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, EQUIPMENTS AND PRACTICES CE 36
YEAR&SEMESTER: II, III
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this course is to make the students aware of the various construction techniques, practices and equipments needed for different types of construction activities. At end this course students gain the knowledge about construction procedures for sub and super structures and equipment needed for construction of various types of structures from foundation to super structures. UNIT-1 1. CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES SPECIFICATION 1. General specification 2. Detailed specification General specification It give only general idea of the whole work and are useful in estimating the approximate cost of construction .They give general description of the different part of the building. This specification depends upon the types of building to be built. Detailed specification It gives details of each of the different types of work in the order in which the work is carried out at the site. DETAILS AND SEQUENCES OF ACTIVITIES 1. Site clearance 2. Marking 3. Earth work 4. Masonary 5. Flooring 6. Damp proofing courses 15 HRS
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Site clearance a) Surface cleaning of grass, trees, and hillocks. b) Cleaning of all obstruction on site Marking Marking is the setting out of building works It consists of two operations. a) setting out centre line b) Setting out of trenches . Earth work After setting out of trenches, we proceed with the excavation for the foundation. The earthworks have been classified following. a)soft or loose soil b) Hard or dense soil c) Ordinary rock not requiring blasting d) Hard rock where blasting is allowed e) Hard rock where blasting is not allowed MASONRY The masonry is a wall it built of individual blocks of material such as stone, brick.concrete, hollow blocks, celluar concrete, laterite etc, usually in horizontal courses cemented together some form of mortar. 1. Stone masonry The construction are made by using stone blocks is called stone masonry. Tools used in masonry 1.Trowel 2.Square 3.Plump rule 4.Spirit level 5.Line and pins 6.Bevel 7.Pick Axe 8.Crow Bar Classification of masonry a). Rubble masonry b). Ashlars masonry
Ashlars masonry This is a costlier. English bond 4. Square 3. Double Flemish bond 5. Dry rubble masonry b). Plump rule 4. Bloster 7. Uncoursed random masonry 3. This is built from accurately dressed stones with uniform and very fine joints of about 3mm thickness. Line and pins 6. Coursed random rubble 5. Tools used in masonry 1. Brick Hammer 8. Garden wall bond . Uncoursed rubble masonry 2. Header bond 3. Uncoursed squared rubble 4. Polymer rubble masonry 6. Ashlar fine masonry 2. high grade and superior quality of masonry. The following are the classication of Ashlars masonry` 1. Ashlar rock 4. Brick masonry The construction are made by using stone blocks is called brick masonry. Ashlar block in course 2. Single Flemish bond 6. Stretcher bond 2.© Einstein College of Engineering a). Scutch The following are the classication of bonds in masonry 1. Trowel 2. Ashlar chamfered 5. Ploygonal rubble masonry 7. The following are the classication of rubble masonry 1. Rubble masonry In this category the stones used either undressed or rough dressed having wider joint. Spirit level 5. Ashlar facing 6. Ashlar rough tooled 3.
Faulty construction 3. Use of poor quality materials in construction. Stone flooring 4. .© Einstein College of Engineering 7. Faulty design of structure.39cm*19cm*20cm 3.39cm*19cm*10cm FLOORING Floors are the horizontal elements of a building structure which divide the building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation with in a restricted space one above the other and provide support for the occupants. Types of flooring 1. Marble flooring 7. Racking bond 3. The common size generally adopted for building blocks are: 1. Wooden blocks 2. Muram flooring 3.39cm*19cm*30cm 2. Concrete hollow block masonry The construction are made by using hollow blocks is called concrete hollow block masonry. Bricks 4. Facing bond 8. 2. Glass flooring 6. Concrete DAMP PROOFING COURCES The damp proofing is a treatment of a building. Causes of dampness 1. against dampness. Stones 3. Mud flooring 2 . Plastic flooring Materials used 1. Cement concrete flooring 5. Dutch bond 9.
They are provided to allow for the movement of the structure and hence they come under the movement joint. Contraction joints These joints allow only contraction. They are shrinkage joints to allow shrinkage.© Einstein College of Engineering Materials used for damp proofing 1. Expansion joints 3. Semi Rigid materials 3. They generally consist of a simple butt joint without any bond. Rigid materials CONSTRACTION JOINTS Joints provided in reinforcement concrete construction can be classified as follows: 1. Construction joints 2. Types of shallow foundation 1. Sliding joints These joints are usually formed by introducing smooth layer of plastic between the two surfaces. Isolated footing 3. Expansion joints This joints permit expansion and construction. Contraction joints 4. BUILDING FOUNDATIONS a) Shallow foundation b) Deep foundation Shallow foundation The depth of foundation is less than the breadth of foundation is called Shallow foundation. Wall footing 2. Flexible materials 2. Combined footing . Sliding joints Construction joints These joints are provided at places where places of concrete has to be stopped for some reasons during construction.
Bored compaction piles TEMPOARY WORKS a) Centering Temporary work used for construction of arches is called centering b) Shuttering (form work) and de-shuttering Temporary work used as a mould in which fresh concrete is poured for it to harden is called shuttering and removing of shuttering work is called deshutering. Types of deep foundation 1. Continious footing 5. c) Scaffolding Temporary works erected for construction of masonry works. Uplift piles 6.© Einstein College of Engineering 4. Cement concrete piles 2. etc is called scaffolding. Raft foundation Deep foundation The depth of foundation is greater than the breadth of foundation is called deep foundation. Classification based on materials and composition 3. plastering. Cast in situ piles 3. Painting. Well and caissons foundation Classification based on function 1. Plate . Strap footing 6. FABRICATION AND ERECTION OF STEEL STRUCTURES The commonly used steel section in a structure as follows 1. Classification based on function 2. under reamed piles 4. Sheet piles Classification based on materials and composition 1. Friction piles 3. Compaction piles 5. Screw piles 4. Grilllage footing 7. Bearing piles 2.
Even when Identical building have to be erected. Brick jelly lime concrete terracing with or without tiles 2. etc. Speed of erection desired 3. Tees 7. Z-bars 8. dampness. Such as Trusses. Angles 4. Height of the structures 4. Crawer tracks Erection of building Most of the buildings are purpose made and hence rarely identical. Guy derricks cranes 6.Generally heavy petroleum Distillates.© Einstein College of Engineering 2. Channels 5. Winches. These materials are Applied as washing coat and they may cause some temporary discoloration. Braced domes 1. Mobile cranes 7. Cranes 2. 1. Proposed method of erection 2. frost action. Blocks and Jacks 8. Weight and number of maximum lifts WATER PROOFING Application of water proofing materials makes the stone masonry free from Efflorescence. Reach required of the tackle 5. fatty oils. Water proofing and insulating Roofs by elastic membrane 5. are excellent for waterproofing. Methods of water proofing 1. Frames. Derrick poles 3. the chances are that site conditions will vary to such extent that different erection procedures have to be adopted. Water proofing and insulating by mud phuska terracing with Tile brick paving . Membrane water proofing with bituminous membrane 3. The following facts to be consider while selecting tackle for any construction. Rails Equipments used in erection process The following equipments are mainly used for steel erection process. Flats 3. Hand operated driven scotch derricks 5. Thermal insulation combined with waterproofing for flat concrete roof 4. Power driven scotch derricks 4. Joist 6.
2. Comfort air conditioning 2. It protect from weathering agent. propagation and sensation of sound. 3. ACOUSTIC AND FIRE PROTECTION Acoustic The term ‘acoustic” may be defined as the science of sound and it describes the orgion. Tiles 4. road-car etc. Fire protection .. and convenient Of the occupants. humity. etc. in turn. Slates AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDING It is the process of treating air as to control simultaneously its temperature. Asbestos-cement sheets 5. Improve the working condition of theatre. Purposes 1.humity. Roof covering 1. Summer air conditioning Principles of comfort Air conditioning A feeling of comfort is a good indication of healthier atmospheric Condition but this atmospheric condition.givining the comfortable condition. Tatch covering 2. air motion and humity change for different season Of the year Hence the principle of air conditioning should involve the proper control of temperature . Shingles 3. Classification air conditioning 1.© Einstein College of Engineering ROOF FINISHES The upper part of the building is called roof. Railway coaches. Banks. purity and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned Space such comfort and health of human beings. comfort. depends upon The temperature. and air velocity so as to suit the majority of people throughout the year. needs of industrial process. efficient working of commercial premises etc. It is required to preserve and maintained the health. shops. Controlling the quality of air in the aero planes.offices. Industrial air conditioning 3.
Alaram system 2. Common wall 4. Steel 7. Stone 2. Protection of opening 3. Every Building has some materials which catches the fire quickly. Fire resisting materials 1. Glass 5. Concrete General guide lines for fire resisting building 1.© Einstein College of Engineering It is practically impossible to eliminate completely the changes of fire in a Building as it is a facts no building material is fully fire –proof. Timber 4. Brick 3. Floors . Cast iron 6. Stairs 5.
© Einstein College of Engineering UNIT-II 2. The dry spoil is then removed from site. . Once the manhole construction is completed. A new manhole structure is then constructed in the receiving shaft. . 5. 4. 7.the pipe jacking method will be adopted. The soil in the temporary shaft is excavated 3. To form the pipe jacking or pipe receiving station. the temporary shaft is backfilled and surrounding area reinstated. The excavated soil in slurry form is treated by passing it through a number of screens. This method not only minimizes the digging of the trench to lay the new pipes but also alleviates disruption to the public. The excavated soil is then fed to the crusher through a pipe and further crushed to smaller pieces. 2. 9. SUB STRUCTURE CONSTUCTION 15HRS SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION Pipe Jacking method In a situation where the sewerage pipes have to be laid in deeper ground (3 to 7 meters). 6. 8. The new pipe is lowered in sections behind the cutting head machine and gradually pushed behind the cutting head machine into the area excavated. the roller cutter at the face of the cutting head machine cuts the soil in front of it. The pipe jacking machine is then set up at the base of the shaft. so as to keep the works area clean. The excavation and pipe installation cycle continues until the cutting head machine reaches the receiving station with the new pipeline laid behind it. a temporary shaft will be set up at the proposed new manhole location. after which it is transported up to the ground surface in a fluid form using a slurry pump. Upon confirmation of the alignment.
nine aqueducts carried approximately 85 million gallons of water a day from mountain springs to the city of Rome. such as roads or railways. These tunnels were part of aqueduct systems. also known as pipejacking or pipe-jacking. sewage or gas lines across great distances. Mine tunnels are not as safe as tunnels designed for permanent occupation. located in Lancashire County and Manchester. including manual labor. heavily populated regions. enabling laborers or equipment to access mineral and metal deposits deep inside the earth.© Einstein College of Engineering 10. Public works tunnels carry water. Finally the manhole is cleaned and inspected by the relevant agency for handing over and commissioning of the new line. England. These tunnels are made using similar techniques as other types of tunnels. 97. Mine tunnels 2. shipping or irrigation. . One of America's first tunnels was the Paw Paw Tunnel. Public works tunnels Mine tunnels are used during ore extraction. Roman engineers used an extensive network of tunnels to help carry water from mountain springs to cities and villages. tunneling machinery or a combination of these methods Types of Tunnels 1. there were transportation tunnels such as canals -artificial waterways used for travel. Just like railways and roadways today. was constructed from the mid.D.to late-1700s and includes miles of tunnels to house the underground canals. rapid heating and cooling. Canal construction inspired some of the world's earliest tunnels. but they cost less to build. While erosion and other forces of nature can form tunnels. but many required tunnels to pass efficiently through an obstacle. such as a mountain. built in West Virginia between 1836 and 1850 as part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. in this article we'll talk about man made tunnels -. and sewage away from.tunnels created by the process of excavation. canals usually ran above ground. Before there were trains and cars. Tunneling Tunnel Basics A tunnel is a horizontal passageway located underground. explosives. Pipe Jacking. however. By A. which also comprised underground chambers and sloping bridge-like structures supported by a series of arches. is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. There are many different ways to excavate a tunnel. The earliest tunnels were used to transport water to. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures. The Underground Canal.
© Einstein College of Engineering Although the canal no longer runs through the Paw Paw. at 3.118 feet long it is still one of the longest canal tunnels in the United States. Photo courtesy Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection/Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division A Roman aqueduct that runs from the Pools of Solomon to Jerusalem Photo courtesy Kmf164/ Creation Commons Attribution Share-alike License Traveling through the Holland Tunnel from Manhattan to New Jersey .
it can be seen that as the box is jacked forward it will tend to drag the ground along with it.000 vehicles daily between New York City and New Jersey. 1b. completed in 1927. Later small boxes were jacked one on top Of another and filled with concrete to form bridge abutments. Named for the engineer who oversaw construction.© Einstein College of Engineering By the 20th century. the tunnel ushers nearly 100. Tunnel construction takes a lot of planning. longer tunnels. was one of the first roadway tunnels and is still one of the world's greatest engineering projects. . In the case of a wide box at shallow cover the mass of ground on top of the box could be dragged forward. Similarly. the underside of the box will tend to drag and Shear the ground. trains and cars had replaced canals as the primary form of transportation. leading to the construction of bigger. resulting in remolding accompanied by a loss in volume that will cause the box to dive. the development of high capacity jacking equipment and sophisticated techniques for controlling ground disturbance has led to the jacking of very large boxes each Capable of accommodating a highway. In recent years. These effects are minimized by the use of a proprietary anti-drag system (ADS) at the top and bottom of the box. The Holland Tunnel. Anti-drag systems Referring to Fig. railway or flood defense channel. causing major disturbance and possible disruption to the infrastructure above. Tunneling technique Principal Benefits The principal benefits of jacked box tunneling are: A non-intrusive construction method Minimal disturbance to surface infrastructure Traffic flows maintained throughout the construction period Traffic flows maintained with only minor restrictions during box installation An efficient structural form incorporating a low bearing pressure foundation A high quality maintenance free structure Historical development Jacked box tunneling in the UK developed from the. We'll explore why in the next section. Several large box structures have now been installed in a wide variety of ground conditions. small precast concrete boxes were jacked to form pedestrian subways and portal bridge foundations. pipe jacking of the mid-1960s Initially.
and bridge construction is completed with the addition of wing walls and road pavement.© Einstein College of Engineering Jacked box tunneling The method in outline Jacked box tunneling is a non-intrusive method for constructing a new under-bridge. see Fig. Measures are taken to ensure stability of the tunnel face and to prevent the ground from being dragged forward by the advancing box. see Fig. 1a. and maintained with only minor restrictions during the brief period of tunneling. Excavation and jacking take place alternately in small increments of advance. 1. When the box has reached its final position. The method enables traffic flows to be maintained throughout the construction period. 1c. for example railways and highways. the shield and jacking equipment are removed. A purpose designed tunneling shield is provided at its leading end. and thrust jacks are provided at its rear end reacting against a jacking slab. An open ended reinforced concrete box is cast on a jacking base adjacent to a railway embankment. culvert or subway beneath existing surface infrastructure. 1b. Fig. The box is then jacked slowly through the ground under the railway in a carefully controlled tunneling operation. An example of the method is illustrated simply in Fig. . The inconvenience and costs of disruption to infrastructure and traffic flows experienced with traditional construction methods can be avoided.
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Once the top heading has advanced some distance into the rock. workers dig a smaller tunnel known as a heading. Soft Ground (Earth) Workers dig soft-ground tunnels through clay. In long tunnels. sand. The second technique. Notice that the diagram shows tunneling taking place from both sides. this is a bench. vertical shafts may be dug at intervals to excavate from more than two points. In the full-face method. shown in the diagram below. gravel or mud. In this technique. of the passage. This is most suitable for tunnels passing through strong ground or for building smaller tunnels.© Einstein College of Engineering Tunnel Construction: Soft Ground and Hard Rock Workers generally use two basic techniques to advance a tunnel. hard rock. Tunnels through mountains or underwater are usually worked from the two opposite ends. workers begin excavating immediately below the floor of the top heading. One advantage of the top-heading-and-bench method is that engineers can use the heading tunnel to gauge the stability of the rock before moving forward with the project. silt. In this type of . Now let's look more specifically at how tunnels are excavated in each of the four primary environments: soft ground. is the top-heading-and-bench method. soft rock and underwater. they excavate the entire diameter of the tunnel at the same time. or faces.
It carves a perfectly round hole and supports the surrounding earth while workers remove debris and install a permanent lining made of cast iron or precast concrete. separated each cell from the face of the tunnel. or breasting boards. Brunel's shield comprised 12 connected frames. or cells. where diggers could work safely. stand-up time -. . To prevent this from happening. He divided each frame into three workspaces. invented the first tunnel shield in 1825 to excavate the Thames Tunnel in London. When all of the diggers in all of the cells had completed this process on one section. Marc Isambard Brunel. England. Because stand-up time is generally short when tunneling through soft ground. A digger would remove a breasting board. cave-ins are a constant threat. protected on the top and sides by heavy plates called staves. jacks push the shield forward and they repeat the process. carve out three or four inches of clay and replace the board. a French engineer. A wall of short timbers.how long the ground will safely stand by itself at the point of excavation -.© Einstein College of Engineering tunnel. When the workers complete a section. A shield is an iron or steel cylinder literally pushed into the soft soil.is of paramount importance. powerful screw jacks pushed the shield forward . engineers use a special piece of equipment called a shield.
Then they repeat the process. in 1874. called a jumbo. evacuate the tunnel and detonate the charges. known as muck. but a typical hole is about 10 feet deep and only a few inches in diameter. workers can enter and begin carrying out the debris. the world's first subway. the water stayed out. . Boston. Workers use a scaffold. Budapest and Paris had adopted the Greathead shield to build their own subways. The jumbo moves to the face of the tunnel. workers pack explosives into the holes. Greathead further refined the shield design by adding compressed air pressure inside the tunnel. Next. When air pressure inside the tunnel exceeded water pressure outside. using carts. to place explosives quickly and safely. Hard Rock Tunneling through hard rock almost always involves blasting. which advances the tunnel slowly through the rock. The depth of the holes can vary depending on the type of rock. Soon. Then. the shield was used to help excavate the London Underground.© Einstein College of Engineering In 1874. and drills mounted to the jumbo make several holes in the rock. They first used the newlydesigned shield to excavate a second tunnel under the Thames for pedestrian traffic. Peter M. After vacuuming out the noxious fumes created during the explosion. engineers in New York. Barlow and James Henry Greathead improved on Brunel's design by constructing a circular shield lined with cast-iron segments.
In this technique. In this environment. The Cloaca Maxima. We'll look at tunnel driving through soft rock and driving underwater next Other tunneling methods include: Drilling and blasting Slurry-shield machine Wall-cover construction method. USA) features an 850 feet (259 m) natural tunnel. most tunnels pass through rock that contains breaks or pockets of fractured rock. usually for fun. which facilitates the operation of empty and loaded trains at the same . so engineers must add additional support in the form of bolts.© Einstein College of Engineering Fire-setting is an alternative to blasting. India. although only men are permitted to crawl through the cave. The stand-up time for solid. the tunnel wall is heated with fire. However. Punarjani Guha Kerala. Hindus believe that crawling through the tunnel (which they believe was created by a Hindu god) from one end to the other will wash away all of one’s sins and thus attain rebirth. was built using this technique. This temporary railway is often narrow gauge so that it can be double track. that has been used as a railroad tunnel since 1890. are often associated with military use during armed conflict. For more information regarding tunnels built by animals. as well as the construction of underground bunkers and other habitable areas. One of the strangest uses of a tunnel was for the storage of chemical weapons Natural tunnel Natural Tunnel State Park (Virginia. see Burrow Temporary Way During construction of a tunnel it is often convenient to install a temporary railway particularly to remove spoil. one of Rome's oldest sewer tunnels. sprayed concrete or rings of steel beams. or civilian responses to threat of attack. Larger versions are created by humans. very hard rock may measure in centuries. The use of tunnels for mining is called drift mining. really a limestone cave. Other uses Excavation techniques. The rapid expansion and contraction caused by the sudden temperature change causes large chunks of rock to break off. and then cooled with water. extra support for the tunnel roof and walls may not be required. Snow tunnels are created by voles. chipmunks and other rodents for protection and access to food sources. In most cases. they add a permanent concrete lining.
The bottom half is the invert. Positive Features Walls can be installed to considerable depths Walls with substantial thickness can be formed . is the crown. Walls with widths of between 300mm and 1500mm can be formed in this way to depths in excess of 60 meters.© Einstein College of Engineering time. The diagram below shows the relationship between these underground structures in a typical mountain tunnel. or the top half of the tube. thus explaining the term Perway. Because tunnels must withstand tremendous pressure from all sides. The temporary way is replaced by the permanent way at completion. The opening of the tunnel is a portal. The "roof" of the tunnel. the arch is an ideal shape. The basic geometry of the tunnel is a continuous arch. In the case of a tunnel. the arch simply goes all the way around Diaphragm Walls A diaphragm wall is a reinforced concrete wall constructed in the ground using under slurry techniques.
in conditions where deeper than normal cantilever support may be required. These conditions could occur where the wall is to act only as a cantilever. and bentonite for stronger and better reinforcement. piping and erosion of the soils. With selected and carefully quality control for materials used such as concrete. can be designed to carry vertical load Basement construction time can be reduced Economical. steel bar. shallow basements The system needs a relatively large site area Under certain conditions diaphragm walls may be used as cantilever. braced or tie-back walls.© Einstein College of Engineering The system is flexible in plan layout The wall can easily be incorporated into the permanent works The wall. Diaphragm walls are necessary : in very unstable soil profiles below the water-table where continuous support and watertight conditions are required to prevent mud flows. Diaphragm wall can deep penetrate vertically and perform as a pile in carrying the weight. or where a very deep initial excavation is required before the first braced or tie-back supports can be installed. or certain sections. where construction time is important and the use of a diaphragm wall can shorten the programme. Diaphragm wall is a kind of retaining wall which appropriate for using in a limited area of work and better protection than the "Sheet Pile" type. positive solution for large. deep basements in saturated and unstable soil profiles Noise levels limited to engine noise only No vibration during installation Other Considerations Not normally economical for small. . Then this wall is best for the building which has a deep foundation or many storeys of underground level.
© Einstein College of Engineering Typical Details for Diaphragm Wall Construction .
© Einstein College of Engineering Diaphragm Wall Construction photos .
Tools used for shoring In addition to shores. materials and equipment are often used in connection with shoring 1. ships may have occasion to support ruptured decks. Pillows. and used to distribute pressure or to serve as an anchor for a patch over a hole. 23. Sholes. 25. Canvas. 6. A shole is a flat plate which may be placed under the end of a shore to distribute weight or pressure. 14. Bolts. nuts and washers. and strong-backs. Axes. to strengthen weakened bulkheads. Chisels (cold). and to provide props for equipment that has broken loose. 20. 13. Turnbuckles. Wire (binding). Battens (wooden). Mauls and sledges. 5. Chain falls. Sheet packing. A shore is a portable beam. 18. 26. 24. Oxyacetylene cutting torches. to build up temporary bulkheads against the sea. wedges. A strongback is a bar or beam. Hydraulic jacks. Any of the foregoing items can be made of metal or of wood. 12. Wood clamps . 8. Mattresses. 19. 9. A wedge is a block. or beneath or above anything. Plugs (wooden). Saws (carpenter's hand). 10. 7. 2. Saws (lumberjack's cross-cut). triangular on the sides and rectangular on the butt end. During and after battle. to support hatches and doors. Hatchets. Nails. often shorter than a shore. 3. 15. Sand. 11. Wire hawser. the following tools. to prevent sinking or sagging. Screw jacks 22. 21. Electric welding machine. This is done largely by shoring. 4. 16. 17.© Einstein College of Engineering SHORING Shoring is the process of placing props against the side of a structure. Hammers (claw). Chisels (wood).
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© Einstein College of Engineering .
© Einstein College of Engineering .
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