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3.Explain the differences among creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. 5.Describe why creativity & innovation are such an integral part of entrepreneurship. 7.Understand how the two hemispheres of the human brain function and what role they play in creativity. 9.Explain the 10 “mental locks” that limit individual creativity. 11.Understand how entrepreneurs can enhance the creativity of their employees as well as their own creativity. 13.Describe the steps in the creative process. 15.Discuss techniques for improving the creative process.
CREATIVITY, INNOVATION, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Creativity – the ability to develop new ideas and to discover new ways of looking at problems and opportunities Innovation – the ability to apply creative solutions to those problems and opportunities to enhance or to enrich people’s lives.
*Creativity is thinking new things. *Innovation is doing new things.
“Entrepreneurs succeed by thinking and doing new things or old things in new ways.” *Successful entrepreneurs come up with ideas and then find ways to make them work to solve a problem or to fill a need. *Sometimes creativity involves generating something from nothing.
*Creative ideas often arise when entrepreneurs look at something old and think something new and different. *Entrepreneurship is the result of a disciplined, systematic process of applying creativity and innovation to needs and opportunities in the marketplace. *Innovation must be a control process because most ideas don’t
CREATIVITY – A NECESSITY FOR SURVIVAL
*When developing creative solutions to modern problems, entrepreneurs must go beyond merely using whatever has worked in the past. *Entrepreneurs must always be on guard against traditional assumptions & perspectives about how it should operate.
Paradigm – a preconceived idea of hat the world is, what it should be lik and how it should operate --- they act as logjams to creativity
Paris in the the Spring Time
Once in a a lifetime
Bird in the the hand
We see what we expect to see
essful entrepreneurs are those who tantly pushing technological & econo boundaries forward must always ask “ Is it time to sacrifice the Queen?”
ccess – even survival – in this fierce mpetitive, global environment requir entrepreneurs to tap their creativity nd that of their employee) constantl
CAN CEATIVITY BE TAUGHT?
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all starts in the brain.
The brain has two hemispheres.
Left brain —guided by linear vertical thinking.
Right brain — unconventional, unsystematic and unstructured thinking. —the heartof the creative process.
ose who have learned to develop the ht-brained thinking skills tend to:
ways asks the question, s there a better way?”
hallenge custom, routine, and traditi
e reflective, often staring out window ep in thought.
ay mental games
ze that there may be than one “ right answer”.
mistakes and failures as mere tops” on the way to success.
te seemingly unrelated ideas roblem to generate innovative solut
e “ helicopter skills”.
BARRIERS TO CREATIVITY
A Whack on the Side of the Head, Roger von Oech
4.Searching for “right” answer the one
…there may be (and usually are) several “right” answers
ocusing on “being logical”
…discourages the use of one the min t powerful creations: intuition 3. Blindly following the rules Sometimes creativity depends on our ability to break the existing rules so that we can see new ways of doing things.
4. Constantly being practical Imagining impractical answers to ‘what if” questions can be powerful steppingstones to creative ideas. Ex. Thomas Edison
A playful attitude is fundamental to creative thinking. There is a close relationship between the “haha” of humor and the “aha” of discovery. Play gives us the opportunity to reinvent reality and to reformulate established
and so can entrepreneurs. Watch children playing and you will see them invent games, create new ways of looking at old things, and learn what works (and what doesn’t) in their games. For instance, a group of fundraisers discussed the arrangements for an upcoming
6. Becoming overly specialized Creative thinkers tend to be explorers, searching for ideas outside their areas of specialty 7. Avoiding ambiguity Ambiguity can be a powerful creative stimulus, it encourages us to “think something different” Ex. Tom and Sally’s
8. Fearing looking foolish Creative thinking place for conformity. is no
Entrepreneurs look at old ways of doing things and ask, “Is there a better way?” By destroying the old, they create the new.
9. Fearing mistakes Creative people realize that trying something new often leads to failure; however, they do not see failure as an end. It represents a learning experience on the way to success. Ex. Charles F. Kettering
10. Believing that “I’m not creative …merely an excuse for inaction Everyone has within himself or herself the potential to be creative; not everyone will tap that potential, however.
Enhancing Organizational Creativity Enhancing Individual Creativity
Enhancing Organizational Creativity
• Right organizational environment can encourage people to develop & cultivate them • Ensuring that workers have the FREEDOM and the INCENTIVE to be creative is one of the best ways to achieve innovation
• One of the best ways to communicate the expectation of creativity is to give employees permission to be creative • Ex. Brainstorming board
• Creativity requires chances and managers must remove employees’ fear of failure
• Entrepreneurs and their employees constantly should ask “what if…” questions and to take a “maybe we could…” attitude • Doing so breaks out the assumptions that limit creativity
VIEWING PROBLEM AS CHALLENGES
• Every problem offers the opportunity for INNOVATION • Instead of the Entrepreneur fix all the problems, let the employees take part in finding the solutions (EMPOWERMENT)
• Everyone has the capacity to be creative, but developing that creativity requires training • Training: books seminars workshops professional meetings ..helps everyone learn to tap their creativity
PROVIDING THE CREATIVITY TRAINING
• Entrepreneurs must give employees the tools and the resources they need to be creative • Entrepreneurs should remember that creativity often requires nonwork phases, and allowing employees time to “daydream” • Ex. 15% of time on pet projects
• Encourage creativity by rewarding it when it occurs • Financial rewards • Non-monetary – more powerful • Ex. Idea lottery
MODELING CREATIVE BEHAVIOR
• Creativity is “caught” as much as it is “taught” • Entrepreneurs set examples of creative behavior, taking chances, and challenging the status quo (will soon find their employees doing the same)
ENHANCING INDIVIDUAL CREATIVIY
ALLOW YOURSELF TO BE CREATIVE
• One of the biggest obstacles creativity occurs when a person believes that he or she is not creative • Give yourself the permission to be creative is the first step toward establishing a pattern of creative thinking
GIVE YOUR MIND FRESH INPUT EVERYDAY
• Stimulate your mind • Do something different each day: “listen” to a radio station take a walk through a park or shopping center Pick up a magazine you have never read
KEEP A JOURNAL
• Create ideas are too valuable to waste so always keep a journal to record them as soon as you get them
READ BOOKS OR TAKE A CLASS ON CREATIVITY
• Creative thinking is a technique that anyone can learn • Understanding and applying the principles of creativity can improve the ability to develop new ideas
TAKE SOME TIME OFF
• Relaxation is a vital to the creative process • It is often this time, while the subconcious works a problem, that the mind generates many creative solutions
THE CREATIVE PROCESS
The Creative Process Joe Designer Inc. Step i. Preparation. It involves creative thinking and might include formal education, onthe-job training, work experience and taking advantage of other learning opportunities.
creative thinking? •Have the attitude of a student. Educating is a never ending process. •Read a lot. •Clip articles and create a file •Discuss your ideas with other people •Join associations and attend meetings •Study other countries and their culture and then travel there.
problem or decision. Step iii. Transformation. Viewing the similarities and differences in the information collected. Requires two types of thinking: convergent and divergent. Convergent thinking is the ability to see the similarities and connections among various data and events. Divergent thinking is the ability
How to increase the ability to transform information to purposeful idea? •Evaluate parts of the situation and grasp the “big picture” . look for patterns. •Rearrange the elements of the situation. •Remember that several approaches might be successful.
Step iv. Incubation. Reflect on the information gathered. It occurs while the individual is away from the problem and is engage in an unrelated activity. How to enhance the incubation phase of the creative process? •Walk away from the situation. •Take time to daydream. •Relax and play regularly. •Dream about the problem or opportunity.. •Work on the problem in a different
during the incubation stage. All the previous stages come together to produce the “Eureka factor”- the creation of the innovative idea. Step vi. Verification. Validating the idea as accurate and useful. It may include experiments, running simulations, test marketing a product or service and others to verify if it will work
• Brainstorming- interaction of people to produce imaginative ideas. Guidelines for a successful brainstorming: Keep the group small. Have a well-defined problem. Limit the session to 40-60 minutes.
TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING THE CREATIVE PROCESS
Appoint someone to be the recorder. Use a seating pattern. Encourage all ideas from the : team. Establish a goal of quantity of ideas over quality of ideas. Forbid evaluation or criticism of any idea during brainstorming session.
• Mind-mapping- graphical technique that encourages thinking on both sides of the brain. Mind-mapping process Write down or sketch the picture that symbolizes the problem in the center of the blank page. Write down every idea that comes into your
Don’t try to force creativity when the flow of ideas slows to trickle. Allow your mind to rest for a few minutes and then begin to integrate the ideas on the page into a mind map.
• Rapid Prototyping- process of creating a model of an idea to see its flaws and to make improvements in the design. 3 principles of rapid prototyping: Rough Rapid Right
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