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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

REPORT OF THE INDUSTRIAL TRAINING (INTERNSHIP)


Student: DUSENAYO Theoneste

Company: GLISCO
Date of starting the internship: September 12, 2011 Date of completion: October 28, 2011

Submitted at nur on 21st November 2011

DEDICATION

To the Almighty God, His Son Jesus Christ our Savior and the Holly Spirit To my family To my classmates To the National University of Rwanda To the Faculty of Applied Science Staff To the Department of Civil Engineering Staff To GLISCO Staff

I dedicate this work.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks are first to my Dear Mother NYIRASAFARI Marie Chantal together with my family who encourage me along all my studies especially my little brother SIBOMANA Noel Odenwald for his assistance to his home to KIGALI and our elder brother ITANGIMBABAZI Jean dAmour for he visited us. Special thanks are to the National University of Rwanda through the Dean of the Faculty of Applied Sciences Dr. Adronis NIYONKURU and the Head of Department of Civil Engineering Dr. Umaru Garba Wali for they intervened in financing this internship. Great thanks are to the lecturers of our department, our Chief of Promotion (C.P) TUYISHIME Jerome who did everything possible to help his class in everything we faced and all my classmates as we shared any information about our concerns. From the deepest of my heart, I acknowledge also the assistance of the Great Lakes Infrastructures & Services Consultants (GLISO) staff through its Managing Director HABIMANA Joseph and all his staff and the friends we worked together at GATENGA site namely Eng. HABIYAKARE Eric, UWIZEYIMANA Thogne, NSABIMANA Callixte and Maman Kate.

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ABSTRACT

The students ending the third year in the Faculty of Applied sciences, department of Civil Engineering at the National University of Rwanda, are supposed to carry out internship in the companies exerting works relative to their fields in order to have hands-on experience and apply the theory they have studied for the three years in participating in output production. The hereafter reported internship has been carried out in GLISCO company (Great Lakes Infrastructure & Services Consultants) located in the Capital City of Rwanda-Kigali; the Head Office is in KICUKIRO District, GASHUGI building near ex. MINICOM House: 1st floor. The company provides both services and works. I have spent much of my time in the unity of supervision of works of building a two-storey Health Center in GATENGA Cell. Those works are in hands of the Strong Construction Company whose Head Office is located in Nyarugenge District-RUBANGURA House. The client is KICUKIRO District. The rest of my time has been spent in office where we were dealing with the tender process. The internship spanned along one month and half from 12th September to 28th October 2011. At the site I worked together with Eng. HABIYAKARE Eric, Mr. UWIZEYIMANA Thogne (GLISCO) and Mr. NSABIMANA Callixte from the executing company (STRONG CONSTRUCTION COMPANY). In the office I worked together with Eng. HABIYAKARE Eric.

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FOREWORD
Civil engineers are responsible for working as communicator between engineers, clients, contractors and senior management with help of excellent knowledge of related subject and communication skills to present the ideas and points effectively. They carry out complex projects using latest engineering techniques and tools. However, candidate working as a civil engineer must be having excellent design skills to complete the project with good result and within time. Civil engineers works in the areas such as roads, railroads, buildings, airports, bridges, harbors, dams, channels, pipelines, water system, sewage systems etc. except these duties they prepare public reports such as deeds, bid proposals, statement of environmental impact and many more. Civil engineers are also responsible for other duties as needed. The subject of this internship is turning around anything that can lead the student to reflect and develop any possible field of those cited above. In GLISCO Company, we had chance to explore some building implantation techniques and bid proposals preparation. Though the preliminary works like site installation and preparation were accomplished before my arrival, I had by the builder, a certain review about them. I prefer to write this report in three chapters, the first about building implantation, and the second about tender process in which the bid proposals preparation is found and the last, the shortest, covering conclusion and recommendations. The copies of the recommendation letter, the insurance certificate and the admission letter constitute the last pages of this report. In spite of little time available for the internship as not a small number of building operations and techniques have not been observed this report includes many and basic but also interesting points for civil engineers ready to start their career after ending their undergraduate studies.

DUSENAYO

Theoneste

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Table of contents
DEDICATION................................................................................................................................ i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. iii FOREWORD................................................................................................................................ iv CHAPTER I: BUILDING IMPLANTATION ........................................................................... 3
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. Site installation ..................................................................................................................3 Site preparation .................................................................................................................3 Site management ................................................................................................................4 Supervision ........................................................................................................................4 Workers .............................................................................................................................5 Works ................................................................................................................................5 Skeleton frames ..........................................................................................................5 Foundations.........................................................................................................6 Beams ..................................................................................................................8 Columns ..............................................................................................................9 Walls (building walls and partition walls).......................................................... 11

1.6.1.

1.6.1.1. 1.6.1.2. 1.6.1.3. 1.6.1.4. 1.6.2.

Concrete ................................................................................................................... 13 Concrete mix design .......................................................................................... 14 Water/cement ratio............................................................................................ 14 Reinforcement ................................................................................................... 15

1.6.2.1. 1.6.2.2. 1.6.2.3. 1.6.3. 1.6.4.

Mortar ...................................................................................................................... 16 Quantity surveying ................................................................................................... 17 Fill ..................................................................................................................... 17 Concrete and rubble-stones ............................................................................... 17 Beams, columns, wall masonry, doors, windows, slabs, roof, finishes ............ 18

1.6.4.1. 1.6.4.2. 1.6.4.3. 1.6.5.

Leveling using the dumpy level ................................................................................. 18 Leveling ............................................................................................................. 18 Basic dumpy level .............................................................................................. 18 Using the dumpy level ....................................................................................... 20 Stadia wires ....................................................................................................... 22

1.6.5.1. 1.6.5.2. 1.6.5.3. 1.6.5.4.

1.6.5.5.

Setting to a level ................................................................................................ 22

CHAPTER II: TENDER (OR BID) PROCESS ....................................................................... 23


2.1. 2.2. 2.3. Some definitions ............................................................................................................... 23 Public procurement.......................................................................................................... 25 Some important documents .............................................................................................. 28

CHAPTER III: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................... 29 Copy of the recommendation letter ........................................................................................... 31 Copy of the insurance certificate ............................................................................................... 32 Copy of the admission letter....................................................................................................... 33 References .................................................................................................................................... 34

CHAPTER I: BUILDING IMPLANTATION


To implant a building a thorough preparation is necessary. Assuming that everything concerning bids is handled and all necessary contractors have already signed, the party in charge of implantation installs and prepares first the site (preliminary works), gather all necessary materials to start the task and recruit workers for this purpose. In the same time, the party in charge of supervision gets ready for his attribution. The client also will have to verify whether his works are being done well. These three parties work together since the beginning of the project until the final structure is submitted. Note that what concerns bids (Tender Process) is developed in chapter two. 1.1. Site installation

The builder, after enclosing the site, he needs where to store his materials and equipments to start the work. He needs also the office where the site management and other operations relative to the work are carried out. That way he chooses a place on the site where to build that facility. If necessary the supervisor office is also built but both the builder and the supervisor can work in the same office but with different working tables. He wont forget the important thing concerning self-relief that he will build latrines for both the staff and workers. If the site is not accessible the builder will also think of the access road. 1.2. Site preparation

Site preparation involves all necessary works for the first works or materials needed for the building itself can be started or set up. The earlier works are the topographical survey of the site and the soil investigation to determine its profiles and soil bearing capacity in order to decide about cuts and fills site excavation and grading. Those are results from soil investigation that will also determine which kind of foundation needed for a given building. This topographical survey and soil investigation are carried out by the building clients surveyors. It is them also who will plot plans which the builder will execute. Mechanical shovels or excavator and bulldozers are appropriate tools in this construction step. After the ground is graded, the actual construction works can be undertaken.

1.3.

Site management

The builder and the site manager are the main staff at the site and they are recruited by the Managing Director of the company in charge of the execution of the project. That builder will thereafter recruit workers like masons, carpenters, and those workers in charge of iron frameworks together with their helpers. After recruitment he will send their list to the Managing Director who will later provide their wages. Wages are different according to the experience and function of a given worker. The build whose everydays job is at the site is responsible of the site organization in order to reach the following objectives: 1. Quality: set works to time series to insure that any work is well done on defined standards; 2. Rapidity: time management; 3. Economy: not abuse materials and workers. Anything from the store either tools or materials for a given work is noted by the site manager in an appropriate account book. This manager has also to know which number of workers are present everyday as he/she makes a call before and after everydays work. Each worker has his own time card where his attendance is signed and it is that card which will determine the number of days he was present in order to sum his wage after a given period. According to the company wages are paid weekly, per two weeks or monthly. The builder, the site manager and workers have to agree with about when the work starts, when they have break and when they have pause for resuming the next day. 1.4. Supervision

The supervisor is recruited by the Managing Director of the company in charge of the supervision. He is responsible to check whether the standards defined in the bidding document are respected and he will work as the quantity surveyor. The surveyed quantities are written in a report and submitted to his Managing Director. I dont want to go deeper in the process those quantities are handled along the project up to its termination; it is defined in the contract between the parties. The supervisor will work together with the builder to agree on standards compliance and discuss possible modifications of implementation plans that they will report to both the Managing Directors of the companies in charge of the supervision and the execution. These latter 4

will in turn give the report to the contracting authority (or the client). A meeting at the site is often held between the three parties to confirm such modifications if necessary. In his office, the supervisor has a diary in which he writes everydays activities about how the site is progressing. He has to report a delay or advancement of works at the site. 1.5. Workers

Workers as introduced in 1.3 are masons, carpenters, iron frameworks workers and their helpers. The builder is he who will interpret the drawings on the implantation plans and show workers what to do. These workers are recruited according to their prior skills and experience. Ones of most skilled workers can be selected as foremen or supervisors of their coworkers as they are divided into groups to perform appropriate tasks to accelerate the project. Any worker is assumed to do his job properly. If not so, the foreman will correct him or report him to the builder once he declares himself unfit to that work. The builder will change him the work or make him lose his job. 1.6. Works

During my period of one month and half I had for the internship, except less of that time I spent in studying the tender process, I attended works of setting up substructures up to the installation of the columns and some walls filling. The following paragraphs are detailing those works. 1.6.1. Skeleton frames Basically, these are a series of rectangular frames placed at right angles to one another so that the loads are transmitted from member to member until they are transferred through the foundations to the subsoil. Skeleton frames can be economically constructed of concrete or steel or a combination of the two. At GATENGA site this latter is the case. The members of the skeleton frame are beams, columns, foundations, floors, roof and walls. Each member has appropriate function as stated below: Beams span between columns and transfer the live and imposed loads placed upon them to the columns. Columns are vertical members that carry the loads transferred by the beams to the foundations.

Foundations are the bases to which the columns are connected and which serve to transfer the loadings to a suitable load bearing subsoil. Floors may or may not be an integral part of the frame; they provide the platform on which equipment can be placed and on which people can circulate. Besides transmitting these live loads to the supporting beams they may also be required to provide a specific fire resistance, together with a degree of sound and thermal insulation. Roof similar to floors but its main function is to provide a weather- resistant covering to the uppermost floor. Walls are the envelope of the structure, which provides the resistance to the elements, entry of daylight, natural ventilation, fire resistance, thermal insulation and sound insulation. Recall that at GATENGA site, on October 28, 2011, the closure date of the internship, only foundations, ground floor beams, columns and some walls were already built. The work of building those members is well attended and the procedure is still in mind.

1.6.1.1.

Foundations

Excavation of trenches for pad footings Trenches are of different dimensions as pad footings are. The depth of each varies according to the result of the static penetration test carried out before. These footings will constitute the substructure of the future building. So, the substructure of the building can be defined as the part of the building located below the ground floor and which extends down into the ground. The other part of the building above the ground floor is called the superstructure. Topsoil and subsoil general excavation Recall that before these trenches are excavated, the general excavation had to be carried out first. This consists in removing the topsoil containing a very high proportion of organic matter as well as bacteria, insects and other creatures such as worms. Below the layer of topsoil there is a thin layer of material which is neither topsoil nor subsoil but is considered to be topsoil for our purposes in building construction. It is a transitional layer where the two forms of soil meet.

The subsoil layer lies below and has no organic constituents in its make-up. The topsoil is removed because (1) Topsoil has no load-bearing capacity and therefore cannot hold a building up, nor has it sufficient cohesion, depth or mass to allow the anchoring of a building in it. (2) Topsoil contains organic matter which if left under the building would rot and cause a health hazard and/or give off methane gas which could cause an explosion, or hydrogen sulphide which has an unpleasant odor as well as being a health hazard. Rotting vegetation also attracts vermin, particularly insects, and this could be a source of disease etc. (3) Vegetable roots, bulbs, corms, seeds or tubers left behind could sprout under the building and cause damage to any treatment applied over the area of the building, particularly damp proof layers. Roots can penetrate drainage and ducting systems, blocking or disrupting supplies or discharges. Subsoil is the one with a safe load-bearing capacity. Some subsoil can be able to carry the load of simple low-rise buildings without the need for special techniques or precautions and the other are capable of carrying the loads imposed by much larger buildings with appropriate foundation techniques or requiring special techniques or precautions for even the most simple of structures. After trenches are excavated in the subsoil, the wet concrete is poured in those holes in the ground to make foundations.

Foundation work Foundations are generally made by pouring wet concrete into holes in the ground. The shape involved can be simple or complicated and everything in between. Our case in GATENGA, we were only concerned with simple shapes boxes of rectilinear dimensions of concrete cast in the ground and presenting a horizontal surface on which walls can be built. Before pouring the reinforced concrete, we first poured a layer of plain concrete technically termed the blinding concrete of 50 mm thick. This layer is horizontally laid and is considered as the cleanser of the hole where the footing has to be settled. The foundation of GATENGA Health Center consists of pad footings of reinforced concrete connected by trenches filled with stones masonry. This type of foundation is used to support and transmit the loads from piers and columns. The most economic plan shape is a square, but if the columns are close to the site boundary it may be necessary to use a rectangular plan shape of equivalent area. Above each pad, a sub-column is erected to meet the level of the ground floor where the superstructure will start; starter bars are incorporated to meet piers and columns. At 7

the same time the said masonry of stones is built to reach the same level. The instrument called dumpy level or only level is used for this purpose. The foundation is reinforced by reinforcement steel bars in order to avoid failure which can be bending or punching shear.

Foundation quantity surveying The engineer working as the quantity surveyor has to measure the depth of both pad footings and foundation trenches so that he can report easily the amount of the excavated soil and calculate the amount of soil to refill the hole when compacted after necessary concrete is cast and stones are built. This will allow the engineer also to report the amount of materials (stones or concrete) used in foundation. This latter point about quantity surveying is developed in what is going to follow later.

1.6.1.2.

Beams

Beams at GATENGA site are of reinforced concrete.

Reinforcement preparation The reinforcement frame is made according to the formula provided by the designer. The correct design of a reinforced concrete beam will ensure that it has sufficient strength to resist both the compression and tensile forces encountered in the outer fibers, but it can still fail in the web connecting the compression and tension areas. This form of failure is called shear failure and is in fact diagonal tension. Concrete has a limited amount of resistance to shear failure, and if this is exceeded reinforcement must be added to provide extra resistance. Shear occurs at or near the supports as a diagonal failure line at an angle of approximately 45 to the horizontal and sloping downwards towards the support. A useful fact to remember is that zero shear occurs at the point of maximum bending. Reinforcement to resist shearing force may be either stirrups or inclined bars, or both. Stirrups are the case at GATENGA site and are all spaced of 20 cm for the ground floor beams deposited on rubble-stones foundation. The cross section of the beam is anticipated to be a square of 25 cm side. So the reinforcement frame is of 20 cm side and the other 5 cm are for coating 2.5 cm each side. Reinforcement 8

frames are made to be transported to the final location in the building and they are often connected at intersections and quoins.

Casing preparation (mould) The casing is of wood. Wood planks are arranged linearly and in parallel to leave inside the space corresponding to the dimensions of the beam stated above and set to the level using the dumpy level. This casing is made at the final position of the beam in the building as these beams are in-situ-cast and it has to be fixed firmly in order to keep the building axes.

Concrete cast This is the operation of filling wood casing to make beams and provide with them the predesigned shape (our case is rectangular). Before casting, the workers in charge will have to verify whether all the casings are set to the same level and that there are no holes in planks where fine aggregates from the concrete might escape what could damage the beam. The concrete and the way it is worked are detailed in the next point.

1.6.1.3.

Columns

A column is a vertical member carrying the beam and floor loadings to the foundation, and is a compression member. As concrete is strong in compression it may be concluded that, provided the compressive strength of the concrete is not exceeded, no reinforcement will be required. For this condition to be true the following conditions must exist: Loading must be axial. Column must be short, which can be defined as a column where the ratio of its effective height to its thickness does not exceed 12 (effective height may be calculated by formula and tables in Section 3.8.1.6 of BS 8110-1). After this third point, see the Section 3.8.1.6 of BS 8110-1). Cross-section of the column must be large.

These conditions rarely occur in framed buildings: consequently bending is induced and the need for reinforcement to provide tensile strength is apparent. Bending in columns may be induced by one or more of the following conditions: Load coupled with the slenderness of the column a column is considered to be slender if the ratio of effective height to thickness exceeds 12; Reaction to beams upon the columns as the beam deflects it tends to pull the column towards itself, thus inducing tension in the far face;

The reaction of the frame to wind loadings, both positive and negative.

The minimum number of main bars in a column should not be less than four for rectangular columns and six for circular columns (eight bars for both square and circular columns at GATENGA site), with a total cross-sectional area of not less than 0.8% (4.02% at GATENGA site) of the cross-sectional area of the column and a minimum diameter of 12 mm (20mm at GATENGA site). To prevent the slender main bars from buckling, and hence causing spalling (Spalling is a result of water entering brick, concrete or natural stone and forcing the surface to peel, pop out or flake off. This is because there is moisture in the concrete. In basements, especially, moisture and often salt, too, pushes outward from the inside. Eventually, spalling can cause crumbling and destruction of a structure) of the concrete, links or binders are used as a restraint. These should be at least 6 mm diameter (8 mm at GATENGA site) and not less than 10

one quarter of the largest main bar diameter (1 of 2.5 or 40% at GATENGA site). Isnt the building overdesigned? This is the question we often ask ourselves to the site unfortunately we could not review the project! All bars in compression should be tied by a link passing around the bar in such a way that it tends to move the bar towards the centre of the column; typical arrangements are shown in Fig.1. The reinforcement frames for the columns are joined to the starter bars and the mould in wood is made not necessary at the columns position, to be brought with three sides joined. The fourth side is for sealing the mould. The verticality of the column, firstly well centered, will be insured by plumb lines. The concrete will be poured from above but at not very high distance to avoid segregation.

Fig.1.1. Typical arrangements of reinforcements (ROY CHUDLEY AND ROGER GRRENO)

1.6.1.4.

Walls (building walls and partition walls)

Walls usually are solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. Building walls have one main purpose: to support roofs and ceilings while partition walls are for the purpose of separating rooms, or dividing a room. Partition walls are usually not load-bearing. Walls (both building and partition) at GATENGA site are constructed with bricks from clay.

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Masonry construction Walls of 20 cm think are constructed with mortar (Mortar is a workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone, brick, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar becomes hard when it sets, resulting in a rigid aggregate structure. Modern mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water. Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, masonry when the original mortar has washed away). Mortar placed horizontally below or on top of a brick is called a bed and mortar placed vertically between bricks is called a perpend.

Coordinating sizes The coordinating sizes allow the bricks to be built together in a number of different ways, illustrated in Fig.1.2. It is important to build brickwork to the correct coordinating size for the particular working size of brick specified.

The bonding of bricks to form walls Bonding of bricks refers to the practice of laying the bricks in layers or courses and in any of a number of patterns or bonds to form a wall of a homogeneous construction, i.e. the individual bricks overlap each other in adjacent layers, the pattern alternating in adjacent layers or after a number of similar layers. The patterns in these layers are formed with whole and cut bricks as well as with bricks manufactured to a special shape other than the standard rectilinear one. At GATENGA site, the used cut bricks are three-quarters called three-quarter batts.

Fig.1.2. Coordinating sizes of bricks (ROY CHUDLEY AND ROGER GREENO) 12

1.6.2. Concrete Concrete is a plastic mixture of aggregates, Ordinary Portland cement and water. Occasionally additives are included which have much the same effect as those put into mortar. The plastic mixture is poured into moulds or directly into the ground and allowed to set. Reinforcement of steel rod or bar can be fixed in place before pouring in the plastic mixture. Such concrete would be termed reinforced as opposed to plain concrete. The concrete can be placed in its plastic condition in the position it is meant to occupy in the building in-situ concrete. If cast in moulds away from its final position it is precast concrete. Lets see in details the concrete constituents in the following:

a) Aggregates Aggregates can be: Coarse gravel or crushed rock retained on a 6 mm sieve Fine sand passing through a 6 mm sieve Coarse aggregates used at GATENGA site are crushed rock from GASABO District of Kigali City more exactly at RUSINE while fine aggregates are from MUKUNGURI, RUHANGO district in the southern province. The quarries fulfill gradation properties. Grading of aggregates means that when mixed, it is insured that all voids between the particles are filled and all particles are evenly coated with cement. Aggregate size is given as the largest mesh size used for grading, e.g. 25 mm aggregate would have all particles passing a 25 mm sieve. The grading affects the workability; a lower water-to-cement ratio can be used if the grading of the aggregate is good and therefore strength is also increased. Good grading saves cement content. It helps prevent segregation during placing and ensures good finish.

b) Water As with mortars, water is required to react with the Ordinary Portland Cement to obtain a set. Water is also important in two important properties of concrete: In wet concrete, a high proportion of water allows easy placing of concrete in confined areas and round heavy reinforcement, but too much water weakens concrete and may also lead to water voids being formed where compaction of the concrete is inadequate. 13

A low proportion of water is desirable where higher strengths are required.

c) Cement Ordinary Portland cement is the commonest type in use and it is the one recommended in the biding document for the GATENGA Health Center. The main chemical compounds in cement are calcium silicates and aluminates. When water is added to cement and constituents are mixed to form cement paste, chemical reactions occur and the mix becomes stiffer with time and sets. Many other types of cement are available; Hima cement is one of these types and it was available at GATENGA site. The constituents above are mixed in the drum concrete mixer to form the plastic concrete before it is cast.

1.6.2.1.

Concrete mix design

Concrete mix design consists in selecting and proportioning the constituents to give the required strength, workability and durability. The prescribed mix is the one applied at GATENGA site. This consists in applying specified proportions of constituents to give required strength and workability. Another type of mix we can say is the design mix, where strength testing forms an essential part of the requirements for compliance.

1.6.2.2.

Water/cement ratio

Unlike mortars, the proportion of water used in concrete mixes is carefully controlled: Enough to allow easy placement Enough to give a set Just enough to avoid water pockets in the concrete. It is given in litres per 50 kg of Ordinary Portland cement. When using low water/cement ratios a number of techniques can be adopted to ease placement: Use of vibrators (the case at GATENGA site) Addition of air entraining chemicals to the mix for every 1% by volume of air a 6% loss in strength is incurred Addition of water retaining or wetting agents 14

Use of a smaller coarse aggregate Traditionally, concrete mixes for general building work were specified by volume. A 1:2:4 mix contained one part by volume of Ordinary Portland cement, two parts fine aggregate and four parts coarse aggregate. A 1:2:4 mix was generally conceded to be a strong concrete, a 1:3:6 mix a medium strength mix. At GATENGA site a mixture of 350kg of Ordinary Portland cement are used to mix one meter cube of wet reinforced concrete. Calculations (See table 1.1.) taking into account the expansion coefficient of 1.2 provide the formula of one sac (50kg) of ordinary Portland cement mixed with 1:2 volumes of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate respectively. This volume equals to 0.05714 meter cube. The volume of cement is neglected in any case.

Table 1.1.Concrete and mortar constituents to make one wet meter cube (Thogne Uw.)
Constituents and dosage boxes Cement Dose (kg/m3) Sacs (number) Gravel + Sand/1cement sac (dm3) Quantity per box (dm3) Box dimensions (dm) Sand proportion (boxes) Gravel proportion (boxes) Mortar Blinding concrete Reinforced concrete 250 150 350 5 3 7 240 400 171.43 80 66.67 57.14 4.3 4.1 3.85 3 2 1 0 4 2

Boxes are made by carpenters at the site under the order of the engineer who determines their dimensions and their number depends on concrete mixer users for they can be able to manipulate them.

1.6.2.3.

Reinforcement

High yield steel reinforcement round bars are in use at GATENGA site. High yield steel means that the tensile strength of the bars is 450-425 N/mm2. In foundations reinforcements are united to form a kind of mesh in which the wet concrete is going to be poured. The mesh can be square (the case of GATENGA site) or rectangular. See Fig.1.3.

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Fig.1.3. Reinforcement meshes Reinforcement must be firmly fixed in the concrete. It must not move. Concrete, when setting, shrinks and so grips the bar. Grip of reinforcement can be increased by 1) bending or hooking the ends of the reinforcement bar (the case at GATENGA site), 2) using deformed or square twisted bar and 3) using both the above. See Fig.1.4.

Fig.1.4. Bent and hooked ends of bar (Construction Technology, ROY CHUDLEY AND ROGER GREENO) To prevent reinforcement steel from rusting, it has to be well embedded in the dense concrete as it is the alkaline environment. For this purpose, workers will have to be careful about the outer covering when casting reinforced concrete.

1.6.3. Mortar The mortar is used for stones or bricks masonry. It consists in mixture of cement and sand. At GATENGA site, 0.08000 meter cube of sand are mixed with one sack of cement or 50kg (see Table 1.1. above). 16

1.6.4. Quantity surveying This the important work in building construction as it is one of the factors to determinate the cost of the building. In the course of construction quantity surveyors should be able to advice on the current cost conditions for any configuration. A quantity surveyor (QS) is a professional working within the construction industry concerned with building costs. As example, at GATENGA site, it was discussed about a retaining wall which would be built either in rubblestones or in concrete. After quantity surveying, it has been concluded that the retaining wall has to be of rubble-stones. Another case displayed when it has been revealed, by surveying, that to set the foundation of the front of the building to the datum, a huge quantity of fill would be required. So, it has been decided to split the building into two parts and lowering one of 30 cm from the central corridor. The communication between the two blocks will be enabled by stair facility. To meet the maximum economic requirement of a client, any quantities must therefore be kept to the statutory minimum. The builder and quantity surveyor, here the engineer in charge of supervision, must be careful not to cause any amendment as it is unpleasant to the client.

1.6.4.1.

Fill

Each meter cube of the fill has the fixed cost according to the project. For this purpose, the quantity surveyor will have to determine the total quantity of the fill executed at the site and to do so, he must measure the volume of holes to be filled. The dumpy level is one of the tools he can use to accomplish that task and the way it works is going to be developed later in the work of leveling using the dumpy level. The only dimension it will measure is the depth of the footing or foundation trench from the datum.

1.6.4.2.

Concrete and rubble-stones

The dimensions of both footings and foundation trenches to be filled with rubble-stones (except depth as each pad footing or trench may have its proper depth according to the subsoil condition) are well defined in the bidding document. Once respective depths are available, the simple calculations will provide either the volume of concrete or that of rubble-stones. Each constructed meter cube of rubble-stone has a well defined proportion of mortar; hence, the volume of cement

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and sand used are also easily determined. The formula of reinforcement is undoubted as the total length of used reinforcement bars can easily be determined. 1.6.4.3. Beams, columns, wall masonry, doors, windows, slabs, roof, finishes

Except where modifications have been made, the determination of their quantities is a simple counting or simple arithmetic calculations. If eventual modifications occur, the quantity surveyor has to be much careful to avoid unnecessary amendments.

1.6.5. Leveling using the dumpy level A variety of surveying instruments can be used on a building site to assist in the accurate setting out of a building on the ground and in setting the levels at which various parts of the building are to be built. The most basic of these instruments is a level or dumpy as this type of instrument is often called. The same instrument is used at GATENGA site. This instrument, like other surveying instruments, uses the principle of setting a telescope so that the line of sight is truly horizontal no matter which way the level is facing. The whole instrument is contained in a small box which mounts on a tripod.

1.6.5.1.

Leveling

Leveling is a technique used by surveyors and others in the construction industry to determine the height of land surface or objects in a landscape relative to a known fixed height. The known fixed height may be a permanent mark or a temporary mark. Such marks are known as benchmarks (BMs) and can be incisions on the masonry face of a building or pillar for permanent benchmarks, or simply a block of concrete, the corner of a manhole cover or even a peg driven into the ground. The whole point about a benchmark is that it has a known fixed height. At GATENGA site, one permanent benchmark has been fixed after the grading of the terrain. It is the reference to start the building but in the course of work temporary benchmarks are used bearing in mind that they have main reference to the permanent one.

1.6.5.2.

Basic dumpy level

The basic dumpy level comprises: A telescope with a sighting device or stadia wires 18

A bubble level on the telescope A horizontal mounting which will allow the telescope to rotate through 3600 A tripod on which to mount the instrument in a stable state. The typical dumpy level is shown on the figure below and the following sketch in Fig.1.5. shows the basic operational parts of only one variety of dumpy level but will serve to illustrate what they are about. Starting at the centre top and working down the sketch from left to right: the accurate bubble level is used to finally set the telescope truly horizontal just prior to each reading taken on the staff; sometimes there is a mirror fitted over it or there is a small eyepiece which through complex optical system allows the surveyor to view both ends of the bubble, and when these are in alignment, the instrument is truly horizontal.

Fig.1.5. Typical dumpy level and staff (Construction Technology, Eric Fleming)

The object lens is the large light-gathering lens facing the staff; the larger it is the more light there will be and the further out the surveyor will be able to use the instrument. The trunnions either side of the telescope allow it to pivot up and down on its optical axis in bearings set in the mounting for the instrument. The focusing eyepiece allows the surveyor to focus on the sighting and reading marks inside the telescope see stadia wires below. The leveling screw is used to bring the telescope from nearly level to truly level as indicated by the large bubble level. The bearing shown is the pivot on which the whole of the telescope and its mounting revolves in a horizontal plane.

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Fig.1.6. Schematic view of a dumpy level (Construction Technology, Eric Fleming)

The index mark allows the scale below to be read. The transverse locking screw clamps the bearing so that the telescope is pointing in a fixed direction. The scale of degrees on the lower fixed part of the instrument mounting is not much used in general leveling but can be useful in fixing the horizontal angle of various sights or readings relative to a fixed point in the survey. The coarse leveling screws are used to set the mounting to an approximate level as indicated by the bubble level between them what is not shown is that there are three coarse leveling screws. Finally, the bottom plate of the mounting has a large threaded hole for securing the instrument to the top of the tripod. The instrument works on the principle that if the telescope is set so that the line of sight is horizontal, then measurements can be taken below (and above) that line of sight or collimation. These measurements can be used to determine relative height. If a known fixed height is included as one of the measurements then all others can be calculated relative to it, i.e. a benchmark.

1.6.5.3.

Using the dumpy level

The figure below illustrates the dumpy level in use.

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Fig.1.7. Schematic dumpy level in use (Construction Technology Eric Fleming) To begin, the dumpy level has to be set up on its tripod so that the telescopes line of sight is truly horizontal. The tripod has to be set on firm ground and the spikes on each leg pushed firmly into the ground or otherwise stabilized so that they dont slip. The table on which the dumpy level is mounted must be set fairly level within the limits of the small bubble level(s) mounted on the table. Finally, the telescope itself is either leveled for any angle of viewing (360 in a horizontal plane) or brought level as each reading is taken; it all depends on the type of dumpy level being used. Measurements with the instrument are taken by placing the staff on the selected point and sighting on it with the telescope. The telescope is focused on the staff and measurements on the benchmark and points A and B are taken in turn. The first reading on the BM is termed a back sight (BS). All others except the last are intermediate sights (IS). The last is a fore sight (FS). A is therefore an intermediate sight and B a foresight. The surveyor goes with his level book and the table below shows how readings are written down in that book and how they are worked out. Table 1.2.How to note readings in a level book (Construction Technology, Eric Fleming)

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1.6.5.4.

Stadia wires

A stadia wire is a device placed inside telescopes used for aiming, such as telescopic gun sights, here in a dumpy level etc. They are also used in other surveying instruments such as theodolites. When first looking through the telescope to take readings, the surveyor focuses the eyepiece of the telescope on the stadia wires. Once this is done it generally needs no further attention, the stadia wires remaining in focus no matter how the focus on the staff is changed. Various styles of stadia wires are made but the one in Fig.1.8.a) is a fairly common pattern. The complete telescope is in turn focused on to the staff and the reading taken as shown in Fig.1.8.b). Note that the staff appears upside down. This is the most common scenario, the reason being that the additional lenses required to turn the image right way up would reduce the amount of light reaching the surveyors eye. This is not a problem for work on a building site where distances would be relatively short, but in the wider surveying field could be quite critical. Patterns of markings on staffs vary.
a) b)

Fig.1.8.a) Common form of stadia wire, b) How staff appears to the surveyor when viewed through the telescope

1.6.5.5.

Setting to a level

On building and construction sites, levels of foundation floors, beams, column bases etc need to be set. The dumpy level is therefore involved in that work as we did at GATENGA site. We often fixed a temporary benchmark to a level we wished to set and define the collimation. All the sights should be at the same line and pegs fixed.

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CHAPTER II: TENDER (OR BID) PROCESS


Any person wishing to start a business as bidder is required to know the tender process. As Civil Engineers are among people that often found companies and participate in public procurements, GLISCO Company considered important to provide a session of training about bid process.

2.1. Some definitions According to the Law No 12/2007 of 27/03/2007 on Public Procurement published in the Official Gazette no 8 on 15th April 2007, in its first chapter, article one of definitions, the second definition is that of the bid or tender as an offer from a bidder. The third definition continues with the bidder as any potential participant or participant in public procurement proceedings. Hence all the definitions in the article one of the chapter one of the law introduced above are of great essence for anybody anticipating participating in public procurement. Here they are, copied from the Official gazette: 1 Accounting Officer means any official empowered to approve reports of the Tender Committee and sign the contract on behalf of the procuring entity. This official must be empowered by Law to act as a Chief Budget Manager within the public entity in which he is employed; 2 Bid or tender refers to an offer from a bidder; 3 Bidder means any potential participant or participant in public procurement proceedings; 4 Bidding Document means the document containing information required for the preparation of bids, the award process and the tender execution; 5 Bid Security means any guarantee by a bank or other relevant institution to allow the prospective bidder to participate in tendering; 6 Contract means the agreement between the procuring entity and the successful bidder; 23

7 Consultant Services refers to activities of an intellectual or of immaterial nature. 8 Constructor, Consultant or Supplier, means any physical or legal person under procurement contract with a procuring entity; 9 Corrupt practice means offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting money or anything of value to make a public official partial in the tender award or contract execution process; 10 Day refers to every weekday including holidays unless stated otherwise; 11 Fraudulent Practices refer to any act of lying, providing misinformation, including collusive practices among bidders aiming at influencing the procuring entity to making wrong decisions or to giving room for poor execution of the contract; 12 Goods or supplies means objects of every kind and description including raw materials, products, equipment be it in solid, liquid or gaseous form, electricity, as well as services that are linked to the supply of the goods if the value of those services does not exceed that of the goods themselves. 13 Performance security means any guarantee by a bank or any other relevant institution established to guarantee the procuring entity that in case the contract is not performed, be it technically or at the level of deadlines, the procuring entity would receive the amount provided for such a guarantee; 14 Procuring entity means Central Government authority, Local Government authority, public institution, commission, Government project, parastatal, agency, or any specialized institution engaged in procurement process and entering in contract with the successful bidder. 15 Public Procurement refers to the supplies or goods, works, consultant services and other services as they may be needed by a procuring entity;

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16 Tender Committee" means a committee established by the procuring entity to assist the Procurement Unit, in the bid opening, evaluation and recommend for award of procurement contracts; 17 Services refers to any services other than consultant services. 18 Successful bidder means a bidder whose offer has been accepted after being considered the most competitive both technically and financially. It also refers to one who has concluded a procurement contract with a procuring entity without having been subject to tendering proceedings; 19 Terms of reference means the document prepared by the procuring entity defining the requirements for an assignment and means to be made available, concerns to be taken into account as well as the expected results; 20 Works mean all activities related to the realization of building or engineering works upon the request by the client. Not only these definitions are important but the entire law has to gone through in order to work as a good bidder what leads to success. The ultimate goal of the bid process is to ensure open and free competition. In the following, some points highlighted from the law are going to be discussed.

These key definitions are accompanied by other articles about the public procurement as it is well explained in the full law. We are now concerned with some of the articles we had chance to explore during the internship but we dont copy them as they are instead we try to write a kind of summary.

2.2. Public procurement This summary is started by the public procurement. As it is defined in article one, definition 15, it refers to the supplies or goods, works, consultant services and other services as they may be needed by a procuring entity; the procuring entity is also defined in definition 14 of article one 25

chapter one. In article 25 of chapter three, it is explained the rules concerning description of goods, works and consultant services. The figure below shows the handwriting of Eng. HABIYAKARE Eric explaining the public procurement and evaluation of bids.

Fig.2.1. Evaluation of bids by Eng. HABIYAKARE Eric

The article 64 of chapter three and section three states that The Tender Committee shall evaluate each technical proposal on the basis of criteria disclosed in the request for proposals. This request for proposals includes: 1 the consultants relevant experience for the assignment; 2 the quality of the methodology presented; 3 qualifications of key personnel proposed for the assignment; 4 transfer of knowledge, if required in the terms of reference; 5 the extent of participation by nationals among key staff in case of international tendering; 26

The article 65 in the same section is about evaluation of financial proposals. The article starts stating that the financial proposals shall be opened and evaluated only after completion of the technical proposal. It continues with other requirements to open them and explains the way to success. The regulations of procurements play a big role in that matter.

Sometimes all bids can be rejected according to the reasons provided in article 40 of chapter three.

Below there is an example we had, of three bidders submitting their proposals to the client. It is assumed that the technical proposal (T) will cover 80% of the score and the financial proposal (F) 20%. The formula for the final score can so be written Sfinal = 0.8T + 0.2F The financial score F is computed according to the formula: (2.2) where Fm is the cheapest financial proposal and F is the considered financial proposal (that of the current bidder). The following table shows the bidders with their respective technical scores acquired before and their financial proposals in the third column. The fourth column is filled with the financial score after applying the formula (2.2). Which bidder is going to be successful? Of course the one who will have much score after applying the formula (2.1). Before one can do any calculation to fill the table below, he has to notice that the cheapest financial proposal Fm is 7,000,000 RWF. (2.1)

Table 2.1.Evaluation of bids (Eng. Eric HABIYAKARE) Bidders Bidder 1 GLISCO Bidder 3 Technical score (%) 75 70 82 Financial proposal (RWF) 10, 000,000 7, 000,000 12, 000,000 Financial score (%) 70 100 58.33

For Bidder 1, For GLISCO, 27

For Bidder 3,

Lets then apply the formula (2.1): For Bidder 1, For GLISCO, For Bidder 3, Observations: Bidders cannot have trust in only one proposal. Technically, GLISCO would seem to fail immediately and the third bidder successes. On contrary, after financial proposals evaluation and the combination of the two a change displays; GLISCO becomes the successful bidder and the others fail. It is then GLISCO who is going to sign the contract. Article about the contract and other relevant rules are not gone through due to little time, but the law on public procurement introduced above clarifies everything.

2.3. Some important documents Any bidder is urged to have administrative documents, technical documents and financial ones. Among those documents we can say the trade register from Rwanda Development Board RDB; the certificate of no claim to the RRA (Rwanda Revenue Authority); the bidder has also to be registered in the Social Security Fund of Rwanda SSFR (CSR) and register for VAT (Value Added Tax) in RRA. He will have to buy the bidding document, to possess the inspection certificate and the bid bond

After checking all these documents and the bid evaluation terminated, the successful bidder gets ready to sign the contract with the client; both the parties ought to respect everything written inside.

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CHAPTER III: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


According to the works and observations done at the site, the points developed in the following paragraphs are highlighted.

The implantation of a building is a large task so that the building team has to be careful in order to achieve the strength and the quality of the building. This care is needed from preliminary studies and design of the building, through terrain excavation and building construction up to the latest work on the building when it is then available for service.

The dumpy level is a very necessary instrument at the construction sites as it easies the work of leveling and a part of quantity surveying where depths are to be determined.

Lack of attention in some works can cause losses in workers and materials and slow down the project. We can say for instance when the builder might be careless about where footings have to be set; once one or more footings are built where they could not be, they will be rearranged and any work done before together with used materials and the time included are a loss.

The skeleton frame is the main support of the whole building and is largely made of concrete. The builder should remember that the preparation of the reinforced concrete and casting it is one of the most important factors to strengthen the building.

The segregation of the concrete is one of the factors to fear while constructing any concrete structure and this has to be avoided as it causes losses of money once structures facing such a case are destroyed and rebuilt. The concrete has to be workable with enough viscosity and the control of the vibration is of great importance to avoid segregation.

In chapter two dealing with the tender process, we can recall that to be a successful bidder, one has to know well all regulations and requirements to write and submit proposals either technical or financial or both of them for a given tender. The law on Public Procurement referred to in this report details everything about the tender process. 29

This internship, even though it spanned not for a long time, it is the good key for any civil engineer preparing to begin his carrier. It develops theoretical acquisitions and translates them into reality.

The National University of Rwanda should keep on strengthening its excellence in education and service to the people as the engineering skills it provides are found practicable and reveal incomparable. It should also make multilateral relations with companies executing engineering works and services in order to help students to get carrying out their internship easily and advantageously for both the students and the company.

The students should feel confident of what they study and make deep research to meet the civil engineering market where they are needed for the country development. The theory we had is not like dreams my dear students; courage!

GLISCO and other companies as well, could have no fear to recruit the National University of Rwanda graduates as they have excellent background in matter of civil engineering carrier.

Ideas of readers of this report about any subject are of great essence. Thanks.

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Copy of the recommendation letter

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Copy of the insurance certificate

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Copy of the admission letter

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References
I. GLISCO by 1. Eng. HABIYAKARE Eric and 2. UWIZEYIMANA Thogne II. STRONG CONSTRUCTION COMPANY by 1. NSABIMANA Callixte III. Textbooks 1. Construction Technology, An illustrated introduction, Eric Fleming; 2. CONSTRUCTION THECHNOLOGY FOURTH EDITION, ROY CHUDLEY AND ROGER GRRENO; 3. Reinforced Concrete, Design Theory and Examples Second Edition. T.J MAC GINLEY and B.S. CHOO BS8110 / NUR Main Library; IV. Electronic sources 1. Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda Year 46 n 8, 15 April 2007/ LAW N 12/2007 OF 27/03/2007 ON PUBLIC PROCUREMENT [http://mininfra.gov.rw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=62&Itemid=93] 2. http://www.bestsampleresume.com/sample-engineering-resume/civil-engineeringresume.html

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