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Chapter 2

Relevant Theories and Therapies for Nursing Practice

Menu
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

F

The mind as an iceberg

Slide 2-2 B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

(Fig. 2-1) Menu F

Freud Personality Structure
q q q

Id Ego Superego

Developmental Stages
q q q q q

Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital

Levels of Awareness
q q q

Conscious Preconscious Unconscious

B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Menu

F

Erikson vs. Freud

Erikson
• stressed ego • psychosocial aspects of development • considers life span development

Freud
• stressed id • psychosexual aspects of development • personality formed by age of 5

• studied healthy people • studied neurotic people
B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Menu

F

Sullivan Needs
q q

Self System
q q q

Satisfactions Security

Good-me Bad-me Not-me

Anxiety
q

Empathetic between child and mother Can be described; observable behaviors Individuals strive for

Security Operations
q

Selective inattention Dissociation

q

q

q

B

Menu

F

Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Peplau 4 Phases of Interpersonal Process
q q q q

Orientation Identification Working Resolution

Described 4 Levels of Anxiety

B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Menu

F

Peplau, cont. Ideas about Nursing
q q q q q q

Focus is on client Nurse is participant observer Nurse has awareness of role Nursing is investigative Nurses use theory Developed process recording

B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Menu

F

Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development
q q q q

Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operations Formal operations

Schema
q

Developed to organize and understand the world

Processes Used to Develop Schemata
q q

Assimilation Adaptation
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

B

Menu

F

Maslow Needs Hierarchy
q q q

Physiological needs Psychological needs Meta-needs

Beliefs about Humankind
q q q

Needs are fulfilled by and through other humans A person does the best he/she can at the time With adequate understandable information, a person will make good decisions Man has a higher nature
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

q

B

Menu

F

Kohlberg Level I Preconventional (ages 4-10)
q

Emphasis on external control, avoiding punishment

Level II Conventional Role Conformity (ages 10-13)
q q

Want to please other and be considered “good” Develop social concern and conscience

Level III Autonomous Moral Principles (after age 13, if ever)
q

Acknowledges the possibility of conflict between 2 accepted standards and tries to decide between Menu B F them
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Psychotherapies Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic
q

Focus: - internal experience - defense mechanisms - transference and past relationships Therapist: more non-directive Focus: - thoughts/cognitions - correcting cognitive distortions Therapist: active and directive
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

q

Cognitive Therapy
q

q

B

Menu

F

Psychotherapies, cont. Interpersonal Therapy
q q

Focus: interpersonal relationships Problems: - Grief - Role disputes - Role transition - Interpersonal deficit

q

Therapist: active and directive

B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Menu

F

Psychotherapies, cont. Behavioral Therapy
q q

Focus: learning more adaptive behavior Applications: - Operant conditioning - Modeling - Systematic desensitization - Aversion therapy - Relaxation - Assertiveness

q

Therapist: active and directive
B
Copyright © 2002 by W. B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Menu

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