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German Naval Uniforms and Badges of Rank WW2

German Naval Uniforms and Badges of Rank WW2

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A0l'>11IU_LTl:'. S.W.I.






l----GEN"""ERhL Till! G!!rman Navy possesses three L>f15io; uniforms: cue dart, 1;1110, ne field-grey alia om: wlLite. The while: 011<,: o ,vits worn in time of the year by personnel oi larger units in rrapical ..... aters. The field-grey one is WOI"II bj' the Coastal Artillery, rmrl :1150 by other units when employi;cLashore in various capacities The dark blue uniform ts strmlnr- ill many resP;lCl>l o that of the t Royal Navy. bUI it difIc:ffi in the following tlflnClP;l1 respects: (i) Rl'.tiTlgs below Petty Offi.<:el"$lJll~'e uniform greatcoat. no (ii) ]Il .. tc~cl tbey Imv.c I'll ollter ~ blue jacket. reaching to t.he
hips, which is worn (l1J~r the j~'I.Tl cottar. For ceremcrdal ocetl.Si(ms th:" jacl<~l mentioned IJL (ii) is replaced by a !j\O,(:ornamental one known as the "Paradejl1cke", wbich is WQn\ ,,,,d07 the jean collar. Tbc "r'erccej ncke' is 11",1, to 1:>1.1 worn again until alter the war. (lv] Pnty Officers' uniform is much mOre similar to that of ofilccr:; Ihan jo the Royal NaIT. German Oific.:.rS and P.O.,;; w<:ou-uniiorm DE ILII ide:nticru Shade, D..::a1"H in colour lUore to that 01 British P,Q.So,.all to tb.,,_t of British OBle""", Derman Putty ,Ofti.c~rs .'\.150 have J. cap ,\'Iti()h is [;1 tho some colour uud dimCl'oions iI.S that of Germeu Officers, and also bns t.li\} same: oodg". The distinguishing feature is that .all Ofii.;;o::r~Japs have SOlO" form c gold edging. peacetime fer certain duties dllTing the summer, and also III allY


(v) Gnmil.lI Naval Officcn;;'
G~.rlll:lll O!fie,:,n' (:r.ocl(

(vi) The

Pelt)' OAicers' gl·ea1c(o~,t._<;, i'l.nd :ar~ iitted witb '-holllJIT~'\Hlp~.to These shoulder straps do not sllc~v the wearer's rank ill the same IOrlnnct: :IS 011 (hI;) ~¢C.VClE, but are aimilar to those of G.:!nnan Military (l"d Air Force Off,,::ers and N.C.O.s of equiwLle"j, rank. III the Ci!.5C of C, and P,O.~ the :;llouldcr and coats ,;J~ .. es


iU:CLit",only place where the rank 1~ sbown-c-tbe are l:oa.re;tho ordinary monkey jacket 101" and C. P.D..:; therefore has a shonlder strap too.

branches to which Offi~r!I belong are not di<;tinlIlIishcd by a coloured illserti()n between th.e g'Q1dsleeve I(l.cc, but hy n IXLdge1>bovc tbe lLpptnklO~~ stripe (wllich 11..,.OIl curl}. TlIe badge [s id"lltic1tl with that worn by ratings of the same branch

German OP.lcers (i) Executive

(IV) Surgeon .. I'"the"'''e

(l;:l ~~E~~~\~~l~~~
Officers Offi.(:""S nf the /<oc~<ro;S. tl>esloc,·el"cei",.Urn.QS.wtIl

divid~d Otticees


lho.! fDllo.;ing


(v) Ordnance Officers (W.) (vi) Torpedo and :Mining Technical Officers CW.) (v-ji) Paymaster Officers (V.) (vill) WIT Office", (M.N.) (ix-) "V/T Technical Officers (N_T.) . ·(x) Genera) Naval Service (A.:M.D.) (xi) Bandmasters, -tc., having honorary Officer rank. Those Officers' branch markings (above upper stripe of gold lace). are as rctlows:






(I) (f) ®
(vi,) , (v]i) (vill)

imposed on_wi

foul anchor (x)



The duties of these branches are implied in their titles: only tb.e term "Coastal Artillery" requires amplification. In addition to providing the guns crews of naval coastal batteries, this branch provides the personnel for training establishments and various other 'jobs ashore. It is branch (X) into which are put miscelIaneous specialist direct entry commission officers whose work does. not fall precisely within the scope of ·any of the other branches; Branch (viii) are mostl'y reservists: many were officers :in the merchant service. Branch [ix] are mostly promoted lower deck officers, and [H8 concerned with maintenance, ctc., whereas officers of Branch {viii) are concerned with procedure, etc.


B. Ratluga Lower deck personnel in U,C- German Navy are divided into seventeen branches, some. of which are. again sub-divided into various specialities, which are sufficiently distinct from one another to merit being trea ted as independent branches. These branches are: Seamanship. (See paze 7) I Engine-room II Navigation III IV Sig Signals IV l'k. W/,I' Telewritec V Shipwright Gunners' party VI


Ordnance Ar-tificer Torpedo Artificer (work of Seaman Torpedcman} Mining Artificer (upkeen. of mines, depth charges, etc.)' (No branch viii exists) V~ Writer (pay and accounts) Sv. Supply ratings (not vict:uals) Vp. Supply ratings (victualling) and wets . Writer (Administration) Sick Berth. Attendants Musicians Training XIV Coastal Cunuery Xv Motorist [i.e. ashore) XVT Recruiting (wounded and unfit only} xva Weapons-depot (retired petty officers, ctc., only! X'V"111 Aircraft Spotter



A T Spr.

Rf1)Ui'Y,~S: Members of all subdivisions of branch IX wear the badge of their branch. It is therefm€. not possible to determine to which subdivision they belong. In branches XIII nnd XVII there is only the rank of Chief Petty Officer. The duties of Career XIV on the lower deck correspond to those of "Coastal Gunnery" Officers (sec page G). There is no branch corresponding 'exactly to the Electrical Artificers in the 'R.N. In the German Navy the work of British E.A,s .is distributed between branches II, IV', VII A, VII T and VII Spr. .. The following badges are used to denote the branch to which a rating belongs: these are ill gold all blue jumpers and in blue on white ones, '. The appropriate badge is woru D.nthe left. upper arm, above all other badges, fOJ" ratings up to and including Obermaat (=A.P.O.). Chief and Petty Officers wear the same badge, \7el'Y much smaller in size, ill the centre 9f their shoulder straps. The badges are as follows:









@ @ (f) (j) ® CD Ci)




Pla.in Anchor XIII




XIV In worn In pauy XV


branches XVI and XVII the badge worn is that of the branch before transfer to these two caree .."$. I branch XIII 110,badge of branch is worn, except for the comnumber (in Roman numerals).

C. Cadets
. A future officer while still a rating wears the badge of his -tuture branch as all officer in lieu 0:£ one of the eighteen lower deck branch badges. • , The cadet is still in square rig.

Execu ti ve





The future officers ,of the Torpedo and mining branch wear the badge of the Ordnance Cadets. WIT and WIT technical personnel and Bandmasters do not need a badge, because officers of these branches are _promot"rA1C.P,Q.s, and are )10t promoted Lo officer rank, Jrom cadet via midshipman. Cadets undergoing training afloat Who will eventually become naval constructors wear as a distinctive badge:

In Germany Naval Constructors are not considered to be officers: 'they are' • Silberlinge " Or uniformed civil servants (see chapter 2).

I. 2. . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. ]2.

i Ratings:


OF EQUIVALENT RANKS (or executive) branch shown)

'Ordinary Seaman Able Seaman Cadet Rating Able Seaman Able Seaman Leadi ng Seaman Senior Cadet Acting Petty Officer Pettv Officer Chief Petty Officer Midshipman Senior c.P.O. (equivalent rank to 1LAA) A new rank has been created, Stabsoberbootsmannsmaat, which is between ranks 8 and 9, Between 9 and 10 there always has been the rank of Stabsoberbootsmann, but this is v;8ry rare. Officers: No cquivalerrt-c-equal to a 2nd LieuLeutnant zur See tenant in the British Army Oberleutnant ZU[ See Sub-Lieutenant Kapitanleutnant Lieutenant Kcrvettenkapitan Ucutenant-Commander Fregattenkapitan 'Commander Kapitan zur Sec Captain Ko-runodore Commodore Konteradmiral Rear Admiral Vizeadmiral Vie::e Admiral Admiral Admiral [junior) Ceneraladmi ral Admiral (senior} Grosaadmirul Admiral of the fleet

Matrose Mutroscngeireiter Seckadett Matrosenobcrgefreiter Matrosenhauptgefreiter Bootsmannsmaat Fahnricb zur See Oberbootsmannsmaat Bootsmaun Oberbootsmann Oberfahnrich Stabsobcrbootsmann


By ., Acting Petty Officers)' it is not meant that the German Oberboctsmeat ' 'acts" as a petty officer: the term is used to indicate a rank (which does not exist in the R.N.) between leading hand and pet ty officer. , In the German Navy midshipmen am considered :,,5petty officers. The titles selected for translation arc those of the seaman (and executive) branches. Speaking generally, without reference to branch, a rating of rank 6 is called a. '<Maat" S >, an' '{Ibermaat ' 8" " a, , 'Fe.ldwcbd" 10" " an "Oberfcldwebel' A rating of the rank between 8 and 9 is called a Stabsobermaat. A rating of the Tank between 9 and 10 is called a Stabsfeldwebel, 9

The German.Navy hp.5110-Warrant Officers. The German word for Warrant Officer. is ' 'Deckoffizicr": the word exists a1though the rank does not, because tijel'e were 'Warrant Officers in "he Imperial German Navv. and to translate the term ., Warrant Officer" when spea['dtig of other navies. 11) general, the offioel-S of all branches have {he same names es one another at any given.rank. The two main.exceptions nrc Surgeons and Bandmasters, who.correspond to executive officers as-follows; EXI}C"l-tiive Sur{~{)n Marineassis-terrtenaret Marineoberas-. sistentenarzt

Leutnant eur

Banamasier ]\:rllsikmeister Obermusikmeister Stabsmusikmeister Musikinspizient

Brit'ish No eqtLi'valelJt* Sub-Lieut.

zur See

KapitanleutMarinestabsarzt nant MarineoberKorvettenkepltau stebsarzt FregattenG eschwaderkapitan ant Kapitan zur See Piottenarzt Kontcradmiral Vize<tfullil'al Admiral Ceneraladmiral Admiralarzt Admiralstabsarzt No equivalent No equivalent N D eq ui valerrr

Lieutenant Lieut.-Cdr. Conuuauder Captain Rear Admiral Vice Admiral Admiral

o.Pem:l.Usik ~
inspizient No eq uivalent No eq uivalcnt No eq ulvalent No equivalent No ~quivalent No eq uivalent

No eq uivalent A dmiral of the Fleet Officers of other brauche- .. have -the title of the executive officer of corresponding rank, with the addition of a letter in brackets to indicate their rank as given under BRANCHES (.~eepage 5): e.g. Lentnaut (lIl€j). Kcrvcttenkapitan (W). Except in HIe case of Captains (e,g, Kapitan 2'ol11' See (ll1g)L the suffix "zur See" is; emitted in the titles of non-executive officers. Groszadmiral IV-BADGES A. OF RANK

Officers A German naval officer's rank is indicated by gold lace on the lower sleeves. Except for bandmasters the stripes are straight as for R.N. officers. The upper stripe has no curl . Retired officers recalled temporarily to acti ve service are djstingrushed by two oak leaves which are \VOTrJ. underneath tbe emblem denoting the officer's branch (I.e. immediately above the uppermost. stripe).
=Equivaten+ to end Licut.In the British Army and Ensign in the U.S. Navy.


Reserve officers .equivalcnt to R.N.V.R. are only distinguishable ~ from active: s~rvice officers by their shoulder straps (see page 12). Reserve officers equivalent to R.N.R. 'wear the ordinary sleeve markings of a professional officer, and in addition have an anchor DO each collar tip immediately above the lapels. The ranks are denoted as follows: British Eqm'valenl Slecue Lacc Cerman Rank (Between a 'ruidshipOne medium stripe Leutnant man and ,L Sub-


Two meC\;,ufi,\vttipes One narrow between two medium stripes Three medium stripes " " " Four medium stripes: 01~'~broad' below ~~le medium stripe One-bread below t'I,.IO medium stripes One broad below three medium stripes One broad below four medium stripes

Oberleutnant Kapitanlcutnant Korvettenkapitan Pregattenkapitan Kapittin zur See Kommodore Konteradmiral Vizeadmiral Admiral Oroszadmirul

(Sub- Licut.] {Lieutenant] (Lieut-Connnaudcr) [Commander] (Captain) (Commodore) (Hear-Admiral) (Vrce-Adroiral) (AdmUCLL) (Admiral Flec') o·fthe

There. is a rank iu the German Navy called "Gcneraladmirat' which is between an Admiral and an Admiral of the Fleet. A "Ccncraladmirnl" normally has the same sleeve markings all Admiral: should however..a "Genernladmirul" OcC.\lP'\-' the position o.{ G.-.iLl-C. of the Navy h.c i$ allowed to wear the markings of a Oroszadnura 1. On greatcoat and l;Y]1it c unif<;>1'l11 Genna:l navul officers W(:;:U shoulder-straps. These alone distinguish a Lieutenant Commander from a Commander {both have three medium stripes on their sleeves}, or an Admiral from a Generaladmiral (both J1;l.Ve one broad below three medium stripes each]. With the: frock-coat the sleeve bee is worn as well as the shoulder straps. The shoulder straps. used arc as follows: Parallel silver ~tr:ands, plaine-Leutnan t (A rank between midshipman and Sub-UNLt_! Parallel silver strands with om: star = (Sub-Lieutenant) e=Oberlcutuaut Parallel silver strands with two stars = (Lieutenant] e-Kapitdnleutnant Plaited silver strands, plain Korvetten= (Lieut. Commander Kapitan




.. From thesleeve lace it is not possible to distinguish OJ. Commodore Prom a Kapitatf zur ,$(ce (C.. ptetn): the, former, however, wear-s the aiguillcrtcs and double row (1! oak leaves l(uL cap) of an Admiral.


Plaited silver strands, with one star =Fregattenkapitan = (Commander) Plaited silver strands, with two stars =Kapitan zur See = (Captain) Plaited silv T strands, with two stars =Kommodore = (Commodore) Plaited gold and silver strand, plain =Kontcradmiral = (Rear Admiral) Plaited gold and silver strand, with one star = Vizc-Admiral = (Vice Admiral) Plaited gold and silver strand, with two stars =Admiral = (Admiral) Plai ted gold and silver strand, with three stars =Generaladmiral =)1 0 equivalent Plaited gold and silver strand, with crossed batons =Groszadrniral = (Admiral of the fteet) The three stars on the shoulder-straps of a Generaladrniral are disposed as followsc=-one is at the upper, or collar end, and two are side by side at the lower or shoulder end. Executi ve officers wear on their shoulder straps no badge to denote their branch. Offic rs other than executive ones wear in the centre of their shoulder straps a small branch badge similar to that above the stripes on their sleeves. Such a badge is worn above one, but between two stars. Executive officers, whose shoulder-straps havenobadges of branch, if they have One star only, place it in the centre of their shoulder straps, and not on the lower edge, like officers of other branches. Active service officers have shoulder straps mounted on blue cloth for use with blue uniform, and others on white cloth for use with white uniform. All types of reserve officers have one type of shoulder strap only, which is mounted On black cloth. B. Ratings These are worn by C. and P.O,s on shoulder straps (which they wear even on their ordinary jackets): ratings below P.O.s wear the badge of rank immediately below the branch badge, both On the left sleeve. (i) Ratings below petty officer The German Navy has three ranks all of which correspond to Able Seaman (or Stoker 1st Class, etc. etc.). These are:


Obergeireiter 12


The rank of "Hauptgefreiter" is only attained hymen not able or 'wishing to pass for leading rate (=«J.'laat"). After being "Hauptgefreiter" such men can become in succession a. "Stabsgefreiter" (one plaited chevron 'with a star inside ill. Lhen "Oberstabsgefreiter' [t-e-e plaited chevrons, a star in Ih.. inner one}." ~ These stars arc very small and iHside the V of the c11€vTOn, not to be confused with tho larger star above the chevrons worn to denote their branch by ratings of the seaman branch, and is worn as well if the "Stabsgefreiter" belongs to the seaman branch. An A,S. etc. approved as a candidate for the rank of leading hand wears one SMALL chevron immediately beneath the tip of his one or: two large chevrons (lor 2 according as to whether he is a "Gelreitcr' or an "Obcrgelreiter' at the time); viz.:

A.B. C'Gefreite.r"} awaiting promotion to Leading Seaman. This is not to be confused with the much Less important Acting Leading Seaman, whose badge is one SJl1<"1l1 horizontal ship of white doll] below the arm badge of rank. Such a roan Is rnercly so acting because there are Dot enough leading hands on board. There is no guarantee that he will become a Leading Seaman nor has he passed any of the requisite tests. Lending hands have all anchor as the distinctive emblem of their rank. In the case of u Leading Seaman this i....foul anchor, viz.: a

Leading Seaman. Leading hands of the Recruitiog brand, wear one plain anchor. (There are no people below' "Maat' in this branch, so nc confusion is pcssible.] Leading Seamen of 111C Navigation Branch wear two crossed plain anchors, viz.:


Leading Seaman (Navigation, etc.)

+Thc rank of "Obers1..absgecre.iier" be abofishcd.

is being reconsidered.

It will probably


Leading hands of other branches wear one plain anchor with. which is incorporated the badge of 'their branch, In the case of two o~ the branches the anchor is included (stock down to the right),
V11'•. :

Leading TJ1C badges

Mining of rank

Artificer of the

remaining leading band's have the

anchor vertical, viz.'

Ldg. Sto. or E.RA.4




Ldg. Shipwright



Ldg. SIT
(or E.AA)


Ldg writer

Ldg. Sea musician


~.'r t~.lrJ1) ~~ a
Ldg. Sea motorist

see uote belcw v

Lag. Sea coastal gunner (and Cpl. RM.)

Ldg. See

Ldg. Sea
gunner's party

Ldg. TeJ.

Between leading hands and petty officers tbere is in the German Navy an intermediate rank dressed as a seaman as. an: our OW11 A,P.O.s, but, unlike them, they have a degree of authority closer to
• The badge of these ratings is the anchor-of a leading hand on which are superimposed both the flash of the telegraphist and the cogwheel of the engine-room pcrsonnej. These rnfings are qua lified in the rcairrtennnce of 'VJT installations and equipment, whereas the crdluar y G<>rmanLdg./Tc.l. (centrebadge uppermost; IO\~), <1.= qualified in traU5:i.w.i55iCl'rI,PToccrlurf)~ coding. ete. The German fa. a reading band, Irrespective of branch is "Maat.",


that of a Leading Ha11d than that of a. petty officer. This German rank is called , 'Dbermaat' For the sake of simplicity 'Dbermaat" has been translated A.P.O., in order to keep parallel with the ranks above and below; though he is in actual fact in no way "a.cting", as. CI. petty.officer, nor approved as a petty officer designate. For all branches the badge of rank of an . 'Obermaat" is similar to that of a "Maat" except that III addition to the illustrations given above for the "xtaate". the "Obermant" wears one chevron beneath the emblem.





Chid and Petty Officers wear a jacket similar to that of officers, but without gold lace on the sleeves. They also wear no markings 011 the sleeves similar to the rank, branch and Jl0n-5Ub badges of t hc lower ratings .in square rig. The C. and P.O.s· jacket has broad blue shoulder straps edged with gold on which arc: shown both rank Rna branch. In tile case of seaman P.O.s the shoulder straps. are as follows:



2. P.O. (Senior)

3. C.P.O.

4. C.P.O. {Senior) of branch they are

When alluding to these ranks irrespective
known as:

J. Fcldwcbel.

2. Stabsfeldwebel. 4. Stabscberfeldwebel.

3. Oberfeldwebel.

Ranks 2 and 4 arc The normal procedure is to, be promoted straight from 1 to :; not to attain 4. In competence and employment a Stabsoberfeldwebel is equivalent to a Warrant Officer R.N., though he is net in Iact an officer a'S the term is normally understood. In the case 0[ other branches, the foul anchor worn 01] the shoulder straps is replaced by the emblem of their branches (see pp. 7 ana. S). The rank of a petty officer is indica led by the stars on the shoulder straps which lor all branches are the same in number and disposed in the same \vay as shown for seamen petty officers. These shoulder straps are of dark blue cloth with gold braid The stars are silver, and the branch emblems gill metal.
~ New rank of S!zbsc.br.rrnao'l.t i.., to have a P.O!s. shoulder straps but with011t the star, as tJ1C badge. of ranjc. It is also proposed to alter the Obeocnat-s urrifor-m seaman ·.'l.rig to P.O:s rig and to give as badge of rank, shoulder straps with no star and the lower or outermost edge is to have no gold braid; the ether three C1".1ges keep the gold braid. Thl; Mmlt is to retain seaman's .rig will



('iii) 11f1:dsh'i}:m!i:'H Midshipmen ofthe German Navy are net considered to be.officers. Thev are divided between two ranks, known as 'Fabnrich" and "Obcrffihmich", the latter equivalent to a British midshipman, the fermer being a senior cadet. In the. official German schedules of rank: ('i) a. "Eahnrich' is placed equal to but having precedence over an "Ubermaat", i.e. between a British P.O_ in square rjg and one in (ore-and-aft rig; (#) an .( Oberfabnrich." is placed equal to b-llt having precedence OVCI' an "Obert ... -ldwcbel'", i.c. between J. British C.P,O. and a British \".'.0. Midshipmen have no gold lace on the sleeves of their jackets, which ha ,"Cshoulder straps, like those of other Corman Petty Officers. The. shoulder straps are of quite a different type from Petty Officers'. being all silver and fiat. like junior naval OffiC8L'$/ greatcoat ami frockcoat shoulder straps, but An "Oborfdhnrich'' has two U none, 0.11 his shoulder No midshipman leas (Joe star, SI11CB none con-em to "Fcldwcbel", the grade of petty officer who does one star OJ) Iris shoulder sLraps. badge of rank is branch Oil both sleeve and shoulder strap on sleeve finly {or executive ones.

Fahurich z.


Cadet (Executive) C. Uniforms

FallllLkhFaJuulch (San) ~ (W) e-Senior Senior Cadet Cadet (Surgeon) (Urdnance) of pet-aonnel

Obertahnrich (Vl = ~PayMid_

Oberfahnrich (Ing) ~Mid. (E)

of officer status

(1:) Bandmasiei'S There are five grades of Bandmasters equivalent to officers ill rank, the highe_st of the!;;€ corresponding to Commander. The shoulder straps arc of blue and silver strands, and the sleeve stripes are not straight: they are slightly inclined upwards in the centre of each ring. The uppermost ring.has a. unlike that of all other branches of the G<':[111'UI Navy. The Lyre, emblem of the musicians" branch, ls put in.~itl!!this curl, and net it.


The Navy has both considered -,1::, persons of J6

chaplains. Tltey no specific

The uniforms of naval chaplains .areas follows: Naval civil servant's cap, i.e. no gilt .peak ede,'ing and silver c()rd instead of black chinstrap, Chaplains have a silver CrOSS' between the oakleaves and the national eagle. Blue frock coat with black cloth lnrttons and silver natiorral eagle. Blue I acket with violet collar patchesshowing a latin cross above two leaves. White jacket \ with the same ucllar-. 'Wlnte mess jacket .(w.orn abroad only) Jtpa. tches as the blue Jacket. Shoes) trousers and gloves as for: other officers, ella plains carry no arms.





Officers have a cap identical to that of C. and P.o..s Except that n lien of 'patent leather peaks, ·they have blue cloth peaks edged with gold. The various types oJ cap-peak are as follows: J unior Officers N arrow gold homogeneous ~~ging. Lieut.-Commander } 0ne row 0 f gold oaklea yes On outer edge ' .. d C ?I:!.1~;;m~~r of -_eak . . cmnm. odore !Two rows of gold oakleavcs, one On inner All Admirals j and one On outer edge of peak. Detachable white car covers are provided for summer wear.



Admirals and Commodores



Captains Commanders Lieut-Commanders


of Officer Rank

Civil Servants

The chinstrr.p for naval civil servants is black for personnel corresponding in tank to ratings} .silver for those corresponding to officers IIp to Captains inclusive, and gold for those of still Inghe.r standing.. . B. Full Dress There is no full. dress 1111ifo= distinct from the frock coat. 17 for German Naval Officers, as

Frock coat The frock coat is worn with epaulettes to correspond both with British full dress and British frock coat with epaulettes, The German frock coat is worn without epaulettes to correspond to the British frock coat without epauleltes. The use of the frock coat is not abrogated in wartime. In Germany the frock coat is worn witb a bow tie. It has epauJette holders built in above the shoulders. When epaulettes are not worn the shoulder straps already mentioned in Section IVa are worn instead. Like the' German Reefer Jacket it has two raws of (Jive) buttons each. The frock coat also has the ranks shown by gold lace on the sleeves. The trousers worn with the frock coat with epaulettes have vertical gold braid covering the seams.


D. Mess-Jacket There are two Mess-Jackets, a blue and a white. The blue one is worn normally with a blue waistcoat, but all mare important occasions with a white one. The rank is shown on the sleeves in the usual way. and there are no shoulder straps and no epaulette holders. The trousers have vertical gold braid covering the seams. The white mess-jacket has no sleeve rings; the shoulder straps being worn to denote rank. The buttons and national crest emblem are detachable. E. Full Evening Dress for Captains and above There is nothing in the German Navy to correspond to this British Uniform, F. Tropical Kit A single breasted white jacket is provided for ordinary Wear in tropical climates and on the home station in summer when the ratings are in white uniform. Rank is shown by shoulder straps only. IS

The buttons and nanonal emblem on the breast are detachable. The most recent regulations, prescribe an open-necked collar <lor) the sama collar aDd tic iI3 for the blue working j.:\ck"'-tI with Jour buttons in front. Officers who still ha v.e it may wear tb~ old type of white jacket which bad six buttons in front and a stand-andfall collar O~ duty out-of-doors and off duty outside naval establisluuenta, this Jacket 15 always to be woru wlth white trouser" For informal use on board there is abo a washable khaki uniform of shorts and tunic, the latter w:ith removable naval gilt buttons. G. Field -Grey U ntrorcc


is ficld-geey. " TIle main differences by which it can be distinguished easily trom the army uniform arc: (a) the national eagle, the buttons, rhe lJ;2Jt, 'buckle and all piping are gold for the navy. but silver for the army. 1118 buttons also have an embossed anchor design. . (0) Officers' shoulder straps are identical with tlio~(? tOT blue uniform. They do not bcve a colQurl!d L-dging to denote tbc wearcc's branch. Branch is denoted, on the shoulder straps by (he same emblems as denote brunch tor naval. personnel in blue uniform. The Iield grey uniform tunic, naturally has no mnrks of rank Oil the sleeves Admirals Q,Q not wear this uniform. Officers of lower rank ashore -theoratioally <til rnight be expected to wear it Linder certain ci"~l1Instances: in actual fact. however, the only branch for whom it J.S 1[1 regular constant use is the "Manne-Artillerie" [Naval Cccsrat Gunners and field training pe~Qnnd) H. Greatcoat There ta only one type. Rank i" shown by shoulder straps only

t~~~Y~;~l!~r ~'t~~~f~~~ }t~n~cr;~~~~~i~

Admirals have a cornflower-blue lining at the chest and over the la,.peJ.s; they al'ways wear their greatcoat with the. top three buttons [9


uudOIJC' Those below the rank of Admiral have a.blaek liuing and no co',:erLq~tQ thelapels. They wear the top three bunons undonc.eff du~y bu.l must. button an buttons 11p on duty-unless they have-an order or'ddcor:1tion wl;iic]:l is 'worn around 'the neck; if [hi:,;,-is the_ C<l$8 the-y ara allowed to -WI.:~2.( -tIlt top thr::€e buttons 'UJi,J:Ofle. L Cloak TJl(~ cloak is. 'Hot an obligatory part of ;111 officer's wardrobe: it may be WOlTllNh~,no partiC111ar rig has been spedfic::illy ordere~L, but neither when III action nor when in conditionsin which action as


'When gloves are up . Ratings ct Ieathcr K. Footwear



they the


There are two type:>o[ aiguillettes til g'~ne[~l

in the German

Navy. viz.:

Type ttl) is worn.by officers and- by Naval "Civil Servants 20


latter-the aiguilletfes are go1d (as for naval officers}, and not silver w..;;emost of the accessories of naval civil servants uniform. Type (b) is 'worn by Flag Lieutenants and "Adjutanten". An "adjutant." approximates to a Captain's Secretary, but-Is usually an executive and not a. paymaster officerThese aiguillet.tes are attached to the right shoulder and the second button from the top on the right. A further type of aiguillettes exist for use only by navalattaches. M. Arms The weapon normally worn by German Naval Officers is the dirk. TI:ri,=>'l._" ore. with r:::Vf':.-r.y -rig with wh1_ih the. ·:;'-'i\,OtG at ba)·ont:ta.n~jClI w revolver is not expressly prescribed. The sword 15 ,'10m during field-training and parades ashore, the bayonet during landing party exercises and similar operations. Arms not conforming to the specification of German Admiralty Instructions IDay be worn by descendants of perso:tls \... -ho have "carried them with 'honour in the face of the enemy", provided that , formal permission to do so has been obtained.



These shew the rank of the wearer in the same way as tJIC: shoulder straps, except.c.-. . The epaulcttes of. a Leutnant have no bullion. The cpauletteaof an Oberleutnant have 110t one star. The executive branch emblem is an the sleeves it. is a star; OIl shoulder straps the wear no disdinctivc emblem to denote their branch). From the. rank of Korvettenkapitan upwards the bullion of-the epaulettes is Very much heavier. Admirals' epaulettes have a white centre with gold :.1<1.1':=' and badges of rap}:: and branch ill lieu 0:[ gold eerrtre and silver badges of rank and branch, O. Swor-dhelts There is only one in the German Navy; full dress thari the undress Swordbeit. It is more like the British

D.ESCRIPTION Note; The. titles


UNIFORMS are incorrect except are: for

9'P the coloured


A/I and C/4. The correct

of these uniforms

All A/3
1\/4 A./5

Commodore. Sub. Lt.

.Frock-coat Mess-jacket Duly

as worn for receptions." occasions.

for formal

Sub. Lt. (E)

rig, with orders and medals. or Naval Coastal Gunnery Officer of.

Second Lt. of Marines equivalent rank

Field service dress.


Leading: Signalman, approved prospective Chief Yeoman employed 'on Admiral's staff. Peace time Number ones. " S.PIVlce Dress. Naval Coastal Gunnery

B/2 C.P.O. (Navigator). B/3
BJ4 D/5 Captain Officer. Lieutenant General Service: dress.

of Marines. or equivalant

Commander. Admiral.

Field service dress. of Na-vy. Service dress with

As. head

aiguillettes. Cll c.P.Q. E.R.A. 4 Lance (Navigator).


rjg. Fdll dress. Naval Ccasta



acting stoker P.O~ o~ equivalent


of M;uines

Gunnery rating.

Field service dress.



Landing rig. no alteration to the' title.


A/I and C/4 require





(il B" Blull- Unifor-m




(i) [ii]

C. and P.O"'.have 110 frock C02.t nc cloak and no mess-jnckets. Oil th~iT .sarvice [aoket the. rank is shown by shoulder straps, and not by sleeve late: these shoulder straps have already 11tH'II dr:.scdbeu under "badges of rank (HS p. JO). 23


C, andP.O;;

,"Vllite Uniform pO;;sE."3Sa

white service dress sirmler to that ofofficers.

D. Ffeld-Grcy Uniform C. ami 1'.03' field-grey uniform is almost identical with tJlil\.. 01 drnl.)' N.C.O~. Tne dirferences are. the ~amc 8$ those that distinguish tbe naval olhcers. field-grey uniform from that of an. army officer. gold, instead silver, ns a predominant C.OIOLU fOT the accessories 01 the unijorm: devices, instead of colours on the shoulder straps to shew branch,




on such shoulder straps the wearer bel':'.110t attained the rank of petty OffiCCL (On the field-grey uniform, unlike on blue uniform, all- r:a.tings have some form of shoulder stmps.) Stars. ot ranks are silver: anchors or other badges arc gilt.

are t~;:I:~~~e~I~°cl~~;i~(~~L~!l ~;i~i~~!~', U~~l=~;l~l~~~\~~

P.o. Coastal (junner (2nd Division of Marine Artil.liory)

c.PJ)_ C08.3t;11 S-enior C.P,O. Gunner [dtb (BalticStation Division 0:£ Manning DeMarine Artillery) pot)

These are


(u) (;) (C) E.


1[1 the German Xavy instead tbey have a jacket. and aj,o u. full-dress jacket. The national emblem


lower- ratings


no greatcoat,

is worn

on the riph t breast.

Normal WearThe normal uniform comprise. s, a blue cloth jumper and tJO?sers wit'h a flap opening. The [can collar bas three: whit c tapes l)ke a British one but ]1-[(5 a much less deep opening in Front .. The silk is done TIp somewhat differently from. the Britisb,:"3." the itlustradc» shows. The white jumper as provided with detachable cuffs 10 match the jean collar. B~dg~s or rank are blue Ol.1whit.:: junipers and yellow (gv1d fer "number ones") on blue jumpers, The whi.t~ how {)VE:e the silk is only worn 011 important occasions. It is not a separate article 01 clothing, but is formed by bringing lip t.o the aperture ttl; tail-hke ribbons of a [Ireshlv ironed) collar.

F. worktng Ri~ Ratings llcl.'~\~' the rank or Icadlng hand ;1.1!\o have J. working rig of whi.te drill. Unlike the \\'!JL~~~ :11111 hlue nnttorm jumpers, t.be npP(>T portion of this WO:kiEg- ri_g dee .. net lJ:t. tlghl.ly to .the body, -and it hangs outside the trousers Instead of bl;'~Jlg tucked Inside them. This Jig ruay be worn, when old~:red. ten- field tr.1J)Jing and landi..ng part v exercises, as well as at orrlinary cleaning stations, etc. All badges of ran h·, dc, "I"C the same as fer the white service jumper





This-has five. buttons on either-side, and. unlike QHicen and P,03, lower ratings button up all five of the right-hand row. The jean coll a r is WOlT] under the CQllar of this, jacket The collar patbhes an" 001comnower blnc: One strip of silver braid Is added for ",\laMe", two tor "Ooermaarc". parallel to and near the short lower side; ratings below Ole rank of leading hand wear these patches, but without silver braid. An order has been issued thnt Ma3bJ [and Ob-"Mt. still dressed as seamen) are now to wear an edging of silver bra.id around their enttre collar. This W3,~ iotrccluccd at the reqnose of the German Army. who. complained tlJat Naval men in the yank of Corporal and Lance Sergeant were not recognisable as such except from in front.

H. Full Dress .Jnclcet A double breasted blue jacket with nine buttons a.side;tnd five on each cuff This garment is not buttoned up but is betel square by one link button level with the uppermost of the ninc buttons on either side. \V_om ill peac.etim~ for ceremonial parades, S_Lltlday divisions, leave ashore, etc . .I~1,3 1101. to be worn agillil until after the war, The jean collar is worn over tJ1C collar (If the full mG,5S jacket. Macte and Obermaate have om: strip of gold Lace parallel to the: end of the sleeve and one visible at TI3M angles to it immediately behind tbe cuff buttons when wearing Iull dress j~ck(',t. I. Overalls The. overalls issued' to the Gennal1 Na ... are srev in ccdcur, and 'y each. suit is itl two pieces. "Maete' and "Dbermaatc" have. small chromium plated metal angles on the lower collar tips . •1.

Fteld-Grey Uniform

For rating.;, below petty otbccr's ruulc the, re ts a field-grey uniform corresponding almost exactly to that Icr military personnel of equiv-alent rank; the cl.ifferencp.5 between the two are approximately those already indicated in the case of the field-grey unHurms or officers and petty officers. 26

in: :field_-g~y uniform aq; onlY wo;n 00_ above):

It will 'be rioted that, iu-irnitetion of the armx, all navy personnel bave shoulder !>tr~p;; (whereas ~:\hnnlde~STIllW blue and white uniform by petty officers an~

Tbe-rauk of German Naval personnel wearing field-grey uniform is shown ~n the' left arm {as in lJ1Qeuniform] upto and includJ.ng the rank of '~ObCIst_!\-b;sg9irei~I::['" (very senior A.J3)The Tank, .immediately above this are shown IT). way quite-dita ferent from -the ';;;a.y they are.shown in blue unifbr'~il; the insignia Of rank <Ire-exactly those-of the corresponding army N.t.Os. A "lIh.at'" (l€~ding hand) W€aTS a, gold-edging -to his ,shoula,{:I:
sti8;p3 OIi three sides 01 them, short ~iOe riear the-neck, viz GJ1 tlm two 1<1I1g sides arrd the .

The' 'Mant" shown is-of the 1st division of the Aircraftreporting 'l)rancb The ~pcho:rs.. In-the c_a~_f; tliis.±idd~g(~y of uniform, have r{<la~ tion tq rink ox branch. but merely Q_isbngllisl1ll1e-WCfL(91: n.nevat as' mall in field-grey 'uniform .. .





axe the


01 the



Branch; the number I i5 the divi:sicnlof -that braneb which the particular El.tmg b€lOllt;? Th_e~ml~lems <uT.,_'wor~~di~ yell?~ ,\,'001. .An 'Obermaat/ -Et~.s houlder st-raps edged m gol.cl 011 all four" s sides, vie.:

wl~~Ji-~J:~:n{~t~~;,i;t1~"~~~~: :~~~~~~!~;~:s ,t~~~:~{)~~~~:(~,~~









T4i=' N i11~.ca·t.:;~'f!mt:-th.e wearer -QdOIJ-..$,tqj::J.~.o~tl;LSea Man!iJng de-pO.f (SchiffsstamIllci:hte-ihlllgj, .27

An 0_ D, or shoulder strap, German Army,
on his field-grey

A B. approved as enndidntc for leading rule wears uniform a gold strip On tbe sboner outer end of his-

is worn by


of"oquivntoar status in. the

SLtch a man will not wear on his field-grey uniform the smill chevron beneath the upper le:ft sleeve chevrons of Tank to denote his status. as he would wear on blue or white uniforms. Ratings of the rank of Petty Officer and above wear shoulder straps on their neld-grcy oniionu vcry similar [0 those they

paragraph on potty officers' field-grey uniform VlI-ARTICLES


bl1lt~ uniform:







p_ :<:3).



tying up O\'fT the lop ot the head. When they are required OYer the ears. the tapes arc .secured under t.he chin, Several other types of balaclevu helmets and duffel coats are worn. B, One-place snits In small craft such as Ecboats, a black Ieathercnc and one-piece cuff and ankle pieces. h) keep n zip-fastener.

Duffel coats and ba.lacl ava helmets The offidal issue are reddish in O::::lJloUT, with black fur tiuing. The car-flaps ol the Ixdaclnva can be. turned up and secured by tapes

suit is often worn at sea, . The lining is pre' ..klcd with clastic om the water. Tins suit 15dosed by




Similar to British ones.
Lttejackets The official Gennall Naval Iifejackct is of yellow-covered rubber,

divided into separate vertical panels. live in front of ihe wearer ;.U1d three. behind.
Each pcoel has an inflating bole and. stopper. The most recent type of this Iitcjeckct has another semi circular panel behind the neck. which supports the wearer's head in the water Besides '[he official type, several Ocher types of lifejackets are ill use, varying considerably in shape, material and colour of




Grey Leather Suits

All ranks in the submarine se-rvice have a. grey leather two-piece uniform. Rank and branch is shown for o-fficcI's and petty OffU;t:TS by shoulder straps identical with those uscd with their blue uniform; for "1I1a."l.tc" and "Obermaeie" by metal angle pieces similar to those used: all overalls. Belowthe rank of "i\olaat" 110 rank is SlJOWll OIl the grey leather uniform





(Not worn by C. and P.(b)

Captain of the gun A/A



~ ~

Gunlayt::n. (illcii.vi:dll:ilrntg.) DirectorLayer

Gunleyer (turret}
the two chevrons indicate medium calibre DirectorLaver AI,\

Cuulayer [Intiividual mtg.) three' chevrons indicate heavy calibre.

Gunlaver (Ccasjal Gmme,y) ~kil Class T.F.O (rating) 2nd C1:l.S,;' TTO. (ratjng)

@ @ @ (I)
DirectorLayeT ,Coa.--;tal

(J @
l~t CI~s!l, '1.'.[;'.0 (nLting) RIO.riget.!l.lI:er 29


:No.1 of tne tube

Assistant Torpedo Instructor

Mln~and D!e
qualified rating




~ .
TO!'p8do diver

@ ""
A/A Listener

Searchlight Maulpulutor


Electric Motor
Specialist 2nd C1B.!>:'>


~ ~
Electric Motor Specialist t st Crass




@. @ @
I!..RA.50r equivalent Stoke!' 'KR.AA equivalent StokeT

I!:.R.A3or equivalent Stoker

r. and


Retired personnel recalled 10]- service wear two oak ICnVc3 under their non-sub. badge The asdic badge i~ worn oalv by rcnnga who gained it before the WaL )Iore recent recruits who are engaged on asdic work art members of the \"'[1' branch aud wear the badges thereor.


EOUS Seamen ratl!lb')i below the by serlpe, worn on the to})



In the large units the watch to which rank of petty officer belong is indicated or the sleeve.


~-T"AnBDI\IW U~ Di~.,is':"'l: 01l~lfl"ip6

'Jrd Di'l.-invn: uco l/'nt .. .f ~ 511!Di~,;,ilm: Ihl"~e$(.ri.pt.;
fJlIlhCl'l'ghl tiT"',

B, C.Le. Personnel dressed "':5 stamen nn the Staff of a flag officer wear below the watch-stripes a small admiral's flag


+11:1 Difisft),,: (u.-o flriP~t 6th Dif;;:hm: tkrec S/H'p,., uHO,,,lf!/!,,rm.


'0; "'iN

C, wutchkeepcre Watchkeeping personnel have a special badge. in the German Navy. For officers it is a brass clasp as below: '.

Officers who have a W.KC. 'wear it the UpP"[right breast nf their jacket (even when not 011watch]. Ratings such as. Quartermaster, Corporal of thli Gangwa ,duty M..i\_A., ctc., etc.. wear a large version of the sz.... . meemblem ernbroidered In gold on a white armband, which is worn n" the lip:Pf'T rigbt ann .. {Not worn except when 011 duty.)

I. G.e.n.:!:ral

II. Branches IlL Equlvalent Ranks, table of: B. lV.
A. Officers.


Ra)1l<, badge, of: l\', o.fiice.rs B. Ratings M~r.inebe(1m1:e~l.,i;en\!ra-l tlctails Qi uriif-otm of: A. Caps H. Various l~igs:


D: Fi~ld~G-rey Urrittirm




I-GENERAL NOTIONS AJl civll servants ill the employ Dr the Germnu S",n'icc Ministries an" provided with unifor-m. Tuese pr;rsoIG arc .knGWll in German Naval circles as "f,'[arin(!bE.-;)rnto;-n" (=Nll.valOfficia.1sJ. They bold ranks carefully equated to Naval ranks. Two categonee of service personnel in the 1~oy8.1Navy correspond 10 "Marinebeamten", Vi1,_ Constructor Offi-cers and Special Branch jldeoco!cgi_~ts. The main Iea mre of the uniform of tb_~., na",:J officials is that almost ..,,"cry (lctai! of uniform which i.s gold for naval personnel is ~iJvcr for • '){arincbrmnLeJl ": hence their l1ZLy",,1 nicknames. "Silberlinge" (=Silvedings) 2nd" Aluminiumofnziern" (=Altl. minium OffKt=J'S). II-BRANCHES "ThE'naval civil ser vann, am divided into seven main branches" (i) Administration (1111.1 Supply (Ul Terhniciuns (ni) Khy,ll L.n_wOfficiels (iv) Chemish (v) Executive personnel (\"i) EnginerooITI personnel ("jj) Instruerors Each of these i~ 111 turn subdlvidccl into l1(lJ)'IcrOl1.S fru-ther divisions Branches (v) and [vi] mlly appear somewhat Out of place among civil servants: they arc concerned with operating Joo;:.kg:..t($,pilOt3gG, m::l.nninl~ small craft on inland W:lt(oJ:\I'r.ly~, elc. Mos t of them are cf rating status. The: high(;sc Jita.inabk rank in (v) is the equivalent of a Lieutennrrt-Commandor The charactariatic emblem above the silver 51ripcs is the Gcnmm Eagl« resting on a swastjkn (l:IOh_c:it5<tbr:eicilen). A furtheremblem is pLlcci.l between the! (:[L15loand the "tlipe~; this i~ 0110 of the following: 0) Chevrons. The uppermost one has a[ ill; lowest POiT1t a loop pointing downwards. "Other Ch(O'ii'OIlS have no ~~;[ anrl pass IUI'!Xlgll 01' behind the loop of the: upper(ii) Triangles (iii) Swords and Scales (iv) wevee (v) Anchors (\'i) Cogwheel or 11;,"'If-cogwbeel (vii) Rosettes The number or: chevrons, etc. varies between one.and depends upon the stratum u[ ill" civil. service In which belongs-not ro the rank he has attained therein. 33

three and lhc ufficial



Career Cancer Career Career Career Career Career

Branch is denoted by colour (instead of by the sleeve emblems) epaulettes, the centre field being dark blue, cornflower' blue, OT black, viz.: Ii) Adrnimst raticnzmd Su pply CornflowerBlue (1i) Technicians Black (iii) ,N;1yal LQW DfIlcials Crimson COI"riI'lO;',\1ej' Blue ()VP Cbemlsts (v] Executive Blii_Clc (v~) Ecgine Room Personnel Black (vii) Instructors Bl:'lr;:\;; if t-eo:::hni.r::<il Cornflower blue if ucn-technical Admiralty Headquarters Omclule Dark Blue The lad thai one rolour may be shared bv si;verr11 branches dues not causco confusion because . (al Civii servants (b) when they do, as well. The same colours ere IJH,:d as underlay fOJ- the naval civil servantsghculrlor straps, in lieu of the black of reserve offi-cers and blue (or white] of professional officers. The shoulder straps have [10 emblem of branch; they show only the wearer"; rank.



The complete list of all the Admiralty Civil Service to and need not be given here. Most or -tieles are extl:enlei:j/ 9Iaboratc::, and for anyone rank the correepcudlcg clvtlinn rank will vary according to (i.) the bT:~ilch; (ii) the sub-division cd the {iii) the stratum (l:1' the More impcrtan t To the lliWal can he summarized as follows: Correspond British titles ending in, Equivalent or comprising;



Officers Leutnanf Oberleutnant Kapitii.~lc:utnan.,t Knrvettenhupitdn Inspektor Oberinspektor

Offto:r below S11bLieut. Sub-Lieutenant
Lieutenant Licut-Comrnnnder Commander Captain Red~-Admirnl Vice-Admiral


Kapitan bur SCe Kbnlt"Tac{:niTlll Vixcadmirul

Amtmann Oberrut Mtnisterinlrnt Direktor Ministeriulrlirigent Ministeriuldirektor B4



.It isstill harder to give any general principles as to tbe equation of civil servants Wi!!1 lower deuk personnel, but [n general: Ofliciats equivalent to c.P.Os. ll.Sually JHtVe [L name endinG" ill "Assistent" and certain officials equtvnlenr to P.Os 118.;;e" name ellf1ing ill "]'Ieist.:I'''~ hut officials equivalent to C.P.O~. and

"Leutnante" have names

in "Helster".


01' RAJ\'1(

For every civil servant, whether f)i officer status, or not, badges of rank fire similar to ihf)S~ of naval personnel of equivalent rank. A, Officers Offid~h of officer status ]];,.-.,1" greatcoats or while uniform they wearing rrockcoats, they have



~l~~c c rings, v When wl~,uing have silver shoulder straps. When silver -deevc rings and shoulder

The shoulder straps 01 official" equivalent to Rear :\r.1mi.-al and above, however. arc bold and salver mix~d, tb115, nmktng On(' 01 tlli" exceptions t.o tile principle of no gr.ld in Ole civilian. c)iflciali;,' uniform. ' The unrnbcr L'hig:; (type of l'otar:s) exactly to chose rank.




where that

A, Caps


Similar to thl.i~-C()I cqnlvnlenr nuvnl personnel, except: National eagle silver instead of gold: naklp,~lf ,,:lp badge silver instead ct No capo:; have any ,gill edging on All peaks vf patent Jeal ncr. Officials of officer status havo a. silver cldastrap instead of a htack cue, b;(f. Offic.ii"ils (if SUl.Lui5 or RlO'ar-AdrniGti 'H1J above 11:1';0 .'1 gold chtnstrap. [n principle "l\h.dllelwiil1lten" 01 'lilY rank :ITC entitled to all the uniforms u$Cd by naval personnel of (Oquivaknt rank, except as restricted by D below. 35


Various Rigs

These are of the same cllt. etc. fo1' both types of person, but the ·'l..-ta.rinebeamten" have all adjuncts in silver which naval personnel have in golc.l. except: (i) Suo A 011 caps above; (ii.) Civilian Officials equivalent to Rear-Admirals and nbove retain mixed gold and silver shoulder-etrups {Sac IV A. above); (i.ii) See C. on alguillettes below. C. Aiguillettes Certain ufficillis wear aiguillettes where naval officers of equi .... alent rank wear them. These algulllettes are of gold, even for civil-ian officials Untrcrm of their nnrplovrncnt few "Mortnebeamten" need field-grey uniform I1H~. fortification ccnstrucrion officials, however. a sub-branch of the technical branch, have such a field-grey uniform. The field-grey uniform of these "Festungsbeubeamten" is more like the field-grey {i.e. normal] uniform of civil servants employed

D. Field-Grey By the nat1.11I!

officials in uniform i~ dark grt:cu. In. addition to this colour, <''1 further colour ia worn, us by various arms of the German 1\.Iilitary· Forces, to denat" tho branch to which the wearer belongs. On the shoulder straps the green is the outer colour. on the collar patches it is the inner colour. Constructors of fortifications fan within. a category whose secondary C01Qllf is black The Naval Constructors of Fortifications are distiaguisbed by the lad thal they have !II.V. 011 t.hcirshol.lldc;t-stra~", in field-grey uniform (instead of FLV., as worn by military civil servants). A-J.V. stands for "Marine Verwalmng", i.c naval administration. VI-l .... IISOELLANEOUS

by!1~h~g~~~~J:~~~;/~~~~\;o~~n~~~J:~"tt r

Ship constructors start their career in the Navy before transJcrrlng to the stat 05 01 "Marinebeamten ' 1\5 codets they wr,;:u lil!':) rig of al1:'J.V,~:1 rating, having as their lett sleeve cadet's badge. all -agle above :'L swastika, aimilar to the one they later wear above tbe silver rings. on their officer-type uniform.

th~·~·~~m~~;~~:~~v~:~e1~~ p~c;~ri~;I:~;'!c~c~ ~~l~~ 1{~~yelil~clf:





r. Oeneral
U. Branches
III. Ranks

(A) (ll) (A)



Ratings Officers

IV. :Badg<!s


V. Uniforms, general details of

(AI Cap IE) Clol:htng-

Merchant Officers, but without sleeve gold lace or other badges of rank, and with no oakleavcs around the cap badge. COOKS,Stewards, etc., wear rig appropriate to their work. Certain smart. Companies dress their seamen 10. a uniform vcry like that of the German Navy. Such a uniform is worn also by the boys Of the G.M.S. Schools. Any rating may buy himself such

it on duty. The cap ribbon in such cases reads "Deutsche: Handelsmarine" (l.e. "German Merchant Service"}; and the infallible distinction holds good.c=Merchant Service personnel do not wear the national eagle emblem on the right breast nor anywhere else on their uniforms, V-GENERAL DETAILS OF UNIFORM
A. Caps Both white and blue taps exist fer Officers and for ratings: ill general appearance Merchant Service caps arc. very like those of the German Navy. Ratings' "cap ribbons are lettered either with the name of their company, or simply "Handelsmarinc" (t.c. Merchant Marine). Some lines do not supply Officers with gold edging to their cap peaks; in such cases peaks are of black patent leather instead of blue cloth. . B. Clothlng Generally very similar to the Gcrm~n N~vy i.n so far as any regulation garment exists at all. Certain articles of clothing have no counterpart in the Merchant Service, e.g. swords, frock-coats. field-grey rig, etc. The ratings' "Par adejacke" {full-dress jacket) does. however, exist for Merchant Seamen The simplest way of identifying at a glance whether a uniform is naval OJ" -rnercautile is to look at the right breast. On every article of ciothing the Navy (and Army and Ail' Force) wear In gold or yellow the German "Hoheitsabzeichen ' or national emblem of an eagle with very wide shallow wings above a swastika. No other bodies/ not even the armed 8.S. or Naval Hitler Youth may wear the emblem in that position. In the Merchant Service, themfore. the right breast is bare. 40

ki.t for wear ashore if he likes, even in -a line that does not require

A uniform somewhat German Water Police. (i) (ii) (iii) (i.v) similar to naval uniform is worn 1)y the

Tbe main differences are as follows: There is no national emblem on the right breast. The shade of blue is somewhat uniform. There are 110 "men fore and aft rig. The cap badges arc Navy: 'first, the cockade, ami of larger than the Rank is shown jacket.


than thaJ

of naval

dressed as seamen');

,LUranks wear

very different from those of the is' below instead of above the the eagle is smaller instead cuffs and shoulder straps on the



\Vhen members 0'1 the 'Water Police are put -~OT service under the orders of the Cerman Navy. and an: to be considered as members 01 it, thev wear their OW;]1; normal uniform arid in' addition it vellow brassard -inscribed in dark blue letters: "Deutsche VlebrmachL 'J =(German Armed, Forces]. Though this description docs not specify to which of the services the wearer is attached, this is evident from the eolowr of tha.lettering on the brassard: e.g. dark blue for the N-avy. 41

I. II. Ill. Genera.! Brunches Ranks, table of




Rank, barlg~s of U niforrn, general details of' 42

At the present moment there is (;=Juuior Naval Hitler Youth) .


a Marine- Jungvolk

.Nowadays all boys do their rust stage together in one common j ungvolk, service in which Iasrs from ten till fourteen years 6~·,a~-e. After tins the boys nrc promoted to the Hitler jugend (Hitler
Youth), and have the choice of five organisations. The first is the. ordinary Hitler Youth, main training in which .is military and is thus a preparation for the Army. The other four branches are: (al Nat-al (&) Ail" (r.:) .I\'1ot01: transport(d) Communications being respectively nurturing grounds for (a) 'The Navy (b) The G.A.F. (0) The N.S.]{,1{. (Nazi organised lorry drivers. motorcyclists, etc.) (d) The \~r/T sections of any of the fightirw forces,

There are no branches as such in the Naval comprises Hitler Youth.

III-TABLE Hitlarjung
Rcttenfuhrer Kameradschaftsftlhrer Scharfuhrer Oberacharfiihrer Gefolgschaftsfiihrer Stammfiihrer Oberstammliihrer Bannfuhrcr Obetbannfuhrcr Hauptbaunfilhrer Gebeitsfuhrer Obergebeitsftlhrer

OF RANKS' 3 Boys
10 Boys 4 Karneradschaften 4 Scharen ,3-5 Oefolgschaften ) Boy



. I~lgher administration


From Stammfilhrer inclusive upwards the ranks count as officers. From Bannfiihrer inclusive all jobs are administrative (or" office") jobs. The latter are full-time jobs; lower ranks involve part-time work in addition to a man's regular profession. different from those' without the the prefix "Oher" is the senior {who have not the prefix): he but is not yet confirmed in the .

The ranks beginning with "Ober " are not organizationally prefix "Dber". The perSDn with
0'£ the various boys of this rank may evert act in the rank above, higher rank. 43-



All branches of the Hitler Youth except the naval branch wear shoulder atraps from the rank of Rottenfiihrer inclusive upwards. In the naval branch all boys in seamen's rig', i.e. up to and including Obergefclgschattsftihrer, wear their rank on the arm: from Stemmfuhrer upwards the boys are dressed like petty officers and show their rank by tl1100 shoulder straps. l'<1.H.J. Marks of Rank' III SHverOne silver chevron No lanyard Rottenfilhrer on ann Lanyard red and Karneradschaftsftihrer One star white Lanyard green Two stars Scharfuhrcr Two stars above <1 Lanyard green Oberscharfl.ihrer chevron Lanyard green and Three stars Gefolgschnitsfuhrer white Three stars above. Lanyard green and Obergefolgschaftsfuhrer a chevron white No lanyard Stammiuhrer Four stare Oberstammftlhrcr Four stars above No lanyard a bar One oaklcaf and White lanyard Bannfiihrer one acorn Oberbannfuhrer T WQ oaklea vee and one '8,.['0[11 Red and black Three oaklccvcs Hauptbannfuhrer and two acorns lanyard In GoldGebietsftihrer Black lanyard Three oaldeaves and two acorns Dbergcbietsff h rer Black and silver As Ccbietsfuhter lanyard with a star Bleck and geld As Gebietsfttbrer Stabsilihrer with two stars lanyard V~GENERAL DETAILS OF UNIFORM

The Hitler Naval Uniform very closely resembles that of the German Navy. 11](0}.primary difference between the two uniforms 1$ that the Hitler youth, as members of the party, wear a large swastika on a brassard on the left upper arm. and not the national emblem {eagle above swastika} Oll the right breast. From Hiflerjung up to Obergefolgschaftsfuhrer inclusive the general style of the uniform is like that of a rating" dressed us seaman ": thenceforth it is cut like a petty officer's [i.e. not like an Officer's}, 111that the rank is never on the sleeves: all the uppe.t ranks, who wear the fore-and-aft rig, have shoulder straps 011 their jacket, showing their rank. The lanyard also shows rank.



All ranks ha ve -a white' uniform ibr use in summer. Fr.OIi1 Stamrnfuhrer upwards a dirk Short blue trousers are not now worn; to be by the- disbande:dMarine jungvolk. Every is now one. common In.l1gvolk until the ag_e.of fourteen the boys call' select one 01 the five branch es. An the Marine Hitler Jugeml wear long hell-bottom trousers: they ure thus unlike the four other branches for boys of the. same age, who wear short trousers. The lower ranks, dressed as seamen. wear on their cap-band the letters allI.H.]." Iollowed by the name of the town on which the unit is based. In the non-naval branches OTthe Hitler youth the shoulder straps are edged.in colour to distinguish the brunch to which the wearer belongs. These colours are: Ordinary (i.e.) Military) -H.J. Dark Red Motorized H.J. Light Red Communications H.J. YtlluW Air H.J. Blue Specialized branches, in addition, weal' a badge 011 the left cuff (left breast pocket when sleeves rolled up): Motor boys Cogwheel Signal boys Lightning Air boys Wings From Stammfilhrer upwards all ranks of all branches have silver edging to their shoulder straps. From Gt~blct5iiih:ra:r upwards. gold. From Stammtuhrer upwards the .shoulder str-aps are black Instead of being the colour of theshirt. This distinguishing colour is- not l'lec-es'Sary for 'the naval boys whose uniform itself is already sufficiently distinctive, TIle naval H.J. shoulder: straps start on1}, at Stammfuhrer, and. follow thfl system of the other branches of the I-I.]. In the. lower ranks, the r~tars etc. are on the arm, since (he square rig has no shoulder straps

been -f-crmed

I. General



Orders for Members of Armed Forces:
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) Pour le Merite Deutsches Kreuz

Eisernes Krenz
Kriegsverdienstkreuz Dienstauszeichnung Spanienehrenkreuz Verwundetenabzeichen

Miscellaneous Notes

Orders bestowed by Party:
(A) (e) (D) (E) Goldenes 'Parleiabzeichen Anschlusz Medal Sudetenland Medal Protectorate Medal

(E) Blutorden

IV. ' Clasps available to Navy only





The orders available t-o German Naval personnel fall into three distinct categories, which are: (a) orders, ctc., for members IJ'l' the armed forces; (0) orders, etc., bestowed by the party and available to all Germans. (c) clasps available to the Navy only. (tt:) and (b) are known in Gennan aa "Orden"; (c) arc known as "Abzeichen" . All decorations, whether party, naval or combined S8-[vlCeS, arc granted under "the ultimate authority of the Chief of State. The-e is no distinction in German)' equivalent to t11:e.: British differentiation between medals 01 the right and left breasts. Decorations in ribbon Corm are not sewn dircctlv on to the jacket but on to a rectangular brooch, which in turnis pinned on to the jacket; the ribbons themselves are affixed vertically to the brooch {British ribbons being- WOn) "horizontally"). German has no special words r'YI' .' med als" and "ribbons ". The row of medals connected on a brooch is known as ULe"G[(J~2e Ordensschnalle", the row of ribbons us the" Kleine Ordensschnallc' [i.c. the "large" and "emall" brooch of orders), H-ORDERS FOR MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES

Corman decorations cannot generally be equated (0 British decorations. British decorations an: chiefly conferred in rccoguitiou of a11 outstanding individual deed; but nearly all German decorations are won on the basis of what might: be called a system of" mo:rks" or "points". A. "Pour Le Me.dte" T1Jls is an imperial order and none have been granted since 1918. It could not be earned except by an outstanding in_divid1i(lt achievement. Il has the form of a Maltese cross (blue edged with gold) and the , ribbon is black, white and black, black, white and black, black, in the proportions of approximately 5 20: 50 : 20 5 in percentages of the whole. Them are t\YO forms 01 this medal: (i) For Officers: the extremities of the cross are indented, and the four arrns intersect in a point: between each pair of arms is an imperial eagle. Written (It) (b) (c) (d) on the faces of the arras are the words: f below the imperial crown POU'" Ie rite




(b). left (e) right (I'i) Power (ii)

(a) "ppec




For ratings: the extremities of the cross are straight, and the four arms do not intersect in a point; there arc no eagles between the or. arms. Over the intersection. of the pairs of arms a. circular portion bearing the crown and imperial monogram. {This is the" MiliUirvcrdienstkreuz" and is familiarly known as " the small rnan's-Pour le Mente": both have the same ribbcn.) Krenz (German Cross)


hisis the highest

German decoration now issued. Unlike the Cross, it cannot be won on a point system; the official Cerman edeuce. however, rates it (both colours} between the Iron ;.~ (First. Class) and the Knight's Cross to the Iron Cress. he German Iron Cross has ]]0 ribbon, and does not figure in "KLeine Ordensschnallc": it is a. large star-like metal object posed of a swastika ill. the centre surrounded ... vith points oj has two classes, gold and silver: both are granted for an achievet of outstanding individual merit-gold for courage hi fate of enemy, toe silver Ior leadership of men, etc.. but not in face of enemy. To illustrate what is meant by' 'outstanding leadership aen, not in the presence of the enemy", tile Germe» Cross ill ~r has been ... von by "Rear Admiral von Friedeburg, the 2nd ural Ij-boats: this officer's Job bears the same relation to the nan Admiral (Submarines] as that of the 2nd Sea Lord does to Board of Admiralty. This award v,':l!:> made in view 01 the tact "thanks to gear Admiral von Fricdeburg's energy, intelligence activities, the (German) Submarine. Service bas no personnel uetns 01" difficulties". Eiaernes Krenz (J ron. Cross,

'us is. the best-known German decoration. Its seven "classes" in ascending order of value: (i) EX!! Ii) E.K.I Rirterkrcuz des Eisernen Kreuzes v) Eichenlaub ZUIll Ritterkrcuz des Eisernen Kreuzes v) Schwcrte zurn Eichenlaub zum Rittcrkrcuz des Eisernen Kreuzes Ii) Schwede mit Brill.anten zum (rest as above) 'ii] Grosskreuz des Eisernen K reuzes which mean: (i) Iron Cross 2nd class ii) Iron Cross 'l st class



[iii) Knight's Cress (Iv) Knight's C1'Os,s with Oak Leaves (v') Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords {vi) Knight's Cross with Oak LyaVE:5, Swords antl.Diamonds (vii) Gl-aTId ero;;" of the Iron CrO';:':' The precise position of the Grand Cross above 1:;;Tlot easily definable. The Commaudiog Officer of a Ll-Boa.t (or a fighfer pilot., etc.) can obtain every grade of Iron Cross ITQmE.K.II upto the diamonds, inclusive on 8. men: mathematical total of enemies destroyed. T11e.Gral~Cl Cross, however, is only given for"a-~tivlti-=shavmS"a decisive influence upon the com;;.€: 01 tl;te war" Field Marshal Goering is the sole holder of the Grand C1"'()s~,which he received. after the collapse of France. • .. It was proposed, to nllay inter-service jealousy, 'to give the Grand Cross to Grand-Admiral Doenitz and to the Commander-inChief of the land "forces alter the surrender of London and Moscow respectively; up to tho time of goiI;tg· to press, hO\VeV0r, neither of these two ether prospective "activities having a decisive influence upon the course of the war" have as yet occurred. The ribbon of the Iron Cross is Black- White -·Red - \V111teBlack in proportionate widths of JO : 1$ : 50 : 15: 10. This is WOlTt lot the 1,1'9.nCr?ss s)cond class, either in the TO';." of ribbons, or i» the second butfcnhole fforn the ton of. the right-hand buttonhole. Persons pos:;e~sing the: Iron Cr?ss in any class above the bottom one always wear the cross itself, even when OUIerorders \\.... ern in .ribbon form. (Kleine Ordensscbnrdle]. The Iron Cross d;1s"S .is worn ..on the left b·rea':;t below t.h~ ( ..Ordens~c.I:(l)alle" The CI;n'iS is a black Maltese cross-with silver -edsing The KniglJt's Cross is worn around the l1,ec:.k a ribbon of the on same colour. AU higher varieties ate worn in the same mariner as the Knight's Cross, and the a.ppea.r~nce c:f these di:ffeJ:'e~tvarieties is such as their narnca might snggeet: 1.€. there; are first oak leaves added above the cross and next crossed swords to the, oak leaves. The next ~~~~~~1~1~gS'~i:h 'Brillanten'", 1'118 Grand Cross has the actual cross larger than it is for all the other classes. There are occasions when persons will wear Iron Crosses of the type issued in the last war, with a.crown in the upper arm, a \V (fo.r Wilhelm] at thf:: intersection of the arms," and the first 'YG:-ar f j:hc war OU.r!J.1g hich the: medal was- awarded in the o w lQ:weTarm, i,e. not necessarily the yell" of the aw:afG .itself (The Iron .Cross of 'the present will' has nothing in place of the€rown; it .has a swastika where the ,V used to be,tmd also 'the YQar·of award in the lower arm). SOme.vill·ieEes 01 HLeImperial Iron Cross, such as the' "IronCross wi.th gol{l ray:," have no parallel ill the case of the National Socialist Iron Crosa.vl'hosc who have won the Iron Crees in both wars wear the l.9J.4 ribbon or medal, and in addition a clasp consisting of a. "National.Eagle" over the word51939_ 49

=~ec~~\~~\~~r~~·f~l~~ ~~~~~~!~!!l.€ .

·D. Krtegsverdieustkreuz (VI-Tar Merit Cross) German regulations specify that this is inferior -iri precedence to the Iron Cross. It can be earned by the mathematical system of adalng up various small nchievemeuts. Indeed, the. term' "achievement" is itself au exaggeration, as the stipulations effectively only require the execution of one'susual L1lJty~ The K_V.K. (as this order is usually called) exists in four classes, viz.: (bl (c) bronze (d) broIlZ€ It can either be WOl'11 as a medal in the' grosse Ordensschnalle' ~ or as a ribbon Ll1the "Jdeine Ordcnsaehnalle". The medal hers the Iorm of a Maltese cross with concave extremities in the centre of which .is a swastika surrounded bv a circle of oak leaves: Wh811 the wearer .is entitled to swords, the medal has them with the two hilts showing in the spaces between the lowerarms and the tWD Iateral anns of the ClOSS, and two blades La the two tipper 5pace~,----thc sworda thus appear to cross behind the swastika. 1'118 ribbon issirnilar to that of the Iron Cross, but with the: colours reversed, i.e .. Red - ""Vhite - Black - White - Red in 'widths of approximately 1~ : 15 : 5.0 : 15 : 1() _propo..tlcnately. r The varieties without swords are awarded.in cases where the order was not. won in action. E. Dtenstauszetchmmg {Good conduct medal] less consequence. It corresponds to the Royal conduct am, badges, and represents theoretically of n rcproachablc service" which of CQUISe factually periods,' during which the conduct was not definitely


The German Good Conduct Medal exists in four classes, VIZ.: (a.} Gold, for 25 years (b) silver, fur 1.8 YCflTS (c) bWI1Z8, for 12 years (el} dull silver, for 4 years. The medal itself is mrtde in two shapes. Tb8. first is Jor classes {a) all.d {l!) In a shape closely resembling the. II.o1ilW.lrvcrdicl1stkreuz of the Iast war, i.e. a Maltese Cross with straight ends and over the -inteJ;":;;eci:iOll of the. arms 'there 1:;. a small circular panel: this differs hom the Imperial Milittirverdienstkreuz in that ·:in lieu of the Kaiser's crown and cypher this circular centre. panel fer the; Di.cJJstauszeichnung (a) aud (b) medal shows an "armed forces ·~a.gle"· above a swastika. The. second shape, for classes {c) and (d) is circular. The body of the medal 15occupied by an : 'armed forces eagle' above a swastika. and around the edge of the face are the words "Verdienste in der \VelU1110,cht'J {Merits in the Armed Forces) in Gothic lettedng


The ribbon lor all classes is of dark blue watered silk and always whether for the. large or smell "ordensschnalle". it bears a clasp in the form of a. "national" eagle, equivalent in colour to the medal itself, according to the class thereof to which the wearer is entitled. N.l3.-Here and in all other contexts by the term a "national" eagle is meant one with wings of remnrknble overall length extended but 11.0t deep, the surface of the wing being in line with the bird's hips 01" whereas by'" an "armed forces eagle" is meant om, w:ith wings or much less overall extent but the lower extremities (If which reachlower than the bird's teet. Both these types of eagle are always depicted standing upon a s-, astika. The swastika. is smaller in proportion to the eagle in the v case of the. "national" than in that of the "armed Iorcea" eagle. F. Snanlenehrenkreuz. (Cross of Honour for Spanish Campaign} T~i~ is a German, not Spanish, award and is available to all It exists in. eight classes, viz.:

~;)r(~r .

} Each with or without swords

Gold with diamonds The medal resembles closely the Kriegsverdicnstkreuz. (i) the hilts of the swords show in the upper gaps between the arms, and the blades in the lower ones. (U) 011 each of the f01.l.T sections of sword visible there is a national eagle in the Lultwane manner. i.e. three-quarter face proceedmg from left to right. The two lower eagle; are inverted. [iii] the central swastika is enclosed in a double plain circle, and not a single oak-leal wreath, Obviously in the case of one of tile classes "without" swords. the first two differences are: not perceptible. . As in the case of the K.V.K., the classes "with swords'" cannot be gained except in combat. There is no ribbon for the "Spunicnehrcnkreuz"; it is always worn in medalform on the left side below the "Ordensechnalle' ', Verwundetenabselchen (Wounding badge) This is a badge, and has no ribbon. It has the form of an upright ellipse, the outer edge or: which is composed of a triple row of laurel leaves. Inside this edging there am two crossed S\l.iOI'.u!S, hllts downwards, the intersection of the swords is obscured by a steel helmet there superimposed: on the steel helmet is a large swastika. This badge is prepared 'in three colours, '\0;1 •. (a) black. for being wounded once or twice (b) silver. for being wounded three or four times {c) gold, far being wounded five 01' more times. 51 G.

H" Miscellaneous Notes It will, in general, not be possible for Germans in this war to acquire as larg-e a number of decorations 'as in the. lust. This is because before 1915 Germany was composed of twenty-seven confederated kingdoms end principalities and each of the various rulers distributed decorations. Thus senior members of the present German armed farces, who have served in the last wax may have a very large number of additional decorations which it has not been Lhought worth dcsctibing in detail, a"';they cannot he ~\'OI1 by the _gn;a.t mass of the officers and 'ratings tnt whom thisis the first war The 10s5 of all these royal and princely decorations partvbut only in part. offset by the Iaot that: (il:) l1I1dcL"he present regime Party decorations 111ayhe worn OIl t service uniform (0) in the present 'war Germany has rnore allies than in the last, thus increasing the number of medals potentially available (/;-) in the G,A,F. campaign medals have been instituted [or each country in which then bas been fighting .. The German Army and Navy have not copied this "cheap medal" system. III-ORDERS BESTOWED BY THE PARTY


Guldenes Par-tetabzetchen (Gold This consists of a small circular circle: in which is a black swastika: arc in white the letters "National f:oge is formed by a ring L3 the ordinary b~Ld.ge of This badge without Ol( service uniform. Darty Party membership; it not 'in their poli_t~c~,l unjiorm] In members usually their civilian ja<.;kd. the buttonhole of outside denote membership of the The gold leaves accession to power' (30,1.33), Party dating back to B. Blutord~n (Blood order) This is a circular vermilion - white60 : [0 : 10. The' obverse shows an eagle in profile with to tbe this eagle occupies the top and the bottom a wreath npon 'which the eagle's within which is written N~v. The right of the. MUNCHEN words 1923 1933 52



The reverse shows the Feldherrnhalle in .Munioh, above the ceutre of which rests a swastika emitting raYSJ and around the upper paLt of the edge run the words "Und 1h1' habt doch gcsiegt" (and yet ye have conquered) The medal is given to those who took part in the unsuccessful putsch in Munich in 1923. The FUhrer himself only "veal's it on the actual anniversary date, i.c. on the ninth of November of each year: em most days he wears only his Iron Cross lst class, i.e. an Iron Cross on his left breast without a.llY ribbon; he leaves off -other decorations.Teeling thus to be mere 111keeping with the same "spirit of simplicity", which causes J]1m to refrain from using any species of badges or rank on his uniforms, C. Anschlusz 1tieda] The lengthy official name of this medal is "Meduille zur Erinncrung an den !3.8.;:!S" • i.e. "Medal in remembrance of the 13 ..3.38." The ribbon is white - black - white - red - white - black - white, in proportionate widths ot about 2 : 10 : 2: 72 : 2: l O : 2. The medal is circular, and the centre bottom is occupied by the head of a squaTe stone pillar on which an eagle is shown. Two nude male persons arc proceeding from left to right; the larger has both feet upon the pillar and holds a furled banner in thc Iclt band; wit-h his right hand he is assisting the advance of the smaller figure, which representsAustria. The larger figure represents the Reich. D. Sudetenland Medal The official name of this is the • medal in remembrancecf 1.10.:38" The ribbon is black - red - black in equal sections. I'he medal-is identical with that worn for the Anschlusz dccoradon; in the symbolism the smaller figure represents Sudetcnland.

E. Protectorate Medal Both ribbon and medal are identical with those giveJl fer the occupation of the Sudetenland: a clasp is added, marking the decoration as the' "Protectorate Medal' The official name is "Spanga ;>,UT Medaihe ZUT Erinnerung an den 1.10.38 bei Teilnahme an del' Besetzung Bohmens und Mdbrens in Marz-April W39" , meaning "clasp to the medal commemorating 1.lO.38 for participation in the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia in March and April 1939"





The German Navy has a number of brass badges, worn low down on the left waist, to which no ribbons correspond. These have no parallel in the Royal Navy Thev are known as "Abzcichcn' and are as follows: U-boots Abzciehcn If-boat badge Zerstorer Abzeichen Destroyer badge Hilfskreuzer Abzeichen AJ\O[.C. badge Ll-jugtl Abzeiclien AjS badge 53

Minen u. Sperr-Abzeichen Flottenahzeichcn Schnellbootabzeichen

Mine and Depth Charge budge Large surface craft badge Light Coastal Forces badge


These-are gained on a strictly points basis. For example, award of the mineswceping badge requires 100 points. assessed as follows: * Each day sweeping, one point. Each day sweeping, two points if in "dangerous waters' '. Each day sweeping for less than to hours, only half the above

Each mine rendered harmless by the man's Own action, ten points. Each occasion of either assisting someone to render a, mine harmless, Or taking a mine to where someone else rendered it harmless, five points. The l.ort~going are not necessarily-the correct number of points now in force, but the assessment is made on these lines. These badges must automatically be gained by anyone who remains long enough at the job and so they are scarcely "decorations", except in the most literal sense of that word. They are of brass about 2 in. by 1 in., elliptical in shape, the outer edging representing an endless row of leaves wrapped together, and within a model in brass of a U-boat, a destroyer, an exploding depth-charge, OT whatever else 1S appropriate. There. is no . "backgrounc" 9.1 metal, the space between He emblem and the edging allows of the wearer's jumper or jacket being seen behind and through the badge. These badges should HI;Jtbe confused with the , 'VlATCHBADGE", whose central emblem is an anchor. It bas two meanings: (a) When 'worn by officers, it denotes that the wearer has a watch-keeping certificate; the badge is worn on the right side of the jacket at medium height, near the second button f rom the top. (b) When worn by ratings, 'it denotes that the wearer is (l.ctuai'ly on watch «t tlte tiane, only the Master-at-Arms and people in his employ wear this badge, which is worked in gold on a white armband, worn on the right upper arm. This badge bas 110 connection with any "points" system .

.. It must be understood thd: these' figures are not necessarily uccuratc the schedule is merely typical of those emptcyed in allotting these awards.





[-GERMAN-ENGLISH abnehmbar das Abzeichen das Achselband der Adler der Aermdau Isehlag removable badge, emblem aiguillettes. Admirals' und CommodOTCS'


dec Aermelstreif die Aermeltrcsse dec Aluminiumoffizicr der Anker ansteckbar die Arbeitsbluse die Armbindc aufklarcn uulklaren die Ausetandung auswechselbar der Backschatter das Bandsel


eagle cuff (detachable ornamental portion) stripe (of gold lace Ol1 arm) as • Aermelstreir' German naval civil servant III officer's rank anchor pinned (as opposed to sewn) on working jumper armlet To reconnol tre. To '\10 for" (officer's servant) equipment changeable

die Bandstreifen (m. pl.] derBcsatz die Beiakleider (n. pL) der Blitz die Berte das Brus Hutter

Cook of the rucss (white) bow over knot in silk (German sailer in No. 1s) white tapes. (on jean collar) order, trimming 'trousers (official word) (flash ol} lightning border breast lining (i.e. of characteristic colour for the greatcoats of all admirals, generals. etc., and civil servants ot equivalent stutllS. Th~5 shows as the surface of t]l€ lapels by not buttoning the greatcoat light up; cornflower bl ue for naval personages] job rank dirk slings for dirk drill oakleaf embossed filling epaulette epaulette-hclder 55

die der dey der der

Dienststellung Dienstgrad Dolch Dolohstauder Drillich

des Eichenlaub (blatt) cingepraegt der Elnsatz das Epaulett der Epaulettenhalter

del" Exerzierkragen die Fangsschnur die Farbe die Fdc1bll1!;,e der Filz die Frnnse die Fuszbekleidung das Futter geflochten geschlagen das Cespinst glatt die Goldhoscn (f. pl.]

del' Hnlbmond das Hulstuch (seidenes) das Halstuch (wollenes) der Halbschuh der Handschuh das Hemd GCTHcmdenkragen das Hoheitsabzeichen

die Hoseu die jncke (same article as "die Parade] acke' .) das Jackett dae Kennzcichen die Kcttc die Hlapphosen (f. pl.) klar der Knopf das Knopfloch die Kokarde das Koppel das Koppelscblosz die Kordel

jean collar aigulllettes (Flag Lieutenant's type) colour Naval field-grey tunic !cit fringe footgcar lining woven, interlaced, plaited stamped (metalwork, etc.] web plain (i.e_ unadorned. cap-peak, etc.) full dress trousers (i.e. Lightning conductors) crescent silk (i.e. the article of clothing) scarf shoe glove shirt, jumper (ratings beJowP.O.) collar of jumper Genna]1 National Emblem (Eagle with very shallow 'wings (J£ very great overfill extent, worn on right breast by members of all three "fighting services) trousers full-dressjucket Iorratings of below petty officer's rank ordinary jacket or officers, Chiefs and 1'.0.5 (distinctive) emblem chain trousers opening horizontally (ratings below P.O.) dear, ready, "pia.iLl" of anchor. i.e. shown without cable button buttonhole cockade (emblem of various colours arranged concentrically) belt (not swcrdbelt) belt-buckle chin-strap (on officers' field-grey caps and equivalent civil servants; Oil. equivalent civil servants' blue caps) gorget patch 56

die Kragenpatte

die Laufbahn
das Led,"]"

die Lederjacke del" Lcibriemen
das Leinen

garland, wreath (of oak leaves on cap) career. branch leailler leather jacket belt (belt propc.r of Sam BrOWTJc)

der Lorbeer der Mantel
die Messejacke

laurel greatcoat
mess jacket

(officers and P.O.s)

die J\-Itit~e das.Miltz.e11banci der Mutzcndeckel das Miit7_e1lg.;-stell der Mtltzenschirm der N achtanzug der Oberarmel cler Pautrygast die Paradcjacke [same artlcle as "die Jacke"} die Paspclicrung die Plattsehnur das Portepee der Posten
die Probe


cap-cover hard [vertical] part of cap cap peak nightshirt (C..N. style) upper arm officer's
a branch

i.n G.N.)

(a, job,



full-dress jacket, ratings below Petty Officer piping.vas on edge of a "Spiegel" flat (gold braid,etc.,. l.c. not of circular cross-section) sword knot [distinctive insignia of
officers and above)

der Putzkastcn

das Rangebzelchcn die Raupen der Rock
die Rundsclmur

(I, pI.)

der die die die

Sabel Scharpe Schelbe Schieszauszeicbnung

standard naval patter» given article of clothing) wooden box. each suDol" uses for etowing hls sewing and shoe-cleaning gear, as. well as combs, etc. badge 01 rank (more ccrrectly="Dienstgradabzeichen' ') bullion. Q:[ epaulettes (lltcrally-> caterpillars] frock-coat round braid, etc, .i.e. of cross-section) (na val) sword
sword bell


die Srhirmmiitze "die Schlcifc die Scblitehosen (f. pl.) 57


der Schlcsz dieSchnur der- Sohnursohuh der Schuh cbs Schurwerk die Schulterklappe die Schulterlitze die Schultersolnrur das Schulteratuck der Sc hulterreimen das Schwalbennest das Segeltuch die Seide des Seitengewehr die Seitcnwarte del' ~oldat

buckle lanyard laced shoes ankle-boot footwear C. and P.D,s' shoulder-straps ",





der Spanier [slang] del" Spiegel

clef Stern die .Stickerei der Stiefel der Stiefelschalt dcr Streit die Streife der Sturmreimen die Treese die Trnddcl llberschnnllen der Uberziehcr
del" Urnhal'lg

Officers' shoulder-straps brace (of Sam Browne Belt, not wominG.N.) epanlettes, bandsmen's type {worn by Navy only in field-grey uniform) canvas ~ilk side-arms side-arms member of armed forces (100t only of army) cloak mounted background (of badge, etc.: term used Where moun ted background differs in colour both from the colour of the garment and self, and from that of the emblem mounted on it) star

sword belt etc.} ratings below Hot clear, not ready, "foul" of anchors lower ann mounted background> not itself of a distinctive colour (antonym !lSpiegel") 58

unklar der Unterarmel die U nterlage

nntersclmallen der VOrstO<;.Z

to put on beneath, i.e. belt under jacket, etc. piping (as OJ1 R.~L trousers) watch, guard weapon chevron wool -pointed [i.e. tttnfeeckig=-fivepointed) ]I-ENGLISH~GERMAN

die die der die

Wache Waffe Winkel Wolle

Able Seaman Administration .AdmiFllty AiguilJettes Air Force Armed Forces (the 8 services] Armlet Army ArtL'cle of dotl1;ng Attache Badge Badge-cloth Balaclava helmet Bandsman Bandmaster

del' Matrosengelrcltcr die Verwaltung die Adrniralitat [British) das Oberkcmmando Gel K~'i8gSmarine, or O.K.M. (German) die Acbselbander, n. pl. (admirals) die Eangschnttre, f. pl. (Flag Lieuts.) die Luftwaffe die Wehrmacht



das Abeeichen des Abzeichentuch (lei"Kopschutzer del' Spielmann dcr Musikrneister (up to and including rank Of Lieutenant R.N.) der Musikinspixtent (above this rank) N.R-Exact title of Bandmasters va.ry with each rank. die Kaserne
der Schlachtschiff

Barracks Battleship Battle-wagon Bator. (as field-marshal's} Bayonet Bell-bottom BLeH trousers.

der dicke Pott (slaug) der Stab {Grand Admirals
crossed on shoulder-straps]

have two

Boot (tDP boot) J300t (ankle boot) Bow tie

das Bajonett, das Seitengewehr die T angohosen der Koppel (N\1 val uniform del: Leibriemen {horizontal Sam Browne) die. Gtirtel (general term) derStiefel


die Masche 59

Bow Braces Braid Branch (of na vv] Brassard Breeches Buckle Bugler Button to button up Cadet Calibre Canvas Cap Cap-band Cap-cover Cartridge belt Chaplain, naval Catholic Protestant Chevron Chin-strap

die Schlcife (e.g. on British rating's cap band) die Hcscntragm (m. pl.) die Berte die Laufbahu . die Armbincle die Stictelhcsen (I. pl.) der Schlosz der Hornist der Knopf zuknopfen der Kadett das Kaliber dns Segeltuc h die Mutze das Miitzeband der Muteendeckel der Patronengurtel del" Mnrinepfarrer Katholisch Evangelisch der Winkel de, Sturmrienten (blue uniform all ranks of navy, field-grey uniform ratings, blue uniform civil servants in rating status) dcr Kordel (field-grey uniform officers. blue uniform of ci vil servants ill officer status) die Baucbbinde der Beamter {Naval=-Marinebeamter ) dcr Umluing (official term} dar Spanier (conversational term) die Kokarde der Hut der (Stehlumlegckragen (ordinary officers' collar), der Eckekragen (wing collar) die Parbe der Backschafter der Kreuzer der Armelaufschlag der Tauchrcttcr, das Drilgergerat der Zerstorer die Einzelheiten (f. pl.) rlerDQ1ch del' Zeug bentel (ad ually a bllg) der Drillich (material), das Exerzieren (evolution) der Tambour 60

Cholera belt Civil servant

Cockade Cocked hat Cellar Colour Cook of the mess Cruiser


Davis Escape Apparatus Destroyer Details Dirk Dittybox Drill Drummer

Duffel-coat Edging (of braid) Edging Engine (diesel) Engineer (naval officer} Engine-room personnel Ensign Epnulette Equipment Executive officer Filling

der Scbafpelz der T ressenbesa tz die Umranduug der Motor dcr Ingenieur das Maschlnenperscnal die Flagge dus Epaulctt (officers}, bermest (Bandsman) die Ausrtistung der Seeoffieier



Flag Flag Lieutenant liloUlla Frock-coat Frog (of sword, etc.) Full-dress

del" Besatz. del' Einsarz (coloured filling to denote branch between gold sleeve lace of most navies ether than German) die Fuhnc der Flaggeleutnant der Flctille der Rock die Sabelschlaufe die Groszc Uniform (in German N.lVY this is frock-coat with epaulettes. not a separate dg) die Gamasche . vergcldet der Handschuh die Kragenpatte .der Mantel Eiscrues Kreuz "A KAII") (or

Gaiter Gilt Glove Gorget patch Greatcoat Iron Cross "[acke

E.K, pronounced

Jean cellar Jumper llit"bag Lanyard Lapel Leading hand Leave To leave undone Liaison officer Libertyman

des Jackett (officer and C. and ]\0.5) die j ackc (full dress for ratings below P.O.) der Uberzieher (ordinary rig-tor ratings below P.O.) der Exerzierkrugen das Hemd del" Kleidt~:rsack die Reiszleine (firing lanyard] die Fangschnur (small aiguillettes marksrnnnship badge} de. Aufschlag del' Muut, del"Untcroffiaicr der Urlaub offenlasscn [i.c. not to button up) del" Verblndungsoffizier del' Urlauber 61 as,

Life-jacket Machine-gun Mae 'West Marine Corps

Merchant Service Mess-jacket Midshipman MineiaverMinesweeper Motor (electric} emblem (German)

die Schwimrnweste das Maschinengewehr del" Oummischlauch (Literally-rubber hosepipe) die Marineinfauterte (obsolete in GIi'..Iman Navy) die Medaille ("Medal.s" as opposed to "ribbons'Sediegrosze Ordenschnalle) die Handelsmarine die Messejacke der Oberfahnrich der Minculegcr der Minensuchboct (Motor M. Minenraumboot) (1j8 E-Mm,ch i ne das Hoheitsabzelchen-Leagle above swastika (worn by the three services on the tight breast) das Seebntnillon die Marine Hiflcrjugcnd (M.H.J.) die Kricgsmarinc das Eichenlaub der Offiaier dcr Matrosc diaWatlencffizier die Ucberziehhosen (f. pl.] (bib and braces) der Maschinenanzug (complete bollet suit} der Verwaltnngsofflaier del' Schirm der Feldwebel der Vorstosz (on edge of uniform jacket trousers, etc.), die Paspelierung (o.t~ edge of patches on uniform. etc.] gcilochten die Sportschuhe (m. pI.) der Ruderganger [helmsman] del' Unteroffizicr der Wachc '(Q,M. in harbour) der Gurnmlmrmtel del' Dienstgrad die Aufklarung die Ersatzbchorden (f. pl.) die V Qr,:,.Chrift (lie Abldsung (person and event) das Band (" Ribbons" as opposed to "medals" die kleine Ordcnsschnnlle) der AnZtlg 62


Naval Brigade NaV';J.lHitler Youth Navy OalcLeaf Officer Ordinary Seaman Ordnance Officer Overalls

Paymaster Peak (of cap) Petty Officer Piping Plaited Plimsolls Quartermaster

Raincoat Rank Reccnnaissauce Recruiting Authorities Regulation Relief (of watch) Ribbon Rig

Sea-boot Seaman Seaman ratings Searchlight Secr-etary (C.O.'s) Sheath Shoe Shorts Shoulder strap


der Gummistiefel der Seeman das seemannische Personal der Scheinwerfer del- Adjutant (usually an executive officer, has alguillettes similar to a Flag Lieutenant's) die Scheide der Halbschuh die Sporthosen (f. pl.] die Schulterklappe (H.atings) ~~:~~~~:~~:)~~ur } (midshipmen) das Schuitersttick [officer] ORS Halst uch (garment), die Seide (material) der Stander, pltm:d wrchangea (Slings to swordbelt, etc.] dns Ceschwader der Stab del' Stern derStahlhelm der Pantrygast der Streif der Aermelstreit, die Aermeltresse das Untersceboct (U-boot) dar (Marine) arxt das Hakenkreuz der Sabel (naval) die Scharpe das Portepee

Silk Slings Squadron Staff Star Steel helmet Steward Stripe (Officers' cuffs) Submarine Surgeon (naval) Swastika Sword Sword belt Sword knot Tie Torpedo Trousers Trousers, Trousers, full dress flap


Trousers, .... vith vertical opening Tninks (bathing} to unbutton Uniform Warrant Officer (wool)

del' Bindel' der Torpedo (official], der AaJ (slang) die Bcinklcider [n. pi..) (official word] die Hasen (f. pl) [usual word) die Ooldhosen (f. pl.) (Stang, tram gold braid covering seams) die Klappbosen ('f. pl.]. the flap-die Kloppe die: Schlitzhosen (J. pl.), the vertical opening-c-der Schlitz die Badchose (f. s.) aufknopfen die Uniform ocr Deckoffizier Navy) die Wasserpolizei dar Pulswarmer 63 {obsolete in German

Water police Wrist protector

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