughs for swimming. duck pens can be constructed with galvanized roofs supported by cheap hardwood posts and fenced with chain link wire. Electrical supply The pen buildings should be wired appropriately to provide artificial lighting for young birds and power for the plucking equipment that is typically electrically operated as well as on-site refrigeration storage of plucked birds.2 cfm/lb duck weight at . Yards should slope gently away from the pens to provide good drainage. 12 . Location and Layout A duck farm usually comprises pens.REQUIREMENTS FOR DUCK FARMING Some of the critical factors for setting up of a duck farming enterprise are: 1.05 inches (water gauge) static pressure and a maximum ventilation rate (when temperatures are above the desired point) of 0.8m (5’10”) for proper air circulation. Certified electrical contractors many of who are available in Linden should be employed to install appropriate supply wiring based on the needs of the operation.8 cfm/lb duck weight at . It is highly recommended that appropriate fencing from theft and security surveillance be implemented. While the latter is optional because ducks can survive without water for swimming.

2. provided sufficient room is allowed for the larger bill of ducks and their "shoveling" eating motion. Most feeders used for other poultry are satisfactory for ducks.4. feed etc. for catching feed that is dropped or billed out. Waterers designed for chickens and turkeys are usually satisfactory for ducks. Plucking machine (manually operated). 13 . Trough. 3. 4. 5. Providing an apron in front of the feeding area. as long as the size of the duck's bill is considered. Stainless Steel buckets and other containers for providing water. they should be located on a wire-mesh screen to reduce wetting of the litter. If waterers are located indoors where the floor is bedded with litter. can or jar-type waterers can be used so long as the drinking area is wide enough (at least 4 cm / 1½”) for the duck to submerge its bill. will reduce feed wastage. Hand tools such as paring knives used in slaughtering. Equipment 1.

553kg 2.0kg Total weight per batch Wholesale Price: Total revenues per batch: $440 / kg $1.280 $5.0 kg and 2. Four batches of ducks per year (1500 per batch) will be produced at a very conservative expected survival rate of 90 %. Input: Output: Day old ducklings Hens: Drakes: @ $150 1.750 $450 000 $933.261. The peking duck will offer significantly better returns than the muscovy due to its better feed conversion ratio and the shorter time it takes to mature.570 Total cost per batch: Average margin per batch: Investment Year 1 Revenues Expenditure Net Profit Breakeven Point Breakeven Break even point Period Percentage Sales $2.280 4½ months 38% $2. The yields will be 1:1 male (drakes) to female (hens) with average weights of 4. It should be noted that the actual choice of bird will be farmerdetermined at the time of the investment based on prevailing market forces.700kg 4.224.000 $2.9kg x $50 750 x 12kg x $50 $225.3kg 750 x 90% x 4.253kg 750 x 90% x 2.320 Average feed cost per kg of body weight: $50 / kg Total acquisition costs per batch: Feed Cost: Hens: Drakes: 750 x 6.885.750 50% / $937.871.485.3kg from a feed conversion ratio of 3:1.ANNUAL FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS The assumption is made that the common muscovy duck will be the bird of choice initially since its leaner meat should appeal to more health conscious persons who increasingly eschew fats in meat diets.000 $258.000 $7.050.600 14 .

Break even point Production 6.000 420.000 75. These additional expenses are directly deductible from the margins indicated above.485.000 1.000 per batch 2 labourers / farm hands @ $6.000 600.000/ wk Total labor cost $144. Electricity.376. Insurance.000 1.000 2.000 50.000 205.000 7. will directly affect breakeven and rate of return calculations.000 900.835.280 3. 15 .280 38% 109% Supplementary expenses (many semi-variable) will include provisions for Lease of land.224.000 per batch. Water supply. And if chosen. Licenses and Permits but will depends on options such as location and proximity to natural water supplies such as creeks etc.885.100.000 576. and choices of natural or forced air ventilation with implications for use of electrical fans etc.050.000 350. Inputs Ducklings Feed costs Medication Litter Other Considerations Transportation Depreciation 10yr Miscellaneous 100. $105.000/ mth.000 2.000 2. and whether or not the investor chooses insurance and at what level.490 units The major capital and operational items associated with this level of operations are: Investment Items Land and buildings Equipment & machinery Working capital for 3 months Total capital investment Receipts per annum Cost of production per annum Annual Fixed costs Profit per annum Break Even point Rate of Return Labour Manager salary $35.000 100.

Small Business Development Trust Institute of Private Enterprise Development National Bank of Industry and Commerce Citizens Bank • • • • 16 .FINANCING SOURCES The following are some of the funding sources from which a borrower may access financing for an operation of this nature. either singly or in combination. • The Linden Economic Advancement Fund (LEAF) provides financing for Region 10 projects.

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