Systems & Emergency Procedures Summary of Revisions

Sectio 1 n

in BETA: March 2006

Revision 1: Created from the ‘systems’ EP portion of Maj Berg’s EPE Study Guide 8 & Maj Lon K Holder’s Systems Study Guide. I

ntroduction: This Study Guide was developed from other guides written and/or complied by Major Lon Holder and Major Brett Berg. This version combines their efforts to present a more complete overview of the Herk’s systems. It has been Technique laid out by each system to include its operation, limits, and emergency procedures. Furthermore scenarios and FYI or Gee Whiz discussions have been added for your edification. Most diagrams are a simplified illustration demonstrating Reference operational concepts and component placement. Use this guide as a tool for studying or for a quick systems refresher, not as a replacement for your issued pubs. Since this is an un-official document, it will have errors. It will get outdated… unless you, as the reader, point out the errors. If you see something wrong or outdated, let me know and I will make the appropriate changes. This guide also includes techniques that have been found to be useful by crews in the past. Icons will appear throughout the text to guide you. See the Icon Key for more information. Some of the numbers and concepts here are not found in the Dash-1; most of this information can be found in the Lockheed manuals, maintenance pubs, or job guides. I hope that this guide helps, but again…please don’t let this be your only source of information. Read this and then get in the Dash-1 for a more in-depth study. I C O N K E Y

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I’m currently working on the electrical section. It’s need a major over haul. While, I’m not specifically writing an E-Model section, I am going to do my best to discuss both the APU & ATM as well as the GCU and General Control Panels. Other information that is highlighted in yellow still needs looking at. It may be that I had a question on it, I thought it changed, or maybe there was just a bad reference. It’s just a reminder to me that I really need to get that section looked at. Also, I’m kind of stalling on updating page numbers for references. I hear a new Dash-1 is coming out, so I don’t want to waste my time with the minutia yet…I’d rather get the info organized first.

Mike Brooks

 Dash-1: TO 1C-130H-1 (1 August 2002, Change 8 October 2004)  Vol 3: AFI 11-2C-130-Vol 3. (1 April 2000, Change 1)


Table of Contents
Table of Contents............................................................................................ii Table of Figures..............................................................................................v Boldface.........................................................................................................1 ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE (ESP).............................................................................1 APU EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN............................................................................................3 FUSELAGE FIRE/SMOKE AND FUME ELIMINATION...............................................................3 Ground Evacuation (EGRESS)...........................................................................5 Engine Shutdown Conditions............................................................................6 ENGINE FIRE ......................................................................................................................6 TURBINE OVERHEAT ..........................................................................................................6 NACELLE OVERHEAT...........................................................................................................7 UNCONTROLLABLE POWER ...............................................................................................7 CERTAIN PROPELLER MALFUNCTIONS................................................................................7 UNCONTROLLABLE RISE IN TIT...........................................................................................7 UNCONTROLLABLE DROP IN OIL PRESSURE ......................................................................8 UNCONTROLLABLE RISE IN OIL TEMPERATURE .................................................................8 UNUSUAL VIBRATION OR ROUGHNESS .............................................................................8 THROTTLE CONTROL CABLE FAILURE................................................................................8 EXCESSIVE VISIBLE FLUID LEAK.........................................................................................9 OTHER ENGINE SHUTDOWN CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................9 Air Start Procedure.........................................................................................9 GENERATOR-OUT AIR START PROCEDURE.......................................................................10 The Power Plant............................................................................................11 TURBO-PROP ENGINE AND PRIMARY ENGINE CONTROLS................................................11 ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM......................................................................................................14 ENGINE FUEL MALFUNCTIONS....................................................................................16 TEMPERATURE DATUM (TD) SYSTEM................................................................................17 TD SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS.......................................................................................18 SUMMARY OF TD SYSTEM LIMITATIONS......................................................................22 Oil System....................................................................................................26 OIL SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS............................................................................................27 Engine Starting.............................................................................................30 STARTING MALFUNCTIONS.........................................................................................31 SUMMARY OF NORMAL STARTING LIMITATIONS.........................................................34 START MALFUNCTION MATRIX....................................................................................37 The Propeller System.....................................................................................39 PROPELLER AND GEARBOX OPERATION...........................................................................39 PROPELLER SAFETY FEATURES........................................................................................40 GEARBOX SAFETY FEATURES...........................................................................................42 SUMMARY OF PROPELLER LIMITATIONS...........................................................................44 PROPELLER MALFUNCTIONS.............................................................................................44 INDICATIONS OF PROP MALFUNCTIONS......................................................................44 CAUSES OF PROP MALFUNCTIONS..............................................................................44 PROP MALFUNCTIONS ON TAKEOFF (PRIOR TO REFUSAL SPEED)..............................44 PROP MALFUNCTIONS ON TAKEOFF (AFTER REFUSAL SPEED)...................................45 PROPELLER LOW OIL WARNING LIGHT (ON THE GROUND)........................................45 PROPELLER LOW OIL WARNING LIGHT (IN-FLIGHT)....................................................46 RPM OUTSIDE ALLOWABLE LIMITS..............................................................................47 PITCHLOCKED PROPELLER OPERATION......................................................................47 PROP FAILS TO FEATHER............................................................................................48 PROPELLER BRAKE FAILURE (FEATHERED PROP).......................................................48 The Fire & Overheat Detection and Suppression System..................................52 NACELLE OVERHEAT WARNING LIGHTS & TEST SWITCH.................................................52 FIRE DETECTION & WARNING LIGHTS..............................................................................52 TURBINE OVERHEAT WARNING SYSTEM & INDICATORS..................................................52 FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM & AGENT DISCHARGE SWITCH.........................................52 FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRE HANDLE ...................................................................................53 FUNCTIONS OF THE APU FIRE HANDLE ...........................................................................53 The Electrical System....................................................................................56 OVERVIEW........................................................................................................................56 ii

CIRCUIT PROTECTION.................................................................................................56 PRIMARY AC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM....................................................................................56 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM UPGRADE (ESU)........................................................................56 BUSES & POWER DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMARY AC SYSTEM..................................57 ESU PROBLEMS...........................................................................................................57 BUS TRANSFER SYSTEM .............................................................................................58 ESU MALFUNCTION LIGHTS.........................................................................................59 EXTERNAL AC POWER.................................................................................................59 APU GENERATOR........................................................................................................59 GENERATOR CONTROLS & INDICATORS.....................................................................60 GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT (GCU)............................................................................60 GENERATOR DISCONNECT SWITCHES........................................................................60 SECONDARY AC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM..............................................................................61 SECONDARY AC BUSES...............................................................................................61 COPILOT’S AC INSTRUMENT BUS ...............................................................................61 AC INSTRUMENT AND ENGINE FUEL CONTROL (ACI&EFC) BUS .................................61 DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM...................................................................................................61 DC BUSES....................................................................................................................61 DC BUS OFF INDICATOR LIGHTS.................................................................................62 DC POWER SWITCH.....................................................................................................62 EXTERNAL DC POWER.................................................................................................62 TRANSFORMER-RECTIFER (TR)...................................................................................62 DC BUS TIE SWITCH....................................................................................................63 REVERSE CURRENT RELAY (RCR)................................................................................63 TOUCH DOWN RELAY..................................................................................................63 INS BATTERY...............................................................................................................63 DC VOLTMETER...........................................................................................................64 MAIN LANDING GEAR TOUCHDOWN SWITCH..............................................................64 SUMMARY OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS............................................................64 ELECTRICAL MALFUNCTIONS............................................................................................64 GENERATOR OUT LIGHT .............................................................................................65 GENERATOR FAILURE (ON THE GROUND): Airplanes with GCU..................................66 BUS OFF LIGHT (with GCUs) ......................................................................................67 BUS OFF LIGHT (with/out GCUs) ...............................................................................67 LEFT/ESSENTIAL/MAIN/RIGHT AC BUS OFF LIGHT.......................................................67 ESS AVI BUS OFF LIGHT .............................................................................................68 MAIN AVI BUS OFF LIGHT............................................................................................68 AVI BUS ISOLATION PROCEDURES..............................................................................68 BSS ISOLATION OF AVIONICS BUS (ESS/MAIN)...........................................................68 PARTIAL LOSS OF THE ESSENTIAL AC BUS (AIRPLANES W/O ESU UPGRADE).............69 PARTIAL LOSS OF THE ESSENTIAL AC BUS (AIRPLANES W/ ESU UPGRADE) .............69 ELECTRICAL FIRE.........................................................................................................70 ISOL DC ON BAT LIGHT...............................................................................................71 MULTIPLE ENGINE POWER LOSS / RPM ROLLBACK.....................................................72 The Hydraulic System....................................................................................75 ENGINE DRIVEN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS.............................................................................75 HYDRAULIC MALFUNCTIONS.............................................................................................76 LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE.......................................................................................76 SUCTION BOOST PUMP WARNING LIGHT....................................................................77 ENGINE-DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP FAILURE...............................................................77 EXCESSIVE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PRESSURE...............................................................78 SUMMARY OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM LIMITATIONS.............................................................78 AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.......................................................................................78 AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS........................................................79 FLIGHT CONTROL BOOSTER UNITS..................................................................................79 FLIGHT CONTROL BOOSTER UNIT MALFUNCTION.......................................................80 TRIM TAB CONTROL SYSTEM............................................................................................81 TRIM MALFUNCTIONS..................................................................................................82 FLAP SYSTEM....................................................................................................................82 FLAP MALFUNCTIONS..................................................................................................83 SUMMARY OF FLAP SYSTEM LIMITATIONS........................................................................84 The Landing Gear System..............................................................................86 LANDING GEAR SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS.........................................................................87 SUMMARY OF LANDING GEAR SYSTEM LIMITATIONS.......................................................92 iii

..............................................................................................................................................135 SKE: Station Keeping Equipment [AN/APN-169C(V)]..................Landing And Taxi Lights......................................................................................................................................................106 Anti-Icing and De-Icing Systems.............................................................................................................................................................................................127 CARGO JETTISON.....................130 Comm/Nav/Autopilot & Misc Notes..............................................................................................................................................................................................129 UNUSUAL ATTITUDES.........................................................................................................................................................................105 AIR CONDITIONER & PRESSURIZATION EMERGENCIES...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................117 OXYGEN SYSTEM............................................................................................123 SUMMARY FUEL LIMITATIONS............99 APU EMERGENCIES.120 FUEL MALFUNCTIONS.......................135 DME INDICATION ON HSIS.......117 Fuel Tanks & Dumping.... and Airdrop Systems........128 BAILOUT..................................................................97 Master Door Warning Light...100 Bleed Air System..........................................................102 Air Conditioning & Pressurization.............................................................................................104 SUMMARY PRESSURIZATION LIMITATIONS..................................100 BLEED AIR SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS..............................................................128 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT.............................................101 SUMMARY OF BLEED AIR LIMITATIONS........................................126 REFUELING............................................................................................................................134 C-12 COMPASS SYSTEM....................................................................................98 SUMMARY OF APU LIMITATIONS..........................................................................................................................127 LOOSE CARGO....95 BRAKE SYSTEM.................................................................137 iv ..............114 WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICING SYSTEM (NESA)..128 DITCHING..............................................................................................................................136 E-TCAS/TCAS................................................................................129 All Weather Operations..................................................................................................135 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM (AFCS OR THE NEW AUTOPILOT)..............................................................................................................................................98 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU).......................................................................................... DEFUELING......................................94 Nose Wheel Steering System..............................................94 SUMMARY OF TAXI SPEED LIMITATIONS.....................................................................................................................................................134 PUBLIC ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM.......102 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM......................................................................134 INTERPHONE SYSTEM.................................................................................................................................................. AND GROUND TRANSFER...........................................................................................95 Aft Cargo Door & Ramp........................................................................................................................109 SUMMARY ANTI/DE-ICING LIMITATIONS....................................................................................134 HAND MICROPHONE SWITCH...........................................................................................................................................................................130 HOT WEATHER/DESERT OPS.............94 SUMMARY OF LANDING & TAXI LIGHT LIMITATIONS.....102 PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM........

.....................................................................................36 Figure 8 – Start Malfunction Matrix......................................116 Figure 23 – Oxygen System..42 Figure 11 – Propeller Operation........................................25 Figure 6 – Oil System.140 Figure 25 – E-TCAS Advisory Areas.............................................................................................................Table of Figures Figure 1 – Allison T56 Turbo Prop Engine......................................................................................................................................................54 Figure 15 – Function of the Fire Handle....................51 Figure 14 – Fire Detection System..50 Figure 13 – Propeller Blade Angles (all blade angles are approximate)....................119 Figure 24 – E-TCAS Intruder Symbols...........................29 Figure 7 – Engine Starting System Components Locations..........................................................................................................................................................................................................38 Figure 10 – Airstart and Feathering Circuit Diagram...............................93 Figure 20 – Automatic Anti-Icing Concept........................................................74 Figure 17 – Concept: Flap Operation.90 Figure 19 – Landing Gear Operation...............115 Figure 22 – Automatic Ice Detection and Engine Anti-Icing Controls.......24 Figure 5 – Temperature Datum Control System..................................55 Figure 16 – Electrical Diagram................23 Figure 4 – Fuel Summary..............................................................49 Figure 12 – Prop Safety Features..............................................................................85 Figure 18 – Main Landing Gear Indication....................................14 Figure 3 – Engine Fuel Pump Assembly: Operational Concept (on engine accessory case)................................................................................................................37 Figure 9 – Turn and Burn Diagram.................................................140 v ..................................................................................................................................13 Figure 2 – Throttle Quadrant / Condition Lever (Operating Ranges & Microswitches)..............................................................................................111 Figure 21 – Prop and Engine Anti-Icing and De-Icing System.......................................................

or the FIRE EXT circuit breaker may open. 2. discharge the remaining bottle on command of the pilot. pull it all the way to the detent to assure the propeller is fully feathered when the engine fuel is shut off. The engine’s indicating systems may have been 1 . immediately pull the fire handle. Engine shutdown will be accomplished by pulling the Fire Handle for the affected engine. and NTS is inoperative. If the fire continues. 2-eng VMCA 143 KIAS) and passing through 112 KIAS you get a steady red light in the #1 fire handle. AGENT – (CP) “DISCHARGED” (FOR FIRE OR NACELLE OVERHEAT) WARNING If conditions persist. The second fire agent bottle will only be fired on command of the pilot. 3. Isolate the wing by placing the ENGINE BLEED AIR switch to OFF for the other engine on that wing and closing the bleed air divider valve. If the lever is left at mid-position. and will depend upon the crew’s best assessment of the indications or observed conditions. the agent need not be discharged if no indication of fire or overheat (inside or outside the aircraft) exists after the fire handle is pulled. For fire or nacelle overheat. FIRE HANDLE – “PULLED” (CP) 3. an engine decoupling is possible. it may be discharged at the discretion of the pilot. CAUTION Don’t hold the agent discharge switch in longer than 1 or 2 seconds. DO NOT attempt to move the condition lever due to the possibility of cable fouling. Answer: Engine fire. or if any other indication or malfunction is suspected which requires fire extinguisher agent. AGENT – “DISCHARGED” (FOR FIRE OR NACELLE OVERHEAT) (CP) SCENARIO: Engine Fire After Takeoff Question: Just after rotation (TO/Refusal 104 KIAS.  Check the CB after any agent discharge. Perform the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE boldface (you may decide the appropriate time to shut the engine down) 1. However. FIRE HANDLE – “PULLED” (CP) WARNING In event of throttle control cable failure. CONDITION LEVER – “FEATHER” (CP) 2.Boldface ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE (ESP) BOLDFACE 1. CONDITION LEVER – “FEATHER” (CP) WARNING When pulling the condition lever to Feather. NOTE The agent should be discharged when an indication continues after the fire handle has been pulled. If binding occurs or condition lever will not move. a break in the bleed air manifold may exist.

This procedure will prevent the airplane from settling during flap retraction at heavy gross weights. pilots should be aware that obstacle clearance performance data is based on the assumption that gear retraction is initiated 3 seconds after takeoff and propeller feathering is initiated 6 seconds after takeoff. 1. Flaps – “As required” (CP) Landing Gear – “As required” (CP) Cleanup – “Complete” (E) a. 4. and airspeed permits. When safely airborne and certain that the airplane will not touch down. The flight engineer may check that the fire extinguisher CB is still in to ensure control of the system. f. NOTE During reduced power operations the throttles of operating engines may be advanced up to maximum power as directional control permits. 6. FUEL BOOST PUMP switch – OFF FIELD TRIP. OFF\OFF/RESET\OFF OFF NOTE If on cross-feed. NOTE If obstacle clearance is a consideration. 2 . making it harder to counteract the adverse yaw associated with engine failure. WARNING It is important to obtain two-engine VMCA as soon as possible after takeoff and prior to positioning the flap lever to less than 15 percent. Failure of an outboard engine may require the reduction of power on the opposite outboard engine. ENGINE BLEED AIR switch – b. Cross-feed valve switch – CLOSED Propeller governor control switch – MECH GOV Synchrophase master – Reset as necessary TD control valve switch – NULL Throttle – Full forward Oil cooler flap switch – CLOSED. if an outboard engine fails near minimum control speed. 2. i. rudder effectiveness is thus reduced. After gear is up. Flap retraction should be accomplished in 10 percent increments with airspeed increasing approximately 5 knots between retraction increments. 5. in order to maintain directional control. g. h. commence flap retraction. e. Maintain directional control with the flight controls and engine power as necessary. FIXED WARNING During takeoff or inflight. 3. Positioning the flap lever to less than 15 percent or operating the gear or flaps will increase the minimum control speed due to reduction in available hydraulic pressure Explanation: at flap settings below 15 percent you enter the “low rudder boost” region of 1100-1400 psi.damaged by the original condition. it is imperative that a 5-degree bank away from the failed engine be established immediately. This should be done by use of ailerons before reaching full rudder inputs. Engine generator switch – c. assure source of fuel to operate engines before shutting off fuel boost pump and cross-feed valve for the affected engine d. raise the gear while accelerating to flap retraction speed (Takeoff Speed + 20 KTS).

If the fire continues. APU CONTROL switch – STOP c. Your job is to fly the airplane while the FE hunts down the source. 1. 3-12 – 3 -13 APU EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN BOLDFACE 1. Clean up a. Then. 1 and No. a break in the bleed air manifold may exist. Answer: Perform the BOLDFACE for APU Emergency Shutdown 1. AGENT – SCENARIO: APU Fire Question: You are sitting on the flight deck monitoring the APU when you see a steady light in the APU fire handle. 100 PERCENT” (ALL) . 2 BLEED AIR switches to OFF and closing the divider valve. Perform the BOLDFACE first. 3. Just get a feel for the big picture: Get on oxygen.4. FIRE HANDLE – AGENT – “PULLED” (E) “DISCHARGED” (FOR FIRE) (E) “PULLED” (E) “DISCHARGED” (FOR FIRE) (E) WARNING If condition persists. discharge the remaining bottle. In this case. shutting off the cargo compartment air conditioning pack might do the trick. After gear and flaps are up. APU BLEED AIR VALVE switch -CLOSED  Dash-1 Pg 3-6 – 3-7 FUSELAGE FIRE/SMOKE AND FUME ELIMINATION BOLDFACE 1. isolate the source while descending. I’m smelling fumes back here. Isolate by placing No. To do so may cause the FIRE EXT circuit breaker to open.” Answer: Smoke and fume elimination.1 or NO. or if any other indication or malfunction is suspected which requires fire extinguisher agent. and open up hatches/doors to get rid of the smoke. 2.  Check the CB after any agent discharge. OXYGEN – “ON.2 position longer than 1 to 2 seconds. “Pilot. NOTE The agent should be discharged when an indication continues after the fire handle has been pulled. APU generator switch – OFF b.000 feet on your departure from Pope AFB when the loadmaster reports. continue as a normal takeoff. to ensure no one is incapacitated by the smoke. accelerating to threeengine climb speed. FIRE HANDLE – 2. and it’s getting worse. I think we’ve got smoke coming out of the air conditioning system.  Dash-1 Pg 3-4 – 3-6. 100 PERCENT” (ALL) 3 “ON. CAUTION Do not hold the agent discharge switch in NO. determine the source of the smoke and attempt to isolate the component that’s causing it. OXYGEN – SCENARIO: Smoke and Fumes Question: You’re climbing through 14. But don’t worry too much about specific components.

6. 4. but turning on the autopilot might have helped stabilize the airplane until the smoke could be cleared. 3. 5. The antenna’s weight. descend to a safe altitude before depressurizing the airplane NOTE Supplemental passenger oxygen (POKs) provide little protection against smoke and fumes. To reduce this effect. Paratroop doors – “OPEN” (on command of the pilot) (LM) WARNING After the smoke has cleared it is advisable to first close the paratroop door prior to replacing the forward escape hatch. Discussion: The crash of a Swissair MD-11 off Newfoundland in 1999 was attributed to an electrical fire that caused heavy smoke in the cockpit. 7.The pilot will direct all crew members to don their oxygen/quick-don masks and select 100 percent on their regulators. Points to emphasize: 4 . The forward escape hatch must be open to effectively eliminate smoke and fumes during ALL elimination emergencies. Descent – Engine bleed air switches – “As required” (P) “OFF” (if source of smoke or fumes has not been isolated) (E) Air conditioning master switch – “AUX VENT” (E) Forward escape hatch – “Open” (E) WARNING Smoke developed in the cargo compartment will move forward into the flight station. Autopilot – “As required” (P) The autopilot may provide immediate airplane control when smoke obscures the pilot’s instruments. It’s hard to judge their actions after the fact. 2. Pressurization – “EMERGENCY DEPRESSURIZATION” (on command of the pilot) (E) WARNING If passengers are aboard and oxygen equipment is not available. together with its aerodynamic qualities. Placing a wet towel or handkerchief over the nose and mouth or mask provides better protection. investigators believe the pilots—who had donned their masks —simply couldn’t see their instruments because of the smoke. Relocate passengers as necessary. the airplane should be slowed to less than 150 KIAS prior to removal. WARNING Extreme care should be exercised when removing a forward escape hatch modified with a SATCOM antenna. and they lost control. can violently force the hatch into the flight deck during removal at high airspeeds. 8. Evidence suggests the plane was still flyable when it impacted the water. since the oxygen is mixed with ambient air in the mask.

Notify tower. (E) Explanation: This bus tie switch is tied to ensure a continued source of Essential DC power for the firewall shutoff valves. OFF (E) SCNS power switch. since it should not make contact with any flammable fumes • The checklist also calls for the paratroop doors to be opened to vent the aircraft. tower calls and advises you that there appears to be smoke coming from the area around your right main wheel well. 8. but there are many warnings associated with it as well. 3. I think we’ve got a wheel well fire on the right side. (P) CAUTION If a hot brake is suspected or if a fire exists in either of the main wheels. Ensure you review all of them fully. and the valves wouldn’t close. pull all fire handles. WARNING The area on both sides of the wheel will be cleared of personnel and equipment for at least 300 feet (600 feet when chaff and flares are loaded). electrical equipment not required to complete the emergency checklist should not be turned on or off until the fumes are eliminated. 1. 5. and/or alarm bell • 300 feet away from aircraft minimum for hot brakes or wheel well fire • 600 feet with chaff and flares loaded DC power switch. set opposite brake only).• The BOLDFACE actions for this emergency are easy to memorize.  Minimize the use of even these switches as much as possible. NOTE: If the paratroop doors cannot be used due to cargo compartment fire. Set parking brake. bleed air). 2. • The black and yellow hash marks surrounding some switches/controls indicates the control’s internal activation is hermetically sealed. (P) • Interphone. • WARNING: If flammable fumes are present. and so any sparking inside the sealed chamber SHOULD not cause fire or explosion. oil. killing the Essential TRs (which normally provide our Ess DC power). hydraulics. If the FE didn’t do this. With the bus tied. (CP) Notify crew/passengers to evacuate the airplane. you’d lose the Essential DC bus when Step 4 is performed.” Answer: Stop the airplane and ground egress. Don’t approach the main wheel area when extreme temps due 6. Why? Because shutting down the engines and APU causes the AC generators to drop offline. PA System. 4. OFF (E) Chock airplane if time and conditions permit. 5 . and/or fumes. (E) WARNING Nose wheel only if main wheel well fire exists. Also consider how an armored aircraft will affect the ability of the loadmaster to quickly open a paratroop door. “Pilot.  Dash-1 Pg 3-45 – 3-48 Ground Evacuation (EGRESS) Question: While taxiing. an attempt should be made to use another opening (to effectively ventilate the aircraft). the aircraft battery (via the isolated bus) can power the Essential DC bus. or if hot brakes are suspected). All condition levers to Feather. the ones that close when the fire handles are pulled (fuel. the LM reports. 7. (CP) DC bus switch tied. smoke. About the same time.

Off. 4 engine. Pull. Big picture is that you need to stop the plane and stop the excessive braking are suspected. Talk. you won’t have time to get out the checklist. 2. the aircraft commander will brief specifics for crew actions required for ground evacuation. do so from the fore or aft only.”  Dash-1 pg 3-9 – 3-11 Engine Shutdown Conditions 1. Discussion: It’s up to the AC whether or not you ground egress. 10. Chalk. To help you quickly remember the procedures. 6. Retard throttle toward FLIGHT IDLE. 7. Tie…Pull. If there were other indications and you fired the bottle. 8. Notify…Off. 4 fire handle and master fire warning light. 2 fire handle and master fire warning light. During times of uncontrollable or unknown sources of fire or smoke/fumes. Engine Fire Turbine Overheat Nacelle Overheat Uncontrollable Power Certain Prop Malfunctions Uncontrollable Rise in TIT Uncontrollable Drop in Oil Pressure Uncontrollable Rise in Oil Temperature Unusual vibration or roughness Throttle Control Cable Failure START VALVE OPEN light illuminates (H2 Only) Excessive visible fluid leak ENGINE FIRE Question: While taxiing out you see a steady light in the No. If there were no indications he may elect to taxi back to park. 9. 3. If you have to approach an overheated wheel.  Dash-1 pg 3-8 TURBINE OVERHEAT Question: While taxiing out you see a flashing light in the No. and prior to takeoff. not the sides. 4. 2 fire handle. Answer: Engine Fire (ON THE GROUND). proceed with the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. hot brakes. Question: Okay. the safe thing to do is ground egress. For In-Flight engine fires. or crash landings. While en route to Pope AFB at FL190 you observe a flashing master fire warning light and flashing lights in the No. Move all throttles to GROUND IDLE and place the condition lever to GROUND STOP for the affected engine. Answer: Turbine Overheat (IN-FLIGHT). lives may depend on your ability to quickly locate and correctly perform the procedures. (High TIT or Oil temp may accompany other indications) Answer: Turbine Overheat (ON THE GROUND). 6 . you can use the mnemonic: “Set. Discussion: While “Ground Egress” procedures are not boldface. Move all throttles to Ground Idle and ESP the No. Each crew member should know their Dash-1 procedures. If the condition persists. 5. 11. 12. follow the Engine Shutdown Procedure on the affected engine. you tail swapped and finally got airborne.

even if it’s illuminated only briefly. Going to NULL should remove power from the TD amplifier and allow the TIT to return to normal values.Do not discharge the agent. since agent cannot be routed to the turbine section. fuel flow. not just when you advance the throttles into the temp controlling range (i. it could “put” too much fuel. honor the light. Answer: Nacelle Overheat (INF-FLIGHT). UNCONTROLLABLE RISE IN TIT HIGH TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE (ON THE GROUND) Question: Prior to takeoff your engineer asks to do an engine run-up at the hold short line so he can check the power on all four engines. Answer: Bring the airplane to a stop and perform the corrective action for a Nacelle Overheat (ON THE GROUND). Answer: High Turbine Inlet Temperature (ON THE GROUND). above crossover).e. 7 . he notes that your #3 engine shows higher TIT (1090°). so see the PROPELLER MALFUNCTIONS section later in this guide for more information. Discussion: The FEs say that this malfunction is often caused by a small leak in the diffuser or the nacelle’s bleed air ducting. The TD could mistakenly “take” fuel. engine operation may continue with reduced power on the engine below a TIT which would cause another overheat warning. Question: While en route to Pope AFB at FL190 you notice the #2 nacelle overheat warning light on the copilot’s instrument panel is illuminated. PROCEDURE. causing low power. As you advance the throttles above crossover and line them up at 970° TIT. enough hot air can leak into the nacelle to set off the nacelle overheat detectors (300° F). In any case. Move all throttles to GROUND IDLE and proceed with the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. As you move the inboards to reverse. place the condition lever to GROUND STOP. Possible TD System Move the throttle for the affected engine toward GROUND IDLE. Discussion: Malfunctions in the TD amplifier may cause abnormal fuel scheduling at any time. In reverse.  Dash-1 pg 3-8 – 3-9 Proceed with the ENGINE SHUTDOWN UNCONTROLLABLE POWER See TD SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS for more information. and place the temperature datum control valve switch to NULL. If this fails to eliminate the over temperature condition. malfunction. causing the high TIT/power illustrated in the example above. but generally you will ESP the affected engine. If overheat indication ceases with reduced throttle setting.  Dash-1 pg 3-8 NACELLE OVERHEAT Question: While taxiing your speed gets pretty fast so you decide to use some reverse power and brakes to slow down. you suddenly see a nacelle overheat light illuminate for the #3 engine. or. Generally you’ll Ground Stop that engine while on the Ground and ESP that engine if airborne. and torque than the others. CERTAIN PROPELLER MALFUNCTIONS Prop Malfunctions are varied.

 Dash-1 pg 3-9 UNCONTROLLABLE DROP IN OIL PRESSURE See OIL SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS: ESP UNCONTROLLABLE RISE IN OIL TEMPERATURE See OIL SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS: ESP UNUSUAL VIBRATION OR ROUGHNESS May be indicated by excessive vibration in the throttles and/or condition levers. Should you try to break it free? Answer: No. Further. When TIT goes up. that’s a warning of possible thermocouple problems. If this fails to eliminate the over-temperature condition. the #4 engine suddenly increases to 1090° and fuel flow and torque follows. all the throttles should line up within half a knob width of each other for the same power setting. if engines are matched at the same TIT but one shows higher fuel flow and torque. 8 . because NULL—in addition to fixing our high TIT problem —also disables the over temperature protection function of the TD.  Dash-1 pg 3-9 HIGH TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE (IN-FLIGHT) Question: While en route to Pope AFB at FL190. This could happen at high power settings (near 1083°). Perform ESP on affected engine. THROTTLE CONTROL CABLE FAILURE Question: On descent to Eglin AFB the #4 throttle appears to be stuck and will not move. you can verify TD system operation by turning on the leading edge anti-icing and looking for the TIT rise followed by a correction. High TIT and fuel flow with low torque could indicate an acceleration bleed valve is stuck open.  If on the ground. Others say just go to NULL (without a throttle movement first) and see if that works. if the TD checks okay. Advocates for this scenario recommend a different approach: instead of retarding the affected throttle. and place the TEMP DATUM CONTROL VALVE switch in the NULL position. Discussion: There is another school of thought out there that says these indications could be the sign of a throttle cable failure. In either case. Explanation: The reason we retard the throttle first is to minimize the possibility of an over temperature occurring when NULL is selected. and torque should all move in the same direction. subsequent throttle advances must be made carefully. Since we now assume the temp limiting role for that engine. Talk to a flight engineer for a more thorough discussion of propulsion system malfunctions. above crossover. torque and fuel flow should go up also. Deviations from these normal behaviors can give you important clues to engine malfunctions. proceed with the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. with the throttles set at a position corresponding to 970° TIT.One important thing to emphasize for any throttle setting is that TIT. Ground Stop. in which case throttle movements are a bad idea. There are too many variables to cover in this text. then something else is causing the unusual power indications. making it possible for us to exceed the engine’s temperature limits. fuel flow. but the Dash-1 covers most of these abnormalities in some detail. Answer: High turbine inlet temperature (IN-FLIGHT). The throttle control cable may have failed. Retard the throttle for the affected engine toward FLIGHT IDLE. For example.

Shut down the affected engine immediately by pulling the FIRE HANDLE and then continuing with the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. Bleed air leak. binding. Note: A visible fluid leak is defined as a leak “from the engine. to decrease the chances of decoupling during the air start. 7. 4. perform the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. CAUTION: If NTS is not indicated. 9 . put condition lever to AIR START on pilot’s command. Hydraulic pump failure. (i.e. Throttle Control Cable Failure. a broken throttle control cable should be assumed. passing 8000 MSL. 6. 3-24 Air Start Procedure 1. CAUTION: Normal lightoff should occur by the time engine RPM reaches 30%. 6. WARNING Due to the possibility of cable fouling. 3. Hydraulic overpressure. 3. Answer: Excessive visible fluid leak is an engine shutdown condition (as is an uncontrollable drop in oil pressure). immediately discontinue the start by placing the condition lever to FEATHER. Monitor engine instruments as during a ground start. We have fluid streaming out the bottom of the #1 engine. 5.If a throttle is binding or stuck. 2. WARNING Don’t move the throttle prior to engine shutdown. and hold it in that position until light off (recommended airspeed 180 KIAS or less / TIT 200°C or less). 3-21. NOTE: Hold the condition lever in AIR START until lightoff. If air start must be attempted in this case. Once preparation for air start has been completed. CAUTION: If engineer doesn’t state “NTS” by 10% engine RPM. Load. 2. Low oil quantity  Dash-1 Pg 3-8 – 3-9. When you see either of these conditions. The propeller could go into reverse picth or to full power. WARNING: Operation in the freezing range in visible moisture may cause icing that will prevent air start of a shut down engine.”  Dash-1 pg 3-23 OTHER ENGINE SHUTDOWN CONSIDERATIONS 1. 5. “Pilot. Gearbox pressure is also dropping (below 100 psi). or power indication unrelated to throttle position.” You see an engine low oil warning light on #1 and engine oil pressure is dropping below 30 psi. Primary fuel-pump failure. 4. Fuel leak. the loadmaster says. interruption of the start cycle after lightoff by an attempt to feather before the engine has reached a stabilized speed may result in decoupling and severe overspeed. if possible.  Dash-1 pg 3-21 EXCESSIVE VISIBLE FLUID LEAK Question: On climbout from Pope. then release to RUN. reduce speed to 130 KIAS and descend to below 5000 feet MSL. may also be indicated by throttle moving independently of the pilot. You Feathered too Late! Must feather immediately at 10% RPM) CAUTION: Do not try to restart an engine with inop NTS except in case of greater emergency. If the engine does not lightoff prior to reaching 40% RPM. don’t move the condition lever of the affected engine. discontinue start by returning the condition lever to FEATHER immediately.

2. RUN Generator – ON Airstart Procedure (as described above) – COMPLETE After successful engine start: 1. 2. Bus Tie switch – NORMAL SCNS/INS/ALT Battery switch. APU – START. 2. the prop must be windmilling above 16% and below 65% 1. 3. 4.  Dash-1 Pg 3-21 10 .DISENGAGE APU – as required Land as soon as possible. DC Bus Tie switch – TIED SCNS/INS/ALT Battery switch – ENGAGE Airstart Procedure (as described above) – COMPLETE If engine start is unsuccessful and APU is operable: 1. Dash-1 Pg 3-102 – 3-104 GENERATOR-OUT AIR START PROCEDURE For this procedure to work. 3. 3.

Engine-Driven Accessories (OFFSS) (see Figure 1) • • • • • Oil pump (engine). Fuel pumps. Mechanically and electrically closes the fuel shutoff valve at the fuel control. Turbine Inlet Temperature indicates in degrees C (via thermocouples). and the Propeller. where the fuel actually enters the manifold on the engine after all fuel corrections have been made (Gauges: ACI&EFC bus. In this range. in pounds per hour. throttles control fuel flow and blade angle. Gearbox Accessories (GHOST) • • • • • Generator (AC). Tachometer indicates engine speed in percent RPM normal engine (13. it’s read in inch-pounds on the torquemeter. Low prop RPM is necessary to assure efficient propeller operation (prop tips remain subsonic). Speed Sensitive Control (electrical). NTS system. Oil pump. a prop brake. and a safety coupling. The primary function of the power plant is to convert combustion gas energy to mechanical shaft horsepower which is transmitted to the reduction gearbox through the extension shaft. The assembly contains: reduction gear train. Fuel Control. Throttles schedule fuel flow only. Hydraulic pump. Condition Leavers (see Figure 2) Engine condition levers select engine and prop conditions • FEATHER: Full aft detent position: 1. Throttles (see Figure 2) • • Taxi range is maximum reverse (0°) to the flight idle gate (34°). Reduction Gearbox.820) RPM (Self-Powered off the Reduction Gear Assembly). Starter. Reduction Gearbox The reduction gearbox converts the high RPM and low torque output of the engine to low RPM and high torque output at the propeller. Fuel Flow Transmitters: ESS DC). Fuel Flow indicates fuel. 11 . Power Plant Instruments • • • • Torquemeter indicates torque in thousands of inch-pounds being transmitted from the engine turbine section to the reduction gear assembly (ACI&EFC bus). Flight range is flight idle to take-off (34 to 90°). Speed Sensitive Valve (pneumatic).The Power Plant TURBO-PROP ENGINE AND PRIMARY ENGINE CONTROLS Power Plant (see Figure 1) The Power Plant is composed of 3 major components: Turbojet engine. Tachometer generator. the temperature of the gases entering the first stage (ACI&EFC bus).

allowing “automatic” start. 1-38. Aux feather pump motor is turned on to provide hydraulic pressure to complete feathering as RPM slows down in the feathering process. Electrically closes the fuel shutoff valve at the fuel control. 3. 2. 3. Turns on auxiliary feather pump motor to provide hydraulic pressure to drive propeller out of feather. To operate. 4. the aircraft must be on the ground (touchdown switch) and the ignition system must be energized (ignition control CB in). 1-15 – 1-21.  Dash-1 Pg 1-9.• • • Mechanically feathers the prop by positioning the feather actuating valve. 1-25 – 12-8. AIR START: Full forward spring-loaded position: 1. Provides same features as Run. GND STOP: Central detent position: 1. It electrically feathers the prop by energizing the feather solenoid valve. RUN: Forward detent position: 1. Also for engines 2 and 3. the ice detection system is energized. Propeller feather override button will retract. 2. This indicates the feather valve is positioned and the auxiliary feather pump motor is operating. 2. Fig 1-18 12 . Places engine fuel and ignition systems under control of the speed sensitive control. The switch also energizes the nacelle preheat control circuit.

Figure 1 – Allison T56 Turbo Prop Engine 13 .

provides fuel under high pressure to the engine fuel control.Figure 2 – Throttle Quadrant / Condition Lever (Operating Ranges & Microswitches) ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM ENGINE DRIVEN FUEL PUMP (dual element) Located on the engine accessory case. gear-driven by engine (see Figure 1). It 14 .

causing both pump elements to provide fuel under pressure when engine RPM is 16% to 65%. the secondary pump will pressurize the fuel system against the failed primary pump and the secondary fuel pump pressure light will illuminate. • The pump dual elements are in parallel for starting in order to increase fuel flow at low RPM. Series Operation • Indicated by secondary fuel pump pressure light out and/or TIT drop at approximately 65% RPM during start • In normal operation. “NORMAL” position selects enrichment for starting. Enrichment • Additional momentary fuel burst (about 8 ounces) to fill the manifold lines and facilitate ignition at low RPM/temperature. • Enrichment switch should be positioned to NORMAL for air starts (200° C or less) or windmill taxi starts (100° C or less). pump elements are in series (secondary element feeds primary element) for all operating pressure/volume requirements. Enrichment is OFF for normal ground start: • Can use enrichment if engine did not light off with normal fuel flow on the first start attempt and bad spray pattern or igniters are suspected. • If primary pump fails with engine RPM above 65%. • Do not position enrichment switch to NORMAL after the engine starter has been activated. • Indicated on fuel flow gauge as a rapid increase to about 1000 pph followed by immediate. or if an engine overtemperature occurred on a previous start. The Fuel control is sensitive to: Throttle position (which schedules a fuel flow). • Pump design provides and alternate route for fuel if the primary or secondary pump fails. element can provide sufficient fuel pressure to operate the engine. • Do not use enrichment with TIT indication of 100° C or more. LOW SPEED GROUND IDLE LSGI buttons (powered by ESS DC) are located on the flight pedestal. Engine RPM controls fuel flow during start. rapid decrease to about 300 pph. Depressing the ground idle button causes reduced fuel flow to engine. “OFF” position deactivates enrichment circuit.5% RPM.Engine fuel system has two modes of operation (Parallel and Series). OPERATION OF ENGINE DRIVEN FUEL PUMP Either pump Parallel Operation • Parallel valve electrically held closed. HYDRO-MECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL Hydro-mechanical fuel control provides 120% of fuel required to run engine. The Fuel Control begins reducing fuel flow when engine speed reaches approximately 103. • Parallel operation is indicated by illumination of the secondary fuel pump pressure light prior to 65% RPM (normally at approximately 40% RPM). FUEL ENRICHMENT SWITCHES There is one switch for each engine on a panel to the right of the starter buttons. Engine inlet air temperature and density. RPM will stabilize at 15 . • Can use enrichment in low ambient temperatures (below 0° OAT). • Lack of secondary fuel pump pressure light illumination during start may indicate secondary fuel pump failure. and Engine RPM.

or parallel valve. the fuel control. The Fire Handle. If the secondary fuel pump light was extinguished when the ignition control CB was pulled. When downshifting. Scenario: You get an illuminated secondary fuel pump light with RPM above 65% with an associated TIT drop on start. • When completing the engine shutdown checklist after the mission. 2 and 3 is inactive if CB is pulled for that particular engine. engine shutdown should be considered. If you pop the button. • Record the malfunction in the 781. normal cross-feed operation may be continued. an electrical malfunction has occurred in the speed sensitive control (65% switch). 1-22 ENGINE FUEL MALFUNCTIONS Secondary Fuel Pump Pressure Light Scenario: You get an illuminated secondary fuel pump pressure light with RPM above 65% without associated TIT drop on start. • Record the malfunction in the AFTO Form 781. stop crossfeed. or anytime in flight: Solution: The Flight Engineer will pull ignition control circuit breaker for that engine as it controls the operation of the parallel valve. this is an indication of a defective pressure switch. and the firewall behind the engine (see also Figure 15)  Dash-1 Pg 1-11. secondary pump outlet check-valve (in the high-pressure assembly). This will reduce engine noise level. If the light continues to flicker while on tank-to-engine operation. 1-12 Fig 1-6.approximately 72% (69-75. the flight engineer will push in the CB so the fuel shutoff valve will close when the copilot places the engine condition lever to Ground Stop. FOD ingestion. NOTE If on cross-feed from an Aux or External fuel tank when the light comes on. The buttons will automatically pop to Normal Ground Idle outside this range. • Primary pump failure may have occurred. will electrically close the shutoff valve. You may continue operation and record in 781. If the light goes out. 16 . depending on circumstances. Throttles must be between 9-30° throttle range for LSGI. • Engine fuel system may become contaminated by a failed pump. Fuel shutoff valve will be closed electrically in the Ground Stop position. If the secondary fuel pump pressure light remained illuminated after the ignition control CB was pulled. the flight engineer will push the CB back in. • The CB must be reset prior to Air Start. You owe him one. when pulled. or the engine stalls (Ground Stop). FUEL SHUTOFF The Condition Lever will mechanically and electrically close the fuel shutoff valve at the fuel control when placed to Feather.5% RPM). and provide more efficient cooling. return the throttle to flight idle and ask the Engineer what kind of beer he wants later. 1-20. monitor the engine instruments and shut down the engine if TIT reaches 850°. • Automatic ice detection system on engines No. MX is required prior to next flight. • Mission could be completed.

This results in alignment of power output of all engines when throttles are above 65° of throttle travel. • If bad bulb. Temp limiting is still continuously available at all throttle positions. Temperature/Normal Limiting above 94% RPM).  Dash-1 Pg 3-22 TEMPERATURE DATUM (TD) SYSTEM OPERATION Provides electronic adjustment of fuel flow established by the mechanical fuel control to compensate for heat value and density of any flight manual recommended or alternate fuel. Selected when temp controlling fails and temp limiting is needed or desired. This position is used only when the TD system is malfunctioning or when the engine is not operating. press to test the secondary fuel pump pressure light. Selecting LOCKED with the throttles below crossover: The electronic fuel correction lights are on. If an overtemp condition occurs. even with the EFCL illuminated. Selecting LOCKED with throttles above crossover: Electronic fuel correction lights are not illuminated and fuel correction is locked in for that throttle position. Stop Start for possible failure of secondary fuel pump and possible fuel contamination—Maintenance is Required. Unfortunately. If TIT drop was noted. NOTE If LOCKED is selected for landing/landing pattern operation. the pressure switch is stuck so there is no way of monitoring primary pump—Maintenance is Required. • Check another light. check secondary pump indicator light CB. LOCKED: Provides overtemp protection at all throttle settings. TD CONTROL VALVE SWITCHES (one for each engine) NULL: TD system is off (mechanical fuel control only) (20% bypass). Solution: Look for 20-30 degree TIT drop at approximately 65% RPM. provide overtemp protection for engine starting and maximum power applications. NULL is used to eliminate inputs from the TD system or turn the system off and does not provide over temperature protection. it is recommended the airplane be within 5000 feet of field elevation and the throttles be above crossover prior to placing the TD valve switches to LOCKED. during engine start or LSGI). pressure switch is bad and you have no way of monitoring primary pump—Maintenance is Required. • If light is good. Scenario: You get no illuminated secondary fuel pump light by 65%. If no TIT drop was noted at 65% RPM. It will provide start limiting. the respective electronic fuel correction light will illuminate and remain on until the TD valve switch is protection is still available. However. and (at higher throttle settings) the TD system electronically compensates for variations in mechanical engine fuel control schedule relative to electronically scheduled TIT for that particular throttle setting. If none work.e. Stop Start. 17 .Solution: TIT series drop confirms you have “2 good pumps and a good parallel valve”. temp limiting is still available. (Called Start Limiting below 94% RPM (i. replace bulb and restart engine. LOCKED is used to eliminate the power surge when the throttles cross the boundary (crossover point) between temp controlling (TIT scheduling) and temp limiting (overtemp protection). Crossover is at 65° of throttle travel.

(CAUTION: NULL not recommended for start due to no overtemp protection). 1-21 TD SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS HIGH TIT Scenario: TIT is well above normal operating limits (exceeding 1083° C). 1.  Dash-1 Pg 1-11. Provide visual indication of throttle position relative to 65 degree of throttle movement (crossover). 1. The higher the TIT. to lengthen the life of the engine. there is 20% bypass and an additional 50% take available until 94% RPM. Above 94% RPM.AUTO: Enables TD system to schedule TIT (called Temperature Controlling) when throttles are advanced above 65° of throttle travel. ELECTRONIC FUEL CORRECTION LIGHTS (one for each engine) 1. (Switch could be in NULL or AUTO). simultaneously resulting in erroneous engine instrument indications and possible damage to turbine blades. As you know High TIT weakens turbine blades (turbine sulfidation). Below 94% RPM. no automatic overtemp protection is available. light will indicate at what throttle position it was locked.5 to 22°C lower than actual turbine temperature. In LOCKED. 2. TD system in AUTO. If locked above crossover. Each set of signals is averaged to determine the TIT. Light will be on when throttle is below crossover. there is only 20% bypass and the capability of 20% take (LOCKED or AUTO). If locked below crossover. CAUTION Thermocouple failure will supply an inaccurate signal to the TIT indicator or the temperature datum amplifier or both. 1-14 – 1-14. TIT limited to 830° C. light stays on. whenever the throttle position is between 65 and 90° of throttle travel (above crossover). 2. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING • • Temperature Controlling available only in AUTO. Also provides automatic overtemp protection. Above 94% RPM. 2. THERMOCOUPLES There are a total of 18 thermocouples mounted around the turbine inlet case. There are two junctions per thermocouple for 36 total junctions. provided the TD control valve switch is not in the LOCKED position. TIT limited to 1083° C. the shorter the lifespan.1. When NULL is selected. 2. 1. Used during engine start and all normal operations requiring temp controlling. TEMPERATURE LIMITING • • • • TD control valve switches positioned to AUTO or LOCKED prior to engine start. light stays out (unless over-temperature is sensed and corrected). TIT is limited by TD system when in AUTO or LOCKED. Individual thermocouple failure: TIT will indicate 3. These thermoelectric devices turn heat into voltage to determine the TIT. Temperature Controlling achieved by comparing desired TIT for throttle position to actual TIT then adds up to 20% or takes up to 20% fuel supplied by the fuel control to obtain desired temp. 18 . During start. One set of the 18 signals is sent to the TIT indicator and the other set to the TD amplifier. Light will be out when throttle is above crossover. It’s one of the reasons why reduced power takeoffs and operations were developed.

As we’ve already learned. around 910° TIT is good. Solution: DO NOT MOVE THROTTLE. Perhaps the best indicator of a thermocouple problem is an unusually high fuel flow at advanced power settings. place the switch to LOCKED and continue ops. No further action required.Solution: Retard affected throttle to reduce TIT. The Flight engineer deactivates TD system by positioning the TD control valve switch to NULL. the engine might not show increased torque along with the fuel flow. • If malfunction persists. Perform a Temperature Controlling Check (pg 7-4) before takeoff. as needed. throttles aligned above crossover. By making small changes to the valve’s null position. the TD system will start “taking” fuel to prevent the temperature from going above 830° C. This is worth mentioning because some crews have reacted to certain start malfunctions (low TIT. to get a predictable starting TIT (they’re shooting for ~800° C). If all engines start this way. • If indications do not stabilize with TD in NULL. 3 is at 950° TIT). In fact. Instead. In the early 19 .750° C Record in 781. its only function is to provide over-temperature protection. Go back to MX. TIT 720° C or less TIT 720° C . position the TD control valve switch to LOCKED (temp limiting) and continue operation.  Dash-1 Pg 5-8 Discussion: The Temperature Controlling Check (pg 7-4) is a procedure that’s used to identify malfunctions with the TD and temperature indication system. The TD system was malfunctioning. shut down the engine IAW the Throttle Control Failure Procedure (fire handle. This won’t make any difference at all. shut down the engine IAW the Engine Shutdown Procedure. At ~820° C. the FE has the Pilot advance power on all four engines to 850-950° TIT. It could be a throttle control failure. • If TIT stabilizes and returns to near normal. that is. which is set by MX. Answer: TIT is not within the normal range for start. Question: On starting the #3 engine you note that the TIT only reaches 745° C. the engine troops can bypass more or less fuel. ABNORMAL POWER Scenario: TIT.g. It’s a MX function. start TIT has nothing to do with the switch being in NULL or AUTO. Maintenance action is required. but the TIT is within normal limits (e. Starting TIT is actually determined by the null (20% take) position of the TD valve. consider it normal. slow acceleration. not condition lever). the TD system does not play much of a role during engine starts. • If TIT stabilizes and returns to normal. LOW TIT ON ENGINE START Trivia: Contrary to popular belief. It’s probably bad thermocouples. If torque or fuel-flow is notably higher (most engineers say a difference of 100-200 lbs/hr or more is a red flag) you’ve discovered the problem. all at 850° except No. place the affected engine TD valve switch to NULL. we do leave the switch in AUTO to take advantage of the TD’s over-temperature protection feature. You can see this feature in action on a start where TIT rises above 800° C. to prevent starting TIT from exceeding 830° C (start limiting). Incidentally. Record in 781. and fuel flow are unrelated to throttle position. torque. etc) by trying another start attempt with the TD switch in NULL. NOTE Starts in cold weather may result in lower than normal TITs. However. Here’s how it works: with the bleed air valves closed and the TD Valve switch in NULL.

the take off TIT momentarily rise above 1083°. a TD Control Check must be performed. continue with the Temperature Limiting Control Check. and then turn the wing or empennage anti-icing on. Next. If the TD doesn’t work as advertised. The FE will take the TD valve switches to LOCKED and then turn the wing anti-icing on. so you can better understand why the FE is concerned about thermocouples. This draws bleed air from the engine’s 14 th stage.stages of wear. not to exceed max allowable torque. If the temperature-limiting feature of the TD system is working correctly. The FE will have the pilot advance the throttles to take off power (1067-1083° TIT). Then he has the pilot advance all four throttles to crossover—where the TD system leaves the temperature limiting range and enters the temp controlling range (these terms are explained in greater detail below). If the system checks okay. That is what the following WARNINGs from pg 7-4 &7-5 refer to: WARNING If an engine displays normal TIT accompanied by significantly higher fuel flow and torque in comparison with the other engines at the same setting. 20 . it will sense the rise and “take” fuel to bring TIT back down. If the torque is similar or lower the TIT maybe be indicating a possible thermocouple degradation with a faulty turbine. and then the TIT correct to at or below takeoff setting. no further checks are required. the Fuel Correction lights will illuminate. the TIT indicating system may be displaying faulty indications (possible thermocouple degradation) with a good turbine. If the TD is working right. Crossover should occur at the point where the fuel correction lights go out (800-840° C). As airflow there is reduced. but as the damage worsens it will lose efficiency and eventually produce near normal or even lower torque values. The FE puts the TD valve switches back in AUTO and opens the bleed air valve. he’ll have the pilot set 910° TIT. the turbine may be able to convert the extra heat energy into higher torque. More Discussion: Let’s briefly review how the TD system works. the temperature in the turbine inlet increases. If indications are normal. air that normally goes through the combustion section to cool the exhaust.

actual TIT rises sharply. starting in either LOCKED or AUTO will give you Starting overtemp protection. Just remember that with the system in NULL.Thermocouples send their temperature signals to two places: the TIT gauges and the TD system (FYI: the TD “system” is not a single black box shared by the four engines. the TD system seeks a specific desired TIT for each throttle setting.e. These Pods allow the TD Amp to operate under two conditions: Temperature Limiting and Temperature Scheduling. though. prompting the TD to increase fuel flow until the desired TIT is achieved. Temp Limiting is further divided into Start Limiting and Normal Limiting. Above 65° of throttle travel. the over-temperature condition goes unchecked and the turbine begins to break down. If the condition isn’t found and corrected. you can still get automatic overtemp protection by selecting LOCKED and fly that way. Because the damaged thermocouples can’t sense the true temperature reading and report it to the TD. This means it doesn’t do anything at all unless it senses an over-temperature condition. the Normal Limiting POD should prevent an over temperature. In this mode. You can fly all day that way. When LOCKED or AUTO is selected and the RPM is below 94%. Start Limiting is the only Pod being used. the turbine may eventually suffer catastrophic failure. Now that you understand normal TD system operation. but there are some things to consider. they may put or take fuel (giving you high or low TIT). the answer is yes. During engine starts—and at any throttle setting below 65°—the TD system operates strictly in a temperature limiting mode. Question: Can you fly without the TD system operating in AUTO? Answer: If you discover this problem en-route. TIT (which is totaled from the engine’s 18 thermocouple inputs) is going to read low. which tells the furnace (fuel control) to generate more heat (fuel flow) until the desired temperature (TIT) is reached. These two Pods schedule your fuel to maintain a desired TIT. 21 . With the engine running you can select NULL to prevent erroneous TD signals. but it also removes power from the over temperature protection feature of the TD System. Before upspeeding the engine. it is due to a faulty TD amplifier (one that may be putting or taking fuel randomly). This is the exact scenario that caused the loss of a C-130 in Colorado several years ago. Selecting NULL removes power from the TD amplifier. Because only the Starting Pod is utilized during start. Well. Should they put too much fuel. the TD “crosses over” into the region known as temperature controlling. you should not accept that plane. you move the setting knob (throttle) higher. Above 94% the Normal Limited Pod is activated. consider what would happen if one or more thermocouples are damaged. and Slope. When above 94% and greater than 65° Throttle Movement. Since the electronic portion of the TD system isn’t used during a normal start you can use AUTO to provide over temperature protection during the start. select NULL. either the Normal Limiting Pod is also defunct. When you want it warmer (more power). This will remove any electronic inputs to the TD System. the Slope and Bias Pods are active as well. Further Discussion: The TD Amp has four potentiometers. YOU are the overtemp protection. Each engine has its own unit). Normal Limiting. MX calls them Pods. If one of these Pods goes haywire. (>830° C for starts. and is what makes thermocouple problems so dangerous: they dupe the TD into thinking TIT is lower than it really is. As this extra fuel burns. but you will activate the Normal Limiting Pod. A useful analogy for this is the thermostat in your home. Remember. but if this problem is discovered before a start (and you are at home station). Bias. High TIT but no overtemp). causing artificially high fuel flow and turbine temperatures. Chances are if the TD System is not operating correctly in AUTO. Now you may see the forms written up saying that you should “Start in AUTO and fly in NULL”. If an over temperature occurs. You won’t have a fuel correction ‘locked’ in. or the Slope and Bias Pods are putting more than the 20% Normal Bypass can handle. If the Bias and Slope Pods were the only ones malfunctioning (i. then >1083° C at normal ground idle and above). you become the overtemp protection. and commands whatever fuel flow is necessary to achieve it. You have: Start Limiting.

2 Fuel Correction light is on and that the respective TIT gauge reads 830°. one restart permitted ** Stop Start. during ground operation. maintenance action required.27 22 .  Dash-1 Pg 5-7 – 5-8. Perform engine shutdown after flight by resetting CB and going to Ground Stop. and throttle will directly control fuel flow. use only normal Ground Idle (not LSGI). record in 781. and again Overtemp protection will not be available in NULL. 2 secondary fuel pump pressure warning light. producing a torque reduction of up to 1. ground stop. 5-8. record in 781. The FE will put the TD Control Valve in NULL and pull the Ignition Control Circuit Breaker Secondary fuel pump light should now be out. Solution: Speeds Sensitive Control Failure.  Dash-1 Pg 3-23 Electrical Malfunctions (Associated with the TD System) Electrical malfunctions that introduce abnormally low voltage to the ESS AC bus. 7-4 SUMMARY OF TD SYSTEM LIMITATIONS Below 94% RPM Above 94% RPM TIT Prior to Start Normal Start Enriched Start Windmill Taxi Start Air Start Peak Start TIT <720° 720-749° 750-830° >830° >850° >965° or torching TIT >1083° for more than 5 seconds >1175° even momentarily * ** TIT Limited to 830° C TIT Limited to 1083° C 200° 100° 100° 200° C C C C Maintenance Record in 781. overtemp inspection required Overtemp Inspection Required Overtemp Inspection Required If a TIT malfunction exists.Speed Sensitive Control Failure (Sheared Shaft) Scenario: While climbing out (throttles above 65% movement) you get a momentary illumination of the No. You also notice that the No. After landing.600 inch-pounds. but these will be covered in the electrical section. can cause the 4 TD amplifiers to malfunction. There are other electrical malfunctions that can cause reductions in torque. turn it off for second attempt. Vol 3 Para 5. combined with failure of under-voltage protection systems. Perform Temp Controlling Check * Normal Record in 781 Stop Start.  Dash-1 Pg 3-20 – 3-23. If fuel enrichment was used on first attempt.

Figure 3 – Engine Fuel Pump Assembly: Operational Concept (on engine accessory case) 23 .

Figure 4 – Fuel Summary 24 .

Figure 5 – Temperature Datum Control System 25 .

Maximum Torque: 19. 9-15): All engines in low speed ground idle when practical until engine oil temp reaches 0°. Normal torque if oil temp is above 40°. each with its own fuse. shutdown engine IAW engine shutdown procedure. The gauge is powered by 28V Essential DC. Engine pressure limits: o 50-60 psi (±10 psi) when oil temp is in normal limits at 100% RPM o Pressure below 50 psi is acceptable only with engine in low speed ground idle provided pressure is 50 psi or higher under conditions stated above. 4-12 gallons normal. CAUTION – throttle should not be moved from the ground idle detent until engine oil temp reaches 40°. 4. not more than 30 minutes. powered by 26V ACI &EFC). • OIL QUANTITY INDICATORS • Oil quantity gauges indicate quantity of oil in tank in gallons. o In flight.500 inch-pounds torque max when oil temp is 0-40°. The operating limits are: • Normal: 60-85°C • Above 85°C. o Maximum of 100 psi allowable only for start and warm-up during low outside air temperature. Oil temp 40° and increasing for reverse check. Dash-1 cold weather procedures (pg. NOTE: When exposed to temperatures below 0°C.600 OIL PRESSURE GAUGES • • Indicated BOTH gearbox and engine oil pressures (2 needles. OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGES Oil temperature is measured as it exits the tank using a electrical-resistance device. 26 . Gearbox pressure limits: o Must be in range of 150-250 psi (±20 psi) when oil temperature is normal at 100% RPM o Pressure may be as low as 50 psi in low speed ground idle o Pressure may exceed 250 psi during start and warm-up. • Max Continuous: 85°C • Min Allowable: 40°C & increasing • Start & Warm-up: -40°C OIL TEMPERATURE AND TORQUE • • • • • • • Minimum torque (low speed ground idle) until temp is above 0° C. but not over 100°C: o On the ground. since 4. delay taxi until all four engine oil temps have reached 60°C. not more than 5 minutes o If you cannot maintain engine oil temperature within limits.Oil System DESCRIPTION The oil system is a self-contained system that lubricates each engine and gearbox section.500 inch-pounds will probably be exceeded.

27 .  Dash-1 Pg 1-28. Ram airflow is controlled by oil cooler flap position (on aft end of cooler assembly). OIL COOLER FLAP POSITION INDICATORS • • Located on bottom of engine instrument panel. or if you see excessive visible fluid leak. Dash1 says you may elect to shut it down (via the cruise engine shutdown) to preserve the oil you have left. engine running? Can you leave the Answer: Yes. oil pressures) are within limits. ESP the affected engine. one circuit breaker for each oil cooler and its respective gauge. The thermostat is removed from the flap actuation circuit in all other positions than automatic. Remember if you lose oil pressure. OPEN: Spring loaded to FIXED. What would you do differently? Answer: Monitor the engine in-flight and perform the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE prior to landing. have an uncontrollable rise in oil temperature. Related Question: Let’s say that you have a loss of oil quantity. This light will illuminate when any one of the four oil tank quantities drops below 4 gallons.  Dash-1 Pg 3-23 HIGH OIL TEMPERATURE Question: On climb out. FIXED: Cooler flap is fixed in position. In-flight shutdown will allow the tailpipe area to cool down before landing. 1-33 – 1-35. Oil cooler flap remains in last position. OIL COOLER FLAP SWITCHES • • • • • • • Oil is cooled by ram air passing through a radiator cooler.• Yellow low oil quantity light is located left of the row of oil quantity gauges. 9-15 – 9-18 OIL SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS LOW OIL QUANTITY Question: En-route you notice a gradual loss of oil quantity. provided the engine instruments (i. and there’s an oil scavenge pump there too. CLOSE: Spring loaded to FIXED. you can restart it when conditions necessitate (preparation for landing is a good example). De-energizes flap actuator. your flight engineer says oil temperature on the #3 engine has been steadily increasing and is now reading 100° C. 5-2. only now it’s accompanied by heavy smoke coming out of the tailpipe. He also noticed the oil cooler flap is closed. If you’re some distance away from a suitable landing field (example: over water). oil can leak into the exhaust stream and burn. Explanation: One of the engine’s oil supply lines runs through the rear of the turbine section. 4-position switch for each cooler: AUTOMATIC: Provides thermostatic regulation of oil temperature (approximately 80° on the gauge). Off-scale indication may indicate loss of electrical power to the indicator AND the oil cooler flap motor. Oil cooler flap switch panel located below #4 fire handle. Later.e. 5-7. Manually positions actuator to close cooler flap. minimizing the risk of any residual oil catching fire there after you land and taxi clear. If the seals there aren’t tight. Manually positions actuator to open cooler flap.

shut down the engine IAW the engine shutdown procedure.  Dash-1 Pg 3-23. On the ground you have 30 minutes of operation in the 85-100° range. This malfunction may be caused by failure of the oil cooler flap to function in AUTO. After the propeller stops rotating.Answer: High oil temperature. To correct this. closely monitor gearbox and engine oil pressure for 2 minutes. Oil temperature can be in the 85-100° range for only 5 minutes in flight. follow the ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. shut down the engine IAW the engine shutdown procedure. o If oil cooler is uncontrollable in AUTO. 130 psi gearbox oil pressure is minimum for continued operation. If a huge delay is expected after engine start. Maximum cooling achieved in low speed ground idle with throttles advanced slightly to increase airflow. o If mission dictates. o Check oil quantity gauges for loss of oil. open or close the cooler flap manually to maintain the oil temperature within normal limits (60-85°C). attempt to open oil cooler flap using the manual switch function. NOTE A negative G condition may allow air to enter the engine oil supply line. If oil temperature cannot be maintained within limits. In hot weather conditions it may be difficult to maintain the oil temps within limits. Thereafter. • 28 . CAUTION Following a negative G condition. resulting in loss of oil pressure approximately 30 to 90 seconds later due to oil pump cavitation. an air start may be attempted IAW air start procedure. In case of loss of oil pressure. 5-7 DROP IN OIL PRESSURE • Check oil temperature normal at 60-85° since oil pressure is partly dependent on its temp. consider taxiing into the wind or ground stopping the engines until the delay is cleared. Delay engine start until ready for taxi and departure and avoid unnecessary EROs. If loss of oil pressure occurs and does not return to normal within 10 seconds. hold the oil cooler flap switch in the OPEN position until the cooler flap is open.

Figure 6 – Oil System 29 .

Ignition relay energized (“PIED”) Parallel—Paralleling valve closes. de-energized when relay opens. for a total of eight per engine. and the starter control valve closes. named for its manufacturing company) motored open. Depressing the starter button completes electrical circuit. (“de-PIED”) Parallel valve opens. They operate automatically to unload the compressor when engine RPM is below 94% (both on the ground and in flight). causing bleed air to be routed to the starter. Button must be held in continuously until approximately 60% RPM. removing pneumatic pressure from the starter. START OPERATION Electrical power for start is received through the essential DC bus. causing starter control valve to close. forcing the 5th and 10th stage acceleration bleed air valves to close. electrical power is removed. When the pilot releases the button. 65% RPM: Ignition relay de-energized. 94% RPM: Changes TD system from Start Limiting to Normal Temperature Limiting. an operating engine. located immediately below the number one fire handle.  Dash-1 Pg 1-11 – 1-15 ACCELERATION BLEED VALVES Above 94%. 30 . allowing fuel flow. Bleed air turns the starter as long as the starter control valve is open. and four in 10th stage. if selected (about 8 oz). the speed-sensitive valve opens to route air from the 14 th stage. Pressing the button completes electrical circuit. Enrichment turned off by 50-psi switch. ENGINE STARTER BUTTON There is one button for each engine. These valves will open at low RPM to prevent compressor stalls. Release the button at approximately 60% RPM. causing bleed air to be routed to starter. SPEED SENSITIVE CONTROL • • • • • • • • • • • • 16% RPM: Fuel shutoff valve (the “Geneva Lock”. Igniters—Energized. and the external air cart. Igniters turned off Drop valve de-energized. held closed by fuel pressure. ENGINE STARTING AUTOMATIC CIRCUITS Placing the condition lever to RUN energizes the ignition circuitry and places the engine fuel and ignition systems under control of the speed sensitive control. The light in button illuminates whenever electrical power is available to the button and button depressed.Engine Starting SOURCES OF BLEED AIR There are 3 sources of bleed air for engine starts: APU. Drop Valve—Energized closed. There are four bleed valves located in compressor 5th stage. Enrichment—Additional fuel.

but leave the starter button in until fuel fogging or smoke clears (as reported by loadmaster monitoring the start). NOTE If engine will not rotate. If no gauge pressure drop/no TIT rise on operating engine. EXCEPTIONS • If Ground Stop does not cut off fuel (electrically). bleed air is getting to wing. check wing isolation valves and bleed air divider valve. stalled start. while not exhaustive. (This will get the bleed air regulator to open up if a regulator B solenoid failure has occurred). or if torching occurs. (See CAUTION on 2-58)  Dash-1 Pg 1-22. monitor the engine instruments and be prepared to shutdown the engine if a stall or overtemp of 850° or greater occurs (condition lever to Ground Stop). 4). check for gauge drop when inlet anti-icing opened for No. If the engineer failed to open the bleed air valve. (If on first engine. NEGATIVE ROTATION • • If you did not get a Starter Button Light. Place engine bleed air switch to ON. check the start control CB or oil shutoff CB. 2-58 STARTING MALFUNCTIONS The following lists. Do no reengage the starter until rotation has stopped completely. The engineer may troubleshoot. PROP LOW OIL LIGHT • • Condition Lever—Ground Stop Do NOT feather the propeller to shut down the engine as damage to the prop seals may result. If get bleed drop when open inlet anti-icing on other engine on the wing. reduce bleed air manifold pressure below 45 psi and try another start. IF another engine is already running. Using APU bleed air and turning other engine bleeds to OFF is usually the best way to get manifold pressure less than 45 psi. if not already started to see if air is getting out to wing. return the plane for maintenance action prior to flight. If get gauge drop/TIT rise. Now try inlet anti-ice on malfunctioning engine. 3. give some common possible causes for varying start malfunctions. condition lever Feather. place the condition lever to Ground Stop. • If negative ignition on engine start with fuel flow observed. If a popping noise (compressor stall) occurs. (Electrically and mechanically shuts off fuel).When downshifting from normal to low speed ground idle. and some helpful techniques for troubleshooting the problems. HOW TO STOP START NORMAL • Condition Lever—Ground Stop • Starter button—Released • CAUTION • After moving condition lever to GROUND STOP. he owes you a beer. no air got to the starter. you know air is getting to starter control valve. do not move the condition lever from this position until engine rotation has stopped. usually No. or until starter time limit is reached. If you got the light. Get maintenance • • 31 . check for TIT rise on operating engine when opening inlet duct anti-icing for the other engine on the wing. Open engine inlet duct anti-icing for other engine on that wing. but no drop in bleed air on the manifold gauge. negative deenrichment without ignition.

NEGATIVE OIL PRESSURE (by 35% RPM) • • Bad gauge? Check fuses. TIT increases rapidly if ignition has occurred. Throughout start—possibly failed drip valve or ignition relay. 20-30° TIT drop (series drop) at approximately 65% RPM? 20-30 degree drop means you have 2 good fuel pumps and an operating paralleling valve. place the condition lever to GROUND STOP and continue to hold the starter button until the end of the Start Duty Cycle (60 seconds). Shut down other engines. shaft may be sheared. and/or a rapid increase in TIT is indicated. At Stop Start—possibly bad igniters or spray pattern. you have no way of monitoring for primary pump failure. does not immediately reduce to about 300 pph. If restart results in no rotation. STALLED START Question: After light off. and overtemp inspection is required. Consider ground evacuation. NEGATIVE IGNITION (by 35% RPM) • • • • • Failed TIT indicator? If no light-off/fuel flow.  Dash-1 Pg 2-48 (Caution) NEGATIVE DE-ENRICHMENT • • • • • • • On enriched start. If TIT drop noted. Before attempting another start. Immediately discontinue the start. Ask LM when fuel came out of drain mast. fuel flow goes to about 1000 pph and stays there. and continue rotation until fuel blows clear. 32 . replace bulb and restart to check proper operation of pressure switch. the engine does not accelerate smoothly to ground idle RPM. Notify ground control for assistance. Failed oil pumps? Maintenance required. Locked prop brake is also possible. do not use enrichment. If light is good. motor the engine to 25% RPM with the condition lever in GROUND STOP to remove gasses and unburned fuel from the turbine. Attempt restart. press to test the secondary fuel pump pressure light. Maintenance required. follow Engine Shutdown Procedure. and to ensure TIT is below 200° TIT prior to restart. Go ground stop. which could damage burner cans. DECREASING RPM AND/OR EXCESSIVELY SLOW ACCELERATION OF RPM This problem may be indicative of a loss of bleed air supply or a sheared starter shaft. But be aware that bad spray pattern could also cause bad flame pattern. ignition system may have failed. As a technique when Stop Starting. If attempting another start on that engine. Restart could be attempted with enrichment. Do not attempt any more starts. but happens very infrequently. check ignition control CB. If fuel flow occurred. If flames ever spread beyond tailpipe area. IF light is bad. NO SECONDARY FUEL PUMP PRESSURE LIGHT (by 65% RPM) • • • Continue start. If torching occurred or if TIT peaked over 965°.for probable failed starter control valve. Answer: Stalled start.

assume primary pump failure. • • • • Starting time to stabilize on speed exceeds 60 seconds. SECONDARY FUEL PRESSURE LIGHT REMAINS LIT (above 65% with a TIT series drop) • Bad pressure switch. Mission can be continued. This should reduce the peak TIT for subsequent starts. CB will have to be reset for AIR START or for GROUND STOP.  Dash-1 Pg 2-50 TAIL PIPE FIRE OR TORCHING Abnormal flame. Maintenance required. problem is a failed speed sensitive control 65% switch. NEGATIVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE Hydraulic pressure should be indicated after an observation of oil pressure. TIT peaks at 840° C. START TIT EXCEEDS 830° • • • Insufficient bleed airflow? Bleed air leak? High propeller blade angle? Check throttle at Ground Idle OVER-TEMPERATURE ON START Question: During start of the #2 engine. maintenance will manually adjust the TD valve’s null bypass setting. Answer: For starting temperatures between 830° and 850° C. SECONDARY FUEL PRESSURE LIGHT REMAINS LIT (above 65% RPM without TIT series drop) • • Continue start. Engineer pulls IGNITION CONTROL CB. If this does not fix the problem. After flight. Question: What if TIT exceeds 965° C during the start? Answer: Discontinue the start and record in the Form 781. There must be a positive indication by the time the engine is on speed.  Dash-1 Pg 5-8 EXCESSIVE TIME TO ON SPEED. With no way to monitor for primary pump failure. Normal pressure should be observed 30 seconds after on-speed. 33 . you may continue. Stop Start for possible failure of secondary fuel pump or bad paralleling valve. Maintenance will need to do an over-temperature inspection on the engine.• If no TIT series drop noted. but make an entry in the Form 781. check pump lights or gauge fuses. Failed pump could cause fuel contamination. If pump light goes out when CB pulled. high altitude. or heavy smoke from the engine tailpipe. If pump light remains on when CB pulled. need maintenance prior to flight. torching (not associated with enrichment burst). Reset CB and Stop Start. 70 seconds for conditions of OAT over 28° C. or low air density conditions Insufficient bleed airflow? Bleed air leak? High propeller blade angle? Check throttle at Ground Idle. If there is no indication (or normal when on-speed) pull the control column back at least 2 to 3 inches to eliminate the internal fluid bypass.

your pilot starts the first (No. 3) engine. which can never exceed 1 minute. This is a trick question. 60 seconds has elapsed but the RPM gauge still only reads 55%. then state. “STOP START—EXCESSIVE TIME”. Do not motor engine (per caution). (Do not exceed maximum speeds). Flames spread beyond tail pipe: Engine shutdown procedure. The other rule. consider ground egress Tail pipe fire occurs during engine shutdown. IN THE AIR • • • • • Loss of oil with heavy smoke coming from tail pipe: Monitor engine and engine instruments and accomplish engine shutdown procedure prior to landing. Two competing rules apply to this scenario. as long as it’s accelerating smoothly with no indications of stall. As you glance at your watch. Do not motor the engine when a tailpipe fire exists on engine shutdown. Continue with engine shutdown. continue to monitor the RPM rise while checking your watch. Notify fire department and ground crew. is a NOTE in the Dash-1 concerning starts in low density conditions (high outside air temperatures—above approximately 28° C—or high altitudes). Condition lever – Ground Stop. In such cases you can allow up to 70 seconds for the engine to stabilize on speed. CAUTION Tailpipe fire on engine shutdown may be caused by an oil leak in the turbine section. 3-22 – 3-23 STARTER LIMITATIONS Question: On a hot afternoon in August (OAT 32° C). though. SUMMARY OF NORMAL STARTING LIMITATIONS TIT Prior to Start Normal Start Enriched Start Windmill Taxi Start Air Start Ignition Oil Pressure (Engine & Gearbox) 200° 100° 100° 200° By 35% RPM By 35% RPM 34 . After the pilot releases the starter button at 1 minute (“STARTER”). The first is the starter duty cycle. TIT is normal but RPM is increasing slower than normal.  Dash-1 Pg 1-28.ON THE GROUND • • • • • • • • • • Torching or flame coming from tail pipe during engine start before starter button release. Throughout the start cycle. Motor engine by leaving starter button in. If the engine still hasn’t reached low speed ground idle by 70 seconds. Cruise engine shutdown dependent upon situation. Notify fire department. Regardless of RPM. the pilot must release the start button when the minute is up. What will you say? Answer: “STARTER”. 3-8. 2--49. If fire occurs: Follow engine shutdown procedure and accelerate airplane as rapidly as possible and maintain airspeed as long as heavy smoke continues from the tail pipe area.

3-102. >830°. one restart permitted Stop Start. overtemp inspection required On by 65% (Usually comes on at approx. ** Any time air got the starter should be treated as a full 1-minute on cycle. or starter shaft will shear. >965°. 5 minutes off 1 minute on. one restart permitted Normal Record in 781 Stop Start. 750-830°. record in 781. The pilot can exceed these Vol 3 limits when needs dictate. 5-8 35 . 1 minute off ** 1 minute on. *** Reduced TIT increases engine life. do not press in again until rotation has stopped. 30 minutes off 1083° for 5 minutes 1049° for 30 minutes (in flight) 1067° . 30-40% RPM) Off by 65% TIT>1083° for more than 5 seconds TIT>1175° even momentarily Button released by pilot at approximately 60% RPM * 1 minute on. Ignoring these limits could cause very dangerous situation—starter turbine overheat and/or disintegration. Secondary Fuel Pump Pressure Light Overtemp Inspection Required Starter Limits Maintenance Record in 781.Peak Start TIT <720° 720-749°.  Dash-1 Pg 2-46 – 2-49. 3-96. record in 781.1083° TIT 970° TIT *** 1010° TIT Takeoff and Flight Operations Max Military Take-off (Max) Power Reduced Power Normal/Continuous (per Vol 3) Normal/Continuous (per Dash1) * Once starter button is released. but the Dash-1 limits should not. >850°.

Figure 7 – Engine Starting System Components Locations


PROBLEM Starter Failure INDICATION Low RPM Slow RPM FIRST ACTION Stop Start Stop Wing Star Iso. Valve, t CAUSES / PROBLEM SOLVING Low/No Bleed Air Not in Ground Idle Sheared Starter SOLUTION 1 more try MX

NegativeStarter Button 0 RPM NO: Rotation LM Calls Starter Power, Light? Starter Control CB, or YES: Oil CBOpen Same Wing Eng Anit-ice, Drop in Press? Negative 0 TIT

Pressure Drop on 1st Eng?


YES: Starter Ctrl Valve, Starter, Prop Brake, Eng Bleed

Star Ctrl CB, Fuel Ignition Ignition by 35% 16% Switch NO t Open, Fuel Shutoff Valve, Fuel Flow?
YES LM: When did fuel Negative drain?

Oil Press

Failed Oil Pump, Blown Gauge AFTER STOP-START? Igniters or spray 0 Oil Stop Fuse, Bad Step Down pattern by 35% Start Transformer Continue to 65%, then Stop Start TIT Drop? YES: 2 good pumps & a valve ⇒ Bulb, CB, Pressure Switch NO: Secondary Pump or Parallel Valve ⇒ MX TIT Drop? YES: Pressure Switch ⇒ MX NO: Pull Ignition Ctrl CB ⇒ Light?

CONTINUOUS? Ign. Relay or Drip Valve ⇒ MX

No Secondary Pump Light Secondary Pump Light Remains On Excessive TIT Stalled Start Excessive Time On Speed Negative Hydraulic Pressure TIT exceeds 830°C Dec. RPM Inc. TIT >60 Sec (70 in High Density Alt) 0 Hyd Press by On Speed or Abnormal after Onspeed+30sec LM Calls Flashing Handle Warning Light

Continue Start

Light Out: 65% Switch ⇒ FLY Light On: Failed Primary Pump or valve ⇒ MX Below 850 Continue Start Below 965 Stop Start, 1 Retry 781 Write Up Above 965 MX, OT Inspection -Low Bleed Air Suspected Stop Start -Possible High Prop Normal Ground Idle Motor Engine Blade on Started Engine Check TIT Angle Stop Start Move Yoke Off Stops & Recheck Pressure Starter Released? Ground Idle all 4 Engines Ground Idle all 4 Engines Ground Idle Ground Stop Affected Eng Low Bleed Air, Weak Starter, High Density Alt. Stop Start Maximum Bleed Air, then Restart

Torching Turbine Overheat Nacelle Overheat High TIT High Oil Temp

NO: Bad Gauge or Step Down Transformer YES: Leak, Yoke is Light On? Forward, Failed Pump,  Fluids YES: Continue Shutdown Flames NO: Condition Lever YES: ESP Spread Ground Stop Motor NO: MX ? Engine Ground Stop the Affected Engine ESP on Affected Engine TD Switch Null, if TIT still high… If Still High, ESP

Cooler Flap Open, LSGI, 1 knob width above Ground Idle

Figure 8 – Start Malfunction Matrix


Figure 9 – Turn and Burn Diagram

RUN: Electrically arms the speed-sensitive control & energizes No. which directs the hydraulic pressure to position the propeller blades and maintain prop stability (100% ± 2% RPM). Additionally. Normal Governing: Electrical circuitry enhances the mechanical governing operation. AIR START: Electrically arms the ignition system (speed sensitive control). throttle schedules fuel flow and blade angle.e. which changes the tension on the speeder spring. above crossover (65° throttle position). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONDITION LEVERS AND PROPELLERS FEATHER: Going to FEATHER will electrically and mechanically close the fuel shutoff valve below the fuel control. which is electrically activated by the propeller feathering/unfeathering circuits. Throttle schedules fuel flow. and turns on the auxiliary feather pump motor to provide hydraulic pressure to unfeather the propeller. and electrically and mechanically feather prop. . Propeller hydraulic pressure is produced when rotation actuates gear driven pumps within each propeller assembly or by the auxiliary propeller feather pump motor. PROPELLER GOVERNOR CONTROL SWITCHES • • • • Located on the CP’s side panel. Mechanical Governing: Speeder spring and flyweight action will control the blade angle to maintain 100% RPM. In flight range. i. or Air Start during Flight. an engine decoupling is possible. • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THROTTLES AND PROPELLERS • • In the ground (or taxi) range. GROUND STOP: Electrically closes the fuel shutoff valve below the fuel control (if the touchdown switch is closed. and negative torque system is inoperative. TD system will schedule TIT to match throttle position. TIT and torque indications. but not RPM.The Propeller System PROPELLER AND GEARBOX OPERATION FUNCTIONS OF THE PROPELLER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM • • Propeller blade angle is changed by hydraulic pressure generated in a selfcontained hydraulic system (prop oil) within each propeller assembly. Speeder spring and flyweights shift a pilot valve. CAUTION Condition levers must be in Run. Governing capabilities are cammed out when throttles are below flight idle. acts as constant-speed propeller controlled by normal or mechanical governing. Allows for: o Speed Stabilization o Throttle Anticipation o Synchrophasing THE CAPABILITIES OF NORMAL GOVERNING Are accomplished through use of servo bias motor. Feather. the aircraft is on the ground). 2 and 3 engine ice detection systems. thus enhancing blade angle control. If lever is placed mid-position.

A prop will pitchlock when the blade angle is 25-55° (with blade angle decreasing). OFF. and reduce propeller “hunting”. as a function of the speed of the throttle movement. Synchrophasing: References all propeller RPMs to a single master engine. thus maintaining a more stable RPM close to 100% RPM. The relationship of the slaves to the master is accomplished through electrical signals. Slave engines will be synchronized (same RPM) and blades synchrophased by controlling phase angle in relation to the master engine. reducing noise and vibration. individual prop low oil lights must be monitored for the remaining engines after the first low prop oil indication. Note that slaved engines must be in normal governing to provide synchrophasing capability.  Dash-1 Pg 1-21. PROP RESYNCHROPHASING SWITCH The Prop Resync Switch is located to the right of the master switch. • RESYNC – Used to regain control of a propeller that deviates from optimum position (recenters slaved propeller speed bias motor). slaved propeller rotational speeds and blade phase angle relationships are referenced to the master engine when a master is selected. NORMAL – Spring loaded to this position. SYNCHROPHASER MASTER SWITCH The Sychrophser Master Switch is a three-position switch (#2 engine. look at the four individual power CP’s side shelf. . Throttle anticipation: Reacts faster and more precisely to prevent overspeed or underspeed. located on the throttle quadrant aft of the throttles. The offending prop will also be Because. the master prop oil low warning light will illuminate and remain on whenever an individual prop low oil light is on. Resync is used only as part of the full re-index procedure. #3 engine). is located on the lower right corner of the engine when the prop oil level is 2 quarts low in the offending prop. This loss of pressure may be caused by a Prop overspeed (103%). • PROP LOW OIL WARNING LIGHTS & MASTER PROP LOW OIL LIGHT The master prop low oil warning light instrument panel. AND there is a loss of pressure in the pitchlock assembly. where the pitchlock governor ports fluid away or a Prop oil leak. It will illuminate pressurized sump. When a Master is selected. To determine the low oil-warning lights located on the illuminated. Synchrophaser will anticipate blade angle change to prevent propeller overspeed or underspeed. Controls the phase angle of the propellers. 1-28 – 1-33 PROPELLER SAFETY FEATURES PROP SAFETY FEATURES • • • Pitchlock Low Pitch Stop Feathering PITCHLOCK ASSEMBLY The pithclock prevents unplanned decrease in blade angle which could result in runaway prop.Speed stabilization: electrical impulses react faster and make smaller corrections that speeder spring and flyweights.

2. LOW PITCH STOP THROTTLE IN FLIGHT RANGE: The low pitch stop is designed to extend. FEATHERING AND FEATHERING CONTROLS • • Feathering will reduce the drag of the propeller and engine after an in-flight engine shutdown. the low pitch stop wedge is hydraulically removed. If prop rotation continues after feather override button has popped out. Prop feathering valve is mechanically shifted by the condition lever to route prop oil pressure to feather the prop. Engine condition lever. reverse as necessary. then reverse good symmetrical engines and apply brakes as required. Attempt to determine malfunctioning engine and shut it down (Condition Lever to Feather). CP or flight engineer will pull the button if it fails to pop out once the prop is feathered. THROTTLE IN GROUND RANGE: When throttle is placed in the ground range. If directional control problems occur. If prop fails to stop rotating and corrective measures don’t work. the pitchlock mechanism prevents blade angle from decreasing. If performing engine run-up on the ground. (Should pop out no later than 6 seconds after prop if fully feathered). Never take off with a known or suspected prop malfunction. WARNING When applying maximum reverse without throttle hesitation in Ground Idle. If this rise is not indicated. Fire handle on the lower overhead control panel. should note at least 200 inch-pound rise on each engine’s torque (flight idle torque vs. • PROP FEATHER OVERRIDE BUTTON • • • Button retracts to complete electrical feathering circuits. If no yaw or control problems are detected. all throttles should be returned immediately to GROUND IDLE. ground idle torque) after engaging the low pitch stop. If control problems are detected. energizes electrical feathering circuits through the respective prop feather override button. prop cannot be reversed. That’s bad! A severe asymmetric condition would result. as its blade angle cannot be reduced. Light in button illuminates when button holds in. Follow Prop Fails to Feather procedures. when pulled. mechanically limiting blade angle to a minimum of 23°. leave or return throttles to Ground Idle. This prevents the prop from entering the ground range during flight. After landing. when positioned to Feather. 1. allowing the low pitch stop to disengaged and the prop blade angle to decrease. Increases in blade angle are still possible. a prop malfunction may cause complete loss of aircraft directional control. Once pitch locked. Button pops out upon completion of feathering cycle. the button can be pushed back in to re-energize the feathering circuits. hesitate at Ground Idle to detect any aircraft control problem (such as low pitch stop failed to retract). push the fire handle back in if possible (no indications . the low pitch stop has failed to extend and maintenance action is required prior to flight. Question: Why does the prop only pitchlock between 25-55°? Answer: The pitchlock mechanism is cammed out below 25° to prevent the prop from pitchlocking when reversing props (RPM will be in 96-106% range). energizes electrical feathering circuits through the respective prop feather override button.When engaged. Above 55° the pitchlock is cammed out so that unfeathering of the prop is possible during air start.

If performing ground check of prop feathering. resulting in possible fire. Keeps prop blade tips subsonic to reduce noise. 5-9 GEARBOX SAFETY FEATURES REDUCTION GEARBOX • • • • Converts high engine RPM and low torque to low RPM and high torque for efficient prop operation. as you’d be putting oil on very hot gears. not to exceed 2 minutes operation within a 30 minute period. Figure 10 – Airstart and Feathering Circuit Diagram  Dash-1 Pg 1-28 – 1-29. 1-31. 1-33. vibration. and metal fatigue. Contains various safety features for safe operation.3. 4. maximum time for blades to go from reverse to feather is 25 seconds. 1 minute off. Prop feather pump motor duty cycle: don’t exceed 1 minute on. REDUCTION GEARBOX SAFETY FEATURES • • • Prop brake Negative Torque Signal (NTS) system Safety Coupling . If the prop has rotated without oil for a long time. Drives the gearbox accessories. of fire) so that gearbox doesn’t overheat without lubrication. don’t reset the handle.

indicating operation at negative 1260 ± 600 inch-pounds. 3-99 – 3-104 SAFETY COUPLING • • • Mechanically separates the engine from the reduction gearbox and propeller assembly when negative torque exceeds safe limits of approximately negative 6. slow to 130 KIAS and descent to below 5. MX required. Malfunctions: • NTS system may commit prop to feather if linkage sticks. indicating operation at negative 1260±600 inch-pounds. Reduces drag to one-sixth that of a couple prop. NTS plunger and actuating rod override prop governing by positioning feather valve. increasing blade angle to relieve negative torque. light should blink. • No NTS light on engine shutdown from normal ground idle: Write up.000 inch-pounds. Air Start: NTS switch to Valve. • No NTS light on shutdown from LSGI: restart and shut down from normal ground idle. Retard throttle. Light should blink. NTS check switch to Valve. and light must illuminate prior to 10% RPM. Acts as backup to NTS system. NTS check to NTS and upon completion of engine shutdown.000 feet MSL (as terrain permits). PURPOSE OF THE NTS SYSTEM • • • • Negative torque occurs when the prop attempts to drive the gearbox and engine during conditions of low power output or engine flameout. • Cruise engine shutdown: NTS switch to Valve.  Dash-1 Pg 2-92. slows prop to a stop In flight. This attempts to minimize negative torque which will occur during the air start. • If NTS is inoperable and air start is necessary. INDICATIONS OF DECOUPLING NORMAL RPM Gearbox Oil Pressure Hyrdaulic Pressure Generator LOW or ZERO Torque TIT Fuel Flow Engine Oil Pressure .FUNCTIONS OF THE PROP BRAKE • • • • On the ground. but NTS plunger and NTS light still indicate negative torque. it is disengaged by starter torque (helical splines drive it apart). During start. (primary prop brake purpose) prevents prop from windmilling backwards in feather. light should be on. NTS system activates at negative 1260 ± 600 inch-pounds. avoiding prop decoupling. Linkage to increase blade angle is cammed out in the ground range. In-flight check: Accomplished prior to cruise engine shutdown and during airstart. Spring-engaged brake held apart by gearbox oil pressure during normal operation (23% RPM creates sufficient oil pressure to hold prop brake disengaged). NTS CHECK Ground check: Prior to engine shutdown.

All 4 ThrottlesCondition Leverpilot) FLIGHT IDLE (P) FEATHER (CP) (if required.5% of stable RPM 1 minute on. Therefore. 5-7.5% 92. Prop rotation continuing after engine shutdown procedure. 5-42 96 to 106% 94 to 102% 69 to 75. “Reject.g. indicating a pitchlocked prop. flameout). 1 Prop. 5-9. shut down the affected engine while the throttle is in FLIGHT . PROP MALFUNCTIONS ON TAKEOFF (PRIOR TO REFUSAL SPEED) Question: On takeoff roll (passing 80 KIAS. 3-19. 1 minute off (not to exceed 2 min. 3-99 – 3-104. 2-92. Sustained off-speed below 98% or above 102%.5 to 100.5% 98 to 102%. CAUSES OF PROP MALFUNCTIONS • • • Electrical or synchrophaser malfunctions Hydraulic (prop oil) malfunctions.” Answer: Abort the takeoff 1. 2. and airstart needed  Dash-1 Pg 3-102. No. RPM changes that follow throttle movement of changes in TAS. should feather. the prop  Dash-1 Pg 1-9 – 1-10. on command of the WARNING If aborting for a propeller malfunction or for any other malfunction which could result in asymmetric power causing directional control problems when the throttles are placed in the ground range (e. max flux ±0. operation in a 30 mind time period) Max prop movement from reverse to feather is 25 sec. Mechanical malfunctions. SUMMARY OF PROPELLER LIMITATIONS RPM Max Reverse Normal Ground Idle Low Speed Ground Idle Flight Idle (Static on Ground) In-Flight Normal Aux Feather Motor Static Feather Check If NTS inoperative. TO/Refusal speed 104 KIAS) the engineer states. RPM fluctuations or surge outside allowable limits.CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR DECOUPLING • • Perform engine shutdown procedure Decoupling is normally related to an engine malfunction. Button must pop out within 6 sec after prop is feathered Slow to 130 KIAS Altitude below 5000’ MSL (terrain permitting) PROPELLER MALFUNCTIONS INDICATIONS OF PROP MALFUNCTIONS • • • • • PROP LOW OIL LIGHT or visible fluid leak.

treat your problem as an airborne emergency. The copilot checks the warning lights on his side shelf and informs you that it’s the #3 engine. follow the engine shutdown procedure. initiate or continue with ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE after safe control of the airplane is ensured.  Brief the FE to automatically go to MECH GOV and inform you after the fact. raise the gear while accelerating to 2-engine inoperative air minimum control speed (2 engine VMCA) If RPM is out of limits. Directional control problems may be encountered if throttles are moved into the ground range and a malfunction prevents the affected propeller from entering the ground range. continue operation in MECH GOV. ThrottlesGROUND IDLE (P) Reverse symmetrical engines and apply brakes as required (P) If required. place prop governor control to MECH GOV. When immediate landing is not feasible. • • • Aircraft directional control must be maintained. because the prop oil itself congeals and the various Teflon. or if engine power output is abnormal. Place the condition lever to GROUND STOP for the affected Discussion: A boldface shutdown (ESP) is not appropriate for this malfunction during ground ops because feathering the prop may damage the propeller seals (particularly in the dome assembly). 4. o If malfunction is eliminated in MECH GOV. the FE shouldn’t call reject after a GO call. “Reject.IDLE. and may get worse in time. RPM control will probably not improve. That’s . PROPELLER LOW OIL WARNING LIGHT (ON THE GROUND) Question: While taxiing out you notice the prop low oil quantity light is illuminated. Answer: Prop oil quantity is at least 2 quarts low in the pressurized sump. Pavlov’s law makes in nearly impossible to not begin the abort procedure when hearing that word. 1 Prop” Answer: This is a tough one. When safely airborne. 5. No. Unfortunately. Prop low oil lights seem to happen more frequently during cold weather operations. allowing the prop to stabilize within limits using mechanical governing. and other seals in the prop aren’t nearly as pliable. rubber. 3. so when you add that to the thick prop oil. If mechanical governing has malfunctioned. accelerate to and maintain as near 150 KTAS as possible. the engineer states. If immediate landing is feasible. After the Go call. o If malfunction persists. continue with the Propeller Malfunction During Flight procedure. For prop problems causing severe asymmetric conditions.  Selecting MECH GOV should remove normal electronic governing. (P)  Dash-1 Pg 3-12 PROP MALFUNCTIONS ON TAKEOFF (AFTER REFUSAL SPEED) Question: On takeoff roll the you accelerate to takeoff speed and right after the copilot’s “Go” call. blade angle changes greatly increase the risk of seal damage. ON THE GROUND engine.  Improper synchrophaser operation or tach generator failure will usually give prop malfunction indication. using flight controls and engine power as necessary. Substantial pressures (~ 1000 psi) are used in the pitch changing mechanism. the quicker you can eliminate the problem the greater your chances for controlled flight.

If RPM is within limits (98-102%). “leave it running”. If RPM is out of limits. Discussion: It’s important to note that the Dash-1 (1 Oct 98 edition and later) no longer tells you to shut down an engine with a prop low oil light prior to landing.) 150 KTAS is considered high enough to cause decoupling. and the No. but not high enough to cause excessive drag or overspeed after decoupling occurs. Despite this change in guidance. two-engine operation would be more dangerous than landing with the prop low oil light. place the propeller governor control switch to MECH GOV. 2 engine prop low oil light is illuminated on the copilot’s side shelf. perform Pitchlock Check procedure except when an immediate landing is feasible. discuss your options carefully with the FE. but others are perfectly content to let it run until pitchlock occurs.. 2. Monitor . give yourself extra points for airmanship. the copilot notices the prop low oil warning light is illuminated. proceed with item 3 below. Eventually. Which means what? …. and if it goes out of limits. the engine will continue to provide useful thrust. but everything else is kind of a gray area. continued operation is permissible. the Note above mentions taking other malfunctions into account before shutting down an engine with a prop malfunction. 1. If RPM is out of limits in MECH GOV.why the Dash-1 cautions you not to move the throttles out of the ground idle detent until engine oil temps reach 40° C. 5. because they want to ensure the prop will successfully feather with the oil they have left. Now. Instead. The warning light. and if RPM goes out of limits. 3. proceed with item 5 below. and listen to his recommendations. Are you going to shut it down before landing? In this case. Now the prop low oil light comes on for the #2 engine. fluid loss can be sufficient to cause loss of pressure. Airplane configuration as well as other prevailing malfunctions must be considered before shutting down any engine that’s producing positive thrust. Here’s an example: Let’s say you’ve already lost the #1 engine due to a fire. but realize that prop oil loss could continue to the point where you don’t even have enough left to feather the prop. it just recommends you do it. NOTE Landing traffic pattern shutdown of an engine with a propeller malfunction is usually desirable. it is desirable to cause decoupling. doesn’t tell you how much prop oil is left or how quickly it’s being lost. It’s easy to choose “engine shutdown” when you’re close to the field. In any case. underspeed. be sensible about how long to leave the engine running. Can you fly with a pitchlocked prop? Sure. (CP/E) If RPM is within limits in MECH GOV. and as long as they can decouple the prop at shutdown. or fluctuation. and that’s when pitchlock results. RPM.  Dash-1 Pg 2-46 (Caution). Monitor RPM. in which case the engine will be shut down prior to landing. That’s where airmanship takes over. The pilot will have his hands full of plane as he combats directional control problems. (Drag produced by a windmilling prop coupled to the engine is about 6 times greater than decoupled drag. 9-17 (Cold Weather Procedures: Starting Engines) PROPELLER LOW OIL WARNING LIGHT (IN-FLIGHT) Question: While en route to Pope AFB at FL190. It’s also important to realize that the prop can pitchlock at anytime. 4. continued operation is permissible in MECH GOV. Discovering a pitchlock during the landing roll isn’t the most convenient time. Answer: Prop low oil condition. unfortunately. Check RPM for overspeed. Many pilots and FEs won’t leave the engine running very long after a PROP LOW OIL indication.a windmilling propeller. so if you said. so if it fails to feather.

but flying at 150 KTAS without flaps can put us dangerously close to stall speed—particularly at heavier gross weights. follow the engine shutdown procedure. and the problem can’t be corrected. In this case. Pitchlock occurs when 1) overspeed of ~103% happens. (This prevents crossover “bump”) Slowly move the throttle while observing TIT and RPM. continue in MECH GOV and consider re-indexing if time permits (Section 7). Your stall margin will be greatly improved!  Dash-1 Pg 3-16 – 3-19 RPM OUTSIDE ALLOWABLE LIMITS You may encounter the situation where the RPM goes outside allowable limits without a low prop oil light. then it’s reasonable to assume the propeller is pitchlocked.5%. go ahead and raise the gear. It may complete the feather cycle for you. If RPM doesn’t follow throttle/TAS. If RPM does follow a change in throttle setting (or TAS). During the pitchlock check you look to see if RPM follows a change in throttle setting.Question: What if you shut the engine down but the prop fails to feather (LM reports it’s windmilling out there). Maintain TAS. (In some cases you might have to change TAS instead. the fuel control will begin “fuel topping” and ignore throttle advances or reductions. In either case. or 2) prop oil pressure is lost. the engine will be shut down prior to landing. fuel control governor) and throttle movement may be insufficient to cause a TIT/RPM change. Land as soon as possible. An example of this is when RPM exceeds 103. the prop essentially becomes fixed-pitch and can no longer respond properly to changes in power. • • • Propeller Governor Control – MECH GOV Place the TD valve switch for the affected engine to LOCKED. If RPM stabilizes.). If the TIT doesn’t change. The procedures are essentially the same: • • • Prop governor control switch to MECH GOV. you should change TAS (not below 2-engine V mca)to verify pitchlock. but consider leaving the flaps at 50% as you continue your climb out (technique). If RPM follows the throttle/TAS. If an immediate landing is feasible.5% RPM. reset the fire handle to restore oil pressure to the gearbox ASAP. We normally raise gear and flaps on every takeoff. PITCHLOCKED PROPELLER OPERATION Question: How can you determine when you have a pitchlocked propeller? What are some considerations for operating with a pitchlocked propeller? Answer: The prop needs oil pressure to adjust blade angle and maintain an onspeed condition (98-102%).5. Also. Discussion: When this and other prop malfunctions occur after takeoff. be mindful of your configuration. What should you do? Answer: If no fire exists. hold the PROPELLER FEATHER OVERRIDE button in for 30 seconds and then pull out. Attain 150 KTAS if possible. perform pitchlock check procedure except when an immediate landing is feasible. operate the engine IAW pitchlocked prop operation. the gearbox could tear itself up. If this happens to you. Without oil. the Dash-1 recommends shutting down the engine at 150 KTAS. If RPM remains outside allowable limits. the engine fuel control may be taking fuel (103. So. The fuel control effectively takes control of the throttle and won’t give it back until rpm goes below 103. • • Considerations: .

resume normal cruise. If the prop does not stop. When you shut the engine down. Above 98% you may cause the prop to attempt governing (residual fluid pressure might allow the prop to momentarily increase pitch and break the pitchlock). 96-98% RPM. not increasing. In this case. 3. Read and heed! Try to maintain an underspeed condition. Once prop has stopped. try to do it at 150 KTAS. which greatly reduces windmilling propeller drag for landing. If you are unable to reach 150 KTAS. A pitchlocked prop may not feather (prop oil reservoir depleted). Hold feather override button in for up to 30 seconds (or until prop feathers) and then pull out. prior to reaching the point where you can no longer maintain 96% RPM. • If RPM can be maintained at 150 KTAS. maintain prop brake engagement. maintain 160 or lower (above 2-engine Vmca) until landing. This helps keep the pitchlock firmly engaged. Why does the pitchlock mechanism allow blade angle to increase anyway? Because that’s how you FEATHER the prop.  Dash-1 Pg 3-18 PROP FAILS TO FEATHER • • • • Actions required if prop rotation continues after feathering has been attempted: Reset fire handle if pulled and no indication of fire exists (this will restore oil for lubrication). Do no slow below 2-engine Vmca. This is a big consideration that was already covered in the PROP LOW OIL section above. just remember that pitchlock only prevents a prop from decreasing blade angle.e. and land as soon as practical. If acceleration is appropriate. • If at least 96% RPM can’t be maintained when slowing to 150 KTAS. the blade angle is probably at or near the low pitch stop. where the acceleration bleed valves open. This is the most probable case if the pitchlock happened at medium to high altitude cruise. it is most probably pitchlocked at a high blade angle. something we’ll need to do eventually). causing engine flameout. slow to the point where rotation stops. NOTE The prop may counter rotate at speeds over 200 KIAS. Below 96% you could reach 94%. its brief search for an onspeed condition will probably result in a blade angle (lower or higher. increase to 200 KIAS in 10 knot increments. If prop does not begin to counter-rotate. If you’re scratching your head right now. ESP the engine.  Dash-1 Pg 3-7. 3-16 – 3-20 If this occurs.1. If prop begins to counter rotate. determine if accelerating is appropriate. WARNING: Do not allow airspeed to decrease below 2 engine Vmca 2. Use this as your maximum speed. i. Attain 150 KTAS if possible. and shutdown at the higher airspeed where 96% can barely be maintained should give acceptable windmilling drag and RPM should it fail to feather. it just depends) that reduces effective thrust for your altitude and airspeed. shutdown at a higher TAS would produce excessive drag or overspeed. In case the prop doesn’t feather (no oil left). reduce speed to . This range gives you a 2% buffer for gauge error. PROPELLER BRAKE FAILURE (FEATHERED PROP) Reduce airspeed to 160 KIAS. this airspeed will be enough to at least decouple it from the engine.

Figure 11 – Propeller Operation .

Figure 12 – Prop Safety Features .

Figure 13 – Propeller Blade Angles (all blade angles are approximate) .

The agent discharge switch is a 3-position toggle switch located on the fire handle panel between fire handles #2 and #3. forward of the firewall. A Nacelle Overheat may be caused by bleed air leak or may be the result of a fire. and is armed only when any fire emergency control handle is pulled. A corresponding numbered warning light and warning panel name plate light will light up. The agent is routed to each engine nacelle or the APU compartment by directional flow valves that are set by the last fire handle pulled. same master warning panel and fire handle lights. similarly the #2 position discharges bottle #2. aft of the fire wall. the 2 Lower lights in the corresponding Thandle will illuminate steady. The Turbine Overheat Detection System consists of 4 detector probes set at 700° F (371°C). The fire detection system consists of a continuous loop-sensing element (Iconnel tubing) wrapped around each nacelle area and in horse collar area near bleed air regulator. 600 psi). to warn of overheat condition in the area around compressor section. TURBINE OVERHEAT WARNING SYSTEM & INDICATORS The Turbine Overheat Warning System uses the same indicating system as fire detection. It’s one red or NVG compatible green warning light labeled “FIRE”. The switch should not be held for more than 1 or 2 seconds.The Fire & Overheat Detection and Suppression System NACELLE OVERHEAT WARNING LIGHTS & TEST SWITCH The Overheat Control Panel is located on CP’s instrument panel. Test switch tests all four warning systems simultaneously. There are four (numbered) warning lights plus an unnumbered warning light on the panel name plate (near the test switch). Each can be discharged independently by the agent discharge switch. Each probe is set at 300° F (149°C).e. When a rapid rise in temperature is detected in an engine nacelle or the APU. Fire detection system indicator lights are located inside the clear plastic fire emergency control handles (“T-Handles”).  Memory aid: Turbine is Top. . The switch is spring-loaded to OFF (center position). mounted in the hot section of the nacelle. The warning light and nameplate illuminate steady if a rapid rise in temperature is detected on an engine or the APU. In the T-Handle the two upper lights will flash. FIRE DETECTION & WARNING LIGHTS The Master Fire Warning Panel is located on the pilot’s instrument panel. or the fire extinguisher CB may pop out. During an overheat the Master warning lights flashes. The #1 position discharges bottle #1. Six fenwal detector probes are mounted in each nacelle.  As a good technique the FE will check the CB after discharging the first bottle. The APU has its own Inconnel tubing for fire detection. They are connected in parallel to provide 4 independent sensors.  Dash-1 Pg 1-268 FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM & AGENT DISCHARGE SWITCH The fire extinguishing system uses two bottles of agent (19 pounds. i. signaling a fire.

Extinguisher agent discharge switch is armed. 2 is still on fire. (ISO DC) 2. (ESS DC) 8. Fuel shutoff valve closed. What happens if you shoot the 2nd bottle? Answer: The agent is routed to the engine when its fire handle is pulled. (ISO DC) 5. If more than one handle has been pulled. (ESS AC and ESS DC) FUNCTIONS OF THE APU FIRE HANDLE There are 5 things that happen when you pull the APU Fire Handle. Fuel shutoff valve at fuel control closed. 2 engine and fire the first bottle. Bleed air regulator closed. You ESP the No. (ISO DC)  Dash-1 Pg 1-268. (ESS DC) 7. (ESS DC) 9. the agent is routed to the engine (or APU) for the last handle pulled. 1-273  Remember . Extinguisher system control valves positioned.  Remember BEEFF SHOP 1. the fire handle must be pushed in and pulled back out so that its handle resets the routing valves for the agent. (Battery) 3.Question: The No. Oil shutoff valve below oil tank closes. (ESS DC) 2. (Battery) 4. Hydraulic shutoff valves at firewall are closed. Prop is Feathered. you just wasted your remaining agent. Start circuitry for engine de-energized. To route the agent to any other engine. (Battery) 4. 2 fire handle illuminates steady while taxiing. FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRE HANDLE There are 9 things that happen when you pull an engine fire handle. Extinguisher system control valves positioned. Bleed air valve closed. The AC elects to ground egress and you ESP the remaining engines and the APU. (Battery) 3. Fuel shutoff valve at firewall closed. (ESS DC) 5. (ESS DC) 6. Assuming the APU handle was the last handle pulled. BEEF Door 1. APU Door closes. before you pull off your headset you discover that No. Extinguisher agent discharge switch is armed.

Figure 14 – Fire Detection System .

Figure 15 – Function of the Fire Handle .

WARNING Never use circuit breakers as switches. More specifically. Main (gray) -. GCAS. Lastly. delays. autopilot. They should only be pulled during emergencies or maintenance. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM UPGRADE (ESU) The ESU was developed to provide the C-130 with cleaner. AC Hand AC Pilot’s Circuit Panels AC “Little Rock Air Force Inst & Base Is Essential” EFC Main Radio Fuses Ess AC -Batt Ess AC -Iso Start Copilot’s Circuit Panels Aircraf “MR Engine SEAL” Lights t Bus CBs and current limiters located forward side of FS 245. located between left paratroop door and left gear well. The Ganged BSS CBs are located on the aft side of FS 245 in cargo compartment.  Dash-1 Pg 1-62. and DC Power. the systems ESU Circuit Breakers are colorand procedures outlined here assume an ESU-modified aircraft (with GCUs) and BSS capped deactivated or removed (TCTO 1821). it’s aimed at getting this power to the avionics. it has circuit breakers (notably flaps and tabs CB). more reliable AC power. Fig 1-30 – Fig 1-34 PRIMARY AC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The primary AC electrical system provides powers to most motors and pumps. Under normal operations the 4 generators (5 including the APU) provide the electrons to those three systems. But newer solidstate avionics (SCNS. On that note. with circuit protection provided by CBs and fuses. When the plane was first built. Use the diagram below to help Hand Rightyou. we have the Aft junction box. . and spikes in the AC power supply.for easy identification. it was equipped with analog electrical components that tolerated relatively long voltage transients. there may be differences between the E and the H models and within models themselves. let’s assume that unless otherwise specified. Now with the advent of the Electrical Systems Upgrade (ESU) and it’s many problems (which we’ll discuss later). “Dirty” power can cause this equipment to fail or behave erratically.The Electrical System OVERVIEW There are essentially three kinds of power systems on the Herk: Primary AC. Secondary AC. etc) are extremely sensitive to power anomalies.Essential (blue) CIRCUIT PROTECTION There are two great mnemonics to remember basically what is on the Pilot and Copilot’s Circuit Panels: Use “Little Rock Air Force Base Is Essential” to remember Leftthe Pilots and “MR SEAL” to remember the Copilot’s.

converted it to DC and back to AC. When external AC power is connect all the AC buses are powered. Righthand. we’ll mention it as it relates to individual components. A lot of existing equipment has been moved to these buses. Essential Avionics (AVI). C-12 compasses. This is the Age where we step to an H1 and spare out to an E-Model or a Super-E. HSIs. • #4 generator powers the Right-hand AC bus. but other factors were also noted. That has left us a C-130 fleet where the electrical system and associated procedures change from one tail number to the next. These buses are located behind the pilot’s and copilot’s circuit breaker panels. Apparently the maintenance and flt engineer communities brought up some concerns about ESU’s ability to monitor the health of the generators. and Main AVI. where as the autopilot. we now have 6 AC buses: Left-hand. BUSES & POWER DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMARY AC SYSTEM With the ESU modification. and flight directors have all moved to the Essential Avionics Bus. Main. While the BSS has been deactivated. In the event of BSS failure. the avionics buses are still a distribution point for power to sensitive equipment throughout the aircraft. Here’s a rundown of the BSS problem and the three the other major complaints: 1. • #3 generator powers the Main AC bus and Main AVI bus. Avionics Buses – The Ess AVI and Main AVI buses were added by the ESU upgrade to give cleaner power to more advanced. ESU PROBLEMS Rumors have floated as to why the ESU was never fully implemented. • #2 generator powers the ESS AC bus and ESS AVI bus.) .1. It essentially took “dirty” AC power. The SKE and radar have moved to the Main Avionics Bus.  Dash-1 Pg 1-62. They had the same functionality as before but are more reliable due to the elimination of mechanical rotary parts. more sensitive electronic units on the aircraft.e. The BSS has since been removed (by TCTO 1821) and the Avionics Buses pretty much get powered in this manner (i. It does a great job of delivering clean power to systems. synchrophaser.  Only H2s (84-0204 and up) have a switch that ties the APU generator to the Main AC Bus. to “clean” it up. 1-70. a fail-safe bypass contactor (FBC) would immediately allow regular ESS or MAIN AC Bus power to supply the avionics buses directly. directly connected the respective ESS or MAIN AC Bus. 1-64. radios and navaids. but masks signs of generator failure—something that would require disconnect or engine shutdown. The Bus Switching System (BSS) – The BSS was designed to take unregulated AC power from the generators and refine it for delivery to the avionics buses. if required). Each engine-driven generator normally powers its respective bus: • #1 generator powers the Left-hand AC bus.The ESU program was never fully implemented. SCNS. Essential. Any one engine-driven generator can power two buses (plus associated AVI bus. The APU generator powers only ESS AC (including the ESS AVI bus). One of those rumors had something to do with the BSS. and some of the upgrades were even later removed. 1-115 SOLID-STATE INVERTERS New inverters (250 VA for the Copilot’s AC Instruments and 2500 VA for the AC Inst & Eng Fuel Control Bus) were also added with the ESU. The BSS (another ESU component) was designed to provide this clean power to the avionics buses. to keep the bus powered without interruption. Instead of talking about the ESU as a whole.

the generator is completely offline and there are no voltage or freq indications available on the engineer’s panel. When it does come. so it’s time to disconnect it. And now with the problem of wing cracks. their respective buses will be powered by the other generator on the same wing —“Wing takes care of Wing”. its respective bus will be powered by the other engine-driven generator on the same wing —“Wing takes care of Wing”. but most of the E-model fleet doesn’t. When the switch is OFF. With any one engine-driven generator operating. Eventually TCTO 1821 was implemented. you’ll be left guessing. With the generator switch OFF. With the ESU. the ESU program has pretty much fizzled out. so why was it deactivated and removed? Apparently the BSS was the part of the ESU upgrade that kept catching on fire. you can’t monitor freqs and volts . ESU doesn’t add generator disconnect capability. Again. With one engine-driven generator inoperative on a wing. removing the BSS all together. When the light comes on. 4. especially when you can’t monitor the health of the generator (See item 2). obviously. if you are interested.  Dash-1 Pg 1-62 – 1-63 2. is not a good thing. That. the ESS AC (& ESS AVI) and Main AC (& Main AVI) buses will be powered. much like FOD in an engine). they won’t know what precautions to take. (APU is always and only Essential)  Dash-1 Pg 1-62. which are tied to vibration sensors next to the generator. if you can’t monitor freqs and volts (see item 2). H-models have it. all the primary AC buses will be powered. you’d at least like to know if the generator is failing. their respective buses will be powered by their symmetrical engine-driven generators —“Symmetrical takes care of Symmetrical”. but the Air Force disagrees. because of the BSS problems and the three reasons mentioned above. FEs want to monitor these indications so they can see signs of generator failure and ensure it gets disconnected—or the engine shut down—before it burns up and damages the airplane. there’s just two switch positions. ESU doesn’t provide indicators for generator failure.The BSS sounds like a good deal. it might be some time before we the AMP or any improvement to our electrical system. With one engine-driven generator inoperative on each wing. Without it. BUS TRANSFER SYSTEM Under normal operation. Again. If your plane doesn’t already have this feature. each engine powers its respective bus. Fig 1-28 . it tells you the generator is beginning to suffer structural failure (components banging around in the casing. We probably won’t see further upgrades like the BSS and the ESU until the AMP program arrives. The ESU upgrade program was halted and the circuit breakers were pulled on the BSS for those planes already modded. The Lockheed thinks it’s unnecessary. If crews can’t see the failure coming. H3s have something called bearing failure warning lights. The Dash-1 still contains information on how the BSS works. Disconnect capability is an important out. OFF and ON. 3. then you won’t get it with ESU. we’ll probably still won’t see the BSS but something closer to the H3’s (XXXX). The APU generator will power the ESS AC and ESS AVI bus regardless of the engine-driven generator configuration. With both engine-driven generators inoperative on a wing. During partial power configuration the Bus Transfer System follow two basic rules: “Wing takes care of Wing” & “Symmetrical takes care of Symmetrical” • • • • • • With any two engine-driven generators operating. 1-70.

When external power is available (connected and in the proper phase rotation: ABC) the External AC Power light will illuminate. The affected BSS may be on primary-only or on secondary power. The OFF position disconnects external AC power from the airplane distribution system. and “MAIN” advisory lights are to the left of the “ESS AC OFF” light. The “ESU BIT”. Bus should still operate normally. They illuminate when any AVI bus phase less than 90v. APU generator switch is located on the overhead panel to the right of the generator switches.ESU MALFUNCTION LIGHTS The ESS AVI and MAIN AVI bus off lights (simply labeled “ESS AVI” and “MAIN AVI”) are to the right of the “ESS AC OFF” light. with minimal interruption to the buses. since it eliminates the need for external electrical power. or average less than 95v on the respective bus. and connects APU generator output to the ESS AC. It acts like a generator switch. or any engine-driven generator is producing power. but is still providing clean power to the AVI bus. The associated circuit breaker for external power is located inside the battery compartment. EXTERNAL AC POWER The AC power receptacle has 6 prongs. or will disconnect any time: the external AC power light is not ON. Illumination of these lights indicates that no power is available to that bus. and its generator switch is in the ON position (i. This means the affected bus is on dirty power. To apply external power. 1-116 APU GENERATOR The APU generator is directly splined to the APU in the left wheel well. APU control switch: See APU discussion in Bleed Air section. AC external power switch cannot be placed to the external AC power position. “ESS” or “MAIN” illuminate any time a fault within BSS 1 (BSS 2) causes the FBC to deenergize. The switch to turn on external power is located on the overhead electrical control panel next to the External AC Power light. the FE will uses the two handed method.  Dash-1 Pg 1-64. the FE must turn off the APU generator with his right handle while almost simultaneously turning the external power switch on with his left. You may notice this flicker in power normally on the ground after parking. APU generator switch is in the ON position (whether or not it’s actually on line). Record in 781. There is no simple way of diagnosing in flight which BSS has had the fault when on primary-only or secondary power. clean or dirty. whenever on line). so no abort needed. Because of the external AC power switch override. When ESS or MAIN illuminate. used to connect with ground power unit. and provides and alternate source of power for the ESS AC bus. “ESS”. . ESU BIT illuminates any time a fault occurs within BSS 1 or BSS 2. The EXTERNAL AC POWER position connects external AC power to the airplane primary AC distribution system. the “ESU BIT” should also be illuminated since a fault has occurred in a BSS. EXTERNAL AC POWER SWITCH OVERRIDE prevents connection of external power and internal power sources at the same time by automatically positioning the external AC power switch to OFF or preventing it from being turned off (the “rattlesnake”). and all AC buses will be powered. It allows self-contained starts.e.

These compact. The ATM generator has the older style frequency. The OFF position disconnects the generator from the system and allows the generator control unit (GCU) to RESET. any phase below 95V for more than 4 seconds. The GCU also has the ability to recognize and regulate both Bendix and Leland generators. the GCU may be reset by placing the generator control switch to OFF and back to ON. the generator cannot be reconnected in flight. If possible. Dash-1 Pg 1-41. and frequency sensing relays. and can be seen from the aft side of FS 245. A combination of one or more lights can be used to determine the nature of the problem (and aids MX in determining which module to replace). under-voltage.  Dash-1 Pg 1-115 – 1-116 GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT (GCU) One of the major components of the ESU is the Generator Control Unit. Each GCU provides over/under-voltage. the GCU activates a latching circuit to prevent resetting the generator (ground maintenance action required).e.  Dash-1 Pg 1-117 Once . It’s a nice feature for the maintainers and for us. the switch electrically fires a metal pin that shears the generator drive shaft. or any phase exceeds 130V for more than 4 seconds. If any of the problems mentioned above occur in the generator the GCU deenergizes the generator contactor. and one for the APU generator. The GCUs are solid-state units that provide automated generator control and regulation. thus disconnecting the generator from the gearbox. 2-position switches. (overvoltage. disconnected. voltage. and feeder fault). In some cases. thus eliminating the need to match generators and GCUs. self-cooling units replace generator control panels. voltage regulators. Firing of the disconnect mechanism is indicated by the DISC FIRED light. It will also illuminate for output circuit faults or simply for a generator out light indicator malfunction. The keeps ‘bad’ power from getting to the components on the bus.  Dash-1 Pg 1-116 GENERATOR DISCONNECT SWITCHES The disconnect switches are on overhead electrical control panel and are guarded. ESU-modified with ATMs (E & “Super Es”) have 4 GCUs—one for each engine-driven generator. removing the associated bus from the generator. the GCU also deengergizes the generator itself (in addition to deenergizing the generator contactor. GCUs should be particularly helpful in preventing partial loss of the ESS AS Bus. over/under-frequency. 1-62 GENERATOR CONTROLS & INDICATORS GENERATOR CONTROL SWITCHES the ESU replaced the old generator switches with rotary-type. however (i. In some more serious cases. Note: ESU-modified aircraft with APUs (H1) have 5 GCUs—one for each engine-driven generator. and feeder fault contactor. It means it’s easier to get broken planes flying again. When held to DISC position for approximately 2 seconds.) An LED fault indicator panel (truth table) is located on the GCU. The ON position closes relay contacts to connect the generator to the bus. the FE should check the failure codes on the GCU prior to attempting to reset the GCU in event of a Gen Out light. Note: APU generator switch is unchanged GENERATOR OUT LIGHT ILLUMINATES when the frequency below 368 cycles per second (Hz). and feeder fault protection. feeder fault). In most cases.

and provides and emergency power source. there will be no power for the ADIs regardless of power source selected. the FE will select the alternate power source with the control switch. AC INSTRUMENT AND ENGINE FUEL CONTROL (ACI&EFC) BUS This bus powered by ESS AC or ESS DC. It also powers the TD system and the #1 & #2 step-down transformers. The Main Battery powers the BATT. valves. NOTE ONLY when the ACI&EFC bus switch is in the DC position. OFF. Buses can be powered in two ways: Copilot’s AC Instrument Bus & the AC Instrument and Engine Fuel Control Bus. On these. ACI&EFC bus powered by ESS DC via an inverter. the bus will automatically switch to ESS AC power source if the DC inverter fails (not true for the CP’s AC instrument bus). Transformer Rectifier (TR) units.) It also provides operational power for DC components. Power may be supplied to buses by External DC power. WARNING: Any time power is removed from both the ISO DC and ESS DC bus. or “Dash” position on each switch): ESS AC is available for both secondary buses. They show that the selected power source is not providing power to the bus. It in turn powers gauges for torque. ISO DC.  Dash-1 Pg 1-112 – 1-114 DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The DC electrical system provides control power for AC and DC systems (switches. • • • • • • “SELECTED POWER OUT” LIGHTS. Essential DC bus (ESS DC). etc. When illuminated.SECONDARY AC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM SECONDARY AC BUSES • Secondary AC buses power the attitude indicators and various instruments. are ocated above respective control switch. MAIN DC bus (MAIN DC). Crew will have to manually move the switch to the AC position to correctly reflect which bus is powering it. COPILOT’S AC INSTRUMENT BUS This bus is powered by ESS AVI or ISO DC. Each bus has its own rotary switch located on overhead electrical control panel. and to get the selected power out light to extinguish. fuel quantity. ESS DC. Isolated DC bus (ISO DC). and LOX quantity. It in turn powers both ADI gyros (VG). and INS Battery bus (INS BATT). the following sources can be selected: AC Position (the horizontal. There is one for each bus. fuel flow. The selected power out light will illuminate to indicate the shift has occurred. DC Positions (the vertical. TIT. or “1” position on each switch): CP’s AC Instrument bus powered by ISO DC or ESS DC via an inverter. DC BUSES The DC buses are the battery bus (BATT). or by Batteries. MAIN DC .

When external DC is used. and two MAIN TR units. (see Error: Reference source not found). An External DC power indicator light is located adjacent to the DC power switch on overhead electrical panel. All 3 DC warning lights go out with battery connected to the bus. There are two ESS TR units. Emergency power will not be available to operate the fire extinguisher system. since it is hot-wired to the battery. External power is disconnected from MAIN DC BUS and the battery is disconnected from the ISO BUS. and are exactly the same type. When a Bus Off light for the Main or ESS DC bus is illuminated. 1-111 TRANSFORMER-RECTIFER (TR) The TR system is used to rectify AC power to DC power. To apply external DC power to aircraft. (When there is just battery power on the ground.  Dash-1 Pg 1-64. or emergency depressurization. Its illumination indicates external DC power available.  Dash-1 Pg 1-111 – 1-112 DC BUS OFF INDICATOR LIGHTS The DC Bus Off indicator lights are located on the lower left corner of the overhead electrical panel. this light will not come on even though ISO DC is being powered by the battery. This position allows the battery to be charged by permitting flow from MAIN/ESS DC BUS through RCR to ISO DC BUS. • EXTERNAL DC POWER: Connects external DC power to all DC buses except the battery bus. (Minimum battery voltage: 21 volts). A second battery powers the INS BATT bus only. • OFF: Only the battery bus is powered. The ESS TR units are powered by ESS AC bus. that bus is not powered. maintenance is required (see NOTE on 1-111).  Dash-1 Pg 1-111 DC POWER SWITCH The DC power switch is a 3-position. and is the correct polarity (though not necessarily the correct DC rating). If light stays on longer than 25 seconds. An ISO DC ON BAT light may indicate the ISO DC bus has become disconnected from the ESS DC bus. in the same grouping as the AC bus off lights. but are not connected in any way.  Dash-1 Pg 1-111 EXTERNAL DC POWER External DC power is not very commonly used (normally when trying to preserve a battery near minimum output and external AC power is not available). • BAT: connects the battery bus to the ISO DC bus. and is being powered by the battery. alarm bells. Both batteries are located in the battery compartment. WARNING Do not operate the airplane with a defective battery. jump lights. rotate switch to EXTERNAL DC position. rotary switch located on the lower right side of the overhead electrical panel. and DC bus tie switch tied). (External power must have correct polarity to close relay).buses. The External DC power receptacle is located next to the AC receptacle near the battery compartment. and supply . exercise great care that the external power source it the correct electrical rating.

TCTO 1723 is a mod added to the C-130 that takes the touchdown relay out of the mix.power to ESS DC bus. 1-78. located on the bottom of the overhead electrical control panel. 1-111 DC BUS TIE SWITCH The bus tie switch is a 2-position guarded switch labeled TIED-NORMAL. The Main TR units are powered by MAIN AC bus. normally the charge switch is OFF on the ground. The NORMAL position allows only one-way flow of DC power from ESS DC to ISO DC bus. and powers the INU and a portion of the navigator’s IDCU. if both MAIN TR units fail.  Dash-1 Pg 1-111 – 1-112 REVERSE CURRENT RELAY (RCR) The reverse current relay allows current flow in only one direction while the aircraft is in flight (MAIN DC to ESS DC to ISO DC).e. and ON in flight. If a TR fails on the ground. any TR unit or combination of TR units will assume the DC load for all buses. and supply power to MAIN DC bus. Four load meters (one for each TR) are located on the bottom of the overhead electrical panel and indicate the load in a percentage of rated flow. The INS battery is charged via the ESS DC bus when the INS battery charge switch (guarded ON/OFF toggle switch) is in the ON position. . as power can flow either way through the DC buses. In the event of ESS DC bus power falling below the voltage of the INS battery. This allows you to emergency airstart the engines in the unlikely event that you flameout all four engines (i. if necessary. allowing the INS Battery to power the ESS DC bus. The TIED position is operative only on the ground through touchdown circuits. It allows the Bus Tie Switch to work in the air. the ESS bus cannot supply power to the MAIN DC bus. if both ESS TR units fail. the INS BATT bus will automatically be powered by the INS battery. The bus tie switch must also be tied to allow 2-way current flow between ISO DC and ESS DC buses on the ground. Also allows 2-way current flow between ESS DC and MAIN DC buses. In flight. losing all your generators and the ability to power the igniters). Due to battery vapor buildup problems (potentially explosive) in the battery compartment. INS Bus Tie Switch: This switch will energize the INS Battery RCR.  Dash-1 Pg 1-111 INS BATTERY The INS BATT bus normally receives power from the ESS DC bus. It allows 2-way flow of DC power between ISO and ESS DC buses. due to one-way power flow. The Reverse current relay and blocking diodes prevent the INS BATT bus from powering the ESS DC bus. 1-71.  Dash-1 Pg 1-64. This can be used in parallel with the DC Bus Tie switch or independently.  Dash-1 Pg 1-78 TOUCH DOWN RELAY The touchdown relay allows current flow in only one direction while the aircraft is on the ground. In flight. and enables the battery to power all DC buses on the ground. ESS DC will still be powered via the MAIN DC bus.

open in flight) • DC bus tie control (inoperative in flight. 380-420 Hz AC 115 volts is single phase rms voltage. 5-4. falls offline at about 10-12 volts. BAT (battery bus). 110-125 volts. so this number is best used when playing stump the dummy. 5-21. and INS BAT). read on the gauge.05 (AC) 1. acceptable for flight) * *NOTE: Battery must have 18 volts to close the relay between the battery and ISO DC buses. 200 volts is phase to phase voltage (no aircrew gauge to read this. INS BAT BUS (ins battery bus). J-Hook (unlocked in flight) • Wheel brakes (antiskid) (brakes inoperative in flight) • Cockpit controls for ramp and cargo door (inoperative in flight) • Air drop release (inoperative on the ground) • Defensive Systems – TCTO 1465/1466 (Dispense and jettison inoperative on the ground) • Defensive Systems – TCTO 1818 (when IRCM WOW switch set to NORMAL.  Dash-1 Pg 1-78 MAIN LANDING GEAR TOUCHDOWN SWITCH TOUCHDOWN SWITCH • Engine ground stop (inoperative in flight) • SKE proximity warning (tone disabling on the ground only) • Defensive System (jettison inoperative on the ground) TOUCHDOWN RELAY (ENERGIZED IN FLIGHT) • Landing gear control handle lock. inoperative on the ground except for ground test)  Dash-1 Pg 1-196 SUMMARY OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS Primary AC Power 115/200 volt.) 380-420 cycle.  Dash-1 Pg 1-62. 3 phase. Dash-1 Pg 1-78 DC VOLTMETER The DC voltmeter on the lower right side of the overhead electrical panel indicates voltage on bus selected on the DC voltmeter selector switch (ESSENTIAL DC BUS. laser and flare dispense inoperative on the ground) • GCAS AUXILIARY TOUCHDOWN RELAY (ENERGIZED ON THE GROUND) • Dump mast shutoff valves (closed on ground.03 (DC) Generator Output Allowable Loads Generators TRs DC Voltage TRs & External DC Battery 25-30 volts 24 volts (21 volts min. 1-64. 1-78. 40 kVa 1. MAIN DC BUS. except when TCTO 1723 modified) • APU door control (door opens 35° on the ground and 15° in flight) • SCNS (interface tests inoperative in flight) • Bottom strobe lights (white and red. 1-113. 5-42 ELECTRICAL MALFUNCTIONS OVERVIEW . Once connected. It is normally left in the Battery position during flight.

but if it fails outright. Other failures can be more subtle. If the component can’t be located and disabled (by turning it off. What should the engineer do then? Leave the generator ON and monitor. you can’t use its power). The lack of a load indication suggests the generator’s contactor relay has failed to energize or there is an indication system problem. COMPONENT MALFUNCTIONS: Individual components can overheat or short out. circuit breakers that won’t pop. These are indications that the power indicator relay or TR unit within the generator control panel that has failed. and bad relays. If the frequency. If at all possible you’ll want the FE to find the specific component and disable it first. and you turn the generator OFF. Question: During flight at cruise altitude the engineer says you have a generator out light on the #1 generator. what should the engineer do? If possible. the FE will have to bring down most of the aircraft power and investigate further. He checks the freqs. disconnect the generator. but it helps to be familiar with some basic concepts. though. check the BIT status on the GCU itself prior to resetting. GENERATOR OUT LIGHT You’ll get a GEN OUT LIGHT when the frequency is below 368 cps. causing smoke and fire (TRs and old tube-type synchrophasers are historically common examples). As a last resort—when the component isn’t known but the affected bus is—you can isolate the bus itself. If the TR was the cause. What’s happening? Answer: Generator malfunction. Let’s review the three major categories of malfunctions first. Disconnect the generator if indications are lost. and load. and says the freqs and volts are normal but there’s no load. To reset the If frequency and voltage are normal on all three phases. fuses. but each can lead to progressively worse problems if not handled smartly. because the power to energize its contactor relay comes from the TR unit. Don’t turn the generator switch OFF. low voltage on just one of the generator’s three phases can cause equipment failures without BUS OFF or GEN OUT indications. The symptoms manifest themselves in different ways. it must be disconnected or its engine shut down to prevent a generator fire or explosion. then you won’t be able to get it back online (i. A number of safety devices help protect the electrical system from a bad generator by tripping it offline. or pulling CBs). generator. As a pilot you can’t know it all. The advanced age of many C-130s has led to cases of corroded and chaffed wire bundles. Let’s pretend instead that the frequency. or current limiters fail to protect it—or its components—from the power coming off the generators. place the generator switch to OFF then ON. resume normal operation. They require thorough systems knowledge. . or there’s fault in generator output circuit). The engineer should: Leave the #1 generator switch in the ON position and monitor the frequency and voltage. volts. This is a severe step.Electrical malfunctions are among the most challenging of all EPs.e. voltage and load were zero. FAILURE OF A POWER SOURCE: Generators are a good example. Flt Engineers can do a certain amount to bring one back online. voltage and load checked normal. The generator itself is working normally. unplugging it. As an example. (See Partial Loss of ESS AC Bus) POWER DISTRIBUTION PROBLEMS: A bus can malfunction when circuit breakers. any phase exceeds 130v for approximately 5 sec. and corrective steps can be complicated. any phase below 95v for more than 4 sec. If you lose frequency or voltage later.

What about abnormal frequency or voltage? Can’t get it with GCU? Place the generator switch to OFF and monitor. like an explosion or fire. You would then shut down the engine by placing the condition lever to GROUND STOP. If frequency and voltage are indicated but voltage is observed to momentarily peak above normal (and return to zero). Answer: “Check it out. Can’t I just use them instead. The generator disconnects are designed for use only in flight. follow the generator disconnect procedure or shutdown IAW ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. Freqs. but if you’re at home station or some other C-130 base. it would be smart to return to the chocks and have maintenance investigate the cause of the failure. 3-28 – 3-30 GENERATOR FAILURE (ON THE GROUND): Airplanes with GCU Question: While taxiing to the runway. but no load Leave generator switch ON and monitor. Obviously this wouldn’t be practical at en route stops where no C-130 MX exists. TECHNIQUE: For ground operations. it can be assumed the generator has failed. “Never reset a circuit breaker more than once. The time spent on the ground could prevent a more serious failure later in flight. If indication is lost. it might make sense to have it checked out. indication is lost) or the frequency is fluctuating. Firing them physically shears the driveshaft that connects the generator to . In this case follow the generator disconnect procedure or shutdown IAW ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. if any of the 3 phases indicates ZERO voltage (i. not on the ground. and continued operation will only lead to something worse. but not zero.  Dash-1 Pg 1-118. If you’re not convinced. Volts and Load normal Leave generator switch ON. If freqs and volts are normal on all three phases. But what if it trips off a second time? Like the old saying. it can be assumed an overvoltage or feeder fault condition caused illumination of the light. In this case let’s say the engineer confirms the generator has failed. then the generator has failed. Volts and Load are zero Turn the generator switch to OFF and then ON.e. ask someone to describe what an engine compartment looks like after a generator has shelled itself. then the generator is failing and you’ll need to disconnect it or shut down the engine to prevent it from coming apart or catching fire. Related Question: My unit flies newer airplanes that have generator disconnects installed. the engineer informs you of a GEN OUT indication on the #1 generator. On the other hand. This kind of power can’t be safely utilized by the electrical systems (that’s why we leave the generator switch OFF). Follow generator disconnect procedure or shutdown IAW ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. Disconnect the affected generator using the Generator Disconnect Procedure. Discussion: Sometimes a generator will trip off in flight and a RESET (OFF/ON) brings it back online. it’s pretty messy. many flt engineers will recommend that even when corrective action brings the generator back online. resume normal ops. so I don’t have to GROUND STOP an engine? Answer: No. but it at least indicates that the generator itself is mechanically okay. Continue operation.” most flight engineers will conclude that something is definitely going wrong with that generator.” Freqs. If any phase shows zero freqs or zero voltage after the reset attempt.If frequency and voltage are not indicated on all 3 phases after going to OFF then ON. Freqs & Volts normal. Bottom line: GEN DISCONNECT or ENGINE SHUTDOWN is the best action when a generator trips off a second time. Explanation: “Abnormal” voltage or frequency is essentially anything outside the normal range.

Turn it off. then resume normal operation. If everything checks normal. once you GROUND STOP the engine. Remember that in an airplane with GCUs. If. not a bus failure. and no items on the bus have failed. leave the generator off and monitor. If the indication is lost. If you get abnormal freqs and/or volts. If the generator out light is not illuminated and systems associated with the failed bus are not operating and the bus cannot be restored. If the generator out light is not illuminated and systems associated with the failed bus are operating normally. check freqs. remember to monitor the generator and systems on the bus for normal operation. “Bus off. the FE will turn the generator OFF and disconnect it (ground stop instead of disconnect if on the ground). “Bus off. • the bus is not energized. Disconnects aren’t needed on the ground anyway.” Turn the affected generator off and ensure another generator picks up the bus. The first thing you should ask yourself. Since the generator turns with the propeller.the reduction gearbox. Check the freqs and volts. So when seeing that light. isolate the bus. disconnect the generator (or ground stop on the ground). This is an indication of a bus off indicator relay failure. Since your indicator is bad. so that means a part will have to be replaced (a 2-3 hr job). or • that the indicator has failed & the bus in actuality is still operating normally. isolate that bus. . Turn it off. Question: You’re flying along and you see an AC Bus off light illuminated on the left side of the overhead panel. what’s the first thing that pops into your head? Answer: If you’re like me. volts. and that bus cannot be restored. The BUS OFF indicator relay has failed.  Dash-1 Pg 3-30 – 3-31 LEFT/ESSENTIAL/MAIN/RIGHT AC BUS OFF LIGHT A Bus Off Light will occur when the average phase voltage is less than 90v. you think.  Dash-1 Pg 3-30 BUS OFF LIGHT (with GCUs) Illumination of the bus off light indicates that either: • voltage to respective bus is insufficient (average phase voltage of the generator is below 90 volts) and that electrical equipment on that bus will not operate normally.” And like me. when you first turn off the generator. and load for the affected generator. we have a different procedure. is do you also have a generator out light? If the generator out light is also illuminated. the generator will stop too. continue operation. If freqs are volts are normal and the BUS OFF light remains on. you’d be wrong. how would you respond differently? Answer: Okay.  H1 does not have Failed Bearing Lights. another generator does not pick up the load. now you can say it.  Dash-1 Pg 3-31 BUS OFF LIGHT (with/out GCUs) Question: If your plane didn’t have GCUs.

If systems are not normal. Land ASAP. • Check the 3 ESS AVI bus power CBs (Pilot’s upper CB panel). • Select MECH GOV on the Prop Governor Control Switches. malfunctioning nav equipment. Note Section I should be reviewed to determine what systems are lost. To isolate the MAIN AVI BSS. If generator out light not illuminated. If power is restored. continue normal operations. perform bus isolation procedures. illumination of copilot’s AC instrument SEL PWR OUT light. loss of prop sync.• • • If generator out light is also on: turn generator off and disconnect. replace “ESS” with “MAIN” in the following example. go “VI” (VG & CP ACI to DC) Pull 3 ESS AVI AC BUS PWR CBs (on pilot’s upper panel) or MAIN AVI AC BUS PWR (CBs on copilot’s upper panel) as applicable. and you have normal frequency. the BSS is burning). pull 2 sets of 3 ganged CBs on back of FS 245: ESS AVI SEC PWR and ESS AVI PRI PWR.  Dash-1 Pg 3-38. If systems are operating normally (failed indicator relay). isolate the ESS AVI Bus and land ASAP. check the 3 MAIN AVI bus power CBs (CP’s upper panel). or average less than 95v) You may get no other indication of AVI failure. or loss of Pilot’s E-TCAS display. continue normal operations. 3-31 ESS AVI BUS OFF LIGHT (any phase less than 90v. and items on the bus are malfunctioning: If can’t restore bus to normal operation. If you need to go further and totally isolate the BSS (e.  Dash-1 Pg 3-29. • If just one or 2 CBs popped.g. 3-41 BSS ISOLATION OF AVIONICS BUS (ESS/MAIN) Isolating the BSS will switch from clean to dirty power. reduce the load and try to reset.  Dash-1 Pg 3-32 AVI BUS ISOLATION PROCEDURES • • If is ESS AVI. • If power is restored. If they’re out. everything operating normally. • If power is not restored.  Dash-1 Pg 3-31 – 3-32 MAIN AVI BUS OFF LIGHT (any phase less than 90v. If systems are operating normally (failed indicator relay). volts. If generator out light not illuminated. make sure all 3 are pulled to completely isolate. If systems are not normal: • Go “VI” (VG on ADIs and CP bus to Inverter power) while you assess the problem. reduce the load and try to reset. or average less than 95v) A loss of the ESS AVI Bus may also be indicated by: loss of autopilot. loss of heading indication.  Dash-1 Pg 3-41 – 3-42 . & load: continue normal operations and monitor. continue with reduced load. Pull ISOL DC BUS AVIONICS ESS BY-PASS CNTOR CONTROL CB on pilot’s side panel. continue with reduced load. since the MAIN AC bus provides unconditioned power to the MAIN AVI bus. If they’re out. The following example is for the ESS AVI BUS. The procedures for ESS and MAIN are the same.

The generator was the problem. and ADI (VERT REF) inop. Essential TRs. This step does two things. Finally. loss or malfunction of heading indication. and synchrophaser. turn off the things you don’t absolutely need. suction boost pumps. but this is a good start. #2 fuel boost pump. You’re now stuck with little or no ESS AC power.e. turn off the Anti-skid (to prevent erratic braking). the LH. GCAS. and will most likely to occur during high load conditions. If power is restored: then you’re in good shape.PARTIAL LOSS OF THE ESSENTIAL AC BUS (AIRPLANES W/O ESU UPGRADE) Discussion: The C-130’s four AC generators produce much more power than the airplane normally needs. it routes that power through a different pathway (K-relay). You can also go back to normal governing. compasses. Third. But the Essential AC bus is a different story. followed by the suction boost pumps. you’ll begin to see problems.  Dash-1 Pg 3-31. If corrective action (see step 2) restores power to the bus. (This isolates the props from the synchrophaser. review the Dash-1 and land ASAP. First. illumination of the suction boost pump warning light. Main. old autopilot operating erratically. aux hydraulic pump failure. If partial loss of the ESS AC bus occurs or is suspected. What you’re looking for is failure of components that use ESS AC power. In any case. In fact. and/or malfunctioning navigation/communication equipment. pitot heat off lights. and RH AC buses draw so little power in normal operations that just one generator could support them. Next. Second. There are additional steps for the FE. First. (Normally it’s the #2 generator. illumination or flickering of the #2 fuel boost pump low pressure light. put your VERT REF switches to VG (to keep the ADIs from tumbling). the synchrophaser—an ESS AC component—could jump to life and cause big power fluctuations) 2. it consumes roughly 70% of the plane’s AC power. so the goal becomes one of preserving what you can and turning off the rest of the ESS AC components to minimize loading. and another one will pick up the bus. loss of normal trim operation.MECH GOV. 3-32 – 3-36 PARTIAL LOSS OF THE ESSENTIAL AC BUS (AIRPLANES W/ ESU UPGRADE) The loss of one phase of the ESS AC bus may occur with or without illumination of the AC BUS OFF light. loss of synchrophaser. and the average voltage of the three phases remains above 90). so if it’s not getting all the juice it needs. Recognizing the symptoms is the key to getting a good start with this EP. Leave the bad generator OFF and continue normal operation. but not enough to trip the GEN OUT or BUS OFF lights (i. failure of normal brakes. Propeller Governor Control Switches. synchrophaser. or illumination of the ESS AC . it transfers the bus to another generator—one that’s producing better quality power. This particular malfunction can be rather subtle and confusing. GCAS annunciating INOP. find an alternate power source for some of your ESS AC components…. These include such things as the autopilot. Turn OFF the generator that was powering the bus when failure occurred. normal trim tabs inop. new autopilot disengaging. At the top of the list is the aux pump (huge draw on power…don’t use!). If power isn’t restored: then the problem lies somewhere in the bus itself. the aux hydraulic pump. It may be indicated by one or more of the following: failure of normal brakes. Typically it occurs when voltage on one of the generator’s three phases drops just enough to disrupt ESS AC equipment.. the FE will proceed as follows: about the Copilot’s AC Instruments and the AC Inst & Eng Fuel Control system—both can be switched over to the DC inverters. no phase drops below 70 volts. #2 fuel boost pump.

accompanied by smoke and fumes. 3. i. B. smoke or overheat of electrical equipment occurs. isolate the AC bus and review section I for lost items. Answer: Possible electrical fire. Then the engineer will troubleshoot the source of the electrical fire. In the event of loss of ESS AC bus (with GCU): (Memory Aid: “MGAVIR FAST BAIL”) MECH GOV on all 4 propellers (to prevent power flux) Anti-skid OFF. another generator does not assume the load). turning generator off. • Isolate – If CBs will not reset or trips again. NOTE Loss of ESS AC bus will NOT affect ESS AVI bus (normally).e. if able. again attempt to locate the malfunctioning unit(s) and isolate it by turning it off/pulling its circuit breaker(s)/removing the electrical plug(s). regardless of apparent success of corrective actions if you have to go past step 2. and CP instrument bus). the engineer would proceed as follows: 1. RUN ON OFF If the situation stabilizes. malfunctioning TR units are the most common cause of electrical fires.OFF A ux Pump . . WARNING Because of the important part electrical controls play in the operation of the plane. According to the engineers.  Not true on Dyess Airplanes that have been de-modded via TCTO 1821 (i. a contributing factor to smoke or fire. If unable to locate the malfunctioning unit and you have an operable APU.000 ft on a vector to Runway 19. BSS circuit breakers pulled). Inverters to DC bus position (ACI&EFC bus. If steps 1 and 2 corrected problem. 5.e. and that loss of electrical controls will not be a greater hazard than the smoke or fire.OFF T R CB’s pulled Circuit Breakers – check and reset all A. Perform the SMOKE AND FUME ELIMINATION boldface first. 4. or will be. continue mission normally. every attempt should be made to locate the malfunctioning unit(s) or bus. Reduce the load (FAST) F uel Boost Pump (#2) .BUS OFF light (which remains illuminated when affected generator is turned off. start the APU. See Note on 3-34. 6. and try to reset CBs again. C phase (Ф) Ess AC bus CBs on pilot’s side and on the upper main AC distro panel at FS245. The loadmaster reports smoke coming from under the flight deck area. place APU Gen on. then isolate it by turning off/pulling circuit breakers/removing electrical plugs.OFF (pull CB) S uction Boost Pump (Util) . VG on ADIs. 2. • APU – if the CBs will not reset. • Land as soon as possible. electrical power should not be shut off until the pilot is certain that it is. Main tank boost pumpsMain tank cross-feed valvesPropeller governor control switchesAPU switchAPU generator switch All engine generator switchesON CLOSED MECH GOV START. If fire. • • • • • • • • • • ELECTRICAL FIRE Question: You’re about 60 miles out from Eglin AFB and have been cleared for descent down to 5.

Main tank boost pumpsMain tank cross-feed valvesPropeller governor control switchesPilot’s and Copilot’s VERT REF switchesCopilot’s inverter switchOil cooler flap switchesAll engine generator switchesON CLOSED MECH GOV VG DC OPEN. Copilot’s inverter switchOil cooler flap switchesAPU generator switchAPU switchDC OPEN. and heading signals to flight instruments without ESS AVI power). 2. proceed as follows: 1. determine the malfunctioning bus and proceed with ELECTRICAL BUS ISOLATION PROCEDURES.If condition persists. Land as soon as possible On the other hand. (INUs cannot provide pitch. 5. WARNING Any time power is removed from the ESS DC bus. 2. there will be on power for the ADIs regardless of power source selected (ESS AC position needs either ISO DC or ESS DC control power). Pilot’s and Copilot’s VERT REF switches- VG WARNING Placing the copilot’s inverter switch in the DC BUS position with the VERT REF switch(es) in the INS position will cause the ADIs to become unstable and tumble. WARNING Any time power is removed from the ISO DC and ESS DC bus.  Dash-1 Pg 3-36 – 3-38 ISOL DC ON BAT LIGHT . 7. the engine bleed air regulators will close. if you are unable to locate the malfunctioning unit and you have an inoperable APU. and there is no isolation procedure for the BATT bus or the INS BATT bus. determine the malfunctioning bus and proceed with ELECTRICAL BUS ISOLATION PROCEDURES. 3. 4. Land – ASAP. 6. roll. FIXED OFF STOP If the fire goes out. and thus depressurizing the aircraft. 3. 2. 5. If fire persists: Engine generator switch – OFF. The battery cannot be recharged if ISO DC bus is isolated from the power system. In flight. FIXED OFF “Make an APU” 1. shutting off air to the air-conditioning units. 4. the engineer would proceed as follows: 1. 3 MAIN AC Bus curent limiters (at FS 245) 1 Engine Driven Generator REMOVE ON If the fire goes out. battery life is limited if no TR is operating.

others may affect one engine at first. Land as soon as possible. While certain malfunctions can cause an across the board loss of power (Synchrophaser being an example). it is an indicator problem. Because there are many causes for multiple engine loss or RPM rollback. your FE might have to cross-feed differently to deal with specific fuel problems. Improper cross-feeding can lead to power loss on regular E’s and H’s. Analysis showed his actions saved the . followed by a significant power loss on all four. Main tank quantities have to be very low (~1000 lbs) before it’s likely to occur. If you see power loss indications on one engine followed a short time later by another. but that’s the exception. battery conservation measures should be initiated. If battery voltmeter indicates about 28V.If the ISOL DC ON BAT light illuminates for more than 25 seconds. The bottom line: Perform the procedures below if you see any uncommanded or erratic indications of multiple engine performance (either sequentially or simultaneously) affecting fuel flow. The details of that mishap can’t be discussed in this text. this procedure was developed. non-standard cross-feeding technique) is one potential cause of multiple engine power loss. This is because the boost pumps in the aux and external tanks are already designed to provide fuel at a higher pressure (28-40 psi) than those in the main tanks (15-24 psi). So. That isn’t the case. so keep that in mind as you study this malfunction. It was first introduced in 1998. or RPM. for example. Discussion: Catastrophic bleed air failure (such as a blown duct) can cause a sudden and significant loss of torque. and the Dash1 says not to do it. In rare cases. (This is not possible on E and Super E models which do not have APUs). in flight a failure of the RCR connecting the ESS DC and ISO DC buses as occurred. but an experienced engineer or IP can give you more information about the unique characteristics of the mishap aircraft. If confirmed.e. It puts the aircraft in the most stable and reliable configuration for flight. Improper fuel management (i. Important Reminder: A number of pilots have confused the Multiple Engine Power Loss procedure with an earlier Dash-1 procedure called “4-ENGINE POWER LOSS”. In a recent mishap a crew experienced this just after takeoff at heavy gross weight. can affect both the TD system (loss of torque) and the synchrophaser (reduction in RPM). rather than perform the procedure. not a real system malfunction. The FE—fearing a stall—closed the bleeds first to ensure maximum power. There was a loud bang. Bleed air failures can also result in a loss of torque. Essential AC problems. In short. or even bleed air. don’t delay your application of the procedure! Any delay may result in flameout of all 4 engines. That pressure difference is what makes cross-feeding possible. remember the symptoms described in the Dash-1. But there are others. then gradually progress to the others. in normal operation there’s no reason to turn off the main tank boost pumps when cross-feeding from the aux’s or externals. even with the main tank boost pumps left ON. torque. TIT. Confirm it by checking for a battery voltmeter indication of 24V or less. What other things besides fuel management can cause this problem? Malfunctions in the Essential AC bus (combined with failure of the under voltage protection systems on ESU planes). and be prepared to analyze situations dealing with fuel starvation. too. WARNING Use of the APU is required to air start the engines after 4-engine failure. they incorrectly believe that the power loss must affect all four engines simultaneously before the procedure applies. As far as cross-feeding goes. following the loss of an aircraft. but it’s rare.  Dash-1 Pg 3-32 MULTIPLE ENGINE POWER LOSS / RPM ROLLBACK Background: Until late 2001 this procedure was a BOLDFACE procedure.

In this case. After level off the engineer sets up the fuel panel to cross-feed from the left aux tank. When the above procedures have been completed. loss of RPM due to low voltage on the Ess AC bus/Ess Avionics AC Bus. it might behave erratically) 4. in spite of Dash-1 guidance that could have led others to a different action. Question: You’re two hours into the flight from Pope to Eglin. possible fuel starvation.  Dash-1 Pg 3-20 – 3-21 .airplane. This example isn’t intended to confuse you about when to perform the procedure. or Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Why? They do it to monitor for fuel contamination. Rather. 5. the crew did what they had to do to keep the airplane from losing altitude and hitting the ground. the fuel may be contaminated. Main tank boost pumpsMain tank cross-feed valvesPROPELLER GOVERNOR CONTROL SWITCHESPerform the Dash-1 ON (E) CLOSED (E) MECH GOV”(CP/E) NOTE If all four propeller governor control switches are not placed in MECH GOV before restoring power to the Essential AC bus. It worked for them. 6. it should get you to think about what actions are most appropriate for a given situation. procedure and land as soon as practical: 1. the crew should check all other essential systems for proper operation. accompanied by a reduction in torque and TIT. Great airmanship! Did you Know? Engineers are required to monitor the engines for 1-minute when initially going on cross-feed. the multiple engine power loss procedure wouldn’t have worked for the kind of power loss they encountered. so when clean bus power is suddenly restored to it. (Explanation: the synchrophaser uses Essential AC. such as failure of the bleead air system. 3. Should one of the engines begin to act erratically. 7. You’ve been chatting about the previous weekend’s football games when you notice erratic fuel flow on all four engines. Answer: Multiple Engine Power Loss. a significant power fluctuation may be experienced. 2. But other malfunctions can cause loss of engine power. TEMPERATURE DATUM CONTROL VALVE switchesGenerator supplying the Essential AC BusSynchrophaser master switchSynchrophaser Essential AC/Essential Avionics AC/ and Essential DC circuit breakersNULL (E) OFF (E) OFF (E) PULLED (E) WARNING These procedures should correct propulsion system malfunctions arising from fuel system problems. Using the below procedure will put the configuration back to tank to engine and prevent all 4 engines from flaming out. Several fuel low pressure and tank empty lights are illuminated on the fuel panel also.

-LOX Qty Ind. -TD Control V alves -UHF #1 -Interphone -APU Control -TD Relay -CP 2 Lts -CP Pitot Heat ISO DC BUS 28V DC ESS DC BUS 28V DC Inv TD sw. BICU -Radio Compass -CVR. 40 kVA #4 GEN 200/115V A C 3Ф. 40 kVA #3 GEN 200/115V AC 3Ф.#1 GEN 200/115V AC 3Ф. RCR GND MAIN DC BUS 28V DC -Flaps -Anti-s ki d -Door Warning -Wipers -NESA Control -Nav Instm Lights -Ut ility Lights RCR. -Fuel Qty Ind. 40 kVA A PU GEN 200/115V AC 3Ф. -Emergency Exit Lts Off -ELT -SKE Bat Sw INS BATT BUS 28V DC -INU -Nav IDCU INS BATT . 40 kVA MAIN AC BUS “Dump Pump” RH A C BUS “Anti/De-Ice” TR RCR TR RCR -Prop Anti-i ce -Prop De-ice -#4 Boost Pump -RH Fwd Ext Boost #2 GEN 200/115V AC 3Ф. -Fuel Pressure -Emergency Brakes -Booster Hyd. -#3 Eng/GB Oil -#4 Eng/GB Oil -Normal Brakes -Aux Hyd -Ut il Hyd -Hi/Low Rudder—Boost -Hi/Low Rudder—Utility -#1 Eng/GB Oil -#2 Eng/GB Oil -Antiskid Tes t -Fire Extinguisher -AC Ext Pwr Sol -Al arm Bell -Jump Lights -ISO DC Bus on Bat t Ind. -Oil Quant Ind & Li ght AC INSTM & ENG FUEL CONTROL 115V AC AФ #1 Stepdown Transformer 26V AC Singl e φ #2 Stepdown Transformer 26V AC Single φ Figure 16 – Electrical Diagram CP AC IN STM 115V AC A&BФ (C grounded) -P & CP ADIs --Gyros & Ind. DFDR ESS AC BUS “Essential for Flight” -Aux Fuel Pumps -Rear Ext Tanks -Main Dump Pumps -#3 Boost Pump -NESA -Galley Power -Cargo Compart ment Fan -#1 Boost Pum p -LH Fwd Ext Boost Pump -VORs/ILSs -Trim -Suction Boost Pumps -Aux Hydraul ic Pump -Aux Feather Pump -Pri Instrument Lights -#2 Boost Pump TR TR FL T RCR RCR FLT BATT 24/28V DC TD sw/RCR Bus Tie GND BAT SW RCR Inv -Torquemeters -TIT Gauges -Fuel Flow Ind. -Fire Detect -Pneum/Hyd Xfeed Valves -Dist of AC Power -Ldg Gear & Ind -P Pi tot Heat -P 2 Lights -Oil Cooler Flaps & Ind. 40 kVA BSS #1 BSS #1 MAIN AV I BUS -TACANs -IFF -MLS -GPS -Radar -SKE LH AC BUS “Crew Comfort” ESS AVI BU S -C12 Compass -Autopilot -P/CP HSIs -Flt Directors -Synchrophaser -DVS. INU. -Voltmeter (DC) -Emergency Depress.

The normal limits for either system is 2900-3200 psi. These electrically driven (ESS AC) pumps are located below each reservoir and insure positive flow of hydraulic fluid to engine driven pumps. or other system/malfunction. There is one primary gauge for each system (utility and booster) on the control panel that indicates the pressure output of each system.  There is about 9. closes both valves (upstream is motor-driven. UTILITY SYSTEM The Utility System operates: the landing gear. ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS The engine driven pumps located on backside of reduction gearbox (one of the gearbox accessory items). They are variable displacement pumps with internal control mechanisms that control output pressure to the system at approximately 3000 psi. stopping fluid flow to and from the pumps while trapping fluid in run-around circuit for cooling and lubrication. and one side (or half) of each flight control boost package.The Hydraulic System ENGINE DRIVEN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS HYDRAULIC RESERVOIRS The function of the hydraulic reservoirs are to assure positive supply of fluid to engine driven pumps and each system at all times and allow for expansion and contraction of hydraulic fluids caused by thermal changes. ENGINE DRIVEN PUMP SWITCHES electrically control shutoff valves on the supply and output lines to each pump. The #3 and #4 engine driven pumps provide the output for the booster system. SUCTION BOOST PUMP There is one suction boost pump each for the utility and booster systems.6 gal/min depending on the pump. It will extinguish at approximately 1300-1400 psi. normal brakes. nose wheel steering.3 gallons in the entire system.  There is about 12. The Booster reservoir is forward of the right wheel well in the cargo compartment and has a 2. BOOSTER SYSTEM The Booster System operates the other side (½) of each flight control boost package. The #1 and #2 engine driven pumps provide the output for the utility system. The light will come on at about 1000 psi (900-1100 psi according to C-130 Training Manual) or when the pump switch is in the OFF position. line rupture. . Turning the switches OFF. The utility reservoir is forward of the left wheel well in cargo compartment and has a 3.  The pump flow rate is about 8.0 gallon capacity. HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL The hydraulic control panel is on the lower portion of CP’s instrument panel. downstream is solenoid actuated). wing flaps.2 gallon capacity. CAUTION Starting an engine with inoperative suction boost pump may cavitate and damage the engine driven hydraulic pump. ENGINE DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP PRESSURE WARNING light illuminates when there is low pressure in the pump output line due to pump failure.5 gallons in the entire system. The switches are left ON after engine shutdown to prevent failure of supply line due to thermal expansion.6 – 9.

and notifies crew. Low pressure may be caused by a suction pump failure (mechanical or electrical) or loss of fluid (line ruptures. RUN-AROUND CIRCUIT The purpose of the engine driven pump run-around circuit is to trap fluid for the pump to provide lubrication and cooling. leave pump switches OFF. 5. 4. 1. Normal pressure (2900-3200 psi) may not be indicated in LSGI (i. The valve starts to open at 3450 psi. 6. 2-45. 3. bring engine up to normal ground idle to check hydraulic pump pressure output. OFF at 30 psi). the copilot sets the flaps at 50%. a circuit breaker popped (11 amp thermal circuit breaker). If unable to isolate leak. CHECKING THE ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS DURING ENGINE START 1.e. it may be as low as 2550 psi). SUCTION BOOST PUMP PRESSURE WARNING LIGHT illuminates when there is a pressure switch failure. FE or LM checks for loss of fluid at units being supplied by system. if possible. 5-5. There must be an indication of pressure (light out or gauge indication) from the respective pump by the time the engine is on-speed. or if the engine is in LSGI. Operate flight controls to create a momentary drop in system pressure and note system pressure indicates return to normal when flight controls are static. 5. As the flaps track to 50% the hydraulic pressure continues to drop and doesn’t recover. Without lubrication. is fully open at 3850 psi. 6. 4. Normal operating pressure may not be indicated unless the elevator control is pulled slightly aft of the front stop to relieve a built-in pressure bypass. 2. Other engine drive pump switch must be in the OFF position if other engine on the same wing is operating. or empty reservoir). PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE This automatic protective device is designed to route fluid back to the reservoir (to relieve high pressure) when the pressure compensating feature of the engine-drive pump fails. the pump becomes a fire hazard since it is turning as long as engine is operating. Isolate units causing trouble. Check pump output after engine stabilized on-speed (normal ground idle or LSGI).  Dash-1 Pg 1-173 – 1-177. CP turns affected engine driven hydraulic pump switches OFF. CP turns suction boost pump switch OFF (affected system only). In such cases. Like a good pilot he is watching for the utility hydraulic pressure to drop as the flaps extend and then he looks for a recovery. or when there is low pressure in the output line (ON at 20 psi. 3.  It can relive up to 16 gal/min when fully open. What should he do? Answer: Perform LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE procedures. Normal system pressure from respective pump within 30 seconds after engine-stabilized on-speed (at 100% RPM). 2-48. 2. or the respective engine’s fire handle is pulled. Valves will close to trap fluid in the run-around circuit whenever the respective pump switch is turned OFF. . although this would be very unusual.SUCTION BOOST PUMP SWITCHES turn ON/OFF the associated electrical suction boost pump for either the utility or booster system. FE or LM checks for loss of fluid in reservoir. 2-93. and reseats at 3100 psi. 5-42 HYDRAULIC MALFUNCTIONS LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE Question: During slow down on the run-in to a DZ.

follow LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE procedures. So. 3-53. Strongly consider engine shutdown. reservoir. SUCTION BOOST PUMP WARNING LIGHT If a SUCTION BOOST PUMP WARNING LIGHT illuminates in-flight. 10. The Dash-1 specifically mentions this in a Note on pg.  Dash-1 Pg 3-52 Discussion: The loss of a single engine driven pump on the Utility side may not have much of an effect on system pressure during level flight. like when lowering the gear? The remaining pump isn’t going to be able to provide the fluid volume needed. the pump can disintegrate internally causing a fire hazard. and a fire hazard may exist. In some cases. pilot’s discretion should be exercised as to the need for continued operation of that engine 6. refill to full mark. CP should turn both engine driven pump switches OFF. note static system pressure. (About a gallon of flammable hydraulic fluid usually trapped in runaround circuit may have been dumped into engine nacelle). If fluid level is decreasing. and notify the crew. leave its pump switch OFF. the leak may be isolated between the inflow hydraulic shutoff valve and the outflow one-way check valve. If level is stable. and using units. no further corrective action is necessary. Fluid leaking into nacelle or pump disintegration from internally generated heat. let the crew 5. ENGINE-DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP FAILURE Question: While at cruise altitude en-route to Eglin AFB. demand could even pull system pressure below 1000 psi. If so. Hydraulic ENGINE PUMP switchOFF (CP) Hydraulic reservoir levelChecked (E)/(LM) If fluid level is normal. where the pump lights come on. and reactivate the system by positioning the suction boost pump switch and other pump switch ON. the pump may be turning without fluid. no further action is required (failed suction boost pump or pressure indicator). Engine shutdown is at pilot’s discretion. keep this in mind when you lose #1 or #2 on a future flight. If no leaks are visible. if not possible. 8. FE or LM checks for leaks in the pluming. . FE or LM should monitor reservoir for further decrease of fluid level. FE or LM will check for fluid loss at using units and isolate. But what happens when you place a big demand on the system. 4.7. 9. If leak is isolated. 3. BUT STOPPED when the affected pump switch was turned off. leave system off. 7. If fluid level has DECREASED. Before actuating the gear or flaps. 1. Internal pump failure can be a fire hazard. WARNING The engine-drive pump is geared directly to the engine and if the shear neck or the pump drive spline does not separate. you notice the #1 hydraulic pump pressure warning light illuminate. Isolate leak if possible. If level is decreasing or static system pressure is less than 2500 psi. What will you do? Answer: Perform corrective action for engine driven hydraulic pump failure. the copilot will turn the suction boost pump switch OFF (affected system only). 2. To isolate the bad pump. The FE or LM will check the fluid level in reservoir: If level is not decreasing and system static pressure is 2500 psi or above. re-service reservoir and turn switches ON one at a time. follow LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE procedure. Because of this hazard. Minimize hydraulic use. to remind you that a pressure drop is normal when only one utility pump is operating. if possible. and system pressure is going to drop (to ~1500 psi). don’t panic. the problem is probably at the pump. In either case.

2 brake applications without antiskid. and emergency nose gear extension. Another gauge (direct-reading) is located on ramp control panel. Perform CRUISE ENGINE SHUTDOWN on one of the engines supplying the affected system. PRESSURE GREATER THAN 3900 PSI: The pump compensator and pressure relief valve have failed. 5-42 AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM The auxiliary hydraulic system is used to operate the aft cargo ramp and door. If pressure doesn’t normalize. 2900 min. or the pump would be isolated from the system high-pressure relief valve. 0% to 15% flaps: Normal brakes: 290-3300 psi 2550 psi 1500 psi 1500 psi 1500 psi 1000 psi ± 100 ± 100 ± 100 ± 100 NORMAL 2900-3200 2900-3300 2900-3200 1100-1400 psi psi psi psi MAXIMUM 3500 psi 3500 psi 3500 psi (Caution 1400-1600) Max 1600 2900 min. . utility and boost: Hydraulic pressure. AIRSTART that engine and shut down the other engine using ENGINE SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE. Try the inboard engine first. 15% to 100% flaps: Rudder boost. and anytime emergency brake pressure is required. LSGI: Accumulator Preload: Utility Booster Normal Brakes Emergency Brakes  Dash-1 Pg 5-5. 1 brake application 2900-3200 psi Emergency brakes: Min pressure. The hydraulic ground test valve is used to pressurize utility hydraulic system with aux pressure to check equipment normally driven by utility pressure. but it’s not a hazard. and not to panic and perform LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE procedures. One pressure gauge is located on the CP’s hydraulic control panel (electrical from remote transmitters). Fluid trapped when the pump isolated could drain into the engine nacelle and create a fire hazard. The aux pump will be used when called for during normal checklists. during ramp and door operations. (Always verify that ramp and door manual selector is positioned to Neutral before turning on either switch). Excessive pressure could build up until the pump or pump lines rupture. Do not turn off the pump switches.  Dash-1 Pg 3-51 – 3-53 SUMMARY OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM LIMITATIONS Hydraulic pressure. aux system: Rudder boost. The Aux system has one pump switch on the CP’s hydraulic control panel and one switch on the ramp control panel located aft of left paratroop door. 2250 min. 1 brake application without antiskid. emergency brakes.know that they can expect a pressure drop. EXCESSIVE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PRESSURE PRESSURE GREATER THAN 3450 PSI: The pump compensator has failed. It can also be used to pressurize the utility system via the ground test valve.

5-42 AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS If the aux hydraulic pump fails check the ESS AC and ESS DC power sources. but with some loss of boost assistance.If utility pressure is observed when the aux pump is activated on the Before Starting Engines checklist. the flight control booster unit will continue to operate. If a component of one hydraulic system supplying pressure to the unit fails or malfunctions.  Most pilots use the technique of not positioning to less than 20% flaps. one for the booster system (left guarded switch of each pair). 5-5. stopping flow of fluid to unit. 3500 psi maximum. (The cockpit aux gauge won’t show hand pump pressure. High boost is provided for rudder when flap lever is positioned to 15% or more. There are two switches for each booster pack unit. a malfunction of the ground test valve is probable. Both system switches must be OFF to completely isolate a flight control unit. Rudder: A diverter valve bypasses rudder pressure reducer to provide full system pressure for operation at low airspeed.) Elevator: Full system pressure provided to elevator boost pack and is never reduced. Positioning flap lever to less than 15% reduces rudder boost pressure to about 1300 psi. The hooded warning light will illuminate when corresponding switch is OFF. it reduced its combat agility. 1-173. Aux system pressure limits are 2900-3300 psi normal. This high boost is critical for aircraft control during approach and landing with engine(s) inoperative. the hand pump must be used to provide aux pressure. Switch guards (safety wired closed) are labeled left to right: Elevator pair. If electrical power is unavailable for the aux pump. the Elevator unit is in the extreme aft end of cargo compartment (“twin guns”). but the direct-reading gauge on rear hydraulic panel will. the unit is designed to function normally using the other hydraulic system.  Dash-1 Pg 1-211. 1-177. If either the booster or utility hydraulic system fails. and Aileron pair (ERA). This does not ensure that the shutoff valve has actually operated. Aileron: Aileron pressure is reduced to 2050 psi under all conditions so will not overstress wings with too fast a roll rate with external fuel tanks. CONTROL BOOST SHUTOFF SWITCHES There are six flight control boost shutoff switches and warning lights on lower right section of overhead control panel. While the external tanks increased the Herk’s range. . The Aileron unit is located aft of the center wing beam.)  Dash-1 Pg 3-53 FLIGHT CONTROL BOOSTER UNITS The purpose of the flight control booster units is to provide most of force required to move flight control surfaces. a shutoff valve adjacent to its respective boost unit will close (ESS DC). FLIGHT CONTROL PRESSURE REDUCERS The purpose of the flight control pressure reducers is to produce desired sensitivity and surface travel at varying airspeeds (lower pressure for higher speed operations to limit airframe stress). Rudder pair.  This pressure reducer was added when external tanks were added to the Herk (which was with the introduction of the E-Model. 1-180. This ensures that you will not inadvertently reduce to low rudder boost (due to inaccuracy of gauge readings). In the OFF position. and the Rudder unit to Right of elevator unit (faces sideways). and the other for the utility system (right guarded switch of each pair).

 Dash-1 Pg 1-180. HARDOVER CONDITION An abrupt. Engine failure. uncommanded near-full deflection of a flight control with corresponding change in airplane attitude is indicative of a hardover condition. but expect the airplane to be out of trim in the nose-up direction. If leak continues. and fly the airplane onto the ground. Manual movement is easier at lower airspeeds. and the approach. LANDING WITHOUT BOOSTED FLIGHT CONTROLS There are some things to consider when landing without boosted controls: the runway. engine failure. and require high manual forces to move flight controls. CONTROLLABILITY CHECK . position boost switch ON and other boost switch OFF. reduce airspeed and use engine power. split flaps. the leak is isolated. For corrective action. If elevator boosters are turned off. or narrow runways. If leak continues after checking both boost systems. and KIAS. Prior to removing boost. Immediate trim correction will be required.Do not purposely remove hydraulic pressure to flight control booster units in-flight for other than a response to an emergency. For elevator boost failure. 3-53 FLIGHT CONTROL BOOSTER UNIT MALFUNCTION LOSS OF HYRDAULIC ASSISTANCE With the loss of hydraulic assistance of the flight controls. leak is upstream of the boost pack. land with 0 to 50% flaps (50% recommended). Greatly increased force will be required to move the flight control. flat approach to reduce the amount of flare necessary. Position one boost switch OFF. or split flaps. pitch down). the hardover will be alleviated. If leak stops. Select a runway that avoids crosswinds. the aircraft condition. and high control forces. using inboard engine power to assist in pitch control (power up. greatly increased effort will be required. WARNING Airplane may make an unusual attitude. Maneuvering at cruise airspeeds may be accomplished with trim tabs. trim. differential engine power. Use normal trim and engine power to reduce control forces.OFF. the runway. Turn the control boost switch for affected system . If you lose hydraulic assistance to flight controls. Make a long. (Possibility exists that both boost systems may have to be shut off to stop leak). 1-185. erroneous autopilot inputs. pitch up/reduce power. turn the control boost shutoff switches for the flight control unit OFF. BOOSTER HYDRAULIC LEAK • • • • To analyze a booster hydraulic leak and isolate the malfunctioning boost package: Determine location of leak. 1-181. short fields. or other malfunctions could cause these abrupt changes in attitude. outboard engine power to adjust airspeed. assure other systems are not malfunctioning instead: runaway trim. Reduce weight and speed of airplane as much as possible. Follow isolation procedure for hydraulic system loss of pressure.

if able. For corrective action retard the power and decrease airspeed. Decrease speed until landing speed is attained... bumps or bangs (coming from the wing root area). as there may be no recovery capability beyond this point.  Dash-1 Pg 3-50.e. fishtail the airplane slightly.1. 5. beware the danger of split flaps. a controllability check should be performed as necessary to determine the extent of the damage. 8. 2. “Normal” must be selected on trim tab power selector switch. whichever is greater. and controllability for landing. Whereas holding the switch in the “Nose Up” or “Nose Down” position (i. Lower the flaps and inspect life raft compartments through a rear cargo window. For normal elevator trim. or enter shallow bank right or left. and selects electrical power source for operation of elevator trim tabs. 4. 3. If a raft is lodged on the tail. or 1. In the event of suspected or actual in-flight damage. beware high trim pressures when disengaging autopilot. looking for developing control problems. Gradually slow the plane in 5-kt increments while evaluating control capabilities in turns and simulated landing approaches.e. 7.2 times stall buffet encountered. ESS AC (115V 1Ф) supplies power to control wheel elevator trim button. 3-54. IN-FLIGHT RELEASE OF LIFE RAFT In-flight release of the life raft maybe indicated by vibrations (ranging from slight to severe). Climb to 10. . and or vertical or yaw control problems. The “OFF” position de-energizes elevator trim capability completely. Consider dumping fuel to lighten airplane. Conduct preliminary check for aircraft damage and personnel injuries. WARNING With structural damage. The elevator trim tab power selector switch is located on flight control pedestal. Land ASAP. Make changes gradually. toggling left or right) it trims lateral axis.000 feet AGL. or through sextant. CAUTION Do not reverse props on landing to prevent drawing raft into props. or an undesirable control problem is encountered. 3-78 – 3-79 TRIM TAB CONTROL SYSTEM The trim tabs function to relieve control pressure on the flight controls during flight. supplies ESS DC (28V) power to control pedestal switch for elevator trim. 6. Emergency on the other hand. Configure the airplane for landing. Landing at touchdown speed. Complete the DESCENT checklist. fuel imbalance. a switch on the outboard hand grip of each flight control yoke is held forward or aft to trim the nose of airplane down or up respectively when. WARNING Never decrease speed to a point where full control deflection is required. When held in the “Lower Left Wing” or “Lower Right Wing” position (i. If autopilot was engaged when problem was encountered. toggling forward or aft) trims the pitch axis (when elevator trim tab power selector switch is in “Emergency”). In “Normal”. The aileron and elevator trim tab switch is on the control pedestal. or differential airspeed occurs.

Place the elevator tab power switch to Emergency. If rudder trim tabs runs away to an extreme position. 5. If the failure results in a nose down condition. Hold trim switch on yoke in direction opposite to runaway. Nose Right). you are using different power sources to power the same motor. Flaps are held in position by a spring-applied brake (brake is hydraulically released).27° nose up).  Dash-1 Pg 3-55 FLAP SYSTEM NORMAL FLAP OPERATION – The Flap lever is set to a desired position inscribed on the flap lever guide. FE or pilot will pull respective trim tab CB on pilot’s side CB panel. 2. which then stops porting fluid to the wing flap motor. which move the flaps up or down via 90° gearboxes. A trim correction without indication reveals an indicator failure. . 8. Autopilot elevator servo is disconnected whenever elevator trim tab power selector is not in Normal.25° nose up) / mechanical stops (8° nose down . Usually they’ll just point to the bottom of the gauge. 2. Extend flaps as airspeed permits to provide adequate stall margin as speed is further reduced. The Wing flap selector valve ports hydraulic fluid to up or down side of the flap motor. Corrective action for runaway elevator trim: 1. This should stop the runaway tab. Hold trim tab switch in direction opposite to runaway. 6. ESS AC powers the rudder trim tab motor. The rudder trim tab switch on the flight control pedestal is a 3-position switch (Nose Left. leading to the possibility of encountering trouble in both modes). which energizes a MAIN DC circuit to position hydraulic wing flap selector valve up or down. Why? The trim indicators are DC gauges.  Dash-1 Pg 1-185 – 1-187 TRIM MALFUNCTIONS Corrective action for runaway aileron or rudder trim: 1.  It is a good technique for pilot to know exactly where these CBs are. 7. reduce airspeed until directional control is regained. Once desired position is reached. If trouble is encountered in Emergency. Retrim airplane using the elevator trim tab-switch on control pedestal. directional control cannot be maintained at high airspeeds. and you know that “DC dies”. 3. 4. the flap control unit/follow-up cam de-energizes the wing flap selector valve. (Tab movement will be slower than in Normal). and traveling nuts. bank the airplane as necessary and slow down. Remember to record it in the 781. reduce power and reduce airspeed to maintain control. Check the CB on aft junction box in cargo compartment (MAIN DC). OFF. If the failure results in an uncontrollable nose condition.  Keep a hand on the flap lever until flaps reach desired position and hydraulic pressure has returned to normal. 3. Position elevator tab power selector switch to OFF. This moves a cable to the flap control unit. return trim tab power selector switch to OFF. (In Normal and Emergency. so a power failure will cause the indicator to go off-scale. If this happens. jackscrews. This yellow colored switch is spring loaded to the OFF position. Then the Flap motor rotates torque tubes.Trim range: limit switches (6° nose down . Trim tab position indicators are located on the pilot’s instrument panel.

e.FLAP MOVEMENT – is both aft and downward (Lockheed-Fowler. Electrical power is used to sense asymmetrical condition. Hydraulic pressure locks emergency flap brake on outboard ends of torque tube. the copilot. Asymmetrical protection is not provided when manually positioning flaps. so the pilot must remain in communication with the person moving the flaps (usually the FE).  Dash-1 Pg 1-190 MANUALLY CRANKING THE FLAPS – This ability is used when hydraulic pressure is not available. He tells you that you have good hydraulics. outboard flaps are in close proximity to the ailerons. 3-58 MANUAL OVERRIDE – The manual override feature of the wing flap selector valve is located on the left hand hydraulic panel. Refer to the Dash-1 for detailed procedures and warnings.. selects flaps up. 3-57 – 3-58 Question: As you depart home station. so what is the problem? . The copilot does the right thing and positions the flap selector to match 35%. on your command. Should a failure of the flap torque tubes occur during override operation. Section 3 procedures. It can only be reset on ground by qualified maintenance personnel. asymmetrical protection is not available when using this feature. stop flap movement. Return the controllable flaps to the position assumed by the uncontrollable flaps. This safety feature only operates during normal flap actuation (i. Again. or if it is noted that binding increases. See Dash-1. forward of left wheel well. indicating asymmetrical flap movement. Flaps cannot be moved by normal or manual means once asymmetric flap brake is engaged. resulting in a change in trim about the roll axis. The pilot will direct FE to cease operation when desired position is reached. high-lift type flaps) to increase lift and drag. The complexity of flap operation gives potential for asymmetrical flaps. Flaps should then be moved only to assure airplane control. A yellow-manual shift handle and pinned flap drive input shaft are located above hand-crank. Since there is no automatic protection against asymmetric lift. A hand-crank stowed on forward side of left wheel well. and the possibility exists that binding may occur between aileron and outboard flaps during flap movement.  Dash-1 Pg 1-188. If aileron control is freed. the Pilot must be able to direct flap movements. using the flap handle to move the flaps). Flap movement restricted to 10° increments. One second of pressing the up or down button moves the flaps approximately 10%. It’s used to position the flaps when the flap electrical control system fails and utility hydraulic pressure is still available. 3-55 FLAP MALFUNCTIONS ASYMMETRIC FLAPS – The emergency flap brake automatically stops flap movement when an asymmetrical flap condition occurs due to a broken flap torque tube or other flap component. If aileron binding is discovered during flap movement.  Dash-1 Pg 1-190. Raise or lower the flaps by using the button in “shots”. The flaps begin retracting but stop at 35%. Be wary of changes in trim about the roll axis.  Dash-1 Pg 1-191. stop flap movement immediately. The hand-crank is inserted into the input shaft where 650 turns of crank are needed to achieve full up/full down. stop flap movement immediately.

DC dies.” Despite status of flap and trim indicators.  Dash-1 Pg 3-56 – 3-59 SUMMARY OF FLAP SYSTEM LIMITATIONS Airspeed limits on flaps 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Bank angle and load limitations: Flaps 0% 45% Extension Time Retraction Time Bank Angle 60° 45° 8-15 seconds 10-15 seconds 220 210 200 190 180 165 155 145 145 145 KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS KIAS Symmetric* Load 3. Something has caused the brake to be applied. If flap movement must be attempted. OUTBOARD FLAP FAILURE – If an outboard flap fails. check the trim tab indicators as well. resulting in binding restriction of aileron movement. If this happens and it is possible to control the airplane.0G 2. We can must assume that an assymetric condition has occurred. Stop flap movement as soon as binding is detected.Answer: With good hydraulics. assume electrical problems and reset. and airplane pitch will change.5G * Symmetric Loading: no aileron deflection (push up/down) ** Asymmetric Loading: combination of aileron & elevator (turns & rolling pull outs)  Dash-1 Pg 1-188. stop flap movement immediately. If the CB cannot be reset. The first thing to do is check the Wing Flap Control CB. consider using manual override if situation dictates (at pilot’s discretion). Here’s a different scenario: What if the copilot instead noted that hydraulic pressure was low or decreasing? In this case. 5-29. so if both are failed you can suspect the CB. and follow Dash-1 procedures. If the CB is in.33G 1. 5-41 . aft of the left main wheel well in cargo compartment). WING FLAP POSITION INDICATOR FAILURE – If the flap position indicator reads off scale. Pull the wing flap CB to stop probable hydraulic leak (isolates flap system from utility hydraulic system). Don’t forget CRM though. return them in 10% increments toward the position last selected before the flap failure. Both are on one MAIN DC CB ( “Flaps and Tabs” CB on the aft junction box. the problem can only be an electrical control circuit failure or the engagement of the emergency flap brake. no attempt should be made to move the flaps. 5-16. 5-14. follow loss of system pressure procedures. or if the binding gets worse.0G Assymentric* * Load 2. Use normally. it is possible for it to contact the aileron. the LM can visually check flap position as well. Utility hydraulic pressure decreases when flaps are moving. As soon as binding is freed. suspect emergency flap brake engagement. If the CB popped. confirm actual flap movement.  Remember the memory aid for gauge power loss: “AC lies.

Figure 17 – Concept: Flap Operation .

During an emergency the auxiliary hydraulic system can be use for extension (only). As the gear reaches full up. because touchdown circuits are probably affected.  E Models held in the up position by mechanical latch only. the hydraulic motor is stalled out (by restrictor valve plunger) and the main gear is held in UP position with hydraulic pressure (with spring-applied brake as backup). The main landing gear struts have adequate forward and aft support. weight of aircraft on the friction washer on each jackscrew assembly serves as a downlock for each main gear. If this device fails to withdraw inflight. 1-195 LANDING GEAR SAFETY FEATURES The locking device (J-Hook) on the landing gear lever prevents inadvertent movement of gear handle to UP when the airplane is on the ground. It is held in the DOWN position by a DOWNLOCK. The nose gear is held in UP position by hydraulic pressure. The landing gear selector valve directs utility hydraulic pressure to release the nose gear DOWNLOCK and to the upside of the nose landing gear actuating cylinder. Airplanes are equipped with soft main landing gear struts (450 psi). Diagonal stripes indicate gear is in an intermediate position. Retraction time should not exceed 19 seconds under normal operation. The Gear Lever is an electrical switch (ESS DC) that positions the landing gear selector valve to direct the gear actuating mechanisms UP or DOWN. The Nose Landing Gear retracts forward and up into the nose section of the fuselage when the gear lever is positioned UP. Check touchdown relay CB on ISO DC Bus.  Dash-1 Pg 1-191. The main gear is held in the DOWN position by hydraulic pressure. check the landing gear control CB. or that the indicator is inoperative. although lateral support is weak. the nose landing gear uplock is released and the gear extends. Notify crew.  Dash-1 Pg 1-195 LANDING GEAR INDICATIONS The letters UP appear on face of indicators when respective wheel is retracted and locked. With airplane on ground. . with mechanical latch (UPLOCK) backup. The Main Landing Gear retracts vertically into the wheel wells on the left and right sides of the fuselage when the gear lever is positioned UP. Ensure gear retracts. When the gear lever is selected DOWN. where as a symbol of a landing gear wheel indicates gear is extended and locked. Landing gear position indicators are primary system to indicate gear position.The Landing Gear System OVERVIEW The landing gear system includes a dual-wheel. pull down lock release finger latch. 1-193. reversing the hydraulic motors and extending the gear. if not. the landing gear selector valve is repositioned to port utility hydraulic fluid to the downside. steering nose gear and two tandemmounted main landing gears. See Dash One pg 1-196 for affected systems. When the gear lever is selected DOWN.  E Models held UP by spring-loaded brake only. and position the landing gear lever to UP. The landing gear selector valve directs utility hydraulic pressure to the upside of the two reversible hydraulic motors to raise the main gear. Undue side loading on the main landing gear (landing in a crab) must be prevented. (Be careful under low light conditions to not mistake the diagonal stripe symbol for a gear wheel symbol).

and gearboxes. the Dash-1 offers several pages in Chapter 3 detailing alternate methods of extending the landing gear. The landing gear selector valve is located behind the utility hydraulic panel cover adjacent to wing flap selector valve. nose landing gear manual extension after complete loss of hydraulic pressure (free fall). If successful. Refer to the Dash-1 for complete procedures.  Dash-1 Pg 3-59 OVERRIDING THE LANDING GEAR SELECTOR VALVE (HYDRAULIC EXTENSION ONLY) This procedure is useful when the problem is traced to the landing gear’s electrical circuits.  Dash-1 Pg 1-197 – 1-198 LANDING GEAR SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS Question: When normal extension of the gear fails. To move the gear depress the UP or DOWN button on landing gear selector valve. It is NOT appropriate for gear problems caused by hydraulic leaks or pressure loss. hydraulic pressure will not be available for nose wheel steering (NWS). manual (main) gear extension (hydraulic malfunction). Pressing the warning light test switch tests continuity of landing gear warning circuit. Preparatory steps: Pull the landing gear control CB. final turn. This procedure allows the crew to position the valve manually. it will extend the mains and the nose gear. What are those methods and why would we use one over the other? Answer: The landing gear is a complex system of electrical circuits. emergency hydraulic extension (nose gear). Dash-1 Pg 1-198 LANDING GEAR WARNING SYSTEM A single circuit operates a warning light in the gear handle and a warning horn. and the Dash-1 lists them in their preferred order: Overriding the landing gear selector valve (electrical malfunciton. This is because the LG control valve must remain seated in the down detent for hydraulic fluid to reach the NWS assembly.  Do not silence the horn in the visual pattern. The position indicators should continue to give correct indications. place the gear handle in the desired position. and emergency manual (main) gear extension (mechanical malfunciton). CAUTION If the button must be held in continuously to lower the gear. which then directs hydraulic pressure to the UP or DOWN lines as required. If the circuits fail the valve won’t operate. The warning horn will sound when the gear is not fully down & locked and any throttle is retarded below approximately 5° (1 inch) forward of Flight Idle with the flaps extended more than 70%. A warning horn silence button located on landing gear control panel will silence the horn unless flaps are extended more than 70% and the gear is not down and locked. Moving the gear handle normally sends Essential DC power to the LG control valve. using the UP and DOWN buttons at the Utility hydraulic panel (cargo compartment). The light illuminates when the gear is not in a locked position (either up or down) and anytime any throttle is retarded below approximately 5° (1 inch) forward for Flight Idle and gear is not down and locked. hydraulic lines. Your choice of an alternate method depends on what kind of failure you have. . There are several methods available. Below is a brief summary. or when on instrument final approach course.

A hand crank is stowed on forward face of left wheel. If the above don’t work. The crew will first pull out the emergency engaging T-handles to disengage the hydraulic gearbox from the jackscrews. for more information. Preparatory steps: Depressurize the aircraft (recommended). turn off all utility pumps (including the suction boost pump) and deplete system pressure. it is not recommended. It’ll take a while. pull the landing gear control CB. letting the strutscross sectioninto Figure 18 – slide down of a ballnut mated push their locked position. the procedural step of depressurizing the aircraft will relieve the binding. friction washers on the ball screw assemblies serve as downlocks and are the primary means of preventing gear collapse. page 3-65. We already learned that during manual gear extension. They also engage a manual drive gearbox that enables use of a handcrank.  Dash-1 Pg 3-62 – 3-64 . via the manual drive gearbox.  Dash-1 Pg 3-61 MANUAL MAIN GEAR EXTENSION (FREEFALL/HAND-CRANKING THE GEAR) This procedure is recommended when there is loss of utility hydraulic pressure or when a leak in the landing gear system cannot be isolated during normal operation. place the gear handle in the DN position. If the mains won’t free-fall. A yellow emergency engaging T-handle (Note: there is one handle for EACH main gear) and an input shaft are located on the forward wall of each wheel well. see the manual extension of main gear for mechanical malfunction in the Dash-1. Once the gear is down. then there’s some kind of binding involved and you’ll have to use the handcrank instead. pulling the T-handle out disengages the hydraulic gearbox from the jackscrews. the ball bearings are forced up or down the grooves (imagine a barber pole) and that’s what raises and lowers the gear. though—about 330 turns of the handcrank are required to lower each main. so the spring applied brake is just an important backup). allowing them to turn freely (more on that below). Frequently if problem in lowering gear is caused by gear system binding. as well as one on the fuselage wall forward of right wheel well. The handcrank (which we attach to the stub shaft) allows us to rotate the jackscrews manually. When the jackscrews rotate (during normal ops they’re turned by a hydraulically motored gearbox). should that be necessary. preventing the jackscrews from turning backwards when the aircraft lands Incidentally. This is important because it reapplies the spring jackscrew the drive brake on gearbox. one of the cleanup items is to to the the handle back in. . Refer the Dash-1 for procedures and warnings.While you can hold the button in during taxi to provide hydraulic pressure to the NSW. The landing gear usually free-falls because its weight—applied through the ball bearings—causes the jackscrews to turn backwards. and the gear will freefall at that point Did you know that just pulling the T-handles out is usually sufficient to get the main gear down and locked? Here’s why: ball nuts (attached to the landing gear struts) contain ball bearings that are mated to the grooves in the jackscrews. allowing them to rotate freely.

place the gear handle DOWN and decrease airspeed below 120 KIAS (but not below Vmca or touchdown speed). so all you’re left with is gravity and wind blast to pull the gear down. then increase airspeed rapidly (do not to exceed 165 KIAS). To do it. Allow 30-45 seconds for the gear to extend into the slipstream. Shifting it to the NLG EMERG EXT position allows the Aux system to provide an alternate source of hydraulic pressure. ensuring the pin. just turn on the Aux pump (or use the handpump behind the left troop door) and the gear should come down and locked.  Dash-1: pg 3-59 . During landing. Pull the copilot’s emergency release handle. Once you position the handle. To get the best view of the main landing gear the windows might need to be removed.NOSE LANDING GEAR EXTENSION Emer. Note how the bottom of the ball nuts contact the lower bumper stop.1 and 3-67 have some diagrams of this. Visually inspect the nose landing gear. Refer to the Dash1 for detailed procedures  Dash-1 Pg 3-64 Emergency Release Handle: This is a variation of the emergency hydraulic method described above. is protruding. Hydraulic Extension: This works when Utility system pressure is not available for normal use.  Dash-1 Pg 3-64 – 3-65 One Final Note (per the caution): After using any of the alternate extension methods. Leave the handle in the EMERG position until the gear is pinned after landing. but let it down while still have elevator control to do so gently. The gear should extend and lock. Manual Extension (Free-fall): This would be used when you have no hydraulic pressure at all. If the Aux pump isn’t working. you can use the aux handpump to extend the gear the rest of the way down. about shoulder height. hold nose wheel off the ground as long as possible. Pages 3-66. Don’t attempt to taxi! Stop straight-ahead. The nose gear doesn’t have a handcrank like the mains do. so make sure the plane is depressurized before doing that. Once it’s free. There’s an emergency extension valve handle located a few feet aft of the crew entrance door. Don’t enter nose wheel/pin the gear with unsafe indication until supported by jacks. and chock the nose gear. you may need to pull this handle first (located on the floor next to the CP’s left leg) to release the nose gear from its uplock. it’s usually a good idea to perform a visual inspection of the landing gear to confirm their down and locked status. which operates the down and locked indicator. This is done by looking through the inspection windows for each gear assembly. Below is an illustration of unsafe and safe main gear indications. either from the Utility or the Aux system. set parking brake.

(CP) Remove the utility hydraulic panel cover. gear malfunctions may take some time to resolve. In any case. Hydraulic pressures and fluid levels are normal. NOTE THAT THE SHOE BOLTS (1). ARE CENTERED WITHIN THE BOLD RECESSES (2). and pull the landing gear control circuit breaker. 2. you’d proceed as follows (Engineer will go to the back and remain on interphone with the flight deck): 1. (E) Place the landing gear lever in the DOWN position. Pull the landing gear control circuit breaker. and the engineer reports that the landing gear control CB is in. And don’t try to recycle the gear handle to get a good indication. Here’s a different scenario: What if you observed a loss of system pressure after putting the landing gear lever down? Answer: Immediately place the landing gear lever back UP.THE FIGURE ON THE LEFT IS DOWN AND LOCKED MAIN LANDING GEAR WITH INSPECTION WINDOW AND DUAL RAIL COVER REMOVED. AND THAT THE BOTTOM OF THE BALL NUT (3). If there’s no indication of system pressure loss. CONTACTS THE BUMPER STOP (4). if req’d. then the landing gear control valve may have failed electrically. get out the Dash-1 and review your options for lowering the gear. to lower the gear (E) If the button requires holding to lower the gear. nothing happens. 4. Assuming the landing gear control valve is the culprit in this scenario. Finally. so pay close attention to your fuel status. Figure 18 – Main Landing Gear Indication SCENARIO: LANDING GEAR SYSTEM FAILURE Question: You’re on a 12-mile final for the ILS Runway 19 at Eglin AFB and the flaps are set at 50%. hydraulic pressure will NOT be available for nosewheel steering. (These two steps isolate the landing gear from the utility system and prevents further loss of fluid in case of a leak) . 3. When the copilot places the landing gear handle DOWN. (E) Press the landing gear selector valve button and hold. THE FIGURE ON THE RIGHT DEPICTS THE LANDING GEAR IN AN UNSAFE CONDITION – NOTE THE MISALIGNMENT OF THE SHOE BOLTS WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE RECESSES AND THE VISIBLE JACKSCREW THREADS BETWEEN BALL NUT AND BUMPER STOP. Now what? Answer: Landing gear system failure.

Taxiing is not recommended. In the event both main tires on one side are blown. and land with nose gear only. on landing touch down the nose gear as soon as possible. If both are blown. Use tiedowns also when some structural failure has occurred and to keep the gear from moving laterally away from fuselage during landing. use reverse thrust. or with all gear retracted.  Dash-1 Pg 3-81 BLOWN MAIN GEAR TIRE(s) BLOWN OR ONE SIDE WON’T EXTEND If one main gear tire is blown. or one side of the main gear will not extend: In the case of only one side extending. follow Dash-1 procedures.  Dash-1 Pg 3-81 – 3-82 BLOWN NOSE WHEEL TIRES If one nose wheel tire is blown. After nose contact. apply enough up elevator to keep the airplane in a level attitude as long as possible. follow Dash One procedures on preparing to land. if possible. The airplane will tend to veer toward the bad gear on landing. “Put the drag in the middle” Touch down the nose gear as soon as possible. 3-59 MAIN LANDING GEAR TIEDOWN The main landing gear should be restrained with chains (or emergency tiedown fixture) prior to landing if the gear cannot be fully extended. Taxiing is not recommended. After gently lowering the nose. Do not use brakes. recommended action is to retract both main gear for landing. This minimizes nose wheel loading. use max reverse thrust and min braking. being careful not to let the nose rise off the ground. and immediately on ground contact. Follow ground egress procedures once the aircraft has come to a complete stop. and pulling the CB deenergizes the valve to a neutral. Reverse with caution. Line up on side of runway corresponding to the good gear. This keeps down pressure on the gear and also provides nosewheel steering) If system pressure is still low (not rising) after accomplishing these steps. (As a safety feature. keep the nose off the ground as long as possible. Make sure you raise the gear handle first. Do not taxi!  Dash-1 Pg 3-81 . the control valve—once placed in the down detent—is designed to stay there after loss of electrical power. follow LOSS OF SYSTEM PRESSURE procedures. Ensure you have reinstalled the nose gear inspection window. or if both tires are blown on one side. or the valve will stay seated in the down detent when you pull the circuit breaker. and use max reverse thrust. but use reverse to the fullest extent possible.  Dash-1 Pg 3-51.Discussion: Putting the gear handle UP moves the LG control valve out of the DOWN position.  Dash-1 Pg 3-69 3-72 NOSE GEAR FAILS TO EXTEND AFTER ATTEMPTING ALTERNATE METHODS In the event the nose gear will not extend after emergency corrective actions are attempted. “trail center” position. a normal landing may be made. Use the wheel brakes for directional control. but make sure you lower it before it drops down on its own. allowing the leak to continue. If you cannot raise the other main. Proceed with manual gear extension. Assume a normal landing attitude.

5-41 .  Dash-1 Pg 3-82 – 3-83 SUMMARY OF LANDING GEAR SYSTEM LIMITATIONS Max airspeed. 5-33 – 5-38. record in 781. Most airfields won’t have it. Land in a normal attitude. 5-22 – 5-23. external tanks empty.000 pounds. ST110 means single tandem type gear (ours) limited to gross weight of 110. taxi forward at least 5 feet to allow main gear to align. Check en-route supplement for landing / taxi restrictions at airfields (e.500 pounds total fuel in all tanks.g. and max 23. and ground egress the aircraft as soon as fully stopped. if available.200 pounds of fuel in outboard tanks.000 pounds max at that field). approximately 19 seconds Gear extension/retraction time Avoid braking in a turn. 300 fpm if any of the above criteria are not met. After backing or turning. extended Contact rate landing: of sink gear for 165 KIAS 540 fpm maximum if: below 130. 2-57.  Dash-1 Pg 1-191. less than 6.GEAR UP LANDING In the event of gear-up landing. If a stop in a turn occurs. follow Dash-1 procedures and request foam on the runway (3000’ long by 30’ wide).

Figure 19 – Landing Gear Operation .

 Dash-1 Pg 1-119 1-120. When flying on NVGs. and brakes. The pilot must check that the nose wheel steering indicator is centered prior to each landing. and Retract. providing both normal (white light) and infrared (IR) light capabilities. extending/retracting the lights can only be done with the IR lights on. No attempt should be made to turn the nose wheel while the aircraft is airborne. While this system has a poor ergonomic and operational design. request foam on the runway. Normal lights can not be extended and utilized without turning on the IR lights.  Dash-1 Pg 1-198 COCKED NOSE GEAR If pilot’s steering wheel is immovable. A centering cam returns the nose wheel to the centered position whenever the weight of airplane is removed from the nose gear.1. One wingtip taxi light is located in each wingtip. Hold. .  Extend the lights before turning on. powered by MAIN DC. Power for lights and motors is ESS DC. The nose steering wheel and indicator located to the left of pilot’s yoke. Master Landing Power switch: Two-Position (ON/OFF) provides power to the extension/retraction motors and turns the IR lights on/off. 5-41 TAXI LIGHTS: One taxi light is mounted on the inside of each main landing gear door.  Dash-1 Pg 1-122 SUMMARY OF LANDING & TAXI LIGHT LIMITATIONS Max airspeed with landing lights extended Max airspeed with dual mode landing extended lights 165 KIAS 250 KIAS Nose Wheel Steering System Nose wheel steering is provided via hydraulic pressure and a steering control valve in the utility hydraulic system through the downline of the landing gear control valve. controlled by a single on/off toggle switch. The extension/retraction toggle switches have 3 positions: Extend. it still is a powerful tool for NVG Airland Operations. or nose gear is cocked. controlled by a single on/off toggle switch. powered by MAIN DC. Hold de-energizes the actuator motor and the light will lock in position. Full deflection (left or right) can be achieved with one and one-quarter turns. CAUTION Do no operate landing lights for extended periods while airplane is on the ground.Landing And Taxi Lights LANDING LIGHTS: One retractable landing light on the underside for each wing approximately midway between the engine nacelles. Two on/off switches control light illumination. since neither light has any cooling facility. When landing with a cocked nose wheel. differential power. turn lights off before retracting in order to avoid potentially dangerous optical illusions on takeoff and landing. Relieve pressure on nose wheel by applying up elevator after landing. and maintain directional control through use of flight controls. indicator shows deflections up to 60° left/right of center (mechanical stops). This may cause a visual illusion. Any attempt to force steering wheel to turn may prevent nose wheel from castering. Dual Mode Landing Light (TCTO 1833): Many Dyess Herks have been modified with the dual mode lights.

The Anti-Skid system senses wheel speed (and change in speed) electronically. aux pressure is routed directly from the emergency brake selector valve through the brake control valve. or if the Emergency Brakes are selected. and whether refusal speed has been reached. 5 kts max 20 kts max 20° max deflection Record stops in turns in 781 BRAKE SYSTEM It is absolutely necessary that airplane brakes be treated with respect. These multi-disk brakes (installed on each of the four main landing gear wheels) are hydraulically operated. hold nose wheel off ground as long as possible. the utility hydraulic fluid flows through the brake pressure selector valve. Anti-skid is not available. The nose wheel does not have brakes. the decision to abort depends on the severity of the shimmy. During emergency brake operation.CAUTION Do not use the nose wheel steering with complete loss of the utility system.  Dash-1 Pg 1-201. but they also build up heat easily. hydraulic fuses. A gauge for each brake system indicates that pressure is available to the brakes powered by the respective system. and then the shuttle valve to the brakes. the emergency brakes are selected. When one wheel slows rapidly. On landing. as inadvertent use may cause the wheel to shimmy or turn from center. They do a good job of stopping the aircraft. or the anti-ski switch is turned OFF. both normal and emergency systems will be available (selector valves failsafe open). A brake pressure selector switch on hydraulic control panel selects utility hydraulic pressure with ‘Normal’ selected and auxiliary hydraulic pressure with ‘Emergency’ selected. . the brake pressure is reduced to keep the wheel from skidding. shuttle valve and to the brakes.  Dash-1 Pg 3-83 SUMMARY OF TAXI SPEED LIMITATIONS Nose gear deflected 60° Nose gear deflected 20° or more Aircraft Gross Weight > 155. apply up elevator to reduce load on nose wheel. The ANTI-SKID INOPERATIVE light illuminates when anti-skid is not operating. The anti-skid system is automatically disabled and the anti-skid light illuminates anytime the parking brakes are set. If electrical power to selector valve is lost. but the brake will operate from system with the highest pressure. brake fuses.000 lbs Avoid stopping in a turn. The system will not operate if the anti-skid switch is OFF. the dual anti-skid valves. the left/right brake control valves. On takeoff. 1-203 NORMAL AND EMERGENCY OPERATION During normal brake operation.  Dash-1 Pg 3-83 NOSE WHEEL SHIMMY If encountering nose wheel shimmy.  Dash-1 Pg 1-201 ANTI-SKID The anti-skid system reduces brake pressure for any main wheel that approaches a skid.

the 10-minute cooling time may be omitted. so use minimum braking during taxi. 3-second brake application with steadily increasing brake pedal pressure initiated at approximately 90 KIAS. is followed by an ERO (brakes being used and set). and be prepared to evacuate the airplane if overheating is indicated. Maximum heat buildup after maximum braking: • 1-5 minutes in brake assembly. After normal landings where brakes are not used and only checked during ground roll. Avoid light applications of brakes for long periods of time. The ANTI-SKID INOPERATIVE light will illuminate when the parking brakes is set. bring the airplane to a near stop with brakes. Record hot brakes in 781.  Dash-1 Pg 2-58 – 2-59 BRAKING DURING LANDING OPERATIONS The brakes must be checked on all full-stop landings. minimize use of brakes. wheel.000 pounds allow for 65 minutes of cooling time. The brakes remain applied in this manner until the airplane is stopped. Partial braking: Defined as a smooth. if a stop in a turn is required. and tire assemblies. requiring full anti-skid braking. and then allow the airplane to accelerate until brakes must be reapplied to control taxi speed. • 20-30 minutes in wheel/tire assembly. Slight braking to . and low speed ground idle. If taxiing downwind or downhill causes excessive oil temperature due to reverse thrust. lower the nose gear to the runway and smoothly apply steadily increasing brake pedal pressure until maximum pedal travel is achieved. Braking in a turn is not recommended. allow 10 minutes cooling time preceding next takeoff to account for brakes used during taxi. If the runway available exceeds critical field length by a minimum of 300 feet. the gear should be left extended after an immediate subsequent takeoff for a minimum of 15 minutes before retracting the gear or before another braked landing is accomplished. After any full antiskid braking operation. ( Vol 3. Dash-1 Pg 1-203 – 1-204 PARKING BRAKE HANDLE The parking brake is attached to a cable that pulls a pawl into a detent in the brake control lever. above 130. Do not taxi or tow the airplane for at least 15 minutes after overheated brakes have been cooled. For max effort takeoffs allow brakes to cool between aborted takeoffs. No hydraulic pressure is needed to keep the brakes engaged. The Dash-1 states that the primary means of controlling taxi speed is reverse thrust. crews must be aware of the hazards associated with heat buildup in the brake.  Dash-1 Pg 1-203 BRAKING OPERATIONS The brakes are very efficient but produce a great deal of heat. 39. record in 781. Continue this cycle as required. Instead. If a short field landing. Maximum braking: immediately after touchdown. keep personnel clear of the wheel well area to max extent possible.15) If full anti-ski braking is used for a landing. This will lock the pedals in a depressed (brakes on) position.

 Dash-1 Pg 1-205 1-206. the time required to fly a normal rectangular traffic pattern. releases extraction chute from bomb rack above ramp (if ramp and door are in airdrop position). If the aux pump is inoperative. The pilot should release brakes and re-apply. no minimum interval for brake cooling is required. 1-211. When conducting a series of touch and go landings. allowing the tire to deflate at a safe rate. this switch will only operate when the airplane is airborne.  Dash-1 Pg 1-205 – 1-206 ADS The airdrop system (ADS) controls are located on the flight control pedestal. Taking off or landing without anti-skid requires adjustments to be made in TOLD distances. The landing interval during stop-and-go or full stop taxi back profiles is limited only by. When wheel rim temperature reaches 390°F the fusible plug core melts. Fusible Plugs: On most planes. The ramp and door control switch opens the door and lowers the ramp to the airdrop position. When conducting a series of partially braked landings at minimum interval. 3 fusible plugs are installed on each main landing gear wheel to minimize tire blowout (caused by hot brakes). This is used when ADS release switch fails (or when the copilot fails to push the button). 7-11 – 7-14 BRAKE SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS NORMAL BRAKE MALFUNCTION If the normal brakes fail. when depressed. full brake application must not exceed 3 seconds. ANTI-SKID LIGHT IN NORMAL If the anti-skid light illuminates with brake selector switch in Normal. the aux system hand pump may be used to stop the airplane by holding the brakes down while operating the hand pump (don’t pump the brakes). and are used for equipment airdrop. An anti-skid malfunction may cause uneven braking and swerving if anti-skid switch is left ON. it mechanically releases the extraction chute. gear must remain extended during the traffic pattern.  Dash-1 Pg 2-83. and no tailwind factor is permissible. The chute release switch. A ramp and door open light illuminates whenever door is fully open and ramp is in the airdrop position. The ramp and door may be operated in the air as well as on the ground from this panel. taking care not to lock the brakes since anti-skid is no longer available. select Emergency brakes. When pulled. Because of the touchdown relay.bring the airplane to a full stop or to maintain taxi speed is permissible under partially braked landings as defined above. A manual release handle is located on left side of FS245 near the right hand rail control handle. and Airdrop Systems RAMP AND DOOR The ramp and door control is located on a panel aft of the left paratroop door. turn the anti-skid OFF and inform the crew.000 pounds or less. 1-215 .  Dash-1 Pg 3-11 Aft Cargo Door & Ramp. gross weight limited to 130.

Outward opening doors. or after descending depending on current altitude and whether all occupants have oxygen. damaging personnel/equipment. The fuel valve closes when the APU control switch is placed to STOP. The engine turns at very high RPM. Fuel and ignition circuits are energized when APU oil system reaches approximately 4 psi.000’. descend below 10. activating an oil pressure switch (4 psi occurs at about 10% RPM). RUN: This position energizes the run and safety circuits.  Descend before depressurizing even if all crewmembers have oxygen if altitude is above 18. The exhaust is extremely hot and is self critiquing when getting too close. the ramp. shutting down the APU and closing the APU inlet door (after APU speed decreases below about 18% RPM). Also ensure all occupants are seated and strapped in immediately. 2 main fuel tank surge box provides fuel to the APU. The engineer will then disable the master door warning for that door.000’ if possible if passengers are aboard. Depressurize at altitude. check that the ADS ramp and door switch is OFF. at the pilot’s discretion. If foreign material enters the air intake. illuminates whenever the crew entrance door. and whenever the ramp and door switch on the ADS panel is not in the Closed or OFF position (in flight only). even if they have O 2 available. Take the air conditioning to Aux Vent (heads up. It will also close anytime ISO DC power is lost. on the upper left of the pilot’s instrument panel. wearing a preflighted restraint harness. like the crew entrance door. great outward force is pressing against all the doors. Descend if needed. either paratroop door.) If we depressurize. or the cargo door are not secure. so remain clear of the air intake and exhaust. The fuel shutoff valve is ISO DC motor-operated and is opened automatically by start control circuitry.  Dash-1 Pg 1-274 MASTER DOOR WARNING LIGHT (IN-FLIGHT): If the master door warning light comes on in-flight. with all personnel secured by safety belts. therefore no switches are required to run the unit. If it cannot be determined what caused the door light to illuminate. The flight engineer (not LM) will check the doors. the turbine could fail. below the point where the light illuminated. . If the doors are secure and the trouble determined to be a door-warning switch. The APU controls and warning lights are located on overhead electrical control panel. if you’re at high altitudes…it’ll get cold. the airplane may be fully pressurized. why go to Aux Vent? If even a little pressure is still on the airplane. the flight may be continued with partial pressurization. The APU is a small jet-engine connected to a 40 kVA AC generator.Master Door Warning Light The master door warning light. The APU Control Switch has three positions: STOP: In this position an overspeed test solenoid breaks contacts on the 110% speed switch. can be especially dangerous if they suddenly open.  Dash-1 Pg 3-48 – 3-3-50 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) The APU eliminates the need for external pneumatic and electrical power by providing bleed air while on the ground for the engine starting and air-conditioning systems.000 feet MSL. to ensure that accurate indications are still available for the other doors. located on the forward section of the left wheel well. Aux vent is just another way to safely let the FE check the doors. A direct line from the No. The crew will don oxygen masks (100% oxygen) if flying above 10.

turn off the APU generator. (ISO DC) • E xtinguisher system control valves positioned. When opened. • B leed air valve closed.105% 106% . When pulled several things happen:  Use the mneumonic BEEF Door to help you remember. the On Speed Light illuminates. Hold the APU control switch to START until Door Open light and Start Light (at 10%) illuminate. 15° in flight). It cannot be opened prior to 95% APU RPM due to 95% speed switch that prevents premature loading of APU compressor. and toggle the APU control switch to STOP.  Dash-1 Pg 1-41 – 1-45. The APU is to be used in flight for electrical power only.START: The start position is spring loaded back to the RUN position. STOPPING THE APU: Just reverse your steps to kill the APU. the Start Light goes out. 1-271 APU OPERATION SUMMARY STARTING THE APU: Ensure the APU is clear. When held in START. ISO DC is provided to open the APU inlet door (35° on ground. APU Door Open Light illuminates when the intake door is not closed. ensure the APU is producing aminimum of 35 psi.5 seconds 260 .650° C 650° C 95% . On the other hand you must allow 1 minute for warm-up before applying bleed air load (4 minutes when OAT 0°C or below). Close the APU bleed air switch. At 35% RPM. The start relay remains energized until the circuit is broken by the 35% switch. APU ON SPEED Light illuminates when the APU reaches operating speed at 95%. APU generator may be turned on as soon as the APU comes on speed. Inconnel tubing in the APU compartment provides APU fire detection. in 20° increments) reads exhaust gas temperature sensed by thermocouple thermometer. (Battery) • F uel shutoff valve closed.  Dash-1 Pg 1-45 – 1-46 SUMMARY OF APU LIMITATIONS Bleed Air Output Air Check EGT Normal Maximum RPM Normal Maximum Min: 35 psi 3015 in no less than 8. (Battery) • E xtinguisher agent discharge switch is armed. 1-268.000 RPM. At 95% RPM. The APU Bleed Air Valve Switch is a two-position (OPEN/CLOSE) toggle switch. do not open bleed APU bleed air valve in flight. After warm-up. The APU is shutdown using the T-Handle that is located to the right of engine fire handles. (ISO DC) • D oor (APU) – Closes (after RPM decreases to about 18%) APU INDICATORS • • • • • APU Start Light stays on whenever start circuits energized (until ≈35% RPM). APU Tachometer indicates percent permissible RPM (driven by self-powered tachometer generator).1000°C. START also energizes the start and holding relays (which open the fuel shutoff valve and energizes starter). APU supplies bleed air to the aircraft main manifold. 100% equals 42. Then release the switch to RUN. APU Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Gauge (0 .

If the indication continues after 1 minute. • OFF closes bleed air regulator. 3-6 LEFT-WHEEL OVERHEAT If a left-wheel overheat indication occurs.  Dash-1 Pg 1-136 – 1-137.  Dash-1 Pg 3-43 Fig 3-4 Bleed Air System OVERVIEW There are three sources of bleed air: each operating engine. and the external Air Cart. 2-17. APU may not start or operate at altitudes above 20. 1 & 2 Bleed Air Switches – OFF and close the Bleed Air Divider Valve. Each regulator is solenoid controlled. it will not be available for use during electrical malfunctions.  Dash-1 Pg 1-138 BLEED AIR REGULATORS Four engine bleed air regulators connect the engine bleed air manifold to the main manifold. positions regulator to full open. • OVERRIDE is non-regulating setting. engines. Bleed air supplies the following pneumatic systems: the engine starter. They are each individually controlled by it’s own 3-position switch.ON. The bleed air manifold acts as a storage and distribution system. set to keep main manifold pressure at approximately 45 psi. located on the overhead anti-icing control panel. air conditioning and pressurization systems. • ON allows the regulator to modulate output. the APU (when on the ground). 4 minutes – OFF 1 minute (4 minutes if OAT below 0° C) Allow for 1 minute of no load before stopping APU as well. anti-ice (wings. Once the APU is shutdown due to an overheat. Fig 1-42. turn the No.Overspeed Start Cycle Warm-up Altitude Limit 110% (overspeed solenoid will shut system down) 1 minute . and urinal ejectors). The engine bleed air manifold reroutes bleed air from the main manifold to the engine systems for engine starting and air inlet scoop/oil cooler scoop anti-icing.000’ MSL  Dash-1 Pg 1-44 – 1-46. turn off the APU or external bleed air. tail. 5-6. 1-140 . 5-9 APU EMERGENCIES EMERGENCY APU SHUTDOWN See BOLDFACE. It also routes bleed air from the engine compressor to main manifold and engine systems. and windshield defogging. and failsafe closed (closes in event of ESS DC failure). A main manifold extends within the wing’s leading edge with branch ducts distributing air to various pneumatic systems throughout the airplane.  Dash-1 pg. pneumatically actuated.

 Dash-1 Pg 1-140 BLEED AIR SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS Bleed air leaks can be quite hazardous. If not the HERK procedures in Chapter 12 of Vol. Some FE’s will ‘tap’ on the valve with a mallet or some other tool Often. 3 may help. potential complications if bleed air malfunctions encountered in flight. but must be opened manually with handles located on each side of the cargo compartment. forward of the wing beam.  Dash-1 Pg 1-9. and/or fuel tank sealant. you will not be able to open the valve for engine start.43 BLEED AIR LEAK . 3-44.  Dash-1 Pg 1-140. There are two types of bleed air system failure: uncontrollable loss of bleed air (bleed air leak) and failure of an engine bleed air regulator. A manual wrench on the valve allows the bleed air regulator to be opened to start the engine on the ground in case of emergency (departing a hostile field) when the regulator has failed closed. 3-42 BLEED AIR REGULATOR FAILURE Should the bleed air regulator fail. The valves are closed electrically (ESS DC). the valve freezes in last energized position when power is lost. A two-position switch (ESS DC) controls the motor-driven bleed air divider valve. BLEED AIR LEAK CHECK • • APU: 35 psi minimum. the gauge indicates 6 psi lower than the actual manifold pressure. closing the valve isolates the system so that one air conditioning unit can continue to operate in case of bleed air duct failure. equipment. However.BLEED AIR PRESSURE GAUGE The bleed air pressure gauge is either located above the CP’s upper circuit breaker panel on the H-Model. and damaging aircraft structure. Leak check from 30 psi to 15 psi in no less than 8. used as backup to the bleed air divider valve. that will correct a stuck valve. when manually opened in this fashion the regulator cannot be closed in flight. para 12.  Vol 3. The valve is motored closed with CLOSED selected and motored open with NORMAL selected. Leak check from 65 psi to 35 psi in no less than 10 seconds.  Dash-1 Pg 1-140 BLEED AIR ISOLATION VALVE Two wing bleed air isolation valves separate each wing’s manifold from the rest of the main bleed air manifold. 2-17. Since it is motor-driven. with 600° F air potentially starting a fire. When the flight station air conditioner is operating. Engine: 70 psi minimum. electrical wiring.5 seconds. or behind the Nav Station on the E-Model. This gauge indicates the pressure (in psi) in the bleed air manifold. 7-8 BLEED AIR DIVIDER VALVE The bleed air divider valve divides the bleed air manifold in half to facilitate control of the system.

Question: While en route to Eglin AFB from Pope. There is a whole page or so. operation of APU bleed air could repressurize the area(s) where the failure occurred. When procedures call for closure of engine bleed air valves. thus depressurizing the aircraft. While that is indicative of a bleed air leak. then returns to near normal. The LOX gauge is also fluctuating. you notice that the torque on all four engines briefly drops about 1.5 seconds 6535 psi in no less than 10 seconds Bleed Air Check APU Engine Air Conditioning & Pressurization AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM The C-130 has two independently operated altitude compensating air conditioning units.000 in-lbs. air flow to both air conditioner units is lost.  Dash-1 Pg 3-42 SUMMARY OF BLEED AIR LIMITATIONS Bleed Air Output APU Output Engine Output Min: 35 psi Min: (unregulated) 70 psi Regulated: 45 psi. NOTE When all Bleed Air switches are OFF. in the Dash-1. What’s the problem? Answer: Possible bleed air leak. the other engine instruments start moving erratically.Discussion: Sim instructors at the schoolhouse say this malfunction is one that many crews tend to rush through and miss steps on. Don’t rush! Note: On the H1 the procedure calls for closing of the Bleed Air Divider Valve for isolation. it may be necessary to shut down the engine. place the bleed switches to either OFF or OVRD for takeoff 3015 psi in no less than 8. the FE needs to look for a rise in torque to confirm that they actually close. If individual regulator pressures are not within approximately 3 psi of each other. wing overheat. If an uncontrolled loss of bleed air is experienced. erratic operation of electrical equipment. ENGINE BLEED AIR switches on the affected wing . At the same time. that addresses bleed air overheats associated with the anti-icing system.OFF BLEED AIR DIVIDER VALVE CLOSED If an uncontrolled loss of bleed air cannot be isolated. If bleed air is being lost from the system. the engineer will proceed as follows: 1. CAUTION Do not open the APU bleed air valve after landing. plus under-floor heating. and the Nav informs you that his radar is inoperative. Other symptoms may include: illumination of fire lights. we’ll discuss those EPs in the anti/de-icing section of the study guide. CAUTION If an engine bleed air valve cannot be closed (regulator closure is determined by observing torque increase on affected engine) and the bleed air system is leaking. that provide climate control and supply air with which . Bleed air isolation valves will be closed at the discretion of the flight crew. 2. place all engine bleed air valve switches to OFF and land as soon as possible. and loss of bleed air as indicated by low manifold pressure.

The output is the same for both E & H model Herk. Bleed air is routed via a shutoff valve (upstream.000 feet). (The air expends energy to turn the turbine. A two-stage refrigeration unit is used to cool the 600° F bleed air.000 feet. first stage cool air.  Dash-1 Pg 1-140 OPERATION OF AIR CONDITIONING The airflow regulator for each unit controls bleed air from the bleed air manifold to each unit. outflow valve manually modulated via electrical circuitry. Water separation is used to remove about 80% of moisture from air for crew comfort and to reduce fogging. and cuts down on some SKE malfunctions. The second stage uses a portion of cooled air and super cools the air by turning a turbine.  Running the fan in hot weather conditions helps cool SKE R/T. and therefore independent of cargo compartment air conditioning) and through a motordriven under-floor temperature control valve to automatically maintain the proper temperature. and rapidly expands. Outflow valve and safety valve open. and second stage super cooled air to achieve the desired temperature.  Dash-1 Pg 1-145 AIR CONDITIONING CONTROLS The air-conditioning controls are located on the overhead panel next to APU control panel. Allows for manual control of pressurization. The underfloor heating unit provides an additional 34 ppm at 35. outflow valve open. Safety valve closed. and thus is super cooled). Safety valve closed. Safety valve closed. Safety valve and outflow valve open. Desired pressure automatically controlled. MAN PRESS: Both air-conditioning units on (if selected). The flight deck air conditioner is located under flight deck. 70 ppm at sea level (33 ppm at 35. under-floor heating as pressurize the aircraft. No pressurization. Temperature control is done electrically by opening temperature valves to mix hot bleed air. ram air ventilates airplane. AIR CONDITIONING MASTER SWITCH The Air Conditioning Master Switch is a 5-position rotary switch: AUX VENT: Turns on both air conditioning units and under-floor heating off. output 70 pounds per minute (ppm) at sea level (33 ppm at 35. AUTO PRESS: Both air-conditioning units on (if selected). OFF: Both air-conditioning units and under-floor heating off.  Dash-1 Pg 1-140 UNDER FLOOR HEATING Hot bleed air is routed between the cargo floor and aircraft skin to keep the floor warm at approximately 80° F. under-floor heating as selected. NO PRESS: Both air-conditioning units on (if selected on their respective shutoff switches). The first stage cools bleed air by passing through a heat exchanger (manifold tubing exposed to ambient outside air. The cargo compartment air conditioner is located in the forward unpressurized portion of the right wheel well. TEMPERATURE CONTROL SWITCHES .000). (NOTE: EModel only produces 35 ppm at sea level). The fan will come on whenever the under-floor heat is selected (regardless of fan switch position) or when independently selected with fan switch (with under-floor off). A recirculating fan is used to direct hot air from the top of the airplane and blow it back to the floor. under-floor heating as selected. outflow valve and safety valve open. no actual air exchange takes place).

turns on cargo compartment recirculation fan only. if any. CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER The cabin pressure controller is located on the overhead air conditioning and pressurization panel. It will maintain the . switches directly position the temperature control valves toward cooler or warmer positions. When positioned to COOL or WARM. In AUTO. UNDERFLOOR HEATING SWITCH Under floor heating switch: ON/OFF toggle that turns on under floor heating and recirculation fan. It consists basically of a pressure controller (that controls the outflow valve). the temperature is as selected by the rheostat switch adjacent to it. maintain maximum pressure differential. Each unit has a 4-position toggle switch: AUTO. The switch must be held for about 4 minutes for valve to go from extreme cold to extreme hot. The rate of cabin pressure change (rate of climb control) can be regulated at a minimum of 30-200 fpm and a maximum of 1600-2900 fpm. COOL. FLIGHT DECK DIVERTER SWITCH The H-Model’s large flight deck air conditioner is often more than the flight deck crew needs. Under floor heating fan switch: ON/OFF toggle. various pressure gages.Temperature control switches allow separate automatic or manual temperature control of the flight deck and cargo compartment units. SHUTOFF SWITCHES Two shutoff switches enable either air conditioning system to be shut down individually. the temperature setting cannot be changed because the temperature control valves remain in last energized position. the airflow regulator stops bleed airflow regardless of setting of air conditioning master switch. and OFF (COOL & WARM will spring load back to OFF).  Dash-1 Pg 1-145 – 1-147 PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM The Herk gets its cabin pressure from bleed air ducted through the flight station and cargo compartment air conditioners. In event of loss of electrical control power to the air conditioning system. If OFF. maintain cabin altitude. Flight Station 30% 60% 80% 100% Cargo Compartment 70% 40% 20% 0% MIN: Diverter valve full open NORMAL: Diverter partially open INTMED: Diverter partially open MAX: Diverter valve closed Flight station airflow switch may be used to provide some airflow from the cargo compartment to the flight station when the flight station air conditioner is inoperative. and emergency depressurization door. The Manual switch must be held for about 35 seconds for the valve to move from extreme hot to extreme cold position. a safety valve. WARM. A Flight station airflow control (a 4-position rotary switch) allows and controls how much. air from the flight station air conditioner is diverted to cargo compartment via a 5-inch diameter duct. It has 3 functional modes: rate of climb control.

selected rate of climb until reaching the desired cabin altitude. The controller can maintain a cabin altitude automatically from –1000 to +10,000 feet (constant pressure or isobaric control). It will maintain that selected cabin altitude automatically until a maximum differential pressure is reached (15.16 Hg). After the maximum differential is reached, the cabin altitude will rise directly as aircraft altitude increases.  The MX T.O. (21 GS) states that the differential pressure is limited to 15.18” Hg by the pressure controller, but why that is different than the Dash-1’s 15.16” Hg is unknown. In event of loss of electrical control power to the pressurization system, automatic control of pressurization continues as selected on the pressure controller. Normal ops can continue. Only manual control of pressurization has been lost.  Dash-1 Pg 1-149 – 1-150, 1-155 Fig 1-50, 5-42 OUTFLOW VALVE The outflow valve is located on the right side of the side of the airplane at the aft end of the flight station. It regulates outflow of air from inside the airplane to control pressurization. The valve is controlled by the pressure controller (pneumatically) or by manual pressurization in case the pressure controller fails, or if pressurization outside of normal range is desired. Manual pressure control provides an alternate means of regulating pressurization in case the pressure controller fails, or if pressurization outside of normal range is desired. The gage limit of the outflow valve is (-1.2 to 15.8” Hg).  Dash-1 Pg 1-149 SAFETY VALVE The safety valve is located on the aft cargo door (the “barbecue grill”), and is electrically and pneumatically controlled. It is pneumatically opened for a nonpressurized condition or emergency depressurization. It is normally closed when the aircraft is pressurized. It’ll open a automatically to relieve excessive positive (15.9”) or negative (-0.76”) differential pressure.  Dash-1 Pg 1-150 EMERGENCY DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEM The emergency depressurization switch is a guarded toggle switch located beneath the differential pressure gauge. This is the electrical (BATT DC) method of depressurizing the airplane for emergency conditions. When the switch is positioned from Normal to Emergency Depressurization the shut-off valves for the air conditioning units & the under-floor heat are closed and both outflow & safety valves are opened. The aircraft may be later repressurized by placing switch back to Normal. The emergency depressurization handle is a yellow a T-handle directly above pilot’s head. This is a mechanical means in which to depressurize the airplane. Pulling downward on the T-Handle releases a depressurization panel in the center overhead escape hatch. This of course will ‘create a hole’ big enough to quickly depressurize the airplane. Now while this panel may be reinserted to repressurize, it is widely considered to be a difficult task to accomplish while airborne. Therefore the emergency depressurization switch should be the primary means for quickly depressurizing the aircraft.  Dash-1 Pg 1-150. 1-153

Outflow Valve Safety Valve relieves pressure at Pressure Controller (in AUTO) Cabin Altitude Select Knob -1.2” Hg (min); 15.8” Hg (max) -.76” Hg and 15.9” Hg 15.16” Hg Do not force below -1000’ or above 10,000’. may damage the pressure controller.

To do so

Jettison Crew Entrance Door Taxi/Takeoff While Pressurized

Cabin Pressure should be no greater than 3.1” Hg Do Not Pressurize Do not attempt to lock or unlock any window, door, or hatch (first depressurize and turn air-conditioning master switch to AUX VENT.)

 Dash-1 Pg 1-149 – 1-150, 1-153, 1-155 (Fig 1-50), 1-57, 3-78, 5-42

EMERGENCY OPERATION OF CABIN PRESSURIZATION PRESSURE INCREASE: A cabin pressure increase only occurs when an outflow valve is malfunctioning in a closed or nearly closed position. If the outflow cannot be controlled by automatic or manual means, cabin pressure may increase at an excessive rate; it will have to be reduced by other means: Immediately shut off engine bleed air, one at a time, until the rate of pressure increase is at a safe value. Control pressure by using engine bleed air to vary the amount of conditioned air as necessary. If further control is needed, consider using only one air-conditioner during descent to expedite depressurization. PRESSURE DECREASE: Several things may cause a decrease in or loss of pressurization. If you cannot control the loss, don oxygen masks immediately and begin a descent if required. Maintain an altitude at which oxygen is not required. Check for an excessive cabin leakage at doors, windows, hatches, and the safety valve. WARNING Never attempt to lock or unlock windows, doors, or hatches while the airplane is pressurized. The FE will depressurize the airplane, and then place air conditioner master to AUX VENT. Check the bleed air system for excessive external leakage by completing bleed air check procedures. As discussed before, the bleed down should be from 65 to 35 psi in no less than 10 seconds.  Dash-1 Pg 2-17, 3-44, 7-8 RAPID DECOMPRESSION Question: While flying at FL190 you hear a loud bang somewhere in the back of the aircraft. It suddenly gets cool on the flight deck and the air gets a little foggy. The loadmaster says there’s a 1-ft square section of skin missing from the top of the cargo compartment behind FS 245. Answer: Rapid Decompression. 1. OxygenAs required (P)

Pilot will direct crew to go on 100% oxygen as required 2. Safety beltsAs required (ALL)

The engineer should make an inspection of the fuselage during descent (using a walk-around bottle, if required, and wearing a restraint harness or parachute to determine what caused the decompression and the extent of any damage. With no structural damage, descent airspeeds may be increased not to exceed maximum speeds. With structural damage, the pilot will determine a safe speed. Flap configuration for landing will depend on the type of structural damage. 3. DescentAs required (P)

WARNING With certain types of structural damage, changing the center of lift with the flaps may induce further damage. Consider the type of damage before prior to changing aircraft configuration. Given the sudden loss of pressure in this scenario, an emergency descent will be required to reach an altitude where oxygen is no longer required. Emergency descent is covered later on this page. Also consider doing a controllability check, depending on the severity and location of the structural damage. Additional Considerations: General Flight Rules says that if an aircraft loses pressure and any occupant lacks oxygen equipment, the pilot must descend to maintain a cabin altitude of 10,000 feet or less. Additionally, the pilot must notify the flight safety office of any unintentional loss of cabin pressure.  Dash-1 Pg 3-51; AFI11-202.3 Section 6.4, Table 6.1 EMERGENCY DESCENT WITHOUT STRUCTURAL DAMAGE: A rapid descent with gear and flaps up should be flown. Set throttles to FLIGHT IDLE and descend at maximum speeds. When flying in excess of VH Avoid moderate and severe turbulence WITH STRUCTURAL DAMAGE: Unless there are indications that changing the airplane configuration will cause further damage, carry out a rapid descent with the gear and flaps down. Reduce speed, lower the flaps to 100% and extend the gear, set throttles to FLIGHT IDLE, and maintain 145 KIAS in the descent.  Dash-1 Pg 3-51 WINDSHIELD AND WINDOW FAILURE If an windshield or other window failure occurs, reduce the cabin pressure to 10 inches Hg or less when: • • An inner or outer pane of any cargo compartment window cracks. Either or both panes of any flight deck window crack (positive pressure is maintained in this case to counteract ram air pressure on flight deck windows).

Reduce cabin pressure to zero if both panes of any cargo compartment window crack.  Dash-1 Pg 3-50 IN-FLIGHT DOOR WARNING Question: While en-route to Eglin AFB at FL190, you pass through an area of turbulent air. Suddenly the master door warning light illuminates. The loadmaster calls and informs you that he sees a red light illuminated next to the crew entrance door. You have four passengers on board the aircraft. Answer: In-flight Door Warning When the master door warning light or an individual door warning light illuminates, notify crew and passengers, check ADS RAMP & DOOR switch OFF, and proceed as follows: WARNING Upon notification of door warning light, all crew members will immediately fasten their safety belts. The LM will ensure that the passengers fasten their safety belts also.

000 feet. it is desirable to not have any pressure on an outward-opening door. There is no choice in this case. the flight may be continued with partial pressurization at the discretion of the pilot (below the point where the light illuminates and with all personnel secured with safety belts). Let’s say you ask for and receive clearance to descend to 9. This happens occasionally with the crew entrance door. 3.000 feet. This is an example where the FE can’t determine what caused the light to illuminate. Could you elect to level off at that altitude and just continue with partial pressurization? Answer: No.  If flight profile permits. so you and your passengers can come off oxygen. finish depressurizing and have the FE inspect the door. The engineer will check the door. 5. PressurizationDescent“Depressurizing” (E) “As required” (P) NOTE If range is an important and all passengers have supplemental oxygen. the door warning light suddenly goes out. the airplane may be fully pressurized. say 13.000 so you can depressurize and inspect the door.WARNING Personnel will not go near the crew entrance door until it has been determined that it’s safe to do so. Read carefully: The door is not secure. WARNING If the airplane is still pressurized. Oxygen“As required” (P) The pilot will direct all crewmembers to don their oxygen/quick-don masks and to select 100% on their regulators. the airplane must be completely depressurized. Do not pressurize the airplane—even partially—and continue to your destination below 10. But as you begin your descent and the FE starts depressurizing. the pilot may elect to have the crew go on oxygen. His findings will determine the correct course of action. The point of this question is that you must inspect the door before making any decision to continue with partial pressurization. and the door inspection made at altitude. . If it can’t be determined what caused the door light to illuminate. 4. A good answer would be to continue the descent below 10. As pressurization increases. such as the crew entrance door or cargo ramp. 1. Under these conditions. and must wear a restraint harness or parachute. Air conditioning master switchDoors“AUX VENT” (E) “Checked” (E) WARNING The airplane shall be completely depressurized before making a door check. if practical.000 feet. and the door warning switch looks good. 2. Then. the pilot will direct anyone on the flight deck without seats or oxygen to remain there until the cause of the unsafe indication is determined. And in order to do the door inspection. If the doors are fully secure and the trouble is determined to be a faulty door warning switch. the door bows outward until it breaks contact with the warning switch. unless door-warning system is fully operational. The door is secure. when the latch mechanism gets out of adjustment and the door doesn’t fully close. 6. Master door warning light switch“OFF” (E) Related Question: What if the door open light illuminated as you were climbing through an intermediate altitude. the airplane depressurized.

The ON position activates the anti-icing for the engine inlet. due to valve design. then system deactivated until ice detection system detects ice. All The door is secure. but the door warning switch is faulty. Example: #3 engine inlet housing guide vane can only be de-iced by bleed air from engine #3. so that a loss of electrical power will turn the system on. then you can continue with full pressurization. oil cooler scoop and vane anti-icing systems (when the anti-icing master switch is in the MANUAL position). TORQUEMETER SHROUD – Anti-icing for the torquemeter shroud also comes from that engine’s own diffuser could elect to restore partial pressurization (below where the light came on). OIL COOLER DUCT – Anti-icing is also available on a shutdown engine if bleed air regulator open and fire handle not pulled out. oil cooler duct. Ammeters are used to detect system operation. The OFF position de-energizes the prop system. the oil cooler coop and anti-icing valves are closed and no anti-icing protection is available.  Dash-1 Pg 3-48 – 3-50 Anti-Icing and De-Icing Systems ENGINE INLET ANTI-ICING The engine inlet anti-icing system uses bleed air to prevent ice formation on the air inlet duct. The ON position controls the electrical current to prop components. If the master switch is in AUTO. giving each the system’s full 65-90 amps for 15 seconds of each minute.  Dash-1 Pg 1-164 PROP ANTI/DE-ICING SYSTEM PROP ICING CONTROL SWITCHES There are four prop ice control switches that are located adjacent to the prop and engine anti-icing master switch. If the de-icing amperage for any prop falls below 65 amps. If the warning switch itself is confirmed bad. however. Each switch has an ON and OFF position. When the engine inlet antiicing switch is on the OFF position. The spinner middle section. personnel must remain seated with their belts fastened. inlet housing guide vanes. The blade and aft portion of rear rotating spinner de-icing uses C phase. INLET HOUSING GUIDE VANES – Anti-icing only comes from the bleed air produced by its own engine’s compressor diffuser section. AIR INLET DUCT – Anti-icing is still available on a shutdown engine if bleed air regulator valve is open and the fire handle not pulled out.  Dash-1 Pg 1-164 ENGINE INLET DE-ICING SWITCHES The engine inlet anti-icing switches are located on anti-icing systems control panel. This timer provides de-icing to one prop at a time. Therefore. forward part of . there may not be enough current to properly de-ice the prop. so do not fly into known or forecast icing. The above anti-icing features are designed to prevent ice from blocking airflow to engine. A prop de-icing timer cycles power to prop de-icing system to prevent overloading of aircraft electrical system. and is again not available on a shutdown engine. it is not available on a shutdown engine. This will allow air from bleed air manifold to provide the anti-icing. They are electrically failsafed ON. Right Hand AC power. and the torquemeter shroud.

The Prop anti-icing and de-icing ammeters indicate loads.  Dash-1 Pg 1-165 – 1-167 RADOME DE-ICING Radome de-icing has been deactivated. CONTROLS AND INDICATORS OF AUTO ICE DETECTION SYSTEM When the system senses ice buildup in the inlet air scoop. in turn. it utilized bleed air to de-ice radome. If the prop ice control switches are on and the master switch is in AUTO. An Amber light (labeled ON) indicates when probes detect icing condition. . A Green light (labeled NO ICE) indicates when probes are clear of ice. and spinner plateau de-icing use the B phase of Right Hand AC power. and the Amber light illuminates. the system will only energize when ice is detected.  Dash-1 Pg 1-168. The spinner ammeters indicate the amps drawn by the spinner base. There are two ground check switches labeled “2” and “3” that test the respective ice probes in the inboard engines. turns on engine inlet and propeller anti-icing and de-icing systems—provided that the selected switches are in the ON position and the prop and engine anti-icing master switch is in the AUTO position. Normal system limits for anti-ice power are the same as de-ice power at 65-90 amps. the probes energize the anti-icing systems. it energizes the automatic system which. uses phase A RH AC power. each prop uses about 20 amps. THE PROP AND ENGINE ANTI-ICE MASTER SWITCH The prop and engine anti-ice master switch is located on anti-ice master switch control panel (on overhead control panel). • When placed in RESET and released. • MANUAL eliminates automatic anti-icing and ice detection system. Spinner anti-icing provides continuous heating (not timed) of spinners’ forward section and propeller afterbody to prevent ice formation.  Although legal to fly into icing with spinner anti/deicing inop. and positions the antiicing master switch to AUTO. and should be normally avoided if possible. • AUTOMATIC transfers control of system to ice detection probes. 1-170 OPERATION OF THE AUTOMATIC ICE DETECTION SYSTEM The FE positions the prop and engine anti-icing switches to ON. If the ammeter for the prop blades (phase C) indicates an insufficient load (blade de-icing inoperative). do not fly into known or suspected icing.spinner rear section. ice building up and breaking off the spinner could get ingested by engine. FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS: When ice accumulation is sensed by ice detection probes. and automatic feature is re-armed. There is also an Amber light extinguish button (press for light out). The prop anti-icing system is activated in two ways. for a normal total of about 75 amps to all props. anti-icing systems are turned off. ICE DETECTION PANEL The ice detection panel is located to the right of fuel enrichment switches. hence the possibility of radome overheats. The appropriate system energized when the “prop and engine anti-icing” master switch is in MANUAL and one of the corresponding prop ice control switches are ON.

They are marked in three ranges: • • • Blue: INOPERATIVE (below 75°F). Red: OVERHEAT (above 200°F). The seven lights and their associated temperature indicators and areas of overheat are as follows: • L outer wing – left outboard and left inboard temperature indicators. Since continuous use of the leading edge requires less bleed air (some of the 350°F air is recirculated). Two switches are used to active the anti-icing. then to AUTO to deactivate and rearm the system. They indicate the temperature of the air in the leading edge next to the fuel tanks. The Green NO ICE light will illuminate to indicate that no ice is being detected by probes. . above the CP’s head. The FE puts the prop and engine anti-icing master switch to RESET. Green: NORM OPERATION (75-200°F). One switch activates the wing antiicing. 600°F bleed air mixes with ambient air to channel ≈350°F air along the skin of the leading edge.WHEN OUT OF ICING: The system will not automatically turn off. The light actually turns on 90 seconds after probe is clear of ice due to 90-second no-ice delay timer. and is located on the right outboard edge of the overheat control panel. you can keep your TAS up by not cycling it on and off when flying in and out of the clouds. Figure 20 – Automatic Anti-Icing Concept  Dash-1 Pg 1-165 – 1-170 LEADING EDGE ANTI-ICING SYSTEM The wing and empennage leading edge anti-icing system uses bleed air to heat the leading edge sections of the wing and empennage to remove ice in flight. while the other activates the empennage. The temperature is controlled automatically.  Many pilots use the leading edge as de-icing instead of anti-icing.  Dash-1 Pg 1-159 OVERHEAT WARNING PANEL The anti-ice overheat warning panel contains 7 overtemp warning lights.  Dash-1 Pg 1-158 – 1-159 TEMPERATURE INDICATORS There a 6 leading edge temperature indicators located adjacent to the control switches.

RH center wing – right center wing only (no temperature indicator).• • • • • • LH center wing – left center wing only (no temperature indicator). air conditioning and pressurization will be lost. as well as empennage anti-icing.  Dash-1 Pg 1-159 BLEED AIR ISOLATION When closing a engine bleed air regulator. NOTE There are no indicator lights for the STAB and FIN areas. R outer wing – right outboard and right inboard temperature indicators. Pg 3-42 – 3-43 . use of the engine bleed air regulators and bleed air divider valve provide sufficient bleed air isolation capability. Nose wheel well – Nose wheel/radome anti-icing (deactivated).  Dash-1 Fig 1-54. Generally. If both wing isolation valves are closed. R wheel well – right wheel well/cargo compartment air conditioner/under-floor heating (no temperature indicator). bleed air is restricted to/from that individual engine only. just the appropriate temperature indicators. Each engine isolated in this manner provides its own antiicing. L wheel well – left wheel well/APU compartment (no temperature indicator).

Right Wheel Well Lt. powers the ATM. Lockheed installed various sensors throughout the plane to help us detect leaks and isolate them before real damage occurs. CAUTION It is not recommended to reopen any bleed air valve once it has been closed for an overheat. is your guide to troubleshooting these leaks. it may be indicative of overheated brakes. it may be advisable to lower the gear to cool them down. This diagram. as damage to the warning system may prevent detection of a subsequent overheat. turn the respective system off and wait one minute (see Dash-1 Figure 34).WING/EMPENNAGE AND WHEEL WELL OVER-TEMPERATURE INDICATIONS Discussion: Hot bleed air is a dangerous but necessary component of normal operations. If you see: Any Wing Over. It may be advisable to lower the landing gear to provide cooling. If overheat continues after the minute expires. overheat light or overtemp indicated on gauge). it may indicate overheated brakes. CAUTION If either the left or right wheel well overheat light illuminates after takeoff and the condition persists after the isolation procedures have been performed. If you get an indication for a system not being used or for the nose-wheel well overheat in general. AC UnderFloor Ht Affected Wing Eng If Overheat Bleed Air Continues Switches-OFF After One Bleed Air Divider Minute: Valve SwitchClosed APU/External AirOFF Left Wing Engine Bleed Air Switches – OFF Bleed Air Divider Valve Switch – CLOSED APU/External Air OFF Engine Bleed Air Switches (Affected Side) – OFF Bleed Air Divider Valve Switch – CLOSED CAUTION If either the left or right wheel well overheat light illuminates after takeoff and the condition persists afther the isolation procedures have been accomplished. 3-40. It deices the wings and empennage.e. . don’t wait a minute. seen on pg. close the switches right away. Turn Off: Wing Anti-Icing Empennage Anti-Icing APU / External Air Cargo Comp. In this case. Ensure that the APU or external air is off for all overheats except right wheel well overheat.  Dash-1 Pg 3-42 BLEED AIR LEAK If a bleed air leak occurs in a known location (i. and lets us pressurize the airplane. close engine bleed air switches on the affected wing and close the bleed air divider valve.temp Light or Indicator Either Stab & Fin Indicator Left Wheel Well Lt.

If the system is operated for a propulsion test (Dash-1 – Section 7) on the ground. nose wheel light. Automatic pressurization (which relies on electrically-driven control. the air within the leading edge area quickly rises in temperature and the excessive heat damages fuel tank sealants. and spinner anti-icing. If blade de-icing ammeter falls below 65 amps. Do not use the leading edge anti-icing system to remove ice from surfaces while on the ground. rather than jet pump pressure. and from the safety valve. 1-167. do not turn on prop de-icing or anti-icing. either stab and fin indicator overtemp. limit its use to 30 seconds. or left wheel well light). A overheat occurs when the temperature exceeds 200°F. A control solenoid opens at 158°F to allow bleed air to heat the leading edge. 1-164. 65-90 amps is normal range for blade de-icing. (This action will be taken for left wing overtemp.  Dash-1 Pg 3-42 – 3-43 SUMMARY ANTI/DE-ICING LIMITATIONS Propeller Anti-Icing And DeIcing Limited to 2 cycles on the ground With the airplane on ground and the engine not running. spinner de-icing. With no airflow over the surface. ensure the temperature indicators (gauges) stay below the overheat. and other equipment.The engine bleed air regulators and divider valve may be reopened if necessary for anti-icing only to sustain flight. paints. If you must do this. structure. Wing And Empennage AntiIcing  Dash-1 Pg 1-158. do not fly into known or forecast icing conditions. Closing the left wing bleed air valves and the bleed air divider valve isolates the bleed air from the jet pump control in the outflow valve. When the temperature reaches 180°F that valve closes. and so will still work). 5-4 .

Figure 21 – Prop and Engine Anti-Icing and De-Icing System .

Figure 22 – Automatic Ice Detection and Engine Anti-Icing Controls .

NESA has 2 separate systems of heated windows: the Center System (P/CP’s front windows and center window) and the Side & Lower System (P/CP’s side windows and pilot’s lower window). or obviously if flames or sparks come out of the NESA plugs. and delivers that gas to the regulators at 300 psi. Each switch has three positions: OFF. position the NESA switches to ON and actuate the cold start switches (5 seconds on—10 seconds off until windshield temperature is above -43°C).  Dash-1 Pg 1-171 OXYGEN SYSTEM The liquid oxygen (LOX) system provides a 25-liter oxygen supply for aircrew/personnel usage for a minimum of 96 man-hours. it is just heated faster. Non-Electrostatic Formulation A. select HIGH. The regulators in turn dilute the oxygen as required according to cabin altitude in NORMAL.WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICING SYSTEM (NESA) Nine windshields on the Mighty Herk. This push-type momentary switch (one for each system). NOTE Operation of NESA when OAT is above 27°C (81°F) will increase the possibility of delamination within the NESA panels. do not touch the terminals covered by rubber boots at the corner of each NESA window. any NESA window not heating (this might cause other panels in same system to overheat).  Dash-1 Pg 1-171 NESA CONTROL SWITCHES NESA has two control switches (one for each system) located on overhead anti-icing panel. Automatic circuits activated by the FE keep the windows electrically heated during operation. or the windshield panels might be damaged. In this position the window is not heated any hotter. any NESA window excessively hot. . NORMAL. The electrically heated film between the window layers is controlled by thermal switches. This provides heating of the window at a normal rate. Do not exceed this cycle. CAUTION Window strength is reduced when NESA is off or inoperative. Since very high voltage is used to heat the film. are electrically heated to prevent the formation of ice and increase the impact resistance. is located to the left of NESA control switches. During extremely cold weather (-43°C). a cold start switch is used gradually raise the windshield temperature in a manner to prevent damage to the glass panels.  Dash-1 Pg 1-171 NESA MALFUNCTIONS There may be reasons to shut down the NESA system: Overheating or arcing of the NESA Window. WARNING Do not check temp of a crazed outer glass with the bare hand with the NESA switches ON. or 100% oxygen if selected. The term NESA itself is a trade name derived from the acronym. NORMAL is selected before takeoff and is left there for the duration of the flight. The system converts LOX to gaseous oxygen. and HIGH. If the ice build up is faster than NORMAL can remove. To use.

29.5 liters or less is remaining. never enter the nose wheel well from the right side. leave the diluter lever in 100% oxygen and the supply lever ON. adjacent to quantity indicator. Navigator’s control panel. illuminates when 2.000’ MSL).  Dash-1 Pg 1-222. An oxygen low-level warning light. FOUR IN THE CARGO COMPARTMENT Two on forward right side.1  Dash-1 Pg 1-224 – 1-225 LOX INDICATOR The LOX indicator on the lower right side of CP’s instrument panel indicates liters of oxygen in converter (up to 25 liters). now it’s ready for use in case of emergencies.26. six are on the flight deck and four in the cargo compartment. They are also a last-ditch oxygen backup in case of emergency where oxygen is needed. 1-222 OXYGEN REGULATORS The aircraft has 10 diluter-demand automatic pressure breathing regulators. The minimum oxygen for flight is enough to complete the flight with the crew on oxygen from the ETP (but no less than 5 liters or 300 psi). Vol 3 para 6. Dash-1 Pg 1-1215 LOX CONVERTER The LOX converter is located inside the nose wheel well on the right side. There is also a LOX vent located to the right and above the nose wheel well that relieves the pressure accumulated in the converter. One at each end of the crew bunk. One aft of each paratroop door. For unpressurized flight other than HALO-type missions involving oxygen prebreathing. it is the device that converts LOX to gaseous oxygen. providing means to service the system. A LOX filler valve located on right side of fuselage nose. diluter lever should be set to NORMAL oxygen unless symptoms of hypoxia are experienced. Rear of overhead control panel (flight engineer’s). HALO/HAHO missions require use of 100% oxygen.  Dash-1 Pg 1-1215. (and not involving smoke and fumes elimination). This vent is not labeled on many aircraft and since the LOX could be vented at any time. check out the O 2 system in accordance with Section 4 of the Dash One. Oxygen is usable all the way down to 0 liters remaining. At the end of the check. .  Dash-1 Pg 1-222 – 1-223 PRE-FLIGHT OXYGEN Prio to the Before Starting Engines Checklist.1 WALK-AROUND BOTTLES The 4 portable oxygen bottles facilitate movement of personnel within the airplane when oxygen is needed (say during door open light illuminated during flight above 10. SIX ON THE FLIGHT DECK Pilot’s and copilot’s side shelf. but for some reason aircraft oxygen is unusable.  Vol 3 19.

but can easily get fully depleted in about 4 minutes.  Dash-1 Pg 1-222 – 1-223 Figure 23 – Oxygen System .The A-21 regulator used in the C-130 supplies 100% oxygen regardless of setting. and aft of the right wheel well. A user can breathe continuously from a portable oxygen bottle while it is simultaneously being refilled via the recharge hose. A recharge hose is at each portable oxygen bottle location to refill bottles. The location of the walk-around bottle are: left of the pilot. right of the CP. The portable oxygen bottle duration varies according to how hard the user is breathing. the right side of forward bulkhead in cargo compartment.

While the ability to use alternate fuels is a great capability. The composition and/or burn properties of the emergency fuel may lead to TCP causing erosion and lead coating of turbine blades. some alternate fuels may result in increased maintenance or overhaul cost and reduced rate of climb. it some times comes at a cost. AUXILIARY BLADDER-TYPE TANKS • • Left aux is between fuselage and #2 engine dry bay area – 5814 pounds (855 gal). 2. 1. on the other hand. engine power is not affected when using alternate fuels. both causing hot spots. altitude.364 pounds or 9024 gallons. Do . between engines #3 & #4 – 7657 pounds (1126 gallons). Fuel in the inboards does not relieve stress on the outboard portions of wing. and range.Fuel Tanks & Dumping FUEL AND TANKS The recommended fuel for the C-130 is JP-8. distributes the stress across entire wing. which can be used with a possible loss of engine efficiency. Alternate and emergency fuels are listed in order of preference in Section 5 of the Dash-1. and to relieve air loads on wings in flight. Right aux is between fuselage and #3 engine dry bay area – 5814 pounds (855 gal). These numbers also assume the tanks contain foam. 3. outboard of #4 engine – 8310 pounds (1222 gallons). between engines #1 & #2 – 7657 pounds (1126 gallons). No. max fuel for tanks 1 and 4 is reduced by the weight of the stores. the TD system may have to be adjusted for engine starts. Alternate fuel is defined as a fuel. No. No. That said.  Dash-1 pg 5-9 Fig 1-24 FUEL DISTRIBUTION The purpose of proper fuel distribution is to provide lateral stability of the airplane in flight and on the ground. MAIN WING TANKS • • • • No. Because of the design of the TD system. and enrichment should not normally be used. Emergency fuel is limited to one-time flight and can cause significant damage.  Dash-1 pg 5-9 – 5-10 FUEL TANKS AND CAPACITIES Fuel tanks capacities are in reference to the usable JP-8 fuel in the tanks when aircraft is in level flight. EXTERNAL NON-JETTISONABLE TANKS • • Under each wing between outboard and inboard engines – 8901 pounds (1309 gal) each. the type of fuel will affect range and slightly affect performance. With external stores installed. High volatility and boil-off are also important issues. While using alternate fuels. 4. The total usable fuel is 61. outboard of #1 engine – 8310 pounds (1222 gallons). Fuel in the outboard tanks.

000 pounds. and provide fuel under pressure to cross-feed manifold. Fuel will gravity feed from any main tank to its respective engine ONLY (cannot gravity feed to an engine via the cross-feed manifold). is 1. Many people think that the following is a fuel balance limit. assure fuel flow under pressure to engines during climb when (fuel tends to aerate). Engines will gravity feed at altitudes up to 30.000 feet from their respective main tanks once excess air has escaped from fuel. excluding aux tanks.000 pounds more fuel in outboard mains than inboard mains to reduce wing upbending and distribute wing stress. refueling or defueling. With a failed boost pump. aux and external boost pumps provide 28-40 psi. LH AC powers #1 boost pump and forward boost pump in the left external. 7-10 FUEL TANK VENT SYSTEM The function of the fuel tank vent system is to relieve positive or negative pressure in tanks caused by heating or cooling. • Max allowable differential between symmetrical pairs of main and external tanks is 1. specifically primary fuel management. maximum power can be maintained if excessive pitch attitudes. and all dump pumps (includes aft pumps in external tanks). and forward boost pump in right external tank. rates of descent. and accelerations are avoided. ESS AC powers #2 boost pump MAIN AC powers #3 boost pump.not fly an aircraft with less fuel in the outboard mains than the inboard mains.  Dash-1 pg 1-47 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN FUEL PUMPS The electrically driven fuel boost pumps in the tanks provide fuel under pressure to assure positive flow of fuel to engines (regardless of airplane attitude). • One aux tank may be full and the other aux empty. RH AC powers #4 boost pump.  Dash-1 pg 3-25 DUMPING FUEL Dump pumps in each fuel tank are used to jettison fuel during flight. and changes in atmospheric pressure. and only fly with outboard main tanks empty in an emergency. . It’s part of fuel management. or increase buoyancy for ditching. Aux and external pressures are higher in order to ensure they supply fuel to the engine rather than the lower pressure from the main tanks.500 pounds.  Dash-1 pg 1-54 FUEL BOOST PUMPS • • • • • Main tank boost pump pressure is 15-24 psi.  Dash-1 pg 5-23 Fuel distribution limits for lateral stability: • Max allowable differential between wings. both aux pumps. or are unbalanced toward the opposite side within the above limits. reduce gross weight for landing. That is not true.  Dash-1 pg 5-14. Jettisoning fuel stores may be required to reduce gross weight to sustain flight with failed engines. provided all other tanks are symmetrically fueled. Maintain 500-1.

 Dash-1 pg 1-79 – 1-80 Fig 32 FUEL OVERHEAD CONTROL PANEL The fuel manifolds depicted on the panel facilitate proper routing of fuel for tank to engine operation, cross-feed operation, fuel dumping, and refueling/defueling/ground transfer. Test switches are adjacent to each indicator; pressing the button will cause respective gauge to move toward zero. The fuel pressure indicator is used to check the pressure of the fuel boost pumps supplying pressure to the cross-feed manifold. It can be used to check individual pump operation. The cross-feed primer valve button allows fuel to flow through the cross-feed manifold and into the #2 main tank to remove any trapped air. It is used to depressurize the cross-feed manifold.  Dash-1 pg 1-54 – 1-56 FUEL QUANTITY INDICATORS Individual quantity gauges indicate the amount of fuel in each tank in pounds. The totalizer indicates the total pounds of fuel in all tanks that have working quantity gauges. During fuel distribution check, total fuel on gauges should approximate the totalizer. Loss of electrical power to an individual fuel quantity gauge will immobilize the gauge pointer. The totalizer will not include any amount indicated by the immobilized pointer. Fuel quantity indicators will not be removed or changed in flight. If a fuel quantity gauge is failed or off-scale high or low, pull its CB. If a fuel quantity indicator CB is popped, it will not be reset for any reason. If a CB were to be erroneously reset, or not pulled in accordance with procedures, a short circuit might occur, resulting in potential catastrophic explosion and loss of life.  Dash-1 pg 1-54 – 1-56, 3-26 MAIN TANK LOW PRESSURE WARNING LIGHTS The main tank low pressure warning light will illuminate when pressure drops below 8.5 psi in the engine fuel line. This may indicate that a main tank is empty or that a main tank booster pump has failed (in the tank-to-engine configuration).  Dash-1 pg 1-58 AUX AND EXTERNAL TANK EMPTY LIGHTS The aux/ext tank empty light will illuminate when the respective boot pump switch is on, and pressure drops below 23 psi. This may indicate that its respective tank is empty or its boost pump has failed.  Dash-1 pg 1-58 CROSS-FEED MANIFOLD The cross-feed manifold provides fuel routing to operate engines from any fuel tank. It permits the ground transfer of fuel between any two tanks, and ground defueling of any tank. While the GTC can be fed from any tank via the cross-feed manifold, the APU has its own dedicated, direct fuel line from the No. 2 tank.

The cross-feed valve switches control valves in the manifold to route fuel from the cross-feed manifold to each engine, and to route fuel from each tank to the cross-feed manifold. Only fuel from the tank producing the highest pressure supplies engines when cross-feed valves are open. The aux and external cross-feeds close automatically when their respective fuel tank’s dump switch is placed to the dump position. The cross-feed separation valve switch, centered on the lower portion of the fuel control panel, controls a valve that separates left wing cross-feed manifold from right wing cross-feed manifold. It permits additional control of fuel routing and provides for balancing the fuel load during cross-feed operation. The bypass valve switches provide alternate routing for fuel from aux or external tanks in case the respective cross-feed or dump valves fail to open.  Dash-1 pg 1-46, 1-55, 1-58

IN-FLIGHT EXTERNAL FUEL LEAK An external fuel leak poses a definite fire hazard if the leak is close to an engine; engine shutdown procedure should be considered in this case. Refer to the Dash-1 for proper procedures and warnings.  Dash-1 pg 3-26 LANDING WITH KNOWN/SUSPECTED FUEL LEAK When landing with a known or suspected fuel leak several things must be considered. First is that fuel will flow to a low-pressure area; this normally means outside the aircraft. If reverse thrust is applied, escaping fuel could be ignited causing a wing fire. Knowing this, select the nearest field that has sufficient runway to complete the landing ground roll without reverse thrust. Regardless, due to possibility of fire, an emergency should be declared and ground fire suppression equipment requested.  Dash-1 pg 3-26 WING FIRE In the event of a wing fire, turn the engine bleed air switches for the affected wing OFF and CLOSE the bleed air divider valve. Slideslip the airplane to keep the fire away from fuselage. Since the leading edge and other aerodynamic surfaces can melt and/or fall of the aircraft, resulting in swift loss of controllability…land the airplane as soon as possible.  Dash-1 pg 3-44 – 3-45 MAIN/AUX BOOST PUMP FAILURE OR CIRCUIT BREAKER POPPED In the event of a confirmed main/aux boost pump failure or CB popout turn the boost pump switch OFF, pull all 3 CBs, and set up another fuel supply as required. WARNING Reset CBs or turn pump switch on ONLY to prevent fuel starvation. When you have a main tank boost pump failure, climbout, rapid acceleration, and nose low attitudes may cause fuel starvation if not on cross-feed.  Dash-1 pg 3-24 – 3-25 EXTERNAL BOOST PUMP FAILURE OR CIRCUIT BREAKER POPPED

In event of a confirmed external boost pump failure or CB popout turn the malfunctioning pump OFF, pull all 3 CBs for respective pump, and set up another fuel supply (turn on other external pump). If, in confirming boost pump failure, low or no pressure is obtained from one of the two external pumps in that tank, then that pump has failed. If both pumps indicate less than 28 psi, the fuel level control valve has failed. If landing cannot be accomplished within the range of fuel in the other tanks, ops with fuel from the external tank is permissible with caution. Closely monitor TIT, torque, and fuel flow. If erratic engine operation is observed, immediately return main tank boost pumps to ON, and discontinue cross-feed from that external tank. If both pumps have failed, fuel in that external tank is unusable.  Dash-1 pg 3-25 – 3-26 FUEL QUANTITY INDICATOR FAILURE Should a fuel quantity indicator fail, pull the associated fuel quantity indicator CB. DO NOT RESET a popped or pulled CB.  Dash-1 pg 3-26 FUEL MANAGEMENT Aux tanks are used first on long-range flights, as they only have one boost pump, and sufficient fuel is assured to return to point of departure if an aux boost pump fails (fuel will not gravity feed from aux tanks). External tanks are used first on short-range flights in order to prevent landing with fuel in the externals. Landing with fuel in the externals is not recommended, since service life of the airplane (wings) is decreased.  Dash-1 pg 7-10 – 7-11 GRAVITY FEED Gravity feed is used for tank-to-engine ops, with an inop main tank boost pump. Monitor fuel flow, gravity feed, resume cross-feed operation. Avoid rapid acceleration or nose low attitudes. Descend with minimum nose down attitude. Gradual power loss may occur between 12,000 and 20,000 feet during rapid climbout due to fuel aeration.  Dash-1 pg 3-25 CROSS-FEED An engine must be placed on cross-feed operation when operating with less than 6,000 pounds of total fuel in the main tanks. Place cross-feed valves to open and boot pump switches on for all tanks containing fuel. Open the cross-feed separation valve. Cross-feed is also required when the fuel quantity is less than 1,000 pounds in any main tank. The engine being fed by that tank will be placed on cross-feed.  Dash-1 pg 7-11 PRIMARY FUEL MANAGEMENT Primary fuel management requires that main tanks are full, except for fuel used for taxi and takeoff, when the external and/or aux tanks contain usable fuel. This ensures the least amount of wing bending in flight. Main tanks may be considered full for the purpose of this definition at a minimum of 7,500 pounds in the outboards, and 6,900 pounds in the inboards. All fuel balance limits must be observed.

exiting the aircraft at each wingtip. If a wing fire exists.000 pound difference between inboard and outboard main tanks is not observed. Dumped fuel exits via the dump manifold. Should it become necessary to dump fuel in preparation for an emergency landing. Dash-1 pg 5-23. See chart in  Dash-1 pg 3-27 WARNING When the possibility of damage or rupture of fuel dump valves or fuel lines exits. and 60 pounds in each external. one in each aux. Use of secondary fuel management will shorten the service life of the wings.000 pounds). The engineer did some quick calculating and found your 2-engine service ceiling is 500 ft. fuel dumping from any tank must be carefully considered. reduce gross weight for landing. 1.000 pounds. The pumps will dump down to 2. dumping fuel is your only option. 3-27 – 3-28 DUMP PUMPS The dump pump switches move the jettison valve to THE OPEN position and turn the selected tank dump pump on. or increase buoyancy for ditching.800 pounds in each inboard. The loadmaster tells you that none of the cargo is jettisonable and you have 30. and the main tanks are partly filled. it takes about 3 minutes to dump 10. one in each external). What can you do to reduce aircraft weight in preparation for landing? Answer: Since the cargo is not jettisonable. totaling 7920 pounds (which is enough for slightly less than 2 hours of flight). and should be avoided unless necessary for mission accomplishment.100 pounds in each outboard. or when the 500 to 1. This becomes more critical (more stress on wings) when operating near the gross weight limits for the applicable maneuver.  Dash-1 pg 1-54. 3-27 DUMPING FUEL Question: This has been a really bad day for flying. You had to shut down the #1 engine for a visible fluid leak (loss of oil pressure) and the #4 engine for uncontrollable TIT. With 8 dump pumps.  Dash-1 pg 5-24 FUEL DUMPING Fuel dumping may be required to reduce gross weight to sustain flight with failed engines (2-engine ops marginal above 120. to reduce gross weight in an emergency.000 pounds of cargo. ensure that fuel dumping is suspended by turning off all dump pumps and closing all dump valves.  Dash-1 pg 1-54. airspeed. Dumping may also be required to eliminate fuel from a leaking tank. You’re 75 miles from the nearest airfield and are drifting down through 15000 ft. Advise ATC of intentions to dump fuel (CP) . The dump pump switch for the aux or external tanks will also close their respective cross-feed valve. or to provide additional buoyancy for ditching. operating (one in each main. follow these procedures: 1. or when carrying more than approximately 10. still unable to maintain altitude.000 lbs of fuel. 5-24 SECONDARY FUEL MANAGEMENT Secondary fuel management occurs when there is usable fuel in the external and/or aux tanks.

Dump valve switches (H2)Dump pump switches (desired tanks)OPEN (E) DUMP (E) Dump opposite tanks at the same time to maintain lateral balance. usable fuel in either ext. and when the desired fuel level is reached. 6. tank. turn off the dump pump switches and valves.  Dash-1 pg 3-27 – 3-28 SUMMARY FUEL LIMITATIONS Fuel distribution 500-1. 8.2. you should clear the dump manifold of fuel by cross-controlling the aircraft (wing low attitude with a slight skid). shutting off fuel to the cross-feed manifold. 5. then continue with dumping the other tanks. 540 fpm 300 fpm (required when either outboard tank >6. Monitor the fuel quantity indicators. the cross-feed valves will automatically close. This will prevent turning into the dropping fuel. you can still dump fuel using the bypass valve and the operative dump system for the aux or external tank on that side. provided all other tanks symmetrical or unbalanced in the opposite direction. within Section 5 limits Max difference between symmetrical pairs of mains and externals 1. or when aircraft gross weight exceeds 130.500 lbs. total main tanks >23. 23 psi. The following procedures and precautions are recommended when dumping fuel if conditions permit: • Don’t dump under 5000 ft AGL. Defensive systemsFuel System- SAFE/OFF (N) Tank to engine (E) WARNING If the dump switches for the aux or external tanks are placed in the DUMP position while those tanks are supplying fuel to the engines. dump from that tank first to confirm it is dumping.000 lbs) Main Tanks Boost Pump Pressure Lower Pressure Light Aux & External Tanks Boost Pump Pressure Tank Empty Light Normal Sink Rate Reduced Sink Rate . 28-40 psi. NOTE If an external or aux dump valve fails to open.5 psi. To dump from a tank with an inoperative quantity gauge.500 pounds One aux tank may be full and the other empty.000 pounds 15-24 psi. This will prevent the possibility of a ground source igniting the fuel vapors.200 lbs. NOTE After completing fuel dumping and if time permits prior to landing. This will minimize the fire hazard associated with fuel leaking from the dump mast during taxi and parking. • Don’t dump in a circular pattern. 3. Stop dumping if a wing fire develops.000 pounds more in outboards than inboards Max differential between wings (excluding aux’s) 1. 4.

more speed seems better than less. and cannot be refueled over the wing. . The engineer calculated a 2-engine service ceiling of 500 ft. The aux tanks do not have filler caps. you could remove the bags from the pallet and toss them out the paratroop doors. AND GROUND TRANSFER There are two methods of refueling the C-130. the aux tanks can still be fueled using ground transfer methods. The nozzle is inserted into filler caps located on each tank. the truck is a wheeled vehicle (aka “rolling stock”). Dash-1 pg 1-58. Is jettisoning cargo a viable option? Answer: Realistically. As an option.  Dash-1 pg 1-46. Ground transfers of fuel use the refueling manifold and are controlled using the SPR panel. In those times. CAUTION It is recommended that pallets weighing less than 2. So unless the cargo is on fire or you can’t dump more fuel. illuminates when the SPR master switch is not in the OFF position. because of the low speeds required to open the doors. cargo jettison is not a viable option in most emergencies. or when the ground transfer switch is not in the closed position. When you’ve lost engines. The Dash-1 has limits on both. Fire Truck: Not a good option. there may be times when it is required. the aux tanks cannot be filled over the wing. Plus. Your time can be better spent on other corrective actions. It is possible to lose control of the aircraft if the CG shifts too far aft. If you are required to reduce gross weight. See the Dash-1 for operations details. 5-3. And remember the airspeed limits on any doors you open. as the height is probably out of limits (see pg 3-74 and 3-71). 5-16 (Fig 5-5).500 pounds not be jettisoned.000 lbs of fuel. 5-24 REFUELING.000 lbs (height is 97 inches). Fuel can also be defueled via the SPR. on the other hand. located in the center of the engineer’s fuel panel. “Single Point” and “Over the Wing”. one baggage pallet weighing 2. Finally. Pallet: You can’t safely jettison the pallet. If you have to jettison cargo. don’t waste the effort. DEFUELING. allowing high flow/high pressure to refuel the C-130. A single point nozzle locks into the single point refueling (SPR) receptacle. causing CG to go way out of limits or damaging the back end.000 lbs on the ramp. Single Point is the preferred method. The “Over the Wing” method. There is a possibility that lightweight pallets could strike the airplane due to their light weight and large surface area. the SPR. 5-22. As noted above. It is accomplished using the panel located on the aft right wheel well fairing. similar to filling up your car. 1-58 – 1-62 CARGO JETTISON Question: Onboard is a P-4 fire truck weighing 18. you have the baggage pallet blocking the ramp anyway. the ground transfer valve is not closed. While jettisoning cargo in this scenario is not the best option. there are some hazards and precautions you should be aware of. uses a smaller and lower pressure hose. and 30. The refueling light. Should the SPR receptacle be inoperative. carefully consider both the weight and height of any items you want to jettison. The refueling manifold permits refueling of all fuel tanks from a common receptacle. because it is too light. which means it could turn as it moves aft and wedge in the ramp area.

minimum pallet weight 2. Personnel must stay forward of loose cargo. Open ramp and aft cargo door to airdrop position. and attempted only when conditions are ideal or there is no other alternative. Structural damage may be caused by cargo impacting airplane inside or outside.000 feet. Jettison light cargo by hand. o Use paratroop doors only when ramp and aft cargo door cannot be opened. If CG is out of limits. with the landing gear down. and no more than necessary during the jettison operation. secure cargo. • •  Dash-1 pg 3-73 LOOSE CARGO The loadmaster will notify the pilot. WARNING Minimize deck angle changes unless absolutely necessary for safety of flight. o Primary exit is ramp and aft cargo floor. Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC).  Dash-1 pg 3-73. determine CG. resulting in out-of-limits aft CG. Also. 2) paratroop doors. or without a helmet. 3) crew entrance door WARNING Bailout avoids the numerous risks associated with ditching. heavy cargo resting on the floor only as a last resort. Therefore ditching must be considered only as a last resort. o It moves slowly. • • Prepare: 3 short rings Bailout: 1 long ring Bailout is not recommended from the crew entrance door at speeds above 150 KIAS. shift cargo and re-secure. use applicable airdrop procedures If load is not rigged for airdrop. If CG cannot be made within limits. Airplane must wear oxygen masks unless the airplane is below 10. o Use elevators smoothly to a void exceeding structural limits. and may wedge in aft area of cargo compartment. perform controllability check. smoothly.  Dash-1 pg 3-75 BAILOUT Question: What are the preferred exits for aircrew bailout? Answer: 1) Ramp and door. NOTE Statistical survival rates for overwater bailout exceed ditching survival rates. Check vertical height limits chart in Dash-1.Normal CG limits is 15% forward to 30% aft.500 pounds. Personnel jettisoning cargo must wear a parachute or restraint harness. 3-75 – 3-78 DITCHING . Jettison large. o Accelerate the airplane to facilitate cargo extraction. or if airdrop fails: o Establish a nose-up attitude (10°). Use elevators slowly. How to jettison cargo • • If load is rigged for airdrop.

crew boards left inboard life raft. 1 right-side aft of FS245. 4 distress signals. This exit is located forward of the right wheel well. 2 forward of right paratroop door. the forward escape hatch and pilot swing windows can be used as exits. 1 right of copilot seat. and 1 aft right wheel well. The life raft release handles are located: 2 on FS 245 below the escape hatch. Life preserver (provisions for 10) 6 fore of FS 245. be careful of the prop. 2 on the wing upper surface inboard of respective raft.5 and 243. powered by ESS DC and/or 4 D-cell batteries and will illuminate with 2. The side emergency exit is another emergency exit. and 4 forward of left paratroop door) Hand Axes (2) 1 fore or aft of FS 245. 7 forward of the left wheel well. First Aid Kits (provisions for 23) 2 on the flight deck. 4 right side. Emergency Exit Lights (7) 1 by each emergency exit.  Dash-1 pg 3-85 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT • • • Hand Held Fire Extinguishers (4) 1 fore and aft of FS 245. aft of FS 245 Poopie Suits (provisions for 6) 6 anti-exposure suits located in the locker under the lower bunk. Ditching procedures can be found in Dash-1 (pg 3-83 – 3-94). In the cargo compartment center and aft escape hatches may be used to escape. and 1 aft of the left/right Paratroop door Quick Don Mask/Portable O2 Bottles (4) 1 left of pilot seat. day conditions most of the time.While most pilots will tell you they have no intention of ditching. It’s more likely to be used during a ground egress where other methods of exiting the aircraft are not available. 2 aft of the right paratroop door. 21 in the cargo compartment (8 forward of right wheel well.0  Dash-1 pg 1-273 – 1-277. 1 aft of right paratroop door Life Rafts (4) The 20-man rafts are located in the top center wing trailing edge area. Accessory Kit: 1 emergency radio. 1 aft of the left wheel well. Much of our time flying is spent in clear. .5 G’s deceleration or an Essential DC bus failure ELT System (1) Installed in the dorsal fin Senses a decelerating impact force along the longitudinal axis ELT is completely independent of aircraft power other than to reset or check the system Broadcasts on 121. 1 aft of the center wing section. 5 survival food packets. Whether you are deplaning in the water or on land. 1 above the ramp. it is a possible scenario you may face. If not otherwise directed. 1 distress marker light. On the flight deck. Escape Hatches/Ropes (3) One by each overhead escape hatch—1 fore of FS 245. WARNING Side emergency exit and flight station swing windows are not to be used in heavy seas or nose down conditions. 3-2 • • • • • • • • • • • UNUSUAL ATTITUDES You should be familiar with procedures for recovering the aircraft from unusual attitudes.

Because many of the procedures are similar. cold. fogging of instruments. Further results may be pollution of lubricants and hydraulic fluids. landing gear shock struts.but it doesn’t prepare us well for real weather. Possible results include malfunctioning of electrical equipment. It begins with subjects applicable to preflight situations and ends with information about landings. such as hinge points. bearings. so we need to use a combination of these procedures. Don’t fall into that trap. Keep your instrument crosscheck going. “Hot weather operation means operation in temperatures above 35°C (95°F) with or without high humidity. and flight termination. dry. confirm by comparing the control (ADI / power) and performance (airspeed. They are in addition to normal procedures in Section II.”  Dash-1 pg 9-20 “Desert operations generally means operations in very hot. the chapter covers considerations for operating in hot. often windy atmosphere. night flying or even NVG flights—all of which are big contributors to Spatial-D mishaps. Remember. In addition. when robbed of our outside vision. altitude. Question: When do hot weather procedures apply? . recognize the condition exists. Severe damage to the affected parts may be caused by the dust and sand. etc) instruments. They are in addition to normal procedures in Section II. and engine cowling and intakes. sand and dust will often be found in vital areas of the airplane. All of the procedures and airspeed numbers for instrument takeoffs. Climbing:  AFI 11-217.1. and deterioration of non-metallic materials. Diving: Adjust power as required while rolling to a wings level. adjust pitch bank and power to complete the recovery. personnel and ground equipment to blown sand or dust. we tend to fall back on our internal “perception” of which way is up (the seat of the pants feel). and desert climates. Position the airplanes so that propwash will not expose other airplanes. Under such conditions. upright attitude. The procedures essential to operation and maintenance under such conditions are given in the following paragraphs. and recover. The necessary operations under such conditions are given in the following paragraphs. Actual threat reactions in combat while flying under NVGs can really set you up for an unusual attiude. and approaches—including circling—are covered there. HOT WEATHER/DESERT OPS The following is derived from an article prepared by MSgt Jenkins formally of the 317 OSS. para 2.6 All Weather Operations Take some time to review Section 9 of the Dash-1. Don’t add back pressure until less than 90° of bank. dusty. this guide below combines Hot WX and Desert Ops into one summary. rusting of steel parts. holding. en-route stops. As the fuselage dot of the aircraft symbol approaches the horizon. and believe what those instruments are telling you! Here are some book answers: As always. and the growth of fungi in vital areas of the airplane. and correct to level flight on the attitude indicator.”  Dash-1 pg 9-22 NOTE: At Dyess both hot weather and desert conditions exist. Use power as required and bank as necessary to assist pitch control and avoid negative G forces.

as heat and moisture may cause seals and packings to swell. fill it. Check for hydraulic leaks. One technique for keeping cool is to put a wet handkerchief around your neck and when it dries out wet it again.” Note: Dehydration is a major problem. or have it filled for you. When it’s empty. Technique for engine oil cooling for engines in LSGI: push them up one to two knob widths (do not pop the LSGI buttons. especially during GTC/APU starts. Before turning bleed air on for air conditioning. Always carry a water bottle for flight and fill it before you get in the seat for engine start. because that oil is now in the system. • • • • • • • Inspect for freedom of corrosion or fungus at joints. and similar locations.Answer: “Hot weather procedures are generally considered to be applicable when the temperature is 35°C (95°F) and above. NOTE: Attaining light-off between 16% and 25% RPM provides better turbine assist for acceleration to on-speed RPM at the earliest possible time in the start cycle. CAUTION: If a popping noise (compressor stall) is experienced when changing from normal ground idle to low speed ground idle or from LSGI to normal ground idle. It is recommended to keep 10-12 gallons of oil in the tanks for hot weather. if you’re thirsty. BEFORE STARTING ENGINES Inspect instrument panels. position the airplane heading into the wind. Alternate between the four engines for the engine to be started NOTE: H Models “Super Es” – Do not operate the ATM while starting an engine with GTC. Wipe out the inlet ducts to remove any accumulated sand or dust. Remove all protective covers and shields. During sustained hot weather operation. you are already behind on your water intake. if available. return the throttles to ground idle and let the engines come up on speed before downspeeding them again). NOTE: Use of the GTC/APU for ground air conditioning may pull in quantities of sand and dust. pushing them up one knob width will normally cool them . Inspect tires for proper inflation. record in Form 781 when an engine does not light-off between 16% and 25% RPM. (Remember the oil quantity will drop 1-2 gallons after engine start. Operate the system 20-30 seconds before selecting AUTO and/or COOL. hinge points. For the engines that are up and on speed. return the airplane for maintenance action. Inspect all control surface hinge and actuating linkage for freedom of sand and dust. Inspect shock struts for cleanliness. Turn ATM off after indication of hydraulics. switches and controls for freedom of sand and dust. Remember. NOTE: The more oil in the engine oil tank the longer it takes to heat up. if you do.) STARTING ENGINES When practical. “sustained hot weather operation” is May through October. turn the Air Conditioning Master switch to AIR COND NO PRESS and manually position the Temperature Control switches to WARM. PREFLIGHT CHECK Cool the flight station and cargo compartments with portable coolers. In Texas.

Operate all flight controls through at least two full cycles to ensure unrestricted operation. do not lower flaps until lined up with runway and ready for takeoff. If you are doing a self contained start and you cannot start the engine. After the airplane is positioned. • During taxi-out for takeoff. Perform the reverse checks over hard surface areas if possible. or equipment. two engines at a time. Avoid takeoff during sand or dust storms or flying through these storms. During times of blowing dust or sand do not operate the AC on the ground. (this will help keep dust and sand out of the flaps moving parts). • Use minimum speed when making turns. personnel. or it is slow to start. When sand/dust is in the atmosphere. BEFORE TAKEOFF/LINEUP Turn engine bleed air off to increase power available during takeoff and climb-out flight path. NOTE: While taxiing. advance throttles to at least crossover to blow loose sand away. You may have to turn one or both AC packs off to prevent bog down.faster than downspeeding them due to the bigger bite of air on the prop being pushed through the engine. Use brakes as little as possible to avoid overheating. You are limited to 85°C . Taxi with all engines in LSGI when possible. (Think taxing on a Dirt LZ. first advance the throttles to at least crossover to blow loose sand away. this may make the difference. REVERSE TAXIING If it is absolutely necessary to back the airplane using propellers reversing. while the other two engines remain at crossover. AFTER TAKEOFF . if possible. TAXI Monitor oil temperature during ground operations. Then make reverse check. stop the airplane. move the throttles to a position slightly above GROUND IDLE until the sand/dust cloud has been blown aft of the airplane. than to ride the brakes or constantly use reverse.100°C for 30 minutes on the ground (5 min in the air). attain an altitude above the contamination as soon as possible. Believe it or not. do not move the throttles below the GROUND IDLE detent position. Use differential power to assist nosewheel steering for directional control. • When making propeller reverse check before flight. you will need to keep at least one engine up-sped for Main AC. Remember that during SKE formations. TAKEOFF Takeoff run is considerably increased and rate of climb is decreased in high temperatures. • If normal ground idle is required during ground maneuvering of the airplane (except for reverse taxi). it is better to come to a complete stop. consider using an external power cart. • Plan to make shallow turns. This will prevent excessive heat buildup of the brakes and high oil temperatures.) • Minimize ground operation to avoid excessive dust accumulation in the air conditioning and GTC/APU inlet ducts. • Use care to avoid blowing sand or dust on other airplanes.

TECHNIQUES The Dash-1 procedures make it easy to handle hot weather and desert ops at Dyess. accomplish prop blade spinner and spinner base anti-ice/de-ice system check in conjunction with the leading edge check. During descent (for landing) below 15. the weather is often more extreme at our deployed locations. resulting in a decrease in operating range. For the most part we have no problem keeping the brakes cool and the engines running. (This step was designed to prevent dust or sand contamination. the boil-off rate will increase and it may be necessary to restrict rate of climb of the airplane at altitude. leave flight station windows and cargo compartment doors open to ventilate the airplane. Refer to FUEL in Section V.To prevent damage to components. AFTER LANDING When possible park the airplane heading into the wind. In addition. CAUTION: Rapid movement of throttles in the reverse range can cause engines to bog down. BEFORE LEAVING THE AIRPLANE Give special attention to the following: • Have all protective covers and shields installed for protection from the sun. • Except in dusty or rainy weather or when conditions permit. adjust the throttles to prevent NTS action. consider this when dust/sand is not a factor. LANDING Turn the air conditioning systems off prior to landing. Engine inlet duct anti-icing system will still be checked during the taxi checklist as written.000 feet. start moving the throttles from MAXIMUM REVERSE to GROUND IDLE at approximately 60 KIAS and have the throttles at GROUND IDLE by the time 40 KIAS is reached. On the other hand. ENGINE SHUTDOWN As soon as the airplane is parked. CRUISE Note: For low-level missions. manually open the oil cooler flaps and place the switches to the FIXED position. This will help facilitate future starts. chock the wheels and release the brakes to avoid damage to brake components due to excessive heat generated while taxiing. instead of during the taxi checklist. when we’re careful. When propeller reversing is used during landing.) Compute landing performance data using maximum anti-skid braking and four engines in ground idle. DESCENT During descent. Monitor oil temperature and manually control the oil cooler flaps to keep the oil temperature close to 60°C. . Fuel densities will decrease as the ambient temperature rises. go to open and fixed when accomplishing the Combat Entry Checklist step for Unnecessary Equipment. If your engines have been performing roughly. but may also help prevent a bog down or flameout after landing. Following the Dash-1 procedures is a great start.

FWD. Comm/Nav/Autopilot & Misc Notes INTERPHONE SYSTEM Interphone system CALL button uses greater signal level to override all other audio signals. this won’t help you much. The PA can also route radio reception to cargo compartment speakers. The following is a technique that you don’t want to use all the time. Using one of the techniques above should help you start that troublesome engine. PUBLIC ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM The PA system provides one-way communication to the cargo compartment through 7 loudspeakers and can be used by any crew position to transmit to the cargo compartment. JUMP) selects the speaker or combination of speakers to be operated. AFT. The main control panel is at navigator’s station. It can occur from running the AC packs with all engines in LSGI or from moving into reverse too quickly. there are a couple more things you can do to start a stubborn engine. This will flatten the blade angle. Question: What is the difference between a bog down and a flameout? Answer: Even at Dyess bog downs and flameouts are a problem. and places all intercom stations in direct contact with calling station. you may need to let the engine cool for a good period of time and try again. it is most likely not a function of the TD system. You might also consider closing the bleed air after releasing the starter. there are some techniques you should consider.  Dash-1 pg 4-13 HAND MICROPHONE SWITCH Hand microphone to left or pilot/right of CP can be used to transmit on the radio selected on the wafer switch. but don’t run the air conditioning. If you have tried your limit of starts. Sometimes just getting the engine started is a problem. You’ll sweat and the PAX will curse your name. but the air load really degrades engine performance. but it might be just the oomph you need to get the screws turning. • Speaker selector switch (ALL. you may be able to prevent a bog down. • Power switch must be ON to use any PA function. First of all. Question: What does going to null do for you? Answer: Nothing except removing automatic overtemp protection.but when you’re in a pinch and need to get off the ground. There may not be a lot you can do if a bog down occurs during the latter. If you have an AC pack running be prepared to do this. but if you are having problems getting the engine to sustain a start. . You should look to see the Secondary Fuel Pressure Light go out. and I know it sucks. but of atmospheric conditions. This may be enough to keep the motor running. reducing the demand on the prop. Assuming you’re parked into the wind and followed all Dash-1 procedures. meaning…. If your engine is not coming up on speed within 70 seconds or begins decaying. Mind you. The Dash-1 says to release the starter at 60% RPM. Should you notice the RPM decaying immediately go back to ground idle (if you had the throttles forward to cool oil temps) and perhaps even go a knob width towards reverse. but it can help. • Volume control used to adjust PA speaker output. consider holding the starter until 65%. or consider just keeping two engines up-sped. but while taxiing or parked with engines running.

2 systems should be within 2° of each other when in an area free of other airplanes and ground equipment. 1 TACAN distance unless pilot selects the No.  Dash-1 pg 4-16 – 4-42 One is located on C-12 COMPASS SYSTEM The No. The manual control knob on the main control panel will be physically rotated by an electric motor controlled by these switches.1 VG. • INTERPHONE AND PA position: Interphone conversation (except HOT MIC) routed to both interphone and AND public address system. 1 compass operational for AP1 (No. An auxiliary control panel is on pilot’s side shelf and only operates after the PA system has been turned on. Loss of ILS signal while in localizer or glideslope capture. DECREASE) spring-loaded to OFF. 1 and No. the turn ring must be centered. 2 compass operational for AP2). 2 master compass indicators and controls are located at the navigator’s station. and in straight and level flight within 3 minutes after a turn. while the copilot’s HSI. should not precess more than 2° per hour. 1 and No. • INTERPHONE position: confine interphone conversation to interphone circuit.  Dash-1 pg 4-310 – 4-318 DME INDICATION ON HSIS The pilot’s HSI shows the No. 1 INS and No. Pilot and copilot repeater compasses should be within 2° of master compass readout. To engage the autopilot. There is also 2 auxiliary control panels in cargo compartment. 1 TACAN. OFF. and copilot’s RMI and BDHI operate off the No. . and the No. • PA Gain is a 3-Position switch (INCREASE.• Mixer switches (ADF 1. ADF 2. VHF COMM) supply radio receiver signals to the PA. normal elevator trim selected.  Dash-1 pg 4-78 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM (AFCS OR THE NEW AUTOPILOT) Pitch and roll information is supplied by both the No. The • • • • • AFCS will disengage if: Either control wheel autopilot release button is pressed. In DG mode. UHF COMM. and speaker selections made at the main control panel.) The pilot’s HSI. 2 TACAN distance unless copilot selects the No. The mode switch can select magnetic and directional gyro (DG) modes. FS245. Loss of Electrical power. 2 compass system. Actuation of either control wheel elevator trim tab switch when pitch axis is engaged. Loss of valid attitude or heading signal. 2 TACAN. while the copilot’s HSI shows the No. while the other is located next to left paratroop door. Immediately after turns they should be within 4°. 1 compass system. (Thus potential for pilot’s and copilot’s HSIs to be different by 6° and still be within tolerances. Radio signals are eliminated from the PA system. On navigator’s master indicators. and pilot’s RMI and BDHI operate off the No. Pitch and Lat switches in the ON position. the No. PA operates on PA circuit only.

The TONE RESET button stops the tone for 30 seconds. range indicator. and heading changes cannot exceed 179°. Display relative range & azimuth position of other SKE aircraft using track-whilescan (TWS). • • • . • APPR: Places the engaged autopilot in the glideslope and localizer arm mode. • SPEED ON PITCH: AFCS modifies pitch to maintain speed flown at moment the button is pressed. and deactivates the pitch wheel. copilot’s flight director when AP2 selected.000 feet (± 4000 feet) LRD#: valid numbers: 01-09. Proximity warning The proximity warning tone switch controls the warning tone on the ground only. TWS is available only within 4 NM of the selected leader Max operating range of zone marker (ZM) is 20 NM. Will command capture of respective radial or course. The SKE system allows for 36 aircraft. if active. ELEV TAB switch set to OFF or EMER. 11-19.• • • • Autopilot engage switch disengaged. Both LAT and PITCH switches placed to OFF. and PPI). Computes the smallest bank angle using the existing heading and selected heading (not to exceed 30° bank angle). 4-92 – 4-98 SKE: Station Keeping Equipment [AN/APN-169C(V)] THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS • • • • • • • • • Discrete transfer of maneuvering data (15 discrete and 7 maneuver commands) Maneuver commands are displayed for 14 seconds Numerical information is limited to 3 decimal places. For the latter: PPI is the principle readout and is capable of indicating 35 aircraft (within 10 NM).  Dash-1 pg 4-278. and allows for capture and track of the glideslope and localizer beam. but only 35 will appear on the PPI. Maintains ±5 KIAS of selected airspeed.  Dash-1 pg 4-88. 31-39 LRD#: valid numbers: anything not ending in a zero LDR# and OWN# cannot be the same.34 POWER SOURCES • • • Main DC Main Avionics AC SKE Battery. • LNAV/LOC: Places AFCS in NAV or LOC arm mode. 4-286 – 4-290. There are several AFCS Modes: • FLT DIR: Coupled to Pilot’s flight director when AP1 selected.  Dash-1 pg 4-261 SKE SECONDARY CONTROL PANEL • INTK: Selection (sensitivity): o 1 – 4000 feet (± 1000 feet) o 5 – 9000 feet (± 2000 feet) o 10. Pressing this button automatically disengages altitude hold. Invalid signals from systems providing input to data to the autopilot. • HDG: Captures and maintains heading selected by HSI heading bug. Vol 3 para 18. 21-29. It is bypassed by the touchdown switch when airborne.000 – 24. 34 if the zone marker is used.

TCAS cannot provide alerts for traffic without operating transponders.  Dash-1 pg 4-294 WARM-UP TIME Ensure the SKE BATT circuit breaker is in during preflight. TCAS is a great tool. C-C. Informing ATC that “you’ve got him on TCAS” may suggest to the controller that he no longer needs to provide you traffic advisories. It is intended to back-up the existing air traffic control system and the “see and avoid” concept.1 Minimum Formation Separation Required 80 NMs 20 NMs 2500 ft 30 ft 0 ft E-TCAS/TCAS OVERVIEW The purpose of TCAS is to assist pilots in avoiding mid-air collisions. E-TCAS POWER • • • TCAS: MAIN DC (28V) CP’s TA/VSI: Main AC (115V) Pilot’s TA/VSI: Essential AC (115V).” Use standard terminology (i. It takes 15 minutes for clock stabilization and heating. or DD) Formations on frequencies separated by 40 MHz (A-C or B-D) Formations on frequencies separated by 80 MHz (A-D) Formations on frequencies separated by 120 MHz (A-B or C-D) Formations on frequencies separated by 160 MHz (B-C)  Vol 3.e. When ATC calls out traffic.  Dash-1 pg 4-228 . This would be a bad assumption on his part and a potentially dangerous situation for you. “Traffic In Sight” or “Negative Contact. 4-285 SKE ANTENNA The SKE system has two separate antennas (top/bottom). Dash-1 pg 4-279. B-B. Searching”). It should not be used to replace visual acquisition of traffic. but there are some limitations. Additionally. TCAS II systems can not provide resolution advisories for aircraft without Mode C altitude information. TCAS should provide safe separation between aircraft determined to be on collision trajectories and improve in-flight situational awareness. do not reply with “Roger. The directional antenna rotates through 360° at a rate of 40 RPM. Table 16. The Primary control must be set to XMIT for a 2minute warm-up prior to use.  Dash-1 pg 4-294 – 4-295 SKE OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS SKE Frequency Deconfliction SKE Frequency Combinations For Multiple Formations Formations on the same frequency (A-A. Got Him on TCAS. consisting of a directional antenna with associate pedestal and an omni directional antenna.

700 – 2.5 .700 – 8.700 feet • BELOW: -12.700 – 2. ETCAS interrogates aircrafts’ Mode C and Mode S. . and 12 NM aft.25 Gs.700 feet • ABOVE: -2.700 – 2. E-TCAS can detect airplanes equipped with transponders that do not reply to Mode S interrogations. .5 second reaction time and up to . .700 feet  Dash-1 pg 4-230 TRACKING CAPABILITIES TCAS can track up to 45 Mode S and Mode C intruders. 35 Gs.  Dash-1 pg 4-232 OPERATIONAL CONCEPT E-TCAS has two main functions: surveillance and collision avoidance. E-TCAS: 40 NM intruder detection in all quadrants. Symbols on the TA/VSI will change to show the change in threat.700 – 12. requiring . . . Resolution advisories may accompany the symbols (when system is in TA/RA). If an aircraft is close but there is no rate of closure.  Dash-1 pg 4-229 INTRUDER VERTICAL DETECTION RANGE TCAS: • NORM: -2.700 feet • BELOW: -8. (With E-TCAS as the number of TCAS enabled planes increase. no RA will be given (unless traffic within a ¼ mile).INTRUDER LATERAL DETECTION RANGE • • TCAS: 40 NM to the front.700 – 2.700 feet • ABOVE: -2.700 feet E-TCAS: • NORM: -2. . An increase or reversal to the RA assumes: 2. The RA assumes: 5 second crew reaction time.5 -06 4 +12 O . . When it finds it. 6 4  Dash-1 pg 4-232 – 2-233 Symb Color Description . 15 NM each side. . the range decreases down to the normal TCAS range). • • • • ABOVE 1 2 RNG 5 . . while E-TCAS can track up to 30 Mode S and Mode C intruders. sending out an RF signal to look for other transponders. E-TCAS surveillance works by continually searching the airspace around the aircraft. It repeatedly sends interrogations to determine range and rate of closure. +08 Coordinated resolutions only occur with other Mode S 1 2 equipped aircraft. . .

. Two digit number with plus or minus sign represents the intruders altitude difference above or below the TCAS aircraft in hundreds of feet. greater than 6 NM separation) shown for situational awareness.ol Solid RED With WHITE Border Solid YELLOW Solid WHITE Resolution Advisory – Intruder aircraft entering warning area (20 to 30 seconds aircraft separation. The arrow appears if the intruder is climbing or descending at a rate greater than 500 fpm. less than 6 NM separation) Hollow YELLOW Data Tag Non-Threat (± 1200 feet. symbol advisory only) Proximity Intruder (± 1200 feet. symbol and voice Advisory) Traffic Advisory – Intruder aircraft entering caution area (intruder 20 to 48 seconds.

Figure 24 – E-TCAS Intruder Symbols Figure 25 – E-TCAS Advisory Areas .

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