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Muhammad Achievement and Heritage -By Zaky Rawdat

Muhammad Achievement and Heritage -By Zaky Rawdat

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Published by Gilbert Hanz
To solve the problem with Muhammad’s wives and the jealousy provoked by Muhammad’s action, Allah gave Himself, Jibril and all of the faithful (Muslims) to defend the Prophet in dealing with two helpless women, Aisha and Hafsa, by giving them threat and deadly ultimatum concerning their future.
To solve the problem with Muhammad’s wives and the jealousy provoked by Muhammad’s action, Allah gave Himself, Jibril and all of the faithful (Muslims) to defend the Prophet in dealing with two helpless women, Aisha and Hafsa, by giving them threat and deadly ultimatum concerning their future.

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Published by: Gilbert Hanz on Nov 19, 2011
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The house of Umayyad was also called the clan/Banu Abd Shams, who shared the same
ancestor with Muhammad, namely Abd Manaf ibn Qusai whose sons were Abd Shams
and Hasyim.
Abd Shams had a son named Umayyad, while Hasyim’ son was Abd al Muttalib → Abd.
Allah → Muhammad. Both the Umayyad and the Hashimite were from the Quraish tribe.

According to the Shiah, Umayyad was Abd Shams’ adopted son, therefore he wasn’t an
offspring of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai.
The Umayyads and the Hashimites had a bitter history. In the battle of Badr, three top
leaders of the Umayyad clan namely Utba ibn Rabiah, Walid ibn Utba and Shaybah were
killed by the Hashimite clan, namely Ali, Hamzah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Ubaydah. This
caused Umayyad’s grandson named Abu Sufyan ibn Harb fought against Muhammad and
Islam.

Abu Sufyan gathered the Meccan troops and fought with Muhammad’s troops in the
Battle of Uhud. In this battle Muhammad was defeated and lost many of his men, among
those who were killed was his uncle, Hamzah. Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hind, was the daughter
of Utba bin Rabiah who had a revenge because hisfather was killed in the Battleof Badr.
Utba cut Hamzah’s dead body, taken out his liver and ate it. Five years later when
Muhammad conquered Mecca, because he was concerned about his safety, Abu Sufyan
embraced Islam the night Mecca was conquered. The same withhis son, Muawiyah I who
later became a Caliph.

This provoked hatred between the Umayyad clan and the Hashimite clan. In the future
there was a war between Mauwiyah I and Ali, the assasination of Husain ibn Ali and his
family and his friend in the Karbala war ordered by Yazid ibn Muawiyah.
The historians said that the ruler of the first Umayyad dinasty was Caliph Uthman ibn
Affann (644-656), the second was Caliph Muawiyah. Uthman appointed his family
(nepotism) as governors for his conguered regions. He appointed Muawiyah as the
governor of Syria, Abdullah ibn Saad as the governor of Egypt, Walid ibn Uqba as the

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governor of Kufah. Walid was famously known because he led the people in prayer while
he was heavily drunk. Uthman also appointed Marwan ibn al-Hakam as his advisor.
Ali’s group hadan enmity with the group of Aisha, Muhammad’s wife, Talhah, Al
Zubayr, Umar, Uthman, Muawiya.
Ali moved the capital city of his government from Medina to Kuf. The war that waged
between the two groups were the Fitna I war (656-661), the Camel War 656, where Ali
defeated Aisha. Ali’s war against Muawiyah was known as the Siffin war; no side won
this war, therefore they established a mediatory board.
Most of Ali’s men opposed this mediatory board. Then they separated themselves from
Ali’s group and formed agroup called the Kharijites. Ali’s group fought the Kharijites in
the Nahrawan War. In 661, Ali was killed by a Kharijites warrior, and Muawiyah
proclaimed himself as Caliph, and moved the capital city to Damascus, Syria.

The group Muawiya did a lot of persuasions and bribed the troops and Ali’s men, until
finally Ali’s family was assasinated by Muawiyah group.
Umayyad transformed the caliphate from a religious institution into a dinasty. The
Umayyad dinasty ruled from Damascus, Syria until 750 AD.

After the death of Husain, there was a union between Ibn al Ubay in Mecca, the people of
Mecca and the Kharijites in Basra to fight Yazid. Therefore Yazid sent his troops to
surround Mecca. This was known as the Al Harra War, which causeddestruction and fire
on the Ka’ba. In this war, Yazid got killed and Ibn al Zubayr conqured Mecca. Yazid’s
troops returnedto Damascus and Yazid’s position was replaced by Muawiyah II (683-
683).

Two fraction formed an opposition, they were the fraction of Ibn al Zubayr and Quda’a
who supported Marwan, the descendant of Umayya of Wail ibn Umayyah. Marwan’s
troops won the Marj Rahit war near Damascus 684 AD, and soon Marwan became Caliph.
Then this dinasty reborn in Cordoba, the region of Andalusia, which are now Spain and
Portugal, and ruled for 800 years. The model of its government are Emirate, Caliphate,
Taifas and theGranada Kingdom untilthe 16th century.

On 710 Muhammad bin Qasim and his troops sailed from Khaleej to Sind and conquered
Sind and Punjab, the area along the Indus River, Pakistan. During 1031 AD, the Taifa
system was applied at Iberia. The Umayyad caliphate ended in Iberia on January 2nd,
1492 after Granada under Muhammad XII, which was known as Boabdil was defeated and
surrendered to Ferdinan II from Aragon and Isabella I from the Castile of the Catholic
empire. This was the end of the islamic government and the Umayyad dinasty.

Umayyad (Abd al-Malik) built a big mosque with a golden dome: The Dome of the Rock,
upon the former spot of the temple of KingSolomon, a place that believed as the spot
where Abraham was going to sacrifice Isaac. The building of the mosque started in 687
AD and was accomplished in 691 AD. The building of the Dome of the Rock was to make

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it a rival to the Ka’ba in Mecca which wasin the hands of Ibn al Zubayr, as the final
destination to accomplish the Hajj ritual.
In 634 AD, Umayyad attacked the Roman Empire and the Sassanid, and won. But they
were blocked by the Roman army at Constantinopel in 674-678 and once again in 717.
Frank Charles Martel also defeated the Islam troops which invaded France at Pyrenes
mountains in 732. In the east, the islamic kingdom attacked the Tang dinasty in China. In
751 the Arab troops gained victory Samarkand, Bukhara untilKabul Afganistan.
The painting on the wall in the Qusayr Amra palace,
probably built by Caliph Al-Walid II, pictured a concubine.
The harem of Umayyad filled with many concubines. They
were trained to sing, dance, and other performing arts to
satisfy the man who owned them.

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