Hash Table

Hashing
hash table
0 1

key

hash function

pos

2 3

: :
TABLESIZE - 1
2

Example:

hash table
0 1

“Kruse”

hash function

5

2 3 4 5 6
3

Kruse

Hashing
• Each item has a unique key. • Use a large array called a Hash Table. • Use a Hash Function.

4

Applications
• • • • Databases. Spell checkers. Computer chess games. Compilers.

5

Operations
• Initialize
– all locations in Hash Table are empty.

• Insert • Search • Delete

6

Hash Function
• • • • Maps keys to positions in the Hash Table. Be easy to calculate. Use all of the key. Spread the keys uniformly.

7

Example: Hash Function #1
unsigned hash(char* s) { int i = 0; unsigned value = 0; while (s[i] != ‘\0’) { value = (s[i] + 31*value) % 101; i++; } return value; }

8

Example: Hash Function #1
value = (s[i] + 31*value) % 101; • A. Aho, J. Hopcroft, J. Ullman, “Data Structures and Algorithms”, 1983, Addison-Wesley. ‘A’ = 65 ‘h’ = 104 ‘o’ = 111

value = (65 + 31 * 0) % 101 = 65 value = (104 + 31 * 65) % 101 = 99 value = (111 + 31 * 99) % 101 = 49

9

Example: Hash Function #1
value = (s[i] + 31*value) % 101;
Key Hash Value

Aho Kruse Standish Horowitz Langsam Sedgewick Knuth

49 95 60 28 21 24 44

resulting table is “sparse”

10

Example: Hash Function #2
value = (s[i] + 1024*value) % 128;
Key Hash Value

Aho Kruse Standish Horowitz Langsam Sedgewick Knuth

111 101 104 122 109 107 104

likely to result in “clustering”

11

Example: Hash Function #3
value = (s[i] + 3*value) % 7;
Key Hash Value

Aho Kruse Standish Horowitz Langsam Sedgewick Knuth

0 5 1 5 5 2 1

“collisions”

12

Insert
• Apply hash function to get a position. • Try to insert key at this position. • Deal with collision.

13

Example: Insert
Aho, Kruse, Standish, Horowiz, Langsam, Sedgewick, Knuth

hash table
0 1 Aho

Aho

Hash Function

0

2 3 4 5 6
14

Example: Insert
Aho, Kruse, Standish, Horowiz, Langsam, Sedgewick, Knuth

hash table
0 1 Aho

Kruse

Hash Function

5

2 3 4 5 6
15

Kruse

Example: Insert
Aho, Kruse, Standish, Horowiz, Langsam, Sedgewick, Knuth

hash table
0 1 Aho Standish

Standish

Hash Function

1

2 3 4 5 6
16

Kruse

Search
• Apply hash function to get a position. • Look in that position. • Deal with collision.

17

Example: Search
Aho, Kruse, Standish, Horowiz, Langsam, Sedgewick, Knuth

hash table
0 1 Aho Standish

Kruse

Hash Function

5

2 3 4 5 Kruse

found.

6
18

Example: Search
Aho, Kruse, Standish, Horowiz, Langsam, Sedgewick, Knuth

hash table
0 1 Aho Standish

Sedgwick

Hash Function

2

2 3 4 5 Kruse

Not found.

6
19

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