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air conditioner (often referred to as AC) is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle. In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation and air conditioning is referred to as "HVAC".
In the refrigeration cycle, a heat pump transfers heat from a lower-temperature heat source into a higher-temperature heat sink. Heat would naturally flow in the opposite direction. This is the most common type of air conditioning. A refrigerator works in much the same way, as it pumps the heat out of the interior and into the room in which it stands.
A simple stylized diagram of the refrigeration cycle: 1) condensing coil, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator coil, 4) compressor.
This cycle takes advantage of the way phase changes work, where latent heat is released at a constant temperature during a liquid/gas phase change, and where varying the pressure of a pure substance also varies its condensation/boiling point.Freon is a good refrigerant.
running a normal air conditioner's refrigerant in the opposite direction, the overall effect is the opposite, and the compartment is heated. This is usually called a heat pump, and is capable of heating a home to comfortable temperatures (25 °C; 70 °F), even when the outside air is below the freezing point of water (0 °C; 32 °F) @@@@
Air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, much as a cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass. The water is drained, removing water vapor from the cooled space and thereby lowering its relative humidity.
The following are the basic parts for a window unit air conditioner.
Adjustable louvers Control panel Front grill Thermostat sensor
Blower Partition Fan Compressor Condenser coil Evaporator coil Filter
The telephone (from the Greek: τῆλε, tēle, "far" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice"), often colloquially referred to as a phone, is atelecommunications device that transmits and receives sound, most commonly the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-pointcommunication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other. It is one of the most common appliances in the developed world, and has long been considered indispensable to businesses, households and governments. The word "telephone" has been adapted to many languages and is widely recognized around the world. All telephones have a microphone to speak into, an earphone which reproduces the voice of the other person, a ringer which makes a sound to alert the owner when a call is coming in, and a keypad (or in older phones a telephone dial or no manual device) to enter the telephone number of the telephone being called. The microphone and earphone are usually built into ahandset which is held up to the face to talk. The keypad may be part of the handset or of a base unit to which the handset would be connected. A landline telephone is connected by a pair of wires to the telephone network, while a mobile phone or cell phoneis portable and communicates with the telephone network by radio. A cordless telephone has a portable handset which communicates by radio with a base station connected by wire to the telephone network, and can only be used within a limited range of the base station. Along with the microphone and speaker, additional circuitry is incorporated to prevent the incoming speaker signal and the outgoing microphone signal from interfering with each other. This is accomplished through a hybrid coil (A3) The microphone converts the sound waves to electrical signals, which are sent through the telephone network to the other phone, where they are converted back to sound waves by the earphone in the other phone's handset. Telephones are a duplexcommunications medium, meaning they allow the people on both ends to talk simultaneously. The telephone network, consisting of a worldwide net of telephone lines, fiberoptic cables,microwave transmission, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone
3. is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. Because they use no fuel and cost nothing to operate. . The vast majority of the solar cookers presently in use are relatively cheap. However at present they are very unusual because they are expensive.Solar cooker A solar cooker. the user enters the other telephone's number into a numeric keypad on his/her phone. This amplifies the heat trapping effect. many nonprofit organizations are promoting their use worldwide to help reduce fuel costs for low-income people. a conversation with another telephone. allows any telephone in the world to communicate with any other. To initiate a telephone call. and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light. Solar cooking is a form ofoutdoor cooking and is often used in situations where minimal fuel consumption is important. making the energy more concentrated and increasing its heating power.cables connected by switching centers. are possible. A plastic bag or tightly sealed glass cover will trap the hot air inside. Light absorptionconverts the sun's visible light into heat. Converting light to heat: A black or low reflectivity surface on a food container or the inside of a solar cooker will improve the effectiveness of turning light into heat. Each telephone line has an identifying number called its telephone number. low-tech devices. Greenhouse effect: Glass transmits visible light but blocks infrared thermal radiation from escaping. There are a variety of types of solar cookers: over 65 major designs and hundreds of variations of them. for example electric ovens powered bysolar cells. The basic principles of solar cooker design are: Concentrating sunlight: A reflective mirror of polished glass. or solar oven. or the danger of accidental fires is high. High-tech versions. metal or metallised film is used to concentrate light and heat from the sun into a small cooking area. caused by use of firewood for cooking. Trapping heat: It is important to reduce convection by isolating the air inside the cooker from the air outside the cooker. reduce air pollution and slow deforestation and desertification. This makes it possible to reach similar temperatures on cold and windy days as on hot days. substantially improving the effectiveness of the cooker.
Box cookers A box cooker has a transparent glass or plastic top. A solar hot water heater installed on a house in Belgium . solar hot water also has industrial applications. The top can usually be removed to allow dark pots containing food to be placed inside. and can be considered an appropriate technology for these places.g. One or more reflectors of shiny metal or foil-lined material may be positioned to bounce extra light into the interior of the oven chamber. The global solar thermal market is dominated by China. and it may have additional reflectors to concentrate sunlight into the box. Europe. While perhaps best known in a residential setting to provide domestic hot water. Give advantages!!! 4. Designs suitable for hot climates can be much simpler and cheaper. Cooking containers and the inside bottom of the cooker should be dark-colored or black. Japan and India. SOLAR WATER HEATER Hot water heated by the sun is used in many ways. e. to generate electricity.
solar water heating for washing and bathing is often a better application than central heating because supply and demand are better matched. When a solar water heating and hot-water central heating system are used in conjunction. In many northern European countries. However. or a set of metal tubes surrounded by an evacuated (near vacuum) glass cylinder. or the solar heat exchanger will replace the lower heating element and the upper element will remain in place to provide for any heating that solar cannot provide. The combination of solar water heating and using the backup heat from a wood stove chimney to heat water can enable a hot water system to work all year round in cooler climates. The volume of this tank needs to be larger with solar heating systems in order to allow for bad weather. often fastened to a roof or a wall facing the sun. Both typically include an auxiliary energy source (electric heating element or connection to a gas or fuel oil central heating system) that is activated when the water in the tank falls below a minimum temperature setting such as 55°C. heats working fluid that is either pumped (active system) or driven by natural convection (passive system) through it. . Changes in ambient temperature and solar radiation between summer and winter. hot water is always available. the primary need for central heating is at night and in winter when solar gain is lower. but more commonly (at least in active systems) is a separate loop of fluid containing anti-freeze and a corrosion inhibitor which delivers heat to the tank through a heat exchanger (commonly a coil of copper tubing within the tank). Residential solar thermal installations fall into two groups: passive (sometimes called "compact") and active (sometimes called "pumped") systems. complexity. This can include domestic nonelectric concentrating solar thermal systems. solar heat will either be concentrated in a pre-heating tank that feeds into the tank heated by the central heating. a solar hot water system can provide up to 85% of domestic hot water energy. The heat transfer fluid (HTF) for the absorber may be the hot water from the tank. The type. Hence.In order to heat water using solar energy. without the supplemental heat requirement of a solar water heating system being met with fossil fuels or electricity. and size of a solar water heating system is mostly determined by: The temperature and amount of the water required from the system. The collector could be made of a simple glass topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal attached to copper pipes and painted black. Therefore. combined hot water and space heating systems (solar combisystems) are used to provide 15 to 25% of home heating energy. Heat is stored in a hot water storage tank.. a collector. In many climates. In industrial cases a parabolic mirror can concentrate sunlight on the tube. and because the optimum final temperature for the solar collector is lower than a typical immersion or combustion heater.
pressure release valve. where the starting range is one liter and extends up to 25liters. These geysers come with a minimum guarantee period but have quite a good life. The higher number of stars denotes higher efficiency and therefore low energy consumption. The possibility of the potable water or collector fluid overheating. although 1lt capacity geysers are also available. by the heating element and goes out through another outlet. Fusible plug. They are good for small families because standard geysers consume more electricity to heat large quantity of water. There are multiple safety systems installed in geysers to avoid any kind of mishap. The changes in ambient temperature during the day-night cycle. Those electrical kitchen accessories should be purchased which have good ratings to save on energy and enjoy greater efficiency. gets heated to a certain degree. Instant Geysers are geysers which take very little time to heat water and have lesser capacity as compared to traditional geysers. thermal cut out and ISI approved thermostat are some of the features of instant geysers. Electrical Geysers are classified as per their capacity. Instant geysers are also successful in kitchens where water consumption is only for cleaning of utensils. Cold water comes into a defined compartment. Geysers are also classified according to energy consumption. Combistat is also fitted for maintaining temperature and to conserve energy. The standard geyser is 15lt in capacity. These electrical appliances have insulated body with long life heating element. 5) ELECTRIC GEYSER Geysers work on the principle of conversion of electrical energy into heat energy by using a heating element. The possibility of the potable water or collector fluid freezing. depending on the requirement of any household. despite their higher capacity. ISI marked geysers are preferred over local makes because they have incorporated essential safety norms. These geysers are given ratings of 4stars and 3stars respectively. Some large capacity geysers consume lesser electricity. Electrical Geysers are available in different shades to go with the interiors of your bathroom and .
when dispersed as molecular vibration in solids and liquids (i. is heat. This energy.5 inches (38 mm) inches of a dense (high water content) food item.kitchen. or to achieve certain culinary effects.. do not brown or bake food. Additional kinds of heat sources can be added to microwavepackaging. This excitation is fairly uniform in the outer 1 inch (25 mm) to 1. 6. as both potential energy andkinetic energy of atoms). This is accomplished by using microwave radiation to heat polarized molecules within the food. or into combination microwave ovens. This makes them unsuitable for cooking certain foods. thus dispersing energy. which converts high-voltage electric energy to microwave radiation a magnetron control circuit (usually with a microcontroller) a waveguide (to control the direction of the microwaves) a cooking chamber . Microwave radiation is between common radio and infrared frequencies. transformer and via a diode to the case. but.e. commonly a simple transformer or an electronic power converter. unlike conventional ovens. to produce these other heating effects. and other substances in the food absorb energy from the microwaves in a process called dielectric heating Rotating molecules hit other molecules and put them into motion. Water. which passes energy to the magnetron a high voltage capacitor connected to the magnetron. leading to food being more evenly heated throughout (except in thick dense objects) than generally occurs in other cooking techniques. A microwave oven works by passing non-ionizing microwave radiation. The function of the thermostat is to set the temperature to a certain value so that water is not heated above that value.80 in)—through the food.45 gigahertz (GHz)—a wavelength of 122 millimetres (4. a cavity magnetron. Basic microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently. usually at a frequency of 2. MICROWAVES A microwave oven (often referred to colloquially simply as a "microwave") is a kitchen appliance that heats food by dielectric heating. The tank is normally covered with some insulating material such as glass wool and entire assembly is enclosed inside a metal casing which can be hanged on the wall or wherever required. fat. A microwave oven consists of: a high voltage power source.
Historically. . including vacuum tube diodes. solid state diodes. Internet access. private base station. silicon-controlled rectifiers and other siliconbased semiconductor switches. generally the user is a subscriber to the phone service and does not own the base station. allowing many more users to share access to the radio bandwidth. where frequencies are re-used repeatedly within a city area. By contrast. a cordless telephone is used only within the range of a single. It does this by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator. mercury arc valves. Moderncellular "cell" phones or hand phones make use of the cellular network concept. short-range wireless communications (infrared. used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector". Early mobile phones were usually bulky and permanently installed in vehicles. even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. rectifiers take a number of forms. Early radio receivers. business applications. MMS. gaming and photography. to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction. which periodically reverses direction. In addition to telephony. The process is known as rectification. called crystal radios. A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed-linephones across the world. Mobile phones that offer these more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. A mobile phone allows calls to be placed over a wide geographic area.7 MOBILE PHONE A mobile phone allows calls into the public switched telephone system over a radio link. ELLABORATE ON APPLICATIONS 8) RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). Bluetooth). Physically. email. modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging. they provided limited service because only a few frequencies were available for a geographic area.
Depending upon the type of end-use. . Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier. while the other half is blocked. As noted. or with three diodes in a three-phase supply. this type of DC current may then be further modified into the type of relatively constant voltage DC characteristically produced by such sources as batteries and solar cells. four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. In half wave rectification. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply. diode). Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output. (See semiconductors. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. However. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame. Full-wave rectification A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. and is more efficient. either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current).Rectifiers have many uses. The simple process of rectification produces a type of DC characterized by pulsating voltages and currents (although still unidirectional). Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer.
In its most general sense. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults. and nuclear tests. and occasionally volcanic activity. 7 MAJOR PLATES. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus orhypocenter. the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether natural or caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. mine blasts. EATHRQUAKE An earthquake (also known as a quake. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides.9. landslides. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. 10 NATURAL GEYSER . At the Earth's surface. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency. When theepicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore. earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. but also by other events such as volcanic activity. KEEP COLLIDING.
A plumbing system In order for the heated water to form a geyser. and human intervention. A geyser's eruptive activity may change or cease due to ongoing mineral deposition within the geyser plumbing. As the water boils. exchange of functions with nearby hot springs. Generally.600 ft) where it contacts hot rocks. Intense heat The heat needed for geyser formation comes from magma that needs to be near the surface of the earth. Iceland. About a thousand known geysers exist worldwide. that name. Constrictions in the system are essential to the building up of pressure before an eruptio 11)IRON . so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. the verb itself from Old Norse. in turn.000 metres (6. The word geyser comes from Geysir. Geysers are generally associated with volcanic areas. The formation of geysers specifically requires the combination of three geologic conditions that are usually found in volcanic terrain. UK /ˈɡiːzə/) is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapour phase (steam). The pressures encountered at the areas where the water is heated makes the boiling point of the water much higher than at normal atmospheric pressures. surface water works its way down to an average depth of around 2. United States. The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions. The plumbing system is made up of a system of fractures. a plumbing system is required. Wyoming.A geyser (US /ˈɡaɪzər/. Generally all geyser field sites are located near active volcanic areas. Water The water that is ejected from a geyser must travel underground through deep. and the geyser effect is due to the proximity ofmagma. Geysers are temporary geological features. This includes a reservoir to hold the water while it is being heated. fissures. The resultant boiling of the pressurized water results in the geyser effect of hot water and steam spraying out of the geyser's surface vent (a hydrothermal explosion). comes from the Icelandic verb geysa. Geysers are generally aligned along faults. roughly half of which are in Yellowstone National Park. porous spaces and sometimes cavities. the resulting pressure forces a superheated column of steam and water to the surface through the geyser's internal plumbing. the name of an erupting spring at Haukadalur. earthquake influences. The fact that geysers need heat much higher than normally found near the earth's surface is the reason they are associated with volcanoes or volcanic areas. which exist in only a few places on Earth. "to gush". pressurized fissures in the earth's crust.
Steam burst . it is contained within some form of housing or case. Some materials such as cotton require the use of water to loosen the intermolecular bonds. A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air.An iron is a small appliance used in ironing to remove wrinkles from fabric. ejection of steam through the clothing during the ironing process. An indicator showing the amount of water left in the reservoir. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing objects from contacting the fan blades. a thermostat ensuring maintenance of a constant temperature. electrical cord with heat-resistant Teflon (PTFE) insulation. 12) ELECTRIC FAN A mechanical fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid. Most fans are powered by electric motors. including hydraulic motors and internal combustion engines and solar power. . often have designs similar to that of a fan. the fibers are stretched and the fabric maintains its new shape when cool. Usually. a temperature control dial allowing the user to select the operating temperatures (usually marked with types of cloth rather than temperatures:silk. For more details on this topic. Ironing works by loosening the ties between the long chains of molecules that exist in polymer fiber materials. as opposed to compressors which produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. A fan blade will often rotate when exposed to an air stream.). Many materials developed in the twentieth century are advertised as needing little or no ironing. "linen". typically a gas such as air. With the heat and the weight of the ironing plate. "cotton". etc. Modern irons for home use can have the following features: a method for setting the iron down. "wool".constantly sends steam through the hot part of the iron into the clothes. but other sources of power may be used. Constant steam . see Centrifugal compressor. such as anemometers and wind turbines. and devices that take advantage of this. A water reservoir inside the iron used for steam generation. Fans produce air flows with high volume and low pressure.sends a burst of steam through the clothes when the user presses a button. without the hot soleplate touching anything that could be damaged. usually standing on its end.
normal thunder storms clump together. hence their name. calm region called the 'eye'. and eventually a cyclone which is anywhere between hundreds of kilometres to thousands of kilometres wide. and seem to move in all directions. circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This in turn causes the winds to rotate faster. The winds are not just rotating. This type of fan is used in a wide variety of applications. .While fans are often used to cool people. Standard axial flow fans have diameters from 300-400 mm or 1800 to 2000 mm and work under pressures up to 800 Pa. Cyclones are also characterised by strong winds. Axial fans blow air along the axis of the fan. and becomes saturated with moisture which then condenses into high thunderclouds. fans may become at ineffective at cooling the body if the surrounding air is near body temperature and contains high humidity. Cyclones can only form over warm waters in the tropical regions of the oceans where the sea temperatures are 26. The Coriolis effect of the Earth spinning on its axis causes the air to spiral upwards with considerable force. electric fans warm it slightly due to the warming of their motors). FORMATION Cyclones (including typhoons and hurricanes) are caused by warm tropical moisture bearing clouds developing in open oceans or seas. That is why the winds are so strong. they do not actually cool air (if anything. Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on areas of low atmospheric pressure. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Axial flow fans are applied for air conditioning and industrial process applications. linearly. The axial-flow fans have blades that force air to move parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate. but work by evaporative cooling of sweat and increased heat conduction into the surrounding air due to the airflow from the fans. they may seem to be more violent.5 degrees Celsius or higher (around 80 degrees Fahrenheit). causing the tropical low to deepen in intensity into a tropical depression. ranging from small cooling fans for electronics to the giant fans used in wind tunnels. They occur in areas of very low pressure when air that is heated by the sun rises rapidly. and the winds return from the other direction. there is also the effect of the warmer air continually rising and cold air rushing in. Thus. When the hot air rises. cooler air rushes in to fill the area left vacant by the hot air. yet in their centre is a clear. When the cyclone continues its course. 13 CYCLONE a cyclone is an area of closed. As the atmosphere becomes favorable for development (no wind shearing in the higher parts of the atmosphere).
The cyclones have high pressure outside and low pressure inside. Structure There are a number of structural characteristics common to all cyclones. the wind flow around a large cyclone is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. (The wind flow around an anticyclone.Winds gusts in a category 5 cyclone can exceed 280 kph. In the Northern Hemisphere. the opposite occurs in the Southern Hemisphere. and a fully developed cyclone pumps out about two million tonnes of air per second. A cyclone's center (often known in a mature tropical cyclone as the eye). Near the center. MAKE A FLOW CHART!!!!!! . or the cyclone would collapse on itself as a result of the difference in pressure. Even the biggest countries are not spared. is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure in the region. A cyclone is a low pressure area. Many become homeless. the fastest winds relative to the surface of the Earth therefore occur on the eastern side of a northward-moving cyclone and on the northern side of a westward-moving one. the pressure gradient force (from the pressure in the center of the cyclone compared to the pressure outside the cyclone) and the force from the Coriolis effect must be in an approximate balance. on the other hand. EFFECTS: loss of life and property. Because of the Coriolis effect. and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. is clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
each volcano becomes dormant after a while and a new volcano is then formed as the plate shifts over the postulated plume. the oceanic plate subducts. volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. a volcano is formed. and to be fixed in space. These are postulated to comprise columns of hot material that rise from the core-mantle boundary. the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. Because the tectonic plates move across them. which allows hot magma. or submerges under the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. for example. New oceanic crust is being formed by hot molten rock slowly cooling and solidifying. . Convergent plate boundaries Main article: Convergent boundary Subduction zones are places where two plates. or rupture. forming new seafloor. Divergent plate boundaries Main article: Divergent boundary At the mid-oceanic ridges. Black smokers or deep sea vents are an example of this kind of volcanic activity. volcano is an opening. Typical examples for this kind of volcano are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. "Hotspots" Main article: Hotspot (geology) "Hotspots" is the name given to volcanic provinces postulated to be formed by mantle plumes. When it does reach the surface. This magma tends to be very viscous due to its high silicacontent. A mid-oceanic ridge. two tectonic plates diverge from one another. The Hawaiian Islands. in a planet's surface or crust. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate. so often does not reach the surface and cools at depth. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sealevel. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates. The crust is very thin at midoceanic ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates. They are suggested to be hot. By contrast. The release of pressure due to the thinning of the crust leads to adiabatic expansion. volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. In this case. and the partial melting of the mantle causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust. creating magma. volcanic islands are formed. for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans. therefore most volcanic activity is submarine. collide. Iceland.14 VOLCANOES 1. has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart. causing large-volume melting. Water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge.
 A similar device which maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Ash cloud 15 FRIDGE A refrigerator (commonly referred to as a fridge) is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and aheat pump (mechanical. Sill 6. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F). Cooling is a popular food storage technique in developed countries and works by decreasing the reproduction rate of bacteria. The device is thus used to reduce the rate of spoilage of foodstuffs. Crater 15. Bedrock 3. Flank 9.Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated): 1. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Lava flow 13. electronic. Large magma chamber 2. Dike 7. or chemical) which transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. . Vent 14. Base 5. Parasitic cone 12. Throat 11. Conduit (pipe) 4.
The maximum temperature reached during the power failure may be displayed. 3: Evaporator unit. In this cycle. which relocates the ice-maker storage to the freezer door and saves approximately 60 litres (2 cu ft) of usable freezer space. I: insulation. An in-door ice caddy. refrigerator–freezers and freezers. a circulating refrigerant such as R134a enters a compressor as lowpressure vapor at or slightly above the temperature of the refrigerator interior.The refrigerator is a relatively modern invention among kitchen appliances. along with information on whether the frozen food has defrosted or may contain harmful bacteria. and helps to prevent ice-maker clogging. Also some refrigerators have icemakers built-in so the user doesn't have to use ice trays. 4: Compressor Features Newer refrigerators may include: Automatic defrosting. . alerting the user by flashing a temperature display. Cabinet rollers that allow the refrigerator to be easily rolled around for easier cleaning. B: cold compartment (refrigerator box). so that the door need not be opened. 2: Expansion valve. 1: Condenser. A cooling zone in the refrigerator door shelves. Some refrigerators have water chillers and water filtration systems. A Status Indicator to notify the user when it is time to change the water filter. Water and Ice Dispensing became available in the 1970s. Vapor Compression Cycle – A: hot compartment (kitchen). A power failure warning. The vapor is compressed and exits the compressor as high-pressure superheated vapor. Air from the freezer section is diverted to the refrigerator door. to cool milk or juice stored in the door shelf. working A vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators. Adjustable shelves and trays which can be repositioned to suit the user. It is also removable. Chilled water and ice available from an in-door station.
The TV box works much like any receiver." or composite video impulse. which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s. You can see a picture on a television because the cathode ray tube. including those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals." refers to the cathode ray tube present in most modern-day television sets. in side older televisions. with accompanying sound the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is properly called a video monitor. in places where direct observation is difficult or dangerous. you can literally open up a suppressed TV signal for viewing. The term "watch the tube. in that it takes in electrical impulses sent from elsewhere and changes those bits of information into something people can hear and see. rather than a television. A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits. Television systems are also used for surveillance. industrial process control. and uses highpowered radio-frequency transmitters tobroadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers." TVs all have sheets placed behind the glass portion of it. Color on a television set is created by mixing various light beams. It basically works by regulating red. emits or fluoresces light not visible to the naked eye. A television system may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-definition television (HDTV). By manipulating the "color burst. Black and white televisions usually only have one phosphor sheet while color TVs will have three. • An analog television works by transferring electromagnetic waves into sound and light energy. blue and green light in different patterns against something called a "phosphor sheet. • • MAKE FLOW CHART .16 TV Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored. and guiding of weapons.
. commonly referred to as a "vacuum. and self-propelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil. Vacuum cleaners. and so the dust is literally pushed into the bag. This means that it can lower the pressure inside the hose from normal atmospheric pressure (about 100 kPa) by 20 kPa. which are used in homes as well as in industry. huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred litres of dust before being emptied. a typical domestic model has a suction of about negative 20 kPa. exist in a variety of sizes and models: small battery-operated hand-held devices. domestic central vacuum cleaners. Atmospheric pressure then pushes the air through the carpet and into the nozzle.17 VACUUM CLEANERS A vacuum cleaner. For example. Technology A vacuum's suction is caused by a difference in air pressure." is a device that uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt. An electric fan reduces the pressure inside the machine. and optionally from other surfaces as well. usually from floors. The dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for later disposal. Tests have shown that vacuuming can kill 100% of young fleas and 96% of adult fleas Suction The suction is the maximum pressure difference that the pump can create.
a partial vacuum. As long as the fan is running and the passageway through the vacuum cleaner remains open. 2. inside the vacuum cleaner. . which has angled blades (like anairplane propeller). As the fan blades turn. toward the exhaust port(check out How Airplanes Work to find out what causes this). there is aconstant stream of air moving through the intake port and out the exhaust port. This pressure drop behind the fan is just like the pressure drop in the straw when you sip from your drink. But how does a flowing stream of air collect the dirt and debris from your carpet? The key principle is friction. The motor is attached to thefan. The electric current operates themotor. The ambient air pushes itself into the vacuum cleaner through the intake port because the air pressure inside the vacuum cleaner is lower than the pressure outside. they force air forward. the density of particles (and therefore the air pressure) increases in front of the fan and decreases behind the fan. The pressure level in the area behind the fan drops below the pressure level outside the vacuum cleaner (theambient air pressure). This creates suction.1. When air particles are driven forward. 3.
converts binary code into "decimal" numbers which can be displayed on the display unit. portable. X register and Y register .) are stored here in binary form.displays input numbers. a basic electronic calculator consists of the following components: Power source (battery and/or solar cell) Keypad . Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) .) Processor chip (microprocessor) contains: Scanning unit . multiplication. User memory contents can be changed or erased by the user. percentages. it scans the keypad waiting to pick up an electrical signal when a key is pressed. trigonometry etc. Display panel . . Some even contain 00 and 000 buttons to make large numbers easier to enter WORKING!  In general.The store where numbers can be stored by the user. Flag register .18 calculator An electronic calculator is a small. usually inexpensive electronic machine used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Permanent memory cannot be erased. commands and results. The number in the X register is shown on the display.consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands (addition. etc. Modern electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations.converts the numbers and functions into binary code.when a calculator is powered on.The instructions for in-built functions (arithmetic operations. Permanent memory (ROM). and provides the results in binary coded form. Decoder unit . square-root. Encoder unit . square roots.They are number stores where numbers are stored temporarily while doing calculations. All numbers go into the X register first. Seven stripes (segments) are used to represent each digit in a basic calculator.The ALU executes all arithmetic and logic instructions. These instructions are "programs" stored permanently.The function for the calculation is stored here until the calculator needs it. User memory (RAM) .
The answer. This "pushes" the first number (25) out into the Y register. The second number 9 is encoded and sent to the X register. Next. when the [+] key is pressed.Example A basic explanation as to how calculations are performed in a simple 4-function calculator: To perform the calculation 25 + 9. Sometimes significant design effort is required to fit all the desired functions in the limited memory space available in the calculator chip. make flow chart and diagram 19 ELECTROPLATING . and then shown on the display panel. a "message" from the flag register tells the permanent memory that the operation to be done is "addition". 34 is sent back to the X register. All other functions are usually carried out using repeated additions. The numbers in the X and Y registers are then loaded into the ALU and the calculation is carried out following instructions from the permanent memory. it is picked up by the scanning unit. the "addition" instruction is also encoded and sent to the flag register. software algorithms are required to produce high precision results. or trigonometric functions. the number 25 is encoded and sent to the X register. When 25 is entered. one presses keys in the following sequence on most calculators:   [+]  [=]. Where calculators have additional functions such as square root. From there it is converted by the decoder unit into a decimal number (usually binary-coded decimal). When [=] is pressed. with acceptable calculation time.
abrasion and wear resistance.g. vis-a-vis the current flowing through the circuit. At .. Both components are immersed in a solutioncalled an electrolyte containing one or more dissolved metal salts as well as other ions that permit the flow of electricity.corrosion protection. etc. In one technique. the anode is made of the metal to be plated on the part. oxidizing the metal atoms that comprise it and allowing them to dissolve in the solution. the dissolved metal ions in the electrolyte solution are reduced at the interface between the solution and the cathode.in the solution to form copper sulfate. In this manner. When the external power supply is switched on. such that they "plate out" onto the cathode. The part to be plated is thecathode of the circuit. Another application uses electroplating to build up thickness on undersized parts. the metal at the anode is oxidized from the zero valence state to form cations with a positive charge. These cations associate with the anions in the solution. zero valence state. The rate at which the anode is dissolved is equal to the rate at which the cathode is plated. such as a metal. The process uses electrical current to reduce cations of a desired material from a solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the material. in an acid solution. and the cathode (article to be plated) is connected to the negative terminal. aesthetic qualities. The anode is connected to the positive terminal of the supply. At the cathode.) to a surface that otherwise lacks that property. more commonly. For example. A power supplysupplies a direct current to the anode. The Cu2+ associates with the anion SO42. copper is oxidized at the anode to Cu2+ by losing two electrons. PROCESS The anode and cathode in the electroplating cell are both connected to an external supply of direct current — a battery or. Electroplating is primarily used for depositing a layer of material to bestow a desired property (e.Electroplating is a plating process in which metal ions in a solution are moved by an electric field to coat an electrode. a rectifier. It is analogous to a galvanic cell acting in reverse. lubricity. the ions in the electrolyte bath are continuously replenished by the anode. The cations are reduced at the cathode to deposit in the metallic. The process used in electroplating is called electrodeposition.
The lid is closed. some alloys can be electrodeposited. which is not a . the weight is placed on the steam vent when steam is being emitted. the pressure built up inside the cooker allows the liquid in the pot to rise to a higher temperature before boiling. e. The simplest safety valve is a loose-fitting rubber plug in the lid. a safety valve is provided as a backup escape route for steam. Because the boiling point of water increases as the pressure increases. In most models a gasket or sealing ring forms a gas-tight seal which does not allow air or steam to escape between the pot and the lid. the Cu2+ is reduced to metallic copper by gaining two electrons. not an alloy. a stove. but normally the pop-up indicator just shows that the cooker has pressure inside. instead of timing the recipe when the cooker has reached its selected pressure level. Normally. which is maintained throughout cooking time. inside the closed pressure cooker and the trapped steam increases the internal pressure and temperature. The result is the effective transfer of copper from the anode source to a plate covering the cathode. at the highest heat (if a weight is used. notably brass andsolder. However. In case the regulator is blocked. Design Pressure cookers are generally made from aluminum or stainless steel. A common mistake is for the user to start timing the recipe when the pop-up indicator rises as soon as there is the slightest amount of pressure in the cooker. other more expensive models feature a metal to metal seal. the only way the steam can escape is through a regulator on the lid when the pressure has built up. the plug pops out of its seat. as this ensures the air inside has escaped) until the cooker reaches full pressure.the cathode. such as water. Pressure is created at the beginning with boiling liquid. Some pressure cookers have markers on the pop-up indicator which show the pressure level. Applications: fake jewellary 20PRESSURE COOKERS Pressure cooking is a method of cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure.g. the pressure setting selected and the pressure cooker is placed on a heat source. The plating is most commonly a single metallic element. If the pressure exceeds design limits. held in place by steam pressure. with a small amount of water or liquid required for the recipe. Operation The food to be cooked is placed in the pressure cooker.. then the heat is lowered to maintain pressure and timing the recipe begins at this point.
so dishes can be ready sooner. which reduces water's effectiveness for cooking or preparing hot drinks. The additional gasket requires special care when cleaning. and with much less water used than boiling. Advantages Foods are cooked much faster by pressure cooking than by other methods (except for small quantities in microwave ovens). unlike a standard lid for a saucepan . the foods come to cooking temperature faster. This indicator also acts as an interlock to prevent the lid being opened when there is any pressure inside. where the low atmospheric pressure otherwise reduces the boiling point of water. Since less water is necessary. steaming or oven cooking. The pressure cooker speeds cooking considerably at high altitudes.reliable means of showing that the cooker has reached its selected pressure. Less energy is required than when boiling. Disadvantages Pressure cookers are considerably more expensive than conventional saucepans of the same size.
while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf). from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes.. batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries). which are designed to be used once and discarded. Therefore. determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. in other words. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. In the redox reaction that powers the battery. the anode or negative electrode. which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow. APPLICATIONS!!! 22 ARC WELDING Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. It consists of a number of voltaic cells. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate. and/or slag. if the electrodes have emfs and . i. the net emf is the difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions. vapor. and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries).21 BATTERY An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.e. the cathode or positive electrode. i.. the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate. as first recognized by Volta. then the net emf is . . Batteries come in many sizes.e. and consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy.
such as gas tungsten arc welding. resulting in medium-penetration welds. flux cored arc welding. but the electrode can be charged either positively or negatively. as well as alternating current (AC). returning it to its original separation distance. If the electrode is positively charged. In these processes. a negatively charged electrode results in more shallow welds. Alternatively. because they maintain a relatively constant current even as the voltage varies.Alternating current rapidly moves between these two.POWER SUPPLY To supply the electrical energy necessary for arc welding processes. Non-consumable electrode processes. can use either type of direct current (DC). APPLIC ATIONS!! . if the wire and the base material get too close. In arc welding. With direct current however. the positively charged anode will have a greater heat concentration and. and as a result. In welding. increasing weld penetration and welding speed. This is important because in manual welding. a positively charged electrode causes shallow welds. Constant current power supplies are most often used for manual welding processes such as gas tungsten arc welding and shielded metal arc welding. since any fluctuation in the distance between the wire and the base material is quickly rectified by a large change in current. The most common classification is constant current power supplies and constant voltage power supplies. and submerged arc welding. which in turn causes the heat to increase and the tip of the wire to melt. the arc length and thus voltage tend to fluctuate. it can be difficult to hold the electrode perfectly steady. arc length is kept constant. while a negatively charged electrode makes deeper welds. For example. because the electrode only creates the arc and does not provide filler material. are most often used for automated welding processes such as gas metal arc welding. Constant voltage power supplies hold the voltage constant and vary the current. the current will rapidly increase. The direction of current used in arc welding also plays an important role in welding. Consumable electrode processes such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding generally use direct current. a number of different power supplies can be used. it will melt more quickly. changing the polarity of the electrode has an impact on weld properties. as a result. and as a result. the voltage is directly related to the length of the arc. and the current is related to the amount of heat input.
within which the Moon is only partially in front of the Sun .23 ECLIPSE The progression of a lunar eclipse. These required a longer exposure time to make the details visible. penumbra and antumbra Umbra. within which the Moon is completely in front of the Sun but too small to completely cover it The penumbra. penumbra and antumbra cast by a solid object occulting a larger light source. extending beyond the tip of the umbra. when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow. its photosphere) The antumbra. A binary star system can also produce eclipses if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars intersects the observer's position. either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. within which the Moon completely covers the Sun (more precisely. Totality is shown with the last two images to lower right. a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet. The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse. a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons. or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon. An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured. An eclipse is a type of syzygy. Umbra. or a lunar eclipse. However. The region of the Earth's shadow in a solar eclipse is divided into three parts: The umbra. when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface. it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth-Moon system: for example.
resulting in a small but significant signal delay. The Sun. and fourth or last contact when it finally leaves the Sun's disc entirely. The first contact occurs when the Moon's disc first starts to impinge on the Sun's. These satellites have revolutionized global communications. Earth and nodes are aligned twice a year (during an eclipse season). such as a saros. viewed from the third. which repeat according to various eclipse cycles. eclipses can occur only when the Moon is close to the intersection of these two planes (the nodes). 24 GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES A geosynchronous Satellite is a satellite whose orbit on the Earth repeats regularly over points on the Earth over time. EARTH MOON SYSTEM An eclipse involving the Sun. and have a number of important defense and intelligence applications. allowing one to be hidden behind another. Application There are approximately 300 operational geosynchronous satellites.25 of a second to reach and return from the satellite. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun as seen from the Earth.During a lunar eclipse only the umbra and penumbra are applicable. and eclipses can occur during a period of about two months around these times. One disadvantage of geostationary satellites is a result of their high altitude: radio signals take approximately 0. This delay increases the difficulty of telephone conversation and reduces the performance of common network protocols such as TCP/IP. the orbit is circular and its angular velocity is the same as the earth's. Slow start is very slow over a path using a geostationary satellite. Since this occurs only when the Moon is on the far side of the Earth from the Sun. These antennas can be fixed in place and are much less expensive than tracking antennas. television broadcasting and weather forecasting. second contact is when the Moon's disc moves completely within the Sun's. third contact when it starts to move out of the Sun's. If such a satellite's orbit lies over the equator. Receiving and transmitting antennas on the earth do not need to track such a satellite. Because the orbital plane of the Moon is tilted with respect to the orbital plane of the Earth (the ecliptic). and probes link capacity with its "slow-start" algorithm. Geostationary satellites appear to be fixed over one spot above the equator. There can be from four to seven eclipses in a calendar year. There are a number of proprietary satellite data protocols that are designed to proxy TCP/IP connections over long-delay satellite links—these are marketed as being a partial solution to the poor performance of native TCP over satellite links. not errors. This is because Earth's apparent diameter from the viewpoint of the Moon is nearly 4 times that of the Sun. TCP presumes that all loss is due to congestion. which only sends packets once it is known that earlier packets have been received. then it is called a geostationary satellite. lunar eclipses only occur when there is a full moon. but does not present a problem with non-interactive systems such as television broadcasts. Earth and Moon can occur only when they are nearly in a straight line. . Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow.
While larger fluorescent lamps have been mostly used in commercial or institutional buildings. . A fluorescent lamp converts electrical power into useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp. vegetation or buildings. Similar elliptical orbits are used for the Sirius Radio satellites.Another disadvantage of geostationary satellites is the incomplete geographical coverage. the compact fluorescent lamp is now available in the same popular sizes as incandescents and is used as an energy-saving alternative in homes. The excited mercury atoms produce shortwave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce. The lamp fixture is more costly because it requires a ballast to regulate the current through the lamp. and could even be blocked by land topography. The signals would have to pass through the largest amount of atmosphere. In the USSR. ELABORATE ON APPLICATIONS 25 FLUOROSCENT LAMP A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor. producing visible light. Lower energy cost typically offsets the higher initial cost of the lamp. a practical solution was developed for this problem with the creation of specialMolniya / Orbita inclined path satellite networks with elliptical orbits. since ground stations at higher than roughly 60 degrees latitude have difficulty reliably receiving signals at low elevations. Satellite dishes at such high latitudes would need to be pointed almost directly towards the horizon.
F: Filaments. The photon that is emitted from this second interaction has a lower energy than the one that caused it. The longer life may also reduce lamp replacement costs. These are not visible to the human eye. predominantly at wavelengths of 253. The chemicals that make up the phosphor are chosen so that these emitted photons are at wavelengths visible to the human eye. A: Fluorescent tube.A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch. allowing higher currents to flow through the lamp. Lower luminosity Compared with an incandescent lamp. a fluorescent tube is a more diffuse and physically larger light source. the electric power heats up the cathode enough for it to emit electrons (thermionic emission). light can be more evenly distributed without point source . The difference in energy between the absorbed ultra-violet photon and the emitted visible light photon goes toward heating up the phosphor coating. This is done by making use of fluorescence. then drop. Most of the photons that are released from the mercury atoms have wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum.7 and 185 nanometers (nm). the conductivity of the ionized gas rapidly rises. The higher initial cost of a fluorescent lamp is usually more than compensated for by lower energy consumption over its life. When the light is turned on. G: Ballast Principles of operation The fundamental means for conversion of electrical energy into radiant energy in a fluorescent lamp relies on inelastic scattering of electrons. Therefore they are widely used by businesses and institutions. C: Starter. so they must be converted into visible light. and the atom will emit an ultraviolet photon as the atom's electron reverts to a lower. causing that electron to temporarily jump up to a higher energy level. Ultraviolet photons are absorbed by electrons in the atoms of the lamp's interior fluorescent coating. energy level. The collision is 'inelastic' because a loss of energy occurs. If the free electron has enough kinetic energy. Advantages Luminous efficacy Fluorescent lamps convert more of the input power to visible light than incandescent lamps. but not as much by households. As a result of avalanche ionization. it transfers energy to the atom's outer electron. providing additional saving especially where labor is costly. These electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms inside the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by the process of impact ionization. B: Power (+220 volts). In suitably designed lamps. D: Switch (bi-metallic thermostat). with emission of a further photon. An incident electron collides with an atom in the gas. This higher energy state is unstable. Life Typically a fluorescent lamp will last between 10 to 20 times as long as an equivalent incandescent lamp when operated several hours at a time. E: Capacitor. more stable. causing a similar energy jump.
This greatly reduces the size. and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life.of glare such as seen from an undiffused incandescent filament. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s. Newspaper. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services. .S. book and other print publishing are adapting toWeb site technology. backbone by theNational Science Foundation in the 1980s. wireless and optical networking technologies. and social networking. Lower heat About two-thirds to three-quarters less heat is given off by fluorescent lamps compared to an equivalent installation of incandescent lamps. of local to global scope. cost. academic. Disadvantages Frequent switching Health and safety issues Main article: Fluorescent lamps and health If a fluorescent lamp is broken. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. more than 2. as well as private funding for other commercial backbones. or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. and the merger of many networks. giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. public. such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web(WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. a very small amount of mercury can contaminate the surrounding environment Ultraviolet emission Fluorescent lamps emit a small amount of ultraviolet (UV) light 26 INTERNET The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies. The funding of a new U. that are linked by a broad array of electronic. commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust.1 billion people – nearly a third of Earth's population – use the services of the Internet. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. and government networks. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging. Most traditional communications media including telephone. fault-tolerant. film. Internet forums. and energy consumption. As of 2011. the lamp is large compared to the typical distance between lamp and illuminated surfaces. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private. music. and distributed computer networks. business.
a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). each constituent network sets its own standards. are directed by a maintainer organization. the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet. APPLICATIONS!!! .
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