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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

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,lxm;&vdkYjzpfygw,f/ Oyrmajym&&if 550 Munf hv Qify if vk yf ief; wpfc ku dk wG uf csufo nf U
ZmwfedygwfvdkUajym&ayr,fUvnf; wu,fawmU tqifUaygif;rsm;pGmrSm rwdusrIaygif;rsm;pGmyg0if

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11

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
aeonfudkjiif;r&ay/ xdktcg wdusrItwGuf
(Precision) xnf Y oG i f ; pOf ; pm;&ef r S m
txl;yifta&;MuD;vSonf/ wdusrI&Sd&eftwGuf
tif*sifeD,mqdkif&mwm0efwpf&yfrSm vufcHEdkif
zG,f &SdaomyrmP (Acceptable region)
ES i f h azmf j yjcif ; yif j zpf o nf / xd k y rmPonf ,HkMunfudk;pm;EdkifrI (Reliability)
rnfrQ&SdaMumif;jzpfwefpGrf; (Probability) ESifh
azmf j yjcif ; jzpf o nf / tqd k y gjzpf w ef p G r f ;
udkwwfEdkiforQtjrifhrm;qHk;? (0g)
vufcHEdkif
zG,fyrmPajymif;vJrI (Range changes) udk
wwfEdkiforQ
tenf;qHk;jzpfatmif jyKvkyf&ef
rS m uRrf ; usif t if * sif e D , mwpf a ,muf \
t&nftcsif;[kqdk&ygrnf/
qdkygpdkY - rD;oD;wpfvHk; &Jh wGufcsuf
rIrS&&SdvmwJh Running hours udk em&D
(3000) [k razmfjybJ ( )em&Dazmfjyjcif;onf
vdkvm;tajzwpfcktwGuf Range changes
udkazmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ (2950 rS 3050 xd)
qd ka om tawmtwG i f; wefz d k; ud ka zmfjyonf/
tu,fí ¤if;rD;oD;\oufwrf;udk ( ) jzpfatmif
vky fE dk i fvQi f y dk r dk t usdK; oufa &m uf
rI&Sdrnfjzpfonf/
tif*sifeD,mvkyfief;udk Professional
vkyfvmaomtcg wefzdk;wpfckudkazmfjyrnfqdkvQif
'órae&mawGutp wd wd usus azmfjy&ef
vdktyfygonf/ Oyrmay;&&if (0.7) ESifh (0.70)
wd k Y onf y if v Qif oabmobm0rwl y gay/
jzpfwefpGrf;ay:rlwnfívnf; trSm;t,Gif;cHEdkifrI
twdkif;twm (Error range) awGvnf;
uGmjcm;ygonf/ vkyfief;wpffck\ vsmxm;csufudk
twd r f ; tapmif ; cH E d k i f r I j zpf w ef p G r f ; udk
&SdonfqdkMuygpdkY/qdkwJh azmfjrLvmoHk;jyD; wGuf
csuf & if q d k j yD ; &&S dr S m jzpfw ,f / Ed I i f ; &wef z d k; &J h
twdrf;tapmif;cHEdkifwJh oabmyg/ wu,fvdkYom
jzpfwefpGrf;udk
vdkYazmfjycJh r,fqdk&if EdIif;q&
wefzdk;&Jh
qdkwJh Range ay;rSmjzpfygw,f/
txl;owdjyKzG,fyif jzpf\/

rdrdwdkU&nfrSef;wJU
t&nftaoG;udkxdyg;
vmwJU
rnfonfUvTrf;rdk;rIudkrS
rcH,loifUay/

'Dtwdkif;wGufvdkufvdkU 'Dtajz&w,fqdk
onfrSmausmif;oifcef;pmtqifUwGif usefcJUygNyD/
tif*sifeD,mwpfa,muftzdkUrSm &&SdvmwJU tajz
twGuf vufcHEdkifaom twdkif;twmtwGif;&Sd
r&Sd ,HkMunfpdwfcs&rI&Sdr&Sd qef;ppfzdkUtvGefta&;
BuD; vSygonf/NyD;vQif¤if;wdkUtwGuf udk,fwkdi f
wm0efcH&ay;onf/ vkyfief;cGifvkyfudkif&müvnf;
wGu fc sufr Iuay;wJ U twdki f; tqif Utwef; rD
t&nftao;rD wnfaqmufMu&rnfjzpf onf/
rdrdwdkU&nfrSef;wJU t&nftaoG;udkxdyg; vmwJU
rnfonfUvTrf;rdk;rIudkrS rcH,loifUay/ tif*sifeD
wdk U\ xkw fukef onf a&&Snfv kyfief;rsm;om
jzpf onfU twGu f t&nf taoG ;rjynf UrSDygvQif
owfrSwfumvxd oufwrf;cHrnf r[kwfay;/
xdktcg jynfolUb@mudktusdK;rJU jzKef;wD;&m
a&mufayrnf/ xdkUaMumifU Oya't& ta&;,lcH&
rI rsm; &Sd vmEd ki fy gonf / od kU jzpfa omaMumifU
t"GefU&Snf wnfwHUEdkifaom wDxGifzefwD;cJUaom
vuf&mrsm;tjzpf odu©m&SdpGmordkif;ajc&m usefEdkif
&efrSm rdrdwdkUwGufcsufoHk;oyfrIwdkUu tajccHt
aMumif;&if;yifjzpfygawmUonf/ /

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armifvlat;

12

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
aqmif;yg;

ÚmPfprf;
Ko Saw (rk'Hk)

ukv or*¾ twG i f; a&;rI; csKyfwm0ef,l
xm;wJh befu Dr Ge f; wpfa ,muf urÇmvH k;yH kp Hi ,f
t½kyfav;wpfckeJU tvkyf½Iyfaeygw,f/ befuD
rGef;tvkyf½Iyf&jcif;taMumif;uawmU 'Dvdkyg-

urmÇ v H k; ud k txuf u yH k r Sm jyxm;wJ h t wd k i f ;
tjrif h w l n D w J h (tjyma&mif j c,f r I e f ; xm;wJ h )
tpdw ftyd kif;av;ESpfckydkif;xm;r,f/ tjyma&mif
jc,fxm;wJh tpdwf t ydki f; ESp fc kudk nmbuf
yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; tydkif; 1 eJY tydkif; 2 vdkY
owfrSwfygr,f/ tydkif; 2 &JUrsufESmjyif{&d,m[m
tjrifh “ H ” &SdwJh cylinder wpfck&JU
rsufESmjyif{&d,meJY wlnDw,f vdkY ,lqygr,f/
befuDrGef;odcsifwmu b,ftydkif;&JU rsufESmjyif
{&d,mu ydkrsm;rvJ/ b,ftydkif;&JU rsufESmjyif
{&d,mu enf;aervJ/ uJ.. .. ußGefawmfwdkY 0dkif;
0ef;pOf;pm;ay;vdkuf&atmiftay:uyHkudk 'Dvdkav;
xyfjznfUqGJxm;ay;w,f/

yHkrSmawGU&wJh “ s ” uawmh tydkif; 1 &JU radius jzpfygw,f/ “ r ” uawmh tydkif; 2 &JU
radius jzpfygw,f/
“ b ” uawmh tydkif;
1 &JU rsufESmjyiftus,f jzpfygw,f/ “ b ” [m
“ r ” &JU tangent line jzpfygw,f/ “ H H
” uawmh ESpfckvHk;eJYoufqdki fwJh tjrifhjzpf
ygw,f/“ r ” eJY “ s ” Mum;uaxmifhudk
( β ) vdkYowfrSwfygr,f/ 'gqdk&if θ = β
jzpfoGm;ygjyD/ “ b ” [m “ r ” &JU tangent
line jzpfwJhtwGuf axmifh l [m 90-θ eJY
nDygw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh a = θ jzpfygw,f/
'gqdk tJ'DMwd*HESpfck[m similar triangle
jzpfoGm;ygjyD/ similar triangle tem;awG&JU
tcsdK;[mwlnDw,fqdkwJh *kPfowÅdt& atmuf

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13

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
aqmif;yg;

Cylinder &JU surface area jzpfatmif
equation awGudk 2π eJY ajrSmufvdkufwJhtcg
surface area ESpfc k[m wl nDa ewmudk
awGY&Sd&rSmjzpfygw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh tydkif;(1)&JU
surface area eJY tydkif;(2)&JU surface area
[mwlnDygw,f/
tJ'D uae bmudkodEdkifovJqdkawmh sphere
wpfc k& JU rnfo nf ht pd wf tydkif;u surface
radius
area rqdk oleJY tjrifhcsif;wlnD ?
csif;wlnDwJh Cylinder &JU surface area eJY
twlwlygyJ/ 'gqdk&if tjrifhwl ? radius wlwJh
Cylinder wpfck&JU
surface area eJY
sphere wpfck&JU surface area wljyDaygh/

ukvor*¾ twGif;a&;rI;csKyf
wm0ef,lxm;wJUbefuDrGef;
wpfa,muf urÇmvHk;yHkpHi,f
t&kyfav;wpfckeJUtvkyf&Iyf
aeygw,f/befuDrGef;
tvkyf½Iyf&jcif; taMumif;
uawmU 'Dvdkyg-

Ko Saw (rk'Hk)

Ref: Michael Starbird, Ph.D. Professor
of Mathematics , The University of Texas
at Austin :
Lecture 8 , Circles, Pyramids, Cones and
Spheres

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14

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

tD*spfyd&rpfqdkwm *locFsKdif;awGr[kwfyJ Antenna
awGrsm;jzpfaervm; ¿
“tD*spfy d& rpfa wG& JUvQdKU0Sufc sufa wGxyfr &SdE dki f
awmh ygbl;”vdkY antenna system ydkif; eJYywfowfNyD; discover vkyfaewJh
&k&Sm;odyÜHynm&Sif tef'&,f,d b,fbD;pfuD u
tcdkiftrmtwnfjyKajymqdkvkduf ygw,f/

tydwfa wGjzpfNyD; t"dy Üg,fr&Sdjzpfae&wmvJ/
tacgif; awGudk zGifhvdkufwJhtcg bmaMumifUbmrS
r&SdbJjzpfjzpfa e&wmvJ/ tp&SdwJ Uar;cGe f; aygif;
ajrmufr sm;pGm eJ Y& S K yfa xG; aecJh& ygw,f/ 'gud k
&k&Sm;EkdifiH Research institute &JUtzGJU0if
wpfOD; jzpfwJh tef' &,f,d b,fbD;pfuD u
tajz&SmcJhygw,f/
olu 'Dyd&rpfawGudk
pyramidal
anawG
tenna
&,fvdkYac:a0: orkwf
pyygw,f/ ol u
ramidal antenna
awG[m
&Sdae&Hkouf
oufwifr[kwfbJ ,
aeUacwf acwfrSDwJU

ody fM uD; us,f c rf ; em;
NyD;a&S;usvSwJU tD*spf
yd&rpfawG[m tvGef
a0;vHvSwJU tmum
oquf o G , f a &;rsm;
twG u f & nf & G , f x m;
ygw,f vdk U
tef'
&,f, db ,f bD;pfu Du
oufaojyoGm;yg
w,f/'D tjrif&Iaxmif U
[mtopfr [k wf ygbl; /t&if Ut http://www.pois.ru/tayna.htm parabolic antenna awG&JU
&ifawGwkef;u vnf;'DvdkpOf;pm;
transmitter , receiver
awG;ac:oGm;MuwmawG&SdcJUayr,fU tef'&,f,du awGxJr Sm&SdwJh parameter awGa wmfa wmf
awmUody ÜH& SKaxmif huae atmifa tmifjrif jrif rsm;rsm; eJY qifw la ewmud ka wG U&Sd cJh ygw,f /
&Si f ; vif; jyEd ki fc J hy gw,f/ tqd k y gMurf ; awG uae 'Dtjyif tD*spfyd&rpfawG&JUtwGif;wnfaqmufrSK
a,bk,svufcHxm;wJUtwdkif;?'grSr[kwf guide system awG ypönf;awGudk omref satellite
awG&JUajymMum;csufawGtwdkif;? 'grSr[kwf tD*spf wnf a qmuf y H k eJ Y ES K d i f ; ,S O f j ycJ h y gw,f /
rd& dk; zvmMum;zl;em;0?ajymMuqdkMuwmav;awG ordk if; ynm&Si fr sm; em;rvnfE dki fjzpf aewJh
twdkif;tD*spfudkoGm;a&mufvnfywfzl;olawG om yd & rpf t wG i f ; rS m &S d w J h tcef ; zG J U pnf ; yH k a wG ?
rubJ oGm;a&mufr vnfywfzl;olawGyg bm &k y f t avmif ; rsm; xnf h a om tacgif ; awG
aMumifU'Dyd&rpfawGudk aqmufvky fcJUMuovJqdk bk&m;ausmif;aqmifawGeJU wjcm;psmyeESifUqdkif
wmodNyD;jzpfygw,f/ tD*spfzm&dkbk&ifawG&JUtkwf*l
ocsØKif;awGqdkwm b,folUar;ar; odygw,f/ 'g wJU awG[m wu,fyJ waveguide awG? anayr,f UtwG if; wnfa qmuf yHk awG &JU vQdK U0Su fc suf tenna stub awG ?cavity resonator awG ?
awGudkb,folursm; b,fvdkbmeJU bmaMumifU filter awG ? microwave frequency
qd kw mrsdK;&Si f;jycJ UMuvdk Uvm;/ord ki f;ynm&Si fa wG twGuftoHk;jyKwJh element awG &JUt&G,ftpm;
aum?tawG; tac:ynm&Si fa wGr smyg rodc sif oabmw&m;eJYuGufwdusaewmudk oufaojycJU
a,mifaqmifae&wJUvQdKU0SufcsufawGtrsm;BuD;yg/ ygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm tD*spf a&S;a[mif;yd&rpf awG
Oyrm-yd&rpftxJu opfudkif;rsm;vdkcGJjzmoGm;wJh eJY &SdorQ parabolic antenna awG[m prinwpfcsdKUvdIif*lawG&JUtqHk; rSmbmaMumifhbmrSr&SdbJ cipal t&bmrQuGmjcm;csufr&Sd awmUwmudkawGU

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15

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
&ygw,f/'Da&S;a[mif; yd&rpfawGrSm electric
power?cable?wier pwmawGryg&SdbJ tmum
orSm a&GUvsm;aewJh object awGudk&SmazGEdkifcJU
vd r fU r,f / radioelement wpfc kr Sr ygbJ
electro magnetic wave vQyf p pf
oHvdkufvIdif;awGudk toHtjzpf
ajymif;vJay;
Ed ki fc Jhvd rf hr ,f vd kY &k &S m; odyÜ Hy nm&S if tef'
&,f,db,fbD;pfuDu oufaojyoGm;cJUygw,f/
'Dyd&rpfawG [m interplanetary communication awG&JUtpdwf tydkif;jzpfw,fvdkY
ol,HkMunf xm;ygw,f/wjcm;j*d Kvf wpfckck
ay:rSmvnf; 'DaumifeJY tjyeftvSefqufoG,f
Edkif wJUckvdkrsdK;tpdwftydkif;awG&SdvdrfUr,f/ rm;pf
N*d K vf xuf r eD ; wJ h
tmumoxJ u wpf
ae&m&meJYcsdwfqufvkdY&wJh antenna wpfckudk
xl;cßGefxufjrufvSwJhtif*sifeD,m wpfa,mufu
wdwdususwGufcsufwnfaqmufxm;wmrsdK;yJwJh/
ol uawmh ck vd ka wG U&Sd
csuf ud wd wd usus
wG u f c suf x k w f a zmf ouf a ojyoG m ;ygw,f /
ußGefawmfhtaeeJYuawmh &k&Sm;*sme,fwpfckxJu
pdwf0ifpm; p&maumif;wmav;udk azmfjy&Hkouf
oufy g/ pmzwfolr sm; vGwfvyfpGm oabm
xm;uGJvGJEdkifcGifh &Sdygw,fcifAsm/

"odyfBuD;us,fcrf;em;
NyD;a&S;usvSwJU tD*spf
yd&rpfawG[m tvGef
a0;vHvSwJU tmum
oqufoG,fa&;rsm;
twGuf&nf&G,fxm;
ygw,fvdkU
tef'&,f ,db,fbD;pfuD
u oufaojyoGm;yg

[def;nD

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w,f "

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

16

ausmufwHk;a&TUolrsm;

aqmif;&JU &eHUav;awG wdwfqdwfvdkU ...aEGOD;&JU .. ESKwfqufaw;oHeJU twl ....jrefrmjynfu
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pkowdrxm;rdwmu vlwdkif;rSmvnf; wm0ef&Sdw,fqdkwmygyJ/ t"duuawmU wdkif;jynf&JU wdk;wufrIenf;wmaMumifU
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17

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18

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19

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
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vnf;aumif;? pneumatic
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vmMuygw,f/

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20

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
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tif*sifeD,mzdk&rfrS udkarmifqef; tm;vJaus;Zl;
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wm,myGav;

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

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21

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
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22

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wlom;qdkawmh? “tara& tarudk vkyfaußG;vdkU r0ao; &kyfudku tNrifuwfovdkvdk cspfp&mav;/
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wdk;vmMuav&JU? um;uvnf; tvkyfaemufusrSmygqkdrS qdkNyD; oufNyif;csekdifawmhrvdkygbJ/ 'gayr,fh uHw&m;
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wm aeUwdkif;vdkvdkyif/ ußGefawmf pdwftysufqHk;u um; xifw,f” wJh/ ußGefawmfvnf; bmaNym&rSef;rod/ twl
vm&if wdk;wufwmudkav/ tm;vHk; &Hk;aemufusrSm pdk; wl&yfaeolcsif; twlwl olut&ifodaeawmhvnf; pyfpk
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tcdsefu ydkawmifMumaeygao;w,f/ wpfcgwpfav vSnfhMunfhvdkufawmh olr&Sdawmh? olae&mrSm uav;r
awmhvnf; aNratmuf&xm;eJU oGm;&wm pdwfcs&NyD;? av; wpfa,mufeJUolUtarvdkU ,lq&wJh trMuD; wpf
pdwfcsrf;omw,fqdkwm olrsm;aNymvdkUawmh Mum;zl;yg&JU/ a,muf? [dkcyfacsmacsm av; vufu vGwfr,f usef&Hk
aNratmif&xm;vrf; aqmufaewmvnf;awmfawmfMum &Sdao;? tJ'D trMuD; avu ydk&Snfovdkyif?
aygh? 4-5 eSpfawmifNzpfawmhr,f xifyg&JU/ bmwJh
Mum;wm? ußGefawmfwdkU NrdKU&JUaNratmuf a&vrf;aMum “armifav; um;u cav;wpfa,mufudk wdkufvdkufwm
awGu wGufxm;wmxufydkqdk;vmw,fqdkvm;? bmvm;?
xifw,fwJh? armifav;Nrifvdkufvm;” wJh
arQmf&wmudk pdwfr&Snf wwfwJh ußGefawmfhtwGufawmh
wu,fhudk pdwfnpfp&myg/

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23

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
b,fvdkvkyfNrifrSmvJvdkU/ twlwl&yfaewmudk/olwdkUrdef;r
awGyJ pyfuvnf;pkygh/ [dkem;Nzpfvnf; olwdkUodcsif?
'Dem;Nzpfvnf; olwdkU odcsifeJU? pdwfxJu tJ'DvdkawG;&if;
cyfqwfqwfav; NyefaNymrdvdkufygw,f/
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um;uvludkwdkufrI Nzpfw,fAs? qdkif;bkwfMuD;awGUw,f
r[kwfvm; [dk;rSm? Nrefrmvdkaum? t*Fvdyf vdkaum a&;
xm;wm?bmwJh?owdxm;armif;?,mOfwdkufrI b,favmuf
qdkwm a&;xm;wm? ”
ußGefawmf tJvdk aNymvdkufawmh? olUorD; av; u?
tr,f vlMunfhawmh 10 eSpfawmif &Sdr,f rxif? olUtar twk d if ; yJ eS k w f u vnf ; oG u f y gh ? bmwJ h
olaNymwm“vrf;udk rMunfhbJ ul;wmudk arar&” wJU?
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awGu rqkH;rbl;vm; rodbl; aemf arar” wJh
tr,foluyJ aNym&w,f&S dao;? vlMunfhawmh om
uav;&,f? olUtarxuf omr,fh yHkyJvdkU pdwfxJu
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olu ußGefawmfhudk qufar;w,f?
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uav;u rSm;wmvm;”
cufayghAsm? a&SUaevm;? &Jvm;awmh rod? wpfckckawmh
wpfckckyJ? ußGefawmfrS rNrif&wm b,fvdkvkyfodrvJ
tr&,fvdkU NyefaNym,HkrSwpfyg; bmwwfedkfifrSmvJvdkU
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av&JU?
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us ,lNyD; ? udk,fhtvkyfusawmh aocsmrvkyfbl; tv
um;aumifawG?olwdkUaMumifh tem*gwf&JU Mu,fyGifhav;
wpfyGifh aMuG&SmNyD”
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tJ'Dvlvnf; ußGefawmfhudk aNym&wm tm;r&vdkUxifyg&JU?
olUnmbufu vlwpfa,mufukdvnf; qufaNymaeav
&JU? bmqufaNymaewmvJawmh ußGefawmfvnf; rMum;
awmh? 'DvlUMunfh&wm tpdk;&0efxrf;awmh aocsmw,fAs?
ausmif;q&mvm;?txufwef;pma&; vm;? wpfckckawmh
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tJcufwmu ußGefawmfh nmbufvSrf;vSrf;u tzGm;MuD;
uvnf; [dkvlaNymwmudk axmufcHwJh taeeJU ußGefawmf
Mum;atmif vSrf;atmfav&JU?

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csifbl;? tdrfrSm rD;rvmwm?rD;zdkacsmifrSm *ufpf ysufae
wm 4 &uf&Sdawmhr,f? zkef;qufawmhvnf; vmNyifay;
yghr,feJU?tckxdrvmbl;? vpOfaMu;usawmh yHkrSefay;&
w,f?”
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vdkufygw,f?olaNymvdkufrSpnfyifuky®PDawGtay: pdwf
u awmfawmf a'goxGufrdyg&JU?ußGefawmfvnf; awmf
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ab;Munfhvdkufawmh [dkom;trd r&Sdawmh? ußGefawmhf
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'Dta':MuD; a,muFsm;u pnfyifuky®PDu rdkhvdkUvm;
rodbl;vdkU? tlaMumifaMumif tawG;&,fyg? olrsm;udk
raumif;awG;wm rvkyfaumif;ygbl;vdkU udk,fhukdudk,f
Nyefxdef;xm;vdkuf&w,f?
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t&G,f? pwdkifabmif;bDeJU tdwfudk vufarmif;rSm usus
ee ydkufxm;wJh vlwpfa,mufu ußGefawmhfudkaNymwm
vm;? olUbmom aNymwmvm;awmhrod? olaNymwmu
“r[kwfbl;As? rD;ydGKifhqdkwm wpfcgwpfavawmh ysuf
wwfwmyJ?t"duu um,uH&SifawG yJAs? uav;u
uav;rdkhvdkUum;&Sif;NyDqdkNyD; ul;wm udpör&Sdbl;? armif;wJh
olrSm tNypf&SdwmAs? cifAsm; pOf;pm;Munfh? owdeJU armif;
aygh? 'gvlul;rsOf;Mum; &SdwJh ae&myJav? r[kwfbl;vm;?
t&Sdefukd avQmh?ab;b,fnmMunfh? 'Dvkdarmif;&rSm?t"du
w&m;cHu um;armif;wJh olAs”
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&SdwmyJ? 'Davmuf &Hk;wufcsdef vl&lyfaewmudk owdeJU
rarmif;bl;? vlawGu olwdkU tvsifvdkwmyJ odwmudk;?
tckawmh uav;wpfa,muf b0qHk;&Smaygh? owdowd?
tJ'gaMumifh bk&m;u a[mwm bmvkyfvkyf owdav;
ygrS? w&m;&vG,fwmwJU? oGm;owd?vm owd?ae owd?
xdkif owd? pm; owd?rSefvdkufav vdkU pOf;pm;aewkef;?
tckevlab;u olU oli,fcsif; vm;rod? bPftapmifh
vdkvdk ,leDazmif;eJU yk*¾dKvfu pum;qufav&JU? 'Dvl
Munfh&wm um;yGJpm;vdkvdk bmvdkvdkeJU? um;taMumif;
aumif;aumif; odwJh avoHeJU?
“um;u pvGef; 85 armf',fAs? ußGefawmfNrifvdkufw,f?
'Dvl b&dwfaygufNyD; xdef;r& NzpfoGm;wmAs? olUa&SUu
rmpD;'D; uGufaysmuf udk wkdufrdrSmpdk;NyD; twif;nmbuf
udk csdK;vdkufwm? wpfu,fvdkUrsm; olU nmbufu zdkU'f
*wkef; 90 armf',fom a&SUudk enf;enf;a&mufae&if?
um;csif;wdkufrSmAs?vrf;ul ;vmwJhcav;udkwdkufrSmr[kwf
bl;?trSefu Asm? um;qdkwm reuf tNyifxGufawmhr,f
qdk&if? qD?a&?av?0kdif? b&dwf tukefppf&wmAs?'Dvl
Munfh&wm um;ompD;wm? um;taMumif;vnf; odyHk
ray:ygbl;Asm? olaocsm rppfawmh? uav;wpfa,muf
touf&SKH;aygh”

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24

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

'Dvl aNymwmvnf; [kwfwmyJav?bmvdkU'Dvlvdk NrdKUawmf
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uyJ w&kwfodkif;um; awGxJuvdk vlrodatmif aewJh
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MuD; vdkU aum rNzpfekdifbl;vm;? wu,fyJ rodwmvm;?
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xJ avQmmufaNy;aeav&JU? ußGefawmf pdwfxJvnf; 'Dvl
tif*sifeD,m awmh NzpfrSmaocsmw,f vdkU? awmfawmf
vnf; pOf;pm; wwfwJh vlvdkU csD;rGrf; r,f MuHao;
ußGefawmhfa&SUu touf 60 ausmfavmuf tazt&G,f
OD;av;MuD; u atmfvkdufrS vefUNyD; tlaMumifaMumif Nzpf
oGm;rdw,f? 'DvlMuD; yHkpHMunfh&wm? vlNref?pdwfNref yHkpH
MuD;eJU? uGrf;awG0g; aewmvm; bmvm;awmhrod? yg;pyf
u yGpdyGpd eJU vkyfaewmawmh Nrifae&w,f/

rif;wdkUvdkab;xdkifbkaNymawGaMumifh ekdifiH rwdk;wufwm?
oGm; ulnDMu”
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ab;u aemuf awmfMuD;awGvJrsufeSm av;awG atmuf
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bl;avvdkU awGa0aewkef;? tcke vlMuD; ab;u olZeD;
vdkU xif&wJh ta':MuD; aNymvdkufrSbJ qkH;Nzwffcsufu
ckdifrmoGm;awmhw,f?
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vmaewJhvlu ar;ao;w,f? “cifAsm; oGm;MunfhrvdkU
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u qufNyD;?“[dkrSm q&m0efrav; wpfa,muf Munfhay;
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ac:xm;wm Mumaygh? aNymoHMum;wm awmh uav;u
aoavmuf&Hkawmh rNzpfbl;wJh?aoG;xGuf wmrsm;awmh
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rsm;us&if b,f a wmh r S t csd e f r S D ra&muf b l ; ?
NyD;&iftaMumif;
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avmuf &SdNyDvJawmif rodbl;? tvum;? ao&if
t0DpdrSm csdK;uyfr,fh olawG”

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[dkrSm uav;u touf&Sd&if&SdOD;rSm? oGm;ulnDMuygvm;?
aq;&Hkum; ac:oifhac:?wwfodwJh olu a&S;OD;olemNyK
enf;eJU NyKpkxm;? 'gawGvkyf&rSm? [dkvlraumif;aMumif;?
'Dvl raumif;aMumif;yJJ avukefcH xdkifaNymaew,f?

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oGm;aeav&JU? 'DvlU Munfh&wm ulnDcsifpdwfawmh&Sdyg&JU
olrSmvnf; ta&;MuD; tvkyfawmh &SdyHkyJav? tif;av
olaNymwmvnf; [kwfwmyJav?aq;&Hkum;awG aemufus
w,f? aemufusw,fvdkU &Hk;uvlawG aNymoHom Mum;
zl;wm? tckawmh wu,fNzpfaewmudk;? aMomf rvG,fygh

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2 vavmufqdk um;0,fpD;rvdkU ydkufqHpk xm;wmav;
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rvdkU MuH&kH&Sdao; aemufzufu taemufwdkif;0wfpHk pwdkif
usus0wfxm;wJh tif*sifeD,m vkdvdk vlu aNymvdkufvdUk
olzufpdwfua&mufoGm;av&JU?oltNrifu enf;enf;awmh
xl;qef; aeav&JU?
“cifAsm;wdkUaNymwmu vwfwavmNyóem udk taNz&Sm
wmAs? wu,fawmh cifAsm;wdkU aocsm Munfh?vrf;u
av;cGqHk? NyD;awmh rDwm 100 avmuf ausmfvdkuf&if
vrf;Nzwf awGu&Sdao;? 'Dvkdem;rSm rD;ydGKifhysufvdkU uawmh
traffic jam uawmh Nzpfvkduf r,fh Nzpfcsif;?tJ'Dawmh
t&ifvdkNyD; olU xufigarmif;?wdkufNyDaygh? wu,f
awmh'Dem;rSmukef;ausmfwHwm;aqmuf oifhwm Mumaygh?
[dkbuf yef;NcH em; uae? tck ußGefawmfwdkU &yfaewJh
ae&m txd ukef;ausmfwHwm; aqmufvdkuf?NyD;&if 2 xyf
t0dkif;ywf um;vrf;aqmufvdkuf?tay:u wpfvrf;oGm;?
atmuffu wpfvrf;oGm;?'grSr[kwfvJ tay:eJUatmufudk
crossing vkyfvkduf?aemufxyf 'Dvdkrsm; b,fawmh rS
rNzpfawmhbl; pdwfcsAsm”

www.myanmarengineer.org

25

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
vm;aemfvdkU pdwfu awG;&if; ußGefawmfvnf;cyfNrefNref
av; a&SmufoGm;rdw,f? vrf;wpfzuf a&mufvdkU vltkyf
MuD; &Sd&mudk ul;r,fvkyfaewkef; ußGefawmhf zkef;NrnfoH u
ay:vmvdkU Munfhvdkufawmh tar?
taru ta&;taMumif;qdk [dkrSm'DrSmu vkyfwwfvGef;
vdkU? bmrSmODf;r,f rodbl; vkdU pdwfuawG;&if; “aNymAs
bmwkef;”vdkU cyfqwfqwfav;xl;rdvdkufygw,f? tar
aNymwJhpum;udk Mum;vdkuf&awmh ußGefawmhf acgif;awG
xlNyD;? rD;awmufMuD; wpfck [yfvdkufovdk? &kwfw&uf
aMumifoGm;ovdk? b,fvdkrSef;rodbJ ußGefawmf twif;
vrf;udk NzwffaNy;rdvdkufw,fvdkh xifvdkufw,f?puúefUydkif;
twGif;rSm rdkhvkdU ußGefawmfudk,f ußGefawmf bmNzpfoGm;
rSef;awmifrodvdkufygbl;? um;awG b&dwftkyfoH vnf;
Mum;vdkufrd&JU? 'gayr,fh tar aNymvdkufwJh
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vrf;[dkbuf u qdkifrSm acsmuvuf oGm;0,fwm tckxd
Nyefrvmao;vdkU?um;wdkufoHawGvnf; Mum;vdkU pdwfyl
vdkUwJh? wpfcsuf MunfhNyD; nDav;udkawGU&if tdrfNyef
vTSwfvdku”f wJh
ußGefawmf vltkyfMuD;xJ twif;wdk;0ifoGm;awmh tcke
ußGefawmhfab;uaysmufoGm;wJh aumifrav;&JUaygifay:
rSm touf 12 eSpfavmuft&G,f cav;wpfa,muf vSJ
vdkU? 'gPf&mu rNyif;ayr,fh? aNcaxmufudk xdxm;awmh
emvdkUxifw,f cav;crsmatmfaeav&JU? aumifrav;
uawmh aNymygw,f? pdwfrylygeJUwJU?cav;u uHaumif;
w,fwJh? aNcaxmufeJeJxdwmwJh? cav;u vefUoGm;awmh
wkefaewmwJh?aq;&Hkum;a&mufawmhrSmygwJh? ußGefawmf
nDav;r[kwfvdkU awmfao;w,f[Jh qdkNyD; pdwfxJu
awmh oufNyif;csrdyg&JU?aemufawmhrS pOf;pm;&if; tvkdvdk
rsuf&nfawG pD;usvmwmudk ußGefawmfowd NyKrdygw,f?
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bm;vm;?nmvm;vJ ußGefawmf rodcsifawmh? igbmvdkU
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w,f? ighnDav; r[kwfvdkU csvdkufwmvm;? uav;u
raoedkifvdkUvm;? trSefawmh udk,fhaoG;om;r[kwfvdkU
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d dk,f
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'Duav;ae&mrSm nDav;qdk&ifaum? olUtudk ae&mrSm
ußGefawmfqdk&ifaum?'grSr[kwf tckevlawGom 'Duav;
tudkawG?tazawG?tarawG?bdk;bGm; awGqd k&ifaum
b,fvdk oufNyif;awG csMurSmvJ?
tcke q&m0efrav;uawmh cav;udkayGUxm;av&JU?
ußGefawmfbmvkyfaevJ? cifAsm;wdkUawGaum bmvkyfaevJ
vdkU atmfypfvkdufcsifrdyg&JU/

ußGefawmfbmvky
cbifAsm;wdkUawGaufaevJ?
m
m
v
k
y
a
f
e
atmfypfvkdufcvsifrJ vdkU
dyg&JU/

oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufudk *kPfNyKí
atmifNiDrf; (xdefawm)

www.myanmarengineer.org

26

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

uAsm

i,fi,fwkef;u araru ajymcJhw,f
xrif;qDqrf; a&Tvifyef;udk
zdk;vrif;BuD;u qufocJhw,fwJh
ewfoufaMuG rif;orD;av;tjzpf
(udk,fhudkudk,f)
b0ifrsm;awmif jrifhcJhao;
Eke,fwJhtawG;awGtm;vHk;
"gwfcGJcef;rSm tajz&SmMunfh
&dk;om;jcif;awGyJ MuGif;usefw,f………..
Munfpm;wwfwJh avmua&,mOfaMumrSm
jzLpifjcif; udk &GufMudK;wyfwJhavSi,f&,f
qdyfurf;awG wpfckNyD; wpfck qkdufNyD;vmcsdefrSmawmh
[efaqmifjcif;awG zHk;vGrf;cH&&if;
MudK;wdkifrSm &Guftm;
avsmhvmavovm…………..
'DvdkeJY
Mu,fawGaMuG wdrfawGvGifh
em&Drsm;pGm &moDrsm;pGm jzwfoef;
b0&JU "gwfcGJcef;tajzawGvJ
ajymif;vJvmcJhrSm aocsmw,f…………
t&m&mudk csdefom;udkuf vufcHvm&wJhtcg
White Liar udk em;vnf wwfvmcHwmyg
b0rD;tdrfudk xGef;vif;zdkY
roifMum;bJ wwfajrmufvmcJhwJh ynm
vufcHvdkuf&Hkomaygh
'gayr,fh
tawG;awGxJ aumif;uifu
tHkYrdIif;&Da0aewkef;yJ……….

rwlnDawmh tajzawGtwGuf
rESajrmrdayr,fh
wjznf;jznf;
pdwf"gwfawG &ifhoefvmrS
wpfcgu araraNymcJhwJh
rkom;jzLjzLudk
vGrf;wwfvmcJhw,f………….

rwlnDawmh tajzawGtwGuf
rESajrmrdayr,fh
wjznf;jznf;

www.myanmarengineer.org

27

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
tJ'D&nfrSe;f csufawGjzpfajrmufzdkY[m cufcJr,fqdkwmrSefayr,fh “vkdvQifMuHq enf;vrf;&”
qdkwJhpum;yHktwdkif; MudK;yrf;tm;xkwfvQif &nfrSef;csufudk rvGJ{uefa&muf&Sdr,fvdkY ,HkMunf&ygaMumif;
….

FUEL CONSUMPTION
av,mOfawGay:aygufvmwm
tcktcsdefrSmqdk&if ESpfaygif;wpf&mausmfoGm;ygjyD/
tpueOD;rSm av,mOfawGudk
eJY armif;ESif
ygw,f/ aemufydkif;rSmawmh jet engine awG
ay:vmjyD; wGifwGifus,fus,ftoHk;jyKvmMuyg
w,f/ bmvd kU wG if wGifu s,f us,f oH k;&ovJ qd k
a wm Uy d kjr e f vd k Uy gy J/ p ro p el le r e JY
av,mOfudkarmif;ESif&if maximum speed
u 500 km per hour
ywf0ef;usif
avmuf y J y sH o ef ; Ed k i f y gw,f / Jet aircraft
uawmh olYxufydkjrefygw,f/850-900 km
per hour avmufysHoef;Edkifygw,f/ usm;MuD;
awmh ajc&mMuD; qdkwJhpum;twdkif;ygyJ/speed
ydkjrefawmh qDydkukefygw,f/ qDukefusrIoufom
atmif tif*sifeD,mrsm;u MudK;pm;Muygw,f/
wpfESpfxufwpfESpf BudK;pm;rIawGatmifjrifwmudk
atmufyg*&yfzf rSmawGUEdkifygw,f

passenger jzpfygw,f/
qDukefusrI[m wpfESpf
xuf w pf E S p f a vsmUenf ;
vmwmudkawGU&Sd&rSmjzpfygw,f/ 1960 ckESpfu
10 km
c&D ; onf w pf a ,muf t wG u f
tuGmta0;udk qD 0.6 liter
ukefuscJU
ygw,f / ,ck t csd e f r S m awmh c&D ; onf w pf
a,muftwGuf 10 km tuGmta0;udk qD 0.2
liter yJ ukefusygw,f/ 'ghtjyif Airbus
A330 udk Volvo V70 um;trsdK;tpm;eJY
EdIif;,SOfMunfhygw,f/

*&yf &J U x-axis uawmh ck ES pf ouú& mZfudk
udk,fpm;jyKygw,f/ y-axis uawmh qDukefusrI
(fuel consumption) udk udk,fpm;jyKygw,f/
azmfjyxm;wJh unit uawmh Liter/10km/

www.myanmarengineer.org

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
txufrSmjrif&wJh *&yfzftwdkif; c&D;onfwpf
a,muftwGuf 10 km tuGmta0;udk um; eJY
av,mOf?qDukefusrIEdIif;,SOfwJhtcg av,mOf&JU
qD p m;EI e f; u um;eJ Y, S O f & if 26% avsmh
enf;aewmudk awGY&rSmjzpfygw,f/ Calculation uawmh av,mOfrSm median load
(75% full) udk tajccHxm;jyD; um;rSmawmh
driver &JU load udkyg,lwGufxm;ygw,f/
acwfopfav,mOfwpfpif;u xGufay:vmwJU ql
nHrI(noise)[m acwfay:tjref&xm;u xGuf
ay:vmwJh qlnHrIeJY EIdif;,SOf&if xuf0ufcefY
avsmhenf;ygw,f/ Advisory Council of
Aeronautics
(ACARE)

Research

in

Europe

u 2020 ck E S p f t wG u f
&nfrSef;csufuawmh atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygw,f/
Fuel consumption and carbon
dioxide emissions to fall by 50 per
cent
Noise to fall by 50 per cent
Nitric oxide emissions to fall
by 80 per cent
tJ ' D & nf r S e f ; csuf a wG j zpf a jrmuf z d k Y [m cuf c J
r,fqdkwmrSefayr,fh “vkdvQifMuHq enf;vrf;&”
qd k w J h p um;yH k t wd k i f ; Mud K ;yrf ; tm;xk w f v Qif
&nf r S e f ; csuf u d k rvG J { uef a &muf &S d r ,f
vdkY ,HkMunf&ygaMumif; ….
a'geom;

Ref: Henrik Norberg , Volvo Aero and
Airbus , AERO ENVIRONMENT ( A
MAGAZINE ABOUT AVIATION AND
THE ENVIRONMENT FROM VOLVO

www.myanmarengineer.org

28

29

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
]] pufrIawmfvSefa&;aemufydkif;rSm a&aMumif;Adokumynm[mvnf;
wdk;wufvmcJhrSm ,HkrSm;zG,fr&Sdyg}}
The Roots of Naval Architecture
a&aMumif;Adokumynm\Zpfjrpfudk wl;azmfjcif;
Naval architecture qd kwJ hy nm&yf[ m
yD;&l;awmifwef;uae pwifarG;zGm;vmw,fqdk&if
tuk e f t H h M ooif h uk e f r vm;yJ / wu,f y g/
ol Y wpf o uf wpf u dk ,f oabFm wpfp D; awmif r S
raqmufcJhzl;wJh jyifopfeu©wfynm&Sif Pierre
Bouguer [m olY&Jh olawoepmwrf;jzpfwJh
Traité du navire, de sa construction
et de ses mouvemens (Treatise of the
Ship, Its
Construction and Movements) rSm pwiftoHk;jyKcJhygw,f/ jyifopf
odyÜHtu,f'rD&Jhokawoevkyf ief;jzpfwJh urÇmMuD;&Jh t&G,ftpm;eJYyHko@mefudkodEdkif&eftwGuf
vwÅDwG'f'D*&DoHk;rsdK;eJY wdkif;wm&ef yD&l;awmif
wef;rSm tajccsaepOf (1735-1744) twGif;
txufy gpmwrf; udky g jyKpkc Jhwmyg/ 1746
a&mufrS w&m;0ifxkwfa0jzefYcsDcJhw,f vdkYrSwf
om;&ygw,f/ awmifwef;ay:rSm oabFmynm
tkwfjrpfwpfckcscJUwm[m tHUzG,fwpfckuawmU
trSefygyJ/
tJ' Dr wdki fcifu oabFm eJYy wfoufvdkY
pmtkyfawG&SdcJhayr,fh Ship constructors
awGtwGuf tm;udk;jyK avmufzG,f&m r&SdcJhygbl;/
jyD;awmh ynm&yfeJYywfoufvdkY olYavmuf Synthesis rjzpfwJhtwGuf Pierre Bouguer &Jh
Traité du navire pmtkyf[m Naval architecture ynm&yftwGuf yxrqHk;aom
enf ; ynmtqef q H k ; pmtk y f j zpf c J h y gw,f /
&mpkE Sp fwpfc kp mrQ oabFm wnfa qmufo lwd kU
twG u f o r® m usrf ; pmozG , f t m;ud k ; tm;xm;
jyKcJ h & ygw,f / od k Y aMumif h r d k Y vnf ; Pierre
Bouguer udk a&aMumif;AdokumzcifMuD;&,fvdkY

Ko San Gyi

(the father of naval
architecture) aESm if; vl wd kY rSw fc suf jyKcJh &ygw,f /
tJ v d k r S w f c suf j yK&wJ h aemuf t aMumif ; &if ;
wpfckuvnf; oabFmwpfpD; twGuf touf
wrQta&;MuD;vSwJh Stability twGuf,aeU
wdkif the only surviving theory jzpfwJh
Metacenter qdkwJha0g[m&udk wDxGiftoHk;jyK
azmfxkwfcJhvdkYygyJ/ tJ'Daemufydkif;rSm oabFmynm
[m rsm;pGmzGYHjzdK;wdk;wufcJhygw,f/
Pierre Bouguer udka&aMumif;Adokum
zcif BuD; vdkU*k PfjyKcJUwJUtaMumif ;eJUywfoufvdkU
apm'uwufp&m&SdEdkifygw,f/ bmvdkUvJqdkawmU
ol U taMumif ; ud k a rG ; &yf a jr jyif o pf E d k i f i H z G m ;
Naval architects trsm;pk a wmif r S
ol Ye mrnf ud k rMum;cJh zl; Muvd kY ygyJ/ wcsdK Uu
tmcD r D ; 'D ; ud k a&aMumif ; ynmzcif M uD ; vd k Y
txif&SdcJhMuygw,f/ Fluid xJrSm t&m0w¬K
wpfckepfjrKyfrI*kPfowÅd Buoyancy law udk
oabFmynm&yfrSm,loHk;cJhMuwmyg/ Newton’s
Law udke ,fy,ftoD; oD;u,loHk;MuovdkrsdK;
jzpf y gw,f / oabF m Ad o k u mtwG u f Pierre
Bouguer &Jh Traité du navire pmtkyf[m
Complete set of principles that governed scientific naval
architecture vdkYqdk&avmufatmif Hydrostatics,
Hydrodynamics, Stability wd k Y ud k
tus,f & S i f ; jyjyD ; Ship constructors

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30

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
awGtwGuftvGef taxmuf tuljyKwJU ocFsm
wG uf csuf rIa wG yg yg0ifc JU ygw,f /,aeYa cwf
Naval architecture twGuf
pHjyKudk;um;pmtkyfjzpfwJh Principle of Naval
Architecture pmtkyf&Jh Format [m Traité
du navire pmtk y f t wd k i f ; &S d a ewmud k u
tJ ' D p mtk y f & J h MoZmt&S d e f t 0gud k xif
[yfaeygw,f/
Pierre Bouguer eJYy wfo uf jyD;
rSwfom;zG,faemufwpfcku 1727 rSm jyifopf
tu,f'rDu usif;ywJh “oabFmay:rSm &Gufwdkif
udkb,fae&mrSm taumif;qHk;ae&mcsoifUovJ}}
qdkwJUNydKifyGJrSm yxrae&m&&SdcJUjcif;yg/ 'kwd,ae
&mudk&&SdcJUoluawmU ynm&SifawGtwGufae&m
usOf ; ajrmif ; wJ h t rd a jrqG p f Z mvef E d k i f i H u
tjyD;wdkifxGufcGmcJhjyD; &lyaA'q&m&mxl;twGuf
& k & S m ;p d e f Y yDwmpy wf o dy ÜH tu,f ' r Dudk
pa&mufwJhE SpfrSm0ifjydKifcJhwJh touf(20)t&G,f
ocFsmynm&Sif Euler yJjzpfygw,f/
Naval architecture udk Professional Adokumynm&yftjzpfpwif avhvm
wJhpmtkyfudk 1610 uwnf;u ay:wl*DEdkifiHom;
ocsFmynm&Sifvnf;jzpf? tif*sifeD,m wpfa,muf
vnf;jzpfwJh João Baptista Lavanha &Jh
rxkwfa0jzpfwJhpmtkyfvdkYqdkygw,f/
pmtky ftrnfuawmh “Livro primeiro
de arquitectura naval” (First Book of
Naval Architecture) jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D
pmtkyfrSm tckvdk&Sif;jycJhygw,f/ Naval Architecture is that which with certain
rules teaches the building of ships,
in which one can navigate well and
conveniently. tJ'Dpmtkyfudk (20) &mpk
a&mufrSom;xkwfa0cJhwmyg/ 1700 jynfh0ef;usif
ESpfrsm;a&mufrS 'Da0g[m&udk Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;rSm
us,fus,fjyefYjyefYoHk; pGJvmcJhygw,f/

“oabFmay:rSm &Gufwdkif
udkb,fae&mrSm
taumif;qHk;ae&mcsoifUovJ}}
qdkwJUNydKifyGJrSm
yxrae&m&&SdcJUjcif;yg
pufrIawmfvSefa&;aemufydkif;rSm a&aMumif;Adok
umynm[mvnf; wdk;wufvmcJUrSm ,HkrSm;zG,f
r&Sdyg/ Naval architecture
ynm&yfp wifarG;zGm ;cJhyHk? a0g[m&ay:ayguf
vmyH k u d k tMurf ; zsif ; wif j yjyD ; aemuf r S m
'Dynm&yf&JU atmufrSmqifhyGm;aewJh a0g[m&
t"dyÜm,fawGudk uGJuGJjym;jym;em;vnf Edkifatmif
azmfjyvdkufygw,f/

www.myanmarengineer.org

Ko San Gyi

31

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
ayoD;&Gmjyefvmwkef;u

Nee J

&Gmu ayoD;ayghAsm ... 'DaumifeJh usKyfeJhqdk i,fi,fuacGvdSrfhzuf? ykpGefvkH;eSdkufzuf ...
usKyfu (4) wef;rSmwzkef;zkef;usayr,fh 'Daumifu pmawmfoAs ... wuúodkvfrSm pmoGm;oifjyD; aEG&moDus
&Gmjyefvmw,f ... tr,f oaumifhom;u waoG;warG;AsKdh?tom;qdkazG;Ovdkh? a&obifrsufrSefawG?
a0gueJ&SL; awGeJh ...
naeusrSolhtdrfoGm; eIwfquf&if; pum;pjrDajymjzpfcJhygoAsm ...
“[aumif ayoD; ... waoG;warG; vlawmifrSm;ouGm ... rif;u tckbGJh&&if bmtvkyfvkyfrSmwkef; ”
“usKyfu tif*sifeD,m vkyfrSm ... udk&ifcsufMuD; & ... ”
“[m ... 'gqdkrdkufwmayghuGm? rif; jrKdhrSmaewkef; bmawGawGhcJhao;vJuG”
“jrdKhrSmuawmhAsm ... acwfrDwmudk;As ... ae&mwum technology awGujrifhawmh tm;vkH;tqifajywmaygh”
“tJ'g bmMuD;vJuG? wufacguf&ifavmMuD; w,f ... [kwfvm; ”
“udk&ifu vkyfjyDAsm ... technology qdkwm enf;ynmtopftqef;awGudkajymwmAs ... vlawG bmyJvkyfcsif
vkyfcsif tJ'D enf;ynmawGeJhvkyfvdkuf&if jzpfw,fAs ... ”
“ [m ... qef;ouGm ... raemr,ywÅjrm;vdkyJxifw,faemf tJ'D[mawGu ... ”
“tckqdk&if vlawGMum;rSm internet &Jhu@wGifus,fvmwmeJhtrQ urÇmteSHhb,fae&mu udpöyJjzpfjzpfodedkif
vmjyDAs”
“bm&,f ... tdrfomteuf u urÇmteSHhrSm&Sdw,f ... [kwfvm;”
“usKyfajymwm internet ygudk&if&m ... usKyfqdk&if internet uwqifh abmvkH;yGJMunhf&wm awmfawmfMudKuf
w,fAs? 'Daehnudk abmyGJ&Sdw,f? odw,fr[kwfvm;? Gerrard wdkh? Torreswdkhav ... ”
“[muGm ... *sm&pf wdkh awmt&ufaomufwmrsm; bmqef;vdkhv”J
“udk&ifuvJAsm ... usKyfajymwJhemrnfawGu t*FvefrSm abmvkH;uefaewJh abmvkH;orm;awGygAs ”
“aMomf tJvdkvm; ... apmapmuajymrSayghuG? t[D;? t*Fvef udkoGm;p&mrvdkbJ Munfh&wmayghaemf ... ”
“'gayghAs ... “click” av; wpfcsufeSdyfvdkufwmeJh urÇmteSHhb,fae&m bmjzpfaevJ odedkifvmjyDav ...”
“'gqdk rif;jrdKhuaejyD; 'dkh&GmrSmbmjzpfaevJ Munfhvdkh&vm;uG ... ”
“[m ... 'gawmhb,f&rvJAs ... ”
d rSydkaumif;wmaygh”
“'Dtwdkif;qdk rif;tdrfomeufMuD;u b,faumif;rvJuG? q&mawmfa[mwJh ewfrsufpu
“udk&ifu pum;uyfjyDAsm ... usKyfajymwJh internet rSmu [dk;t&if eSpf&maxmifavmufu tcsuftvufawG
vnf; &Smvdkh&w,fAs ... ordkif;aMumif;tjzpftysufawG? &kyf&SifawG?oDcsif;awG ... trsm;MuD;yJAs ... ”
“'grsm;uGm ... &GmOD;ausmif;u yd#uwfwdkufxJrSmvnf; trsm;MuD;&Sdygw,fuG? bkef;MuD;ausmif;rdkhvdkh &kyf&Sif?
oDcsif;awGr&Sdwmyg ... ”
“'gayr,fh technology aMumifhvlawG pdwfoGm;wdkif;udk,fyg? vkyfcsiforQvG,fuloGm;wmudkawmh
udk&ifjiif;vdkhr&bl;r[kwfvm; ... ”
“ig u rif;ajymwJh technology udkjrifudkrjrifzl;bl; [aumif& ... em;vnfatmifaocsmajymOD;”
“udk&if avay:ysHcsif&if technology udkokH;jyD;aqmufxm;wJh av,mOfeJhysHvdkh&w,fAsm?
yifv,fMuD;udkjzwful;csif&if technology aMumifhjzpfvmwJh oabFmawGpD;jyD; ul;vdkh&w,f Asm ...
b,fae&mudkoGm;csifoGm;csif jrefedkiforQtjrefqkH;a&mufedkifjyDAsm ... tJ'gqdk&Sif;vm;”

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32

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

“'grsm;uGm avay:ysHcsif&if "mwfvkH;ikHjyD; aygifykwfvdkufrSmaygh? "mwfvkH;eJha&ay:vrf;avQmufvdkhawmif
&wmudk ... rif;&Jh technology MuD;u udk,fazsmufvdkh&vdkhvm;? "mwfvkH;atmif&ifudk,fawmifazsmufvdkh&ao;
... ta[;a[;”
“vlawGb,favmuftxd tqifajyovJqdk&if xrif;csuf&ifvnf; &GmrSmvdkhqefaq;? rD;zdkab;,yfcwf
aep&mrvdkbl;As? rice cooker av;xJqefaq;jyD;xnfhxm;vdkuf&kHyJ?olh[molcsufay;wm? t0wfavQmf
csif&ifvnf; udk,fwdkifavQmfp&mrvdkbl;? t0wfavQmfpufxJrSm qyfjymrIefhav;xnfh cvkyfedSyfvdkuf&kHyJ ...
avQmfjyD;om;? a&nSpfjyD;om;tqifhoifhjyefxGufvmwm”
“uJuGm ... bdk;awmf"mwfvkH;u bmvkyfcsifvkyfcsif pdwfxJu w vdkuf&kHyJarmif ... tukeftjyD;tpD;jzpfw,f”
“technology aMumifh vay:udkvlawGa&mufedkifwmAs ... tck t*Fgj*dK[f udkygvlawGodrf;ydkufawmhrSm ... ”
“at; ... "mwfvkH;&Sdae&if pMu0VmteSHh b,foGm;csifoGm;csifa&mufw,fAsm ... rif; technology MuD;u
wdkh"mwfvkH;avmuf rpHGygbl;armif&m ... ”
“udk&if eJh ajym&wmtqifudkrajybl;Asm ... awmfjyD? rajymawmhbl;”
ayoD;wpfa,muf aqmifhMuD;atmifhMuD;eJh xGufoGm;av&JhAsm ... usKyfu olhtwGufrsm;taxmuftuljzpfrvm;
vdkhapwemeJh ajymrdwmyg ...
usKyfajymwmbmrsm;rSm;oGm;ygvdrfhaemf ...
Nee J

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33

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

NrefrmedkifiH{/f NrpfwGif;oGm; tNrefc&D;onfwif oabFm
'DZdkif;ESifh ywfoufaom designer wpfa,mufodoifhonfh
tcsufrsm;
Silence
ußGefawmfwdkUNrefrmedkifiH[m NrpfawGaygrsm;wJh edkifiHawGxJu wpfedkifiHNzpfygw,f/vGefcJhaom
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm uwnf;u NrefrmvlrsdK;awG[m 'DNrpfawGudk toHk;NyKNyD; toufarG; cJhMuygw,f/
NrpfwGif;oGm; a&aMumif;ydkUaqmifa&; vkyfief;[mvnf; 'DNrpfawGaygrSm taNccHNyD; zGifhNzdK;wdk;wuf
vmcJhygw,f/ c&D;oGm;vkyfief;? ukefpnf o,faqmifa&;vkyfief;awG[mvnf; 'DNrpfawGaygrSm taNccHNyD;
wdk;wufvmygw,f/ NrefrmedkifiH NrpfwGif;oGm;vmedkifwJh tuGmta0;[m 12.800 uDvdkrDwm cefU&SdNyD;
t"du tm;Nzifh {&m0wD eJU csif;wGif;NrpfawG [medkifiH&JU ta&;ygwJh NrpfawG Nzpfwnf&Sdaeygw,f/
{&m0wD NrpfwGif; c&D;onfeJUukefpnfo,faqmifrI vkyfief;awG[m 19 &mpkukefupcJhygw,f/
yxrqHk; NrpfwGif;oGm; uky®PD Irrawaddy Flontilla [m 1865 ckESpfrSm pwifwnfaxmif
cJhygw,f/1930 rSm tJ'D uky®PD ydkif c&D;onfwif oabFm 10 pif;cefU &SdcJhNyD; wpfESpfudk c&D;onf 9
odef; avmufudk onfaqmifay;edkifcJhygw,f/ 'kwd, urÇmppf umvrSm taNctae trsdK;rsdK;aMumifh
uky®PD ysufqD;ovdk NzpfcJhNyD; oabFm ta&twGufvnf; ododomom enf;vm;cJhygw,f/ 1962 ckESpf
ta&muf wHcg;ydwf pD;yGm;a&; aMumifh ukr®PD &kyfodrf;cJh&NyD; {&m0wDNrpfwGif; oabFm ukrÜPD
wpfcsdKUvnf;uG,faysmufcJh&ygw,f/
1980 ywf0ef;usif avmufwGif NrpfwGif;oGm; c&D;oGm; vkyfief; awGvnf; Nyefvnf
wdk;wufvmw,fvdkU qdkvdkU&ygw,f/ Orient Express Trains & Cruise? Barani Cruise
Travel Group pwJh uky®PD awG&if;ESD; NrSyfESH vmwmudk awGU&ygw,f/ tckvuf&Sd tcsdef &&SdwJh
pm&if ; awG t & {&m0wD Nrpf w G i f ; rS m oabF m aygif ; 50 eD ; yg;avmuf oG m ;vm
aeygw,f/ ,ckvuf&SdNrefrmedkifiHrSm oGm;vmaewJh c&D;onfwif oabFm wpfcsdKU atmufu Z,m;(1)
rSm wifNyxm;ygw,f/ vuf&SdaNy;qGJaewJh oabFmawGudk Munfhvdkuf&if c&D;onf ta&twGuf 150
xuf txufr&Sdao;ovdk speed tm;Nzifhvnf; a&rdkif 12 rdkifxuf ydkNrefwJh oabFm r&Sdao;wmudk
awGU&rSmyg/ bmudk NyaeovJqdk&if tem*wf NrpfwGif;oGm; oabFmawG[m c&D;onfta&twGuf
rsm;NyD;? speed ydkNrefwJh oabFmawG aqmufzkdh txl;vdktyfaew,fqdkwmudk ygyJ/
Z,m; (1) - {&m0wD NrpfwGif;aNy;qGJaeaom oabFm tcsdKU{/f main dimensions rsm;
Name of ship Date of issue and owner
Length (m)
Breadth(m)
Draught(m)
Speed (knots) Type of engine Power (kilowatt)
Numbers of passenger
M.V.Myat Yadna
Yarrow Co.Ltd,Scotland 62 9.8 1.2 10
120
RV Mekong Pandaw 2003 60 11 1.5 12 Isuzu809.6
150
RV Pandaw II 2001 55

10

1

11.5 Caterpillars

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515.2

120

34

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
RV Tonel Pandaw
2002 55
580.8
120
RV Pandaw IV 2005 55 10
120
Delta Queen
45.5 8.5
Pandaw
40 10.5 1.7

10

1

13

Cummins

Engines

1

9.5

Cummins Engines

5 8 0 . 8

1.5 9.5
85
10.5 Dorman Engines368 64

{&m0wD Nrpf&JU oabFm oGm;vmedkifwJh navigational length vm 2000 uDvdkrDwm? csif;wGif;Nrpf
[m 837 uDvdkrDwm&Sdygw,f/ atmufu yHk (1) rSm Nrefrm edkifiHwGif; c&D;onfwifoGmvmcJhwJh a&vrf;?
um;vrf;?rD;&xm;vrf;awGtvkduf 2003-2004 ckeSpftxd udk wifNyxm;ygw,f/
yHk (1) -ESpftvdkuf c&D;onf yrmPeSifh a&vrf;?ukefvrf; taNctae

&xm;vrf; eJU um;vrf; c&D;[m vuf&Sd tcsdefrSm a&vrf;c&D;xuf rsm;aewmudk awGU&rSmyg? 'g
[mbmudkNyaevJqdkawmh NrpfwGif;oGm; a&;vrf; c&D;onf ydkUaqmifa&; vkyfief;MuD;wpfckvkH; trsm;MuD;
NrSifhwifzkdh vdktyfaew,f qdkwmygyJ/
1/ tNrefoGm; oabFm
tNrefoGm; oabFmqdkwmudk &Sif;NybdkU vdkr,fxifygw,f/ IMO «1» &JU criteria t&
tNrefoGm; oabFm qdkwmudk atmufu azmfNrLvmeJU Nyqdkygw,f/
(1)
V
 3.7V
max

0.1667

V qdkwm volume displacement (m3) Nzpfygw,f/ tJ'D parameter &JU txuf&SdwJh
oabFmudk tNrefoGm; oabFmvdkU rSwf,l&rSmNzpfygw,f/ tNrefoGm; oabFmawG[m oabFmyHkpH?
trsdK;tpm;? pwmawGay: rlwnfNyD; uGJNym;Ncm;em;rIawG &Sdygw,f/ tMurf;zsOf;tm;Nzifh tNrefoGm;
oabFmawGudk atmufygtwdkif; cGJNcm; MunfhfvdkYygw,f/
'gawG[m tMurf;zsOf; azmfNycsufomNzpfNyD; tNcm;yHkpHrsdK;pHkvnf; &Sdedkifao;ygw,f/ tNrefoGm;
oabFmawG&JU orkdif;aMumif;udk awmh 'Dae&mrSm razmfNyawmhygbl;? t"du azmfNycsifwmuawmh tNref
oGm; oabFmawG&JU c&D;onfwif u@ rSm ta&;ygyHkudkyg/

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yHk(2)- yHkpHrsdK;pHkNzifh tNrefoGm; oabFm trsdK;rsdK;

'gawG[m tMurf;zsOf; azmfNycsufomNzpfNyD; tNcm;yHkpHrsdK;pHkvnf; &Sdedkifao;ygw,f/ tNrefoGm;
oabFmawG&JU orkdif;aMumif;udk awmh 'Dae&mrSm razmfNyawmhygbl;? t"du azmfNycsifwmuawmh tNref
oGm; oabFmawG&JU c&D;onfwif uP rSm ta&;ygyHkudkyg/ wu,fawmh 16 &mpkavmufu pNyD;
tNrefoGm; c&D;onfwif oabFmawG[m urÇmay:u ekdifiH toD;oD;rSm pwif acwfpm;vmw,fvdkU
qdkygw,f/19 &mpk eJU 20 &mpk twGif;rSm awmh oabFmwnfaqmufa&; vkyfief;awG[m w[kefwdk;
Nrif h wuf vmcJh NyD; tNrefo Gm ; c&D; onfw if oabF m vky fi ef; awG [mvnf; od od o mom
wdk;wufvmcJhygw,f/ 1990 eJU 1997 ckESpf twGif;rSmqdk&if tNrefoGm; c&D;onfwif oabFm yrmP
[m tNcm;oabFm awGxuf 43 % awmif wkd;wufvmcJhygw,f «2».tNrefoGm; c&D;onfwif
oabFmwdk;wufvmrIeJU twl? pD;ESif;wJh c&D;onf ta&twGuf[mvnf; 50% txd
wdk;wufvmygw,f/ 1990 rS ,ckvuf&Sd tcdsef txd urÇmay:rSm aqmufvkyfcJhwJh tNrefoGm;
c&D;onfwif oabFm trsdK;tpm;eJU 4if;wdkU&JU yrmP udk atmufrSmazmfNyxm;ygw,f«3»/
yHk(3)- (1990-2007) txd wnfaqmufcJhaom tNrefoGm; oabFm trsdK;rdsK;

c&D;onf wif oabFmawG&JU c&D;onfwifaqmifedkifrI tvdkuf pm&if;udk Munfh&ifvnf; 50 rS 200?
200 rS 350 wGif;wifaqmifwJh oabFmyrmP[m ododomom uGm[rIr&Sdwmudk awGU&rSm Nzpfygw,f/
350 OD;a&eJU txuf wifaqmifedkifwJh oabFmaqmufvkyfrI yrmPuawmh 10 % avmufom
&Sdw,fvdkU rSwfwrf;rsm; t&awGU&Sd&ygw,f/ 4if;yrmPawGudkvnf; atmufuyHkrSm wifNyxm;
ygw,f«3»/

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yHk(4)- c&D;ta&;twGuftvdkuf 2007 txd wnfaqmufcJhaom tNrefoGm;oabFmrsm;

txufrSm azmfNycJhwJh oabFm trdsK;tpm; awGeJU 4if;wdkU&JU aqmufvkyfrI yrmPudk MunfhNcif;tm;Nzifh
tMurfzsOf; aNymedkifwmuawmh tNrefoGm; c&D;onfwif oabFm aqmufvkyfr,fqdk&if monohull?
catamaran ferry eJU hydrofoil oabFm trsdK;tpm;awGudk t"dua&G;cs,foifhNyD;?
c&D;onfwifaqmifrI yrmPtm;Nzifh 100 - 250 Mum; avmufudk a&G;cs,f oifhygw,f/ 'Dvdk
trsdK;tpm;awG[m urÇmrSm aqmufvkyfrItrsm;qHk;NzpfNyD;? atmifNrifpGm aNy;qGJedkifrI taumif;qHk;
Nzpfw,fqdkwm udk awGU&rSmyg/
2/ Nrefrm ekdifiH NrpfwGif;oGm; tNrefoabFmrsm; twGuf external design problems
NrefrmedkifiH&Sd NrpfawGrSm armif;ESif;rnfh tNrefoGm;oabFmawGtwGuf 'DZdkif;vkyf&mrSm xnfhoGif;
pOf;pm;&r,fhtcsuf wpfcsdKUudkwifNycsifygw,f/ wu,fawmh NrefrmedkifiH&Sd NrpfawGrSm a&pl;t&rf;udk
edrhfaewmudk awGU&rSmyg/ edk0ifbmveJUarvawG twGif;rSmqdk&if {&m0wD Nrpf&JU a&pl;[m ododomom
udk usqif;wwfNyD; navigational length [m vnf; 10% avmuftxd usqif;wwfygw,f/
atmufuZ,m;rSm {&m0wDNrpf&JU &efukefeJU rEÅav;tMum; aEG&moDtedrfhqHk; a&pl;udk azmfNyxm;yg
w,f«4»/

Z,m;(2) - {&m0wD Nrpf{/f a&pl;uefUowfcsuf taNctae
Navigational length Yangon – Hinthada Hinthada – Pyay Pyay - Mandalay
Restricted depth
4m
3.7 m
2.5 m
wu,fawmh tJavmufedrfhaewJh a&teuf rSm ( FnL>0.6) avmuf&SdwJh oabFmwpfpif; armif;zkhd
qdkwm ship design ynm&yf twGuf pdefac:rIMuD; wpfckvdkU aNym&ifrrSm;ygbl;/ tJ'DvdktaNctaerSm
tNrefoGm;oabFmwpfpif; armif;r,fqdk&if wave barrier aMumifh wave formation eJU wave
resistance [m ododomom wufvmNyD;vdkcsifwJh speed udk&zkdUqdkwm rvG,fwJh udpövnf;
Nzpfygw,f/atmufuyHkrSmawmh a&wdrfwJh NrpfawGrSm resistance aNymif;vJrIudk Nyxm;ygw,f
h/T  /
[m a&teuf tuefUtowfr&SdwJh ae&mrSm NzpfaewJh resistance NzpfNyD; usefwJh ESpfckuawmh
a&wdrfwJh
h/T 

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

taNctaerSm Nzpfay:aewJh resistance curve Nzpfygw,f/ yHkrSmodomapwmuawmh a&wdrfrSm
qdk&if resistace[m ododomom MuD;udkrsm;aewmudkyg/ wpfcsdKUspeed awGrSmqdk&if resistance
hump awGudk Nzpfay:apygw,f/ tJ'DtcsdefawGrSmqdk&if rvkdtyfbJ engine power awGudk ESpfq
avmufokH;&wwfygw,f«5»/
yHk(5)- shallow water wGif resistance curve aNymif;vJrI Nzpfay:aeyHk

'hgtNyif speed eJU a& teufwdrfrI aMumifh growing effect eJU trim [mvnf; ododomom
wdk;vmrSmygbJ/ wu,fawmh a&teuf[m oabFm&JU resistance? lifting force eJU trim moment awGudk ododomomudk oufa&mufaew,fqdkwm awGU&rSmyg/ 'ghtNyif critical speed udk
a&mufvmwmeJU speed aMumifh oabFm&JU acgif;ydkif;rSm pressure wufvmNyD;? aemufydkif; bufrSm
pressure u usvmygw,f/ 4if;pressure aMumihf trim at stern udk wdk;apNyD;? resistance udk
vnf;wufapwmNzpfygw,f/ 'ghtNyif interaction between hull and propeller udkvnf;
aNymif;vJ apygw,f/ a&wdrfNrpfaMumif;awG&JU critial speed udkawmh atmufyg equation eJU
wdkif;wm ekdifygw,f/

vcrit  gh
- g
gravitational force (9.81 m^s), h – water depth (m).
Critical speed rSm vdSKif;[m omrefxuf ydkMuD;NyD; power t&rf;oHk;&um vkdtyfwJh speed
uvnf; a&mufzkdhcufcJygw,f/ critical speed ukd ausmfNzpfNyD; supercritical speed region
udk a&mufcgeD;rSmvJ speed aMumifh oabFm tay: oufa&mufaewJh hydrodynamic forces awG
[maNymif;vJvmygw,f/ 'gaMumifh supercritical zone rSm armif;rJUoabFmawG[m oifhawmfwJh
hull lines awGeJU oifhawmfwJh principal dimensions? installed power awGvdktyfygw,f/

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

a&wdrfawGrSmarmif;ESifrJU oabFmawG&JU speed zoneawGudk atmufrSmazmfNyxm;ygw,f/'D diagram
[m Nrpf&JUa&pl;teuf h eUJ oabFm&JUtvsSm; L ay: rlwnfNyD; ? aqmufvkyfr,fh oabFm&JU length
froude numberudk azmfNyxm;Ncif;Nzpfygw,f/ tNrefoGm; NrpfwGif;oGm; oabFmwdkif;twGuf 'D diagram ay:rlwnfNyD; rdrdaqmufvkyfrnfh oabFm speed udk a&G;cs,f&rSmNzpfygw,f«6».
yHk(6)- Speed zones: I – subcritical; II– supercritical; III – unfavorable supercritical

wpfcsdefwnf; rSmbJodoifhwmu a&teufudkvkdufNyD; speed uefUowfcsufukdyg/ oabFmarmif;
olaum? designer uyg vdkufem&rnfh speed udk atmufu equation eJU azmfNyxm;ygw,f/ a&
teufudkvdkufNyD; 4if; speed xufausmf rarmif;oifhovkd? design vnf;rvkyfoifhygbl;/

(3)

vlim  0.55 gh

yxrqHk; taeeJU a&wdrfwJh NrpfawGrSm high speed ship wpfpif;udk design vkyfr,fqdk&if pOf;pm;
&rSmuawmh a&Murf;NyifeJU oabFm Keel Mum; tuGm;ta0;yJ Nzpfygw,f/
The relative under keel clearance of the vessel is defined as:

(4)

E  
0

where – Ē minimum under-keel clearance of the vessel in operation,(m)
– Ē0 under keel clearance of the vessel when stopping,(m).
qdk&if under-keel clearance of the vessel in operation [m depth of water
while stopping eJU nDaerSNzpfNyD;? qdk&ifawmh oabFm[m Murf;NyifeJUxdaew,fvdkUqdkygw,f/ designer wpfa,muf[m twwfedkifqHk; under keel clearance udkrsm;rsm;xm;zkdhvkdtyfygw,f/

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
tJ'gaMumifh NrpfwGif;oGm; oabFmawG&JUa&pl;udk pOfpm;r,fqdk&if t"dutm;Nzifh atmufygOya'o udk
vkdufem&yghr,f/

T  hlim  

(5)

hlim - qdkwm Nrpf&JU limitation water depth Nzpfygw,f/
NrpfwGif;oGm; oabFmawG&JU Free board height eJU superstructure height
[mvnf;armif; ESifr,fh ae&may:rlwnfNyD; pOf;pm;&r,fh tcsufwpfcktNzpf yg0ifygw,f/ 4if; parameter awG[m a&vrf;aMumif;rSm&SdwJh oHwm;awG&JU tNrifh? NrpfawG tay:uoG,fwef;xm;wJh
vsSyfppf MudK;awG tay:rlwnfNyD; xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&r,fh tcsufawGtNzpfyg0ifygw,f/ 'hgtNyif
NrpfusOf;awG&JU tus,fudk vdkufNyD;awmhvnf; oabFm&JUt"du parameter wpfckNzpfwJh breadth
(B) [mvnf; uefUowfcsuf wpfcktaeeJU yg0ifygw,f? 'gudkvnf; designer u udk,fhaqmufr,fh
a&vrf;aMumif; taNc taeay: rlwnfNyD; pOf;pm; oifhygw,f/
atmufuyHkrSmoHwm;wpfck&JU tNrihfeJUtus,fudk vdkufNyD;pOf;pm;&r,fh parameter awGudkNyxm;
ygw,f/
yHk(7)- oHwm;wpfcktm; oabFm vGyfvyfpGm armif;ESif;edkif&ef

oabFmwpfpif; oHwm;wpfpif;udk Nzpf&mrSm design point of view rSm tpOfaNypGm Nzwfoef;edkif&ef
atmufygtwdkif; qHk;Nzwf&rSmNzpfygw,f/
(6)
vSdKif;xaewJh NrpftwGif; rSm qdk&if
(7)

Н м  h  ( Н с  Т )  Н с
Н с 

hB
 0.1
2

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39

hB

- qdkwm vdSKif;&JU tNrifh (meter) Nzpfygw,f/
'ghtNyif rdrd armif;ESifrJh NrpfaMumif;eJU? ywf0efusifudkvnf; xnfhoGif;pOf;pm; zkdhvdkygw,f?
qdkvdkwmu a&;pDEIef; yrmP? a&pDaMumif;eJUtwl opfwkH;pwnfh rmausmwJh t&mawGarsmygvmrI?
&moDOwktvdkuf avwdkufeSef; taNctae? vdSKif;yrmP? 0J*,uf wdkU&JU taNctaepwnfh tcsufawG
udk designer wpfa,muf[m xnfhoGif;pOf;pm; zkdUtxl;vdktyfygw,f/
3/ NrpfwGif;tNrefoGm; oabFmrsm;twGuf internal design problems
a&wdrfoGm; tNrefoGm; oabFmawG&JU t"du Nyomemuawmh vdktyfwJh speed udk
r&Ncif;ygbJ/ vkdtyfwJh speed udk &zkdhtwGuf vdktyfwJh hull form trsdK;tpm;? parameter awG
udk *&kwpdkuf a&G;cs,fzkdUvdktyfygw,f/ Oyrmtm;Nzifh monohull wpfpif;udk pOf;pm;r,fqdk&if
udk,fxnf&JU aemufykdif; transom stern udkt"duxm; design vkyfzkdUvdkygw,f/ transom
plate udk tenf;i,f 3-4 'D*&D avmuapmif;Ncif;tm;Nzifh resistance udk 15% avmufavsSmhus
apygw,f/ wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyJ growing effect udkvnf; xnfhoGif;pOfpm;oifhygw,f/ optimize
NzpfwJh design wpfck&zdkUtwGuf compromise vkyfoifhwmawG[m designer tay:rSm
rlwnfaeygw,f/
Hull form yHkpHudka&G;cs,fwJh tcsdefrSmvnf; construction point of view uvnf;
pOfpm;NyD; a&G;cs,foifhygw,f/ NrpfwGif;oabFmawGtwGuf twwfedkifqHk; light weight udkavsSmhcs
edkifzkdhvnf;vdkygw,f/ construction material udkayghedkiforQ ayghatmifpOf;pm;NyD; ship displacement udk avsmhcsedkiforQavsSmhcs&ygr,f/ NrpfwGif;oGm; oabFmawGtwGuf free board
height [mrsm;zdkh rvkdovdk? superstructure udkvnf; twwfedkifqHk; ayghatmifpOf;pm;oifhyg
w,f/
rnfhonfh design rqdk external design eJU udkufnDzdkU qdk&ifvdktyfwJh experiment
vkyfudk vkyfoifhygw,f/ first step t& tmvHk;eJUudkufnDrI&SdwJh hull form wpfck&vmNyD qdkay
r,fhvnf; model aqmufum test tank udk toHk;NyKNyD;vdktyfwJh experiment awGvkyfudkvkyf
oifhygw,f/ b,favmufNynfhpHkwJhFormula awGNzpfNzpf test tank result avmuf rSefuefrI
r&SdNcif;aMumifhNzpfygw,f/ aemufxyfta&;MuD;wJh tcsufuawmh propeller a&G;cs,frI tydkif;yg/
t&rf;udk a&teuf wdrfwJhae&mawGrSm design vkyf&awmhr,f qdk&if designer wpfa,muf[m
b,fvdk propeller rsdK;udka&G;rvJ qdkwmygbJ/ propeller wpfckvHk; a&xJrSm&SdaerS omvsSif effective tNynfh&rSmyg/ wu,fvdkU a&teuf 1.5 rDwm avmuf&SdwJh NrpfqdkygpdkU/ &Sd&r,fh propeller diameter [m yg/ tJ'gqdk&if oabFma&pl;eJU waterbed tuGmta0;[m propeller wpfck effective Nzpfzkdh twGuf vHkavmufrI&Sdekdifyghrvm;/ 'hgtNyif t&rf;udk speed NrefvmwJh tcsdefrSm oabFm
[m tenf;i,f aemufudkxdkifvmr,fqdk&if vdktyfwJh force udk&zkdh wyfqifxm;wJh propeller u
effective Nzpfzkdh vdkygw,f/ &dk;&dk; blade propeller awG roHk;bJ water jet propeller awG

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

oHk;r,fqdk&if 'DNyomemu aNz&Sif;edkifoavmuf&Sdygw,f/ 'gayr,fhvnf; water jet propeller
wpfck[m ol&JU effective power tNynfh&zkdUqdk&iftenf;qHk; knots avmuf&Sdzkdhvkdygw,f/ qdkvdk
wmu wpfem&Drkdif 20 ausmf armif;aewJh tcsdefrSom effective NzpfrSmNzpfNyD; olUxufavsSmhenf;wJh
speed rSmqdk&if vdktyfoavmuf effective rNzpfNyefygbl;/txufrSm aNymcJhovdkyJ designer
wpfa,muf[m optimum design wpfckudk&zkdh compromise vkyfzkdUvJ vdktyfygw,f/ xyfNyD;
wifNycsifwmuawmh 'DvdkrsdK;omrefxuf rwlwJh condition awGrSm propeller [mvnf;t&rf;
ta&;MuD;wJh ae&muyg0ifygw,f/'gaMumifh propeller udkvnf; oD;oefU design vkyfNyD; propeller test awGrSm prf;oyfNyD;rSom oHk;oifhygw,f/
aemufxyf a&wdrftNrefoGm;oabFm aqmufvkyf&mrSm r&SdrNzpf xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&r,f htcsuf
awGuawmh External wave impact of high-speed vessels on environment
Nzpfygw,f/ speed NrefvmwmeJUtrsS oabFmuaevdSKif;awG xGufvmygw,f/tJ'D ship-generated
waves awGaMumifh ab;emrSm oGm;vmaewJh oabFmtao;awG? avSawG? barges awG? udk arSmuf
apNyD;? Nrpfuef;eH&HawG? a&umwmawGudk ysufqD;apygw,f/ 'gUtNyif t&rf;MuD;rm;wJh shipgenerated waves aMumifh urf;aNcrSmxdkifaewJh vlawGudkyg aoapedkifwJhtxd Nzpfwwfygw,f/tJ'D
waves awG[m oabFm&JU energy aMumifhNzpfvmwmNzpfNyD; ¤if;udkatmufygtwdkif; wGufcsufedkif
ygw,f/
(8)

h 2
E  g w
8

where - total energy of wave, - wave height, - wavelength, - density of
water and - gravitational force.
teD;pyfqHk; 4if; energy udk atmufygtwdkif; wGufcsufedkifygw,f/
(9)

E  1960h

w

2 2

where - wave period.
Mathematically Munfhr,fqdk&if 4if; energy [m propulsion power eJU oufqdkif
rI&Sdygw,f/ qkdvdkwmu
(10)

P 
s

RVs

where – R total resistance of high speed ships, Vs - ship speed,  - propulsive effi- ciency. tJ'Dawmh design process twGif;rSm de- signer [m
designed speed rSmyJ power udk enf;edkiforQenf;atmif vkyfoifhygw,f/ power enf;avav?
energy udkvnf; avsSmhcsEdkifav Nzpfygw,f/ 'hgtNyif design process twGif; model test udk
toHk;NyKNyD;Nzpfap? experimental results awGuNzpfapoabFmuxGufwJh vdSKif;udkwdkif;wm oifh
ygw,f/

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jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

/qdkvdkwm u designed speed wpfckrSm &SdaewJh oabFmu xGufvmwJh vSdKif;udk 10 rDwm?20 rDwm?
30 rDwm ponfNzifh trSwfrsm;xm;NyD; vdSKif;tNrifheJUvdSKif; speed udkwdkif;wmoifhygw,f/ rdrd design vkyfr,fh oabFm trsdK;tpm;? armif;r,fh ae&m a'oudk vkdufNyD;? 4if; vdSKif;tNrifhudk wGufcsufNyD;? criteria wpfck taeeJU design process rSmxnfhoGif; pOf;pm; &ygr,f/ oabFmuxGufr,fh
vdSKif;tNrifhonf 4if;oabFm Nzpfoef;oGm;onfh ae&mrS 20 rDwmtuGmwGif 0.3 rDwmtNrifhxuf
rMuD;oifhygbl;/

ed*Hk;
txufrSm azmfNycJhwmawGuawmh NrefrmedkifiH&JU NrpfwGif;oGm; c&D;onfwif oabFm
wnfaqmufa&; twGuf b,fvdk oabFmrdsK;awG vkdtyfaew,f qdkwmeJU 4if; oabFmawG
aqmufr,fqdk&if vdktyfr,fh design criteria awGNzpfygw,f/ wu,fawmh oabFmwpfpif;udk design vkyfw,fqdkwm vG,fulwJhudpö r[kwfygbl;/ txufrSm azmfNycJhwmawG[m tenf;i,fomNzpfNyD;
aemufxyf trsm;MuD; xnfhoGif;pOfpm;bdkU vkdtyfygw,f/
Silence

usrf;udk;pm&if;
1.
IMO High-Speed Craft Code (1995). London.
2.
Logachev S.I., Chugunov V.V. (2001) The shipbuilding of the world:
current state and prospects razvitiya.-SPb.: Shipbuilding. (Мировое
судостроение).
3.
Yin Htun, Ye Thet Htun, Phyo Zaw Hein(2008) Design problems of
high speed passenger ships in Union of Myanmar, Super FAST’ 2008, July 24, 2008, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
4.
Than. C (2004) ; Symposium and Publication on Maritime & Waterways Kuala Lumpur,October, Malaysia.
5.
Pechenok.A.B.(2006) Mathematical modeling for flow of ship hull at
shallow water.Moscow.
6.
Basin.A.M, Velednitskiy.I.O, Lyahovitskiy.A.G. (1976) Ship Hydrodynamics in shallow water, sudostroenie, L, 320p. (Гидродинамика судов на
мелководье).

www.myanmarengineer.org

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

“ wpf eJY wpf aygif;&if b,favmuf&vJ”
“ ... ”
ußGefawmhf &Jh tHhMoMunfh ... yg;pyfta[mif;om; ...
“ig ar;aew,fav ... wpf eJY wpf aygif;&if b,favmuf&vJ ... vdkY ... ”
tm;vkH;&Jh a0g ueJ&,foHawG ... ußGefawmhrsufeSmwpfckvkH; xlylNyD;
rsufvkH;awGa00g;vmw,f...
twef;om;awGudk vSnfhMunfhvdkufawmh tm;vkH;u ußGefawmf eJY q&m udkyJpdkufMunfh
aeMuw,f ... olwdkYtMunfhawGu t&,f&qkH;jyufvkH;wpfck rsufpda&SUrSm awGYae&ovdk ...

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42

43

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

vG,ftdwfudkqGJ,l ... twef;udkausmcdkif;NyD;
“ uJ ... ar;cGef;&Sd&if ar;Muyg ... ”
ußGefawmf tajy;wydkif;xGufvmcJhw,f ... q&m &Jh “ jrefrmausmif;om;awG ar;cGef;ar;yg ... rar;bJ
rmefrJoH? ausmif;om;wpfcsKdU &Jh rMum;wMum;
xdkifaeMuwm em;vnfvdkYvm; ... vkH;0rodvdkuf
avSmifoHawG aemufrSmusefcJhw,f ...
vdkYvm; ...”
ußGefawmhfrsuf0ef;rSm ... rsuf&nfawG
ceJYwJhwJh toH qdkwmodayr,fh ußGefawmfwdkYwpk
pD;usaeNyD ... /
NidrfaevdkufMuw,f ... MuKHcJh&wmrsm;vdkY rqef;
awmhbl;av ...
**************
“rif; ... ”
ußGefawmfvSnfhMunfhvdkufawmh rsufrSef txl
Mum;xJu rsufvkH;wpfpkH? AD,uferfav; “cGef;”
“ig wdkYtm;vkH;twlwlygyJ“rif;”
aemufxyfa&mufvmwJh toH0J0Jav; ...
w½kwfausmif;om; “0l”
tJ'DaemufrSm ußGefawmfhjrefrmoli,fcsif;wpk ...
tm;vkH;ußGefawmhfab;rSm ...
... wdwfqdwf ...
ußGefawmfwdkYtm;vkH;odxm;NyD;om; ... 'DEdkifiHrSm
vlenf;pkuvGJvdkY b,folrS t*Fvdyfpm? t*Fvdyf
pum; udkrokH;Mubl; qdkwm/ twef;xJrSm &SdorQ
vlawGtm;vkH; ... q&m a&m ausmif;om;awG
twGuf ygt*F vd yf pum;qdkwm
b,fvd krS ud k
tokH;ruswJh t&mwpfck /rdcifpum;eJY oif,lae
&wJh Zmwdom;awGtwGuf bmtcuftcJrS r&Sd
ayr,fh ußGefawmfwdkYvdk EdkifiHjcm; ausmif;om;awG
twGuf bmompum; qdkwm t&rf;odomwJht
[efYtwm;aygh .../
cPtwGif;jzpfysufoGm;ayr,fh ußGefawmhtm½kHrSm
'DaeYtjzpftysufu wpfoufpmpGJaeawmhrSm ...

“pmoifcsdefrSm aocsmvdkufem;raxmifvdkY ar;p&m
r&Sdwmrsm;vm; ... ”
tJ'Dpum;tqkH;rSmawmh ußGefawmfwdkY tcsif;csif;
rsufpypfvdkufrdMuw,f ... ußGefawmf rwfwwf&yf
vdkufNyD; oifykef;qD vrf;avQmuf xGufvmvdkuf
w,f ... apmapmuußGefawmf em;rvnfvdkufwJh
ae&mawG u d k v uf e J Y a xmuf j yNyD ; twwf E d k i f q k H ;
pum;oHudkyDatmif *½kpdkufvdkY ar;cGef;awG ar;
vdkufygw,f ...
q&mu ußGef awmh av,l avod rf ;udk *½kp dk uf
em;axmifNyD; ußGefawmhwpfa,mufxJudk aemuf
wpfacguf&Sif;jyw,f ... cufwmu 'Dwpfcgvnf;
ußGefawmfolYavoHudk rzrf;rdjyefbl; ... aMumif
Munf h a ewJ h ußG e f a wmf h u d k e m;vnf w J h q &mu
tJ'Dae&mav;udkyJ xyfajymjyw,f ... ußGefawmh
rsufvkH;awG awmufy rvmwJhaemuf q&mu
twef;om;awGzufudk vSnfhNyD; wpfckckajymvdkuf
w,f ...
ausmif ;om;tcsKdUqD u rckd;rcefY&,foH tcsKdU
xGufvmw,f ...
q&mu acgif;wpfcsufcgvdkufNyD; ... “wpf eJY wpf
aygif;&if b,favmuf&vJ” wJh ...
qdkvdkwmuawmh uMuD;cacG; jyefoifygawmh qdkwJhoabmyJaygh ...

“cGef;” &Jhpum;udkMum;rS ußGefawmfowdjyef0if
q&m u oDtdk&D udk&Sif;jyNyD; Oyrm ykpäm wpfyk'f
vmw,f ...
wGufjyoGm;w,f ... *Pef;awGtultnDeJY ykpämudk
ajc&mjyefaumufvdkY &ayr,fh ... oDtdk&D taMumif; “'DoDtdk&Du 'kwd,eSpfwef;rSm oifcJhNyD;om;”
wJh ... ußGefawmfwdkYu master oif½dk;twGufvm
acgif;xJrSm wpfvkH;rS rusefcJhbl; .../
wufaewJholawGav ...
**************

www.myanmarengineer.org

44

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
'óeduaA' tcsdef

...

xk H;pHtwdkif ;yJ ... q&mr&J hpum;awGu&m;a&
vTwf ... ußGefawmfwdkYu oifykef;udkai;Munfh?
a&;oGm;orQ vdkuful;? wlwmawGvnf;&Sd? rjrif
&vdkY ab;uoli,fcsif;qDtMunfhrSm zsufypfvdkuf
wmvnf;&Sd ...
ol wdk Ya usmif ;om;awG uawmh zkef ;eJY*drf ;aqmhwJh
oleJY?umwGef;qGJaewJholeJY ...ausmif;ol udkpae
wJholeJY ...
ausmif;utjyefvrf;rSm “cGef;” eJYtwlwl jyefcJh
w,f ...
“igh udk'DaeYoifwJh pmtkyfiSm;ygOD;” qdkawmh
“ig'DaeY vufcsmrvdkufjzpfbl;? ighEdkifiHrSmwkef;u
oifwmeJYtwlwlyJrdkYvdkY ... ighrSmtJ'Dwkef;u pmtkyf
ygcJhawmh AD,uferfvdkjyefzwf½kHyJ ... “rif;” em;r
vnfvdkYvm;? um;(vf)ruf(pf) udk “rif;” odr,f
xifaewm ... ”
“'DaeYoifoGm;wm um;(vf)ruf(pf)(Karl Marx)
taMumif;vm;”
“olY&Jh tpGef;xGufwefzdk;oDtdk&D av ...”
“ [if ... 'gqdkigodwmaygh? 'gayr,fh um;(vf)
ruf(pf) qdkwJhtoHudk olxGufoGm;wm ighem;xJrSm
rzrf;rdbl; ... ”
“tJ'D oDtdk&D qdk&ifem;vnfvm;?odoavmufajym
jyMunfhav ... ”
“um;(vf)ruf(pf)u t&if;&SifawGacgif;ykHjzwfwJh
taMumif;udk oufaojyoGm;wJh oDtdk&Dav ...
'Dxuftao;pdwfawmh rodbl; ... ”
“'gqdk rif;odxm;wm philosophy r[kwfbl;?
history udkodxm;wm ... 'DaeYoifoGm;wmu tJ'D
oDtdk&Dudk vufawGhe,fy,ftwGuf apply vkyfjy
edkifzdkh ol b,fuaepOf;pm;rdw,f?b,fvdkcsOf;uyf
jyoGm;w,f qdkwmawG? olY&Jh idea udk ajymoGm;
wm ... ”
“ rif; wdkYqDrSma&m tJ'Dtwdkif;oifovm;”

“oifwmaygh? 'gaMumifhigvdkufra&;wmaygh/
rif;vnf;odr,fxifaewm? pmtkyfawG rzwfbl;
vm; ...”
“zwfygw,f? 'gayr,fh 'DvdkpmtkyfrsKd;awGu
tvG,fwul&SmvdkYr&bl;”
“t&iftywfu oifoGm;wmu uGefjzL;&Syf &Jh
thinking awGav ... tJ'gvnf; igoifzl;w,f?
aemufwywfus&ifawmh b,folvmrvJrodbl;”
“cGef;” uawmh ayghayghyg;yg; ajymaew,f ...
ußGefawmh pdwfxJrSmawmh touf&SL&wmr0 awmh
ovdkyJ ... “ig 'D AD,uferf aumifavmufrS rod&
aumif;vm; ... ” qdkwJh pdwfeJh udk,fhudk,fudk jyef
&Sufaerdwm ...
tcef; jyefa&mufawmh vG,ftdwf udkypfcsNyD;
internet xJrSm Karl Marx pmvkH; ½kdufxnfhNyD;
&Smw,f ... awGYorQ web page tukef vdkufzwf
w,f? oli,fcsif;awG a&mufvmwJhtxd ...
“bmawG 'Davmufawmifzwfae&ovJ ”
“(Karl Marx) taMumif; 'DaeYoifoGm;wm
em;rvnfvdkY ... ”
“ [if ... 'DaeYoifoGm;wm (Karl Marx) vm;?
igvnf;bmoifoGm;rSef; rodvdkufbl;?pum;vkH;
awGu t&rf ;cufw,f? rMuKHzl;wJh topf awG
csnfhyJ ...”
“[kwfygh? “cGef;”uawmh oifzl;w,f ajymw,f?
tJ'Dpmtkyf vnf; ,lcJhw,f wJh? AD,uferf vdk
a&;xm;wm qdkawmh olYtwGufvG,fwmaygh”

“ig 'D AD,uferfaumifavmufrS
rod&aumif;vm; ... ”

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45

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
“[kwfvm;? jrefrmvdka&;xm;wmvnf; &Sdr,f
xifw,f? &SmMunfh&atmifav”
“b,frSm a&;xm;vdkYvJ? oDtdk&Dydkif;awGa&m pkH&Jh
vm;”
“MEF udk rif;rodao;bl;vm;? Myanmar
Engineer Forum av ... engineering ynm
udk pdwf0ifpm;wJhvl? avhvmvdkufpm;wJhvl?vkyf
ief;cGifxJuvlawG tJ'DrSm trsm;MuD;? rif;odcsif
wm awGvnf; pkHrSmaygh ... ”
ußGefawmfvdkcsifaewm tJ'gyJ ...
ußGefawmfhtwGuf txda&mufqkH;
vdktyfcsuf? 'Dvdk information
awGudkom rdcifbmompum;eJY
vG,fvifhwul &SmazG Edkifr,f
qdk&if b,fEdkifiHuausmif;om;
udk ußGefawmfwdkY c,ar;jref;
aep&m vdkOD;rSmvJ .../

“first year wkef;uaygh? rif;urajzvdkufbl;vm;?
arhoGm;vdkYvm;”
“bmvdkY arh&rSmvJ?'gavmufawmh aumif;aumif;
MuD;odwmaygh? tJ'Dvdk tar;cH&wkef;u ig wpf
a,mufxJr[kwfbl;? igwdkYjrefrmausmif;om;awG
5a,mufavmuf&Sdr,f? q&m ar;vdkufwm u
pum;MuHKvdkYyg? oifcef;pmeJYrqdkifbl;? olwpfckck
ar;vdkufw,fqdkwmodw,f? “okn? okn” vdkY
ajymaewmudkvnf;odw,f? 'gayr,fh bmudkar;
aerSef;rodbl;? integrate qdkwJhpum;vkH;tpm;
olwdkYbmompum;eJY ar;wm? rif;
'Dvdk information awG odwJhtwdkif; okn qdk&ifudk
udkomrdcifbmompum;eJY *½kpdkuf p&mutrsm;om;? igwdkY
uvnf; integrate vkyfcdkif;rSef;
vG,fvifhwul&SmazGEdkif rod
bl;? oifykef;ay:rSm *Pef;eJY
r,fqdk&if b,fEdkifiHu a&;jyvdkuf&ifawmh 'dkif;ueJajzcs
ausmif;om;udk ußGefawmf vdkufrSmaygh ...”

wdkY c,ar;jref;aep&m
vdkOD;rSmvJ .../

**************

zdk&rfav;eJY tvG,fwul tom;usoGm;ygw,f?
toif;0ifawGu azmfa&GMuw,f? a&;xm;orQ
xJrSm vdkufzwfMunfhawmh wpfa,muf tay:
wpf a ,muf t&rf ; ul nD Muwm awG Y & w,f ?
wpf a ,muf r od wpf a ,muf u 0if a jz&S i f ;
ay;oGm;MuwJh ar;cGef;awG trsm;MuD;yJ ...

“ tJ'Dawmh bmjzpfoGm;ao;vJ”
“t[J ... ajymawmhygbl;?&Suf p&m
MuD; ... pum;vkH;topfawG xyfod&wm aygh
uGm ...”
'gayr,fh jrefrmausmif;om;awG nHhw,fvdkYawmh
b,folrSvufrcHMubl; ...?
a e m uf wp f a , m uf u ol Y & J h uk d ,f a wG Y ud k
'Dvdkajymjyw,f ...?

“igwdkY qDr Sm pmar;yGJa jzykHu rif;odwJ htwdkif;
wpfa,mufcsif;a&SUxGufNyD; q&mhpm;yGJrSm rJuswJh
ar;cGef ;udk ajz&wm? q&mcGifhjyK&if jyKoavmuf
MEF rSm oli,fcsif;topfawGvnf; &vmw,f?
olwdkYvnf; ußGefawmhvdk EdkifiH&yfjcm;rSm EdkifiHjcm; udk ,fhtajzrrSefrcsif ; xyf umxyfum jyefajz
cGifh&Sdw,f ...”
bmompum; eJY ynmoif,laeMuolawG ...
“igha&SUrSmajzoGm;wm olwdkYvlrsKd; ausmif;om;
“rif; MuKH&wm awmfao;wmaygh ... igjzpfzl;wm
wpfa,muf ... 2acgufwdwdjyefajzaewm?atmif
rSwf ray;ao;bl;? q&mu 5rdepfpDtcsdefay;NyD;
odcsifvm; ”
jyefpOf;pm;cGifhay;w,f?”
“ajymjyav”
“zero udk integrate vkyf&if b,favmuf&vJ”
“constant &wmaygh”

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46

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
“ightvSnfhrSm ar;cGef;3ck ar;zdkYusw,f? yxr?
'kwd, ar;cGef;awG olauseyfatmifajzEdkifw,f?
aemufqkH;wpfcGef; ar;awmh owday;w,f? tck
ar;r,fhar;cGef;ucufw,f - wJh? pOf;pm;r,f qdk
&if5rdepfab;rSmxGufNyD;pOf;pm;cGifh&Sdw,f - aygh?
ar;cGef;udk Mum;NyD;wJhtcsdef tJ'Doabmw&m;udk
igu aumif ;aumif ;oabmaygufxm;NyD;om;
qdkawmh pOf;pm;csdefr,lbJ csufcsif;jyefajzay;
vdkufEdkifw,f ...”

engineering eJY ywfouforQ ar*sm? rdkifem

bmom&yf awG? qufEG,faeorQ A[kokwawG?
pmwrf;? pmapmif? aqmif;yg;awG tm;vkH;u
tcrJh ... tvG,fwul&,ltokH;cs½kHygyJ .../ tcsKdU
tcaMu;aiGeJY 0,f,l&wJh software awG? oDcsif;?
½kyf&SifawGtm;vkH ; udk vuf0 ,f& Sdaeola wGu
jrefrmtcsif;csif ; udk ,fc sif ;pmpd wfe JY rQa0ay;
Muw,f? tm;vkH;udk wpfae&mxJrSm pkpnf;ay;
xm;ovdk jzpfaevdkh ußGefawmfwdkYtwGufuawmh
&wemodkufBuD;ygyJ ? NyD;awmh engineer avmu
“tJ'Dtajzudk q&mb,favmufawmif oabmus &Jh wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifwJh tawGYtMuKHawG? vkyfief;cGif
oGm;vJ qdkawmh rsufeSmusufudkarmhMunfh? vuf eJY tcGifhtvrf;awG ...
eSpfzufvkH;rdk;ay:ajr§mufNyD; auseyfoHBuD;eJY &,f
tJ'Dae&mav;tcsKdUudk oGm;a&mufzwf½I rd&if;u
w,f ... NyD;awmhrS ighykckH;udkvmykwfNyD; “aumif; Dr.kNOw eJYawGYcJh&wmyg ...?
vdkufwJhOD;aESmuf” vdkYcsD;usL;w,f ... ”
“igwd kYjzwf oef;cJhwJ h ynma&;uolwd kYxifxm; “System wpfckjzpfvmzdkY input, processing,
oavmufedrfhwmrSwfvdkYuGm ... concept rdoGm;NyD output awGvdktyfwm odxm;&r,f? b,favmuf
qdk&if ajzzdkY bmcufOD;rSmvJ ... ”
½IyfaxG;aewJh system yJjzpfjzpf tJ'Dtcsuf(3)
ckeJYyJ zGJYpnf;xm;w,f?
zdk&rfxJrSmu ynmwif&SmvdkY&wmr[kwfbJ tjcm; system &Jh principle awGjzpfMuwJh integrity
okw? &o ydkif;awGyg qnf;yl;cGifh&apygw,f? (pHEIef; udkufnDrI)? complexity (½IyfaxG;rI)?
BudKufwm,l½kHyJ? ukd,fhrSm&Sdwm? ukd,fodwm xJu organization (zJGYpnf;wnfaqmuf yH k) awG
vnf; csefxm;ay;r,fqdk&if aemufvltwGuf taMumif; avhvmMunfhMu&atmif ... ”
tqifajyapwmaygh ..../
**************
aemufydkif; engineering rSmu computer,
internet qdkwmawG rygrjzpfta&;ygaeNyDav ...
ußGefawmfwdkY jrefrmausmif;om;awGacwfeJYrsufajc
rjywfbJ trDvdkufzdkYqdk&if tJ'Dtpdwftydkif;awGeJY
rxd awG Yvd kYud kr&ygbl;? ußGef awmhtwGuf awmh
a&iwfwkef;a&wGif;xJusovdkygyJ ... ußGefawmf
pdwft0ifpm;qkH;u computer yg? software,
hardware ydkif;awGa&m? application ydkif;a&m?
programming ydkif;a&m 0goemygwJhtjyif 'D
zdk&rfxJrSm web designing ydkif;? networking
ydkif;awG? hacking ydkif;awGudkyg avhvmcGifh

“Mathematical model qdkwm tajccHtusqkH;
system awGxJuwpfckaygh ... b,fvdk design
yJjzpfjzpf Mathematical model uae qyGm;
wnfaqmufwJh tpOftvm t&rf;udkxGef;um;
aecJhNyD ... wnfaqmufzdkY ('grSr[kwf) pl;prf;
avhvmzd kY &nf&G ,f xm;wJh 0w¬Kwpfck twGuf
vufawGYydkif;? oDtdk&Dydkif;awGuae yHhydk;ay;EdkifzdkY?
'grS r[kwf wu,fhvufawGY ay:aygufrvm
ao;cif prf;oyfrI trsKd;rsKd;jyKzdkY mathematical
model awGu tokH;0ifaew,f ... ”
“system eJY sub-system awG taMumif;ajymMu
ygpdkY ... system udk human body vdkYoabmxm;
vdkufr,fqdk&if sub-system qdkwm vufawG?
ajcaxmuf awG? OD;aESmufawG ... vdkY oabmxm;

www.myanmarengineer.org

47

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

vdkufvdkY&w,f?systemBuD;wpfckudk sub-system “MEF udk b,fvdka&mufvm&ovJ vdkYar;awmh
aygif;rsm;pGmaygif;pkNyD; wnfaqmufxm;wmyg...” ac:wJhol&SdvdkYa&mufvmwmaygh ... om; vdk cspf&
wJh wynfhwpfa,mufu 'D site &Jhvdyfpmay;NyD;
ußGefawmf ywf0ef;usifudkw'*Farh oGm;avmuf zdwfw,fav ... 'DrSma&;aewJholtrsm;pku vli,f
atmifaysmfoGm;w,f?NyD;awmh jrefrmtif*sifeD,m awG qdkawmh vkyfief;cGifxJu vlwpfa,muf
zdk&rf udkt&rf;cspfoGm;w,f? ußGefawmfausmif;rSm a,muf&Jh xdef;odrf;ay;wmrsKd; olujzpfapcsif
oifae&wm tJ'gawGaygh .../ tcufawGYaecJh&orQ w,f? ightwGuf u software vdkcsif&if zdk&rf
jrefrmvdk tckzwfcGifh&aeNyDav ...
awG r&Sm;ygbl;? windows topftqef;awG?
aiGay;0,f&wJh toolsawG? plug-in awG ... tJ'g
awGvnf; ighvufwurf;rSm &Edkifygw,f ... igh
twGuf 'Dzdk&rfu jyef&wmu jrefrmhtaiGYtouf
**************
wpfckxJyg ... jrefrmoDcsif;?jrefrm"mwfykH?jrefrmpm
ta&;tom;? jrefrmvlrsKd; awGeJY xdawGYcGifh ...
'gyJvdkcsifw,f? tJ'gu ightwGuf 'Dzdk&rfuae
ußGefawmf Dr.kNOw udk ausauseyfeyfMuD; jyefvdkcsifwJh tav;txm;qkH;t&m aygh ... ”
“q&m” vdkYac:vdkufw,f ... olYtaMumif;udk PM
awGuwqifh ar;jzpfw,f .../
vGefcJhwJh q,fpkeSpf(2)ckavmufwkef;u jrefrm
jynf? &efukefpufrIwuúodkvf rSm q&mtjzpfeJh
tvkyfvkyfcJhwJhtaMumif;? tckawmh jrefrmjynf
jyifyrSm tvkyfvkyfaewJhtaMumif;?jrefrmjynfvkyf
ief;cGif eJY jynfyvkyfief;cGif taMumif;? vlrsKd;awG?
"avhp½kdufawGtaMumif;? NyD;awmh ... jynfya&muf
ynmqnf;yl;olrsm;eJY ywfoufNyD; olYt,ltq?
olYtjrifawG ...

ußGefawmfwdkY&Jh 'kwd,eSpfpmar;yGJawG eD;vmcJhNyD ...
tJ'Dpmar;yGJtwGuf ußGefawmfwdkY group xJu
ausmif;om;awG assignment wpfckudk &ifqdkif&
w,f ...? oabFmwpfpD;&Jh ukefusp&dwfudkwGufay;
&rSm ... oabmw&m;a&m? wGufykHwGufenf;a&m
wlayr,fh wpfa,mufudk oabFm t&G,ftpm;
wpfrsKd;pD? trsKd;tpm;wpfckpD ... tJ'gudk &ufowÅ
wpfywftwGuf wpfqifhcsif;pD wifjyay;&r,f .../

ppcsif ; &uf a wG r S m ußG e f a wmf r vd k u f E d k i f b l ; ?
“jrefrmausmif;om;awGudk nHhw,fvdkY wpfcgrS udef;aoawG? Assume ,l&r,fhae&mawG?edIif;,SOf
rawG;zl;bl; ... 'gayr,fh xdk;azmufxGufEdkif NyD;a&G;xkwf&r,fh ae&mawG ... pdwf"mwfawmif
avmufatmif awmfw,fvdkYvnf; rajym&Jbl; ... uscsif&Jh .../
trsm;pk[m - pnf;urf;aumif;w,f? BudK;pm;
&r,fhtcsdefrSm t&rf;BudK;pm;w,f? a&SUuwpfck Dr.kNOw udkyJ PM ydkYNyD;vSrf;ar;&awmhw,f?
vkyfjyvdkuf&ifvdkufvkyfEdkifw,f? wpfckyJ?qef;opf oluwpfckcsif;aocsm &Sif;jyay;w,f?
wJh pdwful; pdwfoef;ykdif;rSm tm;enf;w,f/olwdkY
awG;vdkuf&if abmifxJurxGufbl; ... olrsm;eJY “jrefrmvdkbmomjyef a&;ay;ae&wm rvG,fvdkY
rwlwJh engineer aumif;jzpfzdkY pdwful;topfawG pmtkyfxJu oufqdkifwJhpmrsufeSmawGudk scan
xkwfEdkifzdkYvdkw,f”
zwfNyD;ydkYay;r,f” wJh ... olwifay;wJh English
vdkpm&GufawGaMumifh ykpämudk ußGefawmfwdkYtm;vkH;
tJ'Dpum;awGu ußGefawmfwdkYtwef;rSm q&m em;vnfcGifh&cJhw,f ...
tBudrfBudrfajymzl;wJhpum;awG ... olYtjrifeJY q&mh
tjrif xyfwlusaeovdk ußGefawmfvnf; tJ'D

www.myanmarengineer.org

48

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
'gayr,fh engineer yk pä mwpf yk 'f qdk wmodwJh
twdkif; ... tajz udkufnd§MunfhwJhtcsdefrSmvGJwmyJ?
ußGefawmfwdkY wifay;wJh tajzpm&GufawGudk q&m
u wpfcsufMunfhvdkufwmeJY rSm;w,fvdkY csufcsif;
ajymw,f .../ b,fae&mudk jyefppfzdkYqdkwmyg
twdtus ajymekdifw,f? olajymwJhae&mrSmvnf;
ußGefawmfwdkY wu,frSm;cJhMuw,f/ rSm;vdkYjyefjyef
wGuf&wm &ufowÅ(7)ygwf eD;yg; ... tBudrfa&
20 eD;yg; &SdvmcsdefrSm ... ußGefawmf pdwfr&Snfcsif
awmhbl; ...
'D calculator udkBudrfzefrsm;pGmeSdyf? &vmwmudk
a&;cs&wJhpm&GufawG tBudrfaygif;rsm;pGm qkwfjzJ
cJh& ... tJ'Dvrf;udk tzefzefavQmufaerSmvm; ...
OmPfudkvTmokH;NyD; tJ'D yrmPudkavQmhcsrvm; .../
ußGefawmf0goemygvGef;vdkY aeYawG? nawG rSm;
avmufatmif avhvmcJh&wJh programming [m
'Dae&mrSmtH0ifcGifus jzpfaecJhw,f ...
ußGefawmfhywf0ef;usifrSmu visual basic, .Net,
C++ ... bmyJvdkvdk jrefrmvdka&;xm;NyD;om;
pmtkyfawGtqifoifh ... ausmif;tm;&uf wpf&uf
rSm nrtdyfbJ vb program wpfck xdkifa&;ypf
vdkuf w,f ... input, output awGcsdefudkufzdkY
t&ifpDeD,mausmif;om;awG&Jh tajzawG&SdNyD;om;/
Dr.kNOw udk PM ydkYNyD; ppfaq;ay;zdkY ajymMunfh
vdkufw,f ... aemufnrSm PM jyefa&mufvm

w,f

...

“rif;u wu,fawmfwJh jrefrmyJ” wJh .../
tJ'D assignment udk ußGefawmfwdkY tm;vkH;
taumif; qkH;trSwfawGeJY ausmfjzwfEdkifcJhMuw,f
av .../
**************

prototype trsKd;rsKd;u result awGudk output
awG tjzpfxkwfay;r,fh program wpfck

zefwD;jyEdkifzdkY

...

tJ'Dpmar;yGJtNyD; ausmif;ydwf&ufrSm MEF u
topicwdkif;udkpdwfBudKufarT aESmuf?programming
eJYywfoufwJh tips awG?Tutorials awG?e-books
awG tm;vkH;udkzwf½Iavhvm ... tcsdefawGukefwm
jrefovdk ußGefawmf&Jh todynmuvnf; t&ifu
xufwdk;wufvmcJhw,f ...
ußGefawmh supervisor u prototype tjzpf
pmwrf;a[mif; tcsKd Uay;vmw,f? aemufqk H;eSpf
project twGuf erlemMunfhvdkY&atmifyg? oDtdk&D
ydkif; zwfzdkY pmtkyfemrnfawG trsm;MuD;ay;vdkuf
w,f? pmMunfhwdkufuiSm;vmcJhtNyD; pmtkyfykHMuD;
Mum;rSm ußGefawmfxdkifaerdw,f .../
pmwrf;a[mif;awGudk wpf&Gufcsif;vSef? bmrSef;
rodao;wJh udef;*Pef;awG? b,fuvmrSef;rod
wJh Z,m;awG? *&yfawG ... aemufpmwrf;wpfapmif
udk qufzwf?wlwlyJ?bmrSef;rodwJh calculations
awG ... bmeJYoGm;wlaevJ qdkawmh eSpfukefcgeD;
wGufcJh&wJh assignment vdk ...
tdk ... acgif;xJrSm “vif; ” ueJ ...?'Dproject udk
vnf; tJ'Dwkef;uvkd ajz&Sif;ay;vdkufvdkY &w,f
av ... vkHavmufwJh confidence tjynfh &Sdae
NyD;om; ...
Input data tvkHtavmufxnfhay;vdkuf½kHeJY 'D
prototype trsKd;rsKd;u result awGudk output
awG tjzpf xk wf ay;r,fh program wpfck
zefwD;jyEdkifzdkY ...
Dr. kNOw qDudk PM ydkYNyD;ar;Munfhvdkufw,f/
ußGefawmh prototype pmwrf;a[mif;awG

taMumif;? tJ'DtxJuußGefawmfar;p&m&SdvmcJh&if

www.myanmarengineer.org

49

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
ajz&Sif;ay;Edkifrvm;? ußGefawmfu jrefrmpum;eJY
odcsifwmyg ... supervisor udkar;&if pum;vkH;
topfawGeJY acgif;rl;&OD;r,f .../
Dr.kNOw uajymw,f?“ig 'gawGwGufNyD;vc&

aewm” wJh
yg” wJh ...

...

“ar;csifwmrsm;&SdcJh&if tcsdefra&G;

0goem eJY ,SOfvmcJh&if b,folrqdktyifyef;
cHEdkifwm obm0? ußGefawmfh aeYawG? nawG
tm;vkH;udk tJ'D program project twGufykHatm
xm;vdkufw,f?
uGefjyLwma&SUrSm em&DeJYtrQ ...
aumfzDcGufaygif;rsm;pGm ...
pyspfoD;cdkifaygif;rsm;pGm ...

pdwf0ifwpm; rsufvkH;awG[m auseyfrI&oGm;wJh
rsufvkH;awGtjzpfajymif;oGm;w,f ...
“'Dvdk program rsKd;wpfckudk oifaxmufultjzpf
&vmzdkY q&mwdkYBudK;pm;cJhzl;w,f? q&mwdkYXmeu
ynm&SifawG&,f? oDtdk&DXmeu ynm&SifawG&,f?
uG e f j yLwmXmeu ynm&S i f a wG & ,f vl a wG
trsm;MuD; okH;NyD; veJYcsDNyD; vkyfcJh&wJh program
rsKd;udk wynfhu wpfa,mufxnf; vkyfjyEdkifwm
rcsD;usL;bJraeEdkifbl;? tJ'DvdkvkyfjyEdkifwm EdkifiH
&yfjcm;uvmwJh jrefrmausmif;om;wpfa ,muf
jzpfaewm ydkNyD;tHhtm;oifhapw,f”

“wynfhwdkY jrefrmausmif;om;awG[m todynm
aemufudkvdkufaeMuNyD;
q&mwdkYvlrsKd; ausmif;om; awG
Dr. kNOw eJY tjyeftvSef pm wynfhwdkYjrefrmausmif;om; uawmh bGJYvufrSwf&Jhaemuf udkyJ
awGydkY? tar;tajzvkyfMu&if; awG[m todynmaemufudk vdkufaeMuw,f? olwdkYvnf;
wpfcsdefrSm 'grsKd;awGvkyfjyEdkifzdkY
a&S Uvl a wG& Jh pd wf ul ;awG udk
vdkufaeMuNyD; q&mwdkYvlrsKd; arQmfvifhw,f ... ”
ajc&mcHrdw,f ...

ausmif;om; awG uawmh
bGJYvufrSwf&JhaemufudkyJ
vdkufaeMuw,f?

b , f vd k t & G ,f tp m ; q d k & if
Supervisor &Jh tjyKH;rSm ußGeb,foHjym;udka&G;&r,f? oHjym;
fawmfyifyef;cJhorQawG t&nfaysmf
trsKd;tpm;awG tvdkuf uGmjcm;
qif;oGm;Muw,f ... oljyifcsif
wJh oHtrsKd;tpm;? txltyg;?
wmawG udkajymjyw,f? aemuf
size udkvdkufNyD; b,fae&mrSm beam xm;&r,f? xyf vkyfvdkY&ao;wmawG?vkyfoifh
tJ'D beam &Jh ykHpHtaetxm; rsKd;pkH? T-beam wmav;awGudkvnf; xyfajym jyw,f ...
awG ? I-beam awG ... b,fae&m rS m
ausmif;utjyef naeudk auseyfjcif;rsm;pGmeJY
bmudka&G;&r,f qdkwJh standard awG .../
jzwfoef;EdkifcJhw,fav .../
Equation trsKd;rsKd; ...
L,B,t awGb,fae&mrSmta&;ygwm?coefficients
awGtpkH? vufwef;azmfjrLvmawG? assume awG?
neglectawG... stability ½Iaxmifh?pD;yGm;a&; tukef

**************

tus ½Iaxmifh? vdktyfrI ½Iaxmifh? tuefYtowf Final Defend qdkwJhtcsdefudk a&mufvmcJhw,f ...
ußGefawmfwdkY oli,fcsif;wpk tm;vkH;tqifoifh ...
(limit) ½Iaxmifh ...
½kyfvkH;ay:vmwJhtqifh - laptop av;,loGm;NyD;
ußGefawmfh supervisor qDta&muf ...

Poster awG uyf? projector awG tqifoifh?

ajymoGm;&r,fhpum;vkH;awGpDpOfNyD;om;

www.myanmarengineer.org

...

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif

50

q&m?q&mrawGpkHpkHnDnD?“wpfeJYwpfaygif; b,f “wpf eJY wpf aygif; b,favmufvJ” vdkYar;cJhwJh
avmufvJ” vdkYar;cJhwJh q&ma&myJ? b,folrS0wf q & m r w f w y f x & y f w m j r i f v d k u f w , f ?
rvmwJh t0ga&mifukwftusDF eJYqdkawmh vlMum; olar;wJhar;cGef;u xJrSm ay:vGifaew,f ...
“rif; 'D project twGuf b,ftcsdefuwnf;u
ußG efawmh oli ,fcsif;awG wpfa ,mufNyD; wpf pNyD;jyifqifcJhovJ? oDtdk&Dydkif;eJYywfoufNyD; rif;&Jh
a,muf olwdkY&Jhpmwrf;eJYywfoufNyD; ajymjy oGm;? supervisor qDutultnD&cJhovm;” wJh? ykHrSef
ar;orQar;cGef;awGudk ajz&Sif;oGm;Muw,f ...
defend rSm ar;avhr&SdwJhar;cGef;rsKd; ...
“ußGefawmf 'DeSpfeSpfpydkif;rSm pNyD;taumiftxnf
ußGefawmhtvSnfh toifhpDxm;NyD;om; pum;vk H;awG u&m;u azmfcJhwmyg? supervisor u trsm;MuD;ulnDcJh
ayr,f h t"d u ußG e f a wmh u d k u l n D c J h w m
a&vT w f o vd k a jymcsvd k u f w ,f ? projector jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfu rd wfa qGwpf OD;jzpfy g
tul tnD eJY ußGefa wmh program av;u w,f?ußGefawmf olYudk ar;cGef;awG trsm;MuD;
0Hh0HhMuGm;MuGm; ...?
ar;cJh&ygw,ff” vdkY ajzay;vdkufw,f ...
ar;vmMuwJh ar;cGef;awGu ußGefawmhtwGuf cef;rxJu q&mawGtm;vkH; ußGefawmh project
odyfrcufcJawmhbl;? Dr.kNOw udk ußGefawmf ud kpd wf 0if pm;aeMuwm 0rf;omp&mjrif &w,f?
udk,fwdkifar;zl;NyD; olu ußGefawmhpdwfxJrSmpGJae ar;cG e f ; ar;p&m r&S d a wmh y gbl ; - vd k Y
avmufwJhtxd auseyfatmif jrefrmvdkajzay; tcef;tem;rSL;uaMunmvdkufNyD;wJh tcgrSmawmh
NyD;om; .../
tm;vkH;qDu vufckyfoHawG xGufay:vm Mu
w,f ... tJ'DyDwdudk ußGefawmfbmeJYrsm;vJEdkif
“ 'D program udk igwdkYbmompum;eJY okH;Edkif rSmvJ ...
ovdk? English vdkvnf; okH;ekdifwm rif;jyoGm;
w,f? rif;wdkY Zmwdbmompum;eJYaum okH;ekdif tpD t pOf a wG t m;vk H ; NyD ; qk H ; ? obmywd & J h
ygovm;” - qdkwJhar;cGef;rsKd; qdk&if vufawGYajz tqifhtwnfjyKrItNyD; tydwfrdefYcGef;ajymw,f ...
jyvdkuf&wm t&rf;udk auseyfp&m ...
“jrefrmausmif;om;awG&Jh pmoifeSpf atmifjrifpGm
“ rif; okH;oGm;wJh programming language NyD;qkH;oGm;ygNyD ... ausmif;om; tm;vkH;twGuf
awGudkawmh ig em;rvnfbl;? 'gayr,fh rule *kPf,l &r,fh aeYjzpfovdk ußGefawmfwdkYq&mrsm;
awG ? standard awGeJY wu,f ud kuf nD NyD; &Jh oif Mum;rIbuf uvnf; rarQmf vif hxm;wJh
wu,fudk wGufxkwfEdkifr,fqdkwm b,fvdkodEdkif atmifjrifrIrsKd; awG jrifawGYcJh&ygw,f .../
ausmif ; uoif Mum;ay;wJ h ynm&yf a wG tay:
rvJ” qdkwJhar;cGef;udk usawmh supervisor u
OmPfuG efY jrL;NyD; program wpf ck udk,fy dkif
0ifajzay;oGm;w,f ...
zefwD ;jyoGm;Ed kif wJh ausmif ;om;av;twGuf u
“ußGefawmf aoaocsmcsm ppfaq;ay;cJhNyD;om;yg? awmh ußGef awmfwd kYtjrJ*k Pf ,l ae&rS m jzpfyg
ol trSm;awG? vdktyfcsufawG tm;vkH;jyifqifay; w,f .../ bmaMumifhvJqdk&if 'Dvdk project rsKd;
NyD;oGm;ygNyD? tck wifjyxm;wJh version rSm bm [m ausmif ; &J h o rd k i f ; aMumif ; wpf a vQmuf r S m
yxrqkH;ay:aygufcJhwJh project jzpfaevdkYygyJ ...
vGJacsmfrIrS r&Sdap&ygbl; ... ”
q&mrsm;pGm? ynm&Sifrsm;pGm yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrS
&J&ifhwJh tmrcHpum;awGu ußGefawmh&ifudk
ay:xGuf vmr,fh&vm'frsKd;udkEdkifiHjcm;ausmif ;om;
aEG;apygw,f .../
wpfa,mufu zefwD;jyvdkufwm wu,fhudk

www.myanmarengineer.org

51

jrefrmtif*sifeD,mzdk&rfESpfvnfpmapmif
“*kPf,lygw,f” ...
yDowJh jrefrmpum;wpfcGef; ... ußGefawmh
rsufvkH;awG 0dkif;puf? w'*F qGHYt ...

tcrf;tem;tNyD; q&mhudk ußGefawmfvdkuf&Smw,f?
b,frSmrS&SmrawGY ... wjcm;q&mawGvnf; tvQKd?
tvQKd jyefukefMuNyD ... aemufqkH;ußGefawmfvnf;
jyefvmcJhw,f ...

ußGefawmf Mum;vdkuf&wJh jrefrmpum; eSpfcGef; &Jh
ya[Vdudk tajznd§ay;zdkY a&mufvmwmuawmh
r,kHEdkifp&mvdkY ajymEdkifygw,f?ol[m ußGefawmfwdkY w½kwfav; “0l”
ausmif;&Jh *kPfudkaqmifEdkif½kHwifrubJ olYEdkifiH&Jh
“rif; twGuf q&m pma&;ay;vdkufw,f ... ” wJh
*kPfudkygaqmifoGm;Edkifw,fvdkYajymcsifygw,f... ” ½kH;okH; A4 pm&Gufay:rSm print xkwfxm;wJhpm ...
txJrSmu ykHeSdyfpmvkH;0dkif;0dkif;av;awG ...
ußGefawmfh&Jh 0rf;ajrmufrIudk bmeJYrsm;vJEdkifOD;
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52

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