# Vehicle Dynamics

Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Vehicle dimensioning Resistance in motion Power for propulsion Tractive effort & traction Road performance curve

Vehicle dimensioning
l: wheel base in mm v: vehicle centre of gravity (COG) Bo: body COG Uf: front axle COG Ur:rear axle COG

Axis of coordinates as per ISO 4130, DIN 70000

Centre of Gravity (COG)
v: vehicle CCOG Bo: body COG Uf: front axle COG Ur:rear axle COG V and Bo are more important ( their distance from both axles and height) for following reasons 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Braking and acceleration capacity Climbing capability Vibrational stability Driving stability ( straight drive+cornering) Mass moment of inertia Lower is the height, better it is. But ground clearance has to be traded off.

Extreme case of vehicle driving condition

What are the forces acting on the vehicle ?

3. 2. Aerodynamic resistance Rolling resistance Inertia force Gravitational force (Grade resistance) . 4.Resistance Resistance is defined as the force impeding vehicle motion 1.

F a F Frlr rlf F f Fr aerodynamic resistance in lb (N) rolling resistance of the front/rear tires in lb (N) Available tractive effort of the front/rear tires in lb (N) Total vehicle weight in lb (N) Angle of the grade in degrees Vehicle mass in slugs (kg) Acceleration in ft/s2 (m/s2) W θ m a ( neglecting the effect of mass due to rotational effect) .

Vector sum of total forces .

This can reduce to be negligible compared to other drags. we will neglect for all our study purpose. 2. . 5. 3. 4. Form Drag Lift Drag Surface Drag Interference Drag Cooling & Ventilation Drag (57%) ( 8%) (10%) (15%) (10%) With advanced body design .Aerodynamic Resistance Ra It is sum total of : 1. redesigning the front bumper can minimise the lift. So . like smoothening bottom surface.

Otherwise turbulent flow. then streamline flow. v  velocity of body relative to fluid A orthographic projected area perpendicular to the flow direction For streamline flow (RN <1) FD=-bV b property of fluid+dimension of object .If RN< 2000.

6 7 5 2 4 3 1 9 8 .

Aerodynamic Resistance Ra Composed of: 1. Friction of air over vehicle body (12%) 3. from radiators and air vents (3%) ρ = CD Af V 2 Ra 2 ρ CD Af ρ PR a = C D A f V 3 2 V air density in slugs/ft3 (kg/m3) Coefficient of drag Front area of the vehicle in ft2 (m2) Speed of the vehicle in ft/m (m/s) . Turbulent air flow around vehicle body (85%) 2. Vehicle component resistance.

Typical values of air density under specific atmospheric conditions Ranges of Cd for typical road vehicles .

Aerodynamic Resistance Ra Drag Coefficient • Recent vehicles have lower coefficient • Large personal vehicles have higher coefficient • Even minor factors like opening window will affect coefficient .

How to reduce Aerodynamic resistance ? Aerodynamic design Drag lift Wing Spoiler Undertray .

Aerodynamic Resistance Ra Frontal area of vehicle Orthographic projection area most modern road going vehicles. rounded corners • High rake angle for the windscreen • Tapered rear end • Minimized body seams • Optimized rear view mirrors • Substitution of rear view mirrors with cameras • Smooth underbody . • Smooth vehicle shape.

Aerodynamic Resistance Ra Frontal area of some of the vehicles Drag area ( Cd xYear/ Automobile Ft2) 4.6 5.1 5.6 5.6 5.0 5.5 5.4 5.6 5.7 1996 GM EV1 1999 Honda Insight 1989 Opel Calibra 1980 Ferrari 308 GTB 1993 Mazda RX-7 1993 McLaren F1 1991 Opel Calibra 1990 Bugatti EB110 1990 Honda CRX .

Rolling resistance .

. Thus it is much higher than that of a steel wheel on train. In an automobile with rubber tyre.Rolling Resistance 1. Caused by the deformation of wheel or the road surface or both due to load of the vehicle 2. it happens mainly due to hysteresis loss ( deformation/ recovery of tyre). < sliding resistance 3. Rolling resistance leads to heat and sound energy.

5*(ODT-d) 175/70 R 14 or Load index Max speed 185/60 R 15 82 H Rim dia in inches Aspect ratio in % Width (W in mm) Radial .Tyres Aspect ratio=W/H H=0.

4. It has got linear relationship with velocity ( but a low gradient) as frequent deformation / recovery increases temperature and thus rolling resistance. 6. 2. W. it reduces. relative micro sliding. Rolling resistance on a concrete road is less than that in sand.contd . 5. lower is the rolling resistance. v. r.g on wet road ).Rolling Resistance Rolling resistance =f( hardness. Higher load increases rolling resistance due to same reason as 3. As temperature increases. T. On a smooth surface ( e. Higher the radius of the wheel . rolling resistance increases. 3. matl. If hardness is more. temp) 1. it is lower ….

9. Radial tyres reduce rolling resistance ( by >25%) than bias ply tyres due to stiffness of the inserted steel wires. This helps in reduction of the hysteresis loss. r. Higher inflation pressure reduces the contact area thus reduces rolling resistance.Rolling Resistance Rolling resistance =f( hardness. This helps to reduce the hysteresis loss. v. more is the hysteresis loss and thus more is the rolling resistance. relative micro sliding. 8. T. But excess inflation pressure results in skip and hop of the vehicle which result into loss of traction and problem in braking. Thus to reduce it many times silane ( silica) replaces the carbon black. Silane is however costlier than the carbon black. temp) 7. matl. . Softer the material.

. relative micro sliding. 11.Higher aspect ratio ( W/H) reduces the rolling resistance. r. Lower tread thickness reduces rolling resistance. T. matl.Rolling Resistance Rolling resistance =f( hardness. v. temp) 10.

Wide range of factors affect total rolling resistance Rrl = f rlW cos θ g ≈ f rlW ( for small gradient) f = 0 .73 Metric PR rl = f rlWV V is veh speed (m/s) . Tire slippage and air circulation around wheel (∼ 6%) 4.Rolling Resistance Rrl Composed primarily of 1.01(1 + V ) rl 44 . Resistance from tire deformation (∼ 90%) 2. Tire penetration and surface compression (∼ 4%) 3.

006 to 0.0025 0.01 0.Crr Description 0.0002 to 0.035 0. and sand Ordinary car tires on sand .0010 Railroad steel wheel on steel rail 0.010 to 0. mud.030 to 0.055 to 0.3 Special racing tires Tram rails standard dirty with straights and curves Low-resistance car tires on smooth road.065 0.015 0. truck tires on smooth road Ordinary car tires on concrete Ordinary car tires on tar or asphalt Ordinary car tires on grass.005 0.

more heat is generated making the material softer and thus increase in rolling resistance .Rolling resistance As speed increases .

θg Rg θg W sin θ g ≈ tan θ g Rg = W tan θ g tan θ g = G Rg = WG G: grade in m/m or in % .Grade Resistance Rg -Gravitational force acting on the vehicle Rg = W sin θ g For small angles.

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Total resistance Ft=Fa+Fr+Fg+ma Ft=a+bV+CV2 Total resistance Air resistance Resistance (N) Rolling resistance Gradient resistance Velocity ( KMPH) For diff gradient find out ? .

Propulsion Power Calculation (Tractive Effort) .

the inertia force is downward m m v v a m W R v W gc o f F la sα gs i tf α hg nα T rr rlr L lb rd W r F tr α .Maximum Tractive Effort F hw T R rlf rf w When accelerating upward.

weight distribution to the front wheel Wr .weight distribution to the rear wheel .Wf .

Maximum Tractive Force For front wheel drive It is the multiplied value of coefficient of friction and the normal transferred weight Ftmax =µ Wf So. Ftmax =µ [ max ] Replace Fr with frl Mvg .

frhg)/{(1-µhg/L)L} .Maximum Tractive Force Ftmax = µMvg{Lb+fr(hg-rd)}/{(1+µhg/L)L} Neglecting wheel radius compared to the centre of gravity Ftmax = µW(Lb+frhg)/{(1+µhg/L)L} For rear wheel drive Ftmax = µW(Lb.

Engine generated Tractive effort .

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Engine generated Tractive effort reaching the wheels Engine speed vs wheel speed Gear box + Final txn Wheel speed Gear reduction ratio ε0 Engine speed Gear reduction (Transmission & Differential) Lost 5%-25% of total efforts η d = 1 − lost ηd Mechanical efficiency of the driveline .

Urban driving Highway driving CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Engine Generated Tractive Effort 2πM e ne pe = IC engine power is: 1000 Me Engine torque (N-m) Engine speed in crankshaft revolution per second Power in kilowatt (KW) IC engine ne pe What about if torque is specified in lb-ft .

Engine Generated Tractive Effort Electric motror driven vehicle .

Engine-Generated Tractive Effort M eε 0η d Fe = r Fe= Me = ε0 = ηd= r= Engine generated tractive effort reaching wheels (N) Engine torque (N-m) Gear reduction ratio Driveline efficiency (0.95) Wheel radius (m) .75-0.

Engine Speed 2πrne (1 − i ) V= ε0 V= velocity (m/s) r= wheel radius (m) ne= crankshaft rps i= driveline slippage (2-5%) ε0= gear reduction ratio For 5 geared vehicle .Vehicle Speed vs.

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Fmax Available tractive effort = min ( Fe . Fe Maximum value that is a function of the vehicle’s weight distribution and road-tire interaction. Fmax ) .AVAILABLE TRACTIVE EFFORT • The minimum of: – – Force generated by the engine.

ctors affecting are:- Co-eficient of friction Gear ratio of driving forces Maximum power available to the gear system Safe working torque of the gear system μm (Max tractive effort) P/v = F ( inverse relationship) Continuous tractive effort ( force) .

Tractive Effort 1.0.0-Maximum Tractive Effort : Maximum force/power beyond which the wheel spins & is a function of weight distribution and road-tyre interaction The maximum tractive effort is given by: µWnormal .Maximum Tractive Force 2.0.Engine Generated Tractive Force (Continuous) ve Force (Effort) : Pulling Force exerted by the vehicle (P/v) 1.

Tractive Effort Relationships 1 gear st F max 2nd gear 3rd gear 4th gear Total resistance w/o gear reduction .

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0025 ε 2 0 Overall drive ratio ( final drive+ gear box) .04 + 0.Mr=M*γ m γ m = 0.

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Cornering slip Braking (Lockup) Best at 5 deg. r a/h>u a.R2=vertical reaction F1+F2=mv2/r F1+F2=(R2-R1)*a/h v= Vehicle turning left Skidding case F1+F2<u * (R1+R2) Deriving Vskid= u . g . g/h So mass plays no role in turning Slippage is under 2 conditions Accelerate (wheelspin) -Longitudinal slip .F2= Horizontal forces on tyres R1. r.Rollover dynamics m=mass of veh v= velocity r=radius of curve F1. worst at 90 deg Home assignment on derivation ! .

Effect of various parameters on friction Parameters Speed Camber angle Tyre pressure Rain Road surface Tyre co-efficient of Friction Condition Increase Increase Increase u Reduces Reduces Reduces Reduces Bituminous Asphalt Cement Highest Low Lowest Higher Higher Lowest Temperature Low High Optimum .

how well it sticks to the ground It determines how fast a car can accelerate . one can negotiate faster . brake and corner Input for a tyre : Load.Traction & Chassis design on : The output of a tyre from it’s handling point of view is it’s traction In other words . Output is Tractionj So on a lighter car.

Camber & Traction Cirecle of Traction Traction reduces on positive camber due to lower patch area At acceleration. available traction for cornering is reduced .