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, EQUIPMENTS AND PRACTICES CE 36
YEAR&SEMESTER: II, III
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this course is to make the students aware of the various construction techniques, practices and equipments needed for different types of construction activities. At end this course students gain the knowledge about construction procedures for sub and super structures and equipment needed for construction of various types of structures from foundation to super structures. UNIT-1 1. CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES SPECIFICATION 1. General specification 2. Detailed specification General specification It give only general idea of the whole work and are useful in estimating the approximate cost of construction .They give general description of the different part of the building. This specification depends upon the types of building to be built. Detailed specification It gives details of each of the different types of work in the order in which the work is carried out at the site. DETAILS AND SEQUENCES OF ACTIVITIES 1. Site clearance 2. Marking 3. Earth work 4. Masonary 5. Flooring 6. Damp proofing courses 15 HRS
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Site clearance a) Surface cleaning of grass, trees, and hillocks. b) Cleaning of all obstruction on site Marking Marking is the setting out of building works It consists of two operations. a) setting out centre line b) Setting out of trenches . Earth work After setting out of trenches, we proceed with the excavation for the foundation. The earthworks have been classified following. a)soft or loose soil b) Hard or dense soil c) Ordinary rock not requiring blasting d) Hard rock where blasting is allowed e) Hard rock where blasting is not allowed MASONRY The masonry is a wall it built of individual blocks of material such as stone, brick.concrete, hollow blocks, celluar concrete, laterite etc, usually in horizontal courses cemented together some form of mortar. 1. Stone masonry The construction are made by using stone blocks is called stone masonry. Tools used in masonry 1.Trowel 2.Square 3.Plump rule 4.Spirit level 5.Line and pins 6.Bevel 7.Pick Axe 8.Crow Bar Classification of masonry a). Rubble masonry b). Ashlars masonry
Ashlar fine masonry 2. Dry rubble masonry b). Plump rule 4. Uncoursed rubble masonry 2. Ploygonal rubble masonry 7. Brick Hammer 8. This is built from accurately dressed stones with uniform and very fine joints of about 3mm thickness. The following are the classication of Ashlars masonry` 1. Uncoursed random masonry 3. high grade and superior quality of masonry. Single Flemish bond 6. Ashlar rough tooled 3. Polymer rubble masonry 6. Ashlar block in course 2. Ashlar facing 6. Ashlar rock 4. Garden wall bond . Stretcher bond 2. Double Flemish bond 5. Trowel 2. Header bond 3. English bond 4. Scutch The following are the classication of bonds in masonry 1.© Einstein College of Engineering a). Ashlar chamfered 5. Rubble masonry In this category the stones used either undressed or rough dressed having wider joint. Tools used in masonry 1. Spirit level 5. Square 3. Ashlars masonry This is a costlier. Bloster 7. Line and pins 6. Brick masonry The construction are made by using stone blocks is called brick masonry. The following are the classication of rubble masonry 1. Coursed random rubble 5. Uncoursed squared rubble 4.
Wooden blocks 2.39cm*19cm*30cm 2. 2. Racking bond 3. Muram flooring 3. Concrete DAMP PROOFING COURCES The damp proofing is a treatment of a building. Dutch bond 9. Bricks 4. Stones 3. Plastic flooring Materials used 1. Concrete hollow block masonry The construction are made by using hollow blocks is called concrete hollow block masonry. Faulty construction 3. The common size generally adopted for building blocks are: 1. against dampness. Stone flooring 4. Cement concrete flooring 5. Use of poor quality materials in construction. Glass flooring 6. Facing bond 8.39cm*19cm*10cm FLOORING Floors are the horizontal elements of a building structure which divide the building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation with in a restricted space one above the other and provide support for the occupants.39cm*19cm*20cm 3. Causes of dampness 1.© Einstein College of Engineering 7. Faulty design of structure. Mud flooring 2 . Types of flooring 1. Marble flooring 7. .
Wall footing 2. Flexible materials 2. Expansion joints This joints permit expansion and construction. Combined footing . BUILDING FOUNDATIONS a) Shallow foundation b) Deep foundation Shallow foundation The depth of foundation is less than the breadth of foundation is called Shallow foundation. Sliding joints These joints are usually formed by introducing smooth layer of plastic between the two surfaces. They generally consist of a simple butt joint without any bond. Expansion joints 3. They are shrinkage joints to allow shrinkage. Construction joints 2. Contraction joints 4. Types of shallow foundation 1. Semi Rigid materials 3. Isolated footing 3.© Einstein College of Engineering Materials used for damp proofing 1. Rigid materials CONSTRACTION JOINTS Joints provided in reinforcement concrete construction can be classified as follows: 1. They are provided to allow for the movement of the structure and hence they come under the movement joint. Contraction joints These joints allow only contraction. Sliding joints Construction joints These joints are provided at places where places of concrete has to be stopped for some reasons during construction.
etc is called scaffolding. Continious footing 5. Raft foundation Deep foundation The depth of foundation is greater than the breadth of foundation is called deep foundation. Bored compaction piles TEMPOARY WORKS a) Centering Temporary work used for construction of arches is called centering b) Shuttering (form work) and de-shuttering Temporary work used as a mould in which fresh concrete is poured for it to harden is called shuttering and removing of shuttering work is called deshutering. Well and caissons foundation Classification based on function 1. under reamed piles 4. Strap footing 6. Classification based on function 2. Sheet piles Classification based on materials and composition 1. FABRICATION AND ERECTION OF STEEL STRUCTURES The commonly used steel section in a structure as follows 1. Grilllage footing 7. Classification based on materials and composition 3. c) Scaffolding Temporary works erected for construction of masonry works. Painting. Uplift piles 6. Screw piles 4. Compaction piles 5. Types of deep foundation 1. Bearing piles 2. plastering.© Einstein College of Engineering 4. Plate . Friction piles 3. Cast in situ piles 3. Cement concrete piles 2.
fatty oils. Water proofing and insulating Roofs by elastic membrane 5.© Einstein College of Engineering 2. Joist 6. Brick jelly lime concrete terracing with or without tiles 2. Derrick poles 3. Crawer tracks Erection of building Most of the buildings are purpose made and hence rarely identical. Speed of erection desired 3. Angles 4. Rails Equipments used in erection process The following equipments are mainly used for steel erection process.Generally heavy petroleum Distillates. Weight and number of maximum lifts WATER PROOFING Application of water proofing materials makes the stone masonry free from Efflorescence. etc. frost action. Such as Trusses. are excellent for waterproofing. Cranes 2. Channels 5. The following facts to be consider while selecting tackle for any construction. Frames. Tees 7. Z-bars 8. Power driven scotch derricks 4. Hand operated driven scotch derricks 5. Thermal insulation combined with waterproofing for flat concrete roof 4. the chances are that site conditions will vary to such extent that different erection procedures have to be adopted. Reach required of the tackle 5. Guy derricks cranes 6. Mobile cranes 7. Blocks and Jacks 8. Even when Identical building have to be erected. Flats 3. Winches. dampness. Height of the structures 4. Water proofing and insulating by mud phuska terracing with Tile brick paving . Braced domes 1. These materials are Applied as washing coat and they may cause some temporary discoloration. 1. Proposed method of erection 2. Membrane water proofing with bituminous membrane 3. Methods of water proofing 1.
Shingles 3. 2.humity. Asbestos-cement sheets 5. Tiles 4. Roof covering 1. ACOUSTIC AND FIRE PROTECTION Acoustic The term ‘acoustic” may be defined as the science of sound and it describes the orgion. Purposes 1.offices. Slates AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDING It is the process of treating air as to control simultaneously its temperature. Controlling the quality of air in the aero planes. depends upon The temperature. 3. and air velocity so as to suit the majority of people throughout the year. Improve the working condition of theatre. road-car etc. needs of industrial process. shops. It protect from weathering agent. comfort. purity and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned Space such comfort and health of human beings. air motion and humity change for different season Of the year Hence the principle of air conditioning should involve the proper control of temperature .© Einstein College of Engineering ROOF FINISHES The upper part of the building is called roof.givining the comfortable condition. Tatch covering 2. propagation and sensation of sound.. Railway coaches. in turn. Comfort air conditioning 2. Fire protection . and convenient Of the occupants. etc. humity. Summer air conditioning Principles of comfort Air conditioning A feeling of comfort is a good indication of healthier atmospheric Condition but this atmospheric condition. efficient working of commercial premises etc. Banks. It is required to preserve and maintained the health. Industrial air conditioning 3. Classification air conditioning 1.
Common wall 4. Cast iron 6. Concrete General guide lines for fire resisting building 1. Alaram system 2. Floors . Stairs 5. Every Building has some materials which catches the fire quickly. Glass 5. Steel 7. Stone 2. Timber 4. Brick 3.© Einstein College of Engineering It is practically impossible to eliminate completely the changes of fire in a Building as it is a facts no building material is fully fire –proof. Protection of opening 3. Fire resisting materials 1.
© Einstein College of Engineering UNIT-II 2. . 2. The excavated soil in slurry form is treated by passing it through a number of screens. 7. To form the pipe jacking or pipe receiving station. The dry spoil is then removed from site. The excavation and pipe installation cycle continues until the cutting head machine reaches the receiving station with the new pipeline laid behind it. 6. the roller cutter at the face of the cutting head machine cuts the soil in front of it. .the pipe jacking method will be adopted. after which it is transported up to the ground surface in a fluid form using a slurry pump. SUB STRUCTURE CONSTUCTION 15HRS SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION Pipe Jacking method In a situation where the sewerage pipes have to be laid in deeper ground (3 to 7 meters). so as to keep the works area clean. Once the manhole construction is completed. A new manhole structure is then constructed in the receiving shaft. This method not only minimizes the digging of the trench to lay the new pipes but also alleviates disruption to the public. the temporary shaft is backfilled and surrounding area reinstated. The excavated soil is then fed to the crusher through a pipe and further crushed to smaller pieces. The soil in the temporary shaft is excavated 3. Upon confirmation of the alignment. 4. The pipe jacking machine is then set up at the base of the shaft. 8. The new pipe is lowered in sections behind the cutting head machine and gradually pushed behind the cutting head machine into the area excavated. a temporary shaft will be set up at the proposed new manhole location. 9. 5.
but they cost less to build. Mine tunnels are not as safe as tunnels designed for permanent occupation. . heavily populated regions. Pipe Jacking. Public works tunnels carry water. Roman engineers used an extensive network of tunnels to help carry water from mountain springs to cities and villages. These tunnels are made using similar techniques as other types of tunnels. such as roads or railways. however. is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. shipping or irrigation. was constructed from the mid. There are many different ways to excavate a tunnel. located in Lancashire County and Manchester. Public works tunnels Mine tunnels are used during ore extraction. Mine tunnels 2. and sewage away from. By A. These tunnels were part of aqueduct systems. Before there were trains and cars. including manual labor. The Underground Canal. tunneling machinery or a combination of these methods Types of Tunnels 1. also known as pipejacking or pipe-jacking. sewage or gas lines across great distances.© Einstein College of Engineering 10.to late-1700s and includes miles of tunnels to house the underground canals. England.tunnels created by the process of excavation. but many required tunnels to pass efficiently through an obstacle. explosives. which also comprised underground chambers and sloping bridge-like structures supported by a series of arches. Canal construction inspired some of the world's earliest tunnels. The earliest tunnels were used to transport water to. Finally the manhole is cleaned and inspected by the relevant agency for handing over and commissioning of the new line. Just like railways and roadways today. such as a mountain. rapid heating and cooling. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures. One of America's first tunnels was the Paw Paw Tunnel. Tunneling Tunnel Basics A tunnel is a horizontal passageway located underground. nine aqueducts carried approximately 85 million gallons of water a day from mountain springs to the city of Rome.D. built in West Virginia between 1836 and 1850 as part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. in this article we'll talk about man made tunnels -. there were transportation tunnels such as canals -artificial waterways used for travel. enabling laborers or equipment to access mineral and metal deposits deep inside the earth. canals usually ran above ground. 97. While erosion and other forces of nature can form tunnels.
© Einstein College of Engineering Although the canal no longer runs through the Paw Paw.118 feet long it is still one of the longest canal tunnels in the United States. Photo courtesy Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection/Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division A Roman aqueduct that runs from the Pools of Solomon to Jerusalem Photo courtesy Kmf164/ Creation Commons Attribution Share-alike License Traveling through the Holland Tunnel from Manhattan to New Jersey . at 3.
pipe jacking of the mid-1960s Initially. Tunnel construction takes a lot of planning. Several large box structures have now been installed in a wide variety of ground conditions. small precast concrete boxes were jacked to form pedestrian subways and portal bridge foundations. longer tunnels. resulting in remolding accompanied by a loss in volume that will cause the box to dive. 1b. the tunnel ushers nearly 100. it can be seen that as the box is jacked forward it will tend to drag the ground along with it. Named for the engineer who oversaw construction. causing major disturbance and possible disruption to the infrastructure above. Anti-drag systems Referring to Fig. In the case of a wide box at shallow cover the mass of ground on top of the box could be dragged forward. railway or flood defense channel. We'll explore why in the next section. The Holland Tunnel. was one of the first roadway tunnels and is still one of the world's greatest engineering projects. .000 vehicles daily between New York City and New Jersey. the development of high capacity jacking equipment and sophisticated techniques for controlling ground disturbance has led to the jacking of very large boxes each Capable of accommodating a highway. These effects are minimized by the use of a proprietary anti-drag system (ADS) at the top and bottom of the box. Similarly. leading to the construction of bigger. completed in 1927. In recent years. the underside of the box will tend to drag and Shear the ground. trains and cars had replaced canals as the primary form of transportation. Later small boxes were jacked one on top Of another and filled with concrete to form bridge abutments.© Einstein College of Engineering By the 20th century. Tunneling technique Principal Benefits The principal benefits of jacked box tunneling are: A non-intrusive construction method Minimal disturbance to surface infrastructure Traffic flows maintained throughout the construction period Traffic flows maintained with only minor restrictions during box installation An efficient structural form incorporating a low bearing pressure foundation A high quality maintenance free structure Historical development Jacked box tunneling in the UK developed from the.
for example railways and highways. The method enables traffic flows to be maintained throughout the construction period. Excavation and jacking take place alternately in small increments of advance. 1a. see Fig. Measures are taken to ensure stability of the tunnel face and to prevent the ground from being dragged forward by the advancing box. 1b. culvert or subway beneath existing surface infrastructure. The inconvenience and costs of disruption to infrastructure and traffic flows experienced with traditional construction methods can be avoided. 1. . A purpose designed tunneling shield is provided at its leading end. see Fig. The box is then jacked slowly through the ground under the railway in a carefully controlled tunneling operation. An example of the method is illustrated simply in Fig. and maintained with only minor restrictions during the brief period of tunneling. the shield and jacking equipment are removed. When the box has reached its final position. and bridge construction is completed with the addition of wing walls and road pavement. 1c. Fig. An open ended reinforced concrete box is cast on a jacking base adjacent to a railway embankment. and thrust jacks are provided at its rear end reacting against a jacking slab.© Einstein College of Engineering Jacked box tunneling The method in outline Jacked box tunneling is a non-intrusive method for constructing a new under-bridge.
© Einstein College of Engineering .
In this technique. vertical shafts may be dug at intervals to excavate from more than two points. Now let's look more specifically at how tunnels are excavated in each of the four primary environments: soft ground. Notice that the diagram shows tunneling taking place from both sides. In long tunnels. silt. or faces. soft rock and underwater. This is most suitable for tunnels passing through strong ground or for building smaller tunnels. hard rock. workers begin excavating immediately below the floor of the top heading. In the full-face method. gravel or mud. Tunnels through mountains or underwater are usually worked from the two opposite ends. One advantage of the top-heading-and-bench method is that engineers can use the heading tunnel to gauge the stability of the rock before moving forward with the project. sand.© Einstein College of Engineering Tunnel Construction: Soft Ground and Hard Rock Workers generally use two basic techniques to advance a tunnel. The second technique. they excavate the entire diameter of the tunnel at the same time. workers dig a smaller tunnel known as a heading. Soft Ground (Earth) Workers dig soft-ground tunnels through clay. of the passage. shown in the diagram below. this is a bench. is the top-heading-and-bench method. Once the top heading has advanced some distance into the rock. In this type of .
When the workers complete a section. engineers use a special piece of equipment called a shield. carve out three or four inches of clay and replace the board. or cells. cave-ins are a constant threat.how long the ground will safely stand by itself at the point of excavation -. England. Marc Isambard Brunel. powerful screw jacks pushed the shield forward . A wall of short timbers.is of paramount importance. Brunel's shield comprised 12 connected frames. protected on the top and sides by heavy plates called staves. When all of the diggers in all of the cells had completed this process on one section. . or breasting boards. He divided each frame into three workspaces. a French engineer. Because stand-up time is generally short when tunneling through soft ground. It carves a perfectly round hole and supports the surrounding earth while workers remove debris and install a permanent lining made of cast iron or precast concrete. To prevent this from happening. separated each cell from the face of the tunnel. jacks push the shield forward and they repeat the process.© Einstein College of Engineering tunnel. stand-up time -. A shield is an iron or steel cylinder literally pushed into the soft soil. invented the first tunnel shield in 1825 to excavate the Thames Tunnel in London. A digger would remove a breasting board. where diggers could work safely.
Then. which advances the tunnel slowly through the rock. Barlow and James Henry Greathead improved on Brunel's design by constructing a circular shield lined with cast-iron segments. to place explosives quickly and safely. . workers pack explosives into the holes. in 1874.© Einstein College of Engineering In 1874. evacuate the tunnel and detonate the charges. They first used the newlydesigned shield to excavate a second tunnel under the Thames for pedestrian traffic. Then they repeat the process. known as muck. Hard Rock Tunneling through hard rock almost always involves blasting. Next. Soon. When air pressure inside the tunnel exceeded water pressure outside. The depth of the holes can vary depending on the type of rock. the shield was used to help excavate the London Underground. and drills mounted to the jumbo make several holes in the rock. Peter M. the world's first subway. The jumbo moves to the face of the tunnel. Boston. using carts. After vacuuming out the noxious fumes created during the explosion. but a typical hole is about 10 feet deep and only a few inches in diameter. engineers in New York. Workers use a scaffold. Greathead further refined the shield design by adding compressed air pressure inside the tunnel. workers can enter and begin carrying out the debris. called a jumbo. the water stayed out. Budapest and Paris had adopted the Greathead shield to build their own subways.
The use of tunnels for mining is called drift mining. are often associated with military use during armed conflict. and then cooled with water. This temporary railway is often narrow gauge so that it can be double track. chipmunks and other rodents for protection and access to food sources. as well as the construction of underground bunkers and other habitable areas. which facilitates the operation of empty and loaded trains at the same . the tunnel wall is heated with fire. For more information regarding tunnels built by animals. Snow tunnels are created by voles. Punarjani Guha Kerala. most tunnels pass through rock that contains breaks or pockets of fractured rock.© Einstein College of Engineering Fire-setting is an alternative to blasting. sprayed concrete or rings of steel beams. really a limestone cave. they add a permanent concrete lining. In this technique. Other uses Excavation techniques. In most cases. extra support for the tunnel roof and walls may not be required. The rapid expansion and contraction caused by the sudden temperature change causes large chunks of rock to break off. usually for fun. that has been used as a railroad tunnel since 1890. or civilian responses to threat of attack. India. However. very hard rock may measure in centuries. so engineers must add additional support in the form of bolts. The Cloaca Maxima. Larger versions are created by humans. The stand-up time for solid. We'll look at tunnel driving through soft rock and driving underwater next Other tunneling methods include: Drilling and blasting Slurry-shield machine Wall-cover construction method. one of Rome's oldest sewer tunnels. although only men are permitted to crawl through the cave. In this environment. Hindus believe that crawling through the tunnel (which they believe was created by a Hindu god) from one end to the other will wash away all of one’s sins and thus attain rebirth. see Burrow Temporary Way During construction of a tunnel it is often convenient to install a temporary railway particularly to remove spoil. USA) features an 850 feet (259 m) natural tunnel. One of the strangest uses of a tunnel was for the storage of chemical weapons Natural tunnel Natural Tunnel State Park (Virginia. was built using this technique.
The basic geometry of the tunnel is a continuous arch. the arch simply goes all the way around Diaphragm Walls A diaphragm wall is a reinforced concrete wall constructed in the ground using under slurry techniques. Walls with widths of between 300mm and 1500mm can be formed in this way to depths in excess of 60 meters. In the case of a tunnel.© Einstein College of Engineering time. The opening of the tunnel is a portal. The diagram below shows the relationship between these underground structures in a typical mountain tunnel. Because tunnels must withstand tremendous pressure from all sides. Positive Features Walls can be installed to considerable depths Walls with substantial thickness can be formed . is the crown. The bottom half is the invert. The "roof" of the tunnel. the arch is an ideal shape. The temporary way is replaced by the permanent way at completion. or the top half of the tube. thus explaining the term Perway.
positive solution for large. where construction time is important and the use of a diaphragm wall can shorten the programme. These conditions could occur where the wall is to act only as a cantilever. Diaphragm walls are necessary : in very unstable soil profiles below the water-table where continuous support and watertight conditions are required to prevent mud flows. braced or tie-back walls. piping and erosion of the soils. in conditions where deeper than normal cantilever support may be required. . and bentonite for stronger and better reinforcement. or where a very deep initial excavation is required before the first braced or tie-back supports can be installed. can be designed to carry vertical load Basement construction time can be reduced Economical. steel bar.© Einstein College of Engineering The system is flexible in plan layout The wall can easily be incorporated into the permanent works The wall. Diaphragm wall can deep penetrate vertically and perform as a pile in carrying the weight. Then this wall is best for the building which has a deep foundation or many storeys of underground level. deep basements in saturated and unstable soil profiles Noise levels limited to engine noise only No vibration during installation Other Considerations Not normally economical for small. Diaphragm wall is a kind of retaining wall which appropriate for using in a limited area of work and better protection than the "Sheet Pile" type. shallow basements The system needs a relatively large site area Under certain conditions diaphragm walls may be used as cantilever. or certain sections. With selected and carefully quality control for materials used such as concrete.
© Einstein College of Engineering Typical Details for Diaphragm Wall Construction .
© Einstein College of Engineering Diaphragm Wall Construction photos .
5. Sand. Mauls and sledges. 6. and used to distribute pressure or to serve as an anchor for a patch over a hole. Any of the foregoing items can be made of metal or of wood. Plugs (wooden). Electric welding machine. This is done largely by shoring. Tools used for shoring In addition to shores. 16. Hatchets. the following tools. 3. 12. Hydraulic jacks. Mattresses. A wedge is a block. Battens (wooden). 9. 18. Wood clamps . to strengthen weakened bulkheads. 23. Wire (binding). to support hatches and doors. A strongback is a bar or beam. 21. Chisels (wood). 10. Sholes. Chain falls. Saws (carpenter's hand). Sheet packing. nuts and washers. Chisels (cold). 25. 8. 11. 2. Pillows. 26. A shore is a portable beam. to prevent sinking or sagging. to build up temporary bulkheads against the sea. 14.© Einstein College of Engineering SHORING Shoring is the process of placing props against the side of a structure. triangular on the sides and rectangular on the butt end. Nails. and strong-backs. Bolts. Hammers (claw). 13. and to provide props for equipment that has broken loose. During and after battle. ships may have occasion to support ruptured decks. 4. Turnbuckles. or beneath or above anything. 15. 20. wedges. 7. Screw jacks 22. Wire hawser. 17. 19. Canvas. Oxyacetylene cutting torches. Saws (lumberjack's cross-cut). 24. Axes. materials and equipment are often used in connection with shoring 1. A shole is a flat plate which may be placed under the end of a shore to distribute weight or pressure. often shorter than a shore.
© Einstein College of Engineering .
© Einstein College of Engineering .
© Einstein College of Engineering .
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