The Upanishads

Table of Content
The Upanishads 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Katha Upanishad Isa Upanishad Kena Upanishad Mundaka Upanishad Svetasvatara Upanishad Prasna Upanishad Mandukya Upanishad Aitareya Upanishad Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Taittiriya Upanishad Chhandogya Upanishad Page 3 20 23 28 39 56 67 99 105 203 218

Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes

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Invocation Om. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

Katha Upanishad
Part One
Chapter I 1 Vajasravasa, desiring rewards, performed the Visvajit sacrifice, in which he gave away all his property. He had a son named Nachiketa. 2—3 When the gifts were being distributed, faith entered into the heart of Nachiketa, who was still a boy. He said to himself: Joyless, surely, are the worlds to which he goes who gives away cows no longer able to drink, to eat, to give milk, or to calve. 4 He said to his father: Father! To whom will you give me? He said this a second and a third time. Then his father replied: Unto death I will give you. 5 Among many I am the first; or among many I am the middlemost. But certainly I am never the last. What purpose of the King of Death will my father serve today by thus giving me away to him? 6 Nachiketa said: Look back and see how it was with those who came before us and observe how it is with those who are now with us. A mortal ripens like corn and like corn he springs up again.

Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes

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7 Verily, like fire a brahmin guest enters a house; the householder pacifies him by giving him water and a seat. Bring him water. O King of Death! 8 The brahmin who dwells in a house, fasting, destroys that foolish householder’s hopes and expectations, the reward of his intercourse with pious people, the merit of his kindly speech, the good results of his sacrifices and beneficial deeds and his cattle and children as well. 9 Yama said: O Brahmin, salutations to you! You are a venerable guest and have dwelt in my house three nights without eating; therefore choose now three boons, one for each night, O Brahmin! May all be well with me! 10 Nachiketa said: O Death, may Gautama, my father, be calm, cheerful and free from anger toward me! May he recognise me and greet me when I shall have been sent home by you! This I choose as the first of the three boons. 11 Yama said: Through my favour, your father, Auddilaki Aruni, will recognise you and be again toward you as he was before. After having seen you freed from the jaws of death, he will sleep peacefully at night and bear no anger against you. 12—13 Nachiketa said: In the Heavenly World there is no fear whatsoever. You, O Death, are not there and no one is afraid of old age. Leaving behind both hunger and thirst and out of the reach of sorrow, all rejoice in Heaven. You know, O Death, the Fire—sacrifice, which leads to Heaven. Explain it to me, for I am full of faith. The inhabitants of Heaven attain immortality. This I ask as my second boon. 14 Yama said: I know well the Fire—sacrifice, which leads to Heaven and I will explain it to you. Listen to me. Know this

Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes

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Fire to be the means of attaining Heaven. It is the support of the universe; it is hidden in the hearts of the wise. 15 Yama then told him about the Fire, which is the source of the worlds and what bricks were to be gathered for the altar and how many and how the sacrificial fire was to be lighted. Nachiketa, too, repeated all this as it had been told him. Then Yama, being pleased with him, spoke again. 16 High—souled Death, being well pleased, said to Nachiketa: I will now give you another boon: this fire shall be named after you. Take also from me this many—coloured chain. 17 He who has performed three times this Nachiketa sacrifice, having been instructed by the three and also has performed his three duties, overcomes birth and death. Having known this Fire born of Brahman, omniscient, luminous and adorable and realised it, he attains supreme peace. 18 He who, having known the three, has performed three times the Nachiketa sacrifice, throws off, even here, the chains of death, overcomes grief and rejoices in Heaven. 19 This, O Nachiketa, is your Fire—sacrifice, which leads to Heaven and which you have chosen as your second boon. People will call this Fire by your name. Now, O Nachiketa, choose the third boon. 20 Nachiketa said: There is this doubt about a man when he is dead: Some say that he exists; others, that he does not. This I should like to know, taught by you. This is the third of my boons. 21 Yama said: On this subject even the gods formerly had their doubts. It is not easy to understand: the nature of Atman is

Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes

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subtle. Choose another boon, O Nachiketa! Do not press me. Release me from that boon. 22 Nachiketa said: O Death, even the gods have their doubts about this subject; and you have declared it to be not easy to understand. But another teacher like you cannot be found and surely no other boon is comparable to this. 23 Yama said: Choose sons and grandsons who shall live a hundred years; choose elephants, horses, herds of cattle and gold. Choose a vast domain on earth; live here as many years as you desires. 24 If you deem any other boon equal to that, choose it; choose wealth and a long life. Be the king, O Nachiketa, of the wide earth. I will make you the enjoyer of all desires. 25 Whatever desires are difficult to satisfy in this world of mortals, choose them as you wish: these fair maidens, with their chariots and musical instruments — men cannot obtain them. I give them to you and they shall wait upon you. But do not ask me about death. 26 Nachiketa said: But, O Death, these endure only till tomorrow. Furthermore, they exhaust the vigour of all the sense organs. Even the longest life is short indeed. Keep your horses, dances and songs for yourself. 27 Wealth can never make a man happy. Moreover, since I have beheld you, I shall certainly obtain wealth; I shall also live as long as you rule. Therefore no boon will be accepted by me but the one that I have asked. 28 Who among decaying mortals here below, having approached the undecaying immortals and coming to know that his higher needs may be fulfilled by them, would exult in a life over long,

Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes

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but he who chooses the pleasant misses the end. another. after pondering well the pleasures that are or seem to he delightful. It goes well with him who. he prefers the good to the pleasant. O Death. for even many pleasures could not tempt you away. "This world alone exists. heedless and perplexed by the delusion of wealth.after he had pondered on the pleasures arising from beauty and song? 29 Tell me.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 7 . 2 Both the good and the pleasant present themselves to a man. 6 The Hereafter never reveals itself to a person devoid of discrimination. serving different needs. "and there is no other. like the blind led by the blind. to be one who desires Knowledge. 3 O Nachiketa. O Nachiketa. where many men sink. go round and round. takes the good. but the fool chooses the pleasant out of greed and avarice. Chapter II 1 Yama said: The good is one thing. but thinking themselves wise and erudite. you have renounced them all. of the two. 5 Fools dwelling in darkness. the pleasant. 4 Wide apart and leading to different ends are these two: ignorance and what is known as Knowledge. Yea. of that Great Hereafter about which a man has his doubts. The calm soul examines them well and discriminates." Again and again he comes under my sway. I regard you." he thinks. You have not taken the road abounding in wealth. bind a man. by various tortuous paths. Both of these. Source: "The Upanishads .

leaves joy and sorrow far behind. though hearing of Him. because It is diversely regarded by disputants. indeed. You have attained this Knowledge now. the shore where there is no fear. the wide abode and the goal—all this you have seen. hidden and who dwells in the buddhi and rests in the body—he. indeed. who is hard to be seen. Atman become easy of comprehension. Wonderful is the expounder and rare the hearer. 11 The fulfilment of desires. May we always have an inquirer like you! 10 Yama said: I know that the treasure resulting from action is not eternal. many do not comprehend. 9 This Knowledge cannot be attained by reasoning. for what is eternal cannot be obtained by the non— eternal. realises that ancient. when taught by another. from all Source: "The Upanishads . that which adorable and great. Yet I have performed the Nachiketa sacrifice with the help of non—eternal things and attained this position which is only relatively eternal.7 Many there are who do not even hear of Atman. is not easily comprehended. But when It is taught by him who has become one with Atman. there can remain no more doubt about It. 8 Atman. You are. unmanifest. the foundation of the universe. who has separated that Atman. when taught by an inferior person. the very soul of dharma. the rewards of sacrifices.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 8 . and being wise. by means of concentration on the Self. you have with firm resolve discarded everything. 13 The mortal who has heard this and comprehended it well. 12 The wise man who. rare indeed is the experiencer of Atman taught by an able preceptor. effulgent One. a man of true resolve. O dearest. Atman is subtler than the subtlest and not to be known through argument.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 9 . greater than the great. Source: "The Upanishads . 19 If the killer thinks he kills and if the killed man thinks he is killed. Birthless. It does not die. 18 The knowing Self is not born. nor is It killed. is hidden in the hearts of all living creatures. Whosoever knows this support is adored in the world of Brahma. everlasting and ancient. I will tell you briefly: it is Om. The Self kills not. Whosoever knows this syllable obtains all that he desires. It is not killed when the body is killed. eternal. 20 Atman. other than all this cause and effect. I believe. This syllable is the Highest. other than what has been and what is to be—tell me That. The Abode of Brahman. nothing has sprung from It.physical objects and has realised the subtle essence. which all austerities aim at and which men desire when they lead the life of continence. smaller than the small. neither of these apprehends aright. A man who is free from desires beholds the majesty of the Self through tranquillity of the senses and the mind and becomes free from grief. is open for Nachiketa. 16 This syllable Om is indeed Brahman. It has not sprung from anything. this is the highest support. rejoices because he has obtained that which is the cause of rejoicing. 17 This is the best support. 14 Nachiketa said: That which you see as other than righteousness and unrighteousness. 15 Yama said: The goal which all the Vedas declare.

who is not tranquil and subdued and whose mind is not at peace. does not grieve. which is sought by those who wish to cross over to the shore where there is no fear. the supreme akasa of the heart. though lying down. 25 Who. It is attained by him alone whom It chooses. To such a one Atman reveals Its own form. It goes everywhere. cannot attain Atman. vast and all— pervading. It travels far. as do those householders who have offered oblations in the Five Fires and also those who have thrice performed the Nachiketa sacrifice. The knowers of Brahman describe them as light and shade. Who but myself can know that luminous Atman who rejoices and rejoices not? 22 The wise man. or by intelligence. or by much hearing of sacred books. imperishable Brahman.21 Though sitting still. which is the bridge for sacrificers. then. 24 He who has not first turn away from wickedness. 2 We know how to perform the Nachiketa sacrifice. enjoying the sure rewards of their own actions. in the intellect. having realised Atman as dwelling within impermanent bodies but Itself bodiless. knows where He is—He to whom Brahmins and kshattriyas are mere food and death itself a condiment? Chapter III 1 Two there are who dwell within the body. 23 This Atman cannot be attained by the study of the Vedas. Source: "The Upanishads .A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 10 . It is realised only through the Knowledge of Reality. and we know also that supreme.

then the senses come under control. the charioteer. 6 But if the buddhi. and that is the supreme position of Vishnu. beyond the Unmanifest. loses its discriminations. like the good horses of a charioteer. being related to a distracted mind. the body. 10—11 Beyond the senses are the objects. 4 The senses. being related to a mind that is always restrained. the roads. being related to a mind that is always distracted. are the horses. the senses and the mind—the enjoyer. beyond the mind.3 Know the atman to be the master of the chariot. The wise call the atman—united with the body. the intellect. like the vicious horses of a charioteer. the reins. beyond the objects is the mind. being related to a mind that is restrained. beyond the Great Atman. 9 A man who has discrimination for his charioteer and holds the reins of the mind firmly. then the senses become uncontrolled. the Unmanifest. loses its discrimination and therefore always remains impure. the Supreme Goal. beyond the intellect. Beyond the Purusha there is nothing: this is the end.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 11 . but enters into the round of births. the intellect. 7 If the buddhi. 8 But if the buddhi. the Great Atman. possesses discrimination. 5 If the buddhi. then the embodied soul never attains the goal. reaches the end of the road. the Purusha. they say. the objects. Source: "The Upanishads . possesses discrimination and therefore always remains pure. and the mind. chariot. then the embodied soul attains that goal from which he is not born again.

Source: "The Upanishads . Yea. 14 Arise! Awake! Approach the great and learn. 15 Having realised Atman. Like the sharp edge of a razor is that path. told by Death. wishing for Immortality. recites the supreme secret in an assembly of Brahmins or at a after—death ceremony obtains thereby infinite rewards. beyond the Great and unchanging—one is freed from the jaws of death. 13 The wise man should merge his speech in his mind and his mind in his intellect. therefore a man perceives only outer objects with them and not the inner Self. he obtains infinite rewards. which is soundless. but It is seen by subtle seers through their one—pointed and subtle intellects. eternal and odourless. beholds the inner Self with his eyes closed. He should merge his intellect in the Cosmic Mind and the Cosmic Mind in the Tranquil Self. 16 The wise man who has heard and related the eternal story of Nachiketa. 17 And he who. intangible. so the wise say—hard to tread and difficult to cross. practising self—control. But a calm person. Part Two Chapter I 1 Yama said: The self—existent Supreme Lord inflicted an injury upon the sense—organs in creating them with outgoing tendencies. undecaying and likewise tasteless.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 12 . formless. is adored in the world of Brahman.12 That Self hidden in all beings does not shine forth. having realised That which is without beginning and end.

verily. Is there anything that remains unknown to Atman? This. abides therein. but calm souls. is That. This. the soul of all deities. 8 Agni. is That. all—pervading Atman. Source: "The Upanishads . 6 He verily knows Brahman who knows the First—born. is That. is That. 7 He verily knows Brahman who knows Aditi. verily. 5 He who knows the individual soul. This. the experiencer of the fruits of action. will not conceal himself from others. created prior to the waters and dwelling. in the cave of the heart. who was created with the elements and who. verily. who was born in the form of Prana. 4 It is through Atman that one perceives all objects in sleep or in the waking state. 3 It is through Atman that one knows form. do not covet any uncertain thing in this world.2 Children pursue outer pleasures and fall into the net of widespread death.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 13 . the offspring of austerity. sounds. This. verily. hidden in the two fire—sticks and well guarded—like a child in the womb. the calm soul does not grieve. touches and carnal pleasures. This. with the elements. is That. always near and the Lord of the past and the future. as Atman. smell. having known what is unshakable Immortality. verily. Having realised the vast. taste. by its mother—is worshipped day after day by men who are awake and by those who offer oblations in the sacrifices. entering into the heart.

verily. 11 By the mind alone is Brahman to be realised.9 Whence the sun rises and whither it goes to set. verily. O Gautama. 14 As rainwater falling on a mountain peak runs down the rocks in all directions. is That. 10 What is here. in whom all the devas are contained and whom none can ever pass beyond— This. The Lord of the past and the future. of the size of a thumb. is That. This. is like a flame without smoke. one does not conceal oneself any more. then one does not see in It any multiplicity whatsoever. He who meditates on Him grieves no more. 15 As pure water poured into pure water becomes one with it. verily. This. He goes from death to death who sees any difference here. so also. the same is there and what is there. He is the same today and tomorrow. does the Self of the sage who knows. is That. liberated from the bonds of ignorance. dwells in the body. of the size of a thumb.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 14 . the same is here. he becomes free. is That. After knowing Him. 12 The Purusha. verily. This. He is the Lord of the past and the future. Source: "The Upanishads . even so he who sees the attributes as different from Brahman verily runs after them in all directions. 13 The Purusha. He goes from death to death who sees multiplicity in It. This. is That. verily. Chapter II 1 There is a city with eleven gates belonging to the unborn Atman of undistorted Consciousness.

verily. identified with the body and dwelling in it. verily.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 15 . in the gods. that is Brahman and that alone is called the Immortal. after it has entered the world. 7 Some jivas enter the womb to be embodied as organic beings and some go into non—organic matter—according to their work and according to their knowledge. He is born in the water. on the mountains. 9 As the same non—dual fire. 8 He. is freed from it. is That? 5 No mortal ever lives by prana. that indeed is the Pure. 4 When the soul. This. All worlds are contained in Him and none can pass beyond. He is the air in the interspace. I shall tell you about this profound and eternal Brahman and also about what happens to the atman after meeting death. shaping one lovely form after another. He dwells in men. which goes up. becomes different according to whatever it burns.2 He is the sun dwelling in the bright heavens. which goes down. 3 He it is who sends prana upward and who leads apana downward. He is the True and the Great. All the devas worship that adorable One seated in the middle. on which these two depend. He is the guest dwelling in the house. the Purusha. 6 Well then. in the sky. what then remains? This. is torn away from the body. in truth. so also the Source: "The Upanishads . on earth. is That. He is the fire dwelling on earth. Men live by something different. nor by apana. Gautama. in the sacrifice. who remains awake while the sense—organs are asleep.

so also the same non—dual Atman. By His light all this is lighted. And It exists also without. dwelling in all beings. dwelling in all beings. nor these lightnings—not to speak of this fire. 10 As the same non—dual air." How can I realise It? Is It self—luminous? Does It shine brightly. And It exists also without. Source: "The Upanishads . or not? 15 The sun does not shine there. Eternal peace belongs to the wise. is never contaminated by the misery of the world. so also the one Atman. becomes different according to whatever It enters. fulfils the desires of many. the one truly conscious Entity among conscious objects and who. 13 There is One who is the eternal Reality among non—eternal objects. though non—dual. being outside it.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 16 . nor the moon and the stars. who makes His one form manifold. becomes different according to whatever it enters. after it has entered the world. the inmost Self of all beings. He shining. who perceive Him within themselves—not to others.same non—dual Atman. is not affected by the blemishes of the eyes or of the external things revealed by it. 14 The sages realise that indescribable Supreme Joy as "This is That. Eternal happiness belongs to the wise. dwelling in all beings. becomes different according to whatever It enters. who perceive Him within themselves—not to others. which helps all eyes to see. everything shines after Him. 11 As the sun. 12 There is one Supreme Ruler.

so in the World of the Fathers. is That.Chapter III 1 This is that eternal Asvattha Tree with its root above and branches below. run. the sun shines. higher than the Great Atman is the Unmanifest. so Brahman is seen in the World of the Gandharvas. That root. 5 As in a mirror. before the falling asunder of his body. 3 From terror of Brahman. he is embodied again in the created worlds. That Brahman is a great terror. verily. Indra and Vayu and Death. a wise man grieves no more. 7 Beyond the senses is the mind. higher than the intellect is the Great Atman. That is Brahman and That alone is the Immortal. beyond the mind is the intellect. Those who know It become immortal. then he is liberated. 4 If a man is able to realise Brahman here. Source: "The Upanishads . fire burns. the fifth. In That all worlds are contained and none can pass beyond. from terror of It. from terror of It. so in the World of Brahma. as in light and shade. 2 Whatever there is—the whole universe—vibrates because it has gone forth from Brahman. This. if not. as in a dream. indeed. is called the Bright.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 17 . like a poised thunderbolt. which exists as its Ground. so in the buddhi. 6 Having understood that the senses have their separate origin and that they are distinct from Atman and also that their rising and setting belong to them alone. as in water.

8 Beyond the Unmanifest is the Person. Having realised Him. 11 This. Of these two aspects. or by the eye. that is called the Supreme State. the firm Control of the senses. for yoga can be both beneficial and injurious. This much alone is the teaching. 14 When all the desires that dwell in the heart fall away. together with the mind and when the intellect does not move. Those who know this become immortal. One must then be vigilant. 10 When the five instruments of knowledge stand still. One can know Him when He is revealed by the intellect free from doubt and by constant meditation. by the mind. How can It be realised in any other way than by the affirmation of him who says: "He is"? 13 He is to be realised first as Existence limited by upadhis and then in His true transcendental nature. no one beholds Him with the eye. 15 When all the ties of the heart are severed here on earth.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 18 . 12 Atman cannot be attained by speech. then the mortal becomes immortal. all—pervading and imperceptible. the embodied self becomes liberated and attains Immortality. Atman realised as Existence leads the knower to the realisation of His true nature. then the mortal becomes immortal and here attains Brahman. is what is called yoga. 9 His form is not an object of vision. Source: "The Upanishads .

Going upward by it. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. Peace! Peace! Peace! Invocation Om. this is full. Let him know that Self as the Bright. a man at death attains immortality. When this fullness merges in that fullness. as the Bright. That is full. the inner Self. Let a man separate Him from his body with steadiness. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . one of which pierces the crown of the head. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other! Om. the inmost Self. Nachiketa became free from impurities and death and attained Brahman. as the Immortal—yea. as one separates the tender stalk from a blade of grass. Thus it will be also with any other who knows. End of Katha Upanishad Peace Chant Om. always dwells in the hearts of men. then he is reborn in the world. as the Immortal. 18 Having received this wisdom taught by the King of Death and the entire process of yoga. 17 The Purusha. Om.16 There are one hundred and one arteries of the heart. not larger than a thumb. in this manner. going in different directions. But when his prana passes out by other arteries.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 19 . all that remains is fullness.

there is no other way by which you can keep work from clinging to you. Protect the Self by renunciation. 5 It moves and moves not. he should live performing action. though never stirring. Vayu. for that reason he does not hate anyone. is swifter than the mind. 3 Verily. Because of Atman. Lust not after any man's wealth. It overtakes others who are running. Though standing still. and thereto they all repair after death who are slayers of Atman. without scar or sinews. It is far and likewise near.Isa Upanishad 1 All this—whatever exists in this changing universe—should be covered by the Lord. pure and by evil unpierced. 7 To the seer. all things have verily become the Self: what delusion. those worlds of the asuras are enveloped in blind darkness. for It moves ever in front.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 20 . 6 The wise man beholds all beings in the Self and the Self in all beings. The senses cannot reach It. the World Soul apportions the activities of all. can there be for him who beholds that oneness? 8 It is He who pervades all—He who is bright and bodiless. 2 If a man wishes to live a hundred years on this earth. It is inside all this and It is outside all this. who is the Source: "The Upanishads . what sorrow. who cherish such a desire and regard yourself as a man. 4 That non—dual Atman. For you.

13 One thing. from the worship of the unmanifested. He has duly allotted to the eternal World—Creators their respective duties. transcendent and uncreated. another. 11 He who is aware that both knowledge and ignorance should be pursued together.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 21 . but into a greater darkness they enter who worship the manifested Hiranyagarbha. overcomes death by the worship of Hiranyagarbha and obtains immortality through devotion to prakriti. overcomes death through ignorance and obtains immortality through knowledge. Thus we have heard from the wise who taught us this. Open it. another. Thus we have heard from the wise who have taught us this. O Nourisher! Remove it so that I who have been worshipping the Truth may behold It. they say. 12 Into a blind darkness they enter who worship only the unmanifested prakriti. but into a greater darkness they enter who engage in knowledge of a deity alone. omniscient. is obtained from the worship of the manifested. is obtained from knowledge. 14 He who knows that both the unmanifested prakriti and the manifested Hiranyagarbha should be worshipped together. from ignorance. 15 The door of the Truth is covered by a golden disc. Source: "The Upanishads . they say.Seer. they say. 10 One thing. they say. 9 Into a blind darkness they enter who are devoted to ignorance (rituals).

16 O Nourisher. May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never deny me! May there never be denial on the part of Brahman! May there never be denial on my part! May all the virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me. May the different parts of my body. I am indeed He. be nourished! All. Om. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. End of Isa Upanishad The Peace Chant Om. remember all that I have done. that Purusha. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . prana. my tongue. indeed. our salutations to you. immortal Prana! May this body be burnt to ashes! Om. all our deeds. 18 O Fire. ears and my strength and also all the sense—organs. remember. Offspring of Prajapati! Gather Your rays. 17 Now may my breath return to the all—pervading. O mind. that form of Yours which is the fairest. When this fullness merges in that fullness. You know. all that remains is fullness. withdraw Your light. eyes. who am devoted to Brahman! Yea. as is declared in the Upanishads. We offer. is Brahman. Peace! Peace! Peace! Invocation Om. who dwells there. lead us by the good path for the enjoyment of the fruit of our action. by words.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 22 . through Your grace. May Brahman protect us both (the preceptor and the disciple)! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other! Om. I would see. Destroy our sin of deceit. may they all belong to me! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace! Om. That is full. O god. this is full. lone Traveller of the sky! Controller! O Sun.

the Wise attain to Immortality. but by which speech is expressed—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship. We do not know It.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 23 . It is above the unknown. By whose will directed does the mind proceed to its object? At whose command does the prana. but by which. 7 That which cannot be perceived by the eye. Having detached the Self from the sense—organs and renounced the world. 5 That which cannot be expressed by speech. but by which the eye is perceived—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship. but by which the hearing is perceived—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship. the foremost. 8 That which cannot he heard by the ear. Source: "The Upanishads . nor the mind. they say. we do not understand how anyone can teach It. the Mind of the mind. Thus we have heard from the preceptors of old who taught It to us.Kena Upanishad Chapter I 1 The disciple asked: Om. nor speech. the mind is apprehended—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship. 6 That which cannot be apprehended by the mind. It is different from the known. the Life of life and the Eye of the eye. do its duty? At whose will do men utter speech? Who is the god that directs the eyes and ears? 2 The teacher replied: It is the Ear of the ear. the Speech of speech. 3—4 The eye does not go thither.

Having realised the Self in every being. even now. according to the story. but by which the breath smells an object—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship. he then attains the true goal of life. and by that victory of Brahman the gods became elated." Source: "The Upanishads . you know only Its form as conditioned by man or by the gods. 4 Brahman is known when It is realised in every state of mind. 2 The disciple said: I think I know Brahman. If he does not know It here. By Atman one obtains strength. nor do I know"—knows Brahman. Immortality 5 If a man knows Atman here. he by whom It is known. for by such Knowledge one attains Immortality.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 24 . nor do I think I do not know It. knows It. by Knowledge. Chapter II 1 The teacher said: If you think: "I know Brahman well. verily. Chapter III 1 Brahman. He among us who knows the meaning of "Neither do I not know. It is not known by those who know It. obtained a victory for the gods. is worthy of your inquiry. the wise relinquish the world and become immortal. a great destruction awaits him. this victory is ours. They said to themselves: "Verily. 3 He by whom Brahman is not known. Therefore Brahman. knows It not. this glory is ours only." then surely you know but little of Its form. It is known by those who do not know It.9 That which cannot be smelt by the breath. The disciple said: I do not think I know It well.

" Brahman put a straw before him and said: "Burn this." "Yes. I am also called Matarisva. Then he returned from the Spirit and said to the gods: "I could not find out who this Spirit is." he said and hastened to It. Brahman asked him: "Who are you?" He replied "I am known as Vayu. who are so well known?" Vayu replied: "I can carry off all— whatever there is on earth. Source: "The Upanishads . the daughter of the Himalayas. I am also called Jataveda." Brahman said: "What power is in you. She was Uma." Brahman said: "What power is in you. who are so well known?" Fire replied: "I can burn all— whatever there is on earth. Through the victory of Brahman alone have you attained glory. 3—6 They said to Agni (Fire): "O Agni! Find out who this great Spirit is. understood it all and appeared before them." He rushed toward it with all his ardour but could not move it." "Yes." Brahman put a straw before him and said: "Carry this." 7—10 Then they said to Vayu (Air): "O Vayu! Find out who this great Spirit is. But the Spirit disappeared from him." he said and hastened to It. But they did not know who that adorable Spirit was." "Yes. Then he returned from the Spirit and said to the gods: "I could not find out who this Spirit is.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 25 . He approached Her and said: "Who is this great Spirit?" Chapter IV 1 She replied: "It is.2 Brahman. indeed. Then Indra beheld in that very region of the sky a Woman highly adorned. Brahman asked him: "Who are you?" He replied: "I am known as Agni. to be sure." He rushed toward it with all his ardour but could not burn it." After that Indra understood that It was Brahman." he said and hastened to It." 11—12 Then the gods said to Indra: "O Maghavan! Find out who this great Spirit is. Brahman.

the highest Heaven. as it were. 5 Now the instruction about Brahman with regard to the individual self: The mind. 7 The disciple said. 'Teach me. these devas.2 Since they approached very near Brahman and were the first to know that It was Brahman. namely. The seeker. Indra excelled the other gods. It is like a wink of the eye. I have certainly told you the Upanishad about Brahman. 9 He who thus knows this Upanishad shakes off all sins and becomes firmly established in the infinite and the highest Heaven. goes to Brahman. 6 That Brahman is called Tadvana. yea. the Upanishad. It should be worshipped by the name of Tadvana. 3 Since Indra approached Brahman nearest and since he was the first to know that It was Brahman. All creatures desire him who worships Brahman thus. 4 This is the instruction about Brahman with regard to the gods: It is like a flash of lightning.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 26 . communes with It intimately again and again." The preceptor replied: "I have already told you the Upanishad. self—restraint and sacrificial rites are Its feet and the Vedas are all Its limbs. sir. Agni. Truth is Its abode. excelled the other gods. Vayu and Indra." 8 Austerities. This should be the volition of his mind. the Adorable of all. End of Kena Upanishad Source: "The Upanishads . by means of the mind.

May we. Peace! Peace! Peace! Invocation Om. prana. eyes.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 27 . my tongue. see with our eyes what is good! May we. May the different parts of my body. O worshipful gods. Peace! Peace! Peace! Om. may they all belong to me! Om. indeed. ears and my strength and also all the sense—organs. May Brahman protect us both (the preceptor and the disciple)! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other! Om. sing your praise and enjoy the life allotted to us by Prajapati! Om. strong in limbs and body. hear with our ears what is auspicious! May we. May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never deny me! May there never be denial on the part of Brahman! May there never be denial on my part! May all the virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me. be nourished! All. who am devoted to Brahman! Yea. is Brahman.The Peace Chant Om. O gods. as is declared in the Upanishads. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads .

Brahma. all—pervading and extremely subtle. which is imperishable and the source of all beings.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 28 . the great householder. the Yagur—Veda. to Angiras 3 Saunaka.Mundaka Upanishad First Mundaka Chapter I 1 Om. no hands or feet. the Maker of the universe and the Preserver of the world. nirukta (etymology). 6 By means of the Higher Knowledge the wise behold everywhere Brahman. in succession. told Angir. kalpa (rituals). which otherwise cannot be seen or seized. the Sama—Veda. approached Angiras in the proper manner and said: Revered sir. in olden times. chhandas (metre) and jyotis (astronomy). belonging to the clan of Bharadvaja and the latter taught it. the Atharva—Veda. 2 The Knowledge of Brahman about which Brahma told Atharva. and the Higher Knowledge is that by which the Imperishable Brahman is attained. the foundation of all knowledge. They are the Higher Knowledge and the lower knowledge. He told His eldest son Atharva about the Knowledge of Brahman. siksha (phonetics). Angir taught it to Satyavaha. Source: "The Upanishads . was the first among the devas. 5 Of these two. no eyes or ears. Atharva. vyakaranam (grammar). which is eternal and omnipresent. the lower knowledge is the Rig—Veda. what is that by the knowing of which all this becomes known? 4 To him he said: Two kinds of knowledge must be known—that is what the knowers of Brahman tell us. which has no root or attributes.

let a man offer his oblations in the space between the two portions of melted butter. form and food. Prana. 2 When the fire is well lighted and the flames flicker. or if the sacrifice is unaccompanied by the Vaisvadeva ceremony or is improperly performed—then it destroys his seven worlds. the Imperishable Brahman.7 As the spider sends forth and draws in its thread. from the elements. the elements. from mind. the worlds. 9 For him who knows all and understands everything. Practise them. This is your path leading to the fruits of your works.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 29 . thence works and from the works. Chapter II 1 This is the Truth: The sacrificial works which were revealed to the rishis in the hymns have been described in many ways in the three Vedas. their immortal fruits. name. from Prana. being desirous to attain their true results. as plants grow on the earth. Sulohita (the Very red). whose austerity consists of knowledge—from Him. Splulingini (the Scintillating) Source: "The Upanishads . as hair grows on the head and the body of a living man—so does everything in the universe arise from the Imperishable. Sudhumravarna (of the colour of bright smoke. if it is unattended by hospitality to guests or if the oblations are not offered at the right time. from matter. Karali (the Terrific). 3 If a man’s Agnihotra sacrifice is not accompanied by the Darsa and the Paurnamasa sacrifice. 8 Brahman expands by means of austerity and from It primal matter is produced. are born Brahma. mind. by the Four Months’ sacrifice and the Autumnal sacrifice. 4 Kali (the Black). purple). Manojava (the Swift as thought).

wander about. 10 Ignorant fools. practising penances appropriate to their stations of life Source: "The Upanishads . gained by good works. upon whom rests the inferior work. therefore they are destructible. form the seven tongues of the fire. flatter themselves. misery— stricken. flickering about. dwelling in darkness. 11 But those wise men of tranquil minds who lives in the forest on alms. 6 The luminous oblations say to the sacrifiers: Come hither! Come hither! And lead him on the rays of the sun. they fall from heaven. worshipping him all the while and greeting him with the pleasant words: This is the holy heaven of Brahma.and the luminous Visvaruchi (the All—gleaming. all— formed)—these seven. when the fruit of their work is exhausted. earned by your good deeds. Having enjoyed their reward on the heights of heaven. but wise in their own conceit and puffed up with vain scholarship. like blind men led by the blind. they enter again this world or a lower one. being afflicted by many ills. 5 A man who performs the sacrifices when these flames are shining and offers oblations at the right time.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 30 . 9 Children. saying: We have accomplished life's purpose. conducted by eighteen persons. is carried by these oblations on the rays of the sun to where dwells the sole sovereign of the gods. Fools who rejoice in them as the Highest Good fall victims again and again to old age and death. regarding sacrifices and humanitarian works as the highest. do not know any higher good. immersed in ignorance in various ways. Because these performers of karma do not know the Truth owing to their attachment. 8 Fools. 7 But frail indeed are those rafts of sacrifices.

whose mind is completely serene and whose senses are controlled. devoid of mind. the wind is His breath. Akasa. He is. mind. fuel in hand. water and earth. let him. indeed. 12 Let a brahmin. 13 To that pupil who has duly approached him. through which one knows the immutable and the true Purusha. uncreated and existing both within and without.and contemplating such deities as Hiranyagarbha. His heart. the wise teacher should indeed rightly impart the Knowledge of Brahman. 3 From Him are born prana. He is devoid of prana.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 31 . which supports all. Second Mundaka Chapter I 1 This is the Truth: As from a blazing fire. the inner Self of all beings Source: "The Upanishads . 4 The heavens are His head. His speech. the revealed Vedas. all the sense—organs. my good friend. do various beings come forth from the imperishable Brahman and unto Him again return. His eyes. the universe. From his feet is produced the earth. fire. so also. to the place where that immortal Person dwells whose nature is imperishable. pure and higher than the supreme Imperishable. His ears. depart. 2 He is the self—luminous and formless Purusha. sparks essentially akin to it fly forth by the thousand. In order that he may understand that Eternal. freed from impurities. by the Path of the Sun. air. after having examined all these worlds that are gained by works. approach a guru who is well versed in the Vedas and always devoted to Brahman. the quarters. the sun and moon. acquire freedom from desires: nothing that is eternal can be produced by what is not eternal.

birds and also prana and apana. from Him flow rivers of every kind. men. cattle. the sadhyas. from Him have come. Source: "The Upanishads . O disciples. by which the inner self subsists surrounded by the elements. 9 From Him come all the oceans and the mountains. breathes and blinks. from the herbs. for in It is centred everything that moves. which consists of work and austerity. the Kratus. Thus many living beings are born of the Purusha. faith. from the moon comes rain. the sacrificer and the worlds which the moon sanctifies and the sun illumines. truth.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 32 . continence and law. Chapter II 1 The Luminous Brahman dwells in the cave of the heart and is known to move there. penance. the seven flames.5 From Him comes the Fire whose fuel is the sun. 10 The Purusha alone is verily the universe. know that to be your Self—that which is both gross and subtle. the year. all plants and flavours. the seminal fluid which a man pours into a woman. all sacrifices. gifts. the Yajus. rice and corn. he who knows this Brahman—the Supreme and the Immortal. hidden in the cave of the heart—cuts asunder even here the knot of ignorance. lying in the cave. the Saman. the seven oblations and also the seven planes where move the pranas. which are seven in each living being. as well. It is the great support of all. 7 By Him are begotten the various devas. the Diksha. 8 From Him have sprung the seven pranas. the herbs that grow on the earth. the seven kinds of fuel. 6 From Him have come the Rik. from rain. O my good friend.

the great weapon and place upon it the arrow sharpened by meditation. That is the prana. Brahman is said to be the mark. That is the True and That is the Immortal. the atman is the arrow. speech and the mind. the wise behold Him fully in all things. It is to be struck by an undistracted mind. Then the atman becomes one with Brahman. my good friend. He assumes the forms of the mind and leads the body and the senses. subtler than the subtle. where the arteries meet. That alone is to be struck. Strike It. is placed in the space in the effulgent abode of Brahman. He is the bridge to Immortality. O my good friend—that which is the Imperishable 4 Om is the bow. Atman. 2 That which is radiant. supreme and beyond the understanding of creatures. Hail to you! May you cross beyond the sea of darkness! 7 He who knows all and understands all and to whom belongs all the glory in the world—He. 3 Take the Upanishad as the bow. That by which all the worlds and their inhabitants are supported—That. 5 In Him are woven heaven. as the arrow with the target. is the indestructible Brahman. Then. Meditate on Atman as Om.which is adorable. Know that non—dual Atman alone and give up all other talk. 6 He moves about. He dwells in the body. becoming manifold. within the heart. By the knowledge of That which shines as the blissful and immortal Atman. strike that mark.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 33 . Source: "The Upanishads . having drawn it back with a mind directed to the thought of Brahman. like the spokes fastened in the nave of a chariot wheel. verily. earth and the space between and the mind with all the sense—organs. inside the heart.

that Brahman is behind. 2 Seated on the same tree. One of them eats the sweet fruit. the other looks on without eating. by His light everything is lighted. everything shines after Him. that Brahman is to the right and left. when He is beheld who is both high and low. nor the moon and the stars. But when he beholds the other. the progenitor of Brahma. the Lord worshipped by all and His glory. shakes off good and evil. he then becomes free from grief. all doubts are resolved and all works cease to bear fruit.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 34 . the wise seer. 9 There the stainless and indivisible Brahman shines in the highest. then he. It is the Light of lights. nor these lightnings. 11 That immortal Brahman alone is before. the Lord. It is That which they know who know the Self. this universe is that Supreme Brahman alone. 3 When the seer beholds the self—luminous Creator. bewildered by his impotence. the Purusha. the jiva moans. united always and known by the same name. golden sheath. Brahman alone pervades everything above and below. not to speak of this fire. closely cling to the same tree. 10 The sun does not shine there.8 The fetters of the heart are broken. Source: "The Upanishads . When He shines. Third Mundaka Chapter I 1 Two birds. becomes stainless and reaches the supreme unity. It is pure.

dwelling in the cave of the heart of conscious beings. subtler than the subtle. Revelling in the Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 35 . nor by the other senses. whose every desire is satisfied. he beholds Him who is without parts. Therefore let everyone who wants prosperity worship the man who knows the Self. in meditation. thereupon. right knowledge and continence 6 Truth alone prevails. nor by penance or good works. not falsehood. 5 This Atman. resplendent and pure. He is far beyond what is far and yet here very near at hand. 7 That Brahman shines forth. A man becomes pure through serenity of intellect. together with the senses. is attained by unceasing practice of truthfulness. vast. Atman shines forth. Source: "The Upanishads .4 He indeed is Prana. nor by speech. performing actions. 8 Brahman is not grasped by the eye. inconceivable. delighting in the Self. Verily. The wise man who knows Him does not babble. When the intellect is purified. By truth the path is laid out. on which the seers. He shines forth variously in all beings. He is seen here. he is the foremost among the knowers of Brahman. the Way of the Gods. 10 Whatever world a man of pure understanding envisages in his mind and whatever desires he cherishes. 9 That subtle Atman is to be known by the intellect here in the body where the prana has entered fivefold. proceed to the Highest Abode of the True. whom the sinless sannyasins behold residing within the body. that world he conquers and those desires he obtains. self—luminous. austerity. By Atman the intellects of men are pervaded.

He who chooses Atman—by him alone is Atman attained. his soul enters the Abode of Brahman. Such calm souls ever devoted to the Self.Chapter II 1 He. which shines brightly and in which the universe rests. which is all this. enjoy here supreme Immortality and at the time of the great end attain complete freedom in Brahman. 2 He who. nor through intelligence. the goal of the Vedantic knowledge and having purified their minds through the practice of sannyasa. 6 Having well ascertained the Self. the Knower of the Self. nor through much learning. But if a wise man strives by means of these aids. 3 This Atman cannot be attained through study of the Vedas. knows that Supreme Abode of Brahman. But for him whose desires are satisfied and who is established in the Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 36 . Source: "The Upanishads . they are free from passions and they are tranquil in mind. Their souls are established in the Supreme Self. the seers become satisfied with that Knowledge. 4 This Atman cannot be attained by one who is without strength or earnestness or who is without knowledge accompanied by renunciation. cherishing objects. worship such a person transcend the seed of birth. Those wise men who. It is Atman that reveals to the seeker Its true nature. desires them. all desires vanish even here on earth. free from desires. behold everywhere the omnipresent Brahman and in the end enter into It. the seers. 5 Having realized Atman. is born again here or there through his desires. never relaxing their efforts.

full of faith. hear with our ears what is auspicious! May we. Salutation to the great seers! Salutation to the great seers! End of Mundaka Upanishad The Peace Chant Om. this is full. Source: "The Upanishads . strong in limbs and body. which is the Self of all. who is greater than the Great. become one with the highest imperishable Brahman. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness. have offered oblations in the Ekarshi Fire and performed. That is full. Peace! Peace! Peace! Invocation Om. losing their names and forms. attains the Purusha. free from the fetters of the heart. according to rule. In his family no one is born ignorant of Brahman. sing your praise and enjoy the life allotted to us by Prajapati! Om. he overcomes evil. 8 As flowing rivers disappear in the sea. A man who has not performed the vow should not read it. He overcomes grief. so a wise man. May we. see with our eyes what is good! May we. he becomes immortal. freed from name and form. 10 A Rik—verse declares: This Knowledge of Brahman should he told to those only who have performed the necessary duties.7 The fifteen parts go back to their causes and all the senses to their deities. who are versed in the Vedas and devoted to Brahman and who. the rite of carrying fire on the head. the actions and the Atman reflected in the buddhi. O gods. 11 Thus the seer Angiras declared this truth in olden times. 9 He who knows the Supreme Brahman verily becomes Brahman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 37 . O worshipful gods.

Om.all that remains is fullness. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other! Om.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 38 . Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . Peace! Peace! Peace! Om.

sixteen end—parts. and whose illusion arises from two causes.Svetasvatara Upanishad Chapter I 1 Rishis. whose one rope is manifold. fifty spokes with twenty counter—spokes and six sets of eight. the swan wanders about so long as it thinks the self is different from the Controller.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 39 . O ye who know Brahman. the self and the rest. This River has five whirlpools and its rapids are the fivefold misery. discovered the creative power. belonging to the Lord Himself and hidden in its own gunas. it has fifty branches and five pain—bearing obstructions. the living self? 3 The sages. and lastly. ask: Is Brahman the cause? Whence are we born? By what do we live? Where do we dwell at the end? Please tell us. When blessed by Him the self attains Immortality. or the elements be regarded as the cause? Or he who is called the purusha. or nature. whose waves are the five organs of actions and whose fountain—head is the mind. the source of the five forms of perception. which is made impetuous and winding by the five elements. 2 Should time. absorbed in meditation through one—pointedness of mind. a triple tire. Source: "The Upanishads . 5 We meditate on the River whose five currents are the five organs of perception. which moves on three different roads. 6 In this great Brahma—Wheel. in which all things abide and finally rest. or necessity. discoursing on Brahman. 4 The sages saw the wheel of Brahman. under whose guidance we abide. That non—dual Lord rules over all those causes—time. or chance. which has one felly. whether in pleasure or in pain.

of limited knowledge and power. for there exists further the unborn prakriti. they attain freedom from rebirth.7 It is the Supreme Brahman alone untouched by phenomena that is proclaimed in the Upanishads. after the dissolution of the body.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 40 . 11 When the Lord is known all fetters fall off. Hara. which creates the ideas of the enjoyer. is immortal and imperishable. the effect and the unmanifest. Through constant meditation on Him. The non—dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti and the individual soul. he is freed from his fetters. Completely merged in Brahman. having realized Brahman to be the essence of phenomena. The same Lord. Isa. the manifest. In It is established the triad of the enjoyer. enjoyment and the object. The sages. devoid of Lordship. omniscient and omnipotent and as the jiva. From meditation on Him there arises. the aspirant. by union with Him. the cause. This Brahman is the immutable foundation. 10 Prakriti is perishable. 8 The Lord. the Lord. But this does not deny the phenomenal universe. that of universal lordship. becomes bound because of assuming the attitude of the enjoyer. one attains. When the seeker knows all these three to be Brahman. birth and death come to an end. with the cessation of miseries. abides in the complete Bliss of Brahman. Source: "The Upanishads . cessation of the illusion of phenomena. It is imperishable. 9 The Supreme Lord appears as Isvara. the object and the Lord who is the Controller. And lastly. both unborn. in the end. transcending that state also. the third state. become devoted to Him. by the knowledge of identity with Him. the Supreme Self. supports all this which has been joined together—the perishable and the imperishable. The jiva again realizes the Supreme Self and is freed from all fetters. Atman is infinite and all—pervading and therefore devoid of agency.

toward meditation. join our minds and other organs to the Supreme Self so that we may attain the Knowledge of Reality. This Brahman alone. May He. while it lies latent in its source. is not perceived. That is the Brahman taught by the Upanishad. Beyond It. which abides eternally within the self. we exert ourselves. can be grasped in this very body by means of Om. should be known.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 41 . 14 By making the body the lower piece of wood and Om the upper piece and through the practice of the friction of meditation. In like manner. 15—16 As oil exists in sesame seeds. like fire. 2 Having received the blessings of the divine Sun and with minds joined to the Supreme Self. its source. when a man looks for It by means of truthfulness and austerity—when he looks for the Self. 13 The visible form of fire. water in river— beds and fire in wood. truly. the fire—wood. That very fire can be brought out again by means of persistent rubbing of the wood. yea. the objects of enjoyment and the Ruler (Isvara)—the triad described by the knowers of Brahman—all this is nothing but Brahman. through the powers of the deities who control the senses. by which we shall attain Heaven (Brahman). so the Self is realized as existing within the self. also. which pervades all things as butter pervades milk and whose roots are Self— Knowledge and austerity. that is the Brahman taught by the Upanishads. yet there is no destruction of its subtle form. support the body. hidden like the fire in the wood. which exists in two states. one perceives the luminous Self. there is nothing else to be known. butter in milk. Atman. to the best of our power. at the commencement of yoga. Chapter II 1 May the sun.12 The enjoyer (jiva). the highest material entity. Source: "The Upanishads .

Be absorbed. Thus your work will not bind you. so that the senses may be directed toward the Blissful Brahman and may reveal. the mighty and radiant Brahman. who occupy celestial positions. turn his senses. the oblations are offered to the deity Vayu and the soma juice is drunk excessively. is the dispenser of sacrifices. 7 Serve the eternal Brahman with the blessings of the Sun. 5 O senses and O deities who favour them! Through salutations I unite myself with the eternal Brahman. 4 It is the duty of those brahmins who fix their minds and senses on the Supreme Self to utter such lofty invocations to the divine Sun. through samadhi. toward the heart and by means of the raft of Brahman cross the fearful torrents of the world. 8 The wise man should hold his body steady. May the sons of the Immortal. Let this prayer sung by me. in the eternal Brahman. then the mind becomes attached to sacrifices in which fire is kindled by the rubbing of the pieces of fire—wood. who follow the right path of the Sun. Then let him undistractedly restrain his mind.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 42 . by means of Knowledge. with the three upper parts erect. mighty and omniscient. with the help of the mind. when they are quieted he should breathe out through the nostrils. omnipresent. as a charioteer restrains his vicious horses. 9 The yogi of well regulated endeavours should control the pranas. all— witnessing and non—dual. Source: "The Upanishads . For He.3 May the Sun bestow favour upon the senses and the mind by joining them with the Self. go forth in all directions. the cause of the universe. who is your source. hear it! 6 If sacrifices are performed without first propitiating the Sun.

then. become manifest then the yogi's body becomes purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness. wind. mentioned in the books on yoga. 16 He indeed. they say. was the first to be born and it is He who dwells in the womb of the universe. 13 The precursors of perfection in yoga. pleasantness of voice. that is to say. so also the yogi. 12 When earth. realising the truth of Atman. crystal and the moon. gravel and fire. again. radiant as a lamp. undisturbed by the noise of water or of market—booths and which is delightful to the mind and not offensive to the eye. lightning. the forms which appear first and which gradually manifest Brahman are those or snow—flakes. smoke. sweet odour and slight excretions. becomes one with the non—dual Atman. He stands behind all persons and His face is everywhere.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 43 . Source: "The Upanishads . 11 When yoga is practised. who is born as a child and He will be born in the future. having known the unborn and immutable Lord. attains the goal and is free from grief 15 And when the yogi beholds the real nature of Brahman. the Lord. air and akasa arise. who is untouched by ignorance and its effects.10 Let yoga be practised within a cave protected from the high wind. 14 As gold covered by earth shines bright after it has been purified. who pervades all regions. when the five attributes of the elements. he is freed from all fetters. fire. water fire. pure and free from pebbles. sun. old age and death. or in a place which is level. It is He. clear complexion. absence of desire. are lightness and healthiness of the body. through the Knowledge of the Self. fire—flies.

3 His eyes are everywhere. gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect! 5 O Rudra. He. He rules by His powers all the worlds during their manifestation and continued existence. Remaining one and the same. in the beginning.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 44 . He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He who. let there be adoration! Chapter III 1 The non—dual Ensnarer rules by His powers. 4 He.17 The Self—luminous Lord. O Protector of the body! Do not injure man or the world! Source: "The Upanishads . who is fire. who is in water. who is in plants. who is in trees— to that Lord let there be adoration! Yea. the omniscient Rudra. Thou who dwellest in the body and bestowest happiness! Look upon us with that most blessed form of Thine. for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second. Having produced heaven and earth. the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers. unterrifying and all good. He it is who endows men with arms. His faces everywhere. the support of the universe. which is auspicious. After having created all the worlds. everywhere His feet. 6 O Dweller in the body and Bestower of happiness. takes them back into Himself at the end of time. make benign that arrow which Thou holdest in Thy hand ready to shoot. They who know this become immortal. His arms everywhere. their Protector. He remains as their non—dual manifester. who has entered into the whole world. birds with feet and wings and men likewise with feet. 2 Rudra is truly one. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being.

the Lord of creation. who inspires the mind to attain the state of stainlessness. His heads. there is no other way to the Supreme Goal. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. who is luminous. which controls knowledge and is perceived in the heart. Only by knowing Him does one pass over death. to whom there is nothing superior. 9 The whole universe is filled by the Purusha. but others. Source: "The Upanishads . suffer pain. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe. no bigger than a thumb. beyond Hiranyagarbha. like the sun and beyond darkness. ever seated in the heart of man.7 The Supreme Lord is higher than Virat. He is known by the mind. is the inner Self. from whom there is nothing different. who stands alone. preservation and destruction. His necks. They who know Him become immortal. established in His own glory. 11 All faces are His faces. is the great Purusha. all necks. than whom there is nothing either smaller or greater. 12 He. men become immortal. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. Therefore He is the omnipresent and benign Lord. indeed. 10 That which is farthest from this world is without form and without affliction They who know It become immortal. all heads. motionless as a tree.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 45 . 13 The Purusha. He is the Ruler and the Light that is imperishable. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. 8 I know the great Purusha. indeed.

20 The Self. His ears are everywhere. speak of It as eternal. indeed. He is the refuge of all. majestic and desireless and become free from grief. the Great. a thousand feet. being all—pervading and which the wise declare to be free from birth. 19 Grasping without hands. 17 Himself devoid of senses. 21 I know this undecaying. which exists everywhere. flies outward. primeval One. He is the capable ruler of all. The teachers of Brahman. He is great. the ruler of the whole world. 16 His hands and feet are everywhere. the Self of all things. He exists compassing all. 18 The Swan. It knows what is to be known. It sees without eyes. smaller than the small. is hidden in the hearts of creatures. He is also the Lord of Immortality and of whatever grows by food. the Full. but no one knows It. becomes the embodied self and dwelling in the city of nine gates.14 The Purusha with a thousand heads. The wise. compasses the earth on all sides and extends beyond it by ten fingers' breadth. heads and faces are everywhere. They call It the First. greater than the great. He shines through the functions of the senses. of all that is moving and all that is motionless.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 46 . hasting without feet. It hears without ears. behold the Lord. His eyes. Source: "The Upanishads . a thousand eyes. 15 The Purusha alone is all this—what has been and what will be. by the grace of the Creator.

An unborn individual soul becomes attached to it and enjoys it. From Thee all the worlds are born. It is Hiranyagarbha. in the end. bewildered by its impotence. 5 There is one unborn prakriti—red. the jiva moans. 6 Two birds. withdraws the universe into Himself. 3 Thou art woman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 47 . Thou art man. Thou art the thunder—cloud. It is Virat. is indeed the self—luminous—May He endow us with clear intellect! 2 That Supreme Self is Agni (Fire). 4 Thou art the dark—blue bee. Source: "The Upanishads . it becomes free from grief. It is Aditya (Sun).Chapter IV 1 He. That Self is the luminous stars. assumest diverse forms. It is Vayu (Wind). It is Chandrama (Moon). when born. Thou art beginningless and all—pervading. closely cling to the same tree. But when it beholds the other. Thou art youth and maiden too. the other looks on without eating. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff. It is water. united always and known by the same name. who by the manifold application of His powers produces. white and black—which gives birth to many creatures like itself. the One and Undifferentiated. One of them eats the sweet fruit. the Lord worshipped by all and His glory. Thou art the green parrot with red eyes. in the beginning. the seasons and the seas. while another unborn individual soul leaves it after his enjoyment is completed. different objects for a hidden purpose and. it is Thou alone who. 7 Seated on the same tree.

Again. the past. 9 The sacred verses. dwells in prakriti. have been produced from the imperishable Brahman. one attains the supreme peace. then. the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers. the future and all that the Vedas declare. in that universe Brahman as the jiva is entangled through maya. with an oblation. the Support of the universe. Rudra the omniscient. which is greater than the unmanifest and wherein the Vedas and all the gods are sheltered? Only those who know It attain bliss. who at the beginning gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect! 13 He who is the sovereign of the gods. 12 He. Brahman projects the universe through the power of Its maya. who rules over all two—footed and four—footed beings—let us serve that God. 14 By realising Him who is subtler than the subtlest who dwells in the midst of the chaos. though non—dual. the sacrifices (kratu).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 48 . The whole universe is filled with objects which are parts of His being. who is the non—dual Pervader of Source: "The Upanishads .8 Of what use are the Vedas to him who does not know that indestructible Substance. in whom the worlds find their support. the Adorable God. that akasa—like Brahman. 10 Know. the offerings (yajna). both in its primary and in its secondary aspect and in Whom this whole world comes together and dissolves—by truly realising Him Who is the Lord. who is the Creator of all things and is endowed with many forms. that prakriti is maya and that Great God is the Lord of maya. the bestower of blessings. radiant and blissful. the penances (vrata). 11 By truly realising Him who.

art birthless. by knowing Him one cuts asunder the fetters of death. O Rudra. 18 When there is no darkness of ignorance. 21 It is because Thou. who conceals Himself in all beings as their inner Witness. the pure Brahman alone exists.the universe and all good—by realising Him one attains the supreme peace. becomes the custodian of the universe and the sovereign of all. extremely subtle. Verily. He dwells always in the hearts of men. That immutable Reality is the meaning of "That". and in whom the sages and the deities are united. no one beholds Him with the eyes. His name is Great Glory (Mahad Yasah). who is all Bliss. It is adored by the Sun. may Thy benign face protect me for ever! Source: "The Upanishads . frightened by birth and death. They who know Him become immortal. From It has proceeded the ancient wisdom. through pure intellect and the Knowledge of Unity based upon reflection. in proper time. self—luminous and all—pervading. or in the middle. that some rare souls. They who. 19 No one can grasp Him above. 15 It is He who. like the film that rises to the surface of clarified butter and is hidden in all beings—he who knows the radiant Deity. He is revealed by the negative teachings of the Vedanta. realise Him as abiding in the heart become immortal. the sole Pervader of the universe. across. is released from all his fetters. there is no day or night.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 49 . discriminative wisdom and the Knowledge of Unity based upon reflection. O Lord. There is no likeness of Him. 20 His form is not an object of vision. 17 The Maker of all things. 16 He who knows Brahman. neither being nor non—being. take refuge in Thee.

2 He. Brahma knew Him who can be known only from the evidence of the Vedas. For we invoke Thee always. in Thy wrath. destroy our children and grand—children. the secret part of the Vedas. His own creation. Ignorance leads to worldliness and knowledge. to Immortality. who controls both knowledge and ignorance. who brings to maturity all that can be ripened. in the beginning.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 50 . being non—dual. Source: "The Upanishads . do not destroy our strong servants. self—resplendent.22 O Rudra. rules over the whole universe and engages the gunas in their respective functions—He is concealed in the Upanishads. filled with knowledge the omniscient Hiranyagarbha. who. Do not destroy our lives. illumining all the quarters—above. Again the all— pervading Deity creates the aggregates of body and senses. The gods and seers of olden times who knew Him became Brahman and attained Immortality. controls all objects. below and across—so also God. infinite Supreme Brahman remain hidden the two: knowledge and ignorance. who rules over every position. for our protection. both individual and collective and their controllers also and thus exercises His overlordship. 3 At the time of the creation the Lord spreads out individual nets in various ways and then at the time of the cosmic dissolution withdraws them into the great prakriti. who controls all forms and all sources. do not. adorable and non—dual. who. Brahman. which themselves possess the nature of a cause. Chapter V 1 In the Immutable. do not destroy our cows or horses. with oblations. 5—6 He who is the cause of all and who enables all things to function according to their nature. whom He beheld when He (Hiranyagarbha) was produced—He is other than both knowledge and ignorance. 4 As the sun shines. the non—dual Brahman. is different from both.

13 He who knows the Lord.7 Endowed with gunas. Therefore it is seen as another entity. diverse forms in various places. 9 Know the embodied soul to be a part of the hundredth part of the point of a hair divided a hundred times. with that it becomes united. Source: "The Upanishads . attachment and delusion. the embodied soul assumes. 8 Of the size of a thumb. by means of good and evil deeds committed by itself. nor is it neuter. roams about following the three paths. the jiva possesses both volition and egoism. contact. and again. whatever body it takes. the jiva performs action. according to its deeds. coarse and fine. it assumes another body for the enjoyment of suitable objects. ruler of the pranas. who is the Creator of all things and is endowed with many forms—he who knows the radiant Deity. according to its deeds.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 51 . Assuming all forms and led by the three gunas. By virtue of its actions and also of such characteristics of the mind as knowledge and desire. inferior and small as the point of a goad. seeking its fruit. 10 It is not female. successively. assumes many forms. who is without beginning or end. but brilliant. just as the body grows when food and drink are poured into it. and yet it is infinite. the sole Pervader of the universe. It is endowed with the qualities of both buddhi and Atman. 11 By means of desires. 12 The embodied soul. the jiva. it reaps the fruit of what it has done. it is not male. is released from all his fetters. like the sun. who stands in the midst of the chaos of the world.

who is the cause of creation and destruction. indeed. the Author of time. who is called incorporeal. He is sinless and omniscient. After having worshipped that adorable God dwelling in the heart. 4 He who attains purity of heart by performing actions as an offering to the Lord and merges prakriti and all its effects in Brahman.14 Those who know Him who can be realised by the pure heart. He is above the three kinds of time and is seen to be without parts. Source: "The Upanishads . It is the greatness of the self—luminous Lord that causes the Wheel of Brahman to revolve. who is of many forms and is the true source of all things. the cause which unites the soul with the body. both collective and individual. It is at His command that the work which is called earth. are deluded. all his past actions are destroyed.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 52 . man attains final Liberation. All this should be reflected upon by the wise. water. After the destruction of the prarabdha karma he attains final Liberation. as the cause of the universe. 5 The Great Lord is the beginning. In the absence of maya. 2 He by whom the whole universe is constantly pervaded is the Knower. 3 The yogi who first performs actions and then turns away from them and who practises one. air and akasa appears as the universe. two. who is all good and the creator of the sixteen parts—those who know the luminous Lord are freed from embodiment. fire. three. or eight disciplines. They all. Chapter VI 1 Some learned men speak of the inherent nature of things and some speak of time. realises his true Self and thereby transcends phenomena. unites one principle with another principle and with the help of virtues cultivated by the self and of subtle tendencies attains Liberation in course of time.

who. 8 He is without a body or organs. the Lord of the lord of the organs. or better than He. no ruler. one attains final Liberation.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 53 . who perceive Him within themselves—and not to others. by the power of His maya. He is the cause. the Supreme Deity of deities. which is innate and capable of producing diverse effects and also of His omniscience and might. 12 There is a non—dual Ruler of the actionless many. the Ruler of rulers. and He is without progenitor or controller. free from gunas. abiding in all things. none like unto Him is seen. 10 May the non—dual Lord. He is the Witness. like a spider. He makes the one seed manifold. the bringer of good. covered Himself. the immortal support of all. merge us in Brahman! 11 The non—dual and resplendent Lord is hidden in all beings. the Lord of powers. the destroyer of evil. with threads drawn from primal matter. nor is there even a sign of Him by which He can be inferred. who is higher than the imperishable prakriti and is the self—luminous. Eternal happiness belongs to the wise. the impeller to actions.6 He from whom this universe proceeds is higher and other than all forms of the Tree of the World and of time. adorable Lord of the world. the Animator and the Absolute. 9 He has no master in the world. All—pervading. 7 We know Him who is the Supreme Lord of lords. Source: "The Upanishads . When one knows Him who is the indweller. The Vedas speak of His exalted power. the inmost Self of all creatures.

13 He is the Eternal among the eternal. who in the beginning created Brahma and delivered the Vedas to Him. the omnipresent Protector of the universe. 14 The sun does not shine there. the Knower. By his light all this is lighted. the Author of time. 19—20 When men shall roll up space as if it were a piece of hide. 15 In this universe the Swan. to be realised by Knowledge (Samkhya) and yoga. the inmost Self of all things and their Source—the omniscient Lord. He shining. the luminous Lord. He is the Immortal. the Knower of everything. the revealer of Self—Knowledge. then there will be an end of misery without one’s cultivating the Knowledge of the Lord. existence and Liberation from samsara. Source: "The Upanishads . 16 He who is the support of both the unmanifested prakriti and the jiva. the Great Cause. the Conscious among the conscious and though non—dual. 18 Seeking Liberation. the Supreme Self alone exists.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 54 . the Possessor of virtues. who is the Lord of the three gunas and who is the cause of bondage. 17 He who constantly rules the world is verily the cause of bondage and Liberation. is freed from all fetters. is verily the Creator of the universe. everything shines after Him. who is without parts. I take refuge in the Lord. the Embodiment of Consciousness. nor these lightnings—much less this fire. He who has known Him. nor the moon and the stars. abides in the water. as fire. Established in His own glory. fulfils the desires of many. without actions. Only by knowing Him does one pass over death. There is no other way to reach the Supreme Goal. It is He who. There is no one else able to rule it.

End of Svetasvatara Upanishad The Peace Chant Om. this is full. the supreme bridge to Immortality. sing your praise and enjoy the life allotted to us by Prajapati! Om. O gods. an like a fire that has consumed all its fuel. nor to one who is not a son or a disciple. 23 If these truths have been told to a high—minded person who feels the highest devotion for God and for his guru as for God. When this fullness merges in that fullness. indeed. strong in limbs and body. hear with our ears what is auspicious! May we. 21 Through the power of austerity and through the grace of the Lord. all that remains is fullness. Peace! Peace! Peace! Invocation Om. they will shine forth. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . unattached. Om.tranquil. May we. the sage Svetasvatara realised Brahman and proclaimed the highly sacred Knowledge. see with our eyes what is good! May we. It should not be given to one whose passions have not been subdued. 22 The profound mystery in the Vedanta was taught in the previous cycle. That is full. blameless. supremely cherished by the company of seers. then they will surely shine forth as inner experiences—then. O worshipful gods.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 55 . to sannyasins of the most advanced stage. This fullness has been projected from that fullness.

If we know we shall tell you all. Then you may ask questions according to your desire. created the pair. approached. indeed. whence are these creatures born? 4 To him the teacher said: Prajapati. Sukesa. devoted to Brahman and firm in Brahman and seeking the Supreme Brahman. the western. food.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 56 . was desirous of progeny. fuel in hand. the son of Asvalaand Vaidarbhi. life. chastity and faith. indeed. the moon is rayi. the Son of Katya—all these. the moon (rayi) and the sun (prana). food. He said to Himself: "These two should produce creatures for Me in manifold ways. belonging to the family of Bhriguand Kahandhi. all this—what has form and what is formless. Food is. the upper and the intermediate quarters—when it illuminates everything—it thus enfolds all living beings in its rays. And when it illuminates the southern. indeed." 5 The sun is.Prasna Upanishad Question I 1 Om. belonging to the family of Gargaand Kausalya. the lower. 2 The rishi said to them: Stay with me a year more. practising austerities. came to him and asked: Sir. the son of Katya. the venerable Pippalada with the thought that he would tell them everything about Brahman. He performed austerities and having performed austerities. when it rises. the Son of Bharadvajaand Satyakama. Source: "The Upanishads . 6 Now the sun. enters the eastern quarter and thereby enfolds the living beings of the east in its rays. the Creator. Therefore everything having form is. prana. the son of Sibiand Sauryayani. the northern. 3 Then Kabandhi.

faith and knowledge travel by the Northern Path and win the Sun. all— knowing. the support of all life. rayi. verily. This path is blocked for the ignorant. win only the World of the Moon. 12 The month. rayi. again.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 57 . as duties to be done. chastity. Source: "The Upanishads . Those who perform sacrifices and engage in pious actions. its bright half. the giver of rain and the dweller in the region above the sky. the soul of all forms. is Prajapati. He is the final goal. the eye of all beings. Those who join in sexual enjoyment by day verily dissipate life. verily. full of rays. day is the eater.7—8 That sun rises every day—the sun. chastity. Of these. 13 Day and night. verily. He is immortal and fearless. is the support of all lives. non—dual. the life of all creatures. verily. 9 The year. prana. is food. Therefore some rishis perform sacrifice in the bright half. This has been described by the following rik: The wise know him who is in all forms. verily they return hither again. some in the other half. the thousand— rayed. Therefore the rishis who desire off—spring travel by the Southern Path. say that the world is fixed in the omniscient Sun. This Path of the Fathers is rayi. 10 But those who seek the Self through austerity. is Prajapati and there arc two paths thereof: the Southern and the Northern. are Prajapati. There rises the sun. existing in a hundred forms. endowed with seven wheels and six spokes. verily. which is the soul of all creatures. prana and night. Concerning it there is the following verse: 11 Some call Him the father with five feet and with twelve forms. the eater. Thence they do not return. The Sun. Others. which is life and fire. verily. the food. food. the giver of heat. but to join in sexual enjoyment by night is. Its dark half.

dividing myself into five parts. said boastfully: "We support this body and uphold it. is paramount? 2 To the disciple he said: Space. support this body and uphold it. belonging to the family of Bhrigu." 3 To them prana. akasa. water. out of pride." But they were incredulous. fire. eye and ear. having manifested their glory. asked him: Sir. verily. mind. 16 The stainless World of Brahma belongs to those in whom there is no crookedness. who practise this rule of Prajapati beget a pair. But Brahmaloka belongs to those who observe austerity and chastity and in whom truth is firmly established. as it were. is Prajapati. speech. furthermore. even so did speech. as well. rose upward. from semen are all these creatures born. how many gods support the body of the created being? How many of these manifest their power through it? And which one. when it rose upward all the others rose upward also and when it settled down they all settled down with it. praised prana. 15 Those. Question II 1 Then Vaidarbhi. eye and ear. From that comes semen. being satisfied.14 Food. no deception. They. verily is that god—the wind. I alone. As bees go out when their queen goes out and return when she returns. therefore. These. earth. the chiefmost said: "Do not fall into delusion.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 58 . from the body. 4 Prana. Now. no falsehood. mind. Source: "The Upanishads .

9 Indra thou art. indeed. thou showerest down rain. it is food. It is the luminous god. it is thou. these creatures of thine are delighted. 11 Thou art vratya. To thee. in prowess. the lord of lights. it is the rain. the Sama—Veda. creatures bring offerings. to thee who dwellest in the body with the organs. 7 As Prajapati thou movest about in the womb. Thou movest in the sky. the kshattriyas and the brahmins. the Yajur—Veda. which abides in the eye and which pervades the mind. O Prana and Rudra. O Prana and the Ekarshi Fire that devours the butter. it is immortality. too. it is the sun. it is the earth. Thou art the Supreme Lord of all.5 It burns as fire. of the Atharvangiras. it is Indra. make propitious. We are the givers of the butter that thou consumest. Go not away! Source: "The Upanishads . it is the wind. 8 Thou art the chief bearer of oblations to the gods and the first offering to the departed fathers. Thou art the Protector. It is being and non—being. thinking there will be as much food as they desire. 12 That form of thine which abides in speech. 6 As spokes in the hub of a wheel. O Prana. who art born again. thou art the sun. 10 When. all are fixed in prana. thou art the true activities of the rishis. O Matarisva! Thou art our father. which abides in the ear. O Prana.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 59 . including the Rig—Veda.

Therefore I will answer you. there are seventy—two thousand subsidiary vessels. As a shadow is cast by a person. for each of these there are one hundred branches and for each of these branches. In the middle is samana. Protect us as a mother her sons. 4 As an emperor commands his officials. Vyana moves in these. From this prana fire arise the seven flames. it distributes equally what has been offered as food in the fire in the stomach. 5 Prana engages apana in the organs of excretion and generation. whence is this prana born? How does it come into this body? How does it abide in the body after it has divided itself? How does it depart? How does it support the external and how the internal? 2 To him the teacher replied: You are asking difficult questions.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 60 . the son of Asvala. Question III 1 Then Kausalya. 3 This prana is born of Atman. Through the activity of the mind it comes into this body. each in its separate place. bestow upon us prosperity and wisdom. he himself moves through the mouth and nose and dwells in the eye and ear. again. 6 The atman dwells in the heart.13 All that exists here is under the control of prana and also what exists in heaven. where there are one hundred and one arteries (nadi). you must be exceedingly devoted to Brahman." so this prana employs the other pranas. Source: "The Upanishads . saying. asked Pippalada: Sir. by Atman. "Rule these villages or those. so this prana is.

obtains immortality. As to this there is the following verse: 12 He who knows the origin of prana. The deity that exists in the earth controls the apana of man. for both. 8 The sun. with the senses absorbed in the mind. its place. leads to whatever world has been fashioned by thought.7 And then udana. asked: Sir. akasa. 9 Fire. verily. for its virtuous deeds. verily. its fivefold distribution. Question IV 1 Next Sauryayani. to the sinful world. what are they that sleep in man and what are they that remain awake in him? Which deity is it that sees dreams? Whose is the happiness? In whom. its internal aspect and also its external. therefore he whose fire has been extinguished goes out for rebirth. conducts the departing soul to the virtuous world. are all these gathered together? Source: "The Upanishads . 11 The wise man who thus knows prana does not lose his offspring and becomes immortal.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 61 . is udana. for it rises. and to the world of men. 10 Whatever one's thinking. again. with that one enters into prana. together with the soul. The air is vyana. he obtains immortality. The space. for its sinful deeds. between heaven and earth is samana. ascending upward through one of them. Prana joined with fire. its entry. favouring the prana in the eye. yea. belonging to the family of Garga. is the external prana.

himself being all. is the sacrificer. the mind. enjoys not. it is the priest. when it sets. whatever has been experienced in different countries and quarters. the ear and what can be heard. And prana is the Ahavaniya Fire.2 To him Pippalada replied: O Gargya. the eye and what can be seen. grasps not. tastes not. air and its subtle counterpart. the Anvaharyapachana Fire. Whatever has been seen or not seen. Therefore at that time a man hears not. 3 The prana fires remain awake in this city. all these—the objects and the senses—become one in the superior god. arises this happiness. because it leads the sacrificer every day. the organ of speech and what can be Source: "The Upanishads . emits not and does not move about. in this body. Udana is the fruit of the sacrifice. fire and its subtle counterpart. he experiences again. verily. Whatever has been seen he sees again. He sleeps—that is what people say. heard or not heard and whatever is real or not real—he sees it all. 6 When the jiva is overcome by light he sees no dreams. all this rests in the Supreme Atman: Earth and its subtle counterpart. namely. He sees all. even so. the taste and what can be tasted. in deep sleep. in dreams. the skin and what can be touched. as the rays of the sun. experiences glory. Apana is the Garhapatya Fire and vyana. the out—breathing and the in—breathing. smells not. O friend. are gathered in that luminous orb and again go forth when it rises. 4 Samana is so called because it distributes equally the two oblations. water and its subtle counterpart. speaks not. whatever has been heard he hears again. 5 There.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 62 . to Brahman. at that time. verily. 7—8 As a bird goes to a tree to roost. sees not. The mind. that god. so called from being taken—since it is taken from the Garhapatya Fire. akasa and its subtle counterpart. even so. touches not. the mind. the nose and what can be smelt.

verily. he quickly comes back to earth after death. hears. the hands and what can be grasped. the ego (ahamkara) and the object of egoism. knowledge (tejah) and its object. asked Pippalada. being enlightened by that alone. the undecaying Purusha. together with the gods. 3 If he meditates on one letter (matra). the intelligent self. Sir. the imperishable Atman. 10 He who knows that imperishable Being. Question V 1 Then Satyakama. the memory (chitta) and its object. thinks and knows. Therefore he who knows it attains. who knows that imperishable Being wherein rests the intelligent self. The rik verses lead him to the world of men. without body. the organ of generation and what can be enjoyed. smells. it is who sees. the pranas and the elements—he becomes all—knowing and enters into all. the one or the other. He is established in the Highest. the intellect (buddhi) and what can be comprehended. By practising austerity. He is the doer. would he win thereby? 2 He replied: O Satyakama. if among men someone should here meditate on the syllable AUM until death. verily attains the Supreme. O friend. chastity and faith he enjoys greatness. which world. becomes all. the feet and what is their destination. he who knows Atman becomes all—knowing. prana and what is to be supported. About it there is the following verse: 11 He. verily. bright. 9 He. the syllable AUM is the Supreme Brahman and also the other Brahman. the mind (manas) and what can be thought. the organ of excretion and what can be excreted. the son of Sibi. without colour. tastes. the purusha.spoken. with its support. O my good friend. then. Source: "The Upanishads .A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 63 . without shadow. feels.

Now I ask you: Where does that Person dwell? 2 Pippalada said to him: That Person—He from whom these sixteen parts arise—is verily here within the body. but when joined together in meditation on the total Reality and used properly on the activities of the external. he who meditates on the Highest Person through this syllable AUM consisting of three letters. do you know the Person with sixteen parts?" I said to the prince: "I do not know Him. meditating on AUM. and that which is known to the seers by means of the sama verses.4 If. if employed separately. Hiranyabha. why should I not tell you? Surely he who speaks what is not true withers away to the very root. he attains the mind and is led up by the yajur verses to the intermediate space. becomes united with the effulgent Sun. 6 The three letters of AUM.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 64 . 5 Again. free from decay. if I knew Him. therefore I should not speak untruth. death and fear and which is the Highest. the prince of Kosala. the intermediate world by means of the yajur verses. said to Pippalada: Sir. As a snake is freed from its skin. the son of Bharadvaja. the knower trembles not. attains this world by means of the rik verses. even so he is freed from sin. internal and intermediate states. are mortal. to the Plane of the Moon." Then he silently mounted his chariot and went away. once came to me and asked this question: "O son of Bharadvaja. 7 The wise man. again. he returns hither again. Having enjoyed greatness in the Plane of the Moon. And also through the syllable AUM he realises that which is tranquil. Question VI 1 Then Sukesa. Source: "The Upanishads . he meditates on the second letter.

see with our eyes what is good! May we. indeed. there is nothing higher than this. that death may not affect you. strong in limbs and body. from prana faith. earth. these sixteen parts of the seer. the Vedic hymns. disappear into the Purusha after having reached Him. He becomes free of parts and immortal. hear with our ears what is auspicious! May we. their names and forms being destroyed and are called simply the Purusha. who alone is to he known and in whom the parts rest firm. whose goal is the Purusha. art our father—thou who hast taken us across our ignorance to the other shore. sing your praise and enjoy Source: "The Upanishads . fire. 8 And they. Adoration to the supreme rishis! Adoration to the supreme rishis! End of Prasna Upanishad The Peace Chant Om.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 65 . bound for the ocean. I know the Supreme Brahman. the worlds. mind. 7 Pippalada said to them: Thus far. the organs. May we. On this there is the following verse: 6 Know Him. from food virility. austerity. O worshipful gods. sacrifice. their names and forms being destroyed and are called simply the ocean—even so. water. and in the worlds He created names. air. said: Thou. food. disappear into the ocean after having reached it. the Purusha.3 The Purusha reflected: "What is it by whose departure I shall depart and by whose staying I shall stay?" 4 He created prana. like the spokes in the nave of a wheel. indeed. worshipping him. 5 As these flowing rivers. O gods. space.

sing your praise and enjoy the life allotted to us by Prajapati! Om.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 66 . Peace! Peace! Peace! The Peace Chant Om.the life allotted to us by Prajapati! Om. May we. strong in limbs and body. O worshipful gods. O gods. see with our eyes what is good! May we. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . hear with our ears what is auspicious! May we.

II All this is. IV The second quarter is Taijasa. present and future is. AUM. who is conscious of internal objects. is all this. who is full of bliss and experiences bliss and who is the door leading to the knowledge of dreaming and waking. A clear explanation of it is as follows: All that is past. indeed. in whom all experiences become unified. who has seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who is the experiencer of gross objects. the whole universe. V That is the state of deep sleep wherein one asleep neither desires any object nor sees any dream. indeed. whose sphere is deep sleep. He is the inner controller. for from him all beings originate and in him they finally disappear. III The first quarter is called Vaisvanara. whose sphere of activity is the dream state. And whatever else there is.Mandukya Upanishad Chapter I – Agama Prakarana (The Chapter based on Vedic Testimony) I Harih Aum! AUM. beyond the threefold division of time—that also is truly AUM. a mass of consciousness. Source: "The Upanishads . who is endowed with seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who is the experiencer of subtle objects. verily.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 67 . who is. This same Atman has four quarters. VI He is the Lord of all. He is the source of all. Brahman. whose sphere of activity is the waking state. The third quarter is Prajna. He is the knower of all. who is conscious of external objects. This Atman is Brahman. the word.

the experiencer of external objects. Taijasa is the cognizer of internal objects. the blissful.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 68 . 6 Surely a coming into existence must be predicated of all positive entities that exist.Gaudapada Karika 1 Visva is all—pervading. Taijasa. Prana manifests all inanimate objects. Taijasa is the cognizer through the mind within. Prajna. It is one alone that is thus known in the three states. others imagine creation to be like dreams and illusions. 2 Visva is the cognizer through the right eye. The gross object satisfies Visva. Taijasa. Know these to be the threefold satisfaction. 7 Some of those who contemplate the process of creation regard it as the manifestation of God’s powers. and the blissful. while those who speculate about time regard time as the creator of things. and Prajna. Know these to be the threefold experience. Prajna is a mass of consciousness. Prajna is the akasa in the heart. Source: "The Upanishads . the subtle. 8 Those who are convinced about the reality of manifested objects ascribe the manifestation solely to God’s will. The Purusha manifests the conscious beings in their manifold forms. the subtle. He who knows these both does not become attached to objects though enjoying them. 5 The experiencer and the objects of experience associated with the three states have been described. 3—4 Visva experiences the gross. Therefore the one Atman is perceived threefold in the same body.

11 Visva and Taijasa are conditioned by cause and effect. But it is the very nature of the effulgent Being.9 Some say that the manifestation is or the purpose of God’s enjoyment. It is not simple consciousness nor is It unconsciousness. What desire is possible for Him who is the fulfillment of all desires? VII Turiya is not that which is conscious of the inner (subjective) world. while others attribute it to His division. nor that which is a mass of consciousness. Prajna is conditioned by cause alone. nor that which is conscious of the outer (objective) world. unthinkable and indescribable. incomprehensible. All other entities being unreal. It is unperceived. It is the cessation of all phenomena. 12 Prajna does not know anything of self or non—self. This is Atman and this has to be realized. the changeless Ruler. Neither cause nor effect exists in Turiya. But Prajna is associated with sleep in the form of cause and this sleep does not exist in Turiya. Source: "The Upanishads . all bliss and non—dual. 10 Turiya. unrelated. is capable of destroying all miseries. of truth or untruth. nor that which is conscious of both. This is what is known as the Fourth (Turiya). the non—dual Turiya alone is known as effulgent and all—pervading. 13 Non—cognition of duality is common to both Prajna and Turiya. uninferable. The essence of the Consciousness manifesting as the self in the three states.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 69 . It is all peace. But Turiya is ever existent and all—seeing.

IX Vaisvanara Atman. When the erroneous knowledge in these two is destroyed. Prajna. Turiya is realized. is A. divided into parts. Visva and Taijasa. 15 Dreaming is the wrong cognition and sleep the non—cognition. Duality ceases to exist when Reality is known. Source: "The Upanishads . the first letter of AUM. The universe of duality which is cognized is mere illusion (maya). U and M. it then realizes birthless.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 70 . VIII The same Atman explained before as being endowed with four quarters is now described from the standpoint of the syllable AUM. then certainly it would disappear. of Reality. Non—duality alone is the Supreme Reality. The letters are A. 16 When the jiva. is awakened. asleep under the influence of beginningless maya. on account of his all— pervasiveness or on account of his being the first. Knowers of Brahman see neither sleep nor dreams in Turiya. whose sphere of activity is the waking state. is viewed from the standpoint of letters. He who knows this obtains all desires and becomes first among the great.14 The first two. AUM. the taught and the scriptures. are associated with dreaming and sleep respectively. These ideas are for the purpose of instruction. too. 17 If the phenomenal universe were real. then they will disappear. sleepless and dreamless Non—duality. 18 If anyone imagines illusory ideas such as the teacher. The quarters of Atman are the same as the letters of AUM and the letters are the same as the quarters. with Sleep bereft of dreams.

the third letter of AUM. the second letter of AUM. whose sphere is deep sleep. He who knows this attains a superior knowledge. XI Prajna Atman. on account of his superiority or intermediateness. He who knows this is able to measure all and also comprehends all within himself. 22 He who knows for certain the similarity of the three states and the three letters of AUM. 21 The indisputable reason given for the identity of Prajna and M is the common feature that both are the measure. through meditation on U. because both are the measure and also because in them all become one. 19 When it is desired to describe the identity of Visva and the letter A.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 71 . based upon their common features. Another reason for this identity is the all—pervasiveness of each. is worshipped and adored by all beings and also is a great sage. is M. Taijasa. that both represent the state of mergence. Meditation on the "soundless" brings no attainment.X Taijasa Atman. whose sphere of activity is the dream state. Prajna. is U. Source: "The Upanishads . 23 Through meditation on A the seeker attains Visva. receives equal treatment from all and finds in his family no one ignorant of Brahman. namely. and through meditation on M. Another plain reason for such identity is their being in the middle. The other reason for such identity is another common feature. 20 The clear ground for realizing Taijasa as of the same nature as the letter U is the common feature of superiority. the chief ground given is the fact that each is the first in its respective sphere.

the beginning. 29 One who knows AUM. 25 The mind should be concentrated on AUM. Source: "The Upanishads . He who knows this merges his self in Atman—yea. There is nothing outside it. AUM is beginningless and unique. AUM is the fearless Brahman. is a real sage and none other. which is soundless and also endowed with infinite sounds.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 72 . He who has realized AUM as immutable immediately attains the Supreme Reality. which is all good and the negation of duality. indeed. End of Mandukya Upanishad 24 AUM should be known quarter by quarter. he who knows this. 28 Know AUM to be Isvara. The calm soul.XII The Fourth (Turiya) is without parts and without relationship. It is unrelated to any effect and is immutable. Having understood AUM quarter by quarter. It is all good and non—dual. 26 AUM is verily the Lower Brahman. one should not think of anything else. does not grieve. ever present in the hearts of all. middle and end of all things. It is also stated to be the Higher Brahman. 27 AUM is. contemplating AUM as all—pervading. There is no doubt that the quarters are the same as the letters. He who is always absorbed in AUM knows no fear whatever. It is the cessation of phenomena. This AUM is verily Atman.

because they are located within the body and the space therein is confined. on rational grounds. perceived in dreams. The wise declare the unreality of all entities seen in dreams. therefore they are certainly unreal. 5 Thoughtful persons speak of the sameness of the waking and dream states on account of the similarity of the objects perceived in both states on the grounds already mentioned. 2 The dreamer. on account of their being perceived.Chapter II — Vaitathya Prakarana (The Chapter on Illusion) 1 Harih Aum. 7 The utility of the objects of waking experience is contradicted in dreams. the state of being perceived exists in both waking and dreaming. find himself in the places seen in the dream. the objects seen in the waking state are also unreal. Nor does he. when awakened. Source: "The Upanishads . having a beginning and an end. 6 If a thing is non—existent both in the beginning and in the end. The only difference is the limitation of space associated with dream objects. 3 Scripture. it is necessarily non—existent in the present. declares the non—existence of the chariots etc. on account of the shortness of the time involved. still they are regarded as real. Thus both experiences.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 73 .e.e. For the same reason i. Therefore the wise say that the unreality established by reason is proclaimed by scripture. are unreal. cannot go out of the body and see the dream objects. 4 The different objects seen in the confined space of dreams are unreal on account of their being perceived. The objects that we see are really like illusions. The same condition i.

as with those residing in heaven. on rational grounds. Source: "The Upanishads . but both should be held. imagines in diverse forms various objects either permanent. are all mere objects of the imagination. even as a man. This is the decision of Vedanta. through the power of Its own maya. again.8 The objects perceived by the dreamer. or impermanent. to be unreal. Again. such as lightning. owe their existence to the peculiar conditions under which the cognizer i. It alone is the cognizer of objects. 13 The Lord (Atman). the mind functions for the time being. Similarly. real. but truly. The dreamer. imagines in Itself by Itself all the objects that the subject experiences within and without. with His mind turned outward. perceives those objects. not usually seen in the waking state. He turns His mind within and imagines various ideas. what is imagined within the mind is illusory and what is cognized outside by the mind. real. There is no ground for differentiating the one from the other. who perceives all these objects and who. both are known to be unreal. 14 Those that are cognized internally only as long as the thought of them lasts and those that are perceived outside and relate to two points in time. what is imagined within by the mind is illusory and what is cognized outside by the mind. goes from one place to another and sees the peculiar objects belonging to those places. 9—10 In dreams. or desires. in the waking state. 11 If the objects perceived in both waking and dreaming are illusory. well instructed here. which are already in His mind in the form of vasanas. imagines them? 12 It is the self—luminous Atman who.e. such as the earth.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 74 . associating himself with the dream conditions.

Even so is the true nature of Atman determined. both are mere objects of the imagination. those conversant with the elements. and internal such as the pranas. as the gunas. sense— organs.. the gods.15 Those that exist within the mind as subjective ideas and are known as unmanifested and those that are perceived to exist outside in a manifested form. the objects. belonging to the effulgent Atman. As is one's knowledge so is one's memory. by which It appears. about whose nature one remains uncertain. all misconceptions about it disappear and there arises the conviction that it is nothing but a rope. those acquainted with objects. etc. All this is due to maya. so Atman is imagined in various ways. 20 Those conversant with prana describe Atman as prana. forms. and those conversant with the tattvas. those conversant with the gunas. as the tattvas. 19 Atman is imagined as prana and other numberless ideas. as the elements. 17 As a rope lying in darkness. etc.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 75 . to be deluded. 18 When the real nature of the rope is ascertained. those acquainted with the gods. the embodied individual and then are imagined the various entities. that are perceived to exist. the lokas. is imagined to be a snake or a line of water. those acquainted with the lokas. Itself. both external such as sounds. Their difference lies only in the difference of the organs by means of which they are perceived. 16 First of all is imagined the jiva. 21 Those acquainted with the padas call It the padas. Source: "The Upanishads .

and the knowers of preservation. 26 Some say that Atman consists of twenty—five cosmic principles. and the knowers of righteousness and unrighteousness call It righteousness and unrighteousness. of thirty—one principles. In truth. some. dissolution. all such ideas are always imagined in Atman. some. 27 Those who know how to gratify others call Atman gratification.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 76 . and those knowing the worlds call It the worlds. 23 The knowers of the subtle call It the subtle and the knowers of the gross. Those that are familiar with the Personal Deity call It the Personal Deity and those that are familiar with the void. those conversant with the enjoyer. the knowers of dissolution. of twenty—six principles. Those versed in the art of disputation call It the object of dispute. while there are yet others who describe It as consisting of an infinite number of principles. the knowers of the buddhi. again. the void. The knowers of the chitta call It the chitta. 28 The knowers of creation call It creation.22 Those conversant with the Vedas describe Atman as the Vedas. feminine and neuter genders. the gross. those conversant with the sacrifices. as the enjoyer. the buddhi. the Higher Brahman and the Lower Brahman. and those conversant with the objects of enjoyment call It the objects of enjoyment. 24 Those that know time call Atman time and those that know space call It space. The grammarians call It the masculine. those who are conversant with the asramas call It the asramas. preservation. Source: "The Upanishads . and still others. as the sacrifices. 25 The knowers of the mind call Atman the mind.

30 Atman. Atman assumes the form of what is taught and thus protects the disciple. fear and anger and are well versed in the Vedas. the meaning of the Vedas. This is the absolute truth. 33 Atman is imagined as the unreal objects that are perceived to exist and as Non—duality as well. nor does it exist by itself. Absorbed in that idea. There is none seeking Liberation and none liberated. have realized Atman as devoid of all phantasms and free from the illusion of the manifold and as non—dual. Having realized Non—duality. behave in the world like an inert object. 32 There is neither dissolution nor creation. who are free from attachment. Source: "The Upanishads . appears to he separate. fix your attention on Non—duality. 31 As dreams.29 The disciple grasps only that idea which is presented to him by his teacher. none in bondage and none practicing disciplines. 35 The wise. without any fear. so is the tangible universe viewed by the wise. The objects.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 77 . 36 Therefore. he realizes it as Atman. Neither is it separate from Brahman nor is it non—separate. though non—separate from all these ideas. knowing Atman as such. too. are imagined in the non—dual Atman. Therefore Non—duality is Bliss. illusions and castles in the air are viewed. 34 The diversity in the universe does not exist as an entity identical With Atman. well versed in Vedanta. He who truly knows this interprets. This is the statement of the wise.

does not salute any superior and does not perform rites to propitiate departed ancestors.. As regards the manifestation of Atman this is the illustration. 38 Having known the truth regarding what exists internally as also the truth regarding what exists externally. 3 Atman. he becomes one with Reality. smoke. Therefore he is said to possess a narrow intellect. are said to be manifested from Atman. is said to be manifested in the form of jivas. the akasa enclosed in them merge in the great akasa. soiling the akasa enclosed in a particular pot do not soil the other akasas enclosed in other Source: "The Upanishads . betaking himself to devotional worship. the same throughout and free from narrowness. which is unborn.37 The illumined sannyasin does not praise any deity. so the jivas merge in Atman. just as a pot and the like are created out of akasa. Chapter III – Adavaita Prakarana – (The Chapter on Non—duality) 1 The jiva. 2 Therefore I shall now describe Brahman. He thinks that before the creation all was of the same nature as the birthless Reality. also. From this one can understand that Brahman does not in reality pass into birth even in the slightest degree. which is like akasa (infinite space). etc. on the destruction of the pot etc. he exults in Reality and never deviates from Reality. Regarding both body and Atman as his abode. abides in the manifest Brahman. 5 As the dust. which may be likened to the akasas enclosed in pots. though It appears to be manifest everywhere. 4 As. The bodies.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 78 . he remains satisfied with what comes by chance.

Source: "The Upanishads . whether they are of equal status or whether some are superior to others. Its going and coming i. 12 The same akasa dwells within both the earth and the stomach.e. functions and names of the akasas associated with different receptacles is admitted. likewise. 8 Children regard akasa as being soiled by dirt. The same is the conclusion regarding the jivas. which have been described in the Taittiriya Upanishad. the same Brahman dwells within the pairs described in the Madhu—Brahmana. such as the physical and the vital. of one jiva do not affect other jivas. as in a dream. 10 All aggregates are produced by Atman's maya. etc. 6 Though the diversity of forms. No rational argument can be given to establish their reality.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 79 . likewise the ignorant regard Atman as being similarly soiled. 9 Atman. rebirth and Its dwelling in different bodies. in regard to Its birth and death. yet this does not imply any real differentiation in akasa itself. That the Supreme Self is like akasa has already been stated. is not unlike akasa. miseries. so the jiva is neither an effect nor a part of atman. so also the happiness.pots. 7 As the akasa enclosed in a pot is neither an effect nor a part of the real akasa. 11 The Supreme Self is the self of the five sheaths.

because this section states only what will happen in the future. Source: "The Upanishads . The non—dualists find no conflict with them. 18 Since Non—duality is Ultimate Reality. then the immortal would become mortal. multiplicity is condemned. Therefore non— dualism alone is free from error. using the examples of earth. 19 The unborn Atman becomes manifold through maya and not otherwise. 14 The separateness of the jiva and Atman. 15 The scriptural statements regarding the creation. are for the purpose of clarifying the mind. contradict one another. is figurative. Scripture.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 80 . 16 There are three stages of life. Multiplicity does not really exist in any manner. out of compassion. firmly clinging to their conclusions. iron and sparks.13 The identity of the jiva and Atman is praised by pointing out their non—duality. Therefore the non—dualist position does not conflict with the dualist position. 17 The dualists. dealing with the creation. For if the manifold were real. has taught this discipline for the benefit of the unenlightened. duality is said to be Its effect. corresponding to the threefold understanding of men: inferior. The dualist sees duality in both the Absolute and the relative. mediocre and superior. This separateness cannot be the real meaning of those passages. which has been declared in the earlier section of the Upanishads.

But that view which is supported by the scriptures and corroborated by reason is alone to be accepted and not the other. both views are equally supported by the scriptures. as a matter of fact. Therefore the birthless Atman alone exists. that what is born passes into birth again. appears to have become many only through maya. "One does not see any multiplicity in Atman" and "Indra (the Supreme Lord). But he who thinks this passing into birth is real asserts. the scriptural passage "Not this. after passing through change. one knows that Atman. by the negation of the creation. through maya. 27 What is ever existent appears to pass into birth through maya. yet from the standpoint of Reality it does not do so. Now can one expect that an entity that is birthless and immortal should become mortal? 21 The immortal cannot become mortal. For it is never possible for a thing to change its nature. retains its changeless nature? 23 Corning into birth may be real or illusory. 22 How can one who believes that an entity by nature immortal becomes mortal.20 The disputants assert that the unborn entity (Atman) becomes born. coming into birth is negated. 25 Further. 24 From such scriptural passages as. Source: "The Upanishads . nor can the mortal become immortal. maintain that the immortal.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 81 . though ever unborn. not this" negates all dualistic ideas attributed to Atman. assumes diverse forms". The causality of Brahman is denied by such a statement as "Who can cause It to come into birth?" 26 On account of the incomprehensible nature of Atman.

appears to be dual in the waking state. For it is not possible for the son of a barren woman to be born either really or through maya.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 82 . 29 As in dreams the mind acts through maya. are perceived by the mind alone. For duality is never perceived when the mind ceases to act. it ceases to be the mind. 31 All the multiple objects. comprising the movable and the immovable. which is unborn and free from imagination. after realizing the knowledge that Atman alone is real. is described by the wise as ever inseparable from the knowable. there is no doubt that what is non—dual.28 The unreal cannot be born either really or through maya. for want of objects to he cognized. 33 Knowledge (Jnana). 30 There is no doubt that the mind. The condition of the mind in deep sleep is not like that but is of a different kind.e. presenting the appearance of duality. 34 One should know the behavior of the mind which. Source: "The Upanishads . 32 When the mind. presenting the appearance of duality. The birthless is known by the birthless. likewise. which is in reality non—dual. i. becomes free from imaginations and therefore does not cognize anything. The immutable and birthless Brahman is the goal of knowledge. so also in the waking state the mind acts through maya. being endowed with discrimination and free from illusions is under control. Atman. appears to be dual in dreams.

which is not in touch with anything. sleepless. the destruction of misery. Self—Knowledge and imperishable peace. the light of whose omniscience is all—pervading. It is great peace. so also the mind enjoying pleasure in inactivity (laya). nameless and formless. It is ever effulgent and omniscient. can ever be associated with It. For the state of inactivity is as harmful as the state of desires. No duty. 40 Yogis who are ignorant of Non—duality depend on the control of the mind for attaining fearlessness. dreamless. drop by drop. in any sense. It is unmoving and fearless.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 83 . 37 Atman is beyond all expression by words and beyond all acts of the mind. but it is not so when the mind is controlled. 42 The mind distracted by desires and enjoyments should he brought under control by proper means. is hard for yogis in general to attain. because they see fear in that which is really fearlessness. 36 Brahman is birthless. 39 This yoga. 41 The mind is to be brought under Control by undepressed effort. 38 Brahman is free from mental activity and hence from all ideas of acceptance or relinquishment. eternal effulgence and samadhi. Source: "The Upanishads . with the help of a blade of kusa grass. They are afraid of it. When knowledge is established in Atman it attains birthlessness and sameness.35 The mind is withdrawn in deep sleep. it is like emptying the ocean. The controlled mind is verily the fearless Brahman.

48 No jiva ever comes into existence. which is like akasa and which is non—different from the goal of knowledge. realized the nature of the jivas (dharmas).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 84 . 47 This Supreme Bliss abides in the Self. by means of knowledge. which. remembering that all this is the unborn Atman. If his mind. when it remains unshakable and does not give rise to appearances. arouse it from laya. it is birthless and cannot be described in words. it verily becomes Brahman. do not disturb it again. It is peace. 46 When the mind does not lapse into inactivity and is not distracted by desires. Do not see the created objects. being one with the birthless Self. The supreme truth is that nothing ever is born. if distracted. 44 If the mind becomes inactive. again seeks external objects. make it tranquil. that is to say. remembering that they beget only misery. which is the true object of knowledge.43 Turn back the mind from the enjoyment of desires. Understand the nature of the mind when it contains the seed of attachment. too. Source: "The Upanishads . are like akasa. There exists no cause that can produce it. he should detach himself from it by the exercise of discrimination. When the mind has attained sameness. after attaining steadiness. Chapter IV — Alatasanti Prakarana (The Chapter on the Quenching of the Fire—brand) 1 I bow to the best among men. it is Liberation. who. he should make it one with Atman through great effort. It is called the omniscient Brahman. 45 The yogi must not taste the happiness arising from samadhi.

Thus they quarrel among themselves. retains its changeless nature? 9 By the prakriti.2 I bow to the yoga known as asparsa. that which is not extraneous to it and that which never ceases to be itself. they really establish the non—dualistic view of ajati (non—creation). 6—8 The disputants assert that the unborn entity (Atman) becomes born. free from senility and death. after passing through change.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 85 . nor can the mortal become immortal. when acquired. For it is never possible for a thing to change its nature. Now hear from us about Ultimate Reality. which is free from all disputations. or nature. How can one expect that an entity that is birthless and immortal should become mortal? The immortal cannot become mortal. 10 All the jivas are. postulate that only a non—existing entity can come into existence. 4 An existing entity cannot again come into existence (birth). 3 Some disputants postulate that only an existing entity can again come into existence. that which is its inalienable nature from its very birth. that which is its characteristic quality. How can one who believes that an entity by nature immortal becomes mortal. of a thing is understood that which. Thus disputing among themselves. We have no quarrel with them. becomes the essential part of the thing. But they think they are subject to senility and death and Source: "The Upanishads . nor can a non—existing entity come into existence. while other disputants. 5 We approve the ajati (non—creation) thus established by them. which promotes the happiness and well—being of all creatures and is free from strife and contradictions. by their very nature. maintain that the immortal. taught in the scriptures. proud of their intellect.

as you say. If it is said that they appear simultaneously. How can the cause. if it is said that the effect is produced from a cause which itself is born. If it is born. then the effect too must be unborn. which is born? 13 There is no illustration to support the view that the effect is born from an unborn cause.by the very power of thought they appear to deviate from their true nature. which itself is not established. actually. then. being like the two horns of an animal. give birth to the effect? Source: "The Upanishads . they cannot be mutually related as cause and effect. then the order in which cause and effect succeed each other must be stated. 16 If causality is asserted. 17 The cause that you affirm. the effect is non—different from the cause. how can the cause be eternal if it is non—different from the effect. Again. 11 The disputant according to whom the cause itself is the effect must maintain that the cause is born as the effect. that the creation takes place after the manner of the birth of father from son. 14 How can they who assert that the effect is the cause of the cause and the cause is the cause of the effect. then this leads to an infinite regress. how can it be called birthless? If it is subject to modification. Further.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 86 . how then can it be said to be eternal? 12 If. maintain the beginninglessness of both cause and effect? 15 Those who say that the effect is the cause of the cause and that the cause is the cause of the effect maintain. cannot be established as the cause if it is produced from the effect.

or non—creation. The illustration i. 20 The illustration of the seed and the sprout is something which is yet to be proved. under all conditions. must be admitted.e. Source: "The Upanishads . accepted by the dualistic scriptures. Further.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 87 . the existence of external objects. 24 Subjective knowledge must have an object for its cause. nor can the effect be produced from a beginningless cause. again. produced from the cause. then why can you not point out its antecedent cause? 22 Nothing whatsoever is born. whether it be being or non—being or both being and non—being. the ignorance about the matter and the impossibility of establishing the order of succession if the causal relation is admitted clearly lead the wise to uphold. the doctrine of ajati. cannot be used for establishing a proposition to be proved. the middle term. 23 The cause cannot be produced from a beginningless effect. That which is without beginning is necessarily free from birth. otherwise variety becomes non—existent. 21 The ignorance regarding the antecedence and the subsequence of cause and effect clearly proves the absence of creation (ajati). which itself is not yet proved. either of itself or of another entity. Nothing is ever produced. If the jiva (dharma) has really been horn.18 If the cause is produced from the effect and if the effect is. from the experience of pain. which of the two is born first upon which depends the birth of the other? 19 The inability to reply to the question raised above.

by force of reason. This is so because objects are non— existent and the ideas that appear as external objects are not distinct from the mind. 27 The mind does not enter into the causal relation in any of the three periods of time. therefore it is never possible for It to be other than what It is. from which the birthless mind is asserted. 29 The cause. The objects that we see are really like illusions. 26 The mind is not related to external objects or to the ideas that appear as such objects. The utility of the objects of waking experience is contradicted in dreams. then it cannot be non—eternal. when there is no cause for such delusion? 28 Therefore neither the mind nor the objects perceived by the mind are ever born. Source: "The Upanishads . To see their birth is like seeing the footprints of birds in the sky.25 The dualists. 30 If. the world is beginningless. Because Brahman is ever unborn.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 88 . by the dualists. assert that there is a cause of subjective knowledge. Brahman. 31—32 If a thing is non—existent in the beginning and in the end. therefore they are certainly unreal. How can it ever be subject to delusion. still they are regarded as real. as the dualists contend. it is necessarily non—existent in the present. Moksha (Liberation) cannot have a beginning and be eternal. after all. no cause. to have been born is itself unborn. But from the standpoint of the true nature of things we assert that the so—called cause is. Both experiences have a beginning and an end.

which is indivisible and homogeneous? 34 It is not reasonable to think that a dreamer actually goes out in order to experience the objects seen in the dream. because of the discrepancy of the time involved in such a journey. Like the dream body. because they are perceived inside the body. find himself in the places seen in the dream. since birth cannot be established as a fact. How is it possible for things that are perceived to exist. is perceived.33 All entities seen in dreams are unreal. 38 All entities are a\said to be unborn. It is only by him who admits waking experience to be the cause of dream experience that waking experience can be regarded as real. different from it. But he does not see in the waking state the unreal objects seen in dreams. in the dream state.e. realizes the illusoriness of the conversations he had with friends etc. Further. really to exist in Brahman. after awaking. 37 Since the experience of objects in dreams is similar to the experience of objects in the waking state. the physical body. all things cognized by the mind are unsubstantial. 39 A man filled with the impressions of the unreal objects seen in the waking state sees those very things in dreams as well. when awakened. he does not possess in the waking state anything he acquired while dreaming.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 89 . 36 The dream body is unsubstantial because the other i. Source: "The Upanishads . It is utterly impossible for the unreal to be born of the real. waking experience is regarded as the cause of dream experience. 35 The dreamer. Nor does he.

44 As an elephant conjured up by a magician is taken to be real because it is perceived to exist and also because it answers to the behavior of a real elephant. alone that appears to be born or to move or to take the form of matter. if there is any. nor can the real have the unreal for its cause. And how utterly impossible it is for the real to be the cause of the unreal! 41 As a person in the waking state through false knowledge appears to handle objects. But this Consciousness is really ever unborn. he perceives. The real cannot be the cause of the real. 42 Wise men teach causality only for the sake of those who. so also. deny ajati (non—creation) are not affected by the evil consequent on the belief in creation. objects whose existence is possible in the dream state alone. 45 It is Consciousness. as if they were real.40 The unreal cannot have another unreality for its cause. Source: "The Upanishads . Those who know this do not fall into false knowledge.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 90 . are free from birth. is insignificant. afraid of non—creation. it is all peace and non—dual. Vijnana. so also external objects are taken to be real because they are perceived to exist and because one can deal with them. because of their fear of the truth of absolute non— creation and also because of their perception of external objects. This evil. assert the reality of external objects because they perceive such objects and also because they cling to various social and religious duties. 43 Those who. 46 Thus the mind is never subject to birth. immovable and free from the traits of materiality. too. in dreams. whose nature is inscrutable. through false knowledge. All beings.

53 A substance may be the cause of another substance and a non— substance. But the jivas cannot possibly be anything like a substance or a non— substance. when not in motion. nor do they merge in it. 48 As the fire—brand. is free from all appearances and remains changeless. the perceived and the like. the cause of another non—substance. When it is still. the appearances that seem to arise do not come from anywhere else. for their nature is not that of a substance. Hence thoughtful people hold to the principle of absolute non—creation. Source: "The Upanishads . because they are not subject to the relation of cause and effect. when set in motion. when not in motion. because of the similarity of the appearances.. 49 When the fire—brand is set in motion. the appearances that are seen in it do not come from elsewhere. This applies likewise to Consciousness. nor is the mind caused by them. crooked. 50 The appearances do not emerge from the fire—brand.47 As the line made by a moving fire—brand appears to be straight. because their nature is not that of a substance. They are incomprehensible. the appearances do not leave the non—active Consciousness and go elsewhere. as in deep sleep. is free from all appearances and remains Changeless. as in the waking and dream states. 51—52 When Consciousness is associated with the idea of activity. etc.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 91 . nor do they enter into the fire—brand itself. the appearances do not leave the motionless fire—brand and go elsewhere. When Consciousness is non—active. appears as the perceiver. so Consciousness. The appearances do not emerge from Consciousness. 54 Thus external appearances (objects) are not caused by the mind. so Consciousness.

Everything. again. likewise. as one with Ultimate Reality. 57 The entire universe is created by false knowledge. appears to be dual in dreams. 61—62 As in dreams the mind acts through maya. 56 As long as a person clings to the belief in causality. there is no doubt that what is non—dual i. presenting the appearance of duality. There is no doubt that the mind. which is in reality non—dual. therefore there is no such thing as destruction. 59 The illusory sprout is born of the illusory seed. samsara will continue to expand for him. But when this attachment to causality wears away.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 92 . he will find cause producing effect. Source: "The Upanishads . The same applies to the jivas. 58 Birth is ascribed to the jivas. Atman.e. appears to be dual in the waking state. What is indescribable in words cannot be discriminated about as permanent or impermanent. therefore nothing in it is eternal. 60 The term permanent or impermanent cannot be applied to the birthless jivas. but such birth is not possible from the standpoint of Reality. But when this attachment to causality wears away. is unborn. presenting the appearance of duality. samsara becomes non—existent. cause and effect become non—existent. That illusion. again. This illusory sprout is neither permanent nor destructible. Their birth is like that of an illusory object. so also in the waking state the mind acts through maya. does not exist.55 As long as a person clings to the belief in causality.

sees the whole variety of jivas. the mind of the waking man is an object of his perception alone. As the jiva conjured up by the magician comes into existence and disappears. which are objects of the mind of the dreamer. There exists no cause that can produce it. wandering about in all the ten directions in his dream. which is perceived to exist and is characterized by the subject—object relationship. Likewise. 65—66 The waking man. so also these jivas perceived in the waking state appear and disappear. There is no evidence of the existence of the one without the other.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 93 . moisture. again. 72 The world of duality. they are cognized only through each other. 67 Both the mind and the jivas are objects of each other's perception. 64 These entities. sees the whole variety of jivas. do not exist apart from his mind. the mind of the dreamer is an object of perception of the dreamer alone. 71 No jiva ever comes into existence. The supreme truth is that nothing ever is born. The mind. born of eggs. 68—70 As the dream jiva comes into existence and disappears. etc. moisture. from the standpoint of Source: "The Upanishads . so also these jivas perceived in the waking state appear and disappear. Likewise. wandering about in all the ten directions in his waking state. Can the one exist independent of the other? The reply of the wise is in the negative. etc. is verily a movement of the mind. As an artificial jiva comes into existence and disappears. born of eggs. They are the objects of the mind of the waking man and do not exist apart from it. so also these jivas perceived in the waking state appear and disappear.63 The dreamer.

which is free from manifestation and causal relationship. one attains that state which is free from grief. the perceiving mind and its objects is merely an objectification of the mind. 79 On account of attachment to unreal objects the mind pursues such objects. Hence it is declared to be eternal and unattached. How can there be an effect without a cause? 77 The birthlessness of the mind. Again. duality. One who has realized the absence of duality is not born again. is absolute and constant. But such duality does not exist. Source: "The Upanishads . 75 People persistently hold to the idea of unreality i.e. 74 Atman is called birthless (aja) from the standpoint of false knowledge based upon imagination. inferior. that which is said to exist on the strength of the views advanced by other schools of thought does not really exist. For duality i. since there remains no longer any cause for his birth.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 94 . 78 Realizing the absence of causality as ultimate truth and not finding any other reason for birth. But it comes back to its pure state when it attains non—attachment. desire and fear. The unborn Atman is said to be born from the standpoint of the false knowledge cherished by other schools of thought.e. 76 When the mind finds no cause—superior. 73 That which exists on the strength of false knowledge based upon imagination does not really exist. or middling—it becomes free from birth.Reality has no contact with any object. realizing their unreality. in reality It is not even birthless.

84 These are the four theories regarding Atman. Further. The wise realize such a mind to be Brahman. Source: "The Upanishads . He who knows the Lord to he ever untouched by them indeed knows all. immovability.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 95 . non—existence. birthless and non—dual. through attachment to which It always remains hidden from one's view. Their tranquility (sama) is also natural. 83 The ignorant. combination of change and immovability and absolute negation which they associate with Atman. He who has realized Brahman attains peace. 81 The birthless. verily cover Atman by predicating of It such attributes as existence. the control of the senses (dama) comes natural to them. It is undifferentiated.80 The mind freed from attachment to all external objects and undistracted by fresh objects attains the state of immutability. for this Dharma (Atman) by Its very nature is self— luminous. deriving these characteristics from the notions of change. existence and non—existence and total non—existence. which is without beginning. 82 The Lord (Atman) becomes easily hidden because of attachment to any single object and is revealed with great difficulty. with their childish minds. 85 What else remains to be desired by him who has attained the state of the brahmin—a state of complete omniscience and non—duality. or end? 86 The humility (vinaya) of the brahmins is natural. dreamless and sleepless Reality reveals Itself by Itself. middle.

89 Having known knowledge and the threefold knowable.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 96 . the goal to be realized. the state of omniscience.87 Vedanta recognizes the ordinary state of waking. with four things. Of these four. having known this. from the very beginning and by their very nature. the knower. one after another. endowed with supreme intellect. These are as follows: the things to be avoided. 91 All Atmans (Dharmas) are to be known.e. to be beginningless and unattached like akasa. though such objects do not exist. attains in this very life and everywhere.e. Ultimate Reality. by their very nature. is admitted. consisting of objects and the idea of coming in contact with them. at the very outset.. They are characterized Source: "The Upanishads . in which is experienced duality consisting of objects and the idea of coming in contact with them. rests without seeking further knowledge is alone capable of attaining Immortality. 93 The jivas. in which duality. They describe the three: knowledge. 92 All jivas are. illumined from the very beginning.e. He who. the Supreme Reality exist only as products of the imagination. There can never be any doubt about their nature. in which there exist neither objects nor ideas regarding them. This state is beyond all empirical experiences. the disciplines to be cultivated and the tendencies to be rendered ineffective. 88 The wise recognize another state. the dream state. unborn and completely free. 90 One should be conversant. by their very nature. the three states and the supremely knowable i. the objects of knowledge i. all except the goal to be realized i.e. are all peace. It also recognizes a purer ordinary state i. There is not the slightest variety in there in any way or at any time.

This Knowledge is proclaimed to be unattached. In that case the destruction of the veil is out of the question. birthless. which is hard to grasp. Therefore they are called narrow—minded. since it is unrelated to any other object. 95 They alone in this world are endowed with the highest wisdom who are firm in their conviction of the sameness and birthlessness of Atman. The ordinary man does not understand their way. This is not the view of Buddha. is itself called unborn and unrelated. They are illumined and free from the very beginning. Its eternally unrelated character is lost. who is all light.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 97 . the same throughout. Yet the wise speak of the jivas as capable of knowing Ultimate Reality. All the jivas. 100 Having realized the Knowledge of the Supreme Reality. which is the very essence of the unborn jivas. all light and free from multiplicity. we salute It as best we can. 97 To those ignorant people who believe that Atman can deviate from Its true nature even in the slightest measure.by sameness and non—separateness. are ever unrelated to objects. Their minds are inclined to differentiation and they assert the separateness of the Atmans. is never related to any object. as well as Knowledge. 99 The Knowledge of the wise man. Aum. 98 All jivas are ever free from bondage and pure by nature. The unborn Atman is always established in sameness and purity. 94 Those who always wander in the realm of separateness cannot realize the purity of Atman. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . profound. 96 Knowledge.

the most adored among the adorable. may you bring me the meaning of the Vedas! May what I study from the Vedas not leave me! I shall unite day and night through this study. that take shelter at his feet. through the light of his illumined wisdom. to attain unfailing knowledge of the scriptures. infested by the terrible sharks of incessant births and deaths—rescued. which. be manifested to me. l prostrate myself at the feet of the teacher of my teacher. who—out of sheer compassion for the beings drowned in the deep ocean of the world. though non— dual. I make obeisance with my whole being to those holy feet—the dispellers of the fear of the chain of births and deaths—of my own great teacher. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . hardly attainable even by the immortals. though unborn. appears to be moving.Final Salutation by Sri Sankaracharya I salute Brahman. the destroyer of the fear of those who take refuge in It—which. too. and which. who. O mind and speech. destroyed the darkness of delusion enveloping my mind. May Brahman protect me. peace and the state of perfect non—differentiation.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 98 . who put an end. and who enables all others. may my mind be fixed in my speech! O self—luminous Brahman. though motionless. Aum Tat Sat Invocation May my speech be fixed in my mind. I shall speak the right. appears to have assumed many forms to those whose vision is deluded by the perception of diverse objects and their attributes. from the inmost depths of the ocean of the Vedas by churning it with the rod of his illumined wisdom. this nectar. to my appearance and disappearance in this terrible ocean of innumerable births and deaths. for ever. appears to be associated with birth through Its own majestic powers. may Brahman protect the teacher! Om. may Brahman protect the teacher! May Brahman protect me. I shall think of the right. for the benefit of all.

Aitareya Upanishad
Part One
Chapter I — The Creation of Virat 1 In the beginning all this verily was Atman only, one and without a second. There was nothing else that winked. He bethought Himself: "Let Me now create the worlds." 2 He created these worlds: Ambhah, the world of water—bearing clouds, Marichi, the world of the solar rays, Mara, the world of mortals and Ap, the world of waters. Yon is Ambhah, above heaven; heaven is its support. The Marichis are the interspace. Mara is the earth. What is underneath is Ap. 3 He bethought Himself: "Here now are the worlds. Let Me now create world—guardians." Right from the waters He drew forth the Person in the form of a lump and gave Him a shape. 4 He brooded over Him. From Him, so brooded over, the mouth was separated out, as with an egg; form the month, the organ of speech; from speech, fire, the controlling deity of the organ. Then the nostrils were separated out; from the nostrils, the organ of breath; from breath, air, the controlling deity of the organ. Then the eyes were separated out; from the eyes, the organ of sight; from sight, the sun, the controlling deity of the organ. Then the ears were separated out; from the ears, the organ of hearing; from hearing, the quarters of space, the controlling deity of the organ. Then the skin was separated out; from the skin, hairs, the organ of touch; from the hairs, plants and trees, air the controlling deity of the organs. Then the heart was separated out; from the heart, the organ of the mind; from the mind, the moon, the controlling deity of the organ. Then the navel was separated out; from the navel, the organ of the apana; from the apana, Death, Varuna, the controlling deity of the organ.

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Then the virile member was separated out; from the virile member, semen, the organ of generation; from the semen, the waters, the controlling deity of the organ. Chapter II—Cosmic Powers in the Human Body 1 These deities, thus created, fell into this great ocean. He subjected the Person to hunger and thirst. They said to Him: "Find out for us an abode wherein being established we may eat food." 2—3 He brought them a cow. They said: "But this is not enough for us." He brought them a horse. They said: "This, too, is not enough for us." He brought them a person. The deities said: "Ah, this is well done, indeed." Therefore a person is verily something well done. He said to the deities: "Now enter your respective abodes." 4 The deity fire became the organ of speech and entered the mouth. Air became breath and entered the nostrils. The sun became sight and entered the eyes; the quarters of space became hearing and entered the ears. Plants and trees, the deity of air, became hairs and entered the skin. The moon became the mind and entered the heart. Death became the apana and entered the navel. The waters became semen and entered the virile member. 5 Hunger and thirst said to the Creator: "For the two of us find an abode also." He said to them: "I assign the two of you to these deities; I make you co—sharers with them." Therefore to whatsoever deity an oblation is made, hunger and thirst became sharers in it. Chapter III—The Embodiment of the Supreme Self 1 He bethought Himself: "Here now are the worlds and the world—guardians. Let Me cerate food for them."

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2 He brooded over the waters. From the waters, thus brooded over, there emerged a condensed form. The form that so emerged is indeed food. 3 The food so created wished to flee away. He sought to grasp it with speech. But He was not able to grasp it with speech. If, indeed, He has grasped it with speech, one would then have been satisfied by merely uttering the word food 4—10 The Creator sought to grasp it with the breath. But He was not able to grasp it with the breath. If, indeed, He had grasped it with the breath, one would then have been satisfied by merely smelling food. He sought to grasp it with the eye. But He was not able to grasp it with the eye. If, indeed, He had grasped it with the eye, one would then have been satisfied by merely seeing food. He sought to grasp it with the ear. But He was not able to grasp it with the ear. If, indeed, He had grasped it with the ear, one would then have been satisfied by merely hearing of food. He sought to grasp it with the skin. But He was not able to grasp it with the skin. If, indeed, He had grasped it with the skin, one would then have been satisfied by merely touching food. He sought to grasp it with the mind. But He was not able to grasp it with the mind. If, indeed, He had grasped it with the mind, one would then have been satisfied by merely thinking of food. He sought to grasp it with the virile member. But He was not able to grasp it with the virile member. If, indeed, He had grasped it with the virile member, one would then have been satisfied by merely emitting food. He sought to grasp it with the apana and He grasped it. This grasper of food is what vayu, air or prana is. This vayu is what lives on food. 11 He bethought Himself: "How could this exist without Me?" Then He said to Himself: "Which way shall I enter it?" he said to Himself further: "If speech is uttered by the organ of speech, if smelling is done by the breath, seeing by the eyes, hearing by the ears, touching by the skin, thinking by the mind, eating by

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the apana and the emission of semen by the virile member, them who am I?" 12 So, piercing the end, the Lord entered through that door. That door is known as the vidriti, the cleft. This is the place of bliss. Atman, thus embodied, has three abodes, three conditions of sleep. This is one abode, this is another, this is the third. 13 Having been born as the jiva, He realised the elements as one with Himself. What else here would one desire to speak about? He perceived this very person as the all—pervading Brahman. He said: "Ah, I have seen It." 14 Therefore He is called Idandra. Idandra, indeed is His name. Him who is Idandra they call indirectly Indra. For the gods appear to be fond of cryptic epithets; yea, the gods appear to be fond of cryptic epithets.

Part Two
Chapter I—The Three Births of the Self 1 This person is, at first, the germ in a man. That which is the semen is here called the germ. This semen is the vigour drawn from all the limbs. The man bears the self in the self. When he pours the semen into a woman, he gives it a birth. This, indeed, is the first birth of the embodied soul. 2 That semen becomes one with the woman—just like a limb of her own. That is why it does not hurt her. She nourishes this self of his that has come into her. 3 She, being the nourisher, should be nourished. The woman nourishes the embryo. Immediately after its birth he nourishes the child, which in the beginning was already born. Nourishing the child from birth onward, he thus nourishes himself for the

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continuation of these worlds. For thus alone are these worlds perpetuated. This is one's second birth. 4 He who is the one self of his, is made his substitute for virtuous deeds. Then the other self of his, having accomplished his duties and reached his age departs. So departing hence, he is born again. This is the third birth. 5 About this a rishi has said: "While still lying in the womb, I came to know all the births of the gods. A hundred strongholds, as if made of iron, confined me, yet I burst through them all swiftly, like a hawk." Vamadeva spoke, in this wise, even while lying in the womb. 6 Thus endowed with Knowledge, he, becoming one with the Supreme Self and soaring aloft on the dissolution of the body, obtained all desires in the heavenly world and became immortal—yea, became immortal.

Part Three
Chapter I—Concerning the Self 1 Who is He whom we worship, thinking: "This is the Self"? Which one is the Self? Is it He by whom one sees form, by whom one hears sound and by whom one tastes the sweet and the unsweet? 2 Is it the heart and the mind. It is consciousness, lordship, knowledge, wisdom, retentive power of mind, sense knowledge, steadfastness, though, thoughtfulness, sorrow, memory, concepts, purpose, life, desire, longing: all these are but various names of Consciousness (Prajnanam). 3 He is Brahman, He is Indra, He is Prajapati; He is all these gods; He is the five great elements—earth, air, akasa, water, light; He is all these small creatures and the others which are

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mixed; He is the origin—those born of an egg, of a womb, of sweat and of a sprout; He is horses, cows, human beings, elephants—whatever breathes here, whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. All this is guided by Consciousness, is supported by Consciousness. The basis is Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman. 4 He, having realised oneness with Pure Consciousness, soared from this world and having obtained all desires in yonder heavenly world, became immortal—yea, became immortal.

End of Aitareya Upanishad
The Peace Chant May my speech be fixed in my mind, may my mind be fixed in my speech! O self—luminous Brahman, be manifest to me. O mind and speech, may you bring me the meaning of the Vedas! May what I study from the Vedas not leave me! I shall unite day and night through this study. I shall think of the right; I shall speak the right. May Brahman protect me, may Brahman protect the teacher! May Brahman protect me, may Brahman protect the teacher! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace! Invocation Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is fullness. Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

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The fore part of the horse is the rising sun and the hinder part the setting sun. the feet the days and nights. As a racer the horse carried the gods. Its source is the western sea. "Verily. 2 The day. The back is heaven. verily. indeed. The sea is its stable and the sea. From Him. all this was covered—by hunger. verily. worshipping Himself. the joints the months and half—months. its shaking of the body is thunder. the demons. its open mouth the Vaisvanara fire and the trunk of the sacrificial horse is the year. Its yawn is lightning. as a stallion. behind the horse. in front of the horse. the sides the four quarters. its vital breath the wind. By Death. The night. Its source is the eastern sea. the flesh the clouds. its eye the sun. the hair the herbs and trees. as a runner. verily. its source. happiness comes to him who knows how the fire came to be called arka. Its half—digested food is the sand. death. verily. the belly the intermediate region. the liver and lungs the mountains. Then He moved about. the gandharvas.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 105 . the limbs the seasons. Chapter II—The Process of Creation 1 In the beginning there was nothing whatsoever in the universe. water was produced". is the golden cup called mahiman." was His desire and He created the mind. water was produced. Source: "The Upanishads . These two vessels appeared at either end of the horse. is the silver cup called mahiman. which arose pointing it out.Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Part One Chapter I—Meditation on the Horse—sacrifice 1 Om. for hunger is. thus worshipping. "while I was worshipping. the ribs the intermediate quarters." Death though. men. Surely. the head of the sacrificial horse is the dawn. "Let Me have a mind. the blood—vessels the rivers. the bones the stars. as a horse. the hoof the earth. which arose pointing it out. its water is rain and its neighing is indeed voice. that is why the Arka (fire used in the Horse—sacrifice) is so called.

the sacrifices. became speech. The pranas (organs) are verily fame and vigour. indeed. His head is the east and His arms are that (the north—east) and that (the south—east). His belly is the intermediate region and His chest is the earth. that was earth. From Him thus fatigued and heated. verily. men and animals. He (Death) bore him (the year) for as long as a year and after that time projected him. From Him. when he was born. He who knows why Aditi came to have this name of Aditi becomes the eater of everything and everything becomes his food. the Sama—Veda. He who knows this stands firm wherever he goes. Whatever He brought forth He resolved to eat. What was the seed there became the year. He (the child) cried: "Bhan!" and that. His fame and vigour departed. the Yajur— Veda. Hiranyagarbha was tired. His sides are the south and the north. Prior to that there had been no year. 4 He desired: "Let a second self be born of Me. Death opened His mouth to devour him. That was Fire. I shall have but very little food. thus fatigued and heated." He was tired and he practiced austerities.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 106 . What was then like froth on the water became solidified. is arka. came forth His essence as brightness. whatever there is: the Rig—Veda. His back is heaven. but the mind was set on the body. therefore is Aditi (Death) called Aditi. After the earth was created. because He eats everything. 3 He divided Himself into three: the sun one—third and the air one—third. Then. Thus He stands firm on water. the metres. His hinder part is the west and His two hip— bones are that (the north—west) and that (the south—west)." and He (Death or Hunger) brought about the union of speech with the mind.2 Water. Verily. Thus Prana is divided into three. Source: "The Upanishads . When the pranas went out His body began to swell. 5 He thought: "If I kill him.'' and through the union of that speech and that mind He brought forth all this. 6 He desired: "Let me sacrifice again with the great sacrifice.

the gods were few and the demons many." said speech and chanted for them. the gods said: "Well. the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would overcome them. that is that evil. therefore the Horse—sacrifice came to be known as Asvamedha. Therefore priests even now sacrifice to Prajapati the sanctified horse dedicated to all the gods. Because the body swelled (asvat). while the enjoyment derived from the fine utterance of the words it utilized for itself." 2 They said to the organ of speech: "Chant the Udgitha for us. it secured for the gods by chanting. Naturally. Chapter III—The Prana: Its Glories and Redeeming Power 1 There were two classes of Prajapati’s sons: the gods (devas) and the demons (asuras). are the arka and the Asvamedha (Horse—sacrifice). Death. He who knows this conquers further death. let Us overcome the demons at the sacrifice (jyotishtoma) by means of the Udgitha. become the same god. imagined Himself as the horse and letting the horse remain free.7 He desired: "Let this body of Mine be fit for a sacrifice and let Me be embodied through this. They charged at it (speech) and pierced it with evil. He who knows this verily knows the Horse— sacrifice. At the end of a year he sacrificed it to Himself and dispatched the other animals to the gods. These two. 3 Then they said to the organ of smell: "Chant the Udgitha for us. That evil is what is found today when one speaks improperly. Now. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the organ of speech. Whatever Source: "The Upanishads . Being overwhelmed by the demons. therefore it came to be called horse (asva). He entered the body. Prajapati. And because it became fit for sacrifice (medhya). Verily. He reflected on it. and he becomes one with these deities. whose limbs are these worlds. death cannot overcome him. fire and the sun. again. They struggled with one another for mastery of these worlds. This earthly fire is the arka (sacrificial fire). His body is the year. death becomes his self." said the organ and chanted for them.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 107 ." Thinking thus. desiring again to sacrifice with the great sacrifice." "So be it. So these two." "So be it. the sun who shines yonder is the Horse—sacrifice.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 108 . But as a clod of earth. the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would overcome them. That evil is what is found today when one smells improper things. They charged at it and pierced it with evil. Likewise they also touched these other deities with evil—smote them with evil. crushed and Source: "The Upanishads ." said the vital breath and chanted for them." said the mind and chanted for them. Now. the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would overcome them. while the enjoyment derived from fine seeing it utilized for itself. They charged at it and pierced it with evil. is scattered. Now. even so they were scattered in all directions. it secured for the gods by chanting. Now. 6 Then they said to the mind: "Chant the Udgitha for us. the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would overcome them. That evil is what is found today when one thinks improperly." "So be it. They charged at it and pierced it with evil. hitting a stone. while the enjoyment derived from fine smelling it utilized for itself. it secured for the gods by chanting." said the organ and chanted for them. The demons knew that through this chanter the gods would overcome them. 7 Then they said to the vital breath in the mouth: "Chant the Udgitha for us. 4 Then they said to the organ of Seeing: "Chant the Udgitha for us. it secured for the gods by chanting. That evil is what is found today when one hears improper things. while the enjoyment derived from fine hearing it utilized for itself. while the enjoyment derived from fine thinking it utilized for itself. that is that evil. it secured for the gods by chanting. that is that evil." "So be it." "So be it.enjoyment common to all comes from the nose. intending to pierce it with evil." said the organ and chanted for them. That evil is what is found today when one sees improper things. They charged at it. that is that evil. that is that evil. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the ear. Now. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the eye. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the mind. the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would overcome them. 5 Then they said to the organ of hearing: "Chant the Udgitha for us. They charged at it and pierced it with evil." "So be it.

because it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs (anga) of the body. having transcended death. When it was freed from death it became air (Vayu). Then it carried the organ of sight. From him who knows this. That air. 11 That deity. He who knows this becomes his true self and his spiteful kinsman perishes. Therefore let no one go to a person of that region. 8 Then the organs said: "Where is that which joined us to our true selves?" After deliberation they discovered that it was here. shines beyond its reach. Then it carried the organ of hearing.completely destroyed. or to the country beyond the border. having transcended death. When it was freed from death it became the sun (Surya). the evil of these gods and carried it to where the end of the quarters is. it carried the organ of speech. That sun. That fire. angirasa. after taking away the death—the evil—of the gods. When the organ of speech was freed from death it became fire. shines beyond its reach. carried them beyond death. 12 First of all. 10 That deity took away death. 13—15 Then it carried the organ of smell. blows beyond its reach. Thereupon the gods became established in their true selves and the demons perished. When it was freed from death. 9 That deity is called "dur. with death. There it deposited their evil. having transcended death. death is far away. lest he should meet there with evil.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 109 . within the mouth (asye). Hence the vital breath (prana) is called ayasya and also. Those quarters. remain beyond its reach." because death is far (dur) from it. it became the quarters (Disah). which is the foremost organ. having transcended death. Source: "The Upanishads .

That is why whatever food one eats through the vital breath satisfies the organs. on the other hand. a good eater of food and their lord. verily. among his kinsmen." "So be it. 19 It is called ayasa angirasa. he who follows him (the knower of the vital breath) and who. is eaten by the vital breath alone and it (the vital breath) rests on that (the food). among his kinsmen. the prana is the essence of the limbs." They sat down around the vital breath. desires to be a rival of the man who has this knowledge is not able to support his dependents. just this much is all the food there is and you have secured it for yourself by chanting. 20 It is also Brihaspati (lord of the Rig—Veda). 18 The gods said to the vital breath: "Verily. that limb withers right there.16 Then it carried the mind. Yes. 17 Next it (the vital breath) obtained eatable food for itself by chanting. But. Now give us. desires to support his dependents is certainly able to do so. When the mind was freed from death it became the moon (Chandra). that deity carries beyond death him who knows this. Whoever.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 110 . following him. shines beyond its reach. Source: "The Upanishads . the greatest among them and their leader. Therefore it is called Brihaspati. the greatest among them and their leader. For whatever food is eaten. From whichever limb the vital breath departs." "Then sit around facing me. please. So do his relatives sit around facing him who knows this. a good eater of food and their lord. having transcended death. Speech is Brihati (Rig) and the vital breath is its lord (pati). therefore it is verily the essence of the limbs. Whoever. Thus. for it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs (anga). a share of this food. he becomes the supporter of his kinsmen. That moon.

therefore it (prana) is indeed the Sama—Veda. Speech is Brahman (Yajur) and the vital breath is its lord (pati). nay. the great—grandson of Chikitana. verily. while drinking king [soma]. and speech is githa (song). for by the vital breath all this universe is upheld (uttabdha). said: "Let this soma strike off my head if I say that the ayasya angirasa chanted the Udgitha through any other means than this vital breath and speech. The vital breath is verily ut. Saman (the chant of the Sama—Veda) is known by that name because it is sa (speech) and ama (prana).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 111 . equal to these three worlds. 24 Regarding this there is also the following anecdote: Brahmadatta. 22 Prana is Saman. equal to an elephant. 23 And it is also the Udgitha. And because it is ut and githa." Surely he chanted through speech and the vital breath. Tone. 26 He who knows the suvarna (gold) of the saman (vital breath) obtains gold. too. 25 He who knows the wealth of this saman (Vital breath) obtains wealth. Therefore it is called Brahmanaspati. indeed. sa and this (prana) is ama. Therefore people desire to see at a sacrifice a priest with a good voice. He who thus knows what is the gold of the saman obtains gold. Therefore let one who is going to perform the sacrificial work as a priest desire that his voice may have a good tone and let him perform the sacrifice through that voice with a good tone. is its wealth. He who thus knows what is the wealth of the saman obtains wealth. like one who has wealth. Or because it (prana) is equal (sama) to a white ant. Source: "The Upanishads . Tone is verily its gold. therefore it is Udgitha. equal to a mosquito. equal to this universe.21 It is also the Brahmanaspati (lord of the Yajur—Veda). Speech is. He who knows this vital breath to be such attains union with it or lives in the same world with it.

therefore He is called Purusha. And because He. "Make me immortal. He reflected and saw nothing else but His self." In the verse: "From death lead me to immortality. before (purva) the whole group of aspirants." When it says: "From darkness lead me to light." immortality. desires for himself or for the sacrificer. Source: "The Upanishads ." Therefore He came to be known by the name I (Aham). The priest called prastotri indeed chants the saman. While he chants it. by singing them. Then come the remaining hymns. when a person is addressed. From darkness lead me to light. the vital breath is transformed into a chant. For. so it says: "From death lead me to immortality. he obtains by his chanting. From death lead me to immortality. even now. [the chanter] should obtain food for himself. or vital breath)—for him there is no fear of not being admitted into that world. "Make me immortal. Hence." "the unreal" means death and the "real." that is to say. this universe was the self (Viraj) alone." "darkness" means death and "light. Speech Verily is its support. Chapter IV—The Creation and Its Cause 1 In the beginning. let the sacrificer recite these [Yajur verses]: "Lead me from the unreal to the real." immortality. Therefore while they are being chanted let the sacrificer ask for a boon— anything that he desires. burnt (aushat) all evils. supported in speech. 28 Next follows the edifying repetition (abhyaroha) only of the hymns called pavamanas. so it says. Some say the support is in food (the body)." that is to say. He who knows this verily burns up him who wishes to be Viraj in advance of him. in the shape of a person.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 112 ." When the mantra (verse) says: "Lead me from the unreal to the real." there is nothing that is hidden. He first said: "I am He. Whatever objects this chanter. endowed with such knowledge. This [meditation] by itself wins the world (Hiranyagarbha). He who thus knows the saman (the prana. "From death lead me to immortality.27 He who knows the support of the saman (vital breath) gets a support." and then says whatever other name he may have. he first says: "It is I. with which.

it is from a second entity that fear arises. and fire." Therefore He became the creation. who are Source: "The Upanishads . I am the creation. the body before one accepts a wife is one half of oneself. When they (the priests) speak of particular gods.2 He was afraid. Thus. he produced everything that exists in pairs. like the half of a split pea. Therefore a person even today is not happy when alone.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 113 . He divided this body into two." they are mistaken. what am I afraid of?" Thereupon His fears were gone. Soma is food. 4 She reflected: "How can he unite with me after having produced me from himself? Well. from that union cows were born. as Yajnavalkya said. the one became a she—ass. Therefore people still are afraid when alone. the other became a ram and was united with her. He who knows this becomes a creator in this creation of Viraj. The one became a she—goat. for these are all His manifestations: He Himself is all the gods. from that union one—hoofed animals were born. let me hide myself. He was united with her. Therefore this space is indeed filled by the wife. the one became a hew. indeed. the other became a he—goat. The one became a mare. Therefore. He thought: "Since there is nothing else but Myself. the other became a he—ass and was united with her. He became the size of a man and wife in close embrace. From that union human beings were born. 5 He (Viraj) realized: "Indeed. that He projected the gods. from that union goats and sheep were born. the other (Manu) became a bull and was united with her. the eater of food. This is the highest creation of Viraj. He desired a mate. Now. 6 Then He (Viraj) rubbed back and forth thus and produced fire from its source: the mouth and the hands. This universe is indeed this much: food and the eater of food." "Sacrifice to that one. Therefore both the hands and mouth are hairless inside. 3 He was not at all happy. the other became a stallion. He produced from semen. and that is soma. down to the ants. saying: "Sacrifice to him. for what was there to fear? Assuredly." She became a cow. whatever is liquid. From that division arose husband (pati) and wife (patni). for I produced all this.

was it that Brahman knew by which It became all?" 10 This self was indeed Brahman in the beginning. when thinking. One should meditate upon the Self alone as dear. when seeing. dearer than everything else. which sustains the world." Therefore it became all. It is called the vital breath (prana). It became differentiated by name and form: it was known by such and such a name and such and such a form. 9 They say: "Since men think that by the Knowledge of Brahman they become all. He who meditates upon the Self alone as dear—what he holds dear will not perish. the latter. as a razor lies hidden in its case. all this universe was then undifferentiated. for in It all these become unified. lies hidden in its source. It knew itself only as "I am Brahman. Of all these. the mind. although mortal Himself. If one holding the Self dear were to say to a person who speaks of anything other than the Self as dear. 7 Now. the organ of speech. when speaking. And whoever Source: "The Upanishads . These are merely Its names according to Its functions. or as fire. will lose what he holds dear—and the former is certainly competent to do so—it will indeed come true. for It is then incomplete: the Self is separated from Its totality by being associated with a single characteristic. pray." This Self has entered into these bodies up to the very tips of the nails. People do not see the Self. this Self alone should be known. just as one may find an animal which is lost through its footprints. dearer than wealth. This is the highest creation because He. He who meditates on one or another of Its aspects does not know. that he. manifested the immortal. 8 This Self is dearer than a son. so it is said. He who thus knows the Self obtains fame and association with dear ones. for one knows all these through It. And he who knows this verily becomes a creator in this highest creation of Viraj. what. the ear. Thus to this day this universe is differentiated by name and form. when hearing. The Self alone is to be meditated upon. for when viewed in parts It is incomplete: when breathing. "He has such a name and such a form.even superior to Him. because It is innermost.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 114 . the eye.

The seer Vamadeva." And to this day. thinking: "He is one and I am another. It is the same with the seers (rishis). for it nourishes all that exists. He projected the sudra caste—Pushan. the brahmin sits below and worships the kshatriya. also became That Brahman. how much more so when many are taken away! Therefore it is not pleasing to the gods that men should know this. This earth is Verily Pushan (the nourisher). Therefore there is nothing higher than justice. for he has become their Self. further. one only without a second. He. so does each man serve the gods. whoever in a like manner knows the self as "I am Brahman. if a man worships another deity. an excellent form. further.among the gods had this enlightenment. having realized this self as That. He projected. Now. As many animals serve a man. that excellent form. Rudras. This justice is the controller of the kshatriya. Rudra. Therefore even though the king is exalted in the sacrifice. 13 Still He did not flourish. He becomes more evil. Mrityu (Death) and Isana. kshatriyahood—those kshatriyas (rulers) among the gods: Indra. it causes anguish to the owner. But brahminhood is nevertheless the source of kshatriyahood.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 115 . He who slights a brahmin strikes at his own source. Thus at the Rajasuya sacrifice." he does not know. Even the gods cannot prevent his becoming this. came to know: "I was Manu and the sun. He is like an animal to the gods. Varuna. 12 Yet He (Viraj) did not flourish. being one. Even if one animal is taken away. 14 Yet He did not flourish. He projected the Vaisya caste—those classes of gods who are designated in groups: the Vasus. Yama. Adityas. He confers that glory on kshatriyahood alone. He projected. Visve—devas and Maruts. Therefore there is none higher than the kshatriyas. So even a weak man hopes to defeat a stronger man through Source: "The Upanishads . the same with men. Soma (Moon). Parjanya." becomes all this universe. as one who slights his superior. did not flourish. justice (dharrna). at the end of it he resorts to brahminhood as his source. 11 In the beginning this (the kshatriya and other castes) was indeed Brahman.

It. 15 So these four castes were projected: the brahmin: the kshatriya. Therefore if a man speaks the truth. so that I may perform rites. or as a deed unaccomplished. so that I may be born as the child. a vaisya through the divine vaisyas and a sudra through the divine sudras. for from this very Self he projects whatever he desires. do not protect him. He who meditates upon the World called the Self—his work does not perish. In so far as he gives shelter and food to men. Verily. is the range of desire. In so far as he gives fodder and water to the animals. Therefore people desire to attain the results of their rites among the gods through fire and among men as a brahmin. those acts will in the end surely perish for him. Among the gods Prajapati became a brahmin as fire and among men He became the brahmin. Source: "The Upanishads ." This much. that which is justice is truth. indeed. for justice alone is both these. does not protect him—as the Vedas. He became a kshatriya among men through the divine kshatriyas. this self (the ignorant person) is an object of enjoyment (lokah) to all beings. even if one who does not know It (the Self) should perform here on earth a great many meritorious acts. All this. the vaisya and the sudra. he becomes an object of enjoyment to the rishis. they say he speaks what is just and if he speaks what is just. In so far as he offers oblations in the fire and performs sacrifices. 16 Now. In so far as he studies the Vedas. he becomes an object of enjoyment to men. unrecited. Nay. indeed. he becomes an object of enjoyment to the animals. and let me have wealth. One should meditate only upon the World called the Self. if a man departs from this world without realizing his own World (the Self). they say he speaks the truth. In so far as beasts and birds and even ants find a living in his home. Just as one wishes no injury to one's body. being unknown. He cherished the desire: "Let me have a wife. one only. In so far as he makes offerings to the Manes and desires children. For Prajapati directly projected Himself as these two forms. 17 In the beginning this aggregate of desirable objects was but the self.justice. he becomes an object of enjoyment to the gods. he becomes an object of enjoyment to the Manes. Now. so do all beings wish no injury to him who has this knowledge. as one does with the help of a king. he becomes an object of enjoyment to these.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 116 . has been known and well investigated.

say that the two foods refer to the new—moon and full—moon sacrifices." the statement refers to milk." 2 When it is said: "That the father produced seven kinds of food through meditation and rites.even if one wishes. a man who is single desires: "Let me have a wife. the ear his divine wealth. When it is said: "Two he assigned to the gods. speech his wife. Now. So this sacrifice has five factors—the animals have five factors. for he hears it with the ear. to this day. Therefore one should not engage in sacrifices for material ends. When it is said: "One is common to all eaters." So long as he does not obtain each one of these. Chapter V—Manifestations of Prajapati 1 The following are the mantras: "I shall now disclose that the father produced seven kinds of food through meditation and rites. Therefore people make oblations in the fire and offer presents otherwise to the gods. he thinks he is incomplete. so that I may be born as the child. Two he assigned to the gods. Therefore. the general food. When it is said: "One he gave to the animals. On it (food) rests everything— whatsoever breathes and whatsoever breathes not." it means that the food which is eaten is that which is common to all. men have five factors and all this that exists has five factors. Why are not these foods exhausted although they are always being eaten? He who knows the cause of this inexhaustibility of the food eats food with pre—eminence (pratika)." the statement means that the father indeed produced them through meditation and rites. Some. verily. for he finds it with the eye. He who appropriates this food is never free from evil. so that I may perform rites. One is common to all eaters. And they speak of the new—born calf as not yet eating grass. for this is. his completeness can also come in this way: The mind is his self. the vital breath his child. the body his instrument of rites. one cannot get more than this.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 117 ." the statement means oblations made in the fire and presents offered otherwise to the gods. He who knows this obtains all this. for at first men and animals live on milk alone. He obtains identity with the gods and lives on nectar. however. and let me have wealth. Three he designed for himself. That is why they first make a new—born babe lick melted butter or they put it to the breast. for he performs rites through the body. the eye his human wealth. When it is said: "On it rests everything—whatsoever breathes and whatsoever breathes not." it means that everything rests on Source: "The Upanishads . And one he gave to the animals.

apana. the mind and the vital breath. The statement: "He obtains identity with the gods and lives on nectar. shame. 3 "Three he designed for himself"—that is to say. for it serves to determine a thing. the mind is the intermediary world (the sky) and the vital breath is that world (heaven). determination. my mind was elsewhere. for he produces this food again and again. Desire. therefore the mind exists. The prana. I did not hear it. 5 These verily are the three Vedas: the organ of speech is the Rig—Veda. steadfastness. because he offers all eatable food to the gods. If he did not do this the food would be exhausted. 4 These verily are the three worlds: the organ of speech is this world (the earth)." is a eulogy. They say: "My mind was elsewhere. This body (atma) consists of these—the organ of speech. udana. Even if one is touched from behind. for he produces this food through meditation and rites. doubt. vyana." the word pratika means pre—eminence. all that breathes and breathes not. faith. but one should not think thus. When it is asked: "Why are not these foods exhausted although they are always being eaten?" the answer is that the eater is indeed the cause of this inexhaustibility. hence the meaning is that he eats food pre—eminently. I did not see it. the organ of speech and the vital breath. the mind is the Yajur—Veda and the vital breath is the Sama—Veda. but it cannot itself be revealed." It is clear that a man sees with his mind and hears with his mind. When it is said: "He eats food with pratika. It is further said in another Brahmana that by making offerings of milk in the fire for a year one overcomes further death.milk. lack of faith.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 118 . one knows it through the mind. Whatever sound there is. For he who knows this overcomes further death the very day he makes the offering. Source: "The Upanishads . these he designed for himself. When it is said: "He who knows the cause of this inexhaustibility. the mind. samana and ana—all these are but the vital breath (prana). lack of steadfastness." the statement means that the eater is indeed the cause of this inexhaustibility. it is just the organ of speech. intelligence and fear—all this is truly the mind.

what is to be known and what is unknown. a rival. 13 Next. 12 Now. The two (fire and the sun) were united and from that was born the vital breath. for the vital breath is what is unknown. The mind protects him who knows this by becoming that which is to be known. mother and child: the mind is the father. And as far as the organ of speech extends. so far extends the earth and so far extends fire.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 119 . A second being is. so far extends water and so far extends the moon. It is without a rival. Whatever is to be known is a form of the mind. but he who meditates upon them as infinite wins an infinite world. The organ of speech protects him who knows its different manifestations by becoming that which is known). the mind is the Manes and the vital breath is men. 11 The earth is the body of that organ of speech and this fire is its luminous organ. the Manes and men: the organ of speech is the gods. It (the vital breath) is the supreme Lord (Indra). for it is the knower.6 These verily are the gods. Whatever is known is a form of the organ of speech. so far extends the earth and so far extends fire. And as far as the mind extends. He who knows this has no rival. He who meditates upon them as finite wins a finite world. The vital breath protects him who knows this by becoming that which is unknown. all infinite. indeed. And as far as the vital breath extends. the organ of speech is the mother and the vital force is the child. Whatever is unknown is a form of the vital breath. heaven is the body of this mind and that sun yonder is its luminous organ. for the mind is what is to be known. Source: "The Upanishads . 7 These verily are father. water is the body of this vital breath and that moon yonder is its luminous organ. These are all equal. 8—10 These verily are what is known.

won by me (the father) are all unified in the word world. represented by the year. the three worlds: the world of men." Therefore they speak of a son who is well instructed as being conducive to the winning of the world. will protect me from the ties of this world. The nights and days are fifteen of his parts and the constant point is the sixteenth. you are the sacrifice and you are the world. Whatever sacrifices have been made by me (the father) are all unified in the word sacrifice. mind and vital breath— penetrates his son. He as the moon is increased and decreased by the nights and days. The world of men can be gained through a son only and by no other rite. When a father who knows this departs from this world. The world of the gods is the best of the worlds. 16 Now. but lives in his body. I am the sacrifice. If. and the world of the gods through meditation. Therefore even if a man loses everything. And whatever worlds were to be. the world of the Manes through rites. Through the sixteenth part he permeates all living beings as the new—moon night and rises the following morning. Therefore. the world of the Manes and the world of the gods. and therefore a father instructs him. people say that he has lost only his felloe which can be restored again." The Sruti explains the thoughts of the father: "Whatever has been studied by me (the father) is all unified in the word Brahman. verily. He is increased and decreased by that wealth. I am the world. Wealth constitutes fifteen of his parts and the body is his sixteenth part. All this it indeed this much. therefore he is called a son. The father remains in this world through the Source: "The Upanishads . through a lapse. This body is the nave and wealth is the felloe. he says to his son: "You are Brahman." The son replies: "I am Brahman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 120 . on this night let no one cut off the breath of any breathing being. he— along with his own organ of speech. Therefore they praise meditation. consists of sixteen parts. the son exonerates him from all that. the person who knows this is himself that Prajapati who is endowed with sixteen parts and who is represented by the year. these are. any duty has been left undone by him. He (the son). 17 Now therefore follows the entrusting: When a man thinks he is about to die. being all this. 15 Verily.14 That Prajapan. not even of a lizard. in honour of this deity.

18 The divine organ of speech from the earth and fire enters into him. Therefore does the organ of speech become tired and so do the eye and the ear. whether moving or not moving. so do they honour him. when they were projected. And whoever competes with one who knows this. in the end dies. 21 Next follows the consideration of the vow (meditative worship): Prajapati projected the organs. 20 The divine vital breath from water and the moon permeates him. Therefore they are called pranas after it. 19 The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him.son. They. That is the divine organ of speech through which whatever he says is fulfilled. He who knows this becomes the self of all beings. This is with regard to the body. And." They all assumed its form. mind and vital breath enter into him (the father). That is the divine mind through which he becomes joyful only and grieves no more. verily. In whatever family there is a man who knows this—that family they call by his name. neither feels pain nor is injured. Source: "The Upanishads . The organ of speech resolved: "I will go on speaking". quarrelled with one another. And as all beings honour this deity. The other organs resolved to know it and said: "This is verily the greatest among us. it neither feels pain nor is injured. the ear: "I will go on hearing. Well then. whether moving or not moving. let us assume its form. No demerit ever goes to the gods. But death did not overtake the vital breath (prana) in the body." So did the other organs. laid hold of them—it overtook them and having overtaken them. shrivels and after shrivelling. As is this deity (Hiranyagarbha). Howsoever creatures may grieve. having taken the form of weariness. according to their functions. the eye: "I will go on seeing". The divine and immortal organ of speech. so is he. that is the divine vital breath which. that grief of theirs remains with them but only merit goes to him.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 121 . Death. restrained them.

for it supports all names. and the body. Through this he obtains identity with that deity. is these three. This immortal entity is covered by Source: "The Upanishads . of work. The sun rises verily from the prana (the vital breath in its cosmic form) and also sets in it. And if he performs them. It is their common feature (saman). this universe is a triad of name. It is their Brahman (self). This vow is followed today and this will be followed tomorrow. let him try to complete them. Of those names which are in daily use." And so did the other gods. but not air. for it supports all forms. lest the evil of death should overtake him. according to their functions. of forms. The other gods fade. The gods even today observe the same vow which they observed then. Chapter VI—The Three Aspects of the Universe 1 Verily. the sun: "I will go on giving heat". It is their Brahman (self). 3 Next. speech (sound in general) is the source (uktha). so is air (vayu) among the gods. As is the vital breath in the body among the organs. the eye is the source (uktha). It is their Common feature (saman). the body is the source (uktha). although one. for it is common to all forms. for from it all works arise. It is their common feature (saman). Therefore a man should observe a single vow—he should perform the functions of the prana and apana (respiration and excretion).22 Now with regard to the gods. 23 Now there is this verse (sloka): The gods observed the vow of that from which the sun rises and in which it sets. 2 Next. or lives in the same world with it. It is their Brahman (self). for from it all names arise. for it is common to all works. These three together are one—this body. for from it all forms arise. the moon: "I will go on shining. for it is common to all names.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 122 . Air is the deity that never sets. form and work. for it supports all works. Fire resolved: "I will go on burning".

I meditate upon as Brahman. no! Please do not talk about him." Ajatasatru said: "No. I meditate upon him as all— surpassing. no! Please do not talk to me about him." 2 Gargya said: "That being (purusha) who is in the sun. abundant soma pressed for him in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices and his food never runs short. no! Please do not talk to me about him." Ajatasatru said: "No. the head of all beings and resplendent. I meditate upon as Brahman. Janaka." Whosoever thus meditates upon him is filled with Source: "The Upanishads . saying: 'Janaka. every day. radiant Soma." Ajatasatru said: "For this proposal I give you a thousand cows. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving. no! Please do not talk to me about him. He said to Ajatasatru. I meditate upon him as the great." Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes luminous and his progeny too become luminous. People indeed rush." Ajatasatru said: "No. 3 Gargya said: "That being (purusha) who is in the moon." Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes all—surpassing. I meditate upon as Brahman." Ajatasatru said: "No.truth: the vital breath is the immortal entity and name and form are truth and by them the immortal entity is covered. I meditate upon as Brahman. who was an eloquent speaker. 4 Gargya said: "That being (purusha) who is in the lightning. I meditate upon him as luminous.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 123 . 5 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in the akasa. white—robed. the king of Kasi: "I will tell you about Brahman. There lived of yore a man of the Garga family called proud Balaki. Part Two Chapter I—Relative Aspects of Brahman 1 Om.' I too have some of his virtues. as the head of all beings and as resplendent." Whosoever thus meditates upon him has.

" Ajatasatru said: "No. 9 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in the mirror." Whosoever thus meditates upon him—to him comes what is agreeable. I meditate upon as Brahman. as irresistible and as the unvanquished army. I meditate upon as Brahman. I meditate upon him as the Lord (Indra). I meditate upon him as life.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 124 . no! Please do not talk about him." Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes ever victorious. I meditate upon as Brahman. I meditate upon him as forbearing. no! Please do not talk about him. 8 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in water. no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as shining. 11 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in the quarters." Ajatasatru said: "No.progeny and cattle and his progeny is never extinct from this world." Ajatasatru said: "No. I meditate upon as Brahman. I meditate upon him as agreeable." Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes forbearing and his progeny becomes forbearing." Whosoever thus meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth and life does not depart from him before the completion of that time. 6 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in the air. 7 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in fire. invincible and a conqueror of enemies." Ajatasatru said: "No. 10 Gargya said: "The sound that arises behind a man while he walks. no! Please Source: "The Upanishads . no! Please do not talk about him. no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon as Brahman." Ajatasatru said: "No. I meditate upon as Brahman. not what is disagreeable and to him are born children who are agreeable." Ajatasatru said: "No." Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes shining and his progeny too becomes shining and he outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.

at that time. 14 Ajatasatru said: "Is this all?" "That is all. 12 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who consists of shadow.' Nevertheless. 17 Ajatasatru said: "When this being full of consciousness (vijnana maya) is thus asleep. Gargya remained silent. no! Please do not talk about him. Then he got up. he took Gargya by the hand and rose. it absorbs. The man did not get up." Whosoever thus meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth and death does not overtake him before the completion of that time. The king pushed him again and again with his hand till he awoke. the Source: "The Upanishads . 13 Gargya said: "This being (purusha) who is in the self. Ajatasatru addressed him by these names: Great. 16 Ajatasatru said: "When this being full of consciousness (identified with the intellect) was thus asleep. no! Please do not talk about him." Whosoever thus mediates upon him gets companions and his followers never part with him. White— robed. I meditate upon him as death. 15 Ajatasatru said: "It is contrary to usual practice that a brahmin should approach a kshatriya.do not talk about him." Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes self—possessed and his progeny too becomes self—possessed. Radiant.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 125 . I meditate upon him as second and as inseparable. I will instruct you. I meditate upon as Brahman." Ajatasatru said: "No. They came to a sleeping man." Ajatasatru said: "No. where was it then and whence did it thus come back?" Gargya did not know the answer. Soma." "By knowing that much one cannot know Brahman. I meditate upon him as self—possessed." "Let me approach you as a student. thinking: 'He will teach me about Brahman. I meditate upon as Brahman." So saying." said Gargya.

the head its special resort. fire attends on it. as it were. 2 These seven gods that prevent decay worship it (the calf): through these pink lines in the eye. all worlds. the organ of speech is absorbed. all beings. high or low states. as it were. 19 Next. or attains. Rudra attends on it.functions of the organs through its own consciousness and rests in the Supreme Self (akasa) that is in the heart. it is called svapiti. or as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions. the eye is absorbed. the sun attends on it.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 126 . having reached the summit of happiness. or a noble brahmin." 18 When the self remains in the dream state. Parjanya attends on it. strength its post and food its rope. Indra. kills his seven hostile kinsmen. which extend from the heart throughout the whole body and remains in the body. according to his pleasure. Then the organ of smell is absorbed. as it were. all gods. move about according to its pleasure. through the water in the eye." The vital breaths are the truth and their truth is Atman. taking with it the organs. 20 As the spider moves along the thread it produces. so does the self. even so from this Atman come forth all organs. through the Source: "The Upanishads . through the pupil of the eye. Even as a great king. moves about. its special resort. When this being absorbs them. when the self goes into deep sleep—when it does not know anything—it returns along the seventy—two thousand nerves called hita. Chapter II—Description of the Prana 1 He who knows the calf together with its abode. taking with him his retinue of citizens. Its secret name (Upanishad) is "the Truth of truth. these are its achievements (results of past action): It then becomes a great king. its post and its rope. The vital breath in the body is indeed the calf. through the white portion. within his own domain. in the body. so does the self rest. the ear is absorbed and the mind is absorbed. As a baby or an emperor or a noble brahmin lives. through the black of the eye. this body is its abode.

the earth. these indeed represent manifold knowledge. there are two forms of Brahman: gross and subtle. "The organ of speech. When it is said: "Seven sages sit on its rim. which has communication with the Vedas. they indeed are the sages. is the eighth" because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates with the Vedas. Chapter III—The Two Forms of Brahman 1 Verily. heaven attends on it. Kasyapa. is the eighth. The essence of that which is gross. Bharadvaja. These two eyes are Visvamitra and Jamadagni: this one (the right) is Visvamitra and this one (the left). limited and unlimited. for it is a bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top. These two nostrils are Vasishtha and Kasyapa: this one (the right) is Vasishtha and this one (the left). He who knows this becomes the eater of everything and everything becomes his food. which has communication with the Vedas. definite and indefinite." What is called the "bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top" is this head of ours. Manifold knowledge has been put into it.lower eyelid. 4 These two ears are Gotama and Bharadvaja: this one (the right) is Gotama and this one (the left). Jamadagni." this refers to the organs. limited and definite. Atri is the same as atti (eating). which is mortal. 3 Regarding this there is the following mantra: "There is a bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top. It is mortal. When it is said: "Manifold knowledge has been put into it. for through the tongue food is eaten. mortal and immortal. The tongue is Atri. and through the upper eyelid. which is limited and which is definite is the sun that shines." this refers to the organs. seven sages sit on its rim and the organ of speech.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 127 . for it (the sun) is the essence of the three elements. 2 The gross form is that which is other than air and akasa. Source: "The Upanishads . He who knows this—his food does not diminish.

for it (the eye) is the essence of the three elements. my dear. Now. or like a tongue of fire. It is immortal. which is unlimited and which is indefinite is the person (purusha) that is in the right eye." Now the designation of Brahman: "The Truth of truth. which is mortal. which is immortal. The essence of that which is subtle. or like a white lotus. 5 Now the subtle: It is the air and the akasa that is in the body. "your life would be Source: "The Upanishads ." 2 Thereupon Maitreyi said: "Venerable Sir." replied Yajnavalkya. or like a flash of lightning. not this" (Neti. This is with reference to the gods. He who knows this—his splendour is like a flash of lightning. "I am going to renounce this life.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 128 . it is unlimited and it is indefinite. or like the scarlet insect called Indragopa. if indeed the whole earth. for that Person is the essence of the two elements. the description of Brahman: "Not this. It is immortal. Chapter IV—Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi (I) 1 "Maitreyi. The essence of that which is gross. it is unlimited and it is indefinite. which is limited and which is definite is the eye. which is unlimited and which is indefinite is the Person (Purusha) in the solar orb." said Yajnavalkya. for there is no other and more appropriate description than this "Not this. The essence of that which is subtle. Let me make a final settlement between you and Katyayani (his other wife). It is mortal. therefore.3 Now the subtle: It is air and akasa. 6 The form of that person is like a cloth dyed with turmeric." The vital breath is truth and It (Brahman) is the Truth of that. Neti). full of wealth. for that person is the essence of the two elements. it is limited and it is definite. or like grey sheep's wool. belonged to me. 4 Now with reference to the body: The gross form is that which is other than the air and the akasa that is in the body. would I be immortal through that?" "No. which is immortal.

is the wife loved. "Verily. As I explain it. is the All loved. but she is loved for the sake of the self. but they are loved for the sake of the self. venerable Sir. "Verily. not for the sake of wealth. but he is loved for the sake of the self which. not for the sake of the wife.just like that of people who have plenty. my dear. my dear. hut they are loved for the sake of the self. my dear. but he is loved for the sake of the self. not for the sake of the worlds. my dear. but it is loved for the sake of the self. not for the sake of the All. not for the sake of the sons. not for the sake of the brahmin. reflected on and meditated upon. meditate on what I say. not for the sake of the husband. is the husband loved. my dear. "Verily. my dear.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 129 . but it is loved for the sake of the self. sit down. I will explain it to you. By the realization of the Self. The kshatriya rejects one who knows him as different Source: "The Upanishads . reflection and meditation—all this is known. is the kshatriya loved. not for the sake of the beings. 6 "The brahmin rejects one who knows him as different from the Self. but he is loved for the sake of the self. but they are loved for the sake of the self. but they are loved for the sake of the self. Come. is the brahmin loved. my dear Maitreyi. my dear. my dear. are the gods loved. is wealth loved. Of Immortality. "Verily. my dear—through hearing. are the sons loved. "Verily. are the beings loved." 3 Then Maitreyi said: "What should I do with that which would not make me immortal? Tell me. you have been my beloved even before and now you say what is after my heart. "Verily. "Verily." 5 Then Yajnavalkya said: "Verily. in its true nature. however. "Verily. not for the sake of the kshatriya. are the worlds loved. "Verily. "Verily. my dear. is one with the Supreme Self. of that alone which you know to be the only means of attaining Immortality. it is the Self that should be realized—should be heard of. my dear. there is no hope through wealth. not for the sake of the gods." 4 Yajnavalkya replied: "My dear.

the Rig—Veda. the intellect is the one goal of all forms of knowledge. the mind is the one goal of all deliberations. 11 "As the ocean is the one goal of all waters (i. the tongue is the one goal of all savours. my dear. indeed. but are grasped only when the general note of the conch or the general sound produced by different kinds of blowing is grasped. the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment. these beings and this All—are that Self. cannot be grasped by themselves. when it is blown. verses (slokas). this kshatriya. when it is played. breathed forth. "And as the various particular notes of a conch. 10 "As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various kinds of smoke issue forth. the arts (vidya). "And as the various particular notes of a vina. even so. the Yajur—Veda. cannot be grasped by themselves. no particular objects are perceived in the waking and dream states apart from Pure Intelligence. but are grasped only when the general note of the drum or the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes is grasped. the organ of speech is the one goal of all the Vedas. the hands are the one goal of all actions. elucidations (anuvyakhyanas) and explanations (vyakhyanas) are like the breath of this infinite Reality. when it is beaten. so the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch. The All rejects one who knows it as different from the Self.e.from the Self. the nostrils are the one goal of all smells. 7—9 "As the various particular kinds of notes of a drum. This brahmin. but are grasped Only when the general note of the vina or the general sound produced by different kinds of playing is grasped. the excretory organ is the one goal of all excretions. these worlds. The gods reject one who knows them as different from the Self. the place where they merge). mythology (purana). the Sama—Veda. The beings reject one who knows them as different from the Self. history (itihasa). aphorisms (sutras). the Upanishads. The worlds reject one who knows them as different from the Self. Similarly. the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking. Source: "The Upanishads . these gods. From this Supreme Self are all these. the Atharvangirasa.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 130 . the ear is the one goal of all sounds. cannot be grasped by themselves.

then one smells another. my dear." Yajnavalkya replied: "Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering." 14 "For when there is duality. one knows another. O Maitreyi. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. one hears another. immortal Source: "The Upanishads . endless. immortal. This self comes out as a separate entity from these elements and with their destruction this separate existence also is destroyed. 13 Then Maitreyi said: "Just here you have bewildered me. my dear. my dear. as it were. one sees another. what should one think and through what. then what should one smell and through what. this underlying unity is Brahman. 2 This water is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this water. what should one speak and through what. Likewise. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. even so. immortal being who is in this earth and the bright. corporeal being who is in the body are both honey. what should one know and through what? Through what should One know That owing to which all this is known—through what. this great." So said Yajnavalkya. These four are but this Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 131 . one thinks of another. the bright.12 "As a lump of salt dropped into water becomes dissolved in water and cannot be taken out again. This Reality is enough for knowledge. my dear. But when everything has become the Self. Likewise. should one know the Knower?" Chapter V—The Interdependence of Created Objects 1 This Earth is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this earth. After attaining oneness it has no more consciousness. what should one see and through what. venerable Sir. infinite Reality is Pure Intelligence alone. by saying that after attaining oneness the self has no more consciousness. the bright. what should one hear and through what. but wherever we taste the water it tastes salt. one speaks to another. This is what I say.

this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. this underlying unity is Brahman. immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body are both honey. this underlying unity is Brahman. immortal being who is in this air and the bright.being who is in this water and the bright. immortal being who is in these quarters and the bright. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. immortal being identified with the eye in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. These four are but this Self. Likewise. immortal being who is in this sun and the bright. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. These four are but this Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 132 . The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. the bright. immortal being existing as the semen in the body are both honey. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. immortal being identified with the ear in the body and with the time of hearing are both honey. immortal being identified with the vital breath in the body are both honey. this underlying unity is Brahman. 3 This fire is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this fire. Source: "The Upanishads . The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. These four are but this Self. These four are but this Self. 5 This sun is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this sun. the bright. immortal being who is in this fire and the bright. 4 This air is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this air. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. Likewise. the bright. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. Likewise. this underlying unity is Brahman. Likewise. 6 These quarters are the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of these quarters. the bright. this underlying unity is Brahman. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

this knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. Likewise. Likewise. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. immortal being identified with the light in the body are both honey. immortal being who is in this akasa and the bright. immortal being who is in this thunder—cloud and the bright. 8 This lightning is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this lightning. this underlying unity is Brahman. 11 This dharma (righteousness) is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this dharma. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.7 This moon is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this moon. this underlying unity is Brahman. This knowledge of this self is the means to Immortality. immortal being identified with the mind in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. this underlying Unity is Brahman. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. this underlying unity is Brahman. immortal being who is in this moon and the bright. These four are but this Self. These four are but this self. Likewise. this underlying unity is Brahman. the bright. immortal being identified with the akasa in the heart in the body are both honey. Source: "The Upanishads . immortal being who is in this lightning and the bright. These four are but this Self. 10 This akasa is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this akasa. the bright. Likewise. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. These four are but this Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 133 . 9 This thunder—cloud is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this thunder—cloud. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. the bright. immortal being identified with the dharma in the body are both honey. the bright. immortal being identified with sound and with the voice in the body are both honey. the bright. immortal being who is in this dharma and the bright. Likewise. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality.

which Dadhyach. this underlying unity is Brahman. the bright. this underlying unity is Brahman. taught you through the head of a horse. I will disclose the honey (madhu—doctrine). The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality." Source: "The Upanishads . Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot wheel. Likewise. all organs and all these individual creatures fixed in this Self. immortal being who is in mankind and the bright. the King of all beings. I will disclose that terrible deed of yours. all worlds. as the thunder—cloud discloses the approaching rain. immortal being identified with truth in the body are both honey.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 134 . immortal being who is in this truth and the bright. is the honey (madhu—doctrine) which Dadhyach. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. versed in the Atharva—Veda. Likewise. all gods.12 This truth is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this truth. 14 This cosmic body (atman) is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this cosmic body. These four are but this Self. These four are but this Self. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this and said: "O Asvins in human form. 15 And verily this Self is the Ruler of all beings. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. immortal being who is in the cosmic body and the bright. taught the Asvins. this underlying unity is Brahman. Likewise. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. the bright. this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all. verily. 16 This. which you performed out of greed. so are all beings. versed in the Atharva—Veda. the bright. immortal being identified with the individual self are both honey. called damsa. immortal being identified with mankind in the body are both honey. 13 This mankind is the honey (effect) of all beings and all beings are the honey (effect) of this mankind. These four are but this Self.

Gautama Source: "The Upanishads . He. for to Him are yoked ten horses. is the honey (madhu—doctrine) which Dadhyach." 18 This. Gaupavana from another Pautimashya. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this and said: "He (the Lord) transformed Himself in accordance with each form and each form of His was for the sake of making Him known. wishing to be true to his promise. This Gaupavana from Kausika. taught the Asvins. taught the Asvins. This is the teaching of the Upanishads. This Brahman is without antecedent or consequent. There is nothing that is not covered by Him. has been transmitted: Pautimashya received it from Gaupavana.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 135 . the Supreme Person. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this and said: "O Asvins. is the honey (madhu—doctrine) which Dadhyach. the all—perceiving. Kausika from Kaundinya. On account of His dwelling in all bodies (pur). you fixed a horse's head on Dadhyach. entered the bodies. The Mantra (rishi) perceived this and said: "He (the Lord) made bodies with two feet. He made bodies with four feet. It is ten and thousands—many and infinite. hundreds. is Brahman. This self. versed in the Atharva—Veda. taught the Asvins. nothing that is not pervaded by Him. He is called the Person (Purusha). O terrible ones. Having first become a bird (the subtle body). verily. verily." Chapter VI—The Line of Teachers 1 Now the line of teachers through whom the honey. "This Atman is the organs." 19 This. or the madhu—doctrine. versed in the Atharva—Veda. verily. who. nay. versed in the Atharva—Veda. without interior or exterior. taught you the ritualistic meditation on the honey (madhu—doctrine) connected with the sun and also the secret (spiritual) meditation on it. This Pautimashya from another Gaupavana. appears manifold.17 This. versed in the Atharva—Veda. is the honey (madhu—doctrine) which Dadhyach. The Lord (Indra). through His mayas. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. Kaundinya from Sandilya.

Parasaryayana from Parasarya.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 136 . Bharadvaja from another Bharadvaja and Gautama. Ghritakausika from Parasaryayana. Emperor Tanaka of Videha wished to know which of these brahmins was the most erudite Vedic scholar. Part Three Chapter I—Yajnavalkya and Asvala 1 Om. Source: "The Upanishads . Brahman is self—born. Emperor of Videha. Sanatana from Sanaga. The Asvins from Dadhyach Atharvana. Dadhyach Atharvana from Atharvana Daiva. Saitava and Prachinayogya from Parasarya. Andilya from Kaisorya Kapya. Salutation to Brahman. This Anabhimlata from Gautama.2 From Agnivesya. Pradhvamsana from Ekarshi. This Gautama from Vatsya. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. Vatsya from Andilya. Viprachitti from Vyashti. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapat Babhrava. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. Baijavapayana from Kausikayani. This Bharadvaja from Parasarya. Gautama from still another Bharadvaja. Kumaraharita from Galava. Sanaga from Parameshthin (Viraj). Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska. Ekarshi from Viprachitti. Mrityu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Visvarupa Tvashtra from the Asyins. Janaka. Minti from Gautama. Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti Tvashtra. Gautama from another Gautama. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathin Saubhara. Pathin Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa. Brahmin scholars from the countries of Kuru and Panchala were assembled there. Abhuti Tvashtra from Visvarupa Tvashtra. Vyashti from Sanaru. Kausikayani 3 From Ghritakausika. Atreya from Manti. Atharvana Daiva from Mrityu Pradhvamsana. Parameshthin from Brahma (Hiranyagarbha). Kaisorya Kapya from Kumaraharita. Traivani from Aupajandhani. performed a sacrifice in which gifts were freely distributed among the priests. This Anabhimlata from still another Anabhimlata. Asurayana from Traivani. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Gautama from Saitava and Prachinayogya. Aupajandhani from Asuri. Sanaru from Sanatana. Anabhimlata from another Anabhimlata.

"since everything here is overtaken by the bright and dark fortnights. This eye is the sun. this is complete liberation. since everything is overcome by day and night. The brahmins were furious and said: "How does he dare to call himself the best Vedic scholar among us?" Now among them there was Asvala. 2 He said to them: "Venerable brahmins. by what means does the sacrificer free himself from the reach of the bright and dark fortnights?" "Through the udgatri priest and the vital breath looked upon as the air." 4 "Yajnavalkya. This sun is the adhvaryu. O Yajnavalkya?" He replied: "I bow to the best Vedic scholar." None of the brahmins dared. let him among you who is the best Vedic scholar drive these cows home. this sun is the means to liberation. The sacrificer's organ of speech is the hotri. connected with the sacrifice) is overtaken by death." said he. "since everything here is overtaken by day and night. by what means does the sacrificer free himself from the reach of death?" "Through the hotri priest and the organ of speech looked upon as fire. this is complete liberation.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 137 . but I just wish to have these cows. this fire is the hotri. since everything is overcome by the bright and dark fortnights.e." 5 "Yajnavalkya. this fire is the means to liberation. He asked Yajnavalkya: "Are you indeed the best Vedic scholar among us. This vital breath is the udgatri. Then Yajnavalkya said to one of his pupils: "Dear Samsrava. This organ of speech is fire. the hotri priest of Emperor Janaka of Videha. This vital breath is the Source: "The Upanishads ." said he.So he confined a thousand cows in a pen and fastened on the horns of each ten padas of gold. by what means does the sacrificer free himself from the reach of day and night?" "Through the adhvaryu priest and the eye looked upon as the sun. drive these cows home." Thereupon the hotri Asvala determined to question him. The sacrificer's eye is the adhvaryu." He drove them away. "since everything here (i. 3 "Yajnavalkya." said he. since everything is overcome by death.

when offered." said he. The mind is the moon. for the world of men is down below." said he. this moon is the means to liberation. when offered. this is complete liberation." 8 "Yajnavalkya. make a great noise. "with how many gods does the Brahma priest seated on the right protect the sacrifice today?" "With one. this is complete liberation." said he. So far about the ways of liberation. "since the sky is. by means of what support does the sacrificer go to heaven?" "Through the Brahma priest and the mind looked upon as the moon. now about the meditation based upon resemblance." "And which are these three?" "The introductory." "What does he (the sacrificer) win through them?" "All this that has life." "Which is that one?" Source: "The Upanishads . make a great noise. "how many kinds of Rig verses will the hotri priest use today in this sacrifice?" "Three kinds. when offered. this air is the udgatri. sink down. when offered.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 138 . 7 "Yajnavalkya. without a support. sink down.air. he wins the world of men. blaze upward. By those which." said he." 6 "Yajnavalkya. the sacrificial and the eulogistic as the third." 9 "Yajnavalkya. blaze upward. "how many kinds of oblations will the adhvaryu priest offer today in this sacrifice?" "Three. for this world of the Manes is excessively noisy. this moon is the Brahma. and those which." "And which are these three?" "Those which. for the world of the gods shines bright. as it were. By those which. he wins the world of the gods. The sacrificer's mind is the Brahma. those which. as it were. this air is the means to liberation. he wins the world of the Manes. when offered." "What does he (the sacrificer) win through them?" "By those which. when offered.

" 10 "Yajnavalkya. Source: "The Upanishads . "how many kinds of hymns of praise will the udgatri priest chant today in this sacrifice?" "Three." "And which are these eight grahas and eight atigrahas?" 2 "The Prana (the nose). "and eight atigrahas. "how many grahas (organs) are there and how many atigrahas (objects)?" "Eight grahas. it is controlled by the apana (odour). indeed. for one knows tastes by the tongue. it is controlled by the atigraha." said he. the sacrificial and the eulogistic "Which are those that have reference to the body?" "The prana is the introductory hymn." "And which are these three?" "The introductory. is the graha.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 139 ." "What does he (the sacrificer) win through them?" "Through the introductory hymn he wins the earth. the apana is hymn and the vyana is the eulogistic hymn. Chapter II—Yajnavalkya and Artabhaga 1 Then Artabhaga. it is controlled by the atigraha. 4 "The tongue. of the line of Jaratkaru. questioned him. indeed. through the sacrificial hymn he wins the sky and through the eulogistic hymn he wins heaven. is the graha. indeed. An infinite world he (the sacrificer) wins thereby. the atigraha." he replied. for one smells odours through apana (the air breathed in). 3 "The vak (the organ of speech). for one utters names through the organ of speech. name. taste." said he."The mind. is the graha. "Yajnavalkya. Thereupon the priest Asvala held his peace. The mind is indeed infinite and infinite are the Visve—devas.

work. indeed. they are controlled by the atigraha. He who knows this wins thereby an infinite world. is death." 12 "Yajnavalkya. are the graha. do his organs depart from him or not?" "No. touch. it is controlled by the atigraha colour. is the graha. it is the food of water." said he. who. for one sees colours through the eye.5 "The eye." said he. is the graha. These are the eight grahas and eight atigrahas. is the graha. is that god to whom death is the food?" "Fire. 8 "The hands. For the name is infinite and infinite are the Visve— devas. 9 "The skin. is the graha." 10 "Yajnavalkya. One who knows this conquers further death." Source: "The Upanishads . for one feels touch through the skin. pray. indeed. for through the mind one cherishes desires. it is controlled by the atigraha sound. what is it that does not leave him?" "The name. 6 "The ear. it is controlled by the atigraha. for one hears sounds with the ear. The body swells. it is controlled by the atigraha desire." 11 "Yajnavalkya.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 140 . 7 "The mind. for one performs work by means of the hands. "when such a man dies. indeed. is inflated and in that state the dead body lies at rest." replied Yajnavalkya." said he. indeed. "when this liberated person dies. "they merge in him only. "since all this is the food of death. indeed. indeed.

Vayu. held his peace. covering twice the area. Therefore Vayu alone is the aggregate of all individuals.' While asking him about the limits of the world. the body in the earth. around it. I suppose. We shall decide this between ourselves. His daughter was possessed by a gandharva.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 141 . where is that person then?" Yajnavalkya said: "Give me your hand. "when the vocal organ of this dead person merges in fire. of the line of Angiras. Thereupon Artabhaga. of the line of Kapi." Thus did the gandharva praise Vayu. We asked him: 'Who are you?' He said: 'I am Sudhanvan. delivered them to Vayu. Chapter III—Yajnavalkya and Bhujyu 1 Next Bhujyu." said he. Through that opening they go out. covering twice the area. the hair on the body in the herbs. in the form of a falcon. is the world (prithivi). the hair on the head in the trees and the blood and semen are deposited in water. took them where previous performers of the Horse—sacrifice were. as is the edge of a razor or the wing of a fly. Yajnavalkya. "we were travelling in the country of Madra as religious students. where were the descendants of Parikshit? Tell me." said he. told you that they went where those who perform the Horse—sacrifice go. Now. dear Artabhaga. He who knows this. when we came to the house of Patanchala. is the ocean. as stated Source: "The Upanishads . the nose in air.13 "Yajnavalkya. the ear in the quarters. where were the descendants of Parikshit?" 2 Yajnavalkya said: "The gandharva. the akasa (space) in the heart in the external akasa. of the line of Jaratkaru." "And where do they go who have performed the Horse— sacrifice?" "Thirty—two times the space traversed by the sun's chariot in a day makes this plane (loka). we said: 'Where were the descendants of Parikshit?' And likewise I ask you. questioned him. around the world. placing them in itself. the mind in the moon. "Fire." Then they went out and deliberated and what they talked about was karma (work) and what they praised was karma: one becomes good through good karma and evil through evil karma. so is there just that much space between the two halves of the cosmic shell. the grandson of Lahya. the eye in the sun. "Yajnavalkya. we cannot do it in a crowd.

This is your self that is within all. grief." said he. conquers further death." "Which self is within all. Thereupon Bhujyu.' 'Such is a horse. That which pervades through the vyana is your self that is within all.' Tell me precisely the Brahman that is immediate and direct—the self that is within all. Chapter V—Yajnavalkya and Kahola 1 Next Kahola." Thereupon Ushasta. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for the worlds. the son of Kushitaka. "explain to me the Brahman that is immediately and directly perceived—the self that is within all. held his peace. "Yajnavalkya. "Yajnavalkya. the son of Chakra. "explain to me the Brahman that is directly and immediately perceived—the self that is within all. This is your self that is within all. old age and death.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 142 . Yajnavalkya?" "It is that which transcends hunger and thirst." "Which self is within all. Having realized this Self. delusion. for both these are Source: "The Upanishads . Yajnavalkya?" "That which breathes through the prana is your self that is within all. brahmins give up the desire for sons. the son of Chakra." said he. Chapter IV—Yajnavalkya and Ushasta 1 Then Ushasta. said: "You have explained it as one might say: 'Such is a cow. the son of Chakra." "This is your self that is within all. you cannot think of the thinker of thinking.above. questioned him." "This is your self that is within all." 2 Ushasta. you cannot hear the hearer of hearing. Yajnavalkya?" "You cannot see the seer of seeing. the grandson of Lahya. questioned him." "Which is within all. the desire for wealth and the desire for the worlds and lead the life of religious mendicants. you cannot know the knower of knowing. That which moves downward through the apana is your self that is within all." "This is your self that is within all. held his peace. everything else but this is perishable. That which goes out with the udana is your self that is within all.

" Thereupon Kahola. Chapter VII—Yajnavalkya and Uddalaka 1 Then Uddalaka. "By what is the World of Virij pervaded?" "By the World of Hiranyagarbha. O Gargi. lest your head should fall off. O Gargi." Thereupon Gargi." said he." "By what. You are questioning too much about a deity about whom we should not ask too much. should try to live on that strength which comes of scholarship. O Gargi. the son of Aruna." said he. O Gargi." "By what is the world of the moon pervaded?" "By the world of the stars. held his peace. questioned him. after he is done with scholarship. "question too much. "How does the knower of Brahman behave? Howsoever he may behave. he is such indeed. O Gargi." "By what. "Yajnavalkya. O Gargi. "in the country of Madra we lived in Source: "The Upanishads . the daughter of Vachaknu. he becomes meditative and after he is done with both meditativeness and non—meditativeness. O Gargi. "By what is the world of Indra pervaded?" "By the World of Virij." "By what is the sky pervaded?" "By the world of the gandharvas. is air pervaded?" "By the sky. O Gargi. questioned him.but desires. is the World of Hiranyagarbha pervaded?" "Do not. the son of Kushitaka. O Gargi. O Gargi." "By what is the world of the gods pervaded?" "By the world of Indra." "By what is the world of the stars pervaded?" "By the world of the gods. Chapter VI—Yajnavalkya and Gargi (I) 1 Then Gargi. O Gargi." said she. Everything else but this is perishable. pray. "if all this is pervaded by water. the daughter of Vachaknu.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 143 . pray. Do not ask too much. After he is done with that strength and scholarship. "Yajnavalkya . Therefore a brahmin. held her peace. is water pervaded?" "By air. by what. O Gargi." "By what is the world of the gandharvas pervaded?" "By the world of the sun. pray. he becomes a knower of Brahman. "By what is the world of the sun pervaded?" "By the world of the moon.

4—14 "He who inhabits water. whose body water is and who controls water from within—He is your Self. he knows the Vedas. he who knows that Sutra and that Inner Controller indeed knows Brahman. O Gautama. the Inner Controller. O Gautama. If you. do not know that Sutra and that Inner Controller and still take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman. the next world and all beings?' Patanchala Kapya said: 'I do not know him. whose body the sky is and who controls the sky Source: "The Upanishads .the house of Patanchala. the Immortal. he knows the worlds." "Quite so. as by a thread. We asked him: 'Who are you?' He said: 'I am Kabandha.' Tell us what you know. they say of a person who dies that his limbs have been loosened. "He who inhabits fire. he knows the self. the Inner Controller. His wife was possessed by a gandharva. for they are held together by Vayu as by a thread.' He explained it all to them and I know it. that Sutra and that Inner Controller. he knows everything. do you know that Inner Controller who controls this world.' Then he said to Patanchala Kapya and those studying the scriptures on the sacrifices: 'O descendant of Kapi.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 144 . the Immortal.' Then he said to Patanchala Kapya and those studying the scriptures on the sacrifices: 'O descendant of Kapi. whose body fire is and who controls fire from within —He is your Self. Yajnavalkya." 2 Yajnavalkya said: "Vayu. the son of Atharvan. the other world and all beings are held together?' Patanchala Kapya said: 'I do not know it." "I know. are this world. yet is within fire. whom water does not know. do you know that Sutra by which this world. of the line of Kapi. venerable Sir. the Immortal." 3 Yajnavalkya said: "He who inhabits the earth. venerable Sir. Yajnavalkya. whom the sky does not know. the Inner Controller. I know." "Anyone might say: 'I know. "He who inhabits the sky. whose body the earth is and who controls the earth from within—He is your Self. he knows the gods. whom fire does not know. Therefore. O Gautama.' He said to Patanchala Kapya and those studying the scriptures on the sacrifices: 'O descendant of Kapi. he knows the beings. yet is within the sky. O Gautama. is that Sutra. yet is within water. the other world and all beings held together. whom the earth does not know. your head will fall off. By Vayu. Now describe the Inner Controller. studying the scriptures on the sacrifices. yet is within the earth.

" This much with reference to the gods (adhidaivatam). whom no beings know." This much with reference to the beings. the Inner Controller. 15 Yajnavalkya said: "He who inhabits all beings. whom the sun does not know. the Immortal. whom light does not know. the Immortal. the Inner Controller. the Immortal. yet is within darkness. whose body the sun is and who controls the sun from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits the akasa. whom the akasa does not know. yet is within them. "He who inhabits darkness. the Inner Controller. whose body heaven is and who controls heaven from within —He is your Self. the Inner Controller. "He who inhabits the moon and stars. whom the quarters do not know. whom darkness does not know. whom the nose does not know.from within —He is your Self. yet is within all beings. yet is within light. the Inner Controller. the Inner Controller. yet is within heaven. yet is within the moon and stars. whose body all beings are and who controls all beings from within—He is your Self. whose body the air is and who controls the air from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits light. whom the air does not know. the Immortal. 16 Yajnavalkya said: "He who inhabits the nose (prana). the Immortal. Now with reference to beings (adhibhutam). whom the moon and stars do not know. Now with reference to the body. whose body light is and who controls light from within —He is your Self. yet is within the sun. the Inner Controller. whose body the quarters are and who controls the quarters from within —He is your Self. yet is within the akasa. "He who inhabits the quarters of space. whose body the akasa is and who controls the akasa from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits heaven. the Inner Controller. the Immortal. whom heaven does not know. the Inner Controller. "He who inhabits the air. the Immortal. whose body the Source: "The Upanishads . whose body darkness is and who controls darkness from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits the sun. the Immortal. the Immortal. the Inner Controller. yet is within the nose. yet is within the air.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 145 . the Immortal. whose body the moon and stars are and who controls the moon and stars from within —He is your Self.

the Inner Controller. "He who inhabits the organ of speech. If he answers me these. yet is within the eye. yet is within the ear. there is no other hearer than He. the Inner Controller. whose body speech is and who controls speech from within —He is your Self." Thereupon Uddilaka. yet is within the mind. Everything else but Him is perishable. yet is within the organ. whom the eye does not know. the Immortal. then none of you can defeat him in discussing Brahman. whose body the organ is and who controls the organ from within —He is your Self. but is the Knower. there is no other knower than He. whose body the ear is and who controls the ear from within —He is your Self. the Inner Controller. the Inner Controller.nose is and who controls the nose from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits the skin." Source: "The Upanishads . whom the organ does not know. He is your Self. the Immortal. "He who inhabits the intellect (vijnana). held his peace. but is the Hearer. whose body the mind is and who controls the mind from within —He is your Self. the Inner Controller. the Immortal. "He who inhabits the ear. the Inner Controller. Chapter VIII—Yajnavalkya and Gargi (II) 1 Then the daughter of Vachaknu said: 'Venerable brahmins. whom speech does not know. the Immortal. the Immortal. but is the Seer. There is no other seer than He. O Gargi. whom the ear does not know. the son of Aruna. yet is within speech. whom the intellect does not know. He is never known. the Inner Controller. whom the skin does not know. the Immortal. whose body the intellect is and who controls the intellect from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits the mind.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 146 . there is no other thinker than He. He is never heard. "He who inhabits the eye." The brahmins said: "Ask. I shall ask him two questions. the Inner Controller. "He is never seen. whom the mind does not know. whose body the eye is and who controls the eye from within —He is your Self. the Immortal. yet is within the skin. but is the Thinker. the Immortal. He is never thought of. yet is within the intellect. the Inner Controller. the Immortal. whose body the skin is and who controls the skin from within —He is your Self. "He who inhabits the organ of generation.

even so. O Yajnavalkya. It is without taste or smell. neither red nor moist. scion of a heroic line. what pervades that Sutra which is above heaven and below the earth." "What pervades the akasa?" 8 He said: "That. without tongue or mind. which is heaven and earth as well as what is between them and which—they say—was. do I confront you with two questions. neither air nor akasa. You have fully answered this question of mine. neither short nor long. O Gargi." 3 She said: "O Yajnavalkya. I shall ask you two questions: As a man of Kasi or the King of Videha. It is neither gross nor subtle.2 Gargi said: "O Yajnavalkya. is and will be. 5 She said: "I bow to you. which is heaven and earth as well as what is between them and which—they say—was." "Ask. Answer me these. It is non— Source: "The Upanishads . what pervades that Sutra which is above heaven and below the earth. Now brace yourself for the other. O Gargi. O Gargi. is and will be. O Yajnavalkya. take in his hand two bamboo— tipped arrows highly painful to enemies and approach his enemies closely. is and will be?" He said: "That. which is above heaven and below the earth. the knowers of Brahman call the Imperishable.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 147 . is pervaded by the unmanifested akasa. is and will be?" 4 He said: "That. It is neither shadow nor darkness. is pervaded by the unmanifested akasa. which is above heaven and below the earth. O Gargi. without eyes or ears." 6—7 She said: "Yajnavalkya." "Ask. which is heaven and earth as well as what is between them and which—they say—was. which is heaven and earth as well as what is between them and which—they say—was. might string his unstrung bow. O Gargi. It is unattached.

the sun and moon are held in their respective positions. None of you. Thereupon the daughter of Vachaknu held her peace. O Gargi. By this imperishable. There is no other seer but This. O Gargi. but is the Hearer. finds all such acts but perishable. months. even for many thousands of years. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable. fortnights. 11 "Verily. who departs from this world after knowing the Imperishable is a knower of Brahman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 148 . there is no other hearer but This. will defeat him in arguments about Brahman. O Gargi. 9 "Verily. offers oblations. O Gargi. you may consider yourselves fortunate if you can get off from him through bowing to him. O Gargi. others flowing westward continue in that direction and still others keep to their respective courses. without measure and without exterior or interior. Source: "The Upanishads . is the unmanifested akasa pervaded. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable. under the mighty rule of this Imperishable. there is no other knower but This. that Imperishable. O Gargi.effulgent. 10 "Whosoever in this world. without knowing this Imperishable. muhurtas (about forty— eight minutes). O Gargi. But he. departs from this world without knowing this Imperishable is miserable. without vital breath or mouth. It is never thought of. the gods depend upon the sacrificer and the Manes upon the Darvi offering. It does not eat anything. O Gargi. seasons and years are held in their respective positions. O Gargi. I believe. is never seen but is the Seer. there is no other thinker but This. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable. It is never heard." 12 Then said Gargi: "Venerable brahmins. some rivers flow eastward from the white mountains. O Gargi. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable. performs sacrifices and practises austerities. but is the Knower. heaven and earth are held in their respective positions. It is never known. nor is It eaten by anyone. moments. days and nights. Whosoever. men praise those who give. but is the Thinker.

" 3 "Which are the Vasus?" asked Sakalya. Therefore they are called Vasus.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 149 ." "Very good. heaven. for in them all this universe is placed (vasavah)." said Sakalya (the son of Sakala) and asked again: "How many gods are there. the air." "Very good." said Sakalya and asked again: "How many gods are there." said Sakalya and asked again: "How many gods are there." "Very good." "Which are these thirty—three?" "The eight Vasus. Source: "The Upanishads . the sun. Yajnavalkya?" "One." "Very good. the earth. the son of Sakala. Yajnavalkya?" "Three. Yajnavalkya?" "Six." said Sakalya and asked again: "How many gods are there. Yajnavalkya?" "One and a half. asked him: "How many gods are there." "Very good." "Very good. the sky." said Sakalya and asked: "Which are those three hundred and three and those three thousand and three?" 2 Yajnavalkya said: "There are only thirty—three gods." "Very good. And Indra and Prajapati make up the thirty—three." said Sakalya and asked again: "How many gods are there. "Fire. Yajnavalkya?" "Thirty—three. the eleven Rudras and the twelve Adityas— these are thirty—one.Chapter IX—Yajnavalkya and Vidaghdha 1 Then Vidaghdha. Yajnavalkya?" "Two. the moon and the stars—these are the Vasus." said Sakalya and asked again: "How many gods are there. These others are but manifestations of them. Yajnavalkya?" Yajnavalkya ascertained the number through the group of mantras known as the Nivid and said: "As many as are mentioned in the Nivid of the Visve—devas— three hundred and three and three thousand and three.

4 "Which are the Rudras?" asked Sakalya. with the mind as the eleventh.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 150 ." 7 "Which are the six gods?" asked Sakalya. These are the Adityas. "These three worlds. because they move along carrying (adadanah) all this with them. therefore they are called Rudras. therefore they are called Adityas. the sky." "Which is the thunderclap?" "The thunderbolt. the air. how can it be one and a half (adhyardha)?' The answer is: It is one and a half because by its presence everything attains surpassing glory (adhyardhnot). "The thunderclap is Indra and the sacrifice is Prajapati." "Which are the one and a half?" "This air that blows. for these six comprise all those." 6 "Which is Indra and which is Prajapati?" asked Sakalya." "Which is the one God?" Source: "The Upanishads . When they depart from this mortal body. because all those gods are comprised in these three." "Which are the two gods?" "Matter and the vital breath (prana). the sun and heaven. 5 "Which are the Adityas?" asked Sakalya. the earth. they make one's relatives weep." "Which is the sacrifice?" "The animals. "There are twelve months in the year. Because they make them weep (rud)." 8 "Which are the three gods?" asked Sakalya." 9 Yajnavalkya said: "Concerning this some say: 'Since the air blows as one substance. "The ten organs in the human body. "Fire.

" said Yajnavalkya." Source: "The Upanishads . whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. 11 Sakalya said: "Verily. O Yajnavalkya. whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety." "Who is His deity?" "Women." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. whose organ of vision is the eye. whose organ of vision is the intellect. it is Brahman which is called That (Tyat)." said Yajnavalkya." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. whosoever knows that Being whose body is the earth." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 151 ."The vital breath (Hiranyagarbha). he indeed knows." said Yajnavalkya. Go on. It is the Being who is in this body. whosoever knows that Being whose body is colours. whose organ of vision is fire. Go on. whosoever knows that Being whose body is lust (kama)." 10 Sakalya said: "Verily. 12 Sakalya said: "Verily. he indeed knows. 13 Sakalya said: "Verily. whose organ of vision is the ear. It is the Being who is in the sun. O Yajnavalkya. whosoever knows that Being whose body is the akasa. O Yajnavalkya. Sakalya. Sakalya." "Who is His deity (cause)?" "Nectar (chyle). he indeed knows. Go on. It is the Being who is identified with lust." "Who is His deity?" "Truth (the eye). O Yajnavalkya. whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. he indeed knows. whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. Sakalya.

whosoever knows that Being whose body is darkness. It is the Being who is in water. he indeed knows. whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. Sakalya. Go on." "Who is His deity?" "The quarters. whose organ of vision is the eye.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 152 ." "Who is His deity?" "Varuna (rain). whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. It is the Being who is identified with shadow (ignorance). whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. whose organ of vision is the intellect. O Yajnavalkya. whose organ of vision is the intellect. It is the Being who is identified with the ear and with the time of hearing. Sakalya. 15 Sakalya said: "Verily. It is the being who is in the mirror." said Yajnavalkya." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety." "Who is His deity?" "The vital breath. Go on. whosoever knows that Being whose body is water. whosoever knows that Being whose body is particular colours. Sakalya. Go on. Sakalya. O Yajnavalkya. he indeed knows." said Yajnavalkya. 14 Sakalya said: "Verily." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. O Yajnavalkya." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. he indeed knows." said Yajnavalkya. 16 Sakalya said: "Verily." "Who is His deity?" "Death. Go on. Source: "The Upanishads ." said Yajnavalkya."I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety.

whose organ of vision is the intellect." "I know that Being of whom you speak—who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. have these brahmins made you their instrument such as tongs for burning charcoal?" 19—20 "Yajnavalkya." "In what does Yama find his support?" "The sacrifice." said Yajnavalkya." 21 "Yajnavalkya. O Yajnavalkya. with their deities and supports. Sakalya. It is the Being who is identified with the son. whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. "In what does the eye find its support?" "Colours.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 153 . he indeed knows. Go on." "Just so." "In what does the sun find its support?" "The eye." Source: "The Upanishads ." "Who is His deity?" "Prajapati (the father). whosoever knows that Being whose body is semen." "In what does the sacrifice find its support?" "The remuneration of the priests." said Sakalya. Therefore it is in the heart that colours find their support." said Yajnavalkya. for one sees colours with the eye. "what deity are you identified with in the south?" "With the deity Yama (the god of justice)." "In what do colours find their support?" "The heart (mind). what deity are you identified with in the east?" "With the deity sun. that you have thus flouted these Vedic scholars of Kuru and Panchala?" Yajnavalkya replied: "I know the quarters. Yajnavalkya.17 Sakalya said: "Verily. "for one knows colours through the heart. 18 When Sakalya kept silent Yajnavalkya addressed him thus: "Sakalya. "what Brahman do you know." Sakalya said: "If you know the quarters. with their deities and supports." said Sakalya.

" "Just so." said Sakalya.e. Therefore they say to the one who is initiated: 'Speak the truth'. for when a man has faith he remunerates the priest." "In what does faith find its support?" "The heart (mind)." said Sakalya." said Yajnavalkya." said Sakalya." "In what does Soma find its support?" "The initiatory rite.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 154 . "what deity are you identified with in the west?" "With the deity Varuna (the god of rain)." "Just so." "Just so. Therefore it is in faith that the remuneration finds its support. "for one knows faith through the heart. "for through the heart one knows the truth." 23 "Yajnavalkya." said Yajnavalkya. "what deity are you identified with in the north?" "With the deity Soma (the moon and the creeper of that name). "are you identified with in the fixed direction (i." 24 "What deity." said Yajnavalkya." "In what does water find its support?" "Semen. Therefore it is in the heart that faith finds its support. Therefore it is in the heart that semen finds its support." 22 "Yajnavalkya. therefore it is in the heart that the truth finds its support." "In what does initiation find its support?" "Truth. overhead)?" "With the deity fire. Yajnavalkya. "Therefore they say of a new— born child who resembles his father that it seems as if he has sprung from his father's heart—that he has been created of his father's heart."In what does the remuneration find its support?" "Faith. Yajnavalkya." "In what does Varuna find his support?" "Water." "In what does the truth find its support?" "The heart." Source: "The Upanishads . for it is in the truth that initiation finds its support. as it were." "In what does semen find its support?" "The heart. Yajnavalkya.

for It is never perceived. unfettered. dogs would eat this body or birds tear it to pieces. "Now I ask you about that Person who is to be known only from the Upanishads." "In what does the udana find its support?" "In the samana. Yajnavalkya said: "These are the eight abodes. his head fell off. for It never feels pain and never suffers injury." "In what does the prana find its support?" "In the apana. "that you think that the heart should be elsewhere than in ourselves! If it were elsewhere than in ourselves. mistaking them for something else. "If you cannot clearly explain Him to me."In what does fire find its support?" "Speech." "In what does the heart find its support?" 25 "You ghost.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 155 ." "In what does speech find its support?" "The heart. and robbers snatched away his bones. whosoever among you wishes to question me may Source: "The Upanishads ." "In what does the apana find its support?" "In the vyana." It is imperceptible." Here the Upanishad itself states: This self is That which has been described as "Not this. unattached. the eight organs of vision." said Yajnavalkya. undecaying. who definitely projects those beings and again withdraws them into Himself and who is at the same time transcendental. your head shall fall off?' Sakalya did not know Him." "In what does the vyana find its support?" "In the udana. for It is never attached." 26 "In what do the body and the heart find their support?" asked Sakalya. "In the prana. for It never decays. the eight deities and the eight beings. not this. 27 Then Yajnavalkya said: "Venerable brahmins.

does a mortal spring forth after he is cut off by death? 7. I say: No. Emperor of Videha. which is tough. or all of you may. Now who should again bring him forth? The Upanishad states: It is Brahman. 28 Yajnavalkya interrogated them with the following verses: 1. for what purpose have you come here? With a desire for cattle. does a man spring forth after he is cut off by death? 5. from what root.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 156 . as does the wood of the tree. Janaka. he is born again. If you think he is indeed born. His marrow resembles the pith. when it is felled. tell me. so indeed is a man: this is true. His flesh is its inner bark and his nerves are its innermost layer of bark. From what root. As is a mighty tree." said he. A tree springs from the seed as well. it will not spring again. 2. The Emperor said to him: "Yajnavalkya.now do so. sap. From his skin blood flows and from the bark. His bones lie within. I shall question him. which is absolute Knowledge and Bliss. His hairs are the leaves and his skin is the outer bark. as sap from a tree that is injured. or to hear some subtle questions asked?" "For both. springs again from its root in a new form. Do not say: From the semen. for that is produced from the living man. Or whosoever among you desires it. 3. 6. Therefore when a man is Wounded blood flows. tell me. the ultimate goal of him who offers wealth and also of him who has realized Brahman and stands firm in It. after it is dead it certainly springs again. Source: "The Upanishads . But the brahmins did not dare. A tree. 4. or I shall question all of you. was seated to give audience when Yajnavalkya arrived. Part Four Chapter I—Partial Definitions of Brahman 1 Om. If a tree is pulled up with its root. Your Majesty.

“The organ of speech. The organ of speech never deserts him who.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 157 . this world. Your Majesty." "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother." "This Brahman is only one—footed." "The vital breath is its abode and the akasa is its support. the Atharvangirasa. told me that the vital breath (prana) is Brahman. and being a god. explanations. the son of Silina. the arts.” said Yajnavalkya." “The physical organ of speech is its abode and the akasa is its support. the results of sacrifices.” 3 Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may have told you. so did the son of Silina say that the organ of speech is Brahman." "Then you tell us. father and teacher should say. he attains the gods.2 Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may have told you. Your Majesty. the Upanishads." "Jitvan. O Yajnavalkya. aphorisms. “Through the organ of speech alone. are known the Rig—Veda. so did the son of Sulba say that the vital breath is Brahman. It should be mediated upon as intelligence. commentaries.” “I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant. O Emperor. the results of giving food and drink. knowing this. It Source: "The Upanishads ." "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother. Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him. he did not. all beings eagerly approach him. is the Supreme Brahman. history. the next world and all beings. told me that the organ of speech (fire) is Brahman.” “What is intelligence. for what can be attained by a person who cannot speak? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?" "No." "Udanka. verses. the Yagur—Veda." "This Brahman is only one—footed. O Yajnavalkya?” “It is the organ of speech. the result of offering oblations in the fire. meditates upon it. he did not. the Sama—Veda. Your Majesty. for what can be attained by a person who does not live? But did he tell you about its abode and support?" "No. the son of Sulba. O Yajnavalkya.” said Emperor Janaka." "Then you tell us. Your Majesty. father and teacher should say. ancient lore.

" "What is that dearness. Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him. father and teacher should say. is the Supreme Brahman." "The eye is its abode and the akasa is its support.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 158 . "For the sake of that vital breath (life). nay. all beings eagerly approach him." said Emperor Janaka. knowing what has just been said. if one asks a person who has seen with his eyes: ‘Have you seen?’ and he answers: ‘Yes. O Emperor." "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant." "Then you tell us. for what can be attained by a person who cannot see? But did he tell you about its abode and support?" "No. The eye never deserts him who. O Emperor." "What is truth. I have. Your Majesty. "Verily." said Emperor Janaka. meditates upon it." 4 Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may have told you. one performs sacrifices for him for whom they should not be performed and accepts gifts from him from whom they should not be accepted. O Yajnavalkya. told me that the eye is Brahman. Your Majesty. so did the son of Vrishna say that the eye is Brahman. he attains the gods. all beings eagerly approach him. Your Majesty. he did not." "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother." "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant.’ then it is true." said Yajnavalkya. the son of Vrishna.should be meditated upon as dear. O Emperor. and being a god." said Yajnavalkya." "This Brahman is only one—footed. meditates upon it. one may go to a quarter where one runs the risk of losing one’s life. Your Majesty. "Barku. O Yajnavalkya?" "It is the vital breath. for the sake of the vital breath. O Yajnavalkya?" "It is the eye. "The eye. Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him. The vital breath never deserts him who. "The vital breath. and being a god. Your Majesty. is the Supreme Brahman. knowing what has just been said." Source: "The Upanishads . It should be meditated upon as truth. he attains the gods.

father and teacher should say. "The ear never deserts him who. the son of Jabala. meditates upon it." 6 Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may have told you.5 Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may have told you. Hence the quarters are infinite. O Yajnavalkya. O Yajnavalkya?" "It is the quarters. father and teacher should say. Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him." "This Brahman is only one—footed." "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother. for what can be attained by a person who cannot hear? But did he tell you about its abode and support?" "No." "What is bliss. is the Supreme Brahman. he did not." "What is infinity. for what can be attained by a person who has no mind? But did he tell you about its abode and support?" "No. told me that the mind is Brahman. he attains the gods. "Verily. Your Majesty. so did the son of Jaa say that the mind is Brahman." "Then you tell us." said Emperor Janaka. Your Majesty. Your Majesty." "The mind is its abode and the akasa is its support. and being a god. knowing this." "Gardabhivipita. The quarters." "Then you tell us. O Yajnavalkya?" "It is the mind." "Satyakama. O Yajnavalkya. Your Majesty. Your Majesty. told me that the ear is Brahman." "This Brahman is only one—footed. O Emperor. It should be meditated upon as infinite.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 159 . a descendant of Bharadvaja. It should be meditated upon as bliss. are the ear and the ear. so did the descendant of Bharadvaja say that the ear is Brahman." said Yajnavdkya. with the mind a man desires and woos a woman." said Yajnavalkya. to whatever quarter (direction) one may go. he did not." "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother." "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant." "The ear is its abode and the akasa is its support. Your Majesty. all beings eagerly approach him. one never reaches its end. then Source: "The Upanishads . "Verily. O Emperor.

he did not. he attains the gods. so did the son of Sakala say that the heart is Brahman. all beings eagerly approach him." "Then you tell us. rose from his lounge. The heart." said Emperor Janaka." Chapter II—Concerning The Self 1 Janaka. humbly approached Yajnavalkya and said: "Salutation to you. he attains the gods. meditates upon it. O Yajnavalkya?" "It is the heart. the heart is the abode of all beings and the heart." "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant. "Verily.a son resembling him is born of her and he is the cause of bliss." "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother. O Yajnavalkya. "The heart never deserts him who." "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant. Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him. told me that the heart is Brahman. Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him." "The heart is its abode and the akasa is its support. The mind. Your Majesty. Emperor of Videha. is the Supreme Brahman." "This Brahman is only one—footed. is the support of all beings. Your Majesty. father and teacher should say. knowing this. O Emperor." said Yajnavalkya. knowing this. and being a god." "What is stability." Yajnavalkya said: "Your Majesty. Please instruct me. "The mind never deserts him who." "Vidaghdha. all beings eagerly approach him. even so you Source: "The Upanishads . O Yajnavalkya. is the Supreme Brahman." said Emperor Janaka. Your Majesty." 7 Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may have told you. and being a god. as one who wishes to go a long distance would procure a chariot or a ship. for what can be attained by a person who is without a heart? But did he tell you about its abode and support?" "No. meditates upon it. O Emperor. It should be meditated upon as stability. the son of Sakala.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 160 .

Their food is the lump (pinda) of blood in the heart." "Tell me. Salutations to you! Here is the Empire of Videha and also myself at your service. people call him by the indirect name Indra. 3 "The person who is in the left eye is his wife. you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads. the south is the southern vital breath. undecaying. venerable Sir. the direction below is the nether vital breath and all the directions are all the vital breaths. unattached. "Verily. "This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 161 . unfettered. Though he is Indha." 2 "The person who is in the right eye is named Indha. for you have made known to us the fearless Brahman. "Venerable Yajnavalkya." said Emperor Janaka. the north is the northern vital breath. Through these the essence of our food passes as it moves on. The akasa that lies within the heart is their place of union." said Yajnavalkya. Their wrap is the net—like structure in the heart. for It is never perceived. the upper direction is the upper vital breath. You are also honoured and wealthy. Viraj (matter). it is like a hair split into a thousand parts. for It never feels pain and never suffers injury. which are placed in the heart. The path on which they move from sleep to waking is the nerve that goes upward from the heart. I do not know where I shall go. for It is never attached.’ It is imperceptible. the west is the western vital breath. you have attained That which is free from fear. O Janaka. In the body there are nerves called hita. But do you know where you will go when you are released from this body?" "Venerable Sir. "may that fearless Brahman be yours too." "Then I will tell you where you will go." Source: "The Upanishads . for the gods are fond of indirect names and hate to be addressed directly. 4 "Of the illumined sage who is identified with Prajna in deep sleep the east is the eastern vital breath (prana). not this. Therefore the subtle body (Taijasa) receives finer food than the gross body (Vaisvanara). for It never decays.have fully equipped your mind with so many secret names of Brahman.

" "Just so. what serves as Source: "The Upanishads ." said Yajnavalkya. yet when a sound is uttered. Your Majesty. what serves as light for a man?" "The moon serves as his light. 2 "Yajnavalkya. "for with the sun as light he sits." But once upon a time Janaka. works and returns. works and returns. one can go there." "Just so. for with the moon as light he sits. what serves as light for a man?" "The light of the sun." 3 "When the sun has set. Yajnavalkya. He said to himself: "I will not say anything." 5 "When the sun has set. Yajnavalkya." 4 "When the sun has set and the moon has set. Emperor of Videha. Janaka had chosen the right to ask him any questions he wished and Yajnavalkya had granted him the boon. Therefore. goes out. So it was the Emperor who first questioned him." "Just so. for with fire as light he sits." 6 "When the sun has set. goes out. Yajnavalkya and the moon has set and the fire has gone out. what serves as light for a man?" "Fire serves as his light. Emperor of Videha and Yajnavalkya had had a talk about the Agnihotra sacrifice and Yajnavalkya had offered him a boon. O Emperor. for with speech as light he sits. Yajnavalkya. goes out. what serves as light for a man?" "Speech (sound) serves as his light.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 162 . when one cannot see even one’s own hand." "Just so. Yajnavalkya and the moon has set and the fire has gone out and speech has stopped. goes out. works and returns. works and returns. Yajnavalkya.Chapter III—Investigation of the Three States 1 Yajnavalkya called on Janaka. Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya.

goes out. When he is in that intermediate state. no rivers. himself makes the body unconscious and creates a dream body in its place.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 163 . whatever support he may have for the next world. no rejoicings. it thinks. that is to say. The third. animals and roads. when he assumes a body. Assuming the likeness of the intellect.light for a man?" "The self. revealing his own brightness by his own light—and he dreams. "And when he dreams. when he is born. he provides himself with that and sees both evils (sufferings) and joys. it wansers between the two worlds. the intermediate. reservoirs and rivers. Now. he surveys both states: the one here in this world and the other in the next world. makes the body insensible in sleep but himself remains awake Source: "The Upanishads . is his light. 8 "That person (the individual self). nor roads there. nor animals to be yoked to them. he discards those evils. indeed. There are no pleasures in that state. joys and rejoicings. as it were being indetified with dreasm. that is to say. the self— indulgent light within the heart (intellect). no joys. There are no pools in that state." 7 "Which is the self?" "This purusha which is identified with the intellect (vijnanamaya) and is in the midst of the orgams. but he creates the pools. is joined with evils and when he dies. but he creates the chariots. it trasncends this waking world. for with the self as light he sits. leaves the body. 9 "And there are only two states for that person: the one here in this world and the other in the next world. who travels alone. 11 "Regarding this there are the following verses: ‘The effulgent infinite being (purusha). as it were and moves. but he creates the pleasures. In this state the person becomes self—illumined. 10 "There are no real chariots in that state. which represents the forms of death (ignorance and its effects). works and returns. he takes away a little of the impressions of this all—embracing world (the waking state). no reservoirs. is the dream state. He indeed is the agent.

That immortal entity wanders wherever he likes. watches those which lie dormant. 16 "Yajnavalkya said: "That entity (purusha). I give you. as it were. Yajnavalkya. Sir. Please instruct me further about Liberation itself. He remains unaffected by whatever he sees in that dream state. 14 ‘Everyone sees his sport but him no one sees.’ If he does not find the right organ. who is immortal and travels alone. remians in a state of profound sleep and then hastens back in the reverse way to his former condition. for this infinite being is unattached. now laughing." Janaka said: "Just so." Janaka said: "Just so. 12 ‘The effulgent infinite being (purusha). guards the unclean nest (body) with the help of the vital breath (prana) and himself moves out of the nest. Please instruct me further about Liberation itself. after enjoying himself and raoming in the dream state and merely witnessing the results of good and evil. the body becomes difficult to doctor. He remains unaffected by whatever he sees in that state. now even beholding frightful sights. the waking state. Again he comes to the waking state. I give you. the luminous one attains higher and lower states and creates many forms—now. 13 ‘In the dream world. the dream state. for this infinite being is unattached. after enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state and merely witnessing the results of good and evil.’ They say: ‘Do not wake him suddenly. Sir. enjoying himself in the company of women. a thousand cows." Source: "The Upanishads .A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 164 . a thousand cows. 15 Yajnavalkya said: "Tha entity (purusha). Yajnavalkya. hastens back in the reverse way to his former condition.and taking with him the luminous particles of the organs.

So also. nothing that is within. the worlds are no more the worlds. whatever frightful thing he has expericned in the waking state.: that is his highest state. "That indeed is his form. in short. blue. 21 "That indeed is his form—free from desires. Theyt are the seat of the suble body. falling asleep. 22 "In this state a father is no more a father. or being chased by an elephant. where. after enjoying himself and roaming in the waking state and merely witnessing the results of good and evil. thorough ignorance. a mother is no more a mother. As a man fully embraced by his beloved wife knows nothing that is without. hastens back in the reverse way to its former condition. know nothing that is without. nothing that is within. folds its wings and makes for its nest. when he thinks he is a god. free from fear.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 165 . or a king. 18 "As a large fish swims alternately to both banks of a river—the east and the west—so does the infinite being move to both these states: dreaming and waking. when fully embraced by the Supreme Self. free from evils. green and red fluids. 20 "There are ni his body nerves (nadis) called hita. Now. that is the dream state. so does this infinite being (the self). he cherishes no more desires and dreams no more dreams. so does this infinite entity (purusha) hasten for this state. as it were. when he feels as if he were being killed or overpowered. as it were. which is the storehouse of impressions. brown. in which all his desires are fulfilled. 19 "As a hawk or a falcon roaming in the sky becomes tired.17 Yajnavalkya said: "That entity (purusha). when he fancies at that time. in which all desires become the self and which is free from desires and devoid of grief. the dream state or that of dreamless sleep. which are fine as a hair divided into a thousand parts and are filled with white. or falling into a pit. the gods are no Source: "The Upanishads . or thinks: "This universe is myself and I am all.

no second thing separate from the hearer that it could hear. 23 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not see. no second thing separate from the speaker that it could speak about. a chandala is no more a chandala. 26 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not speak. because the taster is imperishable. There is then. for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart. no second thing separate from the smeller that it could smell.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 166 . 24 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not smell. There is then.more the gods. yet it is hearing though it does not hear. yet it is seeing though it does not see. because the smeller is imperishable. however. the Vedas are no more the Vedas. 27 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not hear. 25 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not taste. yet it is smelling though it does not smell. for there is no cessation of the vision of the seer. a paulkasa is no more a paulkasa. a monk is no more a monk. yet it is tasting though it does not taste. There is then. There is then. for there is no cessation of the hearing of the hearer. because the speaker is imperishable. for there is no cessation of the speaking of the speaker. because the seer is imperishable. no second thing separate from the taster that it could taste. an ascetic is no more an ascetic. no second thing separate from the seer that it could see. however. for there is no cessation of the smelling of the smeller. There is then. In this state a thief is no more a thief. however. Source: "The Upanishads . however. for there is no cessation of the tasting of the taster. because the hearer is imperishable. the killer of a noble brahmin is no more a killer. yet it is speaking though it does not speak. however. "This form of his is untouched by good deeds and untouched by evil deeds.

33 "If a person is perfect of body and is prosperous. This human bliss multiplied a hundred times makes one measure of the bliss of the Manes who have won their own world. because the toucher is imperishable. then one can smell the other. then one can know the other. yet it is thinking though it does not think. 29 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not touch. This is the World of Brahman. makes one measure of bliss in the world of the gandharvas. as it were. There is then. another. for there is no cessation of the touching of the toucher. no second thing separate from the thinker that it could think of. he represents the highest blessing among men.28 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not think." Thus did Yajnavalkya teach Janaka. yet it is touching though it does not touch. this is its supreme glory. then one can touch the other. however. The bliss of these Manes who have won their world. Your Majesty. for there is no cessation of the knowing of the knower. however. multiplied a hundred times. for there is no cessation of the thinking of the thinker. no second thing separate from the knower that it could know. On a particle of this bliss other creatures live. yet it is knowing though it does not know. then one can hear the other. This is its supreme attainment. 30 "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not know. 32 "In deep sleep it becomes transparent like water. There is then. The Source: "The Upanishads . then one can think of the other. this is its supreme bliss. then one can speak to the other. no second thing separate from the toucher that it could touch. however. because the thinker is imperishable. this it its highest world. the witness. because the knower is imperishable. 31 "When in the waking and dream states there is. one and without a second. There is then. lord of others and most lavishly supplied with all human enjoyments. then one can see the other.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 167 .

This. multiplied a hundred times.’ even so. sinless and free from desire. sinless and free from desire.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 168 . to another body for the remanisfestation of his vital breath (prana). 34 "That entity (the self). saying: ‘Here he comes. multiplied a hundred times. the ugras appointed to deal with crimes. O Emperor. venerable Sir. makes one measure of bliss in the World of Brahma (Hiranyagarbha). the waking state. sinless and free from desire. makes one measure of the bliss of the gods by birth. indeed. moves along. so does this infinite being completdy detaching himself from the parts of the body. makes one measure of the bliss of the gods by action (those who attain godhood through sacrificial rites). even so the self identified with the body. hastens back in the reverse way to its former condition. creaking. 36 "When this body grows thin—becomes emaciated or disease— then." said Yajnavalkya. for the person who knows about the Source: "The Upanishads . again move on. when breathing becomes difficult at the approach of death. groaning. when a king comes. Please instruct me further about Liberation itself. as also O£ one who is versed in the Vedas. makes one measure of bliss in the World of Prajapan (Viraj).bliss of the gandharvas. The bliss of the gods by birth. The bliss in the World of Prajapati. as also of one who is versed in the Vedas. multiplied a hundred times. 35 "Just as a heavily loaded cart moves along. 37 "Just as. as also of one who is versed in the Vedas. as a mango or a fig or a fruit of the peepul tree becomes detached from its stalk. being presided over by the Self which is all consciousness (the Supreme Self). Janaka said: I give you a thousand cows. multiplied a hundred times. This is the state of Brahman." At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that the intelligent emperor was driving him to give the solution of all his questions. the sutas and the leaders of the village await him with food and drink and lodgings ready. The bliss of the gods by action. after enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state and merely witnessing the results of merits and demerits. here he comes. is the supreme bliss. in the same way that he came.

"And when the self departs.’ The tongue becomes united with the subtle body. then they say: ‘He does not taste. when it struggles for breath. when the king wishes to depart.’ "The upper end of the heart lights up and by that light the self departs. the organs gather around it. Source: "The Upanishads . then they say: ‘He does not speak. then they say: ‘He does not touch. the vital breath follows and when the vital breath departs.’ 38 "Just as. then they say: ‘He does not smell. at the time of death." Chapter IV—Death and the Hereafter 1 Yajnavalkya continued: "Now. here he comes.’ The vocal organ becomes united with the subtle body. then they say: ‘He does not hear.’ The ear becomes united with the subtle body. 3 "And just as a leech moving on a blade of grass reaches its end. the ugras appointed to deal with crimes. Having wholly seized these particles of light. work and past experience follow the self.’ The intellect becomes united with the subtle body. the dying man fails to notice colour.’ The nose becomes united with the subtle body. even so do all the organs gather around the self. saying: ‘Here comes Brahman. takes hold of another and draws itself together towards it. after throwing off this body.’ The skin becomes united with the subtle body. "Then the self becomes endowed with a particular consciousness and passes on to the body to be attained by that consciousness. when that self becomes weak and unconscious. then they say: ‘He does not know.’ The mind becomes united with the subtle body. then they say: ‘He does not think. there wait all the elements. after making it unconscious. all the organs follow. either through the eye or through the head or through any other part (aperture) of the body. the self comes to the heart. When the presiding deity of the eye turns back from all sides. that is to say. as it were. "Knowledge.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 169 .fruits of his own work. take hold of another support and draw itself together towards it. 2 "The eye becomes united with the subtle body. the sutas and the leaders of the village gather around him. then people say: ‘He does not see. so does the self.

however. or Viraj. whose desire is satisfied. 6 "Regarding this there is the following verse: "Because of attachment. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal Spirit. after making it unconscious. so is its deed.4 "And just as a goldsmith takes a small quantity of gold and fashions out of it another—a newer and better—form. who is freed from desire. the mind and the vital breath. air and akasa.’ "Thus does the man who desires transmigrate. water. 5 "That self is indeed Brahman. what is inferred). even so lies this body. with this (i. attains that result to which its subtle body or mind clings. As is its desire. dead and cast away. on an ant—hill. 7 "Regarding this there are the following verses: "When all the desires that dwell in his heart are got rid of. say that the self is identified with desire alone. with righteousness and unrighteousness. suited to the Manes. and whatever deed it does. that is to say. it is also identified with the intellect. so it becomes: by doing good it becomes good and by doing evil it becomes evil. so does the self. the Supreme Self (Prana). with fire and with what is other than fire. "Others.’ "Just as the slough of a snake lies. Having exhausted in the other world the results of whatever work it did in this life. the transmigrating self. Being Brahman. with all—it is identified. that it reaps. But as to the man who does not desire—who is without desire. he merges in Brahman. with earth. it returns from that world to this world for fresh work.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 170 . with anger and with absence of anger. It becomes virtuous through virtuous action and evil through evil action. with the eyes and ears.e. According as it acts and according as it behaves. Source: "The Upanishads . after throwing off this body. together with its work. or Hiranyagarbha. or the gandharvas. what is perceived) and with that (i. with desire and with absence of desire. or the gods. so is its resolution. fashion another—a newer and better—form. whose only object of desire is the Self—his organs do not depart. as is well known.e. then does the mortal man become immortal and attain Brahman in this very body. and as is its resolution. or other beings.

said: "I give you. Those who know Brahman become immortal. venerable Sir." 8 "Regarding this there are the following verses: ‘The subtle.’ 10 ‘Into blinding darkness enter those who worship ignorance. I have realized it myself. green. All is his Self and he. again. for he is the maker of all.’ 9 ‘Some speak of it as white. as it were.Brahman. grey. the knowers of Brahman. a thousand cows.’ 14 ‘Dwelling in this very body.’ Source: "The Upanishads .’ 12 ‘If a man knows the Self as I am this. Which has entered this perilous and perplexing place (the body). move on to the celestial sphere (Liberation) after the fall of this body.’ 11 ‘Cheerless indeed are those worlds covered with blinding darkness. into a greater darkness than that. we have somehow realized Brahman. others as blue. enter those who are devoted to knowledge." Janaka. having been freed even while living. otherwise we should have remained ignorant and great destruction would have overtaken us. or red. then desiring what and for whose sake will he suffer in the wake of the body?’ 13 ‘Whoever has realized and intimately known the Self. is the maker of the universe.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 171 . while others only suffer misery. To them after death go those people who are ignorant and unwise. Emperor of Videha. the Light. By this path the wise. nay. ancient path stretching far away has been touched (reached) by me. This path is realized by a knower of Brahman and is trod by whoever knows Brahman. is indeed the Self of all. has done good deeds and is identified with the Supreme Light.

It is the controller of all. unborn Self. should practise wisdom (prajna). I am immortal. diversity. which is identified with the intellect (vijnanamaya) and which dwells in the midst of the organs. for that is exhausting to the organ of speech. learning about the Self alone. the Ear of the ear. the protector of all beings. that very Atman I regard as the Immortal Brahman.’ 19 ‘Through the mind alone is Brahman to be realized.’ 20 ‘Unknowable and constant.’ 17 ‘That in which the five groups of five and the akasa rest. Knowing that Brahman. The Self is free from taint. There is in It no diversity. the lord of all. the Mind of the mind. birthless.’ 21 ‘The intelligent seeker of Brahman. It is the lord of all. have realized the ancient. he no longer wishes to hide himself from It. lies in the akasa within the heart. the ruler of all beings. Let him not think of too many words. It is the dam that serves as the boundary to keep the different worlds apart. It does not become greater through good deeds or smaller through evil deeds.’ 18 ‘They who know the Vital Breath (Prana) of the vital breath (prana). the Lord of all that has been and will be.’ 16 ‘That under which the year with its days rolls on—upon that immortal Light of l lights the gods meditate as longevity. The Source: "The Upanishads . He goes from death to death who sees in It. primordial Brahman. the ruler of all.’ 22 "That great. infinite and unchanging.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 172 . It should be realized in one form only. as it were. beyond the akasa.15 ‘When a person following the instructions of a teacher directly beholds the effulgent Self. the Eye of the eye.

Evil does not overcome him. Things done or not done do not afflict him. Knowing It alone one becomes a sage (muni). did not wish for offspring because they thought: ‘What shall we do with offspring—we who have attained this Self. it is said. indeed. Knowing It one is not touched by evil action. Brahman is indeed fearless. I give you the empire of Videha and myself. Wishing for this World (i. He who knows It as such becomes the fearless Brahman. monks renounce their homes. for It never decays. calm. not this. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for the worlds. are but desires. but he overcomes all evil. he sees the Self in his own self (body). the Self) alone. O Emperor and you have attained It. ‘This Self is That which has been described as Not this.brahmins seek to realize It through the study of the Vedas. 24 That great. withdrawn into himself. free from doubts and a true Brahmana (knower of Brahman). Evil does not afflict him. He who knows this obtains wealth. it is said. this World?’ They gave up. to wait upon you. taintless. It is Brahman (infinite). for both these.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 173 . It is imperceptible.’ "Therefore he who knows It as such becomes self—controlled. Therefore one should know the nature of That alone. for It is never attached. unborn Self is undecaying. through gifts and through austerity which does not lead to annihilation. fearless. immortal. for It is not perceived. unborn Self is the eater of food and the giver of wealth. with it.e. ‘Him who knows this these two thoughts do not overcome: For this I did an evil deed and For this I did a good deed. for It never feels pain and never suffers injury. This is the World of Brahman. for wealth and for the worlds and led the life of religious mendicants. he sees all as the Self. Janaka said: ‘Venerable Sir. undecaying. 25 That great. patient and collected. He overcomes both. "The knowers of Brahman of olden times. too." Thus said Yajnavalkya. through sacrifices. unfettered. their desire for sons. undying.’ 23 "This has been expressed by the following Rig verse: ‘This is the eternal glory of Brahman: It neither increases nor decreases through work. unattached. He becomes sinless. but he consumes all evil. Source: "The Upanishads .

not for the sake of the husband. Of these.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 174 . One day Yajnavalkya. my dear. "Verily. As I explain it. you have been my beloved even before and now you have resolved to know what is after my heart. not for the sake of wealth. not for the sake of the wife." replied Yajnavalkya. Source: "The Upanishads . is the wife loved. "Verily. my dear." 4 Then Maitreyi said: "What should I do with that which would not make me immortal? Tell me. "Verily. but it is loved for the sake of the self. my dear." 5 Yajnavalkya replied: "My dear. is wealth loved. however. but he is loved for the sake of the self which. are the sons loved. but she is loved for the sake of the self. Maitreyi was conversant with the Knowledge of Brahman. not for the sake of the animals. Of Immortality. Let me make a final settlement between you and Katyayani. but they are loved for the sake of the self. If you wish." 3 Maitreyi said: "Venerable Sir. are the animals loved. I am going to renounce this life to become a monk. there is no hope through wealth. my dear. not for the sake of the sons. I shall explain it to you. if indeed the whole earth full of wealth belonged to me." 6 And he said: "Verily. my dear. of that alone which you know to be the only means of attaining Immortality. venerable Sir. while Katyayani had an essentially feminine outlook. my dear. is one with the Supreme Self. but they are loved for the sake of the self.Chapter V—Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi (II) 1 Yajnavalkya had two wives: Maitreyi and Katyayani. my dear. when he wished to embrace another mode of life. meditate on what I say. in its true nature. "your life would be just like that of people who have plenty. is the husband loved. "Verily. 2 Said: "Maitreyi. would I be immortal through that or not?" "No.

"Verily. 7 "The brahmin rejects one who knows him as different from the Self. "Verily. are the beings loved. but are grasped only when the general note of the drum or the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes is grasped. The Vedas reject one who knows them as different from the Self. "Verily. when it is beaten. not for the sake of the gods. when it is blown. "And as the various particular notes of a vina. cannot be grasped by themselves. this kshatriya. not for the sake of the worlds. through hearing. "Verily. all this is known. it is the Self that should be realized—should be heard of. reflected on and meditated upon. The beings reject one who knows them as different from the Self. my dear. not for the sake of the Vedas. is the All loved. my dear. 8—10 "As the various particular kinds of notes of a drum. my dear. The All rejects one who knows it as different from the Self. but are grasped only when the general note of the conch or the general sound produced by different kinds of blowing is grasped. but it is loved for the sake of the self. "Verily. my dear. reflection and meditation. "And as the various particular notes of a conch. cannot be grasped by themselves. The gods reject one who knows them as different from the Self."Verily. is the brahmin loved. "Verily. these worlds. these beings and this All—are that Self. By the realisation of the Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 175 . are the Vedas loved. not for the sake of the beings. my dear. my dear. Source: "The Upanishads . these gods. are the worlds loved. not for the sake of the brahmin. The worlds reject one who knows them as different from the Self. my dear. The kshatriya rejects one who knows him as different from the Self. but they are loved for the sake of the self. is the kshatriya loved. not for the sake of the All. but are grasped only when the general note of the vina or the general sound produced by the different kinds of playing is grasped. but they are loved for the sake of the self. my dear. not for the sake of the kshatriya. when it is played. "Verily. but they are loved for the sake of the self. these Vedas. but they are loved for the sake of the self. are the gods loved. but he is loved for the sake of the self. my dear Maitreyi. cannot be grasped by themselves. This brahmin. but he is loved for the sake of the self.

one tastes another. one hears another. as it were. this world. even so. my dear. Verily. Upanishads. drink. even so this Self. the mind is the one goal of all deliberations. the hands are the one goal of all actions. my dear. the organ of speech is the one goal of all the Vedas. oblations in the fire. 15 "For when there is duality. the intellect is the one goal of all forms of knowledge. one speaks to another. my dear. the Rig—Veda. elucidations (anuvyakhyanas). mythology (purana). breathed forth.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 176 . the ear is the one goal of all sounds. the Sama—Veda. the excretory organ is the one goal of all excretions. one thinks of another. the Yajur—Veda. the tongue is the one goal of all savours. From this Supreme Self are all these." So said Yajnavalkya. 14 Then Maitreyi said: "Just here you have completely bewildered me. This is what I say. But when to the knower of Brahman Source: "The Upanishads . aphorisms (sutras).11 "As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various kinds of smoke issue forth. food. After attaining this oneness it has no more consciousness. explanations (vyakhyanas). history (itihasa). the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment. my dear. Indeed. so the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch. 12 "As the ocean is the one goal of all waters (the place where they merge). verses (slokas). the arts (vidya). the nostrils are the one goal of all smells. has neither inside nor outside and is altogether a homogeneous mass of Intelligence. sacrifices. one knows another. 13 "As a lump of salt has neither inside nor outside and is altogether a homogeneous mass of taste. then one sees another. I do not at all understand this." He replied: "Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering. this Self is immutable and indestructible. one smells another. the Atharvangirasa. indeed. venerable Sir. one touches another. the next world and all beings are all like the breath of this infinite Reality. the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking. This Self comes out as a separate entity from the elements and with their destruction this separate existence is also destroyed.

Gautama 2 From Agnivesya. Kaisorya Kapya from Source: "The Upanishads . Agnivesya from Gargya. Atreya from Manti. Uddalakayana from Jabalayana. for It never decays. Traivani from Aupajandhani. is the means to Immortality. Madhyandinayana from Saukarayana. what should he speak and through what. This Gargya from Gautama. Aupajandhani from Asuri. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Jabalayana from Madhyandinayana. Asurayana from Traivani. This Pautimashya from another Gaupavana. unfettered. Vatsya from SandiIya. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. This much. for It never feels pain and never suffers injury. Bharadvaja from Atreya. This Gautama from Vatsya. for It never attaches Itself. Gargyayana from Uddalakayana." Having said this. Gaupavana from another Pautimashya. Kashayana from Sayakayana. for It is never perceived. then what should he see and through what. what should he know and through what? Through what should one know That Owing to which all this is known? "This Self is That which has been described as ‘Not this. Yajnavalkya renounced home.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 177 . Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yiska. This Gaupavana from Kausika. not this. Kausika from Kaundinya. what should he think and through what. Saitava from Pirasaryayana. Chapter VI—The Line of Teachers 1 Now the line of teachers: We received the knowledge from Pautimashya. Sayakayana from Kausikayani. what should he smell and through what. Pautimashya received it from Gaupavana. Parasaryayana from Parasarya. indeed.everything has become the Self. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. what should he touch and through what. unattached. Manti from Gautama. should one know the Knower? "Thus you have the instruction given to you. what should he taste and through what. O Maitreyi. what should he hear and through what. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Gautama from another Gautama. Gautama from Saitava.’ It is imperceptible. Through what. Gargya from another Gargya. undecaying. Ghritakausika from Parasaryayana. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Kausikayani 3 From Ghritakausika. Parasarayayana from Gargyayana. Saukarayana from Kashayana.

" To them he uttered the syllable da and asked: "Have you understood?" They replied: "We have. for through it one knows what is to he known.Kumaraharita. Pradhvamsana from Ekarshi. Om is the Akasa Brahman—the primeval akasa. ‘Control yourselves (damyata). From the Infinite Brahman proceeds the infinite. practising the vows of brahmacharins. Part Five Chapter I—The Infinity of Brahman 1 Om.’ He said: "Yes. Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapat Babhrava. Sir" To them he uttered the same syllable da and asked: Source: "The Upanishads . Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya. Chapter II—The Three Great Disciplines 1 Prajapati had three kinds of offspring: gods. you have understood. men and demons (asuras). Infinite is That Brahman. Atharvana Daiva from Mrityu Pradhvamsana. says the son of Kauravayarn. Pathin Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa. After finishing their term. Brahman is self—born (eternal). Dadhyach Atharvana from Atharvana Daiva. Sir. After the realization of the Great Identity or after the cosmic dissolution." 2 Then the men said to him: "Please instruct us. Mrityu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathin Saubhara. there remains the Infinite Brahman alone. Parameshthin from Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). when the infinity of the infinite universe merges in the Infinite Brahman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 178 . Abhuti Tvashtra from Visvarupa Tvashtra. Kumaraharita from Galava. Sanaru from Sanitana. Sanaga from Parameshthin (Viraj). You said to us. Visvarupa Tvashtra from the two Asvins. Sanitana from Sanaga. Viprachitti from Vyashti. infinite in this manifested universe. Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti Tvashtra. Salutation to Brahman. the gods said to him: "Please instruct us. The two Asvins from Dadhyach Atharvana. It (Om) is the Veda—thus the knowers of Brahman know. It is the akasa containing air. Vyashti from Sanaru. Ekarshi from Viprachitti. They lived with Prajapati.

’ He said: ‘Yes. In the middle is untruth." "Da. you have understood. Sa is one syllable. 3 Then the demons said to him: "Please instruct us.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 179 ."Have you understood?" They replied: "We have. Satya is Brahman. for Satya indeed is that Brahman. glorious first—born one as the Satya Brahman conquers these worlds. One syllable is hri." which means: "Control yourselves. You said to us: ‘Be compassionate (dayadhvam). Chapter III—Brahman as the Heart 1 Prajapati is this—the heart (intellect). One syllable is da. and to him who knows this. as "Da." and "Have compassion. Sir. and he who knows this goes to heaven. ‘Give (datta). whosoever knows this great. This name Satya consists of three syllables. It (the heart) is Brahman. Chapter IV—Meditation on Satya Brahman 1 That intellect Brahman was verily this—satya alone. Those gods meditate on Satya." That very thing is repeated even today by the heavenly voice. Hridayam (the heart) consists of three syllables. in the form of thunder. This untruth is enclosed on both sides by truth. And his enemy is thus conquered and becomes non—existent—yes." Therefore one should learn these three: self—control. ti is one syllable and ya is one syllable. Untruth does not hurt him who knows this. and to him who knows this. thus truth preponderates." "Da. The first and last syllables are the truth. Brahman produced Prajapati and Prajapati the gods. Source: "The Upanishads . You said to us. you have understood." "Give. That water produced Satya. One syllable is yam. It is all. giving and mercy. Chapter V—In Praise of Satya Brahman 1 In the beginning this universe was water alone." To them he uttered the same syllable da and asked: "Have you understood?" They replied: "We have.’ He said: "Yes. his own people and others bring presents. his own people and others give their powers. glorious first—born one as the Satya Brahman. And whosoever knows this great.

The former (the being in the sun) rests on the latter (the being in the right eye) through his rays and the latter rests on the former through his organs. Source: "The Upanishads . It is called lightning (vidyut) because it scatters (vidanat) darkness.2 Now. He who knows this destroys evil and leaves it behind. he sees the solar orb clearly (i. for there are two legs and there are these two syllables. the syllable Bhuh is the head. the ruler of all and governs all this —whatever there is. the word Bhuvah is the arms. Whosoever knows this—that lightning is Brahman—scatters the evils that are ranged against him. for there are two legs and there are these two syllables. for there is one head and there is this one syllable. 4 Of this being who is in the right eye. When the individual self is about to leave the body. the word Bhuvar is the arms. for lightning is indeed Brahman. 3 Of this being who is in the solar orb. These two rest on each other. Chapter VI—Meditation on Brahman as the Mind 1 This being identified with the mind and resplendent by nature is realized by yogis within the heart as of the size of a grain of rice or barley. that which is Satya is the sun—the being who dwells in yonder orb and the being who is in the right eye. His secret name is Aham. Chapter VII—Meditation on Brahman as Lightning 1 They say that lightning is Brahman. for there is one head and there is this one syllable. the syllable Bhur is the head. for there are two arms and there are these two syllables. He is the lord of all. the word Svar is the legs. His secret name is Ahar. for there are two arms and there are these two syllables. without rays). He who knows this destroys evil and leaves it behind. the word Svah is the legs. Those rays no longer come to him.e.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 180 .

after death. He who knows this wins the highest world.Chapter VIII—Meditation on the Vedas as a Cow 1 One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow. He who knows this wins the highest world. By this opening he ascends and reaches the moon. and the Manes on Svadha. When a man is about to leave the body. There he dwells for endless years. Chapter XI—The Supreme Austerities 1 The supreme austerity is indeed that a man suffers when he is ill. Vashat. the mind. By this opening he ascends and reaches a World free from grief and cold. Chapter X——The Path of the Departing Soul 1 When a man departs from this world. Others say that the vital Source: "The Upanishads . The moon opens there for him as wide as the hole of a drum. Its sound is that which one hears by stopping the ears. after death. Svaha and Vashat. but this is not so. he reaches the air. She (speech) has four teats: the sounds Svaha. is carried to the forest. Chapter IX——Meditation on the Vaisvanara Fire 1 This fire which is within a man and digests food that is eaten is Vaisvanara. Her bull is the vital breath (prana) and her calf. he hears this sound no more. Through this opening he ascends and reaches the sun. on Hanta. Chapter XII—Meditation on Food and the Vital Breath as Brahman 1 Some say that food is Brahman. He who knows this wins the highest world. The sun opens there for him as wide as the hole of a lambara. Hanta and Svadha. The air opens there for him as wide as the hole of a chariot wheel. is laid on the fire. The supreme austerity is indeed that a man.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 181 . for food decays without the vital breath (prana). The gods live on two of her teats. men. The supreme austerity is indeed that a man.

Chapter XIII—Meditation on the Vital Breath 1 One should meditate on the vital breath as the Uktha. the vital breath is ram. He who knows this attains the Kshatra (vital breath) which needs no other protector and he wins union with and abode in the same world as the Kshatra. Pratrida said to his father: "What good. It is ram. The vital breath is the Saman. From him who knows this there is raised a son who is a knower of the vital breath and he wins union with and abode in the same world as the Uktha. The vital breath is the Yajus. no. stopping him with a gesture of his hand: "Oh. for all these beings meet (samyanchi) if the Saman (vital breath) is present. 4 One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Kshatra. for the vital breath protects (trayate) the body from wounds (khanitoh). for all these creatures rest (visanti) on food. for all these creatures delight (ramante) in the vital breath. who knows this. all creatures delight in him. attain the highest state (Brahmanhood). for the vital breath dries up without food. The vital breath is the Kshatra. for who would attain the highest merely by being identified with these two?" Further. food is verily vi. can I do him who knows this and what evil can I do him either?" His father answered. he (the father) said to him this: "It is vi. and he wins union with and abode in the same world as the Saman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 182 . These two deities (food and the vital breath). when they become united. 3 One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Saman. for all these beings are united (yujyante) with one another if the vital breath is present. Source: "The Upanishads . Pratrida. but this is not so. indeed.breath is Brahman. 2 One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Yajus. For the sake of him who knows this all beings are united and they succeed in giving him eminence. Thus reflecting. for it raises up (utthapayati) all this universe. The vital breath is the Uktha." All creatures rest on him. All beings are united to give eminence to him who knows this and he wins union with and abode in the same world as the Yajus (vital breath).

Because it protected the organs. because he shines alone on the whole universe as its overlord. He is supramundane (paroraja). Thus the Gayatri is based on the vital breath within the body. He (the being in the solar orb) is apparently visible (darsata). The Savitri verse. That truth rests on strength. therefore the Gayatri protected (tatre) the organs. Hence truth rests on the vital breath. Antariksha (sky) and Dyaus (heaven) form eight syllables and the first foot of the Gayatri consists of eight syllables. So these three Vedas constitute the second foot of the Gayatri. one saying: "I saw it. The vital breath (prana) is strength. Therefore. because he is seen. Now. apparently visible (darsata) and supramundane (paroraja) foot is this—sun that glows yonder." we should trust the one who says: "I saw it. 4 That Gayatri rests on that fourth. Whosoever thus knows the second foot of the Gayatri wins as much as that treasury of knowledge. is no other than Source: "The Upanishads . apparently visible. 2 Richah. Whosoever knows this about the third foot of the Gayatri wins all the living beings that are in the universe. And that." and another: "I heard of it. which the teacher communicates to the pupil. The eye is truth. Therefore they say that strength is more powerful than truth. again.Chapter XIV—The Sacred Gayatri 1 The words Bhumi (earth). consists of eight syllables. for the eye is indeed truth. even today. by the yogis. He who thus knows the fourth foot of the Gayatri shines with splendour and glory. 3 Prana. as it were. rests on truth. its turiya. So these three forms of the vital breath constitute the third foot of the Gayatri. That which is fourth is called turiya. if two persons come disputing. Whosoever knows this about the first foot of the Gayatri wins all that is in the three worlds.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 183 . supramundane foot. has to confer. it is called the Gayatri. apana and vyana form eight syllables and the third foot of the Gayatri. the three Vedas. The organs are the gayas. Yajumshi and Samani form eight syllables and the second foot of the Gayatri consists of eight syllables. That Gayatri protected the gayas. So the three worlds constitute the first foot of the Gayatri.

Salutation to thee. how could anyone receive so much as a gift? 7 The salutation to the Gayatri: "O Gayatri. While the fruit of knowing its fourth. I did not know its mouth. he should either use this mantra: "May his desired object never flourish!"—in which case that object of the person against whom he thus salutes the Gayatri never flourishes—or he may say: "May I attain that cherished object of his!" 8 On this subject Janaka. If people put a large quantity of fuel into the fire. apparently visible and supramundane! May the enemy never attain his object!" Should the knower of the Gayatri bear hatred towards anyone. 5 Some impart to the pupil the Savitri which is in the Anushtubh metre. has to confer.this. the son of Asvatarasva: "Well. he will be receiving the fruit of knowing only the third foot of the Gayatri. so we shall impart it to him. Similarly. the Vedas. he will be receiving the fruit of knowing only the second foot of the Gayatri. Emperor of Videha. as it were.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 184 . how is it that you. 6 If he (the knower of the Gayatri) accepts as a gift the three worlds full of wealth. it is all burnt up. two—footed. it is not enough for even one foot of the Gayatri. said to Budila. thou art one—footed. a man who knows Source: "The Upanishads . apparently visible. If he accepts as a gift as much as this treasury of knowledge. saying: "The goddess of speech is Anushtubh. have come to he an elephant and are carrying me?" He replied: "Because. who called yourself a knower of the Gayatri." Janaka said: "Fire is its mouth. And if he accepts as a gift as much as is covered by all living creatures in the world. supramundane foot— yonder sun that glows—is not to be counterbalanced by any gift received. One should impart only that Savitri which is Gayatri. It saves the organs of the pupil to whom it is imparted by the teacher. three—footed and four—footed." But one should not do that. And thou art without any feet. fourth foot. Your Majesty. Indeed. he will be receiving the fruit of knowing only the first foot of the Gayatri. for thou art unattainable. Verily. if one who knows this accepts too much as a gift.

2 He who knows what is the most excellent (vasishtha) becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen. He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes the oldest and greatest among his kinsmen. for with the help of the Source: "The Upanishads . The vital breath (prana) is indeed the oldest and greatest. O Nourisher! O lone Traveller of the sky! O Controller! O Sun! O Offspring of Prajapati! Gather your rays. You know. who art the symbol Om. that purusha who dwells in the sun. even if he commits a great many sins. Now when my body falls may my breath return to the all— pervading Prana! May this body. I would see through your grace that form of yours which is the most benign. Part Six Chapter I—The Supremacy of the Prana 1 Om. remember. He who knows this becomes the oldest and greatest among his kinsmen and also among those of whom he wishes to be so. Open it. O god. O Fire. 3 He who knows what has the attribute of steadiness (pratishtha) lives steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times. Withdraw your light. consumes them all and becomes pure. I am indeed He. O Fire. Destroy our sin of deceit. clean and free from decay and death. O god of deliberations. remember all that I have done. all our deeds. The eye indeed is endowed with steadiness. reduced to ashes. We offer by words repeated salutations to you. I am immortal.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 185 . return to the earth! Om. He who knows this becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen and also among those of whom he wishes to be so. The organ of speech is indeed the vasishtha. lead us by the good path towards the enjoyment of the fruit of our action.this." Chapter XV—The Prayer of a Dying Person 1 The door (real nature) of the truth (Satya Brahman) is covered by a golden disc. O Nourisher! Remove it so that I who have been worshipping the truth may behold it.

6 He who knows what has the attribute of procreation (prajati) is enriched with children and animals. After being absent for a whole year it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as dumb people live. He who knows this is enriched with children and animals. but living through the vital Source: "The Upanishads . 5 He who knows the abode (ayatana) becomes the abode of his kinsmen and also of other people. hearing through the ear. knowing through the mind and procreating through the organ of generation. but living through the vital breath. without seeing through the eye. went to Prajapati and asked: "Which one among us is the most excellent (vasishtha)?" He said: "That one among you is the most excellent by whose departure this body is considered to suffer most. seeing through the eye. After being absent for a whole year it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as blind people live." Then the organ of speech entered the body. He who knows this attains whatever object he desires.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 186 ." 8 The organ of speech departed. Semen verily has this attribute. He who knows this becomes the abode of his kinsmen as well as of other people. 4 He who knows prosperity (sampad) attains whatever object he desires.eye one remains steady in rough as well as smooth places and times. disputing about who was superior among them. for when the ear is intact all the Vedas are acquired. He who knows this lives steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times. 7 These organs. The mind indeed is the abode. without speaking through the tongue. The ear indeed is prosperity. 9 The eye departed.

speaking through the organ of speech. noble horse of the Sindhu country tears up the pegs to which his feet are tied.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 187 . without procreating children through the organ of generation." Then the ear entered the body. hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind. without knowing through the mind. hearing through the ear and procreating through the organ of generation. 13 Then as the vital breath was about to depart. please do not go out. seeing through the eye. without hearing through the ear. After being absent for a whole year it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as impotent people live. seeing through the eye. They said: "Venerable Sir. After being absent for a whole year it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as deaf people live." "If I am such. After being absent for a whole year it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as idiots live." 14 The organ of speech said: "That attribute of being most excellent which I possess is yours. knowing through the mind and procreating through the organ of generation." Then the eye entered the body." "So be it.breath. it uprooted the organs from their places just as a great. then give me an offering. but living through the vital breath. speaking through the organ of speech. 10 The ear went out." The eye said: "That attribute of steadiness which I possess is Source: "The Upanishads . speaking through the organ of speech. seeing through the eye. hearing through the ear." Then the mind entered the body. We shall not be able to live without you. but living through the vital breath. 12 Then the organ of generation went out. but living through the vital breath." Then the organ of generation entered the body. speaking through the organ of speech. 11 The mind went out. knowing through the mind and procreating through the organ of generation.

" he replied." Source: "The Upanishads . after departing from this life. the son of Jivala." he replied. insects and moths—will be your food and water will be your dress. Wise men who are versed in the Vedas therefore take a sip of water Just before and after eating. Sir.yours. Going along them they (departed souls) are united with their destination. the grandson of Aruna. "Do you know the means of access to the path leading to the gods or to that leading to the Manes. boy?" He replied: "Yes." He who knows the food of the vital breath to be such never happens to eat anything or accept anything that is not food. they think that thereby they remove the nakedness of the vital breath." The mind said: "That attribute of being an abode which I possess is yours. then what will be my food and what will be my dress?" They replied: "Whatever food there is—including that of dogs." he replied. Chapter II—The Process of Rebirth 1 Svetaketu. They (the paths) lie between the father (heaven) and the mother (earth). one leading to the Manes and the other to the gods. through what deeds men attain the path leading to the gods or that leading to the Manes? We have heard the following words of the Mantra: ‘I have heard of the two paths for men. who was being waited upon by his courtiers." Then the vital breath said: "If I am such. proceed on different paths?" "No. rises up and speaks?" "No. The organ of generation said: "That attribute of procreation which I possess is yours." The ear said: "That attribute of prosperity which I possess is yours.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 188 ." he replied.’ Svetaketu said: "I do not know even one of these. 2 The king said: "Do you know how people. he said: "Is it you. "Do you know after how many offerings of oblations the water (the liquid oblation) becomes endowed with a human voice. came to the assembly of the Panchalas." Then the king asked: "Have you been taught by your father?" "Yes. that is to say." he replied. As soon as the king saw him. worms. "Do you know why the other world is never filled up even though so many people go there again and again?" "No. He approached Pravahana. "Do you know how they return to this world?" "No.

Sir. hurried away. my intelligent child?" "That fellow of a kshatriya asked me five questions and I did not know one of them. But I shall teach it to you. Please do not be ungenerous towards me in regard to that gift which is plentiful." Gautama replied: "I approach you as a disciple. infinite and in—exhaustible. Now please tell me what you spoke about to my boy." The ancients used to approach a teacher through mere declaration." "What were they?" "These. So Gautama lived with the king by merely announcing that he was a student." 5 Gautama said: "You have promised me this boon. But come. O Gautama. was giving audience. Before now this knowledge never rested with a brahmin. Gautama.3 Then the king invited him to stay. Please ask a human boon." the son replied. But the boy. those are divine boons.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 189 . disregarding the invitation. whatever I myself knew. we will give you a boon." 6 The king said: "Ah. 8 The king said: "Please do not be offended with us even as your paternal grandfather was not offended with ours. you should ask it in the prescribed way. maidservants. verily. ordered water for him and made him the reverential offering." "You may go. retinue and apparel. horses. Then he said: "Revered Gautama. the son of Jivala. cows." 7 Gautama said: "You know well that I have gold. let us go there and live as religious students (brahmachirins). for who can refuse you when you speak like this? Source: "The Upanishads . The king offered him a seat. He went to his father and said: "Did you not tell me before that you had fully instructed me?" "What then." The king said: "Then. believe me. I told you." said Svetaketu and he recited them. 4 The father said: "My child. Then Gautama went to where King Pravahana.

the fuel his fuel. Then. In this fire the gods offer King Moon as libation. speech its flame. Out of this offering a man is born. He lives as long as he is to live. living in the forest. as described and those too who. when he dies. the vital breath its smoke. the clouds its smoke. O Gautama. sexual intercourse the cinders. The fire becomes his fire. the smoke his smoke. Out of that offering food is produced.9 "Yonder world is the sacrificial fire. the sun is its fuel. 10 "Parjanya (the god of rain). is the fire. In this fire the gods offer food as libation. the rumbling its sparks. the hairs the smoke. is the fire. fire its smoke. the open mouth is its fuel. In this fire the gods offer the man as libation. Out of that offering semen is produced.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 190 . enjoyment the sparks. lightning its flame. the night its flame. reach the deity identified Source: "The Upanishads . the thunderbolt its cinders. In this fire the gods offer rain as libation. the cinders his cinders and the sparks his sparks. the rays its smoke. Out of this offering the man emerges in radiant splendour. 15 "Those even among householders who know this. 13 "Woman. is the fire. O Gautama. In this fire the gods offer faith as libation. the day its flame. the vulva the flame. her sexual organ is the fuel. the year is its fuel. is the fire. 12 "Man. Out of that offering rain is produced. the earth is its fuel. O Gautama. O Gautama. the flame his flame. the stars its sparks. the four quarters its cinders and the intermediate quarters its sparks. 14 "They carry him to be offered in the fire. In this fire the gods offer semen as libation. the moon its cinders. meditate with faith upon the Satya Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). 11 "This world. the eye its cinders and the ear its sparks. Out of that offering King Moon is born.

from the sun the deity of lightning. from him the deity of) the fortnight in which the moon waxes. Reaching the moon they become food. under a constellation bearing a masculine name. May they be satisfied and satisfy me with all the objects of my desire! Svaha! Source: "The Upanishads . mosquitoes and gnats). however." Chapter III—Rites for the Attainment of Wealth 1 Whoever wishes to attain greatness (i. wealth for performing sacrificial rites) should act as follows: On an auspicious day of the fortnight in which the moon waxes. during the northward journey of the sun. 16 "But those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices." And when their past work is exhausted they reach this very akasa. from the akasa they reach the air.e.) and offer oblations with the following mantras: "O Fire. They no more return to this world. the moon. from these months the deity of the world of the Manes and from the world of the Manes. who do not know these two ways become insects and moths and those creatures which often bite (i.with flame. There the gods enjoy them. In those worlds of Brahma they become exalted and live for many years. spread the kusa grass. "Those. from them the deity identified with the world of the gods (devaloka). to all those gods under you who spitefully slay men’s desires.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 191 . from night the deity of the fortnight in which the moon wanes. Reaching the earth they become food.e. Then they are again offered in the fire of man and thence in the fire of woman. gather in a cup or a bowl made of fig wood all the herbs and their grains. just as here the priests drink the shining soma juice—saying as it were: "Flourish. lay the fire. the deity of the night. from rain the earth. I offer their share. Then a being created from the mind of Hiranyagarbha comes and leads them to the worlds of Brahmin. place between himself and the fire the mantha (the paste made of those herbs etc. from him the deity of the day. from the decreasing half of the moon the deities of the six months during which the sun travels southward. from smoke. Out of the fire of woman they are born and perform rites with a view to going to other worlds. sweep and plaster the ground. from him the deities of the six months during which the sun travels northward. from the air rain. he should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads. purify the offering (clarified butter) according to the rules. from him the sun. dwindle. charity and austerity reach the deity of smoke. Thus do they rotate.

"Svaha to the sky"—uttering these words. thinking that she is the support of all."To that deity who turns out to be spiteful under your protection. svaha to prosperity!"—uttering these words. "Svaha to the moon"—uttering these words. svaha to the abode!"—uttering these words. "Svaha to heaven"—uttering these words. svaha to that which has steadiness!" —uttering these words. "Svaha to the organ of speech. "Svaha to the organ of generation!"—uttering these words. "Svaha to the vital breath (prana). he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. I offer this stream of clarified butter. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). "Svaha to the ear. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. Source: "The Upanishads . 3 "Svaha to fire"—uttering these words. sky and heaven"—uttering these words. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). svaha to the greatest!"—uttering these words. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). Svaha!" 2 "Svaha to the oldest. svaha to the vasishtha (the most excellent)!"—uttering these words. "Svaha to the mind. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. "Svaha to earth. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). svaha to procreation (prajati)!"—uttering these words. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). "Svaha to the eye.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 192 . "Svaha to the earth"—uttering these words. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.

he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. the rivers pour forth sweetness (madhu)." 6 Then he eats the paste. 4 Then he touches the paste. saying: "As the vital breath you know all. may the Source: "The Upanishads . You are death and you are that in which all things merge. uttering the mantra: "You move as the vital breath. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. You are omnipresent and the ruler. You are food as the moon and light as fire. ruler and sovereign. You are the Udgitha and are chanted by the udgatri. You are fully ablaze in the moist cloud. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste."Svaha to the brahmin"—uttering these words. ‘Bhargo devasya dhimahi’—(‘Of the radiant sun. saying: ‘Tat saviturvarenyam’ (‘That adorable light’)—’The winds blow sweetly (madhu). "Svaha to the future"—uttering these words. "Svaha to the universe"—uttering these words.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 193 . the sovereign. "Svaha to the past"—uttering these words. You are the sound hing and are uttered as hing in the sacrifice by the prastotri. we too are aware of your greatness as the vital breath. the ruler. "Svaha to all"—uttering these words. you bum as fire. You are recited by the adhvaryu and recited back by the agnidhra. We meditate upon’ )—’May the nights and days be sweet (madhu). "Svaha to the kshatriya"—uttering these words. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. May it make me king. you are unshaken as the sky. You are the meeting—place of all. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste." 5 Then he raises the paste. "Svaha to Prajapati"—uttering these words. may the herbs be sweet (madhu) unto us!’ ‘Svaha to the earth (Bhuh). you are infinite as Brahman. The vital breath is the king. he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.

may the sun be sweet (madhu)." Source: "The Upanishads . branches would grow and leaves spring forth. may heaven. our father. taught this to his pupil Vijasaneya Yajnavalkya and said: "Should One pour it (the paste) even On a dry stump. Then he eats all that is left of the paste." 8 Then Vajasaneya Yajnavalkya taught this to his pupil Madhuka. branches would grow and leaves spring forth. taught this to his disciple Janaki. washes his hands and lies down behind the fire with his head to the east. sky and heaven. taught this to his pupil Chula. the son of Jabala and said: "Should one pour it even on a dry stump." 11 Then Janaki. branches would grow and leaves spring forth. may the quarters be filled with sweetness (madhu) for us!’ ‘Svaha to heaven (Svah).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 194 . be sweet (madhu)!’ ‘Svaha to the sky (Bhuvah). the son of Bhagavitta and said: "Should one pour it even on a dry stump. Then he returns the way he went. the son of Ayasthuna and said: "Should One pour it even on a dry stump. branches would grow and leaves spring forth. the son of Ayasthuna. branches would grow and leaves spring forth." 10 Then Chula. In the morning he salutes the sun saying: "You are the one non—dual and best lotus of the quarters. the son of Bhagavitta. taught this to his pupil Satyakama.dust of the earth be sweet (madhu). the son of Paingi and said: "Should one pour it even on a dry stump. 7 Uddalaka. sits behind the fire and repeats the line of teachers.’ ‘Dhiyo yo nah prachodayit’ (‘May He stimulate our intellect’)— ‘May the soma creeper be sweet (madhu) unto us. the son of Paingi.’ Then he repeats the whole Gayatri and all the verses about sweetness (madhumati) and says at the end: "May I be all this! Svaha to earth. may I be the one lotus among men." 9 Then Madhuka. the son of Aruna.

the son of Jabala. They should be crushed and soaked in curds. her hair the sacrificial grass. 4 Having known this. man of fruits and semen is the essence of man. millet (anu). herbs of water. water is the essence of the earth. practises sexual intercourse turns over to the woman his own good deeds. the two labia of the vulva are the two stones of the soma—press. Chapter IV—Conception and Birth as Religious Rites 1 The earth is verily the essence of all these beings. lentils. Therefore one should worship a woman." One must not teach this to anyone but a son or a pupil. let Me make a firm basis for it (semen). wheat. taught this to his pupils and said: "Should one pour it even on a dry stump. Naka the son of Mudgala and Kumara—harita said: "Many mortals. the fuel and the two mixing—rods. brahmins only in name. But he who. barley. The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice. 2 Prajapati said to Himself: "Well. He who. without knowing this." So He created woman. branches would grow and leaves spring forth. knowing this. panic seeds (priyangu). sesamum. perform the sexual act without Source: "The Upanishads . flowers of herbs. Uddalaka the son of Aruna. fruits of flowers.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 195 . He (Prajapati) extended His organ that projects and with it impregnated her. the bowl.12 And Satyakama. Having created her. He placed her below and worshipped her. 13 Four articles are made of fig wood: the sacrificial ladle. pulse and vetch. her skin within the organ the lighted fire. honey and clarified butter and offered as an oblation. placing her below. he acquires for himself the fruit of the good deeds of the woman. beans. 3 Her lap is the sacrificial altar. practises sexual intercourse wins as great a world as is won through the Vijapeya sacrifice.

" With these words he should take the semen with his ring finger and thumb and rub it between his breasts or eyebrows. after inserting the member in her. let Vigour come to me again. verily. if a man sees himself (his reflection) in water. loveliness among women." In praise of the wife who will bear him a son: She (his wife) has put on the soiled clothes of impurity. whatever has flowed to plants. he should approach her and speak to her. 5 He should touch it and repeat the following mantra: "Whatever semen of mine has spilt on earth." then." Thus she becomes discredited. manhood. he should repeat the following mantra: "With power and glory I give you glory. he should recite the following mantra: "May the gods bestow on me vigour. Therefore when she has removed the clothes of impurity and appears beautiful. repeating the following mantra: "With power and glory I take away your glory.knowledge of what has been said and depart from this world impotent and without merit. wealth and merit. 9 If a man desires his wife with the thought: "May she enjoy love with me.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 196 . repeating the following mantra: "Let the semen return to me. she is. I reclaim it. whatever to water. May the deities who dwell in the sacrificial fire put the semen back in its proper place. he should utter the Source: "The Upanishads . If she is still unyielding. 8 If she grants his desire." Even if this much semen—of one asleep or of one awake—is spilled." 6 Now. he should buy her with presents. he should strike her with a stick or with his hand and overcome her. fame. 7 If she does not willingly yield her body to him." Thus they both become glorious. joining mouth to mouth and stroking her organ. let glow and good fortune come to me again.

spread stalks of reed and kusa grass inversely and offer in the sacrificial fire the reed tips. I reclaim the semen from you. _______! You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your Vedic rites and those done according to the Smritis. repeating the following mantra: "With power. you.following mantra: "O semen. 11 Now. you. the wife whom he desires with the thought: "May she not conceive"—after inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth. Let no sudra Source: "The Upanishads . like a deer pierced by a poisoned arrow. repeating the following mantra: "You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your prana and apana. Bring this woman under my control. the wife whom he desires with the thought: "May she conceive"—after inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth. Therefore let no one even joke with the wife of a Vedic scholar who knows this rite. _______ He whom a brahmin who knows this rite curses." Thus she comes to be without semen. _______! Here the name of the evil— doer should be uttered. You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your sons and cattle. for he who has this knowledge is a dangerous enemy. you. with semen. he should perform the following rite in order to cast an evil spell upon him: Let him put fire in an unbaked earthen vessel. 12 Now. he should inhale and then exhale." 10 Now." Thus she verily becomes pregnant. inversely. you have been produced from my every limb. she should for three days drink water from a cup made of bell metal. you. _______! You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your hopes and expectations. 13 If a man’s wife has the monthly sickness. I deposit semen in you. departs from this world impotent and shorn of merit. repeating the following mantra: "With power.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 197 . especially from my heart through the essence of food you are the essence of the limbs. if a man’s wife has a paramour whom he detests. with semen. he should inhale and then exhale. soaked in clarified butter.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 198 . put on a new cloth and her husband should make her thresh rice. then they should have rice cooked with sesamum and eat it with clarified butter. that he should study three Vedas and that he should attain a full term of life. that he should study two Vedas and that he should attain a full term of life. 18 If a man wishes that a son should be born to him who will be a famous scholar.man or woman touch her. 17 If a man wishes that a daughter should be born to him who will be a scholar and attain a full term of life. a student of all the Vedas and an enjoyer of the full term of life. towards morning he purifies the clarified butter according to the rules of Sthalipaka and offers Sthalipaka oblations repeatedly. then they (husband and wife) should have rice cooked in milk and eat it with clarified butter. 15 If a man wishes that a son with a tawny or brown complexion should be born to him. Thus they should be able to beget such a son. 14 If a man wishes that a son with a fair complexion should be born to him. then they should have rice cooked in curds and eat it with clarified butter. After three nights she should bathe. Thus they should be able to beget such a son. that he should study one Veda and that he should attain a full term of life. he should have rice cooked with the meat of a young bull or of one more advanced in years and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. frequenting assemblies and speaking delightful words. Thus they should be able to beget such a daughter. saying: Source: "The Upanishads . Then they should be able to beget such a son. 16 If a man wishes that a son with a dark complexion and red eyes should be born to him. Thus they should be able to beget such a son. 19 Now. then they should have rice cooked in water and eat it with clarified butter.

even so let your foetus stir and come out along with the chorion. O Indra. as heaven is pregnant with the sun. repeating the following mantra: "Let Vishnu make the womb capable of bearing a son! Let Tvashtra shape the various limbs of the child! Let Prajapati pour in the semen! Let Dhatra support the embryo! O Sinivali. he strokes her three times from head to foot. eats part of it and gives the rest to his wife. he utters his own name and that of his wife and places the seed. I am heaven and you are earth. make her conceive. as the quarters are impregnated by air. Come. You are speech and I am the vital breath. make her conceive! May the two Atvins. who produces infallible results!" Having made the offering."Svaha to fire! Svaha to Anumati! Svaha to the radiant sun. 23 When she is about to deliver the child. repeating the following mantra: "As the wind agitates a pond on every side. let us strive together so that we may have a male child. uttering once this mantra: "Get up from here. As the earth has fire in its womb. he takes up the remnant of the cooked food. repeating the following mantra: I am the vital breath and you are speech. follow Source: "The Upanishads . so I am impregnating you by placing this seed in your womb. fills the water—vessel and sprinkles her thrice with water." After the reciting of the mantra. O Visvavasu! Seek another young woman." Inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth. Heaven and Earth. O goddess whose glory is widespread. a wife with her husband. garlanded with lotuses." 21 Then he spreads apart her thighs. I am Saman and you are Rig." 20 Then he embraces her. Then he washes his hands. repeating the following mantra: "Spread yourselves apart.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 199 . he sprinkles her with water. support the embryo! 22 "Let the two Atvins chum the womb with the two golden arani sticks! I am placing a seed in your womb to be delivered in the tenth month. Indra (prana) made a path when the seed entered the womb.

" That is his secret name. from his line! Svaha! The vital breath that is in me. take the child on his lap. for my child to suck. for you have given us a son. saying these mantras: "I put the earth (Bhuh) into you. putting his month to the child’s right ear. 28 Then he addresses the mother of the child thus: ‘You are the adorable Arundhati. as your partner you have brought forth a male child. 27 Then he presents him to the mother to give him her breast. put a mixture of curds and clarified butter in a bell— metal cup and offer oblations in the fire repeatedly. Svaha!" 25 The. the wife of Vasishtha and with me. with children and cattle. the sustainer of all. that breast of thine which is fruitful. I put heaven (Svah) into you. Be the mother of many male children. he should light a fire. who am a man. Svaha! If I have done anything too much or too little in this ceremony." 26 Then he (the father) gives him (the son) a name: ‘You are the Veda (knowledge). the bestower of wealth and generous and by which thou nourishest all who are worthy—transfer that breast here to my wife. sky and heaven I put into you. I put the sky (Bhuvah) into you. Source: "The Upanishads . honey and clarified butter and feed the child with a golden stick which is not placed inside the month. may the all— knowing and highly beneficent fire make it just right and proper for me. I mentally offer to you. uttering the mantra: "O Sarasvati." 24 When the son is born.that path and come out with the foetus and the covering and cause also the after birth to come forth with the babe.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 200 . he should say thrice: "Speech! Speech!" Next he would mix together curds. uttering the mantra: "May I increase as the son in my own home and support a thousand people! May the Goddess of Fortune never depart. full of milk. The whole of earth.

Chapter V—The Line of Teachers 1 Now the line of teachers: The son of Pautimashi received this knowledge from the son of Katyayani. The son of Katyayani from the son of Gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. The son of Bharadvaji from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Aupasvasti. The son of Aupasvasti from the son of another Parasari. The son of this Parasari from the son of Katyayani. The son of Katyayani from the son of Kausiki. The son of Kausiki from the son of Alambi and the son of Vaiyaghrapadi. The son of Vaiyaghrapadi from the son of Kanvi and the son of Kapi. The son of Kapi 2 From the son of Atreyi. The son of Atreyi from the son of Gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. The son of Bharadvaji from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Vatsi. The son of Vatsi from the son of another Parasan.. The son of this Parasan from the son of Varkaruni. The son of Varkaruni from the son of another Varkaruni. The son of this Varkaruni from the son of Artabbagi. The son of Artabbagi from the son of Saungi. The son of Saungi from the son of Sankriti. The son of Sankriti from the son of Alambayani. The son of Alambayani from the son of Alambi. The son of Alambi from the son of Jayanti. The son of Jayanti from the son of Mandukayani. The son of Mandukayani from the son of Manduki. The son of Manduki from the son of Sandili. The son of Sandili from the son of Rathitari. The son of Rathitari from the son of Bhaluki. The son of Bhaluki from the two sons of Kraunchiki. The two sons of Kraunchiki from the son of Vaidabhriti. The son of Vaidabhriti from the son of Karsakeyi. The son of Karsakeyi from the son of Prachinayogi. The son of Prachinayogi from the son of Sanjivi. The son of Sanjivi from Asurivasin, who was the son of Prasni. The son of Prasni from Asurayana. Asurayana from Asuri. Asuri 3 From Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka. Uddalaka from Aruna. Aruna from Upavesi. Upavesi from Kusri. Kusri from Vajasravas. Vajasravas from Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga. Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga, from Asita, the son of Varshagana. Asita, the son of Varshagana, from Harita Kasyapa. Harita Kasyapa from Silpa Kasyapa. Silpa Kasyapa from Kasyapa, the son of Nidhruva. Kasyapa, the son of Nidhruva, from Vach. Vach from Ambhini. Ambhini from the

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sun. These white Yajuses (sacrificial formulas not vitiated by human blemishes) are explained by Yajnavalkya, belonging to the Vajasaneyi school. 4 The line of teachers is the same up to the son of Sanjivi. The son of Sanjivi received this knowledge from Mandukayani. Mandukayani from Mandavya. Mandavya from Kautsa. Kautsa from Mahitthi. Mahitthi from Vamakakshiyana. Vamakakshiyana from Sandilya. Sandilya from Vatsya. Vatsya from Kusri. Kusri from Yajnavachas, the son of Rajastamba. Yajnavachas, the son of Rajastamba, from Tura, the son of Kavashi. Tura, the son of Kavashi, from Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha). Prajapati received this knowledge from his relationship to Brahman (the Vedas). Brahman is self— existent. Salutation to Brahman.

End of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
The Peace Chant Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is fullness. Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

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Taittiriya Upanishad
Part One On Siksha or Pronunciation
Chapter I—Invocation Harih Om. May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu, of wide strides, be propitious unto us! Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee, O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. Thee indeed I shall proclaim as the visible Brahman. Thee indeed, O Vayu, I shall proclaim as the right. Thee indeed I shall proclaim as the true. May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace! Chapter II—Lesson on Pronunciation Om. We will expound siksha, or the science of pronunciation. It deals with sound, pitch, quantity, force, modulation and combination. Thus is explained the lesson on pronunciation. Chapter III—Meditation on the Combinations 1 May glory come on both of us together! May the light of Brahman shine alike through both of us! Now we will explain the Upanishad on the Samhita (combinations) under five heads: with regards to the worlds, the heavenly lights, knowledge, progeny and the atman (body). People call these the great Samhitas. First, with regard to the worlds: The earth is the first form, heaven is the last from, the akasa is the union and the air is the medium. Thus with regard to the worlds. 2 Next, with regard to the heavenly lights: Fire is the first form, the sun is the second form, water is the union and lightning is the medium. Thus with regard to the heavenly lights.

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3 Next, with regard to knowledge: The teacher is the first form, the pupil is the second form, knowledge is the union and the recitation is the medium. Thus with regard to knowledge. 4 Next, with regard to progeny: The mother is the first form, the father is the second form, the progeny is the union and procreation is the medium. Thus with regard to the progeny. 5 Next, with regard to atman: The lower jaw is the first form, the upper jaw is the second form, the speech is the union and the tongue is the medium. Thus with regard to the atman. 6 There are the great Samhitas. He who meditates on these Samhitas, as here explained, becomes united with progeny, cattle, the light of Brahman, food and the heavenly world. Chapter IV—Prayer for Wisdom and Fortune 1 May He who is the bull of the Vedic hymns, who assumes all forms, who has sprung from the immortal hymns of the Vedas—may that that Indra cheer me with wisdom. O God, may I be the possessor of immortality! May my body be competent; may my tongue be exceedingly sweet; may I hear abundantly with my ears. Thou art the sheath of Brahman, concealed by intelligence. Guard for me what I have learnt. 2 Om. Next bring me, without delay, fortune accompanied by wool and cattle—fortune which always provides me with clothes and cattle, food and drink. Increase them when they have been acquired and preserve them long when increased. Svaha! May brahmacharins come to me variously! Svaha! May brahmacharins come to me!. Svaha! May brahmacharins practise self—control! Svaha! May brahmacharins enjoy peace! Svaha!

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3 May I become famous among men! Svaha! May I become richer than the rich! Svaha! O gracious Lord, may I enter into Thee! Svaha! May Thou, O gracious Lord, enter into me! Svaha! O Lord, I am cleansing my sins in that Self of Thine, which is like a river of a thousand branches. Svaha! O Preserver, as waters flow downward, as the months erge in the year, so may brahmacharins come to me from all directions! Svaha! Thou art a refuge. To me do Thou shine forth. Accept me unto Thyself completely. Chapter V—Four Mystical Utterances Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah—these are, verily, the three utterances. Besides these there is a forth, called Mahwah, which became known to the son of Mahachamasa. That is Brahman, that is the Self. The other gods are its limbs. Bhuh is, verily, this world; Bhuvah, the mid—region; Suvah, the world yonder; Mahah, the sun. Through the sun, indeed, do all the worlds become great. Bhuh is, verily, fire; Bhuvah, the air; Suvah, the sun; Mahah, the moon. By the moon, indeed, do all the heavenly lights become great. Bhuh is, verily, the Rik—verses; Bhuvah, the Saman; Suvah, the Yajus; Mahah, Brahman. By Brahman, indeed, do all the Vedas become great. Bhuh is, verily, the prana, Bhuvah, the apana; Suvah, the vyana; Mahah, food. By food, indeed, do all the breaths become great. They, these four, become fourfold. Four and four are the vyahritis. He who knows these knows Brahman. All the gods bring offerings to him. Chapter VI—Meditation on Saguna Brahman 1 There is a space within the heart; in it lies the Person consisting of mind, immortal and luminous. The Sushumna passes through the piece of flesh which hangs down like a nipple between the two palates and ends where the skull splits and the roots of hair lie apart. That Sushumna is the path for the realisation of Indra. The souls of the aspirants, passing through the Sushumna, rests in fire, represented by the vyahriti Bhuh; the rests in the air, represented by the vyahriti Bhuvah.

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2 He rests in the sun, represented by the vyahriti Suvah; he rests in Brahman, represented by the vyahriti Mahah. He attains self—rule. He attains the lordship of the mind; he attains the lordship of speech; he attains the lordship of sight; he attains the lordship of hearing; he attains the lordship of intelligence. Furthermore, he becomes this—he becomes Brahman, whose body is space, whose nature is true, who delights in life and rejoices in the mid, who abounds in peace, who is immortal. Thus do thou, O Prachinayogya, contemplate. Chapter VII—Meditation on the Fivefold Nature and Individual Earth, the mid—region, heaven, the quarters and the intermediate quarters. Agni (fire), Vayu (air), Aditya (sun), Chandrama (moon) and the Nakshatras (stars). Water, herbs, tree, space and the body. So much with reference to material objects. Now with reference to the body: The prana, vyana, apana, udana and samana; the eye, the ear, the mind speech and touch; the skin, flesh, muscle, bone and marrow. Having thus ordained, a rishi said: "Whatever exists is fivefold." Through the fivefold one becomes united with the fivefold material object. Chapter VIII—Meditation on Om On is Brahman. Om is all this. This syllable Om is used to indicate compliance. When they are told: "Om, recite," they recite. Uttering Om, they sing the Saman chants. With "Om, Som," they recite the prayers. Uttering Om, the adhvaryu priest gives the response. Uttering Om, the Brahma gives assent. Uttering Om, gives permission to offer oblations in the Agnihotra sacrifice. When a Vedic teacher wishes to obtain Brahman he utters Om; thus desiring Brahman, he verily obtains Brahman. Chapter IX—Disciplines The disciplines are rightness and also the learning and teaching; truth and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; austerity and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; self—control and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; tranquillity and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; the kindling of sacrificial fires and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; the performance of the Agnihotra sacrifice and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; hospitality to guests and also the

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the perfromance of social duties and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas. 2 Do not neglect your duties to the gods and the Manes. propagation of the race and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas. Do not neglect personal welfare. Treat your guest as God. these are to be performed—not others. with modesty. those should be performed by you—not others. Do not neglect the study and teaching of the Vedas. I am the unstained essence of the Self. according to Naka the son of Mudgalya. with fear. Whatever good works have been performed by us. Do not neglect the study of the Vedas. enter the householder's life and see that the line of progeny is not cut off. austerity alone. the learning and teaching of the Vedas alone. Thus did Trisanku proclaim after the attainment of the Knowledge of the Self of the Self.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 207 . Chapter X—A Mantra for Daily Meditation I am the mover of the tree of the universe. procreation and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas. Whatever is to be given should be given with faith. with sympathy. Whatever deeds are faultless. according to Taponitya the son of Purusishti. for that is austerity. I am the brightest treasure. the teacher thus instructs the pupil: Speak the truth. My fame rises high. Treat your teacher as God. Treat your mother as God. Chapter XI—Exhortation to the Departing Student 1 Having taught the Vedas. Practise dharma. I am the shinning wisdom. not without faith—according to one’s plenty. Source: "The Upanishads . Do not neglect prosperity. Do not swerve from the truth. Having brought to the teacher the gift desired by him. 3 Those brahmins who are superior to us—you should comfort them by giving them seats. like the nectar of immortality that resides in the sun. like a mountain peak. My root is the Supremely Pure Brahman. Differing views on the subject: Truth alone. should be practised. Do not swerve from dharma.learning and teaching of the Vedas. according to Satyvachas of the line of Rathitara. Treat your father as God. I am immortal and undecaying.

or any doubt concerning conduct. you should conduct yourself in such a way as brahmins would conduct themselves—brahmins who are competent to judge. Now. Thee indeed. This is the rule. who of their own accord are devoted to good deed and are not urged to their performance by others and who are not too severe. be propitious unto us! Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 208 . This you should observe. of wide strides. That protected the teacher. with regards to persons spoken against. that protected me. May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu.4 Now. This is the secret wisdom of the Vedas. Om. Chapter XII—The Peace Chant May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu. you should conduct yourself in such matters as brahmins would conduct themselves— brahmins who are competent to judge. O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. if there arises in your mind any doubt concerning any act. I shall proclaim as the right! Thee indeed. This is the teaching. Peace! Peace! Peace! Part Two On Brahmananda or the Bliss of Brahman Chapter I—The Sheath of Food 1 Om. I proclaimed the right. Ay. but are lovers of dharma. I shall proclaim as the true! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! Source: "The Upanishads . who of their own accord are devoted to good deeds and are not urged to their performance by others and who are not too severe. This alone should be observed. I proclaimed the true. Thee indeed I proclaimed as the visible Brahman. O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. That protected me. be propitious unto us! Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee. of wide strides. that protected the teacher. but are lovers of dharma. O Vayu. This is the command of God.

Food alone is the eldest of all beings and therefore it is called the panacea for all. vyana is its right wing. akasa is its trunk. are produced all creatures—whatsoever dwell on earth. the earth is its tail. its support. for food alone is the eldest of all beings and therefore. is its head. This too has the shape of a man. this trunk is his body. Prana. that man. air. for the prana is the life of creatures. This indeed is his head. He. fire. from air. Knowledge and Infinity. the following mantra is recorded: “He who knows Brahman which is Reality. it is called the panacea for all. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill—feeling toward each other! Om. Therefore it is called the life of all. do they return. from food. this right arm is the right wing. water. On the above. they grow. different from this. from akasa. Chapter III—The Sheath of the Mind 1 “The gods breathe after the prana. Like the human shape of the former is the human shape of the latter. this left arm is the left wing. being one with the omniscient Brahman. apana is its left wing.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 209 .” From the Atman was born akasa. indeed. By food alone. from earth.2 Om. verily consists of the essence of food. herbs. verily. man. from water. He who knows Brahman attains the Supreme. but within it. this support below the navel is his tail. which consists of the vital breath. Peace! Peace! Peace! 3 Om. Because it is eaten by beings and because it eats beings. enjoys simultaneously all desires. By this the former is filled.” Verily. from herbs. furthermore. when born. hidden in the cave of the heart and in the highest akasa—he. in the end. food. Chapter II—The Sheath of the Vital Breath “From food. which consists of the essence of food. earth. therefore it is called food. Those who worship the prana as Brahman obtain a Source: "The Upanishads . do they live and to food. so also do men and cattle. From food all creatures are born: by food. is another self. from fire.” “They who worship food as Brahman obtain all food.

absorption is its trunk. unable to reach it—he never fears. is another self. This too has the shape of a man. Chapter IV—The Sheath of the Intellect 1 “He who knows the Bliss of Brahman. which consists of the intellect. is another self. Verily. different from this sheath. Like the human shape of the former is the human shape of the latter. which consists of the mind. different from this. whence all words together with the mind turn away. for the prana is the life of creatures. who is the eldest. Like the human shape of the former is the human shape of the latter. what is right is its right wing. the teaching is its trunk. it also accomplishes all actions. which consists of bliss. but within it. Verily. This too has the shape of a man. Mahat is its tail. Source: "The Upanishads . its support. Verily. Faith is it head. the Rig—Veda is its right wing. By this the former is filled.full life. This too has the shape of a man. the different from this sheath. is another self. the hymns of Atharva and Angiras are its tail. its support.” 2 This sheath of the mind is the embodied soul of the former.” “If a man knows the intellect as Brahman and if he does not swerve from it. which consists of the essence of the prana. By this the former is filled. By this the former is filled. but within it.” 2 This sheath of the Prana is the embodied soul of the former. Therefore it is called the life of all. Chapter V—The Sheath of Bliss 1 “The intellect accomplishes the sacrifice. which consists of the essence of the mind. The Yagur—Veda is its head.” 2 This is the embodied soul of the former.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 210 . as Brahman. what is truth is its left wing. but within it. he leaves behind in the body all evils and attains all his desires. All the gods worship the intellect. the Sama—Veda is its left wing. which consists of the essence of the intellect.

there is fear for him. The Satya became all this: whatever there is. Chapter VIII—The Supreme Bliss of Brahman “From fear of It the wind blows. Thereupon the following questions of the pupil: Does anyone who knows not attain that World after departing this life? Or does he who knows attain that World after departing this life? He desired: “May I be many. great delight is its left. its support. he has then obtained fearlessness. for truly. If he knows Brahman as existent. He became both the manifested and the unmanifested. Having performed austerities. run.Like the human shape of the former is the human shape of the latter. Source: "The Upanishads . the fifth. then know him as existent.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 211 . That created Itself by Itself. both the defined and undefined. He entered into it.” This is the embodied soul of the former. full of wealth. is one measure of the bliss of the human gandharvas.” Now this is an inquiry regarding the Bliss. is his: that is one measure of human bliss. incorporeal. firm in body and strong and possesses the whole world. If he makes the slightest differentiation in It. both the intelligent and the non— intelligent. Having created all this. Having entered into it. This human bliss. From it was born what exists. indefinable and supportless. from fear of It Agni and Indra and Death. may I be born. he himself becomes non—existent. Joy is its head. Brahman is its tail. Suppose there is a young man—a noble young man—versed. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. therefore It is called the self—made. multiplied on hundred times. Who could direct the prana and the apana if this Bliss did not exist in the akasa? Brahman verily exists because It alone bestows bliss. He created all this— whatever there is. delight is its right wing. both the supported and unsupported. the best of rulers. bliss is its trunk. from fear of It the sun rises. Chapter VII—Brahman as Fearlessness “In the beginning all this was non—existent. When a man finds fearless support in That which is invisible. He performed austerities.” That which is Self—made is flavour. Chapter VI—Brahman: The Source of All “If a person knows Brahman as non—existent. Therefore call It the True. on obtaining the flavour one becomes blissful. That becomes fear for the knower who does not reflect. both the real and the unreal.

attains the self which consist of the vital breath. is one measure of the bliss of the sacrificial gods who have attained to divinity by means of sacrifices. multiplied on hundred times. is one measure of the bliss of the gods born in the Ajana heaven. is one measure of the bliss of Indra. indeed he cherishes both these as Atman. is the Upanishad. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. This bliss of the celestial gandharvas. multiplied one hundred times. The bliss of the sacrificial gods. attains the self which consists of bliss. attains the self which consists of the mind. multiplied one hundred times. attains the self which consists of food.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 212 . is one measure of the bliss of Brahma. multiplied one hundred times. is one measure of the bliss of the celestial gandharvas. unable to reach It—he is not afraid of anything whatsoever. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. multiplied one hundred times. is one measure of the bliss of Brihaspati. after dying to this world. is one measure of the bliss of Prajapati. is one measure of the bliss of the gods. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires.This bliss of the human gandharvas. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. multiplied one hundred times. multiplied one hundred times. The bliss of Brihaspati. is one measure of the bliss of the Manes. The bliss of Prajapati. The bliss of the gods born in the Ajana heaven. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. whence words together with the mind turn away. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires.” He does not distress himself with the thought: Why did I not do what is good? Why did I do what is evil? Whosoever knows this regards both these as Atman. who dwell in the long—enduring world. Chapter IX—The Merging of Good and Evil in Brahman “He who knows the Bliss of Brahman. The bliss of the gods. He who is here in man and he who is in yonder sun—both are one. multiplied one hundred times. the secret knowledge of Brahman. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. The bliss of Indra. This bliss of the Manes who dwell in the long—enduring world. He who knows this. Such. as also of a man versed in the Vedas and free from desires. Source: "The Upanishads . multiplied one hundred times. attains the self which consists of intellect. indeed.

teach me Brahman. do they merge." To him. That into which they enter. verily." To him. he approached his father again and said: "Venerable Sir. he said this: "Food. do they live. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill—feeling toward each other! Om. by food. speech. for from the prana. teach me Brahman. into food do they enter. they live. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Truth! May we cherish no ill—feeling toward each other! Om. the mind. Having realised this. do they merge. For austerities are the means of knowing Brahman. for from food." He practised austerities. Having practised austerities— Chapter III—The Prana as Brahman He realised that the prana is Brahman." He performed austerities. they merge—seek to know That. verily. by the prana. the eye. the son of Varuna. when born. when born. Having realised this." To him. Having performed austerities— Chapter II—The Body as Brahman He realised that food is Brahman. That by which. he said this: "Seek to know Brahman by Source: "The Upanishads . the son. do they live. That is Brahman. the vital breath.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 213 . the son. the ear." To him he said further: "That from which these beings are born. approached his father Varuna and said: "Venerable Sir. teach me about Brahman. when born.The Peace Chant Om. Peace! Peace! Peace! Harih Om. into the prana do they enter. Bhrigu. are these beings born. Peace! Peace! Peace! Part Three Regarding Varuna and Bhrigu Chapter I—Definition of Brahman Om. are these beings born. he said this: "Seek to know Brahman by means of austerities. he approached his father again and said: "Venerable Sir. the son.

" He practised austerities.means of austerities. do they live. he approached his father again and said: "Venerable Sir. into bliss. he said this: "Seek to know Brahman by means of austerities. he approached his father again and said: "Venerable Sir. at the time of dissoulution. when born." To him. when born. into the mind. for from the intellect." He practised austerities. He becomes a possessor of food and an eater of food. Having practised austerities— Chapter V—The Intellect as Brahman He realised that the intellect (vijnana) is Brahman. verily. in the heart. Having practised austerities— Chapter IV—The Mind as Brahman He realised that the mind is Brahman. teach me Brahman. are these beings born. He who knows this resting of food on food is established. for from Bliss (ananda). He becomes great in offspring and cattle and in spiritual radiance and great in fame. by bliss. Having practised austerities— Chapter VI—Bliss as Brahman He realised that Bliss is Brahman. the son. The body rests on the prana. do they merge. he becomes a possessor of food and an eater of food. Chapter VII—The Importance of Food (I) Let him (the knower of Brahman) never condemn food. at the time of dissolution. He becomes Source: "The Upanishads . Having realised this. For austerities are the means of knowing Brahman. for from the mind. he said this: "Seek to know Brahman by means of austerities. verily. do they merge." To him. by the intellect. do they merge. that is the vow. verily. do they enter. at the time of dissolution. the prana rest on the body. do they live. food." He practised austerities. are these beings born. when born. by the mind. Having realised this. The prana is.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 214 . verily. into the intellect. the body is the eater of food. do they enter. Thus food rests on food. It is established in the the supreme akasa. the son. This is the wisdom taught by Varuna and learnt by Bhrigu. teach me Brahman. do they live. for austerities are Brahman. He who knows this is established in the Bliss of Brahman. are these beings born. do they enter. for austerities are the means of knowing Brahman.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 215 . The akasa rests on the earth and the earth rests on the akasa. that is the vow. Fire rests on water and water rests on fire. Chapter VIII—The Importance of Food (II) Let him (the knower of Brahman) never abandon food. Chapter X—Meditation on Brahman 1 Let him not deny lodgings to anyone: this is the vow. Therefore he should procure much food by any means whatsoever. Thus food rests on food. he becomes a possessor of food and an eater of food. If this food is given last. he becomes a possessor of food and an eater of food." If this food is given first. He becomes great in offspring and cattle and in spiritual radiance and great in fame. He becomes great in offspring and cattle and in spiritual radiance and great in fame. through the gods: One should meditate on Brahman as satisfaction in rain. food comes to the giver first. as evacuation in the anus. as movement (walking) in the feet. food. To guests. 2 He who knows this obtains the fruit mentioned above. he should say: "The food has been prepared for you. food comes to the giver last. food comes to the giver in the middle. as acquisition and preservation in the prana (upward breath) and the apana (downward breath). verily. Source: "The Upanishads . fire is the eater. One should meditate on Brahman as preservation in speech. If this food is given in the middle. food. Next follows the meditation on Brahaman. verily. as power in lightning. as action in the hands. The earth is.great in offspring and cattle and in spiritual radiance and great in fame. Thus food rests on food. that is the vow. Chapter IX—The Importance of Food (III) Let him (the knower of Brahman) make food plentiful. He who knows this resting of food on food is established. the akasa is the eater. Water is. He who knows this resting of food on food is established. These are the meditations on Brahman through actions.

attains the self which consists of the mind. 4 Let him contemplate Brahman as adoration and all desires will fall down before him in adoration. I am food! I am the eater of food. Let him contemplate Brahman as the Supreme Lord and he will be endowed with supremacy. I am the eater of food! I am the uniter. as light in the stars. I am food. I am the uniter. attains Liberation. Then he goes up and down these worlds. I am radiant as the sun. he alone preserves me. as the Supreme Lord.e. eat him. immortality and joy in the organ of generation and as everything in the akasa. attains the self which consists of bliss. both are one. eating the food he desires. "I. as food.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 216 . let him contemplate Brahman as greatness and he will become great. May Brahman protect us both! May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge! May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge! May what we both study reveal the Source: "The Upanishads . is the Upanishad. prior to the gods and the navel of Immortality. He who gives me away. as procreation. The Peace Chant Om. indeed. I am the uniter! "I am the first—born of the true. as described above." Whosoever knows this. attains the self which consists of the intellect. 5 He who knows this. overpower the whole world. attains the self which consists of food. assuming the forms he likes. I am the eater of food. He who eats food—I. Let him contemplate Brahman as the support and he will be supported. This he who is in this man and that he who is in yonder sun. singing the chant of the non—duality of Brahman: "Ah! Ah! Ah!" 6 "I am food. attains the self which consists of the vital breath. after dying to (i. withdrawing from) this world. Let him contemplate Brahman as the destructive agent and his enemies who hate him and also those who do not hate him will perish.3 As fame in cattle. He sits. let him contemplate Brahman as the mind and he will be endowed with mind. Such.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 217 . indeed. who am devoted to Atman! Yea. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads . as is declared in the Upanishads. may they all belong to me! Om. eyes. May the different limbs of my body. Peace! Peace! Peace! End of Taittiriya Upanishad Invocation Om. my tongue. May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never deny me! May there never be denial on my part! May all the virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me. is Brahman. ears and my strength and also all the other sense—organs be nourished! All.Truth! May we cherish no ill—feeling toward each other! Om. prana.

Source: "The Upanishads . the essence of the earth is water. the vital breath (prana) is the Saman. the essence of water is plants. indeed. the essence of speech is the Rig—Veda. form a couple. beginning with Om. the essence of plants is a person. deserving the highest place. Now follows the detailed explanation of the syllable: 2 The essence of all these beings is the earth. 4 What. called the Udgitha. the supreme.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 218 . a fulfiller of desires. the syllable Om is the Udgitha. 3 That Udgitha (Om) is the best of all essences. When a pair come together they fulfil each other’s desire.Chhandogya Upanishad Part One Chapter I—Meditation on Om 1 The syllable Om. 7 He who knows this as stated above and meditates on the syllable Om. becomes. 6 And that couple become united in the syllable Om. indeed. for people sing the Udgitha. then. is the Rik? What is the Saman? What is the Udgitha? This is to be considered. the Udgitha. the essence of the Sama—Veda is the Udgitha which is Om. should be meditated upon. Speech and the prana. 5 Speech. is the Rik. or the Rik and the Saman. essence of the Rig—Veda is the Sama—Veda. essence of a person is speech. the eighth.

verily. When adhvaryu priest gives an order in a sacrifice. All this is done for the glory of the Imperishable Atman by the greatness of that syllable and by its essence. Work that is done with knowledge.e.e. the Udgitha. When the hotri priest recites the hymn. thinking that with this they would vanquish the demons. 2 They (i. fought with each other.8 This syllable Om is used to give assent. one says Om (yes). indeed. For the breath is pierced by evil. The results of knowledge and ignorance are different. he says Om. meditation on the deities) produces more powerful fruit. But the demons pierced it with evil. 9 By means of this syllable the threefold knowledge proceeds. the gods took hold of the Udgitha. he says Om. a gratifier of desires. the breath) one smells both what is pleasant—smelling and what is foul—smelling. what is assent is gratification. perform the same sacrifice and therefore must reap the same fruit. When the udgatri priest sings the Saman.e. He who knows this and meditates on the syllable Om. 10 It may be contended that he who knows this true meaning of the syllable Om and he who does not. the detailed explanation of the syllable Om. faith and the Upanishad (i. for wherever one assents to something. 3 Then they meditated on the Udgitha as speech. becomes. both offspring of Prajapati. Therefore with it (i. the gods) meditated on the Udgitha (Om) as the prana which functions through the nose. Source: "The Upanishads . Chapter II — Meditation on Om as the Prana 1 When the gods and the demons.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 219 . But the demons pierced it (i. Therefore one speaks both truth and falsehood. For speech is pierced by evil. he says Om. This is.e. But this is not so. the prana) with evil. Now.

For the eye is pierced by evil. Therefore one sees both what is sightly and what is unsightly. 8 As a clod of earth is scattered when hitting a stone. That is why they depart when. because it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs (anga). the prana) Angiras. Therefore one thinks both proper and improper thoughts. Therefore one hears both what is worth hearing and what is not worth hearing. for it is unsmitten by evil. even so the demons were destroyed when they hit it. 10—13 Angira meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prana. Brihaspati meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prana. But the demons pierced it with evil. at the time death.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 220 . 7 Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the principal (mukhya) prana. thus will he be scattered who wishes evil to one who knows this or who injures him. But the demons pierced it with evil. Whatever a person eats or drinks with it (the principal vital breath) supports the other pranas. But the demons pierced it with evil. But as a clod of earth hitting a stone is scattered. Ayasya meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prana. 5 Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the ear. People call it (the prana) Brihaspati. 6 Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the mind. For the mind is pierced by evil. It opens the mouth at the time of death as if the dying man wished to eat. People Source: "The Upanishads .e. because speech is great (brihat) and it is the lord (pati) of speech. For the ear is pierced by evil. 9 With this (i.4 Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the eye. the principal vital breath) one does not discern what pleasant—smelling and what is foul—smelling.e. people call it (i. it no longer supports them by eating and drinking. for he is a solid stone.

Therefore when a man utters a Rik he neither breathes out nor breathes in. the son of Dalbhya. Chapter III — Meditation on the Udgitha as the Sun and the Vyana 1 Now is described the meditation on the Udgitha with reference to the gods: One should meditate on the Udgitha as the sun who gives warmth. Therefore when a man sings the Udgitha he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Rik is the Saman. because it comes (ayate) from the mouth (asya). By singing the Udgitha he fulfilled all their desires. This they call svara (what goes out) and that. Source: "The Upanishads . he became the udgatri priest of the sacrificers dwelling in the Naimisha forest. That which is the junction of the prana and the apana is the Vyana. pratyasvara (what returns). knew it (the prana). Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as this and that. This is warm and that is warm.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 221 . Therefore when a man sings a Saman. That which one breathes out is the prana and that which one breathes in is the apana. So much for the Udgitha as meditates on with reference to the body. When he (the sun) rises he sings the Udgitha for the benefit of all creatures. 3 One should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana. 2 This prana and that sun are the same. That which is the Saman is the Udgitha. he neither breathes out nor breathes in.call it (the prana) as Ayasya. When he rises he destroys darkness and fear. 14 He who knows this as described above and meditates upon the imperishable Udgitha (Om) obtains all his desires by singing the Udgitha. This vyana is speech. He who knows this becomes the destroyer of darkness and fear. Therefore when one utters speech one stops the prana and the apana. 4 That which is speech is the Rik. Vaka.

for a man rises (uttishthati) by means of the prana.e. for speeches are called girah. such as the kindling of fire by rubbing. 7 Ut is heaven. gi the air and tha fire. he should meditate on the hymn by which he is going to chant the praise. 10 He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the metre in which he is going to chant the praise. Ut is the Sama—Veda. 9 He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Rik in which that Saman occurs. To him who thus meditates speech yields milk and milk is speech. are performed without breathing out or breathing in. gi and tha). Gi is speech.e. Tha is food.5 And other works also which require strength. Ut is the sun. He who knows this and meditates on the letters of the Udgitha becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food. gi the Yajur—Veda and tha the Rig—Veda. 11 He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the quarter of space facing which he is going to chant the praise. Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 222 . running a race and stringing a strong bow. 6 One should meditate on the letters of the word Udgitha (i. ut. for all this subsists (sthita) on food. the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Saman with which he is going chant the praise. gi the mid—region and tha the earth. on the rishi to whom it was revealed and on the deity whom he is going to praise. Source: "The Upanishads . 8 Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. One should thus meditate on the object one wishes to obtain through meditation: he (i. Ut is the prana.

The gods. They too came to know this. yea. 4 When a man has mastered the Rig—Veda he loudly utters Om. should be meditated upon. sings the praise of the syllable Om enters this same syllable. Thus will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire. he becomes immortal as the gods are immortal. knowing this. beginning with Om. 5 He who. Source: "The Upanishads . for people sing the Udgitha. entered upon the threefold knowledge. Now follows the detailed explanation of this syllable. desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise. by entering it. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. became immortal and fearless. Having entered it. the hymns are called chhandas. the Yajus and the Saman. called the Udgitha.12 Finally. The Svara is the syllable Om.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 223 . called the Svara. it is immortal and fearless. afraid of death. 2 The gods. so death observed the gods in the Rik. he (the udgatri priest) should meditate on himself and then on the object desired and chant the praise correctly. 3 As a fisherman might observe a fish in shallow water. the Yajus and the Saman and entered the Svara (Om) alone. Chapter IV — Meditation on Om as Fearlessness and Immortality 1 The syllable Om. which is immortal and fearless. he does the same when he has mastered the Sama—Veda and the Yajur—Veda. Because they covered (acchadayan) themselves with the hymns. desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise. rose from the Rik.

the air) rests on that Rik (i. 3 Now with reference to the body: One should meditate on the Udgitha as the principal prana. thus they (the earth and fire) are designated as Sama. It is the Pranava. ama is fire. therefore you are my only son. that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava. the mid—region). because it moves along uttering Om. 2 Kaushitaki in olden times said to his son: "I sang the praise of the sun regarding it as one with its rays.e. Therefore the Saman is sung resting on the Rik.e. that which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. 2 The mid—region is the Rik and the air is the Saman. Source: "The Upanishads . fire) rests on that Rik (i." 5 Now. the udgatri priest) who knows this. that which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. 4 Kaushitaki in olden times said to his son: "I sang the praise of the principal prana alone. Yonder sun is the Udgitha. Chapter VI — The Luminous Person in the Solar Orb 1 This earth is the Rik and fire is the Saman. Sa is the earth. This Saman (i. therefore you are my only son. yea he rectifies it. for (i. verily. that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava. verily.e.e.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 224 . Meditate on the Udgitha as the manifold prana and you will have many sons. the earth). This Saman (i. the prana) moves in the body uttering Om. Meditate on the rays and the sun as different from each another and you will have many sons.e.Chapter V — Meditation on Om as the Sun and the Prana 1 Now." So much with reference to the gods. He (i.e. rectifies from the seat of the hotri priest any mistake committed by him (the udgatri priest).

e. ama is the moon. Now. This Saman (the atman) rests on that Rik (speech).e. resting on the Rik. 6—7 Sa is the white radiance of the sun. the stars). resting on the Rik. Sa is the eye. ama is the air. Source: "The Upanishads . He. the moon) rests on that Rik (i. ama is the atman. who knows this rises above all evil. for he has risen (udita) above all evil. who has a golden beard and golden hair. ama is the prana. the radiance). thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sama. thus they (the mid—region and the air) are designated as Sama. 5 Now. the white radiance of the sun is the Rik and its blue intense darkness is the Saman. This Saman (i. who is golden to the very tips of his nails—his eyes are like a lotus flower. This Saman (the prana) rests on that Rik (speech).e. thus they (the eye and the atman) are designated as Saman. Sa is speech.e. 4 The stars are the Rik and the moon is the Saman. the darkness) rests on that Rik (i. His name is Ut. This Saman (i. resting on the Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung. resting on the Rik. Sa is the stars. Sa is the mid—region.Therefore the Saman is sung. 2 The eye is the Rik and the atman is the Saman. resting on the Rik. thus they (speech and the prana) are designated as Sama. thus they (the stars and the moon) are designated as Sama.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 225 . the golden person who is seen in the sun. Therefore the Saman is sung. too. Therefore the Saman is sung. red as the rump of a monkey. ama is its blue intense darkness. Chapter VII — The Person in the Eye 1 Now with reference to the body: Speech is the Rik and the prana is the Saman. Therefore the Saman is sung.

the eye) and also of all the wishes of men. the eye) and all the wishes of men. the sun) and the wishes of the gods. Source: "The Upanishads . the person in the eye). 5 Now.e. ama is the mind. sings the Saman. Through that (i. knowing this. 4 Now. The joints this person in the eye are the same as the joints of that person in the sun. Sa is the ear. the name of this one (Ut) is the same as the name of that one. The form of this person in the eye is the same as the form of that person in the sun. he obtains the worlds that spread beneath that (i.e.e.e. Therefore the Saman is sung.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 226 . the person in the sun) he obtains the world beyond that (i.e. thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sama. yea.e. he is the Yajus. Therefore all who sing to the vina sing of him and from him they obtain wealth. he is Brahman. resting on the Rik. thus they (the ear and the mind) are designated as Sama. sings both. the Udgitha). the white radiance of the eye is the Rik and its blue intense darkness is the Saman. through his singing of the Saman. 6 He is the lord of the worlds which spread beneath that (i. the person who is seen in the eye is the Rik. he is the Saman. This Saman (the mind) rests on that Rik (the ear). 8—9 Likewise. resting on the Rik. sings the Saman is able to fulfil wishes through his singing of the Saman. Therefore an udgatri priest who knows this may say to the sacrificer for whom he acts as priest: "What desire of yours shall I fulfil by singing?" For he who. he is the Uktha. This Saman (darkness) rests on that Rik (radiance).3 The ear is the Rik and the mind is the Saman. Sa is the white radiance of the eye. through this (i. 7 He who. ama is its blue intense darkness. Therefore the Saman is sung. knowing this (i.

" he replied. let me learn it from you." replied Silaka.Chapter VIII — The Story of the Pravahana (I) 1 There were three men versed in the Udgitha: Silaka the son of Salavat. We place the Saman in the heavenly world. "What is the support of water?" "Yonder world (heaven). "What is the support of food?" "Water.’ surely your head would fall off. Chaikitayana of the line of Dalbhya and Pravahana the son of Jivala. Let us have a discussion of the Udgitha." he replied. "What is the support of tone?" "The prana (vital breath). Source: "The Upanishads . revered Sir." 7 "Well then." he said." 2 "Let it be so. "Learn it. "What is the support of the prana?" "Food." said Chaikitayana." 6 Then Silaka the son of Salavat said to Chaikitayana of the line of Dalbhya: "O Dalbhya your Saman is not firmly established. may I question you?" "Do ask." he replied. for the Saman is praised as heaven." they said and sat down. 4—5 "What is the support of the Saman?" "Tone (svara). Then Pravihana the son Jivala said: "Revered Sirs." 3 Then Silaka the son of Salavat said to Chaikitayana of the line Dalbhya: "Well. They said: "We are indeed versed in the Udgitha. you speak first and I shall listen to what the two brahmins have to say.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 227 . If at this time anyone who knew the support of the Saman were to say: ‘Your head shall fall off. "What is the support of yonder world?" "Let no one carry the Saman beyond the heavenly world." he replied." he replied.

" said Pravahana. having taught this Udgitha to Udarasandilya. this is endless. Chapter X — The Story of Ushasti (I) 1 When the crops of the Kurus were destroyed by thunderstorms. which is its support." 8 Then said Pravahana the son of Jivala: O son of Salavat. lived in a Source: "The Upanishads . therefore the akasa is the supreme support. this world). He who. "Learn it.e. 3—4 Atidhanvan the son of Sunaka. The akasa is greater than these. Chapter IX — The Story of Pravahana (II) 1 "What is the support of this world?" asked Silaka. knowing this. with his child—wife. the most excellent." he replied. revered Sir.’ surely your head would fall off. this earth) has an end. "For all these beings are created from the akasa and return to the akasa."What is the support of that world?" "This world.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 228 . "What is the support of this world?" "Let no one carry the Saman beyond this world. We place the Saman in this world as its support. Ushasti the son of Chakra.e. their life shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the other world. "The akasa." "Well then. the other world. meditates on the Udgitha obtains the most excellent life and wins the most excellent worlds. said: "As long as any of your descendants know this Udgitha." He who thus knows the Udgitha and meditates on it—his life shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the other world. for the Saman is praised as the support (i. your Saman (i." said Pravahana. If at this time anyone who knew the support of the Saman were to say: ‘Your head shall fall off." said Silaka." 2 This is the Udgitha (Om). let me learn this from you. yea.

The king over here is going to perform a sacrifice." Ushasti said: "If I drink this. my husband.e. But she." 5 Having himself eaten. He (the owner of the elephant) said: "I have nothing but what is set before me. who was eating some wretched beans. 6 Next morning. I might earn some money." He gave the beans and said: "Here is some water left over from my drinking. He said to the prastotri priest: Source: "The Upanishads ." After eating them." 7 His wife said to him: "Here. he said: "Alas. on awaking." 4 The owner of the elephant said: "Were not those beans also left over and therefore unclean?" Ushasti replied: "I should not have lived if I had not eaten them." 3 Ushasti said: "Give me these. if I could get even little a to eat. but I can get water wherever I like. he went to the sacrifice that was about to be performed. are the beans. the beans) and put them away.deplorable condition in the village of a man who owned an elephant. 2 He (Ushasti) begged food from the owner of the elephant.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 229 . having eaten before. I will then be drinking what has been left by another. 8 He saw there the assembled udgatri priests and sat near them in place where they would sing the hymns. took them (i. he would choose me for all the priestly offices. Ushasti gave his wife what was left.

I have chosen others. your head will fall off. "but let these priests.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 230 ." In the same manner he addressed the pratihartri priest: "O pratihartri priest." "So be it." he replied. but not finding you. however. Sir. If without knowing Source: "The Upanishads . This is deity which belongs to the Prastava. You will. Sir. sing the hymns of praise. your head will fall off. if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha. you sing the Udgitha. with my permission. if without knowing the deity that belongs to Prastiva. your head will fall off. For all these beings merge in the prana alone and from the prana alone do they rise. if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara." "So be it. please take up all the priestly offices. 4 Thereupon the prastotri priest approached him and said: "Sir. you sing the Prastava. you sing the Prastiva. give me as much wealth as you give them. you said to me: ‘O prastotri priest. if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastava.9 "O prastotri priest. you sing the Pratihara. your head will fall off" 10—11 In the same manner he addressed the udgatri priest: "O udgatri priest. 2 He (the sacrificer) said: "Revered Sir. I looked for you to perform all these priestly offices. Chapter XI — The Story of Ushasti (II) 1 The sacrificer said to him (Ushasti): "I should like to know who you are. revered Sir." said Ushasti." 3 "But now." said the sacrificer." "I am Ushasti the son of Chakra.’ Which is that deity?" 5 Ushasti said: "The prana is that deity." They all stopped performing their duties and sat in silence.

your head will fall off. your head would have fallen off. you sing the Pratihara.’ Which is that deity?" 7 Ushasti said: "The sun is that deity. you said to me: ‘O pratihartri priest. your head will fall off. Glava son of Mitra. For all these beings praise the sun which is high up.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 231 . Other dogs. 2 A white dog appeared before him." 8 Then the pratihartri priest approached him and said: "Sir. if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara.’ Which is that deity?" 9 Ushasti said: "Food is that deity. gathering around. your head would have fallen off. If without knowing him you had chanted the Pratihara after having been cursed by me. This is the deity which belongs to the Udgitha. For all these beings take food and live. please sing for us. if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha. we are hungry. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihara." Source: "The Upanishads . If without knowing him you had chanted the Udgitha after having been cursed by me. or as he was also called. your head would have fallen off. you sing the Udgitha. went forth to study the Vedas." 6 Then the udgatri priest approached him and said: "Sir.e. Vaka the son of Dalbhya.him you chanted the Prastava after having been cursed by me. said to him (i. the white dog): "Revered Sir." Chapter XII — The Udgitha of the Dogs 1 Now follows the Udgitha of the dogs: One day. you said to me: ‘O udgatri priest. so we may obtain food.

bring it here. the self is the syllable iha. the prana the syllable svara. the invocation is the syllable e. speech yields milk and milk is speech. the moon is the syllable atha. or as he was also called. He becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food—he who knows this. 4 Just as the priests move along. the variable syllable hum. yea. Source: "The Upanishads . holding to one another. 2 The sun is the syllable u. Virat is the syllable vak. the fire is the syllable i. namely. so did the dogs move along. Prajapati is the syllable him. he who knows this. kept watch. who is the luminous deity (deva). 4 To him who knows this secret knowledge of the Samans. Then they sat down and uttered the syllable Him. the Visve—devas are the syllable au—ho—i." Vaka the son of Dalbhya. the air is the syllable hai. 5 Om. Let us eat! Om. the lord of creatures (Prajapati). Let us drink! Om.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 232 . when they are about to sing praises with the Vahishpavamana hymn. Let the sun. food is the syllable ya. Om.3 He (the white dog) said to them: "Come to me here tomorrow morning. Glava son of Mitra. Chapter XIII — The Mystical Meaning of the Stobha Syllables 1 This Earth is verily the syllable hau. bring food here. 3 Indefinable is the thirteenth stobha. the giver of rain (Varuna). bring food here! Now a prayer to the sun: O lord of food.

"It is not good for us." that is to say.Part Two Chapter 1 — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman (I) 1 Om. the Pratihara fire. the Prastava fire. "It is good for us." that is to say. people say it is not Saman. 2 Now with reference to the descending order: The syllable Him is heaven." Again they say: "He approached him without Saman. they say: "Truly this is not Saman for us. meditates on the fivefold Saman as the worlds. people say it is Saman. This is with reference to the ascending order. "He approached him in an unbecoming manner. 4 He who. The syllable Him is the earth. knowing this. 3 The worlds in the ascending and descending orders belong to him who. Whatever is good." when it is good. Meditation on the whole of the Saman is good. meditates on the Saman as good—all good qualities will approach him quickly. the Udgitha the sky. ay. knowing this." 3 And they also say: "Truly this is Saman for us. the Udgitha the sky. and whatever is not good. the Nidhana heaven.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 233 . "He approached him in a becoming manner. 2 Thus people say: "He approached him with Saman. Chapter II — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman (II) 1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the five worlds. they will accrue to him. Source: "The Upanishads ." that is to say. the Prastava the sun. the Pratihara the sun. the Nidhana the earth. Again." when it is not good." that is to say.

2 The Nidhana is the cessation. when it rains. The syllable Him is the wind that blows from the east.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 234 . the Nidhana the winter. When the clouds gather. meditates on the fivefold Saman as the seasons. the Prastava is the cloud that forms. knowing this. Source: "The Upanishads . the ocean is Nidhana. meditates on the fivefold Saman in all the waters. Chapter V — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as the Seasons 1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the seasons. that is the syllable Him. the Udgitha is what rains. the Pratihara is the lightning and the thunder. Chapter IV — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as Water 1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in all the waters.Chapter III — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as Rain 1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as rain. It rains for him whenever he desires and he brings rain for others even when there is no rain who. the Pratihara the autumn. meditates on the fivefold Saman as rain. the rivers which flow to the west. knowing this. 2 He does not die in water and he becomes rich in water who. the Prastava the summer. these are the Pratihara. the Udgitha the rainy season. The syllable Him is the spring. knowing this. 2 The seasons belong to him and he becomes rich in seasons who. that the Prastava. the rivers which flow to the east. these are the Udgitha.

nay. The syllable Him is smell (i. The syllable Him is goats. which is the most excellent. he conquers the most excellent worlds who.e. Ni the Nidhana. the Udgitha sight (the eye). Upa the Upadrava. Pra the Pratihara. These are each greater than the preceding. knowing this. meditates on the fivefold Saman. Source: "The Upanishads . the Pratihara hearing (the ear).Chapter VI — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman in Animals 1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in animals. When there is the syllable Hum in speech. the nose). A is the Adi. 2 Ud is the Udgitha. 2 The most excellent objects belong to him. the Prastava sheep. the Nidhana man. 2 Animals belong to him as objects of enjoyment and he becomes rich in animals who. as the senses. which is the most excellent. knowing this. meditates on the fivefold Saman in animals. Chapter VIII — Meditation on the Sevenfold Saman in Speech 1 Now for the sevenfold Saman: One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman in speech. Chapter VII — Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as the Senses 1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman. as the pranas (senses). the Prastava speech (the tongue). the Pratihara horses. the Nidhana the mind. that is the syllable Him.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 235 . the Udgitha cows. likewise Pra is the Prastava.

The devas (gods) are dependent upon it. What he is before his rising is the syllable Him. that is the Adi. Therefore birds hold themselves without support in the sky and fly about. Chapter IX — Meditation on the Sevenfold Saman as the Sun 1 One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman as yonder sun. that is the Pratihara. Therefore they are the best of the offspring of Prajapati. The animals depend upon it (i. knowing this. for they partake of the Pratihara of the Saman. He is the Saman because he makes everyone cherish the same thought: "He faces me. The foetuses depend upon it. Him). which is the milk of speech and he becomes rich in food and the eater of food who. Therefore the animals say "Him" before the sunrise. 5 What he is just at midday. for they partake of the Prastava of that Saman. for they partake of the syllable Him of the Saman (sun).e. the sun).3 For him speech yields milk. Source: "The Upanishads . meditates on the sevenfold Saman in speech. for they partake of the Udgitha of that Sa man. Men depend upon it." "He faces me. 4 What he is when the rays go forth." 2 One should know that all beings depend upon him (i. 3 What he (the sun) is just after he has risen. 6 What he is after midday and before afternoon. for they partake of the Adi of that Saman.e.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 236 . that is the Udgitha. The sun is the Saman because he is always the same (sama). Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and eulogy. that is the Prastava. Therefore they are held in the womb after being conceived and do not fall. Birds depend upon It.

for the sun is the twenty—first from here. they become equal (sama). Therefore they put them (i. for partake of the Upadrava of that Saman. 5 With twenty—one syllables he reaches the sun. the word Prastava has three syllables.e. Therefore they run (upadravanti) to the forest and their caves when they see a man. The word Nidhana has three syllables. If we take one syllable from Pratihara and join to Adi. that is the Upadrava. Hence they are equal (sama). The Manes depend upon it. 2 The word Adi has two syllables and the word Pratihara has four syllables. Hence the equality (sama). The animals of the forest depend upon it. that is the Nidhana. 3—4 The word Udgitha has three syllables and the word Upadrava has four syllables. Chapter X — Meditation on the Sevenfold Saman through the Number of Syllables 1 Next one should meditate on the sevenfold Saman which has a uniform number of syllables and which leads beyond death: The word Himkara has three syllables.7 What he is after the afternoon and before sunset. With the twenty—second he conquers what is beyond the sun. for they partake of the Nidhana of that Saman. the Manes) down (nidadhati). it becomes trisyllabic. These make twenty—two syllables of the sevenfold Saman. 8 What he is just after the sunset. One syllable being left out. Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Saman as the sun.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 237 . that plane is blessed and free from grief. Source: "The Upanishads . With three and three syllables they should be equal. therefore it is equal.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 238 . For him who meditates on the Gayatra Saman the injunction is: "Be high—minded. becomes great in children and cattle. his gratifying her is the Prastava. the Prastava speech. knowing this. lives brightly. the Pratihara hearing. who meditates upon the sevenfold Saman. the Udgitha sight. For him the injunction is: "Do sip water or spit before the fire. Source: "The Upanishads ." Chapter XII — Meditation on the Rathantara Sama 1 The rubbing of the fire—sticks is the syllable Him. great in fame. his spending time with her is the Nidhana. becomes great in children and cattle. 2 He who thus knows this Rathantara Saman as interwoven in fire becomes radiant with the light of Brahman and endowed with a good appetite. his lying with her is the Pratihara. This is the Vamadevya Saman as interwoven in sexual intercourse. lives brightly. the Nidhana breath (the prana). the burning is the Udgitha. the rising of smoke is the Prastava. reaches the full length of life. great in fame. 2 He who thus knows this Gayatra Saman interwoven in the pranas preserves his sense—organs intact. the forming of embers is the Pratihara. yea. and the finishing of the sexual act is also the Nidhana. and to him comes victory higher than the victory over the sun who. the going out is the Nidhana." Chapter XIII — Meditation on the Vamadevya Saman 1 A man's beckoning to a woman is the syllable Him. Chapter XI — Meditation on the Gayatra Saman 1 The syllable Him is the mind. This is the Rathantara Saman as interwoven in fire. as interwoven in the five pranas. meditates on the sevenfold Saman which has a uniform number syllables and which leads beyond death.6 He obtains here victory over the sun (death). he reaches the full length of life. This is the Gayatra Saman.

lives brightly. he reaches the full length of life. becomes great in children and cattle. the Udgitha the rainy season. lives brightly. the flashing and thundering are the Pratihara.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 239 . great in fame. the raining is the Udgitha. becomes great in children and cattle. For him the injunction is: "Do not decry the rain. This is the Brihat Saman as interwoven in the sun. 2 He who thus knows the Vairupa Saman as interwoven in the clouds obtains cattle of various forms and of beautiful form. great in fame. great in fame. the risen sun is the Prastava. the afternoon sun is Pratihara. he reaches the full length of life." Chapter XV — Meditation on the Vairupa Saman 1 The gathering of the mists is the syllable Him. the ceasing of the rain is the Nidhana. the Pratihara the autumn.2 He who thus knows the Vamadevya Saman as interwoven in sexual intercourse does not suffer from the pang of separation and procreates from every intercourse. For him the injunction is: "Do not reject a woman who comes to you seeking intercourse". the Prastava the summer. the forming of clouds is the Prastava." Chapter XVI — Meditation on the Vairaja Saman 1 The syllable Him is the spring. becomes great in children and cattle. he reaches the full length of life. For him the injunction is: "Do not decry the burning sun. 2 He who thus knows the Brihat Saman as interwoven in the becomes radiant and endowed with a good appetite. the midday sun is the Udgitha. Chapter XIV — Meditation on the Brihat Saman 1 The rising of the sun is the syllable Him. lives brightly. the Nidhana Source: "The Upanishads . This is the Vairupa Saman as interwoven in the clouds. the setting sun is the Nidhana.

the Udgitha cows. For him the injunction is: "Do not decry animals. cattle and the light of Brahman. he reach the full length of life. great in fame. great in fame. the Udgitha heaven. lives brightly. lives brightly. becomes great in children and cattle. the Pratihara bone. lives brightly. the Pratihara the quarters. This is the Yajnayajniya Saman as interwoven in the members of the body. the Nidhana man. 2 He who thus knows these Revati Samans as interwoven in animals becomes the possessor of animals. the Prastava skin. This is the Sakvari Saman as interwoven in the worlds. he reaches the full length of life. the Pratihara horses. Source: "The Upanishads . For him the injunction is: "Do not decry the seasons. the Udgitha flesh. This is the Revati Saman interwoven in animals. This is the Vairaja Saman as interwoven in the seasons.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 240 . great in fame. becomes great in children and cattle. the Prastava the sky. the Nidhana marrow. 2 He who thus knows the Vairaja Saman as interwoven in the seasons shines through children. the Prastava sheep. 2 He who thus knows the Sakvari Saman as interwoven in the worlds becomes the possessor of the worlds. the Nidhana the sea." Chapter XIX — Meditation on the Yajnayajniya Saman 1 The syllable Him is hair. he reaches the full length of life.the winter." Chapter XVIII — Meditation on the Revati Saman 1 The syllable Him is goats. becomes great in children and cattle." Chapter XVII — Meditation on the Sakvari Saman 1 The syllable Him is the earth. For him the injunction is: "Do not decry the worlds.

the Nidhana is the serpents. the Prastava air. This is the Saman as interwoven in everything. becomes great in children and cattle. Greater than these or besides these there is nothing. acquires the same prosperity as theirs and realizes union with them. becomes great in children and cattle." Source: "The Upanishads .2 He who thus knows the Yajnayajniya Saman as interwoven in the members of the body becomes possessed of limbs.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 241 . the birds and the rays. the Nidhana the moon. he reaches the full length of lives brightly." Chapter XX — Meditation on the Rajana Saman 1 The syllable Him is fire. great in fame." Chapter XXI — Meditation on the Saman as Interwoven in Everything 1 The syllable Him is the three Vedas. This is the Rajana Saman as interwoven in the gods. the gandharvas and the Manes. the Pratihara the stars. great in fame. For him the injunction is: "For one year do not eat meat" or ''Do not eat meat at all. the Udgitha is fire (Agni). the Pratihara is the stars. he is not crippled in any limb. he reaches the full length of life. 3 On this there is the following verse: "There are the fivefold three. the Udgitha the sun. lives brightly. 2 He who thus knows the Rajana Saman as interwoven in the gods obtains the same world as the gods. air (Vayu) and the sun (Aditya). the Prastava is these three worlds. him the injunction is: "Do not decry the brahmins. 2 He who thus knows this Saman as interwoven in everything becomes everything.

the heron—like note to Brihaspati and dull note to Varuna. the smooth and strong note to Indra." 5 All vowels should be pronounced with resonance and strength and with the thought on the part of the singer: "May I impart strength to Indra (the prana). He will smash you." And if someone should reprove him for his consonants. The undefined note belongs to Prajapati. the note of Varuna. the udgatri priest who knows this) regarding the pronunciation of vowels. If someone should reprove him (i. 2 A man should sing. the soft and smooth note to Vayu (the air). let him say" I went to Mrityu for my refuge. all sibilants to Prajapati.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 242 . which is good for the cattle and which belongs to fire (Agni). All regions bring him gifts. 3 All vowels belong to the different parts of Indra's body. he (the udgatri priest) should chant the praises without making mistakes in pronunciation etc. He will burn you to ashes." All the sibilants should be pronounced full—without being swallowed or thrown out and Source: "The Upanishads . let him say: "I went to Prajapati for my refuge." Thus reflecting on all these in his mind. knows everything." 4 And if someone should reprove him for his sibilants. hope for men. however. grass and water for cattle. Chapter XXII — The different notes employed in the Chanting of the Saman 1 An Udgatri priest thinks thus: "I choose the deep—sounding note of the Saman. wishing that by his song he may secure immortality for the gods: "May I obtain by my song oblations (svadha) for the Manes. let him say: "I went to Indra for my refuge when pronouncing my vowels. He will answer you. all consonants to Mrityu (death).e." Let a man cultivate all these. the defined note to Soma (the moon). avoiding.4 He who knows this. heaven for the sacrificer and food for myself.

"Where. Dwelling in the house of the teacher as a brahmacharin. sings the Saman addressed to the Vasus: Source: "The Upanishads . He brooded on it and from it. how can he perform the sacrifice? Only he who knows should perform it. the Vedas) ask: "Since the morning oblation belongs to the Vasus. yea. From them. thus brooded upon. sitting behind the Garhapatya Fire and facing the north. But one who is established in Brahman obtains Immortality. All those who practise these dharmas attain the worlds of the virtuous. Chapter XXIV — The Different Planes attained by the Sacrificer 1—2 The expounders of Brahman (i." Chapter XXIII — Praise of Om Unassociated with any Ritual 1 There are three divisions of dharma: Sacrifice. there issued forth these syllables: Bhuh. Austerity is the second. 2 Prajapati brooded on the worlds.e. Bhuvah and Svah. thus brooded upon. so is all speech held together by Om (brahman). thus brooded upon. the sacrificer.with the thought: "May I give myself to Prajapati.e. 3 He brooded on them (the three syllables) and from them. Om is all thus. On is all this. is the world of the sacrificer?" He who does not know this. As all leaves are held together by a midrib. study and charity form the first. then. there issued forth Om.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 243 ." All consonants should be pronounced slowly and without mixing them with the others and with the thought: "May I withdraw myself from death. there was revealed in his heart the threefold knowledge. is the third. 3—4 Before beginning the morning chant. the midday oblation to the Rudras and the third (i. always mortifying the body in the house of the teacher. evening) oblation to the Adityas and the Visve—devas.

sings the Saman addressed to the Rudras: "O Fire! Open the door of the sky—world. Let us see thee. Let us see thee. 5—6 Then the sacrificer offers an oblation. Let us see thee. "I. That is the world for the sacrificer. 11—13 Before beginning the third (i. 7—8 Before beginning the midday oblation. Next the Saman addressed to the Visve—devas: "O Fire! Open the door of the heaven—world. Source: "The Upanishads . the sacrificer. sitting behind the Ahavaniya Fire and facing the north. reciting thus: "Adoration to Vayu. the sacrificer. "I." Having said this." Having said this. the sacrificer."O Fire! Open the door of the earth—world. who dwells in the sky—world! Secure this world for me. That is the world for the sacrificer. that we may rule supreme in heaven. the sacrificer. Let us see thee. that we may rule supreme in heaven." 9—10 Then the sacrificer offers an oblation. who dwells in the earth—world! Secure this world for me. will go thither when this life is over. he rises. Svaha!" Afterwards the sacrificer chants: "Cast away the bolt of the earth—world." This is addressed to the Adityas. To him the Rudras offer the world connected with the midday oblation. That is the world for the sacrificer. To him the Vasus offer the world connected with the morning oblation. reciting thus: "Adoration to Agni. reciting thus: "Adoration to Adityas and the Visve—devas. will go thither when this life is over.e. that we may rule this earth. sitting behind the Dakshina Fire and facing the north. sings the two Samans addressed to the Adityas and the Visve— devas: "O Fire! Open the door of the heaven—world. who dwell in the heaven— world! Secure this world for me. the sacrificer. Svaha!" Afterwards the sacrificer chants: "Cast away the bolt of the sky—world. the sacrificer. that we may rule wide in the sky—world. the sacrificer.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 244 . evening) oblation." 14—15 Then the sacrificer offers an oblation. he rises.

thus heated. he knows it.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 245 . The Rik—verses are the bees. radiance of the body. From it. the sacrificer. thus heated. Svaha! Afterwards the sacrificer chants: "Cast away the bolt of the heaven—world. vigour of the senses. 4 That essence flowed forth and went toward the sun and that forms what is called the red colour of the rising sun. The mid—region is the hive. virility and the food that is eaten. vigour of the senses." Having said this. The water of the sacrificial libation is the nectar of the flower."I. Heaven is the cross—beam. Chapter II — The Honey—Doctrine (Yajur—Veda) 1 The southern rays of the sun are the southern honey—cells. The ritual laid down in the Yajur— Veda is the flower. 16 To him the Adityas and the Visve—devas offer the world connected with the third oblation. the honey of the gods. will go thither when this life is over. From it. Source: "The Upanishads . He (the sacrificer) who knows this knows the measure of the sacrifice. yea. issued forth—as its essence—fame. The particles of water—vapours drawn by the sun through its rays are the eggs. Part Three Chapter 1 — The Honey—Doctrine (Rig—Veda) 1 Yonder sun is. issued forth—as its essence—fame. 2—3 The eastern rays of the sun are the eastern honey—cells. virility and the food that is eaten. verily. he rises. radiance of the body. 2 These Yajus—verses heated the Yajur—Veda. These Riks heated the Rig—Veda. The ritual laid down in the Rig— Veda is the flower. The water of the sacrificial libations is the nectar of the flower. The Yajus—verses are the bees.

radiance.3 That essence flowed forth and went toward the sun. issued forth—as its essence— fame.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 246 . virility and the food that is eaten. The Sama—Veda is the flower. radiance. That forms what is called the white colour of the sun. vigour of the senses. 3 That flowed forth and went toward the sun. Chapter IV — The Honey—Doctrine (Atharva—Veda) 1 The northern rays of the sun are the northern honey—cells. The verses of the Atharvangirasa are the bees. 3 That flowed forth and went toward the sun. virility and the food that is eaten. The Itihasa—purana is the flower. 2 The Samans heated the Sama—Veda. That forms what is called the extremely dark colour of the sun. 2 These very hymns of the Atharvangirasa heated the Itihasa— purana. The water is the nectar. Chapter III — The Honey—Doctrine (Sama—Veda) 1 The western rays of the sun are the western honey—cells. The water is the nectar. The Saman—verses are the bees. From it. thus heated. called the dark colour of the sun. From it. vigour of the senses. Source: "The Upanishads . issued forth—as its essence—fame. thus heated.

with Agni (fire) at their head. From It. Truly. 3 That flowed forth and went towards the sun. He retires into that red colour and again rises up from that colour. These are the nectars of the nectars.e. for the Vedas are the essences and these colours are.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 247 . They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. the upward rays of the sun are the honey—cells above. with Agni (fire) at their head. radiance. 4 These different colours in the sun are the essences of the essences. The water is the nectar. like the Vasus. immortal) and of them these colours in the sun are the nectars. enjoy rulership and sovereignty. 3 He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Vasus. again.Chapter V — The Honey—Doctrine (Continued) 1 Now. for the Vedas are the nectars (i. That forms what appears to stir in the centre of the sun. The secret teachings of the Upanishads are the bees. virility and the food that is eaten. thus heated. 4 As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. so long does he. Brahman (Om) is flower. 2 These secret teachings as the bees heated Brahman (Om). issued forth—as Its essence—fame. Chapter VI — Meditation on the Vasus 1 On the first of these nectars the Vasus live. 2 They retire into that red colour and rise up from that colour. he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. the gods do not eat or drink. vigour of the senses. Source: "The Upanishads . their essences.

4 As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north.Chapter VII — Meditation on the Rudras 1 On the second of these nectars the Rudras live. Chapter VIII — Meditation on the Adityas 1 On the third of these nectars the Adityas live. Truly. twice as long does it rise in the west and set in the east and just so long does he. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. 2 They retire into that white colour and rise up from that colour. Truly. with Varuna at their head. He retires into that white colour and again rises up from that colour. with Varuna at their head. the gods do not eat or drink. like the Adityas. the gods do not eat or drink. 2 They retire into that dark colour and rise up from that colour. enjoy rulership and sovereignty. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. with Indra at their head. 3 He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Rudras. 4 As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He returns into that dark colour and again rises up from that colour. enjoy rulership and sovereignty.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 248 . twice as long does it rise in the south and set in the north and just so long does he. he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. like the Rudras. with Indra at their head. 3 He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Adityas. Source: "The Upanishads .

He retires into that form and again rises up from that form. twice as long does it rise in the north and set in the south and just so long does he. with Brahma at their head. he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. twice as long does it rise above and set below and just so long does he.Chapter IX — Meditation on the Maruts 1 On the fourth of these nectars the Maruts live. Chapter X — Meditation on the Sadhyas 1 On the fifth of these nectars the Sadhyas live. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. 3 He who knows this nectar becomes one of the Sadhyas.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 249 . They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He retires into that extremely dark colour and again rises up from that colour. the gods do not eat or drink. with Soma at their head. like the Sadhyas. Source: "The Upanishads . Truly. 4 As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east. 2 Thy retire into that form and rise up from that form. 4 As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south. like the Maruts. enjoy rulership and sovereignty. Truly. with Brahma at their head. 2 They retire into that extremely dark colour and rise up from that colour. 3 He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Maruts. enjoy rulership and sovereignty. with Soma at their head. the gods do not eat or drink. he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

may I never fall from Brahman!" 3 Verily. whatever here exists. for this doctrine is worth more an that. Manu to his offspring.e. And on this there is the following verse: 2 "There (i. it (i. if this is true. for him who thus knows this Brahma—Upanishad. O ye gods. For him it is day for ever.e. full of treasure. 4 This doctrine Brahma told to Prajapati. 2 That Gayatri is also the earth. whatever here exists. yea. 6 It must not be told to anyone else. 5 A father may therefore tell that doctrine of Brahman to his eldest son to a worthy disciple. for everything that exists here rests on this earth and does not go beyond. the sun does not rise or set.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 250 . in Brahmaloka) the sun neither rises nor sets at any time. even if he should offer one the whole sea—girt earth.Chapter XI — The Result of the Meditation on the Honey 1 Now. Speech is verily the Gayatri. the sun) rises and sets no more. It remains alone in the centre. Chapter XII — Meditation on the Gayatri 1 The gayatri is everything. Prajapati to Manu. after having risen thence upwards. for speech sings forth (gaya—ti) and protects (traya—te) everything. it is worth more. And to Uddalaka Aruni this doctrine of Brahman was narrated by his father. Source: "The Upanishads .

in Itself) 7—9 The Brahman which has been thus described is the same as the physical akasa outside a person. Source: "The Upanishads . One should meditate on that as prosperity and fame. for the pranas exist in it and do not go beyond. 4 That body. He who knows this obtains full and unchanging prosperity.3 In man. 5 That Gayatri has four feet and is sixfold. is again the heart within a man. Chapter XIII — Meditation on the Door—Keepers 1 Of that heart there are five doors controlled by the devas. the immortal three feet are in heaven (i. that Gayatri is also the body.e. That which is the eastern door is the prana—that is the eye. One should meditate on that as brightness and the source of food. of Brahman as known through the symbol of the Gayatri). in man. 2 That which is the southern gate is the vyana—that is the ear. The akasa which is inside a person is the akasa within the heart. He who knows this becomes bright and an eater of food. The akasa which is within the heart is omnipresent and unchanging. He who knows this becomes prosperous and famous. The akasa which is outside a person is the same as that which is inside a person. for the pranas exist in this body and do not go beyond. Greater than it is the Person (Brahman). One of Its feet covers all beings. that is Chandrama (the moon).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 251 .e. that is Aditya (the sun). The same is also declared by a Rik—verse: 6 "Such is its greatness (i.

by covering the ears. above everything. the door—keepers of the world of heaven. 7—8 Now. himself attains the world of heaven. He who knows becomes conspicuous and celebrated. he becomes celebrated. Source: "The Upanishads . that is Parjanya (the rain—god). what is like the rumbling of a carriage. He who knows this becomes famous and beautiful. And of it we have this audible proof: when we thus hear. the light which shines above this heaven. One should meditate on that as the radiance of Brahman and the source of food. One should worship as Brahman that inner light which is seen and heard. or the bellowing of an ox. 4 That which is the northern gate is the samana—that is the mind. He who thus knows these five servants of Brahman. He who thus knows the five servants of Brahman. in the highest worlds not excelled by any other worlds. 6 These are the five servants of Brahman. One should meditate on that as fame and beauty. that is the akasa. Now. From It the universe comes forth. 5 That which is the upper gate is the udana—that is Vayu. verily. Therefore a man should meditate on Brahman with a calm mind. above all the worlds. yea. There is this visible of this light: when we thus perceive by touch the warmth in the body. that is the same light which is within man. He who knows this becomes radiant and an eater of food. One should meditate on that as strength and greatness. or the sound of a blazing fire. the door—keepers of the world of heaven—in his family a hero is born. that is Agni (fire). Chapter XIV — The Sandilya Doctrine 1 All this is Brahman. As he wills in this world. He who knows this becomes strong and great. in It the universe merges and in It the universe breathes. the door—keepers of the world of heaven.3 That which is the western gate is the apana—that is speech. a man consists of will.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 252 .

I take refuge in Bhuh with this one and Source: "The Upanishads . greater than all these worlds. smaller than a grain of rice. I take refuge in the prana with this one and this one and this one. whose form is light. 2—3 He who consists of the mind. greater than heaven. Inside it are all things. who cherishes all desires. greater than the earth. the western quarter Rajni and the northern quarter Subhuta. I know the air to be the child of the quarters. who never speaks and who is without longing— He is my Self within the heart. who contains all odours. When I shall have departed hence I shall certainly reach Him: one who has this faith and has no doubt will certainly attain to that Godhead. who embraces all this. whose creation in this universe. 2 The eastern quarter is called Juhu. with the mid—region for its inside and the earth for its bottom. smaller than a grain of millet.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 253 . Chapter XV — Meditation on the Universe as a Chest 1 The chest of the universe. greater than the mid—region. yea. The quarters are its different corners and heaven is its lid. who contains all pleasant odours. Vayu the air is their child. smaller than a mustard seed. thus he said. who is endowed with all tastes. whose nature is like the akasa. This chest is the storehouse of treasures. who is endowed with all tastes. whose thoughts are true. does not decay. 3 I take refuge in the imperishable chest with this one and this one and this one. He is my Self within the heart. 4 He whose creation is this universe.so does he become when he has departed hence. He is that Brahman. who embraces all this. smaller than a grain of barley. who cherishes all righteous desires. who never speaks and who is without longing—He is my Self within the heart. the southern quarter Sahamana. Thus said Sandilya. He who knows this Vayu as the child of the quarters never weeps for his sons. may I never weep for my sons. which is above. Let him with this knowledge in mind form his will. whose body is subtle.

" what I really said was: "I refuge in the earth. 2 If anything ails him during that period. Chapter XVI — Man as a Sacrifice (I) 1 A person." what I said was: "I take in fire. The pranas are the Vasus. His first twenty—four years constitute the morning libation. that is what I said. The Vasus are connected with that part of the sacrifice." prana meant everything that exists here—in that I take refuge." 6 Then I said: "I take refuge in Bhuvah. I take refuge Svah with this one and this one and this one. May I. Yajur—Veda and Sama—Veda. 5 When I said: "I take refuge in Bhuh.this one and this one." what I said was: "I take refuge in the Rig—Veda. they make everything abide (visayanti) in this body. for. The Rudras are Source: "The Upanishads . who am a sacrifice." That is what I said. The Gayatri metre has twenty—four syllables and the morning libation is offered with Gayatri hymns. the air and the sun. 4 When I said: "I take refuge in the prana. he should recite the following mantra: "O ye pranas.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 254 . is a sacrifice. not disappear in the midst of the pranas. yea. the mid—region and heaven. The Tristubh metre has forty—four syllables and the midday libation is offered with Tristubh hymns. ye Vasus. unite this morning libation with the midday libation. 3 His next forty—four years constitute the midday libation. indeed." Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it. who are the Vasus. I take refuge in Bhuvah with this one and this one and this one." 7 When I said: "I take refuge in Svah. verily.

he should recite the following mantra: "O ye pranas. Source: "The Upanishads . unite this midday libation with the third libation. they make everything weep (rodayanti). 3 When a man laughs.connected with that part of the sacrifice. 7 Mahidasa. who am a sacrifice. The Adityas are connected with that part of the sacrifice. who are the Adityas.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 255 . they take up (adadate) every—thing. verily." Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it. 6 If anything ails him during that third period. who are the Rudras. for. knew this and said addressing a disease: "O you disease! Why do you afflict me? I shall not die of this pain" He lived a hundred and sixteen years." Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it. Chapter XVII — Man as a Sacrifice (II) 1 When a man hungers. extend this my third libation to the full age. eats and enjoys sexual intercourse—these are Stuta and Sastra. he then participates in Upasadas. 5 His next forty—eight years constitute the third oblation. 2 When he eats. ye Rudras. who knows this lives on to a hundred and sixteen years. 4 If anything ails him during that second period. He. not disappear in the midst of the pranas. May I. drinks and enjoys pleasures. The pranas are the Rudras. ye Adityas. not disappear in the midst of the pranas. thirsts and abstains from pleasures— these are his initiatory rites. for. May I. too. the son of Itara. who am a sacrifice. The Jagati metre has forty—eight syllables and the third oblation is offered with Jagati hymns. he should recite the following mantra: "O ye pranas. The pranas are the Adityas. verily.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 256 . we have reached the Highest Light. ‘Perceiving the higher light in the sun—which is above the darkness of ignorance—as the higher light in the heart. or his mother has given birth (asoshta) to him. the knowers of Brahman) see everywhere the Supreme Light. almsgiving. One should meditate on the akasa as Brahman—this is to said with reference to the gods. uprightness. His death is the Avabhritha. yea. we have reached the Highest Light. the most luminous among the gods. Source: "The Upanishads . non—violence and truthfulness—these are the gifts (dakshina) for the priests. the Sun." This is his birth. The same words are used in the Soma—sacrifice and mean: "He will pour out the Soma— juice" and "He has poured out the Soma—juice.4 Austerity. 6 Ghora.e. the son of Devaki—and it quenched Krishna’s thirst for any other knowledge—and said: "When a man approaches death he should take refuge in these three thoughts: ‘Thou art indestructible (akshata). which is all— pervading like the light of day and which belongs to the primeval Seed.’ ‘Thou art unchanging (aprachyuta). of the line of Angirasa. Thus both—the meditation with reference to the body and the meditation with reference to the gods—are being taught. the most luminous among the gods.’ "On this subject there are two Rik—verses: 7 "They (i." Chapter XVIII – The Mind and the Akasa as Symbols of Brahman 1 One should meditate on the mind as Brahman—this is said with reference to the body. the Sun. 5 Because the life of a man is a sacrifice therefore they say that his mother will give birth (soshyati) to him. which shines in Brahman.’ and ‘Thou art the subtle prana. communicated this teaching to Krishna. perceiving the Supreme Light which is higher than all lights.

An explanation thereof follows: In the beginning this universe was non—existent. It turned into an egg. a fourth foot of Brahman. This is the twofold meditation with reference to the body and with reference to the gods. the other of gold. Vayu (air) is one foot. The egg lay for the period of a year. one half was of silver. Source: "The Upanishads .A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 257 . indeed. It shines and warms with the light of fire. Now with reference to the gods: Agni (fire) is one foot. 6 The ear. indeed. with renown and with the radiance of Brahman. is a fourth foot of Brahman. a fourth foot (quarter) of Brahman of which the mind is a symbol. 3 Speech is. the prana (the nose) is one foot. indeed. It shines and warms with the light of the sun. Chapter XIX — Meditation on the Sun as Brahman 1 The sun is Brahman: this is the teaching. with renown and with the radiance of Brahman.2 That Brahman has four feet (quarters): speech is one foot. 4 Prana (the nose) is. 5 The eye. indeed. who knows this. He who knows this shines and warms with fame. He who knows this shines and warms with fame. the ear is one foot—this is to said with reference to the body. He who knows this shines and warms with fame. with renown and with the radiance of Brahman he shines and warms who knows this. It shines and warms with the light of the air. Aditya (the sun) is one foot and the quarters (disah) are one foot. the eye is one foot. with renown and with the radiance of Brahman. is a fourth foot of Brahman. Of the two halves of the egg—shell. With fame. Then it broke open. It grew. It became existent. It shines and warms with the light of the quarters. yea.

together with all beings and all objects of desire. 4 He who. knowing this. lest it should burn you. 3 And what was born of it was yonder Aditya. the man with the cart?" Source: "The Upanishads . The veins became the rivers. He bestowed his gifts with respect. heaven. the must and the clouds.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 258 . the great—grandson of Janasruta. who was a great— grandson of Janasruta. has spread to the sky. when it was born shouts of "Hurrah!" arose. yea. meditates on the sun as Brahman— pleasant sounds will quickly approach him and continue to delight him. gave away liberally and cooked much food for the hungry.2 That which was of silver became the earth. Do not touch it. the man with the cart?" "What sort of person is this Raikva. One flamingo said to another: "Hey! Ho! Short—sighted. Part Four Chapter I — The Story of Janasruti and Raikva 1 There once lived a king named Janasruti. Therefore at its rise and its every return shouts of "Hurrah!" together with all beings and all objects of desire arise. 2 One night some flamingos were flying along. that which was of gold. the fluid in the bladder. who is this person about whom you have spoken as though he were like Raikva." 3 The other replied: "Say. Short—sighted! The radiance of Janasruti. the ocean. the sun. the thin membrane of the yolk. continue to delight him. What was the thick membrane of the white became the mountains. He built rest—houses every—where with the thought that people everywhere would eat his food.

" he answered." Chapter II — Dialogue of Raikva and Janasruti (I) 1—2 Then Janasruti the great—grandson of Janasruta took with him six hundred cows. As Raikva I describe him. I am he. the lower ones also are won." 8 After proper search the attendant came upon a person who. where a knower of Brahman is to searched for. when the krita is won. look for him there. when the krita is won. Then the attendant returned.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 259 . Immediately after getting out of bed. was scratching an itch.4 The short—sighted flamingo replied: "As in a game of dice. who knows what Raikva knows. revered Sir. lying underneath his cart. saying to himself: "I have found him out. here are six hundred cows. teach me the deity whom you worship." 5—6 Janasruti the great—grandson of Janasruta overheard this conversation. Humbly he took his seat near him and said: "Revered Sir. did you speak of me as though I were Raikva. too. so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. are you Raikva. a necklace and a chariot with mules and went to Raikva and said: "Raikva. Pray. the man with the cart?" "What sort of person is Raikva." 7 The attendant searched for him and returned without finding him. he said to his attendant: "Friend. the lower ones also are won." Source: "The Upanishads . too. who knows what Raikva knows. Then the king said to him: "Listen. so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him. a necklace and a chariot with mules. the man with the cart?" "As in a game of dice. the man with the cart?" "Oh yes.

this is good. sight goes into the prana. Now Raikva said to the king: Chapter III — Dialogue of Raikva and Janasruti (II) 1 "Verily.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 260 . Raikva said: "O Sudra! You brought these cows and other presents. a necklace. When the moon sets it is swallowed by the air. Vayu (the air) is the swallower (samvarga)." Source: "The Upanishads .e." 5 Then considering her (the princess) as the door for imparting knowledge. O Sudra. teach me. too and went to Raikva. For indeed the prana absorbs them all. may the necklace and the chariot remain with you. 3 "Now with reference to the body: Verily. speech goes into the prana. hearing goes into the prana and the mind goes into the prana. the prana among the senses. Revered Sir. in the country of Mahavrishas. 2 "When water dries up it is swallowed by the air. the princess). this wife and this village where you shall dwell. a chariot with mules." Thereupon Janasruti the great—grandson of Janasruta took with him a thousand cows.3 To him the other said: "Ah. 4 Janasruti said to him: "Raikva. here are a thousand cows. a necklace and his own daughter. When a man sleeps. a chariot with mules. For indeed the air absorbs them all. 4 "These are the two swallowers: the air among the gods. along with the cows. When the sun sets it is swallowed by the air." These are the villages named Raikvaparna. where Raikva lived. the prana is the swallower. But you will make me speak now only through this means (i. For when fire goes out it is indeed swallowed by the air. So much with reference to the gods.

who knows this. the truly wise one. yea. my child. were being waited upon at their meal. O descendent of Kapi. when a brahmacharin begged food of them.e. swallowed the four great ones. I wish to become a brahmacharin. the moon and water. Prajapati. pondering on those words. He is the Guardian of the world. of what ancestry you are. which are its food) make ten. These together constitute the krita (the highest throw in a game of dice). with unbroken teeth. mortals do not see Him though he abides in manifold forms. They speak of His magnificence as great. the creator of all beings. On account of this similarity of ten. He eats even what is not common food. the eater prana and the organs of speech. Now these five (i. O brahmacharin.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 261 . Satyakama the son of Jabala addressed his mother and said: "Revered Mother. the son of Kakshasena." 7 Sanaka of the line of Kapi. because without being eaten. they are Virat. They did not give him anything. who knows this. Of what ancestry am I?" 2 She said to him: "I do not know. went to the brahmacharin and said: "He is the self of the gods. the sun.5 Once Saunaka of the line of Kapi and Abhipratarin. the eye. 6 He said: "One God. In my youth I was preoccupied with many household duties and with attending on guests when I conceived you. we meditate upon this Brahman. Verily." 8 They gave food to him. by which all this becomes seen. which are its food) and those five (i. the eater of food. the ear and the mind. this food has not been given to Him to whom it belongs. Chapter IV — The Story of Satyakama 1 Once upon a time." Then he said to the attendants: "Give him food. these ten are the food in the ten quarters and further. I do Source: "The Upanishads . the eater. All this he sees and the eater of food he becomes. O Abhipratarin. the eater vayu and fire.e.

dear friend?" Satyakama said: "I do not know. Fetch the fuel. Satyakama said: "I shall not return until they become a thousand. Revered Sir. dear friend. Sir. 2 "I will declare to you one foot of Brahman. the west is one quarter. said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied. of what ancestry I am. I asked my mother about it and she replied: ‘In my youth I was preoccupied with many household duties and with attending on guests when I conceived you.’ I am therefore. Source: "The Upanishads . Having separated out four hundred lean and weak cows from his herd.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 262 . I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama. the south is one quarter. dear friend. take us to teacher’s house. the north is one quarter. When the cows had become a thousand— Chapter V — Instruction by the Bull 1 The bull of the herd. I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama. Sir. So you may speak of yourself as Satyakama Jabala (the son of Jabala). I wish to live with you as a brahmacharin." He lived a number of years in the forest. he said: "Dear friend. You have not departed from truth. I do not know of what ancestry you are. This." He initiated Satyakama. go with these.not know of what ancestry you are." Driving them away toward the forest. addressing him. May I approach you. is foot of Brahman. I shall initiate you. The bull said: "Dear friend. consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Prakasavat (shining). we have become a thousand. 3 He came to Gautama the son of Haridrumata and said: "Revered Sir." 5 Gautama said: "None but a true brahmin would thus speak out." "Declare it. as a pupil?" 4 Gautama said to him: "Of what ancestry are you. Satyakama Jabala." The bull said to him: "The east is one quarter.

" Satyakama then. This. consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Anantavat (endless). the ocean is one quarter. heaven is one quarter. I will declare to you one foot of Brahman. he lighted a fire." Chapter VII — Instruction by Fire 1 The bull further said: "Agni (fire) will declare to you another foot of Brahman. And when they came together Source: "The Upanishads . drove the cows in the direction of the teacher’s house. laid fuel on the fire and sat down behind the fire." Agni said to him: "The earth is one quarter. facing the east. is one foot of Brahman. the sky is one quarter. He conquers shining worlds—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as shining. when it was the morrow. 2 Agni (fire). 4 "He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as endless. dear friend. 3 "Dear friend. when it was the morrow. said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied. He conquers endless worlds—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as endless. penned the cows.3 "He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting four quarters as shining. becomes shining on this earth." "Declare it. becomes endless on this earth." Satyakama then. drove the cows in the direction of the teacher’s house.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 263 . revered Sir. addressing him. And when they came together toward evening." Chapter VII — Instruction by the Swan 1 Agni further said: "A hamsa (swan) will declare to you another foot.

is one foot of Brahman. And when they came together toward evening. 2 Then a swan flew to him and said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied. the moon is one quarter. the ear is one quarter. facing the east. drove the cows in the direction of the teacher’s house. 3 Dear friend." Satyakama then. I will declare to you one foot of Brahman. lightning is one quarter." "Declare it." The swan said to him: "Fire is one quarter. revered Sir. consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Ayatanavat (having support). penned the cows. I will declare to you one foot of Brahman. This.toward evening." The diver—bird said to him: "The prana is one quarter. dear friend. Chapter VIII — Instruction by the Diver—Bird 1 The swan further said: "A madgu (diver—bird) will declare to you another foot. becomes luminous on this earth.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 264 . 3 "Dear friend. Source: "The Upanishads . laid fuel on the fire and sat down behind the fire. 2 Then a diver—bird flew to him and said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied. the eye is one quarter. the sun is one quarter. the mind is one quarter. he lighted a fire. is one foot of Brahman. laid fuel on the fire and sat down behind the fire. This. penned the cows. 4 He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as luminous. revered Sir. He conquers luminous worlds—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as luminous. when it was the morrow. he lighted a fire. consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Jyotishmat (luminous)." "Declare it. facing the east. dear friend.

" Chapter IX — Instruction by the Teacher 1 Satyakama reached the teacher’s house. went away on a journey without teaching him. you shine like one who knows Brahman." 3 "For I have heard from persons like your good self that only knowledge which is learnt from a teacher (acharya) leads to the highest good. The teacher said to him: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied. 2 The teacher said: "Dear friend. possesses a support (i. Satyakama allowed his other pupils to return to their homes after they had finished their Vedic studies but did not allow Upakosala to depart. practising austerities. revered Sir.4 "He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as Ayatanavat. "But I wish." Then he (Gautama) taught him the same knowledge. Give him instruction lest the fires should blame you. Source: "The Upanishads .A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 265 . Nothing whatsoever was left out. 2 Then his wife said to him: "This brahmachirin. He conquers the worlds which offer a home—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as Ayatanavat. home) on this earth. that you alone should teach me.e. has intelligently tended your fires. He tended his teacher’s fires for twelve years. Chapter X — The Story of Upakosala 1 Upakosala the son of Kamala dwelt as a brahmachirin (religious student) with Satyakama the son of Jabala." he replied. nothing whatsoever was left out." The teacher. however. Who has taught you?" "Others than men. yea.

food and the sun are my forms." Chapter XII — Instruction by the Southern Fire 1 Then the Anvaharya (Southern) Fie taught him: "Water.e.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 266 . meditates on the fire. 2 "He who. I am he indeed. We support him in this world and in the other who. His descendants do not perish. the quarters.3 The brahmachirin out of mental grief began to fast. ka (joy) is Brahman. let us teach him. reaches his full age and lives brightly. knowing this. The person that is seen in the sun—I am he. I will not eat. Brahman) and the akasa related to it. meditates on the fire frees himself from sinful actions. The person that is seen in the moon—I am he. has intelligently tended us. I am full of sorrows. Chapter XI — Instruction by the Household Fire 1 Next the Garhapatya Fire taught him: "The earth. Source: "The Upanishads . I am he indeed." 5 He said: "I understand that the prana is Brahman." They said to him: "The prana is Brahman. why do you not eat?" He said: "There are in a man like me many desires directed to various objects." They taught him the prana (i. obtains the World of the Garhapatya Fire. Come." They said: "What is joy (ka) is the akasa (kha). what is the akasa (kha) is joy (ka). but I do not understand ‘joy’ (ka) and ‘the akasa’ (kha)." 4 Thereupon the fires said among themselves: "This brahmachirin. Then the teacher’s wife said to him: "Brahmachirin. the stars and the moon are my forms. fire. knowing this. practising austerities. kha (the akaha) is Brahman.

But the teacher will teach you the way. knowing this. please tell me.2 "He who. reaches his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. knowing this. His descendants do not perish. the akaha." The teacher returned and said to him: "Upakosala!" 2—3 He replied: "Revered Sir!" "Dear friend." Upakosala said to him: "Revered Sir." "Dear friend." Chapter XIV — Dialogue between the Teacher and the Pupil 1 Then they (i. The teacher said: "They told you. meditates on the fire frees himself from sinful actions." Upakosala replied and repeated some of what the fires had told him. heaven and lightning are my forms. meditates on the fire. though they were of a different form before. As water does not cling to the lotus leaf. Sir?" Here he conceals the fact. thus we taught you the knowledge of ourselves and the knowledge of the Self. knowing this. your face shines like that of one who knows Brahman. The person that is seen in lightning—I am he. dear friend. dear friend. meditates on the fire frees himself from sinful actions. as it were. And he said pointing to the fires: "For this reason they are of this form now." Chapter XIII — Instruction by the Ahavaniya Fire 1 Then the Ahavaniya Fire taught him: "The prana. Who has taught you?" "Who should teach me. but I shall tell you about Brahman. 2 "He who. reaches his full age and lives brightly.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 267 . meditates on the fire. We support him in this world and in the other who. only about the worlds. I am he indeed. obtains the World of the Anvaharya Fire." Source: "The Upanishads . what did they teach you?" "This.e. We support him in this world and in the other who. knowing this. so no evil clings to one who knows this. all the fires) said: "Upakosala. obtains the World of the Anvaharya Fire.

if one drops melted butter or water in the eye. the fearless. 3 "He is also Vamani. for all blessings (vama) go towards him (samyanti). He who knows this carries all blessings. And because. for he. from the year to the sun. purifies everything. it flows away on both sides. from the bright half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the north. this is Brahman. Source: "The Upanishads . he goes to light. from day to the bright half of the moon. the path leading to Brahman. the air) is the sacrifice. from light to day.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 268 . he is the sacrifice.e. 2 "The seers call him Samyadvama. he who moves along (i." Chapter XVI — The Silence of the Brahma Priest 1 Verily. from the sun to the moon. 4 "He is also called Bhamani. moving along. whether or not they perform the funeral rites for such a person. for he shines (bhati) in all the worlds. Those who travel by it do not return to the whirl of humanity. 5 "Now. the mind and speech are the two ways. from the moon to lightning. This is the Path of the Gods (Devayana). Of that sacrifice. That is why. All blessings go towards him who knows this. he purifies everything. This is the immortal. for he carries to living beings (nayati) all blessings (vama). yea. There a person who is not a human being meets him and leads him to Brahman. He who knows this shines in all the worlds. they do not return. moving along. from those months to the year.Chapter XV — Instruction by the Teacher 1 He said: "The person that is seen in the eye—that is the Self.

Following the success of the sacrifice. the sacrificer too is injured. vayu (air) from the mid—region and aditya (the sun) from heaven. the three Vedas). Chapter XVII — Penances for Mistakes in the Sacrifice 1 Prajapati brooded over the worlds. from them.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 269 . likewise the sacrifice is injured. from them. he purifies only one of the ways (i.e. from them. If the Brahma priest.e.e. Following the injury to the sacrifice. Bhuvah from the Yajus—verses and Svah from the Saman—verses. thus brooded over. By performing the defective sacrifice he becomes more sinful. is injured.e. speech). or a carriage going on one wheel. after the Prataranuvaka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya hymn. 4 But if the Brahma priest. he purifies both the ways and neither of them is injured. As a man walking on one leg. he squeezed the essences: agni (fire) from the earth. thus brooded over. the adhvaryu priest and the udgatri priest. The other (i. speech) is purified through words by the hotri priest.2—3 The Brahma priest purifies one of the two (i. the mind) by his mind. 3 He brooded over the threefold knowledge (i. likewise the sacrifice goes on without obstacle. does not break his silence and speak. the mind) is injured. after the Prataranuvaka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya. the sacrificer too fares well. 2 He brooded over these three deities. breaks his silence and speaks. Source: "The Upanishads . thus brooded over. The Rik—verses from fire. he squeezed the essences: Bhuh from the Rik—verses. As a man walking on two legs or a carriage going on two wheels goes on without obstacle. he squeezed the essences. the Yajus—verses from the air and the Saman—verses from the sun.e. but the other (i. Having performed the sacrifice he becomes better.

the sacrificer and all the priests. one should then offer a libation in the Garhapatya Fire saying: "Bhuh Svaha!" Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Rik—verses by means of the essence and the power of the Rik—verses themselves. yea. as a mare protects a warrior. Because the Brahma priest who knows this protects the sacrifice. 6 If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Saman—verses. one should then offer a libation in the Ahavaniya Fire. Source: "The Upanishads . one should therefore make a person who knows this the Brahma priest and not one who knows it not." The silent Brahma alone. 9—10 That sacrifice is inclined to the north in which there is a Brahma priest who knows this. 7—8 As one binds gold by means of borax and silver by means of gold and tin by means of silver and lead by means of tin and iron by means of lead and wood by means of iron or leather. there is the following gatha: "Wherever it is injured. as one or the priests. That sacrifice is well healed in which there is a Brahma priest who knows this. these gods and these three Vedas. not one who knows it not. Likewise one heals any injury done to the sacrifice with the power of these worlds. protects the sacrificer. 5 If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Yajus—verses. saying: "Bhuvah Svaha!" Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Yajus—verses by means of the essence and the power of the Yajus—verses themselves. thither he (the Brahma priest) goes. one should then offer a libation in the Southern (Dakshina) Fire. And with regard to such a Brahma priest. saying: "Svah Svaha!" Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Saman—verses by means of the essence and the power of the Saman—verses themselves.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 270 .4 If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Rik—verses.

The ear. is the oldest and greatest. each saying: "I am the best. 6 The pranas (sense—organs) disputed among themselves about who was the best among them. it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs replied: "We lived just as dumb Source: "The Upanishads . After being away for a whole year. indeed. The prana. is the most excellent. their progenitor and said: "O revered Sir.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 271 . indeed. his wishes are fulfilled— both divine and human wishes. 3 He who knows what has the attributes of firmness (pratishtha) becomes firm in this world and the next. 5 He who knows the abode (ayatana) becomes the abode of his kinsmen. is endowed with firmness. is prosperity." "I am the best. indeed. The eye.Part Five Chapter I — The Supremacy of the Prana 1 Om. The organ of speech. who is the best among us?" He said to them: "He by whose departure the body looks worse than the worst is the best among you." 8 The organ of speech departed. is the abode. The mind. indeed." 7 They went to Prajapati. indeed. 4 He who knows prosperity (sampad). He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes himself the oldest and greatest. 2 He who knows what is the most excellent (vasishtha) becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen.

" 13 Then the organ of speech said to him: "That attribute of being most excellent which I possess is thine." Then the eye said: "That attribute of firmness which I possess is thine. 10 The ear went out. After being away for a whole year.people live.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 272 . without seeing. hearing with the ear and thinking with the mind. thou art the best among us." Source: "The Upanishads . 9 The eye departed. They came to him and said: "Revered Sir. without speaking. but breathing with the prana. hearing with the ear and thinking with the mind. Speaking with the tongue." Then the organ of speech entered the body. seeing with the eye. but breathing with the prana. seeing with the eye and thinking with the mind. speaking with the tongue." Then the mind entered the body." Then the eye entered the body. but breathing with the prana. he uprooted the organs from their places just as a noble horse tears up the pegs to which its feet are tied. Do not depart from us. seeing with the eye and hearing with the ear. but breathing with the prana (nose). 12 Then as the vital breath was about to depart. it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs replied: "We lived just as blind people live. be thou our lord. it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs replied: "We lived just like children whose minds are not yet formed. without thinking with the mind. speaking with the tongue. After being away for a whole year. without hearing. it came back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?" The other organs replied: "We lived just as deaf people live. 11 The mind went out. After being away for a whole year." Then the ear entered the body.

14 Then the ear said: "That attribute of prosperity which I possess is thine." Then the mind said: "That attribute of being the abode which I possess is thine." 15 And people do not call them (i.e. the sense—organs) the organs of speech, the eyes, the ears, or the mind, but the pranas. The prana alone is all these. Chapter II — The Mantha Rite 1 The prana said: "What will be my food?" They answered: "Whatever food there is—including that of dogs and birds." The Upanishad says: All that is eaten is the food of the ana. Ana is his (i.e. the prana’s) direct name. For one who knows this, there exists nothing which is not food. 2 He said: "What will be my dress?" They answered: "Water." Therefore when people eat they cover him (the prana), both before and after eating, with water. Thus the prana obtains clothing and is no longer naked. 3 Satyakama the son of Jabala explained this doctrine of the prana to Gosruti, the son of Vyaghrapada and said: "If one should tell this to a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth." 4 Now, if a man wishes to attain greatness, he should perform the initiatory rite on the day of the new moon and then on the night of the full moon he should stir a paste of all the herbs with curds and honey and offer it as a libation in the fire where the melted butter is offered, saying: "Svaha to the oldest (jyashtha) and greatest (sreshtha)!" Then let him throw the remainder adhering to the ladle into the paste.

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5 In the same manner he should offer a libation in the fire where the melted butter is offered, saying: "Svaha to the most excellent (vasishtha)!" Then let him throw the remainder adhering to the ladle into the paste. In the same manner he should offer a libation into the fire where the melted butter is offered, saying: "Svaha to firmness (pratishthi)!" and then throw the remainder adhering to the ladle into the paste. In the same manner he should offer a libation in the fire where the melted butter is offered, saying: "Svaha to prosperity (sampad)!" and then throw the remainder adhering to the ladle into the paste. In the same manner he should offer a libation into the fire where the melted butter is offered, saying: "Svaha to the abode (ayatana)!" and then throw the remainder adhering to the ladle into the paste. 6 Then, moving away a little from the fire and holding the paste (mantha) in his hands, he recites: "Thou (prana) art ama by name, for all this rests in thee. He (i.e. the paste, which is the same as the prana) is the oldest, the greatest, the king and the sovereign. May he make me the oldest, the greatest, the king and the sovereign. May I be all this!" 7 Then he recites the following Rik—mantra, swallowing the paste (mantha) each time he utters a foot of the mantra: "We desire, of the great progenitor (i.e. the sun)"—here he swallows a little—"of the luminous, the food"—here he swallows a little— "the best and all—supporting"—here he swallows a little—"we meditate quickly on the nature of the sun"—here he swallows the whole. Having cleansed the vessel made of metal or wood, he lies down behind the fire, on a skin or on the bare ground, controlling his speech and self—possessed. If he sees a woman in a dream, then let him know that his work (rite) has been a success. 8 On this there is the following verse: "If during rites performed with a view to fulfilling certain desires, he sees a woman in his dream, let him know of his success from this vision in a dream, yea, from this vision in a dream."

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Chapter III — The Story of Svetaketu and Pravahana 1 Svetaketu the grandson of Aruna came to the assembly of the Panchalas. Pravahana the son of Jibala said to him: "Boy, has your father instructed you?" "Yes, revered Sir," he replied. 2 The king said: "Do you know to what place men go after departing from here?" "No, revered Sir." "Do you know how they return again?" "No, revered Sir." "Do you know where the paths leading to the gods and leading to the Manes separate?" "No, revered Sir." 3 "Do you know why yonder world is not filled up?" "No, revered Sir." "Do you know how water, in the fifth oblation, comes to be called man?" "No, revered Sir." 4 "Then why did you say that you had been instructed? How could he who did not know these things say that he had been instructed?" Then Svetaketu went back to his father with a sorrowful mind and said to him: "Revered Sir, you told me that you had instructed me, though you had not instructed me. 5 "That fellow of a Kshatriya asked me five questions and I could not answer one of them." The father said: "As you have stated these questions to me, let me assure you that I do not know even one of them. If I had known them, why should I not have told them to you?" 6 Then Gautama went to the king’s place. When he arrived the king showed him proper respect. Next morning, when the king came to the assembly, Gautama, too, came there.

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The king said to him: "Gautama, Sir, ask of me a boon relating to human wealth." He replied: "May human wealth remain with you. Tell me that speech which you addressed to my boy." The king became sad. 7 The king commanded him: "Stay with me for a long time." Then he said to him: "As to what you have told me, O Gautama, this knowledge did not reach any brahmin before you. Thus it was to the kshatriya alone, among all the people, that the teaching of this knowledge belonged." Then he began to teach him: Chapter IV — The Five Fires (I) 1 "Yonder world is the sacrificial fire, O Gautama, the sun the fuel, the rays the smoke, daytime the flame, the moon the embers and the stars the sparks. 2 "In this fire the gods offer faith as libation. Out of that offering King Moon is born." Chapter V — The Five Fires (II) 1 "Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is the fire, the air the fuel, the cloud the smoke, lightning the flame, the thunderbolt the embers and thunderings the sparks. 2 "In this fire the gods offer King Moon as libation. Out of that offering rain is born." Chapter VI— The Five Fires (III) 1 "The earth, O Gautama, is the fire, the year the fuel, the akasa the smoke, the night the flame, the quarters the embers and the intermediate quarters the sparks.

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2 "In this fire the gods offer rain as libation. Out of that offering food is born." Chapter VII— The Five Fires (IV) 1 O Gautama, is the fire, speech is the fuel, the prana the smoke, the tongue the flame, the eye the embers and the ear the sparks. 2 "In this fire the gods offer food as libation. Out of that offering semen produced." Chapter VIII — The Five Fires (V) 1 "Woman, O Gautama, is the fire, her sexual organ is the fuel, what invites is the smoke, the vulva is the flame, what is done inside is the embers, the pleasures are the sparks. 2 "In this fire the gods offer semen as libation. Out of that offering the foetus is formed." Chapter IX — Birth and Death 1 "Thus in the fifth libation water comes to be called man. The foetus enclosed in the membrane, having lain inside for ten or nine months, or more or less, is born. 2 "Having been born, he lives whatever the length of his life may be. When he is dead, they carry him to the fire of the funeral pyre whence he came, whence he arose." Chapter X — The Various Paths followed after Death 1—2 "Those who know this and those who, dwelling in the forest, practise faith and austerities go to light, from light to day, from

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day to the bright half of the moon, from the bright half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the north, from those months to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to lightning. There a person who is not a human being meets him and leads him to Brahman. This is the Path of the Gods (Devayana). 3 "But those who, living in the village, perform sacrifices, undertake works of public utility and give alms go to smoke, from smoke to night, from night to the dark half of the moon, from the dark half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the south. But they do not reach the year. 4 "From those months they go to the World of the Manes, from the world of the Manes to the akasa, from the akasa to the moon. This is King Soma. They are the food of the gods. Them the gods eat. 5—6 "Having dwelt there in the lunar world till their good works are consumed, they return again the same way they came. They first reach the akasa and from the akasa the air. Having become air, they become smoke; having become smoke, they become mist; "Having become mist, they become cloud; having become cloud, they fall as rain—water. Then they are born as rice and barley, herbs and trees, sesamum and beans. Thence the exit is most difficult; for whoever capable of begetting children eats that food and injects semen, they become like unto him. 7 "Those whose conduct here on earth has been good will quickly attain some good birth—birth as a brahmin, birth as a kshatriya, or birth as a vaisya. But those whose conduct here has been evil will quickly attain some evil birth—birth as a dog, birth as a pig, or birth as a chandala. 8 "Those who neither practise meditation nor perform rituals do not follow either of these ways. They become those insignificant creatures which are continually revolving and about which it may be said: ‘Live and die.’ This is the third place.

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"Therefore that world never becomes full. Let a man despise this course. To this end there is the following verse: 9 ‘ "A man who steals the gold of a brahmin, he (i.e. a brahmin) who drinks liquor, he who dishonours his teacher’s bed and he who kills a brahmin—these four fall, as also a fifth who associates with them.’ " 10 "But he who knows these Five Fires is not stained by sin even though associating with them. He becomes pure and clean and obtains the world of the blessed—he who knows this, yea, he who knows this." Chapter XI — Concerning the Universal Self 1 Prachinasala the son of Upamanyu, Satyayajna the son of Pulusha, Indradyumna the grandson of Bhallavi, Jana the son of Sarkaraksha and Budila the son of Asvatarasva—great householders and great scriptural scholars—came together and discussed the question: "What is our self and what is Brahman?" 2 They solved the problem with the words: "Revered Sirs, Uddalaka the son of Aruna knows, at present, about the Vaisvanara Self. Let us go to him." They went to him. 3 He (Uddalaka) concluded: "These great householders and great scriptural scholars will question me. Perhaps I shall not be able to tell them everything. Therefore I shall direct them to another teacher." 4 He said to them: "Revered Sirs, King Asvapati the son of Kekaya knows, at present, about the Vaisvanara Self. Let us all go to him." They went to him.

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5—7 When they arrived, the king ordered that proper respect should be paid to each of them. The next morning, after leaving bed, he said to them: "In my kingdom there is no thief, no miser, no wine—bibber, no man without a sacrificial fire, no ignorant person, no adulterer, much less adulteress. "Revered Sirs, I am going to perform a sacrifice. I shall give to you as much wealth as I give to each priest. Please, revered Sirs, stay here." They said: "If a person comes to another with a purpose, he should tell the other only about that. At present, you know about the Vaisvanara Self. Please tell us about Him." He said to them: "I shall give you a reply tomorrow morning." Next morning they approached him with fuel in their hands. Without having performed any initiatory rites, the king said to them: Chapter XII — The Head of the Vaisvanara Self 1—2 "O son of Upamanyu, whom do you meditate on as the Self?" "Heaven only, venerable King," he replied. "The Self you meditate on," said the king "is the Vaisvanara Self called the Good Light (Sutejas). Therefore one sees in your family the Suta libation as also the Prasuta libation and the Asuta libation and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the head of the Self. Surely your head would have fallen off if you had not come to me." Chapter XIII — The Eye of the Vaisvanara Self 1—2 Then he said to Satyayajna the son of Pulusha: "O Prachinayogya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?" "The sun only, venerable King," he replied. "The Self you meditate on," said the king, "is the Vaisvanara Self called the Universal Form (Visvarupa). Therefore one sees in your family much and manifold wealth—there are ready the chariot and mules, female servants and gold necklaces—and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the eye of the Self. Surely you would have become blind if you had not come to me."

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Chapter XIV — The Prana of the Vaisvanara Self 1—2 Then he said to Indradyumna the grandson of Bhallavi: "O Vaiyaghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?" "The air only, venerable King," he replied. "The Self you meditate on," said the king, "is the Vaisvanara Self of varied courses (Prithagvartma). Therefore gifts come to you in various ways, rows of chariots follow you in various ways and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the prana of the Self. Surely your prana would have left you if you had not come to me." Chapter XV — The Trunk of the Vaisvanara Self 1—2 Then he said to Jana the son of Sarkaraksha: "Whom do you meditate on as the Self?" "The akasa only, venerable King," he replied. "The Self you meditate on," said the king, "is the Vaisvanara Self called Bahula (full). Therefore you are full of offspring and wealth and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the trunk of the Self. Surely your trunk would have been destroyed if you had not come to me." Chapter XVI — The Bladder of the Vaisvanara Self 1—2 Then he said to Budila the son of Asvatarasva: "O Vaiyaghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?" "Water only, venerable King," he replied. "The Self you meditate on," said the king, "is the Vaisvanara Self called Rayi (wealth). Therefore you are wealthy and flourishing and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the bladder of the Self. Surely your bladder would have burst if you had not come to me."

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"is the Vaisvanara Self called Pratishtha (the support). the eye Visvarupa (the Universal Form). Therefore you are supported by offspring and cattle and you eat food and see what is pleasing." said the king. sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. But he who worships the Vaisvanara Self as the measure of the span from earth to heaven and as identical with the self. he should offer.e. is only the feet of the Self. the prana Prithagvartma (of various courses). however." Chapter XVIII — The Vaisvanara Self as the Whole 1 Then he (the king) said to them all: "You being endowed with limited knowledge eat your food. in all beings and in all selves. eats food in all worlds. The first oblation that he (i.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 282 . saying: "Svaha to the prana!" Then the prana is satisfied. Source: "The Upanishads . the eater) offers. "The Self you meditate on.Chapter XVII — The Feet of the Vaisvanara Self 1—2 Then he said to Uddalaka the son of Aruna: "O Gautama. 2 "Of this Vaisvanara Self the head is Sutejas (the Good Light). the mind the Anvaharya Fire and the mouth the Ahavaniya Fire." he replied. the heart the Garhapatya Fire. the hair the kusa grass on the altar. knowing that Vaisvanara Self as if He were many. the feet Prithivi (the earth). whom do you meditate on as the Self?" "The earth only. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food. the trunk Bahula (full). venerable King. That. the chest the Vedi (altar)." Chapter XIX — Performance of the Agnihotra in Oneself (The Prana) 1 Therefore the food that comes first should be offered as an oblation. the bladder Rayi (wealth). Surely your feet would have withered away if you had not come to me.

the tongue) is satisfied. Chapter XXII — The Samana 1 The fourth oblation that he offers. the eater or sacrificer) is satisfied with offspring. The eye being satisfied. 2 The vyana being satisfied. The quarters being satisfied. brightness of the body and the light of Brahman. he should offer. Chapter XX — The Apana 1 The third oblation that he offers. The moon being satisfied. whatever is under the quarters and under the moon is satisfied. They being satisfied. Speech being satisfied. Source: "The Upanishads . heaven is satisfied. he (i. saying: "Svaha to the vyana!" Then the vyana is satisfied. The ear being satisfied.2 The prana being satisfied. the earth is satisfied. Chapter XX — The Vyana 1 The second oblation that he offers. he should offer.e. saying: "Svaha to the samana!" Then the samana is satisfied. food. the moon is satisfied. the quarters are satisfied. food. cattle. speech (i. the sun is satisfied. Fire being satisfied. The earth being satisfied. what is under the earth and under fire is satisfied. he should offer. They being satisfied. fire is satisfied. They being satisfied. the eater is satisfied with offspring. cattle. Heaven being satisfied. 2 The apana being satisfied. brightness of the body and the light of Brahman.e. the eye is satisfied. the ear is satisfied. The sun being satisfied.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 283 . whatever is under heaven and under the sun is satisfied. cattle. saying: "Svaha to the apana!" Then the apana is satisfied. food. brightness of the body and the light of Brahman. the eater is satisfied with offspring.

The rain—god being satisfied. without knowing this knowledge of the Vaisvanara Self. Source: "The Upanishads . it is like an oblation offered in dead ashes after removing the live coals. 2 The udana being satisfied. food. the lightning is satisfied. it is like an oblation offered in all the worlds. the eater is satisfied with offspring. They being satisfied. The skin being satisfied. The air being satisfied. the akasa is satisfied.2 The samana being satisfied. one offers an Agnihotra oblation. the rain—god is satisfied. offers an Agnihotra oblation. brightness of the body and the light of Brahman. The mind being satisfied. when thrown into fire. one offers an Agnihotra oblation. are burnt. Chapter XXIII — The Udana 1 The fifth oblation that he offers. 2 But if. The akasa being satisfied. the skin is satisfied. in all beings and in all atmans.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 284 . knowing this. the mind is satisfied. the air is satisfied. food. knowing this. the eater is satisfied with offspring. so also are burnt all the sins of one who. brightness of the body and the light of Brahman. what is under the lightning and under the rain—god is satisfied. saying: "Svaha to the udana!" Then the udana is satisfied. cattle. They being satisfied. he should offer. what is under the air and under the akasa is satisfied. The lightning being satisfied. Chapter XXIV — The Glory of the Agnihotra Sacrifice 1 If. 3 Even as the soft fibres of the ishika reed. cattle.

for there is none belonging to our family." Part Six Chapter I — The Non—Duality of the Self 1 Om. not having studied the Vedas. my dear. "And just as." 2—3 Svetaketu went to his teacher’s house when he was twelve years old and studied the Vedas till he was twenty—four. His father said to him: "Svetaketu. arising from speech. since you are now so serious. by which one perceives what cannot be perceived. the modification being only a name. my dear. so do all beings gather around the Agnihotra sacrifice. lead the life of a brahmacharin." Source: "The Upanishads . considering himself well read and arrogant. Then he returned to his father. while the truth is that all is clay. he verily offers it to his Vaisvanara Self. To him his father said: "Svetaketu. There once lived Svetaketu the grandson of Aruna. my dear. the modification being only a name. by one clod of clay all that is made of clay is known. ever asked for that instruction by which one hears what cannot be heard. arising from speech. yea around the Agnihotra sacrifice. venerable Sir?" 4—6 "Just as. by one nugget of gold all that is made of gold is known. who. my dear. arising from speech. think yourself well read and are so arrogant. my dear. On this there is the following verse: 5 "As here on earth hungry children gather around their mother. "Just as. is that instruction. while the truth is that all is iron—even so. serious. by which one knows what cannot be known?" Svetaketu asked: "What is that instruction. the modification being only a name.4 Therefore even if a man who knows this gives what is left of his food to a chandala. while the truth is that all is gold. my dear.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 285 . is a brahmin only by birth. have you. by one pair of nail—scissors all that is made of iron is known.

’ It created water. whenever it rains anywhere.’ It created food (i. That is why. why should they not have told it to me? Therefore do you. venerable Sir. this universe was Being (Sat) alone.’ Source: "The Upanishads . abundant food is produced. tell me about it. may I grow forth. one only without a second. may I grow forth. being was born. whenever a person is hot and perspires. 2 "That Deity thought: ‘Let Me now enter into those three deities by means of this living self and let Me then develop names and forms. Chapter III — The Threefold Development 1 "Of all these living beings. For if they had known it. 4 "That water thought: ‘May I be many.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 286 . my dear.7 "Surely those venerable men did not know that. earth).’ It created fire. or Brahman) thought: ‘May I be many. That is why. Chapter II — Brahman: the Cause of the Universe 1 "In the beginning." 2 Aruni said: "But how. That fire thought: ‘May I be many." "So be it. and from that non—being. 3 "It (Being. indeed. water is produced from fire (heat) alone. there are only three origins: those born from an egg.e. From water alone is edible food produced. Some say that in the beginning this was non—being (asat) alone. those born from a living being and those born from a sprout. one only without a second. it was Being alone that existed in the beginning. my dear? How could Being be born from non—being? No. may I grow forth. one only without a second. could it be thus." said the father. my dear. my dear.

the black the colour of earth. the modification being only a name. the black the colour of earth. arising from speech.3 "That Deity. Thus vanishes from the sun what is commonly called the sun. the white colour of gross fire is the colour of the original water. while the three colours alone are true. arising from speech. the white the colour of water. the modification being only a name. 4 "It made each of these tripartite. while the three colours alone are true. that learn from me now. Thus vanishes from fire what is commonly called fire. 2 "The red colour of the sun is the colour of fire. Source: "The Upanishads .’ entered into these three deities by means of the living self and developed names and forms. and how these three deities became. the black colour of gross fire is the colour of the original earth. the white the colour of water. arising from speech. Thus vanishes from lightning what is commonly called lighting.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 287 . while the three colours (forms) alone are true. 4 "The red colour of lightning is the colour of fire. my dear. the white the colour of water. Thus vanishes from the moon what is commonly called the moon. the modification being only a name. arising from speech. the modification being only a name. Chapter IV — The Threefold Development further explained 1 "The red colour of gross fire is the colour of the original fire. the black the colour of earth. each of them. while the three colours alone are true. having thought: ‘Let Me make each of these three tripartite. 3 "The red colour of the moon is the colour of fire. tripartite.

or known.e. What is coarsest in it becomes bone. my dear" Source: "The Upanishads . what is medium becomes flesh and what is subtlest becomes mind. 6—7 "Whatever. What is coarsest in it becomes urine. my dear. what is medium becomes marrow and what is subtlest becomes speech.5 "It was just through this knowledge that the great householders and great Vedic scholars of olden times declared: ‘No one can now mention to us anything which we have not heard. 2 "Water when drunk becomes threefold. appeared red they knew to be the colour of fire." "Please. Chapter V — The Threefold Nature of Food 1 "Food when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes faeces.’ They knew all from these three forms. the prana of water and speech of heat. consists of food. Now learn from me. colours)." "So be it. when they reach man. whatever appeared black they knew to be the colour of earth. my dear. 4 "The mind. venerable Sir. "Whatever appeared to be unknown they knew to be the combination of these three deities (i. whatever appeared white they knew to be the colour of water. what is medium becomes blood and what is subtlest becomes prana. thought of. become each of them tripartite. how these three deities. instruct me further. 3 "Fire when eaten becomes threefold.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 288 .

my dear. Sir.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 289 . my dear" Chapter VII — How the Mind consists of Food 1 "A person. which is the subtlest part of curds rises." "Please. the prana consists of water and speech consists of fire. 3 "The subtlest part of the water that is drunk rises and becomes prana. consists of sixteen parts. may be left. which would not Source: "The Upanishads . shall I recite?" His father said: "The Rik." 2 Svetaketu did not eat any food for fifteen days. the Prana and Speech 1 "That." He replied: "They do not occur to me. Do not eat any food for fifteen days. of a great blazing fire a single coal. my dear. Since the prana consists of water. Yagus and Saman verses. Then he came to his father and said: "What. my dear. 2 "In the same manner. my dear. 5 "Thus. instruct me further. when they are churned and becomes butter." 3 His father said to him: "Just as. Sir. the size of a firefly.Chapter VI — The Physical Nature of the Mind. that which is the subtlest part of the food that is eaten rises and becomes mind. 4 "The subtlest part of the fire that is eaten rises and becomes speech. venerable Sir." "So be it. it will not be cut off if you drink water. the mind consists of food. but drink as much water as you like. my dear.

he understood it. even so. carried Source: "The Upanishads . the true nature of sleep. the mind consists of food. my dear.burn much more than that. it is water that has led (i. 2 "Just as a bird tied by a string to the hand of the bird—catcher first flies in every direction and then finding no rest anywhere. when strengthened by food. he has gone to his own Self. of your sixteen parts only one part is left. may be made to blaze up again by adding grass to it and will thus burn much more. "Even so. then.e. my dear. With it you now remember the Vedas. he showed that he knew it. as it is called. 5—6 Then his father said to him: "Just as. what hunger and thirst are. my dear. as they say.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 290 ." After that he understood what his father said. if left. the prana consists of water and speech consists of fire. Chapter VIII — Concerning Sleep. When a person has entered into deep sleep. so also the mind (i. of your sixteen parts only one part was left and that. for the mind (the individual soul) is fastened to the Prana (Pure Being). That is why they say he is in deep sleep (svapiti). Now go and eat and you will understand me. he becomes united with Pure Being (Sat). 3 "Learn from me. yea. of a great lighted fire a single coal the size of a firefly. blazed up. Thirst and Death 1 Uddalaka the son of Aruna said to his son Svetaketu: "Learn from me. my dear. Then whatever his father asked him. my dear. the individual soul reflected in the mind). Pure Being). my dear. settles down at the place where it is bound." 4 Svetaketu ate and approached his father. and therefore with that one part you do not remember the Vedas. Therefore. my dear. When a man is hungry.e. after flying in every direction and finding no rest anywhere. settles down in the Prana (i. my dear. Hunger.e. it is because he has gone (apita) to his own (svam).

venerable Sir. Yes. 4 "And where could its root be except in food (earth)? And in the same way. all these creatures. have their root in Being. 5 "When a man is said to be thirsty. And as water too. seek for Being (Sat) as its root. That is the Self. Yes. my dear. That thou art. is an offshoot. And as fire too. they dwell in Being. so do they speak of water as the leader of food. become each of them tripartite has already been said. my dear. a leader of horses. is an offshoot. my dear. his prana in heat (fire) and the heat in the Highest Being. know this offshoot (the body) to have sprung forth from a cause. That is the True. water and earth). a leader of horses.e. as food too is an offshoot. they finally rest in Being. So. on reaching a human being. they dwell in Being. 7 "Now. So. my dear. all these creatures have their root in Being. 6 "And where could its root be except in water? And in the same way. for it cannot be without a root. a leader of men. as water is an offshoot. the body) to have sprung forth from a cause.e. Therefore as they speak of a leader of cows. they finally rest in Being. my dear. my dear. Source: "The Upanishads . seek for fire as its root." "Please. carried away) what was drunk by him." the father replied. When a person departs hence. so do they speak of fire as the leader of water. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. a leader of men. Svetaketu." said the son. And as fire too. seek for Being as its root. "So be it. his speech merges in his mind. seek for water as its root. my dear. my dear. seek for fire as its root. it is fire that has led (i.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 291 . my dear. Therefore. give me further instruction. his mind in his prana. just as they speak of a leader of cows. "And how these three deities (fire. know this offshoot (i. my dear.away) what was eaten. for it cannot be without a root. is an offshoot.

a lion. my dear. a fly. That is the Self. give me further instruction. a boar." said the son. or a mosquito. indeed. while they are in the sea. Just as these rivers. "So be it. flow—the eastern toward the east and the western toward the west. That is the Self. do not know: ‘I am this river’ or ‘I am that river. my dear. make honey by collecting the juices of trees located at different places and reduce them to one form. 3 "Whatever these creatures are. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. Svetaketu." the father replied." "Please. here in this world—a tiger.Chapter IX — The Absence of Individuality in Deep Sleep 1—2 "As bees. Source: "The Upanishads . "And as these juices have no discrimination so as to be able to say: ‘I am the juice of this tree. a worm. a wolf.’ or ‘I am the juice of that tree’—even so. a lion.’ "Even so. Whatever these creatures are. that they become again. "So be it. a gnat. That thou art. a fly. give me further instruction. venerable Sir. venerable Sir. my dear." "Please. 3 "Now. even though they have come from Pure Being. here in this world—a tiger. a gnat. Chapter X — The Absence of Particularized Consciousness in Deep Sleep 1—2 "These rivers. my dear. That is the True. They arise from the sea and flow into the sea. my dear. though they reach Pure Being. all these creatures. or a mosquito—that they become again. my dear. do not know that they have reached Pure Being.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 292 . Svetaketu. That is the True. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. a worm. That thou art. 4 "Now." the father replied. all these creatures. a wolf a boar. do not know that they have come from Pure Being." said the son.

my dear. Chapter XII — The Birth of the Gross from the Subtle 1 "Bring me a fruit of that nyagrodha (banyan) tree. that branch withers. That thou art. "Break one of these. venerable Sir. my dear. Svetaketu. Source: "The Upanishads ." said the son.Chapter XI — The Indestructibility of the Jiva 1 "If. it would bleed but live. living self) leaves one of its branches." 2 The father said: "That subtle essence." "Please. If it leaves the whole tree. If he were to strike at the top. That is the Self. venerable Sir. exceedingly small." the father replied. 3 "In exactly the same manner.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 293 . if it leaves a second.e. but the living self dies not. someone were to strike at the root of this large tree here." "Break it. "Now. give me further instruction. if it leaves a third. it would bleed but live." "It is broken. that tree stands firm. That is the True. venerable Sir. "So be it. "know this: This body dies. my dear. drinking in again and again its nourishment and rejoicing. which you do not perceive there—from that very essence this great nyagrodha arises. If he were to strike at the middle." "It is broken. Believe me. venerable Sir. it would bleed but live. my dear. Pervaded by the living self. the whole three withers. my dear." "Here it is’ venerable Sir. my son. bereft of the living self." said he. that branch withers." "What do you see there?" "Nothing at all. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. that branch withers." "What do you see there?" "These seeds. 2 "But if the life (i.

Chapter XIII — The Invisibility of an Existent Object 1 "Place this salt in water and then come to me in the morning." The son did as he was told. How is it?" "It is salt." 3 "Now. The father said to him: "My son. the son did not find it." the father replied." "Please. my dear. for it was completely dissolved. my dear. Chapter XIV — The Means of Self—Knowledge 1 "Just as someone." "Please. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self.3 "Now." Then the father said: "Here also. venerable Sir." "Take a sip from the middle. That is the Self. Svetaketu. give me further instruction. away from the country of the Gandharas and leave Source: "The Upanishads . give me further instruction." the father replied. might lead a person. That is the True. "So be it." "Take a sip from the bottom. How is it?" "It is salt. bring me the salt which you placed in the water last night." Looking for it. That is the Self That thou art. in this body you do not perceive Sat (Being).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 294 . with his eyes covered. but It is indeed there. venerable Sir." said the son. take a sip of water from the surface. saying: "The salt was there all the time. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. "So be it. That is the True." The son did as he was told." "Throw it away and come to me. my dear." said the son. Svetaketu. How is it?" "It is salt. That thou art. 2 The father said: "My son. my dear.

and just as that person would turn toward the east." said the son "So be it. That is the Self. having been informed and being capable of judgement." "Please. That is the Self That thou art. or the west. his prana in heat and the heat in the Highest Deity. go that way’. Svetaketu. That is the True. give me further instruction.him in a place where there were no human beings. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. Svetaketu. or the north. his mind in his prana (breath). arrive at last at Gandhara—in exactly the same manner does a man who has found a teacher to instruct him obtain the true knowledge. by asking his way from one village to another. my dear. I have been left here with my eyes covered!’ 2 "And as thereupon someone might loosen the covering and say to him: ‘Gandhara is in that direction. venerable Sir. "So be it. his prana in heat (fire) and the heat in the Highest Deity. Source: "The Upanishads . That is the True. he would. venerable Sir." "Please. For him there is delay only so long as he is not liberated from the body. 2 "But when his speech is merged in his mind." the father replied. shouting: ‘I have been brought here with my eyes covered." the father replied. then he does not know them. That thou art. my dear. my dear. Chapter XV — Ultimate Liberation 1 "Around a dying person afflicted with illness. give me further instruction." said the son. or the south. his mind in his prana. his relatives gather and ask: ‘Do you know me? Do you know me?’ He knows them as long as his speech is not merged in his mind. 3 "Now. that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. 3 "Now.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 295 . then he reaches perfection. and as thereupon.

logic. Then he is killed.’ If he has committed the theft but denies it. he covers himself with truth.’ When he denies it. Then I shall tell you what is beyond. the science of portents. Being false—minded. He is released. Thus in That (Sat) all that exists has its self. he has committed a theft. the science of elemental spirits. That is the True. ethics. the science of weapons.e.e. grammar). the science of serpents and the fine arts. the Yajur—Veda. 3 "As that truthful man is not burnt so also one who has known Sat is not born again.). the science of numbers. they say: ‘Heat the axe for him. the epics (Puranas) and ancient lore (Itihasa) as the fifth." Part Seven Chapter I — Dialogue between Narada and Sanatkumara 1 Om. etymology. the Veda of the Vedas (i. I know the Rig—Veda. astronomy.Chapter XVI — Liberation for the Knower of Brahman 1 "My dear. venerable Sir. grasps the heated axe and is not burnt. please teach me. Source: "The Upanishads ." Sanatkumara said to him: "Please tell me what you already know. grasps the heated axe and is burnt. the rules of the sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified. the Sama—Veda. All this I know. they (i. the science of pronunciation. then he makes himself what he really is. he covers himself with falsehood. Narada approached Sanatkumara as a pupil and said: "Venerable Sir. prosody. Svetaketu. the police) bring a man whom they have seized by the hand and say: ‘He has taken something. Being true—minded. Brahma—vidya (i.e. That thou art. the Atharva—Veda as the fourth Veda. the science of time. 2 "But if he did not commit the theft. then he makes himself a liar. That is the Self." 2 Narada said: "Venerable Sir.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 296 . ceremonials. etc.

the science of time. birds. neither righteousness nor Source: "The Upanishads . earth.3 "But. fire. verily. I am one afflicted with sorrow. 5 "He who meditates on a name as Brahman can. the good and the bad. the Sama—Veda. etymology. as well as heaven. the science of elemental spirits. etymology. the science of serpents and the fine arts. of his own free will. the science of numbers. as also righteousness and unrighteousness. the science of portents. the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth. the Atharva—Veda as the fourth Veda. air. trees. the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth. herbs. "Meditate on the name." Chapter II — Speech as Brahman 1 "Speech is. the pleasant and the unpleasant." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. akasa. Speech makes one understand the Rig—Veda. the Yajur—Veda. men. the rules of sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified. the rules of the sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified. logic. Do you. ethics." "Please tell that to me. the science of weapons. is there anything greater than a name?" "Of course there is something greater than a name. Brahma—vidya. the science of serpents and the fine arts. "Verily. ethics. the science of numbers. greater than a name. the Atharva—Veda as the fourth. the science of elemental spirits. so also are the Yajur— Veda. Brahma—vidya. flies and ants. help me to cross over to the other side of sorrow. 4 "Verily. venerable Sir. venerable Sir. venerable Sir. cattle. logic. the Veda of the Vedas. if there were no speech. a name is the Rig—Veda. reach as far as the name reaches—he who meditates on a name as Brahman. gods. water. astronomy. I do not know the Self. together with worms. I have heard from men like you that he who knows the Self overcomes sorrow." Sanatkumara said to him: "Whatever you have read is only a name. the science of portents. with all this I know words only. astronomy.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 297 . the true and the false. the Sama—Veda. the science of time. the Veda of the Vedas. animals. the science of weapons.

then he desires them. Just as the closed fist holds two amalakas. is there anything greater than mind?" "Of course there is something greater than mind. venerable Sir. reach as far as mind reaches—he who meditates on mind as Brahman. greater than speech. "Meditate on the mind. 2 "He who meditates on speech as Brahman can. so does the mind hold speech and a name. of his own free will. verily. mind is the world. then he desires them. is the self." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. Source: "The Upanishads . verily. Mind." Chapter IV — Will as Brahman 1 "Will (Samkalpa) is." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. "Speech. When he thinks in his mind that he would perform actions. Meditate upon speech. 2 "He who meditates on mind as Brahman can. When he thinks in his mind that he would have this world and the other. For when a man thinks in his mind that he would read the sacred hymns. then he performs them." Chapter II — Mind as Brahman 1 "The mind is. then he utters speech and then he employs speech in the recital of a name. of his own free will. then he reads them. When he thinks in his mind that he would have sons and cattle. indeed. venerable Sir. neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant. verily. greater than mind.unrighteousness would be known. or two plums. reach as far as speech reaches—he who meditates on speech as Brahman. neither the true nor the false. mind is Brahman. is there anything greater than speech?" "Of course there is something greater than speech. then he thinks in his mind.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 298 ." "Please tell that to me. The sacred hymns are included in a name and all sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns. makes us know all this." "Please tell that to me. For when a man wills. or two aksha fruits.

For when a man considers. then he engages speech in the recitation of a name. air and akasa willed. the rain wills. The sacred hymns are included in a name and all sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns. is there anything greater than will?" "Of course there is something greater than will. he would not be so inconsiderate. through the will of the rain. through the will of the sacred hymns. from consideration they arise and in consideration they all abide." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. Through the will of heaven and earth. Meditate on consideration. through the will of food." Chapter V — Consideration as Brahman 1 "Consideration (Chitta) is. even though he possesses much knowledge. Therefore if a person is without consideration. then he utters speech. the sacred hymns will. indeed. of his own free will. everything wills. Meditate on will. consideration is the support. through the will of the pranas. the goal of all these beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 299 . though he knows but little. Consideration. verily. water and fire willed. the sacrifices will. But if a person is considerate. Such is will. for if he were really learned. indeed. from will they arise and in will they all abide. to him people are eager to listen. through the will of the world. reach as far as will reaches—he who meditates on will as Brahman. Source: "The Upanishads . venerable Sir. 3 "He who meditates on will as Brahman can. Heaven and earth willed. is the goal of all these beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice. then he wills." "Please tell that to me. is the goal of all these. 2 "Consideration is. the pranas will. consideration is the self. food wills. then he thinks in his mind. greater than will.2 "Will. indeed. through the will of the sacrifices. people say of him that he is nothing and whatever he knows is useless. etc. the world wills.

among men. astronomy." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. the science of weapons. is there anything greater than meditation?" "Of course there is something greater than meditation. verily. the Veda of the Vedas. reach as far as meditation reaches—he who meditates on meditation as Brahman. The waters meditate. Therefore he who. 2 "He who meditates on meditation as Brahman. ethics. venerable Sir. greater than meditation. the Atharva—Veda as the fourth. firm and undistressed. the Yajur—Veda. firm and undistressed. abusive and slandering. water. air. as it were. as it were. etymology. greater than consideration. The gods meditate. as it were." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. earth. Understanding makes one understand the Rig—Veda." Chapter VII — Understanding as Brahman 1 "Understanding is. gods." Chapter VI — Meditation as Brahman 1 "Meditation (Dhyana) is. herbs. heaven. the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth. animals. of his own free win. attains greatness here on earth seems to have obtained a share of meditation. of his own free will. the science of elemental spirits. the rules of sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified. Men meditate. fire. the science of numbers. is there anything greater than consideration?" "Of course there is something greater than consideration. Source: "The Upanishads ." "Please tell that to me. Brahma—vidya. Meditate on meditation. as it were. the Sama—Veda. The mid—region meditates. the science of time. Earth meditates. can. being permanent. logic. he can. The mountains meditate.3 "He who meditates on consideration as Brahman. trees. the science of serpents and the fine arts. verily. reach as far as consideration reaches—he who meditates on consideration as Brahman. venerable Sir. men." "Please tell that to me. he. Thus while small people are quarrelsome.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 300 . as it were. the science of portents. cattle. Heaven meditates. birds. as it were. as it were. great men appear to have obtained a share of meditation. obtains the worlds which are permanent.

reach as far as strength reaches—he who meditates on strength as Brahman. even though he might live. is there anything greater than strength?" "Of course there is something greater than strength. herbs and trees and animals.together with worms. Meditate upon strength. the true and the false. by strength the mountains. verily. greater than understanding." 2 "He who meditates on strength as Brahman can. When a man is strong he can rise. together with worms." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. If he is their intimate companion he can watch their conduct. and also righteousness and unrighteousness. of his own free will. become convinced of what he reflects on.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 301 . greater than strength. the good and the bad. venerable Sir." "Please tell that to me. by strength the gods and men. reach as far as understanding reaches—he who meditates on understanding as Brahman. food and taste. act and enjoy the result of action. by strength heaven. If he attends on them he can become their intimate companion as a pupil. One strong man causes a hundred men of understanding to tremble. is there anything greater than understanding?" "Of course there is something greater than understanding. yet Source: "The Upanishads . Therefore if a man abstains from food for ten days. flies and ants. reflect on what he hears. flies and ants. this world and yonder world. the pleasant and the unpleasant." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. by strength cattle and birds. verily. venerable Sir. By strength the earth stands firm. listen to their instruction. by strength the world stands firm. If he rises he can attend on the teachers. 2 "He who meditates on understanding as Brahman attains the worlds of understanding and knowledge and can. Meditate on understanding." Chapter IX — Food as Brahman 1 "Food is. by strength the mid—region." "Please tell that to me. of his own free will." Chapter VIII — Strength as Brahman 1 "Strength is.

is there anything greater than food?" "Of course there is something greater than food." "Please tell that to me. reflect. is there anything greater than water?" "Of course there is something greater than water. Meditate on fire.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 302 ." "Please tell that to me. For." Chapter XI — Fire as Brahman 1 "Fire is.’ Thus does fire first manifest itself and then create water. then living creatures rejoice in the thought that there will be much food. these mountains.’ Here also does fire first manifest itself and then create water." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. verily. Then people say: ‘It is hot. venerable Sir. there is thunder. this heaven. flies and ants. this mid—region. he can. it burns. reflect. become convinced. Meditate on water. reach as far as water reaches—he who meditates on water as Brahman. then living creatures are afflicted with the thought that there will be less food. 2 "He who meditates on food as Brahman obtains the world rich in food and drink. together with worms. reach as far as food reaches—he who meditates on food as Brahman. it warms the akasa. Therefore if there is not sufficient rain. But if there is sufficient rain. verily. 2 "He who meditates on water as Brahman obtains all his desires and becomes satisfied. or enjoy the result. having seized the air. become convinced. Furthermore. he is able to see. cattle and birds. it will rain." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. Then people say: ‘There is lightning. But when he obtains food. hear." Chapter X — Water as Brahman 1 "Water is. It is water that assumes the form of this earth. thunderclaps roll with lightning upward and across the sky. herbs and trees and animals. act.he would not be able to see. of his own free will. he can. Water indeed is all these forms. act and enjoy the result. greater than food. it will rain. hear. these gods and men. Source: "The Upanishads . greater than water. of his own free will. venerable Sir.

venerable Sir." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. In the akasa everything is born and toward the akasa all things grow. it is through the akasa that the person hears back. they would hear. of his own free will. he can. reach as far as memory reaches—he who meditates Source: "The Upanishads . reach as far as fire reaches—he who meditates on fire as Brahman. lightning. Venerable Sir. In the akasa we rejoice when we are together and in the akasa we rejoice not when we are separated. Through memory one knows one’s sons. free from pain and spacious. of his own free will. It is through the akasa that a person calls another. it is through the akasa that the other hears. greater than fire." "Please tell that to me. verily. But surely. full of light and free from darkness. if they had no memory they would not hear anyone at all. he can. luminous." Chapter XII — The Akasa as Brahman 1 "The akasa is. of his own free will. 2 "He who meditates on memory as Brahman can. verily. Therefore even when many people assemble. For in the akasa exist both the sun and the moon. they would not think. through memory one’s cattle." Chapter XIII — Memory as Brahman 1 "Memory is. think and understand. is there anything greater than the akasa?" "Of course there is something greater than the akasa. they would not understand. stars and fire." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. is there anything greater than fire?" "Of course there is something greater than fire. Meditate on memory.2 "He who meditates on fire as Brahman becomes radiant himself and obtains radiant worlds. Meditate upon the akasa. reach as far as the akasa reaches— he who meditates on the akasa as Brahman. greater than the akasa. if they had memory.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 303 ." "Please tell that to me. 2 "He who meditates on the akasa as Brahman obtains the worlds extending far and wide.

" Chapter XV — The Prana as Brahman 1 "The prana is. mother. Kindled by hope. so are all these beginning with the name and ending with hope fastened to the prana. one shoves them together with a poker and burns every bit of them.’ 3 "But if.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 304 . of his own free will. desires this world and the other. the prana is the sister.on memory as Brahman. you are a slayer of your father." "Please tell that to me. a person endowed with memory reads the sacred hymns." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. his prayers are not in vain. The prana gives the prana to the prana. then people say: ‘Shame on you! Verily. venerable Sir. venerable Sir. brother. The prana is the father. a slayer of your mother. greater than hope. a slayer of a brahmin. no one Source: "The Upanishads . the prana is the brahmin. The prana moves by the prana. greater than memory." Chapter XIV — Hope as Brahman 1 "Hope is. desires sons and cattle. teacher. the prana is the teacher. Meditate on hope. he can. when the prana has departed from them. the prana is the brother. performs sacrifices. is there anything greater than memory?" "Of course there is something greater than memory. or brahmin. sister. reach as far as hope reaches—he who meditates on hope as Brahman." Narada said: "Venerable Sir. a slayer of your sister." "Please tell that to me. 2 "He who meditates on hope as Brahman—all his desires are fulfilled through hope. is there anything greater than hope?" "Of course there is something greater than hope. the prana is the mother. a slayer of your teacher. verily. verily. As the spokes of a wheel are fastened to the nave. a slayer of your brother. 2 "If one says something unbecoming to a father.

If people say to such a man: ‘You are an ativadi." "But one should desire to know the True. Only one who understands It declares the True. One must desire to understand this reflection. One who does not understand the True does not declare It. One who does not have faith does not reflect.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 305 . only then does one declare the True." "Venerable Sir. I desire to know the True. a slayer of a brahmin. venerable Sir. a slayer of your brother." 4 "The prana.’ he may say: ‘Yes." Chapter XVII — Truth depends upon Understanding 1 Sanatkumara said: "When one understands the True. Only one who has faith reflects. is convinced of this. only then does one reflect. become an ativadi by the knowledge of the True. Only one who reflects understands." "Venerable Sir. One must desire to understand faith.e.would say: ‘You are a slayer of your father. I desire to understand faith. One Who does not reflect does not understand." "Venerable Sir. reflects on this." Chapter XVI — The Knowledge of the Truth 1 "But in reality he is an ativadi who has become an ativadi by the knowledge of the True. he need not deny it. He (i. One must desire to understand this understanding. I desire to understand reflection. becomes an ativadi (superior speaker). a slayer of your teacher. I desire to understand. verily. the knower of the prana) who sees this. I am an ativadi’." "Venerable Sir. a slayer of your mother." Source: "The Upanishads . only then does one understand." Chapter XVIII — Understanding depends upon Reflection 1 "When one reflects. is all this." Chapter XIX — Reflection depends upon Faith 1 "When one has faith. a slayer of your sister." "May I.

I desire to understand the Infinite.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 306 . One must desire to understand single— mindedness. hears nothing else. I desire to understand single—mindedness. One who does not obtain bliss does not perform his duties. One must desire to understand the performance of duties. Only one who performs his duties has single—mindedness." Source: "The Upanishads . only then does one have faith." "Venerable Sir." Chapter XXII — Concentration depends upon Bliss 1 "When one obtains bliss.e. One must desire to understand the Infinite. practises concentration). One who does not have single— mindedness does not have faith. Only one who obtains bliss performs his duties." Chapter XXIV — The Infinite and the Finite 1 "Where one sees nothing else. only then does one have single—mindedness. Only the Infinite is bliss. the finite mortal. There is no bliss in anything finite. One must desire to understand bliss. hears something else." Chapter XXIV — The Infinite is Bliss 1 "The infinite is bliss. Only one who has single— mindedness has faith." "Venerable Sir. understands something else—that is the finite. only then does one perform one’s duties. understands nothing else—that is the Infinite.Chapter XX — Faith depends upon Single—Mindedness 1 "When one is single—minded in one’s devotion to the teacher. I desire to understand bliss." "Venerable Sir. Where one sees something else." "Venerable Sir. One who does not perform his duties does not have single—mindedness. The Infinite is immortal." Chapter XXI — Single—Mindedness depends upon Concentration 1 "When one performs one’s duties (i. I desire to understand the performance of duties.

water springs from the Self. rejoices in the Self revels in the Self. is below. It is to the south. in what does the Infinite find Its support?" "In Its own greatness—or not even in greatness. hope springs from the Self. food springs from the Self. I am to the north. It is before. "Verily. "for in such cases one thing finds its support in another. But what I say is: Chapter XXV — Instruction about the Infinite 1 "That infinite. reflects on this and understands this delights in the Self sports with the Self. is all this. the name springs from the Self the sacred hymns spring Source: "The Upanishads . the prana springs from the Self. he who sees this. indeed. am below. is all this."Venerable Sir. all this.’ I do not mean this. indeed. elephants and gold. reflects on this and understands this. It is to the north. appearance and disappearance spring from the Self. Even while living in the body he becomes a self—ruler. It is behind. I am before." he said. the akasa springs from the Self. indeed. indeed. It is to the south. I am behind. It is above. ‘‘But those who think differently from this have others for their rulers they live in perishable worlds. "Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference to ‘I’: I. It is above. indeed. fire springs from the Self. He wields unlimited freedom in all the worlds. 2 "Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference to the Self: The Self indeed. fields and houses. I am above. They have no freedom in all the worlds. slaves and wives. consideration springs from the Self. memory springs from the Self." Chapter XXVI — Self—knowledge 1 "For him who sees this. meditation springs from the Self. I am. It is to the north. is below. will springs from the Self. as ‘greatness. mind springs from the Self speech springs from the Self. It is behind.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 307 . understanding springs from the Self. strength springs from the Self. The Infinite." 2 "Here on earth people describe cows and horses. It is before. I am to the south. The Self.

A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 308 . When the mind is pure the memory becomes firm. Now what exists within that small akasa. They call Sanatkumara Skanda. Both heaven and earth are contained within it. becomes five. "Now is described the discipline for inner purification by which Self—Knowledge is attained: When the food is pure. that is to be sought after. the embodied creature) in this world and whatever does not." 2 "On this there is the following verse: "‘The knower of Truth does not see death or disease or sorrow." 4 If they (the pupils) should say: "If everything that exists—all beings and all desires—is contained in this city of Brahman. Skanda they call him. becomes three.from the Self the sacrifices spring from the Self—ay. yea. one hundred and ten and one thousand and twenty.e. the akasa in the heart). after his blemishes had been wiped out. the small lotus of the heart. becomes seven. this great akasa extends. There is in this city of Brahman an abode. the mind becomes pure. in this city of Brahman and the small akasa within it—what is there in it that is to be sought after and what is there that one should desire to understand?" Then he (the teacher) should say: "As far as. both sun and moon.’ "He (the knower) is one before the creation. 2—3 If they should say to him: "Now. with regard to the abode. both fire and air. verily. so far extends the akasa within the heart. all that is contained within it (i. The knower of Truth sees everything and obtains everything everywhere. becomes nine. within it is a small akasa. then again he is called eleven.e. Part Eight Chapter I — Brahman in the Heart 1 Om. both lightning and stars. the other side of darkness. When the memory is firm all ties are loosened. and whatever belongs to him (i. all this springs from the Self." The venerable Sanatkumara showed Narada. that is what one should desire to understand. Source: "The Upanishads . the small lotus.

with the death of the body.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 309 . by his mere thought the mothers come to him. described as the akasa in the heart) does not age. by his mere thought the Manes come to him. free from old age. That Brahman and not the body is the real city of Brahman. free from grief free from hunger. free from thirst. But those who depart hence after having realized the Self and these true desires—for them there is freedom in all the worlds.e. Just as. That does not die. Having obtained the world of the Manes he is happy. be it a country or a piece of land so also those who are ignorant of the Self depend upon other objects and experience the result of their good and evil deeds. Those who depart hence without having realized the Self and these true desires—for them there is no freedom in all the worlds. 6 "And just as. 3 "And if he desires the world of the brothers. That (i.then what is left of it when old age overcomes it or when it perishes?" 5 Then he (the teacher) should say: "With the old age of the body. he is happy. perish. free from death. 2 "And if he desires the world of the mothers. people follow as they are commanded by a leader and depend upon whatever objects they desire. Brahman. Having obtained the world of the mothers. In It all desires are contained. by his mere thought the brothers come to him. won by virtuous deeds. he is happy. Source: "The Upanishads . Having obtained the world of the brothers. here on earth. here on earth. Chapter II — The Fulfilment of Desires through Self— Knowledge 1 "If he desires the World of the Manes. whatever is earned through work perishes. It is the Self—free from sin. so does the next world. Its thoughts come true. Its desires come true.

whatever objects he desires. Though they exist always. Having obtained the world of perfumes and garlands. Having obtained the world of women. he is happy. he is happy. by his mere thought the friends come to him. he is happy. he is happy. by his mere thought song and music come to him.4 "And if he desires the world of the sisters. by his mere thought the sisters come to him. Chapter III — The Serene Self and Satya Brahman 1 "These true desires are covered by what is false. 7 "And if he desires the world of food and drink. 6 "And if he desires the world of perfumes and garlands. Thus.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 310 . 9 "And if he desires the world of women. Having obtained them. Having obtained the world of the friends. by his mere thought perfumes and garlands come to him. Having obtained the world of song and music. 5 "And if he desires the world of the friends. he is happy. whosoever belonging to the embodied creature has departed from this life. by his mere thought women come to him. yet they have a covering which is false. 8 "And if he desires the world of song and music. by his mere thought all these come to him. by his mere thought food and drink come to him. he is happy. him he cannot see in this world with his eyes. Having obtained the world of food and drink. Having obtained the world of the sisters. he is happy. 10 "Whatever country he longs for. Source: "The Upanishads .

e. reaches his own true form. and that which is ti is the mortal.e. Source: "The Upanishads .e. All evils turn back from It. for keeping these worlds apart. Brahman.2 "Those of his fellows who belong to him here and those who are dead and whatever else there is which he wishes for and does not obtain—he finds all that by going in there (i. or by good and evil deeds. and yam binds them both. into his own Self). This dam is not passed by day and night." 5 This name Satyam consists of three syllables: Sat. the fearless. 4 "Now. Because this syllable binds both. for the World of Brahman is free from all evil. That which is Sat signifies the Immortal. because they are carried away by untruth. Chapter IV — Brahman as a Dam 1 The self is a dam. dwelling in the heart).A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 311 . 3 "That Self abides in the heart. lie those true desires of his. The etymological explanation of heart is this: This one (ayam) is in the heart (hridi). This is the Self. death and grief. He who knows this goes every day in deep sleep to Heaven (i. after rising from this physical body and attaining the Highest Light. walk over it again and again without finding it. therefore It is called the heart (hridayam). For there. a separating boundary. questioned by his pupils) spoke. by old age. And of this Brahman the name is Satyam. therefore it is called yam. This is Brahman.e. He who knows this goes every day in deep sleep to Heaven (i. ti and yam. so all these creatures day after day go into the World of Brahman and yet do not find it. the teacher. this serene being. he said: "This is the immortal. "As people who do not know the spot where a treasure of gold has been hidden somewhere in the earth. indeed. Continuing. the True. Brahman. covered by what is false. dwelling in the heart)." Thus he (i.

what people call the vow of fasting (anasakayana). 3 Now. what people call the Satrayana sacrifice. 2 Now. For after knowing the Self from the scriptures one meditates (manute) on It. he who is miserable ceases to be miserable. For by means of continence one obtains from the True (Sat) the safety (trana) of the self. 4 The World of Brahman belongs to those who obtain by means of continence the seas Ara and Nya in the World of Brahman. having reached this dam. that is really continence. which others obtain through sacrifice. For them there is freedom in all the worlds. by means of continence one realizes the Self. Chapter V — Continence 1 Now. he who is blind ceases to be blind. by means of continence. he who is afflicted with disease ceases to be afflicted. that is really continence. For having desired (ishtva) the Knowledge of the Self. Therefore. having reached this dam. for the World of Brahman is lighted once for all. what people call yajna (sacrifice). that is really continence. What people call ishta (worship). that is really continence. What people call the vow of silence (mauna). that is really continence. 3 That World of Brahman belongs to those who realize It by means of continence (brahmacharya)—for them there is freedom in all the worlds. Source: "The Upanishads . For he who knows Brahman obtains that World of Brahman.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 312 . the night becomes day.2 Therefore. For that Self does not perish (na nasyati) which one realizes by means of continence.

Other arteries. this one and that yonder." Source: "The Upanishads . then he has entered into these arteries. a man at death attains immortality. going in different directions. it is white. Then no evil touches him. 2 As a long highway runs between two villages. 5 When he departs from the body if he is a mere ritualist and ignorant of Brahman he then goes upward by these rays toward the worlds which he has gained by his meritorious work. This indeed is the door to the World of Brahman for those who know. they start from these arteries and enter into yonder sun. white.Chapter VI — The Course after Death for the Illumined 1 Now. Going upward by it. it is blue. Or if he is ignorant he attains lower bodies. with the senses withdrawn and serene and sees no dream. yellow and red liquid substances. only serve as channels for his departing from the body. blue. for he has obtained the light of the sun. then those sitting around him say: "Do you know me? Do you know me?" As long as he has not departed from this body. he knows them. Or if he is a knower of the doctrines of the akasa in the lotus of the heart. Verily. it is red. for the ignorant it is closed. only serve as channels for his departing from the body. The knower attains the solar orb as quickly as one directs one’s mind from one object to another. one of which pierces the crown of the head. 4 And when he becomes weak. so do the rays of the sun go to both worlds. this one and that yonder. the sun yonder is brown. yea. They start from yonder sun and enter into these arteries. he then meditates on Om and thus secures entrance into Brahmaloka. those arteries of the heart are filled with the essences of brown. 3 When a man is asleep. it is yellow. 6 On this there is the following verse: "There are one hundred and one arteries of the heart.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 313 .

free from grief. free from thirst. free from old age. This is Brahman." Indra. fuel in hand. free from thirst. free from death. That it is which one should desire to understand. Then Prajapati said to them: "For what purpose have you both been living here?" They said: "A saying of yours is being repeated by learned people: ‘The Self which is free from sin. 2 The devas (gods) and asuras (demons) both heard these words and said: "Well. whose desires come true and whose thoughts come true—That it is which should be searched out. That it is which one should desire to understand.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 314 ." They asked: "Venerable Sir. Without communicating with each other. whose desires come true and whose thoughts come true—That it is which should be searched out. 3 They dwelt there for thirty—two years. practising brahmacharya. among the gods. is perceived in all these." He further said: "This is immortal. free from hunger. the two came into the presence of Prajapati. fearless. free from hunger. indeed. He who has known this Self from the scriptures and a teacher and understood It obtains all the worlds and all desires. went forth and Virochana. free from grief. free from old age. among the demons. we both have dwelt here because we desire that Self. let us search out this Self by searching out which one obtains all the worlds and all desires. He who has known this Self and understood It obtains all the worlds and all desires. free from death." Source: "The Upanishads . he who is perceived in the water and he who is perceived in a mirror—which of these is he?" Prajapati replied: "The same one." 4 Prajapati said to them: "The person that is seen in the eye—that is the Self.Chapter VII — The Person in the Eye 1 Prajapati said: "The Self which is free from sin.’ Now.

body) alone is to be worshipped here on earth. we see the entire self even to the very hairs and nails. venerable Sir. Then Prajapati said to them: "What do you see?" They said: "Venerable Sir.e." Prajapati said: "This is the Self. this is immortal. well dressed and clean. put on their best clothes and cleansed themselves. "What do you see?" asked Prajapati. a veritable picture. look into the pan of water. so. are these two reflections well adorned. It is only by worshipping the self here and by serving the self that one gains both worlds—this and the next. fearless.e. they looked into the pan of water." They both went away satisfied in heart." After having adorned themselves well. The demons deck the bodies of the dead with garlands and perfume. 3 They said: "Just as we ourselves are well adorned. This is Brahman. the self (i. went to the demons and preached this doctrine (Upanishad) to them: "The self (i. with raiment and with ornaments. whether gods or demons. well dressed and clean. for such is the doctrine of the demons." 2 Prajapati said to them: "After you have well adorned yourselves with ornaments." Virochana." They cast their glance in a pan of water. Source: "The Upanishads .Chapter VIII — The Doctrine of the Demons 1 Prajapati said: "Look at yourself in a pan of water and then what you do not understand of the Self come and tell me. who has no faith and who does not perform sacrifices: "He is verily a demon"." 5 Therefore even today they say of one who does not practise charity.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 315 . body) alone is to be served. follow this doctrine shall perish. for they think that thus they will win the world beyond. And whoever of these. 4 Prajapati saw them going and said: "They are both going away without having known and without having realized the Self. put on your best clothes and cleansed yourselves. satisfied in heart.

you went away with Virochana. so this reflection in the water will be blind if the body is blind. now for what purpose have you come back?" He (Indra) said: "Venerable Sir. I do not see any good in this doctrine. in dreams—this is the Self. It becomes conscious of pain. Therefore I do not see any good in this doctrine. 2 "I do not see any good in this doctrine. clean when the body is clean. fearless." He lived with Prajapati another thirty—two years. he saw this difficulty: "Although this dream self is not blind even if the body is blind. crippled if the body is crippled and will perish if the body perishes." 3 "So it is Indra. they chase it.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 316 . Live with me another thirty—two years. as it were. Then Prajapati said to Indra: Chapter X — The Dream Self 1—2 "He who moves about. Indra. nor one—eyed when it is one—eyed—yet they kill it (the dream self). satisfied in heart." He returned with fuel in hand. But even before he had reached the gods. this is immortal. one— eyed if the body is one—eyed. clean when the body is clean. as it were. as it were. "I shall explain the Self to you further. one—eyed if the body is one—eyed. well dressed when the body is well dressed. To him Prajapati said: "Well. nor do its eyes and nose run when the eyes and nose of the body run. although this self is not affected by the defects of the body. as this reflection in the water is well adorned when the body is well adorned. even before he had reached the gods." replied Prajapati. as it were.Chapter IX — The Shadow Self is Perishable 1 But Indra." Then Indra went away satisfied in heart. well dressed when the body is well dressed. "Nor killed when it (the body) is killed. crippled if the body is crippled and will perish if the body perishes. This is Brahman." Source: "The Upanishads . exalted. so this reflection in the water will be blind if the body is blind. saw this difficulty: "As this reflection in the water is well adorned when the body is well adorned. it weeps.

as it were. nor one—eyed when it is one—eyed—yet they kill it (the dream self)." "So it is. as it were." He lived with Prajapati another thirty—two years. "Nor killed when it (the body) is killed." 3 "So it is. It has therefore reached utter annihilation. I do not see any good in this." 2 He returned with fuel in hand. nor do its eyes and nose run when the eyes and nose of the body run. fearless. the self in dreamless sleep) does not know itself as ‘I am it.’ nor these other creatures. To him Prajapati said: "Well. they chase it. Indra.e." Then Indra went away satisfied in heart. with senses withdrawn and serene and sees no dream—that is the Self.e." Indra lived with Prajapati another five years. It becomes conscious of pain. It has therefore reached in dreamless sleep utter annihilation. This made in all one hundred and one years. now for what purpose have you come back?" He (Indra) said: "Venerable Sir. you went away satisfied in heart. although this self is not affected by the defects of the body.3—4 He returned with fuel in hand. as it were.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 317 . Therefore people say that Indra lived with Prajapati as a brahmacharin one hundred and one Source: "The Upanishads . in truth it (i. Indra. Indra. you went away satisfied in heart. now for what purpose have you come back?" He (Indra) said: "Venerable Sir. This is immortal. This is Brahman. Indra. as it were. Live with me another thirty—two years." replied Prajapati. I do not see any good in this. To him Prajapati said: "Well. "I shall explain the Self further to you and nothing else. the self in dreamless sleep) does not know itself as ‘I am it. it weeps. Then Prajapati said to Indra: Chapter XI — The Self in Dreamless Sleep 1 "When a man is asleep. although this dream self is not blind even if the body is blind. But even before he had reached the gods. he saw this difficulty: "In truth it (i. I do not see any good in this.’ nor these other creatures." replied Prajapati. as it were. Live with me another five years. as it were. "I shall explain the Self further to you.

e. the mind is his divine eye. the tongue is the instrument of speaking. He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me speak.’ he is the Self. There He moves about. rejoicing—be it with women. the mind and rejoices. arising from this body and reaching the Highest Light. He who knows that Self and understands Source: "The Upanishads . But neither pleasure nor pain touches one who is not identified with the body. chariots. He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me smell this. arising from yonder akasa and reaching the highest light. the Self sees all these desires in the World of Brahman through the divine eye. "As an animal is attached to a cart.’ he is the Self. "So does this serene Being. never thinking of the body into which he was born. He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me hear. appear in their own forms.e. the ear is the instrument of hearing.years.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 318 . In that state He is the Highest Person. as these. always held by death. appear in His own form. 2—3 "The wind is without body. there is no cessation of pleasure and pain. 4 "When the person in the eye resides in the body. Then Prajapati said to him: Chapter XII — The Incorporeal Self 1 "O Indra. lightning and thunder are without body. or relatives.’ he is the Self. the cloud. Therefore all worlds belong to them and all desires. The embodied self is the victim of pleasure and pain. the pupil of the eye). It is the abode of the Self which is immortal and incorporeal. the nose is the instrument of smelling. he resides where the organ of sight has entered into the akasa (i. so is the prana (i. He. playing. this body is mortal.’ he is the Self. So long as one is identified with the body. the eye is the instrument of seeing. Now. 5 "He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me think this. laughing. the conscious self) attached to the body. 6 "The gods meditate on that Self.

I wish to obtain that glory. He who has studied the Vedas at the house of a teacher. I fulfil all ends and obtain the uncreated World of Brahman. End of Chhandogya Upanishad The Peace Chant Om. my tongue. from the variegated I come to the Dark. prana. That is the Immortal. Manu to mankind. ears and my strength and also all the other sense—organs Source: "The Upanishads . after leaving the teacher’s house. his sons and disciples) virtuous. thus said Prajapati. has settled down into a householder’s life and continued the study of the Vedas in a sacred spot and made others (i. he who. reaches the World of Brahman after death and does not return. may I never go to it. I am the glory of the brahmins. Chapter XIII — A Mantra for Meditation and Repetition 1 From the dark I come to the variegated. That within which these names and forms exist is. Prajapati to Manu. May I never go to the red and toothless. does not return. I am the glory of glories. yea. the glory of the kings. freeing myself from the body as the moon frees itself from the mouth of Rahu. yea. the palace of Prajapati." Thus said Prajapati. during the time left after the performance of his duties to the teacher. Brahman. May the different limbs of my body." Chapter XV — The Attainment of Brahmaloka 1 Brahma told this knowledge of the Self to Prajapati (Kasyapa). slippery place. all through his life. he who has withdrawn all the sense— organs into the Self. he who has not given pain to any creature except as approved by the scriptures—he who conducts himself thus. that is the Self. the glory of the vaisyas. all— devouring.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 319 .It obtains all worlds and all desires. yea.e. verily. Shaking off evil as a horse shakes dust from its hair. Chapter XIV — The Prayer of a Seeker of Eternal Life 1 That which is called the akasa is the revealer of names and forms. according to the prescribed rules. Now is stated a mantra: "I come to the assembly. eyes.

is Brahman. may they all belong to me! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace! Source: "The Upanishads .be nourished! All. who am devoted to Atman! Yea. indeed. as is declared in the Upanishads.A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda in four volumes 320 . May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never deny me! May there never be denial on my part! May all the virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me.

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