# WELL CONTROL

EXERCISE # 1
1. What mud weight is required to balance a formation pressure of 2930 psi at 5420 ft TVD? ___________ppg 2. If the fluid level dropped 550 ft in a 9600 deep hole containing 10.6 ppg mud, what would the hydrostatic at bottom be? ___________psi 3. Bottom hole pressure is reduced the most by gas cut drilling mud when: a. b. c. d. The gas is near the surface The gas is at or near the bottom The gas is about halfway up the well bore All are about the same

4. After a round trip at 8960 ft with 10.9 ppg mud, we kick the pump in and start to circulate. An increase in flow was noticed and the well was shut in with 0 psi on the drill pipe and 300 psi on the casing. What kill mud is required? (no float in the drill string) ___________ppg

5. What was most probable in causing the influx or well kick in the last question? a. b. c. d. Abnormal pressure was encountered The mud weight was not high enough to contain formation pressure It was swabbed in or the hole was not properly filled while pulling out It is impossible to tell

6. Which of the following circumstances would increase the chance of swabbing in a kick? a. b. c. d. High pulling speed Mud properties with high viscosity and high gels Tight annulus BHA/hole clearance Mud density in use is close to formation pressure

7. In which of the following cases would you be most likely to swab in a kick? a. When the bit is pulled up into the casing b. When the first few stands are being pulled off bottom c. About half way up the well

WELL CONTROL

8. When drilling with 10.3 ppg mud at 11600 ft TVD the annular loss is estimated at 195 psi. What is the BHCP? _________psi

9. You are pulling out of hole. Two x 93 ft stands of 8" drill collars have been stood back in the derrick. The displacement is 0.0538 bbls. / ft. According to your Assistant Driller, 10 bbls should be pumped into the well. It only takes 10 bbls to fill the hole. (Answer yes or no to each question) a) Are the calculations correct? b) Have you taken a 5 bbls influx? c) All Ok, keep going

10. You have taken a kick and shut the well in. The active tank while drilling contained 250 bbls. And the mud return line to the pits contains 25 bbls. The tank now contains 300 bbls. How many barrels of mud have been displaced from the well? a) 0 bbls b) 25 bbls c) 50 bbls d) 275 bbls

11. The Fracture Gradient of an open hole formation at 3680 ft. is 0.618 psi/ft. The drilling mud currently in use is 9.8 ppg. Approximately how much Surface Casing Pressure can be applied to the well before this formation breaks down? a) 350 psi b) 2275 psi c) 630 psi d) 400 psi

12. A gas kick is being circulated out. At the time the gas reaches the casing shoe (4250 ft. TVD), the pressure at the top of the bubble is 3000 psi. If the original mud weight is 12 ppg, what is the casing pressure at the surface? (Hole TVD 7000ft) a) 348 psi b) 442 psi c) 1368 psi d) 2625 psi

WELL CONTROL

Questions 13-14 are based on the following information: 13 3/8” surface casing is set and cemented at 4250 ft. (TVD). The cement is drilled out together with 15 ft. of new hole, using a 11 ppg mud. A leak off test pressure of 800 psi is determined. (Hole TVD 7000ft) 13. What is the formation fracture gradient? a) 0.188 psi / ft b) 0.686 psi / ft c) 0.760 psi / ft d) 0.384 psi / ft 14. What is the maximum allowable annular surface pressure for 12.3 ppg mud in use at 7350ft. TVD : a) 373 psi b) 511 psi c) 884 psi d) 1982 psi 15. How often should the MAASP be recalculated? a) After every bit change b) After a change in mud weight c) After every 500 ft. drilled 16. Calculate the equivalent circulating density in the following circumstances: Circulating pressure = 3100 psi Pressure losses: Surface equipment = 20 psi Drill string = 930 psi Nozzles = 1800 psi Annulus = 350 psi Drilled depth: 12,300 ft. (11,500 ft. TVD) Mud weight: 11.4 ppg ECD is: a) 10.8 ppg b) 12.0 ppg c) 11.4 ppg d) 12.3 ppg

c. b. You have got a kick in the well of 220 psi shut in drill pipe pressure.0082 bbls/ft Average stand length = 93 ft Calculate : a) Mud required to fill the hole per stand when pulled „dry‟ (bbls per stand) b) Mud required to fill the hole per stand when pulled „wet‟ (bbls per stand) 18. D. The pressure loss in the surface lines. a) 700 psi b) 770 psi c) 800 psi d) 840 psi 19. You are determining your kill rate pressure and bringing your pump rate up to a predetermined 30 SPM by holding the shut in casing pressure constant. Of all the pressure losses in the circulating system. Drill pipe capacity = 0. the pressure exerted at any given depth by the weight of the sediments.0178 bbls/ft Drill pipe metal displacement = 0. B. which one acts only on the borehole? A. the pressure exerted at any given depth by the weight of the rocks and sediments. The pressure loss across the nozzles. The pressure loss in the drill stem. or rocks and the weight of the fluids that fill the pore spaces in the rock. 20. d. the pressure exerted at any given depth by the weight of the fluid in the pore space of the rocks. C. the pressure exerted at any given depth by the weight of the rocks. The pressure loss in the annulus .WELL CONTROL 17. At 30 SPM your drill pipe circulating pressure is 1060 psi. Calculate the slow circulating rate pressure loss. Overburden pressure is: a.

B.WELL CONTROL 21. Select the three things that are needed to accurately determine a Final Circulating Pressure? A. drilling mud weight and final circulating pressure . D. drilling pump pressure and mud weight shut in drill pipe pressure and mud weight slow circulating rate pressure and final circulating pressure slow circulating rate pressure and shut in drill pipe pressure 24.01776 bbls/ft = . C. B. At the start of a trip out of the hole for a bit change. drilling mud weight and kill mud weight slow circulating rate pressure. Select the two things that are needed to accurately determine an Initial Circulating Pressure? A. Metal Displacement DP. drilling mud weight and kill mud weight shut in drill pipe pressure. Capacity Casing Capacity Mud Weight A. D. the first 20 x 93 ft stands of pipe are pulled from the hole wet with no fill up. 48 psi 483 psi 600 psi 683 psi = . C.0758 bbls/ft = 10 ppg 22. the first 10 x 93 ft stands of pipe are pulled from the hole dry with no fill up. Metal Displacement DP. D. C. Using the following data calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure? DP. drilling pump pressure. D. Using the following data calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure? DP.00764 bbls/ft = .00764 bbls/ft = . drilling mud and kill mud weight slow circulating rate pressure. At the start of a trip out of the hole for a bit change. Capacity Casing Capacity Mud Weight A. B. B. 650 psi 6 psi 65 psi 130 psi = .0758 bbls/ft = 12 ppg 23. C.01776 bbls/ft = .

B. a higher surface pressure than the wait and weight method a lower surface pressure than the wait and weight method.000 psi precharge is approximately: A. keep SICP constant at the original shut-in value by opening the choke and bringing the pump up to kill-rate speed. During a well-killing operation. a common way to bring the pump up to kill rate without changing bottom hole pressure is to: A. a lower bottom hole pressure than the wait and weight method.000 psi system with 1. keep SIDP constant at the original shut-in value by opening the choke. one circulation two circulations three circulations four circulations 26. D. C. The Drillers Method of Well Control normally requires how many circulations to kill a well? A. B. C. 9 gallons. D. 28. a higher bottom hole pressure than the wait and weight method. The Drillers Method of Well Control will normally result in: A. ensure that casing pressure and standpipe pressure rise consistently together. 7 gallons. B. 27. C. keep SIDP constant at the original shut-in value by opening the choke and bringing the pump up to kill-rate speed. 5 gallons. 3 gallons . C. B.WELL CONTROL 25. The usable accumulator fluid for a 10 gallon accumulator bottle on a 3. D.

c. Using the following data. calculate the new pump pressure: Old pump pressure 2500 1700 Old Mud weight 16 10 New mud Weight 17.OH Capacity .WELL CONTROL 29.5 14 Answer . b.6 9.2 Height of Influx 400 840 350 Answer 31. calculate the influx gradients: SICP 800 950 680 SIDPP 720 600 550 Mud Wt 11.0292 bbl/ft DP . Use the following well data to calculate the different influx heights: Drill collar length: 700 ft DC . Using the following well data calculate Kill mud weights: SICP (psi) 600 850 780 700 SIDPP (psi) 450 690 570 300 Mud Wt (ppg) 10 11 10. d.5 10.OH Capacity . 10 20 30 40 Height (ft) ________ ________ ________ ________ 30. Using the following well data calculate the Annular Pressure Losses: BHCP (psi) 6000 2600 5700 Mud Wt (ppg) 11.6 10.5 14 TVD (ft) 9500 12000 11200 13000 Answer 32.8 10 Depth TVD (ft) 9450 5000 10000 Answer 33.0459 bbl/ft Kick size (bbls) a. Using the following data.

WELL CONTROL 34. What would be the annular velocity around the drill pipe if the pump output is 6 bbl/min and the DP – OH capacity is . Using the following data. calculate the new pressure: Old SPM Old pressure New SPM 40 200 80 20 400 55 35.2 9. What would be the annular velocity around the drill collars: DC – OH capacity (bbl/ft) 0. Change the ECD to BHCD: ECD (ppg) 12.0459 bbl/ft ? Answer: ft/min .56 .81 Mud Wt (ppg) 36.3 Pump output (bbl/min) 6 Annular Velocity (ft/min) 38.4 Depth TVD (ft) 8000 11400 12500 BHCD (psi) 37.5 10. Convert the following pressure gradient to mud weight: Answer Gradient (psi/ft) .

calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure.01776 bbl/ft . Using the following data. Mud weight: Casing capacity: DP capacity: DP metal displacement: Answer: psi 12 ppg . Using the following data answer the questions below: DC metal displacement: DC capacity: Casing capacity: Mud weight: .00764 bbl/ft 41.054 bbl/ft . What is the maximum level drop in the annulus? Answer: ft b. the first 10 x 93 ft stands of drill pipe are pulled from the hole wet.01776 bbl/ft . At the start of a trip out of the hole for a bit change. Mud weight: Casing capacity: DP capacity: DP metal displacement: Answer: psi 12 ppg . What is the reduction in bottom hole pressure? Answer: psi . the first 20 x 93 ft stands of drill pipe are pulled from the hole dry. the trip tank is turned off and a flow check is made when the drill collars are at the rotary table.0758 bbl/ft 12 ppg a. At the start of a trip out of the hole for a bit change. calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure.00764 bbl/ft 40.WELL CONTROL 39.00768 bbl/ft . While tripping out of the hole. The last 400 feet of drill collar are pulled from the hole dry with no fill up.0758 bbl/ft . Using the following data.0758 bbl/ft .

b. An influx in oil based mud is not possible to detect when it is first occurring because gas going into solution will cause no associated pit increase at the surface.0754 bbl/ft . When drilling a deep high pressure high temperature well using oil base mud. If the critical bubble pressure was about 800 psi.0754 bbl/ft Annular capacity . When a kick is taken in oil based mud and the well pressure have stabilized. a gas condensate influx enters the well bore undetected. Lower than the same kick in water – based mud c. the SICP will be: a. Using the following data. c. Gas that is in solution will migrate in the annulus in a vertical well at the same rate as free gas.067 bbl/ft Differential height 1000 ft 800 ft Mud Wt 10 12 Anwser (psi) Formula : Mud gradient x Differencial Height x Casing capacity (Casing capacity + Annular capacity) 43. Higher than the same kick in water – based mud b. a. how far from the surface would it be when it started to break out and become free gas if the mud weight in use is 12 ppg. d.WELL CONTROL 42.067 bbl/ft . Casing capacity . TRUE or FALSE 46. The casing pressure would read the same in oil or water – based mud 45. 800 ft 1282 ft 9600 ft 2182 ft . TRUE or FALSE 44. calculate the loss in hydrostatic pressure if the casing was not kept full and the float failed while running casing in the hole.

c. b. d.2 ppg mud to 670 psi surface pressure. A 13 3/8 casing is set at 3126 ft TVD. b.21 ppg 5. b. c.564 psi/ft 0. d. c. What is the formation fracture gradient calculated from the test? a. high pressure pump The same known mud weight in and out Cement recipe An accurate surface pressure gauge A long open hole section . h. What would be the MAASP with 11.678 psi/ft 0. b. c. d. b. b. d. f.69 ppg 11.74 psi/ft 0. increase decrease stay the same impossible to say 6. drill pipe gauge on driller‟s panel casing gauge on driller‟s panel drill pipe gauge at the choke panel casing gauge at the choke panel 2. c. Which gauge must be used to read drill pipe pressure while taking SCR‟s? a. What mud weight would have a MAASP of 250 psi? (use data from Q-2) a. c. d. drilled out and tested with 10.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 2 1. e. 11.4 ppg mud in the hole? (use data from Q-2) a. g.85 ppg 12.56 ppg 12. 400 psi 461 psi 500 psi 560 psi 4.841 psi/ft 3. What happen to MAASP as MW increases? a. 0. d. What do you consider as essential for an accurate formation test? (4 answers) a. a list of mud additives a known mud yield point accurate TVD for the casing shoe Small volume.

e. Swabbing will cause the loss of primary well control? a. 364 psi 244 psi 448 psi 732 psi 12. d. which of the following are considered to be good drilling practices? (3 answers) a.5 ppg of plan Pump out of hole while tripping Drill a pilot hole Pump a slug before tripping Control ROP Minimise losses to 15 bbl/hr 11.2 ppg 8. c. ROP will be maximised MW must be with . d.00 ppg 8. the use of drilling fluid to balance formation the use of BOP to secure the well the use of annular preventer to close the well the use of cement plug 9. d. c. b. b. What is primary well control? a. false 10.WELL CONTROL 7. When drilling top hole. c. c. g. d. What is the reduction in bottom hole pressure if a 5 bbl lightweight pill of 7. f.5 ppg is spotted around 4 ¾ drill collars (total length 460 ft) in a 6 1/8 hole containing OBM of 11.56 ppg 8.94 ppg 10. b. 7.5 ppg mud fell by 560 ft in a 6543 ft TVD well.9 ppg? a. d. 50 psi 120 psi 95 psi 79 psi . b. true b. what would be the reduction in BHP? a. b. What is the mud weight that we would expect to use to balance normal formation pressure? a. c. If the level of 12.

Calculate the rate of gas migration if SIDDP has increased by 50 psi in 15 minutes? MW: 10. the choke is left closed while drilling a. c. 366 ft/hr 455 ft/hr 244 ft/hr 575 ft/hr 16.4 ppg 12. false 14. false 19. true b. W&W method results in a lower shoe pressure if drill string volume is less than the open hole volume minus the influx volume? a. 12. true c. true b. What is the KMW if OMW is 11.4 ppg 11.6 ppg 18. false . 569 psi 314 psi 456 psi 297 psi 17. What is the casing pressure when a 5 bbl gas bubble at 2200 psi in 11.03 ppg 12. true b. c.5 ppg MD: 7500 ft TVD:7000 ft a. c.WELL CONTROL 13. false 15. d. d. For a Soft shut-in.6 ppg mud reaches the casing shoe at 3126 ft TVD? a. W&W method gives lower shoe pressure in all cases a. b. Every kick should be handled as a gas kick? a. A 9000 ft well is shut in with 200 psi SICP and 0 PSI SIDPP. b. d. b.6 ppg? a.

WELL CONTROL 20. Casing pressure must be kept constant during the second circulation a. true b. The W&W method is preferred if rapid gas migration is expected a. false 24. false Answer true or false for these statements on the W&W method: 21. The well is dead when you have reached FCP a. true b. true b. SIDPP should be zero once you have reached FCP a. true b. true b. Surface annulus pressure is lower than with the driller‟s method a. Surface pressures are always lower if the W&W method is used compared to the Driller‟s method? a. false 27. false 26. true b. false 25. false . false 23. The pumps are brought up to speed keeping the drill pipe pressure constant a. true b. false 22. Bottom hole pressure is maintained constant a. The W&W is preferred as MAASP is critical and open capacity is greater than the drill string capacity a. false 28. true b. true b.

decrease c. b. A larger pit gain will give a higher SIDPP. Vent pipe height. Calculate the tension force created on the drill pipe above the cup tester when a 3000 psi test pressure is applied. True Maybe Sometimes False Always . c.000 lbs 167. c. TVD: 12500ft and APL: 400 psi? a. Height of the U-tube. The choke operator maintain drill pipe pressure constant while circulating KMW from surface to bit. stay the same 30. The mandrel outside diameter is 6 3/4" and the casing inside diameter is 12. What is the BHCP if the MW is 10 ppg. a b c 267. e. Inlet line inside diameter. 32.500 lbs 33. resulting in a higher kill mud weight. Vent pipe inside diameter. Inside diameter of the U-tube. b. d. Which two of the given dimensions determine the operating limit of the pressure build up in the separator? a b c d e f g Body height.615". 31. a. increase b.WELL CONTROL 29.500 lbs 67. 6200 psi 6900 psi 7300 psi 7700 psi The poorboy degasser (mud/gas separator) is identified by its design dimensions. d. You are using a cup type tester. What happen to BHP? a. Body inside diameter.

a. What is the value of the Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure usually determined by? a. 38. c. c. The slow circulating rate. True Maybe Sometimes False Always 36. a. True Maybe Sometimes False Always 35. . d. When killing a well using the wait and weight method. 37. The maximum bottom hole pressure that can be sustained. d. d. A larger pit gain will result in a higher SICP. e. The annular pressure loss. Never Yes No Only if the influx was gas. c. The pit volume will stay the same from now on. The pit volume starts to drop. The pit volume should not be monitored when killing. The formation strength at the casing shoe. e. b. b. d. e. b.WELL CONTROL 34. c. c. what will happen to the mud pit volume the moment the gas is passing through the choke? a. The temperature of the influx fluid. but theSIDPP will remain the same if the kick is big or small. Only if the influx is a fluid. is the SICP and SIDPP about the same? a. d. A larger pit gain will result in higher SIDPP and SICP. b. The pit volume starts increasing. The pit volume will rise and fall erratically. After circulating out a kick using the driller's method. b. e. e.

Fix the pump as soon as possible. e. What is the first thing to do? a. Change over to the other pump. what would you do? a. c. e. c. Start bullheading. b. Whilst circulating out a kick the mud pump fails. . Stop pump and close the HCR. 40. b. Start diverting. e. d. Spot a hivis pill acroos the shoe. Stop the pump and close the shear rams. e. Increase initially and decreases in the end. 43.WELL CONTROL 39. Continue drilling blind. d. BHP would possibly exceed formation fracture gradient. b. b. Start killing with the volumetric method. If total losses occurred while drilling with water based mud. 41. The pit volume decreases. c. It doesn't matter at all if SIDPP is constant. 42. On a surface stack. Stop drilling. d. c. what would happen if when bringing the pump up to kill speed the casing pressure was allowed to increase above the shut in casing pressure? a. Increase only due to added weight material. Stop pump and close the choke. b. BHP would cause more influx to enter the well bore. Set a barite plug. What action would you take if while circulating out a kick the choke line parted? a. d. fill the hole with water. e. what would happen to the mud pit volume during the second circulation? a. d. c. The pit volume stays the same. When killing a well using the driller's method. Shut the well in. Only while using wait and weight method does it matter. Decreases at first and increases in the end. It is OK if SIDPP also rises the same amount. Stop drilling. Continue to kill if the influx is past the shoe. shut the well in.

5 ppg.1520 psi/ft . SIDPP=800 psi. TD=12000'. What is the gradient of the influx? a. e. Ann. b. b. a. d. MW in the hole=13.1025 psi/ft . and the toolpusher keeps 850 psi on the drillpipe by adjusting the choke. DP/OH cap= . Pitgain 50 bbl. e. Rams and hydraulic operated choke and kill line valves.1502 psi/ft . False 47. True b. d.0292 bbl/ft.1205 psi/ft . . with 450' of DC= .1 psi/ft What is the SICP? a.1215 bbl/ft. Mud weight is 12. SIDPP=600 psi. c. If this driller speeds the pump up to 35 SPM. Ram preventers only. c. Decrease by 307 psi Increase by 253 psi Stay constant at 850 psi Increase by 140 psi Decrease by 405 psi 48.0521 psi/ft 45. 642 psi 945 psi 573 psi 580 psi 752 46. e. The influx volume is 12 bbl.WELL CONTROL 44. Annular preventers All stack functions.0778 bbl/ft. d. Influx gradient = . Which of the following functions is activated by the manifold pressure of the accumulator unit? a. SIDPP increases with the size of the kick. The annulus capacity is . cap. b. b. A driller is circulating a kick out and has reached hisfinal circulating pressure of 850 psi with 30 SPM. SICP=1025 psi. d.5 ppg. . c. the bottom hole pressure will: a. e. c. Hydrauliccally operated choke and kill line valves.

4 ppg b) 13. (9200 ft.recorded information is as follows : Fracture mud weight Capacity of 19. Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure : Shut in Casing Pressure: Kick volume: Pre.01776 bbl/ft. Drill pipe Capacity of 9 5/8” J55 casing Slow Circulating Rate Pressure 750 psi 1050 psi 15 bbls. TVD).4 ppg mud is in use when the well kicks and is closed in.4 ppg d) 11.8 ppg 52. The kill mud weight with a Safety Margin of 100 psi is: a) 13. = 0. 11. 9 5/8”.0 ppg c) 12. = 14.8 ppg d) 12.0732 bbl/ft.4 ppg = 0. casing in set at a measured depth of 9750 ft. 47 lb/ft.1 ppg b) 12. The initial circulating pressure is: a) 1400 psi b) 1600 psi c) 1900 psi 53. The final circulating pressure (using kill mud weight with a 100 psi Safety Margin is) : a) 850 psi b) 970 psi c) 920 psi d) 1050 psi . = 850 psi 49.WELL CONTROL A deviated hole has a measured depth of 12. The maximum allowable annular surface pressure is rounded off to : a) 1370 psi b) 1480 psi c) 1435 psi d) 1415 psi 50.2 ppg 51. The kill mud weight required to balance the formation pressure is: a) 13.5 lbs. (TVD 10429 ft).6 ppg c) 12.320 ft.

000 psi BOP Equipment c) 5. what is the Minimum Acceptable rating for equipment to be used in drilling Normally Pressured Formation to 16.000 ft.000 psi BOP Equipment . TVD? a) 2.000 psi BOP Equipment b) 3.8 ppg.000 psi BOP Equipment e) 15.WELL CONTROL 54. The Fracture Gradient of an open hole formation at 3680 ft. is 0. Approximately how much Surface Casing Pressure can be applied to the well before this formation breaks down? a) 350 psi b) 2275 psi c) 630 psi d) 400 psi 55.000 psi BOP Equipment d) 10. The drilling mud currently in use is 9.618 psi/ft. In the area where local legislation requires that BOP equipment must be rated so that maximum anticipated formation pressures do not exceed 75% of BOP equipment pressure ratings.

47 lb/ft.Open hole Drill pipe – riser Active surface volume = 0. 50 lbs/ft x 850 ft Capacity = .336 bbls/ft = 320 bbls Mud weight in use Pump output WELL CONTROL DATA SIDPP SIDPP SICP GAIN FRACTURE GRADIENT AT SHOE = 500 psi = 720 psi = 10 bbls = .000 ft TVD 10.Open hole Drill collars . Each question has only one correct answer. 0.0087 bbls/ft 8.5” 5” OD.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 3 Use the Well Data to answer the questions.0088 bbls/ft 61/2” x 213/16” x 750 ft Capacity = 0.0292 bbls/ft = 0.01776 bbls/ft 5” OD.00768 bbls/ft 95/8”.91psi/ft .000 ft MD 800 ft 820 ft capacity = 0.Casing Drill pipe .5 lbs/ft Capacity = 0.900 psi Set at 7.Casing Drill pipe .0459 bbls/ft = 0.119 bbls/stk PUMP PRESSURE While Drilling Slow Pump Rate Up Riser Slow Pump Rate Up CL 2600 psi at 90 spm (APL = 310 psi) 270 psi at 30 spm (APL = 75 psi) 360 psi at 30 spm ANNULAR VOLUMES Drill pipe . P110 8. 19.0505 bbls/ft = 0. WELL DATA Well Depth Marine riser Choke line Bit size Drill Pipe HWDP Drill Collars Casing 10.681” ID 100% Internal yield = 10.500 ft TVD 15 ppg.

D.0 ppg 12. Calculate the total annular capacity with the pipe on bottom while controling the well? A.6 bbls 3.0 ppg 6. 17 minutes 25 minutes 32 minutes 39 minutes 4. B. What is the surface to bit time with the pump running at 80 spm? A. 13. D. 58.8 minutes 60. What kill mud is required to balance formation pressure? A.4 ppg 16. B. C. 482. Calculate bit to surface time (bottoms up) at 80 spm? A. D. B. D. B.WELL CONTROL 1. 270 psi 770 psi 990 psi 1200 psi .5 minutes 5.2 bbls 446. C. What is the total capacity of the drill string? A.5 bbls 627. D. C.5 minutes 46. The ICP (initial circulating pressure) at 30 spm will be approximately? A. C. C. B.5 bbls 547.3 minutes 51. C. D. B.4 ppg 13. 150 bbls 162 bbls 197 bbls 180 bbls 2.

D. D. B. 412 ft/min 210 ft/min 506 ft/min 321 ft/min 12. C. What is the maximum allowable mud weight? A. At 80 spm what is the annular velocity around the drill collars? A. B. C. What is the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom of the hole before the kick? A. B. D. increase by about 225 psi decrease by about 225 psi remain constant because drill pipe pressure was not changed increase by about 500 psi 9. What is the ECD on bottom while drilling? A. B. After reaching FCP it is decided to increase the pump speed to 40 spm.0 ppg 15. The FCP (final circulating pressure) at 30 spm will be approximately? A.5 ppg 16. 5800 psi 6800 psi 7800 psi 6240 psi 10. C. approximately 800 psi approximately 390 psi approximately 500 psi approximately 290 psi 8.5 ppg 18. D.5 ppg 16. 17. What would happen to BHP if the drill pipe pressure is held constant at the original FCP value? A. C.WELL CONTROL 7.0 ppg 16.0 ppg 19. C.5 ppg 11. C.0 ppg . B. D. 15. B. D.

How long will it take to go from bit to shoe at a pump speed of 30 spm? A. What is the approximate length of the influx? A. How many strokes will it require to go from bit to shoe? A.137 psi/ft . B. B. D. B. B. C. D. B. C. 1282 stks 1363 stks 1680 stks 1538 stks 16. D. D. about 214 minutes about 29 minutes about 157 minutes about 55 minutes 18.320 psi/ft .465 psi/ft . about 96 minutes about 34 minutes about 214 minutes about 76 minutes .433 psi/ft 15. C. The gradient of the influx is about? A. 1027 ft 850 ft 653 ft 342 ft 14. C. D. At 30 spm what is shoe to surface travel time? A. 5364 stks 4122 stks 1658 stks 858 stks 17. C. . D. How many strokes to go from ICP to FCP? A.WELL CONTROL 13. C. B.

2 ppg 23. C.WELL CONTROL 19. 30 psi/100 stks 35 psi/100 stks 50 psi/100 stks 66 psi/100 stks . What would be the new MAASP once the well has been killed? A. C. B. B. A.5 ppg 16. If the casing shoe is tested with 12. 1250 psi 1500 psi 2000 psi 1950 psi 20. B.91 psi/ft? A.5 ppg mud in the hole.4 ppg 16. What would be the approximate pressure step down from ICP to FCP in psi/100 strokes. 157 mins 214 mins 45 mins 76 mins 22. If a 100 psi safety margin is included in the kill mud weight. D. B.0 ppg 15. C. B. 15. D. D. C. how much pressure is applied at the surface to give a fracture gradient of . At 30 spm how long will it take to pump kill mud to the bit? A. what would the new kill weight be? A. D. C. 685 psi 1638 psi 700 psi 585 psi 21. D.

The kill operation has started. open the choke a little B.WELL CONTROL Answer the following gauge questions as the well is killed using the Drillers method. F. What should you do? A. increase the pump speed D. What should you do? A. B. G. nothing everything looks alright . H. open the choke a little close the choke a little increase the pump speed decrease the pump speed nothing everything looks alright Possible plugged nozzle Possible choke wash out Possible choke plugging TO T A L S TR O K E S 900 100 0 1 100 800 70 0 60 0 5 00 40 0 300 2 00 1 00 1 900 120 0 130 0 580 70 0 60 0 5 00 40 0 300 140 0 1500 16 00 900 100 0 11 00 800 120 0 130 0 PSI PSI 1400 1 500 160 0 170 0 170 0 1800 2 00 1 800 100 1 900 PUMP SPEED D R ILLP IP E P R E S S U R E 30 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 600 O PE N CH O KE P O S ITIO N C LO S E 600 25. E. Pit room calls up to confirm a .5 bbl rise in the level. decrease the pump speed E. C. D. This is what the choke control console shows. TO TA L S TR O K E S 90 0 1000 1 100 80 0 70 0 600 5 00 400 3 00 200 1 00 1900 1200 1300 50 700 6 00 5 00 4 00 300 1400 15 00 160 0 900 10 00 1100 800 1 200 13 00 PSI PSI 14 00 1 500 1600 1 700 1700 1 800 200 18 00 10 0 1 900 PUMP SPEED D R ILLP IP E P R E S S U R E 30 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 770 O P EN C H O KE P O S IT IO N C LO S E 630 24. close the choke a little C.

B. The pit levels are still reported to be increasing slightly. D. This is what you see on the panel. C.WELL CONTROL TO TA L STR O KES 900 1000 1100 8 00 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1900 1200 1 300 3250 700 600 500 400 300 1400 1500 1600 900 1000 1100 800 1200 1300 P SI PS I 1400 1500 1600 1700 1700 1800 200 1800 100 1900 PU M P SPEED D R ILLP IPE PR E SSU R E 30 CASIN G PR ESSU R E 770 O PEN CH OK E PO SITIO N C LOS E 1 0 20 26. E. A. open the choke a little close the choke a little increase the pump speed decrease the pump speed nothing everything looks alright .

Any time the well is open Any time fluid is circulated through the mud pit When abnormal formation is expected When drilling 12 ¼ hole . 8. spot a high viscosity pill.9 ppg 9. c. d. Abnormally pressured formations People not reacting or handling situations properly BOP equipment failure Lost circulation 5.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 4 1. then pump out of hole Go back to bottom. Mud monitoring equipment such as P. d. Make sure that hole takes the proper amount of fluid during a trip 2. b. Know how to take SIDPP with a float in the string Shut the well in quickly and properly with the least amount of gain Circulate the kick out using constant circulating pressure and pump strokes Hold 200 psi extra back pressure with the hydraulic choke while circulating out the kick 4. Most kicks have been caused by the failure of drilling crews to: a. b. c. b. d. Keep mud weight high enough c. b.V. d. Observe. trip tanks and trip records should be used: a. and pit alarm systems. The mud weight required in the hole to balance normal formation pressure would have to be: a.5 ppg 6. b.T. The most important rule in well control is to: a. pull out of hole Stop.3 ppg 8. Properly install and test BOP equipment b. circulate bottoms up and evaluate the problem Check for gas cut mud at the surface 3. c. A large percentage of all kicks have been caused by: a.3 ppg 10. c. and if there is none. What is the correct action if the hole does not take the proper amount of fluid while tripping out of the hole? a. d. watch for flow. c.

b.WELL CONTROL 7. d. The first reliable indication that a kick is in progress is: a. increase b. Final circulating pressure is reached when: a. Mark the statements below "true" or "false" when drilling with a float valve in the string. False 8. c. No warning An increase in pump pressure An increase in mud flow. a) Surge pressure is reduced. True b. When a gas kick is being circulated up a well. d.   True False b) Reverse circulation is possible. the surface pit volume will: a.   True False . c. stay the same 10. mud volume and a decrease in pump pressure Reduced drilling rate 9.   True False c) Flow back through the drillstring often occurs after pumping a slug.   True False d) Shut-in drillpipe pressure can be taken without starting the pumps. b. The influx is circulated out Kill mud has made a complete circulation Kill mud has made a bottom-up Kill mud reaches the bit 11. Every kick should be handled as a gas kick a. decrease c.

b) Large difference between formation breakdown pressure and mud hydrostatic pressure. e) Large influx. . b) A primary seal is leaking. 13. What is the formation fracture gradient? a) 0. e) To close the well in softly. A Leak Off Pressure of 670 psi is determined. d) Short open hole section.837 psi/ft c) 0. c) To divert fluid to the mud tank. Change the worn packer. What is the primary function of the choke in the overall BOP system? a) To divert contaminant to burning pit. c) The rams packer is leaking due to wear. of new hole. b) Because the test will create extreme hook load.WELL CONTROL 12. b) To hold back pressure while circulating up kick. 16. it is noticed that hydraulic oil is leaking from the weep hole on the upper rams.2 ppg. 14. While testing the BOP stack. d) To prevent the loss of mud due to expansion of gas. secure the well and repair the seal. Which three of the following conditions in the well increase the risk of exceeding the MAASP during the well kill operation? a) Long open hole section. c) Otherwise reverse circulation will be needed to release the plug 15.530 psi/ft. Questions 16-18 are base on the following information: 13 3/8” surface casing is set and cemented at 3126 ft. using a 10.619 psi/ft b) 0. d) Do nothing.745 psi/ft d) 0. c) Small influx. mud. The seal requires a slight leak for lubrication purpose. f) Small difference between formation breakdown pressure and mud hydrostatic pressure. Which one of the following best describes the proper action to be taken? a) Energize plastic seal and repair BOP at next scheduled maintenance. Why should the side outlet below a test plug be kept in the open position while testing a surface BOP stack? a) Because of potential damage to casing/open hole. (TVD) The cement is drilled out together with 15 ft.

8 ppg. a) 865 psi b) 474 psi c) 449 psi d) 563 psi 18. What is the Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure for 11. a) 314 psi b) 442 psi c) 542 psi d) 506 psi 20. c) The use of Blow Out Preventers to close in a well that is flowing. If the original mud weight is 11. b) The used of Mud hydrostatic to balance fluid pressures in the formation.WELL CONTROL 17. d) Formation fluid pressure that exceeds normal water hydrostatic pressure. 22. What is primary well control? a) The slow Circulating Rate Pressure used in the kill process. d) The use of Pit Volume and Flow Rate measuring devices to recognize the kick. drilled 19. c) High density mud used to create a large overbalance. Approximately how much Surface Casing Pressure can be applied to the well before this formation breaks down? a) 350 psi b) 2275 psi c) 630 psi d) 400 psi 21.4 ppg mud used at 6500 ft TVD. is 0. A gas kick is being circulated out. How often should the MAASP be recalculated? a) After every bit change b) After a change in mud weight c) After every 500 ft.618 psi/ft. The drilling mud currently in use is 9.6 ppg. What is the casing pressure at surface. The Fracture Gradient of an open hole formation at 3680 ft. b) The excess pressure that needs to be applied to cause „leak-off „ into a normally pressure formation. At the time the gas reaches the casing shoe (3126 ft TVD) the pressure at the top of the bubble is 2200 psi. . What is meant by Abnormal High Pressure with regard to fluid pressure in the formation? a) The excess pressure due to circulating mud at high rates.

27. b) Stop drilling and fill the annulus up with water. A kick has been taken and it is known that a potential lost circulation zone exists in the open hole. 28. b) Monitoring the mud volume in the mud tanks. a) Maintain extra back pressure on the choke for safety. c) Stop drilling. If total losses occurred while drilling with water based mud what would you do? a) Continue drilling blind. b) Total lost circulation has occurred. Which of the following causes of well kicks is totally avoidable and is due to a lack of alertness by the driller? a) Lost circulation. c) Choose a lower circulating rate. After reaching bottom and commencing circulation. d) Abnormal Pressures. it is noticed that the normal displacement of mud into the trip tank is less than calculated. A pit loss of 2 bbl. Lost circulation during a well control operation is usually detected by: a) Monitoring the return flow with the flow show. Select two correct actions which can be taken to minimize pressure in the annulus during the kill operation. b) Gas cut mud. What is the most likely cause of these indications? a) Partial lost circulation has occurred. d) Choose a higher circulating rate. 26. c) Not keeping hole full. Which factors most influence the rate at which shut in pressures stabilize after the well is shut in? a) Gas migration b) Friction losses c) Permeability d) Type of influx 24.WELL CONTROL 23. from the top until stabilized. While running pipe back into the hole. d) The well has been swabbed. c) Monitoring the weight indicator. 25. c) A kick has been taken. shut the well in and see what happens. is noted. . b) Use the wait and weight method. the return flow meter is observed to reduce from 50% to 42%.

Which two practices are used to maintain primary well control as a precaution when connection gas is noticed? a) Pumping a low viscosity pill around bit to assist in reduction of balled bit or stabilizers. b) Insufficient trip margin. e) Minimizing the time during a connection when the pumps are off. d) Raising Mud yield point.WELL CONTROL 29. d) Increase pump speed. b) Increase torque. 33. Which one of the following is not an indication when a kick may be occurring? a) Flow rate increase. b) It result in higher annulus pressures. b) Control drilling rate so that only one slug of connection gas is in the hole at any one time. b) Flow check c) Reduce weight on bit. d) Going into the hole too fast. c) Improper circulating density. Why is a 20 barrel kick in a small annulus more significant than a 20 barrel kick in a large annulus? a) The kill weight mud cannot be calculated as easily. . c) The kicks are usually gas d) The pipe usually get stuck. 32. e) Failure to slug pipe prior to pulling out of hole. What should the driller do at a drilling break? a) Circulate bottoms up. 31. due to the height of the kick. Which two of the following cause swabbing? a) Pulling the pipe too fast. d) Gas cut mud. c) Pit gain. c) Pulling out of the hole to change the bit. 30.

e) Pull remaining stands out of hole. heavy slug into annulus and continue to pull out of hole. The calculated metal displacement of the 9 ½” collars is 0.WELL CONTROL 34. b) increased rotary torque c) flow rate increase. What action should be taken in this situation? a) Flow check. What is the size of the influx?. The trip tank volume has reduced from 27 barrels to 15 barrels. After having a kick the tank contains 240 bbls. if negative displace a 100 ft. While drilling The active tank contained 200 bbls and the mud return line to the pits contains 20 bbls. d) decrease drill string weight e) pit volume gain f) increased rate of penetration 35. The capacity of the drill pipe is 0. 37. Of all the following warning signs.08 bbls/ft. b) The ability of fluid and gas to move within the rock. The driller is tripping pipe out of a 12 ¼” diameter hole. a) The ratio of the open spaces to the total volume of rock.01776 bbls/ft and the metal displacement 0. d) All of the above 36. b) Shut the well in and circulate hole clean. . c) The presence of sufficient salt water volume to provide gas lift. if negative continue to pull out of hole. if negative run back to bottom and monitor returns. a) 260 bbls b) 20 bbls c) 40 bbls d) 240 bbls.0075 bbls/ft. d) Flow check. which two signs would leave little room for doubt that the well is kicking? a) flow line temperature increase. stand of 5” pipe have already been pulled. c) Flow check. 25x92 ft. There are 85 more stands to pull. Which of the following statements best describes formation porosity.

mud.) a) Are the calculations correct? Yes No b) Have you taken a 5 bbls influx? Yes No c) All OK. The pipe capacity is 0. c) 117 psi d) 135 psi.1 bbls should be pump into the well. b) Flow check.0549 bbls/ft. 39. While pulling out of the hole it is noticed that mud required to fill the hole is less than calculated. stands of 8” drill collars have been stood back in the derrick. keeps going? Yes No .5. Which of the following possible indications suggest that mud hydrostatic pressure and formation pressure are almost equal? a) A drilling break. TVD. d) Flow check. c) Large. 40. d) Trip gas. Two 93 ft. According to your Assistant driller .01776 bbls/ft.WELL CONTROL 38. heavy slug into annulus and continue to pull out of the hole. You are pulling out of hole. c) Pull remaining stands out of the hole. splintery cuttings. A 25 bbls slug weighting 12. if negative continue to pull out of the hole. Prior to pulling out of the hole from 10485 ft. (Answer “Yes” or “No” to each question. What is the drop in bottom hole pressure due to pumping the slug into position? a) 25 psi b) 0 psi. inside the drill pipe.4 ppg. e) Shut the well in and circulate the hole clean. 41. What action must be taken? a) Flow check. b) Connection gas. It only takes 5 bbls to fill the hole. if negative displace a 100 ft. the pipe is full of 10. if negative run back to bottom circulate bottoms up and monitor returns. The displacement is 0.0 ppg is pumped into the drill pipe causing the level to drop some 216 ft. e) All of above.

c. c) Drilling 20 ft further after a drilling brake. g) Excluding the drawworks from the SCR assignment. can a wire line be run inside the drill string? Yes No 43. what should the first action be? a. (Answer “Yes” or “No” to each question. e) Maintaining stab in valves. Which list below (a. choose the six most likely to lead to an increase in the size of the influx. From the list of practices shown below. b. d) Running regular pit drills for drill crew. Stab a full opening safety valve. 44. a) Switch off the flow meter alarms. b. c or d) describes how the choke manifold will most likely be set up for Hard Shut-in while drilling? BOP Side Outlet open open closed closed HydraulicValve(HCR) closed open open closed Auto Choke closed closed open open A B C D . j) Not holding down master air valve on remote BOP control panel while functioning a preventer.) a) Should the kelly cock be closed? Yes No b) If the kelly cock is left in the open position. close the valve. 45. h) Keeping air pressure on choke control console at 10 psi. A non return type safety valve was made up on top of the kelly cock prior to stripping in. d. If flow through the drillpipe occurs while tripping. f) Testing stab in valves during BOP tests. While tripping out of the hole a kick was taken and a full bore kelly cock was stabbed and closed. before flow checking. Run back into bottom.WELL CONTROL 42. b) Regular briefing for the derrickman on his duties regarding the monitoring of pit levels. i) Calling toolpusher to floor prior to shutting in the well. Pick up and stab kelly. Close the annular preventer.

WELL CONTROL 46. flow check periodically during circulation. c) Slow down the mud pump until the shakers can handle the volume of cuttings in the returns as requested by derrickman. Which one of the following would be the safest course of action. a) Continue at the same rate allowing the excess to bypass the shakers and get caught in sand traps which can be dumped later. d) Slow down the drilling rate and the pump rate until the shakers clear up then go back to the original parameters. While drilling along at a steady rate the derrickman asks to slow the mud pumps down so that the shakers can handle the increase in cuttings coming back in the returns. . b) Pick up off bottom and check for flow. if there is not any then circulate bottoms up to reduce rate so shakers can handle cutting volume.

How will this affect bottom hole pressure (exclude any Equivalent Circulating Density [ECD] effect)? Pick one answer. c) A larger pit gain will result in higher SICP but SIDPP will stay the same True or False. While killing a well. and casing pressure 970 psi. The drill pipe pressure reads 550 psi. why is it important to get the well shut in as soon as possible a) A larger pit gain will result in a higher SIDPP resulting in a heavier kill mud weight True or False. When a kick occurs.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 5 1. as pump speed is increased. a) Increase b) Decrease c) Stay the same d) No way of knowing 4. The principle involved in Constant Bottom Hole Pressure methods of well control is to maintain a bottom hole pressure that is : a) Equal to the slow circulating rate pressure b) At least equal to the formation pressure c) Equal to the shut in drill pipe pressure d) At least equal to the shut in casing pressure . b) A larger pit gain will result in higher SIDPP and SICP True or False. Which two pressure gauge readings might be used to determine formation pressure? a) BOP manifold pressure gauge b) Choke console drill pipe pressure gauge c) Driller‟s console drill pipe pressure gauge d) Choke console casing pressure gauge 3. what should happen to casing pressure in order to keep bottom hole pressure steady? a) Casing pressure should be held steady during SPM change b) Casing pressure should be allowed to rise during SPM change c) Casing pressure should be allowed to fall during SPM change 5. A kick is being circulated out at 30 SPM. 2. It is decided to slow the pumps to 20 SPM while maintaining 970 psi on the casing gauge. A flowing well is closed in.

If Bottom Hole Pressure is held constant while circulating the influx out. what will happen to Bottom Hole Pressure? a) Increases b) Remains the same c) Decreases 8. of 6 ½” drill collars Annular capacities 5" DP / 8 ½" Hole. a) True b) False Questions 10-18 are based upon the following information : A well is closed in having taken a 30 bbl gas kick. the pressure on at the casing shoe will not increase after the influx passes.WELL CONTROL 6. The choke has to be gradually closed due to a string washout. DC /8 ½" Hole.0292 bbls / ft . even though surface pressure on the annulus continues to rise. At what point while correctly circulating out a gas kick is it likely that the pressure at the casing shoe to be at its maximum? a) At initial shut in b) When kill mud reaches the bit c) When kill mud reaches the shoe d) When top of gas reaches the shoe 7. If Drill pipe Pressure is held constant while displacing the string with kill mud. How is a choke wash-out recognized? a) Rapid rise in casing pressure with no change in drill pipe pressure b) Increase in drill pipe pressure with no change in casing pressure c) Continually having to open choke to maintain drill pipe and casing pressure d) Continually having to close choke to maintain drill pipe and casing pressure 9.000 ft. =0. while drilling 8 ½” hole at 11. = 0. What effect does the gradual closing of the choke have on the bottom hole pressure? a) Decreases b) Increases c) Stays the same 10. (TVD) with 5” drill pipe and 750 ft.0459 bbls / ft.

the gas bubble begins to migrate. What would happen to Bottom Hole Pressure? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same . The mud weight is 12.3 ppg and the Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure is 350 psi. What will happen to Shut in Casing Pressure? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 15.WELL CONTROL 11. Assuming the gas Pressure Gradient to be 0. what will happen to the pressure in the gas bubble as it rises: a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 13.115 psi/ft. If you decide to bleed enough mud to keep the Drill Pipe Pressure constant at 350 psi. what will be the approximate Shut in Casing Pressure: a) 835 psi b) 650 psi c) 975 psi d) 888 psi 12. What will happen to the pressure on the Casing Seat? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 16. What will happen to Bottom hole Pressure? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 14. While preparing to circulate Kill Mud. If no action is taken. what would the pressure in the bubble do as the gas rises? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 17.

The operator increases pump speed to 35 SPM. What would happen to the Pressure on the Casing Seat when the bubble is above the Casing Shoe? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 21. Pumping pressure having been established as 1000 psi at 30 SPM. During the well kill operation. You are reasonably sure that a Nozzle of the Bit is plugged. During the operation. slowly but regularly you have had to reduce choke size because the drill pipe and casing pressures keep dropping with constant pump strokes. What should you do? a) Reduce pump pressure to 1000 psi by adjusting the choke b) Shut the well in and re-establish the pumping pressure c) Hold casing pressure constant at the value recorded just before the bit plugged d) (a) and (b) are acceptable courses of action 22. What would happen to the Shut in Casing Pressure? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 19. An influx is being circulated out using the Driller‟s Method and using 1100 psi at 30 SPM. while holding pump pressure constant.WELL CONTROL 18. A kick is being circulated from a well using the Driller‟s Method. What would happen to the Pressure on the Casing Seat while the bubble is below the Casing Shoe? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Remain approximately the same 20. What happens to Bottom Hole Pressure? a) Increases b) Decreases c) Remains approximately the same . pressure suddenly increases to 1350. What is the likely cause of this? a) A bit nozzle is washing out b) The choke is washing out c) You have a washed out pump swab 23.

you may have: a) a washed out bit nozzle b) a washed out choke c) a pump failure 27. Which of the following parameters can be affected by a drill string washout during a well kill operation? a) Bottom hole pressure b) Kick tolerance c) Formation fracture pressure d) Slow circulating rate pressure 25. . you have to pinch in the choke to maintain drill pipe and choke pressures while the pump strokes remain constant. You are killing a well using the Drillers Method. How can a washout at the adjustable choke be recognized? a) Drill pipe and casing pressures both falling b) Drill pipe and casing pressures both rising c) Rapid rise in casing pressure with no change to drill pipe pressure d) Increase in drill pipe pressure with no change to casing pressure 28. the drill pipe pressure remains unchanged but the casing pressure goes up. The drill pipe pressure begins to drift down. The reason shut in casing pressure is usually higher than the shut in drill pipe pressure is: a) The cuttings in the annulus are lighter. therefore creating a lighter hydrostatic in the annulus. it depends on whether it is an offshore or land operation. d) The only difference is in the type of gauges used. but the casing pressure remains unchanged. b) The influx fluid is usually less dense than the existing mud weight. If regularly and rather slowly. maintaining constant Drill pipe pressure. c) The casing pressure is not necessarily higher. You close up your choke slightly. What is the probable cause for this? a) Choke is plugging off b) Bit is plugging off c) Hole in drill pipe d) Choke is washing out 26.WELL CONTROL 24. The pump strokes remain constant.

3 ppg b) 11. then. start rising slowly by the same amount. yes b. What is the surface pit volume most likely to do? a) Increase b) Stay the same c) Decrease . c) Pump very slowly into the drill pipe with the well shut in. When casing pressure starts to rise.7 ppg d) No way of knowing 31.3 ppg c) 10. are the SICP and SIDPP about the same? a. This pumping pressure is the SIDPP. The well kicks and is closed in with 0 psi on the SIDPP and 150 psi on the SICP. d) Bring the pump up to the kill rate holding the casing pressure constant by opening the choke.3 ppg mud. When the pumping pressure stabilizes.WELL CONTROL 29. what action should be taken? a) Shearing the pipe and reading the SIDPP directly off the casing gauge b) Pump at kill rate into the drill string with the well shut in. There is no float in the drill string. we kick the pump in and start to circulate. The drill pipe pressure is „0‟ because there is a nonreturn valve (float) in the string. read the pump pressure. After circulating out a kick using the driller‟s method (no weight up). the SIDPP and SICP are observed to be stable for fifteen minutes. To establish the SIDPP. What kill mud weight is required? a) 10. A kicking well has been shut in. The pressure shown when the pump is at kill rate is the SIDPP. Both. 33. A gas kick is being circulated up the well. Which one of the following is the probable cause? a) A further influx is occurring b) The influx is migrating up the well bore c) The gauges are faulty d) The BOP stack is leaking 30. the float has opened. no 34. This is the SIDPP. After a round trip at 9854 ft with 10. Shut in casing pressure is used to calculate a) Kill weight mud b) Influx gradient and type when influx volume and well geometry are known c) Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure d) Initial circulating pressure 32. After shutting in on a kick.

a) Minimize pressures generated in the annulus due to gas migration. For each of the following statements. Which one of the following actions taken while stripping into the hole will help to maintain an acceptable bottom hole pressure? a) Pumping a volume of mud into the well. equal to the drill pipe steel displacement.WELL CONTROL 35. at regular intervals d) Bleeding off the drill pipe closed end displacement at regular intervals 38. note whether it relates to the Drillers Method or the Wait and Weight Method. Which of the following statements is true? a) There is no difference between using the Drillers method and the Wait and Weight method b) If the kill mud is being circulated up the annulus before the kick has reached the shoe then Wait and Weight method will reduce the risk of breaking down the formation compared to using the Drillers method c) The Wait and Weight method should always be used because the pressure against the open hole will always be lower when using the Drillers method . the casing pressure was allowed to fall below shut in casing pressure? a) Formation would most probably break down b) More influx would be let into the well bore c) It would have no effect on anything 36. what would happen if when bringing the pumps up to kill speed. equal to the drill pipe closed end displacement at regular intervals b) Bleeding off the drill pipe steel displacement at regular intervals c) Pumping a volume of mud into the well. Driller W&W b) Remove influx from well before pumping kill mud Driller W&W c) Pump kill mud while circulating influx up the annulus Driller W&W d) Maintain Drill Pipe pressure constant for 1 st circulation Driller W&W 37. On a surface stack.

On the second circulation of the Driller‟s method. what happens to the bottom hole pressure? a) Increases b) Decreases c) Stays the same . Using Wait and Weight method. observed pump pressure is ICP d) Add 1000 psi to shut in drill pipe pressure and circulate out the kick 41. when the slow pump rate circulating pressure is not known but a kick has been taken? a) Circulate at desired strokes per minute to circulate out the kick. Mud weight increase required to kill a kick should be based upon : a) shut in drill pipe pressure b) shut in casing pressure c) original mud weight plus slow circulation rate pressure losses d) shut in casing pressure minus shut in drill pipe pressure 40. the well is shut in. How is the Initial Circulating Pressure found on a land rig or a jack-up. Having completed the first circulation of the Driller‟s Method. if the drill pipe pressure drops below the line of the graph as the kill mud goes down.WELL CONTROL 39. if the casing pressure was held constant until the kill mud reached Surface. Should casing pressure be: a) Less than Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure b) Equal to Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure c) Greater than Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure 42. what would happen to the bottom hole pressure? a) Increase b) Decrease c) Stay the same 43. but hold 200 psi back pressure on drill pipe side with choke b) Add 400 psi to casing pressure and bring pump up to kill rate while using the choke to keep the casing pressure +400 constant c) Bring pump strokes up to kill rate while keeping casing pressure constant by manipulating the choke.

WELL CONTROL

44. You have taken a kick with a non-return valve (float) in the drill string. After shutting the well in properly, it is best to : a) Use the annulus pressure to calculate the kill weight mud b) Start raising the mud weight 1 ppg per circulation until the well is dead c) Use either the rig pump or cementing unit pump to increase pressure in 100 psi increments until a change is seen on casing gauge d) Pump slowly into the drill pipe. When the pump pressure stabilizes, the float is open. The pumping pressure is the SIDPP used to calculate kill mud 45. A well is being killed using the Driller‟s Method. Original shut-in drill pipe pressure = 500 psi Original shut-in casing pressure = 900 psi After the first circulation, the well is shut in and pressures allowed to stabilize. They then read : Shut-in drill pipe pressure = 500 psi Shut-in casing pressure = 650 psi It is decided not to spend any more time cleaning the hole Which one of the following actions should be taken a) Prepare to use the Wait and Weight method b) Bull-head the annulus until shut-in casing pressure is reduced to 500 psi c) Reverse circulate until shut-in casing pressure is reduced to 500 psi d) Continue with second circulation of Drillers Method (holding casing pressure constant until mud reaches the bit) 46. If the slow pump circulating pressure was not known, and a kick has been taken with the well closed in, how would you find the ICP? a) Bring pump up to the desired rate, while holding the casing pressure 150 psi above the original SICP b) Bring pump up to desired rate, but hold 200 psi back pressure on the drill pipe c) Bring pump up to the desired rate holding casing pressure constant by manipulating the hydraulic choke d) Circulate at desired kill rate but hold casing pressure 100 psi below MAASP 47. The correct gauge to use for calculating the kill weight mud is : a) the gauge on the choke and kill manifold b) the drill pipe pressure gauge on the drillers console c) the casing gauge on the drillers console d) the drill pipe gauge on the remote auto choke panel e) the casing gauge on the remote auto choke panel

WELL CONTROL

EXERCISE # 6
1. What is the primary function of the weep hole (drain hole, vent hole) on a ram type BOP? a) To show that ram body rubber is leaking. b) To show that the primary mud seal on the piston rod is leaking. c) To show that the Bonnet seals are leaking. d) To show that the closing chamber operating pressure is too high. 2. You only have one inside BOP with an NC 50 (4”1/2 IF) lower pin connection on your rig but the drill string consist of 5” HWDP, and 8” collars. Which one of the following crossovers would you have on the drill floor in case of kick while tripping? a) 6-5/8” reg. Box X 7-5/8” reg. Pin b) NC50 (4-1/2” IF) Pin X 6-5/8” reg. Pin c) NC50 (4-1/2” IF) Box X 7-5/8” reg. Pin d) NC50 (4-1/2” IF) Box X 6-5/8” reg. Pin 3. Two types of valves may be used in the drill string: Type 1 Non return, stab in safety valve or inside BOP Type 2 Fully opening stab in Kelly cock valve or fully opening safety valve Indicate in the table which statement describes the valves. Type 1 Requires the use of key to close Must not run in the hole in the close position Has to be pumped to read “shut-in drill pipe pressure” Will not allow wireline to be run inside the drill string Has potential to leak through the open/close key Easier to stab if strong flow is encountered up the string 4. A BOP stack is configured: Pipe ram / Blind-Shear ram / Pipe ram / Annular, kill and choke lines are connected under the blind-shear rams. Is it possible to kill a well using the Driller's method if; a) The upper pipe rams are closed? b) The blind shear rams are closed? c) The lower pipe rams are closed? 5. A BOP stack is configured: Pipe ram / pipe ram / Blind-Shear ram / Annular, kill and choke lines are connected under the blind-shear rams. a) Can you repair the side outlets with pipe in the hole? b) Can you repair the outlets with no pipe in the hole? c) Is it possible to shut in with drill pipe in the hole and circulate through the drill pipe? d) Can you change blind rams to pipe rams and kill the well? 6. A BOP stack is configured: Drilling spool / Pipe ram / Blind-Shear ram / Annular, kill and choke lines are connected to the drilling spool. a) With drill pipe in hole, can we repair the side outlets? b) With no drill pipe in the hole, can you shut in and repair the Drilling spool? c) With drill pipe in hole, can you circulate through the Drilling spool? Type 2

WELL CONTROL

7. The kill line should enter a stack so that a) The well can be circulated if the blind rams are in use. b) The well can be circulated if the pipe rams are being used. c) Both the above. 8. Which of the following statements are true concerning Ram Packing Elements? a) Reciprocating motion of the pipe increases the wear on seals. b) Closing pipe rams on open hole may damage the elements. c) The ram packer should normally be checked, and if worn, changed whenever the bonnet is opened. d) All of above. 9. What do the term “6BX” stamped on a flange represent? a) serial number b) pressure rating c) type d) size 10. What is meant by the closing ratio for a ram type BOP? a) Ratio between closing & opening volume. b) Ratio between closing & opening time. c) Ratio of the wellhead pressure to the pressure required to close the BOP. 11. Study the two tables below which contain markings stamped on API flanges and ring gaskets. Each flange (1,2,3 and 4) mates with one of the ring gaskets (A,B,C or D). Write the appropriate flange number in the blanks. Ring Gasket Marking Flange A -CI API BX154 S304-4 B -OES API R57 D-4 C- OES API RX66 S-4 D -CI API BX153 S316-4 Flange Marking 1. 2. 3. 4. OES API 16-3/4 3M RX66 6A 89 300F PSL3 05/91 CI API 3-1/16 15M BX154 CRA 6A 89 250F PSL2 PRL2 08/92 OES API 2-9/16 20M BX153 CRA 6A 89 350F PSL4 PRL4 01/94 OES API 13-5/8 2M R57 6A 89 250F PSL1 PRL1 11/93 Gasket A B C D Flange

A BOP stack is configured Pipe Ram / Blind-Shear ram / Pipe Ram / Annular. 14.D. e) Bolt circle diameter. open and close again all rams and the annular.WELL CONTROL 12. d) O.D. Which dimension from the list below is used to identify the “Nominal Flange Size” a) Throughbore I. 15. In an area where local legislation requires that BOP equipment must be rated so that maximum anticipated formation pressures do not exceed 75% of BOP equipment pressure ratings. From the list below. b) Flange O. c) To create a back pressure sufficient to stop formation fluids entering the wellbore.D. Use the table below to calculate the required accumulator volume if company policy is to provide sufficient volume to close. identify the ring gaskets that are pressure energized. Component Annular BOP Ram BOP Volume to Open 27 13 Volume to close 29 15 . c) Diameter of raised face. (Pick four answers) a) Type RX b) Type BX c) Type AX d) Type R oval e) Type R octagonal f) Type CX 13. What is the main function of a diverter? a) To shut in a shallow kick. of ring groove. what is the minimum acceptable rating for equipment to be used in drilling normally pressure formation to 16000 ft TVD? a) 2000 psi BOP equipment b) 3000 psi BOP equipment c) 5000 psi BOP equipment d) 10000 psi BOP equipment e) 15000 psi BOP equipment 16. b) To direct fluid a safe distance away from the rig floor. d) To act as a back up system if the annular preventer fails.

WELL CONTROL 17. When closing the annular preventer from the remote panel. What is the value of X? a) 30 sec. a) If you operate a function without operating the master control valve that function will not work. c) 2 min. b) 2 times accumulator volume. True or False 18. The API RP53 states that closing time should not exceed X seconds for annular BOPs smaller than 18-3/4". Decide if the statements are true or false. The following statements relate to the driller‟s remote control BOP control panel located on the rig floor. True or False d) The master control valve must be depressed for five seconds then released before operating a BOP function. 19. Which two pressure readings decrease during normal operation of the pipe rams? a) Manifold pressure b) Annular pressure c) Accumulator pressure c) Precharge pressure 21. d) 45 sec. which two gauges show a reduction in pressure? a) Manifold pressure b) Annular pressure c) Accumulator pressure d) Air pressure . 20. Which is the correct definition of the HPU reservoir volume according to API RP53? a) 2 times usable accumulator volume. True or False c) The master control valve must be held depressed while BOP functions are operated. b) 5 times total accumulator volume . b) 60 sec. True or False b) The master control valve on an air operated panel allows air pressure to go to each function in preparation for you operating the function.

d) Leak in the hydraulic line to the BOP or in the BOP closing chamber. Which of the problems below would not stop the BOP from closing? a) Master control valve was not held down. Manifold pressure.WELL CONTROL 22. What is the total usable fluid volume when the minimum BOP operating pressure is 1. each with a capacity of 10 gallons.500 psi. the manifold setting is 1. 27. a) Everything is OK. The annular setting is 900 psi. which of the following statements is true? a) No stack function can be operated from the remote panel. b) Four-way valve did not shift position. f) A bulb has blown on the remote panel. On a 3000 psi accumulator system. c) Closing line in the BOP was blocked. Precharge pressure is 1000 psi. d) The annular preventer can still be operated from the remote panel. Operating pressure is 3000 psi. In the case below. Annular pressure = = = = psi psi psi psi 25. A BOP operating unit has 8 accumulator bottles. what are the normal operating pressures seen on the following gauges on the drillers remote control panel?     Air pressure Accumulator pressure. b) All stack function can be operated from the remote panel. . e) Air pressure to the panel was lost. c) Malfunction hydro-electric switch d) Leaking in hydraulic circuit e) Precharge pressure is to low 23. b) Malfunction pressure regulating valve. If the air pressure on the drillers panel reads 0 psi.200 psi? Answer: gal 24. On which two gauges on the remote panel would you expect to see reduction in pressure when the annular preventer is being closed? 26. identify the most likely problem from the gauge readings observed on the remote control panel. c) Choke and kill lines can still be operated from the remote panel.

What is the normal precharge for the accumulator bottles on a 3000 psi accumulator unit? a) 1000 psi b) 3000 psi c) 1200 psi d) 200 psi .WELL CONTROL 28. When drilling. which may be the correct position of the 4-way valves on the BOP accumulator unit? a) open b) close c) neutral d) open or closed depending on BOP stack function 29.

00874 bbls/ft 61/2” x 213/16” x 820 ft Capacity = 0.667 MD 8.0292 bbls/ft WELL CONTROL DATA SIDPP SICP GAIN = 750 psi = 900 psi = 22 bbls You are recommended to complete a kick sheet to answer the following questions: .WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 7 Use the Well Data to answer the questions.01776 bbls/ft 5” OD x 3” ID x 720 ft Capacity = . WELL DATA Well Depth Kick Off Point End Of Build Bit size Drill Pipe Heviwate Drill Collars Casing 8.000 TVD / 4. 320 bbls National triplex 12-P-160 With 61/2” Liners Capacity = 0.000 MD 5.175 ft TVD / 6.554 ft TVD 10.Open hole Drill collars .5” 5” OD. P110 8.500 ft MD 4.0447 bbls/ft = 0.Casing Drill pipe/HW .270 psi w/ 10.681” ID 100% Internal yield = 10.5 ppg.5 lbs/ft Capacity = 0.4 ppg 11. 19.0077 bbls/ft 95/8”.0478 bbls/ft = 0.447 TVD / 5.117 bbls/stk PUMP PRESSURE Formation strength test Mud weight in use Surface Volume Pumps Slow Pump Rate 520 psi at 40 spm ANNULAR VOLUMES Drill pipe/HW .Open hole = 0.800 MD 1. 47 lb/ft.900 psi Set at 6.

How many strokes to pump from surface to bit: 2. What is the circulating pressure when kill mud reaches the KOP? 6. What is the Final Circulating Pressure? 4. What is the Initial Circulating Pressure? 3. What is the circulating pressure when kill mud reaches the EOB? 8. How many strokes to pump from surface to KOP? 5.WELL CONTROL 1. How many strokes to pump from surface to the EOB? 7. Calculate the pressure drop per 100 strokes of kill mud pumped inside the string from the EOB to the bit? .

What is the approximate time needed to kill the well? .WELL CONTROL 9. Calculate MAASP after circulation of kill mud? 10.

336 bbls/ft Mud weight in use Pump output WELL CONTROL DATA SIDPP SICP GAIN = 700 psi = 1150 psi = 30 bbls LEAK OFF TEST DATA 3650 PSI with 11 ppg mud .200 ft MD RKB 12.0489 bbls/ft = 0. 47 lb/ft. 0. Each question has only one correct answer.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 8 Use the Well Data to answer the questions. P110 8.000 ft TVD – 14.0459 bbls/ft = 0.Open hole Drill collars .0292 bbls/ft = 0. 19.360 bbls/ft 1724 ft capacity = 0.700 ft TVD 16. WELL DATA Well Depth Marine riser Choke line Bit size Drill Pipe Drill Collars Casing 15.5 lbs/ft Capacity = 0.Open hole Drill pipe – Riser = 0.4 ppg.008 bbls/ft 95/8”.0087 bbls/ft 8.117 bbls/stk PUMP PRESSURE While Drilling Slow Pump Rate Up Riser CLFL with 11 ppg mud 3500 psi at 75 spm (APL = 270 psi) 980 psi at 40 spm (APL = 75 psi) 250 psi at 20 spm (APL = 20 psi) 125 psi at 20 spm 500 psi at 40 spm ANNULAR VOLUMES Drill pipe .900 psi Set at 14.01776 bbls/ft 61/2” x 213/16” x 540 ft Capacity = 0.5” 5” OD.681” ID 100% Internal yield = 10.500 ft MD 1700 ft capacity = 0.Casing Drill pipe .

Calculate the total annular capacity with the pipe on bottom? a) b) c) d) 722 bbls 443 bbls 987 bbls 323 bbls 3.0 ppg 12. The ICP (initial circulating pressure) at 40 spm will be approximately? a) b) c) d) 1680 psi 770 psi 2130 psi 1200 psi 7.4 ppg 16.3 minutes 123 minutes 5.WELL CONTROL 1. The FCP (final circulating pressure) at 40 spm will be approximately? a) b) c) d) approximately 1800 psi approximately 1050 psi approximately 1500 psi approximately 1290 psi . What kill mud is required to balance formation pressure? a) b) c) d) 13.3 ppg 13. Calculate bit to surface time (bottoms up) at 40 spm? a) b) c) d) 155 minutes 234 minutes 60. What is the total capacity of the drill string? a) b) c) d) 288 bbls 162 bbls 335 bbls 456 bbls 2. What is the surface to bit time with the pump running at 40 spm? a) b) c) d) 61 minutes 25 minutes 87 minutes 54 minutes 4.0 ppg 6.

After reaching FCP it is decided to increase the pump speed to 50 spm.0 ppg 18.0 ppg 19.5 ppg 16.03 ppg 16.823 psi 6800 psi 7800 psi 6240 psi 10. What is the ECD on bottom while drilling? a) b) c) d) 12. What would be the circulating pressure while drilling if the pump was decreased to 60 spm? a) b) c) d) 2240 psi 2800 psi 2100 psi 1860 psi 12.54 ppg 16.52 ppg 11.WELL CONTROL 8. What would happen to BHP if the drill pipe pressure is held constant at the original FCP value? a) b) c) d) increase by about 590 psi decrease by about 590 psi remain constant because drill pipe pressure was not changed increase by about 500 psi 9.73 ppg 15. What is the maximum allowable mud weight? a) b) c) d) 17. What is formation pressure based on the shut in data? a) b) c) d) 10.0 ppg . At 75 spm what is the annular velocity around the drill collars? a) b) c) d) 412 ft/min 210 ft/min 506 ft/min 300 ft/min 13.

Calculate the MAASP? a) b) c) d) 2620 psi 2524 psi 2368 psi 1356 psi 18.115 psi/ft 0.WELL CONTROL 14. Not following the the correct pressure schedule.433 psi/ft 16.320 psi/ft 0. How many strokes are required to displace the riser – annulus a) b) c) d) 7034 strokes 4882 strokes 3453 strokes 1234 strokes . What is the capacity of the choke line: a) b) c) d) 15 bbls 12 bbls 23 bbls 28 bbls 20. What is the approximate length of the influx? a) b) c) d) 1027 ft 850 ft 653 ft 342 ft 15.465 psi/ft 0. The gradient of the influx is about? a) b) c) d) 0. the BHP could be high or low causing losses or another influx. How many strokes to go from ICP to FCP? a) b) c) d) 1282 stks 1363 stks 1680 stks 2461 stks 17. a) True b) False 19.

The kill operation has started.4 ppg 14. what mud weight would have required to kill the well? a) b) c) d) 12.5 ppg 15.WELL CONTROL 21. If the well had been shut in with 0 psi on the drill pipe pressure and no float in the string and a SICP of 300 psi. What should you do? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little nothing everything looks alright Possible plugged nozzle Possible choke plugging TO T A L S TR O K E S 900 100 0 1 100 800 70 0 60 0 5 00 40 0 300 2 00 1 00 1 900 120 0 130 0 500 70 0 60 0 5 00 40 0 300 140 0 1500 16 00 900 100 0 11 00 800 120 0 130 0 PSI PSI 1400 1 500 160 0 170 0 170 0 1800 2 00 1 800 100 1 900 PUMP SPEED D R ILLP IP E P R E S S U R E 40 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 1620 O PE N CH O KE P O S ITIO N C LO S E 700 .5 ppg Answer the following gauge questions as the well is killed using the Drillers method. This is what the choke control console shows. TO TA L STR O KES 90 0 1000 1 100 80 0 70 0 600 5 00 400 3 00 200 1 00 1900 1200 1300 1 20 700 6 00 5 00 4 00 300 1400 15 00 160 0 900 10 00 1100 800 1 200 13 00 PSI PSI 14 00 1 500 1600 1 700 1700 1 800 200 18 00 10 0 1 900 PU M P SPEED D R ILLPIPE PR E SSU R E 40 C AS IN G P R ESSU R E 1 6 80 O P EN C H O KE P O S IT IO N C LO S E 590 22.9 ppg 12.

5 bbl rise in the level. This is what you see on the panel.WELL CONTROL 23. What should you do? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little increase the pump speed decrease the pump speed nothing everything looks alright TO TA L STR O KES 900 1000 1100 8 00 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1900 1200 1 300 4550 700 600 500 400 300 1400 1500 1600 900 1000 1100 800 1200 1300 P SI PS I 1400 1500 1600 1700 1700 1800 200 1800 100 1900 PU M P SPEED D R ILLP IPE PR E SSU R E 40 CASIN G PR ESSU R E 1 6 80 O PEN CH OK E PO SITIO N C LOS E 1 4 80 24. Pit room calls up to confirm a . a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little possible choke washout possible choke plugging nothing everything looks alright TOTAL STROK ES 90 0 1000 11 00 8 00 70 0 600 500 400 300 200 100 1 900 1200 1 300 5600 700 600 50 0 400 300 140 0 1500 1600 900 1000 1100 800 12 00 1300 PSI PSI 1400 15 00 1600 1700 1 70 0 1800 200 180 0 100 1900 P UM P SPE ED DR ILLPIPE PRE SSU RE 40 CASIN G PRESS UR E 1400 OP EN CHO KE PO SITION CL OSE 1720 . The pit levels are still reported to be increasing slightly.

WELL CONTROL 25. Gas is venting and pit levels are reported to be falling. Experienced a sudden increase in casing pressure over the last 100 strokes. Not hearing anymore gas. How are things going? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little casing pressure should be 0 possible choke wash out good everything looks alright TO TA L S TR O K E S 90 0 1000 1 100 80 0 70 0 600 500 400 3 00 200 1 00 1900 120 0 1300 6300 700 600 5 00 400 30 0 1400 1 500 160 0 900 10 00 110 0 80 0 1 200 13 00 PSI PSI 14 00 150 0 1600 1 700 1700 1 800 200 18 00 1 00 1 900 PUMP SPEED D R ILLP IP E P R E S S U R E 00 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 700 O P EN C H O KE P O S IT IO N C LO S E 700 . What are you going to do now? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little possible nozzle plugging possible choke plugging nothing everything looks alright TO TAL STRO KES 900 1000 1100 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1900 1200 1300 6220 700 600 500 400 300 1400 1500 1600 900 1000 1100 800 1200 1300 PSI PSI 1400 1500 1600 1700 1700 1800 200 1800 100 1900 PUMP SPEED D R IL L P IP E P R E S S U R E 40 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 1680 OPEN CHOKE POSITION CLOSE 1 40 26.

Got the pump to kill speed and have just reset the stroke counters having pumped the surface line. What should you do? a) b) c) d) e) Check MW = 13.3 ppg Check MW = 16 ppg Reset stroke counter Bleed off pressure to 0 nothing everything looks alright TO TA L S TR O K ES 900 1000 1100 800 70 0 600 500 400 300 200 100 1900 1 200 1300 0000 700 600 500 400 300 1400 1500 16 00 900 1000 1100 800 120 0 1 300 PSI P SI 1400 1500 1600 170 0 1700 1800 200 1800 100 1900 PU M P SPEED D R ILLP IPE PRES SU R E 40 C AS IN G PR ESSU R E 1 7 80 O P EN CH O K E PO SITIO N C LOS E 236 28. Shut back in. What should you do? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little increase the pump speed decrease the pump speed nothing everything looks alright TOTAL STROK ES 90 0 1000 11 00 8 00 70 0 600 500 400 300 200 100 1 900 1200 1 300 250 700 600 50 0 400 300 140 0 1500 1600 900 1000 1100 800 12 00 1300 PSI PSI 1400 15 00 1600 1700 1 70 0 1800 200 180 0 100 1900 P UM P SPE ED DR ILLPIPE PRE SSU RE 40 CASIN G PRESS UR E 1620 OP EN CHO KE PO SITION CL OSE 140 .WELL CONTROL 27.

What are you going to do now? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little possible nozzle plugged possible choke plugged nothing everything looks alright TO TAL STRO KES 900 1000 1100 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1900 1200 1300 980 700 600 500 400 300 1400 1500 1600 900 1000 1100 800 1200 1300 PSI PSI 1400 1500 1600 1700 1700 1800 200 1800 100 1900 PUMP SPEED D R IL L P IP E P R E S S U R E 40 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 1430 OPEN CHOKE POSITION CLOSE 1 40 30.WELL CONTROL 29. How are things going? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little increase the pump speed possible choke wash out good everything looks alright T O TA L S TR O K E S 90 0 1000 1 100 80 0 70 0 600 5 00 400 3 00 200 1 00 1900 1200 1300 1720 700 6 00 5 00 4 00 300 1400 15 00 160 0 900 10 00 1100 800 1 200 13 00 PSI PSI 14 00 1 500 1600 1 700 1700 1 800 200 18 00 10 0 1 900 PUMP SPEED D R ILLP IP E P R E S S U R E 00 C A S IN G P R E S S U R E 220 O P EN C H O KE P O S IT IO N C LO S E 700 . Pump room is on the phone saying pit levels are OK. Drill pipe pressure is falling but casing pressure stay constant.

What do you thing? a) b) c) d) e) Drill pipe pressure is too low Casing pressure is too high Drill pipe pressure is too high Casing pressure is too low Everything looks alright TO TA L S TR O K ES 900 1000 1100 800 70 0 600 500 400 300 200 100 1900 1 200 1300 2480 700 600 500 400 300 1400 1500 16 00 900 1000 1100 800 120 0 1 300 PSI P SI 1400 1500 1600 170 0 1700 1800 200 1800 100 1900 PU M P SPEED D R ILLP IPE PRES SU R E 40 C AS IN G PR ESSU R E 1 0 50 O P EN CH O K E PO SITIO N C LOS E 130 32. Company man wants to know how things are going. Back up to kill speed.WELL CONTROL 31. What do you tell him? a) b) c) d) e) open the choke a little close the choke a little possible choke plugging possible nozzle plugging nothing everything looks alright . Had to shut in because of a pump.

an alarm goes off indicating low accumulator pressure and the flow meter Indicates a rapid loss of fluid. which of the following is true? a) SPM valve will operate in both pods. What is his best option? a) Change pod and try again. b) Call and wait for the subsea engineer. The best course of action is: a) Stop drilling and shut the well in. How much time is allowed for subsea ram type preventer to close in API RP53? a) b) c) d) 30 seconds 45 seconds 60 seconds 50 seconds 5. He Pushes the “Annular Close” button and the pilot light changes.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 9 1. thus reducing delay times. While drilling. d) Close the lower annular preventer. A driller needs to close in a flowing well with drill pipe in a subsea BOP stack. 2. c) The SPM valve will operate after the function is complete. What is the principal reason for fitting ram locking devices such as wedgelocks or Poslocks to a subsea stack? a) To give additional force when closing in. c) To lock the BOP stack to the well head and lock the lower Marine Riser Package to the BOP stack. c) Stop drilling and put all function in block one at a time until the flow stops. From which position in the hydraulic circuit is readback pressure taken? a) Upstream of the regulator in the pod? b) The regulator itself? c) Down stream of the regulator in the pod? 6. 3. but all gauges and the flow meter remain static. . c) Send assistant driller to manually operate the 4-ways valve on the Hydraulic Control Manifold to close the annular. b) SPM valve will operate only on the active pod. When a function is operated. 4. b) To lock the ram in the closed position and maintain the shear rams locked during disconnect. b) Stop drilling and call subsea engineer. d) None of the above.

water-soluble concentrate and glycol. c) Memory Function indicates the previous position before “Block position” of three position functions. c) The Pilot System controls the position of all shuttle valves on the BOP stack directly. d) Memory Function reminds the driller to engage Wedge Locks before hanging off. pressure will be trapped in the line previously pressurised. Name 3 potential causes of riser collapse: . What is the purpose of the "Memory Function" on electric control panels? a) Memory Function indicates a malfunction by giving permanent light on the alarm panel after an alarm has been acknowledged and the audible alarm has stopped. b) If the valve is shifted to the center or “block” position. 10. e) Pilot fluid consists of potable water. 9. b) The shuttle valves prevent communication between the selected system and the redundant system. b) The Pilot System dumps fluid to the sea at every operation of BOP functions. 11. d) The Pilot system is a closed dead-end system. b) Memory Function reminds the driller to add anti-freeze fluid when the temperature drops below a set level. pressure will be vented from the line previously pressurised.WELL CONTROL 7. Which two statements are true with respect to shuttle valves on a subsea stack? a) The shuttle valves automatically seal any hydraulic leaks in the selected pod. c) The shuttle valves are pilots operated. d) The shuttle valves allow the retrieval of a malfunctioning pod without losing hydraulic BOP control. 8. Which two statements are true with respect to the Pilot System? a) The fluid in the Pilot System flows continuously while a function on the BOP takes place. a) If the valve is shifted to the center or “block” position. Which of the following statements is true regarding to the use of “manipulator” type 4Ways valve used in subsea hydraulic BOP control systems. The subsea hydraulic BOP control system is divided into a Control System and a Pilot System.

Answer true or false to the following statements: 13. You can pump down the drill string taking returns through the riser and then close the annular and take returns through the choke line. What is the purpose of sub-sea stack mounted bottles? a) b) c) d) to minimize the time to operate any BOP function to maximize the time to operate any BOP function to minimize the time to operate annular type preventer to optimize the time to operate ram type preventer The drillers BOP panel has gauges for pilot and readback pressure for the manifold and annular pressure. a stand pipe pressure of 65 psi was recorded.WELL CONTROL 12. Pilot pressure and readback pressure should normally be the same. a) true b) false 17. Estimate CLFL: a) b) c) d) 30 psi 65 psi 351 psi 143 psi . Read back pressure is mesured at the output from the sub sea regulator a) true b) false 15. a) true b) false 19. a) true b) false 14. You can pump down the choke line taking return up the riser. Pilot pressure is measured at the out put of the surface regulator a) true b) false Answer true or false in each case to measure Choke Line Friction Loss (CLFL): 16. a) true b) false 18. You need to know the length of the choke line. While pumping down the choke line at 150 gpm taking returns through the riser with 9 ppg mud in 750 feet water with 60 feet air gap.

Sea water is . APL is 10 psi a) b) c) d) 8. Overburden is .65 psi/‟ft.455 psi/ft.7 ppg 11. a circulating pressure of 375 psi was recorded. Air gap is 60 ft and TD / TVD is 1350 ft RKB.WELL CONTROL 20. Water depth is 220 ft. While pumping down the drill string and up the riser. Air gap is 80 ft. A semi is in 650 ft of water (.5 psi 132 psi 234 psi 21. Casing shoe is 600 ft RKB. What would be the new CLFL if the mud weight is increased to 13.5 ppg (use data from Q-19) a) b) c) d) 65 psi 97. Calculate the Maximum Allowable Mud Weight with the following data: Hole size 17 ½”.7 ppg Water depth Air gap Well depth 23. The annular was closed and returns taken through a wide open choke. circulating pressure was now 600 psi. What is the BHP during connections? a) b) c) d) 450 psi 474 psi 550 psi 574 psi .77 ppg 9. What are the CLFL? a) b) c) d) 375 psi 975 psi 600 psi 225 psi 22.45 ppg 10.445 psi/ft) drilling without a riser.

67 ppg 2. TVD / TD is 2250 ft RKB and MW is 9.34 ppg 1. sea water is .78 ppg .465 psi/ft. What surface volume would 2 bbl of gas trapped in a sub sea BOP at 1900 ft water depth have if released and allowed to migrate through the riser filled with 12. A semi is drilling top hole with a riser and diverter installed connected to 30” casing.7 ppg.WELL CONTROL 24. hat increase in mud weight is required to offset this? a) b) c) d) 1. Air gap is 70 ft. What would be the reduction in BHP if the riser were lost or removed? a) b) c) d) 30 psi 65 psi 95 psi no reduction 26.9 ppg mud? a) b) c) d) 45 bbls 93 bbls 157 bbls 173 bbls Air gap Water depth Well depth 25. water depth is 1523 ft.23 ppg 2.

9 ppg water depth=1342 ft a) b) c) d) 0 psi 35 psi 65 psi 90 psi 30. How many (. The recommended response time for sub sea BOP is: Rams to close in less than: Annular should not exceed: Time to unlatch LMRP should not exceed: seconds seconds seconds 28.115bbl/st) strokes will it take to displace a 16” x 5” riser/drillpipe annulus (200 ft long)? a) b) c) d) 290 strokes 390 strokes 490 strokes 190 strokes . How can gas trapped in a subsea BOP be safely circulated out? 29.WELL CONTROL 27. By how much would BHP change if a well was inadvertently opened before displacing riser to kill mud? MW=10.4 ppg KMW=10.

Each component has a number. Place the number next to the component in the list provided. .WELL CONTROL 31. The following drawing shows components of a subsea hydraulic control system.

Selector c. Manipulator 36. the valve vents fluid lines to tank. 4 d. In the center or block position. True b. b. c. 2 b. answer the following question: 32. c. d. How many positions can the valve be placed in: a. d. a. 2 3 4 8 33. What is the name of this valve? a. b. manual function only remote function only air operated only manual or remote function 35. 8 34. Can the valve be operated by: a.WELL CONTROL Using the schematic diagram of a hydraulic valve. false . 3 c. How many active ports does the valve have? a. Terminator b.

4 ppg 5. 1083 ft 1183 ft 1283 ft 1383 ft . If the choke line is filled with sea water and the fail safe valves are opened. d.1 ppg 1.445 psi/ft 13.000 ft MD Air gap Air gap: Water depth: Sea water gradient: Mud weight: 60 ft 2150 ft .3 ppg 38. What mud weight increase is required to balance the well if the riser is to be removed? a. d.657 ft TVD RKB 12. b. what would be the the casing pressure read? a. d. c. b. c.3 ppg 13. b. If the riser had a collapse pressure of 500 psi.3 ppg Water depth Well depth 37. c. A BOP drill was conducted and the well shut in on the upper annular preventer. 2. 350 psi 500 psi 480 psi 571 psi 40. how far could the mud level fall before seawater collapses the riser? a.WELL CONTROL WELL DATA: Well depth: 10. c. b. d. 545 psi 945 psi 60 psi 245 psi 39. if the riser is lost in bad weather. what would be the bottom hole pressure reduce by? a.

False 43. d. Using the following data. 113 bbls 123 bbls 133 bbls 143 bbls 1500 ft 1480 ft 12. c. To find ICP. calculate the expanded gas volume that would be at surface if 2 barrels of gas had remained trapped under the rams and was released into the riser when the well was opened back up after a successful operation? Well data: Choke line length: Riser length: Kill mud weight: Drilling mud: Atmospheric pressure: a. d. 1091 psi 1191 psi 1291 psi 1391 psi 45. The rig has an air gap of 80 ft. False 44. If a function is made to close the hang off rams and your fluid counter continues to register fluid movement after the correct closing volume has gone passed. True b. b. If the riser has a collapse pressure of 450 psi. c. True b. a.7 psi . b.2 ppg 14. c.445 psi/ft of sea water? a.5 ppg 11.WELL CONTROL 41. d. continue 42. what would you consider doing? (1 answer) a. b. The hydraulic fluid system used to operate the subsea BOP‟s consist of potable water and additives. how far would the mud level fall before it collapse if you are working in 1600 ft of . Call the subsea engineer and let him sort it out Close another set of rams Put the operating unit into block position Everything is OK. you must add the choke line friction to the slow circulating rate: a.

If accumulator bottles were taken to the seabed with the same precharge as surface bottles.00 gals 3. c.WELL CONTROL 46. Same volume as surface volume . d. b. Decrease c. the mimimum is 1500 psi and the pre charge is 1000 psi? a. 5.63 gals 1.34 gals 6.73 gals 47. Increase b. what effect would this have on the usable fluid? a. Calculate the usable fluid in a 10 gallons bottle if the maximum pressure is 3000 psi.

a) True b) False 4. The Driller‟s method of well control will result in higher casing shoe pressures if the open hole volume is less than the drill pipe capacity. a) True b) False 5.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 10 1. a) True b) False 6. The Driller‟s method of well control will result in the same pressure on the casing shoe if the open hole volume is less than the drill pipe capacity. but to adjust the Drill Pipe pressure you have to change the pump rate. The wait and weight method will always result in lower casing shoe pressures. a) True b) False 2. The choke is used to adjust Casing (Annulus) pressure. a) True b) False . a) True b) False 7. When using the choke to adjust pressure it is the Casing (Annulus) gauge that reacts to the adjustment before the Drill Pipe Gauge. The Casing (Annulus) gauge is always slower to react to any choke adjustment then the Drill Pipe Pressure. a) True b) False 3. The wait and weight will result in lower casing shoe pressure if the open hole volume is less than the drill pipe capacity.

f) Bring pump up to kill speed holding casing pressure constant. a) Bring pump up to kill speed holding casing pressure constant. d) Maintain drill pipe pressure constant until kill mud reaches surface.WELL CONTROL 8. e) Shut-in the well and check both SICP and SIDPP are approximately equal. Place your answers in order below : 1st __________ 3rd __________ 5th __________ 7th __________ 2nd ____________ 4th ____________ 6th ____________ 8th ____________ . Place the following statements in the correct order if you are using the Driller‟s Method. The well is already shut in. g) Line up suction to kill mud. i) Maintain casing pressure constant for complete circulation. j) Bring pump up to kill speed holding drill pipe pressure constant. k) Shut in well and check for zero shut in pressure. b) Maintain casing pressure constant until kill mud is at the bit. NOTE : There are 3 INCORRECT statements in the list. h) Maintain casing pressure constant until kill mud is pumped to surface. c) Maintain pumping pressure constant until influx is out.

e) Allow drill pipe pressure to fall gradually from ICP TO FCP as kill mud is pumped from suction pit to shaker. 1rst ________ 2nd _________ 3rd _________ 4th _________ 10. In the Wait and Weight method there are less calculations compared to the Driller‟s method. a) True b) False b. Place the following statements in the correct order if you are using the Wait and Weight to kill a well. a) Bring pump up to speed holding drill pipe pressure constant. In the Wait and Weight method the casing pressure should be kept constant during 2 nd circulation. a) True b) False . In the Wait and Weight method . The well is already shut in. a) True b) False c. NOTE : There are 3 INCORRECT statements in the list.WELL CONTROL 9. annulus pressures are kept lower than with the Driller‟s method. b) Allow drill pipe pressure to fall from ICP to FCP as kill mud is pumped to bit. Which of the following statements are True or False concerning the Wait and Weight method? a. c) Bring pump up to speed holding casing pressure constant d) Maintain drill pipe pressure constant as kill mud pumped from bit to surface. f) Shut down and check the well is dead.

In the Wait and Weight method the drill pipe pressure is held constant throughout. a) True b) False f. a) True b) False h. a) True b) False j. a) True b) False . after surface to bit strokes have been pumped if you shut in the well. In the Wait and Weight method the drill pipe pressure should read zero. In the Wait and Weight method the well is dead when you reach FCP.WELL CONTROL d. The wait and weight method must be used if insufficient barite is on board. a) True b) False g. The Wait and Weight is the preferred method if MAASP is critical and the open hole capacity is greater the drill string capacity. a) True b) False e. a) True b) False i. Only the Wait and Weight method the drill pipe pressure is held constant throughout. The Wait and Weight method does not require you draw a graph or step down chart.

Link the following by matching up the correct number to the correct letter.480 stks 500 psi 800 psi 10.304 stks 6.300 30 bbls ft stks ppg ppg psi Answer – Yes or No b. 1. Concurrent Method C.3 11.WELL CONTROL 11.629 1. Based upon same information above : Will the Wait and Weight Method give lower surface pressures than the Driller‟s Method? Answer – Yes or No 12. Which method would you choose? DRILLERS OR WAIT AND WEIGHT 13. Kill Mud Wt. 3. Based on the following information : a. Most calculations moderate annulus pressures. 2. A. Will the Wait and Weight method give lower shoe pressures than the Driller‟s method? TVD Shoe Depth Surface to Bit Strokes Bit to Shoe strokes Bit to surface SIDPP SICP Present Mud Wt. One circulation lower annulus pressures. Less calculations highest annulus pressures. Wait and Weight method .830 ft 1.3 1. MAASP Pit Gain = = = = = = = = = = = 10. Company policy states “when killing a well you will always attempt to kill the well using a method that minimizes the pressure on the stack and upper casing”.000 8. Driller Method B.

Select one of the following statements that is TRUE concerning wellbore pressures when circulating a gas influx to surface. Which of the following statements are true ? a. place 3 of them correctly in the blanks provided : A B C D E F Drillers Bring pump up to speed holding drill pipe pressure constant Constant bottom hole pressure Concurrent Bring the pump up to speed holding the casing pressure constant Drill pipe pressure constant The main principle of well killing methods is to maintain _____________________ The most common methods are the Wait and Weight and ____________________ method In both methods you must ______________________ when starting up. (Drillers Method) a. c. . Surface line volume will affect the point at which kill mud will increase mud hydrostatic on bottom. b. 16. So long as the correct kill procedures are followed that part of the wellbore which is above a gas influx will have a constant pressure.WELL CONTROL 14. Surface line volume does not need to be considered when starting to kill a well d. TRUE STATEMENTS ARE____________________and ___________________________ 15. b. So long as the correct kill procedures are followed that part of the wellbore which is below a gas influx will have an increasing pressure. So long as the correct kill procedures are followed that part of the wellbore which is below a gas influx will have a constant pressure. Pump must be brought up to speed holding casing pressure constant c. Maintain the drill pipe pressure constant when starting up the pump to kill speed. From the statements A to F below.

EFFECT IN PRESSURE LOCATIONS Increase Decrease Stays the same Increase at first Then remains constant Gas Bubble Surface Casing Gauge Casing shoe Bottom Hole At any point below gas bubble At any point above Gas bubble . A gas is being circulated up the hole during a kill operation what effect will this have on the pressures at the various locations listed. Pressure within a gas bubble remains constant. c. Pressure at any point below a gas influx is decreasing. Pressure at any point above a gas influx is constant.WELL CONTROL 17. Which one of the following statements is true concerning wellbore pressure during the 1 st circulation of the Driller‟s method? a. d. b. Pressure at any point above a gas influx is decreasing. Pressure at any point above a gas influx is rising. e. 18.

Stay in the same. Start pump up to 30 spm holding the choke pressure constant. Start pump up to 30 spm and manipulate choke to get 1. Increase b.500 psi but no change in casing pressures.WELL CONTROL 19. Very quickly the drill pressure increases to 1. c. Decrease c. Casing pressure is 1. Therefore you bring pump up to 34 spm and adjust choke to obtain 1. the drill pipe pressure is 1. Pump rate still holds at 30. During the second circulation of the Driller‟s method you decide to hold casing pressure constant until kill mud is at the bit.500 psi would be 34 spm. In the previous example you decided to stop the pump and close the choke before making a decision. While killing the well on the 1st Circulation of the Driller‟s method. Increase b. Decrease c. b.200 psi on drill pipe.200 psi with 30 spm. Decrease c. You decide to open the choke to bring the drill pipe pressure back to 1. Stay the same 22. What would happen to bottom hole pressure ? a. Stay the same . 20. What would happen to bottom hole pressure ? a. What would happen to bottom hole pressure ? a.000 psi. Once pump is up to speed note the drill pipe pressure and hold that constant for rest of 1st circulation. Increase mud weight by an amount equal to 300 psi. What has happened to bottom hole pressure ? a. Increase b. During the second circulation of the Driller‟s method you hold drill pipe pressure constant until kill mud is at the bit. Stay the same 23.500 psi drill pipe pressure. During the first circulation of the Driller‟s method you decided to hold casing pressure constant. What would you do? a. Increase b. Decrease c. 21. You think that the nozzles may be blocking.200 psi at 30 spm. d. By using the spm versus pump pressure equation the spm for 1.

Below is a list of problems. b.WELL CONTROL 24. PROBLEM a. D. gauges rising d. Bottom hole pressure Casing shoe pressure Shut in casing pressure Gas bubble pressure . Both gauges rising c. Bit plugging 3. Choke plugging 2. gauge falling CAUSE 1. d. D. matches _____________________________ c.P. Match the cause to the problem. c. matches _____________________________ b. matches _____________________________ d. Choke washout 4.P. Which of the following pressures do not increase with gas migration ? a. Both gauges falling b. matches _____________________________ 25. Nozzle / pipe washout a.

The following graphical diagrams show the approximate changes in pressure at certain points in the well during the Wait and Weight method. c. b. a. d. Surface casing pressure Casing shoe pressure Bottom hole pressure Drill pipe pressure NOTE / Pressure reading are not drawn to scale. Answer: Answer: Answer: .WELL CONTROL 25.

91 psi/ft 500 psi 750 psi 0.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 11 Well Data: Measured depth: TVD: Hole size: Air gap: Water depth: Drill collars 6 ½: Capacities: Drill pipe capacity: Drill pipe metal displacement: Drill pipe closed end displacement: HWDP (1000 ft) Drill collar capacity: Choke line (1100 ft): Marine riser: Annular capacities: Open hole / drill collar: Open hole / drill pipe: Casing / drill pipe: Pre-recorded data: Current mud weight: Casing 9 5/8 – 47 ppf set at (MD/TVD): Fracture gradient at shoe: SCR @ 40 SPM ( riser) SCR @ 40 SPM ( choke line) Pump output: Surface lines: Kick data: SIDPP: SICP: Pit gain: 100 psi 350 psi 10 bbls 16.02426 bbl/ft 0.0088 bbl/ft 0.000 ft 1.39 bbl/ft 15.0 ppg 9.119 bbl/stk 17 bbls 0.01776 bbl/ft 0.000 ft .500 ft 15.006 bbl/ft 0.000 ft 0.0459 bbl/ft 0.0292 bbl/ft 0.00768 bbl/ft 0.0505 bbl/ft 0.00650 bbl/ft 0.000 ft 8½“ 70 ft 1.

d.WELL CONTROL 1. How many strokes does it take to pump from surface to bit? a. 402 psi 502 psi 602 psi 702 psi 2. d.13 ppg . b. d. b. 7940 strokes 5234 strokes 9876 strokes 3576 strokes 6.506strokes 7. b. b. 1954 strokes 2054 strokes 2154 strokes 2254 strokes 4.13 ppg 19.13 ppg 18.13 ppg 17. b.5 ppg 17. How many strokes does it take to pump from bit to shoe? a. 2367 strokes 1384 strokes 2732 strokes 1199 strokes 5. c. What is the MAASP? a. What kill mud weight is required? a. c. c. 16. b. What is the MAMW? a. d. How many strokes does it take to complete one circulation through the choke line? a. c. How many strokes are required to displace the riser? a. 16. c. d. d.5 ppg 19. d. c. c. b.5 ppg 18.5 ppg 3. 4382 strokes 6523 strokes 1363 strokes 3.

d. 456 psi 756 psi 641 psi 985 psi 11. 50 psi 100 psi 150 psi 200 psi 12. What is the MAASP after killing the well? a. c. i. e. d. b. d. What is the FCP? a. c. b. 400 psi 500 psi 600 psi 700 psi 9. b. b. 504 psi 604 psi 306 psi 806 psi 10. The capacity of the drill string The TVD of the casing shoe The presence of a float in the string The pore pressure of the formation being tested The mud density The TVD of the well The Annular pressure losses The MD of the casing The accurate hole capacity . h. What informations are essential to calculate the fracture pressure of a leak off test? a. f. c. d. What is the ICP? a. g. d. b. c. c. What is the initial dynamic pressure? a.WELL CONTROL 8.

5 ppg 12. 47 lb/ft.500 TVD / 7.000 ft MD 4.03 bbls/ft WELL CONTROL DATA SIDPP SICP GAIN = 800 psi = 900 psi = 20 bbls You are recommended to complete a kick sheet to answer the following questions: .Casing Drill pipe/HW .900 psi Set at 5.000 MD 8.Open hole = 0.088 bbls/stk PUMP PRESSURE Slow Pump Rate Riser CLFL 700 psi at 40 spm 250 psi at 40 spm Choke Line Riser Formation strength test Mud weight in use Surface Volume Pumps ANNULAR VOLUMES Drill pipe/HW .008 bbls/ft 95/8”. P110 8.000 ft – Riser / DP: .000 TVD / 4.Open hole Drill collars .008 bbls/ft 1. 1.500 MD 1.5” 5” OD.5 lbs/ft Capacity = 0.5 ppg. WELL DATA Well Depth Kick Off Point End Of Build Bit size Drill Pipe Heviwate Drill Collars Casing 7.0505 bbls/ft = 0.500 ft TVD 12.050 ft TVD / 5.000 MD 5.01776 bbls/ft 5” OD x 3” ID x 1500 ft Capacity = .335 bbls/ft 1.0459 bbls/ft = 0.800 psi w/ 11.000 ft – Capacity: .681” ID 100% Internal yield = 10.009 bbls/ft 61/2” x 213/16” x 700 ft Capacity = 0.000 bbls National triplex 12-P-160 With 51/2” Liners Capacity = 0. 19.WELL CONTROL EXERCISE # 14 Use the Well Data to answer the questions.

How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from KOP to EOB? . What is the pressure reduction per 100 strokes surface to KOP? 8.WELL CONTROL 1. What is the MAASP with the current mud weight? 6. How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from surface to KOP? 7. What Kill Mud weight is required? 4. What is the Initial Circulating Pressure at 40 spm? 2. What is the Maximum allowable fluid density? 5. What is the Final Circulating Pressure? 3.

What is the drill string volume? 16. If the well had to be shut in when kill mud reaches the KOP. what is the circulating pressure? 13. What is the total strokes to pump kill kud to the bit? . When kill mud reaches the EOB. What is the pressure reduction per 100 strokes EOB to bit? 12.WELL CONTROL 9. What is the pressure reduction per 100 strokes KOP to EOB? 10. what is the circulating pressure? 14. How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from EOB to bit? 11. When kill mud reaches the KOP. what would be the SIDPP? 15.

WELL CONTROL

17. What is the marine riser – DP capacity?

18. Approximately, how many strokes are required to fill the choke line?

19. What should be the approximate pressure on the casing gauges when the pump reaches 40 SPM?

20. What is the MAASP with the current mud weight (dynamic conditions)?

WELL CONTROL

EXERCISE # 15
Use the Well Data to answer the questions. WELL DATA Well Depth Kick Off Point End Of Build Bit size Drill Pipe Drill Collars Casing 10,000 ft TVD 14 ,000 ft MD 3,500 TVD / 3,500 MD 4,000 TVD / 4,500 MD 8.5” 5” OD. 19.5 lbs/ft Capacity = 0.01776 bbls/ft 61/2” x 213/16” x 500 ft Capacity = 0.007 bbls/ft 95/8”, 47 lb/ft. P110 8.681” ID 100% Internal yield = 10,900 psi Set at 6,000 ft TVD / 7,000 MD 580 ft – Capacity: .008 bbls/ft 580 ft – Riser / DP: .335 bbls/ft 1,500 psi w/ 9.8 ppg 10 ppg. 274 bbls National triplex 12-P-160 With 6” Liners Capacity = 0.099 bbls/stk PUMP PRESSURE

Choke Line Riser Formation strength test Mud weight in use Surface Volume Pumps

Slow Pump Rate Riser CLFL

520 psi at 40 spm 100 psi at 40 spm

ANNULAR VOLUMES Drill pipe/HW - Casing Drill pipe/HW - Open hole Drill collars - Open hole = 0.0489 bbls/ft = 0.0459 bbls/ft = 0.03 bbls/ft WELL CONTROL DATA SIDPP SICP GAIN = 500 psi = 650 psi = 11 bbls

You are recommended to complete a kick sheet to answer the following questions:

WELL CONTROL

1. What is the Initial Circulating Pressure at 40 spm?

2. What is the Final Circulating Pressure?

3. What Kill Mud weight is required?

4. What is the Maximum allowable fluid density?

5. What is the MAASP with the current mud weight?

6. How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from surface to KOP?

7. What is the pressure reduction per 100 strokes surface to KOP?

8. How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from KOP to EOB?

How many strokes are required to pump kill mud from EOB to bit? 11. what is the circulating pressure? 13. what would be the SIDPP? 15.WELL CONTROL 9. When kill mud reaches the EOB. What is the marine riser – DP capacity? . what is the circulating pressure? 14. What is the total strokes to pump kill kud to the bit? 17. What is the pressure reduction per 100 strokes KOP to EOB? 10. When kill mud reaches the KOP. What is the pressure reduction per 100 strokes EOB to bit? 12. If the well had to be shut in when kill mud reaches the KOP. What is the drill string volume? 16.

how many strokes are required to fill the choke line? 19. What is the MAASP with the current mud weight (dynamic conditions)? . Approximately. What should be the approximate pressure on the casing gauges when the pump reaches 40 SPM? 20.WELL CONTROL 18.

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-4:923:908   ..9:707.094.0.-4:923:908   .38974089706:709441742-994840    898   898   898   898    44399..-4:923:908     9 852.-4:923:908   .-4:923:908   .-4:923:908   .0920    .9 908:71.98840948:71.38974089441742!94!    898   898    898   898     42.57088:708.-4:923:908   .550/.-4:923:908        190.09441742-994840.5:258500/41 852    ./03941 58.17...19     42.097.83840890890/9 552:/39040 42:..9.

19     58    58  .

:/0/3902:/09 .0945:252:/9490-9    238   238   238   238     1. 588.94:/903009 -0     55    55    55    55    .7383.55742.1092.0900.    58    58   %#     .9057088:708905/431742!94!358.94:/-090.94:/-09030\$!43.8-0030/    58   58    58   58     9 85244399.

 897408      58.

 898   58.

 898    58.

 898   58.

:06:089438.890080/:839070782094/    . 898           3807901443.

990   3.70.0793448.80905:258500/   /0.40.84:9   !488-0.79    .990   3.40.70.8:594.405:3 % %  \$%# \$                                   !\$ !\$                !& ! \$! # !!  !#\$ \$& #  \$  !#\$\$&#   !    ! \$%   \$     !97442.48090.79   !488-05:0/340   !488-0.80905:258500/   /0.80905:258500/   34930.0 .43172.40.  %#   % %  \$ %#  \$                                 !\$ !\$               !&  ! \$ !     #  ! !  ! #  \$ \$ & #     \$   ! #  \$ \$ & #   !     ! \$%    \$      %0  4507.984:/4:/4   450390.0793448.8 89.9 90 .40..43840 848  .990   . --7803900.943 .43974 .40 .70.990   .9 84:/ 4:/4    450390.790/  %8 8 .70.48090.80905:258500/   34930.40.

30     450390.70.79                        #\$  .70.80905:258500/   34930.990   .8389 %88.990   3.94:80043905.  %#   % %  \$%#  \$                                ! \$ !\$               !&  ! \$!    #  ! !  ! #  \$\$ & #     \$  !#  \$\$ & #   !     ! \$%   \$       %0590.40.80905:258500/   /0.08.70.48090.40.0793448.70897054790/94-03.

08:709.8..  7.  !74507389.3/59.9090.  -3472.9.0-003..43974894  .8.:.57088:70990/7..  344949.0\$!!9.4389.   !06:520391.38..70894  ..041.3/0.8! ' % .7.9347.:.975    .4:9:83..94-49942 .3/9089 !06:52039 -  0052:/09034: .4770.  392090084503 -  39201:/8.943     %02:/09706:70/3904094-.9090574-02 /  0.9357088:70.9438574507 .39.89.24:39411://:73.3.3/5:25897408 /  4/ 58097.1472.397:030.094 -0  .:.8.:.72889028 9759.9409.:80/-  .400..7.0-003.90/ /  03/73 40    .9438050.:70 /  489.9908:71.3/1907083430 5:4:94140 -  \$945 8549...03472.  %#      489.24:39411:/0 975534:9419040  .8.  -807.8.-..93908973 -  \$:990036:.47/884:/-0:80/  .3/0/.24:3941.147.090574507.3/389:.-3472.14.70507.90-499428:5.     .039.9890.:7041/73..9438 -  !045034970...   55 -   55 .   ..0 .:..:.14714 .934:9 90.4895 9035:254:94140 .:.90/974:902:/59 .94319040/4083499.94357088:704:/.3 .3/5745079900.  ..7.07..1472.:80/-901.7.0     %0248925479.3/975 70..84:/-0..   55 /   55    :/243947306:520398:.9.8.7.  4-..:92:/.:.0890574507.  03.57088:70/1472.

 2:/.80 .90    03../0.  89.7.8035:2557088:70 /  #0/:.03908973   .70.  %7:0 -  .9439.:.:.7.0394:989.8-03.733 -  33.07.  4.908.793905:258   O %7:0 O .  %031:8.70.:78.80 -  /0.9.90/4:9 -  2:/.4:20  ..  4-./0.  33..79089.8035:2557088:70 .8032:/14 2:/.8..  3.19075:253.4:20.0 908:71.3/..425090.3-09.9020398-0497:0471.:.-49942 :5 /  2:/70.0/03  .943 .:..7..94385488-0   O %7:0 O ..0780.403904.9890572.974:90/78973419034.8003/739.8357470888  .8:   O %7:0 O ...7.80      ./0.7.20   3. !88902   . .70.:.0/   O %7:0 O ..  \$:7057088:70870/:.71:3.-03/.82..80  %#      %0178970.70.9434190.0890-9   .9357088:70870.80  .9.82.059.14. #0.0//737..70.80  .80  /  \$:9 3/755057088:70.90/:5.

83.93:5.3/705.780.3.439.0 !89...3/:0940.285.%44/-..57088:700.3903.28 .. %4/.706:708.:.  .:8041549039..43041901443-089/08.079.9435:75480    84:/908/04:909-04.7.30904735.7 !. %07.:.  %#   .572.3/705../.93098.  .80.0  . %4/.9/7..48090038419    09089390 !89.80..89.480.90895:-00593904503548943090893.  .79080.094.7 .94394-09.0780.7-0890574507. 8:71.03990488412://:09405.:70900.. 98349. 30705..384341.317429000540 4390:55077.8  0  %4.147:-7.890.07  / 43493 %080.0791:/94902:/9.3  / %4570.3994-:73359  . 0.2.23..0/:0/2.0/9.03  .3 80.

80905:   .943-70.943  . 57088:70   ":089438 .7.90097020444.00/390 \$!/:739004507.3/2://7489.. 57088:70  ..70-.943  .0780./4357088:70.970041901443.9.943-70. \$2.804390144331472.43/943839003.0-090031472.:80909089.  9078070.943  0 .7031:  1  \$2.809078410.0. 4345034080.70./  .70/110703.70.31:  / \$47945034080.3/2://7489.943  .0-090031472.:.450340  ./4357088:70.943-0300/0/94700.9./110703.

/039 .  58..0.020398/70/4:9 940907919 413040 :83.98901472.94317.838809. 8:71.919  %' %0..9:707.3/..020390/. 55 2:/ 0. 11!7088:7041 588 /0907230/    .

19 . 58.

 58.19 .

19 /   58.

7\$:71.0!7088:70147 552:/:80/.19        .2:24.9  19%'   .-033:..9890.

3032:/09 .9909454190-:--08 58 190473..07 19 /70/   .98:71.83840 19 %' 9057088:70..0890.870.8-03. 19070. 58 .. 58 . 58 /  58   %07.1907.58 .30 .90/  ./03941.:.07-9.2:/098  55  .90/4:9 99092090.8. 58 / 58   44190384:/90\$!-070.0   ...943.   %#   ..9 19 8 58.34503401472.7.:. 19070..8357088:70..9890..9:707.58 ..

03907894. %0847.932:/.550/94900-01470981472.19 %0/73 2:/.9.:770393:808 55 55742.9020.70.!7088:70970.4803..3.07-.943  .98143  / %0:8041!9'4:20..39--3472.%0:80/41://7489.01:/57088:7083901472.43090.0  / 472.3/4#.943-70.7. %0:80414 :9!70.9820.3.7/941:/57088:703901472.90.94-.089470.09..8:9357088:70889..907/7489..9042:.:.9.:80 0.93#.9300/894-0.08857088:70/:094.  58 /  58   .:.    ..908  .\$:71.%00.90!7088:70:80/390574. /03892:/:80/94.08857088:709.8:73/0.83!7088:70.43974  .97.  58 .704. 57088:701472.9478248931:03.00/83472..3-0 .90.943  . %00. 411 394.088  ..98572.3472.9431:/57088:709.-0.8/43  .0907.57088:70       .943  .550/94.0.90.70.58 ..1.19079008 8:93  .9.

.3-49942. .947    .943.9434300898390 450340 \$00.--3   .-9 / %504131:   07:333550-.9438.489.489..:804190803/.439473902:/.3/8/:094..7.549039.943/:73.7..\$945/73.8-0038...8-0039.. 43947390709:73149901484  ./85.39.:808.90    .07.3/190.:.3/..488084.0793088-90/707  .0/9470/:..0/9.--0/    1949.937. 490053401:  / -3472.3.02039412:/ 394909759.9..55038     489. !.7.943  90709:73142090784-807.!7088:708        ..38  . 489.-. 43947390093/.3/800..9.3097.88949. 4480.:.42203..:770/0/739.33::8 /:73904507.84.9.&8090. !0720.:92:/  .:770/  .:.7..989024890.7..7. \$945/73 8:99003.3/983439.33::8:59..907 174290945:3989.:.41901443.9441901443.   %#   .0..:.90/ 190770.03  / %00.9438  .80/2:/.8-0039.90  / 4480.9.943 .94348808 ...943.-0..4/.0394232057088:70390./090.01742 94 5948841-- 83490/  .401478.937.:808410..:.57088:704390. .109  .:770/  .4770.79.943  .7.%49.827.84.9438:8:.:.380889.03.407.3949040 98349.7.994.7.8.3-09.439744507..:.-0/  . 4393:0/73-3/  .943   .94:/4:/4  .9903472.489.3.:.3/092094/  .907-.41 .90/-  .. .4:203902:/9..

0399752.8889370/:..:.3  / .:773  .9.70:80/942.. -.943.3.430419014438349.70:8:. -.948384:/0. !:253.570..33::8  .33::82470831.4330.4895.399.89  0 . 2574507. 7.903.-078  . #0/:.0/-947 89.39.70.09907442147/4:-99..70.4.9708:9307.805:258500/     .8.:.  .8839040.8. !:34:941904094..82.901443.70411            1.770. !:3905509441.. 47.9  . .984:/90/707/4.43974/737.90-499428:5  ..770.-04.  %#   .9434308:41.943.73  .88349..3.4330.0/  .8.89  .8.8 / %0550:8:.:.3.83:/0/5439  0 32390920/:73.70..90/..  ..3. %0092:/.33::857088:708 /:09490094190.74:3/-994..38:11.33/.70 .00943-9  / 3.4330.:94303 .08.3349-0.9.733838 .3090-9  / #.9457.90849.94341-.43974.94303..70. !9.80.3572..3430 920  .4.93/0389  / 4339490409441.7.2./73-70.:92:/     .80  .0.9..0989:.94303905:258.8  .:70948:5505747945:34:94140     8. %0.809476:0  .     .

4:20.80/7.943    .4:2094574.2090740 19 89.9.3.:.0398.80/7897309 0 59.80/749.3.  .4.819  / 4190. 1430902507.3.3.0418:11.4:204174.-4.80  / /0.3/8945: %0.3/41 550.3  .0203941 90 .0939074.70. --8 .9041503097..943547489   ..38 --8 .89424.9:703..  --8 . /.4190144389.70.439.9890804190 31:   .  ..90/209..  %#   9008.909.439.439. 147. %07.70247089./-0035:0/ %070.7-081472.9020398-089/08..  --8 /  --8     %0/7078975535504:941.9. %0570803.70.3/..30/ --8./85.%0.38 --8 1907.0    0/73%0.3/902:/709:73309490598 .903.-9411:/./0..80  .089490949.09.70..0 .944190450385.3 1 3.788 --8.70.907.79476:0 .70.

94190/75508 --8.19 %0.5...

. /85.02039 --8.19.3/90209.

4:20.98 --8.770894-..33::8. 4.0339889:.0.0.0/85.870/:.9.94384:/-09.5.9040.943  ...3.3389.:.0/1742-. 130.0..3/243947709:738  0 !:702.4393:094 5:4:94140  / 4.19 %09759.0.8:394.7708  .07:3-. 130.94-49942.\$:99003.0.9. 130.3/. 19 0.0.. 4.9..3/.3  .4393:0945:4:94140  .9.3/84:94140            !747945:34:94190401742 19 %' 9055081:41 55 2:/ %0 550.7.

19 --88:093 5585:250/39490/7  .

0/85..3389.8  0 41.4393:094 5:4:9419040  .3/841 /7.:9938  / %75. 130. 19 0.94357088:70.94-49942.3/84:9419040  / 4.:.57088:70.9. 130.3 .7..3/243947709:738  .419014435488-03/..07:3-.248906:.  .-4.3 90/077.:.70 853907.0.4330.8:394.0-0038944/-...0/9..33::8.3    4:.92:/706:70/941904080889.94388:0899.70.:83900.0.9. !:702.0.92://7489.0.4393:0945:4:9419040  0 \$:99003.705:34:94140 %419 89.9432:89-09.9.7.943. 130.3/.90-499428:5...094/745842019 38/090/7550  .8  .909040.020398 --8. .0..4. 58  .9.  %#   550.9.0    05:34:941904098349.. 58 / 58    . 58 .90/ .3/.0..78.9890/7453-499424057088:70/:0945:253908:394548943  . /73-70.03  . 4.4. %0/85.:.  .3/ 1472.

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4/.47/0/:89-0147090-95:0/ /  .80 .-0.8-03. 3.9 84:/4:/4  .9.0:8390707 8094/!:25357088:70 .55039490!7088:704390.83!7088:70  .70.8357088:708005/745539.990.\$:99003. #02.55038944994240!7088:70  .3-003089.059.  %#    . 3.843..83\$0.55742.%0.7.-4.943 57088:708://03 3.4389.4389.94:/. 4:.70.7.20      .94:/.70./:89390.55039490!7088:704390.808 ./9470/:.4:780841..-8905:25357088:70 .70.-8:709.83\$0.4389.94:/.70.83\$40  .3.8 58.:8090/7550.8085:258500/94\$! 04/35:2557088:70 . #02.. 3.70.9090-:--08-0490 .0..55742.39...7070..05:2557088:7094 58-.98900.20   .9 \$! :73904507.0.3.9473..55742.943 84-:970:.39  .70.0.3.90908.:070.834:9 .0.74:.80 ..90908.4080 -0.090 .90908.9.20   .90390-:--08.80 . .83\$40  .-80/.80 .:.3/.3/:83 58.943   :739004507.38.-    331:8-03.0. #02.. #0/:.40 ..55039490\$:93.70.80 .55742.0.80 .70.:804198  .9  \$! %04507.3/ .3/70 089.395:25897408  .80894 4:..408.:.90/1742. -93408.0.80/4:95:258.404190985:0/ . 3.90908. #02.834:9 .808 .70.20   .90/4:9:8390707 8094/.70..8357088:70.

.3/7.39 4:2.:70   4.5:251.3/4507.0 4507.3.4389.80/4:9-9340 .0:83907078094/ 2.0839095041.3/.3 .9... %0.38:3. %0.8357088:70408:5 .40-070.94317.-0 . #.0 . 499424057088:70 ..30/ %05:25897408702.8357088:70834930.39755057088:70  %0/755057088:70-03894/719/43 -:990.84:9/:73.9057088:70    4:.430/  .:8014798  .937.90784 4:.390 ./78973.30/-:990.8357088:708:8:.7.:9938390..8438:93.803/755057088:70934.985:3411 .:.4089 90/7 55057088:70702.110.907/7489.3094/755057088:70 / 3.943  .990..088/03809..3094.3.4057088:7080905:25897408702.3 411847047.7550.7. 7550..3/.70907 90701470.3.-0.8357088:70702.834:9   170:.70.70./:89.7.703..38 :3... 4085:3411 .3908:93/755057088:70 8  .4389..40942.39008932:/09  .5/7803.088.480:54:7..39.3.40 .8357088:708-49783 .9:7057088:70 / \$4. 403/7550 / 408..8357088:70    %070..33::8.90/-. .0  ..93.3-0.079.419014435.80/4:9.%031:1:/8:8:.:08:80/           .209078.8357088:708-491.943  / %043/110703..9407.9890574-.09453.3/7550..3/ .707 9/0503/843090798.39 4:. ..33.33::8  .4389.39.  %#    .84:9.. 472...390...8357088:70934.

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8349343 .8:9 3.. 90.-0 %0903 70.-4..9 390/78973 19078:99390 03574507 98-08994  .. !705.33::857088:7094.: 0.314/ .90:398:9 3.797.\$9.:...33::8:398:9 3.9357088:70.943884:/-09. &8090.405.70.0/94 58 .:.83. &8009079075:2547.7.9.339040 .90/755057088:70.39:392:/70.43840 / 90/7550.\$! ..43840 ..40.7.57088:704390/7550 .308800343.35:.-08 9014.902:/   08-030/:8390707 8094/   73.:.7.90-:94/..020393:395:25943..:94..40/9489.9.8-0039.943 90088:93.0890-9    190845:25..9.0 14.343 709:73.943417078094/ 4/3.30 0 90.. 735:25:59490/0870/7..39-2.32470920.8057088:703 58 3. 735:25:59490/0870/7.:04390.83.:.09.3/092094/ .9090092:/ .:./ .405.:094:80147.943:399008/0.8:9 3/755057088:70  58  73. #0.9390092:/8 .8357088:70  58  1907901789.0780..7...:./0/349948503/.8357088:70870/:.90.:0 / !:258439490/7550 03905:2557088:7089.8357088:70.:04390702490./90.735:25:594/0870/7.90 04/390.:04390702490.0 90473.:.3/57088:708..43041901443.8357088:70 58  98/0.0/94 58 / 4393:0980...:04390/7078.4389.8357088:70 58.7020398:39.:94..:.43/.8357088:70 58-04\$!   %0.93 90/7..3/2.8357088:70 ../  \$:9 3/755057088:70 58 \$:9 3.8357088:70870/:.3/.7094:8090..:04390/7078.83902:/0955507.03  .0.:.4770..83.03990 0. 90..480/3 44:/4:13/90! .7.90 -:94/ 58-...40 / 7.904/3...98 4503 %05:25357088:70890\$!!:80/94.:.30        .03.4389.  %#    4:.9/0870/7.

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7904:909893455039040 .34:705. .4330..90/:3/0790-3/ 80.3/ .8.431:70/738544.40308.28  .70..3/.77.7 .33:.:.7.7908/04:9098955039040 ..28.28945507. 895488-0948:939/755039040.34:705.30-3/7.34:.3/900     !89.90974:90/7550 / .

!507.2.

2.3/ \$0.77.

790738544 .4330.3/ ..40308.90/9490/738544   .34:.90974:90738544   .7 .70.7. 9/7550340 .34:8:93. 9/7550340 .934/755039040 .30705.:..3/705.7908/04:9098 ..33:.

94-09003.30705708039  .-0. 807.28434503402./57088:70949057088:70706:70/94.74380.28.3-0.7. #0. %00.-4.73    \$! .30/030.7.439. #.7097:0..483 45033.0733#.932494341905503.7.250/43!1.93 .94-09003.703:80  ..32.90/1905507.38   #3.30   .8098   47 79090 ..39-90.3:2-07 .9820.1.4837.73.43. 4990.808900...2.849.9/4909072  89.3/1473 ..30. 950 / 80   .809.4:20  ..0784:/3472.9089430419073.73889./.0.0790 -43309845030/  / 41.250/43..308.28..483 45033920  .  %#      %03084:/03907.8098 .3020398  .57088:707.25.90/190-3/7.0900020398  .303:2-07390-.89.574.9020398.3/73 .-08-04.4835507.0     .%00.9  .-4.48090 !    \$9:/90949.901.4190144389.30   !\$    \$!#    \$!#\$   !\$   . #.0/ . %07.1.:.3-0.2!.:.70-03:80/  .3/ 2.2950 !  .70.#.94147.8  .0     .557457.94419000.

# !\$ .

   ! .

# !\$!# .

   \$! .

 # !\$!# .

   \$! .

# !\$!#.

30          .  .809 .

94357088:708/43490.0/.. 0 %50#4.8.7570.  %#    7429089-04 /03919073.33:. 1 %50   .17429071447  .:588902190.039071.938 . %48:93..30\$0  . 57088:701472.2:2.  .%50 .90/1472.39.9.2.70.0  0 49.431:70/!50#.31:3.0399489451472.8. %74:-470   .91:/.30   .14:7 .70.8.  58 !06:52039 /  58 !06:52039 0  58 !06:52039     !89..059.94394 19%' .57088:708:11./20384317429089-048:80/94/039190 423.0  /   4173744. .-07.43.943706:7089.0704.  58 !06:52039 ..9431:/8039073900-470  / %4.-.38078  .98902.4..00/41 !06:5203957088:70 7. %50 / %50#4....0.%4/70.90/849.7./.07907 .94341.8    3.3.9 2.20907417.80/1.8.5.90..9..10/89.80989. %50# ..08. 58 !06:52039 .9314706:5203994-0:80/3/733472. %4.20907    .9.3..7057088:7003070/  !.9 !06:520392:89-07.9890232:2.-.

2.77.3/ \$0.

2.!50#.

-0-0494../0 8:11.33:.:2:..3/..7.9090706:70/.480 4503.3.28.:.039.7 &8090 9.33:.3/90.894574.480 33:..7 !       #.354..947.480.4:201.425.4:2094.2 !                    .7   42543039  '4:2094 503  '4:2094.

943       %7:047.8907.909490/707 8702490.704507..00/80..8907.3.80/-01470 4507.8907.30. !1:3.09.43974.9.7097:0471.943       %7:047..943 34947   %7:047.74507..94394:94507.90.43974.90/ 439071447 0.079..48392084:/3490.439745.757088:70944940.7.  14:4507.7 !8 82.80  .90/   %7:047..80 / %02./019089.1:3.043.02:89-0/0570880/1471.80   .94335705..43974.902039870.9089.93901:3.43/8903700.43/8147.43974..93902.9438.90/5.080.9431474:4507..80   %0!#!89.9020398.80  .91:3.304.3 . 1:3.93.  %#    %0144389.  %02.8907.33:.48.02:89-00//0570880/0 !1:3.43974 !..%02.

./38/0.4507.  .94341905507.28  .:2:.70.947.757088:70 ....7057088:70   03....9/0139434190!&70807.33:..4:20.4:20    .947.757088:70 .33:.314/57088:70 ..30 .     .-0.47/394!#! .:2:.9890.:2:.4770.94.947.9457088:7070.039071742907024905.. .  . . .4:20  .  80.94757088:70 / 757088:70    .:041  . 9208949.314/57088:70 ..48390.47..80/:733472. .94757088:70 .:2:.33:.  !70.. 23  / 80.7570.4:20  .890. . 70/:.:0884.943357088:70  . 9208:8.9208. 80.:2:.

30        .3/308./38 4-807.89.89.943..-0 1:/..314/57088:70     58 O 33:..8907. 48330390 !..90/1742907024905.9357088:70880034390 1443.03907.438  507.941 .   3.4190574-028-044:/349894590 !1742.389-04507.:084390/7078702490.943/74 00.30     .943.93:39.97.1:3./8 58 ..33:.30  O 757088:70     58 O .:9 0 !70.943357088:70 0390..30 %0..94357088:7070:.0/  / 0.483  .757088:70    58    3.9.43974.9357088:708 58 !70.5. ..:2:.94788902 .:8.7570.7..0  .3070.90/1742907024905.757088:704390/70785. . 58.390/7...:2:..314/809938   58   .2-07   0 757088:7094905.4:7 .07938   .:2:.  %#    390.389-04507..439745.. .7570.480/      190.9.93.30  .7809938 58 902.99480070/:.33:.30..80-04 /03919024890574-02174290.1:3..7057088:708 58 .30  ..0. / 0.947-49908 0.33/7.9890949.3-04507.83490//43  ..1:3..4:200390232:2 !4507.7057088:708944    !4507..309490 !47390 !. 40..3-04507.8-4343907024905.8-4.4190144389.90/1742907024905.94.1:3.4507.:070.9357088:708  58    3807..0//349819548943  .33:.304:/4:050.483. 489.8.90203988 97:0  ....8489  1 -:-.:0843907024905.439745.:.039078-03.30  /  %0..70903472..94757088:70    58 O .0/4390702490..:.90/1742907024905.

95489434190 .. 30:97..-090.  %#    03/73 .98903472.:2:. 58.:2:.947:39 . 4503 . 58 ..:2:.4770.  58 /  58                                  ..1:3.480 .7014790.. / 450347.947-4990843.2..570....480//0503/343 !89.084390 ! ....  58 .943    .947:39 .

94.83   472.90    7550.3807906:089438   %  0059  ..  %#   #\$   &80900.90  74..9438970399089 :/093:80 \$:71.78  .9.0'4:20 !:258      \$4!:25#. 11!439 3/ 1:/ 980 7!50  0.

83 7550. .

  50340 7.4.78  50340   %# %  \$!! \$!    58  58 --8  19%'   19  %'.

   %'.

         -8.

9 --8.19 .5..

19     19 .9 --8.5..

19 .

 .

9 --8.  19 ..5.

19 .

 -.

9 19%'.19 !     39073.0/  58 \$09.

     58.

 55  55   --8 .9750 !   9.943.

.5. 3078 .9 --8.

9 852 &#' &\$     --8.89 !&!!#\$\$&#  58.

19  --8.

19  --8.

7070.425090.38079014436:089438   ..42203/0/94.19    4:.800994.

3897408945:2517428:71.909057088:70/745507 897408412:/5:250/38/0908973174290 94 90-9      .0890 !        42.7.9890.93!7088:70        42.989039...094 !        .0890           .7.98903.3897408945:2517428:71.:.3897408945:2517428:71.:..094-9        .:.7.93!7088:70        .9357088:70032:/70.  %#      42.7..:.9357088:70032:/70...:.9890.09490         .

9890.7.55742.90\$!.90920300/0/94900                                   #\$  .:.:.  %#       ..943412:/        .1907.

78  50340 7550 #807    %# %  \$!! \$!    58  58  --8   19%'   19  19  .3807   %  0059  .9.94.7307807 4030 980 7!50  74.9  --8..4.9.6:08943..5.78  .  %#     &80900.4770.843430.90&5#807  9552:/    7550 .83   :/093:80 !:254:95:9   073 \$4!:25#..83 7550  50340 7.3807906:089438 .

5.9 --8...19 19  .

19        -8.

5..9 --8.19 .

19 .

 .

9 --8.  19 ..5.

19 .

 -.

9 19%'   19#  55  --8.0/  58 \$09.19 !     39073.

89 !&!!#\$\$&#  58.9 852  58.9852 ! 58   58.9 852 &#' &\$      --8.9 852 !58   58.9 852 ! 58  58.

19  --8.

19  --8.

19  --8.

.9890949.94190/78973  .19  %\$%%   !\$9552:/     .5.  --8  ...

:.  .94:/. --8 .:. .094-99209905:257:333./0/943.7..  %#   .9 852-0.90  .90 58 .55742.5.4389.  58 .   58 ..550394 !190/755057088:7080/.55742. 23:908 .   58 /   58  %0! 13.01472.999055043-49942  .  23:908 ..   23:908 /  23:908  .-4:9 58                .  3..90  58 ..   55 /   55  %0! 39..39.55742. 23:908 .  55 .9 852  .7.  23:908 .9357088:70 .9357088:70 .:.990473.9 852-0.80905:258500/94 852 ..3. --8 .80-.33:.!...90-9948:71.90 58 /  .  --8 /  --8  .  23:908 /  23:908  .0920 -499428:5 .  .98908:71.  --8 /  --8  .3!98/0.70.9090949.90 58   190770.90  .7..55742.9 852  ..55742.55742.  --8 .:0  .94357088:70  .92:/8706:70/94-.:.   55 .70..

7.04.   58 .:.9.78  .   58 /   58   9852.80-.-4:9 58 .9.80/94 852  .30/ /  3.80/43908:93/.3.80-.74:3/90/7.70.9890.70.  55 /  55   . /0.94357088:70-.-4:9 58    .  %#   .989043-499420/73  .  55 -  55 .  58 .9357088:700/731905:25.94:/-090.  .4389.  19.33:.   58 /   58   .7..:80/755057088:70..4.8349.981472.8/0.   58 .  58 .70.  702.39-0.

23 .  19.

23 .   19.

23 /   19.

55742.  19 .   19 .4.2:2.98902.23   .-02:/09  .  19 /  19  .  55 /  55         .9890.  55 .90039419031:  .   55 .

  %#     %07./039419031:8.  58.-4:9  .

19 .  58.

 58.19 .

19 /  58.

9090\$!  . - .93908973.19   42.92:/094:/..4:/-0474.0/:0 90!.9890.38974089441742!94!  .  58 /  58   4914439090.  55 /  55    897408 897408 897408 897408 --8 --8 --8 --8 .80   .70706:70/94/85.94190.:834880847 . 55 .  898 ..5.  55 .  %7:0 . \$!41 58 .. /   42. .4770. - .3897408.:.   898 /  898   ..4030  .. /    1900. 898 ./-0038:939 584390/755057088:70..957088:708.3/3414.3/.   58 .33::8  . 58 .0706:70/94900  .0907807 .3490731:   .

79 /  !488-05:0/340 0  !488-0.43172.8:594. .  %#   3807901443.79    .890080/:839070782094/  % %  \$ %#  \$                                  !\$ !\$               !&  ! \$ !     #  ! !  ! #  \$ \$ & #     \$   ! #  \$ \$ & #     !     ! \$%    \$      %04507.984:/4: /4  .990 .40.  450390.0793448.0793448.889.43974 .405:3  % %  \$ %#  \$                              ! \$ !\$            !&  ! \$ !   # !!  ! # \$ \$ & #    \$   !#  \$\$ & #   !    ! \$ %   \$   !97442.990 .984:/4:/4  .43840 848  .9 90 .40. .80905:258500/ /  /0.70.0 .48090.40.943.990 .  450390.790/  %88.  34930.990 .:06:089438..40 .  3.48090.80905:258500/ 0  34930. --7803900.40.70.

48090. .89 897408 .704:4394/434  . .70897054790/94-03.990 .990 .40.  5488-03405:3 /  5488-0.30   .0790.990 .94:80043905.40.48090.8://033.405:3 0  34930.  450390.8357088:704.40.803.70.0793448.70.8389 %88.990 .3 .79   % %  \$ %#  \$                                      !\$ !\$              ! & ! \$ !   #! ! !# \$ \$ &#   \$  ! # \$\$ &#  !   ! \$ %    \$         50703.707054790/94-01.0393.84:9 /  5488-0.  5488-0.0793448.88.40.79  .08.0/.9..3/ 590.  450390.  %#   % %  \$ % #  \$                                 ! \$ !\$             !& ! \$ !   #! ! ! # \$\$ &#   \$  ! # \$\$ &#    !    ! \$%    \$      %0590.08.40.405:3 0  34930.

32470.0793448. 0. .40.55 .40.  0.4:3907 /  00/41157088:7094  0  34930..  .990 .7093843  .984:/4:/4  .79  % %   \$ %#   \$                                      !\$ !\$                !&! \$!   #  ! !  ! #  \$ \$ & #    \$   ! #  \$ \$ & #   !    ! \$%    \$        \$:9-.40.84:9 0  44/0.. 55 .8357088:7084:/-0  /  5488-0.990 .48090.  450390.3 .0793448.  #080989740.8 4.  %#   % % \$%# \$                               !\$ !\$           ! & ! \$!    #   ! !  ! #  \$ \$ & #     \$   ! #  \$ \$ & #   !   ! \$%   \$    490.79    .73.

80905:258500/ 0  34930.984:/4:/4  ..80905:258500/ /  /0.  450390.40.48090.70  .08.  %#   % %  \$ %#  \$                             ! \$ ! \$           !&  ! \$ !   # !!  !#  \$\$ & #     \$  ! # \$ \$& #     !   ! \$%    \$    49905:25948500/.  3.  450390.0:89708099089740.704:4394/434  .990 .0793448.990 .4:39078.0 30 ..9.405:0/ 0  34930.3/.40.79  % % \$%#  \$                              !\$ !\$           ! & ! \$ ! # ! ! !# \$\$& #   \$  !# \$\$ &#  !   ! \$%   \$        !:2574428439054308.40.990 .  5488-03405:0/ /  5488-0. .. .79   .3590.70.40.70.35:250/908:71.0793448.48090.990 .

  %#   % % \$%# \$                               !\$ !\$             !& ! \$!  #   ! !  ! #  \$ \$ & #     \$   ! #  \$ \$ & #    !    ! \$ %    \$    755057088:7081.  3.3-:9.39 4.990 .4389./948:93-0.40.8357088:708944 .7093843  .9/44:93  .:8041.40.70..8357088:7089.8357088:7089444 0  .40. .0793448.  755057088:708944 /  .79 % %  \$ %#  \$                                  !\$ !\$               !&  ! \$ !     #  ! !  ! #  \$ \$ & #    \$   ! #  \$ \$ & #   !     ! \$%    \$       .. .79    .  755057088:7089444 .5:25 .84:9 0  44/0..48090.80905:258500/ /  5488-0.  450390.0793448.990 .

3/.  450390.3  .39894344938.3/905499.389.8:-80.  %#   % % \$%# \$                                    !\$ !\$             !&! \$! # !! !#\$\$&#   \$ !#\$\$& #   !     ! \$%   \$    .14309/75503. .033007   .988-08945943  .7480 -:9943..9/44:902  .3..3/9014 20907702.  5488-0. 0 !:80890 33:.9147908:-80.9.48090. .32.4803.990 ..3/97..405:3 /  5488-03405:3 0  34930.:08.3054/.40. !89.40.0793448.990 .7043 .:5948500/ 425...308 -:9. ..79                    #\$    /707300/894.

2419070:..80/04.03  .7097:0970850.04507.147..3/4.84314719937..%0!49\$8902/:2581:/949080..3/2.90434390.425090     42:.9433-4.894.3/.3:.088:.5/488411:/ %0-089.%44.\$945/73. %0!49\$8902. \$945/73.9890573.084390 !89.7.908.430.3/.-4.8889.9  .90407.3/5:9.39/707942.94757088:70. %4.4:78041.8:-80.39.9208  ..09490 !89.9208.39080.  .43/8 /   80.94341 !1:3....9.2419070:.   80.!49 \$8902 .40/1478:-80.70.903-4954/8  .548943390/7.920:39901489458  / 4304190.9438  .08 5.9   .. /70./.003.:...5..04507.0390794.. 80.%070:.3/0.:2:.9438  .43/8    742.907.:9870. \$945/73.94384507.04507.847 !484.90.2390.4330./7... %01:/390!49\$8902148..\$!.3/901420907 3/.0     03.7570.4397489054894341.77.054/  .04390/7.0/ /:73/8...1:3..949000.1:3..7  / 48090407.9479801 .41901443897:0  ./-..9.8.9438.074507.7.284.94739054/    .48090.90.4833 9:870/:. 438970.7. &58970.99490!49\$8902  . !.//943.724084113/.9489.43/8 . 43974. %0\$!.730#807 !.03907     0/73 .:.:.1:3..89.4803!#!  .33:.90/ .24.90 !89.43/8 .9090 ..0  .9434390 !9..  %#   .57088:709...4507..94739054/ ./0/394. %44.8:-80.934.3.43974\$8902.33:.314/94.9020398.1907901:3.0.480/548943.        %08:-80.4393:4:80.2950570.   80.43974889028/... \$03/.8:990.3/0. \$!.033007  ..3/8:99003  .

9020398897:070. !..35072.907 84:-0..49070970.  94232090920944507.  94232090920944507.8:-80.35:..340/0/.89.08...90. 190.8..  .9437023/890/7079403..9433/..8090.2950570.3/90.%08:990.90.43974     .43974889028   .8894550/  .190.2.:.80.72 5.9.9020398.3 !1:3. 0247:3. 942. !.0390747 -4.943354/94:9483 /7.90/54/  .:/-0...580             .08570.97.439745.72.8-01470.550/390 30570.9489.0:80/38:-80..90890570.:...3/7.0843.43889841549./7.4.33411    .1907.7/39490:8041 2.0.548943 419700 5489431:3.90.907.. 548943 57088:70-097.3/90 70/:3/.422:3.-0./ 03/88902  0 !491:/..8-003.3988902  .947 950  ..943-0900390800.9433/..98905:75480418:- 80.4190144389.89.480//0.9438  / 0247:3..308  ..7054984507.20549039.9434300.4:857088:780/  .0390747 -4.7950570..943-.0247:3.1:3.3/.039.9:70 /7458-04.0390/1742 9030570.3.1:3..08....:.908.943 .39 170001:/0390902507.90/88902.24:390/-49908  .2.03907 /  944592090920944507. 548943 57088:70-0..90.03907   .4:857088:780/     ..//.. %08:990.33:.303994390.:942.  %#   / %0!49889028.:808417807. 0247:3.0397.907 .4:8548943-01470 4.088190/9490.98905:7548041900247:3.41..0  .088190/9490.72...9437023/890/70794.7097:0970850.90/  / %08:990..30.9948:990.943 .00/04.3 !1:3..8390800.2090920944507.43.08. %08:990.4     .

 1. 1.4030.33:. 58 .9 529.480 90.3709:73:5907807   .8:7040307.   58 .80   #0.8030.7./-.3/9.40309.-0908.  58 /  58  .70:.9904:95:941908:71.  97:0 ..3/70./-. 1.  58 .314/ . 1.47/0/ 892.3/70.8.80   4:300/9434900394190.4030   . 1.80/94 55 :80/.870.30.80   !4957088:70820.3/55057088:7041 58.070:.5 .  97:0 .94:/-090301902:/0983.33:.3/903.  97:0 .757088:70 380797:0471.9020398   !4957088:70....947  .8:70/.9079 1009.4030   .89..90  .943488     4:.57088:708208:70/.  97:0 .80   4:.3/.9.  58 .7.80  380797:0471.809490144389.9904:95:91742908:-80.  97:0 .20   .35:25/4390/789739..  97:0 ./-.809420.3709:738974:907807. 1742"    ..947  .. 1.0709:738974:90.3709:738974:907807 9552:/3 1009.  %#   %0/7078 !5.  58 /  58  .35:25/4390.:08147549.57088:7084:/3472.70.57088:70147902.80   05:253/4390..

9./04503.8.:.7.   4080    7.40 .47/0/  %0.  58 .03974:. 58 .33:.2:24.9078 58.:.   58 /  58    .7.:.  %#      05:253/4390/78973.480/..834 58 .3/:5907807 .870.58 19  ..7.838408 19#  \$0.93 57088:70.7090  .3/709:7389.9357088:7041 58..9090.9.907/0598 19  .-0:/099901443/.

07-:7/038 58.19  .

  55 .907 58.907/059 .   55 /   55      80283 1941.   55 . 19  !8 58  .

3/ %.7807 7.58 19.19 /7394:9.

9 19.4:204:/--41.9890!/:73.  --8 /  --8   7.550/3.0. 58 .907 /059.40/9427.  --8 .897..98:71.5 7.4330..90974:90780710/9 55 2:/  . !.%'8 19# . --8 .   58 /  58      .8:-80.01700.3/.5 0/059 .80/.   58 .9438  .

907/059819 80.9078 58.83  7.4330.0/.  %#                       8028/73945409.3//..07907389.7807.58 19 ..90/94 .

19 %'.

943   .43/8    .9.3     80.43/8  33:.%8 19 #.8032:/098706:70/9441180998  .9433!1907807070489477024. !8  #. 58 .#!84:/3490.   55 /   55         %070.   55 .42203/0/708543809201478:-80.2894.43/8  %2094:3.00/  80.   58 .3/8 55  .0/  .00/    80.94:/-09070/:.784:/3490.48030889.70.  58 /  3470/:.  55 .93.

/.  %#     4.3..907/05919  .0..90/4:9       42:.550/3. !-08.897.7.:.10.  58 /   58    42. 58 .8:-80.  58 .83.301.07903945030/-01470 /85.3 --.4:/!.37807942:/  55   55  ..

  7807.89 89740899.094/85.0..

/7550 .   897408 .33::8  1943   .   897408 /   897408      .  897408 .

/7..3:2-07 !.42543039841.4254303939089574..3848. ./0/          .8:-80..:.  %#    %01443/7.0903:2-073099490.4397488902 .8.42543039.

3:.241.0.94343  -  7024901:3.390.0/3    .  2.9..38079014436:08943                 42.35489438.947  .  .98903.943     ....9.390.0 ..3.7.    /       42.1:3..054798/40890.  %0723...0-04507..0390747-4...0    .94343  .90/43  /  2.0-05...548943 90./7.3     .74507.0.35:.  ./.90/-    .:.204198..947  -  \$00.  %#   &83908.  %7:0  -  1.02.    /     .3:..    -    ..03981:/308  949.    -    .947   390.0    .80        .477024901:3..

.5   19 .907/059  19 \$0./039 58.5 7.9077.  %#    %  0/059   19%'#     19  7.

/0.   58 -   58 ..09001907807894-0 7024.   58 /  58   190780784893-.   55 -   55 .907 .0/  .8.3/9008:934390:5507.33:. -0147080.03907 1 90.7.7045030/ .08.907/059         .3/901.4030810/980.907..808706:70/94-.   58 /  58   1907807.70.58057088:7041 58 41..4:/902:/0.92:/093.19 :/09   55 0/059 .907.9 4:/-09090.   55 /   55    !/7.7570./  ..3..01.43/:.90/.8357088:7070..5808907807  .8./.4.  19 /  19   ..10.  58 -  58 .94:/-090-499424057088:7070/:.4.   19 -  19 .0 -  .

90908:-80.  %7:0 -  .704733 1941  58.84305.34907809417.07938  .28.80   %0/7.190790.:.74:/902:/0.1:3.943949084./094.908:-80.//90.907.9..4:20.90  . ! 8.7.548943 /  .3.3807   .3/092847994:9 -  480.94382.28 .-014709.48090.  %7:0 -  .3/.4:3907.3/4:71:/.02039.033007.4.4393:0894 7089071:/24.4393:0   %413/! 4:2:89.880/ .80   %07.403017.:.58057088:7041 58 4 1.4388941549.7.  .9 4:/4:.-0 .34117.483.4770.1:/88902:80/944507.//9.8.8.4.541 19 1907807.08   .  !:9904507.937.58014:.01.438/07/43 .93:39394-4.  %#    1.

..770841.907  .  --8 -  --8 ..30/97.3/.8.1907..:.9.94:/-0.28.845030/-.9.0881:4507.3/0/.80/ 39490780703900..  58 /  58   &83901443/.194180.9 8:71.8:./702..943  0/.550/:3/07907.8. .  --8 /  --8        .   58 -  58 .909005.57088:70  58  . 4030039   19 #807039    19 2:/09   55 732:/    55 9248507.01-.8700.:5.4:209.

4:20.94:/98.90110..3/90570.88:71..0.  %#    .80 -  0.8 8:71.70.947-499080709.  \$.80 .-01:/  ..:2:. ..438-49901902.4:20                                       .-0/9908.70.   .0-49908 .03949080.708 58  .8 /   .  3.8 -   .04390:8.70...2:257088:708  58 90222:28 58.9090:8.8 .-01:/3.20570.   ..8   1.20.:..

3/092094/..80    %0..9.970.:09.83 33::8 .9   .80    %0707 82094/410.  %7:0 .9894 90.40 8 :80/ 94 ./:89 90 7 !50 57088:704:.390/7550. .8384057088:708   . ...4:208 0889.4:2080889.  %7:0 . .8708:93407.:08.  %7:0 .3/09708:93407.390/7550.80    %0707 82094/410.40.094. .9   .  %7:0 .4:2080889.3.43974708:9307.43974708:93908.5.2057088:704390.....80    %0 .5.  %#   #\$      03:8390... ..884079470.9   ./:89 .80         .30905:257.994.:0   .8384057088:7081904503 40..  %7:0 ..83 33::8  57088:70  -:9 94 . ./:89203990390 7!50!7088:70   .90   .80    %0..  %7:0 .390/7550.5. ..9.838401 90450340.8384057088:70190450340.83 33::8 ./:8957088:709890.80    %0.  %7:0 ./:892039-01470907!50.4094..

0   0  \$:9 3900.8357088:70.39.8357088:70.39:392:/70.70.4770..39   .0.4389.4389.0.3.39     30:58:.088:71.3/755057088:70.4389.3/\$!!.04:7...39.3.3...0     .39.35:25357088:70.902039839089    ..  %#     !.70.39:3931:84:9   /  .  735:25:5948500/4/3.39.4389.   1  735:25:5948500/4/3.4389.990-9   ..39147.943     735:25:5948500/4/3/755057088:70.-49\$!.4389.9020398390.7..39     \$:930. .:.3/.39:392:/8.  .38078347/07-04  89********** 3/************  7/********** 9************  9********** 9************  9************ 9**********              .8357088:70.943942:/     .090144389..947/0714:.1470748:9357088:70   !.8357088:70.425090.9006:..55742.8357088:70.4389.4389.39:392:/85:250/948:71.3/.70:8390707 8094/  %008.39./8:93     %%070.70 ##%89.

/8:93     %%070.  %7:0 .3/ 09 2094/  ..3/092094/ .1742!94!.  %#     !.9.9008/0.82:/5:250/1742-9948:71.:.39. .700594079.9.  735:25:5948500/4/3.9 .70 %7:0 47 .82:/85:250/ 17428:.9./:.0   0  4/755057088:70941.70.902039839089    .9438 .3/755057088:70..9020398390.1742!% !./     789********  3/*********  7/*********  9*********    .0733 90 .090144389..70 088 .70:8390.425.70 ##%89.80  -  390.39/:733/ .9 .39.4770.4389.80  .39   .3/.3/09 94. 4/755057088:70941.4389.33::857088:708.3/ 09 2094/ 9070 .8357088:70 84:/-0059 .4389.0.3990707 8 2094/   .  3 90 .943   .  735:25:5948500/4/3/755057088:70..947/0714:.39  /  .70/ 94 90 707 8 2094/   . 41 90 1443 89.82:/85:250/94-9   . .9020398 .:.4389.7.  %7:0 .94359948.7.07   1  \$:9/43.43.3/092094/90..80  . .  390..  %7:0 .80 .8357088:70.0 %008.

. .79   ..094 -9897408.9. . .3/092094/90/755057088:7080/.19078:71.9..9.3/092094/2:89-0:80/138:11.5..  %7:0 .80    390.0-0035:250/14:8:93900   .39974:4:9   ..  %7:0 .9   ...9.80  0  390. ../034:70.9 . .9..90790/78973.7.3/092094/9008/0.  %7:0 .  %7:0 .3/092094//408349706:704:/7.!   .3/092094/90/755057088:7080/.  %7:0 .790843-4.5478905/43.39974:4:9   . .80    %0.4389./074 .79.3/092094/90/755057088:7084:/70.  %7:0 . .80                .5. .  /   %#   390.7/  .80     %0 .9.9870..3/ 09 8 90 57010770/ 2094/ 1 \$! 8 .3/ 90 4503 40 .80  1  390.  %7:0 .80    %0.4389.039-.

9.04078:71.2094/4:/4:.33::857088:708     707094/   43.80/:5438.3:590.3/092094/       .0 407 840 57088:708 9.943407.0949\$97408    898 994\$40897408    898 9948:71.2031472.:..99025994900:83.90..943.8.-4.33::857088:708    489.   90 ..3     --8  3807 08474    -  ..7.3 90 707 8 2094/  %'      19 \$40059     19 \$:71.9.390707 8094/   3807 08474   425.3/ 09 2094/ ..89.4480   ##\$ #%%    3901443-2.4770. 2094/9.354.80/4390144331472..:77039094/   .33::857088:708    088.057088:7089.943824/07.04:..0     898 \$!!     58 \$!     58 !708039:/9      55 :/9      55 \$!       58 !9.:.  %#    .909907     30.3/:5507.4770.:..83   .943  .9 ...93:2-079490.9438089.908 033..9232089057088:70439089.0  90.9.3/09094/.

8 90 .4770.0 30 .39  %02.9 5.0/:708 .831:.9390-.0  7078094/   .4389..831:948:71.110.39  .9  574.79 41 90 0-470 .70 1440/ 9.8 90 .9 430 41 90 1443 89..9 8 %#& .38574.9 ..  \$4 43 .9.3573..4389.93.8357088:70.  \$:71.390389.0/:708 .  \$:71.3957088:70    .831:.4190144389.4770.0.4389.4:20  .9 5.  2:/  3.70 1440/ 9.9 5. 8 -04.70.3*********************   %02489..9020398 9.  %#    ./0/    7078    735:25:5948500/4/3/755057088:70.7.7090.030.  \$4 43 .3/********************2094/   3-492094/84:2:89**********************0389.79394.0  /  .43-49942   -  !:252:89-0-74:9:5948500/4/3.793:5    . 8 -04.4389..9.79 41 90 0-470 .4389.39-499424057088:70    43. 8 .390/755057088:70.4770.:.43.422432094/8.-4.33.9 90 5439 .70 1440/ 9.793:5905:25948500/    %#&\$%%%\$#********************.39..3957088:70   -  \$4 43 .9020398.3/09.3/***************************    \$00.831:.8357088:70     7429089.8 90 .0.5041032094/88942....9  574..0733  0-470 57088:708 03.0.9  574.39.70.4389.39    4389..4770.0/:708 .4389.8357088:70.39    755057088:70.438/070/0389.4:20/408349300/94-0...79 41 90 0-470 .7097:0  .041902.:77039    73905:25:5948500/4/390.0.902039894-04 5.80 2:/ /7489..

.7.9.990.0.-4.  !7088:70.831:8/0..35439.0 .70.43.70.3 5439     -04 .  %#     .-4.83   .-4.74:84.3 5439     .39    .8:--0 \$:71..831:8.831:8783   /  !7088:70..943.:.890 3.70.4389.9020398897:0.83840      4994240 9 .0.80.9434190707 82094/   .:0      .07330-47057088:70/:739089 ..8-:--0702.35439.9.80 \$9.043 9057088:708.70..  !7088:70.0.20 %03702.91789 8.998.4389.4389..831:8/0..80 0.38 .8 -:--0              .8 -:--0 9 .-4..9.90110.9438890/   %!#\$\$&#   % \$ 3.70.39   -  !7088:70.0.38.83   0  !7088:7093.35439-04.4507.88-03.7.83     .4304190144389.90/:59040/:73.:.9.35439.39      .

99034082.83 57088:70 .80 .39 .  \$9..  \$9.39:392:/8.94 58  /  :8390852.80 -  0.94:/.94  589 852    .70.40 -01470 2.20   :73 90 1789 ./0.70.3/2.3/4/9.943 41 90 707 8 2094/ 4: /0.9434190707 82094/4:/0.20    3 90 570.7.550394-499424057088:70  .70.7.  %#    039004390897.:.90894/8./0/ 94 4/ .80 -  0.9434190707 82094/ 90/755057088:70 8    58 .908.:.3    58 /755057088:70    :739080.843 4:939./0944/.24:3906:.4389./:89 .943  .70.:. 90 /7 57088:70 3.94:/.  3..39 :392:/8.  \$9.3/ .  \$9.480 90 .  3.55030/94-499424057088:70   .990-9 .70.  3.90.:.05:258:594 8500/349090/755057088:70.990-9 .70..4389.80 .4:8 0.3908.9434190707 82094/4:4//755057088:70.80 .80 .  3.94390852147  584:/-0 852  %0701470 4: -735:25 :5 94  852 .303.  \$9.39  3.8.40 94 4-9.35:.3 .80 -  0.83 57088:70 8   58  '07 6:.40 57088:70 .:.-0-4../094450390.802:/09-.3914770894189.9    4:/0..43/.4389.7.20      .80894  58-:934./0/ 94 8945 90 5:25 .550394-499424057088:70  .250 4: /0.  3.8357088:70 .8357088:708 !:257.409409  5843/7550  -  \$9.4094-7390/755057088:70-.908.70.20   :739080.9.94:/4:/4   .3.80 -  0.43/.9.550394-499424057088:70  .908.3.7.078:85:2557088:7006:.795:25:594 852.94:/.9   852  .70.70.70.4389.3/ .4389.795:25:594 8524/390 .

3      40.  %#    048.:08783      95:3 .84:9 /  ! .3      405:3 - 49. 49.:809490574-02   !#       &\$  .:08783      40.8941574-028 .:01.9.  ! ..90.:081.

.  2.4190144357088:708/43493.9.943  .70.9.08*****************************  .9.84:9   .9.  2.809.8-:--057088:70                            .8357088:70 /  .08*****************************  /  2.  499424057088:70 -  .  \$:93.08*****************************  -  2.550.08*****************************    .8384057088:70 .827.

9. /.5..90.3/092094/   .55742.  %#    %0 1443 7.  499424057088:70 /  755057088:70   %.7..  \$:71..8384057088:70 .3 543983900/:7390.0.9 ..308 3 57088:70 .079.28 84 90.8357088:70 -  .

!7088:7070../3.70349/7.3948.0                  3807                                 3807                   3807              .

                                                     %#           3807  .

/85..907/059 7.8:70//059 %'   4080  7.5  .9.480/03//85..4.02039    !  19        7.5.7.4.78                                               19  19     19  19  19 .9      7550209.02039     7550.7.  %#   #\$  0..5.908  50340....7307807        33:.9      4030  19       ...5.5.  0.908  7550..

7      50340.4./7.

83./7550      .

  :770392:/09      .9./7550       !70 70.83.47/0//.

9 . 551809.

3                         --.9:707.  \$!!        \$!        !9.4030      !:254:95:9       \$:71./039.9840     \$# \$! 7807       \$# \$! ...9.%'    7.0308        ./.

19  --.

19 --.

19 --.

19 --.

19 --.

19 --.

19    --.

19 --.

19  --.

19   55  19  58.

19   58   58  --.

89  --8     58  58  --8 .

 897408 /  897408    42.   55 -   55 .3897408/40899..   897408 -  897408 .   55 /   55     .  897408 -   897408 .92:/098706:70/  .  897408 /    897408    .3897408/40899.9890\$!  .   55 /   55    42.   58 -   58 .0945:2517428:71.:.425090430.   58 /   58    ..  897408 /  897408    42.0945:251742-994840  .4030  .  %#     .0907807  .   55 -   55 .094.70706:70/94/85.  897408 -  897408 .943974:90.  897408 -  897408 .7.3897408.  897408 /  897408    42.094-9  .9890  .3897408/40899.

9:7057088:7041.9438.:.5.9890\$!..  58 /  58   .  58 -  58 ...14.943-0390890/ 0  %02://0389 1  %0%'41900   %033:.:7.0.94190/78973 -  %0%'4190.   58 -   58 ..  %0570803..9890!  ../3.   58 /   58   ..93908973 /  %0547057088:7041901472.2..83   %0.   58 /   58   .9890!  ..041.57088:70  ..   58 /   58    .83840 .757088:7048808   %04190.989039.9              .5.70088039.   58 -   58 ..   58 -   58 .4119089  .94.931472.9040.909017.  %0.  %#     .19073900  .

9.83   4030 #807 472.78  . 11!439 3/ 1:/ 980 7!50  0.90  74.3807906:089438   %  0059  ..  %#   #\$  &80900..94.9438970399089 :/093:80 \$:71.90#807     7550.0'4:20 !:258     \$4!:25#.

83 7550. .

4.  50340 7..425090.7070.38079014436:089438      19%'  19  %'.42203/0/94.78  50340    %# %  \$!!  58 \$!  58   --8  4:.800994.

    %'.

         -8.

5.9 --8.19 ..

.9 --8.19     19 .5.

19 .

 .

5..  19 .9 --8.

19 .

 -.

0/  58 \$09.19 !     39073.9  19%'.

9 --8..5.    19 .

19  19 #807.

! --8.

19   58.

9750 !   9.943. 55  55   --8 .

5.9 --8.. 3078 .

9 852  58.89 !&!!#\$\$&#  58.9 852 &#' &\$      --8.

19  --8.

19  --8.

19 .

7.:.7.2:2.989057088:7070/:.98903.70706:70/945:252:/17428:71.9890.3897408.3897408..:.9 852        .094 !          42.93!7088:70.943507 8974088:71..4.70706:70/945:252:/1742 !94        .:770392:/09        42.9:/098706:70/        .989039.-01://0389        .  %#     .094 !         .9890\$!990.93!7088:70        .

:.9890.7.9357088:70       1900.9357088:70       032:/70.9890/78973.9890949./94-08:93032:/70.  %#     .989057088:7070/:.0890 ! .70706:70/945:252:/1742 94-9       .943507 897408 94-9       032:/70.9890.3897408.0890 ! ...:..943507 897408 !94        42.0890  .897408945:25:/9490-9         .7.4:20        .94:/-090 \$!!      .989057088:7070/:.

3897408.9890\$!990..98902.90 42...90 57088:70 43 90 .2.:08 03 90 5:2570.4030        .55742.  %#    .:770392:/09 /3.9        55742..9 84:/ -0 90 .5.43/9438                               .70706:70/94190.08 \$!        .83 .7307807 !..

0'4:20 !:258      \$4!:25#.83   4030 #807 472.  %#   #\$  &80900.. 11!439 3/ 1:/ 980 7!50  74.3807906:089438   %  0059  .78  .9438970399089 :/093:80 \$:71.9.94.90#807     7550.

 .83 7550.

38079014436:089438    19%'  19   %'.800994.4.42203/0/94..7070.425090.78  50340   %# %  \$!!  58 \$!  58  --8     4:.  50340 7.

    %'.

          -8.

.19 .5.9 --8.

19 .

 .

5..9 --8.  19 .

19 .

 -.

19 !     39073.9 19%'.0/  58 \$09.

.5.   19 .9 --8.

19  19 #807.

! --8.

19   58.

943..9 --8. 55  55  --8 .9750 !   9 3078 .5.

9 852 &#' &\$     --8.89 !&!!#\$\$&#  58.9 852  58.

19  --8.

19  --8.

19 .

9:/098706:70/        .7.70706:70/945:252:/1742 !94           .094 !       .3897408.9 852        .:.98903.094 !        42.2:2.9890.9890\$!990..:.4.989057088:7070/:.-01://0389        .93!7088:70.70706:70/945:252:/17428:71.93!7088:70        .3897408..  %#      .7.943507 8974088:71.:770392:/09        42.989039.

.9890/78973..4:20      .9890.70706:70/945:252:/1742 94-9       .9890949.7307807 !.0890 ! .9357088:70       032:/70.0890 ! .90 42..70706:70/94190.943507 897408 !94        42.7.989057088:7070/:.4030  ..98902.989057088:7070/:.3897408.943507 897408 94-9       032:/70.9       55742.0890  .9357088:70       1900.  %#     .9890./94-08:93032:/70.:.3897408.7.94:/-090\$!!     .:.5..897408945:25:/9490-9      .

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