This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
air conditioner (often referred to as AC) is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle. In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation and air conditioning is referred to as "HVAC".
In the refrigeration cycle, a heat pump transfers heat from a lower-temperature heat source into a higher-temperature heat sink. Heat would naturally flow in the opposite direction. This is the most common type of air conditioning. A refrigerator works in much the same way, as it pumps the heat out of the interior and into the room in which it stands.
A simple stylized diagram of the refrigeration cycle: 1) condensing coil, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator coil, 4) compressor.
This cycle takes advantage of the way phase changes work, where latent heat is released at a constant temperature during a liquid/gas phase change, and where varying the pressure of a pure substance also varies its condensation/boiling point.Freon is a good refrigerant.
running a normal air conditioner's refrigerant in the opposite direction, the overall effect is the opposite, and the compartment is heated. This is usually called a heat pump, and is capable of heating a home to comfortable temperatures (25 °C; 70 °F), even when the outside air is below the freezing point of water (0 °C; 32 °F) @@@@
Air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, much as a cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass. The water is drained, removing water vapor from the cooled space and thereby lowering its relative humidity.
The following are the basic parts for a window unit air conditioner.
Adjustable louvers Control panel Front grill Thermostat sensor
Blower Partition Fan Compressor Condenser coil Evaporator coil Filter
The telephone (from the Greek: τῆλε, tēle, "far" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice"), often colloquially referred to as a phone, is atelecommunications device that transmits and receives sound, most commonly the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-pointcommunication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other. It is one of the most common appliances in the developed world, and has long been considered indispensable to businesses, households and governments. The word "telephone" has been adapted to many languages and is widely recognized around the world. All telephones have a microphone to speak into, an earphone which reproduces the voice of the other person, a ringer which makes a sound to alert the owner when a call is coming in, and a keypad (or in older phones a telephone dial or no manual device) to enter the telephone number of the telephone being called. The microphone and earphone are usually built into ahandset which is held up to the face to talk. The keypad may be part of the handset or of a base unit to which the handset would be connected. A landline telephone is connected by a pair of wires to the telephone network, while a mobile phone or cell phoneis portable and communicates with the telephone network by radio. A cordless telephone has a portable handset which communicates by radio with a base station connected by wire to the telephone network, and can only be used within a limited range of the base station. Along with the microphone and speaker, additional circuitry is incorporated to prevent the incoming speaker signal and the outgoing microphone signal from interfering with each other. This is accomplished through a hybrid coil (A3) The microphone converts the sound waves to electrical signals, which are sent through the telephone network to the other phone, where they are converted back to sound waves by the earphone in the other phone's handset. Telephones are a duplexcommunications medium, meaning they allow the people on both ends to talk simultaneously. The telephone network, consisting of a worldwide net of telephone lines, fiberoptic cables,microwave transmission, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone
the user enters the other telephone's number into a numeric keypad on his/her phone. However at present they are very unusual because they are expensive. . Converting light to heat: A black or low reflectivity surface on a food container or the inside of a solar cooker will improve the effectiveness of turning light into heat. Because they use no fuel and cost nothing to operate. A plastic bag or tightly sealed glass cover will trap the hot air inside. Light absorptionconverts the sun's visible light into heat. making the energy more concentrated and increasing its heating power. metal or metallised film is used to concentrate light and heat from the sun into a small cooking area. The basic principles of solar cooker design are: Concentrating sunlight: A reflective mirror of polished glass. caused by use of firewood for cooking.cables connected by switching centers. Greenhouse effect: Glass transmits visible light but blocks infrared thermal radiation from escaping. is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it.Solar cooker A solar cooker. are possible. a conversation with another telephone. The vast majority of the solar cookers presently in use are relatively cheap. To initiate a telephone call. High-tech versions. 3. There are a variety of types of solar cookers: over 65 major designs and hundreds of variations of them. many nonprofit organizations are promoting their use worldwide to help reduce fuel costs for low-income people. Trapping heat: It is important to reduce convection by isolating the air inside the cooker from the air outside the cooker. and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light. reduce air pollution and slow deforestation and desertification. or solar oven. substantially improving the effectiveness of the cooker. for example electric ovens powered bysolar cells. This amplifies the heat trapping effect. allows any telephone in the world to communicate with any other. This makes it possible to reach similar temperatures on cold and windy days as on hot days. or the danger of accidental fires is high. low-tech devices. Each telephone line has an identifying number called its telephone number. Solar cooking is a form ofoutdoor cooking and is often used in situations where minimal fuel consumption is important.
While perhaps best known in a residential setting to provide domestic hot water. Europe. A solar hot water heater installed on a house in Belgium .g. The top can usually be removed to allow dark pots containing food to be placed inside. solar hot water also has industrial applications. and it may have additional reflectors to concentrate sunlight into the box.Box cookers A box cooker has a transparent glass or plastic top. Give advantages!!! 4. One or more reflectors of shiny metal or foil-lined material may be positioned to bounce extra light into the interior of the oven chamber. to generate electricity. and can be considered an appropriate technology for these places. Cooking containers and the inside bottom of the cooker should be dark-colored or black. SOLAR WATER HEATER Hot water heated by the sun is used in many ways. e. Japan and India. Designs suitable for hot climates can be much simpler and cheaper. The global solar thermal market is dominated by China.
often fastened to a roof or a wall facing the sun. and size of a solar water heating system is mostly determined by: The temperature and amount of the water required from the system. solar water heating for washing and bathing is often a better application than central heating because supply and demand are better matched. When a solar water heating and hot-water central heating system are used in conjunction.In order to heat water using solar energy. and because the optimum final temperature for the solar collector is lower than a typical immersion or combustion heater. a solar hot water system can provide up to 85% of domestic hot water energy. combined hot water and space heating systems (solar combisystems) are used to provide 15 to 25% of home heating energy. In many climates. the primary need for central heating is at night and in winter when solar gain is lower. The volume of this tank needs to be larger with solar heating systems in order to allow for bad weather. The heat transfer fluid (HTF) for the absorber may be the hot water from the tank. The combination of solar water heating and using the backup heat from a wood stove chimney to heat water can enable a hot water system to work all year round in cooler climates.. However. or the solar heat exchanger will replace the lower heating element and the upper element will remain in place to provide for any heating that solar cannot provide. The type. Therefore. Residential solar thermal installations fall into two groups: passive (sometimes called "compact") and active (sometimes called "pumped") systems. but more commonly (at least in active systems) is a separate loop of fluid containing anti-freeze and a corrosion inhibitor which delivers heat to the tank through a heat exchanger (commonly a coil of copper tubing within the tank). without the supplemental heat requirement of a solar water heating system being met with fossil fuels or electricity. hot water is always available. Both typically include an auxiliary energy source (electric heating element or connection to a gas or fuel oil central heating system) that is activated when the water in the tank falls below a minimum temperature setting such as 55°C. a collector. Hence. The collector could be made of a simple glass topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal attached to copper pipes and painted black. In industrial cases a parabolic mirror can concentrate sunlight on the tube. This can include domestic nonelectric concentrating solar thermal systems. Changes in ambient temperature and solar radiation between summer and winter. In many northern European countries. solar heat will either be concentrated in a pre-heating tank that feeds into the tank heated by the central heating. Heat is stored in a hot water storage tank. heats working fluid that is either pumped (active system) or driven by natural convection (passive system) through it. or a set of metal tubes surrounded by an evacuated (near vacuum) glass cylinder. . complexity.
The changes in ambient temperature during the day-night cycle. Instant Geysers are geysers which take very little time to heat water and have lesser capacity as compared to traditional geysers. depending on the requirement of any household. by the heating element and goes out through another outlet. They are good for small families because standard geysers consume more electricity to heat large quantity of water. ISI marked geysers are preferred over local makes because they have incorporated essential safety norms. These geysers are given ratings of 4stars and 3stars respectively. Instant geysers are also successful in kitchens where water consumption is only for cleaning of utensils. There are multiple safety systems installed in geysers to avoid any kind of mishap. despite their higher capacity. Electrical Geysers are available in different shades to go with the interiors of your bathroom and . Some large capacity geysers consume lesser electricity. These electrical appliances have insulated body with long life heating element. These geysers come with a minimum guarantee period but have quite a good life. Fusible plug. where the starting range is one liter and extends up to 25liters. thermal cut out and ISI approved thermostat are some of the features of instant geysers. although 1lt capacity geysers are also available. pressure release valve. gets heated to a certain degree. Electrical Geysers are classified as per their capacity. Cold water comes into a defined compartment. The possibility of the potable water or collector fluid freezing. 5) ELECTRIC GEYSER Geysers work on the principle of conversion of electrical energy into heat energy by using a heating element. The possibility of the potable water or collector fluid overheating. Geysers are also classified according to energy consumption. Combistat is also fitted for maintaining temperature and to conserve energy. The standard geyser is 15lt in capacity. The higher number of stars denotes higher efficiency and therefore low energy consumption. Those electrical kitchen accessories should be purchased which have good ratings to save on energy and enjoy greater efficiency.
The tank is normally covered with some insulating material such as glass wool and entire assembly is enclosed inside a metal casing which can be hanged on the wall or wherever required. Water. transformer and via a diode to the case. This is accomplished by using microwave radiation to heat polarized molecules within the food. This makes them unsuitable for cooking certain foods. leading to food being more evenly heated throughout (except in thick dense objects) than generally occurs in other cooking techniques. is heat. Microwave radiation is between common radio and infrared frequencies. as both potential energy andkinetic energy of atoms).e. MICROWAVES A microwave oven (often referred to colloquially simply as a "microwave") is a kitchen appliance that heats food by dielectric heating. which passes energy to the magnetron a high voltage capacitor connected to the magnetron. do not brown or bake food. and other substances in the food absorb energy from the microwaves in a process called dielectric heating Rotating molecules hit other molecules and put them into motion. to produce these other heating effects. A microwave oven consists of: a high voltage power source. a cavity magnetron.45 gigahertz (GHz)—a wavelength of 122 millimetres (4. A microwave oven works by passing non-ionizing microwave radiation.5 inches (38 mm) inches of a dense (high water content) food item. unlike conventional ovens. The function of the thermostat is to set the temperature to a certain value so that water is not heated above that value. Additional kinds of heat sources can be added to microwavepackaging. which converts high-voltage electric energy to microwave radiation a magnetron control circuit (usually with a microcontroller) a waveguide (to control the direction of the microwaves) a cooking chamber . Basic microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently. This energy. This excitation is fairly uniform in the outer 1 inch (25 mm) to 1. or to achieve certain culinary effects.. or into combination microwave ovens. commonly a simple transformer or an electronic power converter. usually at a frequency of 2. thus dispersing energy. when dispersed as molecular vibration in solids and liquids (i.kitchen.80 in)—through the food. fat. 6. but.
Early radio receivers. Bluetooth). solid state diodes. silicon-controlled rectifiers and other siliconbased semiconductor switches. generally the user is a subscriber to the phone service and does not own the base station. allowing many more users to share access to the radio bandwidth. ELLABORATE ON APPLICATIONS 8) RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). Internet access.7 MOBILE PHONE A mobile phone allows calls into the public switched telephone system over a radio link. which periodically reverses direction. including vacuum tube diodes. they provided limited service because only a few frequencies were available for a geographic area. business applications. The process is known as rectification. short-range wireless communications (infrared. Historically. mercury arc valves. a cordless telephone is used only within the range of a single. By contrast. email. rectifiers take a number of forms. . A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed-linephones across the world. A mobile phone allows calls to be placed over a wide geographic area. where frequencies are re-used repeatedly within a city area. even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early mobile phones were usually bulky and permanently installed in vehicles. called crystal radios. MMS. It does this by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator. private base station. used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector". gaming and photography. modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging. to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction. Physically. Moderncellular "cell" phones or hand phones make use of the cellular network concept. Mobile phones that offer these more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. In addition to telephony.
. (See semiconductors. Full-wave rectification A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. As noted. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply. while the other half is blocked. Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. The simple process of rectification produces a type of DC characterized by pulsating voltages and currents (although still unidirectional). Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output. in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer. four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed. but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Depending upon the type of end-use. detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. and is more efficient. or with three diodes in a three-phase supply. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current). this type of DC current may then be further modified into the type of relatively constant voltage DC characteristically produced by such sources as batteries and solar cells. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame.Rectifiers have many uses. diode). In half wave rectification. it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. However.
The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency. mine blasts. the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus orhypocenter. In its most general sense. At the Earth's surface.9. KEEP COLLIDING. and occasionally volcanic activity. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter. landslides. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. and nuclear tests. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides. When theepicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore. but also by other events such as volcanic activity. tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether natural or caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. EATHRQUAKE An earthquake (also known as a quake. 10 NATURAL GEYSER . 7 MAJOR PLATES. type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground.
Generally. Geysers are generally associated with volcanic areas. A geyser's eruptive activity may change or cease due to ongoing mineral deposition within the geyser plumbing. in turn.600 ft) where it contacts hot rocks. This includes a reservoir to hold the water while it is being heated. that name. The pressures encountered at the areas where the water is heated makes the boiling point of the water much higher than at normal atmospheric pressures. roughly half of which are in Yellowstone National Park. The plumbing system is made up of a system of fractures. the verb itself from Old Norse. the name of an erupting spring at Haukadalur. A plumbing system In order for the heated water to form a geyser. the resulting pressure forces a superheated column of steam and water to the surface through the geyser's internal plumbing. Generally all geyser field sites are located near active volcanic areas. "to gush". The formation of geysers specifically requires the combination of three geologic conditions that are usually found in volcanic terrain. The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions. so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. Geysers are temporary geological features. and human intervention. Iceland. Water The water that is ejected from a geyser must travel underground through deep. porous spaces and sometimes cavities. UK /ˈɡiːzə/) is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapour phase (steam). which exist in only a few places on Earth.000 metres (6.A geyser (US /ˈɡaɪzər/. Geysers are generally aligned along faults. The resultant boiling of the pressurized water results in the geyser effect of hot water and steam spraying out of the geyser's surface vent (a hydrothermal explosion). pressurized fissures in the earth's crust. earthquake influences. United States. Wyoming. fissures. About a thousand known geysers exist worldwide. and the geyser effect is due to the proximity ofmagma. Intense heat The heat needed for geyser formation comes from magma that needs to be near the surface of the earth. The fact that geysers need heat much higher than normally found near the earth's surface is the reason they are associated with volcanoes or volcanic areas. The word geyser comes from Geysir. As the water boils. Constrictions in the system are essential to the building up of pressure before an eruptio 11)IRON . comes from the Icelandic verb geysa. exchange of functions with nearby hot springs. surface water works its way down to an average depth of around 2. a plumbing system is required.
Ironing works by loosening the ties between the long chains of molecules that exist in polymer fiber materials. usually standing on its end. 12) ELECTRIC FAN A mechanical fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid. Fans produce air flows with high volume and low pressure. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing objects from contacting the fan blades. see Centrifugal compressor. Some materials such as cotton require the use of water to loosen the intermolecular bonds. A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air.An iron is a small appliance used in ironing to remove wrinkles from fabric. Usually. but other sources of power may be used. Most fans are powered by electric motors. Many materials developed in the twentieth century are advertised as needing little or no ironing. With the heat and the weight of the ironing plate. typically a gas such as air.constantly sends steam through the hot part of the iron into the clothes. For more details on this topic. etc. Constant steam . without the hot soleplate touching anything that could be damaged. A water reservoir inside the iron used for steam generation. electrical cord with heat-resistant Teflon (PTFE) insulation. a temperature control dial allowing the user to select the operating temperatures (usually marked with types of cloth rather than temperatures:silk. Steam burst . . An indicator showing the amount of water left in the reservoir. it is contained within some form of housing or case. "cotton". "linen". ejection of steam through the clothing during the ironing process. a thermostat ensuring maintenance of a constant temperature.). A fan blade will often rotate when exposed to an air stream. often have designs similar to that of a fan.sends a burst of steam through the clothes when the user presses a button. as opposed to compressors which produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. "wool". Modern irons for home use can have the following features: a method for setting the iron down. such as anemometers and wind turbines. and devices that take advantage of this. the fibers are stretched and the fabric maintains its new shape when cool. including hydraulic motors and internal combustion engines and solar power.
they may seem to be more violent. This in turn causes the winds to rotate faster. Thus. they do not actually cool air (if anything. As the atmosphere becomes favorable for development (no wind shearing in the higher parts of the atmosphere). causing the tropical low to deepen in intensity into a tropical depression. ranging from small cooling fans for electronics to the giant fans used in wind tunnels. Standard axial flow fans have diameters from 300-400 mm or 1800 to 2000 mm and work under pressures up to 800 Pa. normal thunder storms clump together. hence their name. and becomes saturated with moisture which then condenses into high thunderclouds. The Coriolis effect of the Earth spinning on its axis causes the air to spiral upwards with considerable force. FORMATION Cyclones (including typhoons and hurricanes) are caused by warm tropical moisture bearing clouds developing in open oceans or seas. 13 CYCLONE a cyclone is an area of closed. electric fans warm it slightly due to the warming of their motors). Axial fans blow air along the axis of the fan. there is also the effect of the warmer air continually rising and cold air rushing in. linearly. That is why the winds are so strong. fans may become at ineffective at cooling the body if the surrounding air is near body temperature and contains high humidity. Cyclones are also characterised by strong winds. This type of fan is used in a wide variety of applications.While fans are often used to cool people. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. The winds are not just rotating. yet in their centre is a clear. They occur in areas of very low pressure when air that is heated by the sun rises rapidly.5 degrees Celsius or higher (around 80 degrees Fahrenheit). calm region called the 'eye'. Cyclones can only form over warm waters in the tropical regions of the oceans where the sea temperatures are 26. but work by evaporative cooling of sweat and increased heat conduction into the surrounding air due to the airflow from the fans. cooler air rushes in to fill the area left vacant by the hot air. and the winds return from the other direction. and eventually a cyclone which is anywhere between hundreds of kilometres to thousands of kilometres wide. Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on areas of low atmospheric pressure. The axial-flow fans have blades that force air to move parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate. circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. and seem to move in all directions. . Axial flow fans are applied for air conditioning and industrial process applications. When the hot air rises. When the cyclone continues its course.
on the other hand. Many become homeless.The cyclones have high pressure outside and low pressure inside. MAKE A FLOW CHART!!!!!! . is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure in the region. (The wind flow around an anticyclone. the wind flow around a large cyclone is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. the opposite occurs in the Southern Hemisphere. Near the center. and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. or the cyclone would collapse on itself as a result of the difference in pressure. EFFECTS: loss of life and property. is clockwise in the northern hemisphere. Structure There are a number of structural characteristics common to all cyclones. the fastest winds relative to the surface of the Earth therefore occur on the eastern side of a northward-moving cyclone and on the northern side of a westward-moving one. and a fully developed cyclone pumps out about two million tonnes of air per second.Winds gusts in a category 5 cyclone can exceed 280 kph. In the Northern Hemisphere. A cyclone's center (often known in a mature tropical cyclone as the eye). Even the biggest countries are not spared. the pressure gradient force (from the pressure in the center of the cyclone compared to the pressure outside the cyclone) and the force from the Coriolis effect must be in an approximate balance. A cyclone is a low pressure area. Because of the Coriolis effect.
volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. Water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge. The crust is very thin at midoceanic ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates. "Hotspots" Main article: Hotspot (geology) "Hotspots" is the name given to volcanic provinces postulated to be formed by mantle plumes. therefore most volcanic activity is submarine. in a planet's surface or crust. Convergent plate boundaries Main article: Convergent boundary Subduction zones are places where two plates. By contrast. The release of pressure due to the thinning of the crust leads to adiabatic expansion. When it does reach the surface. which allows hot magma. Because the tectonic plates move across them. volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. . the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. each volcano becomes dormant after a while and a new volcano is then formed as the plate shifts over the postulated plume. has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart. or submerges under the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. This magma tends to be very viscous due to its high silicacontent. volcano is an opening. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sealevel. for example. They are suggested to be hot. A mid-oceanic ridge. The Hawaiian Islands. volcanic islands are formed. Divergent plate boundaries Main article: Divergent boundary At the mid-oceanic ridges. two tectonic plates diverge from one another. for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans. In this case. Typical examples for this kind of volcano are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. or rupture. forming new seafloor. and the partial melting of the mantle causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust. Black smokers or deep sea vents are an example of this kind of volcanic activity. collide. New oceanic crust is being formed by hot molten rock slowly cooling and solidifying. usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate.14 VOLCANOES 1. a volcano is formed. Iceland. and to be fixed in space. so often does not reach the surface and cools at depth. These are postulated to comprise columns of hot material that rise from the core-mantle boundary. the oceanic plate subducts. causing large-volume melting. creating magma.
Parasitic cone 12. electronic.Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated): 1. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Flank 9. Cooling is a popular food storage technique in developed countries and works by decreasing the reproduction rate of bacteria. or chemical) which transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Vent 14. Lava flow 13. . Base 5. The device is thus used to reduce the rate of spoilage of foodstuffs. Large magma chamber 2. Sill 6. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Bedrock 3. A similar device which maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. Dike 7. Crater 15. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Conduit (pipe) 4. Ash cloud 15 FRIDGE A refrigerator (commonly referred to as a fridge) is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and aheat pump (mechanical. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F). Throat 11.
The refrigerator is a relatively modern invention among kitchen appliances. Air from the freezer section is diverted to the refrigerator door. alerting the user by flashing a temperature display. Some refrigerators have water chillers and water filtration systems. A power failure warning. 2: Expansion valve. 1: Condenser. The maximum temperature reached during the power failure may be displayed. which relocates the ice-maker storage to the freezer door and saves approximately 60 litres (2 cu ft) of usable freezer space. In this cycle. so that the door need not be opened. It is also removable. 4: Compressor Features Newer refrigerators may include: Automatic defrosting. A cooling zone in the refrigerator door shelves. The vapor is compressed and exits the compressor as high-pressure superheated vapor. A Status Indicator to notify the user when it is time to change the water filter. 3: Evaporator unit. working A vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators. and helps to prevent ice-maker clogging. B: cold compartment (refrigerator box). Cabinet rollers that allow the refrigerator to be easily rolled around for easier cleaning. I: insulation. refrigerator–freezers and freezers. along with information on whether the frozen food has defrosted or may contain harmful bacteria. a circulating refrigerant such as R134a enters a compressor as lowpressure vapor at or slightly above the temperature of the refrigerator interior. Also some refrigerators have icemakers built-in so the user doesn't have to use ice trays. Water and Ice Dispensing became available in the 1970s. Chilled water and ice available from an in-door station. to cool milk or juice stored in the door shelf. Vapor Compression Cycle – A: hot compartment (kitchen). An in-door ice caddy. Adjustable shelves and trays which can be repositioned to suit the user. .
The term "watch the tube. industrial process control. Color on a television set is created by mixing various light beams. By manipulating the "color burst. which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s." refers to the cathode ray tube present in most modern-day television sets. and guiding of weapons. blue and green light in different patterns against something called a "phosphor sheet. A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits. • • MAKE FLOW CHART . A television system may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-definition television (HDTV). Black and white televisions usually only have one phosphor sheet while color TVs will have three. with accompanying sound the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television. including those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals." TVs all have sheets placed behind the glass portion of it. The TV box works much like any receiver. Television systems are also used for surveillance." or composite video impulse. and uses highpowered radio-frequency transmitters tobroadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is properly called a video monitor.16 TV Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored. in that it takes in electrical impulses sent from elsewhere and changes those bits of information into something people can hear and see. • An analog television works by transferring electromagnetic waves into sound and light energy. you can literally open up a suppressed TV signal for viewing. You can see a picture on a television because the cathode ray tube. rather than a television. It basically works by regulating red. in side older televisions. emits or fluoresces light not visible to the naked eye. in places where direct observation is difficult or dangerous.
a typical domestic model has a suction of about negative 20 kPa. This means that it can lower the pressure inside the hose from normal atmospheric pressure (about 100 kPa) by 20 kPa. Vacuum cleaners." is a device that uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt. . The dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for later disposal. Technology A vacuum's suction is caused by a difference in air pressure. Tests have shown that vacuuming can kill 100% of young fleas and 96% of adult fleas Suction The suction is the maximum pressure difference that the pump can create. An electric fan reduces the pressure inside the machine. and so the dust is literally pushed into the bag. commonly referred to as a "vacuum.17 VACUUM CLEANERS A vacuum cleaner. Atmospheric pressure then pushes the air through the carpet and into the nozzle. usually from floors. and optionally from other surfaces as well. huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred litres of dust before being emptied. exist in a variety of sizes and models: small battery-operated hand-held devices. For example. which are used in homes as well as in industry. domestic central vacuum cleaners. and self-propelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil.
The pressure level in the area behind the fan drops below the pressure level outside the vacuum cleaner (theambient air pressure). This creates suction. they force air forward. the density of particles (and therefore the air pressure) increases in front of the fan and decreases behind the fan. The electric current operates themotor. 2. a partial vacuum. As long as the fan is running and the passageway through the vacuum cleaner remains open. there is aconstant stream of air moving through the intake port and out the exhaust port. which has angled blades (like anairplane propeller). But how does a flowing stream of air collect the dirt and debris from your carpet? The key principle is friction. This pressure drop behind the fan is just like the pressure drop in the straw when you sip from your drink. inside the vacuum cleaner. . When air particles are driven forward. toward the exhaust port(check out How Airplanes Work to find out what causes this). The ambient air pushes itself into the vacuum cleaner through the intake port because the air pressure inside the vacuum cleaner is lower than the pressure outside. 3. The motor is attached to thefan.1. As the fan blades turn.
18 calculator An electronic calculator is a small. square roots.consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands (addition. .The store where numbers can be stored by the user. Decoder unit . trigonometry etc. User memory contents can be changed or erased by the user.when a calculator is powered on. portable. Permanent memory cannot be erased. These instructions are "programs" stored permanently.The function for the calculation is stored here until the calculator needs it. a basic electronic calculator consists of the following components: Power source (battery and/or solar cell) Keypad . The number in the X register is shown on the display. commands and results. usually inexpensive electronic machine used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Encoder unit .) are stored here in binary form. it scans the keypad waiting to pick up an electrical signal when a key is pressed. and provides the results in binary coded form.The ALU executes all arithmetic and logic instructions.converts binary code into "decimal" numbers which can be displayed on the display unit. etc. X register and Y register . Display panel .The instructions for in-built functions (arithmetic operations. square-root. User memory (RAM) . percentages.displays input numbers. Seven stripes (segments) are used to represent each digit in a basic calculator. Flag register . All numbers go into the X register first.) Processor chip (microprocessor) contains: Scanning unit . Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) . multiplication.They are number stores where numbers are stored temporarily while doing calculations. Permanent memory (ROM). Some even contain 00 and 000 buttons to make large numbers easier to enter WORKING!  In general. Modern electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations.converts the numbers and functions into binary code.
Example A basic explanation as to how calculations are performed in a simple 4-function calculator: To perform the calculation 25 + 9. This "pushes" the first number (25) out into the Y register. the number 25 is encoded and sent to the X register. one presses keys in the following sequence on most calculators:   [+]  [=]. All other functions are usually carried out using repeated additions. when the [+] key is pressed. make flow chart and diagram 19 ELECTROPLATING . and then shown on the display panel. a "message" from the flag register tells the permanent memory that the operation to be done is "addition". Next. with acceptable calculation time. From there it is converted by the decoder unit into a decimal number (usually binary-coded decimal). The second number 9 is encoded and sent to the X register. 34 is sent back to the X register. Sometimes significant design effort is required to fit all the desired functions in the limited memory space available in the calculator chip. When 25 is entered. Where calculators have additional functions such as square root. software algorithms are required to produce high precision results. the "addition" instruction is also encoded and sent to the flag register. or trigonometric functions. it is picked up by the scanning unit. The answer. When [=] is pressed. The numbers in the X and Y registers are then loaded into the ALU and the calculation is carried out following instructions from the permanent memory.
The process uses electrical current to reduce cations of a desired material from a solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the material. A power supplysupplies a direct current to the anode. The cations are reduced at the cathode to deposit in the metallic. oxidizing the metal atoms that comprise it and allowing them to dissolve in the solution. PROCESS The anode and cathode in the electroplating cell are both connected to an external supply of direct current — a battery or. The rate at which the anode is dissolved is equal to the rate at which the cathode is plated. lubricity. and the cathode (article to be plated) is connected to the negative terminal. The part to be plated is thecathode of the circuit. At the cathode. a rectifier. copper is oxidized at the anode to Cu2+ by losing two electrons. Electroplating is primarily used for depositing a layer of material to bestow a desired property (e. In this manner. abrasion and wear resistance. more commonly. The Cu2+ associates with the anion SO42. such that they "plate out" onto the cathode. the ions in the electrolyte bath are continuously replenished by the anode. the metal at the anode is oxidized from the zero valence state to form cations with a positive charge. The process used in electroplating is called electrodeposition. vis-a-vis the current flowing through the circuit. aesthetic qualities.Electroplating is a plating process in which metal ions in a solution are moved by an electric field to coat an electrode. Both components are immersed in a solutioncalled an electrolyte containing one or more dissolved metal salts as well as other ions that permit the flow of electricity.) to a surface that otherwise lacks that property. etc. the anode is made of the metal to be plated on the part. Another application uses electroplating to build up thickness on undersized parts. At . The anode is connected to the positive terminal of the supply. These cations associate with the anions in the solution.g. It is analogous to a galvanic cell acting in reverse. zero valence state. the dissolved metal ions in the electrolyte solution are reduced at the interface between the solution and the cathode. For example. in an acid solution.in the solution to form copper sulfate. such as a metal. When the external power supply is switched on. In one technique..corrosion protection.
In most models a gasket or sealing ring forms a gas-tight seal which does not allow air or steam to escape between the pot and the lid. the pressure built up inside the cooker allows the liquid in the pot to rise to a higher temperature before boiling. a stove. Because the boiling point of water increases as the pressure increases. then the heat is lowered to maintain pressure and timing the recipe begins at this point. The lid is closed. However. Operation The food to be cooked is placed in the pressure cooker. the pressure setting selected and the pressure cooker is placed on a heat source. as this ensures the air inside has escaped) until the cooker reaches full pressure. which is not a . the plug pops out of its seat. instead of timing the recipe when the cooker has reached its selected pressure level. The plating is most commonly a single metallic element. the weight is placed on the steam vent when steam is being emitted. Design Pressure cookers are generally made from aluminum or stainless steel.g. the Cu2+ is reduced to metallic copper by gaining two electrons. In case the regulator is blocked. If the pressure exceeds design limits. a safety valve is provided as a backup escape route for steam. notably brass andsolder. Normally. e. held in place by steam pressure. with a small amount of water or liquid required for the recipe. such as water. but normally the pop-up indicator just shows that the cooker has pressure inside.. The simplest safety valve is a loose-fitting rubber plug in the lid. not an alloy. other more expensive models feature a metal to metal seal. which is maintained throughout cooking time. The result is the effective transfer of copper from the anode source to a plate covering the cathode. Applications: fake jewellary 20PRESSURE COOKERS Pressure cooking is a method of cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure.the cathode. A common mistake is for the user to start timing the recipe when the pop-up indicator rises as soon as there is the slightest amount of pressure in the cooker. Pressure is created at the beginning with boiling liquid. at the highest heat (if a weight is used. Some pressure cookers have markers on the pop-up indicator which show the pressure level. the only way the steam can escape is through a regulator on the lid when the pressure has built up. some alloys can be electrodeposited. inside the closed pressure cooker and the trapped steam increases the internal pressure and temperature.
The pressure cooker speeds cooking considerably at high altitudes. which reduces water's effectiveness for cooking or preparing hot drinks. The additional gasket requires special care when cleaning. Advantages Foods are cooked much faster by pressure cooking than by other methods (except for small quantities in microwave ovens). the foods come to cooking temperature faster. This indicator also acts as an interlock to prevent the lid being opened when there is any pressure inside. steaming or oven cooking. so dishes can be ready sooner. unlike a standard lid for a saucepan . Since less water is necessary. where the low atmospheric pressure otherwise reduces the boiling point of water. Less energy is required than when boiling.reliable means of showing that the cooker has reached its selected pressure. and with much less water used than boiling. Disadvantages Pressure cookers are considerably more expensive than conventional saucepans of the same size.
in other words. from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf).21 BATTERY An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. which are designed to be used once and discarded. as first recognized by Volta. and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries). but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. Batteries come in many sizes.e. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas. vapor. and consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. Therefore. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. . the anode or negative electrode.e. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. the cathode or positive electrode. which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. i. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. if the electrodes have emfs and . APPLICATIONS!!! 22 ARC WELDING Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow. In the redox reaction that powers the battery. batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries). i. determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. and/or slag. the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate. each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations.. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. It consists of a number of voltaic cells.. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current. cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. the net emf is the difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions. then the net emf is . One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate.
increasing weld penetration and welding speed. and as a result.Alternating current rapidly moves between these two. because they maintain a relatively constant current even as the voltage varies. changing the polarity of the electrode has an impact on weld properties. arc length is kept constant. while a negatively charged electrode makes deeper welds. it can be difficult to hold the electrode perfectly steady. resulting in medium-penetration welds. In welding. In these processes. are most often used for automated welding processes such as gas metal arc welding. the arc length and thus voltage tend to fluctuate. flux cored arc welding. APPLIC ATIONS!! . Constant voltage power supplies hold the voltage constant and vary the current. For example. returning it to its original separation distance. a positively charged electrode causes shallow welds. and submerged arc welding. In arc welding. it will melt more quickly. as a result. as well as alternating current (AC).POWER SUPPLY To supply the electrical energy necessary for arc welding processes. Constant current power supplies are most often used for manual welding processes such as gas tungsten arc welding and shielded metal arc welding. because the electrode only creates the arc and does not provide filler material. Alternatively. which in turn causes the heat to increase and the tip of the wire to melt. can use either type of direct current (DC). If the electrode is positively charged. and the current is related to the amount of heat input. The direction of current used in arc welding also plays an important role in welding. since any fluctuation in the distance between the wire and the base material is quickly rectified by a large change in current. Non-consumable electrode processes. such as gas tungsten arc welding. the current will rapidly increase. the positively charged anode will have a greater heat concentration and. With direct current however. and as a result. The most common classification is constant current power supplies and constant voltage power supplies. the voltage is directly related to the length of the arc. but the electrode can be charged either positively or negatively. Consumable electrode processes such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding generally use direct current. a number of different power supplies can be used. if the wire and the base material get too close. a negatively charged electrode results in more shallow welds. This is important because in manual welding.
within which the Moon completely covers the Sun (more precisely. it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth-Moon system: for example. or a lunar eclipse. An eclipse is a type of syzygy. The region of the Earth's shadow in a solar eclipse is divided into three parts: The umbra. The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse. within which the Moon is completely in front of the Sun but too small to completely cover it The penumbra. a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet. Totality is shown with the last two images to lower right.23 ECLIPSE The progression of a lunar eclipse. a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons. penumbra and antumbra cast by a solid object occulting a larger light source. when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow. These required a longer exposure time to make the details visible. extending beyond the tip of the umbra. Umbra. A binary star system can also produce eclipses if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars intersects the observer's position. its photosphere) The antumbra. However. penumbra and antumbra Umbra. or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon. either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. within which the Moon is only partially in front of the Sun . An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured. when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface.
This is because Earth's apparent diameter from the viewpoint of the Moon is nearly 4 times that of the Sun. which only sends packets once it is known that earlier packets have been received. One disadvantage of geostationary satellites is a result of their high altitude: radio signals take approximately 0. . such as a saros. which repeat according to various eclipse cycles. The Sun. Since this occurs only when the Moon is on the far side of the Earth from the Sun. resulting in a small but significant signal delay. but does not present a problem with non-interactive systems such as television broadcasts. and eclipses can occur during a period of about two months around these times. and probes link capacity with its "slow-start" algorithm.During a lunar eclipse only the umbra and penumbra are applicable. TCP presumes that all loss is due to congestion. television broadcasting and weather forecasting. If such a satellite's orbit lies over the equator. There are a number of proprietary satellite data protocols that are designed to proxy TCP/IP connections over long-delay satellite links—these are marketed as being a partial solution to the poor performance of native TCP over satellite links. The first contact occurs when the Moon's disc first starts to impinge on the Sun's. Receiving and transmitting antennas on the earth do not need to track such a satellite. the orbit is circular and its angular velocity is the same as the earth's. lunar eclipses only occur when there is a full moon. not errors. These antennas can be fixed in place and are much less expensive than tracking antennas. Slow start is very slow over a path using a geostationary satellite. Geostationary satellites appear to be fixed over one spot above the equator. second contact is when the Moon's disc moves completely within the Sun's. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun as seen from the Earth. then it is called a geostationary satellite. Because the orbital plane of the Moon is tilted with respect to the orbital plane of the Earth (the ecliptic). 24 GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES A geosynchronous Satellite is a satellite whose orbit on the Earth repeats regularly over points on the Earth over time. These satellites have revolutionized global communications. There can be from four to seven eclipses in a calendar year. and fourth or last contact when it finally leaves the Sun's disc entirely. This delay increases the difficulty of telephone conversation and reduces the performance of common network protocols such as TCP/IP. Application There are approximately 300 operational geosynchronous satellites.25 of a second to reach and return from the satellite. EARTH MOON SYSTEM An eclipse involving the Sun. third contact when it starts to move out of the Sun's. Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow. Earth and nodes are aligned twice a year (during an eclipse season). and have a number of important defense and intelligence applications. Earth and Moon can occur only when they are nearly in a straight line. viewed from the third. eclipses can occur only when the Moon is close to the intersection of these two planes (the nodes). allowing one to be hidden behind another.
While larger fluorescent lamps have been mostly used in commercial or institutional buildings. In the USSR. and could even be blocked by land topography. ELABORATE ON APPLICATIONS 25 FLUOROSCENT LAMP A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor. Similar elliptical orbits are used for the Sirius Radio satellites. Lower energy cost typically offsets the higher initial cost of the lamp. a practical solution was developed for this problem with the creation of specialMolniya / Orbita inclined path satellite networks with elliptical orbits. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical power into useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp. producing visible light. The signals would have to pass through the largest amount of atmosphere. since ground stations at higher than roughly 60 degrees latitude have difficulty reliably receiving signals at low elevations. vegetation or buildings. . the compact fluorescent lamp is now available in the same popular sizes as incandescents and is used as an energy-saving alternative in homes. The excited mercury atoms produce shortwave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce. Satellite dishes at such high latitudes would need to be pointed almost directly towards the horizon.Another disadvantage of geostationary satellites is the incomplete geographical coverage. The lamp fixture is more costly because it requires a ballast to regulate the current through the lamp.
the electric power heats up the cathode enough for it to emit electrons (thermionic emission). predominantly at wavelengths of 253. The higher initial cost of a fluorescent lamp is usually more than compensated for by lower energy consumption over its life. G: Ballast Principles of operation The fundamental means for conversion of electrical energy into radiant energy in a fluorescent lamp relies on inelastic scattering of electrons. Most of the photons that are released from the mercury atoms have wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. with emission of a further photon. F: Filaments. energy level. then drop. so they must be converted into visible light. A: Fluorescent tube. This is done by making use of fluorescence. causing a similar energy jump.7 and 185 nanometers (nm). These electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms inside the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by the process of impact ionization. An incident electron collides with an atom in the gas. and the atom will emit an ultraviolet photon as the atom's electron reverts to a lower. The chemicals that make up the phosphor are chosen so that these emitted photons are at wavelengths visible to the human eye. D: Switch (bi-metallic thermostat). but not as much by households. In suitably designed lamps. it transfers energy to the atom's outer electron. The difference in energy between the absorbed ultra-violet photon and the emitted visible light photon goes toward heating up the phosphor coating. the conductivity of the ionized gas rapidly rises. light can be more evenly distributed without point source . Therefore they are widely used by businesses and institutions. When the light is turned on. Lower luminosity Compared with an incandescent lamp. a fluorescent tube is a more diffuse and physically larger light source. C: Starter. providing additional saving especially where labor is costly. B: Power (+220 volts). allowing higher currents to flow through the lamp. Ultraviolet photons are absorbed by electrons in the atoms of the lamp's interior fluorescent coating. causing that electron to temporarily jump up to a higher energy level. If the free electron has enough kinetic energy. Advantages Luminous efficacy Fluorescent lamps convert more of the input power to visible light than incandescent lamps.A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch. E: Capacitor. As a result of avalanche ionization. The collision is 'inelastic' because a loss of energy occurs. more stable. These are not visible to the human eye. The longer life may also reduce lamp replacement costs. The photon that is emitted from this second interaction has a lower energy than the one that caused it. This higher energy state is unstable. Life Typically a fluorescent lamp will last between 10 to 20 times as long as an equivalent incandescent lamp when operated several hours at a time.
a very small amount of mercury can contaminate the surrounding environment Ultraviolet emission Fluorescent lamps emit a small amount of ultraviolet (UV) light 26 INTERNET The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. cost. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private. and the merger of many networks. This greatly reduces the size. or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. wireless and optical networking technologies. that are linked by a broad array of electronic. music. as well as private funding for other commercial backbones. Newspaper. Internet forums. business. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. academic. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. . Most traditional communications media including telephone. book and other print publishing are adapting toWeb site technology. Lower heat About two-thirds to three-quarters less heat is given off by fluorescent lamps compared to an equivalent installation of incandescent lamps. and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet. commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust. the lamp is large compared to the typical distance between lamp and illuminated surfaces. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging. and distributed computer networks. backbone by theNational Science Foundation in the 1980s. and energy consumption. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services. and social networking. giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. and government networks.S. Disadvantages Frequent switching Health and safety issues Main article: Fluorescent lamps and health If a fluorescent lamp is broken. film. As of 2011. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders.1 billion people – nearly a third of Earth's population – use the services of the Internet. more than 2. of local to global scope. fault-tolerant. public. The funding of a new U. such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web(WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s.of glare such as seen from an undiffused incandescent filament. led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies.
the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet. are directed by a maintainer organization. the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System. APPLICATIONS!!! .The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage. each constituent network sets its own standards.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?