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# Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

SI Version 7th Edition Solution Chapter 11

Claus Borgnakke | Richard E. Sonntag

Borgnakke and Sonntag

CONTENT

SUBSECTION In-text concept questions Concept-Study guide problems Rankine cycles, power plants Simple cycles Reheat cycles Open feedwater heaters Closed feedwater heaters Nonideal cycles Cogeneration Refrigeration cycles Extended refrigeration cycles Ammonia absorption cycles Availability or Exergy Concepts refrigeration cycles Combined cycles Review Problems PROB NO. a-f 1-10 11-28 29-34 35-42 43-49 50-59 60-64 65-80 81-85 86-89 90-98 99-101 102-106 107-115

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Borgnakke and Sonntag

In-Text Concept Questions

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Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.a Consider a Rankine cycle without superheat. How many single properties are needed to determine the cycle? Repeat the answer for a cycle with superheat. a. No superheat. Two single properties. High pressure (or temperature) and low pressure (or temperature). This assumes the condenser output is saturated liquid and the boiler output is saturated vapor. Physically the high pressure is determined by the pump and the low temperature is determined by the cooling medium. b. Superheat. Three single properties. High pressure and temperature and low pressure (or temperature). This assumes the condenser output is saturated liquid. Physically the high pressure is determined by the pump and the high temperature by the heat transfer from the hot source. The low temperature is determined by the cooling medium. 11.b Which component determines the high pressure in a Rankine cycle? What determines the low pressure? The high pressure in the Rankine cycle is determined by the pump. The low pressure is determined as the saturation pressure for the temperature you can cool to in the condenser.

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Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.c What is the difference between an open and a closed feedwater heater? The open feedwater heater mixes the two flows at the extraction pressure and thus requires two feedwater pumps. The closed feedwater heater does not mix the flows but let them exchange energy (it is a two fluid heat exchanger). The flows do not have to be at the same pressure. The condensing source flow is dumped into the next lower pressure feedwater heater or the condenser or it is pumped up to line pressure by a drip pump and added to the feedwater line. 11.d In a cogenerating power plant, what is cogenerated? The electricity is cogenerated. The main product is a steam supply.

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.e A refrigerator in my 20oC kitchen uses R-134a and I want to make ice cubes at – 5oC. What is the minimum high P and the maximum low P it can use? Since the R-134a must give heat transfer out to the kitchen air at 20oC, it must at least be that hot at state 3. From Table B.5.1: P3 = P2 = Psat = 573 kPa is minimum high P.

Since the R-134a must absorb heat transfer at the freezers –5oC, it must at least be that cold at state 4. From Table B.5.1: P1 = P4 = Psat = 245 kPa is maximum low P.

11.f How many parameters are needed to completely determine a standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle? Two parameters: The high pressure and the low pressure. This assumes the exit of the condenser is saturated liquid and the exit of the evaporator is saturated vapor.

.Borgnakke and Sonntag Concept-Study Guide Problems Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

It runs in a Rankine cycle.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. . No.1 Is a steam power plant running in a Carnot cycle? Name the four processes. 1-2: 2-3: 3-4: 4-1: An isentropic compression (constant s) An isobaric heating (constant P) An isentropic expansion (constant s) An isobaric cooling. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. heat rejection (constant P) Pump Boiler Turbine Condenser Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. but v down Turbine exit T: same if it was two-phase. pump work and turbine exit T or x. vapor Turbine exit x: down Pump work: up Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Turbine work: about the same P up. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. down if sup.2 Raising the boiler pressure in a Rankine cycle for fixed superheat and condenser temperatures in what direction do these change: turbine work.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . An increase in heat rejection.3 For other properties fixed in a Rankine cycle raising the condenser temperature causes changes in which work and heat transfer terms? This results in less turbine work out.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. A small reduction in pump work. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. A small reduction in boiler heat addition.

The reheat process brings the states at the lower pressure further out in the superheated vapor region and thus raises the quality (if two-phase) in the last turbine section. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. The reheat raises the average temperature at which you add heat.4 Mention two benefits of a reheat cycle. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.

. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.106 what could have been done to remove any liquid in the flow? A reheat could be done to re-boil the liquid and even superheat it.6 Instead of the moisture separator in Problem 6.106? You avoid larger droplets in the turbine and raise the quality for the later stages.5 What is the benefit of the moisture separator in the powerplant of Problem 6. 11.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.

Other uses could be to heat greenhouses or as general process steam in a food process or paper mill.7 Can the energy removed in a power plant condenser be useful? Yes. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. The condenser then has to operate at a higher temperature than it otherwise would.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. These applications are all based on economics and scale. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. In some applications it can be used for heating buildings locally or as district heating. .

Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.8 If the district heating. .1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.14 kPa Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. P > 70. should supply hot water at 90oC what is the lowest possible condenser pressure with water as the working substance? The condenser temperature must be higher than 90oC for which the saturation pressure is 70. see Fig.1.14 kPa.

9 A heat pump uses carbon dioxide and it is required that it condenses at a minimum of 22oC and receives energy from the outside on a winter day at -10oC. What restrictions does that place on the operating pressures? The high pressure P > Psat = 6003 kPa. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. close to critical P = 7377 kPa The low pressure P < Psat = 2649 kPa Notice for carbon dioxide that the low pressure is fairly high. . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. The working substance then must have a different temperature than the ambient it exchanges energy with. think about the front end air intake grill for a modern car which is very small compared to a car 20 years ago. The refrigerator or heat pump must have the working substance with a higher temperature difference than the reservoirs and thus a lower coefficient of performance (COP). The smaller CA is. This can be a design problem. how does that affect all the real cycles relative to the ideal cycles? .10 Since any heat transfer is driven by a temperature difference. . Heat transfers are given as Q = CA ∆T so to have a reasonable rate the area and the temperature difference must be large. the larger ∆T must be for a certain magnitude of the heat transfer rate.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. This gives a smaller temperature difference for a heat engine with a lower efficiency as a result. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

.Borgnakke and Sonntag Simple Rankine cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

h4 .02 = 194.h2 = 2804.5 kJ/kg ηcycle = wnet / qH = (wT + wp) / qH = (845.8 kJ/kg C.P1) = 0.82) = 1958.34 kJ/kg wT = 2804.10) = 3.3 operating in a Rankine cycle has saturated vapor at 3.14 .V.81 = 1766.8 .0) / 2609. Condenser : qL = h4 .1958.83 = 2609.81 + 3.3 = 0.1869 = 0. . Energy: wp = h2 .11 A steam power plant as shown in Fig.V. Find the specific work and heat transfer in each of the ideal components and the cycle efficiency.323 Boiler 3 QB 2 WP 1 4 Condenser Q WT Turbine T 3 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. 11. Boiler : qH = h3 .h1 . Turbine : wT = h3 .34 = 845. The turbine exhausts to the condenser operating at 10 kPa.7383 (2392.h1 = 1958.02 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wp = 191.0 MPa leaving the boiler. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Pump Reversible and adiabatic.3 kJ/kg C.00101 (3000 .V.81 + 0.7383 => h4 = 191. Entropy: s2 = s1 since incompressible it is easier to find work (positive in) as wp = ∫ v dP = v1 (P2 .83 kJ/kg C.191.194.6492 + x4 (7. Solution: C.501) => x4 = 0.V.14 .34 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. s4 = s3 s4 = s3 = 6.3.

00101(892 .0.V.4/2580.9 = 0.3 kJ/kg Q RAD Solar collector 2 WP 1 3 Turbine T 3 WT 4 Condenser Q 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.3 kJ/kg C.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.83 + 0.89 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 191.6256 kJ/kg K => x4 = 0.6256 = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h2 = 2773.797 × 2392. .3 . Solution: C.8 = 2098. H2O ideal Rankine cycle State 3: T3 = 175°C ⇒ P3 = PG 175°C = 892 kPa. and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa.72 kJ/kg C.P1) = 0.V. s3 = 6.10) = 0.192.6 .V.12 Consider a solar-energy-powered ideal Rankine cycle that uses water as the working fluid. boiler gives the heat transfer from the energy equation as qH = h3 .89 = 192.89 = 674.9 kJ/kg The cycle net work and efficiency are found as wNET = wT .6493 + x4 × 7.3 = 675. Saturated vapor leaves the solar collector at 175°C.2098.797 CV Turbine adiabatic and reversible so second law gives s4 = s3 = 6.5009 The energy equation gives wT = h3 . pump and incompressible liquid gives work into pump wP = v1(P2 .wP = 675. Determine the thermal efficiency of this cycle.6 .261 h4 = 191.h4 = 2773.72 = 2580.83 + 0.4 kJ/kg ηTH = wNET/qH = 674.

s = 0.2.56 kJ/kg wT.13 A power plant for a polar expedition uses ammonia which is heated to 80oC at 1000 kPa in the boiler and the condenser is maintained at -15oC.s = h3 .0.sf 5.04 kJ/kg C. Solution: Standard Rankine cycle with superheat.4971 . From the listed information we get from Table B.h2 = 1614.9 = 1413.001519 m3/kg.3 kPa.6 .56 = 201. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.8 kJ/kg 201.9916 .16 = 112.8 = 1501.V. P1 = 236.4538 = 0.4538 kJ/kgK State 3: h3 = 1614.P1) = 0.6 – 112.66 + 1. sfg = 5.s = 1614.3) = 1.16 = 0.66 + 0.001519(1000 – 236.16 kJ/kg ⌡ ⇒ h2 = h1 + wP = 111. s4 = s3 = 5.8 kJ/kg C.0859 h4 = 111. Boiler: qH = h3 . v1 = 0.4971 kJ/kgK C.8 T 3 ηCYCLE = wNET/qH = P 2 1 3 2 4 v 1 4 s Comment: The cycle efficiency is low due to the low high temperature.1413. Pump: wP = ⌠v dP = v1(P2 .h4. Tubine: Energy: Entropy: ⇒ x4 = wT.133 1501.2 State 1: h1 = 111.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.9916 × 1312. s3 = 5.6 kJ/kg.66 kJ/kg.V. Find the cycle efficiency.V.4971 kJ/kg K s4 . .04 – 1.

76 + 1.881 = 0.09 – 59. Boiler: qH = h3 .64 kJ/kg C.76 kJ/kg (at 0oC ) h3 = 445. State 4: (800 kPa.14 A Rankine cycle with R-410a has the boiler at 3 MPa superheating to 180oC and the condenser operates at 800 kPa. h1 = 57.s = h3 .97 kJ/kg C.V.000855 m3/kg.97 – 57. Pump: wP = ⌠v dP = v1(P2 .64 = 385.h2 = 445.V.45 T 3 4 2 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.385.12 kJ/kg C.12 – 1.148 385.97 = 59. .09 kJ/kg. vap. s = s3) h4 = 385.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Condenser: qL = h4 .76 = 328.881 kJ/kg ⌡ ⇒ h2 = h1 + wP = 57.3661 kJ/kg-K interpolated sup.h4 = 445. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.V. s3 = 1.881 = 59.h1 = 385. State 1: State 3: v1 = 0.21 kJ/kg ηCYCLE = wNET/qH = P 2 1 3 4 v 59.P1) = 0.V.09 .45 kJ/kg wT. Tubine: Energy: C. Find all four energy transfers and the cycle efficiency.000855 (3000 – 800) = 1.

s3 = 7.5261) wT = 3344 – 2239.191 = 3152.42.188.TL / TH = 1 .6) = 3.h1 = 2239.44 kJ/kg C.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.42 + 3.0833 = 0.V.0833 kJ/kg K Entropy: s2 = s1 C.06 .42 = 2050.02 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wp = 188.77) = 2239.V. x = 0 => h1 = 188.0 MPa and the cycle has the highest and lowest temperatures of 450°C and 45°C respectively.273.15 + 45 ηcarnot = 1 . Psat = 9. v1 = 0.3.00101 (3000 .9. Find the plant efficiency and the efficiency of a Carnot cycle with the same temperatures.06 kJ/kg 273.64 kJ/kg ηcycle = wnet / qH = (wT + wp) / qH = (1105 . Boiler : qH = h3 . Turbine : wT = h3 .1.42 + 0.6 kPa 3: 3. Solution: The states properties from Tables B.h2 = 3344 . 450oC => h3 = 3344 kJ/kg.15 + 450 = 0.02 = 191.56 = 0.56 kJ/kg C.8563 => h4 = 188. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.00101 m3/kg.8563 (2394. Energy: wp = h2 . s4 = s3 s4 = s3 = 7.349 => x4 = 0.V. .0 MPa .3 1: 45oC.1. Condenser : qL = h4 .6386 + x4 (7.02) / 3152.h4 .06 = 1105 kJ/kg C.h1 . since incompressible it is easier to find work (positive in) as wp = ∫ v dP = v1 (P2 .1 and B.56 Boiler 3 QB 2 WP 1 Turbine T 3 WT 4 Condenser Q 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.V. Pump Reversible and adiabatic.P1) = 0.15 A utility runs a Rankine cycle with a water boiler at 3.

s = s4 82.23 = 0.24 + 2.56 – (28. s4 = 1.23 kJ/kg wT = h3 – h4 = 426.204 P 2 1 3 4 v T 3 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. h1 = 28.16 A low temperature power plant operates with R-410a maintaining -20oC in the condenser. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. a high pressure of 3 MPa with superheat.2.58 kJ/kg. Find the temperature out of the boiler/superheater so the turbine exit temperature is 60oC and find the overall cycle efficiency.56 – 343. State 1: State 4: Pump: Boiler: Turbine: Efficiency: P1 = 399.09 kJ/kg qH = h3 – h2 = 426.6 kPa.58 = 82. .98 kJ/kg ηTH = wNET/qH = (wT .24 kJ/kg P4 = P1 ≈ 400 kPa. v1 = 0.98 .P1) = 0.6) = 2.3242 kJ/kg-K h3 = 426.09) = 396.56 kJ/kg.000803 (3000 – 399. h4 = 343.wP)/qH = State 3: 3 MPa.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.000803 m3/kg.6oC wp = v1 (P2 .09 396. T3 = 143.

Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.7 kJ/kg.17 A steam power plant operating in an ideal Rankine cycle has a high pressure of 5 MPa and a low pressure of 15 kPa. h4 = 2480. Entropy: s4 = s3 Since the exit state is given we can relate that to the inlet state from entropy. 4: 15 kPa.3 kJ/kg .3 = 4.6458 kJ/kg K. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Turbine assume adiabatic and reversible. x4 = 0.V.2480. Solution: C. P3 ⇒ h3 = 4036.95 => s4 = 7.4 kJ/kg 3: s3 = s4.h4. . Energy: wT = h3 .4 = 1556. The turbine exhaust state should have a quality of at least 95% and the turbine power generated should be 7.5 × 1000/1556.82 kg/s P 2 1 3 v T 3 4 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . Find the necessary boiler exit temperature and the total mass flow rate. T3 = 758°C wT = h3 .7 . m = WT/wT = 7.5 MW.h4 = 4036.

9346 × 163.000873(2926.1.2 .409.10 .29/169.h4 = 428.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.21 = 169.28 = 409. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h2 = 428.1017.89 kJ/kg CV: Turbine s4 = s3 = 1.14 = 18.5214 => h4 = 256.5) 2 wP = h2 .258.18 A supply of geothermal hot water is to be used as the energy source in an ideal Rankine cycle.89 = 0.wP = 18.96 .54 + 0. QL WT T 3 1 4 s 2 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.29 kJ/kg ηTH = wNET/qH = 17.67 = 17.14 kJ/kg Energy Eq.67 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 256.96 kJ/kg wNET = wT . Solution: CV: Pump (use R-134a Table B.21 kJ/kg CV: Boiler qH = h3 .1 .67 = 258.: wT = h3 .54 + 1.0) = 1.1909 + x4 × 0.102 x4 = 0. .9346 3 QH 2 WP. Saturated vapor R-134a leaves the boiler at a temperature of 85°C.h1 = ⌠ vdP ≈ v1(P2-P1) ⌡ 1 = 0. Calculate the thermal efficiency of this cycle. and the condenser temperature is 40°C. in 1 .6782 = 1. with R-134a as the cycle working fluid.

Saturated vapor R-134a leaves the boiler at a temperature of 85°C.4473 + x4 × 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .125. => h4 = 124.71 = 162.9582 × 159.h4 = 287.88 .276.88 .71 kJ/kg CV: Boiler: qH = h3 .17 = 0.09 + 0. in 1 . Solution: CV: Pump (use R-410a Table B.5079.619 kJ/kg ⌡ 1 h2 = h1 + wP = 124. QL WT T 3 2 4 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.93396 = 0.48 = 11. Calculate the thermal efficiency of this cycle.9582 3 QH 2 WP.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.17 kJ/kg CV: Turbine s4 = s3 = 0.18 with R-410a as the working fluid and boiler exit at 4000 kPa.060 x4 = 0.001025(4000 – 2420.04 = 276. A supply of geothermal hot water is to be used as the energy source in an ideal Rankine cycle.1.h1 = ⌠ vdP ≈ v1(P2-P1) = 0. and the condenser temperature is 40°C. with R-134a as the cycle working fluid.4 .4) 2 wP = h2 .48 kJ/kg wT = h3 .7) = 1.19 Do Problem 11.09 + 1.h2 = 287. 70°C.62)/162.4 kJ/kg ηTH = wNET/qH = (11.619 = 125.

113 => x4 = 0.8643 × 1098.3901 = 1.18 with ammonia as the working fluid. Saturated vapor R-134a leaves the boiler at a temperature of 85°C.9) = 5.13 = 126. QL WT T 3 1 4 s 4 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.27 = 376.67 .376. .13 kJ/kg Energy Eq.8 .27 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 371.001725(4608.5088 h4 = 371.4 kJ/kg ηTH = wNET/qH = 121.wP = 126.4/1071.6 .8643 3 QH 2 WP.7 kJ/kg CV: Boiler qH = h3 .h4 = 1447.27 = 121.43 + 5.5.1321. Solution: CV: Pump (use Ammonia Table B.1 = 0.7 = 1071.8 = 1321. and the condenser temperature is 40°C.3574 + x4 × 3.8 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. in 1 .h2 = 1447.1554.67 kJ/kg wNET = wT . with R-134a as the cycle working fluid.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.43 + 0. Calculate the thermal efficiency of this cycle.20 Do Problem 11. A supply of geothermal hot water is to be used as the energy source in an ideal Rankine cycle.h1 = ⌠2 vdP = v1(P2-P1) ⌡1 = 0.: wT = h3 .1 kJ/kg CV: Turbine s4 = s3 = 4.2) wP = h2 .

-QAB = mH2O(hA .0) = 1. .8813 × 17.hB) = 2(397.000873(2926.hC) ⇒ hC = 323.96 kJ/kg => x4 = 0. = mR134A(428.18 where the geothermal hot water brings the R-134a to saturated vapor. The restrictive factor is the boiling temperature of 85° C.V. liquid R-134a 2 LIQUID HEATER D BOILER .1909 + x4 × 0. calculate TC from the energy equation for the remaining section: . -QAC = 0. vap R-134a 85oC sat liq . If 2 kg/s of geothermal water is available at 95°C.332.5214 wT = h3 .12 kW .96 .88) = 84. The geothermal water temperature should be equal to or greater than the R-134a temperature at any location inside the heat exchanger.67 = 258.1 kJ/kg.60 kW = 2(355. Assume a counter flowing heat exchanger arrangement. TC = 77.409.28 = 409.355.1 . is the restrictive factor.29 = 15.h4 = 428.67 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 256.14 = 18.65 .21 Consider the boiler in Problem 11.8813 kg/s To be sure that the boiling temp. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.88 . . break the process up from 2-3 into two parts as shown in the diagram.94 . -QBC at 85 oC liquid H2O out CV Pump: C B liq H2O at 85 oC A liquid H2O 95 oC wP = v1(P2-P1) = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.8813(332.54 + 0.65) ⇒ mR134A = 0. what is the maximum power output of this cycle for R-134a as the working fluid? (hint: split the heat exchanger C.14 kJ/kg wNET = wT .6782 = 1.2°C > T2 = 40°C OK CV: Turbine: Energy Eq.9346 × 163. -QAB 3 sat.: Cycle: s4 = s3 = 1. WNET = mR134AwNET = 0. .wP = 18.1.9346 h4 = 256. The point with the smallest temperature difference between the source and the working fluid is called the pinch point.2 .29 kJ/kg . T = 85°C appears).67 = 17. . 2 kg/s of water is available at 95 oC for the boiler.1017.54 + 1. Therefore.258.21 kJ/kg Write the energy equation for the first section A-B and D-3: .1 . into two so the pinch point with ∆T = 0.24 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.21) = 65.

4 = 12. -QAB = mH2O(hA . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.67 . 1554.hC) hC = 344.21) ⇒ mamn = 0.43 + 0.hB) = 2(397. -QAB LIQUID HEATER sat liq .wP = 126. .27 = 376. break the process up from 23 into two parts as shown in the diagram.4 kJ/kg => x4 = 0.27 = 121.3574 + x4 × 3.88 . vap Amn 85oC B liq H2O at 85 oC A liquid H2O 95 oC 40oC.14 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.94 . .9) = 5. The restrictive factor is the boiling temperature of 85oC.8 = 1321.7 kJ/kg . -QAC = 0.8 .9 kPa. Therefore.27 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 371.25 kJ/kg ⇒ TC = 82.7) = 23.3901 = 1. A flow with 2 kg/s of water is available at 95oC for the boiler.21 . .43 + 5.100 kg/s To verify that TD = T3 is the restrictive factor.001725(4608.1321.13 kJ/kg Energy Eq.5088 h4 = 371.376.6 . .22 Do the previous problem with ammonia as the working fluid.13 = 126. = mamn(1447.609.1554.8643 × 1098.12 kW .25 = 2.8643 . v1 = 0.100(609. WNET = mamnwNET = 0.1 × 121.5.5oC > T2 = 40oC OK CV: Turbine s4 = s3 = 4.0(355. find TC.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. liquid Amn liquid H2O out State 1: CV Pump: C 2 D BOILER .: wT = h3 .001725 m3/kg wP = v1(P2 -P1) = 0.355.8 . .67 kJ/kg wNET = wT .h4 = 1447. -QBC at 85 oC 3 sat.88) = 84.

001017 m3/kg.62 + 3.P1) = 0. Pump: wP = ⌠v dP = v1(P2 .97 = 59.h2 = 421.5 kJ/kg C.12 kJ/kg 59. State 1: State 3: v1 = 0.s = h3 .7 kPa. h1 = 63. Boiler: qH = h3 .408 kJ/kg ⌡ ⇒ h2 = h1 + wP = 63.V.V.V. P1 = 2648.148 385.408 = 67.4241 kJ/kg-K interpolated sup.09 .23 A low temperature power plant operates with carbon dioxide maintaining -10oC in the condenser.001017 (6000 – 2648.881 = 0. s = s3) h4 = 372.45 C.12 – 1.62 kJ/kg.7 kPa h3 = 421. Tubine: Energy: ηCYCLE = wNET/qH = Boiler 3 QB 2 WP 1 Turbine T 3 WT 4 Condenser Q 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Find the turbine exit temperature and the overall cycle efficiency.h4 = 445.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.69 kJ/kg.03 kJ/kg C. . vap.385.7) = 3.03 = 354. State 4: (2648. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.69 – 67. s3 = 1.66 kJ/kg wT. a high pressure of 6 MPa and it superheats to 100oC.

1418. Determine the turbine power output and the pump power input for the cycle.2328×106 kW 1.29 . b.615) = 0.69 = 41 690 kW Pump: wP ≈ v3(P4 . P11. The plant was designed to operate in a location where the ocean water temperature is 25°C near the surface and 5°C at some greater depth. 41 690 .29 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.387 = 387 kW b) Consider condenser heat transfer to the low T water .96.9726 h2 = 227.47) = 1.h2 = 1460.1915×106 kW 1.387 ηTH = WNET/QH = = 0.98 = 141 850 kg/s h4 = h3 + wP = 227. .20. The mass flow rate of the working fluid is 1000 kg/s. s2 = s1 = 5.08 + 0.39 = 227.6 kJ/kg wT = h1 . Assume reversible and adiabatic. c. Qfrom high T H2O = 1000(1460.87 . What is the thermal efficiency of this power plant? Solution: a) C.387 kJ/kg .227.2328×106 . Determine the mass flow rate of water through each heat exchanger.V.1915×106 .227.69 kJ/kg .033 1. mhigh T H2O = 104. a.24.8779 + x2 × 4. mlow T H2O = 29.08 + 0. in WT 2 . . Qto low T H2O = 1000(1418. Turbine.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.P3) = 0.08) = 1.24 Consider the ammonia Rankine-cycle power plant shown in Fig.2328×106 1 Q H 4 3 WP.50 = 147 290 kg/s c) .9726 × 1225.3269 => x2 = 0.09 = 1418.6 = 41.0016(857 .6 .47 kJ/kg Now consider the boiler heat transfer from the high T water . . WP = mwP = 1000 × 0. QL T 1 3 2 s 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.38 . .0863 = 0. WT = mwT = 1000 × 41.

6963 => x2 = 0.V.83 + 0.25 Do problem 11. Qto low T H2O = 1000(287.4502) = 1.425 = 114.96 .1807 × 106 kW 0. a.87 .24 with carbon dioxide as the working fluid. mlow T H2O = 29.20. Consider the ammonia Rankine-cycle power plant shown in Fig.2749 × 106 . Qfrom high T H2O = 1000(294. Assume reversible and adiabatic.88726 h2 = 112. WT = mwT = 1000 × 7.112.001161(5729 .287.26) = 0.2749 ×106 kW 0.26 kJ/kg Now consider the boiler heat transfer from the high T water .24. mhigh T H2O = 104.98 = 32 728 kg/s h4 = h3 + wP = 112.1807 ×106 .206 = 7 206 kW Pump: wP ≈ v3(P4 . The mass flow rate of the working fluid is 1000 kg/s. The plant was designed to operate in a location where the ocean water temperature is 25°C near the surface and 5°C at some greater depth.83) = 0.4228 + x2 × 0.h2 = 294.88726 × 197.50 = 21 589 kg/s c) . .P3) = 0. b. . s2 = s1 = 1. P11.75 = 7.425 = 1425 kW b) Consider condenser heat transfer to the low T water . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0406 = 0. .1807 ×106 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.15 = 287.206 kJ/kg . Determine the turbine power output and the pump power input for the cycle.96.1425 ηTH = WNET/QH = = 0.032 0. Turbine.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. 7 206 . c. .38 .83 + 1. What is the thermal efficiency of this power plant? Solution: a) C.75 kJ/kg wT = h1 . WP = mwP = 1000 × 1.96 .425 kJ/kg .75 . Determine the mass flow rate of water through each heat exchanger.114.

. in WT 2 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 1 Q H 4 3 WP. QL T 1 3 2 s 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

QL = mqL = 25 × 2186 = 54. 600oC: h3 = 3682.1.00101 (3000 .34 – 2374.3 1: 45oC.9128 => h4 = 188.V.18 × 3) = 4358 kg/s Boiler 3 QB 2 WP 1 Turbine T 3 WT 4 Condenser Q 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Turbine : wT = h3 . mocean = QL / Cp ∆T = 54 650 / (4. It cools the condenser with ocean water coming in at 12oC and returned at 15oC so the condenser exit is at 45oC.1. WNET = m(wT – wp) = 25 (1307.4 kJ/kg wT = 3682. .77) = 2374. .42 kJ/kg. Find the net power output and the required mass flow rate of ocean water.5084 kJ/kg K Entropy: s2 = s1 C. Energy: wp = h2 . s4 = s3 s4 = s3 = 7.V.h4 . .02 kJ/kg C.1 and B.V.5261) => x4 = 0.0 MPa. Psat = 9. 600oC in the boiler.4 .94 – 3. . . Solution: The states properties from Tables B.5084 = 0.h1 . Pump Reversible and adiabatic.26 A smaller power plant produces 25 kg/s steam at 3 MPa.59 kPa 3: 3.00101 m3/kg.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.94 kJ/kg .9128 (2394. since incompressible it is easier to find work (positive in) as wp = ∫ v dP = v1 (P2 . s3 = 7. v1 = 0.34 kJ/kg.6 MW C. x = 0: h1 = 188.188.h1 = 2374.P1) = 0.42 + 0.02) = 32.4 = 1307.9.42 = 2186 kJ/kg . Condenser : qL = h4 .6386 + x4 (7.6) = 3.65 MW = mocean Cp ∆T .

5 kJ/kg wT.10) = 3.341 3036 T 3 2 4 v 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.9211 kJ/kg K Entropy: C.2192.83 kJ/kg C.h1 = 2192.11 is modified to have a super heater section following the boiler so the steam leaves the super heater at 3.191. Find the specific work and heat transfer in each of the ideal components and the cycle efficiency. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.V.02 = 194.02 kJ/kg ⌠ ⇒ h2 = h1 + wP = 191.81 + 0.0.82 – 194.P1) = 0. Solution: C.h2 = 3230. sfg = 7.82 = 2192. s4 = s3 = 6.sf 6.0 MPa.s = 3230.3 – 3.5 .83 = 3036 kJ/kg wT.3 kJ/kg C.9211 . 400°C.5 = 1038.83614 .02 = 0.V. Condenser: qC = h4 . Boiler: qH = h3 .7 kJ/kg ηCYCLE = wNET/qH = P 2 1 3 1038.501 h4 = 191. Pump: wP = ⌡v dP = v1(P2 .81 = 2000.V.00101(3000 .6492 = 0. Tubine: Energy: ⇒ x4 = s4 .82 .s = h3 .V.83614 × 2392.h4.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.81 + 3.27 The power plant in Problem 11. .

Turbine.501 x4 = 0.63.5 kJ/kg wp = h2 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. such as the instance in which the high-temperature energy source is the hot exhaust gas from a gas-turbine engine.0342 = 0.7179 Very low for a turbine exhaust h3 = 3275.7 – 30. and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa.4 State 1: s1 = 0.7 kJ/kg Steam generator: qH = h3 .28 Consider an ideal Rankine cycle using water with a high-pressure side of the cycle at a supercritical pressure. wT = h3 .36 kJ/kg h4 = 191. h1 = 191.6492 kJ/kg K.h4 = 1365.69 = 1335 kJ/kg η = wNET/qH = 1335 / 3052.81 kJ/kg Entropy Eq.9 kJ/kg wNET = wT − wp = 1365.V. Assume reversible and adiabatic. 550°C. .V.h1 = 30. Entropy Eq.81 + x4 × 2392.6492 + x4 × 7.82 = 1909.: s4 = s3 = 6. For this high exit pressure we use Table B. Pump. What is the steam quality at the turbine exit? Solution: For the efficiency we need the net work and steam generator heat transfer.9 = 0. Such a cycle has a potential advantage of minimizing local temperature differences between the fluids in the steam generator.69 kJ/kg C. C.h2 = 3052.1.: s2 = s1 => h2 = 222. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle if the state entering the turbine is 30 MPa.437 P 2 3 T 3 30 MPa 2 1 4 v 5 kPa 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag Reheat Cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

V.59 kPa 6 s QH 2 WP 1 5 4 6 Condenser WT QL The states properties from Tables B.V. T5 = 529oC Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. For this reheat find the total turbine power output and the boiler heat transfer.02 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp = 188.V.02 = 191. T4 = 314oC C. 600oC in the boiler.1647 kJ/kg K => state 5 State 5: 500 kPa.P1) = 0. x = 1: h6 = 2583. Psat = 9. s6 = 8.29 A smaller power plant produces steam at 3 MPa. Boiler cb 3 Turbine T 3 2 1 3 MPa 5 4 9.44 kJ/kg C. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. x = 0: h1 = 188. LP Turbine section Entropy Eq.h1 .: s4 = s3 => h4 = 3093.34 kJ/kg.: s6 = s5 = 8.26 kJ/kg.00101 (3000 .0 MPa.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. It keeps the condenser at 45oC by transfer of 10 MW out as heat transfer.59) = 3.3 1: 45oC.55 kJ/kg.9.5084 kJ/kg K 6: 45oC. Pump Reversible and adiabatic.1 and B.00101 m3/kg.42 kJ/kg. Find the reheat temperature so the turbine output is saturated vapor. Energy: wp = h2 .1. s3 = 7. s5 => h5 = 3547.42 + 3. HP Turbine section Entropy Eq. Entropy: s2 = s1 since incompressible it is easier to find work (positive in) as wp = ∫ v dP = v1 (P2 . .1.59 kPa 3: 3. 600oC: h3 = 3682. v1 = 0. The first turbine section expands to 500 kPa and then flow is reheated followed by the expansion in the low pressure turbine.1647 kJ/kg K C.19 kJ/kg.

QH = m(h3 . Energy Eq.77 = 4. .55 – 2583.26) = 16 475 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.h6) = 4.34 – 191.44 + 3547.V. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h4 + h5 .Borgnakke and Sonntag C.h4) = 4.34 . WT.19) = 6487 kW Both boiler sections .176 (3682.h2 + h5 .77 kJ/kg . .55 . m = QL / qL = 10 000 / 2394.: qL = h6 – h1 = hfg = 2394. .3093.tot = mwT.176 kg/s Both turbine sections .tot = m(h3 .176 (3682. .26 +3547. . Condenser.3093.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.V.59 kPa 3: 3. Incompressible flow so Energy: wp = h2 .V.26) = 91 737 kW Boiler cb 7.tot – wp) = 25 (1395.34 kJ/kg.tot = h3 .83 – 2465.6) = 3. x = 0: h1 = 188.83 . LP Turbine section Entropy Eq.h4) = 25 (3682.0.1 kJ/kg 3 Turbine T 3 2 1 3 MPa 5 4 9.81 – 3.3093. Psat = 9.1.7937 kJ/kg K C. 600oC in the boiler.6386 = 0. 400oC: h3 = 3682. . v1 = 0.77 = 2465.9507 7.h1 = v1(P2 . s5 = 7.7937 kJ/kg K => two-phase state x6 = (s6 .9507 × 2394. 600oC: 5: 500 kPa. .h6 = 3682. . . s3 = 7. Pump Reversible and adiabatic.3093. Solution: The states properties from Tables B.1 and B.0 MPa. . Wnet = WT .7937 .: s6 = s5 = 7.59 kPa 6 s QH 2 WP 1 5 4 6 Condenser WT QL Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.02) = 34 820 kW Both boiler sections .sf)/sfg = Both turbine sections wT.42 + 0.1.Wp = m(wT.83 kJ/kg. Find the net power output and the total heat transfer in the boiler.h2 + h5 .26 + 3271.h4 + h5 . It cools the condenser with ocean water so the condenser exit is at 45oC.00101 (3000 .30 A smaller power plant produces 25 kg/s steam at 3 MPa.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. QH = m(h3 . There is a reheat done at 500 kPa up to 400oC and then expansion in the low pressure turbine.5261 h6 = 188.42 kJ/kg.34 .34 – 191.02 kJ/kg C.44 + 3271.P1) = 0.5084 kJ/kg K h5 = 3271.1 = 1395.00101 m3/kg.9.3 1: 45oC.81 kJ/kg .

73 = 2726.V.: s6 = s5 = 7.36 – 2726.: s2 = s1 => h2 = 222.956907 h4 = 1008.72 = 3782.2337 kJ/kg-K C. Find the combined specific turbine work and the total specific heat transfer in the boiler. .87782 h6 = 191. Turbine section 1.6492 + x6 × 7.5412. Entropy Eq. For the efficiency we need the net work and steam generator heat transfer. Pump.: s4 = s3 = 6. Entropy Eq.81 + x6 × 2392.36 – 222.6 kJ/kg wT = h3 – h4 + h5 – h6 = 3275.6492 kJ/kg K.48 kJ/kg.5 kJ/kg State 3: h3 = 3275. State 5: h5 = 3456.41 + x4 × 1795.48 – 2292.2337 = 0.6 + 1164.21 = 1712.76 + 3456.8 kJ/kg P T 5 2 1 6 v 1 6 30 MPa 3 MPa 5 5 kPa s Turbine: 2 3 4 3 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.0342 = 2. Assume reversible and adiabatic. h1 = 191.28 and assume the turbine first expands to 3 MPa then a reheat to 500oC with a further expansion in the low pressure turbine to 10 kPa. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.4 State 1: s1 = 0.86 + 729. C. s5 = 7.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.V.76 kJ/kg.48 – 2726.27 kJ/kg Steam generator: qH = h3 – h2 + h5 – h4 = 3275.V.1.81 kJ/kg Entropy Eq. s3 = 6.5 + 3456. x6 = 0.501.6456 + x4 × 3. Assume reversible and adiabatic.27 = 548. For this high exit pressure we use Table B.0342 kJ/kg-K C.82 = 2292.31 Consider the supercritical cycle in problem 11.36 kJ/kg.76 = 3052. x4 = 0. Turbine section 2.

T3 = 400oC => h3 = 3230. C.tot .h4 = 3036 + 3267.362 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.82 = 2400 kJ/kg wT.h6 = 3230.92285 = 0. HP Turbine section P3 = 3 MPa.6 kJ/kg.923 x6 = s = 7.00101(3000 .9211 kJ/kg K s4 = s3 => h4 = 2891. Pump reversible.82 .h2 = 3230.2891.tot = h3 .8 MPa.194.501 fg h6 = 191.2891.81 + 3.wP)/qH = (1237.82 kJ/kg. Calculate the cycle thermal efficiency and the moisture content of the steam leaving the low-pressure turbine.5 = 0.32 Consider an ideal steam reheat cycle where steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 3.02 = 194.: s6 = s5 = 7. adiabatic and assume incompressible flow wP = v1(P2 .5715 .V. LP Turbine section State 5: 400oC.6492 = 0.02)/3411.2400 = 1237.10) = 3. 400°C.8 MPa => h5 = 3267.83 = 3036 kJ/kg qH = qH1 + h5 .82 .sf 7.3.5715 kJ/kg K Entropy Eq.8 kJ/kg qH1 = h3 .0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.02 kJ/kg.6+3267. It is then reheated to 400°C and expands to 10 kPa in the low-pressure turbine.V. 0.5 kJ/kg ηCYCLE = (wT.8 . Solution: C. s3 = 6.h4 + h5 . .V.1 . h2 = h1 + wP = 191.81 + 0.1 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.6 = 3411. and then expands to 0.0 MPa.92285 × 2392. s5 = 7.5715 kJ/kg K => two-phase state s6 .1 kJ/kg.83 kJ/kg Boiler cb 3 Turbine T 4 3 MPa 3 4 2 1 6 s QH 2 WP 1 5 5 10 kPa WT 6 Condenser QL C.P1) = 0.

82 kJ/kg.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.81 + 3. P5 = P4 => h5 = 3263.sf)/sfg Total turbine work: Total boiler H.02 kJ/kg.99 kJ/kg State 4: P4.6 MPa: h4 = 2793. s3 = 6.465 kJ/kg K.h4 ηCYCLE = (wT. Solution Boiler cb 3 Turbine T 3 MPa 3 4 2 1 6 s QH 2 WP 1 5 4 6 Condenser 5 10 kPa WT QL C.0 3437.3 kJ/kg.29 twice.h4 + h5 . 400oC => h3 = 3230. s5 = 7.6 0.10) = 3.3527 0.6 and 1.33 The reheat pressure affects the operating variables and thus turbine performance.V. using 0.194.2 kJ/kg state 4 is sup.tot – wP)/qH h6 2366 2443. adiabatic and assume incompressible flow wP = v1(P2 .9211 kJ/kg K Low T boiler section: qH1 = h3 .02 = 194.9 kJ/kg.82 . State 6: 10 kPa.h2 = 3230.9087 0. h2 = h1 + wP = 191.5 wT 1187.9410 wT.9 1228.7 ηCYCLE 0. For P4 = 0.3563 Notice the very small changes in efficiency.tot = h3. vapor State 5: 400oC. Pump reversible.83 = 3035. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0 qH 3359.h6 qH = qH1 + h5 .00101(3000 . s4 = s3 For P4 = 1 MPa: h4 = 2940.P1) = 0.83 kJ/kg State 3: 3 MPa.7078 kJ/kg K.85 kJ/kg state 4 is sup. . s5 = 7.Tr. s6 = s5 => x6 = (s6 . Repeat Problem 11. vapor State 5: 400oC.: Cycle efficiency: x6 P4=P5 1 0.0 MPa for the reheat pressure. P5 = P4 => h5 = 3270.

same flow rate through all sections 2 1 400 C 10 kPa o 4 6 8 s wT = (h3 .9 kJ/kg Total turbine work.5 + 668. Repeat Problem 11.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.00101(3000 . P6 = P7 = 0.V.1 kJ/kg Cycle efficiency: ηTH = wT .1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.2 kJ/kg 7: h7 = 3276. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.6 = 1363.h6) = 3036 + 319. h4 = 2985. vapor h8 = 2607. Pump reversible.29 using two reheat stages.3 5: h5 = 3260.10) = 3.wP 1363.2 MPa and the second at 0.5 + 449.02 kJ/kg.P1) = 0.2 MPa T 3 MPa 3 5 7 3: h3 = 3230.9211 kJ/kg K 4: P4.356 qH = 3821. s5 = 7.5 kJ/kg.h2) + (h5 .3.81 + 3. adiabatic and assume incompressible flow. s4 = s3 ⇒ sup.8 + 465.h4) + (h7 .h6) + (h7 .6 .02 = 0.3773 kJ/kg K 6: P6.6 kJ/kg Total heat transfer in boiler. s3 = 6.2217 kJ/kg K 8: P8. instead of the single reheat stage at 0. s6 = s5 ⇒ sup.82 kJ/kg. one stage at 1.34 The effect of a number of reheat stages on the ideal steam reheat cycle is to be studied.83 kJ/kg P4 = P5 = 1. s7 = 8.h8) = 245.3 = 3821.2 MPa. vapor h6 = 2811. C.8 MPa. same flow rate through all sections qH = (h3 .2 MPa.7 kJ/kg.02 = 194. vap. work in wP = v1(P2 . s8 = s7 ⇒ sup. h2 = h1 + wP = 191. .h4) + (h5 .

. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag Open Feedwater Heaters Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

CV Feedwater heater.h = 1479.4971 kJ/kgK 3: h3 = 171. s6 = s1 => h6 = 1479. 1000 kPa and the condenser operates at -15oC. . A single open “feed water” heater operates at 400 kPa with an exit state of saturated liquid.909 kJ/kg Analyze the turbine: 6: 400 kPa.001519 m3/kg × (400 – 236.35 A power plant for a polar expedition uses ammonia and the boiler exit is 80oC.909 = 0.226 kJ/kg 1: h1 = 111.11.66 + 0. States given and fixed from knowing Fig.h2 171.3) kPa = 111. v1 = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.6 kJ/kg.001519 m3/kg Analyze the pump: h2 = h1 + wP1 = h1 + v1 (P2 – P1) = 111.111.66 kJ/kg. s5 = 5.0434 6 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Find the mass fraction extracted in the turbine.226 .6 . 11.909 x = h .10: 5: h5 = 1614.5: h3 .11.6 kJ/kg Analyze the FWH leads to Eq.

45 kJ/kg.h2 908. this is interpolated With the values substituted into the energy equation we get . to P2 3 C. 275°C.1.3: h6 = 2963 kJ/kg. m2 + m 6 = m 3 Feedwater heater 2 Feedwater from P1 .1. 2 MPa. .36 An open feedwater heater in a regenerative steam power cycle receives 20 kg/s of water at 100°C.h = 20 × 2963 .: . .77 kJ/kg Table B. h3 .: Energy Eq. Table B. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . . m2h2 + m6h6 = m3h3 = (m2 + m6) h3 Table B.754 kg/s 6 3 Remark: For lower pressures at state 2 where Table B.10 in main text. What is the required mass flow rate of the extraction steam? Solution: From turbine 6 The complete diagram is as in Figure 11.45 m6 = m2 h . .1.77 .2: h3 = 908.V Feedwater heater Continuity Eq.77 = 4.4 may not have an entry the corresponding saturated liquid at same T from Table B.4: h2 = 420.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. The extraction steam from the turbine enters the heater at 2 MPa. . . . and all the feedwater leaves as saturated liquid.1.908.1.420.1 is used. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

000855 m3/kg State 5: h5 = 329.V.37 A low temperature power plant operates with R-410a maintaining -20oC in the condenser.: (1 . s5 = 1.1116 × 290. .1 – (1 .76 kJ/kg.1116 6 2 C.32 = 28.9983.2oC.32 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wP1 = 28. There is one open “feed water” heater operating at 800 kPa with an exit as saturated liquid at 0oC.1116) × 271. h1 = 28. .56 kJ/kg .52 kJ/kg Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. v1 = 0. C.24 kJ/kg. .76 – 28.000803 (800 .y)mTOTh7 wT = h5 – y h6 – (1 – y) h7 = 329.000803 m3/kg State 3: x3 = 0.56 y = h – h = 290. v3 = 0.h1 = v1(P2 .076 kJ/kg K State 6: s6 = s5 => T6 = 10.1 kJ/kg.xmTOTh6 .V.400) = 0. P1 cb 2 3 1 400 kPa 7 s P2 1 State 1: x1 = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.y) h2 + y h6 = 1 h3 h3 – h2 57. h3 = 57. 5 T TURBINE HP LP 6 5 4 6 3 MPa 800 kPa STEAM GEN FWH 3 4 2 7 COND.P1) = 0. h6 = 290.56 = 0.1 kJ/kg State 7: s7 = s5 => x7 = (s7 – sf)/sfg = 0.5 kJ/kg C. Find the extraction fraction of the flow out of the turbine and the turbine work per unit mass flowing through the boiler. h7 = 271. Turbine . .5 = 55. .0.V Pump P1 wP1 = h2 .24 + 0.(1 . a high pressure of 3 MPa with superheat to 80oC. WT = mTOTh5 .1 – 28. Feedwater heater: Call m6 / mtot = y (the extraction fraction) Energy Eq.1 – 0.

7979(2235. Find the fraction of the flow for extraction to the feedwater and the total condenser heat transfer rate.38 A steam power plant has high and low pressures of 20 MPa and 10 kPa.P1) = 0. x = 0) h3 = 762.98 × 0.0544 . The physical components and the T-s diagram is as shown in Fig. .x)m5h2 = m5h3 h3 . 11.001127 m3/kg Pump P1: wP1 = v1(P2 . and one open feedwater heater operating at 1 MPa with the exit as saturated liquid. .8 kJ/kg.1 . . x = 0) h1 = 191.7 = 1056.h2 762. WT = mTOTh5 .85391 × 2392. v3 = 0.3 = 2. State 1: (P.8 kJ/kg.1 kJ/kg Find specific turbine work to get total flow rate .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.1 kJ/kg . The maximum temperature is 800°C and the turbine has a total power output of 5 MW.3 . T) h5 = 4069. . s7 = s6 = s5 ⇒ x7 = (7.x)h7) = mTOT × 1677. From the Steam Tables: State 5: (P.(1 . .0.85391 h7 = 191. v1 = 0.6493)/7.x)mTOTh7 = .192. s5 = 7.98 kg/s .10 in the main text for one open feedwater heater. QL = mTOT (1-x) (h7-h1) = 2.h6 = 4069.00101 m3/kg State 3: (P. Feedwater Heater (mTOT = m5): 6 2 .(1 .81 ⇒ x = h . .81 = 0. .81) = 4858 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. mTOT = 5000/1677. xm5h6 + (1 .00101 × 990 = 1 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP1 = 192.7 kJ/kg wT56 = h5 .7 .0544 kJ/kg K. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .5009 = 0.81 + 0.81 kJ/kg Turbine 5-6: s6 = s5 ⇒ h6 = 3013.192.xh6 .8 .191.8 – 3013.xmTOTh6 .2021 To get state 7 into condenser consider turbine. = mTOT × (h5 .81 kJ/kg. .h = 3013. The same state numbering is used.82 = 2235.

Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.0434) × 1413.226 kJ/kg 1: h1 = 111. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.11.936 = 1442 kJ/kg Cycle efficiency: η = wnet / qH = 196.15 – 0.56 = 198.249 = 111.10: 5: h5 = 1614. v1 = 0.001519 m3/kg Analyze the pump: wP1 = v1 (P2 – P1) = 0.936 – (1-0.6 – 0.909 kJ/kg Analyze the turbine: 6: 400 kPa.66 kJ/kg. 11.1366 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.39 Find the cycle efficiency for the cycle in Problem 11. s5 = 5.6 – 171.249 = 196.4971 kJ/kgK 3: h3 = 171.56 kJ/kg Analyze the FWH leads to Eq.0434 6 2 wT = h5 – y h6 – (1 – y) h7 = 1614.6 .98 / 1442 = 0.98 kJ/kg Boiler: qH = h5 – h4 = h5 – (h3 + wP2) = 1614.226 .65 – 0.66 + 0.6 kJ/kg.0434 × 1479. s7 = s5 => h7 = 1413.936 kJ/kg Net work: wnet = wT – wP2 – (1 – y) wP1 = 198.909 y = h .6 kJ/kg 7: -15 C.35 CV Feedwater heater. States given and fixed from knowing Fig.6 – (1 – 0.249 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP1 = 111. s6 = s5 => h6 = 1479. .0434) 0.5: h3 .h2 171.001519 m3/kg × (400 – 236.h = 1479.909 = 0.111.3) kPa = 0.15 kJ/kg Pump 2 gives: wP2 = v3 (P4 – P3) = 0.11.00156 m3/kg × (1000 – 400) kPa = 0.

V Pump P2 wP2 = h4 .h3 = v3(P4 . adiabatic: s7 = s6 = s5 State 6: P6 .6 kJ/kg.x) h2 + x h6 = 1 h3 h3 .42 kJ/kg C. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.9. From 4 3 FWH condenser 2 Pump 2 State out of boiler 5: h5 = 4378.h2 762.0 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wP1 = 188.V.40 A power plant with one open feedwater heater has a condenser temperature of 45°C. Find the fraction of extraction steam flow and the two specific pump work inputs. Feedwater heater: Energy Eq. T6 = 574oC C.: .1661 6 2 C. Call m6 / mtot = x (the extraction fraction) (1 .9593 kJ/kg K C.189. Turbine reversible.P1) = 0. Extraction steam at 1 MPa to the feedwater heater is mixed with the feedwater line so the exit is saturated liquid into the second pump. a maximum pressure of 5 MPa.42 + 1.001127(5000 .00101(1000 .79 . and boiler exit temperature of 900°C.189. Solution: From turbine 6 Pump 1 1 To boiler The complete diagram is as in Figure 11.82 kJ/kg.6 .P3) = 0. . .h1 = v1(P2 .1000) = 4.42 x = h .5 kJ/kg Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.6) = 1. s6 => h6 = 3640.10 in the main text. s5 = 7.h = 3640.42 = 0.0 = 189.V.V Pump P1 wP1 = h2 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.

h6 + (1 .0 MPa.(1 .h4 = 3230.81 + 0.798 – 2.82 = 2192.001115(3000 .2 kJ/kg ηcycle = wnet / qH = 896.6 kJ/kg (superheated vapor) s7 = s6 = s5 = 6.192.55) = 899.45 kJ/kg h4 = h3 + wP2 = 721. .45 = 896. FWH .2 / 2507.55 kJ/kg CV Boiler: CV Turbine 2nd Law s7 = s6 = s5 = 6.6492 = 0.h2 721. .1 .6 . .798 = 192.501 P6 .11.wP2 = 899.9211 => x7 = qH = h5 .1988)0.800) = 2.1988) ( 2891.357 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.8 MPa for an open feedwater heater.1 + 2.x) (h6 . and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa.83614 7.9211 .h = 2891. The feedwater leaves the heater as saturated liquid.3 .81 + x7 2392.0. WT / m5 = h5 . Solution: This is a standard Rankine cycle with an open FWH as shown in Fig.82 – 2891.55 = 2507.6 + (1 . The appropriate pumps are used for the water leaving the condenser and the feedwater heater.x) h2 + x h6 = 1 h3 h3 .61 kJ/kg C.V Pump P1 wP1 = h2 .P1) = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.P3) = 0.x) wP1 .192.3 kJ/kg => h7 = 191. 400°C.723.10) = 0.41 Consider an ideal steam regenerative cycle in which steam enters the turbine at 3.45 = 723.9211 kJ/kg K 6. s6 => h6 = 2891.1958 6 2 C.V. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the net work per kilogram of steam.82 .h1 = v1(P2 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.61 x = h .00101(800 .(1 .h3 = v3(P4 .0.10 C.798 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wP1 = 191.6 – 2192.V Pump P2 wP2 = h4 .h7) wT = 3230.3 = 0.0.3 kJ/kg P2 has the full flow and P1 has the fraction 1-x of the flow wnet = wT .61 = 0. Call m6 / mtot = x (the extraction fraction) (1 .55 kJ/kg Turbine has full flow in HP section and fraction 1-x in LP section .

10. s6 = s5 CV P1 => h6 = 3270.35) = 0.31 = 2261. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . 11.001012 m3/kg. Find the mass flow rate of the extraction flow.h = 3270. .209. The condenser operates at 50°C dumping energy to a river that has an average temperature of 20°C.85 × 20 × 2261. = mH2O ∆hH2O = mH2O (hf25 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. s5 = 7. If the river water should not be heated more than 5°C how much water should be pumped from the river to the heat exchanger (condenser)? Solution: The setup is as shown in Fig. m6 = x m5 = 0.9493 .P1) = 0.9 kJ/kg C. . v1 = 0. h7 = 2471.V FWH x h6 + (1 -x) h2 = h3 h3 .93 = 1836 kg/s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.0 kJ/kg wP1 = v1(P2 .1505 6 2 .17 kJ/kg qL = h7 . s2 = s1 h3 = hf = 670.001012 (600 . There is one open feedwater heater with extraction from the turbine at 600 kPa and its exit is saturated liquid. T) h5 = 3690.7023 kJ/kg K 6: 600 kPa. sat liq.h2 670.42 A steam power plant operates with a boiler output of 20 kg/s steam at 2 MPa.209.1 kJ/kg.54 .54 kJ/kg To pump 1 1 To river 7 Ex turbine From river 5: (P.hf20) = m (20. Condenser 1: 50oC sat liq.0 . h1 = 209.12.9 = 0.h1 = 2471. 600°C. .31 kJ/kg 2: 600 kPa 3: 600 kPa. QL = (1 . m = 38 429 / 20.93) .9 x = h .1505 × 20 = 3 kg/s CV Turbine: s7 = s6 = s5 CV Condenser => x7 = 0.x) mqL = 0.17 .86 kJ/kg The heat transfer out of the water from 7 to 1 goes into the river water .209.86 = 38 429 kW .595 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP1 = 209. .

Borgnakke and Sonntag Closed Feedwater Heaters Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . . .13. Now solve for the fraction y = m6 / m4 h4 – h2 y= h –h +w 6 2 P drip So to use this expression we assume we know states 2. CV Feedwater heater plus drip pump. . Find the equation for the extraction fraction.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.: m6h6 + m2h2 + m6 wP drip = m4h4 CV drip pump wP drip = v6 (P4 – P6) = h6b – h6a . Continuity Eq. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Divide the energy equation with the full flow rate (m4) to get Energy Eq. . Energy Eq. . 4 and 6 and have analyzed the drip pump.: y h6 + (1 – y) h2 + y wP drip = h4 . h6a = hf at P6 .43 Write the analysis (continuity and energy equations) for the closed feed water heater with a drip pump as shown in Fig. Take the control volume to have state 4 out so it includes the drip pump. .11.: m6 + m 2 = m 4 . .

20 MPa to 250°C.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. liq.31 Since all four states are known we can solve for the extraction flow rate .1.h = 7. sat.1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.44 A closed feedwater heater in a regenerative steam power cycle heats 20 kg/s of water from 100°C.2 h6a = 1087.06 h4 = 1086.1 B. The extraction steam from the turbine enters the heater at 4 MPa.4: 250°C.V. What is the required mass flow rate of the extraction steam? Solution: The schematic is from Figure 11. m2h2 + m6h6 = m2h4 + m6h6a h kJ/kg h2 = 434.: .11 has the feedwater from the pump coming at state 2 being heated by the extraction flow coming from the turbine state 6 so the feedwater leaves as saturated liquid state 4 and the extraction flow leaves as condensate state 6a. and leaves as saturated liquid.3: 4 MPa.1. h2 . Feedwater Heater Energy Eq. . 20 MPa 6a B.h4 m6 = m2 h . 275°C B.2: 4 MPa. 6 4 2 From table B. .257 kg/s 6a 6 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.1. C. . .4: 100°C. 20 MPa.75 h6 = 2886. 20 MPa B. . 275°C.

04 kJ/kg ⇒ h2 = h1 + wP1 = 193.6387 kJ/kg K. P1: wP1 = v1(P2 .9 . and boiler exit temperature of 900°C. Extraction steam at 1 MPa to the feedwater heater condenses and is pumped up to the 5 MPa feedwater line where all the water goes to the boiler at 200°C.V. m3/m6 = y = 0. h3 = 3640. . (1 . m 6 = m1 + m3 .49 kJ/kg C.V. P2: wP2 = v4(P7 .1387 kJ/kg K.193.49 = 0.P4) = 4.81 kJ/kg T6 => h6 = 853.P1) = 5. h1 = 188. s4 = 2.h2 853.45 A power plant with one closed feedwater heater has a condenser temperature of 45°C.6 + 4.9593 kJ/kg K => T3 = 573. x = m3/m6 1 = (1. .: Energy: . Turbine: Reversible.8.V.h = 3640. adiabatic so constant s from inlet to extraction point s3 = sIN = 7. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .y)h2 + y h3 + y wP2 = h6 h6 .6 kJ/kg C. a maximum pressure of 5 MPa.V.508 .9 kJ/kg From turbine 6 7 Pump 2 4 5 2 3 Pump 1 1 From condenser C. Total FWH and pumps: The extraction fraction is: Continuity Eq.1913 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. h4 = 762.45 kJ/kg v1 = 0.31 kJ/kg C.00101 m3/kg.1913 3 P2 2 . Solution: s1 = 0.193.y) + y . Find the fraction of extraction steam flow and the two specific pump work inputs.49 y = h + w .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.508 kJ/kg ⇒ h7 = h4 + wP2 = 767. .

1158 × 5 = 0. P1: wP1 = v1(P2 .V.y)h2 + yh6 = (1 .772 + 1580.2) = 2.18 = 0. The source for the boiler is at constant 180oC.772 kJ/kg C.89 . s5 = 5.264.P6) = 0. y = m6/m4 (1 . h5 = 1738. 140oC to the turbine.001504 m3/kg.2 kJ/kg T6a = Tsat 800 kPa = 17.V. h1 = 89.18 -91.722 kJ/kg ⇒ h2 = h1 + wP1 = 91. . .h = 264.V.0016108 (2000 – 800) = 1.933 kJ/kg ⇒ h6b = h6a + wP2 = 266.V.4oC.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.18 .1158 × 266. P1 = 190. P2: wP2 = v6a (P4 . h4 = (1–y)h3 + y h6b = (1– 0.11 kJ/kg C.1158 3 2 6 6a .P1) = 0.1158) × 264.11 = 264.y)h3 + yh6a h3 .5022 kJ/kg K.h2 264.772 y = h .05 kJ/kg v1 = 0.18 kJ/kg From turbine 4 6b Pump 2 6a 3 6 Pump 1 1 2 From condenser C.h + h . h6 = 1580. The condenser is at -20oC and a closed feed water heater has an exit state (3) at the temperature of the condensing extraction flow and it has a drip pump.5789 kg/s C. Total FWH and pump (notice h3 = h6a as we do not have table for this state) The extraction fraction is: Energy: . Find the extraction flow rate and state 4 into the boiler.89 kJ/kg C.85oC => h6a = 264. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. which has an extraction point at 800 kPa.V. adiabatic so constant s from inlet to extraction point s6 = sIN = 5. The junction after FWH and pump 2.4 kJ/kg Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.001504(2000 – 190. Turbine: Reversible.5022 kJ/kg K => T6 = 63. .18 + 0.2 kPa. m6 = y m4 = 0.91.46 A Rankine cycle feeds 5 kg/s ammonia at 2 MPa.

191 6 2 P2 Turbine: s7 = s6 = s5 & P7 = 10 kPa 7.P1) = 0.0 + 21.191. Solution: From v1 = 0.y) (h6 .41 kJ/kg .h2 751. .5009 => x7 = h7 = 191.1 kJ/kg wT = [ h5 .0 y = h . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0544 .y) (h7 .38 with a closed feedwater heater instead of an open and a drip pump to add the extraction flow to the feed water line at 20 MPa. QL = m5(1 .6493 = 0. . .79 kJ/kg.0544 kJ/kg K P6 = 1 MPa => h6 = 3013.h7) ] = [ 4069. From turbine 6 1 condenser h1 = 191.h6 + (1 .h1 = v1(P2 . .8 – 3013.966 × 0.h + w = 3013.81) = 4903 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.h6a = v6a(P6b .809 (2235.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.81 + 20. .1 .41 = 0.85391 × 2392.47 Do Problem 11.1)] = 1686 kJ/kg .7 .66 kJ/kg Pump 1 2 h6a = hf 1MPa = 762. h4 = 751.00101(20 000 .7 . Assume the temperature is 175°C after the drip pump flow is added to the line. WT = 5000 kW = m5 × wT = m5 × 1686 kJ/kg => m5 = 2.19 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wP1 = 191.h1) = 2.001127(20 000 .212.y) h2 + y (wP2) = h4 h4 .001127 m /kg 6a Pump 2 Turbine section 1: s6 = s5 = 7.2235.809 (3013.66 .00101 m3/kg.81 kJ/kg 3 4 T4 = 175oC. One main pump brings the water to 20 MPa from the condenser.V Pump 1 wP1 = h2 .1000) = 21.19 = 212.V Pump 2 wP2 = h6b .V FWH + P2 select the extraction fraction to be y = m6 / m4 y h6 + (1 .85391 7. 6b 3 v6a = 0.7 kJ/kg C.0.0 kJ/kg C.81 + 0.966 kg/s .P6a) = 0. .212. C.82 = 2235.7 + 0.10) = 20.

1 kJ/kg C.83 y= h -h = 2891.wP = 868. P Assume feedwater heater exit at the T of the condensing steam C. h5 = 2891.h6) = 3230.9211 .1 = 2509.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.V FWH .1 .81 + x6 2392. .3. Solution: C. Turbine. Condensate from the feedwater heater is drained through a trap to the condenser. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. h3 = hf = h7 = 721.0.h3 = 3230.7 = 0. but assume a closed instead of an open feedwater heater.55 kJ/kg 2 BOILER 3 4 TURBINE FW HTR Trap 5 6 1 7 COND.81 + 3.82 =2192.V Pump wP = h2 .6492)/7.7 kJ/kg ηcycle = wnet / qH = 865.h2 721. A single pump is used to pump the water leaving the condenser up to the boiler pressure of 3.83614 h6 = 191.7 kJ/kg qH = h4 .V.75 kJ/kg wnet = wT .6 + 0.75 .501 = 0.9211 kJ/kg K h4 = 3230.02 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 191.6 .02 = 194. Energy Eq. m5 / m 3 = y .82 .7 / 2509.6 .10) = 3.48 Repeat Problem 11.721.1 = 0.721.41. 2nd law: s4 = s5 = s6 = 6.0 MPa.43°C.2192.y)(h5 . .2425 5 f 800 Turbine work with full flow from 4 to 5 fraction 1-y flows from 5 to 6 wT = h4 .02 = 865.00101(3000 .h1 = v1(P2 .82 .194.: h2 + y h5 = h3 + h7 y h3 .6 => x6 = (6.82 – 2891.55) = 868.h5 + (1 .83 kJ/kg T3 = Tsat (P5) = 170.7575 (2891.P1) = 0.345 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

.02 – 0.1 kJ/kg C.h2 721. but assume a closed instead of an open feedwater heater. 2nd law: s5 = s6 = s7 = 6.6 => x7 = (6. h6 = 2891.V FWH + P2 select the extraction fraction to be y = m6 / m4 y h6 + (1 . C.P6a) = 0.6 + 0.82 .7 = 0.82 .195 ×2.9211 .95 kJ/kg wnet = wT – (1–y)wP1 .194.10) = 3.001115(3000 .V Pump 2 (the drip pump) wP2 = h6b .805 (2891.95 – 0.82 – 2891. A single pump is used to pump the water leaving the condenser up to the boiler pressure of 3.83 y = h .45 = 0.721.6492)/7.358 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. h4 ≈ hf = h6a = 721.1 = 2509. .h4 = 3230.V Pump 1 wP1 = h2 .1 .805 ×3. Turbine.800) = 2.83614 h7 = 191.02 = 194.7 kJ/kg ηcycle = wnet / qH = 899.195 6 2 P2 Turbine work with full flow from 5 to 6 fraction 1– y flows from 6 to 7 wT = [ h5 – h6 + (1 – y) (h6 – h7) ] = [ 3230.55 kJ/kg 6b BOILER 4 5 TUR BINE 3 FW HTR 6 P2 2 1 7 COND.45 kJ/kg . Solution: C.xwP2 = 901.h1 = v1(P2 .194.6 .V.00101(3000 .y) h2 + y (wP2) = h4 h4 .h6a = v6a(P6b .501 = 0.0 kJ/kg qH = h5 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.83 + 2.81 + x7 2392.83 kJ/kg T4 = Tsat (P6) = 170.h + w = 2891.41.45 = 899.02 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP1 = 191.0.P1) = 0.0 / 2509. P1 Assume feedwater heater exit state 4 at the T of the condensing steam C.43°C.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.0 MPa.9211 kJ/kg K h5 = 3230.81 + 3.55)] = 901.49 Repeat Problem 11.82 =2192.6 – 2192. Condensate from the feedwater heater is going through a drip pump and added to the feedwater line so state 4 is at T6.

Borgnakke and Sonntag Nonideal Cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .

50 A Rankine cycle with water superheats to 500oC at 3 MPa in the boiler and the condenser operates at 100oC.h4ac = 3456.05 kJ/kg C. Pump: Assume adiabatic. Standard Rankine cycle 1-2-3-4s for ideal turbine.001044 m3/kg.V. .03)/3034.02 + x4s 2257.03 = 2630. wTs = h3 .h4s = 3456.4 = 0.02 kJ/kg h3 = 3456.03)/3034.V.2337 kJ/kg-K State 4s: s4s = s3 = 7.05 = 780.48 – 2630.97998 => h4s = hf + x4shfg = 419.9 kJ/kg State 4ac: h4ac = hg = 2676.43 kJ/kg ηth = wnet / qB = (780.1: C.4 kJ/kg ηth = wnet / qB = (825.h2 = 3456. Find the cycle efficiency with a) an ideal turbine and b) the actual turbine.03 = 422. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.4 = 0.05 = 3034.9 = 825. h1 = 419.03 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp = 419.256 T 3 2 1 4s 4ac s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Modified Rankine cycle 1-2-3-4ac for actual turbine v1 = 0.58 – 3. All components are ideal except the turbine which has an exit state measured to be saturated vapor at 100oC.271 C. Turbine.02 + 3.P1) = 3.05 kJ/kg Table B. s3 = 7.V.2337 = sf + x4s sfg = 1. reversible and incompressible flow wps = ∫ v dP = v1(P2 .1.58 kJ/kg Actual turbine: wTac = h3 .3068 + x4s 6.48 kJ/kg. Boiler Efficiency: Efficiency: P 2 1 3 4ac 4s v qB = h3 .48 – 2676.43 – 3.48 – 422.0480 => x4s = 0.

Assume Turbine is isentropic s4s = s3 = 6. reversible and incompressible flow wps = ∫ v dP = v1(P2 . qT = 0 wT = h3 .h1 = 2076.6458 kJ/kgK P1 = P4 = 10 kPa . Qc = m qc = 44 786 kW C.wT = 2268.6458 kJ/kgK .82 = 2104.00101 m3/kg C. wc = 0 .TL TH = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Condenser: 1st Law : h4 = h1 + qc + wc . . . wB = 0 qB = h3 .V. x1 = 0 T1 = 45.568 kg/s . TL = T1 = 45.8oC .526 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.h2 = 2998. h1 = hf = 191.V.81 + x4s 2392.6 kJ/kg wTs = h3 . s3 = 6.51 Steam enters the turbine of a power plant at 5 MPa and 400°C.wP = 922.6 kJ/kg .h4 .: qT + h3 = h4 + wT .V Boiler : 1st Law : h2 = h1 + wp = 196.3 kJ/kg C. T wT = ηTswTs = 927.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. s4s = sf + x4s sfg .8 kJ/kg qB + h2 = h3 + wB . .307 Carnot cycle : TH = T3 = 400oC . The turbine produces a power output of 20 000 kW with an isentropic efficiency of 85%. What is the mass flow rate of steam around the cycle and the rate of heat rejection in the condenser? Find the thermal efficiency of the power plant and how does this compare with a Carnot cycle. and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. sat liq . Solution: WT = 20 000 kW and ηTs = 85 % State 3: State 1: h3 = 3195.04 kJ/kg 1st Law : C.h4s = 1091 kJ/kg . WT m = w = 21.5 kJ/kg .V Turbine energy Eq.8 kJ/kg .3 kJ/kg ηth = wnet / qB = 0. qc = h4 .3 kJ/kg h4 = h3 .P1) = 5.8 kJ/kg wnet = wT . solve for x4s = 0. v1 = vf = 0.8oC ηth = TH .7994 h4s = hf + x4shfg = 191. Pump: Assume adiabatic. . .

If the boiler superheats to 800°C. Solution: Basic Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 11.V.AC = η × wT.h4.5261 = 0.9763 h4s = hf + x hfg = 188.44 = 3954. C. Turbine: wT = h3 . Pump: wP = ∫ v dP ≈ v1(P2 .9.0 MPa and a condenser exit temperature of 45°C.42 + 0.4 kJ/kg wTs = h3 .42 + 3.6 kJ/kg Actual: wT. Boiler: qH = h3 .V.3: s4 = s3 = 7.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.P1) = 0.66 kJ/kg C.h2 = 4146 – 191. The turbine efficiency is 85%.347 P 2 1 3 4ac 4s v 2 1 4s 4ac s T 3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.S = 0.wP)/qH = (1376.9862 – 0.6 = 0.9763 × 2394.77 = 2526.V.52 A steam power cycle has a high pressure of 3.02)/3954. and other cycle components are ideal. .6 kJ/kg η = (wT. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.4 = 1619.h4s = 4146 – 2526.3 in the main text.6) = 3.AC .6 = 1376.9862 kJ/kg K => x4s = (7. s4 = s3 + sT.00101 (3000 .85 × 1619. find the cycle thermal efficiency.02 = 191.GEN Ideal: Table B.02 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 188.44 kJ/kg C.66 – 3.1.6386)/7.

assume the isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and pump are 85% and 80%.h1 h2a = wPac + h1 = 3. Turbine : wT = h3 .56 kJ/kg C. Find the component specific work and heat transfers and the cycle efficiency.14 – 195.P1) = 0.9 = 2085.14 .53 For the steam power plant described in Problem 11. Rev & Adiabatic: wPs = h2s .775 kJ/kg = h2a . CV Pump. Solution: This is a standard Rankine cycle with actual non-ideal turbine and pump.6492 + x4 (7.775 + 191.78) / 2608.56 = 0.34 kJ/kg wTs = 2804.7383 => h4 = 191.wTac = 2804.7383 (2392.02/0. respectively.14 .24 .81 = 195.9 – 3.24 kJ/kg CV Condenser: qL = h4a .00101(3000 .wPac) / qH = (718.1869 = 0.1958.58 kJ/kg CV Boiler: qH = h3 .82) = 1958. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.34 = 845.58 = 2608.h1 = 2085.V. . s2s = s1 wPac = wPs / ηP = 3.11.8 kJ/kg wTac = wTs × ηT = 718.h4a h4a = h3 .02 kJ/kg.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.32 for the ideal case.191.9 = h3 .h2a = 2804.501) => x4 = 0.718.h1 = v1(P2 .81 + 0. s4 = s3 s4 = s3 = 6.81 = 1893.8 = 3.4 kJ/kg ηcycle = (wTac .h4 . Boiler 3 QB 2 WP 1 4 Condenser Q WT Turbine T 3 2 1 4s 4ac s state 2s and 2ac nearly the same Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.274 This compares to 0.10) = 3.

3473/(700+273) = 3. s = 7.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.842 CV Condenser: no shaft work w = 0 qout = h4ac .wP = 3666.2588 kJ/kg K superheated vapor 4ac: h = 188.2511.04 kJ/kg CV Boiler: no shaft work.h4ac = 3666.h4s = 3666.4 . w = 0 qH = h3 .04 = 3473 kJ/kg s2 + (qH/ TH) + sGen = s3 and s2 = s1 (from pump analysis) sgen = 7.h2 = h3 .00101(5000-9.188. All the components are ideal except for the turbine which has an exit state with a quality of 97%.4 = 1155.188.1 / 1371.P1) = 0. Eff = wac / ws = 1155. Solution: Take CV around each component steady state in standard Rankine Cycle.h1 = 2511. The ambient at 20°C provides cooling for the condenser so it can maintain 45°C inside.5 = 0.88. q = 0 incompressible flow so v = constant w = v(P2.42 -5.59) = 5. 1: v = 0.97 × 2394. Find the work and heat transfer in all components per kg water and the turbine isentropic efficiency. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.6386 . h = 188.h1 .5 .2295 = 1371.05 kJ/kg K Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.5 .2588 .5 kJ/kg.42.2588 => x4s = 0.1 kJ/kg Ideal turbine: s4 = s3 = 7.6386 (saturated liquid at 45°C). s = 0. .8 = 2511. 3: h = 3666.5 kJ/kg.54 A steam power plant operates with with a high pressure of 5 MPa and has a boiler exit temperature of of 600°C receiving heat from a 700°C source.42 + 0.5 . h4s = 2295 kJ/kg ws = h3 .0.4 kJ/kg CV Turbine: no heat transfer q = 0 wac = h3 .42 = 2323 kJ/kg CV Pump: no heat transfer.00101. Find the rate of entropy generation per kg water in the boiler/heat source setup.

: 0 = mamm (h5 – h4) + mH2O (hin – hex) h5 – h4 .6 – 171.6793 – 11.P3) = 0. . h3 = 171. 1442 mH2O / mamm = h – h = 503.V Pump P2 (rev. v3 = 0.936 = 1442 kJ/kg . Assume the high temperature source is a flow of liquid water at 120oC into a heat exchanger at constant pressure 300 kPa and that the water leaves at 90oC.007 kJ/kgK BOILER H2O in 5 T TURBINE HP LP 6 5 1000 kPa 400 kPa 4 7 H2O ex 4 FWH 3 2 2 3 1 6 7 236 kPa s COND. .h3 = v3(P4 .: 0 = mamm (s4 – s5) + mH2O (sin – sex) + Sgen .1924) = 1. C.6 kJ/kg.5275 – 1.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. .65 – 0.69 – 376.373 in ex .V. State 3: x3 = 0. .00156 m3/kg.4971 kJ/kg K C.00156(1000 – 400) = 0. c) The “feedwater” heater has mixing of a flow at state 6 with a flow at state 2.4971 – 0.936 kJ/kg => h5 – h4 = h5 – h3 – wP2 = 1614. . s5 = 5. b) The condensing ammonia (-15oC) to the ambient (-20oC) heat transfer. and adiabatic so s4 = s3).373(1. Entropy Eq.35.9 = 11.55 Consider the power plant in Problem 11. Assume the condenser rejects heat to the ambient which is at -20oC. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . List all the places that have entropy generation and find the entropy generated in the boiler heat exchanger per kg ammonia flowing. P1 cb P2 1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Solution: a) The hot water/ammonia boiler. Boiler: Energy Eq. samm = (s5 – s4) – (mH2O / mamm)(sin – sex) = 5.65 kJ/kg.6793 kJ/kgK State 5: h5 = 1614. wP2 = h4 . s3 = 0.

36 kJ/kg qH = h3 . s3 = 7.75 = 2327. .5 .5 kJ/kg.62 kJ/kg Condenser exit: Actual turbine: Pump: h1 = 209.P1) = 0. Solution: A standard Rankine cycle with an actual non-ideal turbine. s = s3 => x = (7.56 A steam power plant has a high pressure of 5 MPa and maintains 50°C in the condenser.1 wTac = h3 .88 kJ/kg => wTs = h3 .0.h2 = 3666.05 = 214.7037)/7.2588 kJ/kg K Ideal Turbine: 4s: 50°C. Boiler exit: h3 = 3666. The boiler exit temperature is 600°C.05 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 209.214. Find the cycle efficiency with the actual turbine and the turbine isentropic efficiency.36 = 3452.88913.31 + 5.803: Isentropic Efficiency wP = v1( P2 . All the components are ideal except the turbine which has an actual exit state of saturated vapor at 50°C.35) = 5.h4s = 1338.14 kJ/kg ηcycle = (wTac .31 .001012(5000-12.31: Cycle Efficiency P 2 1 3 4ac 4s v 2 1 4s 4ac s T 3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.wP) / qH = 0.88913 × 2382.3725 = 0.2588 . Actual turbine exit: h4ac = hg = 2592.4 kJ/kg ηT = wTac / wTs = 0. h4s = 209. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.31 + 0.h4ac = 1074.

Solution: A standard Rankine cycle with an actual non-ideal turbine.01 = 1074.8311)/7.4 kJ/kg = h3 . all components are ideal except for the turbine which has an isentropic efficiency of 92%.96585 Pump: wP = v1( P2 .P1) = 0.44 kJ/kg.05 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 251.9236 × 2358.44 – 1145.57 A steam power plant operates with a high pressure of 4 MPa and has a boiler exit of 600oC receiving heat from a 700oC source. Find the actual specific work and specific heat transfer in all four components.04 – 251.3 kJ/kg qL = h4ac – h1 = 2529.9 kJ/kg P 2 1 3 4ac 4s v 2 1 4s 4ac s T 3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.11 + 4. Ideal Turbine: 4s: 50°C. .16 = 3419.92 × 1245. The ambient at 20oC provides cooling to maintain the condenser at 60oC.43 kJ/kg => wTs = h3 .48 = 0.4 = 2529. Boiler exit: h3 = 3674. s = s3 => x4s = (7.11)/2358.3688 kJ/kg K Condenser exit: h1 = 251. s3 = 7.h4s = 1245. Find the ideal and the actual turbine exit qualities.0784 = 0. h4s = 251.48 = 2429.3688 – 0.04 kJ/kg x4ac = (2529.04 – 251.9236.001017(4000 – 19.44 – 255.11 kJ/kg.16 kJ/kg qH = h3 – h2 = 3674.h4ac h4ac = h3 – wTac = 3674.11 = 2277.94) = 4.05 = 255.01 kJ/kg Actual turbine: wTac = ηT swTs = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.11 + 0.

s2 = s1 h3 = 3674.8311 – 700 + 273 = 3.8311 kJ/kgK wP = v1( P2 .3688 kJ/kgK qH = h3 – h2 = 3674.: State 1: Pump: State 2: State 3: Boiler: s2 + T qH source + sgen = s3 Sat.16 = 3419. Entropy Eq. s3 = 7.023 kJ/kgK sgen = s3 – s2 – T source Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Boiler out to the source. s1 = 0.P1) = 0.3 = 7.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.44 – 255. . CV.001017(4000 – 19.11 + 4.3688 – 0.44 kJ/kg.11 kJ/kg.58 For the previous Problem find also the specific entropy generation in the boiler heat source setup.16 kJ/kg. liquid h1 = 251.3 kJ/kg qH 3419. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.94) = 4.05 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 251.05 = 255.

85391 × 2392. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.s = h5 .489 kg/s mTOT = xw + (1-x)w 0.897.P1) = 0.2235. T) h5 = 4069.8 kJ/kg.5009 = 0. v3 = 0.wT56.81) = 6542 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.1 × 0.x)m5h2 = m5h3 Feedwater Heater (mTOT = m5): ⇒ h3 .38 assuming the turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%. .s = h5 .00101 m3/kg State 3: (P. State 1: (P.1 kJ/kg ⇒ wT56. From the Steam Tables: State 5: (P.h6AC ⇒ h6AC = h5 . x = 0) h1 = 191.x)(h7 . h7s = 191.81 kJ/kg.191. The physical components and the T-s diagram is as shown in Fig.11 .0544 – 0. The same state numbering is used.8 .h = 3172.192. (i.1913×897.8 – 3013.5 T56 T57 .h1) = 3.3 kJ/kg Find specific turbine work to get total flow rate . s5 = 7.11 kJ/kg .1913 6 2 To get the turbine work apply the efficiency to the whole turbine.69 kJ/kg wT56.85391.AC = 4069. . . 5000 = = 3.69 + 0.69 = 3172.489 × 0. xm5h6AC + (1 .81 + 0.1 kJ/kg wT57.sηT = 1559.85 = 897. v1 = 0.0544 kJ/kg K.10 in the main text for one open feedwater heater.59 Repeat Problem 11.00101 × 990 = 1 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP1 = 192.001127 m3/kg Pump P1: wP1 = v1(P2 . QL = mTOT(1 .h6 = 4069.7 kJ/kg wT56.8087×1559.5 = h5 .h7s = 4069.81 x = h . .h2 762.192.AC = h5 . .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. WT .AC = 1056.6493)/7.h7AC => h7AC = 2510.8087(2510.e.81 kJ/kg Turbine 5-6: s6 = s5 ⇒ h6 = 3013.8 .81 = 0.8 . . 11.82 = 2235. the first section should be slightly different).AC = wT57.1 = 1834.7 kJ/kg wT57. x = 0) h3 = 762. s7s = s6s = s5 ⇒ x7s = (7.7 = 1056.3 .8 kJ/kg.

.Borgnakke and Sonntag Cogeneration Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

88 kJ/kg.h8) = 5(2738.001008 m3/kg wP1 = ∫ v dP = v1 ( P2 . h6 = 2738.h7) = 25 (3410.7974 kJ/kg K P6.185 MW .5 + 12 392 = 29.80m5 ( h6 . s7 = s5 => x7 = 0. Solution: Pump 1: Inlet state is saturated liquid: h1 = 168.3 kJ/kg.093 kJ/kg wP1 = h2 .5) = 0. 11. Assume all components are ideal and find the temperature after pump 1.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. WT = m5 ( h5 .60 A cogenerating steam power plant.3 .2738.001008( 100 . . s6 = s5 => x6 = 0.3°C Turbine: h5 = 3410.0 kJ/kg From the continuity equation we have the full flow from 5 to 6 and the remainder after the extraction flow is taken out flows from 6 to 7.9952.6 . state 6 and after use is returned as saturated liquid at 100 kPa. s5 = 6.79 kJ/kg. T2 = 40.8106. v1 = 0.46) = 11. .P1) = 0. as in Fig. 500°C. state 8. . h7 = 2119.6 . .6 kJ/kg P7.19. operates with a boiler output of 25 kg/s steam at 7 MPa. .417.606 MW Steam generator 5 QH 6 Turbine T 5 WT 7 Condenser P1 1 WP1 QL 4 3 2 1 8 7 4 P2 Thermal process W 8 P2 2 3 Mixer 6 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.2119) = 16 792. the total turbine output and the total process heat transfer.5 kPa and the process heat is extracted as 5 kg/s from the turbine at 500 kPa. The condenser operates at 7. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h6) + 0.6) + 20 (2738.7. Qproc = m6(h6 .h1 => h2 = h1 + wP1 = 168.

h4 = 3445.419. h4 = 419. Solution: From the Rankine cycle we have the states: 1: 101 kPa.h1 = 2577. h3 = 3445.02 = 2158. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.101) = 4.2 = 868 kJ/kg C.61 A steam power plant has 4 MPa.09 kJ/kg C.9562.07 = 423.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.2 kJ/kg.633 (868 – 4.P1) = 0. . h1 = 418.07 kJ/kg wP = h2 .048 = 0.001043 m3/kg. . Turbine: s4 = s3 ⇒ x4 = (7.9562 × 2257. s3 = 7.07) = 4002 kW Boiler 3 QB 2 WP 1 Turbine T 3 WT 4 Condenser Q 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . Condenser: qL.090 .1.2 kJ/kg = 4.2 – 2577.6 kJ/kg / 3: 4 MPa. m = Qproc /qL.2 kJ/kg .out = 10 000 kW / 2158.h1 ⇒ h2 = 419. How much net power as work is produced for a process heat of 10 MW.001043(4000 .633 kg/s .wP) = 4. v1 = 0.090 kJ/kg K C. WT = m (wT .V.03 = 2577.3068)/6.02 + 0.out = h4 .V.02 + 4. Pump: wP = v1(P2 .2 kJ/kg wT = h3 .2 . 500°C into the turbine and to have the condenser itself deliver the process heat it is run at 101 kPa.V. 500°C . x = 0 .

.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. The water is pumped up to 500 kPa and then heated in the steam generator to the desired exit T. s4 = sg = 6. wdiff = 446. heated in the steam generator to 400°C and then flows through the turbine with desired exit state.4 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wPw/o = 84.h2 = 2664.h2 = 3195.4. Steam Generator: qw/o = h4 .4 kJ/kg . the steam supply will be the exhaust from a steam turbine. The water is pumped to 5 MPa.0.P1) = 0. sat.91 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wPw = 88.2664. Pump: wPw/o = v1( P4. .2748.3 kJ/kg C. vap.wPw) + wPw/o.4 kJ/kg With Cogeneration. is pumped to a pressure of 5 MPa and then fed to a steam generator with an exit at 400°C. => x4 = 1. Qextra = m(qw .64 kJ/kg qw = h3 . Wdiff = mwdiff = 4424 kW By adding the extra heat transfer at the higher pressure and a turbine all the extra heat transfer can come out as work (it appears as a 100% efficiency) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.4 = 442. T4 = 151.: Turbine.7 = 446.4 kJ/kg .64 . 100 kPa h1 = hf = 83.85 kJ/kg C.V.qw/o = 3106.9°C h4 = hg = 2748. .64 . Pump: wPw = ∫ vdP = v1( P2. 100 kPa.h4 = 3195.001002 m3/kg Without Cogeneration. What is the additional heat transfer rate to the steam generator beyond what would have been required to produce only the desired steam supply? What is the difference in net power? Solution: Desired exit State 4: P4 = 500 kPa.8 kJ/kg C.88. v1 = vf = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.qw/o) = 4424 kW Difference in Net Power: wdiff = (wt .4 = 442.7 kJ/kg.V. C. that is.94 . C. Steam Generator: Exit 400°C.91 + 0. 5 MPa => h3 = 3195. It is decided to supply this steam by cogeneration.94 kJ/kg Comparison Additional Heat Transfer: qw .8 .62 A 10 kg/s steady supply of saturated-vapor steam at 500 kPa is required for drying a wood pulp slurry in a paper mill.V. Water at 20°C.P1) = 4. Inlet and exit states given wt = h3 .V.V.94 kJ/kg.85 = 3106.8212 kJ/kg-K Inlet State: 20°C.

3 kJ/kg. If the process application requires 5 MW of power.9 = 792.9 – 1. from the compressed liq.8706 kg/s .1 kJ/kg .8706 × 2139.m7h7 = 7.9 = 9102 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. .3 = 2555. .9569 × 2932.7561 – 0. Table at 500 kPa qPROC = h6 .7561 kJ/kg K First ideal turbine T1 6: s6 = s5 ⇒ h6 = 2932.4 kJ/kg wT1 = h5 . .h6 = 568. Assume the first and second stages in the steam turbine have isentropic efficiencies of 85% and 80% and that both pumps are ideal.h8 = 2932.19.9. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . 25% of the steam is extracted at 1. . . After the first stage. s5 = 6.9569 kg/s = 0.m6h6 .25 mTOT .4 – 5.1 = 1.6492 x= = 0. .8141 7. The remainder of the steam continues through the low-pressure turbine stage.9 kJ/kg wT2 = h6 . . how much power can then be cogenerated by the turbine? Solution: 5: h5 = 3500.4 – 2139. One pump brings the feedwater to 1 MPa and a second pump brings it to 10 MPa.501 ⇒ 5 Boiler T1 6 4 P2 T2 8 3 Process heat 5 MW 2 P1 1 7 C h7 = 2139. .63 A boiler delivers steam at 10 MPa.4 MPa for a process application and returned at 1 MPa.h7 = 2932.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. m7 = m5 . .8275 kg/s.5 kJ/kg Ideal turbine T2 State 7: s7 = s6 = s5 6. WT = m5h5 . 550°C to a two-stage turbine as shown in Fig.8275 × 3500.4 – 377. 90°C to the feedwater line. ⇒ mTOT = m5 = 7. m6 = Q/qPROC = 5000 / 2555. which exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. approx.5 kJ/kg Now do the process heat requirement 8: h8 = 377.m6 = 5. 11.

. Find the total turbine power output.34 kJ/kg.915 = 0.V.495 = 188.495 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp1 = 188. v1 = 0.4 kJ/kg . .188.3626 × 25 = 9.5084 = 0. C.: m8h8 + (m5 . Reversible and adiabatic. P11.4 = 26 182 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.5261 ⇒ x7 = 0. .V.6) = 0.h2 3093. .P1) = 0.1 and B.065 × 3093. 500 kPa source.77 = 2374. s5 = 7.0 MPa.41)5/25 = x= h6 . .9128 × 2394.26 .34 – 9. . .3626 .21 kJ/kg 8: h8 = 84. It cools the condenser to an exit of 45°C and the cycle is shown in Fig. . Psat = 9.065 kg/s C.1.m8)h6 = m5h3 . and in addition a steam supply of 5 kg/s is taken out and not returned. in the boiler.41 kJ/kg 6: 500 kPa.21 .59 kPa 5: 3.: s7 = s5 = 7. x = 0: h1 = 188. .9. Feedwater heater.1. Energy eq.915 kJ/kg C.h8) m8/ m5 640.64.42 kJ/kg.5084 kJ/kg K => two-phase state s7 = 7.188. including the make-up water flow.935 × 2374. WT = m5h5 .h2 + (h6 . Solution: The states properties from Tables B. .84.26 kJ/kg C. s6 = s5 from HP turbine. .00101 (500 .V. . 600oC: 3: 500 kPa. m6 = x m5 = 0. Pump 1. x = m6/m5.m6)h2 + (m6 .42 + 0.915 + (3093.26 .64 A smaller power plant produces 25 kg/s steam at 3 MPa.3 1: 45oC.26 – 16.5084 kJ/kg K h3 = 640. Incompressible so v = constant Energy: wp1 = h2 . Turbine energy equation . The missing 5 kg/s water is added to the feedwater heater from a 20°C. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. There is an extraction done at 500 kPa to an open feedwater heater.9128 h7 = 188.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. x = 0: h5 = 3682.m6h6 . h6 = 3093.m7h7 = 25 × 3682. Turbine sections Entropy Eq. . Find the needed extraction flow rate to cover both the feedwater heater and the steam supply.6386 + x7 × 7. Divide by m5 and solve for x . 600°C. h3 .V.42 + 0.00101 m3/kg.h1 = ∫ v dP = v1(P2 .

. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag Refrigeration cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

21.255.h3 = 425.28 . liquid 1 MPa from B.60 kJ/kg Compressor: s2 = s1 & P2 from B.60 = 170.2 ⇒ h2 ≈ 425.5 3 4 2 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.68 kJ/kg Evaporator: Condenser: COP: qL = h1 . and the coefficient of performance.255. Find the specific heat transfer from the cold space and that to the hot space.5.68 .5. Solution: Exit evaporator sat.h4 = h1 .7 kJ/kg qH = h2 .65 A refrigerator with R-134a as the working fluid has a minimum temperature of −10°C and a maximum pressure of 1 MPa.1: h1 = 392. Assume an ideal refrigeration cycle as in Fig. 11.qL) = 4.1: h3 = 255.60 = 136. vapor −10°C from B.09 T Ideal refrigeration cycle Pcond = P3= P2 = 1 MPa Tevap = -10oC = T1 Properties from Table B. .5.7319 kJ/kgK Exit condenser sat.28.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. s1 = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h3 = 392.1 kJ/kg β = qL/wc = qL/(qH .

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. .4.9 kJ/kg β = qL/wc = qL/(qH .81 kJ/kg Evaporator: Condenser: COP: qL = h1 .92 = 221. liquid 1 MPa from B.0567 kJ/kgK Exit condenser sat.2 ⇒ h2 ≈ 290.92 = 206.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.25°C and the qH in the condenser can not be rejected to a kitchen normally at 20°C.1: h1 = 275.68.92 kJ/kg Compressor: s2 = s1 & P2 from B.8 T Ideal refrigeration cycle Pcond = P3= P2 = 1 MPa Tevap = -10oC = T1 Properties from Table B. Will that work in an ordinary kitchen? Solution: Exit evaporator sat.1: h3 = 68. vapor −10°C from B.81 .4.78.66 Repeat the previous Problem with R-410a as the working fluid.4 3 4 2 1 s The 1 MPa is too small.4.9 kJ/kg qH = h2 .78 .h4 = h1 .qL) = 13. s1 = 1. the condensing temperature is 7.h3 = 275.68.h3 = 290.

82 133.9* 40.5 389.1 3.5** Compressor Exp.0 kJ/kg It would make more sense to use the CATT3 program.72** 48.07 322.7354 1.h1 h3 = h4.0671 2.h4 β = qL/wC 429. kJ/kg s2 = s1.0671 : T = 54. kJ/kg qL = h1 . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.11 125. oC h2.87 * For state 2 an interpolation between 1 and 1.16 MPa: At 1 MPa.7283 71.8* R-410a. B.2 MPa.7 264.61 140.9 1.16 51.80 °C and h = 326.2 1.3 °C and h = 430.4 273.942 kJ/kg At 3 MPa.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.9 °C and h = 426.67 Consider an ideal refrigeration cycle that has a condenser temperature of 45°C and an evaporator temperature of −15°C. Determine the coefficient of performance of this refrigerator for the working fluids R-134a and R-410a. s = 1. .7354 : T = 45. Solution: Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 45oC = T3 Tevap = -15oC = T1 T 2 3 4 1 s Property for: h1.7 kJ/kg ** For state 2 an interpolation between 2 and 3 MPa is needed for 2.8 kJ/kg At 1. valve Evaporator T2. MPa R-134a. s = 1.2 MPa is needed for 1. kJ/kg wC = h2 .0671 : T = 77. B. kJ/kg K P2. s = 1. s = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.728 MPa: At 2 MPa.29 2.68 °C and h = 313.7354 : T = 53.

1: T3 = 22°C.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Exit evaporator x = 1 and 3 MPa from B.24 kJ/kg COP: qL h1 .71 kJ/kg.2098 kJ/kgK Exit condenser saturated liquid 6 MPa from B.2: h1 = 320. s1 = 1.3.h = 6. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. h2 = 348.3.68 The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide has a fairly low critical temperature. h3 = 150 kJ/kg Exit compressor: 6 MPa. Find the high temperature. s = s1.3.2 T2 = 45. the condensing temperature and the COP if it is used in a standard cycle with high and low pressures of 6 MPa and 3 MPa. so interpolate in B.h3 β = w = h .9°C. .2 c 2 1 Remark: The condensing T is too low for a standard refrigerator.

.0 MPa.3 kJ/kg β = qL/wC = 3.5397 kJ/kg-K s = s1.h4 = 1028.782 MPa: At 1.1°C and h = 1754. s1 = 5. h2 = 1731.2 kJ/kg At 2. wC = h2 .3 kJ/kg qL = h1 . T2 = 135.0 °C and h = 1712.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.h1 = 1731.5397 : T = 146.6 and 2 MPa is needed for 1. P2 = 1782 kPa.6 = 306.1oC.7 kJ/kg h4 = h3 = 396.3 – 1424. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.5397 : T = 126.1 kJ/kg It would make more sense to use the CATT3 program. Solution: Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 45oC = T3 Tevap = -15oC = T1 T 2 3 4 1 s State 1: State 2: h1 = 1424.6 MPa. s = 5.67 with ammonia as the working fluid.6 kJ/kg.353 State 3-4: Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. s = 5.69 Do problem 11.3 kJ/kg For state 2 an interpolation between 1.

s1 = 5.70 A heat pump for heat upgrade uses ammonia with a low temperature of 25oC and a high pressure of 5000 kPa. .h1 = 245.1 kJ/kg wC = h2 .2 kJ/kg . If it receives 1 MW of shaft work what is the rate of heat transfer at the high temperature? State 1: h1 = 1463.h3 = 1077.5 kJ/kg. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0293 kJ/kgK State 3: h3 = hf = 631.6 kJ/kg qH = h2 .9 kJ/kg Entropy compressor: s2 = s1 => Energy eq.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.6 = 4386 kW C Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. h2 = 1709.2 245. W IN . 1000 Scaling to power input: QH = qH w = 1077. compressor: Energy condenser: T2 = 156oC.

h2a = 1559. Heat exchanger 2: QH2 = m(h2c – h3) = 4. 1000 m = w + w = 95.9 kJ/kg Entropy compressor 1: s2a = s1 => Energy eq.6 kJ/kg Exit heat exchanger 1: h2b = 1471.1-1471.4352(1601. .5) = 388.768 kJ/kgK Entropy compressor 2: s2c = s2b => T2c = 124.4352 kg/s C1 C2 . first compress to 2000 kPa. s2b = 4.5 = 129.5 kW .0293 kJ/kgK State 3: h3 = hf = 631. compressor 2: Total power input: wC2 = h2c . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Ideal heat pump Tevap = 25oC = T1 T 3 4 2c 2a 2b 1 s State 1: h1 = 1463.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. compressor 1: T2a = 75. W IN .5 kJ/kg.h2b = 1601. Find the two rates of heat transfer. s1 = 5.6 + 129.87 = 4.37 kJ/kg Energy eq.37 – 1471.3oC.3oC.5 kJ/kg.8 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. then take heat transfer out at constant P to reach saturated vapor then compress to the 5000 kPa. Assume the compressor is split into two. .1 kJ/kg wC1 = h2a .37-631.4352(1559.1 – 1463. h2c = 1601. WIN = m (wC1 + wC2) ⇒ .87 kJ/kg . . . Heat exchanger 1: QH1 = m(h2a – h2b) = 4.9) = 4299.5 = 95.71 Reconsider the heat pump in the previous problem. at 2000 kPa and at 5000 kPa for a total of 1 MW shaft work input.h1 = 1559.

4oC not hot enough so the system will not work. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.55 = 172. The high pressure must be much higher so T3 > 45oC.0oC. x3 = 0: T3 = 21.4oC.h4 = 264. Will the system work? Solution: Ideal refrigeration cycle Pcond = P2 = P3 = 1500 kPa Pevap = P1 T 2 3 4 1 s State 1: State 2: T1 = -37. . It should cool the desert air at 45oC down to 15oC.72 An air-conditioner in the airport of Timbuktu runs a cooling system using R-410a with a high pressure of 1500 kPa and a low pressure of 200 kPa.3 = 57.7 kJ/kg State 3-4: P4 = P3.0 The heat rejection from 2-3 to ambient at 45oC has T3 = 21. s2 = s1: T2 = 53.8oC.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.119 kJ/kg-K P2 = 1500 kPa.55 kJ/kg qL = h1 .3 kJ/kg. h1 = 264. h2 = 322 kJ/kg wC = h2 . s1 = 1. h4 = h3 = 91.h1 = 322 – 264. Find the cycle COP. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.75 kJ/kg β = qL/wC = 3.3 – 91.

Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.428 3 2 Compressor Exp.V. .32 5.h3 β′ =qH/wC R-134a B.84 230. kJ/kg s2 = s1. Solution: T Ideal heat pump Tcond = 50oC = T3 Tevap = 0oC = T1 4 1 s C.58 1251.1 429. valve Condenser Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.3181 55.0333 115. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7262 1.83 157.52 421.06 NH3 B.2 1442.5 398.26 5. MPa T2.72 5. kJ/kg qH = h2 .6 1672.36 1. kJ/kgK P2. Property for: From Table: h1. kJ/kg wC = h2 .55 31. oC h2.73 Consider an ideal heat pump that has a condenser temperature of 50°C and an evaporator temperature of 0°C.3313 2.h1 h3 = h4. Determine the coefficient of performance of this heat pump for the working fluids R-134a and ammonia.19 271.

2 4 3 2 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.274.00435 kg/s T Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 20oC Tevap = -15oC = T1 Properties from Table B.3 = 1150.h4) qL = 1424.3: h4 = h3 = 274. mamm = 5.3 kJ/kg . T3 = 20°C h1 = hg = 1424.74 A refrigerator in a meat warehouse must keep a low temperature of -15°C and the outside temperature is 20°C.3 kJ/kg. QL = mamm × qL = mamm (h1 . .6 kJ/kg . Solution: Basic refrigeration cycle: T1 = T4 = -15°C. Find the flow rate of the ammonia needed assuming a standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle with a condenser at 20°C. It uses ammonia as the refrigerant which must remove 5 kW from the cold space.6 . .3 = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Table B.0 / 1150. .

Compressor (actual) Energy Eq. Evaporator Energy Eq.44 kJ/kg qL 184.: qL = h1.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.45 kJ/kg h2 ac = 330. s1 = 1.h4 = h1.V. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.4.0779 kJ/kg K P2 = P3 = 1400 kPa.V. .18 = 3.07 kJ/kg C. After the compressor. Solution: Table B.88°C.h1 = 330.89 kJ/kg.1: h1 = 271.4 T 3 4 1 s 2ac 2s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.89 – 87.45 = 184.44 β=w = 58.89 = 58.h3 = 271.75 A refrigerator has a steady flow of R-410a as saturated vapor at –20°C into the adiabatic compressor that brings it to 1400 kPa.88oC = Tsat 1400 kPa T2 = 60oC Tevap = -20oC = T1 Properties from Table B.18 kJ/kg C.07 – 271. the temperature is measured to be 60°C. Find the actual compressor work and the actual cycle coefficient of performance.17 C ac Ideal refrigeration cycle with actual compressor Tcond = 18. 18. h4 = h3 = hf = 87.: wC ac = h2 ac .

Compressor (assume ideal) .V. .0405(392.V. . mair = QL / (Cp∆T) = 5. Air Cooler .5 / 37.V. . mair∆hair = QL ≈ mairCp∆T . .7319 kJ/kg K.2 kJ/kg . m wC = WC => m = 1.004×20) = 0. m1 = m2 wC = h2 .28 kJ/kg. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.28 . . s2 = s1 + sgen P2.76 The air conditioner in a car uses R-134a and the compressor power input is 1.5: h1 = 392.2 = 0.h1.21 / (1. .7 kPa = P1 3 4 2 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.266) = 5.5 kW bringing the R-134a from 201. h4 = h3 = 266 kJ/kg C. .0403 kg/s C. .5 kJ/kg => wC = 37.7 kPa to 1200 kPa by compression. s = s1 => h2 = 429. QL = m(h1 .26 kg / s T Ideal refrigeration cycle Pcond = 1200 kPa = P3 Pevap = 201. What is the mass flow rate of the R-134a and what is the low temperature heat transfer rate.21 kW C.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.h4) = 0. s1 = 1. The cold space is a heat exchanger that cools atmospheric air from the outside 30°C down to 10°C and blows it into the car. How much is the mass flow rate of air at 10°C? Standard Refrigeration Cycle Table B. Evaporator .

2.7 kJ/kg qH = h2 . . .1 h1 = 1456.1 kg/s of water from 15oC to 60oC.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 kJ/kg.1444 kJ/kg K P2 = P3 = 2. .h3 = 1170. WIN = QH2O(wC/qH) = 18.62. If the amount of hot water needed is 0. h2 = 1643 kJ/kg wC = h2 . s2 = s1 = 5.8 kJ/kg Entropy compressor: s2 = s1 => Energy eq. T3 = 60 C From Table B. . QH2O = m(∆h) = 0.77 A small heat pump unit is used to heat water for a hot-water supply. compressor: Energy condenser: o o T 3 4 2 1 s T2 = 111.614 MPa.1(251.h1 = 186.6oC. h3 = 472.2 kJ/kg To heat 0. The evaporator temperature is 15°C and the condenser temperature is 60°C.11 .8 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.7 / 1170.2) = 3. determine the amount of energy saved by using the heat pump instead of directly heating the water from 15 to 60°C.0 kW a saving of 15. Assume that the unit uses ammonia and operates on the ideal refrigeration cycle.81 kW Using the heat pump .98) = 18.81(186.1 kg/s. Solution: Ideal ammonia heat pump T1 = 15 C.

7218 kJ/kg T2S = 73.h3 = 452.h1 = 452.2 – 300 = 152.78 The refrigerant R-134a is used as the working fluid in a conventional heat pump cycle.2 η=w = h . its exit temperature from the compressor is measured and found to be 85°C. P2: h2 = 452.h1 436.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.V.2oC.6 kJ/kg Efficiency: C. s1 = 1. Saturated vapor enters the compressor of this unit at 10°C. If the compressor exit is at 2 MPa what is the compressor isentropic efficiency and the cycle COP? Solution: R-134a heat pump: Table B.2 = 0.2 = 48. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. x = 1 h1 = 404.2 kJ/kg.2 .V.404.0 kJ/kg wC s h2S . Compressor Energy Eq.4 State 1: TEVAP = 10oC.h = 452.2 kJ/kg C.6 . s2S = s1 = 1.: T 3 4 1 s 2 2s wC ac = h2 . h2S = 436.2 – 404. h3 = 300 kJ/kg Energy Eq.675 C ac 2 1 State 2s: 2 MPa .17 C ac COP Heat pump: Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. .2 kJ/kg qH 152.0 = 3. Condenser T3 = 67.7218 kJ/kg K State 2: T2.: qH = h2 .2 β=w = 48.404.5°C.

V.79 A refrigerator in a laboratory uses R-134a as the working substance. The high pressure is 1200 kPa.16 kJ/kg. Compressor Energy Eq. and the compressor is reversible.13 kJ/kg C. s2 = s1 = 1.13 = 116.24 = 223 W State 2: 1.3 kPa.03 kJ/kg qL 116.1: h3 = 266.7453 kJ/kg.h1 = 433. . T2 ≈ 56oC.: Entropy Eq.3 kPa. Solution: State 1: 101. x = 0. evaporator: COP Refrigerator: Power: qL = h1 – h4 = h1 – h3 = 382.92 – 382.31°C.2 MPa . It should remove 500 W from a specimen currently at –20°C (not equal to TL in the cycle) that is inside the refrigerated space. WIN = QL / β = 500 W/ 2.24 C .5.16 – 266.92 kJ/kg Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.16 = 51.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. h2 = 433. x = 1.5. s1 = 1.h1 s2 = s1 + sgen = s1 wC = h2 .76 kJ/kg Energy Eq.7453 kJ/kg K State 3: 1200 kPa. the low pressure is 101. Table B. 46. Table B.: wC = h2 .03 β = w = 51. Find the cycle COP and the electrical power required.1: h1 = 382.76 = 2.

2754 – 1.5.: sgen = s4 .0 kJ/kg .00431 × 0.3 kPa.13 = 116. State 1: 101.2204 = 0.055 kJ/kg K .2) = 0.00431 kg/s h4 = h3 = 266. evaporator: Mass flow rate: C. Solution: From the basic cycle we know that entropy is generated in the valve as the throttle process is irreversible.2754 kJ/kg K Entropy Eq. x = 0. Sgen valve = msgen = 0.s3 = 1.7453 kJ/kg K State 3: 1200 kPa. . Table B.3 kPa).055 × 1000 = 0.V.1: h3 = 266.8 = 0. Table B.869 + x4 × 0.8763 = 1.80 Consider the previous problem and find the two rates of entropy generation in the process and where they occur.0 = 0.4637 216.9 – 253.1: h1 = 382.13 . s1 = 1.36 x4 = (h4 – hf)/hfg s4 = sf + x4 sfg = 0.165. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.3°C = Tsat (101. 1 Sgen inside = QL [ T specimen 1 –T 1 1 ] = 500 (246. .237 W/K There is also entropy generation in the heat transfer process from the specimen at –20°C to the refrigerant T1 = -26.13 kJ/kg. Valve Energy Eq. . .16 – 266.5 / 116. .16 kJ/kg.2204 kJ/kg K Energy Eq.13 kJ/kg => x4 = 266.0504 W/K L Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.: qL = h1 – h4 = h1 – h3 = 382. x = 1.5. s3 = 1. m = QL / qL = 0.

Borgnakke and Sonntag Extended refrigeration cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Vapor leaving the evaporator is compressed to the saturation pressure corresponding to −20°C. . as shown in Fig. Consider an ideal refrigeration system of this type that uses R-410a as the working fluid. 40°C. COND 1 +Q H sat. Determine a. x2 = 0. ST. −50°C. Vapor leaving the mixing chamber is compressed in the second stage of the compressor to the saturation pressure corresponding to the condenser temperature.CHAM 3 9 COMP.liq. b.23.1 EVAP 8 7 .09 = 28.6066 kg CV: expansion valve. lower loop Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. 5 COMP.m3 = 0. Saturated liquid leaves the condenser at 40°C and is throttled to −20°C. after which it is mixed with the vapor leaving the flash chamber.65. ST. and the liquid is throttled to the evaporator temperature. The coefficient of performance of the system. ROOM . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. -20 C o R-410a refrigerator with 2-stage compression -Q L COLD SPACE SAT. upper loop h2 = h1 = 124.24 + x2 × 243. The liquid and vapor at this temperature are separated.2 4 MIX.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. The coefficient of performance of a simple ideal refrigeration cycle operating over the same condenser and evaporator ranges as those of the two-stage compressor unit studied in this problem. 40 oC o T C 1 6 2 7 5 4 3 8 s 9 40 -20 sat.3934 m3 = x2m2 = x2m1 = 0. It may be assumed that both the flash chamber and the mixing chamber are well insulated to prevent heat transfer from the ambient. -50oC CV: expansion valve.81 One means of improving the performance of a refrigeration system that operates over a wide temperature range is to use a two-stage compressor.VAP. 11.vapor -20o C 2 Flash Chamber 6 -50 sat.3934 kg ( for m1=1 kg) m6 = m1 .liq.

3 oC.44 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. P9 = PSAT -20 oC = 0.24 = -13.133.qL) = 133.7/(226.25/(215. x7 = 0.6066 (257.09 = 226.09 = 215.qL) = 139.4207 MPa.7 oC.: m6h9 + m3h3 = m1h4 or h4 = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag h7 = h6 = 28.42 kJ/kg CV: condenser Energy Eq.82 kJ/kg CV: mixing chamber (assume constant pressure mixing) Energy Eq.3996 MPa ⇒ T9 = 2.82 + 0.6066 × 292.6.1568 kJ/kg-K.42 . h9 = 292.8 + x7 × 271.124.: qH = h5 . h2 = 350. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3oC.24) = 139. s5 = s4 ⇒ T5 = 81.h4 = 133.26 .1261 kJ/kg K CV: 2nd stage compressor P4 = 400 kPa = P9 = P3 P5 = Psat 40oC = 2.3934 × 271.7 oC.4207 MPa ⇒ T2 = 90.80 – 28.7) = 1.7 kJ/kg s1 = s2 = 1.09 kJ/kg h1 = 257. h5 = 339.25) = 1.h3 = 350.h7) = 0.80 kJ/kg qL = h1 .35 40o C -50o C 3 T 2 4 1 s qH = h2 .1568 P2 = 2.35 .124.h1 = 339. s4 = 1.33 kJ/kg β2 stage = qL/(qH .26 kJ/kg β1 stage = qL/(qH .25 kJ qL = QL / m1 = 139.89 = 284.6 kJ/kg h4. .33 – 139. P4 ≈ 400 kPa ⇒ T4 = -6.15478 QL = m6 (h8 .25 kJ/kg-m1 CV: 1st stage compressor s8 = s9 = 1.83 b) 1 stage compression h3 = h4 = 124.

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.82

A cascade system with one refrigeration cycle operating with R-410a has an evaporator at -40oC and a high pressure of 1400 kPa. The high temperature cycle uses R-134a with an evaporator at 0oC and a high pressure of 1600 kPa. Find the ratio of the two cycles mass flow rates and the overall COP.

2' sat. vapor o 0 C 1' C COND R-134a

4'

P = 1600 kPa 3' sat. liquid

2

3 R-410a EVAP 4

**P = 1400 kPa sat. liquid
**

3

T 1 = -40 C sat. vapor

o

C

1

R-134a cycle T,oC 0 63.9 57.9 0 P 293 1600 1600 h 398.6 433.9 284.4 284.4 s 1.727 1.727

R-410a cycle T,oC -40 52.7 18.9 -40 P 175 1400 1400 175 h 262.8 322.4 87.4 87.4 s 1.127 1.127

1′ 2′ 3′ 4′

1 2 3 4

**′ ′ h1 - h4 398.6 - 284.1 . . m/m′ = h - h = 322.4 - 87.4 = 0.4872
**

2 3

qL = h1 - h4 = 262.8 – 87.4 = 175.4 kJ/kg . . . . ′ ′ - WTOT/m = (h2 - h1) + (m′/m)(h2 - h1) 1 kJ = 322.4 – 262.8 + 0.4872 (433.9 – 398.6) = 132.1 kg . . β = QL/(-WTOT) = 175.4/132.1 = 1.328

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.838 A cascade system is composed of two ideal refrigeration cycles, as shown in Fig. 11.25. The high-temperature cycle uses R-410a. Saturated liquid leaves the condenser at 40°C, and saturated vapor leaves the heat exchanger at −20°C. The low-temperature cycle uses a different refrigerant, R-23. Saturated vapor leaves the evaporator at −80°C, h = 330 kJ/kg, and saturated liquid leaves the heat exchanger at −10°C, h = 185 kJ/kg. R-23 out of the compressor has h = 405 kJ/kg. Calculate the ratio of the mass flow rates through the two cycles and the coefficient of performance of the system. 2' sat. vapor o -20 C 1'

C COND R-410a

4'

T3 = 40oC ' 3' sat. liquid

2

3

R-23 EVAP

T3 = -10 C sat. liquid

o

T 1 = -80 C sat. vapor

o

C

1

4

T 3' 4'

2'

T 3

2

1'

4 s s 1.0779 1.0779 T,oC -80 50 -10 -80

1 s P 0.12 1.90 1.90 0.12 h 330 405 185 185 s 1.76 1.76

1′ 2′ 3′ 4′

T,oC -20 71 40 -20

P 0.400 2.421 2.421

**h 271.89 322.61 124.09 124.09
**

2 3

1 2 3 4

**h1 - h4 271.89 - 124.09 ′ ′ . . m/m′ = h - h = 405 - 185 = 0.6718 qL = h1 - h4 = 330 - 185 = 145 kJ/kg
**

. 1 kJ . . . - WTOT/m = (h2 - h1) + (m′/m)(h2 - h1) = (405-330) + 0.6718 (322.61–271.89) = 150.5 kg ′ ′ . . β = QL/(-WTOT) = 145/150.5 = 0.96

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.84

A split evaporator is used to provide cooling of the refrigerator section and separate cooling of the freezer section as shown in Fig. P11.84. Assume constant pressure in the two evaporators. How does the COP = (QL1+ QL2)/W compare to a refrigerator with a single evaporator at the lowest temperature? Throttle processes: Refrigerator: freezer: h5 = h6 h4 = h3 ; qL R = h5 – h4 qL F = h1 – h6

Add the two heat transfers: qL R + qL F = h5 – h4 + h1 – h6 = h1 – h4 which is the same as for the standard cycle expanding to the lowest pressure. COPsplit = COPstd = (h1 – h4) / (h2 – h1)

6 . . WHE = ηHEQ1 = WC = QL / β .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.71 kJ/kg Condenser: Brings it to saturated liquid at state 3 qH = h2 .25 × 2.89 kJ/kg qL = h1 .4 3 4 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.915 Heat Engine: .915 = 0. . P11.85 A refrigerator using R-410a is powered by a small natural gas fired heat engine with a thermal efficiency of 25%. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.71 = 2.5 kJ/kg Overall Refrigerator: β = qL / wC = 147.85.729 T 2 Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 40oC = T3 Tevap = -20oC = T1 Properties from Table B. s2 = s1 = 1.09 = 198. .8 kJ/kg Compressor: Inlet State 1 and Exit State 2 about 2. What is the overall coefficient of performance as QL/Q1? Solution: Evaporator: Inlet State is saturated liq-vap with h4 = h3 = 124.h1 . The R-410a condenses at 40°C and it evaporates at −20°C and the cycle is standard. Find the two specific heat transfers in the refrigeration cycle.8 / 50. .h4 = h1 . as shown in Fig.h3 = 147.09 kJ/kg The exit state is saturated vapor with h1 = 271. .124.h3 = 322.h1 = 50.42 MPa wC = h2 . QL / Q1 = ηβ = 0.6 kJ/kg wC = h2 .0779 kJ/kgK 2: T2 ≈ 70°C h2 = 322.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag Ammonia absorption cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. .

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. We can analyze this with a control volume around all the devices that substitute for the compressor in the standard cycle. That sum gives the increase in exergy from state 1 to state 2. as a function of the pump work W and the two temperatures. assuming they are reversible and the high and low temperatures are constant. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Notice in the standard cycle. absorber.: 0 = s1 + T – T – s2 + 0 H' L' Now solve for q’L from the entropy equation and substitute into the energy equation q’L = TL' (s1 – s2) + (TL' / TH') q’H TL' w + [1 – T ] q’H = (h2 – h1) – TL' (s2 – s1) H' The high T heat transfer acts as if it was delivered to a Carnot heat engine and the Carnot heat engine work output was added to the shaft work w. Pump.26 has the left hand side column of devices substitute for a compressor in the standard cycle. heat exchanger and generator. and the last term is zero. The left hand side devices works like a combination of a heat engine with some additional shaft work input.86 Notice the configuration in Fig. q'H q'L Entropy Eq. This C. Energy Eq. C. s2 = s1.11.V.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. What is an expression for the equivalent work output from the left hand side devices.: 0 = h1 + w + q’H – q’L – h2 all per mass flow at 1 and 2.V. . has an inlet flow at state 1 and exit flow at state 2 with numbers as in the standard cycle.

3 Q1 β = QL /W QL/Q1 = β η = 3 × 0.3 = 0.85.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.9 QL = β W = β ηQ1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Assume the heat engine has an efficiency of 30% and the COP of the refrigeration cycle is 3.87 As explained in the previous Problem the ammonia absorption cycle is very similar to the set-up sketched in Problem 11. .: So now W = ηQ1 = 0.0 what is then the ratio of the cooling to the heating heat transfer QL/Q1? Heat Engine: Refrigerator. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

147 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.hf 50oC = 1452.6 kJ/kg COP ⇒ qL/qH = 1030. determine the overall performance of this system. vapor at 10oC exits the evaporator qH = qGEN = 7000 kJ/kg NH3 out of gen.h1 = hg 10oC . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Evaporator qL = h2 . and saturated vapor leaves the evaporator at 10°C. Solution.88 Consider a small ammonia absorption refrigeration cycle that is powered by solar energy and is to be used as an air conditioner.V. vapor at 50oC exits the generator sat. If 7000 kJ of heat is required in the generator (solar collector) per kilogram of ammonia vapor generated.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. . 1 Exit generator Evaporator exit 2 s C. T NH3 absorption cycle: sat.421.6 = 1030.2 .6/7000 = 0. Saturated vapor ammonia leaves the generator at 50°C.

42 kJ that can be achieved in the absorption system. Consider an absorption system having an evaporator temperature of −10°C and a condenser temperature of 50°C. Compare the amount of refrigeration that can be achieved per kilojoule from the high-temperature source with the 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.2 ηTH = 1 . Use 2000 kPa Table => T2 ≈ 135°C.4673 kJ/kg-K h4 = h3 = 421. To make the comparison. Q' T ' = 25oC W o T H = 50 C QH T 3 3 4 2 2 COMP.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.h4 = 1430.h1 = 1724 .8 kJ/kg. and that heat is transferred from this reservoir to a reversible engine that rejects heat to the surroundings at 25°C. H.2 kJ/kg qL = h1 .295 L H WC = ηTH Q′ = 0. This work is then used to drive an ideal vapor-compression system with ammonia as the refrigerant. assume that a reservoir is available at 150°C.48 kJ/kg For the rev.3 / 293. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.89 The performance of an ammonia absorption cycle refrigerator is to be compared with that of a similar vapor-compression system. In this cycle 0. Solution: T ' = 150oC H Q ' = 1 kJ H REV. heat engine: ⇒ 298.295 kJ H P2 = P3 = 2033 kPa .4673 kJ/kg-K wC = h2 .015 kJ This is based on the assumption of an ideal heat engine & refrigeration cycle.T′ /T′ = 1 . s1 = 5.423.421.2 = 0.E.3 kJ/kg β = qL/wC = 1009.1430.8 . The generator temperature in this system is 150°C. cycle: s2 = s1 = 5. CONDENSER C 1 s L 1 EVAPORATOR L QL TL = -10oC 4 T1 = -10 oC h1 = 1430.295 = 1.44 ⇒ QL = βwC = 3.44 × 0.8 = 293.48 = 1009.42 kJ is transferred to the ammonia in the evaporator for each kilojoule transferred from the high-temperature source to the ammonia solution in the generator. .2 = 3. h2 ≈ 1724 kJ/kg For the NH3 refrig.

. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag Availabilty or Exergy Concepts Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

104.104.15(6.82 .6 kJ/kg ∆ψH = (1 .93 kJ/kg ψ4 = ψ3 . Energy Transfers (kJ/kg): Exergy Transfers (kJ/kg): TH q H = 3036 w=3 H.3673) = 1171. Determine the flow of availability in or out of the reservoirs per kilogram of steam flowing in the cycle.To(s1 .9211 .3673) = 2.02 = 5.E cb w = 1038 φ = 131 φ L= 0 To Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.83 . Both qH and qC are over finite ∆T.To/To)qC = 0 kJ/kg ηII = wNET/∆ψH = (1038. Assume that the high-temperature source is 500°C and the lowtemperature reservoir is at 25°C.87 kJ/kg ψ1 = h1 .E cb q L = 2000 To w = 1038 w=3 TH φ H = 1865 φ = 1166 H.3673) = ψ1 + 3.02)/1865.so) = 191.298.3 = 133.87 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. ho = 104.ho .3 = 0.6144 × 3036 = 1865. .298.0.6492 . so = 0. What is the overall cycle second law efficiency? Solution: Reference State: 100 kPa.0.89 kJ/kg ψ2 = 194.90 Find the availability of the water at all four states in the Rankine cycle described in Problem 11.298.15(0.3 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.81 .5657 Notice— TH > T3.wT. TL < T4 = T1 so cycle is externally irreversible.6492 .3 kJ/kg ∆ψL = (1 .87 . 25°C.s = 1171.3673 kJ/kg K.27.0.To/TH)qH = 0.91 kJ/kg ψ3 = 3230.104.3.15(0.87 .93 – 1038.

Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. .φ or = φ .h H 3 2 The second law efficiency is the same ratio but expressed in availability (exergy) wnet wnet output wnet ηII = source = φ = φ .φ H 3 2 H L The last expression must be used if the heat rejection at the low T is assigned any exergy value (normally not).91 If we neglect the external irreversibilities due to the heat transfers over finite temperature differences in a power plant how would you define its second law efficiency? The first law efficiency is a conversion efficiency as wnet wnet ηI = q = h .

. Turbine : wT = h3 . Φocean = mocean[h6 – h5 – To(s6 – s5)] T6 .5084 kJ/kg K C. 1 The states properties from Tables B.65 MW = mocean Cp ∆T . Notice the small rate of exergy relative to the large rates of energy being transferred.92 Find the flows and fluxes of exergy in the condenser of Problem 11. .9128 4 5 => h4 = 188. .V.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.5084 = 0.18 × 3) = 4358 kg/s The net drop in exergy of the water is .05 In reality all the exergy in the ocean water is destroyed as the 15°C water mixes with the ocean water at 12°C after it flows back out into the ocean and the efficiency does not have any significance. . For this case we select To = 12°C = 285 K.42 kJ/kg. Φwater = mwater [h4 – h1 – To(s4 – s1)] = 25 [ 2374.4 – 285 (7.1 and B.4 . 6 cb 3: 3. . s4 = s3 s4 = s3 = 7. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.5261) => x4 = 0. 600oC: s3 = 7.5084 – 0. .1.4 – 188.0 MPa. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.V.18(15 – 12) – 285 × 4.h4 . QL = mqL = 25 × 2186 = 54.42 = 2186 kJ/kg .26.1.18 ln 273 + 12 ] = 54 650 – 54 364 = 286 kW The second law efficiency is .4 kJ/kg C.77) = 2374. x = 0: h1 = 188.188. the ocean water temperature. Use those to determine the second law efficiency. 286 ηII = Φocean / Φwater = 5703 = 0.9128 (2394. .42 + 0. = mocean[Cp(T6 – T5) – ToCp ln(T ) ] 5 273 + 15 = 4358 [ 4.3 1: 45oC. Condenser : qL = h4 . mocean = QL / Cp ∆T = 54 650 / (4.6386)] = 54 650 – 48 947 = 5703 kW The net gain in exergy of the ocean water is .6386 + x4 (7.h1 = 2374.

.To∆sliq) From the power plant cycle we have state 3: State 3: x3 = 0.81775 ηII = 11. .79 = 11. => mwater / mNH3 = qH / ∆hliq = 1442/126.81775 kJ/kgK 1 1442 .65 kJ/kg.6 kJ/kg.373 126.5275 – 1. v3 = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. mwater ∆ψ mwater (∆hliq .253.936) = 1442 kJ/kg s5 – s3 = 5.466 cb Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. the water leaves the heat exchanger at 90oC. . h3 = 171.6793 = 4.To(s5 .9 = 126.936 kJ/kg qH = h5 – h4 = 1614.ammonia boiler heat exchanger. .65 + 0.79 kJ/kg (sat.V.373 Now the second law efficiency is the ratio of exergy pick-up over exergy source . Find the second law efficiency of this heat exchanger.s3)] = ηII = .6793 kJ/kgK.15 × 0.3351 = 0. mNH3 ∆ψ mNH3 [qH . The liquid water source .4971 – 0.4971 kJ/kg K C. QH = mwater ∆hliq = mNH3 qH .62 has a flow of liquid water at 120oC.69 – 376. .00156 m3/kg State 5: h5 = 1614. s5 = 5.V Pump P2: wP2 = h4 – h3 = v3(P4 – P3) = 0.1924 = 0. C.253.79 . ∆hliq = 503.00156(1000 – 400) = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.93 The power plant using ammonia in Problem 11. . 300 kPa as a heat source.6 – (171.15 × 4. liquid at 120oC and 90oC ) ∆sliq = 1. s3 = 0.3351 kJ/kgK The energy equation establishes the ratio of the mass flow rates .

8 = 504.1 kJ/kg Second law efficiency is gain in exergy 133.ψ4 = h5 – h4 – To (s5 – s4) = 1473.57 kJ/kg The exergy provided by the source is: 298. which has an extraction point at 800 kPa.15 (5.2428 / 504. 140oC to the turbine. The source for the boiler is at constant 180oC.5022 kJ/kg K Energy Eq.8 Sgen = msgen = 5 [5.00705 – 180 +273. .1 = 0.92oC State 4: h4 = 264.8 – 298.To/ TH) qH = (1 – 180 + 273.2 kJ/kg. .4 = 1473.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. 1473. A Rankine cycle feeds 5 kg/s ammonia at 2 MPa.00705) = 133.46 consider the boiler/super-heater.94 For problem 11.265 ( = 1 . The condenser is at -20oC and a closed feed water heater has an exit state (3) at the temperature of the condensing extraction flow and it has a drip pump.00705 kJ/kgK State 5: h5 = 1738.Tosgen/φH = 1 – 298.2428 = 6.5022 – 1.5022 – 1.15) 1473. s5 = 5. Find the extraction flow rate and state 4 into the boiler. The boiler has flow in at state 4 and out at state 5 with the source providing a q at 180oC. qH = h5 – h4 = 1738.1 ) 180 C 5 T 5 4 1 7 6 s CV 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.4 kJ/kg = hf 4. s4 = sf 4 = 1. Find the exergy destruction in this setup and the second law efficiency for the boiler-source set-up. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.2 – 264.21 kW/K The flow increase in exergy is: ψ5 .8 kJ/kg Entropy Eq.57 ηII = source exergy input = 504.15 ] = 5 ×1.15 ×1. s4 + qH/TH + sgen = s5 => sgen = s5 – s4 – qH/TH .15 φH = ( 1 . Assume state 4 is saturated liquid at T4 so h4 = hf 4 => T4 = 17.

5. 550°C goes through a two-stage turbine.ac = ηT1 wT1.8782 kJ/kg K CV: T2.091 + 0.15 ⇒ wT2.9.8782 ⇒ x3s = (6.9 .7561) = 36. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.918 R R Actual T2: iT2.4 = 2392.ac = T0(s2ac-s1) = 298.47 + 0. The pressure between the stages is 2 MPa and the second stage has an exit at 50 kPa.wT1. s3s = s2ac = 6.h3s = 698.9 kJ/kg.091)/6. x3ac = (2496. ηII = wT1.2 kJ/kg wT2.s = h2ac . s2ac = 6.8899.8782 .7561 kJ/kg K Isentropic s2s = s1 ⇒ h2s = 3017.ac + iT2.8782) = 88. .8782-1.ac/wT2 = 0.s = 593. R ηII = wT2.9 kJ/kg wT1.15(7.4 kJ/kg ⇒ h3ac = 2496.4 kJ/kg ⇒ wT1 = wT1.4 =0.s = 410. 1 2 3 T1 T2 CV: T1.9354 × 6.s = h1 .5029 = 7.15(6.5029 = 0.95 A flow of steam at 10 MPa.6.6.55 = h1 .871 R Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.ac = ηT2 wT2. s1 = 6.ac = 3090. h1 = 3500.340.ac = T0(s3ac-s2ac) = 298.47)/2305.ac = 681.1736 .1736 kJ/kg K Actual T1: iT1.9354.07 kJ/kg ⇒ wT2 = wT2. Find the second law efficiencies for both stages of the turbine.35 kJ/kg.8899 × 2305.ac/wT1 = 0.h2s = 483 kJ/kg Actual T1: wT1.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.ac + i = 447 kJ/kg.h2ac h2ac = h1 . Assume both stages have an isentropic efficiency of 85%. s3ac = 1. h3s = 340.

1 kJ/kg.2 .92 so h6 = 2393.ψ6 = h5 .h0 . s5 = 6. Find the availability at the turbine exit.0.838 P 5 T 5 6 v 6 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.10.h6 = 1011.2 kJ/kg.T0(s6 .3 kJ/kg wac = h5 .8953 .15(6.104.39 wrev = ψ5 .24 ψ6 = h6 .96 The simple steam power plant shown in Problem 6.s6) = 1206.8953 kJ/kg K Table B. Find the second law efficiency for the turbine.79 kJ/kg In the absence of heat transfer the work is form Eq. neglecting kinetic energy at state 5.89 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 kJ/kg. .3674) = 146.T0(s5 . state 6.298.94 has a turbine with given inlet and exit states.10.h6 .9 or 10.5501 kJ/kg K Flow availability (exergy) from Eq. ηII = wac/wrev = 0.s0) = 2393. s6 = 7. Solution: interpolation or software: h5 = 3404.1.2: x6 = 0.

h16 .12) = 0.1918 h18 = 688 s18 = 1.ψ16 = h18 .954 The change in specific flow availability becomes ψ18 .ψ16)/m17(ψ17 .433 kJ/kg ψ17 .6603 h17 = 2593 s17 = 6.662 × 677. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.T0(s18 .32: • • ηII = m16(ψ18 .s16) = 35.728 h16 = 565 s16 = 1.T0(s17 .12 kJ/kg ηII = (75. 10.85 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.433)/(4. .ψ15 = h17 .s15) = 677.97.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. For this case with no work the second law efficiency is from Eq. Determine its second law efficiency.6 × 35.ψ15) Properties (taken from computer software): h [kJ/kg] s [kJ/kgK] h15 = 585 s15 = 1.h15 .97 Consider the high-pressure closed feedwater heater in the nuclear power plant described in Problem 6.

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.98

Find the availability of the water at all the states in the steam power plant described in Problem 11.53. Assume the heat source in the boiler is at 600°C and the low-temperature reservoir is at 25°C. Give the second law efficiency of all the components. From solution to 11.13 and 11.60: States h [kJ/kg] s [kJ/kg K] 0 104.89 0.3674 1 sat liq. 191.81 0.6492 2a 195.58 0.6529 3 2804.14 6.1869 4a (x = 0.7913) 2085.24 6.5847

The entropy for state 2a was done using the compressed liquid entry at 2MPa at the given h. You could interpolate in the compressed liquid tables to get at 3 MPa or use the computer tables to be more accurate. Definition of flow exergy:

ψ = h - ho - To(s - so)

ψ1= 191.81 - 104.89 - 298.15(0.6492 - 0.3674) = 2.90 kJ/kg ψ2a = 195.58 - 104.89 - 298.15(0.6529 - 0.3674) = 5.57 kJ/kg ψ3 = 2804.14 - 104.89 - 298.15(6.1869 - 0.3674) = 964.17 kJ/kg ψ4a = 2085.24 - 104.89 - 298.15(6.5847 - 0.3674) = 126.66 kJ/kg ηII Pump = (ψ2a - ψ1) / wp ac = (5.57 - 2.9) / 3.775 = 0.707 ηII Boiler = (ψ3 - ψ2a) / [(1- To/TH) qH]

= (964.17 - 3.18) / [0.658×2608.6] = 0.56

ηII Turbine = wT ac / (ψ3 - ψ4a) = 718.9 / (964.17 - 126.66) = 0.858 ηII Cond = ∆ψamb / (ψ4a - ψ1) = 0

Remark: Due to the interpolation the efficiency for the pump is not quite correct. It should have a second law efficiency greater than the isentropic efficiency.

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.99

In a refrigerator saturated vapor R-134a at -20oC from the evaporator goes into a compressor that has a high pressure of 1000 kPa. After the compressor the actual temperature is measured to be 60oC. Find the actual specific work and the compressor 2nd law efficiency, using To = 298 K. Inlet state: Exit state: h1 = 386.08 kJ/kg, s1 = 1.7395 kJ/kg-K h2a = 441.89 kJ/kg, s2a = 1.7818 kJ/kg-K

Actual compressor: wC ac = h2a – h1 = 441.89 – 386.08 = 55.81 kJ/kg Rev. work: –wrev = ψ2a – ψ1 = h2a – h1 – T0(s2a – s1) = 55.81 – 298 (1.7818 – 1.7395) = 43.205 kJ/kg output –wrev 43.205 ηII = source = w = 55.81 = 0.774 C ac

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.100

What is the second law efficiency of the heat pump in Problem 11.70? A heat pump for heat upgrade uses ammonia with a low temperature of 25oC and a high pressure of 5000 kPa. If it receives 1 MW of shaft work what is the rate of heat transfer at the high temperature? State 1: h1 = 1463.5 kJ/kg, s1 = 5.0293 kJ/kgK State 3: h3 = hf = 631.9 kJ/kg, s3 = 2.1100 kJ/kg-K Entropy compressor: s2 = s1 => Energy eq. compressor: Energy condenser: Exergy output: T2 = 156oC, h2 = 1709.1 kJ/kg wC = h2 – h1 = 245.6 kJ/kg qH = h2 – h3 = 1077.2 kJ/kg

∆ψH = ψ2 – ψ3 = h2 – h3 – T0(s2 – s3) = 1077.2 – 298 (5.0293 – 2.1100) = 207.25 kJ/kg

output ∆ψH 207.25 ηII = source = w = 245.6 = 0.844 C ac

6.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. C.10.h2 • • ⇒ ma = m1 × h .24 ψ1 .234.1(8.10.666 kJ/kg Efficiency from Eq.7919 .h 4 3 • • • • Air out.77 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.15(1.89 .666) • • ηII = ma(ψ4 . .288.ψ3 = h4 .T0(s4 . Total heat exchanger.288. 50°C and it exits as saturated liquid at 25°C.15 × 1.10 m1h1 + mah3 = m1h2 + mah4 h1 .15 = 1.h2 .30 1.ψ3)/m1(ψ1 .004(35 .59 .1201) = 8. The flowrate is 0.15 = +0.15) . 3 Availability from Eq.007 kg/s 2 Air in.1.s2) = 436. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7208 kJ/kg ψ4 .T0(s1 .h3 .ψ2) = 0.7208) = 0.101 The condenser in a refrigerator receives R-134a at 700 kPa.89 .1 kg/s and the condenser has air flowing in at ambient 15°C and leaving at 35°C.234.15) = 1. 4 1 436.004(35 .V. Find the minimum flow rate of air and the heat exchanger second-law efficiency.ψ2 = h1 . Energy Eq.1 × 1.s3) 308.59 = 0.004 × ln 288.007(0.

Borgnakke and Sonntag Combined Cycles Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .

0 = 2277.8 .7 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 191.00101(4688 .8480 h5 = 191.qL = 4306.h2 = 2769.60 562 75. The maximum temperature in the steam cycle is where the steam leaves the superheater at point 4 where it is 500°C.4954 = 0.h3 = 3437.8 + 4.0097 = 0.848 × 2392. x5 = 0.2796.9 .6073 0.0 kJ wNET = qH .21 335.102 A binary system power plant uses mercury for the high-temperature cycle and water for the low-temperature cycle.196.h2) 2796.5 qH (from Hg) = h3 .21 = 228.H2O boiler: 1st law: mHg(hd .64 0.8 = 2029.8 kJ ηTH = wNET/qH = 2277.wP HG ≈ ha ( since vF is very small) qH = hc .h3) (for 1 kg H2O) = 11.42.1034 + xd × 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. source) = h4 .27 kJ/kg For the steam cycle: s5 = s4 = 7. kJ/kgK 0.1034 1.5009.5 mHg/mH2O = 270.6493 + x5 × 7.04 309 42.9 = 640. kJ/kg hg.1498 Solution: For the mercury cycle: hb = ha .ha = 270. The following saturation properties for mercury are known P.10) = 4.21 = 11.196.5 = 4306.5 CV: Hg condenser . MPa Tg.8/4306.5 = 2600.37 364.P1) = 0.4954 sd = sc = 0.4 .48 .8 = 0.42. Determine the ratio of the mass flow rate of mercury to the mass flow rate of water in the heat exchanger that condenses mercury and boils the water and the thermal efficiency of this ideal cycle.04 0.83 + 640. The temperatures and pressures are shown in the corresponding T–s diagram.21 = 321.ha) = mH2O(h3 .39. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .83 + 0.9 .529 sg.8 kJ All qL is from the H2O condenser: qL = h5 .392 × 321.8 wP ≈ v1(P2 . 11.191.ha = 364.42.h1 = 2220.8 .4 qH (ext.83 kJ/kg qL = hd . xd = 0. °C hf.7 = 196.04 . as shown in Fig.hb) + (h4 .392 qH TOTAL = (mHg/mH2O)(hc .5039.8 = 2220.2029.48 .7779 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. kJ/kg sf kJ/kgK 0.

Pump wP = h2 . a low pressure of 10 kPa.he) .13 kJ/kg ⇒ Te = 406. i-a . mH2O(h3 . Take C. 903. ⇒ he = hi .9°C at the point where the water is at state 2a.28 kJ/kg 2 3 2a Air temperature should be 253.584(3456.h2) = mair(hi .00101(3000 .02 = 194.85 kJ/kg Heat exchanger water states State 2a: T2a = TSAT = 233.V.16 kJ/kg State 2a: hair(T2a + 20) = 531. Total: mH2O(h3 .42 = 26.83 + 3. Section 2a-3.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. . The available high-temperature source is the exhaust of 175 kg/s air at 600°C from a gas turbine.28 mH2O = 175 3456.02 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 191.ha) .194. C.h2a) = mair(hi . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. and the boiler exit temperature should be 500°C.6 .103 A Rankine steam power plant should operate with a high pressure of 3 MPa.5 . find the maximum water mass flow rate possible and the air exit temperature.7 K = 133.in = 903.10) = 3. If the boiler operates as a counterflowing heat exchanger where the temperature difference at the pinch point is 20°C.531.584 kg/s .5 °C OK.16 .1008. . Te > T2 = 46. . .5 kJ/kg e 2 1 s T 3 2a a HEAT EXCH i Heat exchanger air states inlet: hair.V. Solution: C. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.85)/175 = 408.5 .42 kJ/kg h3 = 3456.mH2O(h3 .V.6 °C.26.9 °C State 3: h2a = 1008.h2)/mair = 903.P1) = 0.h1 = v1(P2 .

97. . 3 P T1 = -15 oC sat. Saturated vapor at −15°C leaves the evaporator and is compressed to the condenser pressure.7oC. . Compressor x7 = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Find also the .71 + 0. . The two exiting streams mix together and enter the condenser.7051. h6 = 206. 4 .V.71. performance of the cycle. Saturated liquid leaving the condenser at 45°C is then separated into two streams in the necessary proportions. m6 = m7 . in terms of the ratio QL /QH. as shown in Fig. 2 BOIL.41 C.6 kJ/kg s2 = s1 = 0. The ratio of the flows through the two loops is such that the turbine produces just enough power to drive the compressor. QL 6 5 3 4 7 1 s 2 COND. . vapor => P5 = P6 = 3. P2 => CV: turbine + compressor Continuity Eq. Turbine s7 = s6 = 0.6509 MPa T3 = 45oC sat.1 Table B.1 C. Saturated vapor at 90°C leaves the boiler and expands in the turbine to the condenser pressure.3934. .104.0843 MPa h1 = 180.3.104 Consider an ideal dual-loop heat-powered refrigeration cycle using R-134a as the working fluid. vap.57 Table B. .16 = 189. T6 = 105oC sat. m1h1 + m6h6 = m2h2 + m7h7 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.: . h2 = 212. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. m1 = m2.6325 = 0. Solution: T 1 TURB. 6 7 COMP.8765 (computer tables are used for this due to value of P) T2 = 54.2877 + x7 × 0. liquid => P2 = P3 = P7 = 1. . .V. .8765 × 125. 5 E V A P . h3 = h4 = 79.: Energy Eq. Determine the ratio of mass flow rate through the power loop to that through the refrigeration loop.3. P11. h7 = 79.

6 .180. .97 . ⇒ QH = m6(h6 .44 . .h4) 180.79) = 0. .81.79 kJ/kg . .1084) = 2.189.57 .Borgnakke and Sonntag . . m6/m1 = (212. . QL m1(h1 .843(206.843 CV: pump wP = v3(P5 .41) = 1.h5) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.97)/(206.71 β= = = 1.P3) = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h5) .79.000811(3651 . QH m6(h6 . CV: evaporator ⇒ QL = m1(h1 .h4) CV: boiler .57 .082 kJ/kg h5 = h3 + wP = 81.

Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. s1 = 5.66 222.06 0. .2 The heat exchanger that connects the cycles transfers a Q .4609 kJ/kg K N2 a) b) c) T3 120 115 110 h3 -17.5 kJ/kg.18 123.9 581.867 kJ/kg. . 11.2 9. . . qL = h1 .446 P2 2.4 Case Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.9 9. .10.h3. Trial and error on T3N or TLm. The two other phase changes take place at the listed reservoir temperatures.093 565. Find the saturation temperatures in the heat exchanger between the two cycles that gives the best coefficient of performance for the overall system. -qH = h2 . β wcn+(mm/mn)wcm mm/mn a) 0. P2 = 3. s2 = s1. . For each cycle we have.7 203.0 -qH 220.49 0.88 -wc 128.691 581.h3 Nitrogen: T4 = T1 = 75 K ⇒ h1 = 74.57 222.31 Methane: T3 = 180 K ⇒ h3 = -0. THm = 180 K = T3m .5 212. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . .996 446.308 -48. .7 426.1 113. The nitrogen cycle is the bottom cycle and the methane cycle is the top cycle. .047 499.(mnwcn + mmwcm) . .47 109.8 105 212. . .33 qL 92. -wC = h2 .207 b) 1.96 188.548 540. Both are standard refrigeration cycles. QL 75 K = mn qLn .h4 = h1 . .h1.8 630. QHn = qHn mn = QLm = qLm mm => mm/mn = qHn/qLm The overall unit then has .41). A heat pump is designed to use nitrogen and methane in a cascade arrangement (see Fig.1 368. .9388 1.5125 1.3 540.851 629. qL 221.4672 h2 202.28655 MPa CH4 a) b) c) T4 h1 s1 h2 -wc -qH 110 221 9.35 173.105 For a cryogenic experiment heat should be removed from a space at 75 K to a reservoir at 180 K.605 -34. where the high temperature of the nitrogen condensation is at 10 K higher than the low-temperature evaporation of the methane.65 0. Wtot in = .219 c) 1.3 319. TLN = 75 K = T4N = T1N TLm = T4m = T1m = T3N . .5 99.218 A maximum coefficient of performance is between case b) and c).6 100 202. β = QL 75 K/Wtot in = qLn/[-wcn -(mm/mn)wcm] .

28 × 26.2338.s2) = 1301.776 254.103.103: .ψ2 = h3 . (ψ3 .78 × 175 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.he . s2 = 0.584 = 0. h2 = 194.16 kJ/kg. Use these to determine a second law efficiency for the boiler heat exchanger.106 For Problem 11.584 kg/s.s° ) = 254. s3 = 7.78 kJ/kg Ti Te ηII = .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. he = 408. .T0(s° .85 kJ/kg. mH2O = 26. (ψi .ψe = hi . determine the change of availability of the water flow and that of the air flow.6587 kJ/kg K h3 = 3456. s° = 7.h2 .1762 kJ/kg K Ti Te hi = 903.T0(s3 . s° = 7.ψe)mair = 1301.ψ2)mH2O .13 kJ/kg ψ3 .9820. From solution to 11.5 kJ/kg.28 kJ/kg ψi .

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .Borgnakke and Sonntag Review Problems Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.

in WT 2 .6733 wT = h1 .50 = 23 432 kg/s c) .87 .107 Do Problem 11. QL T 1 3 2 s 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.8) = 0.24 = 6. wP = wP /ηS = 0. .000794(572.98 = 22 579 kg/s h4 = h3 .71) = 196 130 kW 196130 . Determine the mass flow rate of water through each heat exchanger.403. a.125 ηTH = WNET/QH = 196130 = 0.96.213.wP = 213. c. WT = mwT = 6600 kW Pump: wP ≈ v3(P4 .65 = 403. 6600 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.033 => x2 = 0.125 = 213. .71 kJ/kg Now consider the boiler heat transfer from the high T water .9948 h2 = 213.125 kJ/kg .20. a plant that was designed to operate in a location where the ocean water temperature is 25°C near the surface and 5°C at some greater depth. .58) = 189 660 kW 189660 .24 .213. Qto low T H2O = 1000(403. . What is the thermal efficiency of this power plant? Solution: a) Turbine s2 = s1 = 1.P3) = 0. mhigh T H2O = 104.415.24 kJ/kg 1 Q H 4 3 WP.84 . b. Consider the ammonia Rankine-cycle power plant shown in Fig.125 => WP = mwP = 125 kW b) Consider the condenser heat transfer to the low T water .24 with R-134a as the working fluid in the Rankine cycle.24.6 kJ/kg . Qfrom high T H2O = 1000(409.84 . P11. The mass flow rate of the working fluid is 1000 kg/s.58 + 0.h2 = 409.38 . Determine the turbine power output and the pump power input for the cycle.7183 = 1.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. mlow T H2O = 29.58 + 0.0485 + x2 × 0.9948 × 190.8 .

0.6 . 1 MPa).15 ηcarnot = 1 . Turbine: wT = h3 .6 .94 = 2890. Is this cycle possible? Are any of the devices impossible? Solution: The cycle should be like Figure 11.9119 .8. Condenser plus wall to reservoir qL 2890. s3 = 8.0.7 sgen = s3 .3673 .h1 = 2974.3. .8.3 for an ideal or Fig.273. sgen = s2 .3673 State 1: h1 = 83.T = 8.s3 = 8. 3: (1000oC.7 kJ/kg Condenser: qL = h4 .0707 kJ/kg K > 0 OK C. 100 kPa) with an energy source at 1100oC and it rejects energy to a 0oC ambient. Boiler plus wall to reservoir qH 4532.15 + 1100 = 0.104. 1 MPa).24 kJ/kg K > 0 OK res C.h1 = 20.s1 = 0.2974.V.0332 We may check the overall cycle performance Boiler: qH = h3 .s2 .1373 = 5.9119 = .2966 .2966 = 0. We look the properties up in Table B.9119 State 4: h4 = 2974.3673 .9 for an actual pump and turbine in the cycle. s4 = 8. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 = 1663.V.3 . Pump: wp = h2 .11.s4 + T = 0. 4: (250oC.362 273.2966 State 3: h3 = 4637.845 kJ/kg K > 0 OK res C.87 = 4532. s1 = 0.V.87.h4 = 4637.83.TL / TH = 1 .80 > ηcycle OK Check the second law for the individual devices: C.6 . 100 kPa).h2 = 4637.0332 .94 .4 kJ/kg ηcycle = qnet / qH = (qH − qL) / qH = 1642. s2 = 0.0332 + 273 = 2.108 A simple steam power plant is said to have the four states as listed: 1: (20oC. 2: (25oC.3 / 4532.V.8787 kJ/kg K sgen < 0 NOT POSSIBLE Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.1: State 2: h2 = 104.7 = 0.93 kJ/kg .3 kJ/kg sgen = s4 .4 sgen = s1 .0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.

in 1 WT 4 . QL T 3 2 1 4 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Borgnakke and Sonntag 3 Q H 2 WP. .

8 MPa with exit as saturated liquid.0 MPa. FWH. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.V. and is fed to the lowpressure turbine.82 – 2891. Total flow from 4 to 5 only fraction 1-x from 6 to 7 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.109 Consider an ideal combined reheat and regenerative cycle in which steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 3.61 = 0.61 kJ/kg 7 T 400oC 4 2 1 3 5 7 10 kPa 4 5 T1 T2 8 6 8 1-x x 6 s FWH 3 1-x 2 COND.45 = 723.798 = 192.h = 2891.00101(800 .1 Energy equation per unit mass flow exit at 3: h3 .1958 x h6 + (1 .45 kJ/kg => h4 = h3 + wP2 = 721.800) = 2. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the net work per kilogram of steam.1 + 2. Pump 1: wP1 = h2 .P1) = 0. The condenser pressure is 10 kPa.8 MPa.1 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.x) h2 = h3 6 2 C.10) = 0.6 = 339.81 + 0.798 kJ/kg => h2 = h1 + wP1 = 191.9211 kJ/kg K => h6 = 2891.V.h1 = v1(P2 . h3 = hf = 721. P1 1 P2 C. 400°C. C. Solution: In this setup the flow is separated into fractions x and 1-x after coming out of T1. Boiler/steam generator including reheater.h6 = 3230. 0.22 kJ/kg C. and is extracted to an open feedwater heater at 0. The remainder of the steam is reheated to 400°C at this pressure.V.P3) = 0.001115(3000 . T1 s6 = s5 = 6.6 .192. Pump 2 wP2 = h4 .h3 = v3(P4 .h2 721.61 => x = h . .192.V.55 kJ/kg C.6 kJ/kg wT1 = h5 .V. The two flows are recombined in the FWH.

Turbine 2 s8 = s7 = 7.V.82 = 2400.2400. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.92285 h8 = hf + x8 hfg = 191.0.368 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.wP2 = 339. Total flow through T1 only fraction 1-x through T2 and P1 and after FWH we have the total flow through P2.x) wP1 .5715 kJ/kg K => x8 = (7.07 .Borgnakke and Sonntag qH = h5 .3 + 301.05 kJ/kg Sum the work terms to get net work.92285 × 2392.02 = 867. wnet = wT1 + (1 .h4 + (1 .501 = 0.0.0 kJ/kg wT2 = h7 .x) wT2 .64 – 2.95 = 2809.x)(h7 .5715 .45 = 1033. .41 kJ/kg ηcycle = wnet / qH = 1033.6492)/7.3 = 0.2 + 697.41 / 2809.81 + 0.h8 = 3267.3 .h6 ) = 2507.(1 .3 kJ/kg C.

0 kJ/kg.110 An ideal steam power plant is designed to operate on the combined reheat and regenerative cycle and to produce a net power output of 10 MW.8. and the remainder is reheated to 550°C. 550°C.9979 h8 = 191.1) = -8.6 MPa.8 = 2579.00101(8000 . Energy Eq: m6ah6 + m2h2 = m3h3 670.7) = 1538.8214×(-0. HTR s 4 2 3 P P 1 b) -wP12 = 0. and is expanded to 0. m5 = WNet/wNet = 10000/1529.9.6 + 8.0 kJ/kg.4 = 0.2 . Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 8 MPa.5009 ⇒ x8 = 0.00101(600 .6) + 1×(-8.4 kJ/kg -wP34 = 0.1827. The reheated steam is then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to 10 kPa.6 kJ/kg (m5) .8778 ⇒ T6 = 182.1 kJ/kg h4 = h3 . at which pressure some of the steam is fed to an open feedwater heater.10) = 0.7 .m6a = 0. s8 = s7 = 8.4 m6a = 2810. h7 = 3591. wT = (h5 .h8) = 3521 .6 kJ/kg wNet = 1538.1 = 678.h6) + (1 .6 = 1529.192.8173 CV: turbine CV: pumps wP = m2wP12 + m4wP34 = 0.wP12 = 191.7 kJ/kg CV: heater Cont: m6a + m2 = m3 = 1 kg.m6a)(h7 .9979 × 2392. .32 oC h6 = 2810.8173(3591. s6 = s5 = 6. m2 = m7 = 1 . Determine the steam flow rate to the high-pressure turbine and the power required to drive each of the pumps.6 = 6.6 = 192.6 .wP34 = 670.192.2810 + 0.53 kg/s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.0 .1348 = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.83 + 0.9 .600) = 8. a) 7 T 5 550 oC 5 7 HI P LOW P T1 T2 4 6 6 10 kPa 8 3 2 6a 1 8 COND.8 + 0.2579. h5 = 3521.6493 + x8 × 7.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.2 kJ/kg .6 kJ/kg h2 = h1 .

h4s = 1091 kJ/kg .307 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.P1) = 5. h1 = hf = 191.h4 .6458 kJ/kgK P1 = P4 = 10 kPa .V.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. wT = ηTswTs = 927. What is the mass flow rate of steam around the cycle and the rate of heat rejection in the condenser? Find the thermal efficiency of the power plant.h1 = 2076.V. s4s = sf + x4s sfg . Pump: Assume adiabatic. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa.6458 kJ/kgK .8 kJ/kg . sat liq .5 kJ/kg .: h4 = h1 + qc + wc . .3 kJ/kg ηth = wnet / qB = 0. Condenser: Energy Eq. Assume Turbine is isentropic s4s = s3 = 6. Solution: WT = 20 000 kW and ηTs = 85 % State 3: State 1: h3 = 3195. v1 = vf = 0.V Turbine : Energy Eq. WT m = w = 21.04 kJ/kg Energy Eq.6 kJ/kg . qc = h4 . wc = 0 .h2 = 2998.3 kJ/kg .8 kJ/kg qB + h2 = h3 + wB .568 kg/s . .: C.: qT + h3 = h4 + wT . .111 Steam enters the turbine of a power plant at 5 MPa and 400°C. wB = 0 qB = h3 .: h2 = h1 + wp = 196.3 kJ/kg C. x1 = 0 T1 = 45.wP = 922.00101 m3/kg C.8 kJ/kg wnet = wT .7994 h4s = hf + x4shfg = 1091.0 kJ/kg wTs = h3 . Qc = m qc = 44786 kW C. T h4 = h3 . .wT = 2268. solve for x4s = 0.V Boiler : Energy Eq. The turbine produces a power output of 20 000 kW with an isentropic efficiency of 85%.8oC . qT = 0 wT = h3 . reversible and incompressible flow wps = ∫ v dP = v1(P2 . s3 = 6.

.5764 + x8 × 7.wP34 = 604.7.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. heat is transferred in the nuclear reactor to liquid sodium.7 kJ/kg s7 = s6 = 7.7 + 5.0 = 609. .wP12 = 168. 3 2 3 1 7.8 kJ/kg CV: pumps Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.5 .0 kJ/kg h4 = h3 .2589 = 0.001008(400 . The liquid sodium is then pumped through a heat exchanger where heat is transferred to boiling water.169.4 MPa Q 5 REACT.h7) + (1 .y) h2 + y h7 = h3 . and the condenser pressure is 7.6750 . 4 HTR.2)/(2904.4 = 169.7 .2263. Saturated vapor steam at 5 MPa exits this heat exchanger and is then superheated to 600°C in an external gas-fired superheater. y = m7 / m3 = (604.0 = 2263.2 oC.1592 CV: turbine wT = (h6 .169.2904. WNET = 1 MW h2 = h1 . Determine the heat transfer in the reactor and in the superheater to produce a net power output of 1 MW.8707 × 2406. which has one (open-type) feedwater extraction at 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. x8 = 0. P7 = 0.5 kPa.4 MPa => T7 = 221.5) = 0.2589.: (1 .4 kJ/kg . The steam enters the reversible turbine.7 kJ/kg CV: heater .400) = 5. Energy Eq. HT. .4 MPa. h7 = 2904. 2 1 s P P -wP12 = 0. TURBINE.2 kJ/kg -wP34 = 0. cont: m2 + m7 = m3 .8 + 0. 5 MPa 6 T 6 600o C SUP.5 kPa 8 COND.5 kJ/kg s8 = s6 = 7.8 + 0.5 .001084(5000 .8408 (2904.8707 h8 = 168.h8) = 3666.2) = 0.5 + 0.7) = 1300. .112 In one type of nuclear power plant.y)(h7 .5 . 4 5 7 7 8 0.

5 = 0. QSUP = 0.2794.h5) = 0.5 => m = 1000/1295.7719 (3666. wNET = 1300.0) = -5.5.y) wP12 + wP34 = 0.7719 (h6 .4) + 1(-5.33 kJ/kg . .5 . QREACT = m(h5 .3 .h4) = 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag wP = (1 .3) = 673 kW Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.8408 (-0.8 .609.7) = 1686 kW CV: superheater .7719 kg/s CV: reactor .3 = 1295. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7719 (2794.

and the remainder is expanded in the low-pressure end of the turbine to 0.5966 kJ/kg K low-pressure turbine s5 = s4 = 6.113 An industrial application has the following steam requirement: one 10-kg/s stream at a pressure of 0. Assume that for each.2.3 kW ⇒ T4 = 219.2 kJ/kg wS LPT = h4 . x5 = 0.6 = 521.96 + 10.4 kJ/kg .3) = 150. LP TURB.h5 = 2852. Solution: BOILER 2 . It is obtained by cogeneration. b.4 = 9810 kW . W HPT 1 20oC H2O IN 1. 10 MPa. whereby a highpressure boiler supplies steam at 10 MPa.23 + 0.9606. h4 = 2852.2 = 199. .02 = 94. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. The required amount is withdrawn at 1. Determine the power output of the turbine and the heat transfer rate in the boiler.4 MPa. s4 = s3 = 6.4 MPa (both saturated or slightly superheated vapor).4 MPa STEAM 5 kg/s .9547 × 2108.6 .5966 = 1.6 kJ/kg wS HPT = h3 .9547 h5 = 640.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.001002 (10 000 . 20°C liquid water is pumped to the required pressure and fed to a boiler.h4 = 3373.1 + 10 × 199. 500oC 3 . WP P QH HP TURB. 500°C to a reversible turbine.5 MPa providing the second required steam flow. 0.7 .0 kJ/kg Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.1 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 83.2653. a.5 MPa and one 5-kg/s stream at 1. WP = 15 × 0.5 = 2653. Compute the rates needed were the steam generated in a low-pressure boiler without cogeneration. WTURB = 15 × 521. 4 .9 oC.5 MPa 5 W LPT STEAM 10 kg/s a) With cogeneration high-pressure turbine.8607 + x5 × 4.2852.

**Borgnakke and Sonntag
**

. . QH = m1(h3 - h2) = 15(3373.7 - 94.0) = 49 196 kW

b) Without cogeneration This is to be compared to the amount of heat required to supply 5 kg/s of 1.4 MPa sat. vap. plus 10 kg/s of 0.5 MPa sat. vap. from 20oC water.

5 kg/s 20 C

o

1

W P1 2

2Q 3 3

Sat. vapor 1.4 MPa

10 kg/s o 20 C

4

W P2 5

5Q 6 6

Sat. vapor 0.5 MPa

Pump 1 and boiler 1 wP = 0.001002(1400 - 2.3) = 14.0 kJ/kg, h2 = h1 + wP = 83.96 + 14.0 = 85.4 kJ/kg . . 2Q3 = m1(h3 - h2) = 5(2790.0 - 85.4) = 13 523 kW . WP1 = 5 × 14.0 = 7 kW Pump 2 and boiler 2 h5 = h4 + wP2 = 83.96 + 0.001002(500 - 2.3) = 84.5 kJ/kg . . Q6 = m4(h6 - h5) = 10(2748.7 - 84.5) = 26 642 kW 5 . WP2 = 10 × 0.5 = 5 kW . Total QH = 13523 + 26642 = 40 165 kW Notice here that the extra heat transfer is about 9000 kW to run the turbines but that provides 9800 kW of work for electricity (a 100% conversion of the extra Q to W).

Borgnakke and Sonntag

11.114

The effect of a number of open feedwater heaters on the thermal efficiency of an ideal cycle is to be studied. Steam leaves the steam generator at 20 MPa, 600°C, and the cycle has a condenser pressure of 10 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency for each of the following cases. A: No feedwater heater. B: One feedwater heater operating at 1 MPa. C: Two feedwater heaters, one operating at 3 MPa and the other at 0.2 MPa. a) no feed water heater

2

wP = ⌠ vdP ⌡

1

3

ST. GEN. TURBINE.

≈ 0.00101(20000 - 10) = 20.2 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP = 191.8 + 20.2 = 212.0

4

COND.

s4 = s3 = 6.5048 x4 = 0.78064

= 0.6493 + x4 × 7.5009

2

P

1

h4 = 191.83 + 0.780 64 × 2392.8 = 2059.7 wT = h3 - h4 = 3537.6 - 2059.7 = 1477.9 kJ/kg wN = wT - wP = 1477.9 - 20.2 = 1457.7 qH = h3 - h2 = 3537.6 - 212.0 = 3325.6 1457.7 ηTH = q = 3325.6 = 0.438 H b) one feedwater heater wP12 = 0.00101(1000 - 10) = 1.0 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wP12 = 191.8 + 1.0 = 192.8 = 21.4 kJ/kg h4 = h3 + wP34 = 762.8 + 21.4 = 784.2 s6 = s5 = 6.5048 = 2.1387 + x6 × 4.4478 wN

T

20 MPa

o 3 600 C

2 1

10 kPa 4 s

5

ST. GEN.

6

TURBINE.

7

wP34 = 0.001127 (20000- 1000)

HTR.

3

COND.

1 2

P

4

P

**Borgnakke and Sonntag x6 = 0.9816
**

20 MPa 5 4 2 3 1 600 C 1 MPa 6 7 s 10 kPa

o

T

h6 = 762.8 + 0.9816 × 2015.3 = 2741.1 CV: heater const: m3 = m6 + m2 = 1.0 kg 1st law: m6h6 + m2h2 = m3h3 762.8 - 192.8 m6 = 2741.1 - 192.8 = 0.2237

m2 = 0.7763, h7 = 2059.7 ( = h4 of part a) ) CV: turbine wT = (h5 - h6) + m2(h6 - h7) = (3537.6 - 2741.1) + 0.7763(2741.1 - 2059.7) = 1325.5 kJ/kg CV: pumps wP = m1wP12 + m3wP34 = 0.7763(1.0) + 1(21.4) = 22.2 kJ/kg wN = 1325.5 - 22.2 = 1303.3 kJ/kg CV: steam generator qH = h5 - h4 = 3537.6 - 784.2 = 2753.4 kJ/kg

ηTH = wN/qH = 1303.3/2753.4 = 0.473

c) two feedwater heaters wP12 = 0.00101 × (200 - 10) = 0.2 kJ/kg h2 = wP12 + h1 = 191.8 + 0.2 = 192.0 wP34 = 0.001061 × (3000 - 200) = 3.0 kJ/kg h4 = h3 + wP34 = 504.7 + 3.0 = 507.7

7

ST. GEN.

TURBINE.

8 9 10

HP HTR

5

LP HTR

3 1

COND.

P

6 4

P

2

P

1 s8 = s7 = 6.8 kJ/kg CV: steam generator qH = h7 .8 .7) = 23.6 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.2461.5301 + x9 × 5.h6 = 3537.1098 = 0.m8)(h8 .5048 T = 293.8888 => h9 = 504.2059.0 kJ/kg CV: pumps wP = m1wP12 + m3wP34 + m5wP56 = 0. .0 .7 + 0.8 .507.23.7 = 0.8) + 0.3000) = 20.7970(504.0.1 = 2508.0) + 1(20.5 = 0.8 .5970 T 600 oC 6 4 5 2 3 1 8 0.m8 .1098 2461.8) + 0.7 kJ/kg h6 = h5 + wP56 = 1008.2 kJ/kg wN = 1248.1029.8/2508.5048 = 1.192.h10) = (3537.Borgnakke and Sonntag wP56 = 0.2030 CV: low pressure heater cont: m9 + m2 = m3 = m4 .6872(0.2974.2 MPa 10 kPa 9 10 s 80 MPa 7 3 MPa x9 = 0.507.797(2974.6872 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.6 .m9)(h9 .8 .7 = 1029.7) = 1248.6872(2461.797(3.7 m8 = 2974.0) = 0.488 1st law: m5h5 = m4h4 + m8h8 m4 = 0.192.8 8 s9 = s8 = 6.888 × 2201.2 = 1224.7970 .001217(20000 .9 = 2461.8 kJ/kg CV: high pressure heater cont: m5 = m4 + m8 = 1.h9) + (1 .0 kg .h8) + (1 .7970 1st law: m9h9 + m2h2 = m3h3 0.4 + 20. 1008.4 .0 m2 = 0.2 oC 8 at P8 = 3 MPa h = 2974.7 .5 kJ/kg ηTH = wN/qH = 1224. m9 = CV: turbine wT = (h7 .2) + 0.

(from mixing streams 4 & 9). . m10 = m11 = m2. b. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . a device with no moving parts. VAP o 150 C 2 T 2 JET EJECT. L H a. .2276 kPa . and the discharge flows to the condenser. m7 = m8 = m9. usually for an air-conditioning system. The purpose of the device is to chill water.145). . . Assume an ideal cycle. Thus.h1) = m2(h2 . . 10 o 4 VAP o 10 C 9 5. ideal jet ejector s1 = s1 & s2 = s2 (1' & 2' at P3 = P4) ′ ′ . . the secondary stream enters from the evaporator. In this application the physical setup is as shown in Fig. Using the data given on the diagram. a jet ejector may be used with water as the working fluid. m5 = m6 = m7 + m1 . .246 kPa P11 = P2 = PG 150oC = 475. . functions as the equivalent of a coupled turbine-compressor unit (see Problems 9.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. evaluate the performance of this cycle in terms of the ratio Q /Q . then. a) m1 + m2 = m3.145). 3 1' 3 BOIL.115 A jet ejector. . Cont: m1 + m9 = m5 + m10. m1(h1 .10 8 7 6 1 s 5 6 FLASH CH. P11.137 and 9. . . . . 30 C HP P. P11. 7 T1 = T7 = 10 C T2 = 150 oC T4 = 30 oC T9 = 20 oC Assume T5 = T10 o 20 C CHILL . Assume an ejector efficiency of 20% (see Problem 9. . m3 = m4 .8 kPa. The primary stream of the jet ejector enters from the boiler. P1 = P6 = P7 = PG 10oC = 1. the turbine-compressor in the dual-loop cycle of Fig. Alternatively.h2) ′ ′ Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. QH 11 COND.115.104 could be replaced by a jet ejector. . 11 1 4 2' . P3 = P4 = P5 = P8 = P9 = P10 = PG 30 oC = 4. QL 8 9 o LIQ o 10 C LP P. . .

7985 h2 = 125. .8 + m7 × 42. .wLP P = 42.8 + m7 × 42.5677 × 2519.42.79 kJ/kg.5677)h5 = 3. . ⇒ QL/QH = 8500/2661.35) = 2661.96 kJ/kg Mixing of streams 4 & 9 ⇒ 5 & 10: .5 . . . . .5677 = 0.88 + 0.1.79 + 0. . (m1 + m2)h4 + m7h9 = (m7 + m1 + m2)h5 = 10 Flash chamber (since h6 = h5) : . Q11 = m11(h2 .003 kJ/kg h8 = h7 . ⇒ (m1/m2)ACT = 0.01 kJ/kg .79 + m7 × 83. . .8 = 3.194 .4 kJ/kg ′ ′ ′ 2746. b) Jet eject.1 kW . . x2 = 0. m7 = 202.5 .47 kJ/kg h11 = h10 .5 kJ/kg ′ From s1 = s1 = 8.01 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.2519.9008 ⇒ T1 = 112 °C.85. (m7+m1)h5 = 10 = m1h1 + m7h1 .7135 × 125.2 × 3.88 kJ/kg LP pump: -wLP P = 0.5677)h5 .Borgnakke and Sonntag ′ ′ ′ From s2 = s2 = 0.5677 Also h4 = 125.0164. h9 = 83.7985 × 2430.003 = 42. eff. Solving.5 = 2066.96 = (m7 + 4.8 . ⇒ m1/m2 = 2710. .20 .47 = 85. & (m7 + 3. .7135)h5 = 0. & (m7 + 0.79 + m7 × 83.4.wHP P = 84. using m2 = 1 kg/s: 1. . ⇒ using the primary stream m2 = 1 kg/s: .5 .001002(475.627(83.246 . = (m1/m2)ACT/(m1/m2)IDEAL = 0. h7 = 42.7135)h5 .01) = 8500 kW (for m2 = 1) HP pump: -wHP P = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .h11) = 1(2746. 4. h1 = 2710.7135 .35 kJ/kg Boiler: . . .627 & h5 = 84.4 .01 . Chiller: QL = m7(h9-h8) = 202.96 .2066.1 = 3.4369 + x2 × 8.01 + 0.0010(4. . .96 = (m7 + 1.7135 × 2519.01 kJ/kg. .5677 × 125. . .2276) = 0. .246) = 0.

. m7 = 39.16 kJ/kg .762 & h5 = h10 = 85.5 . & QL/QH = 1668/2660. .96 .16) = 2660.86. Then.Borgnakke and Sonntag .69 + 0. QL = 39.627 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.01) = 1668 kW h11 = 85.42.47 = 86.3 kW . QH = 1(2746. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 = 0.69 kJ/kg Solving.762(83.

.Borgnakke and Sonntag Computer Problems Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

and the coefficient of performance.3.1 .qL) = 3. Assume an ideal refrigeration cycle as in Fig.7019 kJ/kgK Exit condenser sat.124 a A refrigerator with R-12 as the working fluid has a minimum temperature of −10°C and a maximum pressure of 1 MPa. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3.19.21.h4 = h1 .1: h3 = 76.19 .h3 = 183.2 ⇒ h2 ≈ 210. vapor −10°C from B.h3 = 210.22 kJ/kg Compressor: s2 = s1 & P2 from B.98 T Ideal refrigeration cycle Pcond = P3= P2 = 1 MPa Tevap = -10oC = T1 Properties from Table B. .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.1: h1 = 183.3. Find the specific heat transfer from the cold space and that to the hot space. Solution: Exit evaporator sat.22 = 107 kJ/kg qH = h2 .1 kJ/kg Evaporator: Condenser: COP: qL = h1 . liquid 1 MPa from B.3 3 4 2 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.76.9 kJ/kg β = qL/wc = qL/(qH .22 = 133. s1 = 0. 11.76.

Determine the coefficient of performance of this refrigerator for the working fluid R-12. kJ/kg K P2. kJ/kg wC = h2 .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.198 The value of h2 is taken from the computer program as it otherwise will be a double interpolation due to the value of P2.97 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted.h1 h3 = h4.124 b Consider an ideal refrigeration cycle that has a condenser temperature of 45°C and an evaporator temperature of −15°C.63 31. MPa R-12 180.71 101.26 3.7 Compressor Exp. Solution: Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 45oC = T3 Tevap = -15oC = T1 T 2 3 4 1 s Property for: h1. valve Evaporator T2.7051 1. .66 79.h4 β = qL/wC 212. oC h2. kJ/kg qL = h1 . kJ/kg s2 = s1.0843 54.

87 kJ/kg.03965 kg/s T Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 20oC Tevap = -15oC = T1 4 3 2 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. . mR-12 = 5.0 / 126.h4) qL = 180.97 . Solution: Basic refrigeration cycle: T1 = T4 = -15°C.87 = 126.124 c A refrigerator in a meat warehouse must keep a low temperature of -15°C and the outside temperature is 20°C.1 kJ/kg . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.97 kJ/kg h4 = h3 = 54. .Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.1 = 0. QL = mR-12 × qL = mR-12(h1 .54. It uses R-12 as the refrigerant which must remove 5 kW from the cold space. . Find the flow rate of the R-12 needed assuming a standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle with a condenser at 20°C. Computer Tables: T3 = 20°C h1 = hg = 180. .

7918 = 0.21 kJ/kg ⌡ 1 h2 = h1 + wP = 94.3417 + x4 × 0.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.27 + 0.47 kJ/kg ηTH = wNET/qH = (18. => h4 = 94.27 + 2.125 a Do Problem 11. A supply of geothermal hot water is to be used as the energy source in an ideal Rankine cycle.8446 × 166.h2 = 253.69 .1534) = 2.69 .8446 3 QH 2 WP.235.47 . Saturated vapor R-134a leaves the boiler at a temperature of 85°C. in 1 .h4 = 253.2.48 = 157.21)/157.5329. with R-134a as the cycle working fluid. Calculate the thermal efficiency of this cycle.21 = 0. and the condenser temperature is 40°C.88 = 235.000884(4037 .1034 x4 = 0.18 with R-22 as the working fluid.22 = 18.21 = 96.48 kJ/kg CV: Boiler: qH = h3 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h1 = ⌠ vdP ≈ v1(P2-P1) = 0. QL WT T 3 1 4 s 2 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. .22 kJ/kg wT = h3 . Solution: CV: Pump (use R-22 Computer Table) 2 wP = h2 .21 kJ/kg CV: Turbine s4 = s3 = 0.96.

355.26 kJ/kg . A flow with 2 kg/s of water is available at 95oC for the boiler.7918 = 0.1533.12 kW .48) = 65.2oC OK State 1: CV Pump: CV: Turbine s4 = s3 = 0.hC) hC = 323.: Cycle: wT = h3 .47 . -QAC = 0.5) = 2.94 .8446 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. 2 D 3 sat.11 = 2. WNET = mR22wNET = 0.43 kW 40oC.88 . -QBC at 85 oC C B liq H2O at 85 oC A liquid H2O 95 oC .27 + 0. find TC. .96.32 kJ/kg ⇒ TC = 77.21 = 16. Therefore.26 = 15.88) = 84.235. The restrictive factor is the boiling temperature of 85oC.h4 = 253.22 with R-22 as the working fluid.8446 × 166.hB) = 2(397. = mR-22(253. .22 = 18. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0(355.69 .000884 m3/kg wP = v1(P2 -P1) = 0. .5329 => h4 = 94.69 .wP = 18. .22 kJ/kg Energy Eq. 1533.09 .125 b Do problem 11.949 × 16.2.000884(4036.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. v1 = 0.09) ⇒ mR-22 = 0.949(165. vap R-22 85oC liquid R-22 liquid H2O out LIQUID HEATER BOILER .949 kg/s To verify that TD = T3 is the restrictive factor.3417 + x4 × 0. -QAB sat liq . break the process up from 23 into two parts as shown in the diagram. .165.47 kJ/kg wNET = wT .88 = 235.21 kJ/kg x4 = 0.8 .5 kPa. -QAB = mH2O(hA .

kJ/kg s2 = s1. Determine the coefficient of performance of this refrigerator for the working fluid R-22.125 c Consider an ideal refrigeration cycle that has a condenser temperature of 45°C and an evaporator temperature of −15°C. valve Evaporator T2.9505 1.h1 h3 = h4.15 3.h4 β = qL/wC 289. oC h2.4 Compressor Exp.98 143.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. kJ/kg K P2. .13 0.26 45. kJ/kg qL = h1 . kJ/kg wC = h2 .172 The value of h2 is taken from the computer program as it otherwise will be a double interpolation due to the value of P2. Solution: Ideal refrigeration cycle Tcond = 45oC = T3 Tevap = -15oC = T1 T 2 3 4 1 s Property for: h1. MPa R-22 244.729 74.13 100.

x = 1 h1 = 253. P2: h2 = 295.57 β=w = 41.9129 kJ/kg T2S = 69oC.17 – 253.42 = 41.17 – 109.: T 3 4 2s 2 1 s wC ac = h2 .44 C ac Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. s1 = 0.6 = 185.h1 280.125 d The refrigerant R-22 is used as the working fluid in a conventional heat pump cycle. Saturated vapor enters the compressor of this unit at 10°C.253.17 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.h1 = 295.9129 kJ/kg K State 2: T2.Borgnakke and Sonntag 11.h = 295.42 η=w = h .2 . . s2S = s1 = 0.2 kJ/kg Efficiency: C.253.75 kJ/kg wC s h2S .42 kJ/kg.V.75 = 4.57 kJ/kg COP Heat pump: qH 185.: qH = h2 .42 = 0.V.17 kJ/kg C. h2S = 280. Compressor Energy Eq. its exit temperature from the compressor is measured and found to be 85°C.6414 C ac 2 1 State 2s: 2 MPa . If the compressor exit is at 2 MPa what is the compressor isentropic efficiency and the cycle COP? Solution: R-22 heat pump: Computer Table State 1: TEVAP = 10oC.h3 = 295. Condenser Energy Eq.