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2

AN EXAMPLE OF AIRPLANE

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

PROCEDURE - JET TRANSPORT

E.G.Tulapurkara

A.Venkattraman

V.Ganesh

REPORT NO: AE TR 2007-4

APRIL 2007

An Example of Airplane Preliminary Design

Procedure - Jet Transport

E.G.Tulapurkara

∗

A.Venkattraman

†

V.Ganesh

‡

Abstract

In this report, we present an application of the preliminary design

procedure followed in aircraft design course. A 150 seater jet airplane

cruising at M = 0.8, at 11 km altitude and having a gross still air

range(GSAR) of 4000 km is considered. The presentation is divided

into eight sections

• Data collection

• Preliminary Weight estimation

• Optimization of wing loading and thrust loading

• Wing design

• Fuselage design, preliminary design of tail surface and prelimi-

nary layout

• c.g. calculation

• Control surface design

• Features of designed airplane

• Details of performance estimation

∗

AICTE Emeritus Fellow, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras

†

B.Tech Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras

‡

Dual Degree Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras

1

Contents

1 Data Collection 6

1.1 The Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.2.2 Wing parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.2.3 Empennage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.2.4 Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.2.5 Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.6 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.7 Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.3 Overall height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2 Revised Weight Estimation 21

2.1 Fuel fraction estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.1.1 Warm up and Take oﬀ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.1.2 Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.1.3 Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.1.4 Loiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.1.5 Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.2 Empty Weight Fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading 25

3.1 Landing Distance Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.2 Maximum Speed(V

max

) Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.2.1 Estimation of K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.3 (R/C)

max

consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.4 Based on Minimum Fuel for Range (W

f

min

) . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.6 Summary of Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.7 Consideration of Wing Weight (W

w

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.8 Choosing a W/S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.9 Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.9.1 Requirement for V

max

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.10 Requirements for (R/C)

max

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.11 Take-Oﬀ Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.12 Engine Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

2

3.13 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4 Wing Design 42

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.2 Airfoil Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.2.1 Design Lift Coeﬃcient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

4.2.2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio and Wing Sweep . . . . . . . . 43

4.3 Other Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.3.1 Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.3.2 Taper Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.3.3 Root and Tip Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.3.4 Dihedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.3.5 Wing Twist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.4 Cranked Wing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.5 Wing Incidence(i

w

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.6 Vertical Location of Wing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.7 Areas of Flaps and Ailerons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5 Fuselage and Tail Layout 48

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5.2 Initial Estimate of Fuselage Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5.3 Nose and Cockpit - Front Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

5.4 Passenger Cabin Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

5.4.1 Cabin Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.4.2 Cabin length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.4.3 Cabin Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.5 Rear Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.6 Total Fuselage Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.7 Tail surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

5.8 Engine Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

5.9 Landing Gear Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

6 Estimation of Component Weights and C.G Location 55

6.1 Aircraft mass statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

6.1.1 Structures Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

6.1.2 Propulsion Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

6.1.3 Fixed equipment group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

6.2 Weights of Various Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

6.3 C.G Location and C.G Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

6.3.1 Wing Location on Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

6.4 C.G Travel for Critical Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

3

6.4.1 Full Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

6.4.2 No Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

6.4.3 No Payload and Full fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

6.4.4 Payload distribution for 15% c.g travel . . . . . . . . . 59

6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

7 Control Surfaces 60

7.1 Stability and Controllability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

7.2 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

7.2.1 Speciﬁcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

7.2.2 Aft Center of gravity limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

7.2.3 Forward center of Gravity Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

7.2.4 Determination of initial parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 61

7.3 Lateral Stability and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

7.3.1 Speciﬁcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

7.3.2 Equations for directional stability . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

7.3.3 Determination of initial parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 65

8 Features of the Designed Airplane 67

8.1 Three View Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

8.2 Overall Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

8.3 Engine details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

8.4 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

8.5 Wing Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

8.6 Fuselage Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

8.7 Nacelle Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

8.8 Horizontal Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

8.9 Vertical Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

8.10 Other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

8.11 Crew and Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

8.12 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

9 Performance Estimation 72

9.1 Estimation of Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

9.1.1 Estimation of (C

D

o

)

WB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

9.1.2 Estimation of (C

D

o

)

V

and (C

D

o

)

H

. . . . . . . . . . . 74

9.1.3 Estimation of Misc Drag - Nacelle . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

9.1.4 C

D

o

of the airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

9.1.5 Induced Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

9.1.6 Final Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

9.2 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

4

9.3 Level Flight Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

9.3.1 Stalling speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

9.3.2 Variation of V

min

and V

max

with Altitude . . . . . . . . 82

9.4 Steady Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

9.5 Range and Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

9.6 Turning Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

9.7 Take-oﬀ distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

9.8 Landing distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

9.9 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

10 Acknowledgements 107

5

1 Data Collection

1.1 The Design Philosophy

The conceptual design forms the initial stage of the design process. In spite

of the fact that there are numerous aircrafts, each having its own special fea-

tures, one can ﬁnd common features underlying most of them. For example,

the following aspects would dominate the conceptual design of a commercial

transport jet.

1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market

The Civil Transport Jets could be classiﬁed in the following way :

Class No.of Seats Typical GSAR(km) Propulsion

B-747 >400 >13000 High Bypass

type Turbofan

B-757 200-400 10000 High Bypass

type Turbofan

B-737 100-200 5000 Medium Bypass

type Turbofan

Regionals 30-100 2000 Turboprop

Table 1: Classiﬁcation of Civil Jet Airplane

From the values of gross still air range in table, it is clear that inter-

continental ﬂights would be restricted to the ﬁrst two classes while the last

two would handle bulk of the traﬃc in regional routes. The diﬀerent classes

cater to diﬀerent sections of the market. One decides the range and pay-

load(ie passengers) after identifying the target market. In this example, we

plan to cater to the traﬃc in regional routes. We will design a Transport

Jet with a Gross Still Air Range(GSAR) of 4000km (=R

g

) and a single-class

seating capacity of 150. We could roughly classify our aircraft as belonging

the B-737 class. We collect data for similar aircrafts and use this data set as

the basis for making initial estimates.

Our aim is to design an aircraft that satisﬁes the following requirements.

• Gross Still Air Range = 4,000 km

• No. of passengers = 150

6

• Flight Cruise Mach No. = 0.80

• Altitude =11,000 m

1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints

Any design team would be required to work with a limited amount of funds

and time. These could dictate various aspects of the design process.For exam-

ple, innovations which could end up in a spiralling budget may be shelved.

Also, in case of highly competitive markets, the ability to get the aircraft

ready in the prescribed time frame is very crucial. The design team must

ensure that cost and time over-runs are minimized to the extent possible.

1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards

Some of the major demands on the design arise from the various mandatory

and operational regulations. All commercial aircrafts must satisfy the Air-

worthiness requirements of various countries. Typically, each country has its

own Aviation Authority (e.g, DGCA in India, CAA in UK, FAA in USA).

Airworthiness requirements would cover the following aspects of the aircraft

1. Flight

This includes performance items like stall, take-oﬀ, climb, cruise, de-

scent, landing, response to rough air etc. Also included are require-

ments of stability,controllability and manoeuvrability.

2. Structural

Flight loads, ground loads, emergency landing conditions, fatigue eval-

uation etc.

3. Powerplant

Fire protection, auxillary power unit,air intake/exhaust,fuel systems,cooling.

4. Other

Materials quality regulations, bird strike.

Passenger Safety is the primary motive behind these speciﬁcations. Ad-

ditional route-speciﬁc constraints may have to be taken into account on a

case-by-case basis. e.g, cruise altitude for aircrafts ﬂying over the Himalayas

must be well over 8 km.

In addition to safety and operational requirements, the design must satisfy

the environmental constraints. Two major environmental concerns are noise

and emissions :

7

• The Engines are the primary source of noise in an aircraft. The airframe

could also add to this.Maximum noise is produced during take-oﬀ and

landing. This can reduced by opting for a shallower approach, as this

reduces the ﬂight time spent near the airport. However the reduction in

noise may not be signiﬁcant. The development of high-bypass turbofan

engines has signiﬁcantly reduced noise production.

• The predominant source of emissions is the engine. The exhaust con-

tains particles, various gases including carbon dioxide(CO

2

) , water va-

por (H

2

O) , various oxides of nitrates, carbon monoxide(CO),unburnt

hydrocarbons and sulphur dioxide(SO

2

). All components except CO

2

and H

2

O are considered as pollutants Again,as was the case with noise,

emissions during landing and take-oﬀ are of particular concern due to

the communities near airports. Various aviation authorities have set

limits on these emissions. The design team must adhere to such con-

straints.

1.2 Preliminary Design

If we look at the commercial transport jets in use, one can ﬁnd many common

features amongst them. Some of these are :

• Medium bypass turbofans

This choice regarding the type of engine is due to the following reasons.

In the ﬂight regime of Mach number between 0.6 to 0.85, turbofans give

the best eﬃciency and moreover reduction in thrust output with speed

is not so rapid. Also, the noise generated by a medium-by pass turbo

fan engine is considerably less. We follow this trend and choose a

medium-by pass turbo fan as our powerplant.

• Wing mounted engines Though not a rule, wing mounted engines

dominate the designs of top aircraft companies like Boeing and Airbus.

Alternative designs could be adopted. But,given the experience gained

with the wing mounted engines and the large data available for such

conﬁgurations, we adopt two wing mounted engines.

• Swept back wings and a conventional rear-tail conﬁguration is cho-

sen. Again, this choice is dictated by the fact that we have a large

amount of data(to compare with) for such conﬁgurations.

8

1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate

Given the number of passengers, we can estimate the payload in the following

way:

1. Include one cabin crew member for 30 passengers. In our case, this

gives 5 crew members

2. Include ﬂight crew of pilot and co-Pilot.

Thus the total of passenger + crew is 150+5+2 = 157.

3. Allow 110 kg for each passenger (82 kg weight per passenger with carry

on baggage + 28 kg of checkin baggage)(Reference 1.11, page 214)

We thus obtain a payload W

pay

of 157 × 110 = 17270 kgf. We now esti-

mate the gross weight of the aircraft (W

g

).

From data collection, we observe the following.

Aircraft No.of passengers Still air range (km) W

TO

(kgf)

737-300B 149 4185 60636

737-400B 168 3852 64671

737-700A 149 2935 60330

Table 2: Take oﬀ weight

Based on the data collected, we choose an initial weight of 60,000 kgf.

1.2.2 Wing parameters

To estimate the wing parameters, we need to choose a value for wing loading(W/S).

This is one of the most important parameters that not only decides the wing

parameters but also plays an important role in the performance of the air-

plane.We observe similar airplanes and choose an initial estimate for (W/S)

to be 5500 N/m

2

.Once the (W/S) has been decided, the other parameters

of the wing are chosen based on similar aircraft.

Aerodynamically, it is desirable to have a large aspect ratio(A). How-

ever, structural considerations force us to settle for an optimal value. As the

structural design improves, the value of A also keeps increasing. We choose

a value of 9.3. Most modern aircrafts(see data base in Table A) have values

close to 9.The taper ratio(λ) is a geometric parameter that is roughly the

9

same for all the aircrafts in the data set. We choose an average value of 0.24

for λ.The wing quarter chord sweep(Λ

c/4

) is chosen as 25

◦

.Consequently

S = W

g

_

S

W

_

= 107.02m

2

(1)

The wing span(b) can be calculated from A and S

b =

√

SA = 31.55 m (2)

The root chord(c

r

) and tip chord(c

t

) can now be found using the following

equations :

c

r

=

2S

b(1 +λ)

= 5.47 m (3)

c

t

= λc

r

= 1.31 m (4)

1.2.3 Empennage

As explained earlier,we have chosen the conventional rear-tail conﬁguration.

The geometric parameters of the horizontal and vertical tails are obtained

here.

The values of S

h

/S and S

v

/S are obtained from the data set of similar

airplanes.

We have chosen

S

h

S

= 0.31

S

v

S

= 0.21

Hence,

S

h

= 33.18 m

2

S

v

= 22.47 m

2

We choose suitable aspect ratios(A

h

, A

v

) from the data set. Our choices

are A

h

= 5 and A

v

= 1.7. Using eq.(2), we get the spans(b

h

, b

v

) as

b

h

=

_

A

h

S

h

= 12.88 m (5)

10

b

v

=

_

A

v

S

v

= 6.18 m (6)

The chosen values for the taper ratios(λ

h

, λ

v

) from the data set are λ

h

=

0.26 λ

v

= 0.3. We can now compute the root chord (c

rh

, c

rv

) and tip chord

(c

th

, c

tv

) of tails as

c

rh

=

2S

h

b

h

(1 +λ

h

)

= 4.09 m (7)

c

th

= λ

h

c

rh

= 1.06 m (8)

c

rv

=

2S

v

b

v

(1 +λ

v

)

= 5.59 m (9)

c

tv

= λ

v

c

rv

= 1.68 m (10)

From the data set, we choose quarter chord sweep back angles of Λ

h

= 30

◦

and Λ

v

= 35

◦

. This completes the broad geometric design of the empennage.

1.2.4 Control Surfaces

A number of aircraft and their 3-view drawings as well as design data have

been studied and the following parameter values are chosen.

• S

flap

/S = 0.17

• S

slat

/S = 0.10

• b

flap

/b =0.74

• S

ele

/S

ht

= 0.22

• S

rud

/S

vt

= 0.25

• Trailing edge ﬂaps type : Fowler ﬂaps

• Leading edge high lift devices : slats

Hence,

• S

ele

= 7.53 m

2

• S

rud

= 5.8 m

2

• Area of T.E ﬂaps = 18.98 m

2

• Area of L.E slats = 11.60 m

2

• b

flap

= 23.7 m

11

1.2.5 Fuselage

Aerodynamic considerations would demand a slender fuselage. But, pas-

senger comfort and structural constraints would limit the slenderness. We

obtain the length l

f

and diameter d

f

by choosing l

f

/b = 1.05 and l

f

/d

f

=

8.86 from data collection.

Hence,

l

f

= 33.6 m (11)

d

f

= 3.79 m (12)

1.2.6 Engines

Observing the thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) of similar airplanes, we arrive

at a T/W of 0.3.This implies a thrust requirement of

T = 0.3 × W

g

= 180 kN or 90 kN per engine

The CFMI FM56-3-B1 model of Turbofan comes closest to this re-

quirement.

1.2.7 Landing Gear

We choose a retractable tricycle type landing gear. It is the most commonly

found type of landing gear. It is favored for two reasons:

1. During take-oﬀ and landing the weight of the plane is taken entirely by

the rear wheels.

2. It has better lateral stability on ground than bicycle type landing gear.

We choose to have a total of 10 wheels - 2 below the nose and two pairs

each on the sides(near the wing fuselage junction). The location of the wheels

was chosen from three-view drawings of similar aircraft.

1.3 Overall height

Based on dimensions of Boeing 737 - 300, 400 and 500, the overall height is

taken as 11.13 m.

12

TABLE A - Data on Existing Airplanes(150 seater category)

(Source : http://www.bh.com/companions/034074152X/)

13

14

15

16

17

Figure 1: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-300

Source : http://www.virtualswa.com/Boeing737-300/3view.gif

Figure 2: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-500

Source : http://www.virtualswa.com/Boeing737-500/3view.gif

18

Figure 3: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-700

Source : http://www.virtualswa.com/Boeing737-700/3view.gif

19

F

i

g

u

r

e

4

:

P

r

e

l

i

m

i

n

a

r

y

t

h

r

e

e

v

i

e

w

o

f

t

h

e

a

i

r

p

l

a

n

e

u

n

d

e

r

d

e

s

i

g

n

20

2 Revised Weight Estimation

In the previous section, an initial estimate for the aircraft parameters has

been done. The weight estimate is being revised using reﬁned estimates

of fuel weight and empty weight. The fuel fractions for various phases are

worked out in the following steps. The fuel fractions for warm-up, take-oﬀ,

climb and landing are taken from Raymer[4], chapter 3.

2.1 Fuel fraction estimation

The fuel weight depends on the mission proﬁle and the fuel required as re-

serve. The mission proﬁle for a civil jet transport aircraft involves

• Take oﬀ

• Climb

• Cruise

• Loiter before landing

• Descent

• Landing

2.1.1 Warm up and Take oﬀ

The value for this stage is taken by following the standards given in Raymer[4],

chapter 3

W

1

W

0

= 0.97

W

0

is the weight at take-oﬀ and W

1

is the weight at the end of the take-oﬀ

phase.

2.1.2 Climb

The weight-ratio for this stage is chosen by following the standards given in

Raymer[4], chapter 3.

W

2

W

1

= 0.985

21

2.1.3 Cruise

The weight ratio for the cruise phase of ﬂight is calculated using the following

expression from Raymer[4], chapter 3.

W

3

W

2

= exp

_

−RC

V (L/D)

_

(13)

Gross still air range is 4000 km.Hence

Cruise Safe Range =

GSAR

1.5

=

4000

1.5

= 2667 km

(L/D)

max

is taken as 18 from ﬁgure 3.6 of Raymer[4]. This corresponds

to the average value for civil jets.

As prescribed by Raymer[4], chapter 3

(L/D)

cruise

= 0.866(L/D)

max

(14)

(L/D)

cruise

= 0.866 × 18 = 15.54

To account for allowances due to head wind during cruise and provision

for diversion to another airport we proceed as follows.

Head wind is taken as 15 m/s. The time to cover the cruise safe range of

2667 km at V

cr

of 849.6 km/hr is

Time =

2667

849.6

= 3.13 hours

Therefore, with a head wind of 15 m/s or 54 km/hr the additional dis-

tance that has to be accounted for is

Additional distance = 54 × 3.13 = 169 km

The allowance for diversion to another airport is taken as 400 km.

The total extra distance that has to be accounted for in the calculations

is 169 + 400 = 569 km.

The total distance during cruise = 2667 + 569 = 3236 km.

Substituting the appropriate values in eq.(13) we get,

W

3

W

2

= exp

_

−3236 × 0.6

849.6 × 15.59

_

= 0.863

22

2.1.4 Loiter

The weight ratio for Loiter phase of ﬂight is calculated using the following

expression from Raymer[4], chapter 3

W

4

W

3

= exp

_

−E × TSFC

(L/D)

_

(15)

During Loiter, the airplane usually operates at (L/D)

max

and hence the

appropriate value should be used in eq.(15). Also, we design for a loiter time

of 30 minutes.

Therefore we get,

W

4

W

3

= exp

_

−0.5 × 0.6

18

_

= 0.983

2.1.5 Landing

Following the standards speciﬁed by Raymer[4], chapter 3, we take this ratio

as

W

5

W

4

= 0.995

Therefore,

W

5

W

g

=

W

5

W

0

= 0.97 × 0.985 × 0.863 × 0.983 × 0.995 = 0.806

Allowing for a reserve fuel of 6% we obtain the fuel fraction(ζ) as

W

f

W

g

= ζ = 1.06

_

1 −

W

5

W

0

_

= 0.205

2.2 Empty Weight Fraction

To determine the empty weight ratio, we follow the method in Raymer[4],

chapter 3 which gives a relation between W

e

/W

g

and W

g

as follows.

W

e

W

g

= 1.02(2.202W

g

)

−0.06

(16)

where W

g

is in kgf.

23

Hence,

W

g

=

W

pay

1 − W

f

/W

g

− W

e

/W

g

=

17270

1 − 0.205 − 1.202(2.202W

g

)

−0.06

(16A)

We solve this equation by iteration

W

g

(guess) W

e

/W

g

(from eq.(16)) W

g

(from eq.(16A))

60000 0.50274 59090

59090 0.50320 59184

59184 0.50315 59174

59174 0.50316 59175

59175 0.50316 59175

Table 3: Iterative procedure for W

g

Hence, the gross weight W

g

is obtained as

W

g

= 59, 175 kgf

The critical weight ratios are

W

e

W

g

= 0.503

W

f

W

g

= 0.205

W

pay

W

g

= 0.292

24

3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading

The thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) and the wing loading(W/S) are the two

most important parameters aﬀecting aircraft performance. Optimization of

these parameters forms a major part of the design activities conducted after

initial weight estimation. For example, if the wing loading used for the initial

layout is low, then the area would be large and there would be enough space

for the landing gear and fuel tanks. However it results in a heavier wing.

Wing loading and thrust-to-weight ratio are interconnected for a number

of critical performance items, such as take-oﬀ distance, maximum speed etc.

These are often the design drivers. A requirement for short takeoﬀ can be

met by using a large wing (low W/S) with a relatively low T/W. On the

other hand, the same takeoﬀ distance could be met with a high W/S along

with a higher T/W.

In this section, we use diﬀerent criteria and optimize the wing loading

and thrust loading.

Wing loading aﬀects stalling speed, climb rate,takeoﬀ and landing dis-

tances, minimum fuel required and turn performance.

Similarly, a higher thrust loading would result in more cost which is un-

desirable. However it would also lead to enhanced climb performance.

Hence a trade-oﬀ is needed while choosing W/S and T/W. Optimization

of W/S and T/W based on various considerations is carried out in the fol-

lowing subsections.

3.1 Landing Distance Consideration

To decide the wing loading from landing distance consideration we need

to choose the landing ﬁeld length. Based on data collection of similar air-

craft(Table A) the landing ﬁeld length is chosen to be 1425 m.

s

Land

= 1425 m

Next,we choose the C

L

max

of the airplane. The Maximum lift coeﬃcient

depends upon the wing geometry,airfoil shape,ﬂap geometry and span,leading

edge slot or slat geometry,Reynolds number,surface texture and interference

25

from other parts of the aircraft such as the fuselage,nacelles or pylons.

Raymer[4], chapter 5 provides a chart for C

L

max

as a function of Λ

c/4

for

diﬀerent types of high lift devices(ﬁgure 5.3 of Raymer[4]). For our airplane

we decided to use Fowler ﬂap and slat as the high lift devices. This gives us

a C

L

max

of 2.5 for a Λ

c/4

= 25

o

.

C

L

max

= 2.5

To calculate W/S based on landing considerations,we use the formula

W

S

=

1

2

ρV

2

s

C

L

max

(17)

The stalling speed V

s

is estimated in the following way,

s

Land

= 1425 m

The approach speed (V

a

) in knots is related to the landing distance(s

Land

)

in feet as,

V

a

(in knots) =

_

s

Land

0.3

= 128.34 knots = 64.17 ms

−1

From the approach speed, the stalling speed can be calculated,

V

s

=

V

a

0.3

= 49 ms

−1

(18)

Now, using this value for V

s

in eq.(17),

_

W

S

_

Land

= 3743 Nm

−2

Since W

Land

= 0.85W

t.o

the W/S at take-oﬀ is,

_

W

S

_

t.o

=

1

0.85

_

W

S

_

Land

= 4403 Nm

−2

Allowing a 10 % variation in V

s

we get a range of wing loading as

3639 < p < 5328 N/m

2

26

3.2 Maximum Speed(V

max

) Consideration

Generally the M

max

is determined as follows

M

max

= M

cr

+ 0.04

Hence,for our airplane,

M

max

= 0.80 + 0.04 = 0.84

The drag polar is generally expressed as

C

D

= C

D

0

+ KC

2

L

(19)

where,

K =

1

πAe

(20)

C

D

0

for the airplane is given as

C

D

0

= C

f

e

×

S

wet

S

(21)

S

wet

/S = 6.33 from Fig 2.5 of Raymer[4].

3.2.1 Estimation of K

We estimate ‘e’ from Roskam[6], chapter 2

1

e

=

1

e

wing

+

1

e

fuse

+ 0.05 (22)

e

wing

= 0.84 for unswept wing of A = 9.3 and λ = 0.25.

Hence,e

wing

for the swept wing is

e

wing

= 0.84 cos(Λ − 5) = 0.84 cos(25 − 5) = 0.7893 (23)

1

e

fuse

= 0.1

Hence,

1

e

=

1

0.7893

+ 0.1 + 0.05 = 1.417

e = 0.707

27

K =

1

π × 9.3 × 0.707

= 0.0482

To get C

D

0

we note from ﬁgure 3.6 of Raymer[4] that (L/D)

max

=18.This

has already been used in section 2.

(L/D)

max

=

1

2

_

C

D

0

K

(24)

Hence,

C

D

0

=

1

4K(L/D)

2

max

=

1

4 × 0.0482 × 18

2

= 0.0161

Further,

C

D

0

= C

fe

S

wet

S

(25)

gives,

C

fe

=

0.0161

6.33

= 0.00254

Hence, the drag polar is

C

D

0

= 0.0161 + 0.0482C

2

L

To obtain the optimum W/S based on maximum speed,we the follow

method given in Lebedinski[7], chapter IV of writing the drag polar as a

function of p (=W/S)

C

D

= F

1

+ F

2

p + F

3

p

2

(26)

where,

F

1

= C

fe

_

1 +

S

ht

S

+

S

vt

S

__

S

wet

S

_

w

= C

fe

K

t

(27)

F

2

=

(C

Do

− F

1

)

W/S

(28)

F

3

=

K

q

2

(29)

To calculate F

1

, F

2

, F

3

values for our airplane we proceed as follows.

28

From our preliminary estimations ,

S

ht

S

= 0.31

S

vt

S

= 0.21

Hence,

K

t

= 1 +

S

ht

S

+

S

vt

S

= 1.52

_

C

Do

_

W

= C

fe

_

S

wet(exposed)

S

_

W

(30)

To calculate (S

wet(exposed)

/S)

W

we need to obtain dimensions of the ex-

posed wing.We proceed as follows. From preliminary estimate in section 1

• S = 107.02 m

2

• λ = 0.24

• A = 9.3

• c

r

= 5.47 m

• c

t

= 1.31 m

• Λ

c/4

= 25

◦

Hence, for the equivalent trapezoidal wing, the chord distribution is given

by

c(y) = c

r

−

c

r

− c

t

b/2

y

= 5.47 − 0.264y

Taking fuselage diameter of 3.79 m, the chord at y = 1.895 m is

c

r(exposed)

= 4.97 m

b

exposedwing

= 15.78 −

3.79

2

= 13.89 m

29

S

wet

= 2S

exposed

_

1 + 1.2(t/c)

avg

_

(31)

S

exposedwing

=

1

2

(4.97 + 1.31) × 13.89 × 2 = 87.23 m

2

Assuming (t/c)

avg

of 12.5%

S

wet(exposedwing)

= 2

_

1 + 1.2(0.125)

_

87.23 = 200.63 m

2

Hence,

(C

Do

)

W

= 0.0025 ×

200.63

107.02

= 0.004687

F

1

= 1.52 × 0.004687 = 0.007124

We also know that the drag polar is

C

D

= 0.0161 + 0.0482C

2

L

F

2

=

C

Do

− F

1

W/S

= 1.632 × 10

−6

m

2

/N

The above drag polar will not be valid at M greater than the M

cruise

.

Hence we need to estimate the drag polar (values of C

Do

and K) at M

max

.

The drag divergence Mach number(M

DD

) for the aircraft is ﬁxed at M = 0.82

which is 0.02 greater than M

cruise

. This would ensure that there is no wave

drag at M

cruise

of 0.80. To estimate the increase in C

Do

from M = 0.80 to

M = 0.84, we make a reasonable assumption that the slope of the C

Do

Vs

M curve remains constant in the region between M = 0.82 and M = 0.84.

The value of this slope is 0.1 at M = 0.82. Hence, the increase in C

Do

is

estimated as 0.02 × 0.1 = 0.002.

From the data on B 787 available in website[2] we observe that the varia-

tion in K is not signiﬁcant in the range M = 0.82 to M = 0.84. Hence,value

of K is retained as in subcritical ﬂow. However better estimates are used in

performance calculations presented later.

Consequently the drag polar that is valid at M

max

is estimated as

C

D

= 0.0181 + 0.0482C

2

L

(32)

30

The change in the C

Do

is largely due to change in the zero lift drag of the

wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail. This means that the change in C

Do

aﬀects F

1

value alone.

Hence at M

max

F

1

= 0.009124

The value of F

3

depends on the dynamic pressure at V

max

.

V

max

= M

max

×

_

speed of sound at h

cruise

= 0.84 × 295.2 = 248.1m/s

q

max

=

1

2

ρV

2

max

= 0.5 × 0.364 × 248

2

= 11200.95

F

3

=

0.0482

11200.95

2

= 3.84 × 10

−10

m

4

/N

2

To obtain the optimum value of W/S, we minimize the thrust required

for V

max

. The relation between t(ie T/W) and p is

t

V

max

= q

max

_

F

1

p

+ F

2

+ F

3

p

_

(33)

On minimizing t

V

max

, we get

p

optimum

=

_

F

1

F

3

p

optimum

=

_

0.009124

3.84 × 10

−10

= 4873.31N/m

2

The t

V

max

value at p

opt

is found from eq.(33) as

t

V

max

= 0.06022

Allowing a 5 % extra thrust and using the new t

V

max

in eq. (33) gives two

values of p viz.

p

1

= 3344 Nm

−2

p

2

= 7101 Nm

−2

Thus, any p between p

1

and p

2

would be acceptable from V

max

consider-

ations with a maximum of 5% deviation from optimum.

3344 < p < 7101 N/m

2

31

3.3 (R/C)

max

consideration

The value for (R/C)

max

at sea level was chosen as 700 m/min (11.67 m/s)

which is typical for passenger airplanes.The thrust required for climb at cho-

sen ﬂight speed(V ) is related to (R/C) in the following way(section 4.2.4 of

text).

t

R/c

=

R/C

V

+

q

p

C

D

(34)

But, C

D

is

C

D

= F

1

+ F

2

p + F

3

p

2

(35)

q =

1

2

ρ

0

σV

2

(36)

∴ t

R/C

=

R/C

V

+

1

2

ρ

0

σ

V

2

p

(F

1

+ F

2

p + F

3

p

2

) (37)

The ﬂight speed for optimum climb performance is not high and values

of F

1

and F

2

correspond to their values for M < M

cruise

. F

3

is a function of

the dynamic pressure.

Our motive is to ﬁnd the minimum sea level static thrust (t

s

R/c

) for various

values of V and then choose the minimum amongst the minima. For a given

V ,

p

opt

=

_

F

1

F

3

Therefore, a table is prepared for diﬀerent values of velocity(Table 4)

and the corresponding t

R/C

is obtained using eq.(37) and the corresponding

value of F

3

. This t

R/C

is converted to t

s

R/C

by using the plots provided in

Reference 1.13, chapter 9. These plots provide the climb thrust variation for

engine with bypass ratio 6.5 as a function of velocity and altitude. Using

these plots,the t

R/C

is converted to t

s

R/C

.

32

V (m/s) p

opt

t

R/C

t

s

R/C

80 1507 0.1893 0.2868

100 2355 0.1637 0.2641

120 3391 0.1487 0.2507

140 4615 0.14 0.2469

150 5298 0.1373 0.2483

160 6028 0.1356 0.2510

170 6805 0.1346 0.2554

180 7629 0.1343 0.2617

190 8500 0.1345 0.2691

200 9419 0.1354 0.2780

Table 4: Variation of t

R/C

with p for (R/C)

max

We observe that the value of t

s

R/C

remains low and almost constant for

a range of V values from 120 to 170 m/s. This provides a range of values of

p as given below

p

1

= 3391 N/m

2

p

2

= 6793 N/m

2

Therefore, for

3391 < p < 6805 N/m

2

the climb performance is near the optimum.

3.4 Based on Minimum Fuel for Range (W

f

min

)

In cruise ﬂight, the weight of the fuel used (W

f

) is related to the range(R)

and wing loading(p) as follows(section 4.2.5 of [5])

W

f

=

R

3.6

_

ρ

0

2

TSFC

√

σq

_

F

1

p

+ F

2

+ F

3

p

_

(38)

The values of F

1

, F

2

, F

3

corresponding to cruise conditions are as follows

F

1

= 0.007124

F

2

= 1.632 × 10

−6

33

V

cruise

= M

cruise

× 295.2 = 0.8 × 295.2 = 236.3 m/s

q

cruise

= 0.5 × ρ × V

2

= 0.5 × 0.364 × 236.3

2

= 10159.59 N/m

2

F

3

=

0.0482

10159.59

= 4.67 × 10

−10

m

4

/N

2

Using eq.(38) we minimize W

f

and obtain p

optimum

as

p

optimum

=

_

F

1

F

3

(39)

p

optimum

=

_

0.007124

4.67 × 10

−10

= 3905.84 N/m

2

Using this value of p in eq.(38) along with R = 4000 km and TSFC =

0.6hr

−1

, we get W

fmin

as

W

fmin

= 0.1514

Allowing an excess fuel of 5 % i.e. W

f

min

= 0.1590 and using eq.(38) we

get two values p

1

and p

2

as

p

1

= 2676 N/m

2

p

2

= 5700 N/m

2

Thus, any p within p

1

and p

2

would be acceptable from the point of view

of minimizing W

f

.

2676 < p < 5700N/m

2

3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling

At absolute ceiling, the ﬂight is possible at only one speed. Observing the

trend of H

max

as h

cruise

+ 0.6 km we choose the absolute ceiling to be H

max

= 11.6 km. To ﬁnd the t

H

max

, we solve the following two equations(section

4.2.3 of [5]).

34

t

h

=

_

4K(F

1

+ F

2

p) (40)

t

h

= 2q

hmax

_

F

1

p

+ F

2

_

(41)

The F

1

and F

2

values corresponding to this case are

F

1

= 0.007124

F

2

= 1.632 × 10

−6

In the absence of a prescribed velocity at H

max

, the velocity corresponding

to ﬂight at (L/D)

max

is taken to calculate q

max

. C

L

value corresponding to

ﬂight at (L/D)

max

is given by

C

L

=

_

C

Do

K

=

_

0.016

0.048

= 0.577 (42)

q

h

max

=

(W/S)

C

L

=

5500

0.577

= 9532.06

The solution for p

opt

is obtained by solving eqs.(40) and (41).

p

opt

= 5500 Nm

−2

as it should be.

t

h

max

corresponding to p

optimum

is

t

h

max

= 0.05581

Allowing a 5 % variation in Thrust, we get

t

hmax1

= 0.05302

t

hmax2

= 0.05860

The solutions to eq.(40) with the new t

h

max

values are

p

1

= 4567 Nm

−2

p

2

= 6547 Nm

−2

Similarly, using in eq.(41), we get

35

p

1

= 4942 Nm

−2

p

2

= 6201 Nm

−2

From the above four values, the ﬁnal lower and upper bounds from the

ceiling considerations are

p

1

= 4942 Nm

−2

p

2

= 6201 Nm

−2

4942 < p < 6201 N/m

2

3.6 Summary of Constraints

We now tabulate the various constraints on the choice of W/S

Performance Criteria Allowable range of W/S in (Nm

−2

)

s

Land

3639 - 5328

V

max

3344 - 7101

(R/C)

max

3391 - 6805

W

f

2676 - 5700

h

max

4942 - 6201

Table 5: Choice of (W/S)

From the table, we see that the allowable range of W/S values is

4942 < p < 5328 N/m

2

3.7 Consideration of Wing Weight (W

w

)

The weight of the wing depends on its area. According to Raymer[4], chapter

15, for passenger airplanes, the weight of the wing is proportional to S

0.649

.

Thus a wing with lower area will be lighter and for lower wing area, the W/S

must be higher. Hence we examine the advantage of choosing a higher wing

loading than that indicated by minimum fuel requirement. It may be pointed

out that the weight of wing structure is about 12% of W

g

.

36

The optimum W/S from range consideration is 3906 N/m

2

whereas with

a 5% increase in W

f

, the wing loading could go up to 5700 N/m

2

. If the

wing loading of 5700 N/m

2

is chosen, instead of 3906 N/m

2

, the weight of

the wing would decrease by a factor of

_

3906

5700

_

0.649

= 0.782

Taking weight of the wing as 12% of W

g

, the saving in the wing weight

will be 2.6%. However this higher wing loading will result in an increase in

the fuel by 5% of W

g

. In the present case, W

f

would be around 20% and

hence 5% of W

f

means an increase in the weight by 0.05 × 0.2 = 1%.

Thus by increasing W/S from 3906 to 5700 N/m

2

, the saving in the W

g

would be around 2.6 - 1 = 1.6%. Thus it is advantageous to have higher

W/S.

3.8 Choosing a W/S

We see from the Table 5 that a wide range of p is permissible which will still

satisfy various requirement with permissible deviations from the optimum.

To arrive at the ﬁnal choice we consider the take-oﬀ requirement and choose

highest wing loading which would permit take-oﬀ within permissible distance

without excessive (T/W) requirement. From data collection, the take-oﬀ

distance, balanced ﬁeld length, is assumed to be 2150 m. From ﬁgure 5.4

of Raymer(Reference 1.11) the take-oﬀ parameter {(W/S)/σC

L

t.o

(T/W)} for

this ﬁeld length is 180. With (W/S) in lb/ft

2

. We take σ = 1 (take-oﬀ at sea

level),C

L

t.o

= 0.8 × C

L

max

= 0.8 × 2.5 = 2. Generally these types of aircraft

have (T/W) of 0.3.Substituting these values we get,

p

final

= 108.2 lb/ft

2

= 5195 Nm

−2

It is reassuring that this value of p lies within the permissible values

summarized in Table 5.

3.9 Thrust Requirements

After selecting the W/S for the aircraft, the thrust needed for various design

requirements is obtained. These requirements decide the choice of engine.

37

3.9.1 Requirement for V

max

We use the chosen value of p in the following equation

t

V

max

= q

max

(

F

1

p

+ F

2

+ F

3

p) (43)

and get the thrust required for V

max

at cruise altitude as

_

T

W

_

M

max

= 0.0602 (44)

Referring to engine charts in Jenkinson[8], chapter 9, for a turbo fan

engine with bypass ratio of 6.5, the sea level static thrust is

T

W

=

0.0602

0.18

= 0.334 (45)

In our case, this would mean a Thrust requirement of

T

req

= 193.9 kN

3.10 Requirements for (R/C)

max

As in the case for V

max

, we use our ﬁnal design choice for (W/S) in the

following equation,

t

R/c

=

R/C

V

+

1

2

ρ

0

σ

V

2

p

(F

1

+ F

2

p + F

3

p

2

) (46)

Substituting appropriate values, we get

_

T

W

_

R/C

= 0.252 (47)

In our case, this would mean a thrust requirement of

T

req

= 146.3kN

3.11 Take-Oﬀ Thrust Requirements

The take of (T/W) is taken to be 0.3(choice is motivated by similar aircraft).

This implies a thrust requirement of

T

to

= 0.3 ∗ W

g

= 174.2 kN

38

3.12 Engine Choice

From the previous section, we see that the max. Thrust requirements occurs

from Take oﬀ considerations.

T

max

= 193.9 kN

As we have adopted a twin engine design, this means a per engine thrust

of

T

max

= 96.95 kN/engine

We look for an engine which supplies this thrust and has a TSFC of

0.6hr

−1

and bypass ratio of around 6.5. Some of the engines with perfor-

mance close to these numbers are taken from Jenkinson[8], chapter 9 and

website[1].

Finally, we chose CFM56-2B model of turbofan with a sea level static

thrust of 97.9 kN as this engine satisﬁes nearly all our requirements.

3.13 Engine Characteristics

For performance analysis, the variation of thrust and TSFC with speed and

altitude are required. Jenkinson[8], chapter 9 has given non dimensional

charts for turbo fan engines with diﬀerent bypass ratios. Choosing the charts

for bypass ratio = 6.5 and sea level static thrust of 97.9kN, the engine curves

are presented below.

39

F

i

g

u

r

e

5

:

C

r

u

i

s

e

T

h

r

u

s

t

p

e

r

e

n

g

i

n

e

f

o

r

v

a

r

i

o

u

s

a

l

t

i

t

u

d

e

s

40

F

i

g

u

r

e

6

:

V

a

r

i

a

t

i

o

n

o

f

C

l

i

m

b

T

h

r

u

s

t

w

i

t

h

A

l

t

i

t

u

d

e

a

n

d

M

a

c

h

N

o

.

(

B

y

p

a

s

s

r

a

t

i

o

=

6

.

5

)

41

4 Wing Design

4.1 Introduction

The weight and the wing loading of the airplane have been obtained in sec-

tions 2 and 3 as 59175 kgf(579915 N) and 5195 N/m

2

. These give wing area

as 111.63 m

2

. The wing design involves choosing the following parameters.

1. Airfoil selection

2. Aspect ratio

3. Sweep

4. Taper ratio

5. Twist

6. Incidence

7. Dihedral

8. Vertical location

In the following subsections, the factors aﬀecting the choice of parameters

are mentioned and then the choices are eﬀected.

4.2 Airfoil Selection

The airfoil shape inﬂuences C

L

max

, C

D

min

, C

L

opt

, C

mac

and stall pattern.

These in turn inﬂuence stalling speed, fuel consumption during cruise, turn-

ing performance and weight of the airplane.

For high subsonic airplanes, the drag divergence Mach number(M

DD

) is

an important consideration. It may be recalled that (M

DD

) is the Mach

number at which the increase in the drag coeﬃcient is 0.002 above the value

at low subsonic Mach numbers. A supercritical airfoil is designed to increase

M

DD

. NASA has carried out tests on several supercritical airfoils and recom-

mends the use of NASA-SC(2) series airfoil with appropriate thickness ratio

and camber.

42

4.2.1 Design Lift Coeﬃcient

The airfoil will have a C

l

opt

at which it’s drag coeﬃcient is minimum. For

general design the airfoil is chosen in such a way that the C

L

cruise

of the

airplane is equal to the C

l

opt

of the airfoil.

C

L

cruise

=

(W/S)

q

cruise

(48)

Using the value of (W/S) = 5195 Nm

−2

and the q corresponding to

M = 0.8 at 11 km altitude, we get

C

l

cruise

= 0.512 (49)

For choice of thickness ratio and wing sweep, we take C

l

opt

= 0.5.

4.2.2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio and Wing Sweep

Airfoil thickness ratio(t/c) has a direct inﬂuence on drag, maximum lift, stall

characteristics, structural weight and critical Mach number. A higher t/c im-

plies a lower critical Mach number but also a lower wing weight.Thus we need

to choose an optimum t/c for the airfoil.

C

l

opt

= 0.5 has been chosen and the cruise Mach number is 0.8. In order

to ensure that the drag divergence Mach number is greater than M

cruise

, we

choose M

DD

as 0.82. This is based on the consideration that there should

be no increase in drag at M

cruise

, ∆C

D

wave

is 0.002 at M

DD

and the slope of

the C

D

Vs M curve around M

DD

is 0.1 . NASA[3] gives experimental results

for several super-critical airfoils with diﬀerent (t/c) and C

l

opt

. Curves for

C

l

opt

= 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 are available in the aforesaid report. We interpolate and

obtain the curve for C

l

opt

= 0.5.

The M

DD

for the wing can be estimated in the following manner.

M

DD

= (M

DD

)

a/f

+ ∆M

A

+ ∆M

Λ

(50)

where ∆M

A

and ∆M

Λ

are corrections for inﬂuences of the aspect ratio

and the sweep.

The change in M

DD

with A is almost zero for A > 8. Since we have

chosen A = 9.3, the second term in the above equation will not contribute to

M

DD

. Further from Hoerner[9], chapter 15, the change in M

DD

due to sweep

is given as

1 −

Λ

90

=

1 − M

DDΛ

1 − M

Λ=0

(51)

43

The supercritical airfoil with (t/c) = 14% has M

DD

= 0.74 at C

L

opt

of

0.5. Using this in eq.(51) we obtain Λ which would give M

DDΛ

of 0.82,

1 −

Λ

90

=

1 − 0.82

1 − 0.74

∴ Λ = 27.7

◦

The average thickness has been arrived at as 14 %. However, to reduce

structural weight, the (t/c)

root

is increased and the (t/c)

tip

is decreased, Con-

sidering the features for Airbus A310 and Boeing B 767 which have

M

cr

= 0.8 and similar values of Λ

c/4

, it is decided that the variation of (t/c)

along span be such that (t/c) of 15.2% at root, (t/c) of 11.8% at spanwise

location of the thickness break and (t/c) of 10.3% at the tip.

Thickness break location is the spanwise location upto which the trailing

edge is straight. From the data collection this location is at 34% of semispan.

4.3 Other Parameters

4.3.1 Aspect Ratio

The aspect ratio aﬀects C

L

α

, C

D

i

and wing weight. The value of C

L

α

de-

creases as A decreases. For example, in the case of an elliptic wing,

C

L

α

=

A

A + 2

(C

l

α

)

a/f

(52)

The induced drag coeﬃcient can be expressed as

C

D

i

=

C

2

L

πA

(1 + δ) (53)

where δ depends on A, λ and Λ. A high A increases the span of the wing

which in turn requires more space in the hangar. A higher Aspect ratio would

also result in poor riding quality in turbulent weather. All these factors need

careful optimization. However at the present stage of design we choose

A = 9.3 based on trends indicated by data collection.

Correspondingly, the wing span would be

b =

√

AS = 32.22m

44

4.3.2 Taper Ratio

Wing taper ratio is deﬁned as the ratio between the tip chord and the cen-

terline root chord. Taper ratio aﬀects the

• Induced drag

• Weight

• Tip stalling

Induced drag is low for taper ratios between 0.3-0.5. Lower the taper ratio,

lower is the weight. A swept wing also has higher structural weight than

unswept wing. Since the present airplane has a swept wing, a taper ratio of

0.24 has been chosen based on the trends of current swept wing airplanes.

4.3.3 Root and Tip Chords

Root chord and tip chord of the equivalent trapezoidal wing can now be

evaluated.

c

r

=

2S

b(1 +λ)

= 5.59 m

c

t

= c

r

λ = 1.34 m

c =

2

3

(1 +λ + λ

2

)

(1 + λ)

c

r

= 3.9 m

Location of the quarter chord of the mac from wing leading edge at the

root is 4.76 m

4.3.4 Dihedral

The Dihedral is the angle of the wing with respect to the horizontal when

seen in the front view .Dihedral of the wing aﬀects the lateral stability of the

airplane.Since there is no simple technique for arriving at the dihedral angle

that takes all the considerations into eﬀect we need to initially choose a di-

hedral angle based on data collected(Table A). Hence we choose a reasonable

value for the dihedral as

Γ = 5

o

4.3.5 Wing Twist

We have assumed a linear twist of 3

o

.

45

4.4 Cranked Wing Design

If we observe the design of current high subsonic airplanes, we see that the

trailing edge is ’straight’ for a part of the span, in the inboard region. A

larger chord in the inboard region has the following advantages

1. more space for fuel and landing gear

2. the lift distribution is changed such that more lift is produced in the

inboard section which reduce the bending moment in the root.

This type of design is called a wing with cranked trailing edge. The value

of the span upto which the trailing edge is straight has to be obtained by

optimization. However at the present stage of design, based on the current

trends, the trailing edge is made unswept till 35% of semi span. Root chord

of the cranked wing is

c

rcranked

= 7.44 m

Span of wing portion with unswept trailing edge = 0.35 × 32.22 = 11.28 m

Figure 7: Plan View of Cranked Wing

46

4.5 Wing Incidence(i

w

)

The wing incidence angle is the angle between wing reference chord and

fuselage reference line. Wing incidence angle is chosen to minimize drag at

some operating conditions,usually cruise.The incidence angle is chosen such

that when the wing is at the correct angle of attack for the selected design

condition,the fuselage is at the angle of attack for minimum drag(usually at

zero angle of attack). Usually wing incidence is ultimately set using wind

tunnel data.However, for an initial estimate for our preliminary design we

proceed as follows

C

L

cruise

= C

L

α

(i

w

− α

0L

) (54)

In the present case,

C

L

cruise

= 0.512

C

L

α

is computed using the following formula in Raymer[4], chapter 12,

C

L

α

=

2πA

2 +

_

4 +

A

2

β

2

η

2

(1 +

tan

2

Λ

max

β

2

)

(

S

exp

S

ref

)(F) (55)

where,

β

2

= 1 − M

2

η = 1

F = 1.07

_

1 +

d

b

_

2

S

exp

= area of exposed wing

Substituting various values, we get

C

L

α

= 6.276 rad

−1

α

L=0

for the airfoil was calculated using camber line of the supercritical

airfoil with 14% thickness ratio. The value is −5.8

◦

. Substituting the values

yields a value of i

w

which is negative. This can be attributed to the fact that

the airplane is ﬂexible. Hence the value of i

w

is chosen from similar airplanes.

i

w

= 1

◦

which is the value recommended in Raymer[4], chapter 4.

4.6 Vertical Location of Wing

The wing vertical location for the designed airplane has been chosen to be a

low wing conﬁguration which is typical of similar airplanes.

47

4.7 Areas of Flaps and Ailerons

These areas are chosen based on the initial data collection of similar aircraft.

1. Trailing edge : Fowler ﬂaps.

2. Leading edge : full span slats.

We choose

S

flap

S

= 0.17

S

slat

S

= 0.1

S

ail

S

= 0.03

5 Fuselage and Tail Layout

5.1 Introduction

The fuselage layout is important in the design process as the length of the

airplane depends on this.The length and diameter of the fuselage are related

to the seating arrangement.

The Fuselage of a passenger airplane can be divided into four basic sec-

tions viz. nose, cockpit, payload compartment and tail fuselage. In this

section, the fuselage design is carried out by choosing the various parame-

ters.

5.2 Initial Estimate of Fuselage Length

By observing the l

f

/b of similar airplanes, we get the ﬁrst estimate of l

f

for the present case. The l

f

/b value chosen is 1.05. Using b = 32.22m as

obtained from wing design, the Fuselage length is 33.83 m.

Raymer[4], chapter 6 provides a relation between gross weight and length of

fuselage as follows.

l

f

= aW

c

o

(56)

48

where W

o

is in lbs and l

f

in ft. For a jet transport airplane, a = 0.67

and c = 0.43. Using W

o

= 59175 × 2.205 lbf, an l

f

of 31.83 m is obtained.

This is in good agreement of the value obtained based on data collection.

5.3 Nose and Cockpit - Front Fuselage

The front fuselage accommodates the forward looking radar in the nose sec-

tion, the ﬂight deck with associated windscreen, and the nose undercarriage.

Anthropometric data for ﬂight crews has provided the basis for the arrange-

ment of pilot’s seats, instruments and controls. Development of electronic

displays has transformed the traditional layout of the ﬂight deck. The air-

craft must be capable of being ﬂown from either pilot seat position; therefore

the wind screen and front geometry will be symmetrical about the aircraft

longitudinal center line. Modern ’glass’ cockpit displays and side stick con-

trollers have transformed the layout of the ﬂight deck from the traditional

aircraft conﬁguration. The front fuselage proﬁle presents a classical design

compromise between a smooth shape for low drag and the need to have ﬂat

sloping windows to give good visibility. The layout of the ﬂight deck and

the speciﬁed pilot window geometry is often the starting point of the overall

fuselage layout.

For the current design, the ﬂight deck of various similar airplanes are

considered and the following value of l

nose

/l

f

and is chosen.

l

nose

l

f

= 0.03

For the cockpit length (l

cockpit

), standards have been prescribed by Raymer

(Reference 1.11,chapter 9). l

cockpit

for the two member crew is chosen as 100

inches (2.5 m).

l

cockpit

= 2.5 m

5.4 Passenger Cabin Layout

Two major geometrical parameters that specify the passenger cabin are

Cabin Diameter and Cabin Length. These are in turn decided by more

speciﬁc details like number of seats, seat width, seating arrangement (num-

ber abreast), seat pitch, aisle width and number of aisles.

49

5.4.1 Cabin Cross Section

The shape of the fuselage cross section is dictated by the structural require-

ments for pressurization. A circular shell reacts the internal pressure loads

by hoop tension. This makes the circular section eﬃcient and therefore low-

est in structural weight. However a fully circular section may result in too

much unusable volume above or below the cabin space. This problem is

overcome by the use of several interconnecting circular sections to form the

cross-sectional layout. The parameters for the currently designed airplane

are arrived at by considering similar airplanes(Table A).

We choose a circular cross section for the fuselage.

The overall size must be kept small to reduce aircraft weight and drag,yet

the resulting shape must provide a comfortable and ﬂexible cabin interior

which will appeal to the customer airlines. The main decision to be taken is

the number of seats abreast and the aisle arrangement.The number of seats

across will ﬁx the number of rows in the cabin and thereby the fuselage

length.Design of the cabin cross section is further complicated by the need to

provide diﬀerent classes like ﬁrst class, business class, economy class etc.

5.4.2 Cabin length

Following the trend displayed by current aircraft, we choose to have two

classes viz Economy class and Business class.The total number of seats(150)

is distributed as 138 seats in the economy class and 12 seats in the business

class.

Cabin parameters are chosen based on standards for similar airplanes. The

various parameters chosen are as follows

Parameter Economy Class Business class

Seat Pitch (in inches) 32 38

Seat width (in inches) 20 22

Aisle width (in inches) 22 24

Seats abreast 6 4

Number of Aisles 1 1

Max. Height (in m) 2.2 2.2

Since the business class has a 4 abreast seating arrangement,the number

of rows required will be 3 and the economy class will have 23 rows.The cabin

length is found out by using the seat pitch for each of the classes.

50

Class No.of seats No.of rows Seat Pitch (in) Cabin length(m)

Economy 138 23 32 18.4

Business 12 3 38 2.85

Hence,the total cabin length will be 18.4 + 2.85 = 21.25 m.

5.4.3 Cabin Diameter

Using the number of seats abreast,seat width,aisle width we calculate the

internal diameter of the cabin.

d

f(internal)

= 22 × 1 + 19 × 6 = 136 in = 3.4 m

According to the standards prescribed by Raymer[4], chapter 9, the struc-

tural thickness is given by

t = 0.02d

f

+ 1

= 0.02 × 136 + 1 = 3.72 in = 0.093 m

Therefore the external diameter of the fuselage is obtained as 3.4+0.093×

2 = 3.59 m.

5.5 Rear Fuselage

The rear fuselage proﬁle is chosen to provide a smooth, low drag shape which

supports the tail surfaces. The lower side of the proﬁle must provide ade-

quate clearance for aircraft when rotation during take oﬀ. The rear fuselage

should also house the auxillary power unit(APU).

Based on data collected for similar aircraft we choose the ratio l

tail

/l

f

as

0.25.

5.6 Total Fuselage Length

The cabin length and cockpit length have been decided to be 32.08 m and

3.3 m respectively.We have also chosen the ratios of nose and tail length with

respect to l

f

as 3% and 25%. Thus cabin and cockpit length form 72% of l

f

.

Hence the fuselage length is calculated as 23.75/0.72 = 33 m.The lengths of

51

various parts of the fuselage are indicated below

Nose length = 1 m

Cockpit length = 2.5 m

Cabin length = 21.25 m

Rear length = 8.25 m

Total = 33 m

5.7 Tail surfaces

The type and area of the tail surfaces are important in determining the sta-

bility of the airplane. A conventional tail arrangement is chosen. Some of

the important parameters that decide the aerodynamic characteristics of the

tail are area ratio (S

t

/S), tail volume ratio(V

H

and V

V

), tail arm, tail span

etc. All these parameters have to be decided for both the horizontal and

vertical tail.

From data collected on similar airplanes, we choose the following values

for the tail parameters.

Parameter Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail

Area ratio (S

t

/S) 0.31 0.21

Aspect ratio 5 1.7

Taper ratio 0.26 0.31

• Area

The Areas of the horizontal and vertical tail(S

h

and S

v

) are calculated

as

S

h

= 0.31 × 111.63 = 34.61 m

2

S

v

= 0.21 × 111.63 = 23.44 m

2

• Span

The span of the horizontal and vertical tail (b

h

and b

v

) are given as

b

h

=

_

A

h

S

h

(57)

b

v

=

_

A

v

S

v

(58)

52

Taking AR

H

= 5 and AR

V

= 1.7, we get

b

H

= 13.15 m

b

V

= 6.31 m

• Root and tip chords

The chord lengths of the horizontal and vertical tail are obtained as

c

rh

=

2S

h

b

h

(1 + λ

h

)

= 4.18 m

c

rv

=

2S

v

b

v

(1 +λ

v

)

= 5.67 m

c

th

= λc

rh

= 1.09 m

c

tv

= λc

rv

= 1.76 m

• Tail arm

Tail arm is the distance between the wing aerodynamics center and

the tail(horizontal or vertical) aerodynamic center.The value of the tail

arm is chosen based on data collection. ratio.

Choosing l

h

as 45% of l

f

and l

v

as 42% of l

f

yield,

l

h

= 14.85 m

l

v

= 13.86 m

V

H

=

S

h

l

h

Sc

(59)

V

V

=

S

v

l

v

Sb

(60)

Hence,

V

H

= 1.18

V

V

= 0.09

53

5.8 Engine Location

The type of Engine mounting and it’s location play a major role in deciding

the overall drag coeﬃcient of the airplane. A conventional wing mounted en-

gine is chosen as it facilitates periodic maintenance in an industry where an

unscheduled downtime could mean huge losses to the airliners. The engines

are attached to the lower side of the wing using pylons to reduce drag. The

other reason for choosing a wing mounted engine is the fuel is stored in the

wings itself, thereby reducing the length of the fuel line.

From the data collection of similar airplanes, the engine location is ﬁxed

at 34% of the semi span.

5.9 Landing Gear Arrangement

One of the principal moving parts on the aircraft is the landing gear. This

must be light, small, provide good ride dynamics during taxiing and safe en-

ergy absorption at touch down. It must be retractable to reduce drag during

ﬂight. So housing of the landing gear is a space constraint.A conventional tri-

cycle landing gear is chosen based on trend followed by similar aircraft. The

important parameters of this type of landing gear are wheel track, wheel base

and turning radius. The values of the parameters(shown below)were based

on data collected from similar aircraft.

Parameter Value

Wheel base (in m) 13.2

Track length (in m) 5.8

Turning radius (in m) 19.3

54

6 Estimation of Component Weights and C.G

Location

Aircraft weight is a common factor which links diﬀerent design activities

(aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, layout, airworthiness, environmental,

economic and operational aspects).To this end, at each stage of the design,a

check is made on the expected total mass of the completed aircraft. A sepa-

rate design organization(weights department)is employed to assess and con-

trol weight.In the preliminary design stage,estimates have to made from his-

torical statistical data of all the component parts of the aircraft from similar

airplanes. As parts are manufactured and the aircraft prototype reaches com-

pletion it is possible to check the accuracy of the estimates by weighing each

component and where necessary instigate weight reduction programmes.

6.1 Aircraft mass statement

The weight of the entire airplane can be sub-divided into empty weight and

useful load. The empty weight can be further subdivided into

• Structures group

• Propulsion group

• Equipment group

DCPR(Defense Contractor Planning Report) weight is taken as the weight

obtained after deducting weights of wheels, brakes, tires, engines, starters,

batteries, equipments, avionics etc from the empty weight.DCPR weight is

important for cost estimation, and can be viewed as the weight of the parts of

the airplane that the manufacturer makes as opposed those of items bought

and installed.

It has become normal practice in aircraft design to list the various com-

ponents of aircraft mass in a standard format.The components are grouped

in convenient subsections as shown below.

6.1.1 Structures Group

1. Wing(including control surfaces)

2. Tail(horizontal and vertical including controls)

3. Body(or fuselage)

55

4. Nacelles

5. Landing gear (main and nose units)

6. Surface controls

6.1.2 Propulsion Group

1. Engine(s)(dry weight)

2. Accessory gearbox and drives

3. Induction system

4. Exhaust system

5. Oil system and cooler

6. Fuel system

7. Engine controls

8. Starting system

9. Thrust reversers

6.1.3 Fixed equipment group

1. Auxiliary power unit

2. Flight control systems(sometimes included in structural group)

3. Instruments and navigation equipment

4. Hydraulic systems

5. Electrical systems

6. Avionics systems

7. Furnishing

8. Air conditioning and anti-icing

9. Oxygen system

10. Miscellaneous(e.g.ﬁre protection and safety systems)

56

6.2 Weights of Various Components

After making the classiﬁcation between various groups and listing the com-

ponents in each group,we next proceed to determine the weights of these

components.

In the preliminary design stages it is not possible to know the size of indi-

vidual aircraft components in great detail but it is possible to use prediction

methods that progressively become more accurate as the aircraft geometry

is developed.Most aircraft design textbooks contain a set of equations empir-

ically derived based on existing aircraft. For the present design, we choose

to follow equations prescribed in Appendix 8.1 of [5]. Using these equations,

the weights of various individual components are calculated.

6.3 C.G Location and C.G Travel

6.3.1 Wing Location on Fuselage

The wing longitudinal location is decided based on the consideration the C.G

of the entire airplane with full payload and fuel is around the quarter chord

of the m.a.c.We tabulate the weights and the corresponding C.G locations

of various components and then apply moment equilibrium about the nose

of the airplane in order to solve for X

l.e

(the distance of leading edge of root

chord of the wing from the nose).In tabulating the results,we assume that

the C.G locations of wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail are at 40% of the

respective m.a.c.The fuselage C.G is taken to be at 42% of it’s length.The

engine C.G location was taken to be at 40% of it’s length.The distance of

the engine C.G from the root chord was measured for various airplanes and

we chose a distance of 2 m.All other components were taken to have a net

C.G location at 42% of the fuselage length.The tabulated values are given

below.The nose wheel was placed at 14% of the fuselage length and the main

landing gear position was determined by using the wheelbase from section 5.

Remark

• Using data for equivalent trapezoidal wing in section 4, the location

of wing c.g. is at 5.34 m behind the leading edge of the root chord.

The quarter chord of m.a.c is at 4.76 m behind the leading edge of root

chord.

• Noting that the tail arm is 14.85 m and that the c.g of tail is 15 %

behind the a.c., the distance of horizontal tail c.g. from leading edge

57

of root chord of wing is 20.05 m. In a similar way, c.g. of vertical tail

is at 19.56 m behind leading edge of the root chord of wing.

Component Weight(kg) C.G Location from Nose(m)

Wing 5855.41 X

le

+5.34

Fuselage 6606.60 13.86

Horizontal tail 1160.94 X

le

+20.05

Vertical tail 746.22 X

le

+19.56

Engine group 5659.19 X

le

+2

Nose Wheel 363.18 4.62

Main landing gear 1961.25 17.82

Fixed equipment total 7421.09 13.86

Fuel 12130.88 X

le

+4.76

Payload 17270 14.13

Gross Weight 59175 X

le

+4.76

By applying moment equilibrium about the nose of the airplane,we obtain

location of wing leading edge at the root to be 9.85 m from the nose of the

airplane.

The C.G of the airplane lies at 14.61 m from the nose.

6.4 C.G Travel for Critical Cases

6.4.1 Full Payload and No Fuel

For the case of full payload and no fuel,the fuel contribution to the weight

is not present.However, since we have assumed that the c.g of the fuel to

be at the quarter chord of the m.a.c of the wing(where the c.g of the entire

airplane has been positioned)there will be no c.g shift in this case.

Hence,the C.G shift is 0%.

6.4.2 No Payload and No Fuel

For this case,the fuel as well as the payload contribution are not present.Since

the c.g of payload is not at the c.g of the entire airplane,the c.g is bound to

shift by a certain amount in this case.The moment calculations were per-

formed and the new c.g location was obtained as 14.93 m.Therefore the c.g

shift is 14.93 - 14.63 = 0.3 m.

Hence the c.g shift is +7.28% of m.a.c.

58

6.4.3 No Payload and Full fuel

For this case,since there is no payload, the c.g is bound to shift.On perform-

ing calculations,we obtain the new c.g location to be 14.84 m.Therefore the

c.g shift is 14.84 - 14.63 = 0.21 m.

Hence the c.g shift is +5.17% of the m.a.c.

6.4.4 Payload distribution for 15% c.g travel

According to Lebedenski[7], a total c.g shift of 15% is acceptable in general

for commercial airplanes.Hence,we go on to obtain the maximum payload

that can be concentrated in the front portion of the passenger cabin such

that a c.g shift of 7.5% is produced.

We assume the percentage of payload to be x and also assume the pay-

load c.g to be at x% of the passenger cabin length.Performing the calculations

yields the value of x to be 90%.

Similarly,we also obtain the maximum payload that can be concentrated

at the rear half of the passenger cabin resulting in a c.g shift of 15%.

On performing calculations we obtain the value of x as 70%.

Hence,the c.g locations for various critical cases and payload distribution

for c.g shift of 15% have been calculated.

6.5 Summary

• Wing location(leading edge of root of trapezoidal wing) - 9.85 m

• c.g location with Full payload and full fuel - 14.61 m

• c.g travel for No Payload and No Fuel - 7.28%

• c.g travel for No Payload and full Fuel - 5.17%

• For a c.g travel of 7.5% on either side of original c.g location,90% of

passengers can be concentrated in the front and 70% in the rear.

59

7 Control Surfaces

7.1 Stability and Controllability

The ability of a vehicle to maintain its equilibrium is termed stability and

the inﬂuence which the pilot or control system can exert on the equilibrium

is termed its controllability.The basic requirement for static longitudinal sta-

bility of any airplane is a negative slope of the curve of the pitching moment

coeﬃcient, C

mcg

, versus lift coeﬃcient,C

L

. Dynamic stability requires that

the vehicle be not only statically stable,but also that the motions following

a disturbance from equilibrium be such as to restore the equilibrium.

Even though the vehicle might be statically stable, it is possible that the

oscillations following a disturbance might increase in magnitude with each

oscillation,thereby making it impossible to restore the equilibrium.

7.2 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control

7.2.1 Speciﬁcations

• The horizontal tail must be large enough to insure that the static longi-

tudinal stability criterion,dC

mcg

/dC

L

will be negative for all anticipated

center of gravity positions.

• An elevator should be provided so that the pilot will be able to trim

the airplane(maintain C

m

= 0) at all anticipated values of C

L

.

• The tail should be large enough and and its elevator powerful enough

to enable the pilot rotate the airplane during the take-oﬀ run to the

required angle of attack.This condition is termed as the Nose wheel

Lift-oﬀ condition.

7.2.2 Aft Center of gravity limit

For the “stick free” case and for small angles of attack,the following expres-

sion for the aft center of gravity limit in terms of the tail-size parameter,V

we have the following equation. (Section 9.2 of [5])

(x

c.g

)

aft

= x

a.c

−

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

Fus,Nac

+

a

t

a

w

V η

t

_

1−

d

dα

__

1−

C

hατ

C

hδ

_

+

_

dC

m

dC

l

_

power

(61)

The value of x

c.g

from above equation is termed the “stick-free neutral

point”,since it is the c.g location at which the static stability is neutral.

60

7.2.3 Forward center of Gravity Limit

The forward c.g. limit is not generally dependent on maintaining stability.

As the c.g is moved forward ,the stability contribution x

c.g

−x

a.c

of the wing

becomes more and more negative ,thereby increasing the static stability.In

order to keep the airplane in equilibrium as the c.g is moved forward,the

elevator must be capable of trimming out the resulting negative pitching

moment.The pitching moment will be the greatest when the airplane is at

C

Lmax

when the airplane is landing and ground eﬀects decrease the down-

wash at the tail.

The equation of pitching moments may be solved for the position of the

most forward c.g by assuming the airplane trimmed(C

mcg

= 0) at C

Lmax

as

follows(Section 9.2 of [5])

(x

cg

)

forward

= x

ac

−

C

m

δ

C

Lmax

_

δ

emax

+

α

w

−

G

− i

w

+ i

t

τ

+

C

mac(flaps)

+ C

m(fus)

+ C

m(power)

C

m

δ

_

(62)

7.2.4 Determination of initial parameters

• (

dC

m

dC

L

)

Fus

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

Fus

=

K

f

W

2

f

L

f

Sca

w

(63)

The value of K

f

is obtained as 0.0119 from graph 1-9:1 of K.D.Wood[10].

a

w

=6.276 /radian = 0.1095 /degree

from the value obtained in section 4.5 on wing design.

Therefore,

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

fus

=

0.0119 × 3.59

2

× 33

111.63 × 3.9 × 0.1095

= 0.1036

The contribution of nacelle to (dC

m

/dC

L

) is neglected.

• d/dα

d

dα

=

114.6 × a

w

πA

(64)

61

d

dα

=

114.6 × 0.1095

π × 9.3

= 0.4297

•

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

power

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

power

=

Tt

p

Wc

(65)

t

p

is the distance of thrust line from c.g(the distance is measured per-

pendicular to the thrust line).For the designed airplane we make an

estimate of t

p

to be 0.19 m.At the cruise altitude, we choose a (T/W)

of 0.06.

Therefore,

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

power,cruise

=

0.06 × 0.62

13

= 0.00292

• (C

L

)

max

is taken as 2.5 from Section 3. (C

L

)

max

with no ﬂaps is 1.4.

(∆C

L

)

flaps

= 1.1.

• a

wg

is the lift curve slope of the wing close to the ground. It is ob-

tained by calculating the value of a

w

at lower velocities. A value of

V = 1.3 × 49 = 63.7m/s corresponds to a value of M = 0.19 and hence

gives a value of

(a

w

)

landing

= 4.57/radian = 0.0796.

The a

wg

is obtained by adding the ground eﬀect to the (a

w

)

landing

ob-

tained.Hence

(a

wg

)

landing

= 1.1(a

w

)

landing

= 5.027/radian = 0.0877/deg (66)

• α

Wg

α

Wg

=

(C

L

)

max

a

wg

k

(67)

k is the ground eﬀect factor obtained from Fig 1-9:4 of Wood[10].

(C

L

)

max

is the value without ﬂaps and corresponds to 1.4. k was ob-

tained as 1.1((for height of a.c above ground)/semi span of 0.1).

α

Wg

= 10.16

◦

62

• a

t

and a

tg

a

t

is obtained as 0.0828/deg by using the tail parameters in eq.(55).

a

tg

is the lift curve slope of the wing close to the ground. It is ob-

tained by calculating the value of a

t

at lower velocities. A value of

V = 1.3 × 49 = 63.7m/s corresponds to a value of M = 0.19 and hence

gives a value of

(a

t

)

landing

= 3.91/radian = 0.0682/deg.

The a

tg

is obtained by adding the ground eﬀect to the (a

t

)

landing

ob-

tained.Hence

(a

tg

)

landing

= 1.1(a

t

)

landing

= 5.027/radian = 0.0877/deg (68)

• i

w

is taken as 1

◦

from Section 4.

• C

mjet

at landing = 0

• C

mac(flaps)

C

mac(flaps)

= C

mac

+ ∆C

mac(f)

S

f

c

f

Sc

(69)

C

mac

for the airfoil is taken as −0.1 from airfoil database.∆C

mac

is

taken as -0.4 from Perkins and Hage[11], Figure 5.40.

C

mac(flaps)

= −0.1 − 0.4 ∗ 0.56 ∗ 1.1 = −0.3464

• C

m(Fus)

_

dC

m

dα

_

fus

=

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

fus

C

L

alpha

(70)

Hence using the value of C

L

α

with ground eﬀect,

(C

m

α

)

fus

= 0.1036 × 0.0877 = 0.0091

C

m

fus

= 0.0091 × (α

w

− i

w

) = 0.0091(10.16 − 1) = 0.0834

63

• C

hα

and C

hδ

The values of C

hα

and C

hδ

are obtained from Fig 1-9:5 of Wood[10].

Since not much detail is available about the nature of elevators we

assume the standard design and obtain the following values.

C

hα

=-0.00660

C

hδ

=-0.01140

• C

mδ

C

mδ

= −a

t

S

t

S

l

t

c

η

t

τ (71)

C

m

δ = −0.08095 × 0.95 × 0.57 × V

H

= −0.04438V

H

• δ

emax

δ

emax

is chosen as −25

◦

which is typical of most airplanes.

• i

t

For the preliminary design we assume i

t

= 1 which is the typically

the value of passenger airplanes.

Now,that we have obtained the various parameters required for the longi-

tudinal stability criterion we go on to calculate V which aﬀects the horizontal

tail sizing. We adopt the following consideration to determine V . C

m

α

is

approximately equal to -1.15 for transport airplane at M = 0.8(Raymer[4],

chapter 16). Assuming c.g at a.c

_

dC

m

dC

L

_

=

−1.15

6.276

= −0.183

Hence

x

cg(aft)

c

−

x

ac

c

= −0.183

Substituting in eq.(61), we get

−0.183 = 0.1036 − 0.2958V + 0.00292

∴ V = 0.98

We obtain the horizontal tail area to be

64

S

ht

=

0.98 × 3.9 × 111.63

14.86

= 28.71m

2

Remark: Keeping in view the large number of approximations involved in

calculation of parameters during landing and take-oﬀ, the cross check for

forward c.g. location and nose wheel lift-oﬀ conditions are not carried out at

this stage.

7.3 Lateral Stability and Control

7.3.1 Speciﬁcations

• The directional stability criterion,dC

n

/dC

ψ

should be negative for any

anticipated speed greater than 1.2 times the stalling speed.

• The yawing moment control(rudder) must be powerful enough to (a)

counteract the yawing moment encountered in rolls(”adverse yaw”),

(b)in cross-wind landings or takeoﬀs, (c)in one engine oﬀ condition

and (d)in spin when the recovery is eﬀected primarily by the rudder

control.

• To regain and maintain straight ﬂight with one engine inoperative at a

minimum speed not greater than 1.3 times the stalling speed.

7.3.2 Equations for directional stability

The equations for directional stability can be derived as

dC

n

dψ

= C

nψ(wing)

+ C

nψ(Fus)

+ C

nψ(power)

+ C

nψ(Tail)

(72)

7.3.3 Determination of initial parameters

In the preliminary analysis of directional static stability, the contributions of

wing, power and interference eﬀects are ignored.

• C

nψ(fus)

C

nψ(fus)

=

k

n

V

n

28.7Sb

(73)

The value of k

n

was obtained from Figure 1:9-2 of Wood[10] as k

n

=0.95

C

nψ(fus)

=

0.95 × 217.86

28.7 × 111.63 × 32.22

= 0.002005

65

• C

nψ(tail)

C

nψ(tail)

= −a

v

S

v

S

l

v

b

(74)

a

v

= 0.0378 per degree.

C

nψ(tail)

= −0.0378 × V

V

The value of C

nψ(desirable)

is given by Perkins and Hage[11] as follows

C

nψ(desirable)

= −0.0005

_

W

b

2

_

1/2

(75)

Therefore ,for the present case we have,

C

nψ(desirable)

= −0.001709

Hence,

C

nψ(desirable)

= C

nψ(fus)

+ C

nψ(tail)

(76)

−0.001709 = 0.002005 − 0.0378 × V

V

(77)

or V

V

= 0.098

This value is almost the same as what we obtained in our initial tail

sizing.

Therefore,vertical tail area is

S

vt

=

111.63 × 32.22 × 0.098

13.86

= 25.43m

2

66

8 Features of the Designed Airplane

8.1 Three View Drawing

The 3-view drawing of the airplane designed is given in ﬁgure

8.2 Overall Dimensions

Length : 34.32

Wing Span : 32.22 m

Height above ground : 11.17

Wheel base : 13.2 m

Wheel track : 5.8 m

8.3 Engine details

Similar to CFM 56 - 2B

Seal Level Static Thrust : 97.9 kN

By pass ratio : 6.5 (For which the Engine characteristics are given in [8] )

SFC : at M = 0.8, h = 10972 m(36 000 ft), SFC is taken as 0.6 hr

−1

8.4 Weights

Gross Weight : 59175 kgf

Empty Weight : 29706 kgf

Fuel Weight : 12131 kgf

Payload : 17338 kgf

Maximum Landing Weight : 50296 kgf

67

F

i

g

u

r

e

8

:

T

h

r

e

e

v

i

e

w

d

r

a

w

i

n

g

o

f

t

h

e

a

i

r

p

l

a

n

e

68

8.5 Wing Geometry

Planform Shape : Cranked wing

Span : 32.22 m

Area : 111.63 m

2

Airfoil : NASA - SC(2) series, t/c = 14%, C

l

opt

= 0.5

Root Chord : 5.59 m (Equivalent Trapezoidal wing)

Tip Chord : 1.34 m (Equivalent Trapezoidal wing)

Root Chord of Cranked Wing : 7.44 m

Portion of wing with straight trailing edge : 11.28 m

Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 3.9 m

Quarter chord Sweep : 27.69

o

Dihedral : 5

o

Twist : 3

o

Incidence : 1.4

o

Taper Ratio : 0.24 (Equivalent Trapezoidal wing)

Aspect Ratio : 9.3

8.6 Fuselage Geometry

Length : 33 m

Maximum Diameter : 3.59 m

8.7 Nacelle Geometry

No. of nacelles : 2

Nacelle Diameter : 1.62 m

Cross sectional Area : 2.06 m

2

Length of Nacelle : 3.3 m (based on B737 Nacelle)

8.8 Horizontal Tail Geometry

Span : 11.98 m

Area : 28.71 m

2

Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 2.67 m

Quarter Chord Sweep : 32

o

Root Chord : 3.80 m

Tip chord : 0.99 m

69

Taper Ratio : 0.26

Aspect Ratio : 5

8.9 Vertical Tail Geometry

Span : 6.58 m

Area : 25.43 m

2

Root Chord : 5.90 m

Tip chord : 1.83 m

Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 4.22 m

Quarter Chord Sweep : 37

o

Taper Ratio : 0.31

Aspect Ratio : 1.70

8.10 Other details

C

L

max

without ﬂap : 1.4

C

L

max

with landing ﬂaps : 2.7

Maximum Load Factor n

max

: 3.5

C

L

max

with T.O ﬂaps : 2.16

8.11 Crew and Payload

Flight crew : 2(pilot and co-pilot)

Cabin crew : 5

Passenger seating : 138 economy and 12 business class

8.12 Performance

The detailed performance estimation is given in section 9. The highlights are

as follows.

• The performance is worked for a gross weight of 59175 kgf and wing

loading of 5195 Nm

−2

except for landing where the landing weight is

taken as 85% of take-oﬀ weight.

• Maximum Mach No. at 36000 ft with cruise thrust = 0.859, with climb

thrust = 0.874.

70

• Maximum still air range at M = 0.81 and h = 36000 ft is 5602 km.

• Maximum rate of climb at sea level with climb thrust = 1087 m/min

• Service ceiling = 11.55 km, Absolute ceiling = 11.88 km

• Take-oﬀ distance over 50 ft = 860 m(2820 ft) and balanced ﬁeld length

= 1830 m(6000 ft)

• Landing distance from 15 m = 1140 m(3740 ft)

Remark : The designed airplane meets the requirements set out in the

speciﬁcations. The seating arrangement takes care of the passenger comfort

and the choice of engine reﬂects low level of noise.

71

9 Performance Estimation

The details regarding overall dimensions, engine details, weights, geometric

parameters of wing, fuselage, nacelle, horizontal tail, vertical tail, vertical tail

and other details like C

L

max

in various conditions and maximum load factor

are given in section 8.2 - 8.10. The details of ﬂight condition for estimation

of drag polar are as follows

Altitude : 10972 m = 36000 ft

Mach number : 0.8

Kinematic Viscosity : 3.90536 ×10

−5

m

2

/s

Density : 0.3639 kg/m

3

Speed of Sound : 295.07 m/s

Flight Speed : 236.056 m/s

Weight of the Airplane : 59175 kgf

9.1 Estimation of Drag Polar

The drag polar is assumed to be of the form

C

D

= C

Do

+

C

2

L

πAe

The quantity C

D

O

is assumed to be given by

C

D

O

= (C

D

O

)

WB

+ (C

D

O

)

V

+ (C

D

O

)

H

+ (C

D

O

)

Misc

(78)

where suﬃces WB, V, H, Misc denote wing-body combination, vertical tail,

horizontal tail, and miscellaneous contributions respectively.

9.1.1 Estimation of (C

D

o

)

WB

Initially, the drag polar is obtained at a Mach number of 0.6 as suggested by

[6]. (C

D

o

)

WB

is then given as :

(C

D

o

)

WB

= (C

D

o

)

W

+ (C

D

o

)

B

S

B

S

ref

The suﬃx B denotes fuselage and S

B

is the maximum frontal area of fuselage.

(C

D

O

)

W

is given as :

(C

D

o

)

W

= C

f

w

_

1 + L

_

t

c

__ _

S

wet

S

ref

_

wing

72

Here, the Reynolds number used to determine the turbulent ﬂat plate

skin friction coeﬃcient is based on the mean aerodynamic chord c

e

of the

exposed wing. (S

wet

)

e

is the wetted area of the exposed wing.

Now c

r

= 5.59m, c

t

= 1.34m, b/2 = 16.11m and d

fus

= 3.59m. Hence

c

r

e

= 5.59 −

5.59 − 1.34

16.11

×

3.59

2

= 5.116m

λ

e

=

1.34

5.116

= 0.262

c

e

=

2

3

_

5.116

_

1 + 0.262 + 0.262

2

1 + 0.262

__

= 3.596m

(b/2)

e

= 16.11 − 1.795 = 14.315m

M = 0.6, a = 295.07m/s ⇒ V = 177.12m/s. Also µ = 3.90536 × 10

−5

.

Hence,

Re =

177.12 × 3.596

3.90536 × 10

−5

= 16.31 × 10

6

k = 1.015 × 10

−5

m corresponds to standard camouﬂage paint, average

application (from [4]). Hence

l

k

=

3.596

1.015 × 10

−5

= 3.543 × 10

5

The Re

cutoff

corresponding to the above l/k is 30 ×10

6

. The C

f

w

is then

measured from the graph in [6] as

C

f

w

= 0.00265

(t/c)

avg

= 14% and (t/c)

max

at x/c > 0.3 ⇒ L = 1.2.

S

exposedplanform

= 14.314

_

5.116 + 1.341

2

_

× 2 = 92.41m

2

S

wet

w

= 2 × 92.41(1 + 1.2 × 0.14) = 215.8m

2

Hence,

(C

D

f

)

w

= 0.00265 (1 + 1.2 × 0.14)

215.8

111.63

= 0.00598

(C

D

o

)

B

is given as:

(C

D

O

)

B

= (C

D

f

)

B

+ (C

D

p

)

B

+ C

D

b

(C

D

O

)

B

= C

f

B

_

1 +

60

(l

b

/d)

3

+ 0.0025

_

l

b

d

__ _

S

wet

S

B

_

fus

+ C

D

b

S

base

S

ref

73

l

f

= 33.0m and d

max

= 3.59m

Re

b

=

177.12 × 33

3.905 × 10

−5

= 149.6 × 10

6

k = 1.015 × 10

−5

m corresponds to standard camouﬂage paint, average

application. Hence

l

k

=

33

1.015 × 10

−5

= 32.51 × 10

5

The Re

cutoff

corresponding to the above l/k is 2.6×10

8

. The C

f

w

is then

measured from the graph in [6] as

C

f

w

= 0.0019

(S

wet

)

fus

= 0.75 × π × 3.59 × 33 = 279m

2

S

B

=

π

4

× 3.59

2

= 10.12m

2

Hence.

(C

D

f

)

B

= 0.0019 ×

279

10.12

= 0.0524

(C

D

p

)

B

= 0.0019

_

60

(33/3.59)

3

+ 0.0025 × (33/3.59)

_

279

10.12

= 0.00524

C

D

b

is assumed to be zero, since base area is almost zero. Hence

(C

D

O

)

B

= 0.0524 + 0.00524 + 0 = 0.0576

(∆C

D

)

canopy

is taken as 0.002. Hence (C

D

O

)

B

= 0.0596

Finally we have:

(C

D

o

)

WB

= 0.00598 + 0.0596

10.12

111.63

= 0.01138

9.1.2 Estimation of (C

D

o

)

V

and (C

D

o

)

H

The estimation of (C

D

o

)

H

and (C

D

o

)

V

can be done in a manner similar to that

for the wing. However the details regarding the exposed tail area etc. would

be needed. In the absence of the detailed data on the shape of fuselage at

rear etc., a simpliﬁed approach given in [6] is adopted, wherein C

D

f

= 0.0025

for both horizontal and vertical tails.

74

S

W

= 2(S

h

+ S

v

)

Hence,

(C

D

o

)

hv

= 0.0025(28.71 + 25.43)

1

111.63

= 0.0024 (79)

9.1.3 Estimation of Misc Drag - Nacelle

For calculating drag due to the nacelles we use the short cut method for

which we have:

(C

D

o

)

nacelle

= 0.006 ×

S

wet

S

ref

where, S

wet

is the wetted area of nacelle. Here S

wet

= 16.79m

2

. Since we

have two nacelles the total drag will be twice of this. Finally we get:

(C

D

o

)

nacelle

= 0.006 ×

16.79

111.63

× 2 = 0.0018

9.1.4 C

D

o

of the airplane

Taking 2% for the interference drag (from [6]), we get the C

D

o

of the airplane

as

C

D

o

= 1.02 [0.01138 + 0.0024 + 0.0018] = 0.0159 (80)

9.1.5 Induced Drag

The induced drag component has the Oswald’s eﬃciency factor e which is

estimated by adding the eﬀect of all the aircraft components on induced drag.

The rough estimate of e can be obtained from:

1

e

=

1

e

wing

+

1

e

fuselage

+

1

e

other

From [9]

e

wing

= (e

w

)

Λ=0

cos(Λ − 5)

where Λ is the wing sweep. (e

wing

)

Λ=0

= 0.97 for AR = 9.3, λ = 0.24

from [12].

Hence e

wing

= 0.97 × cos (27.69 − 5) = 0.8948. Also

1/e

fus

(S

f

/S)

= 0.8 for a round

fuselage. Hence

1

e

fus

= 0.8 ×

10.122

111.63

= 0.0725

75

1

e

other

= 0.05

Finally we have:

e =

1

0.8948

−1

+ 0.0725 + 0.05

= 0.8064

Hence

K =

1

πAe

=

1

π × 9.3 × 0.8064

= 0.04244

9.1.6 Final Drag Polar

C

D

= 0.0159 + 0.04244 × C

2

L

(81)

Figure 9: Subsonic Drag Polar

76

Remark

• The polar given by 81 is valid at subcritical Mach numbers. The in-

crease in C

D

o

and K at higher Mach numbers is discussed in section

4.2.

• The maximum lift to drag ratio ((L/D)

max

) is given by

(L/D)

max

=

1

2

_

C

D

o

K

Using equation 81, (L/D)

max

is 19.25, which is typical of modern jet

transport airplanes.

• It may be noted that the parabolic polar is an approximation and is not

valid beyond C

L

max

. It is not accurate close to C

L

= 0 and C

L

= C

L

max

9.2 Engine Characteristics

To calculate the performance, the variations of thrust and SFC with speed

and altitude are needed. Chapter 9 of [8] contains these variations for turbo-

fan engines with various bypass ratios. The Thrust variations versus Mach

number with altitude as parameters are given in non-dimensional form for

take-oﬀ, cruise and climb ratings. The values were read from the curves and

later smoothed. The values multiplied by 97.9 kN, the sea level static thrust

rating for the chosen engine, are shown in Figures 10 and 11. Figure 10

also contains (a) the variation of thrust with Mach number at sea level with

take-oﬀ rating. (b) variations of climb thrust with Mach number at

h = 38000 and 39000 ft; these are obtained by interpolating values at 36000

and 40000 ft and are used for computation of performance at these altitudes.

The SFC variation is also given in [8], but is taken as 0.6hr

−1

under cruise

conditions based on the value recommended by [4].

77

F

i

g

u

r

e

1

0

:

T

a

k

e

O

ﬀ

f

o

r

s

e

a

l

e

v

e

l

a

n

d

C

l

i

m

b

T

h

r

u

s

t

p

e

r

e

n

g

i

n

e

f

o

r

v

a

r

i

o

u

s

a

l

t

i

t

u

d

e

s

78

F

i

g

u

r

e

1

1

:

C

r

u

i

s

e

T

h

r

u

s

t

p

e

r

e

n

g

i

n

e

f

o

r

v

a

r

i

o

u

s

a

l

t

i

t

u

d

e

s

79

9.3 Level Flight Performance

In steady Level ﬂight, the equations of motion, in standard notation are

T − D = 0 (82)

L − W = 0 (83)

L =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

L

=⇒ W =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

L

(84)

D =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

D

= T (85)

9.3.1 Stalling speed

In level ﬂight,

V =

¸

_

2W

ρSC

L

_

(86)

Since C

L

cannot exceed C

L

max

, there is a ﬂight speed below which level

ﬂight is not possible. The ﬂight speed at C

L

= C

L

max

is called the stalling

speed and is denoted by V

s

V

s

=

¸

_

2W

ρSC

L

max

_

(87)

Since ρ decreases with altitude, V

s

increases with height. We note that

W/S = 5195N/m

2

, C

L

max

= 2.7 with landing ﬂaps and C

L

max

= 1.4 without

ﬂaps. The values of stalling speed at diﬀerent altitudes and ﬂap settings are

tabulated in Table 6 and shown in Figure 12.

80

h ρ V

s

(C

L

max

= 1.4) V

s

(C

L

max

= 2.7)

(m) (kg/m

3

) (m/s) (m/s)

0 1.225 77.83 56.04

2000 1.006 85.86 61.83

4000 0.819 95.18 68.54

6000 0.659 106.06 76.37

8000 0.525 118.87 85.59

10000 0.412 134.09 96.56

11000 0.363 142.80 102.83

12000 0.310 154.52 111.27

Table 6: Variation of stalling speed with altitude

Figure 12: Stalling speed Vs Altitude

81

9.3.2 Variation of V

min

and V

max

with Altitude

To determine the V

min

and V

max

at each altitude, the following procedure is

adopted.

• The engine thrust as a function of velocity at each altitude is obtained

from the smoothed data.

• The drag at each altitude is found as a function of velocity using the

drag polar and the level ﬂight formulae given below.

C

L

=

2 ∗ (W/S)

ρV

2

(88)

C

D

= C

D

o

+ KC

2

L

(89)

Drag =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

D

(90)

T

avail

= f(M) (91)

Where C

D

o

= 0.0159 and K = 0.04244.

However, the cruise Mach number (M

cruise

) for this airplane is 0.8.

Hence C

D

o

and K are expected to become functions of Mach number

above M

cruise

. To get some guidelines about variations of C

D

o

and K,

we consider the drag polars of B-727 given in Volume 6, Chapter 5 of

[13]. These drag polars are shown in the Figure 13 as discrete points.

82

Figure 13: Drag polars at diﬀerent Mach numbers for B727-100; Symbols are

data from [13] and Solid lines are the parabolic ﬁts

These polars were approximated by the parabolic polar expression

namely C

D

= C

D

o

+K ×C

2

L

. The values of C

D

o

and K for the various

Mach numbers are given in the Table 7. The parabolic ﬁt is also shown

in Figure 13.

M C

D

o

K

0.7 0.01631 0.04969

0.76 0.01634 0.05257

0.82 0.01668 0.06101

0.84 0.01695 0.06807

0.86 0.01733 0.08183

0.88 0.01792 0.103

Table 7: Variation of C

D

o

and K with Mach number (Parabolic ﬁt)

The variations in C

D

o

and K with Mach number are plotted in the

Figures 14 and 15. It is seen that there is no signiﬁcant increase in

83

Figure 14: Variation of C

D

o

with Mach number

C

D

o

and K upto M = 0.76. This is expected to be the cruise Mach

number for the airplane (B727-100). Following analytical expressions

have been found to closely represent the changes in C

D

o

and K from

M = 0.76 to M = 0.86.

C

D

o

= 0.01634 − 0.001 × (M − 0.76) + 0.11 × (M − 0.76)

2

(92)

K = 0.05257 + (M − 0.76)

2

+ 20.0 × (M − 0.76)

3

(93)

In the case of the present airplane, the cruise Mach number is 0.8. The

variations of C

D

o

and K above M

cruise

and upto M = 0.9, based on

B727-100 data is taken as follows.

C

D

o

= 0.0159 − 0.001 × (M − 0.8) + 0.11 × (M − 0.8)

2

(94)

K = 0.0455 + (M − 0.8)

2

+ 20.0 × (M − 0.8)

3

(95)

84

Figure 15: Variation of K with Mach number

• The thrust available and thrust required curves are plotted at each

altitude as a function of velocity. The points of intersection give the

V

min

and V

max

at each altitude. To arrive at V

min

, the stalling speed

also needs to be taken in to account. Hence in the Figures. 16 to 21,

the portion of the V

min

curve below V

s

is shown as dotted lines, as the

drag polar is not valid there. V

s

is taken for C

L

max

without ﬂaps.

The calculations are carried out for h = 0, 10000, 15000, 25000, 30000

and 36000 ft, i.e S.L, 3048, 4572, 7620, 9144 and 10972.8 m using T

avail

as climb thrust and cruise thrust. Results are presented only for climb

thrust case.

85

h h V

s

V

min

(m/s) V

min

(m/s) V

max

(m/s) V

max

(m/s)

(in ft) (in m) T

cr

T

climb

T

cr

T

climb

S.L 0 77.833 < V

s

< V

s

258.711 269.370

10000 3048 90.579 < V

s

< V

s

272.060 280.595

15000 4572 98.131 < V

s

< V

s

275.613 283.300

25000 7620 116.292 < V

s

< V

s

272.929 279.291

30000 9144 127.278 < V

s

< V

s

267.854 271.755

36000 10972 142.594 176.054 169.071 253.671 258.154

38000 11582 149.557 217.386 200.896 243.676 248.630

38995 11884 153.159 235.471 229.865 235.483 238.649

Table 8: Variation of V

min

and V

max

Figure 16: Available and Required Thrust at S.L

86

Figure 17: Available and Required Thrust at h = 3048.0m

Figure 18: Available and Required Thrust at h = 4572.0m

87

Figure 19: Available and Required Thrust at h = 7620.0m

Figure 20: Available and Required Thrust at h = 9144.0m

88

Figure 21: Available and Required Thrust at h = 10972.8m

Figure 22: Variation of V

min

and V

max

with altitude

89

9.4 Steady Climb

In this ﬂight, the C.G of the airplane moves along a straight line inclined to

the horizontal at an angle γ. The velocity of ﬂight is assumed to be constant

during the climb. Since the ﬂight is steady, acceleration is zero and the

equations of motion can be written as:

T − D − W sin γ = 0 (96)

L − W cos γ = 0 (97)

To calculate the variation of rate of climb with ﬂight velocity at diﬀerent

altitudes, we adopt the following procedure.

• Choose an altitude.

• Choose a ﬂight speed.

Noting that C

L

= 2W cos γ/ρSV

2

, we get

C

D

= C

D

o

+ K

_

2W cos γ

ρSV

2

_

Also

V

c

= V sin γ

cos γ =

_

1 −

V

2

c

V

2

Using the above equations,

A

_

V

c

V

_

2

+ B

_

V

c

V

_

+ C = 0 (98)

A =

kW

2

1

2

ρV

2

S

; B = −W; C = T

avail

−

1

2

ρV

2

SC

D

o

−

2kW

2

ρV

2

S

(99)

Since altitude and ﬂight velocity have been chosen, the thrust available

is read from the climb thrust curves in 10. Further the variation of C

D

o

and K with Mach number is taken as in Equations 94 and 95.

90

• Equation 98 gives 2 values of V

c

/V . We choose the value which is less

that 1.0 as sin γ cannot be greater than unity. Hence

γ = sin

−1

(V

c

/V ) (100)

V

c

= V sin γ (101)

• This procedure is repeated for various speeds between V

min

and V

max

.

The entire procedure is then repeated for various altitudes.

The variations of (R/C) and γ with velocity and with altitude as pa-

rameters are shown in Figure 23 and 25. The variations of (R/C)

max

and γ

max

with altitude are shown in Figure 24 and 26. The variations

of V

(R/C)

max

and V

γ

max

with altitude are shown in Figure 27 and 28. A

summary of results is presented in table 9.

h h (R/C)

max

V

(R/C)

max

γ

max

V

γ

max

(in ft) (in m) (in m/min) (in m/s) (in degrees) (in m/s)

0 0.0 1086.63 149.7 8.7 88.5

10000 3048.0 867.34 167.5 6.0 111.6

15000 4572.0 738.16 174.0 4.7 125.7

25000 7620.0 487.41 198.2 2.6 164.1

30000 9144.0 313.43 212.2 1.5 188.0

36000 10972.8 115.57 236.1 0.5 230.2

38000 11582.4 41.58 236.9 0.2 234.0

38995 11885.7 1.88 235.8 0.0 235.8

Table 9: Climb Performance

91

Figure 23: Rate of Climb Vs Velocity for various altitudes

Figure 24: Maximum Rate of Climb Vs Altitude

92

Figure 25: Angle of Climb Vs Velocity for various altitudes

Figure 26: Maximum angle of Climb Vs Altitude

93

Figure 27: Velocity at Maximum Rate of Climb Vs Altitude

Figure 28: Velocity at Maximum angle of Climb Vs Altitude

94

Remarks

1. The discontinuties in slope in Figures 27 and 28 at high velocities are

due to the change in drag polar as the Mach number exceeds 0.8.

2. From Figure 24, the absolute cieling (at which (R/C)

max

is zero) is

11.88 km. The service cieling at which (R/C)

max

= 50m/min is 11.55

km

95

9.5 Range and Endurance

In this section, the range of the aircraft in a constant altitude and constant

velocity cruise is studied. Range is given by the formula

R =

3.6V

TSFC

_

KC

d

o

_

tan

−1

2W

1

ρV

2

S

¸

K

C

d

o

− tan

−1

2W

2

ρV

2

S

¸

K

C

d

o

_

(102)

where W

1

is the weight of the aircraft at the start of the cruise and W

2

is the weight of the aircraft at the end of the cruise.

The cruising altitude taken is h = 10972m. TSFC is taken to be con-

stant as 0.6hr

−1

. The variation of drag polar above M = 0.8 is given by

Equation.94 and 95.

W

1

= W

o

= 59175 × 9.81N

W

f

= 0.205 × W

1

Allowing 6% fuel as trapped fuel, W

2

becomes

W

2

= W

1

− 0.94 × W

f

The values of endurance (in hours) are obtained by dividing the expres-

sion for range by 3.6V where V is in m/s. The values of Range(R) and

Endurance(E) in ﬂight at diﬀerent velocities are presented in Table 10 and

are plotted in Figures 29 and 30.

96

Figure 29: Constant Velocity Range at h = 10972 m

Figure 30: Endurance at h = 10972 m

Remarks

1. It is observed that the maximum range of 5600 km is obtained at a

velocity of 239m/s (860 kmph). Corresponding Mach number is 0.81

97

M V C

L

C

D

L/D R E

(in m/s) (in km) (in hours)

0.50 147.531 1.312 0.089 14.75 2979.0 5.61

0.55 162.285 1.085 0.066 16.48 3608.0 6.18

0.60 177.038 0.911 0.051 17.82 4189.6 6.57

0.65 191.791 0.777 0.041 18.72 4691.7 6.80

0.70 206.544 0.670 0.035 19.17 5095.6 6.85

0.75 221.297 0.583 0.030 19.23 5396.5 6.77

0.80 236.050 0.513 0.027 18.95 5599.8 6.59

0.81 239.001 0.500 0.027 18.78 5602.3 6.51

0.82 241.952 0.488 0.027 18.36 5527.0 6.35

0.83 244.902 0.476 0.027 17.65 5352.2 6.07

0.84 247.853 0.465 0.028 16.62 5070.1 5.68

0.85 250.803 0.454 0.030 15.29 4691.2 5.20

0.86 253.754 0.444 0.032 13.76 4242.3 4.64

0.87 256.705 0.433 0.036 12.13 3758.8 4.07

0.88 259.655 0.424 0.040 10.52 3275.3 3.50

Table 10: Range and Endurance in Constant Velocity ﬂight at h = 10972m

(36000ft)

which is slightly higher than the Mach number beyond which C

D

o

and

K increase. This can be explained based on two factors namely (i)

the range increases as the ﬂight speed increases (ii) after M

cruise

is

exceeded, C

D

o

and K increase thus reducing (L/D)

max

.

2. The range calculated above is the gross still air range. The safe range

would be about two-thirds of this. In the present case, the safe range

would be 3733km.

3. The maximum endurance of 6.85 hours occurs in a ﬂight at V =

206m/s. (742 kmph). It can noted that the endurance is roughly

constant over a speed range of 190 m/s to 230 m/s.

98

9.6 Turning Performance

In this section, the performance of the airplane in a steady, co-ordinated,

level turn is studied. The equations of motion in this case are:

T − D = 0

W − Lcos φ = 0

Lsin φ =

W

g

where φ is the angle of bank.

These equations give:

r =

V

2

g tan φ

˙

ψ =

V

r

=

g tan φ

V

Load Factor n =

L

W

=

1

cos φ

where n = L/W ,

˙

ψ is the rate of turn and r is the radius of turn.

The following procedure is used to obtain r

min

and

˙

ψ

max

1. A ﬂight speed and altitude are chosen and the level ﬂight lift coeﬃcient

C

LL

is obtained as :

C

LL

=

2(W/S)

ρV

2

2. If C

L

max

/C

LL

< n

max

, where n

max

is the maximum load factor for

which the aircraft is designed, then the turn is limited by C

L

max

and

C

LT

1

= C

L

max

. However if C

L

max

/C

LL

> n

max

, then the turn is limited

by n

max

, and C

LT

1

= n

max

C

LL

.

3. From the drag polar, C

DT

1

is obtained corresponding to C

LT

1

. Then

D

T1

=

1

2

ρV

2

SC

DT

1

If D

T1

> T

a

, where T

a

is the available thrust at that speed and alti-

tude, then the turn is limited by the engine output. In this case, the

maximum permissible value of C

D

in turning ﬂight is found from

C

DT

=

T

a

1

2

ρV

2

S

99

From the above relation, the value of C

LT

is calculated as

C

LT

=

_

C

DT

− C

D

o

K

However if D

T1

< T

a

, then the turn is not limited by the engine output

and the value of C

LT

calculated in step (ii) is retained.

4. Once C

LT

is known, the load factor during the turn is determined as

n =

C

LT

C

LL

Once n is known, the values of φ, r and

˙

ψ can be calulated using the

equations given above.

The above steps are then repeated for various speeds and altitudes. A

typical turning ﬂight performance estimation is presented in Table 11. In

these calculations, C

L

max

= 1.4 and n

max

= 3.5 are assumed. The variation

of turning ﬂight performance with altitude is shown in Table. 12. Figures

31, 32, 33, 34 respectively present (a) radius of turn with velocity and with

altitude as parameter, (b) minimum radius of turn with altitude, (c) rate of

turn with velocity and with altitude as parameter and (d) maximum rate of

turn with altitude.

v n C

lt

φ (in degrees) r (in m)

˙

ψ

78.83 1.026 1.4000 12.892 2767.70 0.0285

98.83 1.612 1.4000 51.670 787.21 0.1255

118.83 2.331 1.4000 64.596 683.63 0.1738

138.83 2.813 1.2376 69.173 747.41 0.1858

158.83 2.993 1.0062 70.482 911.60 0.1742

178.83 3.089 0.8192 71.112 1115.38 0.1603

198.83 3.080 0.6607 71.053 1383.50 0.1437

218.83 2.930 0.5189 70.045 1772.43 0.1235

238.83 2.573 0.3826 67.132 2452.36 0.0974

241.83 2.494 0.3617 66.363 2609.20 0.0927

Table 11: A typical turning ﬂight performance at Sea level

100

Figure 31: Radius of Turn Vs Velocity at various altitudes

Figure 32: Velocity at R

min

Vs Altitude

101

Figure 33:

˙

ψ Vs Speed at various altitudes

Figure 34: Velocity at

˙

ψ

max

Vs Altitude

102

h r

min

V

r

min

˙

ψ

max

V

˙

ψ

max

(in m) (in m) (in m/s) (in m/s)

0.0 666 126.8 0.1910 127.8

3048.0 945 132.6 0.1410 133.6

4572.0 1155 135.1 0.1170 136.1

7620.0 1971 138.3 0.0731 165.3

9144.0 3247 151.3 0.0513 187.3

10972.8 8582 211.0 0.0256 231.0

Table 12: Turning ﬂight performance

Remarks

1. The maximum value of

˙

ψ is 0.191 and occurs at a speed of 127.8m/s

at sea level.

2. The minimum radius of turn is 666 m and occurs at a speed of 126.8m/s

at sea level.

3. The various graphs show a discontinuity in slope when the criterion

which limits the turn changes from n

max

to thrust available.

9.7 Take-oﬀ distance

In this section, the take oﬀ performance of the airplane is evaluated. The

take-oﬀ distance consists of take-oﬀ run, transition and climb to screen

height. Rough estimates of the distance covered in these phases can be

obtained by writing down the appropriate equations of motion. However the

estimates are approximate and [4] recommends the following formulae for

take-oﬀ distance and balance ﬁeld length based on the take-oﬀ parameter.

This parameter is deﬁned as:

Take Oﬀ Parameter =

W/S

σC

L

TO

(T/W)

(103)

where W/S is wing loading in lb/ft

2

, C

L

TO

is 0.8 × C

Lland

= 0.8 × 2.7 =

2.16 and σ is the density ratio at take-oﬀ altitude.

In the present case:

W

S

= 5195N/m

2

= 108.2lb/ft

2

; C

L

TO

= 0.8×2.7 = 2.16; σ = 1.0(sea level)

103

and

T

W

=

2 × 97.9kN

59175 × 9.81

= 0.3373

Hence

Take Oﬀ Parameter =

108.2

1.0 × 2.16 × 0.3373

= 148.86 (104)

From [4], the take oﬀ distance, over 50’, is 2823

**or 861m. The balance
**

ﬁeld length for the present case of two engined airplane is 6000

or 1829m.

Remark

It may be noted that the balance ﬁeld length is more than twice the take oﬀ

distance itself.

9.8 Landing distance

In this section the landing distance of the airplane is calculated. From [4]

the landing distance for commericial airliners is given by the formula

S

land

= 80

_

W

S

_

1

σC

L

max

+ 1000ft (105)

where W/S is in lbs/ft

2

. In the present case:

• (W/S)

land

= 0.85 × (W/S)

takeoff

= 0.85 × 108.5 = 92.225lb/ft

2

• C

L

max

= 2.7

• σ = 1.0

Hence

S

land

= 80 × 92.225

1

1.0 ∗ 2.7

+ 1000 = 3732ft = 1138m (106)

104

9.9 Concluding remarks

1. Performance of a typical commercial airliner has been estimated for

stalling speed, maximum speed, minimum speed, steady climb, range,

endurance, turning, take-oﬀ and landing.

2. The performance approximately corresponds to that of B737-200.

3. Figure 35 presents the variation with altitude of the characteristic ve-

locities corresponding to

• stalling speed, V

s

• maximum speed, V

max

• minimum speed as dictated by thrust, V

min

thrust

• maximum rate of climb, V

(R/C)

max

• maximum angle of climb, V

γ

max

• maximum rate of turn, V

˙

ψ

max

• minimum radius of turn, V

r

min

105

F

i

g

u

r

e

3

5

:

F

l

i

g

h

t

E

n

v

e

l

o

p

e

106

10 Acknowledgements

The ﬁrst author(EGT) thanks AICTE for the fellowship which enabled him

to carry out the work at IIT Madras.

References

[1] http://www.cfm56.com/engines/cfm56-5c/tech.html

[2] http://www.lissys.demon.co.uk/samp1/

[3] NASA Technical Paper 2969, Charles Harris (Mar 1990)

[4] Raymer.D.P. Aircraft design a conceptual approach. AIAA’ educational

series, 2006

[5] Tulapurkara.E.G Lecture Notes on Aircraft Design, Department of

Aerospace Engineering I.I.T Madras, 2007

[6] Roskam J. Methods of estimating drag polars of subsonic air-

planesRoskam Aviation & Engineering Corporation, Ottawa, Kansas,

1983

[7] Lebedenski.A.A Aircraft design parametric studies Published by I.I.Sc,

Bangalore, 1971

[8] Jenkinson L.R., Simpkin P. and Rhodes D. Civil Jet Aircraft Design,

Arnold, 1999

[9] Hoerner S.F. Fluid dynamic drag, published by Hoerner Fluid Dynamics,

Brick Town, NJ, 1965

[10] Wood K.D. Aerospace vehicle design, Volume 1, Johnson publishing

company, Boulder, Colorado, 1966

[11] Perkins C.D. & Hage A.E. Airplane performance syability & control,

McGraw Hill, 1963

[12] Abbot I.H. and Doenhoﬀ A.E. Theory of wing sections, Dover publica-

tions, 1959

[13] Roskam J. Aircraft design, Roskam Aviation & Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ottawa, Kansas, 1990

107

**An Example of Airplane Preliminary Design Procedure - Jet Transport
**

E.G.Tulapurkara∗ A.Venkattraman† V.Ganesh‡

Abstract In this report, we present an application of the preliminary design procedure followed in aircraft design course. A 150 seater jet airplane cruising at M = 0.8, at 11 km altitude and having a gross still air range(GSAR) of 4000 km is considered. The presentation is divided into eight sections • Data collection • Preliminary Weight estimation • Optimization of wing loading and thrust loading • Wing design • Fuselage design, preliminary design of tail surface and preliminary layout • c.g. calculation • Control surface design • Features of designed airplane • Details of performance estimation

∗

AICTE Emeritus Fellow, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras B.Tech Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras ‡ Dual Degree Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras

†

1

Contents

1 Data Collection 1.1 The Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market . . . 1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints . . 1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards 1.2 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate . . 1.2.2 Wing parameters . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Empennage . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.4 Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . 1.2.5 Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.6 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.7 Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Overall height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Revised Weight Estimation 2.1 Fuel fraction estimation . . . 2.1.1 Warm up and Take oﬀ 2.1.2 Climb . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Cruise . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Loiter . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5 Landing . . . . . . . . 2.2 Empty Weight Fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 12 12 21 21 21 21 22 23 23 23 25 25 27 27 32 33 34 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39

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3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading 3.1 Landing Distance Consideration . . . . . . 3.2 Maximum Speed(Vmax ) Consideration . . . 3.2.1 Estimation of K . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 (R/C)max consideration . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Based on Minimum Fuel for Range (Wfmin ) 3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Summary of Constraints . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Consideration of Wing Weight (Ww ) . . . 3.8 Choosing a W/S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.1 Requirement for Vmax . . . . . . . . 3.10 Requirements for (R/C)max . . . . . . . . 3.11 Take-Oﬀ Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . 3.12 Engine Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

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. .3. . . . . . . . 5 Fuselage and Tail Layout 5. 4. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 4. . . . . .3 Nose and Cockpit . . . . . . . . . . .3 Other Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Total Fuselage Length . . 4. . . . . . . . . 4. . . 6. . 6. . . 4. .2 Taper Ratio . . . . . . .4 Dihedral . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .3 Fixed equipment group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 3 C. 4. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .3 C. . . .2 Propulsion Group . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Cranked Wing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Estimation of Component Weights and 6. . . . . .1 Wing Location on Fuselage . . . . . . .G Location and C. . . 5. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3 Cabin Diameter . . . .G Travel . . . . . . .3. . .1 Aircraft mass statement . .3. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .5 Rear Fuselage . . . . . . . . . .5 Wing Twist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .1 Cabin Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 39 4 Wing Design 4. . . . 4. . . . .13 Engine Characteristics . . . 5. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 52 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 58 . . . . . .1 Structures Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .4 Passenger Cabin Layout . . . . . . . .5 Wing Incidence(iw ) . . . 6. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 Design Lift Coeﬃcient 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Engine Location . 4. . . 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Landing Gear Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . .Front Fuselage 5. .G Travel for Critical Cases . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Root and Tip Chords . . . . . . . 6. .2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio 4. .2 Cabin length . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .7 Areas of Flaps and Ailerons . . . . . Location . . . . . .2. . . .7 Tail surfaces .1.2 Airfoil Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .2 Initial Estimate of Fuselage Length 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .6 Vertical Location of Wing . . . . and Wing Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2.3.2 Weights of Various Components .4 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Forward center of Gravity Limit . . . . . . .2 Overall Dimensions . . . . . . . travel . . . . .4. . . . 7. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . .6 Final Drag Polar .3 Determination of initial parameters 8 Features of the Designed Airplane 8. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 No Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . . . .1 Speciﬁcations . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Full Payload and No Fuel . . . .5 Induced Drag . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 9 Performance Estimation 9. . . . . . . . . .6 Fuselage Geometry . 6. . . . . . .3 No Payload and Full fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Horizontal Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Crew and Payload . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Speciﬁcations . . . . .2 Aft Center of gravity limit . . . . . 9. . . . .2 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control .10 Other details . . . .1. . .9 Vertical Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 9. . . 4 . . . 6. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 65 65 65 65 67 67 67 67 67 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 72 72 72 74 75 75 75 76 77 7 Control Surfaces 7. . . . . . . . . .2 Engine Characteristics . . . . . 8. . .2 Equations for directional stability . . . . . . . .4 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .3 Estimation of Misc Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Payload distribution for 15% Summary . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .Nacelle 9. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .1 Three View Drawing . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determination of initial parameters 7. .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Performance . . .7 Nacelle Geometry . . . . . .1 Stability and Controllability . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 Estimation of (CDo )V and (CDo )H 9. . . .1. . . .5 Wing Geometry . . . . . . . . . . .4 CDo of the airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .4. . . . . . .3 Lateral Stability and Control . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .4. .3 Engine details . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . 8.1 Estimation of (CDo )W B . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2. . . . . . . . 8. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .g . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .6. . .1 Estimation of Drag Polar . . . .

. Vmax . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . Range and Endurance .9. . Turning Performance . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . Take-oﬀ distance . . .1 Stalling speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 80 80 82 90 96 99 103 104 105 107 10 Acknowledgements 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . Altitude . . . . . . .9 Level Flight Performance . . . . . .2 Variation of Vmin and Steady Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concluding remarks . . . . .8 9. .4 9. . . . Landing distance . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . .7 9.

each having its own special features. it is clear that intercontinental ﬂights would be restricted to the ﬁrst two classes while the last two would handle bulk of the traﬃc in regional routes.1. one can ﬁnd common features underlying most of them. we plan to cater to the traﬃc in regional routes. In spite of the fact that there are numerous aircrafts. 1. Our aim is to design an aircraft that satisﬁes the following requirements. One decides the range and payload(ie passengers) after identifying the target market.000 km • No.of Seats Typical GSAR(km) Propulsion B-747 >400 >13000 High Bypass type Turbofan B-757 200-400 10000 High Bypass type Turbofan B-737 100-200 5000 Medium Bypass type Turbofan Regionals 30-100 2000 Turboprop Table 1: Classiﬁcation of Civil Jet Airplane From the values of gross still air range in table. the following aspects would dominate the conceptual design of a commercial transport jet.1 Data Collection The Design Philosophy The conceptual design forms the initial stage of the design process. We will design a Transport Jet with a Gross Still Air Range(GSAR) of 4000km (=Rg ) and a single-class seating capacity of 150.1 Type of Aircraft and Market The Civil Transport Jets could be classiﬁed in the following way : Class No. of passengers = 150 6 . • Gross Still Air Range = 4. We collect data for similar aircrafts and use this data set as the basis for making initial estimates. In this example. We could roughly classify our aircraft as belonging the B-737 class.1 1. For example. The diﬀerent classes cater to diﬀerent sections of the market.

2 Budget and Time Constraints Any design team would be required to work with a limited amount of funds and time. bird strike. 4.air intake/exhaust. response to rough air etc.• Flight Cruise Mach No.fuel systems. The design team must ensure that cost and time over-runs are minimized to the extent possible. = 0. Typically.g.cooling. Flight This includes performance items like stall. descent. Also.g. 2. landing. FAA in USA).3 Other Constraints and Standards Some of the major demands on the design arise from the various mandatory and operational regulations. These could dictate various aspects of the design process. innovations which could end up in a spiralling budget may be shelved. climb. CAA in UK. in case of highly competitive markets. the design must satisfy the environmental constraints. ground loads. take-oﬀ. Additional route-speciﬁc constraints may have to be taken into account on a case-by-case basis. cruise altitude for aircrafts ﬂying over the Himalayas must be well over 8 km. Powerplant Fire protection.80 • Altitude =11. the ability to get the aircraft ready in the prescribed time frame is very crucial. DGCA in India. Other Materials quality regulations. e. each country has its own Aviation Authority (e. 1.For example. Airworthiness requirements would cover the following aspects of the aircraft 1. emergency landing conditions. Also included are requirements of stability. Structural Flight loads. All commercial aircrafts must satisfy the Airworthiness requirements of various countries.controllability and manoeuvrability. Two major environmental concerns are noise and emissions : 7 . cruise. auxillary power unit. Passenger Safety is the primary motive behind these speciﬁcations.000 m 1. 3.1.1. fatigue evaluation etc. In addition to safety and operational requirements.

2 Preliminary Design If we look at the commercial transport jets in use. • Swept back wings and a conventional rear-tail conﬁguration is chosen. All components except CO2 and H2 O are considered as pollutants Again. However the reduction in noise may not be signiﬁcant. Various aviation authorities have set limits on these emissions. The development of high-bypass turbofan engines has signiﬁcantly reduced noise production.• The Engines are the primary source of noise in an aircraft.as was the case with noise. The exhaust contains particles. turbofans give the best eﬃciency and moreover reduction in thrust output with speed is not so rapid. We follow this trend and choose a medium-by pass turbo fan as our powerplant. carbon monoxide(CO). But.given the experience gained with the wing mounted engines and the large data available for such conﬁgurations. Also. the noise generated by a medium-by pass turbo fan engine is considerably less.6 to 0. this choice is dictated by the fact that we have a large amount of data(to compare with) for such conﬁgurations. various oxides of nitrates. emissions during landing and take-oﬀ are of particular concern due to the communities near airports. we adopt two wing mounted engines.unburnt hydrocarbons and sulphur dioxide(SO2 ). • The predominant source of emissions is the engine. • Wing mounted engines Though not a rule. one can ﬁnd many common features amongst them. various gases including carbon dioxide(CO2 ) . wing mounted engines dominate the designs of top aircraft companies like Boeing and Airbus. In the ﬂight regime of Mach number between 0. water vapor (H2 O) . Some of these are : • Medium bypass turbofans This choice regarding the type of engine is due to the following reasons. This can reduced by opting for a shallower approach. 1. as this reduces the ﬂight time spent near the airport. 8 . The airframe could also add to this. The design team must adhere to such constraints.85. Alternative designs could be adopted. Again.Maximum noise is produced during take-oﬀ and landing.

the other parameters of the wing are chosen based on similar aircraft.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate Given the number of passengers.Once the (W/S) has been decided.The taper ratio(λ) is a geometric parameter that is roughly the 9 .2 Wing parameters To estimate the wing parameters. Aircraft No.000 kgf . we need to choose a value for wing loading(W/S). 1. Most modern aircrafts(see data base in Table A) have values close to 9. This is one of the most important parameters that not only decides the wing parameters but also plays an important role in the performance of the airplane.We observe similar airplanes and choose an initial estimate for (W/S) to be 5500 N/m2 . the value of A also keeps increasing. we choose an initial weight of 60.3. we can estimate the payload in the following way: 1. We now estimate the gross weight of the aircraft (Wg ). we observe the following. As the structural design improves. 3. Allow 110 kg for each passenger (82 kg weight per passenger with carry on baggage + 28 kg of checkin baggage)(Reference 1. From data collection. We choose a value of 9. structural considerations force us to settle for an optimal value. page 214) We thus obtain a payload Wpay of 157 × 110 = 17270 kgf .of passengers Still air range (km) WT O (kgf ) 737-300B 149 4185 60636 737-400B 168 3852 64671 737-700A 149 2935 60330 Table 2: Take oﬀ weight Based on the data collected.11. Include ﬂight crew of pilot and co-Pilot. Include one cabin crew member for 30 passengers. However. it is desirable to have a large aspect ratio(A). Aerodynamically.2.2.1. this gives 5 crew members 2. Thus the total of passenger + crew is 150+5+2 = 157. In our case.

3 Empennage As explained earlier.(2).88 m 10 (5) .21 S Hence.same for all the aircrafts in the data set.47 m b(1 + λ) (3) (4) ct = λcr = 1. The values of Sh /S and Sv /S are obtained from the data set of similar airplanes.55 m (2) The root chord(cr ) and tip chord(ct ) can now be found using the following equations : cr = 2S = 5.31 m 1.24 for λ. we get the spans(bh . We have chosen Sh = 0. The geometric parameters of the horizontal and vertical tails are obtained here.47 m2 We choose suitable aspect ratios(Ah .2.18 m2 Sv = 22. bv ) as bh = Ah Sh = 12.The wing quarter chord sweep(Λc/4 ) is chosen as 25◦ . Sh = 33.we have chosen the conventional rear-tail conﬁguration.31 S Sv = 0. We choose an average value of 0.7. Av ) from the data set. Using eq.Consequently S W S = Wg = 107. Our choices are Ah = 5 and Av = 1.02m2 (1) The wing span(b) can be calculated from A and S √ b= SA = 31.

7 m 11 . This completes the broad geometric design of the empennage.2. ctv ) of tails as crh = 2Sh = 4.98 m2 • Area of L.74 • Sele /Sht = 0.26 λv = 0.bv = Av Sv = 6. • Sf lap /S = 0.8 m2 • Area of T.17 • Sslat /S = 0.18 m (6) The chosen values for the taper ratios(λh .E ﬂaps = 18. we choose quarter chord sweep back angles of Λh = 30◦ and Λv = 35◦ .06 m crv = 2Sv = 5. λv ) from the data set are λh = 0.53 m2 • Srud = 5. • Sele = 7.22 • Srud /Svt = 0.68 m From the data set.60 m2 • bf lap = 23.3. crv ) and tip chord (cth .25 • Trailing edge ﬂaps type : Fowler ﬂaps • Leading edge high lift devices : slats Hence.09 m bh (1 + λh ) (7) (8) (9) (10) cth = λh crh = 1.10 • bf lap /b =0. 1.E slats = 11. We can now compute the root chord (crh .4 Control Surfaces A number of aircraft and their 3-view drawings as well as design data have been studied and the following parameter values are chosen.59 m bv (1 + λv ) ctv = λv crv = 1.

But. lf = 33. It has better lateral stability on ground than bicycle type landing gear. 12 .13 m. the overall height is taken as 11. The location of the wheels was chosen from three-view drawings of similar aircraft.6 m df = 3. 1.6 Engines (11) (12) Observing the thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) of similar airplanes.5 Fuselage Aerodynamic considerations would demand a slender fuselage.2.2. It is favored for two reasons: 1.7 Landing Gear We choose a retractable tricycle type landing gear.2 below the nose and two pairs each on the sides(near the wing fuselage junction).This implies a thrust requirement of T = 0. Hence. We obtain the length lf and diameter df by choosing lf /b = 1.05 and lf /df = 8.1. we arrive at a T/W of 0.3 Overall height Based on dimensions of Boeing 737 . 400 and 500.300. 2. We choose to have a total of 10 wheels .2.86 from data collection. During take-oﬀ and landing the weight of the plane is taken entirely by the rear wheels. It is the most commonly found type of landing gear.3. passenger comfort and structural constraints would limit the slenderness.79 m 1.3 × Wg = 180 kN or 90 kN per engine The CFMI FM56-3-B1 model of Turbofan comes closest to this requirement. 1.

Data on Existing Airplanes(150 seater category) (Source : http://www.bh.com/companions/034074152X/) 13 .TABLE A .

14 .

15 .

16 .

17 .

gif Figure 2: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-500 Source : http://www.Figure 1: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-300 Source : http://www.virtualswa.com/Boeing737-500/3view.virtualswa.gif 18 .com/Boeing737-300/3view.

Figure 3: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-700 Source : http://www.virtualswa.com/Boeing737-700/3view.gif 19 .

20 Figure 4: Preliminary three view of the airplane under design .

2 Revised Weight Estimation In the previous section. 2. The fuel fractions for warm-up.1 Fuel fraction estimation The fuel weight depends on the mission proﬁle and the fuel required as reserve.1. take-oﬀ.985 W1 21 . The mission proﬁle for a civil jet transport aircraft involves • Take oﬀ • Climb • Cruise • Loiter before landing • Descent • Landing 2. an initial estimate for the aircraft parameters has been done.97 W0 W0 is the weight at take-oﬀ and W1 is the weight at the end of the take-oﬀ phase. W2 = 0. chapter 3.1. The fuel fractions for various phases are worked out in the following steps.1 Warm up and Take oﬀ The value for this stage is taken by following the standards given in Raymer[4].2 Climb The weight-ratio for this stage is chosen by following the standards given in Raymer[4]. climb and landing are taken from Raymer[4]. chapter 3. chapter 3 W1 = 0. The weight estimate is being revised using reﬁned estimates of fuel weight and empty weight. 2.

6 × 15. Substituting the appropriate values in eq.5 1.6 km/hr is 2667 = 3.(13) we get.54 To account for allowances due to head wind during cruise and provision for diversion to another airport we proceed as follows. This corresponds to the average value for civil jets. The total extra distance that has to be accounted for in the calculations is 169 + 400 = 569 km. with a head wind of 15 m/s or 54 km/hr the additional distance that has to be accounted for is T ime = Additional distance = 54 × 3. chapter 3.13 = 169 km The allowance for diversion to another airport is taken as 400 km.13 hours 849.6 Therefore. W3 −3236 × 0.1. W3 −RC = exp W2 V (L/D) Gross still air range is 4000 km. Head wind is taken as 15 m/s.6 = exp = 0.6 of Raymer[4]. As prescribed by Raymer[4].59 (14) (13) 22 . chapter 3 Cruise Saf e Range = (L/D)cruise = 0.Hence GSAR 4000 = = 2667 km 1. The time to cover the cruise safe range of 2667 km at Vcr of 849.2.866(L/D)max (L/D)cruise = 0.863 W2 849.3 Cruise The weight ratio for the cruise phase of ﬂight is calculated using the following expression from Raymer[4].866 × 18 = 15. The total distance during cruise = 2667 + 569 = 3236 km.5 (L/D)max is taken as 18 from ﬁgure 3.

06 1 − Wg W0 = 0.995 W4 Therefore.02(2. (16) 23 .2.1. We = 1. Also. the airplane usually operates at (L/D)max and hence the appropriate value should be used in eq.06 Wg where Wg is in kgf .995 = 0. −0.205 2. chapter 3 W4 −E × T SF C = exp W3 (L/D) (15) During Loiter.5 Landing Following the standards speciﬁed by Raymer[4].202Wg )−0.985 × 0.983 × 0. we follow the method in Raymer[4].806 Wg W0 Allowing for a reserve fuel of 6% we obtain the fuel fraction(ζ) as Wf W5 = ζ = 1.1. chapter 3 which gives a relation between We /Wg and Wg as follows. we take this ratio as W5 = 0.6 W4 = exp = 0.4 Loiter The weight ratio for Loiter phase of ﬂight is calculated using the following expression from Raymer[4].983 W3 18 2. we design for a loiter time of 30 minutes. Therefore we get. chapter 3.(15).863 × 0. W5 W5 = = 0.2 Empty Weight Fraction To determine the empty weight ratio.97 × 0.5 × 0.

the gross weight Wg is obtained as Wg = 59.50320 59184 59184 0.06 Wg = (16A) We solve this equation by iteration Wg (guess) We /Wg (f rom eq.(16)) Wg (f rom eq.202(2.205 Wg Wpay = 0.503 Wg Wf = 0.292 Wg 24 . 175 kgf The critical weight ratios are We = 0.202Wg )−0.Hence. 17270 Wpay = 1 − Wf /Wg − We /Wg 1 − 0.50316 59175 Table 3: Iterative procedure for Wg Hence.50315 59174 59174 0.205 − 1.50316 59175 59175 0.(16A)) 60000 0.50274 59090 59090 0.

then the area would be large and there would be enough space for the landing gear and fuel tanks. Wing loading aﬀects stalling speed.surface texture and interference 25 . if the wing loading used for the initial layout is low. climb rate. In this section.3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading The thrust-to-weight ratio (T /W ) and the wing loading(W/S) are the two most important parameters aﬀecting aircraft performance.ﬂap geometry and span.Reynolds number. However it results in a heavier wing. the same takeoﬀ distance could be met with a high W/S along with a higher T /W .1 Landing Distance Consideration To decide the wing loading from landing distance consideration we need to choose the landing ﬁeld length.leading edge slot or slat geometry. maximum speed etc. Hence a trade-oﬀ is needed while choosing W/S and T /W . These are often the design drivers. sLand = 1425 m Next.airfoil shape. On the other hand. The Maximum lift coeﬃcient depends upon the wing geometry. Based on data collection of similar aircraft(Table A) the landing ﬁeld length is chosen to be 1425 m. Similarly. a higher thrust loading would result in more cost which is undesirable. A requirement for short takeoﬀ can be met by using a large wing (low W/S) with a relatively low T /W . we use diﬀerent criteria and optimize the wing loading and thrust loading. Wing loading and thrust-to-weight ratio are interconnected for a number of critical performance items. such as take-oﬀ distance. minimum fuel required and turn performance. 3. For example. Optimization of these parameters forms a major part of the design activities conducted after initial weight estimation. However it would also lead to enhanced climb performance. Optimization of W/S and T /W based on various considerations is carried out in the following subsections.takeoﬀ and landing distances.we choose the CLmax of the airplane.

from other parts of the aircraft such as the fuselage,nacelles or pylons. Raymer[4], chapter 5 provides a chart for CLmax as a function of Λc/4 for diﬀerent types of high lift devices(ﬁgure 5.3 of Raymer[4]). For our airplane we decided to use Fowler ﬂap and slat as the high lift devices. This gives us a CLmax of 2.5 for a Λc/4 = 25o . CLmax = 2.5 To calculate W/S based on landing considerations,we use the formula 1 W = ρVs2 CLmax S 2 The stalling speed Vs is estimated in the following way, sLand = 1425 m The approach speed (Va ) in knots is related to the landing distance(sLand ) in feet as, Va (in knots) = sLand = 128.34 knots = 64.17 ms−1 0.3 (17)

From the approach speed, the stalling speed can be calculated, Vs = Va = 49 ms−1 0.3 (18)

**Now, using this value for Vs in eq.(17), W S = 3743 N m−2
**

Land

**Since WLand = 0.85Wt.o the W/S at take-oﬀ is, W S =
**

t.o

1 W 0.85 S

= 4403 N m−2

Land

Allowing a 10 % variation in Vs we get a range of wing loading as 3639 < p < 5328 N/m2

26

3.2

**Maximum Speed(Vmax ) Consideration
**

Mmax = Mcr + 0.04

Generally the Mmax is determined as follows

**Hence,for our airplane, Mmax = 0.80 + 0.04 = 0.84 The drag polar is generally expressed as
**

2 CD = CD0 + KCL

(19)

where, K= CD0 for the airplane is given as CD0 = Cfe × Swet S (21) 1 πAe (20)

Swet /S = 6.33 from Fig 2.5 of Raymer[4]. 3.2.1 Estimation of K

We estimate ‘e’ from Roskam[6], chapter 2 1 1 1 = + + 0.05 e ewing ef use ewing = 0.84 for unswept wing of A = 9.3 and λ = 0.25. Hence,ewing for the swept wing is ewing = 0.84 cos(Λ − 5) = 0.84 cos(25 − 5) = 0.7893 1 ef use Hence, 1 1 = + 0.1 + 0.05 = 1.417 e 0.7893 e = 0.707 27 = 0.1 (23) (22)

1 = 0.0482 π × 9.3 × 0.707 To get CD0 we note from ﬁgure 3.6 of Raymer[4] that (L/D)max =18.This has already been used in section 2. K= (L/D)max = Hence, CD0 = Further, CD0 = Cf e gives, Cf e = Hence, the drag polar is

2 CD0 = 0.0161 + 0.0482CL

1 2 CD0 K

(24)

1 1 = = 0.0161 2 4K(L/D)max 4 × 0.0482 × 182 Swet S

(25)

0.0161 = 0.00254 6.33

To obtain the optimum W/S based on maximum speed,we the follow method given in Lebedinski[7], chapter IV of writing the drag polar as a function of p (=W/S) CD = F1 + F2 p + F3 p where, F1 = Cf e 1 + Sht Svt + S S Swet S = Cf e Kt

w 2

(26)

(27) (28) (29)

F2 =

(CDo − F1 ) W/S K q2

F3 =

To calculate F1 , F2 , F3 values for our airplane we proceed as follows.

28

89 m 2 29 .21 S Hence. Sht = 0.02 m2 • λ = 0.97 m bexposedwing = 15.52 S S Swet(exposed) S (30) W = Cf e To calculate (Swet(exposed) /S)W we need to obtain dimensions of the exposed wing. the chord at y = 1.47 − 0. From preliminary estimate in section 1 • S = 107.264y c(y) = cr − Taking fuselage diameter of 3.79 m.47 m • ct = 1. for the equivalent trapezoidal wing.3 • cr = 5.We proceed as follows. the chord distribution is given by cr − ct y b/2 = 5.31 S Svt = 0. Kt = 1 + CDo W Sht Svt + = 1.78 − 3.24 • A = 9.79 = 13.31 m • Λc/4 = 25◦ Hence.From our preliminary estimations .895 m is cr(exposed) = 4.

2(t/c)avg 1 Sexposedwing = (4.125) 87. The value of this slope is 0.1 at M = 0. Hence we need to estimate the drag polar (values of CDo and K) at Mmax .63 = 0.02 (31) F1 = 1.007124 We also know that the drag polar is 2 CD = 0.0181 + 0. To estimate the increase in CDo from M = 0.82 and M = 0.82 to M = 0.80.89 × 2 = 87. The drag divergence Mach number(MDD ) for the aircraft is ﬁxed at M = 0.0482CL (32) 30 .02 × 0.2(0.1 = 0. Hence. However better estimates are used in performance calculations presented later.value of K is retained as in subcritical ﬂow. (CDo )W = 0. Hence.004687 = 0.02 greater than Mcruise .82 which is 0.0025 × 200.Swet = 2Sexposed 1 + 1.004687 107.0482CL F2 = CDo − F1 = 1.632 × 10−6 m2 /N W/S The above drag polar will not be valid at M greater than the Mcruise .63 m2 Hence.31) × 13. From the data on B 787 available in website[2] we observe that the variation in K is not signiﬁcant in the range M = 0.23 = 200.0161 + 0.97 + 1.52 × 0. Consequently the drag polar that is valid at Mmax is estimated as 2 CD = 0.002.84.23 m2 2 Assuming (t/c)avg of 12. This would ensure that there is no wave drag at Mcruise of 0.84. the increase in CDo is estimated as 0.82. we make a reasonable assumption that the slope of the CDo Vs M curve remains constant in the region between M = 0.5% Swet(exposedwing) = 2 1 + 1.84.80 to M = 0.

009124 = 4873.5 × 0. any p between p1 and p2 would be acceptable from Vmax considerations with a maximum of 5% deviation from optimum. (33) gives two values of p viz.1m/s 1 2 qmax = ρVmax = 0. Hence at Mmax F1 = 0.06022 Allowing a 5 % extra thrust and using the new tVmax in eq.31N/m2 3. we minimize the thrust required for Vmax .0482 = 3.(33) as tVmax = 0.952 To obtain the optimum value of W/S.2 = 248.95 2 0.84 × 295.The change in the CDo is largely due to change in the zero lift drag of the wing. we get poptimum = poptimum = The tVmax value at popt F1 F3 F1 + F2 + F3 p p (33) 0. 3344 < p < 7101 N/m2 31 .84 × 10−10 m4 /N 2 11200. The relation between t(ie T /W ) and p is F3 = tVmax = qmax On minimizing tVmax .84 × 10−10 is found from eq. Vmax = Mmax × speed of sound at hcruise = 0.009124 The value of F3 depends on the dynamic pressure at Vmax . horizontal tail and vertical tail.364 × 2482 = 11200. p1 = 3344 N m−2 p2 = 7101 N m−2 Thus. This means that the change in CDo aﬀects F1 value alone.

For a given V. This tR/C is converted to tsR/C by using the plots provided in Reference 1.The thrust required for climb at chosen ﬂight speed(V ) is related to (R/C) in the following way(section 4.13. a table is prepared for diﬀerent values of velocity(Table 4) and the corresponding tR/C is obtained using eq.67 m/s) which is typical for passenger airplanes. F3 is a function of the dynamic pressure.the tR/C is converted to tsR/C . 32 . tR/c = But. popt = F1 F3 Therefore.4 of text). chapter 9.3.5 as a function of velocity and altitude. These plots provide the climb thrust variation for engine with bypass ratio 6. Our motive is to ﬁnd the minimum sea level static thrust (tsR/c ) for various values of V and then choose the minimum amongst the minima.2.(37) and the corresponding value of F3 . Using these plots.3 (R/C)max consideration The value for (R/C)max at sea level was chosen as 700 m/min (11. CD is CD = F1 + F2 p + F3 p2 1 q = ρ0 σV 2 2 ∴ tR/C = R/C 1 V2 + ρ0 σ (F1 + F2 p + F3 p2 ) V 2 p (35) (36) (37) R/C q + CD V p (34) The ﬂight speed for optimum climb performance is not high and values of F1 and F2 correspond to their values for M < Mcruise .

2.5 of [5]) Wf = R 3.1637 0.1893 0.1343 0.2641 0.2868 0. F2 .2507 0.007124 F2 = 1.V (m/s) 80 100 120 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 popt 1507 2355 3391 4615 5298 6028 6805 7629 8500 9419 tR/C 0.1345 0.632 × 10−6 33 .1487 0.2691 0.2554 0.2483 0. for 3391 < p < 6805 N/m2 the climb performance is near the optimum. 3.6 ρ0 F1 √ T SF C σq + F2 + F3 p 2 p (38) The values of F1 .2617 0.1354 tsR/C 0.2510 0.1356 0.4 Based on Minimum Fuel for Range (Wfmin ) In cruise ﬂight.1346 0.1373 0.2469 0.14 0. F3 corresponding to cruise conditions are as follows F1 = 0. This provides a range of values of p as given below p1 = 3391 N/m2 p2 = 6793 N/m2 Therefore.2780 Table 4: Variation of tR/C with p for (R/C)max We observe that the value of tsR/C remains low and almost constant for a range of V values from 120 to 170 m/s. the weight of the fuel used (Wf ) is related to the range(R) and wing loading(p) as follows(section 4.

6 km we choose the absolute ceiling to be Hmax = 11.59 N/m2 0. the ﬂight is possible at only one speed.(38) we get two values p1 and p2 as p1 = 2676 N/m2 p2 = 5700 N/m2 Thus. we get W f min as W f min = 0.2.2 = 0. 34 .5 Based on Absolute Ceiling At absolute ceiling.2 = 236.007124 = 3905.8 × 295.(38) we minimize W f and obtain poptimum as poptimum = poptimum = F1 F3 (39) 0.67 × 10−10 m4 /N 2 10159.3 m/s qcruise = 0. To ﬁnd the tHmax .32 = 10159.Vcruise = Mcruise × 295.1590 and using eq.5 × 0. W fmin = 0.84 N/m2 4.1514 Allowing an excess fuel of 5 % i.59 F3 = Using eq. any p within p1 and p2 would be acceptable from the point of view of minimizing W f .0482 = 4.6hr−1 .6 km.3 of [5]).(38) along with R = 4000 km and T SF C = 0.5 × ρ × V 2 = 0.e. Observing the trend of Hmax as hcruise + 0.67 × 10−10 Using this value of p in eq. we solve the following two equations(section 4.364 × 236. 2676 < p < 5700N/m2 3.

CL value corresponding to ﬂight at (L/D)max is given by CL = qhmax = CDo = K 0.06 = CL 0.05581 Allowing a 5 % variation in Thrust. we get 35 . popt = 5500 N m−2 as it should be. thmax corresponding to poptimum is thmax = 0.632 × 10−6 th = (40) (41) In the absence of a prescribed velocity at Hmax .(41).(40) and (41).05302 thmax2 = 0.016 = 0. we get thmax1 = 0.048 (42) (W/S) 5500 = 9532. using in eq.577 The solution for popt is obtained by solving eqs.577 0.05860 The solutions to eq.007124 F2 = 1. the velocity corresponding to ﬂight at (L/D)max is taken to calculate qmax .(40) with the new thmax values are p1 = 4567 N m−2 p2 = 6547 N m−2 Similarly.4K(F1 + F2 p) F1 + F2 th = 2qhmax p The F1 and F2 values corresponding to this case are F1 = 0.

6805 Wf 2676 . It may be pointed out that the weight of wing structure is about 12% of Wg . Hence we examine the advantage of choosing a higher wing loading than that indicated by minimum fuel requirement.6201 Table 5: Choice of (W/S) From the table.649 . According to Raymer[4].p1 = 4942 N m−2 p2 = 6201 N m−2 From the above four values. chapter 15.7101 (R/C)max 3391 . the weight of the wing is proportional to S 0. the ﬁnal lower and upper bounds from the ceiling considerations are p1 = 4942 N m−2 p2 = 6201 N m−2 4942 < p < 6201 N/m2 3.5328 Vmax 3344 . the W/S must be higher.6 Summary of Constraints We now tabulate the various constraints on the choice of W/S Performance Criteria Allowable range of W/S in (N m−2 ) sLand 3639 . we see that the allowable range of W/S values is 4942 < p < 5328 N/m2 3. for passenger airplanes. Thus a wing with lower area will be lighter and for lower wing area. 36 .5700 hmax 4942 .7 Consideration of Wing Weight (Ww ) The weight of the wing depends on its area.

instead of 3906 N/m2 .4 of Raymer(Reference 1.CLt.8 × CLmax = 0. We take σ = 1 (take-oﬀ at sea level).o (T /W )} for this ﬁeld length is 180. the saving in the Wg would be around 2. the weight of the wing would decrease by a factor of 3906 5700 0. To arrive at the ﬁnal choice we consider the take-oﬀ requirement and choose highest wing loading which would permit take-oﬀ within permissible distance without excessive (T/W) requirement.Substituting these values we get. Thus it is advantageous to have higher W/S. 3.3.5 = 2. With (W/S) in lb/f t2 . From data collection.11) the take-oﬀ parameter {(W/S)/σCLt.o = 0. 3. the take-oﬀ distance. However this higher wing loading will result in an increase in the fuel by 5% of Wg . 37 . If the wing loading of 5700 N/m2 is chosen. the thrust needed for various design requirements is obtained. In the present case.The optimum W/S from range consideration is 3906 N/m2 whereas with a 5% increase in Wf .2 lb/f t2 = 5195 N m−2 It is reassuring that this value of p lies within the permissible values summarized in Table 5. Generally these types of aircraft have (T/W) of 0.6%.6 .8 × 2.649 = 0.1 = 1. the wing loading could go up to 5700 N/m2 . balanced ﬁeld length. the saving in the wing weight will be 2. pf inal = 108.2 = 1%.8 Choosing a W/S We see from the Table 5 that a wide range of p is permissible which will still satisfy various requirement with permissible deviations from the optimum. These requirements decide the choice of engine. Wf would be around 20% and hence 5% of Wf means an increase in the weight by 0. From ﬁgure 5. Thus by increasing W/S from 3906 to 5700 N/m2 . is assumed to be 2150 m.9 Thrust Requirements After selecting the W/S for the aircraft.782 Taking weight of the wing as 12% of Wg .6%.05 × 0.

3 ∗ Wg = 174.5.252 R/C (47) In our case.1 Requirement for Vmax We use the chosen value of p in the following equation tVmax = qmax ( F1 + F2 + F3 p) p (43) and get the thrust required for Vmax at cruise altitude as T W = 0. for a turbo fan engine with bypass ratio of 6.3kN 3.334 W 0.10 Requirements for (R/C)max As in the case for Vmax .0602 = = 0.9.11 Take-Oﬀ Thrust Requirements The take of (T /W ) is taken to be 0. we get T W = 0. tR/c = R/C 1 V2 + ρ0 σ (F1 + F2 p + F3 p2 ) V 2 p (46) Substituting appropriate values. chapter 9.18 In our case. we use our ﬁnal design choice for (W/S) in the following equation.3.2 kN 38 .3(choice is motivated by similar aircraft). the sea level static thrust is T 0. this would mean a thrust requirement of Treq = 146. this would mean a Thrust requirement of Treq = 193.9 kN (45) 3. This implies a thrust requirement of Tto = 0.0602 Mmax (44) Referring to engine charts in Jenkinson[8].

9 kN As we have adopted a twin engine design. the engine curves are presented below. 39 .95 kN/engine We look for an engine which supplies this thrust and has a TSFC of 0.5. this means a per engine thrust of Tmax = 96. Thrust requirements occurs from Take oﬀ considerations. the variation of thrust and TSFC with speed and altitude are required. Tmax = 193. 3.6hr−1 and bypass ratio of around 6. chapter 9 has given non dimensional charts for turbo fan engines with diﬀerent bypass ratios. chapter 9 and website[1]. Jenkinson[8].12 Engine Choice From the previous section. we see that the max. we chose CFM56-2B model of turbofan with a sea level static thrust of 97.3. Finally. Choosing the charts for bypass ratio = 6.9 kN as this engine satisﬁes nearly all our requirements. Some of the engines with performance close to these numbers are taken from Jenkinson[8].13 Engine Characteristics For performance analysis.5 and sea level static thrust of 97.9kN .

40 Figure 5: Cruise Thrust per engine for various altitudes .

5) .(Bypass ratio = 6.41 Figure 6: Variation of Climb Thrust with Altitude and Mach No.

Dihedral 8. the drag divergence Mach number(MDD ) is an important consideration.002 above the value at low subsonic Mach numbers.1 Wing Design Introduction The weight and the wing loading of the airplane have been obtained in sections 2 and 3 as 59175 kgf (579915 N ) and 5195 N/m2 . These in turn inﬂuence stalling speed.63 m2 . Aspect ratio 3.4 4. CDmin .2 Airfoil Selection The airfoil shape inﬂuences CLmax . For high subsonic airplanes. fuel consumption during cruise. turning performance and weight of the airplane. Taper ratio 5. the factors aﬀecting the choice of parameters are mentioned and then the choices are eﬀected. It may be recalled that (MDD ) is the Mach number at which the increase in the drag coeﬃcient is 0. Vertical location In the following subsections. A supercritical airfoil is designed to increase MDD . NASA has carried out tests on several supercritical airfoils and recommends the use of NASA-SC(2) series airfoil with appropriate thickness ratio and camber. 4. Cmac and stall pattern. The wing design involves choosing the following parameters. These give wing area as 111. 1. 42 . Twist 6. CLopt . Sweep 4. Airfoil selection 2. Incidence 7.

we get Clcruise = 0. stall characteristics. maximum lift.512 For choice of thickness ratio and wing sweep. 1. A higher t/c implies a lower critical Mach number but also a lower wing weight. ∆CDwave is 0.8. the change in MDD due to sweep is given as 1 − MDDΛ Λ = (51) 1− 90 1 − MΛ=0 43 . Since we have chosen A = 9.7. We interpolate and obtain the curve for Clopt = 0.Thus we need to choose an optimum t/c for the airfoil.8 at 11 km altitude. The MDD for the wing can be estimated in the following manner. we take Clopt = 0. Clopt = 0.2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio and Wing Sweep (49) Airfoil thickness ratio(t/c) has a direct inﬂuence on drag. For general design the airfoil is chosen in such a way that the CLcruise of the airplane is equal to the Clopt of the airfoil.5. In order to ensure that the drag divergence Mach number is greater than Mcruise .4.5. 0.1 .0 are available in the aforesaid report.1 Design Lift Coeﬃcient The airfoil will have a Clopt at which it’s drag coeﬃcient is minimum. CLcruise = (W/S) qcruise (48) Using the value of (W/S) = 5195 N m−2 and the q corresponding to M = 0.4. Curves for Clopt = 0. we choose MDD as 0. the second term in the above equation will not contribute to MDD .2. This is based on the consideration that there should be no increase in drag at Mcruise . structural weight and critical Mach number. chapter 15. NASA[3] gives experimental results for several super-critical airfoils with diﬀerent (t/c) and Clopt . 4. Further from Hoerner[9].3.82.2. MDD = (MDD )a/f + ∆MA + ∆MΛ (50) where ∆MA and ∆MΛ are corrections for inﬂuences of the aspect ratio and the sweep.002 at MDD and the slope of the CD Vs M curve around MDD is 0. The change in MDD with A is almost zero for A > 8.5 has been chosen and the cruise Mach number is 0.

8 and similar values of Λc/4 . 4. 1− Λ 1 − 0. the wing span would be √ b = AS = 32. CDi and wing weight.74 ∴ Λ = 27.3 based on trends indicated by data collection.3% at the tip.3.3 4.(51) we obtain Λ which would give MDDΛ of 0. A higher Aspect ratio would also result in poor riding quality in turbulent weather.5.82. The value of CLα decreases as A decreases. Considering the features for Airbus A310 and Boeing B 767 which have Mcr = 0. For example. λ and Λ.The supercritical airfoil with (t/c) = 14% has MDD = 0.2% at root.1 Other Parameters Aspect Ratio The aspect ratio aﬀects CLα .8% at spanwise location of the thickness break and (t/c) of 10. A high A increases the span of the wing which in turn requires more space in the hangar. From the data collection this location is at 34% of semispan. Correspondingly. the (t/c)root is increased and the (t/c)tip is decreased. However. CLα = A (Cl )a/f A+2 α (52) The induced drag coeﬃcient can be expressed as CDi = 2 CL (1 + δ) πA (53) where δ depends on A. it is decided that the variation of (t/c) along span be such that (t/c) of 15.82 = 90 1 − 0. However at the present stage of design we choose A = 9. (t/c) of 11. in the case of an elliptic wing.74 at CLopt of 0. to reduce structural weight. Thickness break location is the spanwise location upto which the trailing edge is straight.7◦ The average thickness has been arrived at as 14 %.22m 44 . Using this in eq. All these factors need careful optimization.

Lower the taper ratio. Taper ratio aﬀects the • Induced drag • Weight • Tip stalling Induced drag is low for taper ratios between 0. a taper ratio of 0.3. 2S = 5.34 m 2 (1 + λ + λ2 ) c = cr = 3.3.5 Wing Twist We have assumed a linear twist of 3o .3-0.3.Dihedral of the wing aﬀects the lateral stability of the airplane.3 Root and Tip Chords Root chord and tip chord of the equivalent trapezoidal wing can now be evaluated.4 Dihedral The Dihedral is the angle of the wing with respect to the horizontal when seen in the front view .5. 4.24 has been chosen based on the trends of current swept wing airplanes.59 m b(1 + λ) ct = cr λ = 1.4. lower is the weight. Hence we choose a reasonable value for the dihedral as Γ = 5o 4.76 m 4.3.9 m 3 (1 + λ) cr = Location of the quarter chord of the mac from wing leading edge at the root is 4. A swept wing also has higher structural weight than unswept wing. Since the present airplane has a swept wing.2 Taper Ratio Wing taper ratio is deﬁned as the ratio between the tip chord and the centerline root chord.Since there is no simple technique for arriving at the dihedral angle that takes all the considerations into eﬀect we need to initially choose a dihedral angle based on data collected(Table A). 45 .

28 m Figure 7: Plan View of Cranked Wing 46 . we see that the trailing edge is ’straight’ for a part of the span.4 Cranked Wing Design If we observe the design of current high subsonic airplanes.4.44 m Span of wing portion with unswept trailing edge = 0. This type of design is called a wing with cranked trailing edge. The value of the span upto which the trailing edge is straight has to be obtained by optimization. more space for fuel and landing gear 2. Root chord of the cranked wing is crcranked = 7. in the inboard region. A larger chord in the inboard region has the following advantages 1.35 × 32. the lift distribution is changed such that more lift is produced in the inboard section which reduce the bending moment in the root. the trailing edge is made unswept till 35% of semi span. However at the present stage of design. based on the current trends.22 = 11.

This can be attributed to the fact that the airplane is ﬂexible. we get CLα = 6. Wing incidence angle is chosen to minimize drag at some operating conditions.6 Vertical Location of Wing The wing vertical location for the designed airplane has been chosen to be a low wing conﬁguration which is typical of similar airplanes. chapter 4.8◦ . chapter 12. Usually wing incidence is ultimately set using wind tunnel data.However. CLcruise = 0. β2 = 1 − M 2 η = 1 d F = 1. 47 . Substituting the values yields a value of iw which is negative.5 Wing Incidence(iw ) The wing incidence angle is the angle between wing reference chord and fuselage reference line. The value is −5.the fuselage is at the angle of attack for minimum drag(usually at zero angle of attack).4. iw = 1◦ which is the value recommended in Raymer[4].usually cruise. CLα = 2+ where.07 1 + b Sexp = area of exposed wing Substituting various values.The incidence angle is chosen such that when the wing is at the correct angle of attack for the selected design condition. 2 (54) Sexp )(F ) A2 β 2 Sref tan2 Λmax ) 4 + η2 (1 + β2 2πA ( (55) 4. for an initial estimate for our preliminary design we proceed as follows CLcruise = CLα (iw − α0L ) In the present case. Hence the value of iw is chosen from similar airplanes.512 CLα is computed using the following formula in Raymer[4].276 rad−1 αL=0 for the airfoil was calculated using camber line of the supercritical airfoil with 14% thickness ratio.

1 Fuselage and Tail Layout Introduction The fuselage layout is important in the design process as the length of the airplane depends on this. nose. Trailing edge : Fowler ﬂaps. c lf = aWo (56) 48 . Leading edge : full span slats.4.17 S Sslat = 0.22m as obtained from wing design. chapter 6 provides a relation between gross weight and length of fuselage as follows.2 Initial Estimate of Fuselage Length By observing the lf /b of similar airplanes. payload compartment and tail fuselage. we get the ﬁrst estimate of lf for the present case. We choose Sf lap = 0.7 Areas of Flaps and Ailerons These areas are chosen based on the initial data collection of similar aircraft. The Fuselage of a passenger airplane can be divided into four basic sections viz. the Fuselage length is 33.03 S 5 5. the fuselage design is carried out by choosing the various parameters.The length and diameter of the fuselage are related to the seating arrangement. In this section. cockpit.1 S Sail = 0. Using b = 32. 5.05. 2. Raymer[4].83 m. The lf /b value chosen is 1. 1.

3 Nose and Cockpit .67 and c = 0. seating arrangement (number abreast). instruments and controls. standards have been prescribed by Raymer (Reference 1.43. therefore the wind screen and front geometry will be symmetrical about the aircraft longitudinal center line. The aircraft must be capable of being ﬂown from either pilot seat position. the ﬂight deck of various similar airplanes are considered and the following value of lnose /lf and is chosen.5 m 5. seat width.Front Fuselage The front fuselage accommodates the forward looking radar in the nose section. The layout of the ﬂight deck and the speciﬁed pilot window geometry is often the starting point of the overall fuselage layout.4 Passenger Cabin Layout Two major geometrical parameters that specify the passenger cabin are Cabin Diameter and Cabin Length.5 m). The front fuselage proﬁle presents a classical design compromise between a smooth shape for low drag and the need to have ﬂat sloping windows to give good visibility.03 lf For the cockpit length (lcockpit ). an lf of 31. Modern ’glass’ cockpit displays and side stick controllers have transformed the layout of the ﬂight deck from the traditional aircraft conﬁguration.205 lbf . and the nose undercarriage. For the current design.where Wo is in lbs and lf in f t. lcockpit = 2. lcockpit for the two member crew is chosen as 100 inches (2. Development of electronic displays has transformed the traditional layout of the ﬂight deck. For a jet transport airplane. lnose = 0. This is in good agreement of the value obtained based on data collection.chapter 9). 49 . seat pitch. aisle width and number of aisles. a = 0. These are in turn decided by more speciﬁc details like number of seats.83 m is obtained. 5. Using Wo = 59175 × 2.11. the ﬂight deck with associated windscreen. Anthropometric data for ﬂight crews has provided the basis for the arrangement of pilot’s seats.

The main decision to be taken is the number of seats abreast and the aisle arrangement. A circular shell reacts the internal pressure loads by hoop tension.yet the resulting shape must provide a comfortable and ﬂexible cabin interior which will appeal to the customer airlines.Design of the cabin cross section is further complicated by the need to provide diﬀerent classes like ﬁrst class. This makes the circular section eﬃcient and therefore lowest in structural weight. This problem is overcome by the use of several interconnecting circular sections to form the cross-sectional layout.2 Since the business class has a 4 abreast seating arrangement. The parameters for the currently designed airplane are arrived at by considering similar airplanes(Table A).The cabin length is found out by using the seat pitch for each of the classes.The number of seats across will ﬁx the number of rows in the cabin and thereby the fuselage length.2 Cabin length Following the trend displayed by current aircraft. 50 .4. economy class etc.the number of rows required will be 3 and the economy class will have 23 rows. The overall size must be kept small to reduce aircraft weight and drag. we choose to have two classes viz Economy class and Business class.The total number of seats(150) is distributed as 138 seats in the economy class and 12 seats in the business class. Cabin parameters are chosen based on standards for similar airplanes.2 Business class 38 22 24 4 1 2.4. Height (in m) 2. We choose a circular cross section for the fuselage. 5. The various parameters chosen are as follows Parameter Economy Class Seat Pitch (in inches) 32 Seat width (in inches) 20 Aisle width (in inches) 22 Seats abreast 6 Number of Aisles 1 Max.5. However a fully circular section may result in too much unusable volume above or below the cabin space.1 Cabin Cross Section The shape of the fuselage cross section is dictated by the structural requirements for pressurization. business class.

aisle width we calculate the internal diameter of the cabin. the structural thickness is given by t = 0.4.25 m.We have also chosen the ratios of nose and tail length with respect to lf as 3% and 25%.02df + 1 = 0. chapter 9. Based on data collected for similar aircraft we choose the ratio ltail /lf as 0. Thus cabin and cockpit length form 72% of lf .093× 2 = 3.6 Total Fuselage Length The cabin length and cockpit length have been decided to be 32. Hence the fuselage length is calculated as 23.3 Cabin Diameter Using the number of seats abreast.4 38 2. The lower side of the proﬁle must provide adequate clearance for aircraft when rotation during take oﬀ.25.85 Hence.72 = 33 m.The lengths of 51 .of rows 138 23 12 3 Seat Pitch (in) Cabin length(m) 32 18.3 m respectively.85 = 21.5 Rear Fuselage The rear fuselage proﬁle is chosen to provide a smooth.59 m.08 m and 3. 5.72 in = 0. 5. 5.of seats No.4+0.093 m Therefore the external diameter of the fuselage is obtained as 3.75/0.seat width. df (internal) = 22 × 1 + 19 × 6 = 136 in = 3.4 m According to the standards prescribed by Raymer[4].the total cabin length will be 18. The rear fuselage should also house the auxillary power unit(APU).02 × 136 + 1 = 3. low drag shape which supports the tail surfaces.4 + 2.Class Economy Business No.

various parts of the fuselage are indicated below N ose Cockpit Cabin Rear length length length length T otal = = = = = 1 m 2.7 Tail surfaces The type and area of the tail surfaces are important in determining the stability of the airplane.7 Taper ratio 0.31 × 111. All these parameters have to be decided for both the horizontal and vertical tail. Some of the important parameters that decide the aerodynamic characteristics of the tail are area ratio (St /S).21 Aspect ratio 5 1.44 m2 • Span The span of the horizontal and vertical tail (bh and bv ) are given as bh = bv = Ah S h Av S v (57) (58) 52 .26 0.31 0.5 m 21.21 × 111. From data collected on similar airplanes.25 m 8. A conventional tail arrangement is chosen.31 • Area The Areas of the horizontal and vertical tail(Sh and Sv ) are calculated as Sh = 0. tail arm.63 = 34.61 m2 Sv = 0. tail span etc. Parameter Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail Area ratio (St /S) 0.25 m 33 m 5. we choose the following values for the tail parameters.63 = 23. tail volume ratio(VH and VV ).

09 53 .The value of the tail arm is chosen based on data collection. ratio.18 VV = 0.76 m lh = 14.15 m bV = 6. Sh lh Sc Sv lv = Sb (59) (60) VH = 1.31 m • Root and tip chords The chord lengths of the horizontal and vertical tail are obtained as crh = crv cth ctv • Tail arm Tail arm is the distance between the wing aerodynamics center and the tail(horizontal or vertical) aerodynamic center.7. we get bH = 13. Choosing lh as 45% of lf and lv as 42% of lf yield.18 m bh (1 + λh ) 2Sv = 5.09 m = λcrv = 1.86 m VH = VV Hence. 2Sh = 4.Taking ARH = 5 and ARV = 1.85 m lv = 13.67 m = bv (1 + λv ) = λcrh = 1.

2 5.9 Landing Gear Arrangement One of the principal moving parts on the aircraft is the landing gear. The engines are attached to the lower side of the wing using pylons to reduce drag. thereby reducing the length of the fuel line. The values of the parameters(shown below)were based on data collected from similar aircraft. the engine location is ﬁxed at 34% of the semi span.A conventional tricycle landing gear is chosen based on trend followed by similar aircraft.3 54 . It must be retractable to reduce drag during ﬂight. From the data collection of similar airplanes. Parameter Wheel base (in m) Track length (in m) Turning radius (in m) Value 13.5. The important parameters of this type of landing gear are wheel track. provide good ride dynamics during taxiing and safe energy absorption at touch down. A conventional wing mounted engine is chosen as it facilitates periodic maintenance in an industry where an unscheduled downtime could mean huge losses to the airliners. small. wheel base and turning radius. This must be light.8 19. 5. The other reason for choosing a wing mounted engine is the fuel is stored in the wings itself. So housing of the landing gear is a space constraint.8 Engine Location The type of Engine mounting and it’s location play a major role in deciding the overall drag coeﬃcient of the airplane.

and can be viewed as the weight of the parts of the airplane that the manufacturer makes as opposed those of items bought and installed. It has become normal practice in aircraft design to list the various components of aircraft mass in a standard format. avionics etc from the empty weight. economic and operational aspects).The components are grouped in convenient subsections as shown below. layout.DCPR weight is important for cost estimation.In the preliminary design stage. A separate design organization(weights department)is employed to assess and control weight. Tail(horizontal and vertical including controls) 3.estimates have to made from historical statistical data of all the component parts of the aircraft from similar airplanes. at each stage of the design. structures. engines.1 Aircraft mass statement The weight of the entire airplane can be sub-divided into empty weight and useful load. brakes.1 Structures Group 1.a check is made on the expected total mass of the completed aircraft. batteries. As parts are manufactured and the aircraft prototype reaches completion it is possible to check the accuracy of the estimates by weighing each component and where necessary instigate weight reduction programmes. Wing(including control surfaces) 2. propulsion. 6. 6. tires. starters.6 Estimation of Component Weights and C. equipments. environmental.1. The empty weight can be further subdivided into • Structures group • Propulsion group • Equipment group DCPR(Defense Contractor Planning Report) weight is taken as the weight obtained after deducting weights of wheels.G Location Aircraft weight is a common factor which links diﬀerent design activities (aerodynamics. airworthiness.To this end. Body(or fuselage) 55 .

Landing gear (main and nose units) 6. Exhaust system 5. Surface controls 6.ﬁre protection and safety systems) 56 . Nacelles 5. Induction system 4. Instruments and navigation equipment 4. Furnishing 8. Engine(s)(dry weight) 2.1.3 Fixed equipment group 1. Hydraulic systems 5. Oxygen system 10. Oil system and cooler 6.1. Starting system 9. Air conditioning and anti-icing 9.2 Propulsion Group 1. Flight control systems(sometimes included in structural group) 3. Fuel system 7. Miscellaneous(e. Electrical systems 6.4. Auxiliary power unit 2. Accessory gearbox and drives 3.g. Thrust reversers 6. Engine controls 8. Avionics systems 7.

c.G locations of wing. Using these equations.G is taken to be at 42% of it’s length.g.a.We tabulate the weights and the corresponding C.g of tail is 15 % behind the a.G of the entire airplane with full payload and fuel is around the quarter chord of the m.3. Remark • Using data for equivalent trapezoidal wing in section 4.In tabulating the results.The engine C.G location at 42% of the fuselage length.Most aircraft design textbooks contain a set of equations empirically derived based on existing aircraft.c is at 4.G from the root chord was measured for various airplanes and we chose a distance of 2 m. • Noting that the tail arm is 14.G Travel Wing Location on Fuselage The wing longitudinal location is decided based on the consideration the C. The quarter chord of m.The fuselage C. the weights of various individual components are calculated.g. the location of wing c. is at 5. from leading edge 57 . 6.G location was taken to be at 40% of it’s length.c.c.we next proceed to determine the weights of these components. horizontal tail and vertical tail are at 40% of the respective m.The nose wheel was placed at 14% of the fuselage length and the main landing gear position was determined by using the wheelbase from section 5. For the present design.85 m and that the c.1 C.2 Weights of Various Components After making the classiﬁcation between various groups and listing the components in each group.a.All other components were taken to have a net C.3 6.G Location and C.76 m behind the leading edge of root chord.6.G locations of various components and then apply moment equilibrium about the nose of the airplane in order to solve for Xl. we choose to follow equations prescribed in Appendix 8.The distance of the engine C.The tabulated values are given below..1 of [5]. the distance of horizontal tail c.a.we assume that the C.e (the distance of leading edge of root chord of the wing from the nose).34 m behind the leading edge of the root chord. In the preliminary design stages it is not possible to know the size of individual aircraft components in great detail but it is possible to use prediction methods that progressively become more accurate as the aircraft geometry is developed.

c.g is bound to shift by a certain amount in this case.the C.The moment calculations were performed and the new c.56 m behind leading edge of the root chord of wing.14.76 By applying moment equilibrium about the nose of the airplane.g of the fuel to be at the quarter chord of the m.Therefore the c.g shift is 14.86 1160.56 5659.c.c of the wing(where the c.19 Xle +2 363.94 Xle +20. The C.05 m.the c. of vertical tail is at 19.a.g of payload is not at the c.28% of m. In a similar way. 58 .G of the airplane lies at 14.g shift in this case.18 4.the fuel contribution to the weight is not present.the fuel as well as the payload contribution are not present.g location was obtained as 14. 6.82 7421.88 Xle +4.G shift is 0%. Hence. Hence the c.86 12130.G Location from Nose(m) 5855.4.g of the entire airplane. since we have assumed that the c.61 m from the nose.05 746.22 Xle +19.of root chord of wing is 20.G Travel for Critical Cases Full Payload and No Fuel For the case of full payload and no fuel.4 6.However.63 = 0.41 Xle +5.3 m.g shift is +7.13 59175 Xle +4.09 13.25 17.4.34 6606. Component Wing Fuselage Horizontal tail Vertical tail Engine group Nose Wheel Main landing gear Fixed equipment total Fuel Payload Gross Weight Weight(kg) C.we obtain location of wing leading edge at the root to be 9.g.a.93 .g of the entire airplane has been positioned)there will be no c.85 m from the nose of the airplane.62 1961. 6.76 17270 14.1 C.Since the c.60 13.93 m.2 No Payload and No Fuel For this case.

90% of passengers can be concentrated in the front and 70% in the rear. Hence. 59 .3 No Payload and Full fuel For this case.84 m.Therefore the c. 6.Performing the calculations yields the value of x to be 90%.63 = 0.g location with Full payload and full fuel .g shift of 7.5% is produced.g is bound to shift. the c.14.4.17% • For a c.the c.5 Summary • Wing location(leading edge of root of trapezoidal wing) .4 Payload distribution for 15% c.a. We assume the percentage of payload to be x and also assume the payload c. 6.On performing calculations.g to be at x% of the passenger cabin length.g travel for No Payload and No Fuel .g shift of 15% have been calculated.we obtain the new c.c.we go on to obtain the maximum payload that can be concentrated in the front portion of the passenger cabin such that a c.17% of the m.85 m • c.14.we also obtain the maximum payload that can be concentrated at the rear half of the passenger cabin resulting in a c.6.5.28% • c.Hence.61 m • c.g shift of 15% is acceptable in general for commercial airplanes.g location.g travel of 7.g shift is +5. a total c.g location to be 14.84 . On performing calculations we obtain the value of x as 70%.g locations for various critical cases and payload distribution for c.g shift of 15%.g shift is 14.9.4. Similarly.5% on either side of original c. Hence the c.21 m.g travel According to Lebedenski[7].7.since there is no payload.g travel for No Payload and full Fuel .

c − dCm dCL + F us. 60 . Even though the vehicle might be statically stable. (Section 9. Cmcg .2 Aft Center of gravity limit For the “stick free” case and for small angles of attack. 7. • The tail should be large enough and and its elevator powerful enough to enable the pilot rotate the airplane during the take-oﬀ run to the required angle of attack.thereby making it impossible to restore the equilibrium.The basic requirement for static longitudinal stability of any airplane is a negative slope of the curve of the pitching moment coeﬃcient.V we have the following equation.N ac at d V ηt 1− aw dα 1− Chατ dCm + Chδ dCl power (61) The value of xc.but also that the motions following a disturbance from equilibrium be such as to restore the equilibrium.since it is the c.g )af t = xa.1 Control Surfaces Stability and Controllability The ability of a vehicle to maintain its equilibrium is termed stability and the inﬂuence which the pilot or control system can exert on the equilibrium is termed its controllability.This condition is termed as the Nose wheel Lift-oﬀ condition.2. 7. it is possible that the oscillations following a disturbance might increase in magnitude with each oscillation. Dynamic stability requires that the vehicle be not only statically stable.2 7.2.dCmcg /dCL will be negative for all anticipated center of gravity positions. • An elevator should be provided so that the pilot will be able to trim the airplane(maintain Cm = 0) at all anticipated values of CL .CL .2 of [5]) (xc.g from above equation is termed the “stick-free neutral point”. versus lift coeﬃcient.g location at which the static stability is neutral.1 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control Speciﬁcations • The horizontal tail must be large enough to insure that the static longitudinal stability criterion.the following expression for the aft center of gravity limit in terms of the tail-size parameter.7 7.

aw =6.The pitching moment will be the greatest when the airplane is at CLmax when the airplane is landing and ground eﬀects decrease the downwash at the tail. limit is not generally dependent on maintaining stability.7.6 × aw = dα πA 61 (64) . As the c.g is moved forward .g by assuming the airplane trimmed(Cmcg = 0) at CLmax as follows(Section 9.0119 from graph 1-9:1 of K. The equation of pitching moments may be solved for the position of the most forward c.the stability contribution xc. dCm dCL = f us 0.2 of [5]) αw − Cm δ δemax + CLmax − iw + it Cmac(f laps) + Cm(f us) + Cm(power) + τ Cm δ (62) (xcg )f orward = xac − G 7.In order to keep the airplane in equilibrium as the c.9 × 0.the elevator must be capable of trimming out the resulting negative pitching moment.g.1036 111.5 on wing design.g is moved forward.Wood[10].4 • Determination of initial parameters ( dCm )F us dC L dCm dCL = F us 2 Kf W f L f Scaw (63) The value of Kf is obtained as 0.592 × 33 = 0.1095 The contribution of nacelle to (dCm /dCL ) is neglected.g − xa. • d /dα d 114.3 Forward center of Gravity Limit The forward c.2.0119 × 3.D.thereby increasing the static stability.2.276 /radian = 0.c of the wing becomes more and more negative .63 × 3. Therefore.1095 /degree from the value obtained in section 4.

For the designed airplane we make an estimate of tp to be 0.027/radian = 0.57/radian = 0. (∆CL )f laps = 1. αW g = αW g = 10.1((for height of a. k was obtained as 1. • awg is the lift curve slope of the wing close to the ground. The awg is obtained by adding the ground eﬀect to the (aw )landing obtained.Hence (awg )landing = 1.16◦ 62 (66) .19 and hence gives a value of (aw )landing = 4.1). A value of V = 1.0877/deg • αW g (CL )max (67) awg k k is the ground eﬀect factor obtained from Fig 1-9:4 of Wood[10].cruise 0.3 × 49 = 63. we choose a (T /W ) of 0.4297 dα π × 9.00292 13 • (CL )max is taken as 2.d 114.62 = 0.4.1(aw )landing = 5.5 from Section 3. Therefore.4.0796.1.06 × 0.19 m.06.3 • dCm dCL power dCm dCL = power T tp Wc (65) tp is the distance of thrust line from c. (CL )max with no ﬂaps is 1.1095 = = 0.7m/s corresponds to a value of M = 0.6 × 0.At the cruise altitude. (CL )max is the value without ﬂaps and corresponds to 1. dCm dCL = power.c above ground)/semi span of 0.g(the distance is measured perpendicular to the thrust line). It is obtained by calculating the value of aw at lower velocities.

0877/deg • iw is taken as 1◦ from Section 4.3 × 49 = 63. atg is the lift curve slope of the wing close to the ground.1 − 0.0682/deg.1036 × 0.0834 63 .4 ∗ 0.7m/s corresponds to a value of M = 0. It is obtained by calculating the value of at at lower velocities.4 from Perkins and Hage[11].0828/deg by using the tail parameters in eq.1 = −0.0091 × (αw − iw ) = 0.Hence (atg )landing = 1.56 ∗ 1. A value of V = 1.• at and atg at is obtained as 0.0091(10. The atg is obtained by adding the ground eﬀect to the (at )landing obtained.16 − 1) = 0. (Cmα )f us = 0.19 and hence gives a value of (at )landing = 3.0877 = 0.1 from airfoil database.1(at )landing = 5.∆Cmac is taken as -0. Cmac(f laps) = −0.027/radian = 0.91/radian = 0.0091 Cmf us = 0. • Cmjet at landing = 0 • Cmac(f laps) Cmac(f laps) = Cmac + ∆Cmac(f ) Sf c f Sc (69) (68) Cmac for the airfoil is taken as −0. Figure 5.(55).40.3464 • Cm(F us) dCm dα = f us dCm dCL CLalpha f us (70) Hence using the value of CLα with ground eﬀect.

chapter 16).c dCm dCL Hence xcg(af t) xac = −0. Cmα is approximately equal to -1.(61). • it For the preliminary design we assume it = 1 which is the typically the value of passenger airplanes.04438VH • δemax δemax is chosen as −25◦ which is typical of most airplanes. We adopt the following consideration to determine V .183 6. we get −0.95 × 0.15 for transport airplane at M = 0.that we have obtained the various parameters required for the longitudinal stability criterion we go on to calculate V which aﬀects the horizontal tail sizing.15 = −0.183 = 0. Now.1036 − 0. Assuming c. Chα =-0.276 .00292 ∴ V = 0.57 × VH = −0.00660 Chδ =-0.g at a.• Chα and Chδ The values of Chα and Chδ are obtained from Fig 1-9:5 of Wood[10].98 We obtain the horizontal tail area to be 64 = −1.01140 • Cmδ Cmδ = −at St lt ηt τ S c (71) Cm δ = −0.8(Raymer[4].183 − c c Substituting in eq.08095 × 0.2958V + 0. Since not much detail is available about the nature of elevators we assume the standard design and obtain the following values.

(c)in one engine oﬀ condition and (d)in spin when the recovery is eﬀected primarily by the rudder control.3.3 times the stalling speed. • Cnψ(f us) Cnψ(f us) = kn Vn 28. power and interference eﬀects are ignored.7Sb (73) The value of kn was obtained from Figure 1:9-2 of Wood[10] as kn =0.2 times the stalling speed.3 Determination of initial parameters (72) In the preliminary analysis of directional static stability.95 × 217.dCn /dCψ should be negative for any anticipated speed greater than 1. the cross check for forward c.86 = 0.98 × 3.002005 28.95 Cnψ(f us) = 0.0.86 Remark: Keeping in view the large number of approximations involved in calculation of parameters during landing and take-oﬀ. 7. Sht = 7.3.9 × 111. • To regain and maintain straight ﬂight with one engine inoperative at a minimum speed not greater than 1.2 Equations for directional stability The equations for directional stability can be derived as dCn = Cnψ(wing) + Cnψ(F us) + Cnψ(power) + Cnψ(T ail) dψ 7.22 65 .3.1 Lateral Stability and Control Speciﬁcations • The directional stability criterion. location and nose wheel lift-oﬀ conditions are not carried out at this stage.7 × 111.63 = 28.71m2 14.3 7.63 × 32. the contributions of wing. • The yawing moment control(rudder) must be powerful enough to (a) counteract the yawing moment encountered in rolls(”adverse yaw”). (b)in cross-wind landings or takeoﬀs.g.

Cnψ(tail) = −0.0378 × VV (76) (77) or VV = 0.• Cnψ(tail) Cnψ(tail) = −av av = 0.43m2 13.098 = 25.86 66 .63 × 32.098 This value is almost the same as what we obtained in our initial tail sizing. Therefore.for the present case we have. W b2 1/2 Sv lv S b (74) (75) Cnψ(desirable) = Cnψ(f us) + Cnψ(tail) −0.vertical tail area is Svt = 111.22 × 0.001709 Hence. Cnψ(desirable) = −0.0005 Therefore .001709 = 0.0378 × VV The value of Cnψ(desirable) is given by Perkins and Hage[11] as follows Cnψ(desirable) = −0.002005 − 0.0378 per degree.

SF C is taken as 0.4 Weights Gross Weight : 59175 kgf Empty Weight : 29706 kgf Fuel Weight : 12131 kgf Payload : 17338 kgf Maximum Landing Weight : 50296 kgf 67 .5 (For which the Engine characteristics are given in [8] ) SFC : at M = 0.2B Seal Level Static Thrust : 97.22 m Height above ground : 11.6 hr−1 8.2 m Wheel track : 5.8.3 Engine details Similar to CFM 56 .17 Wheel base : 13.8 m 8.9 kN By pass ratio : 6.8 8.1 Features of the Designed Airplane Three View Drawing The 3-view drawing of the airplane designed is given in ﬁgure 8.32 Wing Span : 32.2 Overall Dimensions Length : 34. h = 10972 m(36 000 f t).

68 Figure 8: Three view drawing of the airplane .

5 Wing Geometry Planform Shape : Cranked wing Span : 32.6 Fuselage Geometry Length : 33 m Maximum Diameter : 3.5 Root Chord : 5. Clopt = 0.98 m Area : 28.62 m Cross sectional Area : 2.67 m Quarter Chord Sweep : 32o Root Chord : 3.22 m Area : 111.59 m (Equivalent Trapezoidal wing) Tip Chord : 1.44 m Portion of wing with straight trailing edge : 11.71 m2 Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 2.7 Nacelle Geometry No.34 m (Equivalent Trapezoidal wing) Root Chord of Cranked Wing : 7. t/c = 14%.59 m 8.8 Horizontal Tail Geometry Span : 11.06 m2 Length of Nacelle : 3.4o Taper Ratio : 0.24 (Equivalent Trapezoidal wing) Aspect Ratio : 9.3 m (based on B737 Nacelle) 8.8.3 8.9 m Quarter chord Sweep : 27. of nacelles : 2 Nacelle Diameter : 1.28 m Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 3.SC(2) series.99 m 69 .69o Dihedral : 5o Twist : 3o Incidence : 1.63 m2 Airfoil : NASA .80 m Tip chord : 0.

with climb thrust = 0. 70 .Taper Ratio : 0.16 8.O ﬂaps : 2.26 Aspect Ratio : 5 8. • The performance is worked for a gross weight of 59175 kgf and wing loading of 5195 N m−2 except for landing where the landing weight is taken as 85% of take-oﬀ weight.4 CLmax with landing ﬂaps : 2.31 Aspect Ratio : 1.83 m Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 4.22 m Quarter Chord Sweep : 37o Taper Ratio : 0.5 CLmax with T. The highlights are as follows.12 Performance The detailed performance estimation is given in section 9.10 Other details CLmax without ﬂap : 1. at 36000 ft with cruise thrust = 0.43 m2 Root Chord : 5.874. • Maximum Mach No.58 m Area : 25.7 Maximum Load Factor nmax : 3.70 8.90 m Tip chord : 1.859.9 Vertical Tail Geometry Span : 6.11 Crew and Payload Flight crew : 2(pilot and co-pilot) Cabin crew : 5 Passenger seating : 138 economy and 12 business class 8.

• Maximum rate of climb at sea level with climb thrust = 1087 m/min • Service ceiling = 11.• Maximum still air range at M = 0. The seating arrangement takes care of the passenger comfort and the choice of engine reﬂects low level of noise. 71 .88 km • Take-oﬀ distance over 50 ft = 860 m(2820 f t) and balanced ﬁeld length = 1830 m(6000 f t) • Landing distance from 15 m = 1140 m(3740 f t) Remark : The designed airplane meets the requirements set out in the speciﬁcations.55 km.81 and h = 36000 f t is 5602 km. Absolute ceiling = 11.

horizontal tail.10.90536 ×10−5 m2 /s Density : 0.1.056 m/s Weight of the Airplane : 59175 kgf 9. 9. vertical tail and other details like CLmax in various conditions and maximum load factor are given in section 8. vertical tail.1 Estimation of Drag Polar 2 CL πAe The drag polar is assumed to be of the form CD = CDo + The quantity CDO is assumed to be given by CDO = (CDO )W B + (CDO )V + (CDO )H + (CDO )M isc (78) where suﬃces W B.07 m/s Flight Speed : 236. the drag polar is obtained at a Mach number of 0. V. (CDo )W B is then given as : (CDo )W B = (CDo )W + (CDo )B SB Sref The suﬃx B denotes fuselage and SB is the maximum frontal area of fuselage.6 as suggested by [6].8. engine details.1 Estimation of (CDo )W B Initially. horizontal tail. and miscellaneous contributions respectively.2 . H.3639 kg/m3 Speed of Sound : 295.8 Kinematic Viscosity : 3. nacelle. vertical tail. weights. The details of ﬂight condition for estimation of drag polar are as follows Altitude : 10972 m = 36000 ft Mach number : 0.9 Performance Estimation The details regarding overall dimensions. M isc denote wing-body combination. (CDO )W is given as : (CDo )W = Cfw 1 + L 72 t c Swet Sref wing . fuselage. geometric parameters of wing.

the Reynolds number used to determine the turbulent ﬂat plate skin friction coeﬃcient is based on the mean aerodynamic chord ce of the exposed wing. The Cfw is then measured from the graph in [6] as Cfw = 0.314 Swetw Hence.34 3.12 × 3.3 ⇒ L = 1. average application (from [4]).31 × 106 3.262 5.262 + 0.34m.59 − λe = ce (b/2)e 5.116 2 1 + 0.116 3 1 + 0.00598 111.14) (CDo )B is given as: (CDO )B = (CDf )B + (CDp )B + CDb 60 (CDO )B = CfB 1 + + 0. ct = 1. Also µ = 3. Sexposedplanf orm = 14.6.59 × = 5.14) = 215.Here.41(1 + 1.59m.8 = 0.2 × 0.543 × 105 k 1. Now cr = 5.00265 (1 + 1.2.341 × 2 = 92.34 = 0.015 × 10−5 The Recutof f corresponding to the above l/k is 30 × 106 .11 2 1.11 − 1.2 × 0. (Swet )e is the wetted area of the exposed wing.12m/s.315m = 3. b/2 = 16.63 5.116m 16. 177. Hence Re = 3. Hence cre = 5.59m. a = 295.0025 (lb /d)3 73 lb d Swet SB Sbase Sref 215.015 × 10−5 m corresponds to standard camouﬂage paint.41m2 2 = 2 × 92.116 + 1. Hence.596 l = = 3.90536 × 10−5 .00265 (t/c)avg = 14% and (t/c)max at x/c > 0.2622 = 5.59 − 1.8m2 + CDb f us .07m/s ⇒ V = 177.262 = 16.90536 × 10−5 k = 1.795 = 14.596m M = 0.596 = 16.11m and df us = 3. (CDf )w = 0.

However the details regarding the exposed tail area etc.lf = 33.. Hence (CDO )B = 0.0019 60 279 + 0. wherein CDf = 0.1.12 = 0. In the absence of the detailed data on the shape of fuselage at rear etc.12m2 SB = 4 Hence.00524 + 0 = 0. since base area is almost zero.0524 10.6 × 108 .12 (CDp )B = 0.015 × 10−5 m corresponds to standard camouﬂage paint.0019 × 279 = 0. would be needed.2 10.0025 for both horizontal and vertical tails.0596 9.75 × π × 3.59m Reb = 177. a simpliﬁed approach given in [6] is adopted. The Cfw is then measured from the graph in [6] as Cfw = 0.0576 (∆CD )canopy is taken as 0.6 × 106 3.592 = 10.01138 111. Hence 33 l = = 32.00524 3 (33/3.0025 × (33/3.00598 + 0.63 Estimation of (CDo )V and (CDo )H The estimation of (CDo )H and (CDo )V can be done in a manner similar to that for the wing.12 CDb is assumed to be zero.0019 (Swet )f us = 0. Hence (CDO )B = 0.12 × 33 = 149. (CDf )B = 0.59) 10.51 × 105 −5 k 1.905 × 10−5 k = 1.002.0596 Finally we have: (CDo )W B = 0. 74 .59) = 0.59 × 33 = 279m2 π × 3. average application.0m and dmax = 3.0524 + 0.015 × 10 The Recutof f corresponding to the above l/k is 2.

we get the CDo of the airplane as CDo = 1.1. Finally we get: (CDo )nacelle = 0.02 [0. 1/e Hence ewing = 0.0024 111.3.63 Taking 2% for the interference drag (from [6]).3 1 = 0.0025(28.8 for a round /S) fuselage. Swet is the wetted area of nacelle.5 Induced Drag The induced drag component has the Oswald’s eﬃciency factor e which is estimated by adding the eﬀect of all the aircraft components on induced drag. Here Swet = 16.0018] = 0.24 from [12].122 = 0.0024 + 0. Hence 1 ef us = 0.1.63 (79) Estimation of Misc Drag .1. (ewing )Λ=0 = 0.97 for AR = 9. Also (Sf f us = 0.8948. Since we have two nacelles the total drag will be twice of this.Nacelle For calculating drag due to the nacelles we use the short cut method for which we have: Swet (CDo )nacelle = 0.63 75 .0018 111.79m2 .71 + 25.97 × cos (27.0159 (80) 9.79 × 2 = 0.006 × 9.SW = 2(Sh + Sv ) Hence.69 − 5) = 0.0725 111. The rough estimate of e can be obtained from: 1 1 1 1 = + + e ewing ef uselage eother From [9] ewing = (ew )Λ=0 cos(Λ − 5) where Λ is the wing sweep.43) 9.4 CDo of the airplane 16.8 × 10. (CDo )hv = 0. λ = 0.006 × Sref where.01138 + 0.

05 1 = 0.0159 + 0.8948−1 = 0.1 eother Finally we have: e= Hence K= 9.6 0.04244 × CL (81) Figure 9: Subsonic Drag Polar 76 .05 1 1 = = 0.8064 + 0.0725 + 0.04244 πAe π × 9.3 × 0.1.8064 Final Drag Polar 2 CD = 0.

are shown in Figures 10 and 11. (b) variations of climb thrust with Mach number at h = 38000 and 39000 ft.25.2. Chapter 9 of [8] contains these variations for turbofan engines with various bypass ratios.6hr−1 under cruise conditions based on the value recommended by [4]. these are obtained by interpolating values at 36000 and 40000 ft and are used for computation of performance at these altitudes. but is taken as 0. 77 . • It may be noted that the parabolic polar is an approximation and is not valid beyond CLmax . Figure 10 also contains (a) the variation of thrust with Mach number at sea level with take-oﬀ rating. the variations of thrust and SFC with speed and altitude are needed.2 Engine Characteristics To calculate the performance. The values multiplied by 97. The values were read from the curves and later smoothed. the sea level static thrust rating for the chosen engine. The Thrust variations versus Mach number with altitude as parameters are given in non-dimensional form for take-oﬀ. It is not accurate close to CL = 0 and CL = CLmax 9.Remark • The polar given by 81 is valid at subcritical Mach numbers. which is typical of modern jet transport airplanes. The increase in CDo and K at higher Mach numbers is discussed in section 4. The SFC variation is also given in [8]. • The maximum lift to drag ratio ((L/D)max ) is given by (L/D)max = 1 2 CDo K Using equation 81. cruise and climb ratings. (L/D)max is 19.9 kN.

78 Figure 10: Take Oﬀ for sea level and Climb Thrust per engine for various altitudes .

79 Figure 11: Cruise Thrust per engine for various altitudes .

1 Stalling speed 2W ρSCL (84) (85) In level ﬂight. 80 . The ﬂight speed at CL = CLmax is called the stalling speed and is denoted by Vs Vs = 2W ρSCLmax (87) Since ρ decreases with altitude. CLmax = 2. Vs increases with height. V = (86) Since CL cannot exceed CLmax .3 Level Flight Performance In steady Level ﬂight.9. The values of stalling speed at diﬀerent altitudes and ﬂap settings are tabulated in Table 6 and shown in Figure 12.4 without ﬂaps. in standard notation are T −D = 0 L−W = 0 (82) (83) 1 2 1 ρV SCL =⇒ W = ρV 2 SCL 2 2 1 2 D = ρV SCD = T 2 L = 9. there is a ﬂight speed below which level ﬂight is not possible.3.7 with landing ﬂaps and CLmax = 1. We note that W/S = 5195N/m2 . the equations of motion.

83 56.819 95.27 Table 6: Variation of stalling speed with altitude Figure 12: Stalling speed Vs Altitude 81 .56 11000 0.06 76.412 134.83 12000 0.363 142.310 154.59 10000 0.225 77.4) Vs (CLmax = 2.54 6000 0.09 96.7) 3 (m) (kg/m ) (m/s) (m/s) 0 1.18 68.659 106.006 85.83 4000 0.37 8000 0.87 85.86 61.52 111.525 118.80 102.04 2000 1.h ρ Vs (CLmax = 1.

These drag polars are shown in the Figure 13 as discrete points. To get some guidelines about variations of CDo and K.9.2 Variation of Vmin and Vmax with Altitude To determine the Vmin and Vmax at each altitude. the cruise Mach number (Mcruise ) for this airplane is 0. 82 .04244. 2 ∗ (W/S) ρV 2 2 CD = CDo + KCL 1 2 Drag = ρV SCD 2 Tavail = f (M ) CL = Where CDo = 0.0159 and K = 0.3. • The drag at each altitude is found as a function of velocity using the drag polar and the level ﬂight formulae given below. Hence CDo and K are expected to become functions of Mach number above Mcruise . Chapter 5 of [13]. we consider the drag polars of B-727 given in Volume 6. the following procedure is adopted.8. • The engine thrust as a function of velocity at each altitude is obtained from the smoothed data. (88) (89) (90) (91) However.

01792 K 0.01733 0.88 CDo 0.01668 0.76 0.86 0.103 Table 7: Variation of CDo and K with Mach number (Parabolic ﬁt) The variations in CDo and K with Mach number are plotted in the Figures 14 and 15.82 0. It is seen that there is no signiﬁcant increase in 83 . The parabolic ﬁt is also shown in Figure 13. The values of CDo and K for the various Mach numbers are given in the Table 7. M 0.01695 0.01634 0.06101 0.06807 0.04969 0.08183 0.7 0.01631 0.05257 0. Symbols are data from [13] and Solid lines are the parabolic ﬁts These polars were approximated by the parabolic polar expression 2 namely CD = CDo + K × CL .84 0.Figure 13: Drag polars at diﬀerent Mach numbers for B727-100.

001 × (M − 0.11 × (M − 0.0159 − 0.8)3 (94) (95) 84 .8)2 K = 0.76)2 + 20.05257 + (M − 0.0455 + (M − 0. CDo = 0.8)2 + 20.76. based on B727-100 data is taken as follows.0 × (M − 0.76 to M = 0. CDo = 0.76)3 (93) In the case of the present airplane.8) + 0.76)2 (92) K = 0.76) + 0.0 × (M − 0.9.Figure 14: Variation of CDo with Mach number CDo and K upto M = 0. Following analytical expressions have been found to closely represent the changes in CDo and K from M = 0.8. The variations of CDo and K above Mcruise and upto M = 0. the cruise Mach number is 0.86.11 × (M − 0. This is expected to be the cruise Mach number for the airplane (B727-100).01634 − 0.001 × (M − 0.

10000. 15000. as the drag polar is not valid there.e S. Results are presented only for climb thrust case.L. The points of intersection give the Vmin and Vmax at each altitude. 30000 and 36000 ft. Vs is taken for CLmax without ﬂaps. Hence in the Figures. 85 . To arrive at Vmin . 9144 and 10972. 3048. 7620. 16 to 21. The calculations are carried out for h = 0. 25000. i.Figure 15: Variation of K with Mach number • The thrust available and thrust required curves are plotted at each altitude as a function of velocity. the stalling speed also needs to be taken in to account.8 m using Tavail as climb thrust and cruise thrust. 4572. the portion of the Vmin curve below Vs is shown as dotted lines.

071 253.471 229.278 142.159 Vmin (m/s) Vmin (m/s) Vmax (m/s) Vmax (m/s) Tcr Tclimb Tcr Tclimb < Vs < Vs 258.595 < Vs < Vs 275.557 153.755 176.896 243.594 149.386 200.131 116.833 90.054 169.300 < Vs < Vs 272.854 271.L 0 10000 3048 15000 4572 25000 7620 30000 9144 36000 10972 38000 11582 38995 11884 Vs 77.292 127.865 235.370 < Vs < Vs 272.579 98.h h (in ft) (in m) S.630 235.613 283.711 269.649 Table 8: Variation of Vmin and Vmax Figure 16: Available and Required Thrust at S.060 280.483 238.671 258.291 < Vs < Vs 267.154 217.929 279.676 248.L 86 .

0m Figure 18: Available and Required Thrust at h = 4572.Figure 17: Available and Required Thrust at h = 3048.0m 87 .

Figure 19: Available and Required Thrust at h = 7620.0m 88 .0m Figure 20: Available and Required Thrust at h = 9144.

Figure 21: Available and Required Thrust at h = 10972.8m Figure 22: Variation of Vmin and Vmax with altitude 89 .

• Choose an altitude. Noting that CL = 2W cos γ/ρSV 2 . The velocity of ﬂight is assumed to be constant during the climb. we adopt the following procedure. 90 . the C. acceleration is zero and the equations of motion can be written as: T − D − W sin γ = 0 L − W cos γ = 0 (96) (97) To calculate the variation of rate of climb with ﬂight velocity at diﬀerent altitudes. we get CD = CDo + K Also Vc = V sin γ cos γ = Using the above equations. 2 2W cos γ ρSV 2 1− Vc2 V2 A A= kW 2 .G of the airplane moves along a straight line inclined to the horizontal at an angle γ.4 Steady Climb In this ﬂight. Further the variation of CDo and K with Mach number is taken as in Equations 94 and 95. • Choose a ﬂight speed. 1 ρV 2 S 2 Vc V +B Vc V +C = 0 (98) B = −W . Since the ﬂight is steady.9. 1 2kW 2 C = Tavail − ρV 2 SCDo − (99) 2 ρV 2 S Since altitude and ﬂight velocity have been chosen. the thrust available is read from the climb thrust curves in 10.

2 36000 10972.0 235.8 Table 9: Climb Performance 91 . The variations of (R/C) and γ with velocity and with altitude as parameters are shown in Figure 23 and 25.0 1086.7 164.5 15000 4572.9 38995 11885.4 41.0 230.6 1.7 10000 3048.58 236.34 167.0 4.7 2. The variations of V(R/C)max and Vγmax with altitude are shown in Figure 27 and 28. h h (R/C)max V(R/C)max (in ft) (in m) (in m/min) (in m/s) 0 0. Hence γ = sin−1 (Vc /V ) Vc = V sin γ (100) (101) • This procedure is repeated for various speeds between Vmin and Vmax .8 115. A summary of results is presented in table 9.0 867.5 0.41 198.5 0.7 6.0 738.0 Vγmax (in m/s) 88.2 0.5 111.16 174. The variations of (R/C)max and γmax with altitude are shown in Figure 24 and 26.43 212.63 149.0 487. We choose the value which is less that 1.2 30000 9144. The entire procedure is then repeated for various altitudes.• Equation 98 gives 2 values of Vc /V .57 236.88 235.0 25000 7620.8 γmax (in degrees) 8.2 234.6 125.0 as sin γ cannot be greater than unity.7 1.0 313.1 38000 11582.1 188.

Figure 23: Rate of Climb Vs Velocity for various altitudes Figure 24: Maximum Rate of Climb Vs Altitude 92 .

Figure 25: Angle of Climb Vs Velocity for various altitudes Figure 26: Maximum angle of Climb Vs Altitude 93 .

Figure 27: Velocity at Maximum Rate of Climb Vs Altitude Figure 28: Velocity at Maximum angle of Climb Vs Altitude 94 .

2. the absolute cieling (at which (R/C)max is zero) is 11.Remarks 1.8. The service cieling at which (R/C)max = 50m/min is 11. From Figure 24.55 km 95 .88 km. The discontinuties in slope in Figures 27 and 28 at high velocities are due to the change in drag polar as the Mach number exceeds 0.

6hr−1 . The values of Range(R) and Endurance(E) in ﬂight at diﬀerent velocities are presented in Table 10 and are plotted in Figures 29 and 30. 96 . The variation of drag polar above M = 0.5 Range and Endurance In this section.6V tan−1 ρV 2 S T SF C KCdo K 2W2 − tan−1 Cdo ρV 2 S K Cdo (102) where W1 is the weight of the aircraft at the start of the cruise and W2 is the weight of the aircraft at the end of the cruise. W2 becomes W2 = W1 − 0.8 is given by Equation.205 × W1 Allowing 6% fuel as trapped fuel. Range is given by the formula R= 2W1 3.6V where V is in m/s.81N Wf = 0. The cruising altitude taken is h = 10972m.94 × Wf The values of endurance (in hours) are obtained by dividing the expression for range by 3. W1 = Wo = 59175 × 9.9. TSFC is taken to be constant as 0. the range of the aircraft in a constant altitude and constant velocity cruise is studied.94 and 95.

Corresponding Mach number is 0.Figure 29: Constant Velocity Range at h = 10972 m Figure 30: Endurance at h = 10972 m Remarks 1.81 97 . It is observed that the maximum range of 5600 km is obtained at a velocity of 239m/s (860 kmph).

98 .60 0.6 6.80 5095.72 19.285 177.8 6.853 250.465 0.78 18.297 236.50 0.066 0.424 CD 0.027 0.3 4.48 17.75 0.027 0.089 0.583 0. The safe range would be about two-thirds of this.454 0.8 4. It can noted that the endurance is roughly constant over a speed range of 190 m/s to 230 m/s.85 0.59 5602.1 5.64 3758.17 19.030 0.77 5599.M 0. the safe range would be 3733km.85 hours occurs in a ﬂight at V = 206m/s.754 256. 3. 2.051 0.57 4691.041 0.655 CL 1.68 4691.18 4189.2 6.544 221.82 18.3 3.035 0.3 6.001 241.040 L/D 14.803 253.705 259. The maximum endurance of 6.7 6. This can be explained based on two factors namely (i) the range increases as the ﬂight speed increases (ii) after Mcruise is exceeded.65 16.51 5527.50 Table 10: Range and Endurance in Constant Velocity ﬂight at h = 10972m (36000f t) which is slightly higher than the Mach number beyond which CDo and K increase.032 0.0 6. CDo and K increase thus reducing (L/D)max .038 191.5 6.87 0.036 0.6 6.670 0.65 0.07 3275.488 0.444 0.085 0.29 13.312 1.23 18.80 0.88 V (in m/s) 147.433 0.76 12.61 3608.513 0.86 0.027 0.83 0.13 10.55 0.0 5.84 0.20 4242.952 244.050 239.531 162.476 0. The range calculated above is the gross still air range.75 16.791 206.70 0.52 R E (in km) (in hours) 2979.07 5070.027 0.35 5352.030 0. (742 kmph).028 0.62 15.82 0.500 0.777 0.95 18.81 0.911 0.902 247.85 5396.0 6.2 5.36 17. In the present case.

6 Turning Performance In this section.9. However if CLmax /CLL > nmax . then the turn is limited by CLmax and CLT1 = CLmax . and CLT1 = nmax CLL . CDT1 is obtained corresponding to CLT1 . the performance of the airplane in a steady. The equations of motion in this case are: T −D = 0 W − L cos φ = 0 W L sin φ = g where φ is the angle of bank. then the turn is limited by the engine output. 3. where Ta is the available thrust at that speed and altitude. Then 1 DT 1 = ρV 2 SCDT1 2 If DT 1 > Ta . the maximum permissible value of CD in turning ﬂight is found from CDT = 99 Ta 1 ρV 2 S 2 . In this case. ψ is the rate of turn and r is the radius of turn. then the turn is limited by nmax . ˙ The following procedure is used to obtain rmin and ψmax 1. co-ordinated. If CLmax /CLL < nmax . A ﬂight speed and altitude are chosen and the level ﬂight lift coeﬃcient CLL is obtained as : CLL = 2(W/S) ρV 2 2. level turn is studied. From the drag polar. These equations give: V2 r = g tan φ V g tan φ ˙ ψ = = r V L 1 Load Factor n = = W cos φ ˙ where n = L/W . where nmax is the maximum load factor for which the aircraft is designed.

8192 71.670 1.From the above relation.596 1.70 787. the values of φ.83 178.053 0.6607 71.5189 70.4000 51.0927 Table 11: A typical turning ﬂight performance at Sea level 100 .573 2. the load factor during the turn is determined as n= CLT CLL ˙ Once n is known.5 are assumed.1858 0.1603 0.83 158. CLmax = 1.83 198.132 0. The above steps are then repeated for various speeds and altitudes.045 0.1742 0.363 r (in m) 2767.482 0.43 2452.089 3.112 0.494 Clt φ (in degrees) 1. the value of CLT is calculated as CLT = CDT − CDo K However if DT 1 < Ta .331 2.0285 0. 34 respectively present (a) radius of turn with velocity and with altitude as parameter.0974 0.63 747.4 and nmax = 3. 33.21 683. (b) minimum radius of turn with altitude. r and ψ can be calulated using the equations given above.1255 0. The variation of turning ﬂight performance with altitude is shown in Table.1437 0.3826 67.41 911.38 1383.026 1.080 2. In these calculations. Figures 31.3617 66.20 ˙ ψ 0.993 3.4000 12.2376 69. 12.0062 70.173 1. 32.83 118.4000 64. v 78.83 238. Once CLT is known.612 2.83 n 1.1235 0.1738 0.813 2. A typical turning ﬂight performance estimation is presented in Table 11. then the turn is not limited by the engine output and the value of CLT calculated in step (ii) is retained.83 138.892 1.60 1115.83 218.930 2. 4. (c) rate of turn with velocity and with altitude as parameter and (d) maximum rate of turn with altitude.83 98.36 2609.50 1772.83 241.

Figure 31: Radius of Turn Vs Velocity at various altitudes Figure 32: Velocity at Rmin Vs Altitude 101 .

˙ Figure 33: ψ Vs Speed at various altitudes

˙ Figure 34: Velocity at ψmax Vs Altitude

102

h rmin Vrmin (in m) (in m) (in m/s) 0.0 666 126.8 3048.0 945 132.6 4572.0 1155 135.1 7620.0 1971 138.3 9144.0 3247 151.3 10972.8 8582 211.0

˙ ψmax 0.1910 0.1410 0.1170 0.0731 0.0513 0.0256

Vψmax ˙ (in m/s) 127.8 133.6 136.1 165.3 187.3 231.0

Table 12: Turning ﬂight performance

Remarks ˙ 1. The maximum value of ψ is 0.191 and occurs at a speed of 127.8m/s at sea level. 2. The minimum radius of turn is 666 m and occurs at a speed of 126.8m/s at sea level. 3. The various graphs show a discontinuity in slope when the criterion which limits the turn changes from nmax to thrust available.

9.7

Take-oﬀ distance

In this section, the take oﬀ performance of the airplane is evaluated. The take-oﬀ distance consists of take-oﬀ run, transition and climb to screen height. Rough estimates of the distance covered in these phases can be obtained by writing down the appropriate equations of motion. However the estimates are approximate and [4] recommends the following formulae for take-oﬀ distance and balance ﬁeld length based on the take-oﬀ parameter. This parameter is deﬁned as: Take Oﬀ Parameter = W/S σCLT O (T /W ) (103)

where W/S is wing loading in lb/f t2 , CLT O is 0.8 × CLland = 0.8 × 2.7 = 2.16 and σ is the density ratio at take-oﬀ altitude. In the present case: W = 5195N/m2 = 108.2lb/f t2 ; S

CLT O = 0.8×2.7 = 2.16; 103

σ = 1.0(sea level)

and

T 2 × 97.9kN = = 0.3373 W 59175 × 9.81

Hence 108.2 = 148.86 (104) 1.0 × 2.16 × 0.3373 From [4], the take oﬀ distance, over 50’, is 2823 or 861m. The balance ﬁeld length for the present case of two engined airplane is 6000 or 1829m. Take Oﬀ Parameter = Remark It may be noted that the balance ﬁeld length is more than twice the take oﬀ distance itself.

9.8

Landing distance

In this section the landing distance of the airplane is calculated. From [4] the landing distance for commericial airliners is given by the formula Sland = 80 W S 1 σCLmax + 1000f t (105)

where W/S is in lbs/f t2 . In the present case: • (W/S)land = 0.85 × (W/S)takeof f = 0.85 × 108.5 = 92.225lb/f t2 • CLmax = 2.7 • σ = 1.0 Hence Sland = 80 × 92.225 1 + 1000 = 3732f t = 1138m 1.0 ∗ 2.7 (106)

104

Vrmin 105 . range.9 Concluding remarks 1. turning. endurance. Performance of a typical commercial airliner has been estimated for stalling speed. steady climb. Vγmax • maximum rate of turn. Vψmax ˙ • minimum radius of turn. Vs • maximum speed. V(R/C)max • maximum angle of climb. Figure 35 presents the variation with altitude of the characteristic velocities corresponding to • stalling speed.9. 2. maximum speed. take-oﬀ and landing. 3. minimum speed. The performance approximately corresponds to that of B737-200. Vminthrust • maximum rate of climb. Vmax • minimum speed as dictated by thrust.

106 Figure 35: Flight Envelope .

H.lissys.demon. 1990 107 .10 Acknowledgements The ﬁrst author(EGT) thanks AICTE for the fellowship which enabled him to carry out the work at IIT Madras. Theory of wing sections.Sc.E.com/engines/cfm56-5c/tech. Methods of estimating drag polars of subsonic airplanesRoskam Aviation & Engineering Corporation.A. Johnson publishing company.T Madras. 1963 [12] Abbot I. Colorado.G Lecture Notes on Aircraft Design. NJ. References [1] http://www. published by Hoerner Fluid Dynamics. Kansas. Airplane performance syability & control.co.E. Boulder. Brick Town. Fluid dynamic drag. Aircraft design a conceptual approach.D.I.D.P. AIAA’ educational series.I.A Aircraft design parametric studies Published by I.F. Arnold. 1965 [10] Wood K. Department of Aerospace Engineering I. Simpkin P. Kansas. 1971 [8] Jenkinson L. 1966 [11] Perkins C. Aircraft design.D.R. Ottawa. Dover publications. Volume 1. & Hage A.cfm56.html [2] http://www. McGraw Hill. Roskam Aviation & Engineering Corporation. 2007 [6] Roskam J. Charles Harris (Mar 1990) [4] Raymer. 1983 [7] Lebedenski. and Rhodes D. Bangalore. 1999 [9] Hoerner S. and Doenhoﬀ A.E..uk/samp1/ [3] NASA Technical Paper 2969. Civil Jet Aircraft Design. 2006 [5] Tulapurkara. Aerospace vehicle design. 1959 [13] Roskam J. Ottawa.

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