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Progromme Actionfor of i nobleDevelopment Susto

RIO DECTARAflON
on Environment Development ond

Stotement of

FOREST PRINCIPTES

Thefinoltextof ogreements negotioted Governments by ot the UnitedNotions Conference on Environment Development ond (UNCED), 4 3-1 June1992, Riode Joneiro, Brozil

in to lt Moteriol contoined thisbookisnotsubiect copyright. moybe reproduced strictly for purposes, provided is non<ommerciol ocknowledgementgivento the UnitedNotions. Address enquiries to: Deportment Public Proiect Monogerfor Sustoinoble Development, Informotion, of R o o m .| 0 3 2 , U n i te d o t i ons, ew Y ork, Y l 00l Z, U S A Fox l 2l 2) 963-l l 86 N N N 9

ISBN:92-l-100509-4 P es U n i t e d o t i o n s u b l i c o t i o n s - S o lN o . E . 9 3 . 1 .I1 N Informotion Published the United NotionsDeportment Public of by

Toble Contents of

PARAGRAGHS

PAGE I

Foreword. I n t r o d u c t i o.n . . . . . . . . . . . Acronyms

5

RIO D:CIARATIOI{ OI{ E]IYINOililENT AIID DIVE1OPMENT

ACE]IDA 2I: PROGNAftlllE OF ACTloil ;OR SUSIAINAB]E DEYETOPffIENT...... r. Preomble

l3

r.6

15

17
2.

lnternotionol cooperotion qccelerote to sustoinoble development in developing countries ond reloteddomestic policies Combotingpoverty.... Chonging consumption potterns..... Demogrophic dynomics ond sustoinobility ... Protecting ond promotinghumonheolth Promoting sustoinoble humonsettlement development... Integroting environment development decision-moking ond in ........

2 . 1 -2 . 4 3 3.r-3.r2
4.1- 4.27 5 . 1- 5 . 6 6 6.1- 6.46 7.1- 7.80 8 .r - 8 . 5 4

l9 27 3l 35 42 52 65

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Secllon 2; Conrervcllon ond ilcnngemenl s. to tt i2. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Protection the otmosphere...... of

of Resources for Developmenl

...
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75 77 84 88

Integroted opproochto the plonningond monogement or lond resources. Comboting debrestotion ... Monoging frogile ecosystems: Comboting desertificotion drought... ond Monogingfrogileecosystems: Sustoi noble mountoi development. n Promoting sustoinoble ogriculture ond ruroldevelopment Conservotion biologicoldiversity of Environmentolly soundmonogement biotechnology.. of Protection the oceons, kindsof seos,includinqenclosed of oll ond semi-enclosed seos,ond coostoloreosond thJ protection, rotionoluseond development their living resources of

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114 131 136

1 7 . 11 7 . 1 3 7 -

147

PARAGRAPHS
i8

PAGE

Protection the quolityond supplyof fresh*oterresources: of Applicotiorr integrotecJ of oporooches the cjevelopmenr, to mCInogernent useof woter resources ond E nv iro n me n toslo u n d o n o q e m e n tf toxi cchemi col s l y m o inc lu d i n g re v e n ti oo f i l l e g o [i n te rn oti onol ci n p n troffi toxicond dongerous products Environm entoly sound- nogement hozordouswostes, I mo of inc lu d i n g re v e n ti oo f i l l e g o i n te rn o ti onol p n l troffi ci n hozordous wostes E nv ir o n m e n i oslo u n d o n o q e m e n tf soi i dw ostes l y m o
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Section 3: Strengthening 23
)A

the Role of Molor

Groups 23.1_ 23.4 24.1-24.12 25.1-25.17 26.1 26.9 2 7 . 12 7 . 1 3 28.1-28.7 2 9 . 12 9 1 4 30.r-30.30 3t.r-31.12 32.1-32.14

217 219

Preomble

Globol octionfor womentowordssustoinobie ond equito b l e e u e l o p m e n t..... d Child re n n d y o u thi n s u s to i n o b d e vel opment o le Reco.gnizing s'trengthening roleof indigenous ond the people ondtheir ommunities... c ^ S t r en g th e n i n ge ro l eo f th orgoni ,n o n ,-g o v e rnmentol zoti ons: !-orfners susto tor rnobledevelopment Loc ol u th o ri ti e sn i ti o ti v eis s u p p o rt A gendo2j .... o i' n of sirengthening roieof workers the ond theirtrodeunions S t r en g th e n i n ge ro l eo f b u s i n e so n d i ndustry th s S c i e n t i f oc d t e c h n o l o g i cc o m m u n i t y . . . . . . . in ol S t r en g th e n i n ge ro l eo f fo rme rs ..... . th

220 224 227 230 233 235 237 240 243

25 26

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2B 29. 30 31.

Sectlon 4: Meons of lmplemenlalion 33 34 35 36.
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247
3 3 .r 3 3 . 2 1

F inon c i ore s o u rc e sn d me c h o n i s m s l o Tronsfer environmentolly of soundtechnology, cooperotion o n dc o p o c i r y - b u i l d i n g . . . . . . . Science sustoinoble for development. P r om o ti ne d u c c ti o np u b l i co w o re n e ss troi ni ng...... g , ond Not ion o l e c h o n i s ms d i n te rn o ti o nol m on cooperoti on for c o p o c i f - b u i l d i nig d e v e l o p i nc o u n t r i e.s. . n g . I nt er n o i i o n o l s ti tu ti o no rro n g e m e n ts. in ol int er n o ti o n o l g o li n s tru m e no n d m e c honi sms le ts . ! n f o r r n o t i oo r d e c i s i o n - m o k i n g . . . , . . fn

249 257 257 264 270 274
t6 l

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36.1 36.27 3 7 . 1 -7 . 1 3 3 38.- 38.45 t 3 9t - 3 9 . 0 . t 40.r 40.30

38 39 4a

284

SIATEMENT OF FOREST PRINCIPTES

389

and debate over. the movement to turn the world from its self-consumptivecourseto one has of renewal and sustenance unmistakablyspreadfrom the grassroots to the brass of Rio and its Agenda 2l actronprogramme are now.on everyone'sagenda.symposiaand other organizedcolloquies of major sectoralgroups. Industrialists. but are daily deepening. the compelling needsfor action. it seems roots.Foreword Humanity today is in the midst of a profound civilizational change. seminars. more secure.Hunger and povertywhich are both a cause and an effect of global environmental degradation.uplifting signs. hold the levers of economicpower and change-have joined the in constituencyof earnestenvironmentalists a commitment to the fulfilment of the by hopesand aspirationsengendered Rio. Though in the aftermath of Rio there is a heightenedawarenessof. albeit a highly encouragingone.financiers.sustainable There is much to be done.the new global partnership. I believe it has ignited a wildfire of interestand support at every level of society in every corner of the planet. Nor do we possess to specificationsfor the tools we will need to forge this secondindustrial revolutionthis eco-revolutionthat is essentialin order to shift the world onto a new pathway to a and equitablefuture.economists.There are signs of it everywhere. But this discernibleincreasein momentum is still only a beginning. The economic gulfs which lie within and among the world's peoplesand nationsnot only remain.are still appallingly pervasivein the developing world. Since last June. where population growth compounds the problems of alleviating them.there has been a profusion of conferences. Industrial countriescontinue to be addictedto the patternsof production and consumptionwhich have so largely producedthe major risks to the global environment.Strong.engineers. zZa.Secretory-Generol on UnitedNotions Conference Environment Development ond .and for the thousandsof dedicatedpeople who were involved in that extraordinary event at Rio a year ago-indeed. And I look to the new United Nations Commission on Developmentto be the focal point for the massiveeffort neededto create Sustainable the new era of internationalcooperation. While it is still too early to provide a precisely calibratedmeasureof the ultimate of success the Earth Summit.scientiststhose who.that will make this shift possible. The Declaration clear. in truth. MouriceF. In short. for all the people of the globe-they are exhilarating. there is not yet a concertedand decisive detailed response the magnitudeand urgency of the task.

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here in final form.We can better manageand protect the ecosystemand bring about a future for us all. groups.in every areain which human activity impacts on the environment. the adoptionof the texts carrieswith it a strong moral obligation to ensuretheir full implementation.hunger. Togetherthey fulfil the mandategiven to the Conferenceby the United Nations GeneralAssembly when.Brazil. developmentagencies. will examineprogressmade in implementingAgenda 2l globally. is Underlying the Earth Summit agreements the idea that humanity has reacheda turning point.known as the Earth Summit. the Rio Agenda 2I-a programmeof action for sustainable of and the statement principles for the Declarationon Environment and Development. blueprint for action to be taken globallyAgenda 21 standsas a comprehensive from now into the twenty-first century-by Governments. It is hoped that the forest principles will form the basis for a f-utureinternational-levelagreement.established the GeneralAssembly in response a requestof the it Conference. are presented force of internationallaw. The Agenda should be studiedin conjunction with both the Rio Declarationof which provides a context for its specific proposals-and the statement forest principles.United Nations organizaand independent-sector organizations non-governmental tions.The Commission will first meet in June 1993the first anniversarvof the Earth Summit. of Or we can changecourse.Made up of Governmentrepresentatives. which were negotiatedover two and a half yearsleading up to The agreements. in 1989.Introduction developmentworldwide. We can continue with presentpolicies which are deepeningeconomic poverty. Togetherwe rnore prosperous development.arthdepends.it called for a global meeting to deviseintegrated strategies that would halt and reversethe negativeimpact of human behaviouron the economic developphysical environmentand promote environmentally sustainable rnentin all countries. While they lack the the Surnmit and finalized in Rio. No nation can achievethis on its own. held in Rio de Janeiro.from 3 to l4 June 1992.We can act to improve the living standards those who are in need. can-in a global partnershipfor sustainable partnershipwill be the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Central to that to by Development. of management forestswere adoptedby more than 178 Governmentsat sustainable the United Nations Conferenceon Environment and Development.sickness divisionswithin and betweencountries-which increase and illiteracy and causethe continuing deteriorationof the ecosystemon which life on E. .

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l rr f Troining Reseorchnd o I n t e r n o t i o n oL o b o u rO r g o n i s o t i o n l Internotionol onetoryFund M I n t e r n o t i o n o l o r i t i m eO r g o n i z o t i o n M ( I n t e r n o t i o n oE n v i r o n m e nItn f o r m o t i o n y s t e m U N E P ) l S .S t o tC o m m i t t e e n D r o u g h tC o n t r o li n t h e S o h e l e o e x c l u s i v e c o n o m i cz o n e e E c o n o m i c o m m i s s i o no r A f r i c o f C E c o n o m i c o m m i s s i o no r E u r o p e f C f E c o n o m i c o m m i s s i o n o r L o t i nA m e r i c o o n d t h e C o r i b b e o n C L E n v i r o n m e n t o l i o i s o n e n t r eI n t e r n o t i o n o l C t e n v i r o n m e n t o l ls o u n d m o n o g e m e n o f i n l o n d w q t e r y o f E c o n o m i c n d S o c i o lC o m m i s s i o n o r A s i o o n d t h e P o c i f i c f E c o n o m i c n d S o c i o lC o m m i s s i o n o r W e s t e r nA s i o o F o o d o n d A g r i c u l t u r e r g o n i z o t i o no f t h e U n i t e dN o t i o n s O Generol Agreementon Toriffsond Trode Globol AtmosphereWotch (WMO) t G l o b o l E n v i r o n m e nF o c i l i t ' y ( M G l o b o l E n v i r o n m e n t o l o n i t o r i n gS y s t e m U N E P ) Globol Woter Quolity Monitoring Progromme A o J o i n tG r o u p o f E x p e r t s n t h e S c i e n t i f i c s p e c t so f M o r i n e P o l l u t i o n i n t h e M o r i n e E n v i r o n m e n(tU N E S C O ) n G l o b o l I n v e s t i g o t i oo f P o l l u t i o n S G e o g r o p h i c o lI n f o r m o t i o n y s t e m s G l o b o l L e g i s l o t o rO r g o n i s o t i o nf o r o B o l o n c e dE n v i i " o n m e n t Globol Observing System(WMO/WV\A//) I D G l o b o l R e s o u r c en f o r m o t i o n o t o b o s e generolized systemof preferences vi h u m o ni m m u n o d e f i c i e n c yr u s I n t e r n o t i o n o l t o m i c E n e r g yA g e n c y A I n t e r n o t i o n o l c t i o n P r o g r o m m e n W o t e r o n d S u s t o i n o b l e g r i c u l t u r oD e v e l o p m e n f A o A l Internotionol gencyfor Reseorch n Concer A o I n t e r n o t i o n oB o o r d o f S o i l R e s o u r c eo n d M o n o g e m e n t i s i n t e r n o t i o n oC o u n c i lo f C h e m i c o lA s s o c i o t i o n s l I n t e r n o t i o n o l o u n c i lf o r t h e E x p l o r o t i o n f t h e S e o C o I n t e r n o t i o n o l l e o n e r P r o d u c t i o nn f o r m o t i o n l e o r i n o H o u s e C I C I n t e r n o t i o n o l i v i l S e r v i c eC o m m i s s i o n C I n t e r n o t i o n o l o u n c i lo f S c i e n t i f i U n i o n s C c i n t e g r o t e d n v i r o n m e n t o l n d e c o n o m i co c c o u n t i n q e o I n t e r n o t i o n oF u n df o r A g r i c u l t u r o D e v e l o p m e n t l i I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t A lu t h o r i i yf o r D r o u g h to n d D e v e l o p m e n t o ( I n t e r n o t i o n o l e o s p h e r e .B i o s p h ePe o g r o m m e I C S U ) G rr l l n t e r n o t i o n oG e o s p h e r e .Acronyms APELL CFC CGIAR CILSS EEZ ECA ECE ECLAC ELCI EMINWA ESCAP ESCWA FAO GATT GAW GEF GEMS GEMS/WATER GESAMP GIPME GiS GLOBE GOS GRID GSP HIV IAEA IAP-WASAD IARC IBSRAM ICCA ICES ICPIC ICSC ICSU IEEA IFAD IGADD IGBP IGBP/START ILO IMF IMO INFOTERRA for ot Aworenessond Preporedness Emergencies Locol Level c h l o r o lf u o r o c o r b o n A l G C o n s u l t o t i v e r o u p o n I n t e r n o t i o n o l g r i c u l t u r oR e s e o r c h P e r m o n e nItn t e r .B i o s p h ePe o g r o m m e / G l o b o C h o n g e S y s t e m o r A n c r i y s i s .

feFund) World WeotherWotch (WMO) . enti fiond C ul turol N Ed S ci c Orgoni zoti on UnitedNotionsPopulotion Fund N U n i te d o ti o n s h i l dren'Fund C s UnitedNotionslndustriol Development Orgonizotion UnitedNotionsUniversity World C IimoteProg mme {WMO/UNEP/ICSU/U ESCO) ro N World FoodCouncil World Heolth Orgonizotion WorldMeteorologicol Orgonizotion World Wide Fundfor Noture(olso colledWorld Wildl.roc IPCC rPcs IPM IRPTC rTc ITTO IUCN MARPOL OECD PGRFA PIC SADCC SARD UNCTAD UNDP UNDRO UNEP UNESCO UNFPA UNICEF UNIDO UNU WCP WFC WHO WMO WWF WWW Intergovernmentol ic Oceonogroph Com ission m Intergovernmentol on Climote Ponel Chonge lnternotionol Progromme Chemicol on Sofety integroted monogement pest Internotionol Register Potentiolly of Ioxic Chemicols In te rn o ti o nT ilnC o unci l o Internotionol Tropicol mberOrgonizotion Ti Internotionol Unionfor Conservotion Notureond NoturolResources of Internotionol Convention the Prevention Pollution for of fromShips for Orgonisotion Economic Cooperotion ond Development plontgenetic resources ogriculture for prior informed procedure consent AfriconDevelopment Southern Coordinotion Conference sustoinoble ogriculture ruroldevelopment ond UnitedNotions Conference Trodeond Development on United NotionsDevelopment Progromme Officeof the UnitedNotionsDisoster Relief Coordinotor E U n i te d o ti o n s n v i ronment N P rogromme U n i te d o ti o n s ucoti onol .

Rlo DECLARAilON ond on Environment Development .

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order to decrease ment for sustainable in of the disparities standards living and bettermeetthe needsof the majority of the peopleof the world. productive life in harmony with nature. Inmentally vulnerable.the soverprinciples international of Nationsandthe pursuant their to their own resources eign right to exploit policies. PRINCIPLE 6 and needsof developingcountries. and developmental environmental natureof the integraland interdependent Recognizingthe Earth. of present PRINCIPLE 4 environdevelopment. PRINCIPLE 5 in All States and all peopleshall cooperate the essential requirepoverty as an indispensable task of eradicating in development.ond on RioDeclorotion Environment Development Having met at Rio de Janeirofrom 3 to 14 June 1992.oand seekingto build upon it. The specialsituation and thosemost environparticularlythe leastdeveloped given specialpriority.and the and developmental own environmental to responsibility ensurethat activitieswithin their juristo dictionorcontroldo notcausedamage theenvironment the limits of national or bevond of other States of areas jurisdiction. Proclaims that: PRINCIPLE 3 The right to developmentmust be fulfilled so as to needs and equitablymeetdevelopmental environmental and future generations. PRINCIPLE 2 with the Charterof theUnited have.our home. I PRINCIPLE Human beings are at the centre of concerns for susThey areentitledto a healthyand tainabledevelopment. PRINCIPLE Z to in States shallcooperate a spirit of global partnership protectand restorethe healthand integrity of conserve.in accordance States law. the Reaffirming Declarationof the United Nations Conferenceon the Human Environment. a With the goal of establishing new and equitableglobal partnership throughthe creationof new levelsof cooperand people. . adoptedat Stockholm on 16 JuneI972. which respect Workingtowardsinternationalagreements protectthe integrityof the global of the interests all and system. In order to achievesustainable integral part of the mental protection shall constitutean in process and cannotbe considered isoladevelopment tion from it. key sectors societies of ation amongStates.shall be and actionsin the field of environment develternational interests needsof all and the opmentshouldalsoaddress countries.

In the Earrh'secosystem. view of the different contribuglobal environmentaldegradation,Stateshave tions to The developed responsibilities. commonbut differentiated the responsibilitythat they bear countriesacknowledge in development in the internationalpursuitof sustainable pressures their societiesplace on the global view of the environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.

'I2 PRINCIPLE andopen to States shouldcooperate promotea supportive international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainabledevelopment in all the countries,to betteraddress problemsof environmenforenvironmental Tradepolicy measures tal degradation. purposesshould not constitute a meansof arbitrary or restriction on or unjustifiable discrimination a disguised international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmentalchallengesoutsidethe jurisdiction of the importing country shouldbe avoided.Environmental measuresaddressingtransboundaryor global environmentalproblemsshould, as far as possible,be based on an internationalconsensus.

8 PRINCIPLE developmentand a higher quality To achievesustainable of life for all people,Statesshouldreduceand eliminate patternsof production and consumption unsustainable and promote appropriatedemographicpolicies.

PRINCIPLE I3 9 PRINCIPLE capacendogenous to Statesshouldcooperate strengthen by development improving ity-building for sustainable of through exchanges scientific scientific understanding knowledge,and by enhancingthe deand technological velopment, adaptation,diffusion and transfer of techincludingnew and innovativetechnologies. nologies, Statesshall developnational law regardingliability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmentaldamage.Statesshall also cooperatein an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further i nternationallaw regardingliability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage by caused activitieswithin theirjurisdiction or control to areasbeyond their jurisdiction.

IO PRINrcIPLE issuesare best handledwith the particiEnvironmental pation of all concernedcitizens,at the relevantlevel. At the nationallevel, eachindividual shall have appropriate access information concemingthe environmentthat is to held by public authorities,including information on hazardousmaterialsand activitiesin their communities,and the opportunity to participate in decision-makingprocesses.States shall facilitate and encouragepublic awarenessand participation by making information widely available. Effective accessto judicial and i adm inis t r a ti v ep ro c e e d i n g s , n c l u d i n g r edressand remedy,shall be provided.

I4 PRINCIPLE States should effectively cooperateto discourageor preventthe relocationand transferto other Statesof any severe environmental that activities andsubstances cause or degradation are found to be harmful to humanhealth.

PRINCIPLE I5 In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approachshall be widely appliedby Statesaccordingto their capabilities.Where there are threatsof seriousor irreversibledamage,lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective on. measures to preventenvironrnentaldegradati

I1 PRINCIPIE Statesshall enact effective environmentallegislation. objectivesand management Environmentalstandards, environmentaland developpriorities should reflect the mental context to which they apply. Standardsapplied by some countriesmay be inappropriateand of unwarrantedeconomicand social cost to other countries,in particulardevelopingcountries.

PRINCIPLE 16 National authorities should endeavourto promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of taking into accountthe approach economicinstruments, that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of

t0

pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting internationaltradeand investment.

IZ FRINCIPLE as Environmentalimpact assessment, a national instrument shall be undertakenfor proposedactivities that are likely to have a significant adverseimpact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.

PR]NCIPLE 22 Indigenouspeopleand their communitiesand other local managehavea vital role in environmental communities ment and developmentbecauseof their knowledge and traditionalpractices.Statesshould recognizeand duly support their identity, culture and interestsand enable of their effectiveparticipationin the achievement sustainabledevelopment.

PRINCIPIE 23 of The environmentand natural resources people under oppression,domination and occupation shall be protected.

I8 PRINrcIPLE of States shallimmediatelynotify other States any natural that are likely to produce or disasters other emergencies sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States.Every effort shall be made by the intemational community to help Statesso afflicted.

I9 PRINICIPLE States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to potentially affected States on transboundactivitiesthat may havea significantadverse ary environmental effect and shall consult with those Statesat an early stageand in good faith.

24 PRINCIPLE developWarfareis inherentlydestructiveof sustainable ment. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of in armedconflict and cooperate its further development, as necessary.

PRINCIPLE 25 Peace,developrnentand environmental protection are interdependent indivisible. and

PRINCIPLE 20 Women have a vital role in environmentalmanagement and development.Their full participation is therefore development. to essential achievesustainable

PRINCIPLE 26 States shall resolve all their environmentaldisputes with peacefullyand by appropriate meansin accordance the Charterof the United Nations.

PRNICIPTE 2I The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership developmentand ensure in order to achievesustainable a better future for all.

PRINCIPLE 2Z Statesand people shall cooperatein good faith and in a spirit of partnershipin the fulfilment of the principles embodiedin this Declarationand in the further development of internationallaw in the field of sustainable development.

o

on Notions Conference theHumonEnvironReport the United of 5-.l6 June 1972 lUnitedNotionspublicoiion, ment,Stockholm, o ch N S o l e s o . E . Z 3 . l l . A . l 4 n d c o r r i g e n d u m ) , o p f elr.

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AOENDA2I
A blueprint octionfor globol for sustoinoble development i n t ot h e 2 l s t c e n t u r y

I

Preomble

at l.l Humanitystands a definingmomentin history. We are confronted with a perpetuationof disparities between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing on of deterioration the ecosystems which we dependfor our well-being. However, integrationof environment attentionto them and greater concerns and development improvedliving will leadto thefulfilment of basicneeds, ecosysand managed for standards all. betterprotected future.No nationcan temsand a safer,more prosperous we this on its own; but together can- in a global achieve partnership sustainable for development. mustbuild on the premises 1.2 This globalpartnership of of GeneralAssemblyresolution411228 22 December 1989,which was adoptedwhen the nationsof the world called for the United Nations Conferenceon Environof andontheacceptance theneed mentandDevelopment, to take a balancedand integratedapproachto environquestions. mentand development problems today of the 1.3 Agenda2l addresses pressing and also aims at preparingthe world for the challenges and of the next century.It reflectsa global consensus levelon development politicalcommitment thehighest at l a n d e n v i r o n m e n tc o o p e r a t i o n .I t s s u c c e s s f u i m plementation first and foremost the responsibility is o f G o v e r n m e n t s .N a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s ,p l a n s , * t s p o l i c i e sa n d p r o c e s s ea r e c r u c i a li n a c h i e v i n g h i s . I nt er nat ionalc o o p e ra ti o ns h o u l d s u p p o rt a nd supplem ent s uc h n a ti o n a l e ffo rts . In th i s c o n text, the Unit ed Nat ionss y s te mh a s a k e y ro l e to p l a y . Other int er nat ional,re g i o n a l a n d s u b re g i o n a l o rgani zat ions ar e als oc a l l e du p o n to c o n tri b u teto th i s effort. T he br oades t p u b l i c p a rti c i p a ti o n a n d th e acti ve o i nv olv em entof th e n o n -g o v e rn me n ta l rg a n i zati ons and ot her gr ou p ss h o u l d a l s o b e e n c o u ra g e d . objectives and 1.4 The developmental environmental flow of new and of Agenda2l will requirea substantial in resources developing countries, to additionalfrnancial

costsfor the actionsthey order to cover the incremental have to undertake to deal with global environmental development. problems and to acceleratesustainable are Financialresources also requiredfor strengthening the capacity of internationalinstitutions for the implementation Agenda2l. An indicativeorder-of-magof nitude assessment costs is included in each of the of programmeareas. This assessment need to be exwill aminedand refined by the relevantimplementingagencies and organizations. of 1.5 In the implementation the relevantprogramme shouldbe attention areas identifiedin Agenda21, special gi ven to the parti cul ar ci rcumstancesfaci ng t he that economies transition. It must alsobe recognized in in challenges thesecountriesare facing unprecedented in in transforming theireconomies, somecases themidst socialand political tension. of considerable Agenda?l are 1.6 The programme areas thatconstitute describedin terms of the basis for action, objectives, activitiesand meansof implementation.Agenda21 is a dynamicprogramme. It will be carriedout by thevarious and capacities according thedifferentsituations, actors to prioritiesof countries of andregionsin full respect all the principlescontained the Rio Declaration Environon in ment and Development.It could evolveover time in the This process light of changingneeds andcircumstances. marks the beginning of a new global partnershipfor sustainable development.

* When the term "Governments" used,it will be deemedto is within its oreosof the Europeon include Economic Communily Throughout Agendo2l the term"environmentolly competence. sofe sound"meons"environmentolly ond sound",in porticulor "energysupplies", when oppliedto the terms"energysources", "energysyslems" ond "technology" "iechnologies". or

t5

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SectionI Sociolond Economic Dimensions .

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(b) Making trade and environment mutually supportive.equitable. non-discriminatory and predictable multilateraltradingsystemthat is consistent l9 .5 An open. It will be frustrated the absence eitherof theserequirements. keepingin view the increasing interdependence the community of nations and that of sustainable development shouldbecomea priority item on the agendaof the internationalcommunity. recordof the 1980s The was essentially negative eachof these on countsandneeds to be reversed.sounddomesticeconomicpolicies. is 2.in both developed and developing countries.for the success this new partnership.4 Governments recognizethat there is a new global effort to relatethe elements the internationaleconomic of systemand mankind's needfor a safeand stablenatural environment.not to diminish or subsume .Internotionol cooperotion occelerote to sustoinoble development developing in countries reloted ond domestic policies INTRODUCTION 2.it is the intent of Governments that consensus-building theintersection theenvironat of mental and tradeand development areaswill be ongoing in existingintemational forums. (c) Providing adequate financial resources developto ing countries and dealingwith international debt. Neither will it gathermomentum if the developingcountriesare weighteddown by externalindebtedness.aswell asin thedomestic policy of eachcountry.It is equaland ly important to strengthennational and intemational policiesandmultinational cooperation adapt thenew to to r ealit ies . P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) PROTVTOT|NG SUSTAINABLE DEVETOPMENT THROUGHTRADE BASIS ACTION FOR 2. if global progress towards sustainable development to be achieved. inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world economy. secure. in of A supportive externaleconomicenvironment crucial. developrnent if financeis inadequate. International cooperation in this area should be designed to complementand support.This partnership commitsall States to engagein a continuousand constructivedialogue. It is recognized that. is The development process will not gathermomentumif the global economylacksdynamismand stabilityand is besetu.2 Economic policies of individual countries and int er nat ional e c o n o mi c re l a ti o n s b o th h a v e great relevance sustainable to development. 2. Therefore.ith uncertainties.The policiesandmeasures needed create to an international environment that is stronglysupportive of national developmentefforts are thus vital. (d) Encouraging macroeconomic policiesconducive to environment and development.Stateshave decided to establisha new global partnership.if bamers restrictaccess marketsand if comto modity prices and the terms of trade of developing countries remaindepressed.The reactivation andacceleration developmentrequires adynamic of both and a supporliveinternationaleconomic environment and determined policiesat the nationallevel.3 The internationaleconomy should provide a supportive internationalclimate for achieving environment and development goalsby: (a) Promoting sustainable developmentthrough trade liberalization. 2.1 In orderto meetthe challenges environment of and development. of it is important to overcomeconfrontationand to foster a climateof genuine cooperation solidarity.

Governmentsshould continue to strive to meet the following objectives: (a) To promote an open. of cooperation evengreater lateraleconomic World trade has continuedto grow faster than world of outputin recentyears. Increasedattention is being devoted to enhancingthe role of enterprisesand promoting competitive markets through adoption of competitive policies. while far-reaching are reforms and profound restructuringprocesses taking countries. which ment. OBJECTIVES 2. and trade facilitation strategies (EDI) have beeneffective in electronic datainterchange improving the tradingefficiency of the public and private sectors. An important feature of the world commodityeconomyin the 1980swas the of prevalence very low and declining real pricesfor most commodities in international markets and a resulting contractionin commodity export earningsfor substantial manyproducingcountries.non-discriminatoryand equitable multilateral trading system that will enable all countries. affecting particularly the export interests of developing countries. Protectionist pressuresand unilateral policy actions continue to endanger the functioning of an open multilateral trading system. and taking into account the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. . achievement this objective reducand progressive requiresthat there be substantial tion in the supportand protectionof agriculture-coverand marketaccess exportsubsidies ing intemalregimes.comprehensiveand successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiationswould bring about further liberalizathe tion and expansionof world trade.6 Experience shownthat sustainable requiresa commitmentto sound economicpolicies and management. of havebeencapable achievcountries ber of developing ing appreciablegrowth in their exports. balanced. early.the developingcountries. through international requiredfor sustainable neededto finance investments and may be impairedby this development development by tariff and non-tariff impediments. Economic integration processes have intensified in recent years and should impart dynamism to global trade and enhance the trade and developmentpossibilities for developing countries.althoughits objectiveswill have relating to to be fulfilled. including tariff to limiting their access export markets.in order to avoid inflicting large losses on the more efficient Thus. employmentand export earnings.in particular. the resources to mobilize.8 The internationaltrading environment has been that by affected a numberof developments havecreated and have mademultiand new challenges opportunities importance. policy directionsand objectives 2J The commodity sectordominatesthe economiesof many developing countries in terms of production. in producers.industry and other sectors.a growing number of thesecountrieshave policy reforms involving ambitious adoptedcourageous autonomous trade liberalization. (b) To improve access to markets for exports of developingcountries.The ability of thosecountries trade. These attributes are essentialfor the fulfilment of the listedbelow.the integrationof environmental progress towardsdemocraticgovemdecision-makingaurd conditions. development so economicsectors on be pursued a global basisacross development. compatible and consistentcommodity policies at national and internationallevels with a view to optimizing the contribution of the commodity sector to sustainabledevelopment. in the light of country-specific allows for full participation of all parties concerned.The escalation. domestic and 20 .an effective and predictable public adconcemsinto ministration. especiallyin developingcountries. as to contributeto sustainable 2. and at policiesto initiativesaimedat tradeliberalization make production more responsiveto environment and Tradeliberalizationshouldtherefore needs.Moreover. thereis scopefor agriculture. In recent years.as well as of industry and other sectors.the expansion world andonly a lirnitednumtradehasbeenunevenlyspread.9 In the years ahead.taking into account environmentalconsiderations .developmentand leads to with the goals of sustainable the optimal distribution of global production in accordance with comparative advantageis of benefit to all for trading partners. particular.to and improvetheireconomicstructures improvethe standecoard of living of their populationsthrough sustained nomic development. (c) To improve the functioning of commodity markets and achieve sound.However. (d) To promote and support policies.The interactionsbetweenenvironment policies are and tradeissues manifold and have not yet beenfully An assessed. trade is removal of existing distortionsin international of the In essential. improved market access in countries'exports conjunctionwith sound developing policieswould have and macroeconomic environmental a positive environmentalimpact and thereforemake an important contribution towards sustainabledevelopment.paving placein Central and EasternEuropean the way for their integrationinto the world economyand the international trading system.The GSPhas proved to be a useful tradepolicy instrument.enhance tradeand countries and developmentpossibilities of developing provide greatersecurityand predictabilityto the international trading system. development has 2.

h i s i mp ro v e ment c T of market accesswill be facilitated by appropriate s t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n ti n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . stri buti on and i mpr ove di marketing practices and the competitiveness the comof modity sector. UNCTAD and other reler. Dev eloping oun tri e s h o u l d o n ti n u e e tra d e .balanced. 2.all countriesshould implementprevi ous c om m it m e n ts h a l t a n d re v e rs e ro te c tioni sm to p and furtherexpandmarketaccess.the international comnrunityshould: (a) Halt and reverseprotectionismin order to bring aboutfurtherliberalization expansion world trade.of c om m o d i ty p ro d u c ts i n p ri m a ry and processed forms. suchasproduction exportsubsidies.international.I t is t hus u rg e n tto a c h i e v ea n i m p ro v e mentn i m ar k et ac c es sc o n d i ti o n sfo r c o mn to d i ti e sn otabl y .b a rri e rs that r e s t r i c t i m p o r t s . (b) Promotethe policy frameworkand the infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of export and irnport trade as well as the functioning of domestic markets.16 With regard to commodity trade. throughimprovedmarkettransparency involving exchanges views and information investment of on plans. particularlyin areas o f int er estto dev e l o p i n g o u n tri e s .cooperation commoditytrade ond thediversificotion the sector of 2. Governments should.11 Theinternational community should aimatfinding ways and meansof achievinga betterfunctioningand enhanced transparency commodity markets. in including the reflectionof environmental. of they shouldimplement the following policies. (b) Diversify in order to reduceclependence comon modity exports.that make economic growth and environmentalprotectionmutually supportive.13 For devel opi ng countri esto benefi t from t he liberalization tradingsystems.as appropriate: (a) Create a domesticenvironmentsupportiveof an optimalbalance between production thedomestic for and export marketsand remove biasesagainstexportsand discourage inefficientimport-substitution . and of to thebenefitof all countries. c) DATA AND /NFORMATTON > Encouroging doto collection ond reseorch 2. the integrationof all countriesinto the world economyand the intemational tradingsystem. whereappropriate: (a) Seek optimal functioningof commodity markets. p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 ' r o md e v e l o p i n g co unt r ies .n o n . (d) Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutuallysupportive.15 GATT. particular developing in the countries.d i s criminatoryandpredictable internati onaltradin system g .'ant institutions should continue to collect appropriatetrade data and information. Substantive negotiationsbetweenproclucers and consumers shouldbepursued with a view to achieving viable andmoreefficientinternational agreements takeinto that 21 .prospects markets inciividual and for commodities. The Secretary-General the United Naof tions is requestedto strengthenthe Trade Control Measures InforrnationSystemmanaged UNCTAD.10 Accordingly. ( b ) P r o v i d e f o r a n e q u i t a b l e . betand and ter management naturalresources of that takesinto accountthe necessities sustainable of development. a resource endowments marketopportunities. B) MANAGEMENT-REEDACTTV ES LAT tTt >-Devglopingdomestic policiesthotmoximize the benefits of trodeliberolization sustainable for development ACTIVITIES A) /NTERNAT/ONAL AND REG/ONA/COO7ERATION AND COORD/NAIION > Promoting internotionol on troding system that fokesoccounfof the needs developingcountries of 2. 2. and 2. by > lmprovinginternationol in . comprehensive successancl ful outcomeof the UruguayRoundof multilateraltrade negotiations. 2J2 Therefore.pol i cy c c th reforms and structuraladjustmentthey have unclertak en.in a timely way.directly or throughappropriate international organizations.s e c u r e . (c) Facilitate. (c) Reflect efficient and sustainable of factorsof use production theformationof commodityprices. thr ough t he pr o g re s s i v ere mo v a l o l .greater of diversificationof the cornmodity sectorin developing economieswithin a macroeconomic framework that takesinto consideration country'seconomicstructure. interalia. a view to achieving with sustainable development: (e) Strengthen international the trade policies system throughan early.14 The fol l ow i ng pol i ci es shoul d be adopredby developingcountrieswith respectto commoditiesconsistentwith marketefficiency: (a) E xpand processi ng.as well as the substantial progresand sivereduction typesof supportthatinduceuncompetiof tiveproduction. socialand resources costs.

ing any that are non-concessional.8bilthe activitiesin this progralrune lion from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. An open. supportive.as accountmarket trends. considerations.17 The Conferencesecretariat averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing areato be about$8. incomesand to lessening needed economic for resources additional It thusprovides growth and development and improved environmental protection.The challenge is to ensure that trade and environmentpolicies are consistentand reinforce the processof sustainable However.on the other hand. 2.An open. provides the ecological and other resourcesneededto of sustaingrowth and underpina continuingexpansion trade.accountshouldbe taken of the development. so degradation asnot to of the root causes environmental on resultin unjustifiedrestrictions trade.22 Governments FOR BASIS ACTION be and 2. In this regard. (b) To clarify the role of GATT. fact that environmental standardsvalid for developed countriesmay have unwarrantedsocial and economic countries. well as study particularattentionshouldbe paid groups. UNCTAD and other international organizationsin dealing with trade and issues. sugar and tropical timber. UNCTAD shouldencourage 2.19 Environment tradepoliciesshould mutually 22 . countriesat the national. on to the agreements cocoa.Occupationsafety matters.marketingand servicesassociated promotion of commodities. Governments B) CAPACTTY-BUtLDING 2. B) frrAKrNG TRADEAND ENVIRONTYIENT fiIUTUAILY SUPPORTIVE ACTIVITIES > Developingon environment/trode ord deuJlophentogendo GATT.multilateraltrading system. technology transfer and al health and with the production. (a) To make international trade and environment policies mutually supportivein favour of sustainable development.regionaland intemational MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FINANCING has estimatedthe 2. the specific strategiesand programmes decideupon for implementation. environment-related and disputesettlement.21 Govemmentsshould strive to meet the following throughrelevantmultilateralforums.multilateraltradingsystemmakes possiblea more efficient allocation and useof resources and therebycontributesto an increasein production and on demands the environment. mechanisms for (b) Continueto apply compensation in commodity export earningsof developing shortfalls diversificationefforts. A sound environment.useand and the gatheringand management nationalresources of utilizationof informationon commoditymarkets.including objectives.or affangements. role in tackling global environmental have thus been used in certain specific inmeasures to the whereconsidered necessary. enhance efstances.18 The above-mentionedtechnical cooperation activities aim at strengtheningnational capabilitiesfor of designandimplementation commoditypolicy. The importance of international commodity is and agreements alrangements underlined. coffee.includwill depend upon.would by the adoptionof soundenvironmental havea positiveimpacton theenvironmentandcontribute to sustainable development.including. countriesin order to encourage (c) Provide assistance developingcountriesupon to requestin the designand implementationof commodity policies and the gatheringand utilization of information on commodity markets. fectiveness environmentalregulationsfor the protecof shouldaddress Suchregulations tion of theenvironment.Actual costsand financialterms.as well as environmental shouldbe takeninto account. costsin devdloping OBJECTIVES 2.20 Internationalcooperationin the environmental tradeprovisions in field is growing. conciliationprocedure (c) To encourage productivity and cominternational role petitiveness encourage constructive on thepart a and and of industryin dealingwith environment development issues.anci anumberofcases have played a in multilateralenvironmentagreements Trade challenges. (d) Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy framework and infrastructure required to improve the efticiency of export and import trade: (e) Support diversification initiativesof thedeveloping the levels.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments. UNCTAD and other internationalorganizations: GATT. inter alia. where relevant.supported policies.

The burdenof debt-service payments those on countries hasimposedsevere constraints their ability on to accelerate growth and eradicate poverty and hasled to a contracti onn i mports. (l) Ensurethat environmental policiesprovidethe appropriate legaland institutional frameworkto respond to new needs the protectionof the environmentthat may for resultfrom changes productionand trade specializain tion. clarify the relationship between GATT provisions and someof themultilateral measures adopted theenvironin ment area. takinginto account fact that. reactivation the of development will not take place without an early and durable solution to the problemsof externalindebtedness. the principieof non-discrirnination. is worthnoting It that standardsthat are valid in the most advanced countries mav be inappropriate of unwarranted and social costlbr the developing countries. 2. ensure transparency and compatibilitywith international obligations. to the an obligationto ensuretransparency the use of trade in rllcdsulcsrclatc'c-l the environment and to provide to lucleiluaic ication of nationalregulations: notif and the n e edt o gir c ' t ' or r s i d e ra tro n e s p e c i ac o n d i ti o ns to th l and developmental requirements developingcountriesas of they movetowardsinternationally agreed environmental objectives. where necessary. As a result. sincetheirapplication couldleadto tradedistortions and increase protectionist tendencies: (f) Ensure that environment-related regulationsor stanclards. accordance to in with theirrespective mandates competences. (d) Deal with the root causesof environmentand problems a manner development in thatavoids adopthe tion of enr. based aninternationalconsensus. Environrnental measures addressing transborder or glohalcnvirclnmental problems should. c) PROVTD|NG ADEQUATE F|NANC|ATRESOURCES TO DEVETOPING COUNTRIES BASIS ACTION FOR 2.external debt burdensare a significant problem.T h e s e o u l di n c l ude.in particular for debt-servicing. Many developing countries haveexperienced a decade-long situation negative transferoffinancial of net resources. including those relatedto health and safety standards.which depend a healthyinveston ment climate. development and environnrent comrnunities: (c) In thosecases when trademeasures relatedto environment are used. during which their financial receipts were exceeded payments by theyhadto make. policymeasures foundnecessary trade be for thr-enforccrnent environmental of policies. E xternal i ndebtedness emergedas a ma in has factor i n the economi c stal emate n the devel oping i countri es.'ironmental measures resulting unjustified in restrictions trade on : (e) Seekto avoidthc useof traderestrictions distoror tionsasa means offsetdifferences costarising to in from differenccs environmental in standards and regulations. -s r a c iritr uiitr. onti nuedvi gorousi mpl ementati on t he C of 23 . not constitutea meansof arbitrary or do unjustifiable discrimination a disguised or restriction on trade: (g) Ensurethat specialfactorsaffectingenvironment and tradepoliciesin the developing countries borne are in mind in theapplication environmental of standards.for manydevelopthe ing countries. i nvestmentand consum pi ti on. Sustainable developmentrequiresincreasedinvestment. be on Domestic nreasures tar_qeted achievecertainenvironmental to ob.j u ri s d i c ti o n f th e i mporti ng out o countr\'.negotiation and implementationof trade policies as a means of fosteringincreased transparency the light of countryin specificconditions. (k) Ensurepublic input in the formation. domesticallymobilized resources had to be transferred abroadinsteadof being investedlocally in order to promote sustainable economic development. are an important sourceof financial resources.and other relevantinternational and regionaleconomic institutions exarnine. as well asin theuseof anytrade measures.23 Investmentis critical to the ability of developing countries achieve to needed economic growthto improve the welfare of their populations and to meet their basic needsin a sustainable manner.certain p rir r c iplcanc l ul e ss h o u l d p p l y . printhe ciple thei tlte trademeasure chosenshouldbe the least trade-rcstrictivc necessary achieve objectives.as far as possiblc. following proposiand the tionsandpr inc ip l e s : (a) Elaborateadequatestudiesfor the better understandingof the relationship betweentradeand environment for the promotionof sustainable development. (b) Promote a dialogue betweentrade. (h ) Encourage participation developing of countries in nrultrlateral agreements through such mechanisms as sp ec ialr ans it io n a l l e s : t ru (i) Avorcluniiateral actions dealwith environmental to ci r allengc s s i d eth e . and C) Develop more precision.Foreignprivateinvestment the are and returnof flight capital.24 For manydeveloping countries.jcctives may needtracle ntcasures renderthem efio l'ectrr Should e'.all without deteriorating or depletingthe resource basethat underpinsdevelopment. for which domestic and external financial resources needed.

(c) Multilateral institutionsactively engagedin the to debt strategy continueto international strengthened packagesrelated to commersupport debt-reduction cial bank debt with a view to ensuringthat the magwith theevolving nitudeof suchfinancinsis consonant debt strategy. includwith serious countries debt-servicing ing thosewhosedebt is mainly to official creditorsor to in Particularly thecase financial institutions.Some implementation of this strategy countrieshave already benefitedfrom the combination policiesand commercialbank debt of soundadjustment commeasures. 2. the progressbeing made under the and a morerapid is debt strategy recognized strengthened is encouraged. the supportof the mul ti l ateralfinancial ins sti tuti onsi n the form of new di sbursem entand t he The use fundsi s w el comed. in a w c o 2.P arti cul aratte nt ionshould be pai d to thei r resourceneeds.The substantial bilateral debt reduction undertakenby some and is creditorcountries alsowelconted.are not ed r vit h appreci ati on. ACTIVITIES OF OFFICIAL A) MEETING /NIERNAI/ONAI TARGETS LA DEVE PMENI ASS'SIANCE FUNDING 2. of ruse thei r concessi onal of supportgroupsshoul d be conti nuedin pr oviding resourcesto cl ear arrearso1'countri e s em bar king supupon vi gorous economi c reform progrant m es by portedby IMF and the W orl d B ank.Ongoingefforts in to implementthese"Trinidadterms"measures a mancapacityof those with the payments ner cofiunensurate countriesand in a way that gives additionalsupportto their economicrefbrm efforts are welcomed. international The reduction orequivalent munity encourages: (a) Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiatesimilar commercial bank debt reductionwith their creditors: (b) The partiesto sucha negotiationto takedueaccount of both the medium-termdebt reductionand new money of requirements the debtor country. otherswhich are to positionto do soareencouraged takesimilaraction. Mea sur es t he mul ti l ateral fi nanci al i nsti tuti onssuch as t he r ef io n a n c i n go f i n t e r e s to n n o n .29 Theactions f low-income ountries ith substanti aldebt burdensw hi ch conti nue.25 The specificrequirements the implementation programmesincluded sectoraland cross-sectoral of the in Agenda27 aredealt with in the relevantprogramn're ar eas a n d i n c h a p te r 3 3 (F i n a n c i a l resourcesand mechanisms). Other debt . OBJECTIVES for 2. and the resumptionof their growth and development grow th and would a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g s u s ta i n abl e dev elo p m e n t. 'SSUE THE B) ADDRESSING DEBT 2. multilateral of l ow -i ncome countri esi n the processo f econom ic reform. debt. their cr edit wor to servi cethei r debt and safeguard thi nessare commended.h-oriented solutionsto the problemof developing problems. levels of debt and foster the return avoid unsustainable of flight capital.31 The unfavourahle external environment facing developing countries makesdomesticresourcemobilization and efficient allocation and utilization of domesti*See chop.disw countri es hi ch are m akinggr eat tressed devel opi ng efforts to conti nue to servi ce thei r debt and m eet due thei r externalfi nanci al obl i eati onsal so deser ve attenti on. 33 s { F i n o n c i orl e s o u r c e o n d m e c h o n i s m s } . 24 . new and additional resourcesshould be provided to support Agenda 21 programmes.27 In regardto the externaldebt incurredwith commercial banks." fi fth di mensi on". ( d) Cr e d i to r b a n k s to p a rti c i p a te n debt and debti servicereduction: (e) Strengthened policies to attractdirect investment.the recentmeasures generous termsof relief to thepoorest with regard more to most indebtedcountriesare welcomed.26 As discussedin chapter 33.it is urgedthat with multilateral 2.at gr eat cost .28 With regard to debt owed to otficial bilateral taken by the Paris Club creditors.30 In connection attention given to continuingto rvork towards be serious grow'. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSI EVALUATIONF/NANC/NG POLICIES ECONOMIC D) ENCOURAGTNG DEVELOPMENT TO CONDUCIVE SUSTAINABLE FORACTION BASIS 2.evolving international debt strategy is aimed at restoring debtorcountries'externalfinancial viability. a d d i t i onal fi nanci al resourcesin favour of developing countriesand the efficient utilization of such resourcesare essential.In th i s c o n te x t.c o n c e s s i o n la l a n sw i t h ID A refl ow s .

this the factorsresponsible phenomenon. developing countries undergoare 2. including corruption. a numberof countries.investment in the areasof exchange a n d obs t ac lest o e n tre p re n e u rs h i p .economic policy reforms that promote the efficient planning and utilization of resourcesfor sustainabledevelopment through sound fosterentrepreneurship economic andsocialpolicies. (c) Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship inrprovinginstitutional by facilitiesfor enterprisecreationand market entry. 2. rates.34 It is necessary establish.35 The industrialized a position to do so should strengthen their efforts: (a) To encourage stableand predictableintemational a economic environment. (g) Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises. administrativestrains.large budget deficits and other macropoliciesanddistortions restrictive economicimbalances. and taking into account national strategiesand objectives. (c) To ensurethat the processes policy coordination of take into account the interests and concerns of the developing countries. In particular. and finance. (e) Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments. somecases in they have balance-of-payments resultedin adverse socialandenvironmental effects.would help generate cluding appropriate developto transition sustainable resources supportthe to and in developingcountries.costly and time-consuming set up and operate to in enterprises many developingcountries.such as cuts in allocations for health care.In d e v e l oped countries. narrowing their major extemal imbalances and i ncreasi ng the adj ustment capaci ty of the ir economies.equitableand accountable public administrationwith individual rights and opporbroadly elementfor sustainable. (b) P romote transparencyi n admi ni strati onand decision-making.36 Developingcountriesshould considerstrengthening their effortsto implementsoundeconomicpolicies: (a) That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline requiredto promoteprice stability and externalbalance. (t) Promotethe operationof effective tax systems and financial sectors.While suchprogrammes or for necessary improving the balancein fiscal budgetsand accounts. (d) Promote the andsupport investment infrastrucand ture requiredfor sustainable economicgrowth anddiversificationon an environmentally soundand sustainable basis. It is important to ensurethat structuraladjustmentprogrammesdo not have negative impacts on the environmentand social developmentso that such programnles can be more in line with the objectives sustainable of development. (d) To undertakeappropriatenationalmacroeconomic and structuralpoliciesaimedat promotingnon-inflationary growth. and the incorporation of social and environmentalcosts in of resourcepricing.insavingsrates. regulationsand formalities that make it more complicated. (c) Thatraisedomestic savings as andinvestment.all cally mobilized resources the more important for the In promotionof sustainable development.including market mechanisms. all countries should develop policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of resourcesand take full advantageof the opportunities offered by the changingglobal economicenvironment.unnecessary controlsand the neglectof marketconditions. particularly with regard to monetary stability. tunitiesis an essential baseddevelopmentand soundeconomicperformanceat all developmentlevels. efficient.continuing policy reform and adjustment. (b) To stimulatesavings and reducefiscal deficits. education and environmentalprotection. real ratesof interestand fluctuations in key exchange rates.whereverappropriate. countries should: ( a ) R e m o v e t h e b a r r i e r s t o p r o g r e s sc a u s e d b y bureaucraticinefficiencies. and remove sources distortion in the areaof tradeand investment.policies are necessaryto correct misdirected public spending.33 Many indebted ing structural adjustmentprogrammesrelating to debt are rescheduling new loans. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMFNI-RETATED ACTIVITIES D Promotingsoundeconomic policies countriesand othercountriesin 2. The essentialobjective would be to simplify otrremovethe restrictions. honest. 2. and agentsinvolved in. 25 . (b) That resultin realisticexchange rates. OBJECTIVES 2.37 More specifically.in the light of the to country-specificconditions. including the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of the least developedcountriesto halt their marginalizationin the world economy. All countriesshould increase of their efforts to eradicatemismanagement public and private affairs. well as improve returnsto investment. ment both domestically of that fostersthe association 232 Good management effective.taking into account for. hannony with in the objectivesof sustainable development andfulfilment of basicneeds.

43 Particularefforts in the implementationof the four progrirmme areasidentified in this chapterare warranted in view of the especially acute environmental and countries.upon request.directly or through appropriateinternationaland regional otganizatheir tions and internationallending institutions. the specific ments decide upon for implementation.38 Governmentsof developedcountries and those of other countriesin a position to do so should. problemsof theleastdeveloped developmental 26 . institutions financialanddevelopment 2.NANCTNG 2. tax administration.inter strategiesand programmes Governalia. the efforts of the developing countriesto promote economic cooperation among themselvesshould be enhancedand continue to be supportedby the internationalcommunity.39 International should further review their policies and programmesin development.40 Stronger countrieshas long been acceptedas an important componentof efforts to promoteeconomicgrowth and techin development and to accelerate nologicalcapabilities B) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG policy changes developing in 2. and for the indigenouspopulation and local communities to contribute fully to the development. Therefore. and financial sectors. the developing world.savingsinstitutions and financial markets. These are indicative and order-ofonly andhavenot beenreviewedby magnitudeestimates Actual costsand financial terms. COOPERAflON . of ac(b) Design and operationof efficient tax systems. dependupon.42 Theabove-mentioned substanti alnati ona l ef f or t s f or countri es i nvol ve capacity-building in the areasof public administration. countingsystems (c) Promotionofentrepreneurship.both farm and non-farm.A' T.41 The Conference secretariathas estimated the of averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) implementing in this prograrnmearea to be about $50 the activities million from the international community on grant or concessionalterms. will ing any that arenon-concessional. 2. social.enhance efforts to provide developing countries with increased for technicalassistance the following: (a) Capacity-building the nation's design and imin plementation economicpolicies.includGovernments. the light of the objectiveof sustainable amongdeveloping economiccooperation 2. MEANS IMPI-EMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON . attainmentof sustainable (h) Remove biases against exports and in favour of inefficient import substitutionand establishpolicies that allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign investment. goals.ANDREG/ONAL 8/ 'NTERNAilONAL AND COORDINAI'ON 2. within the framework of national. central banking. economicand developmental (i) Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive of an optimal balance between productionfor the domesticand export markets.

3 Integralto suchactionis.Equally. The struggle povertyis the shared against responsibility all countries. 3. (b) To implementpoliciesand strategies that promote adequate levelsof fundingandfocuson integrated human policies. BASIS AC-TION FOR 3.2 While managing resources sustainably.1 Poverty is a complex multidimensionalproblem with origins in both the national and international domains.which could also have an adverse impacton poverty"Aspeciticanti-poverty strategy thereis fore one of the basic conditionsfor ensuringsustainable development. urban the poor.5 Activities that will contribute the integrated to pro- 27 .including incomegeneration.local institutionstrengthening capacity-buildingandgreaterinvolveand mentof non-governmental organizations locallevels and of government deliverymechanisms. of 3. of resource mobilization.a development policy that focuses mainly on increasing productionof the goodswithclut addressing sustainability theresources the of on which productionis basedwill sooneror later run into decliningproductivity.greater equityin incomedisribution andhumanresource development remain major challenges everywhere. ACTIVITIES 3. The eradicationof poverty and hunger. as (c) To developfor all poverty-sfficken areasintegrated strategiesand programmesof sound and sustainable management the environment. sustainableresource managementand poverty eradicationsimultaneously. rightsof women. the the role of youth and of indigenous peopleand local comOBJECTIVES 3.The objectivesof this progratnmeareaare: (a) To provide all persons urgentlywith the opportunity to eam a sustainable livelihood.aswell astheparallel processofcreatinga supportive international environment.No uniform solution can be found for global application. country-specificprogrammesto tacklepoverty and intemationalefforts supportingnational effofts.4 The long-termobjectiveof enablingall peopleto achieve sustainable livelihoods should provide an integratingfactor that allows policiesto address issues of development. An effective strategyfor tackling the problems poverty.women and children. with special policiesandprogranunes directedat rural areas. enhanced healthcareand education. togetherwith intemational support. employment and incomegeneration. (d) To create focusin nationaldevelopmentplans a and budgetson investmentin human capital.the promotion of economicgrowth in developing countriesthat is both sustained and sustainable and direct action in eradicating poverty by strengthening employmentand income-generating programrnes. development increased local control of resources. production and people and should cover demographicissues.Comboting poverty P R O G R A M MA R E A E ENABUNG THE POOR TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABTE TIVETIHOODS munities and a democraticparticipationprocessin association with improved govemance. of development environment and simultaneously shouldbegin by focusingon resources. crucialfor a solutionto this are problem. poverty eradicationand alleviation. for Otherwise it could have an adverseimpact both on poverty and on chancesfor long-terrnsuccess resource in and environmental conservation. Rather. environan mental policy that focusesmainly on the conservation and protectionof resources must take due accountof thosewho dependon the resources their livelihoods.

non-govemmental tion with appropriate international. particularly especially by groups. (a) Empowering women through full participation in decision-making. (b) Containimmediatemeasures enablethosegroups to to alleviatepoverty and to develop sustainability. the programmesshould: (a) Focuson the empowerment local andcommunity of groups through the principle of delegating authority. needed supporttheaboveactionsand humanresources to widening of options for resource-poor to achieve a people. community matter of urgency. develop adequateinfrastructure.especially communityandlocal levels.in cooperationwith appropriateinternationaland non-governmentalorganrzations.in particular. The groups will include poor fishing communities. 28 . should support a community-driven approachto which would include. inter alia: sustainability.prolivelihoods andenvironmental motion of sustainable involving tectioncover a variety of sectoralinterventions a rangeof actors. (d) Giving communitiesa large measureof participaand protectionof the management tion in the sustainable in local naturalresources order to enhancetheir productive capacity.regional the bestpossibleconditionsfor sustainable and national developmentthat would eliminate poverty and reducethe inequalitiesbetweenvarious population groups groups. learn(e) Establishinga network of community-based ing centres for capacity-building and sustainable development. In general design. to overcometheir (i) Implementmechanisms popularparticipationfor women. landless the urban informal sector.8 Governments.6 The focus hereis on specificcross-cutting .should establish measures that will directly or indirectly: (a) Generate employmentandproductive remunerative occupational opportunitiescompatible with countryon specific factor endowments. (b) With international support.in accordance 0) Implement. taking into account should Governments ethicaland cultural considerations. for tainableuseof resources basic (h) Establishnew community-based mechanisms and mechanisms enablecommunities to strengthen existing neededby the poor access resources to to gain sustained poverty. High priority shouldbe given to basiceducation and professionaltraining. enablethem to achievesustainable (e) Setup an effectiveprimary healthcareand maternal to healthcaresystemaccessible all. l ( f ) C o n s i d e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g / d e v e l o p i n ge g a l access land resourto for land management. (c) Contain a long-term strategyaimed at establishing local. enablethem tion.Peoples'organizations. (g) Rehabilitate resources. and the advancementof women. It shouldassistthe most disadvantaged .indigenous communities. Enabling actions will be necessaryat the national and internationallevels. taking full account of regional and subregionalconditions to support a locally driven and country-specific approach.women. smallholders. ATED B) MANAGEMFNT-REL ACTIVITtES of with theassistance andin coopera3. level to accountabilityandresources the mostappropriate and to ensurethat the programmewill be geographically ecologicallyspecific.in particular. pastoralists. as a with country-specific conditions and legal systems.and refugees.in local poorpeople. the extentpracto degraded to introduce policy measures promote susticable. measures 3. (c) Promoting or establishinggrass-roots mechanisms to allow for the sharing of experienceand knowledge betweencommunities.marketing systems. educationand right in keeping with their freedom. credit systemsand the like and the technology systems. and local community organizations.children and youth within those groups . to exercise this dignity and personally held values.for women and for the protectionof tenants.women's groups e are organizations importantsourc s and non-governmental of innovation and action at the local level and have a stronginterestand proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. and are essential the at everylevel. a scalesufficient to take in care of prospectiveincreases the labour force and to cover backlogs.to promotesustainable development. frameworks ces and land ownership. migrantsand people.from local to global.asappropriate. (c) Provide substantial in increases economicallyeffiproductivity and measures ensurethat to cient resource population benefits in adequatemeasurefrom the local resource use: (d) Empower community organrzations people to and livelihoods. in the areas of basic education. (b) Respectingthe cultural integrity and the rights of indigenouspeopleand their communities. where necessary. measures ensurethat women and men have the same to right to decidefreely and responsiblyon the numberand to spacingof their children and have access the informato means. COMMUNTTTES A) EMPOWFRING developmentmust be achievedat every 3.in particular. primary/matemal health care.7 Sustainable level of society. artisans. Governments. and humanneeds.

sincewomen ere a particularlydisadvantaged group. where appropriate. education and information on health and responsibleparenthoodand should provide the opporfully. accessibleservices. (m) Supportresearchon and integrationof traditional methodsof productionthat have been shown to be environmentally sustainable. organizationsand bodies.in keepingwith freedom. at least during tunity for all women to breast-feed the first four months post-partum.The development of process will not gathermomentumif developingcountriesare weighted down by externalindebtedness. (d) In the follow-up of the implementation Agenda of 21. D/ TNTERNAT/ONAI AND REG/ONA COO?ERAilON L AND COORD/NAT'ON 3.l I The secretariat the Conference estimated of has the average total annualcost (19%-2m0) of implementing the activitiesof this programme be about$30 billion. (n) Actively seekto recognizeand integrateinformalsector activities into the economy by removing regulations and hindrances that discriminate asainstactivities in thosesectors. (o) Cons iderm a k i n g a v a i l a b l el i n e s o f c re d i t and other facilities for the informal sectorand improved p a c c es s o land f or th e l a n d l e s s o o r s o th a t th e y can t a c quir et he m ean so f p ro d u c ti o na n d re l i a b l ea ccess to nat ur alr es ourc e sIn ma n y i n s ta n c e s p e c i alcon. including financial institutions. including the establishment a focal point of for information exchangeand the formulation and implementation replicablepilot projectsto combatpovof ert!. Evaluation of such programmesshould be genderspecific. bodiesand agencies. in cooperationwith Member Statesand with appropriateintemational and non-governmentalorganizations. including resourceflows and structural adjustment programmes. AND EVALUATION 3. Programmesshould fully supportwomen'sproductiveand reproductiveroles and well-being.Action-orientedactivities of relevanceto the above objectives.Strict feasibility for appraisalsare needed for borrowers to avoid debt c r is es : (p) Provide the poor with accessto fiesh water and sanitation.10 The United Nations system. development if finance is inadequate. the formuin lation andimplementation nationalactionprogrammes of on poverty alleviationand sustainable development.take active stepsto implement programmesto establish preventiveand curative health facilities. to ensurethe continuedprovision of basic servicesto the poor and needy. taking into account ethical Programmes andcultural considerations. (0 Promote international cooperation to addressthe root causes poverty. barriersrestrictaccess marketsand if if to commodity pricesand the terms of tradein developing countriesremaindepressed.to ensurethat social and environnrental concerns addressed.dignity and personallyheld values. (c) Strengthen existingstructures the UnitedNations in system for coordination of action relating to poverty eradication. of (l) Undertakeactivitiesaimed at the promotion of food security and. shouldfocuson providing comprehensive health care.as appropriate. (e) Examine the international economic framework.9 Governments shouldimprove the collectionof information on target groups and target areas in order to facilitatethe designof focused programmes activities.should make poverty alleviation a major priority and should: (a) AssistGovernments. (q) Provide the poor with accessto primary educati o n. (k) Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the management urban centres. are and conduct a review of the policies of international organizations. and support and special emphasison employment and income generation.safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable. and strengthen which include women-centred.projectsand programmes supplemented where relevantby food aid. s siderations women are required.food self-sufficiency within the contextof sustainable agriculture. and with the target-group consistent needsand aspirations. in this connection. with special attention to the need for providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness. /NFORMAI/ON C) DATA.for the responsible planningof family size. gle high priority to the review of the progress made in eradicatingpoverty. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 3. whenrequested.through its relevant organs.should be given particular attention in this regard. including prenatal care. (b) Prornotetechnical cooperationamong developing countriesfor poverty eradication activities.women-managed. to including about$15 billion from the international com- 29 . suchas poverty eradication.

in estimates otherpartsof Agenda2l . It is particularly ity-building at the local community level in order to to support community-driven a approach sustainability mechanisms allow to and to establishand strengthen sharingof experience and knowledgebetweencomlevels.terms.12 National capacity-building implementation of the aboveactivitiesis crucial and should be eiven 30 .includingany that arenon-concessional. the specificstrategies programmes decideupon for implementaGovernments tion. important focuscapacto highpriority. inter alia. nologicalsupport. Actual costsand financialterms. Remunity groupsat nationalandinternational quirementsfor suchactivities are considerable and are relatedto the various relevantsectorsof Agenda 2l financial and techcalling for requisiteinternational. and will dependupon.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude This estimate overlaps beenreviewedby Ciovernments. B) CAPACITY-BUILDING for 3.

meanwhile. (b) Developing national policies and strategies ento pattems.are unable to meet food.Although consumption are needs of in certainpartsof the world. in 4.4 Measures be undertaken ttre international at to of must for theprotection enhancernent tlteenvironment and in the takefully into account currentimbalances the global patterns consumption production. This results of in excessive lifestyles among demands unsustainable and on the richer segments. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E PATTERNS A) FOCUSTNG UNSUSTATNABIE ON AND CONSU}TPTION OF PRODUCTION BASIS ACTION FOR .5 Specialattentionshouldbe paid to the demandfor generated unsustainable by consumpnaturalresources tion and to the efficientuseof thoseresources consistent with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing patterns very high pollution.it is addressed severalpartsof Agenda transportation and 21.R ELATED ACTIVITIES > Adopt. consumption ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI. notablythosedealingwith energy.1 This chapter contains folkrwing programme the (a) Focusingon unsustainable patternsof production and consumption. which placeimmensestress the environment. and OBJECTIVES 4. countries should be guided by the 31 .7 Action is neededto meet the followins broad objectives: (a) To promotepatterns consumption production of and that reduceenvironmental stress and will meetthe basic needsof humanity.3 Povertyandenvironmental are degradation closely intenelated.More needs be to known abouttherole of consumption relationto economic in growth and populationdynamics in order to formulate coherent intemational national policies. health care.Someeconomists questioning are of traditionalconcepts economicgrowttrandunderliningthe of importance pursuing of economic objectives takeaccount that of the full valueof naturalresource capital. povertyand imbalances. The poorer segments.8 In principle. (b) To develop a better understanding the role of of consumptionand how to bring about more sustainable pattems.2 Sincethe issueof changingconsumption in is very broad.and reducingwastage and the use of finite resources the productionprocess. of and 4. aggravating level 4. on and in the chapters economicinstruments The presentchaptershould the transferof technology. with chapter (Demographic 5 alsobe readin conjunction dynamicsand sustainability).1. of which is a matterof graveconcern. industrialized countries. While poverty resultsin certainkinds of the environmental stress.meeting the basicneedsof the poor.Changing consumptionpattems will require a multiprongedstrategyfocusing on demand.6 Crowing recognitionof the imporlanceof addressing consumptionhas also not yet been matchedby an understanding irsimplications. in consumption courage changes unsustainable patterns 4. the basicconsumer a largesection humanityarenot beingmet.consumption potterns Chonging / l ' r' areas: 4. major causeof the continued is deterioration the global environment the unsustainof particularlyin and ablepattern consumption production. shelterand educational needs.ing international on approach to ochieving nobleconsumption susfoi pattern s 4. and wastes.

11 ln the years ahead. 4.and demographicfactors. guaranteeing provisionof basicneeds the for the patterns.12 While international review processes exist for examining economic. households individuals. ( e ) I d e n t i f y b a l a n c e dp a t t e r n so f c o n s u m p t i o n worldwide which the Earlhcan supportin the long term. effort to: (a) Expand or promote databases production and on for consumptionand developmethodologies analysing them.in their development from inenhancedtechnologicaland other assistance zed countries.9 In the follow-up of the implementation Agenda madein achievingsustainable 2I thereview of progress patterns shouldbe given high priority.Gove r nm ent s. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON > lJndertokingreseorch consumption on 4. This shouldbe reflectedin the evolutionof new systems nationalacof countsand otherindicators sustainable of development. c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI COOqERATION AND COORD/NAI/ON 4.Governments. economic growth and development. > Finoncing and costevaluotion 4. In many instances.10 In order to support this broad strategy.inefficient and to processes. more attentionneedsto be paid to issues relatedto consumptionand production patternsand sustainable lifestylesand environment. (c) Developingcountriesshould seekto achievesustainable consumption patterns in their development process.general recognized as unduly hazardous the environment. consumption (b) Developed shouldtakethe leadin achievcountries ing sustainable consumptionpatterns. dustriali of 4. this will require reorientation existingproductionand consumption patof ternsthat have developed industrialsocieties in and are in turn emulatedin much of the world. consumption dependenton the Earth's finite resourcesand more in harmonywith theEarth'scarryingcapacity. (c) Examine the impact of ongoing changesin the structure of modern industrial economies away from material-intensive economic growth. technological adaptation and consumption.development and demographic factors.14 The Conference secretariat estimated has that implementation this programmeis not likely to require of significantnew financialresources. B) DEVETOPTNG NATTONAT POUC|ES AND STRATEGIES ENCOURAGE TO CHANGESIN UNSUSTAINABTE CONSUMPTION PATTERNS FOR BASIS ACTION a. parpoor.with of regionaland international the assistance economicand should make a concerted environmental organizations.following basic objectives in their efforts to address and consumption lifestylesin the contextof environment and development: (a) All countriesshouldstrive to promote sustainable patterns. innovation. (d) Consider how economiescan grow and prosper while reducing the use of energy and materialsand the production of harmful materials. reviewing the role and impact of unsustainable productionand consumption patternsand lifestylesand theirrelationto sustainable shouldbe given development high priority. working with 32 .Governments. 4. as part of a processaimed at achieving significantchangesin the consumpti onpatternsof i ndustri es. and > Developing concepts sustoinoble new economic growth of ond prosperity 4. (b) Assessthe relationshipbetween production and environment.l5 Achieving the goals of environmental quality and sustainabledevelopment will require efficiency in production patterns order and changes consumption in in to emphasize optimization resource andminimizause of tion of waste. This requires wasteful.13 In the follow-up of the inrplementation Agenda of 21.and/orprivate research and policy institutes. while avoiding those unsustainable ly ticul arly i n industrializedcountries.ll Consideration should also be given to the present of economic growth and the need for new concepts conceptsof wealth and prosperitywhich allow higher of lif-estyles areless standards living throughchanged and OBJECTIVES 4.16 Progresscan be made by strengthening positive trends and directions that are emerging.

tainableuseof renewable TH D ) E X E R C /S /N G A D E R S H IPR OU GH LE PURCHASING GOVERNMENI themselves also play a role in con4. sumerlegislationand environmental pr (c) E ncouragi ngspeci fi c consumer-ori ented osystems. and (e) Encouragingthe environmentallysound and susnaturalresources. and w . 19 A t t he s ameti me . (b) Making consumers awareof thehealthandenvironmentalimpact of products. into clearindicatorsin order mentsshouldbe transformed and to inform consumers decisionmakers. They should thereforereview the purchasing policiesof their agencies departments and so may improve. to their (d) Encouraging environmentally sounduseof new the of renewable sources energy. of 4.together with the private sector. s o c i e tyn e e d s d e v e l o p tive ways of dealingwith the problenrof disposingof m ount ing lev e l s o f w a s te p ro d u c ts a n d m a teri al s. in (b) Promotingresearch and development environmentallysoundtechnologies. taking into accountthe development developingcountries. (b) To developa domesticpolicy frameworkthat will patternsof produca encourage shift to more sustainable tion and consumption: sustainable (c) To reinforceboth valuesthat encourage production and consumption patternsand policies that encouragethe transfer of environmentally sound technologiesto developingcountries. cooperation competitiveness. should make a concertedeffort to reduce of the generation wastesand wasteproductsby: and (a) Encouraging recycling in industrialprocesses level.72 T\ey should also encourage emergence an inthe formed consumer public and assist individuals and informedchoicesby: households makeenvironmentally to (U Providinginforrnation the consequences conof on sumption choices and behaviour so as to encourage soundproductsand use of demandfor environmentally products. environmental the that they content of governmentprocurementpolicies. should therefore in and resources an economicallyefficientand environmentally soundmannerby: (a) Encouraging dissemination existingenvironof the mentallysoundtechnologies. should encourage reenvironmentallabelling and other environmentally to designed assist lated productinformation prografitmes to consumers make informedchoices. plays a large role in the economy and can have a tor decisions and influenceon both corporate considerable public perceptions. (c) Assistingdevelopingcountriesto use thesetechsuited nologiesefficiently and to developtechnologies particular circumstances.y E) MOVTNG SOUNDPR/CING 4. g e th e r i th i n d u s trv h o u s e h ol ds the public.wherepossible. to G ov er nm ent s . 4.should strive to meet the folappropriateorganizations. Governmentsand intemational organizations.DS C/ A55/SI'NG/NDIYIDUALS ENY/RONMENTALLY SOUND TO MAKE PURCHASING DECISIONS in 4. AND HOUSEHOI. to THEGENERAT/ON WASTES OF B) M|N|MIZING effecto 4.21 Governments.20 The recentemergence many countriesof a more public. intensify efforts to use energy dustry. at the consumer (b) Reducingwastefulpackaging products. lowing broadobjectives: and (a) To promoteefficiencyin productionprocesses of in reducewastefulconsumption the process economic needsof growth. suchasrecyclingand deposiVrefund ACTIVITIES EFFICIENCY GREATER A) ENCOURAG'NG AND RFSOURCES IN IHE USEOF ENERGY used 4.in cooperationwith industry and expansionof other relevantgroups. grammes. of (c) Encouraging introduction moreenvironmenof the tally soundproducts.is a significant development that should be encouraged.l8 Reducingthe amountof energyandmaterials production of goods and servicescan per unit in the stress both to the alleviationof environmental contribute greatereconomicand industrialproductivityand and to with inin Governments. TOWARDS ENy/RONMENTALI.24 Without the stimulusof pricesand market signals 33 . throughsuchmeansas conlabelling. should develop criteria and imof for methodologies the assessment environmental throughoutthe full life pacts and resourcerequirements Results thoseassessof cycle of productsand processes.23 Governments wherethe public secparticularlyin countries sumption. without prejudice intemational tradeprinciples. combined conscious consumer environmentally with increasedintereston the part of someindustriesin providing environmentallysoundconsumerproducts.

that makeclear to producersand consumers environthe mentalcostsof the consumptionof energy.25 Someprogress begunin the useof appropriate has economicinstruments influenceconsumer to behaviour. 4.etc. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF 4. such as positive advertising products of and services that utilize environmentally sound technologies encourage or sustainable production and consumptionpatterns. an assessment the of o1' progress achieved developingthesenationalpolicies in and strategies shouldbe given due consideration. 34 .c o n s u m e r sa n d producers.significant changes consumptionand productionpatterns in seemunlikely to occur in the near future. F) RETNFORC'NG VALUES THAT SUPPORT SUSIA'NA8 CONS MPTON [F I U 4.It requiresthe comb i n e d e f f o r t s o f G o v e r n m e n t s .materialsand natural resourcesand the generationof wastes.27 This programme is concerned primarily with changesin unsustainable patternsof consumptionand productionand valuesthat encourage sustainable consumptionpatternsand lifestyies.In the review of the implementation Agenda21.26 Governmentsand private-sectororganizations should promote more positive attitudestowards sustainableconsumption public awarethrougheducation. deposit/refundsystems. ness programmesand other means. These instrumentsinclude environmental chargesand taxes.Particular attention should be paid to the significant role played by women and householdsas consumers and the potentialimpactsof their combined purchasing power on the economy. This processshould be encouraged the light of country-specific in conditions.

4 to the adverseimpact on the environmentof human activities and the adverse impactof environmental changeon human populations.1 Demographictrends and factors and sustainable have a synergistic der. taking into der.severalof thern are alreadyat or below the presentsealevel.cultural behaviour.e n v i r o n m e n t a n d prograrrunes the local level. \\'ater. OBJECTIVES 5. sustainable (b) Fornrulatingintegratednational policies for env ir onm ent and d e v e l o p me n t.3 The growthof world population production and complacesinpatterns bined with unsustainable consumption creasingly severe stress thelife-supporting on capacities of processes our planet.face major environmental prohlems. Populationpolicy should also recognizethe role played by human beings in environmental and developmentconcerns.resource appropriate use. FOR BASIS ACTION -5. Such policics shor"rld address linkages demographic ttre clf trends andfactors.'eloprnent at accountdemographic trendsand factors.Rapidly growing crties. unless well-managed. The increase boththe numberandsizeof cities in calis fbr greater attention issues local govemment to of and mr"rnicipal management.naturalresources life supportsystems.s. energyand other resources.air.There is a need to increaseawareness this issueamongdecisionmakers of at all levels and to provide both better information on which to base national and internationalpolicies and a tramework againstwhich to interpretthis information. This chapter 1 contains following prograrnme the areas: (a) Developing knowledge anddisseminating concerning thelinks between demographic trendsandfactorsand development. These interactive affecttheuseof land. ( c ) I m p l e m e n t i n g i n t e g r a t e d . The world's populationis expected to exceed8 billion by the year 2020. PROGRAMME EAS AR AND DtSSErYilNAIlNG Al DEVETOPTNG THETINKSBETWEEN KNOIA/IEDGE CONCERNING DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND FACTORS AND NABLE DEVETOPMENT SUSTAI [ion.The human dimensions key are element-s consider thisintricatesetof relationships to in and ther shouldbe adequately takeninto consideration comin policiesfor sustainable prehensive development. 'Ihere is a needto developstrategies mitigateboth 5. 65 per cent of cities with populations above2.technology. technology dissemina- ACTIVITIES > Reseorch the inferoctionbefween demogrophictrends on ond foctorsond sustoinoble development 5.ta k i n g i n to a ccount demographic trendsand factors. and development.6 Relevant international.taking full accountof community-defined needs.Demogrophic dynomics sustoinobility ond -5. Sixty per cent of the world'spopulation while alreadylive in coastal areas.'elopment relationship. regional and national in- 35 . and (b) To developa betterunderstanding the relationships of among demographicdynamics.5 The following objectives should be achievedas soonas practicable: (a) To incorporate demographic trendsand factorsin the global analysis environment development of issues.5 million are located along the world coasts. and (c) To assess humanvulnerabilityin ecologicallysensitive areasand centresof populationto determinethe priorities for action at all levels. .

creased. bearing in mind regional and subregionalvariations deriving from. workshops.as well as the major migration flows that may be expectedwith increasingclimatic that may change eventsandcumulativeenvironmental destroypeople'slocal livelihoods. NATIONAL INTEGRATED B) FORfrTULATING AND DEVETOPMENT' FOR ENVIRONMENT POTICIES TR.8 In order to integrate and on perspective environment broadersocialscience shouldbe inresearch interdisciplinary development.biologicalandsocio-economic and and scales cross-country time-series tial andternporal infbrmation. inter alia. Governments AND/ORENHANCING D) DEVELOPING AND COLLABORAI'ON . into the trendsand t-actors (b) Integratingdemographic usingthe experchange.13 Results of researchconcernedwith sustainable throughtechissuesshouldbe disseminated development nical reports.local communities. dimensionsof environmentalchange and. learningfrom local communities' shouidbe developed.to identify vulnerableareas .t2 Awareness linkagesbetweenimproving the statusof women and demographicdynamics. at be should increased all ievelsconcern5. 1 0S o c i o . These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Actualcostsandfinancialterms. atall levelstoincreasepublic makers by decision OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F'NANC'NG 5. developing of shouldbe increased the fundamental 5. 5.7 The Conference secretariathas estirnatedthe of total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing average to programme be about$10 million the activitiesof this from the internationalcomrnunityon grant or concessional terms. the media. PROGRAMMES RESEARCH B/ SIRENGIHEN'NG ENYIRONMENI LAT'ON.nonand scientific institutions) governmentalorganizations as countries. processes.15 Efforts should be intensified to enhancethe t capaci ti esof nati onal and l ocal governm ent s. AND /NFORMATION c) DEVELOP'NG AWARFNESS PUBLIC i 5 .14 Collaboration be increasedbetweenresearchinstitutions and internaand agencies all othersectors tional. and perceptions attitudes.d e m o g r a p h i cn f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e with physiformatfor interfacing in developed a suitable spaCompatible data. ongoingstudyof environmental tise of international.especiallythe interrelatedimpact of use trendsand factors. will ing any that are non-concessional. the specific decideupon for implementation. cal. and s. he in organizations private sectorand non-governmental developingcountriesto meet the growing needsfor of improvedmanagement rapidly growingurbanareas.different I eveIs of deveIopment.16 Existing plans for sustainable generallyrecognizeddemographictrendsand factors as 36 . forums or other meansso that the information can be used awareness.regionalandnational (including the private sector.NSI/IUIIONAICAPAC'IY of and exchange informationshould 5. programme economicindependence their effective.particularly through women's healthcare primary andreproductive to access education. in participation all levelsof decision-making. dependupon. count the development needs of the populations of countries.v shouldbe developed. for (c) Identifying priority areas action and developing impact to andprogrammes mitigatetheadverse strategies and on change humanpopulations' vice of environmental versa.9 Bettermodellingcapabilities identifying the range of possibleoutcomesof current human activities.ENDS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DEMOGRAPHIC AND FACTORS BASIS ACTION FOR developmenthave 5. second. and from both the industrialized developing appropriate.per capitaresource demographic and wealth distribution. Internationalinstitutionsand networks of their scientiflccapacity. POPU INTEGRAIE THAT AND DEVELOPMENT analysisinto a demographic 5.includGovernments. equitable 5. as well as global behaviouralindicators. gainedin multithe and shoulddisseminate experience and approaches in linking theoryto action. scientificjoumals. disciplinar. 5.11 Awareness use ing the needto optimizethe sustainable of resources taking into acthrough efficient resourcemanagement.stitutionsshould considerundertakingthe following activities: (a) Identifying the interactionsbetweendemographic natural resourcesand life support systems.regional and national researchnetfirst.to studythehuman worksandof localcommunities. strategiesand programmes inter alia.taking expertsshouldenhance and of full account communityexperience knowledge.

25 Nationaldatabases demographic on trendsand factors andenvironmentshouldbe built and/orstrengthened. 5. such as water and land. particular womenandchildren.goodhealth.19 The relationships between demographic trendsand factorsand environmental changeand between environmentaldegradation the components demographic and of changeshouldbe analysed.displaced people. shouldbe conducted how environmen5. Recognizingthat large increases the size and number of cities will occur in in underany likely populationscenadeveloping countries rio.quality of life.incorporatingboth currentand projected demographicdata linked to natural environmentalprocesses. and on householdincome generation.aswell asfulfilment and of of their personal aspirations. B) BUILDING AND SIRENGIHENING A NAI/ONAT/NFORMATION SASE 5.2t1 Population data shouldbe disaggregated inter by.including changesin traditional land usebecause internal populationpresof sures. They measures bring about demographic to concerns and population shouldcombineenvironmental issueswithin a holistic view of developmentwhose primary goalsinclude the alleviationof povertli secure livelihoods. 5.23 An assessment should also be made of national populationcarryingcapacityin thecontextof satisfaction of humanneeds andsustainable development. of OBJECTIVE of 5.inter alia.ecially to its committeeon populationand environment.lifestylesand long-term sustainapatterns.migrants.account 5.22 An assessment shouldbe madeof the implications of the agestructure the populationon resource of demand and dependency burdens. by 5. undertake following activities. alia.20 Research on CJ /NCORPORAI/NG DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES . greater attention shouldbe givento preparing the for of needs.rrore attention to these issuesin generalpolicy formulation and the plans.26Methodologies and instruments should be developedto identify areaswhere sustainability or is. and tal factorsinteractwith socio-economic factorsasa cause of migration. 5.NIO POLICIES AND PIANS policies. shouldbedesigned address the consequences populationgrowth built into popuof lation momentum.27 Case-studies local level responses different of by groupsto demographic dynamicsshouldbe developed. disaggregating databy ecological region(ecosystem approach). They will alsoneedto formulate and implement policies and action prograrnmes Policies to whereappropriate. THE OF IRENDS AND FACIORS DEMOGRAPH'C 5.for improved in municipalmanagement local govenrment. will haveto be given bility. 5.threatened the environmental by effectsof demographictrendsandfactors.policy and decision-making processes should policiesand programmes shouldbe continue. Population with full recognition women'srights.and population/environment profilesshouldbe established region. special and attentionshouldbe given to critical resources. But in future. ethnic minorities. considered.24 The impact of national demographictrends and factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous groups and local communities. empowerment individuals and communities. particularlyin areassubjectto environmental stress and in deteriorating urbancentres.21 Vulnerablepopulationgroups(such as rural landless workers.elementsthat have a critical influenceon consumption production. and environmentalfactors such as ecosystemhealthand biodiversity. and report on their status of implementation to the International Conference on Populationand Developmentto be held in 1994. may be. of ACTIVITIES and 5.with appropriate the assistance from aid agencies. shouldbe studied. 5. 5.ranging from educationalexpensesfor the young to health care and supportfor the elderly. A/ ASSESS/NG tMPt-tCArlONS NAI/ONAI.I 8 Governments otherrelevantactorscould.while at the sametime incorporating transition. women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts sustainable on development shouldbe identified. do this"all countries will To designof development to the have to improve their own capacities assess environment and developmentimplicationsof their demographictrendsand f-actors. refugees. improvement of the status and income of women and their accessto schooling andprofessional training.esF.17 Full integration populationconcemsinto national planning.29 In formulatinghumansettlements 37 . sexand agein order to takeinto accountthe implicationsof the genderdivision of labour for the useand management naturalresources.

to people. shouldbe developed.primary environmental care and the provision of primary health care and services. in termsof both family and statesupport systems. or induceenvironmental groups. attention population literacy programmes.37 Understanding the interactions of graphictrendsand factorsand sustainable development shouldbe increased all sectors society. Specialemphasisshould be placed on the linkage between these programmes. policiesfor the young 5.33 Policiesand programmes that resultfrom handlingthe varioustypesof migrations with specialattendisruptions.30 The direct and induced effects of demographic programmes changes environmentand development on be and should. nationalresearch governmentalorganizations and local communitiesin problemsand evaluatingpoliciesshould also assessing be enhanced.whereappropriate. int e r a l i a . 5. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai F/NANC/NG h 5. notably for women. TAKING INTO ACCOUNTDEMOGRAPHIC TRENDSAND FACTORS BASIS FORACTION 5.upon request. 5. th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi esand programmesGovernments decide upon for implementat ion.40 Inter-agencysupport for nati onal sust ainable developmentpolicies and programmesshould be improved through better coordination of population and environment activities. the impact features assessed.41 The international regionalscientificinstitutions and should assist Governments.-15National reviews shouldbe conducted policiesin nationaldevelopment and grationof population strategies shouldbe monitorednationally. ecosystem and micro-levelsin the training of demographers and populationand environment specialists. INSI'IUI/ONS C/ SIRENGIHEN'NG 5.32 Appropriatesocio-economic and the elderly. environment Particular shouldbe given to education sectors. inwill depend cluding any that are non-concessional. and regionalinterorganizations bodies. D) PROMOI'NG HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 5.should be in for developincorporated the programmes sustainable and regionalinstitutions.42 Population programmes are more effective when 38 . ment o1' relevantinternational and the inte5.This would involve strengthening relevant the bodiesresponsible populationissuesto enablethem for to el aboratepol i ci es consi stentw i th th e nat ional prospects for sustainabledevelopment.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments. 36 T he C o n fe re n c es e c re ta ri a t a s e sti matedthe cost(1993-2000) implementing ol average total annual of to the activities thisprogramme be about$90 million from the international community on grant or concessionalterms.wasteproduction and needs. shouldbe takenof resource h ec os y s t e me a l th . 5. dignity and personally held and imvalues of individuals should be established plemented. upon.be enhancedto policieson helpcountries developsustainable development provideassistance environrequestand.38 The capacityof national. for shouldbe developed 5. amongGovemments. Training should include researchon linkagesand ways to designintegrated strategies.to include concerns regarding population/environment interacthe tions at the global. mentalmigrantsanddisplaced 5.39 The capacityof therelevantUnited Nationsor€ans. Cooperation noninstitutions.regionaland local structrends turesto deal with issuesrelatingto demographic and factorsand sustainable development shouldbe enhanced.34 Demographic vironmentalmigrants and displacedpeople. as appropriate. on demographic 5 . Actual costs and financial terms. B/ RA/S/NG AWARENESS DEMOGRAPHTC OF A ND S USIA /N A 8 T FE VE L O P M EN IIE RA C I/ON S D /N betweendemo5. local communities should.international and govemmental non-governmental organizations and bodies. tion to women and vulnerable for includingconcerns enconcerns. 3 1N a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y g o a l s a n d p r o with nationalenvironment grammes that areconsistent plansfor sustainability and in keepand development ing with the freedom.Stress in of should tln be placed local andnationalaction. Demographic and sustainable developmenteducation should be coordinatedand integrated both the formal and non-formal in cl rrvlPtEMENTtNG TNTEGRATED ENVIRONTVIENT AND DEVETOPMENT PROGRAM'VIES THE LOCAT AT LEVEL. integrated. as appropriate.

health. job oppormeasures. strategies tional plans.basicshelter. 5.consistentwith naand priorities. including and national women's organizations community-based non-governmentalorganizations. Governments 5. with socio-economic structures and access to resources. and environmental Empowermentof women is essentialand should be trainingandpoliciesto accord througheducation.49 Reproductivehealth programmesand services to be should.women'sreproductive primary programmes.objectives. FOR A A] DEVELOP'NG FRAMEWORK ACIION process shouldbe estab5.43 Population programmesshould be implemented along with natural resourcemanagementand development programmes at the local level that will ensure improvethe quality use sustainable of naturalresources. and essential tenure. programmesmust enable women to tion/environment to mobilize themselves alleviatetheir burden and improve their capacityto participatein and benefit from should Specificmeasures development.45 An effectiveconsultative groupsof society with concerned implemented lishedand of wherethe formulationand decision-making all comprogrammes basedon a nationwide are ponentsof the processdrawing on community meetings.Governments could share their of in experience the implementation Agenda 2l at the International Conference on Population and Development. reforestation ily credit schemes.famtion. techand factors with suchfactors as ecosystem and nology andhumansettlements. 5. accordance to measures ensure cific conditionsand legal systems. this themto exercise to as andmeans.46 programmes. thatachieve mitigating adverseimpactsof economicdevelopment. to other THAT PROGRAMMES PROMOTE B) SUPPORIING AND IRENDS CHANGES DEMOGRAPHIC IN SUS TOWARDS IAINABILITY FACIORS 5.especiallyits committeeon populationand environment.Projects in achievingsustainable to of takeadvantage opportunities link social. OBJECTIVE 5. and avoiding long-term demographictrendsand f'actors to Food security.41 An analyticalframework should be developedto develof elements sustainable identify complementary to opment policiesas well as the nationalmechanisms monitor and evaluatetheir etfbcts on population dynamics. environmental educainfrastructure.in keeping held values.with special attentionto multifaceted and women. underprivileged and policies for integrated Nationally determined 5.economic gains for women and their families. ACTIVITIES 5. dignity and personally to shouldtakeactivesteps implement.dignity and person- 39 . The rootedin specificexperience. as careandwomen'semployment environmental be appropriate.implemented together with appropriate cross-sectoral at policies.To attainsustainability the iocal level. labour-saving Populatunities and participationin decision-rnaking. developedand enhanced and reducematernal and infant mortalityfrom all causes aspirations womenandmento fulfil theirpersonal enable with theirfreedomand in termsof family size. enable right in keepingwith their freedom.48 Specialattentionshouldbe givento the criticalrole and programmes of women in population/environment should development. that women and rnenhave the sameright to decidefreely and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their education to childrenandto haveaccess the information. This are perspectives constraints equally and men on needs. appropriregional that viewsof womenand process shouldensure ate. the inter alia. socio-economic and male female to be undertaken closethe gapbetween illiteracyrates. of life of the people and enhanceenvironmentalquality.access secure damage. undertake activitiessetout below with the assistanceand cooperation of international otganizations. appropriate. potential suringtheinvolvementof groupswith a special development.Integrated environmental ment programmes should closely correlate action on demographictrends and factors with resourcemanagement activities and developmentgoals that meet the needsof the peopleconcemed. as appropriate.44 Governmentsand local communities. and that well reflectedin the design of programmes.Population proand with socio-economic grammesshouldbe consistent developsustainable planning. to be held in 1994. a new demographictrends framework is neededthat integrates health. and civil rights. family welfare.could.to the poorestpeopleliving in critical areas envulnerablegroupsshouldbe implemented. for to act asagents changeand sustainable shouldbe placedon thoseprogrammes Specialemphasis g e encouragin sustainabl multipleobjectives. should.-50 with country-spein as a matterof urgency. assured human to and improvewomen'sright and access assets. as appropriate. poor and are solutions shouldbe priority groupsin this process. includedamongotherfactors. consultative as workshopsand nationalseminars.

with specialattentionto the needfor providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all childrenandthe needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortalitv and sickness.the private sectorand the national scientific community.64 Educational materials. at leastduring the first four monthspost-partum. In developing theseappropriate institutional conditions.reflecting variations among different socio-economicgroups and variations in diff-erentgeographicalregions.dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking into accountethicaland culturalconsiderations.women-managed. 5.58 Research shouldbe undenaken with a view to developingspecificactionprograrnmes.oNs 5.fully respecting the overall coordinating responsibility and the choice and strategiesof the recipientcountries. Where appropriate. APP coND/r.religious and traditional authorities.includingany that are non-concessional.51 Governments should take active stepsto implement programmesto establishand strengthen preventive and curative health facilities that include womencentred. in keeping with freedom. indigenous. UNFPAandotherrelevant agencies should strengthen coordinationof internationalcooperation the activitieswith recipientand donor countriesin order to ensurethat adequatefunding is available to respondto growing needs. 8/ RESEARCH 5. Programmes shouldfully support women'sproductiveand reproductive roles and wellbeing.institutional changesmust be implemented so that old-age security does not entirely dependon input from family members.ally held values.as appropriate. national and international population/environment programmes in line with specific needsfor achieving sr"rstainability.for the responsible planning of family size.59 Socio-demographic research should be conducted on how populations respond a changingenvironment. with particular attention theeducation to and training of women.culturallybased information and education programmes that transmit reproductivehealthmessages men and women that are to easilyunderstood shouldbe developed. to 5.Actual costsand financial terms. as appropriate.53 Constituencies institutional and conditions facilito tatetheimplementation demographic of activities should.60 Understanding socioculturaland political factors of that can positively influence acceptance appropriate of populationpolicy instruments shouldbe improved.54 Populationassistance should be coordinated with bilateralandmultilateraldonorsto ensure that population needsand requirementsof all developing countriesare addressed. inter alia. Working practicesshouldbe enhanced in order to make optimum use of resources. 5.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.57 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averhas age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activitiesof this prograrnme be about $7 billion.55 Coordination shouldbe improvedat local andinternationallevels. should be undertaken. the specific strategies and programmesGo'rernments decideupon for implementation.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments.draw on collectiveexperience improvethe irnplementation and of programmes. into cluding about $3.63 Workshops to help programme and project managersto link populationprogrammes other developto ment and environmental goalsshouldbe conducted. C) CREATING ROPRIATE'NSI/IUI'ONAI. countries shouldcloselyinvolve established nationalmachineryfor women. of 5.56 Proposalsshould be developedfor local. safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable. itwill benecessary to establish prioritiesbetween proposed areas research. This requires support and commitment from political.52 Consistent with nationalpriorities. 5.61 Surveys changes needs appropriate of in for services relatingto responsible planningof family size.be fostered.Programmesshould focus on providing comprehensive health care. 5.62 The areas humanresource of development and capacity-building. including pre-natalcare. are areasof critical importance and are a very high priority in the implementation of populationprogrammes. and shouldprovide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 5. education and information on health and responsible parenthood. includingguides/workbooks for planners and decision makers and other actors of 40 . C ) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T R DE AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 5. will dependupon. 5. 5. accessibleservices.taking into accountethicaland cultural considerations. 5. 5.

r ference Population. | V . X l l l . held in Nairobi in 1985. 'Report 4l . 8 lh o p . N S c sect.66 The recofiImendationscontained in this chapter at should in no way prejudicediscussions the Interna- tional Conferenceon Population and Development in 1994. Developmentand Peace. E . 5. 8 4 . Noirobi. on of the lnternationol Conference Populotion. 8 4 .Developmentond Peoce.l . l5-26 July 1985 ( U n i t e d o t i o n sp u b l i c o t i o n . taking into of accountthe recommendations the InternationalConand held in Mexico City in 1984. l . E . 5. Cooperationwith local or:ganizations engageln should be fosteredin order to raise awareness. 1 0 ) . on for the Forward-looking Strategies the Advancementof Women.6-14 August 1984 lUnitedNotionspublicotion. c. scientific institutions and non-govemmentalorganizationswithin the region. City. o l e sN o . demonstration projects and report on the experience gained.Mexico SolesNo. population/environment/development should be developed.A. 2 of to Report the World Conference Reviewond Approise the Achievements the United Nofions Decode for Women: of Equolity.2adoptedby the World Conferenceto Review and Appraise the Achievementsof the United Nations Decadefor Women: Equality.65 Cooperationshould be developedbetweenGovernments. and similar institutions outside the region.programmes. which will be the appropriateforum for dealing with population and development issues.h o p .

dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking also into account ethical and cultural considerations. exacerbates affects health the adversely very lack of developmentthat conditionof many people. Suchefforts. with priority complacedon the eliminationof food contamination. It ly contributingto suchdevelopment.1 Health and development intimatelyinterconleadingto povnected. prehensive sustainable waterpoliciesto ensuresafe and to drinking water and sanitation precludeboth microbial and chemical contamination. is the many healthproblems.3 Healthultimatelydepends the ability to manage betweenthe physical.2 The fbllowing programme areasare contained in this chapter: particularlyin (a) Meeting primary healthcare needs. PRITVIARY HEALTHCARENEEDS.including housing.Particular should be directed towards food safety.Educationand appropriate planningof family size. i mmuni zati on and pro vision of reservices essential drugs. tual . it is dependent while directdevelopment.sincethey are integralto the and development of achievement thegoaisof sustainable care. activities. should coordinatethese activities.and promotion of heal th educati on.spirisuccessfully interaction the envir onm ent . economic andspiritual social. contributeto theseintersectoral 42 . rural areas: (b) Control of communicable diseases. and religious. is alsodependent on a healthyenvironment. vulnerable (d) Meetingthe urbanhealthchallenge.Countries in areas this chapteq actions.heolth humon ond Protecting promoting INTRODUCTION P R O G R A M MA R E A S E are 6. Action items the underAgenda2l must address primary healthneeds of the world's population. drawingon the programme planningby the various which are basedon cooperative organizations non-governmental levels of government. The linkageof health. and local communities. bi ol ogi cal and economi ci soci al Sound developmentis not possiblewithout a healthy activitiesaffect the population. coupledwith an expanding sumption. are and cultural c>rganizations. A! 'YTEEnNG IN PARNCUTARIY RURATAREAS FOR BASIS ACTION on 6. keepingwith freedom.such as WHO. on on basicneedsandobjectives its own. (c) Protecting groups.which in tum causesor it Conversely.yet most developmental environmentto some degree. 6.which can be alleviatedonly The health sector cannot meet through development. pollution (e) Reducing healthrisksfrom environmental and hazards.involving education.civic schoolsand universities businesses. intersectoral public works andcommunitygroups. health problemsin can result in severeenvironmental both developingand developednations.Both insufficientdevelopment resultingin overcondevelopment erty andinappropriate world population. to in their communities ensure Particularlyrelevantis the inclusionof preventionproand grarrrmes ratherthan relying solely on remediation ought to developplansfor priority treatment.with respect gardingresponsible in for cultural.including the provisionof a safewater supply and sanitationand the promotion of a attention safefood supplyandpropernutrition. aimed at enablingpeople sustainable development.enprimary environmental requires improvements vironmental and socio-economic efforts.religiousand socialaspects. An appropriateintemational organization.

to coverage shouldbe As a matterof priority. health-related the sectors and (business. (iii) Developand implementrationaland affordable approaches theestablishment maintenance health to and of fac ilit ies : (iv) Ensureand. Actual costsandfinancial terms.particularlyin rural areas. safe food and sanitation. inter alia. to Effortsto 43 . to: MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 6. Supportinitiativesfor self-management servof groups. B/ sC/ENTIFIC AND TECHNOLAGICAL MEANS 6.7 New approaches planningand managinghealth to caresystems facilitiesshouldbe tested.information exchange. to provide the necessaryspecialized environmental health services. includingcommunication methods and educational materials. A) BU|LD MONTTORTNG BASTC HEALTH TNFRASTRUCTURES.8 Intersectoralapproachesto the reform of health personnel development shouldbe strengthened ensure to its relevance the "Health for All" stratesies. community-based. as (x) Promotethe provisionsfor necessary logisticsfor outreach activities. technicalsupportand training. with specialattention rural to needs.the healthsector. B) SUPPORT RESEARCH MFIHODOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT (i) Establish mechanisms sustained for communityinvolvementin environmental healthactivities. provision increase of socialservices suppon. the light of countries' specific conditionsand needs. appropriate.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments.OBJECTIVES 6. (ii) Supportthe useand strengthening mechanisms of that irnprove coordinationbetweenhealth and related sectorsat all appropriate levels of government. the objectivesare to meet the basic healthneedsof rural. (ii) Conductenvironmental healthresearch. underserved and vulnerablepopulations. AND PLANNING SYSTEMS: (i) Developandstrengthen primaryhealthcaresystems thatarepractical. monitortheprogress evaluate effectiveto and the nessof healthprogrammes.includingany that are non-concessional. C ) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP MFN I R DE 6. (vit Explorewaysto financethe healthsystem based on the assessment the resources of neededand identify the variouslinancingalternatives. peri-urban and urbanpopulations.should strengthen their healthsectorprogramrnes. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfbr implementation. will dependupon. call sociall-v" acceptableand appropriateto their needs and that meet basic health needsfor clean water.6 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averhas age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this programmeto be about $40 billion. icesby vulnerable (ix) Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into nationalhealthsystems. (iii) Conduct researchinto traditional knowledge of preventiveand curativehealthpractices. includingthe maintenance repair and of equipment usedin healthcare. The developmentof scientificallysound health technologyshould enhance adaptabilityto local needsand maintainabilityby community resources. including about $5 billion fiom the international community on grantor concessional terms.and to coordinatethe involvementof citizens. (viii.including optimization of the appropriate of community finanuse cial and humanresources.4 Within the overall strategyto achievehealth for all by the year 2000. with the supportof relevantnon-governmental organizations and international in organizations. including reliablehealth indicators.educational in andreligiousinstitutions) solutions healthproblems.Programmes facilito tate the transferand sharingof infonnation and expertise shouldbe developed. (xi) Promote and strengthencommunity-based rehabilitation activities for the rural handicapped. and in communities and relevantorganizations. where appropnate. as appropriateto good preventionservicesand healthcare. including behaviour researchand researchon ways to increase coverage and ensure greater utilization of servicesby peripheral. ACTIVITIES 6.particuachieved populationgroupsin greatest for larly thoseliving in rural areas.5 National Governments and local authorities. (vii) Promotehealtheducationin schools. scientifi y sound. (v) Develop strategies. and and research on ways of integratingappropriatetechnologiesinto health infrastructures supported. relevant non-health sectors social.healthservice need.

UNI CEF UNFPA. diseases. freedom. opmentandefficient operationof the basichealthsystem' with emshort.to providehealthandhygiene to educationand to ensureuniversalaccess safedrinkingof measures excreta to sanitary access wateranduniversal waterborne diseases markedlyreducing thereby disposal. However. the socio-economic 30-40 million for to is impactof the pandemic expected be devastating for increasingly women and children. particularlyin countrieswith high infant mortality. envilaria and schistosomiasis. D) CA P AC IT Y-B U IL D IN G 6. ciasis deathsby 95 per cent (d) By 1995.dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking Additionalgoalsthat ethicalconsiderations.standards. to to HIV infectionlevelsestimated increase 6. mentalcontrol water supply and sanitation. changeshould and organization facilitationof behaviour be developedin order to preparethe local personnelof for all sectorsinvolved in social development carrying with the eduroles. supportclf referral DISEASES OF B) CONTROT CO. and the development services.diarrhoeal the In all suchinstances.mainly with the loss of income and decreased costsassociated productivity of the worktorce. the only component. National proin grammesshouldcover district health systems urban. attendedby N ati ons organi zati ons(i ncl udi ng W H O . strategies. eitheras an integralpart of primary measures. into account particularlyrelevantto a country'sspecificsituation are shouldbe addedin the country'snationalplan of action the (Planof Action for Implementing World Declaration of and Protection Development Children on the Survival.the incidence childhooddiarby countries at least25 to 50 percent.\IIVIUNICABLE FOR BASIS ACTION and of in 6. the health-care dwarfed by the indirect costsof the pandemic. areas.The pandemicwill inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectorsand signifiand the cantlyincrease costsof humancapacity-building sector is particularly afretraining. OBJECTIVES 6.10 Advances the development vaccines chehavebroughtmanycommunicable agents motherapeutic under control. includecholera. rhoeain developing pro(f) By the year 2000. ronmental form outsidethe healthsector. there remain many diseases for which environimportant communicablediseases in especially are measures indispensable. countryin termsof phasing.in additionto cclmmunities providing direct supportto the provisionof health-care services. to eff-ectively (river blindness) and leprosy. limited to thoselistedbelow) are recomcluding but not mendedfor implementationby all countrieswhere they to adaptation the specific with appropriate areapplicable. UNESCO. Such diseases the field of maleishmaniasis.to redttcemeasles with by 90 per cent compared cases and reducemeasles level : s pre-immunization (e) By continued effbrts. they will be substantial.the numberof deaths countriesby 50 to 70 per in hood diarrhoea developing cent: of (ii. special health education progratrunes should be developedfbcusingon the role of women in system. and reducing: suchas choleraand schistosomiasis from child(i) By the year2000. UNDP and the World Bank) and a Goals (innumber of non-governmentalorganizations.the delivery of health properi-urbanand rural and grammesat the district level.to eradicate control onchocer(c) By the year 2000. The agricultural fectedwhere productionis labour-intensive. A major focus should be the preparationof workers to health and health-related community-based role in communityhealtheducation' an assume active on with emphasis teamwork.t be coordinated and monitored from within the public Somemajor goalsare: healthsector.skills at the distnct level shouldbe managerial enhance develthe with the aim of ensuring systematic supported. and all countries. in somecases.practicaltrainingprograrnmes Intensive.g Govetnmentsshould consider adopting enabling of to and facilitatingstrategies promotethe participation in meetingtheir own needs. community phasison skills in effectivecommunication. By the year 2000.11 With by the year 2000. actionplansshould national-level Such in the 1990s). to initiate comprehensive mortality from acute respiratoryingrammesto reduce fectionsin childrenunderfive yearsby at leastonethird. polio. situationof each with respectfor priorities and availability of resources. are and. healthcareor undertaken control componentof overall disease an indispensable togetherwith health and hygieneeducation. in religious and social aspects.12 A numberof goalshavebeenformulatedthrough forums in extensiveconsultations variousinternational relevantUnited virtually all Governments. keeping with cultural. In cooperation out their respective cation sector.to eliminateguineaworm disease (dracunculiasis). will be costs While directhealth . socialmobilizationandthe support of other developmentworkers. (a) By the year2000. (b) By the year 2000.

to institute anti-malaria prowheremalariapresents signia grammes all countries in ficant healthproblem andmaintainthe transmission-free statusof areasfreed from endemicmalaria. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATION: TNFORMATIONHEALTH AND B) PUBLTC information on the Provide educationand disseminate and build risks of endemic communicablediseases methods forcontrol of comawareness environmental on to to municablediseases enablecommunities play a role diseases: in the control of communicable A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION has the 6. (l) To accelerateresearchon improved vaccines and implementto the fullest extentpossiblethe use of vacof cinesin the prevention disease. including measures conwith the principlesof the globalAIDS strategy.food quality control. (i) By theyear 2000. a developing nationalhealthactionplan shouldconsider and support. (ii) Developguidelines in foreffectivecoordination the of training. spreador sure adequate diseases. and on ACTIVITIES with 6.l'orkers determinethe influence of cultural.garbage collectionand disposaland soundirrigationpractices.as well as a markedreductionin incidence. including focusedefforts on the mitigation and environmentalcontrol of tropicaldiseases.(g) By the year 2000. NATION : AN C@PE C) INTERSECTORAL RATION DCOORDI (i) Secondexperienced to health professionals relevant sectors. FOR AND DEVELOPMENT F) SUPPORT RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (i) Intensifyand expandmultidisciplinary research.13 Each national Government.respectively.to implementcontrol programmes in countrieswhere major human parasiticinfections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the and of other trematode prevalenceof schistosomiasis infectionsby 40 per cent and25 per cent. (h) By the year 2000.waterpollution control.integratedvectorcontrol. sistent (iv) Vaccines the preventionof communicable disfor CASCS: AND OFTECHNOLOGY G} DEVELOPMENT DISSEMINATION (a) Developnew technologies the effectivecontrol for diseases. (ii) Carry out interventionstudiesto provide a solid for andto evaluate epidemiological basis controlpolicies the efficiencyof alternative approaches: (iii) Undertakestuclies the populationand among in health r. the personal with (k) To contain the resurgence tuberculosis. prove capacities early preventive/treatment for (iii) Reduce vulnerability HIV infectionof women the to and their offspring. aggravation communicable of (iii) Interventionprogrammes. including about $900 million from the international 45 . on and emphasis adequate balanced (ii) Strengthenearly diagnosticprogrammesand imaction. with appropriateinternationalassistance including.prevalenceand intensity of filarial infections. control. the following components: HEALTH SYSTEMS: PUBLIC A) NATIONAL (i) Programmesto identify environmentalhazardsin diseases. of communicable (iit Promote studiesto determinehow optimally to resultsfrom research: disseminate (iii) Ensuretechnical includingthe sharing assistance. with particular prevention nutrition. environmentally E) PRIMARY HEALTH SYSTEM: CARE (i) Strengthen programmes. of the causation communicable (ii) Monitoring systems epidemiological data to enof forecastingof the introduction. 0) To mobilize and unify national and international efforts againstAIDS to prevent infection and to reduce and socialimpact of HIV infection.in accordance nationalplansfor public health. to provide 95 per cent of the care to world's child populationwith access appropriate infectionswithin the communityand for acuterespiratory at first referral level.housingand agriculture.prioritiesandobjectives. assessment risks and areasof professional development control technology. of THE INFLUENCE FACTORSTHAT ENVTRONMENTAL D) CONTROLOF ICABLE OF SPREAD COM/\AUN DISEASES: Apply methodsfor the preventionand control of commuincluding water supply and sanitation nicable diseases. from a 1984baseline.14 The Conference secretariat estimated average total annualcost ( 1993-2W0)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $4 billion. of knowledge andknow-how. to behavioural socialfactors controlpolicies. of particular emphasison multiple antibiotic resistant forms. suchasplanning.at a minimum.

8 emphasishas to be given to protectingand educating vulnerablegroups. for peopleandthe very poor asa prerequisite indigenous sustainable development.22 INDIGENOUS makeup a significant nouspeopleandtheir communities percentage the global population. IndigeAND COMMUNITIES PEOPTE THEIR 6. establishand maintainhealthylives. women. mitted diseases.youth. colnmunicable and diarrhoea.Particularattention ing their socio-economic careto ensure shouldbe givento theprovisionof prenatal healthybabies.1 In additionto meetingbasichealthneeds.and many children risk exploitationascheaplabouror in prostitution. At least l5 million of thesechildren die annuallyfrom such preventablecausesas birth trauma. Most women in developingcountries opportunities basiceducational still do not haveadequate and they lack the meansof promoting their health. will nancialterms.20 YOUTH hasbeenthe historicalexperience all countries. gmmmesGovemments ME B / 5C/ F N IF tCA N D T EC H N O I.relif-e sponsibly controllingtheir reproductive andimprovstatus.In many countries numberof indigenous the people is growing faster than the generalpopulation.15 Efforts to preventand control diseases social and of clude investigations the epidemiological. including AIDS. inter alia. well asthe the distributionof communicable institutionalcapacity to respondand collaboratewith of mitigationandcorrection for othersectors prevention. to allow women to performtheir 45 . poor health.cofilmunity on grant or concessionalterms.molecular new vaccines. young people. and communitiesorganizedin developingself-reliance.which often weakenstraditional forms of social supportessenof tial for the healthydevelopment.19 INFANTS CHIIDREN the world's populationare childrenunder 15 yearsold. Currentlymore than half of all peoplealive are underthe ageof 25. and four of every five live in developingcountries. Urbanizationand changesin social moreshave increased transpregnancy sexually and substance unwanted abuse. andcommunity in epidemiology biology and the applicationof immunology.17 The healthsectorshoulddevelopadequate as diseases.youth are particularly vulnerableto the problems associatedwith economic development.16 Nationaland regionaltraininginstitutions intersectoral approachesto prevention Dromote broad includingtraining diseases. tal control should be adaptedto local developmental conditions. These are only andhave estimates indicativeandorder-of-magnin"rde Actual costsand finot beenreviewedby Governments.21 woMEN In developing of women remainsrelativelylow. of As 6. and prothe specific strategies depend upon. birth asphyxia. and during the 1980s poverty.OG\C ALA N S should in6. The advocacyat policy.professional supportmobilized.They tend to featuredisproporpovertyand lack of housing.The outcomesof of havetended be very similarin that the to theirexperience with traditionallandshasbeen basisof their relationship fundamentallychanged. D EV R C) HUM AN E SOU R C E EL OP M EN T should 6.particularlyinfants. Approximatelyone third of AND 6. in diarrhoeal D) CA PAC T T Y-B U IL D IN G dataon 6.Specialattentionshouldalso OBJECTIVES 6. Thereforeit is is important to ensurethat historicalexperience not replicated. countries.23 The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groupsare to ensurethat all suchindividualsshouldbe allowed to develop to their full potential (including to healthyphysical.The health of children is affected diseases more severely thanotherpopulationgoups by malnutrition and adverseenvironmentalfactors. malnutrition. economic basesfor the developmentof more effective for national strategies the integratedcontrol of commuof methods environmenCost-effective nicablediseases. decideuponfor implementation. Health educationmaterialsshould be developedfor use by community workers and for the of and treatment for of education mothers the prevention diseases the home. ensure that young people can develop.includinganythatarenon-concessional. malnutrition and generalill-health in women were even rising. be paid to the health needsof the elderly and disabled population. hazardsthrough environmental communicabledisease protection. tionatelyin unemployment. acute respiratory infections. Thereforeit is importantto targethealth initiativesfor people.and decision-makand societal ing levels should be gained. healthstatus the 6. indigenous VULNERABTE GROUPS c) PROTECTTNG FOR BASIS ACTION specific 6. andcontrolof communicable prevention andcontrol.mentaland spiritualdevelopment).

21 NationalGovernments.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitlrde estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTN''TES 6. education.25 Governments shouldtakeactivesteps implement.7 billion. A) INFANTS CHILDREN: AND (i) Strengthen basichealth-care services childrenin for the context of primary health-care delivery. B} YOUIH: Strengthenservicesfor youth in health. in keeping with freedom. including drug abuse. at immunization nutrition and progriimmes: (ii) Undertakewidespread adult educationon the use of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhoea.and to support indigenouspeople through educational. piratory infections and prevention of communicabledisEASCS.amendmentand enforcement of a legal framework protectingchildren from sexualand workplace exploitation. 6. (ii) Integrate traditionalknowledgeand experience into healthsvstems. 6.will depend upon.attitude andpracticestudies thehealthandnutritionof women on throughouttheir life cycle. to as a matterof urgency. women-managed. child health. counsellingand treatment specifichealth for problems. nutrition. accordance in with country-specific conditionsand legal systems. inter alia. home and maternalhealth care. Supportingand sectoralgoals cover women's health and education. the specific strategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. educationand information on health and responsible parenthoodand should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully. especiallyas relatedto the impact of environmentaldegradationand adequate resources: D) INDIGENOUS AND PEOPLE THEIR COI4MUNITIES: (i) Strengthen.26 Governments should take active stepsto implementprogrammes establish strengthen to preventive and and curativehealthfacilitieswhich includewomen-centred. cooperation in with local and non-governmental organizations.key role in society.as appropriate.treatnent of res- 47 . c) WoMEN: (i) Involve women'sgroupsin decision-making the at national and community levels to identify health risks and incorporate health issues in national action programmeson women and development. with specialattentionto the need for providing equal and improvedhealthcare for all children and the needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortality and sickness. dignity and personally held values and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.24 Specific major goals for child survival. (iv) Protect children from the effects of environmental and occupational toxic compounds. should initiate or programmes the following areas: enhance in A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 6. measures ensure to that women and men have the sameright to decidefreely and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their children. Programmes shouldfocuson providing comprehensivehealth care. at leastduring the first four rnonthspost-partum. including any that are non-concessional. for the responsible planning of family size.taking into accountethicaland cultural considerations. accessible services.water and sanitation.dignity and personally held values. approas priate.28 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost ( 1993-2ffi0)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $3.to haveaccess theinformation. (iii) Carry out baseline surveys andknowledge. including pre-natal care.economic and technical opportunities. basic educationand children in difficult circumstances. 6. includinghealtheducation and training in primary.breast-feeding. Actual costs and financial terms.through resourcesand self-management. development and protection were agreed upon at the World Summit for Children and remain valid also for Agenda 21. enablethem to exercisethis to right in keepingwith their freedom. (ii) Provideconcrete incentives encourage mainto and tain attendance women of all agesat school and adult of education courses.Programmes shouldfully support women's productive and reproductiveroles and wellbeing. including pren al care. (iii) Promotethe creation. education and social sectors in order to provide better information. preventive and curativehealthservices. including about $400 million from the international communityon grant or concessional terms. to education and means. safe and effective reproductive healthcareandaffordable.

AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 8' SCIENIIFIC institutions should 6. women and indigenouspeople in the health sector. Overcrowding and inadequate housing contributeto respiratory diseases. Environmental associated with excessmorbidity and mortality. maternal mortality. physicians. vouth. methods education healthandincreased of mass of for use mediain disseminating informationto the targetgroups. youth.diets. of education.g. housingand healthservice indicators. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCES 6. for (iii) Ensurethat public healttreducation schools.tuberculosis an indicatorof crowdedhousas ing. tuberculosis.midwives. education mothers. in workplace.34 Local authorities.with emphasis preventive measures. violenceand crime that indicateunderlyingsocialdisorders). intercountry and interregional symposia and other meetings the exchange for of informationamongagencies groupsconcerned and with the health of children. and OBJECTIVES 6.31 Governments shouldpromote. Improvements the in urban health thereforewill depend on coordinated actionby all levelsof government.usingnetworkingalrangements.33 Thehealthandwell-being all urbandwellers of must be improvedso that they cancontribute economicand to socialdevelopment.urbandevelopmentis associated destructive with effects thephysical on environment theresource and needed sustainable for base pollution in urbanareasis development. socialand other city institutions.youth and women shouldincludereinforcepromotionof interactive mentof educational institutions.social scientists and educators.massmediaetc.populationetc. youth groups people's andindigenous organizations facilitatehealth to and consult them on the creation. urban environments. ACTIVITIES 6.health. religiousgroups. includingactive collaborationon linkageswith scientific. rnedical. percentage low-birth-weight of newbomsand specificindicators(e. governments provide the environmental to health services that the peopleneed. Theseincludethedevelopment quantitative of objectives f-or infant mortality. nurses. the families of and communitiesand the strengthening ministries of health. poorliving of the conditions in urban and peri-urbanareasare destroying lives. businesses. healthandresearch be strengthened provide supportto improve the health to of vulnerablegroups. women and indigenous people. business. al shouldbe encouraged take effectivemeasures into to itiate or strengthen tollowing activities: the D) ftTEETTNG URBAN HEATTH THE CHATTENGE BASIS ACTION FOR 632 For hundreds millions of people. leavinghundredsof millions of peoplewith inadequate incomes.religious. Technical on institutions supportshouldbe providedto Govemments. healthcareproviders. The globalobjectiveis to achievea 10to 40 per centirnprovement healthindicators the in by year 2000.is providedor strengthened.30 The development humanresources the health of for of children.Urban growth hasoutstripped society's capacityto meethumanneeds.29 Educational. Urban growth exposespopulationsto seriousenvironmental hazards and has outstripped capacityof municipaland local the A) DEVELOP TMPLEMENT AND MUNtCtpAL LOCAL AND HEALTH PLANS: (i) Establishor strengthen intersectoral committees at both the politicai and technicallevel. D) CAPACTTY-BU\LD\NG (i) 6. for and non-governmental organizations youth. 48 .and socialandmoral values.amendment and enforcement legal frameworksto ensure healthyenviof a ronment for children.socialand educational institutions citizens. The same rate of improvementshould be achievedfor environmental. meningitisand other diseases. (ii) Adopt or strengthenrnunicipal or local "enabling "doing with" ratherthan"doing sffategies" emphasize that for" and createsupportive environments health. All too often. and social problems such as drug abuse. In many factorsthat affect humanhealthareoutside healthsector.and (ii) women's organizations. women and indisenous peoples. with the appropriate supportof national Governments and intemation organizations. wherenecessary: the organization of national. diarrhoeaidiseases indicators inadequate as of water ratesof industrialand transportation and sanitation. Social research the specific on problemsof thesegroupsshouldbe expandedand methods for implementingflexible pragmaticsolutionsexplored. This requiresthe training of more community health workers. acpossible cidents thatindicate opportunities prevention for of injury.cultural. housing and services.

sessment (ii) Providebasic and in-servicetraining for new and existingpersonnel. inter alia..includingany that are non-concessional.40 The overall objective is to minimize hazardsand 49 . water and land). inter alia. D) CAPACITY. (v) Promoteand strengthen rehabilicommunity-based tation activitiesfor the urbanandperi-urbandisabledand the elderly. SOCTAL B) SURVEY IN INCLUDING ANDENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSCITIES.or to standards which will have to be determinednationally.in industry.but deterioration theenvironment of continues. RF c ) HUM A N S O U R C ES EL OP M EN T D EV must supplythe orientation 6. and for the application of and environmental this informationin planningand management.environment and developmentand has revealedthat most countriesare lacking such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. Considerable development-related environmental healthhazards existin thenewly industrializing countries.38 The programmeis aimed towards improved planning and management capabilities the municipaland in local governmentand its partners centralGovernment.Theseareindicaonly andhavenot tive and order-of-magnitude estimates Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments.36 Decision-making models should be further developedandmore widely usedto assess costsand the the health and environment impactsof alternative technolin Improvement urbandevelopment ogiesand strategies. El R. energyproductionand use. will cial terms.ATION ENVIRONMENTAL CITY PRACNCE. ttre specifrc strategies and pro. training of municipal staff requiredfor healthy city proBasic and in-servicetraining of environmental cesses. recent the analysisof WHO hasclearly established interdependthe encearnongthe factorsof health.2Withort prejudiceto suchcriteria as may be agreedupon by the internationalcommunity. Capacitydevelopment shouldbe focusedon obtaining sufficient information. velopmentof methodsis a priority for the measurement variations healthstatus in of intra-urban intra-district and conditions.EDUCTNG HEATTH R|SKSFROM FOR POLLUTIONAND HAZARDS AND D} ESTABUSH MAINTAIN NFIWORKS COTIABOR. in the private sectorand universities. making betteruseof availableinstruments and and resources implementation.39 In many locations around the world the general environment(air. This is. improvingcoordination mechanisms linking alt the key actors. depend upon. it will beessential all cases considerthe in to systems values of prevailingin eachcounty andtheextent theapplicability of of standards are valid for the most advanced that countries but may be inappropriate of unwarranted and socialcostfor the developing countries. requires and management betternationaland municipal on standardized indicators.BUILDING WHERE NECESSARY EXTSTTNG THE HEALTH. etc. for HEALTH C) STRENGTHEN ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: (i) Adopt healthimpact and environmental impact asprocedures.in transportation protection. 8/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOG|CAL A4EANS 6. DOCUMENTATION OFINTRA-URBAN 6.(iv) Encourage communitiesto developpersonalskills of and awareness primary health care. Destatistics based practical. Furthermore. DIFFERENCES. of Pollutioncontrol andhealthprotectionmeasures haveoften not kept pace with economicdevelopment. grammes decideupon for implementation. due to pastand present developments in consumption production pattems in and and lifestyles.workplaces and even individual drvellingsare so badly polluted that the health of hundreds millions of peopleis adversely of affected. includingabout$22 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. Govemments 6. ANDEXCHANGEMODELS GOOD OF OF BASIS ACTION FOR MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Al F/NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON has 6.with little or no regardfor environmental There have been notableimprovements some counin tries. healthpersonnel will alsobe needed.35 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe average total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $222 million.37 Programmes and basic OBJECTIVES 6. The ability of countriesto tackle pollution and health problems is greatly restrainedbecause lack of resources.

appropriate. on (ii. (ii) Develop and implement health educationcampaigns.to establish. F) HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: Developprogrammes irnprovinghealthconditions for in human settlements. as integrated programmesfbr tackling pollution at the source andat thedisposal site.to establish. as adequate national infrastructureand programmesfor preventingenvironmental i nj ury. appropriate.hazardsurveiIanceandthe I basisfor abatement all countries. Develop water pollution control capacities large in c it ies : J) INDUSTRY ENERGY AND PRODUCTION: (i) Establishenvironmental health impact assessment procedures the planning and developmentof new for industries and energyfacilities. t) EFFECTS OFULTRAVTOLET RAD|ATION: (i) Undertake.researchon the effects on human health of the increasingultraviolet radiationreachingthe earth'ssurfaceas a consequence of depletionof the stratospheric ozonelayer: (ii) On thebasisof the outcome thisresearch. this areashouldinclude: in G) NOTSE: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposurelevelsand promotenoiseassessment control and as part of environmentalhealth programmes. storage. reduce to the healthimpactof domestic of biomass use and coal: c) WATER POLLUTTON: (i) Develop appropnatewater pollution control technologies the basisof healthrisk assessment.as appropriate. (ii) Develop air pollution control capacitiesin large cities. supportand coordination. in (b) By the year 2000. in (c) By the year 2000. A) URBAN POLLUTTON: AtR (i) Develop appropriate pollution control technologyon the basisof risk assessment epidemiological and research for the introductionof environmentally soundproduction processes suitable and safemasstransport. necesthe sary statisticalinformation on health ef'fectsto support cost/benefit analysi including environmental s. application residual and effectsof pesticides usedin agriculture and preservation of wood. particularwithin slumsand nonin tenuredsettlements. with internationalassistance.41 Nationallydetermined actionprogrammes.emphasizing enforcement programmes and using monitoringnetworks.Specificprogrammeobjecto tives are: (a) By the year 2000.rvitha focuson abatement actions in all countriesl (d) To identify and compile.includingthe provisionof economicincentives for the installation appropriate of technology. D) PESTTCTDES: Develop mechanisms control the distributionand use to of pesticidesin order to minimize the risks to human healthby transportation. the basisof health risk assesson ment. where necessary. ACTIVITIES 6. (ii) Incorporateappropriatehealth risk analysisin all nationalprogrammes pollution control and managefor ment.as appropriate. healthimpact assessment pollution control. E) SOLID WASTE: (i) Develop appropriate solid wastedisposaltechnologieson the basisof healthrisk assessment: (ii) Developappropriate solid wastedisposal capacities in largecities. particuliulyin developing countries. of consicler taking appropriateremedial measuresto mitigate the above-mentioned effectson humanbeings: B) TNDOOR POLLUTTON: AtR (i) Supportresearch and developprogrammes apfor plying prevention controlmethods reducing and to indoor air pollution. to incorporateappropriateenvironmental and health safeguards part of national deas velopmentprogrammes all countries. standardsand enforcement procedureson the basis of existinginternational guidelines. H) roNtztNc ANDNON-|ON|Z|NG RAD|AT|ON: Developand implementappropriate nationallegislation. preventionand for abatement measures.maintain the environmentto a degreethat human health and safetyis not impairedor endangered yet encourand agedevelopment proceed.as a rnatter of urgency.with particular emphasis toxic compounds on such as lead: (iii) Establish industrial hygieneprogrammes all major in 50 .

intermediate and local levelsof government provide to including about million from theinternational com$115 front-line capabilitiesto meet environmentalhealth munity on grantor concessional terms. appropriate.44 In the activitieslisted ln paragraph 6. in a c c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l pl ans. development systems as the of to monitor the incidenceand causeof injury to allow weII -targe d intervention/pre te vention strateg s. Sucheffortsshouldincludecollaboration with the businesssector. (iii) Emphasize preventivestrategies reduceoccupato tionallyderiveddiseases diseases and caused environby mentalandoccupational toxinsto enhance workersafety. as adequate environmental monitoring capacities the surveillance environmental for of quality and the healthstatus populations. citizensand specialists.Cost/effect analysis and environmental impact assessment methodsshould be developedthrough cooperativeinternationalprograffLmes appliedto the and settingof prioritiesandstrategies relationto healthand in development. thecapacity reduce risks. 8/ SC/ENI/F'C AND IECHNOI.42 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the and community interests dealing with social issues.developingcountryeffortsshouldbe facilitatedby access and ffansferof technology. reduce the frequencyand severity of to injury.from the repositories suchknowledgeandtechof nologies. 5t . healthhazards. sitiesand on educating public.industries for the surveillanceof workers' exposureto healthhazards.Training and healthofficials at all M) RESEARCH PROMOTION METHODOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT: shouldinclude environmental levelsfrom managers inspectors. operational mechanisms fbr intersectoral A/ FiNANC/NG and intergovernmental AND COSTEVALUATTON cooperation in development planning and management and in combatingpollution.41 (a) to (m) above. Actual costsand financial terms. conformitywith chapter34.43 Although technologyto preventor abatepollution is readily availablefor a largenumberof problems. forthcoming). strategies all sectors(industry. appropriate. to Moreemphasis needs (i) Supportthe development new methodsfor the of to be placedon including the subjectof environmental quantitative assessment healthbenefitsand costsasof healthin the curriculaof secondary schoolsand universociated with differentpollution control strategies. the specificstrategies proand grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation. in K) MONTTORTNG AND ASSESSMENT: Establish. for programmeand policy developmelttcountriesshould undertakeresearchwithin an intersectoralframework. (v) Promote introduction environmentally the of sound technologies within the industryand energysectors.OGICAL MEANS 6. in age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the delegationof authorityand distributionof resources to activities of this programme to be about $3 billion.Theseareindicaneeds.includingany that are non-concessional.traffic and others)conin sistentwith the WHO safecities and safecommunities programmes. inter alia. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 6. ie (i i) Dev elop. adverseeffects and practical skills to foreseeand identify environmental susceptibility environmental to agents. tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. the (ii) Develop and carry out interdisciplinary research on the combinedhealth eff'ects exposureto multiple of environmental hazards. 6. which is a major impedimentto progress in dealing with environmentalhealth hazards. includingepidemiological inD) CAPACITY-BUILDING vestigations long-term exposures low levels of of to pollutantsand the use of biological markerscapable 6. will dependupon. R e p o r t o f t h e W H O C o m m i s s i o no n H e o l t h o n d E n v i r o n m e n t (Genevo. l onnex.arrangements involving private for 6. to know-how and information.46 Each country shoulddevelopthe knowledgeand of estimatinghuman exposures. 1 ' 2 a/u/025. of L}INJURY MONITORING REDUCTION: AND (i) Support. r .Basic and to the capacity requirements must include knowledge about environmental healthproblems awareness thepart and on MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF of leaders.45 Comprehensive national strategies should be designed to overcome the lack of qualified human resources. ^ .

cooperon shouldbe based technical Suchimprovement among the public.r Expenditure amenities. private ation activities. in expenditures 1988went total grant-financed system's while in 1991. (b) Improving human settlement management.3 This is the foundationof the "enablingapproach" advocatedfor the human settlementsector. of HUMAN OBJECTIVE SETTLEMENT objectiveis to im7. (d) Promotingthe integratedprovision of environmental infrastructure: water. with high priority being given to the needsof the urban and rural poor. ternsof citiesareseverely world needmoreraw in while settlements the developing simply to material.For example. among the eight programme areas in this chapter in takwith their nationalplansand objectives.ed the stressing globalecosystem.drainageand solidwastemanagement: (e) Promotingsustainable systems energyandtransport in humansettlements: 52 .' 7.1 In industrializ.indigenous shouldform the core and the disabled.and econornicdevelopment overcomebasiceconomicand socialproblems. For example. accordance ing fully into account their social and cultural capacountriesshouldmake appropriate bilities.loansfrom the to human settlements.includingthe group.in particularthe urbanandrural poor. Human in conditions manypartsof theworld.2 On the otherhand.development humon setilement sustoinoble Promoting INTRODUCTION patthe consumption countrics.5 The prograrrune areasincluded in this chapterare: (a) Providing adequate shelterfor all.6 per cent of c ent r al go v e rn m e n te x p e n d i tu rew e n t to housi ng.every dollar of UNDP on expenditure humansettlements technical cooperation of a in 1988generated follow-up investment $122.' AssociDevelopment World Bank and the International and water supplyand ation (IDA) for urbandevelopment to amounted 5.availableinformationindicates activitiesin the humansettlethat technicalcooperation public and private rnent sector generateconsiderable sectorinvestment.economicand environmentalquality of and human settlements the living and working environmentsof all people. External will help to generatethe internal resources assistance needed improvethe living and working environments to of all peopleby the year 2000 andbeyond. the unemployedand the growing number of peoplewithout anv source income.an averageof clnly 5. is support andflnanceorganizations equally international only I per centof the UnitedNations low. particusettlement mainly are larly the developingcountries. sewerage of their total lending.4 The overall human settlement prove the social. Furthermore.5 and 5. developing of countries will need to set priorities these strategies.partnerships in and andcommunitysectors participation thedecisionmaking processby community groupsand specialinterpeople." 7.the of highestof all UNDP sectors assistance.energy. 7.Theseapproaches In principles nationalsettlement strategies.In the low-incomecountries which recent data are available. by socialsecurityand welfare. on provision to monitor the impact of their strategies sed marginalizedand di senfranchi groups. growingnumberof unemployed the no-income implicationsof urban At the sametime the environmental in developmentshould be recognizedand addressed an integrated fashion by all countries. elderly the estgroupssuchaswomen.respectively. 1. (c) Promotingsustainable planningand manland-use agement. sanitation.4 per cent. deteriorating in as a result of the low levels of investment the sector in to attributable the overall resourceconstraints these for countries.with particular referenceto the needsof women.

(h) Promotinghumanresource development capacand ity-buildingfor human settlement development. The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined the Universal in Declaration HumanRightsandthe lntemational of Covenant on Economic. socialand economic well-beingand shouldbe a fundamental part of national and intemationalaction. as appropriate.asappropriate. (i) Bilateral and multilateral cooperationshould be strengthened order to supportthe implementation in of the nationalshelterstrategies developing of countries. 7. as appropriate.7 A major globalprogramme address problem to this is the Global Strategy for Shelter ro rhe Year 2000. document and monitor the implementationof their national shelter strategies using. Strategyneedsa much greaterlevel of the politicalandfinancialsupport enable to reachits goal to it of facilitatingadequate shelterfor all by rhe end of the centuryand beyond. OBJECTIVE 7.as requested the Global Strategyfor in Shelterto the Year 2000. support the shelterefforts the urbanandrural poor. (g) Promotingsustainable construction industryactivities.public andcommunitysectors with and the supportof community-based organizations.6 Accessto safeand healthyshelter essential a is to person's physical. at least I billion people do not have accessto saf-e and healthy shelterand that if appropriate action is not taken. facilitate accessof urban and rural poor to shelterby adoptingand utilizing housingand financeschemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted their circumstances. formulate and implementprogrammes to reducethe impact of the phenomenonof rural to urban drift by improving rural living conditions. reports coveringnational actionand 0) Globalprogress the supportactivitiesof international organizations and bilateraldonorsshouldbe produced anddisseminated on a biennial basis.8 The objective is to achieve adequateshelterfor rapidly growing populationsand for the cuffently deprivedurbanandruralpoorthroughanenabling approach to shelter development improvement and thatis environmentallysound.iO The Conference secretiuiat estimated averhas the age total annualcost ( 1993-2(nU of implementingthe 53 .on the principlesand recofiunendations containedin the Global Strategyfor Shelterto the Year 2000.A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALaJATTON 7.while the internationalcommunity and financial institutions should undertakeactions to supportthe ef'fortsof the developingcountries provide shelter the poor. adoptedby the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43ll8l. (c) All countriesshould. (g) All countries. (f. ACTIVITIES 7. people should be protectedby law againstunfair eviction from their homesor land. to to (b) All countriesshould adopt and/or strengthen na- tional shelterstrategies. Despite this. to (e) All counties should supportand develop environmentally compatible shelter strategiesat national. should develop andimplement resettlement programmes address that the specific problems of displacedpopularionsin rheir respective countries. Despiteits widespread endorsement. this nurnber will increasedramatically by the end of the centuryand beyond.should.Socialand Cultural Rights.financeand low-costbuilding materials.especiallydevelopingones.9 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) As a first step towardsthe goal of providing adequateshelter all. (d) All countriesshould.as appropriate.where appropriate.psychological.inter alia. annex). all countriesshouldtake immediate for measures provideshelter their homeless to to poor. facilitatetheir access to to land. and by actively promoting the regularizationand upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit.(f) Promoting human settlementplanning and management in disaster-prone areas. it is estimatedthat at the presenttime. state/provincialand municipal levels through parnrerships amongthe private. MEANS IMPIEMENTATION OF .theunemployed of and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existingcodesand regulations. (h) All countries should. with targetsbased.as appropriate.) All countries. the monitoringguidelines by adoptedby the Comrnission Human Settlements on and theshelterperformance indicators beingproducedjointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)and the World Bank. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) PROV|DTNG ADEQUATE SHETTER ALr FOR BASIS ACTION FOR 7.

local caand by strengthening ernmental organrzations technologies.16 Oneexistingframeworkfor strengthening D evel opm entPr oment i s i n the U ni ted N ati ons Bank/United Nations Centre for Human grammeNVorld Settlements(Habitat) Urban Management Programme (UMP). environmental (e. through the provision. for local strategies improvingthequality (d) Developing MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8] SCIENTFrc underthis headingare addressed 7. the creation of social urban poor through. municipalfi nanceand (b) Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty including: througha numberof actions.with the assistand supportagencies: anceof relevantprogrammes guideurban management (a) Adopting and applying urban environmanagement.activities of this programme to be about $75 billion.objecwith national and appropriate in accordance of the assistance non-govtives and prioritiesand with of and representatives local ernmenfal organizations following activities at the naauthorities.roads' providedto higher incomeneightelecommunications) bourhoods.undertakethe and tional. to (c) Adopting innovativecity planningstrategies adby: and socialissues dressenvironmental the on.These munity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments.improvementand and and of maintenance urbaninfrastructure services the such in activities theinformalsector.BUILDING should 7. 54 . to (ii) Providing specificassistance the poorestof the inter alia. inter alia.W hi l e urban particularlyin developingcountries'are settlements.professionals. therebycontributingto the achievement disenfranchised. munity entitiesthat tions and other forms of non-governmental the efforts to reducepoverty and imcan contributeto prove the quality of life for low-incomefamilies.12 Developedcountriesand funding agencies to developingcountriesin provide specific assistance to an arJopting enablingapproach the provision of shelter no-income group. state/provincial local levels. of appropriate pacity for the development B) IMPROVING HUrtiAN sErrlrMENT T ANAGEMEM FOR BASIS ACTION 7. (i) Reducing subsidies andrecovering full costs and other services of high standard of. and prodependupon. sanitation.includingany that arenon-concessional. a concertedglobal effort to assistdeveloping issues. of ductivity. of nationaleconomicdevelopment ACTIVITIES MANAGFMENI URBAN A) IMPROV/NG lnanage7. as repairs.13 By the turn of the century. the specific strategies decideupon for implementation' grammesGovernments their ability to improvethe living tries.In manycases political to a continuous hinders the implementationof compreheterogeneity programmes.andthe provisionof adequate comof the establishment indigenous (iii) Encouraging -basedorganization private v oluntary or ganrzas. comincluding about$10 billion from the international are indicaterms.the majority of the w wor ld' sp o p u l a ti o n i l l b e l i v i n g i n c i ti e s.in orderto enhance and the especially marginalized conditionsof residents.improvetheliving conditions theirresidents way' in and managenaturalresources a sustainable 7.1I The requirements in each of the other programme areas included in the presentchapter.g. including the institutionsand training activitiesfor governresearch andnon-govcommunities ment officials.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. in infrastructure order to reducehunger and homelesscommunityservices.14 Some metropolitanareas extend over the bounentities dariesof severalpolitical and/oradministrative eventhoughthey conform (counties and municipalities) this urbansystem. goals. (i) Generating employmentfor the urbanpoor. of support economic and small cofitmerce. Its urban management countriesin addressing countries to all interested coverageshouldbe extended All countries should' as during the period 1993-2000. showing many of the symptomsof the global environgenerate crisis.15 The objectiveis to ensuresustainable counpafticularlyin developing of all urbansettlements. services recycling. lines in the areasof land infrastructuremanagementand mental management. ness. water supply. plans. and covering for all. management hensiveenvironmental OBJECTIVE management 7.they nevertheless mentanddevelopment 60 per cent of gross national product and' if properly can developthe capacityto sustaintheir promanaged. AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE C) HUMAN CAPACITY. administration.waste collection.particularly women. and service (ii) Improving the level of infrastructure provisionin poorerurbanareas.

of 8/ STRENGTHENING UREAN DATA SySIEMS 7. particularly internationaland nationalrepresentatives of local authorities.particularly thosecharacterized severe by sustainable development problems.5 United Nations organizations. theyshouldalsoconcentrate activities on aimed at facilitating the transitionfrom rural to urban lifestylesand settlement patternsand at promoting the development small-scale of economicactivities. state/provincial. with the active participationof the business sectoras appropriate.21 Citiesof all countries shouldreinforcecooperation amongthemselves citiesof the developed and countries. enhancement public amenities the of and the protectionand/or rehabilitarionof older buildings. rules and regulations. (g) Empowercommunitygroups.I 8 In orderto relievepressure largeurbanagglomeron ations of developingcountries. zed As appropriate.as appropriate: (a) Institutionalize aparticipatoryapproachto sustainableurbandevelopment. to support local income generation the productionof intermediate and goodsand sen. national and international levels and the establishment city data management of capabilities.analysis and subsequent dissemination of urbandata. with the assistance releof vant internationalagencies. (e) Promotethe formulationof environmentally sound andculturallysensitive tourismprogrammes a strategy as for sustainabledevelopmentof urban and rural settlementsand as a way of decentralizingurban development and reducingdiscrepancies amongregions. UNEP and UNDP.to mobilize resources for local initiativesto improveenvironmental quality. 7.of life andtheenvironment. historicprecincts otherculturalartifacts.althoughsound urban management essential ensure is to thaturbansprawldoes not expandresource degradation over an everwider land area and increasepressures convert open spaceand to agriculturaUbuffer landsfor development.In addition.Individual citiesshould. the regional developmentbanks and bilateral agencies.l9 Thereforeall countries should. pilot projectsin selected cities for the collection. (c) Strengthen capacities their local governing the of bodies to deal more effectively with the broad range of developmental environmental and challenges associated with rapid and soundurbangrowth throughcomprehensiveapprdaches planningthatrecognize individual to the needs citiesandarebased ecologically of on soundurban designpractices. Additionalinitiatives involving the World Bank. (f) Establishmechanisms. and especially women and indigenous people.17 During the period 1993-2000 countriesshould all undertake. integrating decisions land on use and land management.should. undertheaegisof non-governmental organizations active in this field. at the local. therebypromotingemploymentgeneration that is environmentally soundandprotective humanhealth. 55 . develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such problems andguidingtheir development alonga sustainable path. and "greenworks" programmes shouldbe activated create to self-sustaining human development activitiesand both formal and informal employmentopportunitiesfor lowincomeurbanresidents.the provision of urban infrastructure. for 7.ith nationallaws. Some internationalinitiatives in supportof suchefforts. techniques and approaches embodied theconcept environmental in of care.non-governmental organizationsand individuals to assumethe authority and responsibility rnanaging enhancing for and theirimmediate environmentthrough participatorytools. investingin the public and private sectorsand mobilizing human and materialresources.resourcecapabilitiesand characteri sticsof their growingintermediate-si cities.ices rural hinterlands.20 All cities.includingenvironmental impact analysis.as in the Sustainable Cities prosrammeof Habitat and the Healthy Cities programme of WHO. could provide technical adviceand model datamanagement systems. C) ENCOURAGING /NIERMEDIATE DEVELOPMENT CITY 7. the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives(ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities. shouldbe intensified.in accordance u.policies and strategies shouldbe implemented towardsthe development inof termediate cities that createemploymentopportunities for unemployedlabour in the rural areasand support rural-based economicactivities. such as the InternationalUnion of Local Authorities(IULA).should be strengthened and coordinated. 7. such as Habitat.asappropriate. based a continuous on dialogue betweenthe actors involved in urban developrnent(the public sector. privatesector communities). well as other interested as stakeholders. conduct reviews of urbanization processes and policies in orderto assess environmental the impactsof growth and apply urbanplanningand management approaches specifically suited to the needs. particularly the productionof food. (d) Participatein international"sustainable city networks" to exchangeexperiences and mobilize national and international technicaland financialsupport. (b) Improve the urban environment promoting soby cial organization and environmental awareness through the participation local communitiesin the identificaof tion of public servicesneeds.

i n te rn a ti o n a le ffo rts .water quality.shouldgo beyondthe as tries. plansto management developingnationalland-resource and utilizationand.resultin environmental diminishing returnsfor impoverishedrural settlers. wil l d e p e n d u p o n . tech7. assistthe developingcountriesin their efforts to dev elop a pa rti c i p a to ry s tru c tu re b y mo bi l i zi ng the non-governmenof humanresources theprivatesector.6 Particularattentionshould owned and rnanaged peoplefor paidto the needs womenandindigenous of be economicand culturalreasons. appropriate. 3 0S u b s e q u e n t l ya l l c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r . saving of energy. (b) Create. energy.29 Allcountries nationalinventoryof their land taking a comprehensive resources order to establisha land information system in will be classifiedaccordingto in which land resources their most appropriateusesand environmentallyfragile areas will be identified for special or disaster-prone protectionmeasures. andfinancialterms. comincludingabout$ 15billion from theinternational terms.land utilization. ternational adtechnicians. In rural areas. agency CCSSCS. to access land to all households the encouragementof communally and collectively land.with appropriate considerfocusingon trainingand assistance. ACTIVITIES underas shouldconsider. 7 .unsustainable practices. OBJECTIVE 7.27 Access land resources an essential are low-impactlifestyles. the speci fi c decideupon Governments and strategies programmes for implementation. in streamlining 7. to access land is rendered In rapidly growing urbanareas.OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F'NANC/NG has 1. improving land registry systemsand procedures land transactions. housing. i n te r a l i a .24 Developingcountriesshouldalso encourage throughjoint efforts by nological training and research donors. and tal organizations the poor. agriculture. inter alia.national legislation to guidethe implementation public policiesfor environof mentally sound urban development. should: (a) Establish. and the needfor openspaces. developinga cadreof urbanmanagers.Theseare inmunity on grant or concessional estimatesonly and dicative and order-of-magnitude Actual costs have not beenreviewedby Governments. housing and for the improved managementof urban expansion. 56 .Land resources of sustainable the basis for (human) living systemsand provide soil. efficient and accessible land markets that meet coffImunity developmentneeds by.should be utilized. interadministrative arrangements. AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE B) HUMAN CAPACITY-BUILDING in1.25 Capacity-building above. IAND-USE SUSTAINABLE c) PROMOTTNG PTANNING AND }TANAGEMENT FOR BASIS ACTION component is to 7. institutional proinformationflows andconsultative linkages. 26 I n ad d i ti o n .28 Theobjectiveis to providefor theland requirements of human settlementdevelopmentthrough environmentally soundphysicalplanningandlandusesoasto ensure and.For this purpose.includingany thatarenon-concess ional. land tenure the Furthermore. 7. who can ministratorsand other relevant stakeholders manageenvironmentallysound urban desuccessfully velopmentand growth and are equippedwith the skills to necessary analyseand adapt the innovative experithe encesof other cities.safe productionof chemicals and lesspollutingtranspoftation.particularlywomenand the disadvantaged. where appropriate. full rangeof training methods__ from formal educationto the useof the mass rnedia . activitiescarriedout by all coun7.22 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $100 billion.assisted suggested training of individualsand functionalgroupsto include routines.23 Developingcountriesshould. as well as the "learningby doing" option.water and the opportunity for all human activity. increasingly difficult by the conflicting demandsof industry. cooperation Urban Management shouldcontinueto multilateraland bilateralagencies. commerce. well as in tions.to guide land-resource development that end. non-governmentalorganizationsand private in business such areasas the reductionof waste.where appropriate. structures rising costsof urban land preventthe poor from gaining accessto suitable land. suchas the exploitationof marginallandsand the encroachmenton forests and ecologically fragile areasby commercialinterestsand landlessrural populaas degradation.as appropriate. s uch as the with in Programme.

provide such agencieswith modern equipment. the sp ec if ic s t r at eg i e sa n d p ro g ra m m e sG o v e rn m ents d e c ideupon f or im p l e me n ta ti o n . in tion (f) Establishappropriate forms of land tenurcthat provide securityof tenurefor all land-users. global coordinationof land-resource management activitiesshouldbe strengthened by the variousbilateral and multilateralagencies and programmes. preserves othervital needs.particularly developing countries. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 7 .33 All countries. the regionaldevelopment banks. suchas UNDP.greenspaces. for in order to devise more etficient mechanisrns landof resource management. photography/imagery otherremote-sensins satellite and technologies.31 At the internationallevel.transport. and (i) Promoteunderstanding amongpolicy makersof the adverse consequences unplanned of settlements enviin rorunentallyvulnerableareasand of the appropriatenapolicies retional and local land-useand settlements quiredfor this purpose. low-income urbandwellersand the rural poor. the of state/provincial and local educational research and training institutions to provide formal training of land-management techniciansand professionals. B/ SC'ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 7. (e) Strengthencommunity-based protecland-resource practices existingurbanand rural settlements.inc ludinga b o u t$ 3 0 0m i l l i o n fro m th e i n ternati o nal c om m uni ty o n g ra n t o r c o n c e s s i o n ate rms.DRAINAGEAND SOTID-WASTE MANAGEMENT BASIS ACTION FOR 7. aloneor in regionalor subregional groupings. including land-useplanning solutionsfor a more rationaland environmentally sounduseof limited land resources. properly if managed. (c) Where appropriate. shouldbe given accessto modern techniquesof land-resource management.other interested organizations andthe UNDPAVoTId Bank/Habitat UrbanManProgramme. offers uniqueopportunities the supply of for \7 . 7.32 T he Conf ere n c es e c re ta ri a h a s e s ti ma tedthe t ) a v er age ot al ann u a lc o s t (1 9 9 3 -2 0 0 0o f i mp l e mentt ing the activities of this programmeto be about $3 b i llion. (g) Accelerate efforts to promoteaccess land by the to urban and rural poor. As a resultof the densityof users. quality and the provisionof environmental air infrastructure sanitation for and wastemanagement. (d) Strengthen existing programmes and promote an intemationaland interregional exchange information of and experience land management in throughthe establishmentof professional associations land-managein ment sciences related and activities. private and community sectorsin managingland resources for humansettlements development. (d) Encourage partnerships amongthe public. especiallyinpeople. women. suchasgeographical informationsystems.34 Environmentally focused trainingactivities susin tai nabl e l and-resources anni ng and managem elt t pl should be undertaken all countries. Actual costsandfinancialterms. including credit schemesfor the purchase land and for building/acquiring improving of or safeand healthyshelterand infiastructure services. l Theseareindicativeandorder-of-rnagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.local digenous the communities. such as computer hardware and softwareand surveyequipment. FAO. suchas workshops and seminars. SANITATION.includingany that are non-concessional.35 The sustainability urbandevelopment defined of is by many parameters relatingto the availabilityof water supplies. urbandevelopment. pROVtStONOF D) PROMOTTNG THETNTEGRATED ENVIRONI ENTAI INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER. industry. the World Bank.(c) Develop fiscal incentivesand land-usecontrol measures. inter alia. C) HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 7. will depend upon.with developing in countriesbeing given assistance through international supportand funding agencies orderto: in (a) Strengthen capacity national. actionshouldbe takento proagement and motethetransfer applicable of experience sustainable on land-management practicesto and among developing countries. (b) Facilitatethe organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible land questions. (h) Develop and support the implementationof improved land-management practicesthat deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirementsfor agriculture. carry out periodicin-service and refreshercoursesfor the managersand staff of such ministries and agencies orderto familiarizethem with in up-to-date land-resource-management gie technolo s. urbanization.

37 Most of the activitieswhosemanagement are covered in improved by an integrated approach.41 All countriesshould.36 An integrated in mentally soundintiastructurein human settlements. energy. 7. environmental engagedin The activitiesof all agencies strengthened. is an investment that can improvethe quality development in sustainable productivity. increase the burden of investmentsin curative medicine and povertyalleviation. (including subing the need to find suitableapproaches to sidies)to extendbasicservices all households.sanitation. and management. inand lack of environmental however. (d) Promote the policiesaimedat recovering actualcost while at the sametime recognizof infrastructureservices. probiems that (e) Seekjointsolutions environmental to affectseverallocalities. at 7.9 (Protectingthe atmosphere). would be 7.Settlement human designedtcl promotean integrated programmes approachto the planning. Agenda 2l as follows: chapters6 (Protectingand promoting human health conditions). proach to settlements of transfer appropricapacity-building.improvehealthand reduce of life.environmentalinfrastructurethrough adesustainable quate pricing policies. The achievementof this objective would requirethat all developingcountriesincorporate to programmes build thenecesin theirnationalstrategies human resourcecapacity sary technical. appliedresearch.In most developingcountries. to approach the provisionof environ1.the specificstrategies sional. The secretariat assistof cost(1993-2000) technical total annual average ancefrom the internationalcomrnunity on grant or concessionalterms to be about $50 million.40 Developingcountriesshouldbe assisted the naapproach tional and local levelsin adoptingan integrated drainsanitation. environmental by (b) Ensurethat relevantdecisions preceded enare and vironmentalimpact assessments also take into account the costsof any ecologicalconsequences. of adoptthe fol7.Coordination from interand amongtheseagencies with collaboration of nationalandnationalrepresentatives local authorities. lowing principles for the provision of environmental infrastructure: avoid (a) Adopt policiesthatminimizeif not altogether wheneverpossible.reflect an ecosystemor metropolitan area apand should include monitoring.flnancial and and aimed at ensuringbetterintegrationof infrastructure planningby the year 2000.Actual costs and financial terms.the inadequacy ill-healthand for is frastructure responsible widespread deathseachyear.inter olia. development. where possible. and sewage-related of management solid wastes OBJECTIVE the 7. (c) Promote developmentin accordancewith indigenous practices and adopt technologies appropriate to local conditions. externalfunding age and solid-waste agencies shouldensurethat this approachis appliedin improvement infiastructure particularto environmental basedon regulationsand standin informal settlements ards that take into account the living conditions and to resources the communities be served.In those a large numberof preventable are set to worsen due to growing countriescclnditions needs that exceed the capacity of Governmentsto respondadequateiy. ate technology and technical cooperation among the rangeof programmeactivities. These are estimatesonly and indicative and order-of-magnitude have not beenreviewedby Govemments.will depend and programmes Governmentsdecide upon fbr implementation. solid-waste drainage. infrastructure and environmental protected. providing environmental infrastructure should.43 The Conference the costs of implementing the activities of this proestimatesthe gramme in other chapters. to theprovisionof watersupply. the privatesectorand communitygroupsshouldalsobe MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING has secretariat estimatedmost of 7. damage.18 (Protectingthe qualitv and supply of and 21 (Environmentallysound freshwaterresources) issues).42 The disseminationof information from existing among prograrnmes shouldbe facilitatedandencouraged countries and local institutions. educationalprogrammesand that are economicallyand mechanisms equitableaccess environmentallysound.as appropriate. 58 . structure with shouldbe strengthened theassistance management) of bilateral and multilateral agencies. interested ACTIVITIES suitthe 7.38 The objectiveis to ensure provisionof adequate facilitiesin all settlements infrastructure environmental by the year 2025. particularfor the urbanand rural poor.and nationalgoalsfor sustainable to soundtechnology ensure implementenvironmentally humanhealthandqualityof life are thattheenvironment.including any that are non-concesupon. settlements of and management environmentalinframaintenance (watersupply.39 All countriesshouldassess environmental develop in ability of infrastructure human settlements. of management waste.

Increasingthe tion costs and energy-related efficiency of energy use to reduceits polluting effects and to promote the use of renewableenergiesmust be a lN PARTICULAR. soundand socially acceptable (c) Strengtheningthe institutional capacity of local in authoritiesand administrators the integratedprovision of adequateinfrastructure servicesin partnershipwith local communitiesand the private sector. "effective demand". ACTIVITIES 7. gramme 2 approachto human settlements 7. aimed at: popularparticipationprogrammes and (a) Raising awareness the means.50 The principal activitiesrelevantto this programme area are included in chapter9 (Protectionof the atmosphere). 7.congestion terms of accidents and loss of productivity similar to those occurring in AII many developed countries. priority in any action taken to protectthe urban environment.and evaluatingthe life-cycle costs systemsand practicesas a result of which many metropolitan areas are suffering from pervasive air quality problemsrelatedto ozone.48 Transport accountsfor about 30 per cent of commercial energyconsumptionand for about60 per cent of In of totalglobalconsumption liquid petroleum.49 The objectives to extendthe provisionof more energy-efficienttechnology and alternative/renewable and to reduce negative energy for human settlements impactsof energyproductionand use on human health and on the environment. AND DEVELOPMFNT C) HUMANRESOURCE CAPACITY-BUILDING and 7. SHOULD: A) DEVELOPING COUNTRTES.OGICAL 8' SC'ENIIFIC within theexistmeans 7. high demographic indusby and a rapid expansionin the number trial concentrations of motor vehicles. developrapid motorization andinsufficientinvesting countries. programme area B.noise. the rural poor.51 A comprehensive shouldincludethepromotionof sustainable development in as energydevelopment all countries. efficiency and consumption) (Transportation).as appropriate..are faced with the need for energyplanning and sources promotingrenewable andalternate management. need to increasetheir energy production to accelerate of and development raisethe living standards their populations.ME.in particular (ii) Formulatenational action programlnesto promote 59 .15With the assistance supportof funding agencies. undertaketraining and all countriesshould. tollows: ENERGYAND El PROIIOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTSYSTEMSIN HUftIAN SETITE'VIENTS FOR BASIS ACTION en7.women. (i) Formulatenationalactionprograrnmes prolnoteand to with supportreaftbrestation nationalforestregeneration and provision of the biornass a view to achievingsustained and energyneeds the low-incomegroupsin urbanareas of women and children.The causes fuel and cal inadequacies with anincreasing consumption and generated inefficiencies. particularly the low-incomeand no-incomegroups.includingcross-subsidy the benefits clf adequateand affordable environmental populationgroups.especially to infrastructure unserved the poor. health. amongindigenous facilities. ergyproduced percentage it is usedby thehousehold of anda substantial facedwith the are Developingcountries at present sector. traffic management ments in urban-transport and infrastructure are creating increasing problems in and injury. extend ments.while at the sametime reducingenergyproducpollution. (d) Adopting appropriatelegal and regulatory instruto anangements. subprogramme I (Energy and subprodevelopment.as the largest consumersof energy. systems.particulatemattersandcarbon havemuch to do with technologimonoxide.44 Scientificandtechnological programmes should be coordinated wherever ing possibleand should: (a) Accelerate in research the areaofintegratedpolicies s ture programme andprojects ntal infrastruc of environme on cost/benefitanalysisand overall environmental based impact.ANS AND IECHNOI. OBJECNVES are 7.46 N{ost of the commercialand non-commercial todayis usedin andforhumansettlements. (b) Promotemethodsof assessing data as criteria environmentand development utilizing for selectingtechnology. of current of energy.47 Developed countries. with adequate ft) Developinga cadreof professionals skills in integratedinfrastructuralservice planning and environmentally maintenanceof resource-efficient. of theseproblemshavea severe impact on urban populations.especially low-income groupsand the poor. planning. 7.approaches of benefitsof the provision of environmentalinfrastructure people.

there is an urgentneedto address preventionand reductionof man-made disasters and/or unsafenuclear caused inter a/ia. renewableenergy technologies inter alia. particular to those that are disaster-prone.such as loss of fertile agriculturalland and can lead to of and contamination water resources. tenanceof transportinfrastructure . ACTIVITIES under 7. shared driving and improved traffic safetymeasures.57 ln addition. pro7.planners.Global economic losseshave been estimated the Office of the by United NationsDisasterRelief Coordinatorto be in the rangeof $30 billion to $50 billion per year. this end. PIANNING F) PROMOTINGHUMAN SETTTEMENT AREAS IN AND 'TAANAGEIAENT DISASTER. goalsof the DecadeT The bearrelevDisaster programme present area. hydro. (d) Devoteparticularattentionto effectivetraffic manandmainefficientoperationof public transport agement. all countriesshould: (a) Integrate land-use and transportationplanning to encouragedevelopment pattems that reduce transport demand.52 Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be a planningand to approach urban-transport comprehensive To management. wind and biomasssources.56 The GeneralAssembly. industries. 7. of (iii) Promotewide dissemination commercialization and through suitablemeasures. mitigate the negative on impact of natural and man-madedisasters human nationaleconomies and the environment. disasters power generationand toxic wastes(see chapter 6 of Agenda l). section: and involved in the energy-service transport (b) Raise public awareness the environmental imof pacts of transport and travel behaviour through mass and media campaignsand supportfor non-governmental community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport.wind. Over the past two to some3 mildecades.as appropriate.namely. all countries should.and renewable integrateddevelopmentof energy-saving energy technologies. transport professionalsand institutions. anceto the objectives 01'the the 7. and private sector institutionsthat provide educationand planning training on energyserviceand urbantransport and management. 2 MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC/NG.and environmental damage. settlements. development a "culthe 60 . disruptionof economicactivitiesand urbanproductivity. (b) Adopt urban-transport programmesfavouring highoccupancypublic transportin countries. AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE B) HUMAN CAPACITY-BUILDING 7. (c) Encouragenon-motonzed modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and footways in urban and suburbancentresin countries.in resolutton441236. by. techniques energy-efficient and DONORS AND ORGANTZATIONS BILATERAL B) TNTERNATTONAL SHOULD: (i) Supportdeveloping national counfies in implementing use in energyprogrammes order to achievewidespread of particuand energy-saving renewableenergytechnologies.59 Three distinct areasof activity are fbreseen of this programme area. (0 Re-evaluate presentconsumptionand producthe tion patternsin order to reduce the use of energy and national resources.PRONE FOR BASIS ACTION 7.54 ln orderto enhance skills of energyserviceand the OBJECTIVE in all 7.58 The objectiveis to enable countries.53 The Conference secretariat estimated costs of this programme in of implementing the activities of chapter9 (Protection the atmosphere). andhydro sources. of major resettlement populations. (e) Promotetheexchange informationamongcounfies of of and representatives local and metropolitanareas.rction. fiscal andtechnologytransfermechanisms. biomass (ii) Provide access research and developmentresults to efficiencylevelsin humansettleenergy-use to increase ments.55 Natural disasters causeloss of life. directed (iv ) Cany out information andtrainingprogftImmes and at manufacturers usersin orderto promoteenergy-saving appliances.particularly for highly susceptible low-incomegroups.national.particularly for the use of solar. they are estimated have caused lion deaths and affected800 million people. (c) Strengthen regional.state/provincial.ANDCOSTEVALUATION has the 7. appropriate: as (a) Provide on-the-joband other training of governand managers traffic engineers ment officials.asappropriate. larly ttreuseof solar. Decadefor Natural claimedthe I 990sasthe International Redr.

vulnerabilityto another risk reduction may increase house madeof wood will be more an earthquake-resistant vulnerableto wind storms). pre-disaster reconstruction.60 To promote a "culture of safety" in all countries. the of especially reconstruction community lifelines. (e) Developingtools (legal. and pre-disaster planning . A OF A) DEVELOP'NG CULTURE SAFETY 7. and builderson disaster-resistant construction Some programmes should be directed particularly to smallenterprises. (b) Developing methodologies for determining risk and and vulnerabilitywithin specifichumansettlements incorporatingrisk and vulnerability reductioninto the process. that limitationson development optionsarenot ensuring punitive to owners.as one type of municationand transportation (e. (ii) Promotingclose collaborationbetweengovernmental and local authorities.as a major partnerin post-reconstruction rehabi and litation.. which build their own aswell asto the rural populations. for (g) Developing training programmesfor contractors methods.emergency comtnunications.and facilitate their participationin early warning and disasterabateprocedures plans. ment and response and Preparing action plans fbr the reconstructionof 0) settlements.shoul ensurethat d involvedderivethe greatest benefits from the the countries funds allocated undertaking following activities: the by (a) Carrying out research past experiences the on on of reconstrucsocialand economicaspects post-disaster tion and adoptingeffectivestrategies guidelines and for post-disaster reconstruction.The folof human settlement included: lowing shouldbe (a) Undertakingcompletemulti-hazardresearch into of human settlements and settlerisk and vulnerability includingwaterand sewerage. and the and land usein hazard-prone construction pre-disaster of socialandeconomicadvantages adequate planning. to (c) Strengthening and/ordevelopingglobal. design and operation of potentially hazardous industries and activities. (i) Developing procedures practices enable local and to communities to receive information about hazardous installationsor situationsin these areas. translatingthe above knowledge into information easily comprehensible to the generalpublic and to the populationsdirectly exposed hazards. PRE-DTSASTER PT. early warning techniques.local communitiesand organi zationsand privatebusiness non-governmental .ANNING B) DEVELOPING planning shouldform an integralpart 7. to 6l .their impact on peopleandeconomicactivities.inter alia: theseareas (i) Restructuring the economic activitiesand proof in sound moting new job opportunities environmentally sectors. to (d) Preparing guidelines on location. (iii) Developing conandenforcingstrictenvironmental trol standards. to nationaland local early warning systems alert populationsto impendingdisasters. (b) Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaignsthrough all availablemedia.planning and post-disaster ture of safety". activitiesshouldbe carriedout: (a) Completingnationaland local studies thenature on and occurrenceof natural disasters. effectsof inadequate the areas. sustainable settlement (b) Preparingand disserninating internationalguidelines for adaptation nationaland local needs. regional.non-governmental organizations and community groups which cover all aspects disaster of mitigation.) to encourincluding meansof age disaster-sensitive development. including urban searchand rescue.economicetc.62 The international community.61 Pre-disaster planningin all countries. networks. which build thegreatmajority of housing andothersmallbuildingsin thedeveloping countries. (0 Further developing and disseminatinginfbrmation on disaster-resistant building materials and construction technologies buildingsand public works in general. planningand management humansettlement POSI-DTSASTER c) TN|T|ATTNG RECONSTRUCT/ON AND REHA PTANN'NG BILITATION 1. with particular on emphasis development-focused strategies the allocation of in scarcereconstruction resources. (d) Identifyingindustriallybased environmental disaster areas at the national and internationallevels and implementingstrategies aimed at the rehabilitationof through.or incorporate meansof alternative compensation. comment infrastructure.g. the fclllowing especially those that are disaster-prone. (c) Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements areasnot prone to hazards. houses: (h) Developing training programmes for emergency site managers. on the opportunities and provides to introduce reconstruction that post-disaster patterns.

based.as appropriate and in accordancewith nationalplans.iorsourceof environmental darnage throughdepietionof'the natural resource base.OG\C AL N S AN ME A 7. second. pr e. credit schemes and bulk procurement buildins of DE AI C) HUM A NR E SOU R C E VE L O P M ENND CA P A CI TY-B U IL D IN G 7. much as possible. ACTIVITIES 7. 66 T r ain i n g p ro g ra mme ss h o u l d b e extendedto governmentofficials and plannersand contmunityand non-govemmental organizations cover all aspects to of disaster rnitigation.while avoiding harmful sideeffects on human health and on the biosphere.infrastructureand employment.and. (c) Adopt standardsand other regulatory measures which promote the increaseduse of energy-efficient designsand technologies and sustainable utilization of natural resources an economicallvand environmenin tally appropriate way. and ing in the developing countries. G) PROMOTTNG SUSTATNABTE CONSTRUCTTON ACTIVITIES INDUSTRY FORACTION BASIS 7. degradation fragileec-o-zones.dis as tep l a n n i n ga n c lc o n s tru c ti o n.63 The Conf'erence secretariat estimated aver( 1993-2000) implementing age total annualcost of the activities this programme be about$50 rnillion from of to the internationalcotnmunity on grant or concessional terms. to adoptpoliciesandtechnologiesand to exchange informationon them in order to enablethe construction sectorto meet human settlement development goals.through.objectives and priorities: (a) Establishand strengthen the indigenousbuilding materials industry.first. 1. by Actual costsand financial terms. post-dr for MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION AI FINANC/NG has the 7.(c) Supporting to effclrts nationalGovernments initiate of planning. This should focuson the sn-rall business which build the majority of enterprises housingin the developingcountries. specificstrategies programmes and Governments decide upon for implenrentation. (b) Formulateprogrammes enhancethe utilization to of localmaterials theconstruction by sectorbyexpanding technicalsuppoftand incentiveschernes increasing for thecapabilities economic and viability of small-scale and informal operatives which make use of thesematerials and traditionalconstruction techniques. 8/ 5C/ E N IF tC D T EC H N O T . (d) Formulate policiesandintroduce appropriate land-use planning regulationsspeciallyaimed at the protectionof eco-sensitive zones against physical disruption construcby tion and cons0uction-related activities. inputs as on of locallyavailable natural resources. the achievement the nationalsocio-econornic of development goals of providing shelter.65 Developing countries shouldconducttrainingprogrammes disaster-rcsistant on construction methods for who buildthe majorityof houscontractors builders.including any that are will depend upon. the non-concessional. such as early warning techniques. OBJECTIVES 7.68 The objectives are. inter alia. of chemical pollution and the use of building materialsharmful to humanhealth.with pafiicipationof affectedcomcontingency saster reconstmction rehabilitation. (e) Promotethe use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance technologies which generate employment in the constructionsectorfor the underemployed labourforce found in mostlargecities.while at the same time promotingthedeveloplnent skills in theconstrucof tion sector: (f) Developpoliciesandpractices reachtheintormal to sector and sel f-hel p housi ng bui l ders by adopt ing measures increase affordabilityol-buildingmaterito the als on the part of the urbanandrural poor.Governments shouldwork in close collaborationwith the private sectorin achievins theseobjectives. enhance employment-generation to the capacity of the construction sector.67 The activities of the construction sector are vital tcr 62 . eurd munities.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. r post-di saster constnrctron rehabi and litation. they can be a ma.64 Scientists engineers specializing thisfield rn and in both developingand developed countriesshould collaboratewith urban and regional plannersin order to providethebasicknowledge andmeans mitigatelosses to owing to disasters well as environmentally as inappropriatedevelopment.However.inler uliu.69 All countriesshould.

threecross-sectoral face human resolrrcedevelopmentand capacity-building shortfalls. as appropriate. (d) Promote information exchangeand appropriate with particular technologytransferamongall countries.ving 63 . discourage use of construction the to materialsand productsthat createpollution during their life cycle.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only and havenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude Actual costsandfinanbeenreviewedby Governments. s i a l s o b e a s s i s t e d n d e v e l o p i n gp r o g r a m r n e t o e n a c o L l r a gte e u s eo f n o n . account should be taken of traditional cultural practicesof indigenous people and their relationshipto the environment. HUrylAN RESOURCE H) PROMOTTNG DEVETOPMENT AND CAPACITY. socialsector: institutions.transport. construction. settlement management.materialsfor sale to small-scalebuilders and comrnunities. however. In order to do so. will cial terms.BUILDING d s 7.including the development on of databases the adverse environmental effects of effortsof the throughthecollaborative buildingmaterials privateand public sectors.includingany thatarenon-concessional. land management. parlicularly indigenous people and women..for resource ment in construction. builderawareness available of sustainable 1.g. (c) Promotethe use of economicinstruments.particularly for non-renewable resources: (e) Promote researchin constructionindustriesand institurelatedactivities.16 objective is to irnprove hurnan resourcedevelopment and capacity-building in all countriesby enhancing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors. comincluding about $4 billion from the international terms.vi nterthe in nationalsupport andfundingagencies upgrading capacities the smallentreof technicaland managerial preneur and the vocational skills of operativesand in supervisors the building materialsindustry. the specificstrategies prograrnmes decideuponfor implementation. 7. 72 Der elopin gc o u n tri e s h o u l db e a s s i s te b. appropriate..additional stepsshouldbe takento reinforce those activities.75 Most countries.BUILDING HUMAN FOR NTs SETTTEME DEVELOPMENT FOR BASIS ACTION in 7. structure. In this regard. inter alia. through appropri ate 7 . third and specialized trainingand research is the insufficientcapacityfor technicaltraining a:rd for both assistance low-income cclmmunities. increase technologies.14 Local authoritiesare called upon to play a piouse of envineeringrole in promoting the increased ronmental l y sound l di ngmateri al s construct ion and bui procur ec. First is the absence an enablingpolicy of and environmentcapableof integratingthe resources activitiesof the public sector. 7 1 S p e c i f i c h u m a n r e s o u r c ed e v e l o p r n e n a n d t havebeenbuilt into eachof capacity-building activities the programmeareasof this chapter.using a ACTIVITIES 7 . ter planningandreconstruction. action: shouldtakethe follor. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated aver7. AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI B) HUMAN CAPACITY. privatesectorand the the or second the weakness is of community. manageattentionto developingcountries. involved in human settlement development.7| The Conference age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this prograrnmeto be about $40 billion. More gencrally. (b) Promotethe development and dissemination of and health efdatabases the adverseenvironmental c-rn and introducelegislationand fectsof building materials financial incentivesto promote recycling of energyindustryand conin intensive materials the construction producof servation wasteenergyin building-materials tion methods. and dependupon. by pursui ng i nnovati ve an ment pol i cy. and pre-disasenergy. s v a r i e t yo f t r a i n i n gm e t h o d sT h e s ec o u n t r i e s h o u l d . 7 3 G e n e r a l e d t r c a t i o np r o g r a m n r e ss h o u l d b e to in as developed all countries. all countries. urbanand rural. such as product charges. Governments OBJECTIVE 'fhe I .and establishand strengthen tions in this sector.70 All countriesshould: (a) Promotethe free exchangeof information on the of and entirerangeof environmental healthaspects conand dissemination struction. additionto shortcomings the in of availability specializeexpertise the areas housof in d infraing. technol ogi es.w a s t c n dc l e a nt ec h n o l c l g i e s h transferof technol ogl .

OECD In indushiolized countries. (c) Tofoster endeovours oimed closing ot scientific engineering ond loss in in criticolgops knowledge orderto reduce of lifeondproperty. private and communitysectors. and building activitie ME A A B J sC /E N i l FtC N D TE C H N OT. on government expenditure housing.1991. community groupsand non-govemmental development. into local tal management and non-govern7. ore os follows: (o)Toimprove copocity eochcountry mitigote effects to the of the of poyingspeciol noturol ottendisosters expeditiously effectively. 2See for ond the report of the Director-Generol Development preliminory stocontoining Internotionol Economic Cooperotion Notions system tisticol of dotoon operotionol octivities theUnited for I 988 lA/ 44/324-E/ 1989/ 106/ Add. l99l)1. officioldevelopment ossistonce humonsettlements. out in ihe onnexto Generol set 44/236. demonstrotion col ossistonce technology ond ond toiloredto specific disosters ond troining. of Report. I 99. economic and developenvironmentalaspectsof human settlements ment.(a) Strengthening development human resources of the and of capacitiesof public sector institutionsthrough so cooperation as and technicalassistance international in improvement to achieveby the year 2000 substantial activities. tobleI . on Report. e 6This policies. "sectorol of sisted 1 distribution investment c o m m i t m e in t I 9 8 8 .including any that are will depend upon.99 I (Woshington. city designed store. appointed. to ond o o n d i n t e r n o t i o ne xl c h o n g o n d d i s s e m i n o t i o n . World Development D. disosters. whichhosemborked o vigorous on during thesome housing progromme. ond Settlements oimedot theproduction disseminotion opplicotion softwore to porticipoting citiesof microcomputer notionol process retrieve dotofor locol. ond disosier-resisiont structures (b)To devise for guidelines strotegies opplying oppropriote ond tokinginto occount scientific technicol ond knowledge. prevention for meosures thecssessment. systems.C. I Bonk. 1991.4 per cent.C. (d) Providing direct assistance human settlement for at development the communitylevel. for 16 doto ovoiioblein the World Development of showthotthepercentoge centrol low-income developing countries omenities sociolsecurity ond government expenditure housing.80 Both formal trainingand non-formaltypesof human prograrnmes and capacity-building resource development should be combined. and capacityhumanresource of ing the results successful s.l9 8 9 " .OG| C A L NS 7. of the Internotionol Decodefor Noturol Disoster Assembiy resolution Reduction. to identifyingbottlenecks (e) Promotingthe inclusionof integrated environmengovernment general activities. and and professionalmembers of local govemmentsand priority training their capacityto address strengthening needs. programmes projects. tronsfer. inter alia. (e)Todevelop prediction. Actual costsand financial terms.|5. 3world D. World 39 per cent {World Bonk. modernaudio-visual communication 'No or expenditure on oggregote figures ore ovoiloble internol However.78 Both internationalorgamzations mentalorganizations shouldsupportthe aboveactivities training instituby. 64 .l).particularly in regard to social.theCiiy DotoProgromme of Centre Humon is olreodyin operoiion the UnitedNotions in on (Hobitot).988". io evoluote effectivenessthose the ond I MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG the has 7. I 1 iWoshington.79 The Conference secretariat estimated average total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe to of activities this programme be about$65 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms.6 ond welfore l9B9 overoged percent. the non-concessional. yeor. pilotprogromme thlstype. (c) Providing enhanced training and technicalassistance to institutionsproviding training for technicians.. and elected professionals administrators. existing theculturol ond economic diversity omongnotions. andyouth in humansettlements (ii) Facilitatingcoordination the activitiesof women. percentin thecoseof SriLonko.and use should be made of usereurd up-to-date trainingmaterials oriented trainingmethods. (d)Todisseminote informotion reloted ond new technicol existing prediction mitigotion noturol ond of to meosures forthe ossessment. of organiyouth. decide Governments and specificstrategies progranunes upon for implementation. inter alia.4. ond in of tion to ossisting developing countries the ossessment disoster worning systems potentiol in theestoblishment of eorly domoge ond whenond whereneeded. "Reported reloted UNDPasto investment commitments proiects.by: (i) for and Strengthening promoting prograrnmes social of of mobilizationandraisingawareness thepotential women activities.. Annu Report. zationsin humansettlements (iii) Promotingresearch women's programmes and on madewith a view other groups. toble Development Indicotors.3 per centto o moximum 49. progrommes technithrough of ond mitigotion noturol of disosiers proiects. stengtheningsubregional providingupdated and raining materials disseminattions. n 5 'A (CDP). inter alia. of locotions.1 witho highof for 5.and evaluatingprogress and needed assistance.Theseare indicativeand order-of--magnitude by mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. on .the percentoge centrol of ronged fromo minimum of omenities sociol ond security welfore ond withon overoge of 29. which monogement for lond+esource colls integroted in ore olso oddressed chopterl0 of Agendo 2 1 (lntegroted of to opprooch plonning ond monogement londresources).onnex). ZTh" gool. al aUNOp. ond educotion progrommes. the efficiencyof governmental (b) Creatingan enablingpolicy environmentsupportive of the partnershipbetween the public.

with in aboutchanges with Governments partnership lies private sectorand local authorities. of and otherpolicies. andenvironmental strategies plansto ensure and the progressi vei ntegrati on of envi ronmentaland developmental issues.ond environment development Integroting in decision-moking INTRODUCTION areas: the 8.In recent years.someGovemments have alsobegunto make sig- of in structures governnificantchanges the institutional of consideration mentin orderto enable more systematic when decisions madeon economic.goalsand objeccan also tives.sectoral policies. energy. planningand management of the levels. including in particular UNEP. mustbe bornein mind thatenvironmenmay posesevere economicand socialcosts tal standards if they are uniformly appliedin developing countries. (d) Establishing for environmental systems integrated accountine.nationalrules. planningand management ( b) P r ov iding a n e ffe c ti v e l e g a l a n d re g ul atory framework.1 This chapter contains following programme (a) lntegrating environmentand developmentat the levels.and including Governments. industry and individuals.regulations law.may be necessary envicountry-specific is ronment and development to be put at the centreof .transpoftation. following objectives proposed: are the (a) To conducta nationalreview of economic.3 The overall objectiveis to improve or restructure the decision-makingprocessso that considerationof issuesis fully intesocio-economic and environmental grated and a broaderrange of public participationaswill develop sured. overallframeworkin which suchintegration it In this context. needs. groups and the public in the science.This influences actions all groupsin society. Exchange experience between countries of be significant. for hasimportantimplications the efficiencyandsustainAn ability of development. policy. 65 . fiscal. Nationalplans. New torms of diafor betterintelogue arealsobeingdeveloped achieving industry. the light of of if conditions.agricultural.PTANNING AND ftTANAGEMENT LEVETS BASIS ACTION FOR in 8. are the environment trade social. adjustmentor even a funin damentalreshaping decision-making.national plans. UNDP and the World Bank. in collaboand the ration with national.aswell asthe implications policies in theseareasfor the environment.regionaland internationalorganizations. (c) Making eftectiveuseof economicinstruments and marketand otherincentives. policies and programmes. OBJECIMES 8.2 Prevailing systemsfor decision-making many economic. grationamongnationaland local government.With theunderstanding countries that prioritiesin accordance with their prevailing their own conditions. andthe specific and situationsin which difl-erent countriesare placedare the takesplace.environmental processof developingeffectiveapproaches environto The responsibility bringing for ment and development.socialand environcountries tend to separate mental factorsat the policy. ec onom ic and p o l i ti c a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g i n effect achieving a full integrationof thesefactors. and economic P R O G R A M MA R E A S E ENVIRONI ENTAND A) TNTEGRATING AT DEVETOPfrIENT THE POLICY.

at all levelsof decision-making. 66 . issuesinvolved in economic.scrcial environmental that is economicallyefficient.(b) To strengtheninstitutional structuresto allow the full integrationof environmentaland developmentalissues. the development (c) Establishingdomestically determinedways and of meansto ensurethe coherence sectoral. w here necessary. of where appropriate. economic and environmental issues. strengthenproceduresso as to facilitate the integrated considerationof social.developnienuse tal. social and in at environmental considerations decision-making all in all ministries.plans and policy insocial and environmental struments. (b) Adopting comprehensive analyticalprocedures for prior and simultaneous of assessment the impacts of including the impactswithin and among the decisions.economic.the datasystems processes may needto be supportsuchdecision-making whereapproin improved. and of (e) Ensuringtransparency and accountabilityfor.socialand environmental projectlevelto policies cedures shouldextendbeyondthe analysisshould also include assessand programmes. policies.economic. Governments.a broad range of analytical methods shouldbe encouraged asto provide so variouspointsof view. ACTIVITIES -MAKING PROCESSES DECISiON A) IMPROYING and 8.subjectto the requirements particularcircunrof stances necds. levelsand (b) Adopting a domesticallyformulated policy framework that reflectsa long-termperspective and cross-sectaking account toral approach the basisfor decisions. of. shouldreview the statusof their planningand managemodif . spheres. theenvironmental implications economicandsectoral of policies. facilitatingthe reception public viewsandallowing for effective participation. as of the linkagesbetween and within the variouspolitical. (d) To establish to domesticallydeterminedprocedures int egr at e e n v i ro n m e n t a n d d e v e l o p m e nti ssues i n decision-making. involvement concerned of at izationsin decision-making all levels. t "and ment systems and. collaboration. (d) Monitoring and evaluatingthe development process regularreviewsof the state systematically conducting and development. (c) Adopting flexible and integrativeplanning approaches that allow the consideration rnultiplegcials of and enable adjustmentof changing needs.social and environmental process. (e) Adopting integrated to deapproaches sustainable velopmentat theregionallevel. policies and programmes the following activities: for (a) Improving the use of data and information at all making systematic stages planningand management.Countrieswill develop their own priorities in accordancewith their national plans. ment of costs. (c) To developor improve mechanisms facilitate the to groupsandorganindividuals.5 To supporta more integrated usedto and analyticalmethods making. priate.integrative level can areaapproaches the ecosystem watershed at or assist this approach: in (d) Adoptingintegrated parlicumanagement systenrs. larly for the management naturalresources: of traditional methodsshouldbe studied or indigenous and considered wherever they have proved effective: \ /omen's traditionalrolesshouldnot be marginalized a resultof the as introductionof new management systems. ecologicaland environmental data.To do this. ing incorporation efficiencycriteriain decisions: inof struments shouldbe regularlyreviewedand adapted to ensurethat they continueto be effective.including fiscal measuresand the budget: these mechanisms should apply at various levels and bring together those interested in the development process. SYSIEMS PI.analysisshoulcl stressinteractionsand synergisms. with national and international orgamzations.includingtransbclundarv areas. will developtheir own prioritiesin accordance Countries with their national plans. with a view to by sustainable developmentachievements the assessing varioussectors departments govemment.ANN'NG B) IMPROVING AND MANAGEMENI to approach decision8.4 The primary needis to integrateenvironrnental processes. (0 Ensuringaccess the public to relevantinfbrmaby of tion. economic and social of human resources and trendsand the stateof the environment and conditions naturalresources: could be complemented annual this by environmentand developmentreviews.benefitsand risks. policies and programmesfor the following activities: (a) Ensuring the integration of economic. decision-making developmental Governmentsshould conduct a national review and. theseproeconomic.improve the processes decisionmaking so as to achieve the progressiveintegration of issues the pursuit in and economic. socially of development equitable and responsibleand environmentally sound. of and simultaneous of social. and (D Using policy instruments(legal/r"egulatorl' and seekeconomic) a tool for planning as andmanagement.

collaborationwith thenationaland international scientific community and in cooperation as with internationalorganizations. Research objective of assistingpolicy decisionsand providing practices. are suitedto country-specific AWARENESS PUBLIC D) PROMOIING with nationalinstitutions in 8. based inter alia. on reconunendations improving management AND /NFORMAT/ON c) DATA for could developsystems monitoringand 8. upon AND ENY'RONMENI B] RESEARCH'NG CI'ONS DEV LOP E MENI INTERA in 8. socialandenvironmental across economic. vininnrentaction plans shouldbe fully usedand incordevelopment poratedinto a country-drivensustainable strategy.7 Governments" cooperation. of potentialcontributions dift-erent OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated averl{. nashould strengthen with intemationalorganizations.It shouldbe based a thorough possible nt assessme of the currentsituationand initiatives. should national.by includinginterdisciplinary and university other in asappropriate. with whereappropriate. the importance considering and in environmentanddevelopment anintegratedmanner. procedures involving local comfor (h) Estatrlishing and planningfor environmental in rnunities contingency and maintainingan open exchange industrialaccidents. NAI'ONAI. in 8. on. inter alia.E Thc Conference (199:l-2000) implementing the of age total annualcost million from to actir iiit's of thisprogramme be about$50 conrmunityon grant or concessional thc-irrternational estiternls.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude matesonlv andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. irt peuticularthe advantages by for opportunities participation and cff'ective equitable wornenshouldbe discussed. in 8. They should also undertakesystematictraining of governmentpersonnel. in should promote awareness the public at large. decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes for implementation. 67 .9 Governments. as well of of asin specializedcircles. of the irnplenrcntation decisions should of in particularly respect Agenda2 I .vocational. for should establishmechanisms facilitating a direct exchangeof informationand views with the public.6 Countries of evalr. trchnical. cooperation. Actual costsand financial terms. the build uponandharmonize varioussectoral social and environmentalpolicies and plans that are gainedthrough opcratingin thecountry. the non-concessional. development for strategy sustainable takenat theConf'erence. clf informationon local hazards. This strategy economic. particularly for approaches. curricula. exist. cooperation. Priority and should be given to highlighting the responsibilities socialgroups.giving priority to the requisiteintegrative that techniques approaches planningand management and conditions. To do this. they should improve. womenandgirls.to undertakethe integrationof environmentand developmentat various stagesof the decision-making and implementation process. shouldadopta national with international orgamzations.ration progresstowards achieving sustainable changes that measure by development adoptingindicators dimensions. regional or internationalorganizations. or are dehurnanresources ensurethat essential veloped.the media and the internationalcommunity. shouldbe developed It on participation.plannersand managerson a regular basis. The experience suchas nationalreportsfor eristing planningexercises strategies enand nationalconservation the Conf-crence. economic and environmental considerwith the explicit shouldbe undertaken ations.1I Countries.educationand technical training. in 8. AND IRA'N/NG EDUCATION C' ENHANC'NG FOR A D) ADOFTING NAnONAL STRATEGY B SUSIA/NALE DEVELOPMENT where appropriate. E/ SIRENGIHEN'NG ITY INSI'IUi/ONAL C APAC where appropriate.should intensify efforts to clarify the interactionsbetweenand within social.including any that are will depend upon. appropriate. cooperation and groups.Its goals shouldbe to ensuresociallyresponsible economic developmentwhile protectingthe rebaseand the environmentfor the benefit of future sourcrc throughthe widest gcnerations.responsi(g) Delegating planning and management bilities to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistent of with el'fectiveaction.10 Countries.12 Governments.

regionalplans. of To effectivelyintegrate environment development and in the policiesand practices eachcountry. preparationand di stri buti on of gui dancemateri al . Technicalcooperation requirements this field include in legal information.It social. including appropriate instruments and compliance incentives. surveyof existingagreements The undertaken preparations indicated in the contextof conference has problemsof compliancein this respect. Attention should be given to moving away from narrow sectoral approachesand progressingtowards full cross-sectoral coordination and cooperation. althoughthe volincreasing. ACTIVITIES A) MAKTNG LAWSAND REGUTAT/ONS MORE EFFECTTVE 8.the integrationof environment and development policiesthroughappropriate legal and regulatory policies.of competent international organijudicial and administrative zations.18 Governments and legislators. with the support. state/provincialor local/municipal level) are also essentialfor the implementationof most internationalagreements the in field of environment and development. moni tor and enforce l aws and regul ati ons. instruments and enforcement mechanisms the national.policies and prograrunes. economic. and spe cialized training.countries shouldtakeaccount o1'their international obligations. In developing their nationalpriorities.K BASIS ACTION FOR 8. B) ESTABL/SH/NG AND JUD\C\AL A DM/NIsTRAT E PROC RE IV EDU S 8. shouldestablish pro- 68 . OBJECTIVES 8. hasnot beenendowedwith the necesor sary institutional machinery and authonty for enforcement and timely adjustment. Bl PROVIDING AN EFFECTTVE rEGAL AND REGUTATORY FRAMSWOR.14 While there is continuousneed for law improvement in all countries.with the support. state. umeof legaltextsin thisfield is steadily much of the law-makingin many countriesseems be ad hoc to and piecemeal.it is essential of to develop and implement integrated. of competentinternational organizations.provincial and local programmesthat assess and promote compliance and respond appropriately to non-compliance.13 Laws and regulationssuited to country-specific conditionsareamongthe most importantinstruments for policiesinto transforming environment development and action.Programmes this purposecould include for the promotion of public awareness.With theunderstanding countries that will develop their own priorities in accordance with their needsand nationaland. but also as a normative framework for economic planningand marketinstruments. illustratedby as the frequent treaty obligation to report on legislative measures. public officials who for desi gn.education programmes and conferences. having due regardfor local social valuesand infrastructures.in the light of country-specific conditions.developmental and environmental issuesat all levels of developmentdecision-making and implementation. should regularly assess laws and regulations the enactedand the relatedinstitutional/administrative machineryestablished the national/state local/municipal at and levels in the field of environmentand sustainable development. advisory services and specialized trainingand institutional capacity-building.16 The overall objectiveis to promote.provincial and local levels. not only through "command and control" methods.whereappropriate.regulations and standards that are adopted. where appropriate. ecological. with a view to encouraging their wider use and adoptionat the national.whereappropriate. (c) To encourage developmentand implementation the of national. including workshops.state.the following objectivesare proposed: (a) To disseminateinformation on effective legal and regulatory innovations in the field of environment and development. Technical support may for be needed many countries accomplish to thesegoals. national. enforceable and effectivelaws and regulations that arebased upon sound principles. economic and scientific is equally critical to develop workable programmes to reviewandenforcecompliance with thelaws.provincial and local at levels. Yet.many developingcountrieshave been affectedby shortcomings laws and regulations. i mpl ement. related technical assistance.17 Governments. and the needfor improvednationalimplementation and.15 The enactment and enforcement laws and reguof lations (at the regional. with a view to renderingthem effective in practice.where appropriate.tional institutional capability and capacity to integrate social. seminars. 8. (b) To supportcountriesthat requestit in their national efforts to modernize and strengthen policy and legal the framework of governancefor sustainable development. 8.state.

regulationsand standards that are basedon soundeconomic.22 Contractingpartiesto international of consultationwith the appropriatesecretariats relevant shouldimprove as intemationalconventions appropriate. regularlyreviewing compliance. Suchsystems legal and administrative of in includeassistance the preparation comusefully inventoriesand reviews of national legal prehensive the has systems. orand trainers. relatingto sustainable and other countriesas approintemationalorganizations could include: priate.24 The prograrnme and translation of ongoingwork for legaldatacollection. incorporatingsanctionsdesignedto punish violations.and for cedures legal reclress remedyof actionsaffecting that may be unlawful or environmentand development infringe on rights unclerthe law.social and environmental principles and appropriaterisk assessment.detectingviolations. for (c) Institutional capacityfor collecting compliancedata. AND DEVELOPMENT ENYIRONMFNI strategies developintegrated 8.and conductingperiodic evaluationsof the efof fectiveness complianceand enforcementprogrammes.AWS ON AND PROY/NCIAT LOCAL STATE. The strategies (a) Enforceable. TO TOLLOW'UP OF F/ NAnONAL MONTTOR/NG LEGAL EN I.23 The Conference age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 million from the international community on grant or concessional esterms.including any ments.groupsand organizations iegal interest" recognized AND REFERENCE LEGAT C) PROVIDING SERY/CES SUPPORT and non-govern8.OGICAL B/ SCIENI/F/C on reliesessentially a continuation 8. development law (sustainable of to the specificrequirements the recipient adapted could systems. NATIONAI EFFECTIVE E) DEVELaP'NG AND FOR PROGRAMMES REVIEWING WITHNAI/ONAI. Suchtrainingshould and environment development and boththeeffectiveapplication theprogressive address improvementof applicablelaws. obtain redressand deterfuture violations. States by the sovereign IRA/N/NG A COOPERATIVE D) ESTABL'SH/NG LAW DEVELOPMENT FORSUSIAINAEI. especiallyfor trainees trainingfacilitiesin and programmes in-service graduate law.ctual will that are non-concessional. could.and the training of negotiating. inter alia. (b) Mechanisms promotingcompliance. 69 . .E NEIWORK institutions and academic international 8. the related skills of drafting and mediation.NTERNAIIONA/NSIRUM IS in agreements.A. ernmentsand grated programmeof environmentand development carefully law) services. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governcostsand financial terms. Intergovernmental non-governmental alreadyactive in this field could cooperate ganizations to with relateduniversity programmes harmonizecurriculum planningandto ol r an optimalrangeof options and Governrnents potentialsponsors. to maximize compliancewith its laws and regulations from with assistance development.effective laws.closer cooperation and would avoid duplicationof databases concerried coul d f ac ilit at e div is i o n o f l a b o u r. and should provide with a to access individuals. T h e s e a g e n c i e s ex am ine t he po s s i b i l i ty a n d me ri t o f p e rformi ng n r ev iewsof s ele c te d a ti o n a l e g a l s v s te m s .20 Competent to cooperate provide.with an intelegislators.21 Each country shoLrld MEANS AND IECHNOI.19 Competentintergovernmentai to could cooperate provide Govmentalorganizations upon request.undertakingeffectiveenforcement. Contractingparties legal andregulatorymeasures samplesurcould undertake agreements to international veys of domesticfollow-up action subjectto agreement concerned.Pastexperience demonstrated usefulnessof combining specializedlegalinformation services with legal expert advice. 8. fratneworks. to interested MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION Ai F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated aver8. COMPLIANCE ENFORC/NG I. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. within agreed postfrom developingcountries. practicesand proceduresfor coliecting information on taken.Within the United Naarnongall agencies tions system. . dependupon. (d) Mechanismsfor appropriateinvolvementof individof and ualsandgroupsin thedevelopment enforcement laws and regulationson environmentand development.est tablishingenforcemen priori ties.

regulations standards sustainable and on development. including those that are market-oriented.The purposeof theseef(both human and instituforts is to developresources tional)to design andimplement programmes effective to continuously revierv arrd enforce national loc:al and laws.asappropriate. 8.26 A mitjor part of the programmeshouldhe oriented tow'ards intprovingthe legal-institutional capacities of conntries copewith national to problems governance of and effectivelaw-makingand law-applying the field in of environment sustainable and development. e D/ S T RE N GT H F N /N G A rAN D IE G /NSI/IUIlONALCAPACITY 8. c-hallenge the is to achievesignificantprogress the yearsaheadin in meetingthreefundamental objectives: (a) To incorporate environmental costsin thedecisions of producers and consumers to reverse tendency and the to treattheenvironment a "freegood" andto pass as these costson to otherpafisof society. in order to: (a) Establish effbctive combinations of economic. well as providing financial as resources meetsustainable to development objective s. priorities and objectives. useof marthe ket principlesin the framing of economicinstruments and pol i ci esto pursuesustai nabldevel opm ent . 70 . This wouldbeachievedbyprovi ngcost-eftective utions.law and regulation suitedto country-specific conditionsas part of a general transition to economic and environmental policiesthat are supportiveand mutually reinforcing.uAKrNG EFFECTTVE OF ECONOMTC USE INSTRUMENTS AND IYIARKET AND OTHERINCENTIVES BASIS FOR ACTION i1.assessment. (c) To include. regulatory and voluntary (self'-regulatory) approaches.vn be high.28 During the past several years. Prices. workshops conferences reviewand and on enforcement that havebeenheld to datehavebeenvery successful and well attended. to The senrinars. Regional centres o1't-'xcellence be designatcd supported could and to build up specialized databases rrainingtacilities and for linguistic/cultural groupsof legalsystems.27 Environmental law and regulation are important but cannot alone be expected to deal with the problenrs of environnrent and development. Govemments should consider gradually building on experience with economic instruments and market mechanisms by undertaking to reorient their policies.29 Within a supportive international and national ACTIVITIES A) tMPROylNG OR REOR/ENI/NG GOVERNMENIAT OLICIES P 8. Demandfor this type of for postgraduate in-service and trainingis knor. othercountries orfuture generations: (b) To move more fully towardsintegrationof social andenvironmental costsintoeconomic activities. Closercooperation between existingdatabases may be expected leadto betterdivisionof labour to (e. (b) Remove or reduce those subsidiesthat tJo not cronform with sustainable development objectives. have been making increasing use of economic approaches.25 Participation trainingis expected benefit in to practitioners from developing countries to enhance and training opportunities women. keeping in mind national plans. 8.32 ln the near term. c) . that so priceswill appropriately reflectthe relativescarcityand total value of resourcesand contribute towards ttre prevention environmental of degradation.whereverappropriate.policies and prograffrfiles. and C) HUM A NR ES O U R C E EL OP M F N I D EV 8. di sol appl yi ngi ntegrated l uti onpreventi on nt r ol. markets and r e ( r V er r n l e n t a lf l s c a l a n d e c o n o r n i c p o l t c i c s a l s ( )p l a v a conrplr-nrelttarv role in shaping attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. economic context and given the necessary legal and regulatory framework. primarily in industrialized cluntries ut also in Central c b and Eastern Europe and in developing cctirntries.9. 8.30 What is neededis an appropriate effort to explore and make more effective and widespreaduse of economic and market-oriented approaches within a broad framework of development policies. many Governments. OBJECTIVES 8.31 While it is understood counrries that will develop their own prioritiesin accordance with their needsand nationalplans. txarnples include lhe polluter-pays principle and the ntore recent natural-resource-u ser-pays concept..pr opol co rnoting technological innovationand influencingenvironmentalbehaviour. in geographical coverage nationallegislative of gazettes and other rel'erence sources)and to irnproved standardization compatibilityof data. economic and market-oriented approaches in many cases can enhance capacityto deal with the issues environment of and development.

in co8. soundtechnology in countries conformitywith chaptet34. should explore.38 lncreased effort alsorequiresa concerted ing marketmechanisms. e x c h a n g eo f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t be s s c ount r iesex pe ri e n c ew i th s u c ha p p ro a c h es houl d ' actively encouraged. in cooperation be therefore initiated. of by greatcrunderstanding what it means accompanied should Processes in steps thisdirection.37 Thetheoretical and need to be better understood. for of suchpri ci ngpol i ci es dn' el opi ng 'Ihe in valuing environmental (c) used methodologies costs. in interest economic 8. and forestry.and and for centives competitiveness international potential needs for appropriatefuture international serv'ices. the (cl) Establisha policy lramework that encourages in of creation new markets pollutioncontrolandenvironmanagement.33 In particular. tn this regard. OF U F/ FN H A N C /N G N D E R S IA N D /N G S U S IA /NA8I .tourism and tertiary OF UNDERSIAND/NG THEROI.E D/ /NCREAS/NG A /N OF E C ON OMIC S IR U ME N ISN D MECHANIS/I4S MARKET 8.-14 special tions of the use of economic instrumentsand market of geared theparticularneeds developing to mechanisms countrieswith economiesin transition. issues. to developing FOR A PROCESS E) ESTABLISH'NG P R /C IN G ON FOC U S /N G of advantages usingpricingpolicies8. ctlrporations.r ronmentalcostsappropriate help achievesustainable objectivcs: development of pricingin the case (b) The implications resource tor n nfries. research ate.35 Given the recognitionthat the use of economic i i n s t r u m e n t sa n d m a r k e t m e c h a n i s m s s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t .E D E V E LOP ME FC ON OMIC S NI includinstrtrments. tions. countries and of with the assistance regional and internationalecoand. appropriate' operation and effectiveusecan be madeof economicinstruments in marketmechanisms the following areas: agriculture transportation. resource mentally sclunder with sustainable (e) Move towardspricing consistent obj development ectives. development of to improve understanding sustainable by: ecclnomics (a) Encouraging of institutions higher learningto resttrdies sustainable in andstrengthen view thcir cun'icuia cconotni cs: derel oprtrent (b) Encouragingregionaland international economic 71 . and transnational dustry. Governments the should encourage use of existing meansof inforto mation exchange lclokat eflbctive usesof economic ins t r um ent s .asappropriorganizations nomic andenvironmental by: institutes.as appropriate.health. (b) Global and transboundarv of irnplications (c) The possible socialanddistributive (c) Thedevelopmentandintroductionofenvironmentally usingvarious instruments" diftusionand transfer and its adaptation.Governments how as and with business industry.of (c) Reform or recastexisting structures economic and developto and fiscal incentives meet environment ment objectives.to examine: nationaland international (a) The practical implications of moving towards greater relianceon pricing policiesthat intemalizeenviti.large enterprises at as well asother socialgroups. (a) Issues relatedto energy. and coordination cooperation .non-governmental (a) Providing technicalsupportto thosecountrieson instruments of relatingto the application economic issues mechanisms. IncIu<li g the i rnpli cations cou resource-exporting countri es. as well as non-governmental as: with a focuson suchkey issues (a) The role of environmentaltaxation suited to national conditions: and in(b) The implicationsof econornicinstruments trade.wastes. where appropriate.possibly. both the levels.36 Governmentsshoul d encourageresearchand and analysison effectiveusesof economicinstruments of and with the assistance support regionaland incentives international econornic and environmental organrzaresearchinstitutes. to takesignificant inwith business. regionalseminars of regionalcentres expertise' of developrnent OF AN c) :REATING /NyENTORY EFFECTIVE A /N O US E S F E CO N O MIC SIR U ME N ISN D M A RK EM E CH AN /SM5 T 8.water. BJ IAKINGACCOUNIOF THEPARTICULAR COUNIR/FS OF CIRCUMSTANCFS DEVELOPING WITHECONOM/ES AND COUNIR/ES /N IRANS/I'ON eflbrt shouldbe madeto developapplicaA 8. and market the (b) Encouraging atld.

trainingof nationalaccountthe ants.are included.keeping member States informed of the statusof the work throughoutthis process.40 The Conference secretariathas estimated the average total annualcost (1993-20CI0) implementing of the activitiesof this programme be about$5 million to from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.the utilization of sustainable development indicators national in economic and socialplanningand decision-making practices.IEEAs would be designed to play an integral part in the national development process. As sustainable development encompasses social.41 A first step towards the integrationof sustainability into economicmanagement theestablishment is of bettermeasurement the crucial role of the enviof ronmentas a sourceof naturalcapitaland as a sink for by-productsgenerated during the production of manmade capital and other human activities.44 The Departmentof Economic and Social Development of the U ni ted N ati ons S ecretari at .to organizetraining programmesfor the private sectorand other groups. satelliteaccounts.42 The main objectiveis to expandexistingsystems of nationaleconomicaccounts orderto integrateenvironin ment andsocialdimensions theaccounting in framework.to the extent consistent with soundtheory and practicability. further develop.43 The Statistical Office of the United Nations Secretariat should: (a) Make available to all member States the methodologiescontainedin the SNAHandbookon Integrated Environmentaland Economic Accountingl (b) In collaboration with other relevantUnited Nations organizations. rather than a substitute traditionalnationalaccountingpracfor. and industrial enterprise and transnational orporation with s c s expertisein environmentalmatters.including transnational corporations. Actual costs and financial terms. includingat leastsatellite systems accounts natural for of resources all memberStates.I. of 8. close in collaborationwith other relevantUnited Nations organizations. (c) Encouraging includinglarge business industry.It also involves internationaland regional economic and environmental organizations agencies and with expertise in this area. adaptation and development nationalIEEAs.should: (a) Support. int e r a l i a .IENTAI AND ECONO. COO?ERALON 8. (c) Coordinate. ACTIVITIES A/ STRENGTHEN'NG /NTERNAI/ONAI. will depend upon. D) ESTABLTSHTNG FOR TNTEGRATED SySTEryrS ENVIRON. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewedby Governments. in The resultingsysterns of integrated environmental and economic accounting (IEEA) to be establishedin all member States at the earliest date should be seenas a complementto.economicand environmentaldimensions.it is also important that national accountingprocedures are not restrictedto measuringthe productionof goods and servicesthat are conventionallyremunerated. including any that are non-concessional. ticesfor the foreseeable future.researchinstitutes organizationsand non-governmental with expertisein this area to provide training sessions and seminarsfor governmentoffrcials.test. decision-making National accounting agencies shouldwork in closecollaborationwith nationalenvironmental statisticsas well as the geographicand natural resourcedeparlrnents. close cooperation in with other internationalorganizations. The definition of economically active could be expandedto include people performing productivebut unpaidtasksin all countries. environmental andeconomic accountins all countries in is proposed. refine and then standardizethe provisionalconceptsand methodssuchas those proposedby the SNAHandbook. This would enabletheir contribution to be adequatelymeasured and takeninto accountin decision-making. environmental statisticians and nationaltechnical staffin smallgroupsfor theestablishment. A/ F/NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATION 8. in all member States.39 This programme involvesadjustments reorienor tation of policieson the part of Governments. OBJECTIVES 8. with a view to ensuringthat IEEAs are usefully integratedin economicdeveloprnent planningat the nationallevel.YTrc ACCOUNTING FOR BASIS ACTION 8. in Aprogrammeto developnational systems integrated of 72 . th e s p e c i fi c s tra te g iesand programmesGovernments decide upon for implementat ion. A common frameworkneedsto be developed wherebythe contributions made by all sectorsand activitiesof society. t hat ar e no t i n c l u d e d i n th e c o n v e n ti o nalnati onal accounts. MEANS IMPLEMENTAIION OF 8.

/NSI'IUI'ONS 8/ SIRENGIHEN'NG of 8. physical environmental 73 .51 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averof age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe activitiesof this programmeto be about$2 million from the international community on grant or concessional esterms. PROCESS AN C) ESTABL/SH/NG ASSESSMENI MEANS IMPLEMENIATION OF 8. COOPERAilON IECHNICAL E/ STRENGTHEN'NG Office of the United NationsSecreta8. public : (b) To developand implenrentmethodsand rules for development. SVSIEMS NAflONAI"ACCOUNTING B/ STRENGTHFN'NG 8. agenciesshould considerfinancing the developmentof intersectoral data banks to help ensure that national is on development based precise. through transparent and consumers the authorities.ECIION /NFORMAIION could considerimplement8.water. National inin charge stitutions should play a crucial role not only as the estabbut of depositary the system alsoin its adaptation. dependupon. inter alia. shouldalsobe sousht. (b) The Statistical Office shouldprovidethe necessary in technicalsupportto memberStates.48 Governments (a) To provide relevant environmental information creditors. the S tati sti cal Of f ice should provide appropriatesupport for establishing with relevantUnited Nations' IEEAs. the programme could be dealing with national adoptedmainly by the agencies stawith environmental in close cooperation accounts. in close collaboration with relevant United Nations for existing mechanisms should strengthen organizations. the StatisticalCommission should assembleand review experienceand advisememberStateson technicaland methodological and relatedto the furtherdevelopment implemenissues tation of IEEAs in memberStates.50 The Statistical riat.46 At the internationallevel.49 NationalCiovernments in enhancemenl datacollectionto set ing the necessary in place national IEEAs with a view to contributing Major pragmaticallyto sound economicmanagement. corporations: shouldencourage 8. reporting to shareholders. the specific strategiesand prograrnmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. tisticsand naturalresource makers and analysts decision economic national assisting of nationaleconomicplanning.45 At thc national level.52 To ensurethe application IEEAs: (a) Nationalinstitutions developing could countries in be strengthenedto ensure the effective integration of environment and developmentat the planning and levels decision-making . in collaboration agenci es.in satellite national accountsand couldbea first step Time-use surveys statistics.This should also include exchangeof experiencein ttre establishmentof IEEAs. AND DATA D/ SIRENGIHENING COII.Efforts should also be made to develop Intemationaldonor accounts. govemmental employees. suchasdomestic where appropriate. for accounting sustaining AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FTNANC/NG has 8. particularly in connection with the valuation of in and naturalresources standardization data non-marketed collection. and continuoususe.energyand ronmentalprogrammes other naturalresources.includinggender-disaggregateddata. the effortsshouldbe madeto augment capacityto collect data and informationand to environmental and analyse' it integrate with economicdata.(b) Promote improved environmentaland economic and socialdatacollection. planningfor sustainable information andis suitedto national reliableandeffective conditions. Actual costsand financialterms.47 Governments to measures correctprice distortionsarisingfrom enviaffectingland. inand transnationalcorcluding large industrial enterprises porationswith experiencein valuation of such resources. Unpaid productivework lishment work andchild careshouldbe included. technical cooperationamong countries. The cooperationof businessand industry. with a view to departments. economic of in the process developingthesesatelliteaccounts. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. shouldseekto identify and consider 8.including any will that are non-concessional. closecollaboraby process be established to tion with the assessment the S tati sti cal C ommi ssi on.

53 Guidelines mechanisms and couldbedeveloped and agreedupon for the adaptationand diffusion of information technologies developingcountries. of especiallyin developingcountries. should strengthen national institutional 74 . store.State-of-theto art datamanagenenttechnologies shouldbe adoptedfor the most efficient and widespreaduse of IEEAs.as well as training decisionmakersto usesuch information in a pragmaticand appropriateway. Training in all areas related to the establishment IEEAs. D/ STRFNGTHEN'NG NAr/ONAL CApACtTy 8.c/ ENHANCTNG USEOF THE IN FORMAIION TECHN OLOGY 8. This shouldinclude technical training of those involved in economic and environmental analysis.54 Governments.will berequired. assess usedatain and decision-making.andat all levels. capacityto collect. with the supportof the international community.organize. datacollectionand nationalaccounting.

Section2 Conservotion ond Monogement of Resources for Development .

.

aswell ashealthimpacts factors. efficiency and consumption. 1992United NationsFrameworkConthe vention on Climate Change and other international.6 Concern about climate change and climate varinew ability. is understood containedin this chapterdo not the recommendations which exceed to obligeany Government takemeasures the provisionsof these legal instruments. the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as amended.1 Protection the atmosphere a broad and multidimensional endeavour involving various sectors of described economic activity.air pollutionandozonedepletion created has demands scientific. (iv) Tenestrial and marine resource development and land use.Governments free to caffy out additional measureswhich are consistentwith thoselegal instruments.In the caseof activthat it ities coveredby suchagreements. Transportation. is 9.instruments.are needed.4 In this contextparticularreference also madeto programme areaAof chapter of Agenda2l (Promoting 2 development throughtrade). D) TRANSBOUNDARY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION. C) PREVENTING OZONE STRATOSPHERIC DEPLETION.economicand socialinformation for in to reduce the remaining uncertainties these fields.3 It is also recognizedthat activities that may be in undertaken pursuit of the objectivesof this chapter with socialand economicdevelshouldbe coordinated mannerwith a view to avoiding opmentin an integrated the impactson the latter. sustainable 9.'VIAKING BASIS ACTION FOR 9.Protection theotmosphere of INTRODUCTION A) ADDRESSING UNCERTAINTIES: THE IMPROVING THE BASIS DECISION-Iv1AK|NG. However. are within the framework of this chapter.5 The presentchapterincludes the following fbur programmeareas: (i) (ii) Energy development. other bodiesin their efforts to protectthe atmosphere. socio-economic OBJECTIVES 9.asappropriate. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) ADDRESSTNG UNCERTATNTIES: THE IfrIPROVING THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR DECISION.2 It is recognized in in this chapterare also addressed suchinternational as agreements the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protectionof the Ozone Layer. discussed that many of the issues 9.taking into full account adverse for legitimatepriority needsof developingcountries the of economic growth and the achievement sustained of eradication poverty. 9. The options and measures for in thepresent chapterarerecommended consideration and implementationby Governments and. (iii) Industrial development. Better understanding and prediction of the various properties the atmosphere of the affectedecosysand of with andtheirinteractions tems. SCIENTIFIC FOR B) PROMOTTNG SUSTATNABLE DEVELOPMENT is of 9. including regional.7 The basic objective of this programmearea is to 77 .

10 The existingconstraints increasing environto the mentallysoundenergysupplies required pursuingthe for path towards sustainable development. in data assembly. and the associated ratesof changethat would not allow ecosystems adaptnaturally. by facilitating inter alia.and should takeinto consideration situations the o{'countries are that highly dependent incomegenerated on from the production. EFFtCtENCY CONSUMPTTON AND BASIS ACTION FOR 9. OBJECTIVES 9. i on.should: (a) Cooperate identifying and developingeconomin 78 . and the facilitation of the participation and trainingof experts and technicalstaff. Much of theworld's energy. the humanhealthand the environmentas a whole. the privatesector.This objectiveshouldreflecf the need for equity. build to capacityand enhance international cooperation. needto controlatmospheric The emissions of greenhouse and other gasesand substances will increasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy production.inter alia.including.11 The basicand ultimateobjectiveof thisprogramme areais to reduceadverseeffectson the atmosphere from the energy sectorby promoting policies or prograffrmes. ACTIVITIES 9. and on growing relianceon environmentally soundenergy systems. of additionalsystematic observation stations. regionaland local scale. the exchange scientificdataand of information. needto be removed. to (e) Promote.8 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. ACTIVITIES 9.and. distribution and use. to and improve understanding the economic and social of consequences atmospheric of changes and of mitigation and response measures addressing suchchanges. (b) Ensurea more balanced geographical coverage of the Global Climate ObservingSystemand its components. the situations and clf countries highly vulnerable adverse to effectsof climate change.12 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. biological. (c) Promotecooperation in: (i) The development early detectionsystems of concerningchanges and fluctuationsin the atmosphere.adequate energysuppliesand increasing energy consumptionin developingcountries. including impactson human health. transmission. and the private sector. of asappropri i ntergo ate. and by contributingto thedevelopment./or and consumption fcrssil of fuelsandassociated energy-intensive products and/orthe useof fbssilfuels fbr which countries haveserious difficultiesin switchingto alternatives. B) PROMOTING SUSTA|NABTE DEVETOPfrIENT I ) ENERGY DEVELOPMENT. utilizationandaccessibility of thesedatabases.improve the understanding processes of that influence and are influenced by the Earth's atmosphereon a global. with the cooperation the relevantUnited Nationsbodies_and. as appropriate. intergovernmental non-governmental and organizations. economicand socialprocesses. collection and assessment. well as asthecritical linkages between sustainable development and atmospheric changes. oceanic.' All energysources will needto be usedin ways that respect atmosphere. geological. (d) Cooperate research developmethodologies in to and identify threshold levels of atmosphericpollutants.particularly of developingcountries. however. vernmentalandnon-governme tal n organizations. (ii) The establishment improvement capabilities and of to predictsuchchanges fluctuations and and to assess the resultingenvironmental and socio-economic impacts. hydrological. particularlynew and renewable sources of energy. 9. physical. chemical. economicsectors and society.ecosystems. particularly new andrenewable ones. and should: (a) Promote researchrelated to the natural processes affectingand being affectedby the atmosphere.is currentlyproduced andconsumed in ways that could not be sustained technologywere to if remainconstant if overallquantities and wereto increase substantially. with the cooperation the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. increase contributionof environto the mentally soundand cost-effective energysystems.as well as atmospheric levelsof greenhouse gas concentrations. systematic and observation relatedto the atmosphere. transmiss di stributionand consumption.9 Energy is essential economicand social develto opmentandimprovedqualityof life. of as appropriate. theestablishment operation and . the fields of research.and cooperate the building of scienin tific capacities for. particularly in developingcountries. processing export. including the Global AtmosphereWatch.throughlesspolluting and more efficientenergyproduction. would cause that dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate systemand the environment as a whole.

taking into account and the specificlocal and nationalcircumstances safety aspects. soundenergyfrom cient distributionof environmentally energysources. less polluting and safer transport systems. order to improveenergyefficiency. throughenvironmental abledevelopment. examiningand implementing. appropriate. as well as for the in introduction. and to measures overcomeany barriersto their appropriate. national. (f) Review currentenergysupply mixes to determine soundenergy how the contributionof environmentally systernsas a whole. transit.as well asenvironmentally social. needswill undoubtedlyincrease. there is need for a review of existing transport systems and for more effective design and systems. countries.13 The transportsectorhas an essential and role to play in economicand social development. includingresource-efticient. development.subregional of efficient. pr o mo te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i c i e s or prosocialandeconomic includingadministrative. to andnationallevelsaccess andtransfer safe. countries.produceand useincreasto ingiy efficientand lesspolluting forms of energy. transferand development. particularly in developingcountries. sound and practicesfor environmentally of technologies energysysincludingnew and renewable energysystems. of rcnewahle sources energy. the privatesector. physical. more efficient. (c) Promote the research. Howtransportation sectoris alsoa sourceof atmosever.to soundenergysources icalty viablc.with observation'of particularemphasison the systematic database. technologies.and promotion of new and devekrprnent. as to as and appropriate.economicand political where characteristics. reduceor control. (e) Promcrte development institutional.sincethe transport pheric emissions. where applicable. as appriorities.subregional regional at efficiency environmentally and concerning energy levels s ener gY v s te m s : s c lund (l) Establish enhance. analysingand exchangingrelevantinformationon the relation betweenenvironmentand transport. efficient manner.evaluate opmentand environment pr opr iat e. appropriate. (g) Coordinate energyplansregionallyand subregionand study the feasibility of effially.as appropriate. tive. management traffic and transport of OBJECTIVES 9. attention developing to tems. taking into account the needs for sustainable economic and developmentpriorities.harmful emissionsinto the atmosphere other adverseenvironmentaleffectsof the transportsecprioritiesaswell as development tor. with particularattenof modernization power systems. as appropriate. of the particularlyin decapacities. 2) TRANSPORTATION BASIS ACTION FOR and positive 9. regional. new and renewable (h) ln accordance develwith nationalsocio-economic and.with particular scientific. (-i) Promote appropriate energyefficiencyandemission at or stanciiirds recommendations the national level.includingendogenous and giving specialattentionto the rehabilitation sectors. ACTIVITIES level.labelling programmesfor products to provide decision makers and consumerswith information on opportunitiesfor energyefficiency. develop. pactassessments. methodologies making integrated for appropriate for and economicpolicy decisions sustainenvironment iminter alia. lesspolluting transport and particularlyto the developingcountries.with the co9. and cost-effec(a) Develop and promote. nrcilsLlres. their effortsat collectas ing. of emissions and the development a transport (d) In accordance develwith nationalsocio-econornic 79 .15 Govemments the appropriate at operationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. cooperation in as or with the private sector.2 that and use of technologies at airnecl the development impacts the environmentl on mininrize adverse (k) Encourage proeducationand awareness-raising and granrrnes the local. limit.14 The basic objective of this programmearea is to develop and promote cost-effectivepolicies or programmes. including the implementationof appropriatetraining programmes. particularly new and renewable in could be increased an economically energvsystems.particularly integratedrural and urban mass soundroad networks. tion to developing transferand use (d) Promotethe research. planningand management velopingcountries. environmentally to energysupplies promotethe availabilityof increased efforts. (b) Facilitateat the international. and development use. in (i) Build capacityfor energyplanningand progralnme nranagement energy efficiency. and technologies pracuseof improvedenergy-efficient in technologies all relevant tices.intergovernmentaland non-governmental should: organizations. srarnmes. (c) Strengthen.taking into accountrespectivecountries' unique social. appropriate.in particularin development supportsustainable r c r le eloping ou n tri e s : (b) Promotethe development the nationallevel of at energy.

18 Governments the appropriatelevel.20 The objectives this programme utiliza(a) To promoteterrestrial and marineresource to: practices contribute that liind-use tion andappropriate (i) The reductionof atmospheric pollution and/orthe limitation of anthrcpogenicemissionsof greenhouse gases: (ii) The conservation. p ro m o te c o s t-e ffe c ti v e socialandeconomic grammes.installingor improving p o l l u t i o n a b a t e m e n tt e c h n o l o g i e sa n d r e p l a c i n g (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons as with appropriatesubstitutes. to be handledin an intesrated OBJECTIVES 9. DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE AND 4) TERRESTRIALMARINE IAND USE AND FOR BASIS ACTION policieswill both affectand and resoutce 9. asappropri intergovernmental non-governmental should: and organizations. gases: house (iii) The conservation use and sustainable of natural resources: and environntental 80 . and treshwaterand marine ecosystems. taking into accountthe life cyclesof products. Protectionof the atmosphere and resource inter ctlia. as appriorities. and transferof such (c) Cooperate the development in of and industrialtechncllogies in the development capacparticularly ities to manageand use suchtechnologies. adverse areaare: of 9. order to encourage on impacts theatmosphere.in order benefitsof to realize the economicand environmental more efficiently and producing fewer using resources wastes.19 Land-use by changesin the atmosphere.The lossof biologicaldiversity atmospheric to may reduce the resilienceof ecosystems climatic vari ati ons and ai r pol l uti on damage. ergy.evaluate opmentand environment p o l i ci es or propr opr iat e. reducingwastes its (b) Encourageindustry to increaseand strengthen and products processes to capacity developtechnologies. includingadministrative. countries. reducingthe environmental (0 Study. to assessments fostersustainable (e) Promoteefficient use of materialsand resources.by increasing can be enhanced. industryis a major industrial and materialsuser and consequently resource and into the atmosphere the activitiesresultin emissions environmentas a whole. and urban and planning strategies integratetransporl with a view to planning strategies.and. feasibilityof convening and the environment. may often divergeandwill need in diffbrentsectors tives manner.Certainpracbe affected and and marineresources land ticesrelatedto terrestrial qas sinks and increase decreasegreenhouse use can emissions.by improving industry of all resources and by developing technologies pollution-abatement soundtechnologies. well as Policy objecs. use of transportation in measures. in measures. potentialsfor enaccessible into accountarea-specific of sources energy.16 Industryis essential theproduction goodsand servicesand is a major sourceof employmentand infor as come. (0 Supportthe promotion of less polluting and more taking in and efficienttechnologies processes industries.environmentally OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIES at 9. modesthatminimizeadverse to mechanisms asappropriate. includingadministrative.A tmospher ic biodiveron can changes haveimportantimpacts forests. new. the privatesector.improveandapply environmental industrial development. all sinks for greenu. and useof all resources materials. as sity. and management ensurstainable of appropriate.hcre hancement. rncteasinrpactson the atmosphereby. materialsefficiency in industry. p ro m o te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i ci cs or prosocialandeconomic grammes. adverse ing efficiency in the production and consumptionby and materials. with respectto developing impact (d) f)evelop. with the United Nationsbodiesand. of cooperation the relevant and ate.particularlysafeand renewable with a view to limiting industrialpollution and adverse impactson the atmosphere. well as by substances and by-products. devel(a) In accordance with national socio-economic and. order to minirnizeindustrialpollution and impactson the atntosphere. on economicactivitie suchasagriculture. evaluate opmentand enl'ironment pr opr iat e.andindustrialdevelopment suchis essential economicgrowth. regional settlement impactsof transport. At the sametime. that are safe.within the frameworkof the United Nations the andits regionalcommissiotts.are lesspolluting and make more efficient includingenergy. (e) Developor enhance. on regionalconferences transport DEVELOPMENT 3) TNDUSTRTAL FOR BASIS ACTION of for 9.as appriorities.17 The basic objective of this programmearea is to in industrialdevelopment waysthatminimize encourage inter alia.

and i asappropriate. the private sector.Technologies and naturalproductsthat reducedemandfor thesesubshouldbe encouraged. for including making availablesubstitutes CFCs and and substances facilitating the other ozone-depleting to technologies developtransferof the corresponding ing countriesin order to enablethem to comply with the obligationsof the Protocol.21 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. ACTIVITIES 9. and intergovefflmental non-governmental asappropriate. While the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protectionof the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal that Protocolon Substances Depletethe OzoneLayer (as amendedin London in 1990) were important stepsin internationalaction. OZONE DEPEnON cl PRTENT|NG STRATOSPHERIC FOR BASIS ACTION 9. development as appr opr ia te .23 The objectives this progralrune 8l . the control measures (a) To realize the objectivesdefined in the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its 1990 in includingthe consideration thoseinstruamendments. and management cooperation (d) Promotesustainable of as and enhancement. of the stratospheric ACTIVITIES 9. stances (b) To develop strategies aimed at mitigating the adthe verseeffectsof ultravioletradiationreaching Earth's of surfaceas a consequence depletionand modification ozone layer. OBJECTIVES areaare: of 9.p ro mo te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o li ci es or pr ogr am m es . in the tropicalbelt in the southern of assessment (c) Participate activelyin thecontinttous scientificinformationand the healthand environmental implieffects.This canbe changed identifiedwithin the Protocol. coastaland marineecosystems.s oci al and environmenin economicmeasures.c o n s i s t e n tw i t h t h e M o n t r e a l P r o t o c o l . the privatesector.as well as of the technological/economic ozone depletion. with the of cooperation the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. and contribute. with the of cooperation the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. in the conservation sinks and reservoirs of greenhousegases. biomass.ntergovernmental non-governmental and orgamzations.22 Analysisof recentscientific datahasconfirmed the growing concernabout the continuingdepletionof the chlorineand ozonelayerby reactive Earth'sstratospheric CFCs. observation of additionalsystematic hemisphere. (b) Support further expansionof the Global Ozone by System facilitating.should: (a) Ratify. (c) Considerpromoting the developmentand use of terrestrial and marine resourcesand land-usepractices and changes that will be more resilientto atmospheric fluctuations. considertaking appropriate and marineenvithe fields of humanhealth. order to encourage practices: tally soundland-use that will dis(b) Implementpoliciesand programmes and polluting land-usepractices courageinappropriate and promote sustainableutilization of terrestrial and marineresources.agriculture ronment.t o w a r d s o n g o i n g e f f o r t s u n d e r t h e Montreal Protocoland its implementingmechanisms. the total chlorine loading of the has substances continwith ozone-depleting atmosphere with throughcompliance uedto rise. accept or approve the Montreal Protocol topay their contributions and its 1990 amendments.as a p p r o p r i a t e .and consider cations of stratospheric further actionsthat prove warrantedand feasibleon the basisof theseassessments.the establishment operation especially stations. t r e c o g n i z i n g h a t a r e p l a c e m e n t ' s u i t a b i l i t ys h o u l d on hol be eval uated i sti cal l yand not si mpl y base d it s or contri buti onto sol vi ng one atmospheri c en vir onmental probl em. appropriate.including as forestsand oceans. should: and organizations.evaluateand.halonsand relatedsubbrominefrom man-made stances.throughbilateraland Observing and multilateralfunding . ( a) I n ac c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l s o c i o -e conomi c and environmentpriorities. sub(e) R epl aceC FC s and other ozone-depl eting s t a n c e s . (d) Basedon the results research the effectsof the on of additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth'ssurin remedialmeasures face.(b) To ensurethat actual and potential atmospheric and ecologicalimand their socio-economic changes pacts are fully taken into account in planning and implementing policies and programmes concerning terrestrial and marine resourcesutilization and landuse practices. wards the Vienna/Montrealtrust funds and the interim multilateralozone fund promptly.i n c l u d i n g a d mi n i s tra ti v e . of needs andconditions the developmentsof the special and the availabilityto them of alternatives ing countries that to substances depletethe ozonelayer.24 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. well as other terrestrial.

multilateral and bilateral bases assess to transboundary pollution. cooperation in with the relevantUnited Nations bodies. managerial. and modellingand the development exchange emission and of controltechnologiesfor mobileand stationary sources air pollution. (b) Establish strengthen or early warningsystems and responsemechanisms for transboundary pollution air resultingfrom industrialaccidents and naturaldisasters andthedeliberate and/oraccidental destruction natural of resources. OBJECTIVES 9. measure. of (d) To develop capabilitiesto assess and mitigate transboundary pollutionresultingfrom industrialand air nuclear accidents. private sectorand financialinstituthe ti ons. of In this context. The lackof reliable emissions dataoutside Europe andNorth Americais a majorconstraint measuring to transboundary air pollution. the areas sysof tematicobservation assessment. (b) To observeand assess systematically sources the and extentof transboundary pollution resultingfrom air naturalprocesses anthropogenic and activities: (c) To strengthen capabilities.based on a review process and cooperativeprogrammesfor systematic observation air pollution. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF 9.Thereis also insufficient information on the environmental healtheffectsof air pollution and in otherregions. The geographical distribution atmosof phericpollutionmonitoring networks uneven. air (0 To develop strategies aiming at the reduction of emissions causingtransboundary pollution and their air effects. is with the developingcountriesseverelyunderrepresented. including cooperationwithin the United Nationssystem.through . 9.and relevantwork shouldprimarily continuein those contexts. (c) Facilitatetraining opportunitiesand exchangeof data. organizations. acidification the enof vironmentandphoto-oxidantdamage forests other to and vegetation.26 The 1979Conventionon Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.28 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.shoul d: (a) Establish and/orstrengthen regionalagreements for transboundary pollution control and cooperate.29 Existing legalinstruments havecreated institutional structures which relate to the purposes theseinstruof ments.causes.In this contextreference madeto the is recommendations chapter38 of Agenda21 (Internain tionalinstitutional arrangements). suchas treeandforestlossand the acidification of waterbodies. and 9.planning and administrativecapacitiesto promotesustainable development and the protectionof the atmosphere.socialand othereffects. natural disasters and the deliberate and/oraccidental destruction naturalresources.greater emphasis shouldbe put on addressing extent.D) TRANSBOUNDARY ATMOSPHERTC POUUnON BASIS ACTION FOR 9. internationaldonors and non-governmental organizations. with the cooperation the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. the healthand socio-economic impactsof ultraviolet radiation.25 Transboundary pollutionhasadverse air healthimpactson humansand other detrimental environmental impacts. exchange information and training of experts. ACTIVITIES 9. economic. Theseprogrammes need to be continuedanclenhanced. air particularlywith developing in countries. to modelandassess fate the andimpacts transboundary of airpollution.andelaborate air and implementprogrammes identifyingspecificactions to reduce atmosphericemissionsand to addresstheir environmental. haveestablished a regionalregimein Europeand North America. of (e) To encouragethe establishment new and the of i mplenientati of existingregionalagreements limir on for ing transboundary pollution.and its protocols.27 The objectives this programme of areaare: (a) To developand apply pollution control and measurementtechnologies stationary for and mobile sources of air pollution and to developalternative environmentally soundtechnologies.inter alia.30 Countries. should mobilize technicaland financial resourcesand facilitate technical cooperation with developingcountriesto reinforce their technical.assessment of and inforrnationexchange. information and national and/or regional experiences: (d) Cooperateon regional. of asappropri i ntergovernmental non-govemmental ate. the particularlyof developingcountries. all relevantsectors. Governmentsshould continue to cooperate andenhance theircooperation theregionaland at global levels. and their experience needsto be shared with other resionsof the world. in 82 .

regionol economic 'New 83 .3i Educationand awareness-raising development and cerning the promotion of sustainable need to be introduced the protection of the atmosphere at and strengthened the local. the specific concessional.34 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averof age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe activitiesunderprogrammeareaC to be in the rangeof $160 million to $590 million on grant or concessional estiterms.DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RESOURCE programmes con9. hydro. Actual costsand financial terms. of to ond humonpower. including any that are nonwill dependupon. has 9. international communityon grantor concessional These are indicative and order-of-magnitudeestimates Actual reviewed Governments. the specific strategiesand prograffrnes Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. solor ore energysources solorthermol. inter alia. nationaland intemational sectors.os referred in the reports the Committee of ond Utilizotion New ond Renewoble on the Development (see for preporedspecificolly the Conference of Sources Energy. inter alia. ond renewoble geothermol. promotedby or includesstondords recommendotions integrotion orgonizotions. Actualcosts andfinancial Governments..35 The Conference and pilot programmesunder paratechnical assistance graphs 9. levelsin all relevant AND COSI EVALUATION FINANC/At has the secretariat estimated aver9. by only andhavenot been costs and financial terms. decideuponfor Governments strategies programmes and implementation.33 The Conference secretariathas estimated the of averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) implementing the acti vi ti es of the four-part programme u nder prograrnme area B to be about $20 billion from the terms. dependupon.32 and9.| 51/PC/ 1 I 9 ond A/ AC.These are indicative and order-ofonly andhavenotbeenreviewedby estimates magnitude including terms. inter alia. 2Thi. A/CONF. 9. will any that are non-concessional.33.biomoss.218/1992/ 5l.onimol photovoltoic.32 The Conference the of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing activities under programmearea A to be about $640 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. secretariat includedcostingfor has 9.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude by mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. the non-concessional. wind. decide Governments and specific strategies programmes uponfor implementation.including any that are will depend upon. oceon.

land and geological and natural refac consideration il itatesappropriate s).By examway to achieve practical is an eminently it manner.2 The presentchapterconsistsof one programme approachto the planningand manarea.all environmental. of somestrengthening the izationand. does not which are nlore of aspects planning and management. minerals. which provide in are components organized ecosystems of to essential the maintenance the a varietyof services systemsand the productive integrity of lif-e-support are Landresources usedin of capacity the environntent. social and economic factors (including.considering. it is desirableto plan and manageall usesin an manner. P R O G R A M MA R E A E TO APPROACH THE PLANNING A) TNTEGRATED AND MANAGEMENTOF LAND RESOURCES FOR BASIS ACTION are 10. natural view alsoincludes integrative These waterandbiotathatthe landcomprises. thus maximizing sustainable to productivity and use.e.all and naturalresources) environment (i.l Land is normallydefinedas a physicalentity in terms of its topographyand spatial nature. wherenecessary. includingexistingpolicies.Integrationshouldtake placeat two integrated on levels.humanrequirements to it manner. is closelyrelated programmes that deal with that issuedirectly. structure. is now essential to be met in a sustainable conflictsand move towardsmore effective resolvethese Inteand efficientuseof landand its naturalresources. biota. makesit ining all usesof land in an integrated possible minimizeconflicts. land resources.on the other. use conflictsandresultingin suboptimal of both landand are If.. planning and tnanagement gratedphysical and land-use this.Sincethe for of aspect decision-making sustainable cross-sectoral to a numberof other it development. decision-making procedures methodsthat and planningand management to placean integrated approach can assistin putting in deal with the operational It land resources. the one hand. Expanding ment conditions everincreasing are activities placing ments economic and creatingcompetitionand on pressures land resources. it while the naturalresources Land is a finite resource. together components and resource environmental air.3 Land resources usedfor a variety of purposes with oneanother. on andsocialsectors the of impacts the variouseconomic and. for example. prowith underthe relevantsectoral dealt appropriately programme dealswith an important grammes. The essenceof the integratedapproachfinds in expression the coordinationof the sectoralplanning with the various activitiesconcerned and management of aspects land useand land resources. with environmental developof helpingto achievethe objectives sustainable ment.the integrated which dealswith the reorganof agement landresources. supportscan vary over time and accordingto managehuman requireand uses. a broader the resources: soils. water. source Integrated choices and trade-offs. Opportunities aliocateland to or differentusesarisein the courseof major settlement fashionas lands projects in a sequential or development becomeavailableon the market.This in turn provides to opportunities supporttraditionalpatternsof sustain- 84 .10 to opprooch theplonning Integroted of ond monogement londresources INTRODUCTION l0. of ways that take advantage all thesecharacteristics.therewhich interactandmay compete fore. in the future.to makethemostefficient to and to link socialand economicdevelopment trade-offs thus protectionand enhancement. 10.

shouldensure supthat policiesand policy instruments port the bestpossibleland use and sustainable management of land resources. establish intersectoral consultative bodigs projectplanningand implementation.an ecosystem a or watershed. humansettlements.5 The broadobjectiveis to facilitateallocationof land to the uses that provide the greatestsustainable to and andto promotethe transition a sustainable benefits of management land resources. (b) Adopt strategic frameworksthat allow the integration of both developmental and environmentalgoals. water. the national and local at ning and management andfor the developor levelsandecosystem arealevels.or able land management to assignprotectedstatusfor di of conservation biological versityor criticalecological services. they should: (a) Develop integrated goal-setting and policy formulation at the national.the objectives as follows: (a) To review and developpoliciesto supportthe best management of' possibleuseof land and the sustainable by landresources. not laterthan 19961 (b) To improveand strengthen planning. > Sfrengfhening sysfems planning ond monogemenl 10. management for by and evaluationsystems land and land resources.4 A number of techniques. if appropriate. This programme further developedand strengthened. To do this. primary environmental care (PEC) and others. They arethe indispensable process. not later than 1996.g. primarily with providinga fratnework areais concerned the decision-making..the Wor ld ConservationStrategy/Caringfor the Earth.6 Governments the appropriate support of regional and internationalorganizations. revise planningand should review and. by forlandandlandresources. 85 . exampl esof these framew orksi ncl ude sustainable l i vel i hood systems. landscape ecologicalplanning (LANDEP) or other approaches that focus on. management systems facilitateanintegrated to approach.7 Governmentsat the appropnatelevel. integrated social and economicissuesshould be environmental. rural development) can be developed. (d) Apply economicinstruments developinstituand the to tional mechanisms incentives encourage best and possibleland use and sustainable management land of resources.includinglaws.regionaland local levelsthattakes into account environmental. amongotherissues. order to identify improvementsneededto support sustainable land useand management land resources restrict and of the transferof productivearableland to other uses.for protected areas.rural devel opment. (c) Establisha general fiamework for land-useand physical planning within which specialized and more plans(e.P ro te c te da re a s . plansof action. t ak en int o c on s i d e ra ti o n . contentand that will coordinate not functionsaretherefore includedherebut operational are dealt with in the relevantsectoralprogrammesof 2 Aeenda 1.Particularattentionshould be given to the role of agricultural land.landandothernaturalresources.social. be ment. OBJECTIVES 10. To do this. and peopleat the local level. with the at 10. in regulationsand enforcementprocedures. Many of itselements are mentof specific already in place but need to be more widely applied. apcan be combinedto facilitatean integrated cesses supportfor the planproach. for example. pri vate peopleand their property rights. detailedsectoral agriculture. franteworksand pro10. are In more specificterms.demographic issuesand the interestsof into account: the localpopulation (c) Review the regulatoryframework. in cularly communities by on decision-making land use and management. notlaterthan anisms (d) To createmechanisms facilitatethe active into partivolvement and participationof all concerned. (e) Encourage principleof delegating policy-makthe ing to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistent with effectiveactionand a locally driven approach. they should: (a) Adopt planning and managementsystemsthat facilitate the integrationof environmental components using suchasair. (c) To strengthen n'rechinstitutionsand soordinating 1998. not later than 2000. (b) Develop policies that encourage land sustainable useand management land resources takethe land of and resourcebase.the rightsof indigenous and the ecoand otherlocal communities communities nomic role of women in agricultureand rural develclpshoulcl takeninto account. with the support of regional and internationalorganizations.forests.In doing so. demographicand economic issues. to streamline (d) Strengthenmanagementsystemsfor land and naturalresources includingappropriate traditional and by ACTIVITIES EL D IV A ) M A NA G E M EN I-R AT EAC T ITIE S > Developing policies ond policy instruments supportive level.

Bl DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON > StrengfA ening informotionsystems level. should launch awareness-raising alert and educatepeopleconcerningthe importanceof management the and land and land resources integrated role that individualsandsocialgroupscanplay in it. innovati procedure programmes. to flexible approaches programme (f) Compile detailed land capability inventoriesto management land allocation.10Governments the appropriate and with the supportof tion with national organizations should establish regionaland intemationalorganizations.in collaboraat 10. > Promotingopplicotionof oppropriote toolsfor plonning ond monogement 10.they should: (a) Strengthen observation and information. youth. AND COOPERAIION COORD/NATION > Estoblishing regionol mochinery 10.if necessary.8 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. they should: (a) Adopt improvedsystems the interpretation for and of analysis dataon landuseandlandresources. of application planningandmanagement andwidespread aptools that facilitate an integratedand sustainable To proachto land and resources. and land-use and management (b) Strengthen coordinationbetweenexistingsectorai and strengthen data systems land and land resources on data. innovativeand establish funding. climateand otherelements. This by should be accompanied provision of the meansto adopt improved practicesfor land use and sustainable management. projectsand service s ve s.such as women. do this. with the support of regional and internationalorganizations. community-managed systems information on the status for the collection of comparable including and processes change of land resources.through networks and other appropriate means.nationaland local levelsandfor land capability patterns.costsand benefitsof specificactions. further development should promotethe improvement. with thesupport regionalandinternational of fclr should strengthen information systemsnecessauy the futurechanges landuse on and makingdecisions evaluating should needsof bothmenandwomen andmanagement. > Roising oworeness level. guidesustainable resources and useat the nationaland local levels. (b) Promotethe development land-use of andphysical plansin the countries the region.economic and assessment social data related to land resourcesat the global.risks. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ FIN. and women. especially local communities to (d) Support low-cost.informationon experiences with the processand resultsof integrated and participatoryplanningand management land resources the nationaland local levels. they should: To (a) Study and design regional policies to support prograrnmes land-use for and physicalplanning. nationalcapacityto gatherand assess (c) Provide the appropriatetechnical information on necessary informeddecision-making land useand for form to all sectorsof the management an accessible in population.forestcover.practices include of methods.in collabora10. AND REG/ONAT C) /NIERNAI/ONAI. at of > Promoting public porticipotion level. (c) Analyse and test methods to include land and values national in functions andlandresources ecosystem accounts. and of shouldstrengthen regionalcooperation exchange informationon land resources. I Governments I attheappropriate and the privatesectorand tion with nationalinstitutions organizations. systematic systemsfor environmental.ANC/NGAND COST EVALUATTON 10. reserves) and terraced (e) Examineand.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the support of national and international organizations. indigenous and theircommunities otherlocalcommunities. examples these indigenous pastoralism.9 Governments theappropriate tion with national institutionsand interestgroups and organizawith the supportof regionaland international campaignsto tions. of soils. regional.Hema reserves(traditional Islamic land agriculture. and (d) Exchange. do this. integrated (b) Systematically for and applytechniques procedures the assessing environmental.wildlife. do this. of and the thatfacilitate encourage activeparticipation those affected in the decision-makingand implementation process. of (c) Designinformationsystems promotetraining.13 The Conference secretariathas estimated the aver- 86 .in collaboraat 10. especially groupsthat havehithertooften been of peopleand excluded.social and economicimpacts.The To be takeninto account.

socialand economicissues. applicabilityof improvedapproaches the the to planningand management land resources. 5 Governments theappropriate l at scientificcomtion with the nationaland international munity and with the supportof the relevantintemational should researchand test.demographic. tion with theappropriate non-govemmental orsanizations and internationalinstitutions. socialand institutional factors. through pilot organizations. (b) Trainingall relevantsectors to concerned dealwith in land resources an integrated mannerl and sustainable (c) Trainingcommunities. tem (b) Ecosystemic interactions interactions between and land resources social. decide andprogrammes Governments specificstrategies upon for implementation. projects.in collabora10.should 8'7 . services.16Govemments the appropriate at level.in collaboralocalauthorities.in collabora10. culturaland political factors. to: (a) Assessment landpotential of capability ecosysand functions. state/provincial at and local levels. and Priority should development management be given. > StrengtA ng technologicol eni copacity 10. > Enhoncing scientific understonding the of lond resources syslem D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG level. social. through: (a) Emphasizing and interdisciplinary integrative approaches the curricula schools in and technical. inter alia. integrated of includingtechnical.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude reviewedby Governments. relevant extension groupsand non-govemmental organcommunity-based izationson land management and approaches techniques appliedsuccessfully elsewhere.tailored to local environments. This shouldbe done by providingincentives fbr local initiatives local management and by enhancing capacity. shouldpromoteand support research. should promote focusedand concerted effortsfor education and training and the transfer of techniquesand technologiesthat planning supportthe various aspects the sustainable of and management process the national. MFANS AND TECHNOIOGICAT B) SC'ENI/F/C promotethe development the humanresources are of that required to plan and manage land and land resources sustainably. the non-concessional. Governments theappropriate l4 at with thc'national and international scientificcomtion nationaland munity and with the supportof appropriate international organizations. in cooperation with other Governments and with the supportof relevant internationalorganizations. the land on system and the implicationsfor sustainable resources practices. mates only andhavenot been Actual costsand financialterms.17Governments the appropriate at level. > Strength ng in stituti eni ons 10. and economic and environmental systems.as appropriate.includingany that are will depend upon. > Testing throughpilot proixts resqrch findings level. revisethemandates of institutionsthat deal with land and naturalresources to include explicitly the interdisciplinary integrationof environmental. vocaof tionaland university training. (c) Strengthen local decision-making capacityand improve coordination with higherlevels. (b) Strengthen coordinatingmechanisms betweeninstitutions that deal with land-use andresources management to facilitate integrationof sectoralconcemsand strategies. D EV C) HUM A NRE S O U R C E EL OP M EN T > Enhoncing education ond troining 10.of the age total annualcost ( 1993-2000) implementing to of activities thisprogramme beabout$50million fiom the international communityon grant or concessional estiterms. taking into accountenvironmental.whereappropriate.particularly of women. with the support of appropriate international organizations. (c) Developingindicatorsof sustainability land for economic. resources. should: (a) Reviewand.18Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.

88 . on conprogrammes. includingintersectcral mechanisms.administrative search coordination. This is especially and to holisticapproach the sustainable environmenand of tally sounddevelopment forests. UNEP the World Bank. AND THEMUITIPIE ROTES A) SUSTAINING OF FUNCTIONSOF AtL TYPES FORESTS.whereverpossible be tion in all sectors.The needfor securing the multiple roles of forestsand l'orestlandsthrough has adequate and appropriateinstitutional strengthening been repeatedlyemphasizedin rrrany of the reports. and forest lands inforestsand forest-based from which forestbenefits clusive. forestsand forest lands. mechanismsadopted to support and methods and economic.to strengthen capacities by to of and capabilities nationalinstitutions enablethemto knowledge for the protectionand acquirethe necessary conservation forests. programmes activities to and related themanagement and development forests. forest-related of enhance scopeand effectiveness activitiesrelated the develand to the management.where necessary.socialand developthe multiple ecological. of development techand organizations cooperatives. countriesare confrontedwith the effectsof developed pollution and fire damageon their forests. rolesof the indigenous non-governmental private sector. technicaland professional and capabilities skills.ll ng Comboti deforestotion P R O G R A M MA R E A S E OBJECTIVES of 11.plans. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI. of and decisions recommendations FAO. planning and programming. of (b) To strengthen and improve human.local organizations. and developmentof all types of servationand sustainable resources. Many cultural roles of trees.as well as otherareas canbe derived.as well as to expandtheir scope of of enhancethe effectiveness and. and and incentivesysand decentralization responsibility and publicrelaof and dissemination information tems.legislative patterns: pardevelopment and measures instruments.REI ACTIVITIES ATED I 1.More air are and approaches often required effectivemeasures the nationallevel to improve attdharmonizepolicy at formulation. the year 2000.3 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. skills and quality of human nical and multidisciplinary forestry extensionand public education. especially ticipation people. women and of the generalpublic. conservation sustainable opmentof forests.should. with the organand supportof regional.and to effectivelyensurethe sustainable utilization and production of forests' goods and servicesin both the developedand the developing the countries.ITTO. research projects management. correspondingly.involvementof youth.2 The objectives this programmeareaare as foll ow s: (a) To strengthen to nationalinstitutions. importantto eitsure rational a tions. LANDS AND WOODLANDS FOREST FOR BASIS ACTION i 1l. l T he re a re ma j o r w e a k n e s s e sn the pol i ci es.subregional international institutional enhance izations. as well as expertise to effectively formulateand implementpolicies. capabilityto promotethe multiple rolesandfunctionsof all types of forests and vegetationinclusive of other resources supporting in relatedlands and forest-based and environmentalconseryasustainable development This should done.reresources: structures capabilityand support.IUCN andotherorsanizations.

Some of the more specific activities include the following: (a) Collecting. (d) Developing and implementing plans and programmes.on the sustainable management of forests. on traditional uses of forest resources local populationsand indigenouspeople. the specific sftategies and programmes Govemments decideupon for implementation. There is need for strengthening coordinationand improving the performlatedi nternational organizations anceof exi sting forest-re in providing technicalcooperationand supportto interested countries for the management. depend upon. technicaland vocational levels.5 billion.and macrolevels.Theseare indicestimates only andhavenot ative andorder-of-magnitude been reviewed by Governments. endangeredspecies.4 Governments at the appropriate level. correlatingdemographic. to developan adequate staff at the professional. AND 'NFORMAI'ON B) DATA ll. AND REG'ONAI. areas suitable for afforestation. of forestswith regardto the multiple roles and valuesof trees.for example. decentralization decision-making.on the effectsof airbornepolluby tants. and acmental organizationsin forest-related within the cessto information and training prograrnmes national context. indigenunions. and promoting adequate legislation and other measuresas a basis against uncontrolledconversionto other types of land uses. if necessary. with the assistanceand cooperation of international. cJ tNrERN. and on improving market returns and other non-market values from the management forests. appropriate. MEANS IMPTEMENTATION OF A' F'NANC|ALAND COSI EVALUATTON I L6 The Conferencesecretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activities of this programme to be about $2.including definition of national and. (c) Reviewing and.and necessary.on biodiversity. with emphasis youth and women.while further developingor informareinforcing existingsystems suchasgeographic tion systems. inclusive of other related lands and forest-based resources. and undertaking periodic analyses of forest prograrnmes. (e) Establishing. (b) Establishinglinkages with other data systemsand sourcesrelevantto supportingforest management.n c l u d i n g p ro v i s i on of levels of staff and allocationof responsibiladequate provision ities. including any that are non-concessional. where relevant. conservationand development. of subregional and bilateral agencies. including about$860 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.labour local communities.youth.if necessary. (0 Establishing and/or strengtheninginstitutions for forest educationand training. by improving existing structures cooperationand coordination of their respectiveroles.developing and sustainingan effective system of forest extensionand public educationto appreciationand management ensurebetter awareness. compiling and regularly updating and distributing information on land classificationand land use.rural cooperatives. traditional/indigenous land. revising measures and programmesrelevant to all types of forestsand vegetation.biomassandproand ductivity. regional and subregionalgoals. as well as forestry induscadreof trained and skilled tries. as (c) Creatingmechanisms ensurepublic access this to to information.women. of of infrastructuralfacilities and equipment.usergroupsand non-governactivities.AilON.conservationand sustainable developmentof forests. including data on forest cover.5 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and institutions should cooperatein the provision of expertiseand other supportand the promotion of international research efforts. and relating them to other land usesand development policies and legislation. programmesand criteria for their implementation and subsequentimprovement.socio-economic forest resources information at the micro. 89 . Actual costsand finanwill cial terms.forestsand forest lands. in particularwith a view to enhancingtransferof technologyand specializedtraining and ensuringaccess to experiencesand researchresults. regional.At AND COORD'NAI'ON COOPERAI'ON I1. ous people.intersectoral coordination and an effective system of comm unic at ion. on (g) Establishingand strengthening capabilitiesfor reof search relatedto the different aspects forestsandforest products. ecological values. (b) Promotingparticipationof the privatesector.usevalues. Someof the major activitiesin this regardare asfollows: (a) Rationalizing and strengtheningadministrative str uc t ur es and m e c h a n i s ms i. inter alia. should develop adequatedatabases and baselineinformation necessaryfor planning and programme evaluation. strengtheningand/or modifying the by and and arrangements.

The impacts of loss and of degradation forestsare in the form of soil erosion. in all its component activities. and socialisconstraints programme formulation and imsues for supporting plementation. (c) Specialtraining for staff of national forest-related organizations in aspectssuch as project formulation. for example.l I The present callsfor urgentandconsistent action for conserving and sustaining forest resources. damage to wildlife habitats and deteriorationof the quality areas. teachingmaterials/methods.research trainingactivitiesspecified will form the scientific and technologicalmeansfor implementingthe programme.UIANAGEMENT AND THEGREENINGOF DEGRADED FORESTIS. conservation and sustainabledevelopment of forests.SUSTAINABLE AND CONSERVATIONOF AtL . forest rehabilitation. (b) To prepareand implement. harmful effects of airborne pollutaken by tants.Theseinclude: (a) Launching of graduateand post-graduate degree. (d) Developing.l2 The objectives this programme of lows: (a) To maintainexistingforeststhroughconservation and sustainand expandareasunder and management. programmes. The greening of suitable areas.economicincentivesand other measures other sectorsof the economy. national forestryactionprogrammes and/orplansfor the management.loss of biological diversity. in-serviceand exof at tensionservicetraining programmes the technical a n d v o c a t i o n a ll e v e l s . situation I I . These programmesand/or plans should be i ntegrated w i th other l and uses. regeneration.methodologyand know-how generated the will help improve efficiency. commerciallogging. shouldincludetheconsideration landuse It and tenurepatternsand local needsand should spell out and clarify the specific objectivesof the different types of greeningactivities. agricultural expansion. In activitiesspecified full capacities. c) DEVELOPMENT HUMANRESOURCE of I1.as well as its output. lack of ademismanagement. (b) Analysing researchproblems and researchneeds. shouldbe takenof the existingsystems 90 . with a view to maintaining restoring ecological balance and expanding the contribution of forests to human needsand welfare.and environmentallyharmful including. OI}IER REHABIUTATIVETEANS FOR BASIS ACNON I I .reforestationand tree plantor the ing. testing and applying appropriate in methodologies/approaches implementing forest programmesand plans. forest and tree cover. researchplanning and implementation of specific researchprojects. advantage buildingnew andstrengthened and experience. Bl ENHANCING rHE PROTECnON.EST AND REFORESTATION AFFORESTATION.9 This prograffrmearea is specifically concerned with capacity-buildingin the forest sector and all progranrme contributeto thatend.8 The specificcomponents foresteducationand training will effectively contribute to human resource development. tion of natural forests.THROUGH FOR. AREAS. Some of the programme specificstepsinvolved shouldinclude: (a) Analysingachievements.7 The planning. (c) Assessing skill develneedsfor humanresources. and periodicalevaluations. i n c l u d i n g t r a i n i n g o f t r ainer s / te a c h e rsa n d d e v e l o p i n g c u rr i cul um and . degradation watershed of of life and reductionof the optionsfor development. overgrazingand ununsustainable regulated browsing. The by systems. In thi s cent ext .is an effective way of increasingpublic awarenessand participationin protectingand managingforest of resources.afforestation.MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8' SC'FNilF'C and ll. quate forest-fire control and anti-poaching measures.protection.as appropriate. evaluation OBJECTIVES areaare as folI l. in appropriate areas of both dethroughtheconseryavelopedanddeveloping countries. increasing influencedby typesoflanduses.10 Forestsworldwide havebeenand arebeing threatto and enedby uncontrolleddegradation conversion other humanneeds. REHABITITATION. opmentand training. country-drivennational forestry action programmes and/or plans under the Tropical Forestry Action Programmearecurrentlybeing implementedin more D) CAPACTTY-BUlLD'NG ll. and research specialization (b) Strengthening pre-service.

indicatin inter alia.through improved proper planning. (0 Developing/strengtheningnationaland/ormaster a planfor plantedforests a priority. (e) Developing industrial and non-industrialplanted forestsin orderto supportand promotenationalecologically soundafforestaticln reforestation/regeneration and programmesin suitable sites. whereappropriate. socialand spiritualfunctionsandvalues. including upgrading of existingplantedforests both industrialandnon-indusof trial and commercialpurposeto increase their contribution to human needsand to offset pressure primary on old-growthforests. non-timber forest productsand services.involvrngin sint andex situmeasures. through technicalcooperationand other forms of support. taking into account economic the aspect futureplanted for forest development.within the frameworkof long-term forest conservation and management policies. management and timely implementationof silviculturaloperations.highlands. (c) Undertaking and promoting buffer and transition zone management. to for economicand ecologicalservices. pestsand diseases other human-made and interferencessuchasforestpoaching.shouldact to maintain and expand the existing vegetativecover whereverecologically. to (g) Increasing protection forests the of from pollutants. climatic. of with theparticipation of the private sector. the location. reforestation and rehabi itation.women. of includingafforestation. local government unitsandthe public at large. conservation management wildlife. including conservation forestsin representative of ecological systems and landscapes. as conservation genetic of resources. fire.Measures shouldbetakento promote and provideintermediate yields and to improve the rate of returns on investmentsin planted forests.adoptedby the United Nations Conferenceon Environmentand Development.including community forestry. nomiand of nationof World HeritageSitesunderthe World Heritage Convention. well as rehabilitationof degradednatural as foreststo restoreproductivity and environmental congiving particularattention humanneeds tributions.Governments. which include systemsof conservation units for their environmental. and on the basisof the implementation theseprinciplesto considerthe need of for andthefeasibilityof all kindsof appropriate intemationally agreedarrangements promoteinternational to cooperation on forestmanagement. socio-cultural and economiccontributionsof forestresources.through interplanting and underplanting valuablecrops. (e) To facilitate and supportthe effective implementation of the non-legally binding authoritative statement of principlesfor a globalconsensus the management. conservationof existing and future forest resources.Major activitiesto be considered include: (a) Ensuringthe sustainable management all forest of ecosystems and woodlands. (d) Carryingout revegetation appropnate in mountain areas. primary old-growth forests. (d) To maintainandincrease ecological. 9l . conservation sustainable and development all typesof fbrests. watershed soil protection.13 Governments shouldrecognize importance the of categorizing torests. expandingand managing. unmitigated shifting cultivation and the uncontrolledintroductionof exotic plant and animal species. and wildlife management. forestdwellersand local communities.socially and economicallyfeasible. agroforestry and silvipasture.as appropriate to eachnationalcontext. the biological.non-governrnental organizations. undertaking and supportivemeasures ensuresustainable to utilization of biologicalresources conservation biologicaldiverand of sity andthetraditionalforesthabitats indigenous of people. (b) Establishing.into different forest types and setting up sustainable units in every region/watershed with a view to securing conthe servation forests.arid and semi-arid lands and coastal areasfor combating desertification preventing and erosionproblemsand for other protective functions and national programmesfor rehabilitationof degradedlands.scopeand species. and forestgeneticresources. includinginventoryandrelevant research. giving emphasis nativespecies.indigenouspeople. peri-urbanand rural human settle: ments for amenity.degraded farm lands.than 80 countries. mining. appropriate. wood-based energy. and specifyingareasof existing plantedforestsrequiring rehabilitation. as g. while also taking into account the role of forests as nationalcarbonreservoirs and sinks.recreation and productionpurposes and for protectingtreesand groves.bare lands. well as developing as and accelerating research a betterunderstanding for of problemsrelating to fhe management and regeneration of all types of forests. on conservation sustainable and development all typesof of forests. I ACTIVITIES A) M A NA G E M EN I-R E IAT E D IV IT IES ACT 11. local community groups. agroforestry.protectedareasystems.and strengthening and/or establishingappropnate measures assess to and/orcheckinterbordermovementof plantsand relatedmaterials. (h) Stimulatingdevelopmenr urbanforestryfor the of greeningof urban. social forestry. with the supportof the intemational community. (c) To ensuresustainable management and.

MEANS AND TECHNOT. necessary.providing the scientific and technologicalmeansof implementation.OGtCAL 8/ SC/ENilFtC transfer/develplanning. women. information/experi(c) Documentingand exchanging ence for the benefit of countries with similar problems and prospects. and resources (c) Consolidating informationon genetic as including surveysand studies. AND INFORMAIION B) DATA shouldinvolvecolactivities I l.including youth. shouldincludethe following: (a) Increasing actionsto reducepollutants cooperative impacts affecting the health of trees and transboundary ecosysof and forestsand conservation representative tems. and improving the (d) Strengthening coordination the organizations capacity and ability of intergovernmental such as FAO.for (i) Launchingor improving opportunities participation of all people. andland-use of includingdataon shiftingcultivationandotheragents forest destruction. (0 Establishinglinkages with other data/information and management useof that relateto sustainable sources to forestsand improving access data and information.research. 0) Limiting and aiming to halt destructive shifting cultivation by addressingthe underlying social and ecologicalcauses. UNEP and UNESCO to provide and conservation technicalsupportfor the management. sustainable the negotiation of the InternationalTropical Timber Agreementof 1983.Theseare indicmunity on grantor concessional only and have estimates ative and order-of-magnitude Actual costs and not been reviewed by Governments. Specific activities of an intemationalnature. pollution and other environmentalissues. and initiating in-depth studieson the carboncycle relatingto different foresttypes to provide scientific advice and technicalsupport. and will dependupon.includingany thatarenon-concessional. ITTO. (e) Compiling andanalysingresearch dataon species/site usedin plantedforestsand assessing of interaction species the potentialimpact on forestsof climatic change.Someof the specificactivities includethe following: (a) Carrying out surveys and developing and implementing land-useplans for appropriategreening/plantrehabilitation ing/afforestation/reforestation/forest . relation with forests. the specificstrategies prograrnmes decideupon for implementaGovernments tion.taking due accountof the local needsand cultural values. on (b) Coordinatingregional and subregionalresearch air carbon sequestration.as well as effects of forests on climate. to (g) Developingand intensifyingresearch improve knowledge and understandingof problems and natural and rehabilitamechanismsrelated to the management on includingresearch faunaand its intertion of forests.7 billion from the international terms. on (d) Carrying out surveysand research local/indigenous knowledge of trees and forests and their uses to of improvethe planningandimplementation sustainable forest management.due in 1992193. indigenous peopleand local communities.16The Conference age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $10 billion.l4 Management-related lection.development and implementation of forest-relatedprograrnmesand other activities. compilation and analysisof data/information. (b) Developandapplyenvironmentally tee sound hnollisted.in supportof national efforts. C/ /NIERNAI/ONAI. (b) Consolidatingand updating land-useand forest information for management inventory and management planningof wood andnon-woodresources.in the formulation. ogy relevantto the variousactivities and (c) Increase actionrelatedto geneticimprovement AND REG'ONAI. and (h) Consolidating informationon forestconditions and emissions. relatedbiotechnology. AND COORD'NAI'ON ERAIION COOP is areas ataskof global of I L l5 The greening appropriate 92 . including baselinesurveys. I l. The international and regional community should provide technical cooperationand other meansfor this progratnmearea. immissions site-influencing importance and impact.l7 Data analysis. comincludingabout$3. should: Nationalinstitutions (a) Develop feasibility studiesand operationalplanning relatedto major forestactivities. for includingsupport of development forests. activities form an opment of technologyand/or training integralpart of the programmeactivities. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSI EVALUATION A) FINANCIAT the has secretariat estimated averI 1. inter alia. financialterms.

developmentof researchand technology. corrmunities. value-adding secondaryprocessingand tradein forestproducts. be sustainably can managed in a manner that is comphtible with environmental conservation. c) PROMOnNG EFFTqENT UTITZATTON AND ASSESSMENT RECOVER TO THE FUtt VATUATIONOF I}IE GOODS AND SERVICES PROVIDED FORESTS.20 The vastpotentialof forestsand forestlandsas a major resource development not yet fully realized.environmental conservation. cooperatives and entrepreneurs. with the support theprivatesector. shouldundertake following activthe ities.l9 National Governments.to promotemethodologies with a view to incorporating social. labour unions and non-governmental organizations shoulddevelopcapacities.economicand ecologicalvaluesof trees. whereappropriate. through extension and provisionof inputsand training. indigenouspeople.seedprocurement networks. thus helping to generate additionalemployment and income.forestsand forest lands. the private sector. implement the prograrune activities. biotechnology etc. with 93 . (c) Supporting local organizations.forestsand forest lands into the nationaleconomic accounting systems. Capacitybuilding activities include policy and legal f r am ewor k s . (b) Establishing demonstration areas serve models to as and trainingfacilities. public motivation and awareness. environmental considerations development and needs. (d) To promote more comprehensiveuse and economic contributions of forest areas by incorporating eco-tourisminto forestmanagement planning.in vitro techniques. for is The improved management forestscan increasethe of productionof goodsand services and. duly supporled relevant by international organrzatrons.economicand of ecologicalvaluesof trees. beingrenewable.in and particular women.l8 Essential meansfor effectivelyimplementingthe activitiesincludetrainingand development appropriof ate skills.seedtechnology.It is alsopossible increase valueof forests to the throughnon-damaging usessuchas eco-tourism and the managedsupply of geneticmaterials.applicationof biotechnologyfor improving productivity and tolerance environmental to stress and including. youth. (c) To promote more efficient and sustainableuse of forestsand treesfor fuelwood and energysupplies. rational and sustainable utilization of all types of forests and vegetationinclusiveof otherrelatedlandsand forest-based resources.germ-plasmbanks.management.developmentof infrastructure. enhancement of public awareness etc. Specificactivitiesinclude: (a) Providing specialized training in planning. the yield of wood and non-wood forest products.local organizations/communities. n a ti o n a l i n s ti tu ti o n b u i l d i n g .Forest resources.and increasedreturn on investment. in particular. BY FOREST TANDSAND WOODLANDS OBJECTIVES 11. of scientific institutions. (b) To promote efficient.for example. and to ensure their sustainable management a way that is consistent in with land use.working facilitiesand conditions. to Suchcapacities shouldbe developed strengthened and in harmony with the programmeactivities. and FOR BASIS ACTION 11.indigenouspeople. properly coordinatedat the national level. implications theharvesting forest The of of resources the othervaluesof theforestshouldbe taken for fully into considerationin the developmentof forest policies. nongovernmental organizations privateland owners. increasedcontribution to foreign exchange earnings. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT I l. tree breeding. products. non-gove{nmental organizations. Concerted action is needed order to increase in people'sperception the of value of forests and of the benefits they provide.21The objectives this prograrnme of areaare as follows: (a) To improverecognition the social. human resourcedevelopment. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING ll. farmers and indigenous people/shifting cultivators. additional value through processingand trade of forest ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R EDACTIV ES ELAT ITI 11.including the consequences the damagecausedby the of lack of forests. The survival of forests and their continued contribution to humanwelfaredepend a greatextenton succeeding to in this endeavour.. basedon sustainably managedforest resources and in accordance with plans that integrateall wood and non-woodvaluesof forests.throughthe development efficientforest-based of processingindustries. and in situ and ex situ conservation.22Governments.

ITTO andILO. in UNESCO.feasibility informarketsurveys studies. ensure necessary. 94 .fbr example.resins. UNIDO.including planted fbrests.24Cooperation assistance international and communityin technology izationsand the international and promotion of fair terms of transfer. and possible.from itttetrtational cooperatioll financialand techtrical organizittions: supplystudies. providea favourable and promotebetterltlanageluent.fibres. ITTO Guidelines Management TropicalForests.adoptingand strengthening and the programmes assessing economic for accounting valueof forests. non-economic AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA activities and management-related l 1. of developrnent all typesof forests: sound methodsand (c) Improving envit'onntentally which are ecologically practices fbrest harvesting.n c l u di ng farmi ng.income and retained value.specialization and/or trade. lor rtrethodtlltlgies a cotnand 0l Itttproving prottroting the prehensive assessment will capture l'ull valueo1' that that w forests. dyes. particular FAO. wherever throughappropriate environmenviableactivities.. if possible. bamboo) culturalproducts. forest pol pr oduc t sth ro u g h re l e v a n ti n s ti tu ti o n s .ensuringeconomic and social benefits without harmful ecologicalimpacts. programmes and through rattan. includingenvironmental proce ses ssingenterpri . fodder. Strengthin addressing of ening the coordinationand performance existing internationalorganizations.gums. and culthe and supporting husbandry and encouraging for tivation of wild species. i th a vi ew to i ncl udi ng val uei n th et nar kelof basedpricing structure wood and non-woodbased products. Someof therelevant activities (a) Undertakinganalysisof supply and demandfor efficiencyin their to forestproducts and services. for impromoting value-addingsecondaryprocessing proved employment. studies. improvedrural incomeand employment. and trade in. process(e) Promoting the andsupporting downstream valueandother products increase to retained ing of forest benefits: (0 Promoting/popularizing non-wood forest products apartfrom fuelwood and other forms of forestresources. c l u d i n g anni ng y s ound storage and use and management improved of equipment. (b) Carrying out investment analysisand feasibility for impacIassessment. of (k) Harmonizingsustainable development forests and tradepoliciesthat developnrent needs with national sounduseof forest with theecologically arecompatible for the resources.without resortingto unilateralrestrictions bans on forest products contrary to GATT and other and the application of multilateral trade agreements. forestactivities. (d) Supportingmarket surveysof forest productsfor tradepromotionand intelligence.23The objectives presuppose data and informationanalysis. including andeconomically tally sound practices management otherplantand of and silvicultural animalspecies. wherever utilization. (e) Facilitating provisionof adequate technological the informationas a measure promotebetterutilizationof to forestresources. establi shingfbrest-based (c) Conductingresearch the properties currently of on for underutilizedspecies their promotion and commercialization. wasteand improvethe valueof both wood and non-woodfbrestproducts: of (d) Promoting betteruseanddevelopment natuthe ral forestsand woodlands. (i) Promoting appropriatesmall-scaleforest-based and lor enterprises suppo(ing rural developttrcnt ltlcal entrepreneurship. and review of technological include: mation. UNEP. i ci es and facilities. (a) Canying out detailedinvestruc-nt il a d e r n a n dh a r n r o n i z a t i o n n d e t t v i t ' o n n t e n t an r p a c t trees attdtilrestutiliand to analysis rationalize intprove incentive appropriate andestablish zationandto develop arincludingtenurial nleasures. of pl and rn and e c o n o m i c a l lv i a b l e .g. of Sustainable national (l) Developing. useof. AND c) /NTERNAT/ONAL REG/ONAI AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAIION of organ11. expanding and/orimprovingtheeffecprocessing industand tiveness efficiencyof forest-based ries. will help marketmechanisms incentives and appropriate global environmental concerns. (g) Developing. and promoting/improvingrnarketsfor. maximizethe to and. transportation reduce. and schemes regulatory itrvesttnent clirnate to rangements. through research.ITC/UNCTAD/GATT. and sound criteria guide(b) Fonrrulating scientitically and conservation sustainable linesfor the tnanagenlent. both wood and non-woodbased. (e.involving such and technology improved conversion aspects efficient as residues: and utilization harvesting process of sustainable pr om ot in g u n d e ru ti l i z e ds p e c i e si n n a tural forests al and demonstration commerci ization. using.medicinal plants.includingresocialforestry/participatory and on search their processing uses. a s w e l l a s e c o -to u ri s m. (h) Promoting and supportingthe management of i wildlif e.

th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi es and p r o g r a m m e sG o v e r n m e n t sd e c i d e u p o n f o r i m plementation.relevant improved to utilization forest of resources.29 Assessment systematic and observations essenare tial components long-termplanning.ncl udi ng l ow shpsandstudy i fel i tours. ASSESSMENT AND SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS FORESTS OF AND RETATED PROGRAA/IftIES. management. These indicaare tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed Govemments. economicanalysis. implicitin theprogramme is activities. one of the is oftenneglected aspects forestresources.including establishing special trainingfacilitiesat all levels. of to including about $880million from theinternationalcommunityon grantor concessional terms. humanresources. regenerati on. quantitatively qualitatively. conservation development. 2 t l C a p a c i t y . AND COSTEVALUATION 11. Specialized trainingis an importantfactorin this regard. shouldinclude: (a) Developingrequiredspecialized skills to implement the programme. (d) Promoting efficiency and capability privateand of cooperative sectors throughprovisionof facilitiesand i ncenti ves. Improvi ngadmi ni strati on. PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES. courses. research and sci e nt if ic capabilities. manycases. New emphasisshould be given to the incorporation of women. ( b ) I n t r o d u c i n g / s t r e n g t h e n i nrg f r e s h e rt r a i n i n g e OBJECTIVES I L30 The objectives this programme of areaare as foll ow s: (a) To strengthen establishsystemsfor the assessor ment and systematic observations forestsand forest of 95 . however. 26 he pr og ra m m e c ti v i ti e s re s u p p o sm a j or reT p e a searchefforts and studies. for rectifying and and inadequacies. Dl ESTABUSHTNG AND/OR STRENGTHENTNG CAPACITIES FORTHEPIANNING. (d) Scientific investigations the development on and utilizationof non-timberforestproducts.OGICAL MEANS 11. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/AI. of management. uti for (c) Models and techniquesof outlook analysis and development planning. well as improvementof as t ec hnology T hi s s h o u l d b e c o o rd i n a te d y n ati onal .27The success and effectiveness the programme of area depend on the availability of skilled personnel.periodicalevaluations and evaluation.f br pr ov idingt e c h n i c aa s s i s ta n c e d g u i d a n c en thi s l an i programme areais anclther specific activity. promoteimprovedutilization.nat ional pol i nsti tuti ons. to (b) Development and application environmentally of soundandless-poll ng technology forestutilization.including any that arenon-concessional.h o w n di m p r o v e r o d u c kn p a tivity.technologydevelopment. c o l l a b o ra ti o n i th a n d s u p p o rted in w by r elev antint er na ti o n ao rg a n i z a ti o n a n d i n s ti tuti ons. updat e to s ki l l sa n d t e c h n o l o g i c a lo w .in te r a l i a . (e) Appropriatemethodologies assess value of to the forestsin a comprehensive manner. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING I l . i cy and pl ans.b u i l d i n gn c l u d i n gs t r e n g t h e n i no f i. INCLUDINGCOMMERCIAT TRADE AND PROCESSES BASIS ACTION FOR l l . 8/ sC/ENIIFIC AND IECHNOI.in quantitativeand qualitativeterms. by Actualcosts finanand cial terms. and In eventhe basicinformationrelatedto the areaand type of forests. thereis a lack of structures and mechanisms carry out thesefunctions. exi sti ngpotenti al andvol umeof harvests l acki ng. Human resourcedevelopment prografflme for implementation. b G ov er nm ent s . g existing capacity. 25 he Confe re n c e e c re ta ri ah a s e s ti mated T s t the average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activities this programme be about$ l8 billion. C ) HUM A N S O U R C E VE L O P M EN I RE DE 11. This mechanism. Thereis to an urgent need to rectify this situation for a better understanding therole andimportance forests of of and to realisticallyplan for their effective conservation. l s Someof the specificcomponents include: (a) Researchon propertiesof wood and non-wood products andtheir uses. I n i many developing countries. will depend upon. and penodical evaluations evaluation important and are components of capacity-building. and sustai nabl e velde opment. planning. (c) Strengthening capability for research.for evaluating of effects.

full dataanalysis.land action. lation and implementationof programmes (c) Making estimates impactsof activitiesaffecting of and conservationproposals. nationallevel.wherefeasible. of to the participation rural peoplein theseprocesses. this for cial support implementing programme of ing consideration the following activities: (a) Establishing conceptual frameworkandformulating a criteria.33The international necessary technicaland financoncerned Governments includarea. (d) Developingnationalsystems forestresource asof research and includingnecessary and sessment valuation.in order to supporta holistic approachto planningand programming. rethe to gionaland globallevels. of (d) Strengthening capacityand ability and improvthe ing the performanceof existing international organizations. of tematic observations forestsand relatedprogrammes improvement. ITTO. wherepossible.the impacts of prolands with a view to assessing projects activitieson thequalityandextent and grarunes. observations (a) Assessing carryingout systematic and and qualitativesituationand changes of the quantitative includendowments. ( e ) E s t a b l i s h i n gn e c e s s a r yi n t e r s e c t o r a la n d programme linkages. of forestresources. as appropriate. in the land tenure.consolidating and exchanging information and establishing baseline information on relevantto this programmearea.contributions foreststo other secconditionsand tors. and incorporatingresultsin plans and strategies and of in and. where necessary. observation and systematic (c) Strengtheningexisting regional and global networks for the exchange relevantinformation. National Governments. planners. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 11. and UNESCO and UNIDO. AND c/ TNIERNAT/ONAI REG/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION communityshouldextendto the 11. such as the ConsultativeGroup on International Agricultural Research(CGIAR). FAO. aspects (b) Harmonizing the methodologiesfor programmes accuinvolving dataandinformationactivitiesto ensure racy and consistency. programmeformulation. the which accountfor. with appropriateinternationalagencies wherenecessary. norrns and definitions for systematic acceptable of and observations assessment forestresources.and to integrate systems a continuing while ensuring and process research in-depthanalysis. updated with soundandadequate and local communities informationon forestsand forestland resources. range of wood and non-wood forest productsand services. undertaketo improve izations. built uponexisting be and. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ FINAN CIAL AND COSI EVALUATION I 1.and linking this activity.Major activitiesto be considered asfollows: existing (a) Collecting.whereappropriate.environmental biological diversity and their impacts at the local. (c) Undertakingspecialsurveyson. (b) Establishing oband nationalassessment systematic servation systems and evaluation of programmesand standards. universitiesand non-govemmental and organizations. terms of key variables such as developmental of benefitsand costs.in collaboration. management wherever are: Major activitiesto be considered systems. dataand informationcontinuouslyand to ensureits exare change.in collaborawith relevantinternationalorgantion. norrnsand intercalibrationmethods.32Reliable data and information are vital to this programme area. of processes.should. includingestablishment defrnitions. at the appropriate with planning as a basisfor policy and as appropriate.and the capability for initiating correctiveactionsaswell asimproving theformuand projects. community welfare. ing land classification. decisionmakers (b) To provide economists. of forestcoverandforestresources of land useand updates its status. assess of and changingtechnological financialneeds countries.34 The Conference secretariathas estimated the aver- 96 . with andprocesses a view to theircontinuous and This shouldbe linked to relatedactivitiesof research possible. nationalsystems accounts planning. including improved accessto information. (b) Establishing and strengtheningnational institufor forest assessment tional coordinationmechanisms activities.3l Governmentsand institutions. for example.in forestry developments goals. and should undertakeassessments sysorganizations. to providetechnicalsupport guidancein this programmearea. and land availablefor afforestation. of to and exchange research ACTIVITIES tES ACT|V|T ELATED A) MANAGEMFNT-R I l. capabilityand suitabilityfor afforestation (d) Enhancingresearch supportand improvingaccess results. UNEP. of for and improvements planning modifications necessary shouldbe given Specificemphasis anddecision-making.

the specific strategies and progfturrmes Governments decideuponfor implementation. will dependupon. and I 1. 97 . (b) Developingdata systems. depend upon.includingany that are non-concessional. collaboration in with appropriate international organizationsand institutions. ecological and economic methodsand modelsrelatedto periodicalevaluations and evaluation.technology transfer. of to includingabout$530million from theinternational community on grant or concessional terms. dataprocessing and statisticalmodelling. inter alia.programme evaluation.training. hum an resource skill development. (c) Remotesensing and groundsurveys.40 The secretariat theConference estimated of has the averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing the activities this programme be about$750million. including about$230million from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseare indicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.g.Thesehave been internalized technological into the management-related in activities.includingany that are non-concessional. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation. and research capability.statistical modellingand innovation.Strengthening the capacityof international institutions consistsof enhancingthe technicalstaffand the executingcapacityof severalinternationalorganizationsin order to meet the requirements countries.The activities tum will improve the technological and scientificcontent of assessment periodical evaluations. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 11.fellowships and field demonstrations.Theseareindicaonly andhavenot tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates beenreviewedby Govemments.36Assessment systematic and observation activities involve major research efforts.age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million. Some of the and specificscientificand technological components included undertheseactivitiesare: (a) Developing technical. Capacitybuilding should cover such aspects policies.information systems. intersectoralcoordination and international cooperation. I1. termsof specialization mappingand statistical modelling). technology development.. E/ FUND/NG /NTERNAnONAI OF AND REG/ONA COOPERAIION L I I .nati onal -l evel i nsti tuti ons. Actual costsand financial terms.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. (d) Developinggeographic informationsystems. inter alia.38The programmeactivities foreseethe need and include provision for human resourcedevelopment in (e.35 Accelerating development consists implementof ing the management-related and data/information activities cited above. 8/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOT.public as admi ni strati on.37 These to be linkedandharmonized with similar are activitiesandcomponents the otherprogramme in areas.This should be harmonized with capacity-building other programme for areas.39National Governments.the useof remote-sensing. shoulddevelopthe necessary capacityfor implementing this prograrune area.OG\CAL MEANS 11. Activitiesrelatedto global environmental issuesare those that will contributeto global information for assessing/evaluating/addressing environmentalissueson a world-wide basis. of C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 11. (e) Assessing improving technology.

rural organizations.as well as arid. (b) Combating land degradation through. additionto widespread of of degradation 3. with a high to amounting 30 per centof the drylandareas potential.amountand one quarterof the total ing to 3.3 The priority in combatingdesertification for of the implementation preventivemeasures landsthat or are not yet degraded.'lt) I z- frogile ecosystems: Monoging ond desertificotion drought Comboting INTRODUCTION are important ecosystems. in livelihoodsystems areas altemative (d) Developing comprehensive anti-desertification programmes and integratingthem into nationaldevelopplanning. PROG AMM AREAS R E BASE THE Al STRENGTHENING KNOWTEDGE AND DEVELOPING INFORMATIONAND FOR REGIONSPRONE MONITORING SYSTEMS AND TO DESERTIFICATION DROUGH' INCTUDING ASPECTS OF THEECONOMIC AND SOCIAT THESE ECOSYSTETAS FOR BASIS ACTION of 12.3 billion hectares the total areaof with 73 rangeland. (c) Developingand sfrengttrening integrated development of programmes theeradication povertyandpromotionof for proneto desertification. andenvironmental of control and management the effectsof drought. for drought-prone areas and designing programmesto cope with environmentalrefugees.is the in desertification.the severely and lected. is andregionalorganizations essential. Most of these naare ecosystems regionalin scope. in is 12. ment plansand nationalenvironmental (e) Developingcomprehensive drought preparedness affangeincludingself-help and droughrrelief schemes. intemational 12. with uniquefeatures include desefts.4 The following programlne areasare included in this chapter: (a) Strengthening knowledgebaseand developing the for information and monitoring systems regionsproneto desertification drought. semiarid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors. on declinein soil fertility and soil structure about47 per cent of the dryland areasconstituting marginal rainfed cropland. The most obvious impact of poverty.2 Desertification land degradation arid.l Fragile ecosystems Fragileecosystems and resources. In combatingdesertification drought. afforestationand reforestation activities.6 billion hectares.Sustainable in addressed chapterl3. l2. i ntensi fied soil conservation. constituting per centof the rangeland a low potentialfor humanand animalcarryingcapacity. small islandsand certain coastalareas. semi-arid and dry is mountaindevelopment sub-humidareas. land area of the world. and the degradationof inigated cropland. and organizations non-governmental tional Governments. areasshouldnot be negdegraded However.5 The global assessments the statusand rate of by desertification conducted theUnitedNationsEnviron- 98 .This chapteraddresses issuesin deserts. inter alia. which are only slightly degraded.as they transcend land resource tional boundaries. mountains.includingthe economicand and of socialaspects theseecosystems.wetlands. small islandsand coastalareas in are discussed chapter17.semi-aridlands.70 per centof all drylands. (0 Encouragingand promoting popular participation focusingon desertification education.the parnaticipation of local communities. including climatic variations and human activities. Desertificationaffectsabout one sixth of the world's population. ments. populationdensityand agricultural shouldbe 12.

as well as such organizations as the Saharaand SahelObservatory. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. AND RFG/ONAI C) /NIERNATIONAL AND COORD/NAT/ON COOPERAIION 12.1984 and 1991have mentProgramme revealedinsufficient basic knowledge of desertification observation world-widesystematic Adequate processes. concrete l2. droughtand desertisocio-economic fication and utilize the resultsof thesestudiesto secure action. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organshould: izations. such as Earthwatch and the Saharaand Sahel Observatory.the IntergovernmentalAuthority for Drought and Development Coordina(IGADD).should: (a) Supportthe integrateddatacollection and research work of programmes related to desertification and drought problems. the Southern African Development (SADCC). regionaland interregional work at subregional. AND TNFORMAnON B) DATA 12.andto identify priority areas action. informa(a) Establishand/orstrengthenenvironmental level.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. rying (c) Strengthennational and regional meteorological and hydrologicalnetworks and monitoring systemsto collectionof basicinfbrmation andcomensureadequate munication among national. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.6 The objectivesof this programmeareaare: and/or strengthening (a) To promotethe establishment of national environmental information coordination that will act as focal points within Governments centres standfor sectoralministriesand provide the necessary and also to ensurethat ardizationand back-upservices.theArab MaghrebUnion and tionConference other regional organizations. obser(b) To strengthen regionalandglobal systematic vation networks linked to the developmentof national systemsfor the observationof land degradationand causedboth by climate fluctuationsand desertification for by humanimpact. OBJECTIVES 12.regional.g Governments at the appropriate level. nologyandembracing the dynamics of levels is essentialfor understanding It and desertification droughtprocesses. to generateand exchangerelevant information is limited. An integrated and coordinated information and systematic observationsystem basedon appropriatetechnational local and global. (c) To establisha permanentsystemat both national and international levels for monitoring desertification with the aim of improving living and land degradation conditionsin the affectedareas. tification and land degradationand introducethe results of these studies internationally into desertificationand practices.(UNEP) rn 1977.state/provincial between and ensurecooperation/networking sessment informationand monitoringsysexistingenvironmental tems. regional and international centres. is alsoimportant to measures dealwith desertifiadequate for developing concation and droughtand improving socio-economic ditions. at tion systems the national and local as(b) Strengthen national.landdegradation humanconditiondatabase component that incorporatesboth physical and socioThis shouldbe basedon existing economicparameters. (c) Strengthen capacityof nationalinstitutionsto the 99 . ACTIVITIES IT ACTIV IES ELATED A) MANAGFMENI. national environmentalinformation systemson desertification and drought are linked together through a netlevels. assessment land degradation (b) Review and study the interactions between the impactsof climate.regional and national institutions.suchas the Permanent tee on Drought Control in the Sahel(CILSS). deserti(b) Establishand/or develop a comprehensive and fication. datasothat ecologicalchangecan analyseenvironmental be monitored and environmentalinformation obtained on a continuingbasisat the nationallevel. systemsare helpful for the developmentand implemenThe tation of effective anti-desertificationprograrnmes.R 12. (b) Supportnational.should: (a) Strengthen regional programmesand international Inter-StateCommitcooperation.should: (a) Review and study the means for measuring the of economicand socialconsequences deserecological. particularly in developing countries.1 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.8 Governments at the appropriate level. capacity of existing international.regional and global programmes networkscarfor integrateddatacollection and research of out assessment soil and land degradation.

and rehabilitative measuresshould be taken to recover severely very severely or desertified drylands. B/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOG\CAL MEANS 12.6 billion hectares. soci al l y acceptabl e.15Desertification affects about 3. and D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 12. where necessary. applicationof corrective measures and rehabilitationof moderateand severely degraded drylands.should: (a) Undertake and update existing inventories of naturalresources. regionaland nationalinstitutionsstrengthened for this purpose. suchas energy.In combatingdesertification rangeland.11The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of theactivities thisprogramme be about$350million. (c) Cooperate with internationalbodiesto facilitatethe acquisitionand developmentof appropriatetechnology for monitoring and combating drought and desertification. c ) HUM A N ES O U R C E VE L O P M EN T R DE 12. panicularly women and youth. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. preventive measures should be launchedin areas which arenot yet affectedor are only slightly affectedby desertification. (b) Promotethe involvementof the local population. with the at supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations working on the issue of desertificationand drought.employment.educationanddemographic distributionin time and space. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations working on the issue of desertificationand drought. will depend upon. as well as other to resources.and.shoulddevelopthe technicaland professional OBJECTIVES 12.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. B) COTVIBAT|NG LAND DEGRADATTON THROUGH. Particular attention should be paid to indicatorsof local participation. AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION ACTIVITIES BASIS ACTION FOR 12.Protection of not yet degraded land. inter alia. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A' F'NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON 12.12Governments the appropriatelevel. minerals and plant and animal access food. (b) Develop integrated information systems envifor ronmental monitoring. correctivemeasures should be implementedto sustain the productivity of moderately desertifiedland. in the collection and utilizationof environmental informationthroueheducation and awareness-buildine.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.17The objectives this programme of areaare: (a) As regardsareasnot yet affected or only slightly affected by desertification.NTER ALTA. Actual costsandfinancial terms. health.includingany that are non-concessional.including areas affectedby sanddune movements. suchas housing.14 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.soil. water.which is about70 per cent of the total areaof the world's drylandsor nearly one quarter of the global land area. skills of peopleengaged monitoringand assessing in the issueof desertification drousht.should: (a) Strengthennational and local institutions by providing adequate staffequipment financeforassessins and desertification. on rainfed cropland and irrigated land. r and econom ically fai feasibleland-use systems will enhance land-carrying the capacityand maintenance biotic resources fragile of in ecosystems. to ensure appropriate management existing natural formations(including of r 00 . accountingand impact assessment. . 12. throughthe introduction environmentally of sound. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations working on the issue of desertificationand drought. such as those of Earthwatchand other information systems internaof tional. (c) Determine benchmarks and define indicators of progressthat facilitate the work of local and regional organizationsin tracking progressin the fight for antidesertification.16An increasingvegetationcover would promote andstabilizethehydrological balance thedrylandareas in and maintainland quality and land productivity. additionalfacilities. of to includingabout$175million fromthe international community on grantor concessional terms.INTENSIFIED SOII CONSERVANON.

developmentand use of other sourcesof includingalternative sources energy. comstation.shouldbe considered. introducing improved by slightlydesertified policiesandpractices moresustainable for land land-use productivity. of ACTIVITIES ELATED IVIT ACT IES A) MANAGEMENI-R level.conseryation hancement. soil and waterconservation.basedon innovativeor adapted indigenous technologies. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. 12. Models shouldincorporatethe interactionof both new and traditionalpracticesto preventland degradation reflect and the resilience the whole ecological of and socialsystem. (c) To increase vegetation cover and supportmanthe in agement biotic resources regionsaffectedor prone of to desertificationand drought. and trainingandprogrammeimplementationto arrestdryland degradation.non-governmental organizations bilateralagencies and should: (a) Coordinatetheir roles in combating land degradation and promoting reforestation. of andagriculsustainability their production tural development.21The national Governmentsconcerned.inter alia. l0l .and (iii) improvedmanagement soil and water resources.20The appropriate UnitedNationsagencies.and other purposes. resources.(ii) appropriate.including legislativemeasures. (0 Promotein situ protectionand conservation speof cial ecologicalareas throughlegislationand othermeans while ensurfor the purposeof combatingdesertification ing the protectionof biodiversity.and to reducewoodfuelconsumption and enthroughmore efficient utilization.with a focus on preventing land degradation. fast-growingand productiveplant species appropriate to the environment the resionsconcerned. B) DATA AND TNFORMAT/ON 12. including rangeland. (b) Develop. (b) Carry out accelerated afforestationand reforestafast-growing tion programmes.bearingin mind the multiple benefitsof such measures.or only (i) drylands. of (b) To rehabilitatemoderately to severely desertified drylands for productive utilization and sustain their development productivity for agropastoraVagroforestry through. intemational and regional organizations.should: (a) Implement urgent direct preventivemeasuresin drylandsthat are vulnerablebut not yet affected. IGADD. meetboth the needsof to rural populations and conservationpurposes.includinglegumes agroother species. this regard. with due regard to environmental security considerations.in addition moderately severelydesertified to listed in paragraphl8 (a) above. using drought-resistant.the appropriate United Nations agenciesand bilateral agencies shouldstrengthen coordinating the role in dryland degradationof subregional intergovemmental organizations setup to cover theseactivities.andwith the at 12. drought-resistant. agroforestryand landmanagement systems affectedcountries. of energy. The models should give a better understanding the variety of natural and humanof induced factors that may contribute to desertification. sound and environmentally economicallyfeasibleagriculturaland pastoraltechnoof logies. SADCC and the Arab MaehrebUnion. munity forestryand vegetation (d) To improve management forest resources. existingirrigatedcroplands. watershed protection.18Governments the appropriate supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.should: (a) Develop land-use modelsbasedon local practices for the improvementof such practices.forests) for the conservationof biodiversity. including alternative sourcesof energy and improved stoves. test and introduce.agrofore tivities as afforestation/refore retentionschemes.with a to the measures view to restoring and sustaining their productivity. in (b) Supportregionaland subregional activitiesin technologydevelopment dissemination. inof cluding woodfuel.particularly of throughthe establishment greenbelts. and in species. (d) Promote improved land/water/crop-management in making it possibleto combat salinization systems. (h) Promote the development and use of sourcesof pressure ligneous energywhich will lessen on resources.suchas CILSS.19Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.and stabilizerainfed croplands and introduce improved soiVcrop-management practice: into land-use systems (e) Promote participatory managementof natural ci /NIERNAT/ONAL AND REG/ONAI COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAIION 12. notably through suchacstry. particularnativeones. combined with community-based In forestry schemes.with the full participation indigenous people. (c) Implementurgently direct correctivemeasures in drylands. (g) Promote and encourageinvestment in forestry developmentin drylandsthrough variousincentives.creation of large-scale reforestationand afforestation schemes.

should: (a) Establishmechanisms ensurethat land users.thereby improving their standard livins. (b) Supportcommunity-based people'sorganizations. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation. (b) To i mprove producti on systems i n o r der t o achieve greater productivity within approved programmes conservation nationalresources for of and in the framework of an integrated approachto rural development.22The Conference secretariathas estimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion. restoration conservation waterandland and of resources land-use and management based traditional on wherefeasible. of in ACTIVITIES D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 12. in combatingland degradation. most of the arid and semiIn arid areas. search and (b) Promote integratedresearchprogrammeson the protection. through appropriatenational legislation. of particularly for rural populations. will dependupon.26In areasprone to desertificationand drought. Action is thereforeneededto rehabilitateand improve the agropastoral systems for sustainable managementof rangelands. new and envir onm ent all y s o u n d d e v e l o p me n t-o ri e n ted l and-use polic ies : A) MANAGEMENI-R EDACT ITI ELAT IV ES 12.arethe main actorsin implementing improved land use.28Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorgamzations.24Governments the appropriatelevel and local at communities. to 102 .should: (a) Adopt policies at the national level regarding a decentralized approachto land-resource management. inter alia. should: (a) Integrateindigenous knowledgerelatedto forests. approaches. (b) Promote efficient extension-service facilities in areasprone to desertification and drought.as well as alternative livelihood systems.with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. including agroforestrysystems. including about $3 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. of C) HUM A NR E SOU R C F EL OP M EN T D EV 12. with the suppoftof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.including any that are non-concessional.current livelihood and resource-use systems not able to are maintainliving standards. and introduceinstitutionally. rangelandand natural vegetationinto reactivitieson desertification drought.23Governments the appropriatelevel and local at communities. OBJECTIVES 12.with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. forest lands. delegating responsibility rural organizations. B/ SC/ENI|FtC AND TECHNOTOG\CAL MEANS 12.25Governments the appropriatelevel and local at communities. Actual costsand financial terms. (c) To provideopportunities alternative for livelihoods as a basisfor reducingpressure land resources on while at the sametime providingadditionalsources income.particularly for training farmers and pastoralists the improved in management land and water resources drvlands. especially farmersand pastoralists.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 12. Poverty is a major factor in accelerating rate of degradationand deserthe tification. particularly in view of the effects of drought and increasingdemographicpressure. to particularlywomen. c) DEVETOPTNG AND STRENGTHENTNG INTEGRATED DEVEIOPMENT PROGRAMMESFOR THE ERADICATION POVERW AND PROMOTION OF OF ATTERNATIVE LIVETIHOOD SYSTEMS AREAS IN PRONETO DESERTIFICATION BASIS ACTION FOR 12.27The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) To createthe capacityof village communitiesand pastoralgroupsto take chargeof their developmentand the management their land resources a socially of on equitableand ecologicallysoundbasis.the traditionallivelihood systems basedon agropastoral systems often inadequate unsustainare and able. should: (a) Develop and adopt.

primarilyon theknowledgeof thelocalpopulation based (e.).9. (c) Supportand encourage introductionand useof the of technologies the generation alternative for sources of incomes.34Governments the appropriatelevel.herdingetc.traditional land-management productionsystems.33Governmentsat the appropnatelevel. with the at r03 .andwith the 12. particularly. supportof local research (b) Facilitate regularnational. with the supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations. (d) Createor strengthen focusedon village associations (market interest economicactivitiesof commonpastoral gardening.livestock.(b) Createor strengthenrural organizatrons charge in of village and pastoralland management.as well as local production by and marketingcapacity. should: (a) Train membersof rural orgamzations managein ment skills and train agropastoralists such special in waterharvesttechniques soil andwaterconservation. (a) Promotecooperationand exchangeof information among the arid and semi-arid land researchinstitutions techniques technologies improveland to concerning and and labour productivity. as ing.regionaland interregional communication andexchange information experion of and encebetween extension officersandresearchers. to AND REG/ONAI.should: (a) Undertakeapplied researchin land use with the institutions. nationaland intersecto toral mechanisms handleenvironmentaland developin of mental consequences land tenure expressed terms of land useandland ownership. C/ /NIFRNATIONAL AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAIION at level.should: (a) Conductsocio-economic baselinestudiesin order of to have a good understanding the situation in the programme area regarding. (g) Establish revolvingfund for credit to rural entrea preneurs and local groupsto facilitatethe establishment venturesand credit for of cottage industries/business input to agropastoral activities. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. involving the local people livelihoodsystems alleviate and to promotealternative poverty. as well as viable production systems. (l) Develop infrastructure. resource and pracland tenure issues.32 Governments the appropriate level. (d) Promoteexchangeand sharingof information conlivelihoodswith of cerningthe development alternative regions. agroforestry irrigation. (b) Conduct inventoriesof natural resources water and vegetation)and their state of degradation.29 Governmentsat the appropriate level. (c) Establish and developlocal. of ticesand characteristics (soil. (b) Coordinateand harmonizethe implementation of programmes and projects funded by the international organorganization and corrununities non-governmental izations that are directedtowards the alleviation of poverty and promotion of an alternativelivelihood system. and small-scale (b) Trainextension agents andofficersin the participatory approach integrated land management. to of each. AND INFORMAT/ON B) DATA 12. MEANS 8/ SC/ENIFtC AND TECHNOI G|CAL O 12.transformationof agriculturalproducts. (e) Promote rural credit and mobilization of rural of savings through the establishment rural bankino systems. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 12.31The Conference secretariat estimated costs has the for this programmeareain chapter3 (Combatingpoverty) agricultureand and chapter 14 (Promotingsustainable rural development).. should: D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 12. other agro-ecological DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRFSOURCE 12. (c) Disseminateinformation on technical packages conditions economic ecological and adapted thesocial.rapid rural appraisal). Particularattentionshould be given to protecting the property righs of women and pastoraland nomadicgroupsliving in rural arezn. and with the at supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations.30Governments the appropriate supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.

35In a numberof developingcountriesaffectedby desertification.and environmental action plans in countries most proneto desertification. resource uponwhich the development with land resources The socialsystems interacting make the problemmuch more complex.make them integral parts plansand nationalenvironmenof nationaldevelopment tal actionplans. or strengthen.supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizaand to tions. tlvough networking.andwith the supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations. (d) To strengthenregional and internationalcooperation for combating desertification through.managingcommonlandsappropriately.the adoptionof legal and otherinstruments. AND REG/ONAI. as well as local committees/associations of land users. 12.national and local antidesertificationauthoritieswithin governmentand local executive bodies. particularly in Africa.38Governments the appropriate at level. from the grass-roots and pastoralists) the higher levels of government. its forty-seventh at session. (a) Establish. multiI ateralfinancial i n stitutions.40TheGeneral Assembly.Action plans to combat desertificationand droughtshouldincludemanagement aspects environof ment and development.andwith the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. non.inter alia. to (b) Develop national plans of action to combat desertification and. COOPERATION COORD/NAI/ON AND 12. (c) To initiate a long-term processfor implementing and monitoring strategiesrelated to natural resources management. as appropriate.39The relevantinternational organizations.governmental organizationsand bilateralagencies shouldstrengthen their cooperation assisting in with the preparation desertiof fication control programmesand their integration into nationalplanning strategies.37Governments the appropriate at level. should promote information exchange and cooperation with respect to national planning and programming among affected countries. (c) Implement policies directed towards improving providland use. with a view to finalizing sucha convention by June 1994. should: 104 . of (d) Ensurecoordinationamong ministries and instituprogrammes nations working on anti-desertification at tional and local levels. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIVITIES 12. thus conforming with the applans and proach of integratingnational development nationalenvironmental actionplans.including nationalplans to combat development desertification. with a view to organizingworking cooperationbetween level (farmers all actorsconcerned. in sources drylandareas and integrate theminto national plans.36The objectives this programme of areaare: (a) To strengthen nationalinstitutionalcapabilities to develop appropriate anti-desertificationprogrammes and to integratethem into nationaldevelopmentplanning. shouldbe requested establish. to under the aegisof the General Assembly. with the establishment of nati onal coordi nati ng and systemati cobs er vat ion mechanisms with theregionalandglobalnetworking and of theseplansand mechanisms. D) DEVETOPTNG COMPREHENSTVE ANN-DESERTIFICATION PROGRA'YTMES AND INTEGRATING THEM INTO NATIONAT DEVETOPftTENT P1ANS AND NATIONAT NTAI PIANNING ENVIRON'VIE BASIS ACTION FOR 12.requiringan integrated approachto the planning and management land reof sources. (b) To develop strategicplanning frameworks for the protectionand management naturalreof development. the natural resource base is the main process mustrely. C/ /NIERNAI'ONAI. ing incentivesto smallfarmersandpastoralists.inter alin.in all rural communities affected. involving women and encouraging private investment in the development drylands.shouldestablish maintainmechanisms ensure into and developmentplans theintegration sectoral national of forpoverty alleviationamong andprogrammes strategies the inhabitantsof landsproneto desertification. OBJECTIVES 12. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 12. an intergovernmental negotiating committeeforthe elaborationof an internationalconvention to combatdesertification thosecountries in experiencing seriousdroughtand/ordesertification.

12. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. will cial terms. depend upon.should establishand maintainmechanisms to ensure coordination of sectoral ministries and institutions.43Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. including any that are non-concessional. educationalnetworksand newly createdor strengthened people's extension services. therebyminimizing the number of environmental refugees and the need for emergency droughtrelief. El DEVETOPTNG COTVIPREHENSIVE DROUGHT PREPAREDNESS DROUGHT-REUEF AND SCHE'YTES.46 Early-warningsystems forecast to droughtwill make possible the implementation of drought-preparedness schemes. should: (a) Design strategiesto deal with national food deficiencies in periods of production shortfall.transportand distribution. B/ sC/ENTIFIC AND IECHNOTOGICAL MEANS 12. contingencyarrangements for relief are neededfor periodsof acutescarcity. INCLUDINGSELF. These strategies should deal with issuesof storageand stocks.41The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activities thisprograrnme be about$ 180million.is a recurringphenomenon throughoutmuch of the developingworld.Theseare indicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot Actual costsand finanbeenreviewed by Governments. development OBJECTIVES C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 12. This shouldensure access to knowledgeof deserlificationand droughtand to national plansof actionto combatdesertification. r05 . the specific strategiesand progftunmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. in differing degreesof frequency and severity. for (c) To develop drought-relief schemesand means of coping with environmentalrefugeesand integratethem into national and regional developmentplanning.shouldundertake nationwidemajor anti-deserwithin countries tificationawareness/training campaigns affectedthroughexistingnationalmassmediafacilities. with the at supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. including local-levelinstitutionsand appropriate non-governmentalorganizations. of to including about $90 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.48In drought-prone areas. and water soil conservation promotionof waterharvesting and techniques.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG 12. misused inputs and diversion of developmentresources. A) MANAGFMENI-R ELATED IVITI ACT ES 12. FOR DROUGHT-PRONE AREASAND DESIGNING PROGRAM'YIES TO COPEWIIH ENVIRONMENTAT REFUGEES BASIS ACTION FOR 12. (b) Undertakeapplied study on the integrationof environmental and developmentalactivities into national plans. 12. (b) To strengthenthe flow of early-waming information to decision makersand land usersto enablenations to implement strategies drought intervention. port facilities.HEIP ARRANGETIENTS.44 Governmentsat the appropriate level.45Drought. imports. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. ACTIVITIES D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 12. inter alia. could enhance capacityof landto copewith droughtand the provide basic necessities. aimed at reducing the vulnerability of production systemsto drought.should: (a) Develop and introduce appropriate improved sustainable agricultural pastoral and technologies are that socially and environmentally acceptable and economically feasible.42Governments the appropriatelevel. At the sametime. especiallyAfrica. food storage.47The objectivesof this prograrnmeareaare: (a) To developnationalstrategies fordroughtpreparednessin both the short and long term. Apart from the human toll . suchasalternativecropping strategies.an estimated3 million people died in the mid-1980sbecause droughtin sub-Saharan of Africa the economiccostsof drought-related disasters also are high in terms of lost production.Integratedpackagesat the farm and watershed level.in integrating antidesertifrcationprograrrunesinto national development plansand nationalenvironmental actionplans. Governments the approat priate level.

Agromeand meteorology contingency teorology links the frequency. should: 106 . mitigatingthe effectsof drought AND INFORMAI/ON B) DATA of 12. i ntegrated and comtechniques multidisciplinarycrop-forecasting analysis. a n d t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n s( A G R H Y M E T ) .52Governments prone communities.50Governments the appropriate and regionalorgansupportof the relevantintemational should: izations. with the and supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganizations. (f) Establish safety nets for the most vulnerable households. (WFP). lossof to employment drought-affected to income and entitlement food is a common sourceof Rural workshelp to generate in distress timesof drought. the incomerequiredto buy food for poor households. as well as the effortsof the Permanent Control in the Sahel State Committee on Drought A (C ILS S ) and the Intergovernmental utho r it y f or (IGADD). with the at 12. allow preventive varieties andfarmins of suchasthe selection appropriate practices. Governments MEANS AND TECHNOLOG\CAL 8/ SC/ENr/F/C level anddroughtatthe appropriate 12.at for shortnotice. (a) Use traditionalmechanisms copewith hungeras to assista meansof channellingrelief and development ance.includingany that are non-concessional. AND COORD/NAI'ON ERAI/ON COOP level. for (e) Establishbudgetarymechanisms providing.53Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.(b) Improve nationaland regionalcapacityfor agrocrop planning. I billion from the international terms.with the support of the relevant should: intemational and regionalorganizations. comincludingabout$ l.for food and fodderdistributionand water supply.2 billion. d r o u g h t monitoring centresand the African Centre of M e t e o r o l o g i c a lA p p l i c a t i o n s f o r D e v e l o p m e n t Inter(ACMAD). timesof drought.logisticalsupport.with remoteon particular emphasis the areaof risk-mapping. in capacities terms (a) Establish system stand-by of a of foodstock.resources droughtrelief. (b) Strengthen developnational.51The Conference of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $1. and food securityassistance (d) S trengthenand expand the scope of exist ing and the activitiesof appropriate regionalprogrammes suchas the United Nationsorgansand organizations.ag ro me te o ro l o g i c am o d e l l i n g . wherenecesarrangements.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. the Office of the World Food Programme (UNDRO ) D R U ni tedN ati ons i saster el i efC oordi nator Office aswell andthe UnitedNationsSudano-Sahelian .content and regional of with the requirements of coverage weatherforecasts extension. (d) Establish contingency sary. regionalandlocal and interdisciplinaryresearchand training capabilitiesfor gies.personneland finance to response drought-related for a speedyinternational emergencies.g o v e r n m e n t ao r g a n i z a t i o n s a i m e d a t and emergencies. strate droughrprevention AND c/ /NTERNAT/ONAL REG/ONAI. Programmeof the Regional Training the Hydrology and Centrefor Agrometeorology Operational DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 12. puteri zed food supply/demand MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FINANC/NG the has secretariat estimated aver12. in (b) Support on appliedresearch waysof reducingwater the lossfrom soils.with the support therelevant should: and regionalorganizations.on ways of increasing water absorptechof tion capacities soils and on water harvesting areas: niquesin drought-prone (c) Strengthennational early-warningsystems. l s ens ing.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive and order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments. (b) Supportprogrammes the World Meteorological of Organization (WMO) on agrohydrology and agrometeorology. the specificstrategies progruunmes decideuponfor implementation. crop planningand agricultural rural for (c) Prepare ruralprojects providingshort-term The households. forecaststo im(a) Implement research seasonal on prove contingencyplanning and relief operationsand to measures be takenat the farm level. Drought and Development (c) SupportFAO programmes and other programmes of for the development nationalearly-warningsystems schemes.at the approinternational of priatelevel. inter clia. and dependupon.49 Governments affectedcountries. l a s o f n o n .

rooted in the conceptof partnership. to draw on the knowledge and and experience ttrepopulations of concemed. other executing agencies. to D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG 12. appropriate. should: (a) Adopt policies and establish strucadministrative and imtures for more decentralized decision-making plementation. to (e) Establishand/or expand favourableconditions for the provision of services.58Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the and supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganizations. But it is necessary go and idealof popularparticipation beyondthe theoretical to focuson obtainingactualactivepopularinvolvement. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (0 Develop training programmesto increasethe level of education and participation of people. POPU1AR AND PROTVTOTING F) ENCOURAGTNG AND ENVIRON'YIENTAI PARTICIPATION FOCUSING EDUCATION. changingmanagement as (d) Introduce legislative.naat to tionaland local levels. full participation womenand indigenous of ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACT ELAT tvtTt ES 12. processes orderto benefitfully planningandexecution in projects. (d) To supportlocal communities their own effortsin in combatingdesertification. ON DESERTIFICATION CONTROLAND MANAGE}IENT OF THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT BASIS ACTION FOR and 12. ( b ) E s t a b l i s h a n d u t i l i z e m e c h a n i s m sf o r t h e consul tati onand i nvol vementof l and usersand f or level to identify enhancing capabilityat the grass-roots and/or contri buteto the i denti fi cati onand pl ann ing of acti on. should: (a) Improve and maintain mechanisms with adequate staff. (b) Establishinterministerial linkages andcoordinating and units for drought monitoring. digenous (h) Adopt appropriate policiesto stimulate privateand public investment. and desertification-control droueht-related OBJECTIVES 12.57Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. both the national and local at levels. impact assessment management drought-relief of schemes.such as credit facilities and marketing outlets for rural populations. with the and supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganizations. ( b ) S t r e n g t h e nr e s e a r c ha n d n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g the capabilities assess impactof droughtandto develop to methodologies forecastdrought. institutionaVorganizational and financial measures secureuser involvementand to access land resources. curriculumof primary and secondary (b) To establishand promotetrue partnershipbetween governmentauthorities.and to promoterural savings. In this context.public awareness and opendialogue. ensuringthe populations.This implies the of sharing responsibilities the mutualinvolvement of and all parties. management of therebyproviding a meansof alteringprojectdesignor practices.and design local plansto includesuchmeasures progress. inter alia. particularly women and indigenousgroups.55The experienceto date on the successes failures of programmesand projects points to the need related desertito for popularsupport sustain to activities to fication and drought control. a B) DATA AND 'NFORMAI/ON 12. through.-56 The objectives this programmeareaare: of (a) To develop and increasepublic awareness and and drought.inknowledgeconcerningdesertification education the in cludingthe integration environmental of schools. from development (c) To ensure thatthepartners understand another's one needs. (c) Define specific programme/projectobjectives in cooperationwith local communities.this programmeareashould supporting componentof all be considered essential an activities. groups. bteracyand the development technicalskills.should: 107 .objectivesand points of view by providing a varietyof meanssuchas training.(a) Promotethe training of decisionmakersand land users in the effective utilization of information from systems early-warning .non-governmental orgamzatrons and land users stricken by drought and giving landusers responsible in the role desertification. equipmentand financesfor monitoring drought parameters take preventivemeasures regional. of (g) Createrural bankingsystems facilitateaccess to to particularlywomen and incredit for rural populations.54Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.

SADCC and the Arab Maghreb Union and other intergovernmentalorganizationsin Africa andotherpartsof the world. to strengthen outreachprogrammesand increasethe participation of non-governmentalorganizationstogether with rural populations.skills and know-how at all levelson ways of organizingand promotingpopularparticipation.59Governments the appropriate at level.60The Conference has secretariat estimated averthe age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the 108 . assistance (c) Promote collaborationamong different actors in programmes. includingthe local media.shouldpromote the developmentof indigenous know-how and technologytransfer. should: (a) Supportand/or strengthen institutionsinvolved in public education. 8/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOTOG\CAL MEANS 12. the D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 12. know-how. (c) Disseminate knowledge about applied research results on soil and water issues. including about$500million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. environment and development (d) Encourage emergence representative the of organizational structures foster and sustaininterorganrzato tional cooperation.includingany thatarenon-concessional.andwith the atthe appropriate supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. focusing on appropriateand intermediatetechnolo8y. IGADD.(a) Review.schools and communitygoups.63 Governments the appropriate level. Actual costs and financialferms. the specificstrategies and prograrnmes Governments decideupon for implementation. AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 12. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AI FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 12.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govemments.appropriatespecies. (b) Accelerate development technological the of knowhow.developand disseminate gender-disaggregatedinformation. (b) Increase level of public education. inter alia. should promote membersof local rural organizations and train and appoint more extension officers working at the local level. AND REG'ONAT C/ INIERNAI/ONAI. will dependupon.61Governments level.at the appropriatelevel. (b) Developmechanisms forfacilitatingcooperation in technology and promotesuchcooperation an element as related technical to of all external assistance activities and projectsin the public or privatesector.andwith the and supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganizations. and with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations. agriculturaltechniques and technological activities of this prograrnme to be about $1 billion. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 12.62 Governments. and with the at supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.should: (a) Developprogrammes supportto regionalorganof izationssuchas CILSS.

of r09 .3 Two programme areas includedin this chapare ter to further elaborate the problem of fragile ecosystemswith regard to all mountainsof the world.Mountains are a storehouse biologispecies. Theseare: (a) Generating strengthening knowledgeaboutthe and ecology and sustainabledevelopmentof mountain ecosystems. there is widespread poverty among mountain inhabitants and loss of indigenous k no w l e d g e .a lack of knowledgeof mountain e c o s y s t e m s .temperate and alpine representsa microcosm of a larger habitat diversity. (b) To maintain and generate database information and management enviand systems facilitatetheintegrated to taking ronmentalassessment mountain ecosystems. Mountains are the areas most sensitive all climatic changes the atmosphere. much larger including and percentage drawson mountainresources. As a re s u l t. m o s t gl obal mountain areasare experiencingenvironmentaldegof radation. the proper management mountain resourcesand socio-economicdevelopment of the peopledeserves immediateaction. mountains create gradients of temperature. forest products and agricultural products and of recreation. plant and animal resources mountain ecosystems.4 Mountains are highly vulnerable to human and natural ecological imbalance. water use. natural resource potential and socio-economic activities is essential. There is. OBJECTIVES 13. alternative FOR BASIS ACTION 13. in to Specific information on ecology.1 Mountains are an important source of water.2 About 10 per cent of the world's population A dependsdirectly on mountain resources. cal diversityand endangered 13.eachof which cal. taking into accountthe work of existinginternational and regionalorganizations.Hence. A given mountainslope may includeseveral climatic systems suchas tropi. energyand biological diversity. subtropical. precipitationand insolation. (b) Promoting integratedwatersheddevelopmentand livelihoodopportunities.Mountain ecosystems soil changing.they are a source of such key resourcesas minerals. They are susceptibleto accelerated landslides rapidlossof habitatandgenetic and erosion. a of forest.1? I vt frogile Monoging ecosystems: mountoin development Sustoinoble INT O U TION R D C P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) GENERATING AND STRENGTHENING KNOWTEDGEABOUT THE ECOTOGY AND DEVETOPftTENT }TOUNTAIN SUSTAINABLE OF ECOSYSTEMS 13. As a major ecosystemrepresentingthe complex and interrelated ecology of our planet. 13.T h e c r e a t i o n o f a g l o b a l m o u n t a i n is database thereforevital for launching programmes that contribute to the sustainabledevelopment of mountainecosystems.mountainenvironments are essential the survival of the global ecoto are. however. of especiallywater.rapidly system.5 The objectives this programmeareaare: of (a) To undertake surveyof the differentforms of soils. Becauseof their vertical dimensions. Mountain and hillside areas hold a rich variety of ecologicalsystems. however. Furthermore. diversity. On the human side. crop.

regional and local non-governmental organizations working on mountain development. ACTIVITIES ELATED ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R 13. AND COOPERAnON c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL REGIONAI 13. includingregional of sideration appropriate legal and other instruments. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.7 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. World Bank.water use. (0 To generateinformation to establishdatabases and information systems facilitate an evaluationof environto in mentalrisksandnaturaldisasters mountainecosystems. besidessupportingthose organrzatrons the exchange in of information and experience. and regenerative (e) Diversifymountaineconomies.should: (a) Strengthen existing institutionsor establishnew a onesat local. floods. institutionsand non-govtional Governments. are suchaway thatspecificmountain (g) Establish appropriatenatural reservesin representative species-rich sitesand areas.by creating and/or strengtheningtourism. nationaland regionallevels to generate multidisciplinary land/water ecologicalknowledgebase on mountainecosystems. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. the WoodlandMountain Institutes(WMI). MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 13. izationsconcerned (e) To improve coordination of regional efforts to protect fragile mountain ecosystemsthrough the conmechanisms.nationaland international working of people's initiativesandthe activitiesof international.9 The Conference has secretariat estimated averthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) implemeniing of the activities thisprogramme be about$50million from of to the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional i10 . (b) Promote policiesthatwould provideincennational tives to local peoplefor the useand transferof environment-friendlytechnologies and farming and conservation practices. (c) Build up the knowledgebaseand understanding by creating mechanismsfor cooperation and information workamongnationalandregionalinstitutions exchange ing on fragile ecosystems.rangeland all and wildlife activitiesin ecosystems maintained. (d) Identify mountainareasthreatened air pollution by from neighbouring industrialand urbanareas. (c) To improveandbuild theexistingland/water ecologiand technologies agricultural cal knowledgebaseregarding and conservationpracticesin the mountainregionsof the of world. lanches and othernaturalhazards. (a) Maintain and establish hydrologrmeteorological. (c) Protect fragile mountain ecosystems through the considerationof appropriatemechanismsincluding regionallegal and otherinstruments. (b) Build an inventory of different forms of soils.such as the United NationsUniversity(UNU). inter alia.earthquakes. the International Mountain Society (IMS). forests. with the participation local communities. cal andphysicalmonitoringanalysis capabilities and that would encompass climatic diversityas well as water the distributionof variousmountainregionsof the world. (d) To createand strengthen communicationsnetthe for work and information clearing-house existing organwith mountainissues.into account the work of existing international and regionalorganizations .8 National Governmentsand intersovernmental organizations should: (a) Coordinateregional and internationalcooperation and facilitate an exchange information andexperience of among the specializedagencies. plant and animal genetic giving priority to thoseunderthreatof extincresources. . shouldbe protectedin situ by tion. IFAD the naand other international and regional orgamzations. (c) Identify hazardous areas that aremost vulnerableto snow avaerosion. and crop. (b) Encourage netregional. (d) Encourage policies that would provide incentives to farmers and local people to undertakeconservation measures. research ernmentalorganizationsworking on mountaindevelopment. of (0 Integrate forest. landslides. Geneticresources protected areas improvand maintaining establishing and ing traditional farming and animal husbandryactivities programmes forevaluating potential the andestablishing valueof the resources. should: 13. the African Mountain Associationand the Andean Mountain Association. the International Centerfor IntegratedMountain Development(ICIMOD).6 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. in accordancewith integrated management mountainareas.

inter alia. upgrading and using the natural resourcebase of land.For example.l3 Nearly half of the world's population is affected in 1 3 .10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.in particularfor women.arethreatened by cultivation of marginal landsdue to expandingpopulation. (b) Supporthigher education throughfellowshipsand researchgrants for environmentalstudiesin mountains and hill areas. Poverty. will depend upon.particularly throughdevelopment employmentschemes of that increase productivebase. plant.15The objectives this programmeareaare: of (a) By theyear2000.14Soil erosioncan havea devastating impacton the vast numbers of rural people who depend on rainfed agriculture in the mountain and hillside areas. unemployment.increase to biomassproductionand maintainthe ecologicalbalance. poor health and bad sanitation are widespread.should: (a) Launchtrainingandextension prograffunes enviin ronmentally appropriatetechnologiesand practicesthat would be suitableto mountainecosystems. water. OBJECTIVES 13. 8/ SC/ENIIF/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 13. plansandemergency evacuation supplies. 1 6G o v e r n m e n t s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l .Promoting integrated watersheddevelopmentprogranilnes througheffectiveparticipationof local people is a key to preventingfurther ecological imbalance. animal and human resources. while about40 per cent occupiesthe adjacent mediumand lower-watershed areas.BU tL D tN G 13. soil sciences plant and sciences. the mountainand uplandareas the Himalayas. which make vital contributionsto agriculturalproduction. 13. In promoting alternativelivelihood opportunities. earlywaming systems.risk zoning. of B) PROwIOTTNG TNTEGRATED WATERSHED DEVETOPMENT AND ATTERNATIVE TIVETIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-RELATED ACTIVITIES BASIS FORACTION I 3. training and dissemination informationon the sustainable of development of the economies frasile ecosvstems.About 10 per cent of the Earth's populationlives in mountainareaswith higher slopes.to developappropriate planland-use ning and management both arableand non-arable for land in mountain-fedwatenhedareas preventsoil erosion.forestry.andwith the at supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations.particularly for candidatesfrom indigenous mountainpopulations.There are seriousproblems of ecologicaldeteriorationin thesewatershed areas. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.such as sustainable tourism.1 Governments the appropriate 1 level. to help the rural populationbetter understandthe ecological issuesregarding the sustainable development mountainecosystems.shouldstrengthen scientificresearch and techincludingdiffusion nologicaldevel opmentprogrammes.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estrmatesonly andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. of South-East Asia and Eastand CentralAfrica. meteorology. Similarly.andto improveinfrastructure socialservices.should build up nationaland regionalinstitutional basesthat could carry out research. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 13. w i t h t h e lil . and in particular to protect the livelihoods of local communitiesand indigenous people.including any that are non-concessional. In many areasthis is accompanied excessive by livestock grazing. addition. the specificstrategies prograffrmes and Governments decide upon for implementation. An integratedapproachis neededfor conserving. (b) To promote income-generating activities. (c) Undertakeenvironmentaleducationfor farmers. (c) To developtechnical andinstitutional arrangements for affectedcounries to mitigatethe effectsof nanral disasters through hazard-prevention measures.deforestation and lossof biomasscover.in the hillside areasof the Andeancountriesof South America a largeportion of the farming population is now faced with a rapid deteriorationof land resources.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. particularlyin throughnationalandregionalinstitutions. of various ways by mountain ecology and the degradation of watershedareas. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. hydrology. by Actual costsand financialterms.fisheries environmentally and sound mining.will havea significantrole the in improvingthe standard living amongthe largerural of populationliving in mountainecosystems. D ) CA P A CI T Y .terms.

complementingexisting institutions. of (e) Provide mechanismsto preservethreatenedareas biologicaldiversity that could protectwildlife.poultry. and the IntemationalCenter for IntegratedMountain relevant Development.such as the cultivation and agro-processing and processing medicinaland aromaticplants. as well as regional reMountainInstitutes search suchastheWoodland centres. development. 13. should: (a) Strengthen role of appropriateinternationalrethe 112 . s. and of theenvironmental socio-economic (b) Generate livelihoodsand diverdataon alternative at sified productionsystems the village level on annual fisheries. (b) Establish task forces or watersheddevelopment committees. which is also discussed chapter3 (Comin bating poverty) and chapter 14 (Promotingsustainable agriculture and rural development) Agenda21. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.beekeeping. inter alia. should: (a) Considerundertakingpilot projectsthat combine environmentalprotection and developmentfunctions with particular emphasis someof the traditionalenvion practices systems ronmentalmanagement or that have a good impacton the environment. B/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNICAI. vil lageindustrie markets. (b) Promoteregionalcooperation and exchange data of sharing same the mounandinformationamongcountries tain rangesand river basins. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation.9billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. (b) Generate technologies specificwatershed for and farm conditionsthrougha participatoryapproachinvolving local men and women. throughappropriate of local resources (d) Supportnon-governmental organizations other and private groups assistinglocal organizations and communitiesin thepreparation projectsthat would enhance of participatory development local people.supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorganizations.includingany that are non-concessional. of (h) Undertake above takinginto account the the activities. dependupon.particularlythoseaffected by mountaindisasters floods.19The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activities of this programmeto be about $13 billion.to to coordinateintegratedservices supportlocal initiatives in animal husbandry. and (c) Maintain and establish partnerships with non-governmentalorganizations and other private groupsworking in watershed development. MEANS 13. and treecrops. conserve or serveas nationalparks. researchers and extension agentswho will carry out experimentsand trials on farm conditions. with the supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations.livestock. (0 Develop nationalpoliciesthat would provide incenconservation tives to farmersand local peopleto undertake measures to useenvironment-friendly and technologies. includingabout$ 1.includingindigenous of peopleandlocal communities. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC|AL AND COSI EVALUATTON 13.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude only andhavenot estimates Actual costsandfinanbeenreviewedby Governments. transport income-earning and opportunities.17Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. needfor full participation women. taking fully into accountthe role of women and integrating them into the planningand implementation process. will cial terms. horticulture and rural levels.21Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. should: (a) Undertake measuresto prevent soil erosion and promoteerosion-control activitiesin all sectors. undertaking in appliedresearch to watershed development.20Fi nanci ng for the promoti on of al t er nat ive livelihoodsin mountainecosystems shouldbe viewedas part of a country'santi-poverty alternative livelihoods or programme. development all administrative at (c) Enhance popularparticipation the management in legislation. should: (a) Maintain and establishsystematic observationand state provinciallevel or evaluation capacities thenational. (g) Undertakeincome-generating activitiesin cottage industries. AND COOPERAIION 13. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. in searchand training institutes such as the Consultative Group on International Agricultural ResearchCenters (CGIAR) and the International Board for Soil Research and Management(IBSRAM). c/ /NTERNATTONAL REG/ONAI. forestry. at to generateinformation for daily operationsand to assess impacts projects.18Governments the appropriate at level. of BJ DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 13.

suchas household productionsystems. to il3 .field staff and farmersfor watershed development.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional orgwizations.agroforestryand horticulture. combinedwith the latest availabletechnologyfor early waming and forecasting. financialand administrative aspects and provide support to policy makers.or micro-hydro development to supportcottageindustries. (b) Develop human resourcesby providing accessto education. in cooperationwith nationalGovernments.22 Governmentsat the appropriate level. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations. in . D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE 13.(c) Promote technologiesof vegetative conservation measuresfor erosion prevention. (c) Promotelocal awareness preparedness disand for asterprevention and mitigation.should: (a) Promotea multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach in training and the disseminationof knowledge to local peopleon a wide rangeof issues.and access markets. 13. improved cropping technology. fodder productionand agroforestry that arelow-cost.energyand infrastructure.24The private sector and local communities.administrators. conservation utilizationof and arable and non-arableland.ritu moisture management.livestock management. legislative. 13. shouldpromote local infrastructure development. should develop and strengthennational centresfor watershed management encourage comprehensive to a approachto ttreenvironmental. technologi cal. mini. fisheries. socio-economic.health.simpleand easily adoptedby local people. includingcommunication networks. treatmentof drainagelines and rechargingof groundwater.

particularly with regardto food securityand sustainable development. and environmental 1-1. including technicaland scientific cooperation. utilization of economic incentivesand the developmentof appropriate new technologies. (e) Land conservation rehabilitation. 114 . (c) Improving farm production and farming systems through diversification of farm and non-farm employment and infrastructure development.and production to thosesupplies vulnerable by for markets.14 Promoti sustoinoble ng ogriculture ond ruroldevelopment INTRODUCTION l4. at both naenvironmental and macroeconomic levels. are policy. (h) Conservation and sustainable utilizationof animal geneticresources sustainable for agriculture. and (0 Water for sustainable food productionand sustainable rural development. inc om e div e rs i fi c a ti o n . T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e e d u c a t i o ni n i t i a t i v e s . Agriculture has to producti on m eet t his c h a l l e n g ema i n l y b y i n c re a s i ng . 5 b i l l i o n w i l l b e l i v i n g i n developing countries.However.the private sector and internationalcooperation.2 Major adjustrnents neededin agricultural. (b) Ensuring people's participationand promoting human resource development sustainable for agriculture.planningandintegrated programming the light of the multifunctionalaspect in of agriculture. and natural resourcemanagement protection.l By the year 2025. ensuring and thus s t ables up p l i e s f n u tri ti o n a l l ya d e q u a teood. 14. access o f groups. 83 per cent of the expected g l o b a l p o p u l a t i o no f 8 . (i) Integrated pestmanagement control in agriculand ture.Yet the capacity of available resources and technologies satisfythe demandsof to this growing population food andotheragricultural for commoditiesremains uncertain. The major objectiveof SARD is to increase food production a sustainable in way andenhance food s e c u r i t y . participation.l a n d c o n s e rv a t i on and i mpr ov edm a n a g e m e no f i n p u ts .to c re a te th e c o n di ti ons for s u s t a i n a b l ea g r i c u l t u r e a n d r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t (SARD).T h e s u c c e ss S A R D t of will dependlargely on the supportand participationof rural people.3 The priority mustbe on maintaining and improving the capacity of the higher potential agricultural lands to supportan expandingpopulation. (l) Evaluationof the effectsof ultravioletradiationon plantsand animalscaused the depletionof the stratoby sphericozonelayer. c ons er v in g n d re h a b i l i ta ti n g e n a tu ra lr esources a th on lower pot e n ti a l a n d si n o rd e rto m a i n ta i nsustai nabl e m an/ landra ti o si s a l s o n e c e s s a ry . national Governments.4 The following programmeareasare included in this chapter: (a) Agriculturalpolicy review. on land already in use and by avoiding further on encroachment land that is onlv mareinallvsuitable for cultivation. 14. (k) Rural energytransitionto enhance productivity. h e m ai n tool s of T SARD are policy and agrarianreform. ( g ) C o n s e r v a t i o na n d s u s t a i n a b l eu t i l i z a t i o n o f pl ant geneti c resourcesfor food and sust ainable agri cul ture. plant nutritionto increase food produc0) Sustainable tion. (d) Land-resource planninginformationandeducation for agriculture. employment and income generationto alleviate poverty.in developed well as tional and international as dev elopin g c o u n tri e s .

and wildlife. (d) Consider demographic trends and population movementsand identify critical areasfor asricultural production. to foreign trade. The major thrust of food securityin this caseis to bring abouta significant production a sustainable increase agricultural in in way and to achievea substantial improvementin people's food andculturallyappropriate entitlement adequate to food supplies. price policy.1 Soundpolicy decisions to trade and capital flows also necessitate action to overcome: (a) a lack of awareness the environmental of costs incurred by sectoraland macroeconomic policies and (b) hencetheir threatto sustainability.' (b) To maintain and develop. programmes and policy measures.not later than 2005. not later than 1998. OF PARTICUTARTY WITH R. where appropriate. (i) Promotesocialand economicresearch policies and that encourage sustainableagriculture development. including.programming selves manage and planningactivities. as appropriate.8 The objectives this Programme of areaare: (a) By 1995. exchangerate policies.food security. to (b) Reviewnationalandregionalagricultural policy in relation. including programmes and measures ento hance sustainable food production and food security within the framework of sustainable development.laws and and regulations incentives and leadingto sustainable agricultural and rural development and irnproved food security and to the development transferof appropriate and farm technologies. analysis.EGARD FOOD SECURITY TO DEVETOPMENT AND SUSTAINABI. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R EDACTIVITI ELAT ES 14. storage.5 There is a needto integratesustainable developpolicy analysis with mentconsiderations agricultural and planning in all countries. with the supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations. (h) Formulate and implement integratedagricultural projects that include other natural resourceactivities. the ones. nationaland regionallevels. pertaining international 11. establish a programme integrate to environmental sustainand with policy analysisfor the food and able development policy agriculturesectorand relevant macroeconomic formulationand implementation. and thus to concrete actions. distributionand marketingof productsat the local. Supportto and monitoring of implementation shouldfollow. and (c) inadequacyof tools of analysis and monitoring. introduce monitorpolicies. All countriesneedto assess comprehensively impacts the o f s u c h p o l i c i e s o n f o o d a n d a g r i c u l t u r es e c t o r performance. sustainable agricultural (0 Supportnational and regional early waming systems through food-securityassistance schemesthat monitor food supply and demand and factors af-fbctins household access food.agriculturalsubsidies taxes.9 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. as appropriate.as and well as organization regional for integration: economic (c) Implement policies to influence land tenure and property rights positively with due recognitionof the minimum size of land-holdingrequired to maintain production and check further fragmentation.to thempolicy. low-input (LISA) systems. where appropriate. insufficientskills and experience incorporating in issuesof sustainability into policies and programmes. (e) Formulate. particularly in developing Recommendations shouldcontributedirectly countries. ll5 . OBJECTIVES 14.6 The absence a coherent of nationalpolicy framework for sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD) is widespread is not limited to the developand ing countries.E BASIS ACTION FOR 14. processing. including adequate levels and stabilityof food supplyand access food by all households.to review and.In particularthe economies transition in from plannedto market-oriented systemsneed such a framework to incorporateenvironmentalconsiderations into economic activities. (c) To maintainand enhance ability of developing the particularly leastdeveloped countries. 14. including agriculture. inter alia.to long-termplans and programmes. of forests. particularlyin fragileecosystems denselypopulated and areas. suchasmanagement rangelands.P R O G R A M MA R E A S E POUCYREVTEW A) AGRTCULTURAT PTANNTNG AND INTEGRAIED PROGRATYIMES IHE UGHTOF IHE IN MUTTIFUNCTIONAT ASPECT AGRICULruRE. to (g) Reviewpolicieswith respect improvingharvestto ing.should: (a) Carry out national policy reviews relatedto food security. to development realisticand operational of medium.rural welfare and international trading relations as a means for identifying appropriate offsettingmeasures.operational multisectoral plans.

where necessary.regionaland inand ternationalsystemsand networks to increasethe understandingof the interactionbetween agriculture and the state of the environment. a more open and non-discriminatory trade and the avoidance unjustifiable of tradingsystem with other policies will barriers which together facilitate the further integration of agricultural and policies so as to make them mutually environmental supportive. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. and bilateraldonoragencies otherbodiesshould. IFAD and GATT. Bank.11 UnitedNationsagencies.15Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. monitoring of production and distribution.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14. AND c/ .Theseare indicamunity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude reviewed by Governments.NTERNAT/ONAr. overcometheseproblemsand cooperatewith producers and distributors to implement improved practicesand systems. assume role in working a in their respective with nationalGovernments the following activities: in (a) Inrplementintegratedand sustainable agricultural development and food security strategiesat the subregional level that use regional production and trade potentials. including organizations regionaleconomic for integration.12The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)on implementing the activities of this prograrrme to be about $3 billion. supportresearch. the context of achieving sustainin able agricultural development and consistent with principleson tradeand agreed relevantinternationally environment.withmandates.to promotefood security. (c) Strengthen establish national.S PART|C|PAnON Bl ENSURTNG AND PROMOTING HU'YIAN RESOURCE DEVETOPIIENT FOR SUSTAINABTE AGRICUTruRE BASIS ACTION FOR 14. and techniques and tools of on data sources. analysis. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.13Governments the appropriatelevel and with the at supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations should assist farming householdsand communities to apply technologies relatedto improved food productionand security. including about$450 million from the internationalcomterms.Actual costsand financial been will terms. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 14. (b) Examine and undertake surveys and researchto establishbaseline information on the status of natural resources relatingto food andagriculturalproductionand on planningin orderto assess impactsof varioususes the and tools of and theseresources. the Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATION 14. (b) Encourage.16This component bridges policy and integrated I16 . and developframeworksfor sustainable (b) Establish legal measuresto promote accessof women to land and remove biasesin their involvement in rural development.14Governments at the appropriate level. depend specific stategies and progfttrnmes ulnn. inter alin. theWorld 14.should: (a) Involve and train local economists. should strengthen ministries for agriculture. suchas environmental analysis.including storage. and regional organizations. REG'ONAL AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAI'ON suchasFAO. natural resources and planning.C) Identify storageand distributionproblemsaffecting to food availability. c) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 14. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. PEOPIE'.including any that are non-concessional.identify ecologically sound technologiesand facilitate the exchangeof information policies. planners and analysts initiate nationalandintemationalpolicy reviews to agriculture.should: (a) Cooperateactively to expand and improve the inon formation on early waming systems food and agriculture at both regionaland nationallevels. MEANS AND TECHNOLOGTCAL 8/ SC'ENnF'C 14. developmethodologies accounting.

' land and for individuals or conununities to encourage investment land resources.20Appropriate internationaland regional agencies should: (a) Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations collecting and disseminatinginformain participation people's tion on people's organizations. and the accessto information. (b) Review and refocusexisting measures achieve to wider accessto land. pricing.This would requiretraining and capacity-building assumegreaterresponsito bilities in sustainable development efforts. policy instrumentsto reconcilelong-runand short-runrequirements must be set by nationalGovernments.andwith the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (c) To strengthen and developthe management the and internal capacitiesof rural people'sorganizations and extensionservices and to decentralize decision-makine to the lowestcommunitylevel. shouldbe on management Emphasis building agreements changes resourceutilization.in sustainable agriculture and rural development. creditandtaxationto ensure necessary incentives and equitable accessby the poor to production-support services. espepeople.17The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) To promote greaterpublic awareness the role of of people'sparticipation and people'sorganizations. (b) Help developinformation availablethrough nongovernmental organizations and promote an international ecological agricultural network to acceleratethe development and implementation ecologicalagriculof ture practices.to land.should: (a) Developandimproveintegrated agricultural extension servicesand facilities and rural organizatrons and undertake natural resource managementand food security activities.with particularemphasison rural populations. small farmers.prices. in (d) Developguidelines policiesfor fordecentralization rural developmentthrough reorganizationand strengthening of rural institutions. OBJECTIVES 14. for C/ /NIERNATIONAL AND REG/ONAI COOPERAIION AND COORD'NAIION 14.At the sametime.18Governmentsat the apprclpriate level. rights and responsibilities for MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AI FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 14.the on greaterwill be the incentivefor economicand human resources development. (b) To ensure equitableaccess rural people.processing distribuand tion. and testingparticipatorydevelopmentmethods. the local communities and non-govemmen or ganizati tal ons in socialinnovationandstrategies rural development.marketing. (0 Providesupportservices and training.21The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing 117 . input distribution.recognizing the variationin agricultural and circumstances practices by location. the rights for in and dutiesassociated with useof land.resourcemanagement. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON 14. landlessand indigenous people.training and e d u c a t i o n f o r h u m a n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n ta n d strengthening management the structures rural organof izations. theestablishment networksthatdealwith and of the exchange of information on alternative forms of agriculture. the optimal use of on-farm inputs and the minimal use of external inputs. with the relevantinternationaland regional organsupportof the izations.youth.19Governments the appropriate at level. inforand disseminate mation on human resources.particuof larly women. indigenous (c) Assign clear titles. the functioning of markets. optimal use of local natural resources and management renewableenergy of sources. (e) Develop policies in extension. capital and inputs.financing. The approaches providfocus on fosteringself-relianceand cooperation. practices.The greater the degreeof community control over the resources which it relies.training.shouldcollect. role of Governments.waterand fbrests. takinginto account differentneeds the of subsistence agriculture as well as market-oriented crops. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED tVtTtES ACT 14. peopleand local communities.local cially women's groups. water and forest resourcesand ensureequal rights of women and other disadvantaged groups. water and forest resources and to technologies. ing information andsupporting user-based organizations.analyse. indigenous communitiesand small farmers.

otheron-farm andoff-farm employmentopportunities should be identified and developed. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 14. should introducemanagement for mechanisms. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at level.incorporatingindigenous ecologicalknowledgeand practices.4 billion. and cl rfripRovrNc FARr/lpRoDUcfloN AND FARftIINGSYSTEMS THROUGH DIVERSIFICATION AND OF FARM AND NON. ( b ) L a u n c h a p p l i e d r e s e a r c ho n p a r t i c i p a t o r y strategies local organmanagement and methodologies.and postharvestlosses. the specific strategiesand progftlrnmes decideuponfor implementation.23Governments the appropriate support of the relevant international and regional and techshould provide management organizations.26The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) To improve farm productivity in a sustainable manner. and tourism.FAR'YIEMPTOY'VIENT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ITI ELATED ACTIV ES 14.agrirecreation business. with the 14. administrators memand nical trainingto government practice groupsin the principles. for demands commoditiesandto avoid further expansion on on to marginal lands and encroachment fragile ecosystems.to the activities of this prograrnme be about $4. bersof resource-user in and benefitsof people'sparticipation rural development. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.particularlyamongthe poor and thoseliving in marginal areas. takingparticular noteof the role of women. izations.etc.should: (a) Develop and disseminate farming households to integrated farm managementtechnologies.wildlife utilization.including any that are non-concessional.27 Governmentsat the appropriate level. revenue-raising expenditure.food security and rural incomes. Where intensification of farming systemsis not possible.while enhancing for techniques wasteand by-productutilization and preventionof pre. inland fisheriesand animal husbandry. Increased of externalinputs and developuse productionandfarming systems tend ment of specialized and to increasevulnerability to environmentalstresses market fluctuations.25 Agriculture needs to be intensified to meet future il8 . inter alia. will terms. are (b) To enhance self-reliance farmersin developthe of ing and improving rural infrastructure.OG|CAL AND 14. depend upon. for sources of nutrients and the efficient utilization of extemalinputs.such as crop rotation. logical and ecological includingagroforestry. non-farmactivities. aquaculture.24 Governmentsat the appropriate level.a needto intensify agriculture by diversifying the production systems for maximum efficiency in the utilization of local rewhile minimizing environmentaland economic sources.taking into account the alternative livelihood proposalinter alia in drylandareas. such as and cottageindustries. sustainablewildlife conservationand management. Govemments MEANS 8/ SCTENTFtC TECHNOT.22 Governmentsat the appropriate level. risks.and to facilitate for sound technologies the transferof environmentally integratedproduction and farming systems. There is. (c) To create farm and non-farm employment opportunities. should: (a) Encourage people'sparticipation farm technolon ogy developmentand transfer. aquaculture fisheries. comincluding about$650million from the international terms. therefore.including indigenous technologies and the sustainable of biouse processes. farm commodity processing.Theseare indicamunity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand financial beenreviewedby Govemments. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organstrategies and izations. FOR BASIS ACTION 14. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. financial responsibilities local levels for decisionto making. OBJEC-TVES 14.while ensuringthat risks to the ecosystem minimized.efficiency.organicmanuringand othertechniques involving reduceduseof agriculnrral multiple techniques chemicals. such as accountingand audit services and institutionsfor human rural people'sorganizations administrative and resource and delegate development.aswell asto increase diversification. suchaslight village-based manufacturing.

to including about$1. This could form the basisfor technologydevelopment exchange and and for regionalresearch collaboration. ecologicaland socio-economiccharacteristics. (0 Analyseandidentifypossibilities foreconomicintegrationof agriculturaland forestryactivities. ( b) I nit iat e an d ma i n ta i n o n -fa rm a n d o ff-farm programmes collectandrecordindigenous to knowledge. well as to national as and local markets.31Governments at the appropriatelevel. ptANNtNc. their extension.carrying capacitiesand limitations of land resources. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 14.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.It is estias il9 . will depend upon. includingcomparative analysis of the intensification. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.should: (a) Analyse the effects of technical innovationsand incentives farm-household on incomeand well-being. their susceptibilityto deterioration and their productivepotential. Actual costsand financial terms. andregional centres shoulddiagnose world's the major agro-ecosystems.diversificationand different levels of extemal and internal inputs.bankers and traders in rural servicingand small-scale agro-processing techniques.28Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. transportation and marketing. |NFORftIAT|ON Dl IAND-RESOURCE AND EDUCATION FORAGRICUTTURE MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON BASIS ACTION FOR 14. 14.includingany that are non-concessional. managers.29Intemationalinstitutions.such as CGIAR.suchas FAO and IFAD.should strengthen research agriculturalproon duction systemsin areaswith different endowmentsand agro-ecological zones. (c) Promoteand improve rural financial networks that utilize investment capitalresources raisedlocally. (e) Initiate and maintain farm surveys. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI B) DATA AND /NFORMAnON 14. and to take effective measuresto encourageforest managementand growing of trees by farmers(farm forestry)asanoption forresourcedevelopment. (b) Launch awarenessand training programmes for entrepreneurs. AND AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 14. should: (a) Improve their organizational capacityto deal with issuesrelated to off-farm activities and rural industry development.( b) Cr eat e no n -fa rm e m p l o y m e n t o p p o rtuni ti es throughprivate small-scale agro-processing units. international agricultural researchcentres.33Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.as well as water and fisheries.on-farm testing of appropriate and dialoguewith rural comtechnologies munitiesto identify constraints bottlenecks find and and solutions.34Inappropriate and uncontrolled land uses are a major causeof degradation and depletion of land resources. (b) Expandcredit facilities and rural infrastructurerelated to processing.Presentland use often disregards the actual potentials. rural servicecentre andrelatedi nfrastructural mprovements s i . inter alia.should: (a) Promote educational and vocational training for farmers and rural communitiesthrough formal and nonformal education.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot 14. beenreviewedby Governments. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. and reducefood losses. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. c/ /NTFRNATIONAL REG'ONAI. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.30The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2W0)of implementing the activitiesof this programme be about$10 billion.32 Governmentsat the appropriate level. (d) Providethe essential rural infrastructurefor access to agriculturalinputsand services. well as their diversity in space. 8/ SCTENilFtC AND TECHNOIOG\CAL MEANS 14.

climate.regional and technicalworking groupswith specificterms subregional and budgetsto promotethe integrateduseof of reference for land resources agriculture. data collection and diffusion of simulation models of production and information di ssemination : methodologies (b) Develop internationallyacceptable description of land for the establishmentof databases. data.social and economic information pertaining to agriculture.water and soil factors.planning. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. management AND REGION.A systematicapproach widely or systematically is neededfor identifying land usesand production sysin tems that are sustainable each land and climate zone. including the economic.distribution of vegetautilization of wild plants.updateanddissemi- 120 .management.should: (a) Collect. design collectland-resource in theplanningprocess.continuously monitor.and on land use.3 nate information. AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAI'ON 14. and production systems and that affect agricultural social and cultural considerations and adjacentland use. yields.matedthat the world's population.on the utilization and of naturalresources living conditions.identify resourceproblemsand values that to mechanisms needto be takeninto accountto establish encourageefficient and environtnentally sound use of resources: planningbodiesat national (b) To establish agricultural and local levels to decide priorities.Actual costsand finanwill cial terms. and prodependupon. The need to food productionto meet the expandingneedsof increase on the populationwill put enormouspressure all natural including land. including about$250 million from the internationalcomterms.social and institutional mechafor nisms necessary their implementation. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.41Governments at the appropriate level. tion cover and animal species. and the definition of ecological zonesand developmentareas.should: (a) Establishand strengthenagricultural land-useand planning. promote discussion and encourage the formation of groups.should: (a) Develop databases and geographicalinformation systemsto store and display physical. s agriculturalandenvironmental productionandconservingsoil for Techniques increasing and water resourcesare already available but are not applied. 14. costs and prices.39The appropriate United Nations agenciesand regional organizationsshould: (a) Strengthenor establishinternational. (b) Initiateandmaintaindistrictandvillageagricultural land-resourceplanning.and project imof technicaland management plementation. the specific strategies grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation.4 billion. resources.37 Governmentsat the appropriate level.Theseare indicmunity on grant or concessional only andhavenot estimates ative andorder-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Governments.40The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing to the activitiesof this programme be about$ 1.7billion. (b) Establish programmes to provide information. educationand inland-resource formation at national and local levels. C/ INIERNAI'ONAI. (b) Selectcombinationsof land usesand production AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14.AI. OBJECTIVES of 14.38Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.36The objectives this programmeareaare: involve farmers (a) To harmonizeplanningprocedures.development solutions.now at5. inter alia. capability. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. wheneverpossible.35Poverty and malnutrition are already endemic in many regions. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG ACTIVITIES ACT IE ELATED IVIT 5 A) MANAGEMENI-R 14. 14.25 billion by the tum of the century.including any that are non-concessional.channelresources and irnplementprogrammes. MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL BJ SC/ENI/F'C 14. usesand multiple goal optimization. managementand conservation groupsto assistin problem identification. will be 6. The destruction and degradation of resource i s a major i ssue. define land areas of similar and establishdatabases.

appropriate trading systems and agriculturalpricing structures. (b) Establishor strengthen Govemmentsand international institutions with responsibilityfor agricultural resource survey.and between Govemments and people.as appropriate. shouldprovide long-termsolutions. where appropriateand possible.should: (a) Developandimplementprogrammestoremoveand resolvethe physical. Efforts to control land degradation. (b) To prepare and implementcomprehensive policies and prograrrunes leading to the reclamationof degraded lands and the conservation areasat risk. as well as of improve the generalplanning. fibre and fuel. and havehadlimited success date. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 14.implementationand maintenance of their own conservation and reclamationprogrammes. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.to review and initiate. ACTIVITIES A) MA. is urgentto arrest it land degradationand launch conservationand rehabilitation programmesin the most critically affected and vulnerableareas. such as land tenure.arenow needed.45The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) By the year 2000. B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 14.managelnent utilizaand tion of land resourcesand preserve soil fertility for sustainable agricultural development. which lead to inappropriateland-usemanagement. with the at supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations. (b) Provide incentivesand. (c) Develop and implement programmesfor the rehabilitationof landdegradedby water-logging salinity.at the appropriatelevel. (c) Encourage integrated planningat the watershed and landscape levelto reducesoil lossandprotectsurface and groundwater resources from chemicalpollution.While land-use planning andlandzoning. and district and village levels throughformal and informal instructional courses. and (d) Develop and implement programmes for the progressive of non-cultivated use land with agricultural potentialin a sustainable way.47 Governments. with strongpolitical supportand adequatefunding. while problemsof salinization. particularlyin developingcountries.should: (a) Trainprofessionals planninggroupsat national. detailingthelocation. waterlogging. should: (a) Establish land-resource mappingandplanning units at national.NAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTtVtTt ES 14. The problemof soil erosion is particularly acute in developing countries. pollusoil tion andlossof soil fertility areincreasing all countries. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorganizations.should: (a) Conductperiodic surveysto assess extentand the stateof its land resources: 121 . travel and interaction. extentand severityof land degradation. conferences seminars. OBJECTIVES 14. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 14. and strengthen delivery systems and local communityparticipation.nationalland-resource surveys. in Land degradation serious is the because productivityof just when populations hugeareas land is declining of are increasing rapidlyandthedemand the landis growing on to produce more food.management development. districtandvillagelevelsto actasfocal points and links betweeninstitutionsand disciplines.systems appropriate land units throughmultiple goal to optimization procedures.43Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.46 Governmentsat the appropriate level.developat ment and environmentalissuesrelated to agricultural land use and management. and rationalize and strengthenlegal frameworks. through media programmes.42Governments the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.44Land degradationis the most important environmentalproblemaffectingextensive areas land in both of developed developing and countries.combined with betterland management. to long-term national and regional land conservationand rehabilitation programmes. and provide equipmentand technicalassistance. resourcesfor the participationof local communities in the planning.socialand economiccauses land of degradation.Well planned. E) rAND CONSERVATTON AND REHABIL|TAT|ON BASIS ACTION FOR 14. (b) Generate discussion all levelson policy.

Threats to the security of theseresourcesare growing. the specific strategiesand decideupon for implementaprogrammes Governments tion.(b) Strengthenand establish national land-resource databanks.includingany that are non-concessional.| INIERN.should: (a) Develop and strengthennational researchinstitutional capacity to identify and implement effective conthat areappropriate servationandrehabilitationpractices physicalconditions the of to theexistingsocio-economic land users. C.51Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.52 Governmentsat the appropriate level. inter alia. well asareas and at risk.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms.shouldhelp farming household and technologies investigateand promote site-specific farming systems that conserve and rehabilitate land. rehabilitationprogralrunes (c) Collect and record information on indigenousconservation and rehabilitation practicesand farming sysand extensionprogrammes.in someinstances.strategies progralnmes and actionplans. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. should train field staff and land users in inand of digenous and moderntechniques conservation trai and shoul destabl i sh ni ngf acilit ies rehabi l i tati on for extensionstaff and land users. FOR BASIS ACTION for 14. ping. technolsuccessful and developjoint programmes spread rehabilitation.50Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. while increasing terracingand mixed cropservationtillage agroforestry. c) coNsERvATloN AND SUSTAINABII t TltlZATloN FOR OF PIANT C#NETrcRESOI. AND COORD'NAIION COOPERAI'ON regional United Nationsagencies.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments. includingconagriculturalproduction. (b) Coordinate land conservation rehabilitation and all with relatedongoing policies.Many existing gene securityand. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.53This programmearea is included in chapter 18 (Protectionof thequality andsupplyof freshwaterresources). suchas nationalenvironment the Tropical ForestryAction Plan and national development prograrnmes. developand usegeneticdiversity andefforts to conserve.55The primary objectiveis to safeguard world's them to use sustainwhile preserving geneticresources ably.FtC 14.AIIONAI.prograffuneareaF. and evaluatethe progressof the conservation launchedin this regard. the 14. This includes the developmentof measuresto facilitate the conservationand use of plant genetic re- 122 . depend upon. prograrnmes.|RCES FOOD AND AGR.rcUtruRE SUSTANABTE MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8/ SC/ENI. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organto communities izations.54Plant geneticresources agriculture(PGRFA) are an essentialresourceto meet future needsfor food. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG 14.49The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe of total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing average the activitiesof this programmeto be about $5 billion.extent as and severityof existingland degradation. and ogieson land conservation D] CAPACITY.including identificationof the location. (b) Establish regional and subregional networks for scientistsand techniciansto exchangeexperiences. FOOD PRODUCTION F) WATERFOR SUSTAINABLE RURATDEVELOP}IENT AND SUSTAINABTE 14.BUILDING 14. AND REG/ONAI. are underfundedand understaffed. banksprovideinadequate diversityin genebanksis asgreat the lossof plantgenetic as it is in the field. including about$800million from the internationalcomterms. tems as a basisfor research DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE 14. 14.48The appropriate organizations organizations and non-governmental should: (a) Develop priority conservation and rehabilitation and with advisory servicesto Governments programmes regionalorganizations .

particularto developingcountries. both by specialized AND /NFORMATION B) DATA OBJECTIVES areaare: of 14.rconservation integrated into genetic for resources food andagriculture. should: (a) Develop and strengtheninstitutional capacity. particularly for the minor or crops and other underutilized non-utilizedspecies of food and agriculture. exchange facilities for PGRFAs (seedsand and dissemination p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s ) . (a) Develop strategies networksof in situ conserfor vation areasand use of tools such as on-f'armex situ germplasm banksand relatedtechnologies. with the and regionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational izations. study. is uablecrop species. for agriculture. REGIONAI AND COCRDINAI/ON COOPERAI/ON 14.58Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. (b) To collect and study plants useful for increasing joint activities.60The appropriateUnited Nations agenciesand regionalorganizations should: (a) Strengthen Global Systemon the Conservathe Use of PGRFA by.as of appropriate. AND c/ /NTFRNAT/ONAI. with the and supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganshould: izations. regionalandglobalnetworks of PGRFAin situ in protected areas: ACTIVITIES IT S ACTIV IE ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R 14. and use of for and progranunes conservation structures PGRFA: (b) Strengthenand establishresearchin the public domain on PGRFA evaluationand utilization. plants and crops. (c) Develop multiplication/propagation. Subsequent of consolidationand efficient management networks areasand use of tools such as of in situ conservation ex situ collectionsand germ plasmabanks.areasand use networksof in situ conservation sources. inter alia. increase and are structures and programmes generallyinadequate There is geneticerosionof invallargely underfunded. 14.including tree speciesfor action could be aimed at agro-forestry.developing in of environmentally soundtechnologies. country studies PGRFA. plant breedingand seedproductioncapabilities. strategies programrnes sustainable and (d) To take appropriatemeasures the fair and equifor table sharing of benefits and results of researchand and in development plant breedingbetweenthe sources usersof plant geneticresources.57The objectives this programme (a) To complete first regeneration safeduplicaand the on tion of existingex situ collections a world-widebasis as soonas possible. Special evaluation capacityfor characterization. and germ plasma of tools suchas ex situ collecticlns emphasis could be placedon the building banks.r silr.56Major gaps and weaknesses of existing national and internationalmechanismsto to assess. of endogenous and utilization of PGRFA. (f) Promoteutilization as well as research poorly on known. within the frameworkof networksof collaboratins institutions.disseminate PGRFA collectionsand assess eeneticvariationin collections.59Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. (b) Establish situ basecollectionnetworks. based. ex (c) Review periodicallyand reporton the situationon and procedures.p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e v e l o p i n g plantintrocountries andmonitor. to adoptpoliciesand strengthenor establishprogrammesfor in situ on-farm use of plant and sustainable and e.with the 123 .Existingdiversity in crop species food producfor not usedto theextentpossible increased wav"* tion in a sustainable objectivesof sustainable agricultureand rural development in view. but potentiallyuseful. exist in the capacity 14.controlandevaluate ducti ons. (c) Not later than the year 2000. where appropriate. PGRFA. including new plantswith potential value as food crops. (g) Strengthen national capabilitiesfor utilization of PGRFA. food production.monitor and useplant geneticresources Existinginstitutional capacity. (d) Prepareplans or programmesof priority action on use conservation and sustainable of PGRFA. collections. usingexistingsystems (d) Characterrzeand evaluate PGRFA material colinformation to tacilitate the use of lected. institutions and farmingcommunities. tion and Sustainable acceleratingthe developmentof the Global Information and Early WarningSystem facilitatetheexchange to ways to promotethe transfer of information. includingtrainfood productionthrough ing. on (e) Promote systems in cropdiversification agricultural where appropriate. and taking further stepsto realize farmers' ri ghts: (b) Developsubregional.

togetherwith the natureof the risk measures and appropriatepreservation .63Governments the appropriatelevel and with the 124 . and (0 Adjust the Global Systemfor the Conservation Use of PGRFA in line with the outcome of Sustainable the negotiationsof a conventionon biological diversity' supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizationsshould: (a) Promote training programmesat both undergradfor sciences levelsin conservation uateandpost-graduate running PGRFA facilities and for the design and implementationof national programmesin PGRFA. in sciences relationto (d) Developfurtherconservation and technicalmeansto link it with in situ conservation ex situ conservationefforts.at the appropriatelevel. ttre specific sfategies and programmes decideuponfor implementation. for nationalpoliciesto providelegalstatus shouldestablish of legalaspects PGRFA.64Governments the appropriate and port of therelevantinternational regional organizations. (b) Develop major collaborativeprojects betweenres ear c h pro g ra m m e si n d e v e l o p e d a n d devel opi ng countries.Actual costsand financial will terms. and begin a 1O-year to (b) To establish and implementaction programmes identify breedsat risk.Theseare indicmunity on grant or concessional only andhavenot estimates ativeand order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments. (c) Developtraining materialsto promoteconservation and utilizationof PGRFAat the local level.a. inter ali.OGICAL 14.the Fourth InternationalTechniUse and Sustainable on cal Conference the Conservation of PGRFA.with the supat 14. (d) Preparea rolling global cooperativeplan of action on PGRFA: (e) Promote. of AND zuSTAINABU UnUZATION H) CONSERVATION FOR RESOURCES OF ANIMAT GENETIC AGRICUTTURE SUSTAINABLE FOR BASIS ACTION MEANS AND 8' SC'ENTIFIC TECHNOI. or breedsubstitution cross-breeding DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at 14.(c) Prepare periodic state of the world reports on PGRFA. including about$300million from the internationalcomterms.66The objectives this programme (a) To enumerate and describeall breedsof livestock in usedin animalagriculture as broada way as possible of programme action. which is to adopt the first stateof the world report and the first global plan of action on the conservause tion and sustainable of PGRFA.in additionto their value.including any that are non-concessional.includinglong-term andstrengthen and imcollections fbr financialcommitments germplasm plementation activitiesin PGRFA. (c) To establish and implement development protheir in grammes indigenous breeds orderto guarantee for survival. Some local animal breeds.molecular developments. depend upofl. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.These of exotic breedsand tion as a result of the introduction in of changes livestockproductionsystems.for l994. particularly for the enhancementof poorly crops. known or neglected (c) Promote cost-effective technologies for keeping duplicatesetsof ex situ collections(which can also be usedby local communities). disease by are local breeds threatened extincpreserved. geneticsand in vitro cryopreservation. Govemments level.61The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$600 million. avoiding the risk of their being replacedby prograrnmes.should: (a) Develop basic science researchin such areas as plant taxonomy and phytogeography. have unique attributesfor adaptasocio-cultural resistance and specificusesand shouldbe tion. (b) Raisethe awareness agriculturalextensionserof vices in order to link PGRFA activitieswith user communities. nology. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F'NANC'NG 14. OBJECTIVES areaare: of 14. 14.utilizing recent such as computer sciences.62 Governments.65The need for increasedquantity and quality of andfor draughtanimalscallsfor conseranimalproducts to vation of the existingdiversityof animalbreeds meet thosefor use in biotechincluding future requirements.

with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. assessment techniques B/ SC/ENilFrC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 14J1 Governments at the appropriate level.should: (a) Use computer-based databanksand questionnaires to preparea global inventory/world watch list.Cryogenic and storage could be given priority over characterization evaluation. (c) Prepareand publish a comprehensive database of animal genetic resources. basedon principles of technicalcooperationamong developingcountries. AND C) 'NIERN.ACTMTES ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED 14. including about $100 million from the internationalcommunity on grantor concessional terms. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION 14.store and analyseanimal genetic data at of the global level. (d) Prepareand publish a world watch list on farm to animal species risk to enablenationalGovernments at DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRFSOURCE 14. its relationship with other breeds.73Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. 125 .70The Conference secretariathas estimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of to the activitiesof this prograrnme be about$200million. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. Training of nationals in conservationand would be given specialattention. depend upon.effective population size and a concise set of biological and production characteristics . for endangered populations.should: (a) Sponsortraining coursesfor nationalsto obtain the necessary expertisefor data collection and handling and for the sampling of geneticmaterial. where necessary. followed by selection an additionalcohort of of indigenousbreedsfor development. should prepare and complete national inventories of availableanimal geneticresources. (b) Using cryogenic storageof germplasm. COOP ERAI'ONAND COORD'NAIION 14. REG/ONAI. norms and standards monitoring of their implementation. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 14. (c) Select indigenous populations on the basis of for regional importanceand geneticuniqueness. (b) Enable scientistsand managersto establishan information base for indigenous livestock breeds and promote programmesto develop and conserveessential livestockgeneticmaterial.AI.68Governments at the appropriate level. Actual costs and financial will terms. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (b) Process.preserve risk andothermaterialfrom which senes breedsat serious can be reconstructed. (b) Plan and initiate breeddevelopmentstrategies.AI/ON. including the establishment a world watch list and an early warning systemfor endangered breeds. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations. the specific sftategiesand programmes Govemmentsdecideupon for implementation. a 1O-year programme.72 Governmentsat the appropriate level.includingany thatarenon-concessional. inter alia. should: (a) Establishin-country facilities for artificial insemination centresand in situbreedingfarms. Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govemments.69The appropriate United Nations and other international and regional agenciesshould: (a) Promotethe establishment regional gene banks of to the extent that they are justified. and relatedtechnicaland financial assistance. AND 'NFORMATTON B) DATA 14.farm-based conservation indigenousstock or in situ preservation. should: (a) Draw up breed preservationplans.global assessment scientific and intergovernof mental guidance of the programme and review of r egional and n a ti o n a l a c ti v i ti e s . d e v e l o p ment of (including internamethodologies. its derivation.describing each breed. including semen/embryo collection and of storage. take action to preserveendangered breedsand to seek technical assistance. tional agreements).67 Governmentsat the appropriate level.

well as for strengthening to take preventive action when breeds are capacities endangered. establish to and and interactivenetworksamongfarmers. as it guaranteesyields.extensionservices institutions.(b) Promotein-country programmes and relatedphystinfrastructurefor animal livestock conservationand cal national as breeddevelopment. AND TNFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14J7 Governmentsat the appropriate level. policies and action plans. implementplantprotection to including mechanisms control the distributionand and to implementthe International use of pesticides.andfor the safe particularlythose handlingand disposalof pesticides.includingtrade.pesticidepricing. and research operational (c) Not laterthantheyear 1998. (d) Ensure that pesticide labels provide farmers with information about safe handling. AND REG/ONAL c/ . AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION and 14.Conservative lossescausedby pests pre-harvestand post-harvest between 25 and 50 per cent. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. informadocumentand disseminate and organicpesticides.researchers pest integrated to services promoteanddevelop extension management. ACTIVITIES ES ACT ELATED IVITI A) MANAGFMENI-R 14. well as on international trade. (q) Encourage research and development into pesticides that are target-specificand readily degradeinto harmlessconstituentparts after use.should: (a) Consolidateand harmonize existing information that havebeen on and programmes the useof pesticides in restricted differentcountries. Intewhich combinesbiological gratedpest management. New pest problemscontinueto develop. OBJECTIVES of 14. pest price-structure inputsandoutputsand of controlbrigades.75The objectives this programmeareaare: (a) Not later than the year 2000.human as healthand the environment. integratedpest-management (b) Develop and adopt efficient managementsystems to control and monitor the incidenceof pestsand disease in agriculture and the distribution and use of pesticides at the country level. appliunderstandable cation and disposal. reducescosts.Integrated pest management shouldgo hand in hand with appropriate pesticide managementto allow for pesticide regulation and control. and appropriatefarming control. Pests affecting animal health also cause heavy losses and in many areas preventlivestockdevelopment.78AppropriateUnitedNationsagencies regional should: organizations (a) Establisha system for collecting. host plant resistance is practicesand minimizes the use of pesticides. Code of C o n d u c t o n th e D i s tri b u ti o n and U se of P es t ic ide s : (b) To improve and implement programmes to put practiceswithin the reach integratedpest-management of farmers through farmer networks.76Governments at the appropriate level. (c) Undertakenational surveys to establishbaseline information on the useof pesticidesin eachcountry and the side-effectson human health and environment. tion on biologicalcontrol agents as well as on traditionaland other relevantknowledge and skills regardingalternativenon-chemicalways of controllingpests. Chemical control of agricultural pests has dominated the scene. is environmentallyfriendly and conof tributesto the sustainability agriculture.should: (a) Review and reform national policies and the mechanisms that would ensurethe safe and appropriate use of pesticides for example.14World food demand projections indicate an increaseof 50 per cent by the year 2000 which will more put estimates thandoubleagainby 2050. (b) Strengthenregional interdisciplinary projects and 126 .NTERNAilONAT.but its overusehas adverseeffects on farm budgets. the best option for the future. to improve and andanimalhealthservices. t hat ar e t oxi c a n d p e rs i s te n t. analysingand data on the quantity and quality of pestdisseminating icides usedevery year and their impact on humairhealth and the environment. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. ftTANAGEfrlENT PEST rl TNTEGRATED AND CONTROLIN AGRICUTTURE BASIS ACTION FOR 14.and also undertakeappropriateeducation. bannedor severely (b) Consolidate.

should strengthen nationalpublic administra- 127 .withoutdestroying 4 by the soil fertility. the specific strategies and programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.extension planners agents. In sub-S aharan fri ca.(IPM) networksto establishintegratedpestmanagement demonstratethe social. Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. non-govemmentalorganization and farmers s . PrANT NUTRTTTON TO J) SUSTATNABTE INCREASE FOOD PRODUCTION MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 14. (c) Develop proper IPM. (b) Train extensionagentsand involve farmers and women's groups in crop health and altemative nonchemicalways of controllingpestsin agriculture. inter alia. This will requireincreasing agricultural productionin high-potential areasthroughefficiencyin the useof inputs.80Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantintemational and regionalorganizations. 14. To the FAO sustainable lant nutrition programmes p coul d be hel pful . OBJECTIVES 14. more margi nall andsand fragi l e naturalecosyst em s are put under agri cul turaluse. should: (a) Prepare and conduct training programmes on approachesand techniquesfor integratedpest management and control of pesticideuse. comprisingthe selectionof the variety of biological. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 14. as well as chemicalcontrols.A s a r e s u l t .81Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantintemational and regionalorganizations.and nationalagricultural production has fallen behind food demand. and policy makerscln envirclnmentally sound new and existing technologiesand soil-fertility management strategi es for appl i cati oni n promoti ng sustai nable agriculture. andto optimizeavailabilityof fertilizerandother plant nutrientsources. D) CAPACITY. thus creati ngfurt her probl em s. nutrient A output from al l sources i currentl yexceeds nputs by a factor of three or four. ment will all be essential.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not beenreviewedby Governments.physicaland culturalcontrols. ratesexceed3 per cent a year.shouldlaunch on-farm research the developin ment of non-chemicalalternativepestmanagement technologies. rese archers. 8/ SC'ENilFrC AND TECHNOTOG\CAL MEANS 14. dependupon. mai ntai nsoi l productivit y.includingany that are non-concessional.taking into accountspecific regionalconditions.adapted plant nutrientsand soil enrichtools and technologies. Trainedlabour. (c) To develop makeavailable and national intemaand tional know-how to farmers. the net loss being estimated a t s o m e l 0 m i l l i o n m e t r i ct o n sp e r y e a r .85The objectives this programmeareaare: of (a) Not later than the year 2000. l and degradati on and otherenvi ronmental The i ntegratedpl ant nutri ti on approachai ms at ensuri ng a sustai nabl esuppl y of pl ant nutri ents t o i ncrease future yi el ds w i thout harmi ng the envir onment and soi l producti vi ty. economic and environmental benefitsof IPM for food and cashcrops in agriculture.84In many developing populationgrowth countries. tions and regulatorybodiesin the control of pesticides and the transferof technologyfor integrated pestmanagement. BASIS ACTION FOR 14. to inform policy makers. to includingabout$285million from theinternational qommunity on grantor concessional terms. ln these countries the goal should be to increaseagricultural production at least percenta year.9billion.79The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programme be about$ 1. (b) N ot l ater than the year 2000.83 l ant nutri ent depl eti oni s a seri ousproblem P resulting in loss of soil fertility.to developand maintain in all countriesthe integratedplant nutrition approach. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations.82Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. particularlyin devel opi ngcountri es.energysupply. to establ i shand mai ntai n i nsti tuti onaland human i nfrastructur e o t enhanceeffecti ve deci si on-maki ng soi l prod ucon tivity.BUILDING 14.

includingany thatarenon-concessional. including nationaldeposits. of (b) Where appropriate.Theseare indicativeandorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhave not been reviewedby Gclvernments. (b) Trainfarmers andwomen'sgroupsin plantnutrition management.recycling. croppingsystems farmingsysand tems. B/ SC/EN|FIC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 14. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.as appropriate. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.and non-governmental organizations shouldcollaboratein carout information and publicity campaignsabout the rying integrated plant nutrients approach. Actual costsand financialterms. (b) Integrate organic and inorganic sourcesof plant nutrientsin a systemto sustainsoil fertility anddetermine mineral fertilizer needs. wastes. of (b) Reinforce interdisciplinary international research and transferof technologyin cropping and farming systemsresearch.87Governments at the appropriate level. c) HUTAAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 14. (c) Determine plant nutrient requirementsand supply strategiesand optimize the use of both organic and inorganic sources. and in economicevaluationof plant nutrientimpact. the activitiesof this programme be about$3.in(inputs)andlosses (outputs) prepare cludingsupplies and balancesheetsand projectionsby cropping systems.86Governments at the appropriate level.ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED ACTIVIT S IE 14.should: (a) Assess"national accounts"for plant nutrients.should: (a) Formulate and apply strategiesthat will enhance soil fertility maintenance meetsustainable to agricultural production and adjust the relevant agricultural policy instrumentsaccordingly.without harming the environment.topsoil produced from discardedorganicmatterand biological nitrogen fixation. with the supportof the relevantinternational regionalorganand izations. improved organic supplies. (b) Review technicaland economicpotentialsof plant nutrient sources.exteninteractiveprocessinvolving farmers. COOPERAI/ON.AND COORD/NAI/ON 14. sion services and other sectors society. to including about$475 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.2 billion. improvedin sirabiomass production techniques.plant growth and humanhealth. the internationalagriculturalresearch institutes.inter alia.develop andtestnewtechnologies MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A) F'NANCING AND COSI EVALUATTON 14. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 14.89The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing 128 .should: (a) Train extensionofficers and researchers plant in nutrientmanagement. will depend upon.91Governments at the appropriate level. such as FAO. (d) Develop andencourage processes the recyclingof for organicand inorganicwasteinto the soil structure. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.should: (a) Develop site-specifictechnologies benchmark at sites and farmers' fields that fit prevailing socio-economic and ecological conditions through researchthat involvesthe full collaboration local populations.efficiency of soil productivity and their relationshipto the environment.research.the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.should: (a) Develop suitable institutional mechanismsfor policy formulationto monitor andguidethe implementation of integrated plant nutritionprogrammes throughan .to increasefarming effi ciency and production.90Governments at the appropriate level. organic residue managementand agroforestry technologies. C/ /NTERNAI'ONAT AND REGIONAI.92 Governmentsat the appropriate level. B) DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON 14.88The appropriate United Nations agencies. strengthenexisting advisory services andtrainstaff. with special emphasis topsoilconservaon tion and production. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.

households. The full potential of agricultureand agroforestry. together with animal and human residuesand energy. More intensive energy inputs are required for productivity of human labour and for incomeincreased generation. ACTIVITIES ACT IE ELATED IVIT S A) MANAGEMENI-R 14.ruralenergypoliciesandtechnolTo fossil and ogies shouldpromotea mix of cost-effective sourcesthat is itself sustainableand renewableenergy ensures sustainableagricultural development. MEANs AND TECHNOLOGTCAL 8/ SC/ENr/F'C 14. inter alict. and prodepend upon. improved energy MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING 14. will cial terms. full TO TRANSTTTON K) RURArENERGY PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCE (b) Initiate and promoterural energyprogrammes supported by technical training. AND REG'ONAL c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 14. (c) Intensify researchand the development. for efficient useand environmentally FOR BASIS ACTION 14.should: (a) Collect and disseminate dataon rural energysupply and demand patterns related to energy needs for and agro-industry. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. thisend. energy sourcesby making available tured and diversified of alternativenew and renewablesources energy.99Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.includingany that are non-concessional. In rural areasof the developing of countries. agriculture (b) Analyse sectoral energy and production data in order to identify rural energyrequirements.8billion. strucfrom unsustainable communities.96Governments at the appropriate level. of (a) Promote pilot plansandprojects consisting elecbiomass.94The objectives this programme (a) Not later than the year 2000. comincludingabout$265million from theinternational munity on grantor concessional terms.the chief sources energyarefuelwood.to and of and facilitatethe adoption practices upgrade of maintain productivity theland. that solar driers. drawingon theexperience regionalorganizations and available information of non-governmentalorganizations in this field.mechanical thermalpower(gasifiers. The attainment of energy.) energy demandand AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.the specificsfrategies grafflmesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation.to initiate andencourage soundenergytransitionin rural of a process environmentally to energysources. is rural development intimately linked with sustainable supply patterns. and appropriatetechnology favouring (c) To implementself-reliantruralprogrammes and energysources of renewable development sustainable efficiency. should: 129 .93 Energy suppliesin many countries are not commensuratewith their developmentneedsand are highly priced and unstable. OBJECTIVES areaare: of 14.97The appropriate United Nations agenciesand should.Rural areasprovide energy suppliesin the form of wood.wind-pumpsand combustionsystems) are appropriateand likely to be adequatelymaintained. and trical.95Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.as well as as common property resources.Theseareindicaonly and havenot tive and order-of-magnitude estimates Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. crop manure. soundtechnology.diversificaneed of takinginto accountthe tion andconservation energy. banking and relatedinfrastructure. sourcesof renewable is far from being realized. (b) To increasethe energy inputs available for rural needsthrough planning householdand agro-industrial transferand development.98The Conference secretariathas estimated the of averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) implementing to the activitiesof this programme be about$ 1. exchangecountry and regional experienceon rural energy planning methodologiesin order to promoteefficient planningand selectcost-effective technologies. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorganshould: izations.

should take the necessary through institutionalcooperation. and considertaking appropriateremedialmeasures. with the at l4. tion and post-harvest animal life in affectedregions. ACTIVITIES IV I MAN EM AG ENI-RET ED ACT IT ES AT DEVELOPMENT c) HUMANRESOURCE 14. of in octivities chopter15 (Conservotion biologicol 5The oreo ore reloiedto someof the octivities thisprogromme of of in ociivities chopter9 (Protection the otmosphere).(a) Intensify public and private sector researchin developingand industrializedcountrieson renewable sourcesof energyfor agriculture. as well as on agricultural activities. D) CAPACITY-BUtLD\NG level.l0l Governments the appropriate supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. as well as on sustainable agriculturaldevelopment. as appropriate. in in oreo ore presented of the issues this progromme poverty). with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations. and to develop.Govemmentsat the appropriate level.shouldenhance the problems. opprooch lhe plonning 4The oreo ore relotedto someof the octivities thisprogromme of diversity).Consequently.104In affectedregions. is important to evaluateits effects on plant and animal life. the village and household (b) Strengthenextension services and local organfornew and andprogrammes to izations implementplans renewablesourcesof energy at the village level. 14. 3sor" 2sor" 1 'Some OBJECTIVE areais to underof 14.as well as its impact on agriculture.103The objective this programme take research to determine the effects of increased ozone ultraviolet radiation resulting from stratospheric layer depletion on the Earth's surface. OF tl EvAruATloN oF rHE EFFECTS UITRAVIOLET RADIATIONON PtANNi AND ANIMATS CAUSED OF BY THE DEPTETION ITIE STRATOSPHERIC OZONE IAYER FOR BASIS ACTION 14. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organpublic awareness rural energy of izations. (b) Undertakeresearch and transferof energytechnologiesin biomassand solarenergyto agriculturalproducactivities.to facilitate measures.and on plant and r30 . and evaluationregarding the implementationof research ultraviolet radiationon plant and the effectsof enhanced animal life.stressing economicand environmentaladvantagesof renewableenergy sources.should: (a) Establish national institutional mechanismsfor that would imrural energy planning and management prove efficiency in agricultural productivity and reach level. chopter3 (Comboting in 8 in oreoore discussed chopter of theissues thisprogromme in ond (lntegroting ond environmeni development decision-moking) in for cooperotion mechonisms internoiionol ond chopter32 (Notionol in countries). copocity$uilding developing in ore presented chopter lO (lntegroted of the issues of to ond monogement londresources). particularly in the southernhemiit sphere.102The increaseof ultraviolet radiation as a conseozone layer quenceof the depletionof the stratospheric is a phenomenonthat has been recorded in different regions of the world.100Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. strategies aimed at mitigating its adverseeffects.

animalsandmicro-organisms.4 Governments at the appropriate level.Effective national action and internationalcooperationis required for the in situ protectionof ecosystems. inappropriate of constitute capital a hascontinued. species ecosystems. forthe assessment. tundras. nahs. and taking into considerationindigenouspeople and their communities.The particifor the enhancement ecosystem of pation and support of local communities are elements essential to the successof such an approach. with the cooperationof the relevant United Nations bodies and regional.3 Despitemounting efforts over the past 20 years.1 The objectivesand activities in this chapter of Agenda 2l are intendedto improve the conservationof use biologicaldiversityand the sustainable of biological resources.should: (a) Press forthe early entry into force of the Convention particion BiologicalDiversity.2 Our planet'sessential depend populaon the variety and variability of genes.with the widestpossible pation.pastures and rangelands. Biological resourcesfeed and tions and ecosystems. introduction foreignplantsand animals.and to ensurethat activitieswithin their jurisdiction or control do not causedamageto the biological diversity of other Statesor of areasbeyond the limits of national jurisdiction.t5 diversity Conservotion biologicol of INTRODUCTION 15. the sametime. Farmers'fields and gardensare also of greatimportance while genebanks. the ex for and situ conservation biological and geneticresources of functions. lakes and seascontain most of the Earth's biodiversity.health and welfare and for the environmentalpurposes the geneticmaterialcontained of At in plants.medicinesand spiritual The naturalecosystems forests.Urgentanddecisiveactionis needed conserve with a view andmaintaingenes.the private sector and financial institutions. P R C G R A M MA R E A E OBJECTIVES CONSERVATION BIOTOGICALD]VERSITY OF 15. BASIS ACTION FOR 15. Recent advancesin biotechnology have pointed up the likely potential for agriculture. clothe us and provide housing. as well as social and economic factors.mainly from pollution and the habitat destruction.savanof nourishment. deserts. The currentdeclinein biodiversity is largely the result of human activity and represents a seriousthreatto human development. to benefits. intergovernmentaland non-governmental organizations. it is particularly important in this context to stressthat States have the sovereign right to exploit their own biological resources pursuant to their environmental policies. well as to supportthe Conventionon Bioas logical Diversity.as well as the responsibilityto conservetheir biodiversityand use their biological resources sustainably. and other germplasmrepositoriesmake a small but significant contribution. and to the sustainablemanagementand use of biological resources. Biologicalresources asset with great potential for yielding sustainable r3r . goodsand services 15.species. studyandsysteCapacities matic observationand evaluationof biodiversity needto be reinforced at national and internationallevels.rivers. zoos asrepositories.botanicalgardens. over-harvesting. the lossof the world's biologicaldiversity.

(b) Develop national strategies the conservationof for biologicaldiversityand the sustainable of biological use resources. including the business scientificcommunities. taking account the potential contribution of biotechnology theconservation biologicaldiversity to of and the sustainable of biologicalresources. environmental in services othervaluessuppoftingsustainable and development.particularlyto developing countries. including biotechnology.programmes policies. (d) Takeappropriate measures the fair andequitable for sharing of benefits derived from researchand development anduseof biologicalandgenetic resources. as appropriate: (a) Developnewor strengthen existingstrategies. The work should be undertakenwith the 132 . use with a view to the fair and equitablesharing of the benefitsarising. includinganalyses relevant of costs and benefits.asappropriate. includingnative.2 use (i) Promotebroaderinternationaland regionalcooperation in furtheringscientificandeconomicunderstanding of the importanceof biodiversity and its functions in ecosystems.maintainor increase biodiversity.in the conservation management and of ' ecosystems. plans or programmesof action for the conservation biologiof cal diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources.with the supportof indigenouspeople and their communities.innovationsand practicesof indigenous and local communitiesembodyingtraditional lifestylesfor the conservation biologicaldiversityandthe of sustainable of biologicalresources. (d) Takeeffectiveeconomic. taking account education of and trainingneeds. particularly developing countries.evaluatethe potential economicimplicationsof the conservation biological of diversityandthe sustainable of biologicalandgenetic use resources. intergovernmental organizations and. with particular reference to the biology and reproductive capacities of key terrestrial and aquatic species.consistent with nationalpoliciesandpractices.with particularreference and to the special importanceof terrestrialand aquatic biological and geneticresources food and agriculture. (c) Integrate strategies the conservation biologifor of cal diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources into national development strategiesand/or plans.protectandpromotethe widerapplication of the knowledge. sources. benefitfrom the biotechnologito cal developmentand the commercial utilization of productsderivedfrom suchresources.socialandotherappropriate incentive measures encourage conservationof to the biologicaldiversityand the sustainable of biological use resources.resources. (g) Recognizeand foster the traditional methods and the knowledge of indigenouspeople and their communities.between the sourcesof those resources and thosewho usethem. take action to respect. suchas traditionalmethodsof agriculture. record.5 Governments the appropriate at levels. () Develop measures arrangements implement and to the rights of countriesof origin of geneticresources or countriesproviding geneticresources. ecological conditionsnecessary biodiversityconservation for and continuedevolution. identify processes activitieswith significant and impactsupon biological diversity.forestry. consistent and and with the requirementsclf internationallaw.as appropriate. range and wildlife management.which use. should.non-governmental organizations and other groups. where women play key roles. agroforestry. (e) Carry out country studies.and socialbehaviourand nutrition habits dependenton natural ecosystems.s (e) Subject to national legislation. emphasizingthe particular role of women. to including women. and promotemechanisms involve thosecommunities. (0 Undertakelong-term researchinto the importance of biodiversityfor the functioningof ecosystems the and role of ecosystems producing goods. relevantto the conservation biological diversity and of the sustainable of biological resources.s for (c) Undertakecountry studiesor use other methodsto identify components biological diversity importantfor of its conservation and for the sustainable of biological use ascribevalues to biological and geneticre. the on conservation biological diversity and the sustainable of useof biologicalresources. and suggest priority action. ( 0 P r odu c e re g u l a rl y u p d a te d w o rl d reports on biodiversitybasedupon nationalassessments. development and sustainable of biotechuse nology and its safe transfer.a (b) Integratestrategies the conservation biologifor of cal diversity and the sustainableuse of biological and geneticresources into relevantsectoralor cross-sectoral plans. generation.cultivated culturedspecies.2'3 ACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMENT-R ELATED ACTtVtTtE S 15. definedin the as Conventionon Biological Diversity. with the cooperation of therelevantUnitedNationsbodiesand. including the promotion of sustainable production systems. and new observationand inventory techniques.with particularreferenceto socioeconomicaspects. use and ensure the opportunity for the participation of those groups in the economicand commercial benefitsderived from the useof suchtraditionalmethodsand knowledgell (h) Implement mechanismsfor the improvement.

availableandfor publi c participation. providing fbr suitableinformation to be made widely whereappropriate. with the full suppoftand participationof local and indigenouspeople and their communities.7 Governments at the appropriate level. and ecosystems. intergovemmental organizations. (0 Collect. on 0) Promote environmentally sound attd sustainable developmentin areasadjacentto protectedareaswith a view to furtheringprotectionof theseareas.6 Governments the appropriate at with nationalpoliciesandpractices. assess and make available relevant and reliable information in a timely manner and in a form suitable for decision-makingat all levels.the establishment and strengtheningof national inventory. with the suppofi of indigenous people and their communities. endangered (i) Develop policiesto encourage conservation the of use of biological and biodiversity and the sustainable geneticresources privatelands.widest possibleparticipation. COOPERAI'ONA ND COORDINAIION 15.building upon the resultsof country studies. (c) Initiate or further developmethodologies begin and or continue work on surveysat the appropriatelevel on the statusof ecosystems and establishbaselineinformaincluding those tion on biological and geneticresources. resources. local and indigenous (d) Identify and evaluatethe potential economic and social implications and benefitsof the conservation and sustainable of terrestrialand aquaticspeciesin each use country.coastaland marine ecosystems.7 (b) Produceregularlyupdatedworld reportson biodiversity based uponnationalassessments all counties.In situ measures should include the reinforcement terrestrial. sampling and evaluationactivities describedabove.especiallyof indigenous peopleand their communities. and other groups. preferablyin the sourcecountry.marineand aquatic of protected inter alia. in (c) Promotetechnicaland scientific cooperationin the field of conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources. such as herbaria.gene banks. as well as inventoriesundertakenwith the participationof peopleand their communities. with the support and of non-governindigenouspeopleand their cclmmunities. and the transfer of technology and/or development of research and managementfacilities. of the and encourage assessment the impactsof relevant policiesand programmes biologicaldiversity. includingwomen. vulnerable and areasystems embrace. regulation or management and control systemsrelatedto biological level. coral reefsand mangroves.as appropriate: (a) Considerthe establishment strengthening naor of tional or internationalcapabilitiesand networks for the exchange of data and information of relevanceto the conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological and geneticresources. as appropriate. ( k ) I nt r oduc e a p p ro p ri a tee n v i ro n me n ta li mpact procedures proposedprojectslikely to fbr assessment have significant impacts upon biological diversity. should.analysisand interpretation of data derived from the identification. the appropnate at (m) Take measuresto encourage a greater understanding and appreciationof the value of biological diversity. non-governmentalorganizationsand other groups. consistent 15. as manifestedboth in its componentparts and provided.as approof the requirements international priate:7 (a) Regularly'collate. with the cooperationof the relevant United Nations bodies and.related to the conservation biodiversitv:8 of B) DATA AND INFORMAI/ON level. including the mental organrzatrons with and and business scientificcommunities. CI /NIERNAIIONAI. should.asappropriate. on (l) Promote. consistent law.l (g) Take action where necessary the conservation for of of biological diversity through the in silu conservation and natural habitats.and. Specialattentionshouldbe given to the development and strengthening nationalcapabilitiesby meansof human of resource including development institution-building.as well as primitive ecosystems cultivars and their wild relatives. (e) Undertakethe updating. and implementex situ measures. and laboratories. in the ecosystem services (b) Develop methodologies with a view to undertaking systematicsampling and evaluationon a national basis of the componentsof biological diversity identified by meansof country studies.aquatic. in terrestrial. including the businessand scientific communities. AND REG'ONAI.o (h) Promote the rehabilitation and restoration of and and damagedecosystems the recoveryof threatened species.and consistent with the requirements interof nationallaw. evaluate and exchange informaof tion on the conserl'ation bioiogical diversity and the use resources: sustainable of bioloeical r33 .where appropriate.and the maintenance and recovery of viable populationsof speciesin their naturalsurroundings. intergovernmental organizations. with the cooperation of therelevant UnitedNationsbodiesand. museums. such freshwater otherwetlands coastal and as estuaries.

integrating for biodiversityconpotential cerns.2' nizing that technology (e) Promotecooperation betweenthepartiesto relevant internationalconventionsand action plans rn'iththe aim of strengtheningand coordinating efforts to conserve use biologicaldiversityand the sustainable of biological resources: (0 Strengthensupport for international and regional instruments.whereappropriate. business enterprisesand bilateral and multilateral development agencies. inter alia. of (c) Improved and diversified methodsfor ex situ conservationwith a view to the long-term conservationof genetic resources of importance for research and development. or (b) Continueto build capacityfor the conservation of biologicaldiversityand the sustainable of biological use resources all relevantsectors. facilitate for this relevantto the conchapterthe transferof technologies use servation biologicaldiversityand the sustainable of that of biologicalresources technologies makeuseof or geneticresources cause significant no to and damage the in environment. well as for the systematic as samplingand of resources. use (b) Maintain or establish programmes scientificand for technicaleducationand training of managers profesand sionals. development (d) Enhancethe capacity of governmentaland private institutions.whereappropriate. DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE 15. at the appropriatelevel. including any that are non-concessional. datacollection. the mainand tenance genebanks. including aboutS1. conformity with chapter34. to: (a) Increase numberand/ormakemore efficient use the of trainedpersonnel scientificand technologicalfields in relevant to the conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable of biologicalresources. evaluation biological (b) Methodsand technologies the conservation for of diversity andthe sustainable of biological biological use resources: 134 .programmesand action plans concerned with the conservationof biological diversity and'the sustainable of biologicalresources.9 Specificaspects be addressed to to develop: (a) Efficient methodologies baselinesurveysand for inventories. in (c) Build capacity.OG\C AL N S A MFA includethe need l-5. Actual costsand financial will terms. dependupon.including levels of supportfor the establishment and appropriate managementof protectedareasin transboundarylocat ions : (h) Promotenational efforts with respectto surveys. especially within Governments.8 The Conference has secretariat estimated averthe age total annualcost ( 1993-2000) implementingthe of activitiesof this chapterto be about$3. responsiblefor protected area planning and managementto undertake intersectoralcoordination and planning with other governmental institutions. where appropriate. use (c) Promote and encourageunderstandingof the importanceof the measures required for the conservation of biologicaldiversityandthe sustainable of biologiuse cal resources all policy-making and decision-making at levelsin Governments. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 15.(d) Without prejudiceto the relevantprovisionsof the Conventionon Biological Diversity. peopleand indigenous their communities. thesetopicsin educational MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 15. and recog8 includesbiotechnology. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation.11Thereis a need. especially developing in countries.conservation biologicaldi versity and the sustainable of biologicalresources. the and promoteandencourage inclusionof programmes. business ente{prises lending and institutions.75billion from the international community terms. measures on of for theidentification. Theseareindicativeand on grantor concessional order-of-rnagnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments. sampling and evaluation. benefits opportunity and costcalculations into project design.5 billion. non-governmentalorganizationsand. implementationand evaluation processesr well asfor evaluating impacton biologias the cal diversityof proposed projects.10Thereis a need. use (g) Promote irnproved internationalcoordinationof measures the effectiveconservation management fclr and of endangered/non-pest migratory species. to: (a) Strengthenexisting institutions and/or establish new onesresponsible the conservation biological for of diversityandto considerthe development mechanisms of suchas nationalbiodiversityinstitutes centres. 8/ S C' F N IF tC N D T EC H N O T .

40 SSee of soundtechnology. tokenfrom or of which moy or moy not hove originotedin thot ex situsources. 3Arti. possesses those geneticresources in situ "Countryproviding meons countrysupplythe genetic resources" including ing geneiic resources collectedfrom in sifu sources. populotions bothwild ond domesticoted species. troining). Diversity on 2 (Use terms) theConvention Biologicol of of includes following the definitions: "Country originof geneticresources" which meons country the of in conditions. resources). enclosed rotionol useond development theirliving of ond the protection. 2See of sound choptrr16 {Environmentolly monogement biotechnology). country. 6See chopter17 {Protection the oceons.l" rsee 4See chopter36 {Promoting publicoworeness ond educotion. kindsof seos. 5See i35 .the ond chopter26 (Recognizing strengthening role of 24 people ond indigenous ondtheir communities) chopter (Globol ond equilobledevelop oction for women towords sustoinoble ment). ZSee for chopter (lnformotion decision-moking). choprer (Tronsfer environmentolly 34 ond cooperotion copocity-building). ogriculture ond rurol chopter14 (Promoting sustoinoble development) chopter1 I (Comboting ond deforestotion). of oll oreos including ond semi-enclosed ond coostol seos.

more efficient industrial d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e sf o r t r a n s f o r m i n g r a w methodsof afforestamaterials.1A I \. Nevertheless. wastes. nologies. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E Al TNGREASTNG AVAttABtUW OF FOOD. especially in the developingworld.Biotechnology also offers new opportunities f o r g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p s . emerging for field.ex sitr. is a set of enablingtechniques bringing about specific man-madechangesin deoxyribonucleicacid (DNA). promises makea significant contribution in enabling the development of.It will require the successful and environmentally safe applicationof biotechnologyin agriculture.By itself. Significantnew investments development will be required in biotechnology. for example. (d) Enhancing safety and developing international for mechanisms cooperation.Biotechnology. in plants. Much of this increased tivity will need to take place in developingcountries.The through.e s p e c i a l l y b e t w e e n t h e (which include countriesrich in biological resources andinvestgeneticresources) lackingthe expertise but throughbiotechmentsneededto apply suchresources nology and the countriesthat have developedthe technological expertiseto transformbiological resources development.supportfor sustainable and detoxification of hazardous tion and reforestation. sound Environmentolly monogement of biotechnology INTRODUCTION is of l6.in the environmentandinhumanhealth Mostof theinvestment care. or genetic material. feed and renewable raw materials: (b) Improving human health. (e) Establishingenablingmechanisms the developfor ment and the environmentally sound application of biotechnology. the challengeis not only to increase food supply. especiallywithin developingcountries.so expectationsneed to be temperedby it to realism. in modern biotechnologyhas been in the industrialized and human resource world.. animals and leadingto useful productsand techmicrobial systems.through the following activities: (a) Increasingthe availability of food.2 To meet the growing consumption needs of the global population. (c) Enhancingprotectionof the environment. enhancedfood security through sustainableagricultural practices.for example.but also to improve food distribution significantly while simultaneously developingmore sustainaproducble agriculturalsystems. better health care.to promote the of applications biotechnolof development sustainable ogy and to establishappropriateenabling mechanisms.l of so thatthey servethe needs sustainable of Biotechnologycan assistin the conservation those techniques.l Biotechnology the integration the new techniquesemergingfrom modern biotechnologywith the of well-established approaches traditional biotechnolknowledge-intensive an ogy. improved supplies of potable water. biotechnologycannot resolveall the fundamental problems of environment and development. r36 .to engenderpublic trust and confidence. THE FEED AND RENEWABTE RAW }IATERIALIi BASIS ACTION FOR 16.r resources programmeareassetout below seekto fosterinternationally agreedprinciplesto be appliedto ensurethe enviof ronmentally sound management biotechnology.

5 More specifically. livestock. (e) Increasethe efficiency of symbiotic processes that agriculturalproduction.systems allowing for productivityincreases.Efforts shouldbe contion and reforestation centratedon speciesand productsthat are grown in and are of value particularly for developingcountries. by (g) Develop improved diagnostictechniquesand vacand for cines for the prevention and spreadof diseases rapid assessment toxins or infectious organismsin of productsfor human use or livestock feed.OBJECTIVES keepingin are 16. mentaily sustainable (d) To evaluatethe agricultural potential of marginal lands in comparison with other potential uses and to develop.nutritional quality and shelflife of food and animal feed products.' (b) To reducethe need for volume increases food. (l) Develop processesto increasethe availability of materials derived from biotechnology for use in food. (0 To increasethe efficiency of nitrogen fixation and with of by mineralabsorption the symbiosis higherplants micro-organisms. agricultural practices. to product yields should similarly be increased.with due regardto the prior identification of desiredcharacteristics before modification. of major crops.animalsand lossesof and to reducepost-harvest micro-organisms. attentionto how the useof biotechnologywill impact on of the maintenance environmentalintegrity. taking into account the needs of culturalandenvironmental farmers.4 Governments atthe appropriate and and tanceof international regionalorganizations with organizations. to (c) Develop plant cultivars tolerant and/or resistantto and from stressfrom factors such as pestsand diseases abioticcauses. ing work on pre. plant and animalproducts.6 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Considerationof comparative assessments the of potential of the different technologiesfor food produc- 137 . of feed and raw materials by improving the nutritional of value (composition) the sourcecrops. ensure use the sustainable of forests.particularly in developingcountries. private the the supportof non-govemmental shouldimand scientificinstitutions.with effortsincludlosses.' Forest material resources. taking safetyconsiderations (k) Promote the integration of appropriateand traditional biotechnologiesfor the purposesof cultivating geneticallymodified plants.including the more diverseuse of genetic both hybrid and original. where appropriate. (d) Promotethe use of underutilizedcrops of possible future importance for human nutrition and industrial supply of raw materials. assistsustainable (0 Facilitate the conservationand safe exchange of plant. nary research ACNVMES ACT IES ELATED IVIT A) MANAGEMENI-R level. sustainable (e) To expand the applicationsof biotechnologyin forestry.rearinghealthy animalsand protectingforest geneticresources.disease and (c) To increase use of integrated the crop managementtechniquesto eliminate overdepenenvirontherebyencouraging denceon agrochemicals. sectorand academic proveboth plant and animalbreedingand micro-organisms throughthe useof traditionalandmodernbiotechnologies. theseentitiesshould: 16. and into account. outputby sfengthening sustainable agricultural 0 ) Promote the and broadening capacityand scopeof existingresearch throughencourthe criticalmass centres achieve necessary to into and agement monitoringof research the developmentof biologicalproducts processes productiveandenvironand of while mentalvaluettratareeconomically sociallyfeasible. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 16. outputto achievefood agricultural to enhance sustainable securiry. including imassessment management and proved diagnostictechniquesfor detectionof pestsand diseases better methodsof rapid propagation.with theassis16. and developrapid propagation methodsto aid their wider dissemination and use. (a) Improve productivity.and post-harvest (b) Furtherdevelopresistance diseases and pests. (h) Identify more productive strains of fast-growing trees. the impactsof modificationsandtheneedtopromotesustainpayingparticular able socialandeconomicdevelopment. both for increasing yields and more efficient utilization of forestproductsandfor improving afforestatechniques. pest.3 The following objectives proposed. (i) Evaluate the use of various biotechnology techniques to improve the yields of fish.and aquaculture of using the combinedresources modernbiotechnology imand conventional plant/animal/micro-organism provement. animal and microbial germ plasmby applying risk procedures. algal and other aquaticspecies. mind the need to promote the use of appropriatesafety measures basedon programmeareaD: (a) To increase the optimumpossible extenttheyield to by species.especiallyfor fuel wood. socio-economic. (g) To improve capabilitiesin basic and applied sciof encesand in the management complex interdiscipliprojects. feed and renewableraw materialsproduction.

(b) Examination the implicationsof the withdrawal of of subsidiesand the possible use of other economic to costsassociated instruments reflectthe environmental with the unsustainable of agrochemicals.with particularreference peopleandtheir with local andindigenous to cooperation of communitiesin the conservation biological diversity use as and sustainable of biologicalresources. togetherwith a systemfor assessing possible effects of biotechnologies on international trade in agriculturalproducts . MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 16. the specific strategies and programmesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation. continuing programmes formal training for scientists of should include managerial training.extensionworkersand usersto produceintegrated systems. adaptation developingcountriesto supportnational by activities that promote food security. s 138 . MEANS' B/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE in 16.ProgrammeareaE contains further details. should promote the following activities in conformity with international agreementsor illrangementson biologicaldiversity. REGTONAT. is Given the importance good of managementof research resourcesfor the successful completion of large multidisciplinary projects.7 Governments at the appropriate level. through the for and sustainable development systems substantial of productivity increases that do not damageor endanger a localccosystems: (d) Development of appropriate safety procedures basedon programmearea D. * S e ep o r o g r o p h16 . supportactivities to outlinedin this programmearea. especiallyin developingcountries. to (d) Acceleration of technology acquisition. planningandadministrative capacities thenational at level to supportthe activitiesin this programmearea.9 Training of competentprofessionals the basic and applied sciencesat all levels (including scientific personnel. workers)is one technicalstaff and extension of the most essentialcomponentsof any programmeof this kind.the tion. will dependupon. within the contextof specific projects.including farmers' and breeders'rights. scientific. cial terms. accessto the and bio-safety. benefitsof biotechnology. Such measures should be backed up by intemational. inter alia. Training programmes shouldalsobe developed.technicaland t'inancial adequate assistance to facilitate technicalcooperation and raise the capacities of the developingcountries. (c) Acceleration technology transfer and of acquisition.rights associated to of with intellectual property and informal innovations. Creatingawareness the benefitsand risks of of biotechnology essential. manageto rial.includingany that are non-concessional. access and exchange germ plasm. AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERATION 16.transfer and adaptationby developing countries to support national activities fhat promote food security. AND c/ TNTERNAT/ONAr.to meetregionalor nationalneedsfor comprehensivelytrainedpersonnel capableof using advanced technologyto reducethe "brain drain" trom developing to developedcountries.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. 7 . Additionally"specialconsideration shouldbe given to the execution of programmesfor training and exchangeof knowledgeon traditionalbiotechnologies and for training on safetyprocedures. (b) Promotion of collaborative researchprogrammes.8 The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activitiesof this programmeto be about $5 billion. taking accountof ethical considerations.Emphasisshould be given to encouraging collaboration between andtrainingof scientists. use (c) Maintenance and development of data banks of information on environmental and health impacts of organisms facilitaterisk assessment. including about $50 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.as appropriate: (a) Cooperationon issuesrelatedto conservation of. well asthe fostering of traditional methodsand knowledge of such groupsin connection with theseactivities.10Insti tuti onal upgradi ng or other appr opr iat e measures will be needed build up technical. with the support of relevant international and regional organizations. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 16. 6 o n d 1 6 .

ogies. reducethe costsof immunization. Malnutrition. sanitationfacilities add to potable water and inadequate the problemsof communicableand non-communicable the diseases. and delivery systems.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.B) tfrIPROVrNGHUMAN HEALTH FOR BASIS ACTION 16. B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 16. and the benefitsand risks of the proposed sampling (c) Establish enforcescreening. ration of environmentalquality. for (e) Createenhanced capabilities carryingout basic and appliedresearchand for managinginterdisciplinary research.environthe to of mentaland financialcostsand benefits differenttechhealthcarewithin a nologiesfor basicand reproductive frameworkof universalsafetyandethicalconsiderations.improveddiagnostics. and academic and scientificinstitutions. (a) Develop and strengthenappropriatesafety proce- r39 .should. with the of assistance intemationaland regional organizations. inter alia. programmes helpcombatmajorcommunicable to of all (b) Promote goodgeneralhealthamongpeople ages. healthand well-being pressures. protection (b) Develop criteria for evaluatingthe effectiveness activities. with a view to baning the use of those that are unsafe for the purposesof experimentation. benefits ethicaland culturalconsiderations.12The main objective of this programmearea is to contribute. notably air.poor human settlements. water and washazardous soil pollution owing to toxic chemicals. (0 Develop biodegradabledelivery systemsfor vaccines that eliminate the need for presentmultiple-dose of facilitatebettercoverage thepopulationand schedules. (c) Develop and improve programmesto assist in of i specfic treatment andprotectionfrom major non-communicablediseases.through the environmentallysoundapplic_ation of biotechnologyto an overall healthprogramme. to of peopleare exposed increasing OBJECTIVES 16.ll The improvementof human health is one of the The deteriomost important objectivesof development.NTERNAT/ONAI REGTONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION with thesupport levels. lack of good-quality poverty. (e) Develop and make widely availablenew and improved vaccines against major communicablediseases that are efficient and safe and offer protection with a including intensifyingefforts minimum numberof doses. (g) Develop effective biological control agentsagainst vectors.l 5 Governments theappropriate should: and of relevantinternational regionalorganizations. taking into accountappropriate safetyand ethicalconsiderations: programmes for (a) Developnationalandinternational of identifying and targetingthosepopulations the world most in need of improvement in general health and from diseases.to:) (a) Reinforce or inaugurate (as a matter of urgency) diseases. systematic and procedures drugsand medicaltechnolfor and evaluation AND cl . (d) Improve.14The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Research assess comparative social.This degradationof the environmentresulting from inadequateor inappropriate development has a direct negative effect on human health. at 16. the pharmaceutical industry.As a consequence. pathogens and pollutants. (h) Usingthetoolsprovidedby modembiotechnology. to 0) Develop processes increasethe availability of for materialsderivedfrom biotechnology. taking into account ethicalconsiderations . new drugsand develop. tes. radiation and other sources. ACTIVITIES IES ELATED ACTIVIT A) MANAGEMENI-R 16.ensure that drugs and technologiesrelating to reproductivehealth are safe and effective and take account of ethical considerations. systematically sample and evaluate drinking-water quality by introducing appropriate including diagnosisof water-borne specific measures. directedat the vaccinesneededto combat common disof eases children. such as mosquitoes and disease-transmitting resistant variants. (d) Develop and strengthenappropriatesafety procedures basedon programmearea D. usein improving humanhealth. improved treatments (i) Develop the improvement and more effective utilizationof medicinalplantsand otherrelatedsources. (b) Development of public education programmes directed at decision makers and the general public to of and understanding the relative encourageawareness to according andrisksof modernbiotechnology. taking account of environmental protectionconsiderations .is a matter of growing concern.

The training of personnel could be undertaken threelevels: at (a) That of scientistsrequired for basic and productorientedresearch.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. of particularlyin developingcountries.the activitiesneedto be implementedwith urgency if progresstowards the controlof majorcommunicablediseases be achieved is to by the beginningof thenext century. Biotechnol. of to including about $130 million from the international communityon grant or concessional terms. this may mean collaborationbetweenresearch institutionsin differentcountries. Actual costs and financialterms. OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION 16. R esearchand development will alsoneedto be strengthened. D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG'. (b) Supportthe development nationalprogrammes.the amountof environmental damage caused overconsumption. 140 .soil and air. Biotechnology one of many tools is that can play an importantrole in supportingthe rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems landscapes. financialinstitutions and industries will be required. associated environmentalproblems will also increase. common diseases children and of -tran disease smittins factors. 1 8 e l l . ion t andcultivationof new plantvarieties. all and the interactions betweenthe components biodiversity of and their sustaining habitatsand ecosystems. which form the physicalcomponents habitats of andecosystems. the speci fi c strategies and programmesGovernmentsdecide upon for implementation.Despite increasingefforts to prevent waste accumulationand to promoterecycling. more localizeddiseases.21The needfor a diverse genetic pool of plant. by the quantities waste generated thedegree unsustainof and of able land useappearlikely to continuegrowing.energy and noffenewable resources an expanding global populaby tion.ogy can *Seeprogromme oreo E B/ SC/ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 1 6 .20Environmental protection anintegralcomponent is of sustai nabl edevel opment.with regionsandcountries havingaccess to.ll The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe total annual average cost(1993-2000) implementing of the activities thisprogramme be about$ 14 billion. and participationin exchange information and experof. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 16. For regionalor naThe tionalpolicieswill bemoreappropriate. tise. (b) Nationalprioritieswith a definedtime-frame.animal and microbial germ plasm for sustainable development is well established. (b) That of health personnel(to be trained in the safe use of new products)and of sciencemanagers required for complexintermultidisciplinary research. The envi r onm entis threatenedin all its biotic and abiotic components: animals. cl ENHANCTNG PROTECnON rHE ENURONMEM OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON l6. wi l l d e p e n d u p o n . BASIS ACTION FOR 16.includingany thatarenon-concess ional. microbes and ecosystems comprising biological diversity.c o o r d i n a t e dm u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s W involving cooperation betweenscientists. achievement of goalscalls for: (a) Continuous international commitment.with funding at the intergovernmental level. the global At level.possiblysupported similar by c ollabor a ti o n a t th e n a ti o n a l l e v e l . is essential createor enhance It to endogenouscapabilitiesin developing countries to enable them to participate actively in the processes of biotechnology production. (c) That of tertiary-leveltechnical workersrequired for delivery in the field. plants. (c) Scientificand financialinput at globalandnational levels.particularlyindigenousor traditionalknowledgeand relatedbiotechnology. support togetherwith the mechanisms providing the transfor fer of relevanttechnology.germplasmconservation.for improvements protection in general health. The spread some of diseases all regions of the world calls for global to measures. and This may be done throughthe development new techniques of for reforestat and affores ation.16To achievethe abovegoals.especially from major communicablediseases. 16.dures basedon programmearea D. i n te r a l i a .19Training and technologytransferis needed the at globallevel. taking into account ethicalconsiderations . With the continued increasein the use of chemicals.water.

(d) Develop appropriate safety proceduresbased on programme area D. 141 . of (l) Develop new technologies rapid screeningof for for organisms usefulbiologicalproperties. nology.25Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.afforestationand 8 land rehabilitation. ACTIVITIES ACT IES ELATED IVIT A) MANAGEMENT.recovering energyand minimizingwastegeneration. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATION has estimatedthe 16.wastetreatment. (m) Promotenew biotechnologies tappingrnineral for manner. (e) Develop processes remove pollutantsfrom the to oil including accidental spills. should: (a) Strengthenresearch. (b) Developapplications minimizetherequirement for to unsustainable syntheticchemicalinput andto maximize ttre use of environmentally appropriate products.to suppoftthe activitiesoutlinedin this programme area. including naturalproducts(seeprografirmeareaA). ventionaltechniques not availableor are expensive. (i) Promotethe appropriate of bio-fertilizerswithin use national feftrlizer programmes.22The aim of this programme to prevent. with the support of relevant internationaland regional organizations. (c) Enhance includingtransferofbiotechcooperation. particularlyindigenous and reforestation and to improve use in affcrrestation yieldsfrom forests.6 (b) To promote the use of biotechnologies. (c) Developprocesses reduce wastegeneration.while supportingsafetyprocedures an integral componentof the programme. the private sector.halt and throughthe approprireverseenvironmentaldegradation in ate useof biotechnology conjunctionwith othertechas nologies. relevantto the 0) Promotethe use of biotechnologies and scientificstudyof biologicaldiversity conservation and the sustainable of biologicalresources. recycling biomass. use (k) Develop easily applicable technologiesfor the treatment sewage and organicwaste.7' (c) To apply biotechnologiesand their products to protectenvironmental integritywith a view to long-term ecologicalsecurity. (h) Promote the use of integrated pest management basedon thejudicious useof bio-controlagents. sustainable AND REG/ONAI c/ /NIERNAilONAT AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAIION 16. (0 Develop processes increasethe availability of to varieties. (g) Developapplications increase availabilityof to the planting material for land rehabilitation stress-tolerant and soil conservation.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.rvhereconenvironment. for plantingmaterjals. treat to waste before disposal and make use of biodegradable materials. from recyclingorganicwasteand biomass. may have limited even though those biotechnologies commercialpotential.R 16. taking accountof ethical considerations. (d) Develop processes recoverenergyand provide to animal feedandraw materials renewableenergysources. isms introduced OBJECTIVES is 16.26The Conferencesecretariat of averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $ I billion. are inefficientor inadequate. resources an environmentallv in sustainable B) DATA AND INFORMAI/ON access both to 16. between participatingcountries for capacitybuilding.reforestation.also contributeto the study of the effects exertedon the remaining organismsand on other organismsby organinto ecosvstems. (b) Develop mechanisms scalingup and dissemifor of nating environmentallysound biotechnologies high environmental importance.24Stepsshould be taken to increase and existinginformationaboutbiotechnology to facilities basedon global databases. (a) Develop environmentallysound alternativesand g for i mprovements environmentallydamagin production processes. with the support of relevant international and regional organizations. non-governmentalorganshould: izationsandacademic and scientificinstitutions. especiallyin the shortterm. with emphasison bio-remediationof land and water.Specific objectives as include the inauguration soon as possibleof specific programmeswith specific targets: (a) To adoptproductionprocesses making optimal use by of natural resources.training and development capabilities. soil conservation.particularly in developingcountries.

basedon the experiences the first period. as well as the exchangeof trained personnelbetween countries and regions. leading. whichincorporoted findings theod hocworkshop Senior-level of Experts Assessing Monoging on ond Biotechnology Risks. above-mentioned the to activitiesand to be dynamicin response new biotech(seeprogramme areaE). example. "Environmentolly poper No. Thereis alsoanurgentneed and technical supportpersonnel.32Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. to of complementary considerstreamlining categorizing.29There is a need for further developmentof interprinciples risk assessment mannationallyagreed on and which should of agementof all aspects biotechnology. heldin London Junel99l .comincludingabout$10 million from the international grant or concessional Theseareindicaterms. financialandotherinstin:tions. classiand ficationinto contained or release theenvironment. strategies and prodependupon.31The proposedactivitiesfor this programmearea call for close internationalcooperation.exchange and transfer through intemational agreementon principles to be appliedon risk assessment management. acceptthe potentialbenefltsand risks principlescould of biotechnology. inter alia. will cial terms. includingthe widestpossible ticipationand taking accountof ethicalconsiderations. prepored the ond monogement risk"(Februory of by UnitedNotionsConference Environment Development ond on secretoriot tokeoccount comments to modeot thethirdsession of of the Preporotory Committee the UnitedNotionsConference for o n E n v i r o n m e n tn d D e v e l o o m e n t n o o r t l l o f d o c u m e n t o o A/CONF. and and ationof risk assessment risk management. and with particular reference to health and environmental public parconsiderations. with the support of relevant internationaland regional organizations. 55.at the universityand technicalinstitutelevel. to use DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 16. nologicaldevelopments A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACT tTl tV ES ELAT 16. Only when adequate transparent saf-ety border-control and and procedures in place will the community at large be are able to derive maximumbenefitfrom.151 the of /PC/67. (a) Make the existingsafetyprocedures widely available by collectingthe existinginformationand adapting it to the specificneeds differentcountries andregions. 2 3o n d 1 6 . Support for for needsto be increased. entitled See reseorch sound monogement biotechnology: of sofetyin biotechnology---cssessment 19921.as necessary.28Relevant institutions (political. Governments 8/ S C/ E N IIF ICN D T EC H N O L OGICME A N S ' A AL primary considerationof the organism. especially developing in countries. existingtrainingprogrammes example. * S e ep o r o g r o p h1 6 .Severalfundamental including underlie many of these safety procedures. munity on only and havenot estimates tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. and OBJECTIVES 16. and be in a much betterpositionto.includingany that are non-concessional.21The activities for this programme area will increasethe demand for trained personnel. the specific grarnmes decideupon for implementation. the private sector.finansibility for undertaking. in Dl ENHANCTNG SAFETY AND DEVELOPTNG FOR INTERNATIONAT'VIECHANISMS COOPERATION BASIS ACTION FOR 16. appliedin a flexible framework. New and additional training programmes for for alsoneedto be developed. thecapacity and cial and workforce)to undertake. build upon thosedevelopedat the nationallevel.*" D) CAPACITY-BUILDING will needto havetherespon16. 2 5o b o v e s t42 .application. inter alia. of (b) Furtherdevelop. ACTIVITIES 16. existingsafety the procedures promote sci enti fi c devel o pm entand to categori zati on n the areasof ri sk assessm ent i and r i s k m a n a g e m e n t( i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . They should build uponplanned existingactivitiesto accelerate or the environmentally sound application of biotechnology. non-governmentalorganizationsand academic should: and scientificinstitutions.30The aim of this programme areais to ensure safety in biotechnologydevelopment.building on the principle of familiarity. alsorecognizing but that a experiencehas shown that in many instances more comprehensive approachshould be used. and taking into accountnationalrequirements recognizis ing that the logicalprogression to startwith a step-bystepandcase-by-case approach. of to improvethe level of understanding biologicalprinciples and their policy implicationsamongdecisionmakers in Governmenls.

procedures assessingsksandconditions databases.moni tori ng and inspections. by Actual costsand financial terms. 16. 3 3 . 16.34Furtheractivitiesshouldincludethefollowing (see alsopara. for ri ofrele ase. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANCING AND COSTEVALUATTON 16. 3 2 .taking account of ongoing national.37The accelerated development and applicationof biotechnologies. researchand development facilities and funds. includingrisk assessment risk management. 3 2o n d I 6 .33Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.enabling factors such as training capacity. or (d) Undertaketraining prograrnmes the nationaland at regionallevelson the applicationof the proposed technical guidelines. the specificstrategies programmes and Govemmentsdecide uponfor implementation. (e) Assist in exchanging informationaboutthe procedures required for saf'ehandling and risk management and about the conditionsof releaseof the productsof biotechnology.and promote information exchange as a basis for further development. technologyassessment. will require a major effort to build up institutionalcapacitiesat the nationalandregionallevels. c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL REG/ONAI AND COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON 16. industrial building capacity. 8/ SCtENn AND TECHNOLOGTCAL Frc MEANS C) HUMAN RESOURC E DEVELOPMFNI D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG B) DATA AND /NFORMAilON' 16. and and consideringstudying the feasibility of guidelines whichcouldfacilitate national lesislation liabilitvand on c om pens at ion. 1 S e ep o r o g r o p h 6 .establ i shmentofsafetycondi t ion s.In developing countries. and expertisein areas including marketing research. El ESTABLTSHTNG ENABUNG MECHAN|STVIS FOR THE DEVETOP'VIENT AND THE ENVIRON}IENTALIY SOUND APPLICATION BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BASIS ACTION FOR 16. and cooperatein providing immediate assistance casesof emergencies in that may arise in conjunctionwith the useof biotechnology products. will depend upon.36Adequateinternationaltechnicaland financial assistance should be provided and technicalcooperation to developingcountriesfacilitated in order to build up technical. with the slrpportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot beenreviewed Governments.including any that are non-concessional. update and develop compatible safety proceduresinto a framework of internationally agreed principlesasa basisfor guidelines be appliedon safety to in biotechnology. know-how. socio-economic assessment and safetyassessment frequentlyinadequate. planningand administrative capacitiesat the national level to support the activitiesin this programme area(seealsoprogramme areaE).regionaland global contactpoints. are Efforts will S e ep o r o g r o p h s6 . (c) Providing direct assistance upon requestthrough the internationalnetwork.capital (including venturecapital)protection intellectual of propertyrights.shouldraise awareness the relativebenefits of and risks of biotechnology. regional and international initiatives and avoiding duplicationwhereverpossible).32): (a) Organizing oneor moreregionalmeetings between countries to identify further practical stepsto facilitate international cooperation bio-safety. 1 143 . inter alia. databases information procedures. particularly in developing countries. in (b) Establishingan internationalnetwork incorporating national. (c) Compile. includingconsideration the needfor of and feasibility of an international agreement. and (d) Considering needfor and feasibilityof internathe tionally agreedguidelineson safety in biotechnology releases. using information networks.drawing on the work already undertaken by international otherexpertbodies. managerial.35The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this prograrnmes be about$2 million from to the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.

by: (i) Enhancingexistingefforts at the national. non-governmentalorganizations and academicand scientific institutions. pation in the economic and commercialbenefitsarisine from developments biotechnology. i n d u s t r i a l c a p a c i t y .regional and at and international levels.41The following activities should be undertaken: facilitation of access existine information disseminato 144 . (d) U ndertake an urgent fol l ow -up and cr it ical review to identify ways and means of strengthening endogenous capacities within and among developing countriesfor the environmentallysoundapplicationof biotechnology. to particularlyby and amongdevelopingcountries. and wherenecessary. of to contributeto sustainable development. time-scales. the (vi) Recognizing and fosteringthe traditionalmethods and know'leclge indigenouspeoplesand their comof munitiesand ensuringthe opportunityfor their partici- B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 16. (b) Implementprogrammes creategreaterawareness to of the potential and relative benefits and risks of the environmentally sound application of biotechnology amongthe public and key decisionmakers. and to assessthe priority needs of developingcountries.There is thereforea need to strengthen the endogenous capacitiesof developing countriesby means of new internationalinitiatives to support reseerchin order to speedup the developrnent and application both new andconventional of biotechnologies to servethe needsof sustainable development at t he loc a l . Theseactivitiesaregenerallyuncoordinated.38Someactivitiesat the national.asafirst step. with specialemphasison developing countries. (0 Establish additional quality-assurance standardsfor biotechnology applications products. as a subsequent step. ACTIVITIES Al MANAGEA4ENT-R ELATED ACTtVtTt ES 16. weaknessesand gaps.regional and globallevels. N ati onal mechanisms allow forinformedcommentby public to the with regard to biotechnology researchand application shouldbe part of the process. particularly researchand product development. (e) Develop strategic plans for overcoming targeted constraintsby means of appropriateresearch.particularly regional. waysto improve existing mechanisms. and to develop appropriate response strategies.the consideration possible of new international mechanisms. particularlyat the regional level and. with the support of internationaland regional organizations. suchasregionalbiotechnology centres. (v) Encouraging exchange scientists the of among all countriesand discouraging "brain drain". as well asthe provisionof adviceto A. Thereis a needfor a muchmore cohesiveand coordinated approach harness to available resources the most effective manner. n a ti o n a l a n d re g i o n a l l e v el s. funding sources andresource constraints. C and D. OBJECTIVES 16. regional and global levels to identify strengths.the private sector.including. the at national. particularly in respectof developing countries.product development and marketing. howev er. as Theseimpactsshouldbe carefullyidentifiedin the earliestphases the development biotechnology order of of in to enableappropriate management the consequences of of transferring biotechnology. regionalandglobal levelsalreadyaddress issues the outlinedin programme areas B. programmes and activitiesat the national. researchin biotechnologyand the application its findingscould havesignificant of positive andnegativesocio-economic well asculturalimpacts.including proposalsfor any new internationalmechanisms. individuai countries on the developmentof national guidelinesand systems the implementation those for of guidelines.b u i l d i n ga n d d i s t r i b u tion/marketing. (ii) Providingthe necessary supportfor biotechnology.regionaland international levels. As with most in new technologies.39The objectives as follows: are (a) To promote the development and application of biotechnologies. to determine the precise nature of the needs for additional initiatives.as appropriate.40Governments at the appropriate level. (c) To establishor adapt appropriatemechanismsfor safetyappraisal risk assessment the local. (iv) Helping to createa favourable climate for investm e n t s .building whereverpossibleon existingenabling mechanisms. 16.n in (b) To identify ways and meansof enhancingcurrent efforts. (iii) Raising public awareness regardingthe relative beneficialaspects and risks relatedto biotechnology.should: (a) Developpoliciesand mobilizeadditionalresources to facilitate greateraccess the new biotechnologies. priorities. constituencies. (c) Undertakean urgent review of existing enabling mechanisms. i n v o l v i n g ma n y d i ffe re n t organi zati ons.therefore needto be madeto build up capacities these in andotherareas andto matchsucheffortswith appropriate levels of financial support.

especiallyamong developingcountries.43The Conference of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe to activitiesof this programme be about$5 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms. 16.and considerationof the development of a directory of information. and systemsgiving appropriaterewards. graduate. 16. ond sSee humonheolth condichopter (Protecting promoting 6 ond tions). AL A B ' S C/ F NI I F I C N D T EC H N O L OGICME AN S 16. including any that are will depend upon. inter alia. of institutionsfor the technicalschoolsand local research and development biotechnologies extensionservices of will needto be developed. 4See soundtechnology. AND REGIONAI. tion of trainedmanpowerin consultant engineering and marketing research. as andpost-doctoral. design. Training programmesfor lecturerstraining scientistsand technologists in advanced researchinstitutions in different countries throughout the world will also need to be developed. 6See of chopter21 {Environmentolly soundmonogement solid issues!. decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes upon for implementation. and incentives recognition scientists technologists to and will needto be instituted(seepara. Such and it should institutions alreadyexist in somecountries and be possible makeuseof themfor trainingpurposes to joint researchprojects. C/ /NIERNATIONAL AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERAI'ON 16. Global and vities areavailableon a decentralized and regionalcollaborationfor basicandappliedresearch and will also needto be further enhanced development every effort should be made to ensurethat existing national and regional facilities are fully utilized. in order to strengthen capacitiesand to support the building of endogenous research and institutionalcapacityin thosecountries. in manpower eachcountryfor bringing andtechnological aboutsuchexchanges. facilitateaccess to amongrelevantundercountries. should develop appropriatenew initiatives to identify based specificproblemsand on priority areas research for particularlyby new biotechnologies. D) CAPACITY-BUtLDtNG MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FTNANC'NG the has secretariat estimated aver16. basis.45Personneldevelopmentneeds will need to be developed trainingprograrnmes identifiedandadditional at the national. Society should be informed of the social and and applicationof cultural impact of the development biotechnology.46Biotechnology research and development is undertakenboth under highly sophisticatedconditions and at the practicallevel in many countries.42 Governmentsat the appropriate level.especiallyin developing countries. improvement of such accesswhere appropriate.symposia.regionaland global levels.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude by mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. seminarsand other examongthe scientificcommunityat the regional changes will need and global levels.44).These should be supportedby postgraduate increasedtraining at all levels. Efforts will be needed to ensure that the necessaryinfrastructure extensionand technologyactifacilities for research. makingfull useof the existingscientific to be organized. the non-concessional. 3See deforestotion). and amongdeveloping takings within those countries. with the of assistance intemationaland regional organizations. with particularreference the generaservices. especially for theirapplication in developingcountries. Conditions of servicewill also need to be improved at the national and nurture level in developingcountriesto encourage trainedmanpowerwith a view to retainingthatmanpower locally. I diversity). Strengthening universities. wostes ond sewoge+eloted 145 . of chopter34 (Tronsfer environmentolly cooperotion copocity-building). well asby the trainingof technicians to and supportstaff. Actual costsand financial terms. chopterI i (Comboting D EV RE C) HUM A N S OU R C E EL OP M EN T 16.44Workshops.tion systems. 15 Seechopter (Conservotion biologicol of 2See ond rurol sustoinoble ogriculture chopter14 (Promoting development).on specificpriority themes.

monogement useof woter resources) ond . 9See chopter26 (Recognizing strengthening role of ond the indigenous people ond theircommunities). of SSee chopterI B (Protection thequolity of ond supply freshwoter of resources: opplicotion integroted of opprooches the develop to ment. 146 .'See chopler l0 (lntegroted opproochto the plonningond monogement londresources).

including the oceans and all seas and adjacent coastal areas . rotionol ond coostol oreosond theprotection. setsforth rights and obligations of States and provides the international basis upon which to pursue the protection and sustainable developmentof the marine and coastalenvironmentand This newapproaches marineand its resources.regional and global levels. More than half the world's population lives within 60 km of the shoreline. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A} INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABTE DEVETOPftIENT COASTAT AND MARINE AR. OF rNcruDrNG ExctustvE EcoNolilczoNEs BASIS ACI-ION FOR (b) Marine environmental protection.theseare the areasmost availablefor development activities. and coastal resourcesand the coastal environment are being rapidly degradedand erodedin many parts of the world. resources undernational (e) Addressingcritical uncertainties the managefor ment of the marineenvironment and climatechange. useond development theirlivingresources of INTRODUCTION needsand ultimately depends the technologytransfer on and financial resourcesrequired and made available to them. development and local subsistence.currentapproaches the management marine to of and coastalresources havenot alwaysproved capableof achieving sustainabledevelopment.including regional.at the national. Many of the world's poor are crowded in coastal areas. and coordination. cooperation (g) Sustainable development small islands. 17. of 17.forms an integratedwhole that is an essentialcomponent of the global life-supportsystemand a positiveassetthat preInternasentsopportunitiesfor sustainable development.EAS. of oll of including enclosed semi-enclosed ond seos.5 Coastal Statescommit themselves integrated to 1 47 . as reflected in the following programme areas:' (a) Integrated managementand sustainabledevelopment of coastal areas.The exclusiveeconomiczone(EEZ) is digenous also an important marine area where the Statesmanage the developmentand conservationof natural resources for the benefit of their people.subregional. 17.3 The coastal areacontainsdiverse and productive habitatsimportant for human settlements. tional law. of (d) Sustainable and conservation marineliving of use jurisdiction. kinds seos.17 Protection theoceons. approachesthat are integratedin content and are precautionary and anticipatory in ^ambit. requires to coastal area managementand development. regionaland global efforts. as reflected in the provisions of the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Seal'2referredto in this chapterof Agenda 21. OBJECNVES 17.1The marine environment.including exclusive economic ZONCS.2 The implementation developingcountriesof by with the activitiessetforth below shallbe commensurate their individual technologicaland financial capacities for and priorities in allocatingresources development 17. this could and rise to three quarters by the year 2020. (f) Strengthening international.For small island Statesor countries. subregional.Coastal resourcesare vital for many local communities and inpeople. (c) Sustainable and conservation marine livins use of resources the high seas.4 Despitenational.

it is necessary inter alia: and (a) Developandmaintaindatabases assessment for managementof coastal areasand all seasand their resources.fbr concerned as to individuals.it is necessary inter alia: to. (c) Conductregularenvironmental of assessment the of stateof the environtnent coastaland marineareas. To andmarineareas. ing.including pollution. Stateshouldconsider l7 .non-governmental resource usergroups. of compatibilityand a balance uses. shouldimprove 17. organizations. systematic (e) Contingencyplansfor humaninducedand natural including likely effects of potential climate disasters. posalof sewage. systematic (d) Prior environmental impact assessment. of (n) Development implementation and simultaneous environmentalquality criteria. appropriate. marineerosion. for development settlements.inventoriesof endangered and critical coastaland marine habitats.To this end. promote ing process. Such mechanisms with the academic as include consultation.8 CoastalStates. as well as contingency changeand sea-level for degradationand pollution of antllopogenic origin.aw areness and inf or m at ion programmes.andindigenous local communities.inter alia. for: (a) Preparationand implementationof land and water useand sitingpolicies.6 Eachcoastal g.drinking water and treatmentand disand industrialeffluents. to maintain biological diversity and productivity of marine speciesand habitatsunder nationaljurisdiction. mental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas. (0 Provide access. (e) Promote the development and application of methods. both should the local and nationallevels. of tific research and dissemination its results.with the supportof international measures shouldundertake upon request. such as national resourceand environmental in that reflect changes value resultingfrom accounting.groupsand organizations relevantinformation and opportunitiesfor consultationand participaat tion in planning and decision-making appropriate levels. these measuresmight include: surveys of species marine biodiversity. AND /NFORMAI/ON B) DATA where necessary. usesof coastaland marine areas. development (l ) P ubl i c educati on. solid wastes (g) Periodicassessment the impactsof externalfacof tors and phenomenato ensure that the objectives of developmentof and sustainable integratedmanagement coastalareasand the marine environmentare met. and lossof resources habitatdestruction.p h y s i cal processes. and observation follow-up of majorprojec8. Inter alia. (a) Providefor an integratedpolicy and decision-makto including all involved sectors. thisend. coordinating wherenece ssarystrengthenin appropriate (suchas a high-levelpolicy planningbody) mechanisms development and management sustainable for integrated at of coastaland marine areasand their resources. ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R or establishing.in c l u d i n g e ro d e d z o n e s . 0) Infrastructure adaptationand alternative employment. and private sectors. and (m) Promotingenvironmentally soundtechnology practices sustainable . in (d) Apply preventiveand precautionaryapproaches including prior project planning and implementation. Information for managementpurposes shouldreceivepriority supportin view of the intensity and magnitude of the changesoccurring in the coastal to.u s e r c o n fl i c ts and speci fi c priorities for management. programmes appropriate at (c) Preparation coastalprofiles identifying critical of ar eas . ports and industriesaffecting the coastalarea. (c) Concentrateon well-defined issues concernins coastalmanagement. and assess useinformatheir capacityto collect. (h) Conservationand restoration of altered critical habitats.7 CoastalStates. includingenvironuse tion for sustainable of resources.establishment and supportof scienof and management protectedareas. (i) Integration of sectoralprogrammeson sustainable tourism. (b) Develop socio-economic indiand environmental cators. of observation the impactsof and assessment systematic major projects.fishagriculture. including spills of oil and othermaterials.analyse. (k) Human resource and training. Such nationalcoordinatingmechanisms provide.management and sustainabledevelopment of coastal areasand the marine environment under their national jurisdiction. far as possible. organizations. cially in housing. dev elop m e n tp a tte rn s . l7. plans rise. espe(0 Improvement of coastal human settlements. could people. (b) Implementation integratedcoastaland marine of developmentplans and managementand sustainable levels.includingthe in of incorporation results decision-making. 148 . (b) Identify existingand projectedusesof coastalareas and their interactions.

amongothers.in the areasindicatedabove. where applicable.18 Degradation of the marine environment can result 149 . D) CAPACITY. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17.(d) Prepareand maintain profiles of coastal area resources. inter alia. subregional regionalmechanisms. B/ SC/ENIIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANs 17. (e) Exchangeinformation and data. r e g i o n a l o r g l o b a l framework. capacity-building shouldbe included in bilateral and multilateral developmentcooperation. to experience in the field could be held before 1994. business the community. al 17. Management and development. C) HUMA. (g) Supporting"centresof excellence"in integrated coastaland marine resourcemanagement. the specific strategies and programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. habitats and protected areas basedon the criteriaof sustainable development.N RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 17. will dependupon. to coastal Statesin their capacity-building efforts and.as appropriate. to They should alsodeveloptechnologies endogenous and scientificand technologic capacities. CoastalStates may consider. regionalor global.upon request.BUILDING 17.devoting specialattentionto developingcountries. upon request. organizations. asappropriate. fisherfolk.within a s u b r e g i o n a l . shouldsupportcoastal B) r anrnE ENV|RoNMENTAT PROTECTTON BASIS FORACTION 17. States.the academic sector. including any that are non-concessional. 17. (h) Supportingpilot demonstration programmesand projectsin integratedcoastaland marine management. They shouldprovide access and transferenvironmentallysafetechnologies to andmethodologies sustainable for development coastof al and marineareas developingcountries.ll States should cooperate.is to supportand supplement nationalefforts of coastalStatesto promote integratedmanagement and sustainable developmentof coastaland marine areas. research and informationmanagement systems. and. (e) Developingscientificandtechnological means and research. asindicatedabove. asappropriate.indigenous peoples. facilities and needs for human resourcesdevelopment and scientific and technologicalinfrastructure. AND C' 'NTERNATIONAL REG'ONAI. with dueregardto traditionalecological knowledgeand socio-cultural values. (0 Promotingand facilitating human resourcedeveiopment and education. activities. women and youth. whethersubregional. in devotingspecialattentionto developingcountries.12The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activities thisprogramme be about$6 billion includof to ing about $50 million from the internationalcommunity on grantor concessional terms. inter alia: (a) Ensuringcapacity-building the local level. at (b) Consultingon coastaland marineissues with local administrations.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govemments. technologists.leaders. uses. whereappropriate. shouldsupportcoastal States. (c) Coordinatingsectoralprogrammes while buildins capacity. and drawing on existing Aglobal conference exchange experience.16International whethersubregional. shouldbe incorporatedin educationalcurricula and public awarenesscampaigns. be uponrequest. theseefforts.Actual costs and financial terms.15CoastalStatesshould promote and facilitate the organization of education and training in integrated coastaland marine management and sustainable devel(including opmentfor scientists. l7.13States should cooperatein the developmentof necessary coastalsystematic observation.9 Cooperation with developing countries.10The role of international cooperation and coordination on a bilateral basisand. whereapplicable. regionalor global. well asenvironmental as protectionconcerns and local planningissues. 17.14International organizations. (d) Identifying existing and potential capabilities.in the preparationof national guidelinesfor integratedcoastal zonemanagement development. E COOP RATION AND COORD/NAI/ON 17. resource usergroupsand the generalpublic. managers community-based managers)and users.i n t e r r e g i o n a l . and should be strengthenedto improve their capacities to achievethe above.17Full cooperation should extended.

21A precautionaryand anticipatory rather than a reactiveapproach necessary preventthedegradation is to inter alia.metal s. gas activities. 11.currently machinery to offshore oil and space dischargesare regulated internationally and six have regionalconventions controlplatformdischarges to been under consideration.in variableorderof threatto the importance apd depending on differing national or sewage.25To this end. accidents illegaldischarges. so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment: (e) Improve the living standards coastalpopulations.such as the polluter pays principle. 17. in the food chain.23 Statesagreethat provision of additional financial resources. and industry can affect the marineenvironment. where appropriate. of with their policies. 17. quality management criteriafor the properhandlingof hazardous and approach damaging to substances. with the supportof the relevant international environmental.as appropriate. to address 17.l i tte r a n d p l a s ti cs. development coastal degradation the marine environmentso as to maintain of and improve its life-supportand productivecapacities. to by developingcountries implementthis commitment.as well as tc reducethe risk of long-term or irreversibleadverseeffectsupon it. (c) Integrateprotectionof the marineenvironmentinto relevant general environmental. scientific. it is necessary to: (a) Apply preventive.24 ln carryingout their commitrnentto dealwith degradationof the marineenvironment from land-based activities. nutrients. strengthening extending and the Montreal Guidelines. precautionaryand anticipatory approachesso as to avoid degradationof the marine environment. Coastal erosionand siltationare of particularconcern. 17.reduceand control to r50 .19Degradation the marine environmentcan also of result from a wide rangeof activitieson land. accordance priorities and resources.through appropriate international mechanisms. s e d i me n ts . oil/hydrocarbons polycyclicaromatic and radionuclides.and-Based Sources.with a view to identifying means of strengtheningaction.States. reductionand control of degrodotionof the morine envi nment rom I ond-bosedoctiviti ro f es 17.wasteauditsandminimization.The contaminants posethe greatest that l0 marineenvironment are.in conceft with actionto implementprogamme areaA. development (d) Develop economicincentives. while maritime a t r ans por t a n d d u mp i n g -a t-s e a c ti v i ti es contri bute per centeach. immeasures. accordance United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea on protectionand preservation the marineenvironment.000tons of oil eachyear as a resultof normal shipping enterthe oceans With respect and operations. a comprehensive impacts from air.urban development.20Marine pollution is also causedby shipping and sea-based activities. of particularly in developingcountries. to apply clean technologiesand other meansconsistent with the internalizationof environmentalcosts. (b) Assess effectiveness existingregionalagreethe of ments and action plans. to ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIVITI ES D Prevention.so as to contribute to reducing the degradationof the coastal and marine environment. To this end. land and water. as well as accessto cleaner technologiesand would be necessary supportaction relevantresearch. (PAHs).recyconstruction and/or cling.construction coastalinfrastrucof settlements.Land-basedsourcescontribute 70 per cent of marine pollution. c om pound s .syntheticorganic regionalsituations.reduceand control marine degrato dationcaused land-based by activities. where appropriate.Approximately600. tourism ture. where necessary. The nature and extent of environmentalimpactsfrom offshoreoil explorationand productionactivitiesgenerallyaccountfor a very small proportionof marinepollution. environmental adoptionof precautionary pact assessments. agriculture.the of the marineenvironment. in commit themselves. Statesshould take action at the national level and. Any management framework must include the improvementof coastal and the integrated management and human settlements of areas. inter alia. OBJECTIVES with the provisionsof the in 17.This requires. where appropriate. Human land use.andshouldtake accountof the Monffeal Guidelines the Protection the for of Marine Environmentfrom l.forestry. to: (a) Consider updating. shouldcooperate.22States. theregionalandsubregional at levels.technicaland financialorganizations. There is currentlyno global scheme marinepollution from land-based sources.from a wide range of sources. social and economic policies. improvementof sewagetreatmentfacilities. (c) Initiate and promote the developmentof new regional agreements. prevent. (b) Ensure prior assessment activities that may have of significant adverseimpactsupon the marine environment. prevent. clean production techniques. where appropriate.Many of the polluting substances hydrocarbons originating from land-basedsources are of particular sincethey exhibit at concernto the marineenvironment persistence bioaccumulation and the sametime toxicity.

waterintakesand bathingareas to pathogens.asnecessary. (ii) Facilitatingthe processes (i). with respectto the pollutants input of point source from new installations. (0 Promoting controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogenand phosphorus entercoastal waterswhere that such problems as eutrophicationthreatenthe marine environment its resources. 17.as soonas practicable.30States. using minimum sewageeffluent guidelinesand water quality criteria and giving due consideration the to characteristics receivins bodiesand the volume and of type of pollutants. (d) Eliminating the emissionor discharge organoof halogen compounds that threaten to accumulateto levelsin the marineenvironment. priority actionsto be considered States may include: by (a) Establishing improving. of (b) Promotingrisk and environmental impact assessmentsto helpensure acceptable levelof environmental an quality: (c) Promoting assessment and cooperationat the regional level. mining. (f) Identify additional steps requiring international cooperation. inter alia.28As concernsother sourcesof pollution.acting individually. where appropriate. of > Prevention.26The UNEP GoverningCouncil is invited to conan vene. accordins to the bestscientificevidence.estuaries the sea. dangerous (e) Reducingthe emissionor discharge other synof theticorganiccompounds that threaten accumulate to to dangerous levelsin the marineenvironment. national.bilaterally. (i) Promotingthe useof environmentally lessharmful pesticides fertilizersandalternative and methods pest for control. subregional and regionallevelsfor controllingthe input of non-point pollutants.27As concernssewage. 17. intergovernmental meeting on protectionof the marine environmentfrom landbasedactivities.priority actionsshouldincludecontrolandprevention of coastal erosionand siltationdueto anthropogenic factorsrelatedto. humansettlement ( b ) B u i l d i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n gs e w a g et r e a t m e n t with nationalpoliciesandcapacfacilitiesin accordance ities and international cooperation available. maximizethebest to practicablecontrol and reductionof substances and wastesthat aretoxic. agriculturalpractices.29As concernsphysical destructionof coastaland marineareas causing degradation the marineenvironof ment. as necessary. reductionond controlof degradotionof the marine envi nment from seo-bosedactivit-ts ro e 17. regionalor global.(d) Developmeansof providing guidance technolon ogies to deal with the major types of pollution of the from land-based marineenvironment sources. including plans. persistent liable to bio-acculnuor late and to establish environmentally soundland-based wastedisposal alternatives seadumping. shouldassess the needfor additionalmeasures address to desradation of the marineenvironment: A) FROMSHIPPING. constructionand transportati on.priority actionsto be consideredby States may include: (a) Incorporatingsewageconcernswhen formulating or reviewing coastal developmentplans. regulatory and monitoring programmesto control effluent discharge. subregional and regional. (c) Locating coastaloutfalls so as to maintain an acceptablelevel of environmentalquality and to avoid exposingshellfisheries.Watershed and pracmanagement tices should be promotedso as to prevent. regional.or othersoluto and tions appropriate specificsites.control and reducedegradation the marineenvironment. wherepracticable. or (g) Cooperatingwith developingcountries. controlson the entry of of effluentsthat are not compatiblewith the system.through financialandtechnological support. source whichrequirebroadchanges sewage in and wastemanagement.regionally or multilaterallyand within the frameworkof IMO and other relevantinternational whethersuborganizations. to (h) Cooperating the development in and implementation of environmentally soundland-usetechniques and practices reduce to run-offto water-courses estuaries and which wouldcause pollutionordegradation themarine of environment.asappropriate. 0) Adopting new initiatives at national.land-use and construction techniques practices. 17.with the introduction. to (0 Establishingand improving local. 17. providing support in to individualStates upon request help them overcome to the obstacles identifiedbv them: t5t . and considering prohibitionof thosefound the to be environmentally unsound. (e) Developpolicy guidance relevantglobal fundfor ing mechanisms. or regulatory and monitoring programmesto control effluent dischargesand emissions. including the development and application control and recyclingtechnologies. (d) Promoting environmentally soundco-treatments of domesticand compatibleindustrialeffluents. BY: (i) Supporting widerratification andimplementation of relevantshippingconventions and protocols. (e) Promotingprimary treatment municipalsewage of discharged rivers.

OIL C) FROM OFFSHOREANDGAS (i) Assessing to existing regulatorymeasures address the emissions and safetyand assessing need discharges. other competentUnited 17. and mangroves. (c) Supporting and expanding international programmes systematic suchas the mussel for observations watch prograrnme.(iii) Cooperatingin monitoring marine pollution from (e. consider: (a) Establishingsystematicobservationsystemsto quality. extension chemicalspill response. generallyaccepted international (v) Takingactionto ensure respect areas of designated economiczones.. by coastal law.35Statesshould. for additionalmeasures: 152 .aerialsurfrom illegal discharges ships.31IMO and as appropriate.especially provisions MARPOL di scharge veillance).g. Oil PollutionPreparedness. to DUMPING. as appropriate.33States shouldconsider Response and Cooperation.includingcauses measure marineenvironmental and effectsof marinedegradation. in order to protectand with international consistent such as coral reefs preserverare or fragile ecosystems. to cooperation 17. as appropriate. indigenous (vii) Promoting by charting navigational safety adequate as and ship-routittg. andenforcing more rigorously. with the meansat their disposaland with due regardfor their technical and scientific capacity and resources. of which addresses. BY: D) FROM (i) Facilitating facilities ofportreception establishment for the collection of oily and chemical residuesand garbage from ships. appropriate. within their exclusive States. par(ii) Encouraging LondonDumpingConvention the steps stopoceandumpingand to ties to take appropriate of substances incineration hazardous : BY: PI. Nations organizations.in accordance on of the United NationsConvention the Law of the Sea. a basisfor manageas ment. stateof concerned.To this end. (vi) Consideringthe adoptionof appropriate rules on to ballastwater discharge preventthe spreadof nonorganisms. BY. within such areas to ensure compliance with regulations. in organizations and. particularly those related to illegal discharges with the provisionsof Part III from ships. inadiatednuclearfuel in flaskson boarcl (x) Revisingand updatingthe IMO Codeof Safetyfor Nuclear Merchant Ships and consideringhow best to implementa revisedcode. of coasts regula(viii) Assessing needfor stricterinternational the and tionsto furtherreducethe risk of accidents pollution from cargoships(includingbulk caniers). shouldassess. inter alia.especiallyin MARPOLspecial areas. regionalor global intergovernmental organizations. and promoting the establishmentof smaller scale facilitiesin marinasand fishing harbours. the development contingency plans on the national and internationallevel. B) FROM (i) Supportingwider ratification. make systematic observations the stateof the marine on environment. on ratifyingtheConvention 17. AND 'NFORMAilON and in accordance 17. compliance with generally acceptedinternationalregulations.32Statesshouldtake measures reducewater pollution causedby organotincompoundsused in antifouling paints. whereappropriate. (b) Regularly exchanginginformation on marine degradationcausedby land-based and sea-based activities and on actions to prevent. (xi) Supporting ongoingactivitywithin IMO regardthe measures reducins for of ing development appropriate air pollution from ships.where necessary. action to implen-rent sary. Statesshould.34Statesshould intensify international regional to strengthenor establish. to 17. in on including early conclusionof a future strategyfor the London Dumping Convention. when requestedby the States the where appropriate. ( x ii) S u p p o rti n gth e o n g o i n g a c ti v i ty w i thi n IMO regarding the development of an international regime governingthe transponation hazardous of and noxious substances carriedby shipsandfurtherconsideringwhether under established fundssimilarto theones thecompensation in the Fund Conventionwould be appropriate respectof otherttranoil. oiVchemical-spill centres mechanisms cooperationwith relevant subregional. building on existing facilities with specialattention developingcountries. (ix) EncouragingIMO and IAEA to work togetherto of complete consideration a code on the carriage of ships.including provision of oil-spill response includingits possible rnaterial and trainingof personnel. control and reduce such degradation. pollutiondamage by caused substances PORTS.as appropriate.ATFORMS.implementation and participation relevantConventions dumpingat sea. industry-based B) DATA. (iv) Assessing stateof pollution caused shipsin by the particularlysensitive identihedby IMO andtaking areas wherenecesapplicablemeasures. response and/or.as appropriate.such as marine pollution in areasof congested with a view to ensuring heavilyusedinternational straits. shipping.

(c) Establishtraining coursesfor oil. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 17. spill response in whereappropriate.including low-cost locally available for materials techniques.(d) Establishing clearing-house marinepollution on a control information. MFANS AND 8/ SCTENT/F/C TECHNOT. whether subregional.39Nationalplanningandcoordinating bodiesshould be given the capacityand authorityto review all landbased activities and sources pollutionfor their impacts of on the marine environment and to proposeappropriate control measures.environmenof tal impact assessment development control recand of ommendationsand should be managed and staffed by local experts.38Statesindividually or in cooperationwith each other and with the supportof internationalorganizations. basedactivitiesin coastalareas (f) Allocating adequate funding for capacity-building and training programmesto ensurethe full participation in in countries. 17. developed developingcountriesfor in systematic observation marinepollution. (a) Assistance industries identifyingand adopting in to pollutioncontroltechcleanproduction cost-eff'ective or nologies. whereappropriate. regionalor subregional levels.and chemicalpersonnel. 17. (0 Throughbilateral supandmultilateral cooperation. dependupon. requiretechnology transfer. (d) Conduct workshopson environmentalaspects of port operations and development. (d) Identification appropriate andchemical-spill oilof control materials. anyintemational of developing schemeunderthe organsand organizations the United of Nationssystem thecollection. including processes and technologiesto address marinepollution control and to support andothercountries their transferto developing countries with demonstrated needs. for analysis useof data and and information. including: concerned. (e) Study of the use of persistent organohalogens that are liable to accumulatein the marine environmentto D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 17. (c) Equipmentof laboratories observesystematically to humanand otherimpactson the marineenvironment.OG\CAL 1 7 . port and supplement nationalefforts of developing the countries as regardshuman resourcedevelopmentin relationto prevention reduction degradation the and of of marineenvironment.41Specialarrangements will be neededto provide adequatefinancial and technical resourcesto assist r53 . particular. (0 Establishmentof a clearing-house information for on rnarine pollution control. whereappropriate. the specific strategies mentsdecideupon for implementation.in conformity with chapter 31. 3 7 a t i o n a l . identify those that cannot be adequatelycontrolled and to provide a basisfor a decisionon a time schedule for phasingthem out as soonas practicable. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG has estimatedthe 17. (e) Establishing globalprofileanddatabase providing a information on the sources.40Researchfacilities should be strengthened or. cooperation.36The Conferencesecretariat average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activitiesof this programrleto be about$200million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. should: (a) Provide training for critical personnelrequiredfor protectionof the marine environmentas the adequate identified by training needs' surveys at the national. and financial parlicularly where developingcountriesare resources.types. inter and programrnes Governalia. including processes and technologiesto addressmarine pollution control.Theseare indicative and order-of--magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Actualcosts andfinancial terms.with the oil and chemicalindustries. and support for their transfer to developing and other countrieswith demonstrated needs. (b) Planningdevelopment and application low-cost of sewage installationand treatment and low-maintenance for technologies developing countries.regional or global. s u b r e g i o n a la n d r e g i o n a l a c t i o n N programmes will. (e) Strengthen and provide securefinancing for new international and existing specialized centresof professionalmaritimeeducation. (b) Promotethe introduction of marine environmental protectiontopics into the curriculum of marine studies programmes. including Governments. will any that are non-concessional. amounts and effects of pollutantsreachingthe marineenvironmentfrom landand sea-based sources. and suitable pollutionemergeng ci esin dev elopin c o u n tri e s . as appropriate.

17.Emphasis that multi-speciesmanagementand other approaches take into account the relationshipsamong species.Action by lack of sufficientcooperation Stateswhose nationalsand vesselsfish on the high s eas . OBJECTIVES and to commit themselves the conservation 17.43ln carrying out theseprogrammeactivities. inadequate many effectiveconservation areas and some resourcesare overutilized.In particular.and solvingproblems in countries preventing developing the with activitiesthat threaten marineenviassociated ronment.scientific means theirdisposal. Such action and cooperationshould address as in inadequacies fishing practices. subparregional. 17.to ensure regionaland at the subregional. OF c) SusrArNABrE usE AND CONSERVATION OF fiTAHNE LIVING RESOURCES THE I{IGH SEAS FOR BASIS ACTION 11. problemsof unregulated controls.48The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities. (d) Ensureeffective monitoring and enforcementwith respect fishing activities.management high seasfisheries.fisherieson the high seas have considerablyexpandedand currently represent 5 approximately per cent of total world landings. ment and study. (e) Protectand restoreendangered (f) Preserve habitatsand other ecologicallysensitive areas. There are exfishing. vesselreflaggingto escape and insufficiently selectivegear.49States should take effective action. 17. (g) Promote scientific researchwith respectto the in marineliving resources the high seas. beyondexclusiveeconomiczones(straddling 154 . especiallyin addressing or identifyingthe potentialof underutilized unutilized populations. shouldalsobe on for systems handlingdata. unreliabledatabases between States.45However.47Nothing in paragraph 17. including the tinancial. global levels. appropriate.as well as to goals.46States on use sustainable of marine living resources the high to: seas.expertise technical capacities. i n parti cul ar w ork through the appropr iat eint er managefor nationalorganizations their conservation. The provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea on the marine living resourcesof the with high seassetsforth rights and obligationsof States respect to conservationand utilization of those resources.regional and global levels. well as in biologiof fisheriesstatistics and improvement cal knowledge.it is necessary (a) Developand increase potentialof marineliving the resources meet human nutritional needs. fish(c) Promotethe development useof selective and that minimize wastein the catch ing gearand practices of target speciesand minimrze by-catch of non-target species. cluding the adoption. to marinespecies.42An intemationalfunding mechanismshould be treatcreatedfor the applicationof appropriatesewage ment technologiesand buildittg sewage treatment loansfrom facilities.To this end. overcapitalization.as w e l l a s c o o p e ra ti o na t th e bi l ateral .44Over the last decade. inof 17. scientific and technological and Adequate financial.46 above restricts the right of a State or the competenceof an international to as organization.particular attention needs to be given to the problems of developingcountriesthat would bear an unequalburden or of because their lack of facilities.including grantsor concessional international agenciesand appropriateregional funds. social. at shouldbe providedto support cooperation technological actionby them to implementtheseobjectives. ACTIVITIES lTt ELAT A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACTIV ES 17.economicand development (b) Maintain or restorepopulations marine species of yield at levelsthatcanproducethe maximumsustainable as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors. at replenished leastin part on a revolvingbasisby user fees. but also in depletedspecies. is essential ticularly for highly migratory speciesand straddling stocks. limit or tegulate the exploitation of marine mammals on the high seas States more strictly thanprovidedfor in that paragraph. 17. cessivefleet size. monitoring and enforcement of in is measures. including where appropriate bilateral and multilateral cooperation. with that high seasfisheriesare managedin accordance on the the provisionsof the United NationsConvention they should: Law of the Sea. (a) Give f'ull effect to theseprovisionswith regardto fisheriespopulationswhoserangeslie both within and stocks). shall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof shall marine mammalsand. in the caseof cetaceans. prohibit. taking into considerationrelationshipsamong species.

and with the supportof other intemationalintergovernmental agencies. 17 . the conservation sustainable of the marinelivine and use resources the high seas. Where suchorganizations not exist. on scientific and technical studiesby FAO. 17. shouldcooperate to: (a) Promoteenhanced collectionof datanecessary for Aj F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17 .52States shouldtake effectiveactionconsistent with international to monitorandcontrolfishingactivities law by vessels flying their flags on the high seasto ensure compliancewith applicableconservation and management rules. 17.53States shouldtakeeffectiveaction.and on formulate appropriaterecofilrnendations.55States shouldfully implement General Assembly resof ution 461215 large-scale on pelagrc drift-netfishing. should assess high seasresourcepotentialsand develop profiles of all stocks(targetand non-target).as soon as possible.consistent with international law. to whereappropriate. where and as appropriate.and considermeansof of improving cooperation fisheriesamong States. (c) Developand shareanalyticaland predictivetools. tion and transportation.as appropriate. post-harvest lossesand discards.60 Effectivecooperation within existingsubregional. the conservation. in management and studyof cetaceans othermarinemammals. regionalor global.58States.51States should ensure thatfishingactivities vesby sels flying their flags on the high seastake place in a mannerso as to minimizeincidental catches. as (c) The work of otherorganizations. 17.-56 Statesshouldtake measures increase availato the bility of marineliving resources humanfood by reducing as wastage. cooperate establish to suchorganizations.with a view to promotingeffectiveimplementation the provisions of of the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Seaon straddlingfish stocksand highly rnigratorylish stocks. 17. taking into accountrelevantactivities at the subregional.accurate and timely reportingof catches and effort. 17. regionaland global levels.63States should cooperatefor the conservation.where appropriate. The work and the resultsof the conference should be fully consistent with the provisions the United NationsConvention of on theLaw of theSea.50Statesshould convene.(b) Give full effect to theseprovisionswith regardto highly migratoryspecies. tbr of (b) The work of theIntemational WhalingCommission Scientific Cornmitteein carrying out studiesof large whalesin particular. 17.internationalagreementsfor the effective management and conservation of fishery stocks. poisoning and othercomparable destructive fishing practices. regional and global intergovemmental fisheries bodies. 17. as appropriate.an intergovernmentalconference under United Nations auspices. I 7.62States recognize: (a) The responsibility theInternational of WhalingCommission fbr the conservation and marlagement whale of stocksand the regulationof whaling pursuant the 1946 to International Convention the Regulation Whaling. assessment c/ /NIERNAI/ONAL AND REGIONAI COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 17.57States. drau. of (b) Exchangeon a regular basisup-to-datedata and informationadequate fisheries for assessment.ing.\\PLEMENTATION OF 17.54States shouldprohibitdynamiting. (d) Define and identify appropriate management units. 17. and A B ) DA T A ND / NF O R M AT ION MEANS I. suchas stockassessment bioeconomic and models. detailed. (d) Establishor expand appropriatenronitoring and programmes.as appropriate.States do should.64 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of r55 . suchas the InterAmericanTropicalTunaCommission theAgreement and on Small Cetaceans theBaltic andNorth Seaunderthe in Bonn Convention. particularthe in rightsandobligations of coastalStates and States fishing on the high seas. should identify and assess existing problems related to the conservationand management suchfish stocks. (c) Negotiate. ensure adequate coordinationand cooperation enclosed in and semi-enclosed seasand betweensubregional. through bilateraland multilateralcooperation and within the frarnewclrkof subregionaland regional fisheriesbodies. with the supporlof international organizations. to deterreflaggingof vessels their by nationals a means avoidingcompliance as of with applicable conservationand managementrules for fishing activitieson the high seas. and improving tech iques of processi distribu n ng. 17.59Statesshould. and 17. well as of othercetaceans.inter alia.61 States with aninterest ahigh seas in fisheryregulated by an existing subregionaland/or regional high seas fisheries organization whichtheyarenot members of should be encouraged join thatorganization.including full. The conference. whether subregional. management studyof cetaceans. regionalor globalfisheries bodiesshouldbe encouraged.

DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at development the nationallevel 17. percentof which is taken from waters under nationaljurisdiction. where appropriate. AL A 8/ S C/ E NIF tC N D T EC H N O L OG| CME AN S with the supportof relevantinternational 17. and 17. fishing.71Marine living resources and their useis often of source proteinin many countries and to of majorimportance localcommunities indigenous providefood and livelihoodsto people.68States. ecosystem fleet sizes. insufficiently selectivegear.65States. and between tween artisanal and large-scale fishing and othertypesof activities.To realize this potential requiresimproved knowledgeand identification of marine living resourcestocks. particularly in developingcountries. D) CA P A C IT Y -BU IL D IN G 17. organizations. well as the research popuof capacityfor assessment marineliving resource lations. and increasingcompetition beunreliable databases. suchasmangroves othermarineandcoastal integrated are estuaries. Such resources utilized. 156 .67Humanresource at strouldbe targeted both developmentand management including training in high seas of high seasresources. inter alia. will be needed to enhancethe capacitiesof countries theareas dataandinformation. particularly of use and unutilizedstocksand species. if sustainably creasedpotentialto meet nutritional and social needs.72Fisheries many areas face mounting problems. should: as appropriate. (a) Develop databases the high seasmarine living on and resources fisheries: (b) Collect and correlatemarine environmentaldata data. amongthe most highly diverse. provide an important 17. and degradation. Governmentsdecide and specific strategies programmes upon for implementation.better handl i ng and pr ocessing and improvedquality and facilities to avoid wastage.includingthe with high seas marineliving resources broughtaboutby impactsof regionaland globalchanges and by humanactivities.66States. unauthorizedincursionsby foreign fleets.73Problems extendbeyondfisheries.of w r elev ant in te rn a ti o n a lo rg a n i z a ti o n s . and fishing techniques in high seas to cadresof personnel deal with high seas strengthening and enviand management conservation related resource and inspectors ronmentalissues. and humanresource scientificand technological developmentin order to participateeffectively in the utilization of high seas conservationand sustainable marineliving resources. the non-concessional. organizations. training of skilled personnelto manageand conserve of effectivelythe marine living resources the exclusive economiczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdicmanageshouldalsobe on multi-species tion. relationships jurisdiction in undernational 17.69Special support. rative technical and researchprograffImesto improve of of understanding the life cyclesandmigrations species including identifying critical areas found on the high seas.including any that are will depend upon.to activitiesof this programme be about$12 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms. control and surveillance. resource assessment.70Marine fisheriesyield 80 to 90 million tons of 95 fish and shellfishper/year.with the support.shouldcooperate develop for structures moniand institutional systems or upgrade as toring. naturalcauses programmesto (c) Cooperatein coordinatingresearch to provide the knowledge necessary managehigh seas resources. whether subregional. Yields have nearly fivefold over the past four decades. by only andhavenot been mates Actual costsand financial terms. including cooperationamong States.Coralreef's and habitats. in of developing means.offer inmillions of peopleand.regional or global. 17. with the supportof relevantinternational 17. and training observers to be placedon fishing vessels. including local overfishing.regionalor global. OF Dl susrArNABtE usE AND CoNSERVATION UNDER MARINE TIVING RESOURCES NATIONATJURISDICTION BASIS ACTION FOR 17. increased The provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon of the Law of the Sea on marine living resources the exclusive economic zone and other areasunder national jurisdiction set forth rights and obligationsof and utilization of Stateswith respectto conservation thoseresources. overcapitalization excessive of underevaluation catch. and life stages. shoulddevelopcollabowherenecessary. Emphasis ment and other approachesthat take into account the amongspecies.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude reviewed Governments. of underutilized new technol ogi es. hether subto regional.

157 . Statesshall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof marine mammalsand in the caseof cetaceans shallin particular work throughthe appropriate international organizations for their conservation. (g) Enhancethe productivity and utilization of their marineliving resources food and income. To this end. tourism and economic development.as well as to goals.74CoastalStates. from sustainable utilization socialandeconomic benefits within their exclusiveecoof marine living resources nomic zonesand other areasunder nationaljurisdiction.75States commit themselves the conservation to and sustainable of marineliving resources use undernational jurisdiction.71The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities. 17. management study. (0 Preserverare or fragile ecosystems.where necessary.as appropriate international of organizations. including those fbr providing alternative sources income. Adequatefinancial.78States shouldensure that marineliving resources of the exclusiveecononriczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdiction are conserved and managedin acof cordance with the provisions the UnitedNationsConventionon the Law of the Sea.particularlydevelopingcountries and Stateswhose economiesare overwhelminglydependent theexploitation themarineliving resources on of shouldobtainthe full of their exclusive economiczones. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED IVITI S ACT E 17. and 17. including assessment the environmentalirnpactof major new of fishery practices. (d) Promotethe development useof selective fishand ing gear and practices that minimize wastein the catch of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target species. energy. small-scale artisanal flsheries peoplein development managernent and indigenous and programmes. scientific and technologicalcooperationshould be provided to supportactionby them to implementtheseobjectives.should on addressthe issues of straddling stocks and highly migratory species. includingunderutilized unutilizedstocksand species. their for conservation and sustainable use' (b) Implement strategiesfor the sustainable use of marineliving resources. (0 Develop and promote the use of environrnentally sound technology under criteria compatible with the sustainable use of marine living resources.Lroth stressor are threatened human and natural. access the surplus to of aliowablecatches. scientific and technological meansat their disposal.74.76Nothing in paragraphI1. provide coastal protection. (c) Maintain or restorepopulations marinespecies of at yield as levelsthat can producethe maximum sustainable qualifiedby relevant and environmental economicfactors. deep-sea oceanicfisherieswithin areas and jurisdictionwhereassessments undernational show that marineliving resources potentiallyavailable. (c) Implement.81C oastal S tates shoul d expl ore the scope f or expandingrecreational and tourist activities basedon marine living resources. They often serve important ecological functions. 17. appropriate. as post-harvest lossesand discards.in particularin developingcountries. OBJECTIVES 17. 17. distributionand transportation. social.and.shouldinter alia: (a) Assessthe potential of marine living resources. regulate related to activities to the abovestrategies: (e) Takemeasures increase availabilityof marine to the living resources human food by reducing wastage.aquacultureand small-scale. whereappropriate. whethersubregional. mechanismsto develop rnariculture. are (d) Strengthen their legal and regulatoryframeworks. and are critical resourcesfor food.regionalor global. uding manage incl ment. taking into consideration relationships amongspecies.limit to as or regulate the exploitation of marine marrunalsmore strictly than providedfor in that paragraph. (e) Protectand restoreendangered marinespecies. local artisanal communitiesand indigenous peopleto meethuman nutritional and other development needs. it is necessary to: (a) Developandincrease potentialof marineliving the resources meet human nutritional needs. taking into accountthe special needs interests small-scale and of fisheries.enforcement andsurveillance capabilities. 17.79States.in implementingthe provisionsof the UnitedNationsConvention theLaw of the Sea. prohibit. In many parts of the world. such marine and coastal systemsare under from a varietv of sources.Such activitiesshouldbe of compatiblewith conservation developand sustainable ment policiesand plans.economicand development (b) Takeinto accounttraditionalknowledgeand interestsof local communities. or by developinginventories. for 17.and improving techniquesof processing. well as as habitats and otherecologicallysensitive areas.individually or through bilateral and/ormultilateralcooperation and with the support.and productive of the Earth's ecosystems. including the financial. taking fully into account the objectivesetout in paragraph 17.15 aboverestrictsthe right of a coastalStateor the competence an interof nationalorganization.80CoastalStates.

89Statesshould. in the negotiaon of agreements tion and implementation international of the developmentor conservation marine living rethe of sources. where and as appropriate. AIION AND COORD'NAI'ON COOPER 17. as poisoning and shouldprohibitdynamiting.of shouldsupportthe sustainability 17. the interests s ent at iono f fi s h e rme n . Priority shouldbe accorded. (c) Temperate tropicalwetlands.should cooperate to: (a) Developfinancialand technicalcooperation ento hance the capacities developingcountriesin smallof aquaculfisheries. including through nafor in systems seafood.83CoastalStatesshouldensurethat. theconservation.local communities (b) Recognize rightsof small-scale fishworkers and the peopleandlocal comthe special situationof indigenous munities. order to tional quality assurance promote accessto markets. marine living resourceand critical habitat profiles of exclusive economiczonesand otherareasundernationaljurisdiction. well as of othercetaceans. desigtationson use in theseareas. suchas stockassessment bioeconomic and (d) Establishor expand appropriatemonitoring and programmes assessment .in particulartheir right to subsistence. (b) Promotethecontributionof marineliving resources to eliminate malnutrition and to achievefood self-suffialia. throughbilateraland multilateralcooperation. (d) Promote seafoodquality. undernational marineliving resources (b) Exchangeon a regular basis up-to-datedata and for informationnecessary fisheriesassessment. on tion of their habitats a sustainable (c) Developsystems the acquisitionand recording for of traditionalknowledgeconcerningmarine living reand promotethe incorporation and environment sources systems. (b) Estuaries.To this end.86States ing high levelsof biodiversityandproductivityandother limiand shouldprovidenecessary critical habitatareas through.90States recognize: (a) The responsibility of the InternationalWhaling and management of Commissionfor the conservation whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuantto the 1946International Conventionfor the Resulationof Whaling.84CoastalStates. they should.taking into account ment in marineandcoastal repreencouraging and. of with the support. interests local communitiesand indigenous people are taken into account. improve consumer confidenceand maximizeeconomicreturns.inter alia. and (d) Seagrass beds: (e) Other spawningand nurseryareas. r58 . and indigenous women. nation of protectedareas. and global intergovernmental 17. (b) The work of the International WhalingCommission Scientific Committee in carrying out studies of large whalesin particular. people. and with the support. as (c) The work of other organizations. (c) Develop and shareanalyticaland predictivetools.82Coastal States artisanal fisheries. includingmangroves. (e) Complete or update marine biodiversity.includingtheir rights to utilizationand protecbasis. of internationalorganizations.inter post-harvest lossesand managingstocksfor guaranteed yields: sustainable (c) Develop agreedcriteria for the use of selective fishing gearand practices minimize wastein the catch to of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target species. ensure 17. 17. appropriate. in study of cetaceans and other marine mammals. well asin coastal as scaleandoceanic ture and mariculture. fisheriesbodies.85States fishing practices. in and coordinationand cooperation enclosed adequate regional semi-enclosed seasand between subregional. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA individuallyor throughbilateralandmulti17. of should conduct analyses internationalorganizations itr the potentialfor aquaculture marineand coastalareas under nati o n a l j u ri s d i c ti o n a n d a p p l y appropri ate safeguards to the introductionof new species.88States. and with the support of relevant United Nations and other internationalorganizations.by minimizing ciencyin developing countries. whereappropriate. models. to: as appropriate.as appropriate. of suchknowledgeinto management 17. destructive othercomparable exhibitshouldidentifymarineecosystems 17. s m a l l -s c a l efi sherw orkers. such as the InterAmericanTropicalTunaCommissionandtheAgreement on Small Cetaceans the Baltic andNorth Seaunderthe in management and Bonn Convention.should: or (a) Promoteenhanced of collectionand exchange data for use and necessary the conservation sustainable of the jurisdiction. lateralcooperation whether subregional. broughtaboutby naturalcauses AND REG'ON. (a) Coral reef ecosystems. as 17. small-scale as appropriate: (a) Integrate small-scaleartisanaltisheries developplanning.87States. taking account of changesin the environment and humanactivities. regional global.AI c/ /NTERNAilONAT.

including about$60 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. management studyof cetaceans. includingenvironmental management supin port of rural fish-farmingcommunities. (d) Considerobserving. appropriate. (d) Developand strengthen. sci enti fi cand technol ogi cal meansand hum an resourcedevel opmenti n cl rderto enabl e theln t o participate effectivelyin the conservation sustainand able use of marine livinc resourcesunder national jurisdiction. (b) Provide support to local fishing communities. (c) Promotethe study.94States individually. including. (a) Expand multidisciplinaryeducation.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. Systematic t59 . small-scale workers. where appropriate. resourcesand to encourageequitableparticipationoflocal communities. on particularlyin the socialand economicsciences. 8/ SCrENrrFtC AND TECHNOIOG\CAL MEANS 17. to:. indigenouspeopleand women.or throughbilateraland multilateral cooperation and with the supportof relevantinternational organizations. 17.all seasand marine resources.regionaland global agencies.training and research marine living resources. shouldencourage provide and supportfor developingcountrtes. regional or global. exchangeand improve traditional knowledge of marine living resourcesand fishing techniques.91States should cooperatefor the conservation. the specific strategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.scientific assessment useof and appropriatetraditional management systems. institutionscapableof implementingthe objective and s activitiesrelatedto the conseruation manasement and of marineliving resources. aquacultureand particularlyto developingcountries. D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 17. wherethe needmay arise. inter alia. such as areasof high diversity.93States.96S peci alsupport.92The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion.as appropriate.womenand fish indigenous people. (e) Promotescientificresearch marineareas paron of ticular importancefor marine living resources. requiresthe ability to determinethe presentstate of thesesystemsand to predict future conditions.97The marineenvironment vulnerableand sensiis tive to climate and atmosphenc changes.with the supportof relevantsubregional. (c) Introduce topics relating to the importanceof marine living resources educational in curricula at all levels.endemismand productivity and migratorystopover points. (b) Create training opportunities at national and re(includingsubsistence) gional levelsto supportartisanal fisheries.and upgradeknowledgeon marineecosystems. by Actualcosts will depend upon. well asconservation the marineenvironas of ment. FAOACES as the Codeof Practicefor Consideration Transferand Introof duction of Marine and Freshwater Organisms. mariculture.i ncl udi ngcooperati on ong atn States. (b) Accord specialattentionto mechanisms transfor ferring resourceinformation and improved fishing and aquaculture technologies fishing communitiesat the to local level. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 17.The high degree uncertainty present of in infbrmationinhibits effective managementand limits the ability to make predictions assess and environmental change.95CoastalStates.will be neededto enhancetl-recapacitiesof devel opi ng countri esn the areas dataand i nfb r m ai of ti on. Rationaluse and developmentof coastalareas.in particularthosethat rely on tishing for subsistence. inter alia. (c) Establish sustainable aquaculturedevelopment strategies.should: (a) Develop researchcapacitiesfor assessment of marineliving resource populations and monitoring. whethersubregional. as appropriate.to develop small-scaleuse of marine living E) ADDRESSTNG CR|T|CAT UNCERTATNTTES FOR THE'VIANAGEMENT THEMARINE OF ENVIRONMENT AND CLIIAATE CHANGE BASIS ACTION FOR 17. and MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17. to maintain. appropriate. the technicaland financialassistance organize.17.with the supportof relevantintergovernmental organizations.should: as (a) Provide for the transferof environmentally sound technologiesto develop fisheries.

collection of data on marine environmentalparameters will be needed to apply integrated managementapproachesand to predict effects of global climate change phenomena. it is necessary to: (a) Promote scientific research on and systematic observation of the marine environment within the including limits of nationaljurisdiction and high seas. of priorities establishing activitiesand a view to integrating for to address critical uncertainties oceansand all seas. capabilitiesfor scientific data storageand management researchon and systematicobservation of the marine environment. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAIION shouldconsider. interactionswith atmosphericphenomena.such as small islandsand low-lying and critical coastalareas. l7. as of atic observation the role of OBJECIIVES with provisions of the States. oceans a carbonsink. aboutclimatechange 17. including as appropriate.asse ssing predictingglobal climateand environmental change.in accordance 17. ultravioletradiationderivedfrom ozone 17.IOC all seas with competent UnitedNationsbodies. UNEP and other internationalorganizations the collection. giving special attentionto the need for IOC to develop fully the strategy for providing training and for countries throughits technicalassistance developing Training.particularly to on small islands and on low-lying and coastal areasof the world. shouldbe basedon sounddata. particularly for priority areas. Education and Mutual Assistance(TEMA) programme.A long-termcooperative researchcommitment is neededto provide the data required for global climate models and to reduce uncertainty. andotherrelevant and having the resources experthe supportof countries and assessments systemtise. shouldcarry out analysis. prove the understanding the marine environmentand of To its role on global processes.98T'here manyuncertainties are in and particularlyabout sealevelrise. (e) Initiating a programmeof research determinethe to levelsof ultraviolet increased marinebiological effectsof ozonelayer rays due to the depletionof the stratospheric possibleeffects. r60 . including the development changeand sealevel globally accepted methodologies for coastal vulneramodelling and responsestrategies bility assessment.103 States (a) Increasing internationalcooperationparticulariy with a view to strengthening nationalscientificandtechand nol ogi cal capabi l i ti esfor anal ysi ng.99Increased depletionhas been reportedin some areasof the world. the and to evaluate 17. synthesize to seminateinformation from researchand systematicoband servationactivitiesneedto be restructured reinforced considerably. ACTIVITIES IV ES A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACT ITI ELAT inter alia: shouldconsider. and of atmospheric and the marine environment. Small increases damage significant havethepotentialof causing sealevel strategies Response and to smallislands low-lying coasts.l0l States (a) Coordinating national and regional observation programmesfor coastal and near-shorephenomenarelated to climate change and for researchparameters essential for marine and coastal managementin all regions.100 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on to commit themselves immarine scientific research.lO2Recognizingthe importantrole that oceansand play in attenuating potential climatechange. (b) Promoteexchange dataandinformationresulting of from scientific researchand systematicobservationand from traditional ecological knowledge and ensure its andthepublic at thenational availabilityto policy makers level.analysisand distributionof data and information from the oceans and all seas.the mechanisms collect. (b) Supporting role of the IOC in cooperation with the in WMO.such as ozonedepletion.measuring techniques. precautionarymeasuresshould be undertaken diminish the risks and effects. (d) Identifying ongoing and planned programmesof with systematic observation the marineenvironment. (c) Cooperating with a view to adopting special measuresto cope with and adapt to potential climate of rise. this end. on living marine resources In order to determinethe role of the oceansand all seas in driving global systems and to predict natural and human-inducedchangesin marine and coastalenvironand disments. inter alia: 17. of An assessment its effects in the marine environment is neededto reduceuncertaintyand to provide a basisfor action. (c) Cooperate of with a view to the development standard inter-calibratedprocedures. (b) Providing improved forecasts marineconditions of for the safety of inhabitantsof coastalareasand for the efficiency of maritime operations. suchasozonedepletion.through the Global Ocean Observing System. Meanwhile.

will dependupon. predictionmechanisms orderto prepare in andexchange analyses forecasts and regionalandglobaloceanographic and and to provide facilities for internationalresearch training at national. States carryingout suchresearch activitiesin Antarctica should.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. 106 States high-levelinter-agency. inter alia. 17. (c) Systematicobservationof coastal habitatsand sealevel inventories marinepollutionsources changes. where appropriate: (a) Providingtechnicalcooperation developingthe in for capacityof coastaland islandStates marineresearch observation and for using its results.in any internationalscheme of underthe organsand organizations the United Nations systemfor the collection.analysisand use of data and information. develop options for corrective measures. (0 Cooperating ensure participation developfull of to ing countries. priate. interregionalor global. 17.(c) Creating national multisectoralinformation bases.including the encouragement of periodicseminars and symposia.such as World WeatherWatch and Earthwatch.in the fields of human health.109 The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcost ( 1993-2000) implementing of the activities this programme Lre of to aboutS750million. ion when applicable.agreeon formats for presentation and storage. (d) Linking these databases existing data and to information services and mechanisms.OGICAL MEANS l7. Actual costsandfinancial terms. (d) Orgamzation periodic assessments oceanand of of all seas and coastalareastatus and trends.in particular reto the search essential understanding global environment.continueto: (a) Ensure that data and information resulting from such researchare freely available to the international community. approas subregional. of and reviewsof fisheries statistics.105In recognition ofthe valueof Antarcticaas area an for the conduct of scientific research. organrze regular scientific reviews.108Basedon the resultsof research the effectsof on the additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth's surface. and systematic observacovering the resultsof research tion prograrnmes. and measurements. 17. l7. as provided for in Article III of the Antarctic Treaty. whether subregional. and communicatethe information gathered to potentialusers. and and coastal procedures States shouldcooperate thedevelopmentof in thatallow forcomparable analysis soundness data. into the RegionalSeasProgrammes in a coordinated fashionto implement.regional. 8/ SC/ENIIFIC AND IECHNOI.This would include: systematic (a) Review of existingregionaland global databases.l l0 Developed countries shouldprovidethe financing for the further development and implementation of the GlobalOceanObservins Svstem.agricultureand marine environment. and systematic (b) Strengthening existing national institutionsand internationalanalysis and creating. includingabout$480million from theinternational community on grantor concessional terms. 17.Statesand international organizati ons shoul d consi der taki ng appropri ateremedial measures. (b) Mechanisms developcomparable compatible and to validatemethodologies techniques. shouldstrengthen regionaland global coordination. AND REG'ONAICi 'NIERNAIIONAT AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAI'ON 17. should support countries to develop and integrate regi onal systematic long-termobservat programmes.includingany that are non-concessional. (e) Cooperating with a view to the exchangeof data and archivingthroughthe and informationand its storage world and regional data centres. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 11.l1l To address critical uncertainties throughsystematiccoastal marineobservations research.whereappropriate. One aim shouldbe the predictingof the effectsof climate-related emergencies existing coastalphysical and socioon economicinfrastructure.regional and global observing systems basedon the principle of exchangeof data.107 Internati onalcooperati on. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation. where necessary. subregionaland regional levels. (b) Enhance of scientificcomaccess the international agencies the United Nations of munity and specialized to such data and information. and of They shouldalsocooperate a subregional regional on and r6t .and review mechanisms developand integrate to observation networks.through rel e vant organi zati ons w i thi n the U ni ted N ati ons syst em .lM Statesshould considerbilaterally and multilaterally and in cooperation with international orgamzations.in particular. subregional. whereapplicable.

both within and outside including regional.l12 International requested. as appropriate.1 The General l8 Assemblyshouldprovideforregular within the United Nationssystem. including their subregional regionalcomponents. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG as orestablish necessary. promoteinstituto theirpolicies. particularly knowledge of in countries.116 is recognizedthat the role of international It national efforts. developknowto gional mechanisms. as appropriate. intergovernmentallevel of general marine and coastal matters.subregional.as well as links with relevantinternational bodies. Special attention develop human resources of shouldbe given to transf-er scientificandtechnological and means to support States. development DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE l7. for a broad and coherent approachto meeting their core human resourceneeds in the marine sciences.as approtional.regional. priate. accordance prioritiesandresources.at the consideration. 17. is OBJECTIVES with in 17.117 Statescommit themselves.particularly implement comprehensive in developing countries. INCIUDING |NTERNATIONAL. share infrastructureand expensive and sophisticated procedures and equipment. subregional.of international organizationswhether regional or global. and observationsand assessments. AC-IIVITIES IVITI S E A) MANAGEA/ENI-R ED ACT ELAT GLOBAL 17. F) STRENGTHENTNG AND COORDINATION REGIONAL.nstitutions trade agencies dealingwith development.l15 States whereapplicable.114 States shouldstrengthen oceanographic comandtechnological nationalscientific or equivalentbodies to develop. information. with international and reshould use existing subregional l7.develop quality assurance jointly. is andsupplement cooperation to support Implementationof strategiesand activities under the and programmeareasrelativeto marineand coastalareas at seasrequireseffective institutional arrangements naregionaland global levels. organizations l7. includingenvironment anddevelopment and and should requestthe Secretary-General executive and organizations to: headsof United Nationsagencies (a) Strengthencoordination and develop improved arrangements amongthe relevantUnited Nationsorganizationswith major marine and coastalresponsibilities.institutions. the development endogenous developing capabilities. where appropriate. should develop and subregional. exchange ledgeof the marineenvironment. and thereis a needto improve coordinationand strengthenlinks among them.with competencein marine issues. areasat national.coastal countries in implementing research projectson the effectsof additionalultraviolet radiation. tional arrangements necessary supportthe implemento in tation of theprograrnme areas this chapter. when shouldsupport. appropriate. organizesystematic facilities and of scientists. researchcapabilities in developing of endogenous countries. the United Nations system. institutional linkages between bilateral and multilateral national. make the most effective use in They shouldalsocooperate the promotion equipment. it is necessary.to: as (a) Integrate relevant sectoral activities addressing environment and development in marine and coastal regionaland global levels. It is also important to ensurethat an integratedand multisectoralapproachto marineissues pursuedat all levels. subregional and interregionalinstitutions dealing with environment in and development marineand coastalareas.To this end. programmes. 162 . There are numerous national and international.through existing programmeswhere applicable.basis. issues.COOPERATION FOR BASIS ACTION 17. (b) Promote effective information exchange and. (c) Promotewithin the United Nations system.i n d i v i d u a l l y o r th ro u g h b i l ateral and multilateral cooperation and with the support. andspecialized as and otherrelatedeconomicissues. ll3 S t a te s . appropriate. and (b) Strengthencoordination between those organizai tions and otherUnited Nationsorganizations. supportand missions coordinatemarine scienceactivities and work closely organizations.regular intergovernmental review and consideration of environment and developmentissueswith respectto marine and coastalareas: (d) Promote the effective operation of coordinating mechanismsfor the componentsof the United Nations and deveiopsystemdealingwith issues environment of ment in marine and coastalareas.

Trade policy measures environmental for purposes shouldnot constitute meansof arbitraryor unjustifiable a discrimination or a disguisedrestrictionon international trade. (d) Facilitateaccess and use of expertiseand techto nology throughrelevantnationalbodiesto subregional and regionalcentres and networks. (d) Promote. (b) Strengthenthe capacity of internationalorganizations to handleinformation and supportthe development of national. underthe sections scientificandtechnological on means.Domestic measures targetedto achievecertain environmentalobjectives may need trade measures render them effecto tive. to an obligation to ensure transparencyin the use of trade measures related to the environment and to provide adequatenotificationof nationalregulations.119 States recognize that environmentalpolicies should deal with the root causesof environmental degradation.where necessary. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON l7. where necessary. and intergovernmental regionalcooperation. (e) Develop a centralized system to provide for informationon legislation andadviceon implementation of legal agreementson marine environmentaland development issues. and (b) Introduce. limited resources. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17.120States shouldconsider. placethem at a disadvantage economically and r63 .geographi cdi spersi onand i sol ati on fr om markets. Thesecould include. for BASIS ACTION FOR 17. (c) Furtherdevelopexistinginternational mechanisms such as Earthwatchand GESAMP. be based on an international consensus. Unilateralactionsto dealwith environmental challenges outsidethejurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. coordinationamong relevantUnited Nationsand othermultilateralorganizations at the subregional and regional levels. through internationalcooperation. AND BUILDING ll.inter will alia. Statesshould. Actualcosts andflnancialterms. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.greater collaboration betweenthe United Nations agenciesand subregional and regional coastaland marine programmes. developa comprehensive programmefor meetingthe core humanresource needs marinesciences all levels. whereappropriate. Environmental measures addressing internationalenvironmental problemsshould. appropriate: as (a) Strengthening.l2l States should.suchas the Regional Centres Marine Technology.thus preventing environmental measures from resultingin unnecessary restrictionsto trade.l23 The means of implementationoutlined in the other programmeareason marine and coastalissues.including any that are non-concessional.regionaland subregional of fisheries organizations regionalcommissions. These are indicative and order-of'-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. depend upon. B/ SCIENI/F/C AND TFCHNO/OGtCALMEANS.(c) Improverepresentation UnitedNationsagencies of dealing with the marine environmentin United Nations systemwide coordinationefforts. Additionally. in at Gl st sTAtNABtE DEVETOPMENT SrvrAUFIANDS OF SUBREGIONAL REGIONAL AND 17. including consideration co-locationof their staff. of (c) Arrangefor periodicintraregional consultations. Shouldtradepolicy measures found necessary be for the enforcementof environmental policies.124Small islanddevelopingStates.122The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcosr (1993-2000) implementing of the activitiesof this prograinme be about$50 million to from the international community on grant or concessional terms. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI CAPACITY.subregionaland regional data and information systems. and the needto give consideration the specialconditionsand developto ment requirements developingcountriesas they move of towardsintemationally agreed environmental objectives. humanresource development and capacity-building are entirelyrelevantfor this programme areaas well. 17. RegionalSeas the Programmes UNEP. and islandssupporting small communitiesare a specialcase both for environmentand development. Their small size.asfar aspossible. the principleof non-discrimination. They are ecologically fragile and vulnerable. printhe ciple that the trademeasure chosenshouldbe the least trade-restrictive necessary achievethe objectives. certain principlesand rules shouldapply. This couldalsoinclude networks linking countrieswith comparableenvironmentalproblems. inter alia. extendingwherenecessary.whereappropriate: (a) Promote exchangeof information on marine and coastalissues.

anceas appropriate the international of communityand on thebasisof existingwork of nationalandinternational organizations. creatively and with environmental sustainably changeand to mitigate impacts and reduce the threats posed to marine and coastalresources. including meeting essential humanneeds.it is necessary: To (a) To adoptand implementplansand programmes to supportthe sustainable development and utilization of their marine and coastalresources. (g) Based on precautionaryand anticipatory approaches. such as planning. (a) Studythe specialenvironmental anddevelopmental characteristics small islands. siting and environmentalimpact assess(GIS).127Becausesmall island developmentoptions are limited. and (d) Adapt coastalarea management techniques.producingan environof mental profile and inventory of their natural resources. B) DATA AND /NFORMATTAN 17. critical marinehabitatsand biodiversity. thereare specialchallenges planningfor and to implementing sustainabledevelopment.131 Small islanddeveloping with the support. with certain small low-lying islandsfacing the increasingthreatof the loss of their entire nationalterritories.social and ecoto nomic impactsof climate changeand sealevel rise. as appropriate. OBJECTIVES 17J28 States commit themselvesto addressingthe problems of sustainable developrnent small island of developing States. (b) Develop techniques determiningand monitorfor ing the carryingcapacityof smallislands underdifferent development assumptions resource and constraints.Existingislanddatabases shouldbe expandedandgeographic infbrmationsystems developed and adapted suit the specialcharacteristics islands. ments. 17. to of ACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMFNI-R ELATED IVIT S ACT IE 17. Thesearecausing major set-backs their socioto economicdevelopment. maintaining biodiversityand improving the quality of life for islandpeople.and long-termplansfor sustainable developmentttrat emphasizemultiple use of resources. (e) Review the existinginstitutional arrangements and identify and undertakeappropriateinstitutional reforms essentialto the effective implementationof sustainable plans. (c) Prepare medium.preventeconomies scale.For small islanddeveloping of States oceanand coastalenvironment of strategic the is importance and constitutesa valuable development resource. AND COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 17. integrateenvironmentalconsiderations with economicand planningand policies.includdevelopment ing thereview andmodificationof existingunsustainable policiesand practices.129 Small islanddeveloping with the assistStates.They areconsidered extremely vulnerableto global warming and sealevel rise.130Additional informationon the geographic.giving them a very high share of of global biodiversity. environmental. of taking into accountthe traditionaland culturalvaluesof indigenous peopleof islanCcountries. (b) To adopt measures which will enablesmall island developing Statesto cope effectively. contingency (h) Promote environmentally sound technology for sustainable development within small islanddeveloping States and identify technologies shouldbe excluded that because their threatsto essential of islandecosvstems. in (f) Implementsustainable plans.using Geographical InformationSystems suitableto the specialcharacteristics small islands.includingintersectoral development coordination and communityparticipation the planningprocess. should: c/ /NTERNATIONAL REG/ONAI.cultural and socio-economic characteristics of islandsshouldbe compiledand assessed assist the to in planningprocess. this end.of international organizations.125 Their geographic isolationhasresultedin their habitationby a comparativelylarge number of unique species flora and fauna. llJ26 Small islanddevelopingStates have all the environmentalproblemsand challenges the coastalzone of in concentrated a limited land area.define measures mainsectoral for taining cultural and biologicaldiversity and conserve endangered species critical marinehabitats. 17.design and implement rational response strategies addressthe environmental. States.stormsand hurricanes associated change.Small island developingStateswill be constrained meetingthese in without the cooperation challenges and assistance the of international communitv.whether 164 .Most tropical islandsare also now experiencing the more immediateimpactsof increasing frequencyof with climate cyclones. and prepare appropriate plans.They also have rich and diverse cultureswith specialadaptations islandenvironments to and knowledge of the sound managementof island resources.

ttre specific strategiesand progfturrmes decideupon for implementation. Stotes whichview the Convention hovingo unified os 3Norhing in the progromme oreos of this choptershouldbe involvedin o the interpreted preiudicing rightsof the Stotes os oreos or of dispute sovereignty in the delimitotion the moritime of concerned. on to the UnitedNolionsConvention the Low of the the of Seoin thischopter Agendo2l do not preiudice position of chorocler.137 New technologies canincrease outputand should rangeof capabilityof the limited humanresources be employed to increase the capacity of very small populationsto meet their needs.134 Centres for the developmentand diffusion of means and scientificinformationand adviceon technical island developing technologiesappropriateto small of to especiallywith reference the management States.136The total capacity of small island developing Stateswill always be limited.". be held in 1993. inter aliu.theexclusive economic thecoastal as resources. Existing capacity must to thereforebe restructured meetefficiently the immediate needs for sustainabledevelopment and integrated management.regional and interregionalcoincludingperiodic operationand informationexchange.regional or global. to theactivitieso1'this comincluding about$50 million from the international terms. rotificotion or occession of ony Stote to theConvention. The developmentand application of traditional knowledge to improve the developcapacity of countriesto implement sustainable ment shouldbe fostered. on D EV C) HUM A NRE S O U R C E EL OP M EN T i7. organizations.132 International the regionalor global. Govemments ME 8/ S C/ E NI I F I A N D IE C H N IC AT AN S C 17. depend upon. r65 . including any that are non-concessional. that the 17 . and protectionfunctions to executeboth management and to apply the polluter paysprinciple and supportthe should Educationalsystems training of their personnel. should develop and strengtheninter-island. Statescannot maintain all necessary management developand coastal trainingfor integrated or of rnentshouldaim to producecadres managers scienthe ableto integrate and tists.engineers coastalplanners in manv factors that need to be considered integrated Resource usersshouldbe prepared coastalmanagement. a regionalbasis. appropriate. will cial terms. 2R"f"r"n. must recognrze specialdevelopStates and of mentrequirements smallislanddeveloping give adequatepriority in the provision of assistance.133The Conlerence secretariathas estimatedthe of averagetotal annualcost ( 1993-2000) implementing programme be about$ 130million. zoneandmarine zone. development on regionalandglobalmeetings sustainable of small island developingStateswith the first global developmentof small conferenceon the sustainable States. adequateand appropriate assistance from the internationalcommunity must be directed at strengtheningthe full range of human resourcesneeded on a continuous basis to implement sustainable developmentplans. plementation sustainable of development be modified to meet these needs and special training programmes islandmanagement developedin integrated and development.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional estimates only andhavenot tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. particularly with respectto the developmentand implans.135 Since populationsof srnall island developing specializations. D) CAPACTTY-BU|LDING 17. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING 17. to island developing whethersubregional.should be establishedor strengthened. At the same time. 'References to the UnitedNotionsConvenlion the Low of the on the of Seoin thischopter Agendo2l do notpreiudice position of to with respect signoture. Local planning should be integrated in educational curriculaof all levelsandpublic awareness of campaignsdevelopedwith the assistance non-governmentalorganizations indigenous and coastalpopulations. 17 .subregional.

taking into accountthe interests of all riparian Statesconcerned. (d) Drinking-watersupplyand sanitation. alongwith theprogressive encroachment incomof patibleactivities. must be accordedto flood prevention and control measures.water quality and aquaticecosystems. industryurbandevelopment.IB Protection thequolity of ond supply freshwoter of resources: Applicotion integroted of opprooches to thedevelopment. recreation.including both surface of interrelated water and groundwater. adapting humanactivitieswithin the capacitylimits of nature andcombating vectors water-related of Innovative diseases.6 The extentto which water resources development contributesto economic productivity and social well- 166 .are needed to fully utilize limited water resource andto safeguard s resourceagai pollution. which in someregionshavebecomemore extreme and dramatic in their consequences. technologies. well as sedimentaas tion control. The general of objective is to make certain that adequatesuppliesof waterof goodqualityaremaintained the entirepopufor lation of this planet.The multisectoralnature of water resources development the contextof socio-economic in development must be recognized. well as the multias interestutilizationof waterresources water supplyand for san itation. and Rational water utilization schemes the development for of surface and undergroundwater-supply sourcesand other potential sourceshave to be supportedby concurrent water conservation and wastage minimization measures.lorvandflat landsmanasement otheractivities. (e) Water and sustainable urban development. (0 Water for sustainablefood production and rural development. where required.while preserving hydrological. hydropower generation. 18. however. those s nst 18.In this connection. the biologicaland chemicalfunctionsof ecosystems. 18. (c) Protection of water resources.3 The widespread gradualdestruction agscarcity. including the improvement indigenous of technologies. Global climate change and atmosphericpollution could also have an impact on freshwater resourcesand their availability and. The freshwater environmentis characterized thehydrological by cycle. Suchintegration mustcoveralltypes freshwaterbodies. (g) Impactsof climatechangeon water resources. monogement useof ond woter resources INTRODUCTION l8. and gravated pollution of freshwater resources many world in regions.4 Transboundary water resources and their useare of great importance to riparian States. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) TNTEGRATED WAIER RESOT RCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGE'YIENT BASIS ACTION FOR 18. through sea-levelrise. 18. inland fisheries.includingfloods and droughts. and duly considerwater quantity and quality aspects. demandintegrated waterresources planningandmanagement. Priority.2 Water is neededin all aspects life.l Freshwater resources an essential are component of part the Earth'shydrosphere and an indispensable of all terrestrial ccosystems.agriculture.transportation. threatenlowlying coastal areasand small islandecosystems. cooperation among those States may be desirable in conformity with existing agreementsand/or other relevant arrangements. (b) Water resources assessment.5 The following programmeareasare proposedfor the freshwatersector: (a) Integratedw ater resourcesdevel opm entand management.

including the integrationof land.including the United Nations and other relevantorganizations appropriate. of there is a needfor riparian Statesto formulate water resources prepare water resourcesaction programmes strategies. on of including that of women.where appropriate. A) BYTHEYEAR 2000: (i) To have designedand initiated costedand targeted national action programmes. could setthe following targets: OBJECTIVES 18.7 The overall objectiveis to satisfythe freshwater needs all countries their sustainable of for development. land-use with planning. or in particular in developingcountries. 18. socio-economic.that integrates technological. indigenous peopleand local policy-makingand communitiesin water management decision-making.including theinventorying waterresources.10In the case transboundary waterresources. 18. whose quantity and quality determinethe nature have to be of its utilization. (b) To plan for the sustainable rationalutilization. however. and the integrationof sectoralwater plans and prograffnnes within the framework of national importance economicand socialpolicy. of forest resourceutilization. The holistic managementof freshwater as a finite and vulnerableresource. sub-basin. (b) Integration measures theprotection conserof for and vation of potentialsources freshwater of supply. (d) To identify and strengthen develop. 18.and water-related aspects.1 All States. many countriesare rapidly reachingconditions of waterscarcity orfacing limits to economic development. including the identificationand protectionof potential sources freshwater of supply. as follows: (a) To promote a dynamic. naturalresource a socialand economic and good. and consider. environmentaland human health considerations. to be an even greaterimpediment to promoting integratedwater managementthan had been anticipated.taking into accountthe functioning of aquatic in ecosystems the perennialityof the resource.As populations and economic activities grow. are based an approach full public participation. safeguarding ecosystems. Water demandsare increasingrapidly. It is understoodthat the fulfilment of the targetsquantified in (A) (i) and (ii) abovewill dependupon new and additional financialresources will be madeavailable that to developingcountriesin accordance with the relevant provisionsof GeneralAssemblyresolution 44/228.being is not usually appreciated. \67 .protectionof mountainslopes and riverbanksand otherrelevantdevelopmentand conservation activities. should be carried out at the level of the catchment basin or Four principal objectivesshouldbe pursued.Effective implementationandcoordinationmechanisms required. althoughall social and rely heavilyon thesupplyandquality economic activities of freshwater. accordingto their capacityand available resources. has to be given to the satisfactionof basicneedsand the of Beyondthese requirements.legal and financial mechanisms ensure to that water policy and its implementationare a catalyst for sustainable socialprogress and economicgrowth. management based 18. order and to satisfy and reconcileneedsfor water in human activpriority ities.To this end.rstainable resourceutilization patterns. implement and evaluateprojects and programmes that are both economically efficient and socially appropriatewithin clearly defined strategies.the harmonizationof those strategies and action prograrnmes. throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation. and including the United Nations and other relevant organizations asappropriate. The fragmentation of responsibilitiesfor water resourcesdevelopment among sectoralagenciesis proving. areof paramount for action in the 1990sand beyond. and protection. B) BY YEAR THE 2025: (i) To have achieved subsectoraltargets of all freshwater programmeareas.12All States.conservation of and management water resources based communityneedsandprioritieswithin on policy. theframeworkof national economic development (c) To design.water usersshould be chargedappropriately.and to have put in place appropriatein stitutionalstructure andlegal instruments s .as required. In developingand using water resources. I accordingto their capacityand available resources. interactive.water resources protected. as could implement the following activities to improve integrated water resources management: (a) Formulation of costedand targetednational action plansand investment programmes. however. less than 20 per cent for industryand a mere6 per centfor domesticconsumption.the appropriate institutional. youth.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. ACTIVITIES 18. iterative and multisectoralapproachto water resources management. (ii) To haveestablished programmes efficientwater-use to attain sl.8 Integrated water resources is on the perception of water as an integral part of the a ecosystem. with 70-80 per cent required for irrigation.9 Integrated water resources management.

including risk anaiysisand environmental socialimpactassessment. namely: (i) At the lowestappropriate level. including operational guidelines. particulzuly the enhancementof the role of women in water planningand management. where appropriate. the specitlc strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.artificial groundwater recharge. and (g) Promotion of schemesfor rational water use through public awareness-raising. 0) Developmentof new and alternativesourcesof water-supplysuch as seawaterdesalination. particularlyin arid and semi-aridareas: (i) Promotion of international scientific research cooperation freshwater on resources. consideration. Actualcostsandfinancialterms. resources (o) Development and strengthening. (k) Integrationof water (includingsurfaceand underground water resources) quantity and quality management: (l) Promotionof waterconservation throughimproved water-use efficiencyand wastage minimizationschemes for all users. of the harmonization national strategies of and actionprogrammes: (iv) At the global level.p r i c i n g m e c h a n i s m sa n d regulatorymeasures.urban. assimilate. T forecasting methods and economic planning models appropriate the taskof managingwaterresources an to in efficient and sustainable manner will require the application of new techniquessuchas geographical information systems and expert systemsto gather.industrialand agricultural water-user groups)haveto be further evaluated and field-tested.delegation water of resources management. basedon nationalleeislationand economic measures: (iii) At the regionallevel. 1 4 h e d e v e l o p m e n to f i n t e r a c t i v e d a t a b a s e s . establishment of independent regulationand monitoring of freshwater. Field studies thewillingness on to pay shouldbe conducted rural and urban situations. as of including mechanisms cooperation. (d) Optimizationof water resources allocation under physicaland socio-economic constraints. in 168 . including facilitating discussionsand sharing of experiencesin areasrelatedto water resources management. (p) Disseminationof information. will depend upon. (m) Support to water-usergroups to optimize local water resources management: (n) Development of public participatory techniques and their implementationin decision-making. appropriate.Furtherdevelopment requiredfor economic is instrumentsthat take into account opportunity costs and environmental externalities. private enterprises communities.environmental and social aspects water resources of management and predictrngthe effectsin temrsof human impact. use of marginal-quality water. (0 Flood and drought management. 18.(c) Developmentof interactive databases. includingthe consideration the UnitedNations by of a World Water Day. includingthe development water-saving of devices. economic. forecasting models. B/ SC/ENIIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL MFANS 1 8 . (e) Implementation of allocation decisions through d e m a n d m a n a g e m e n t . the various availableoptions for charging water users(including domestic. where appropriate. generally.and promotion of educationfor water users. analyse and display multisectoral information and to optimize decision-making. waste-water reuseand waterrecycling. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. integratedwater resources planning and management the framework of the nain tional planning processand. economic planning models and methods for watermanagement planning. thepurpose beingableto dealwith theadded for of dimensionof integrating engineering. addition. at all levelsconcerned.in accordto ancewith nationallegislation. educationalprogrammes andlevyingof watertariffsandothereconomic instruments: (h) Mobilizationof waterresources. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 18.includingenvironmenand tal impact assessment methods. and (ii) At the national level.the development In of new and altemativesources water-supply of and low-cost watertechnologies requireinnovativeappliedresearch.including any that are non-concessional. inter alia. will This will involve the transfer. thatlevel.13The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ I l5 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. includingdecentralization of government services to local authorities. as well as the developmentof endogenous capacity. improved delineationof responsibilities. adaptation and diffusion of new techniquesand technoiogy among developing countries. division of labour and coordinationof intemational organizationsand prograrnrnes.15Pursuant the recognitionof water as a socialand to economicgood. where appropriate.

resourceassessment financial instruments. groups.They usually include: (a) Awareness-creation programmes. as appropriate. workers. The meanswill vary from caseto case. principles.20To implementthese Those who establishthe to have adequatecapacities. need communities 18. demand-drivenmanagementrequires the development of water-related institutionsat appropriate levels. 169 .21 Institutionalcapacityfor implementing water management should be reviewedand developed when there is a clear demand. include. International agencies donorshavean and importantrole to play in providingsupport developing to countriesin creatingthe required enablingenvironment This should for integratedwater resources management.local/national cooperative corporas.Existing administrative will often be quite capableof achievinglocal structures water resources management.as well as the opportunity use the alternative of water.monitoringand assessment the useof waterand of land resources and creatingof opportunities public for participation. operation. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG integrated I 8. t h r o u g h m a i n t e n a n c e r e h a b i l i t a t i o na n d o p t i m a l and cleantechnologies. 18. (b) Training of water managers all levelsso that they at have an appropriateunderstandingof all the elements necessary their decision-making. (b) new or alternative (c) environmentally and sociailybenignhydropower. nationalor local. quirements all usersas well as thoserelating to the of hazardsand prevention and mitigation of water-related develintegral part of the socio-economic constitutean A for opmentplanningprocess. (f) Sharing of appropriateknowledge and technology. district development and local community committees. whetherintemational.Particular emphasishas to be placedon the introductionof public participatory techof niques. . should.non-govemmental and organizations women's groups. thatis to say. Skills youth.16Water resourcesdevelopmentand rnanagement should be planned in an integratedmanner. include the rebasedon the principle of sustainability.taking into accountlong-termplanningneedsas well as thosewith horizons. taking into account the need for intesration with land-use management.18. for (c) Strengthening training capacitiesin developing of countries.Although water is managed variouslevelsin the socio-political at system. includingnonof polluting technologiesand the knowledge neededto extract the best performancefrom the existing investment system.economicand lifegood shouldbe reflectedin demandmanagesustaining throughwaterconand ment mechanisms implemented and servationand reuse. RE ES C) HUM A N S OU R C D EV EL OP M EN I management to of l8. non-governmental organizations. need to ensurethat the meansexist to build thosecapacities.they shouldincorporate nuurower economic and social considerations environmental. 18. tection and operationcosts.as well as in the private sector. prerequisite the sustainvulnerableresource of ablemanagement waterasa scarce is the obligation to acknowledgein all planning and developmentits full costs.standard-setting other regulatoryfuncand tions. new institutions based upontheperspective. the needmay arisefor but forexample. costsreflecting mostvaluable burdenall benefiActual chargingneednot necessarily of ciaries with the consequences thoseconsiderations.however.18The setting afreshof priorities for private and public investmentstrategies shouldtake into account (a) maximum utilization of existing projects.17The role of wateras a social. Planning cclnsiderations proenvironmental should reflect benefitsinvestment.indigenous functionshave to relatedto variouswater management be developedby municipal governmentand water authorities. role of government includesmobilizationof financialandhumanresources. councils of river catchmentareas. both for the collection of data and for the implementation planneddevelopment.donor supportto local levels in indeveloping countries.22In creatingthe enablingenvironmentfor lowestthe appropriate-levelmanagement. legislation.19 The delegation waterresources educatingand level necessitates the lowest appropriate staff trainingwatermanagement atall levelsandensuring that women participateequally in the educationand training programmes. 18. peopleand localcommunities.reflect as far as Chargingmechanisms possibleboth the true cost of water when used as an to economicgoodandthe ability of the communities pay. framework for water developmentand managementat any level.including mobilizingcommitment and supportat all levelsand initiatins global and local action to promote suchprograrnmes. Education thepublic of tionsandotherwater-user regardingthe importanceof water and its proper manis agement alsoneeded. (d) Appropriatetrainingof the necessary professionals. includingextension (e) Improvementof careerstructures.including enhancement the role of women.including community-based stitutions.

processing. following targets: (a) By the year 2000.27 All States. and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. including the United Nations and other relevant organizations appropriate. and of (iv) Cooperate the assessment transboundary in of water resources. vital to is. water resources and to mitigation of the assessment and pollueffectsof floods. accordingto their financial means. constitutes practicalbasisfor their susthe sessment for and tainablernanagement a prerequisite evaluation There is. of and and dependability quality of waterresources of the Such ashuman activitiesthat affect thoseresources. (b) As a long-term target. droughts. including those that provide real-time datafor flood and droughtforecasting.23Waterresources assessment. of the possibilitiesfor their development.Establishment of national databases however. (c) To ensurethat the assessment informationis fully utilized in the development of water management policies. growing concern that at a time when more preciseand reliableinformationis needed aboutwater resources. however. to have studied in detail the feasibility of installing water resourcesassessment services.:ountries. At the sametime. to have fully operational services hydrometric availablebasedupon high-density networks. according theircapacity available and to resources. prisesthe continuing determination sources.ASSESST. of information aboutthe quality and quantityof available w ater resources at the l evel of catchrnent sand groundwateraquifersin an integratedmanner. ( i i ) E s t a b l i s h a n d s t r e n g t h e nt h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l capabilities of countries.to their currentquality status. including legislative and regulatory arrangements. hydrologic servicesand relatedbodiesare lessablethanbeforeto providethis information. subject the prior agreement eachriparian to of Stateconcemed: B) DATA SYSTEMS: (i) Reviewexistingdata-collection networks andassess their adequacy.comextent. 18. order to estimatethe total quantity of water resources availableand their future supplypotential. ACTIVITIES I 8. predictpossible determine to conflicts betweensupply and demandand to provide a scientificdatabase rational water resources fbr utilization. (d) To have all countriesestablishthe institutional arrangementsneeded to ensure the efficient collection. appropriate.especially informationon groundwaterand water quality. (iii) Establishand maintaineffectivecooperation the at nationallevel betweenthe variousagencies responsible forthe collection.24Basedupon the Mar del Plata Action Plan. (ii) Improve networksto meet accepted guidelines for 170 . this programmeareahas been extendedinto the 1990sand the beyondwith the overallobjectiveof ensuring assessment andforecasting the quantityand qualityof water of in resources.including methodsfor the impactassessment climatechange of on freshwater: (b) To have all r. storage analysis hydrologicdata. the advancingtechis nology for datacapture and management increasingfor ly difficult to access developingcountries. Major impediments the lack of financialresources are for water resources assessment.25Five specificobjectives havebeensetaccordingly. that are required to ensurethe adequateassessment their water resources of and the provisionof flood and droughtforecasting services. fication of potential sourcesof fieshwater supply. to inespective of their level of development.desertiflcation t ion. fragmentednature the of hydrologicservices and the insufficientnumbersof qualified staff.includingcooperation with theUnited Nationsand otherrelevant as could setthe organizations. 18.26All States. and according theircapacity available to resources. and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation.IENT B) WATERRESOURCES BASIS ACTION FOR includingthe identi18. (e) To have sufficient numbers of appropriately qualified andcapable by staffrecruitedandretained water resources assessment agenciesand provided with the training and retraining they will need to carry out their responsibilities successfully. as follows: (a) To make availableto all countrieswater resources assessment technology that is appropriate their needs. as could undertake followthe ing activities: OBJECTIVES 18. retrievaland dissemination users to storage.allocateto waterresources financial assessment resources line with the economicand socialneeds in for water resources data. A) INSTITUTIONAL FRAIvIEWORK: (:t Establishappropriatepolicy fiameworks and national priorities.

30W ater resourcesassessment strengthening existingsystems technologytransfer.educationalinand local water-use organizations stitutes. others. (iii) Apply standardsand other means to ensure data comparibility. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 18. research modelsshouldbuild uponhydroThe logic balancestudiesand also include the consumptive useof water.In addition. and the developmentof new as technologyfor useunderfield conditions. AND D} RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT: (i) Establish or strengthenresearchand development programmesat the national.consultants. necessi tateshe t 18. or the provision of attractiveterms of employment and career paths for professionaland technical staff should Human resource needsshouldbe monibe encouraged.of geographicalinformation systems. (ii) Monitor research activitiesto enand development sure that they make full useof local expertiseand other forthe needs and local resources that they areappropriate of the countrv or countriesconcerned.This approachshould also.the provision of data on water quantity and quality for surface and groundwater. example. of (vii) Implement appropriatewell-tried techniquesfor the processing hydrologicdata.regional and assesslevelsin supportof waterresources international mentactivities. inter alia. and (c) studyof genesis. for establishment national archivesof water resources.Prior to inaugurating the above activities.including the processes critical water-related behindlossof vegetation and land degradation and its restoration.OGICAL 18.32Becausewell-trainedpeople are particularlyimportant to water resourcesassessment and hydrologic forecasting. subregional. (ii) Analyse and presentdata and information on water in resources the forms requiredforplanning andmanagedevelopment for and ment of countries'socio-economic use in environmental protection strategiesand in the projects.29 Importantresearch needsinclude (a) development of global hydrologic models in supportof analysisof waterresources impactandof macroscale climatechange (b) assessment. when appropriate. and prodependupon. Actual costsand finanbeenreviewed by Governments. of (viii) Derivearea-related from pointhydrologic estimates data: (ix) Assimilateremotelysensed dataand the use. (vi) Implement"data rescue"operations. be applied at the catchmentlevel. it is necessaryto prepare cataloguesof the water resourcesinformation held by governmentservices. the specific strategies grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation.The aim should be to attract and MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION Ai F/NANC'NG has estimatedthe 18. DISSEMINATION: C} DATA (i) Identify the needfor water resources datafor various planningpurposes. (iv) Upgrade facilities and proceduresused to store. comincludingabout$145million from the international grantor concessional terms.28The Conferencesecretariat total annualcost (1993-2W0)of implementing average to the activitiesof thisprogramme be about$355million. personnel matters should receive special attention in this area. processand analysehydrologic data and make suchdata and the forecasts derivedfrom them availableto potential USCTS. 18.31Water resourcesassessment requiresthe establishmentand maintenance a body of well-trainedand of motivated staff sufficient in number to undertake the above activities. (v) Establishdatabases the availabilityof all types on of hydrologicdataat the nationallevel. well as the developmentof endogenous capacity.subregional regionallevel.where appropriate. in closing the the key processes rvater-quality gap between hydrologic flows and biogeochemical processes.as well as relevant land-use data. design and operationof specific water-related (iii) Provideforecasts wamingsof flood anddrought and to the generalpublic and civil defence.Theseareindicamunity on only and have not estimates tive and order-of-masnitude 171 . Education and training programmes designedto ensurean adequatesupply of thesetrained personnelshould be establishedor strengthened the at local.includingany that are non-concessional. Planshave to be established meet thoseneedsthrough to education and training opportunities and international programmesof coursesand conferences. closing of the gap between terrestrial hydrology and ecology at different scales. will cial terms.national. MEANS B' SCIENI/F/C AND IECHNOI. tored periodically. of for adaptationand diffusion.including all levels of employment.the private sector.

36The complex interconnectedness freshwater of systems demands freshwater that management holistic be (taking a catchmentmanagement approach)and based on a bal ancedconsi derati on the needsof people of a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . BASIS ACTION FOR 18. Many of these problems have arisen from a development model that is environmentally destructive and from a lack of public awareness educationabout surf'ace and and groundwater resource protection. personnel and pay policiestor staff of nationaland local wateragencies. indigenous people and local communities. OBJECTIVES 18.deforestation.retain personnelto work on water resources assessment who are sufficient in number and adequate their level in of educationto ensurethe effective implementationof the activitiesthat are planned. for all categories of staffinvolvedin waterresources assessment activities. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLD\NG 18.to improve water-use efficiencyat the local level.river diversions. deforestationand desertification have led to increased land degradation. cl PRoTECTTON WATERRESOURCES.degraded of water qualityandpollutionof surface groundwater and sources. whereappropriate. (c) Developingsoundrecruitment.in variable order of importanceaccordingto different situations. This givesrise to the leachingof nutrients and pesticides.33 Recommended actionsinclude: (a) Identifying educationand training needsgearedto the specificrequirements countries. There are f'ew regions of the world that are still exemptfrom problemsof loss of potentialsources freshwatersupply. Erosion. and the creationof reservoirs has. management. loss and destruction of catchment areas.Educationmay be called for at both the nationaland the internationallevels. aquatic ecosystems also are affectedby agriculturalwaterresource development projects such as dams.Long-term F developmentof global freshwater requires holistic managementof resourcesand a recognition of the interconnectedness the elementsrelated to freshof water and freshwater quality. to treatand developnew water supplies. Undercertain circumstances. over The all environmental healthobjectivewas set as follows: "to evaluatethe consequences which the varioususers of water have on the environment.Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed and living freshwater resourcesare threatened.sedimentation.is crucial to the avoiding of costlysubsequent measures rehabilitate.Ecologicaland humanhealtheff'ects the measurable are consequences. usingadvanced educational technology.37The extent and severityof contamination unof saturated zonesand aquifershave long been underestimatedowing to therelativeinaccessibility aquifers of and the lack of reliableinformationon aquifersystems. in Thereis a widespread lack of perceptionof the linkagesbetweenthe development. resulted adverse in effectson ecosystems. water installations and irrigation schemes.34The conductof waterresources assessment the on basisof operationalnationalhydrometricnetworksrequiresan enablingenvironment all levels.p a rti c u l a rl y b e tw e e n i nformati on producers and users. supportmeasures to aimed at controlling water-related diseases. b i o l o g i c a l .from inadequatelytreateddomestic sewage.The followat ing national supportaction is necessary enhanced for nationalcapacities: (a) Review of the legislativeand regulatorybasisof water resources assessment: (b) Facilitation of close collaborationamong water s ec t or age n c i e s . (c) Implementationof water management policies based upon realisticappraisals waterresources of conditions and trends.youth. preventiveapA proach.ill-consideredsiting of industrialplants.' 18. 35 r es h w a te ri s a u n i ta ry re s o u rc e . 172 . (d) Strengtheningof the managerialcapabilitiesof water-user groups. The protectionof groundwater thereforean essential is element of water resource management.use and treatment of water resources and aquatic ecosystems.within an environmentaland developmental context.and involving both men and women. uncontrolled shifting cultivation and poor agriculturalpractices. althoughthe meansto monitor them are inadequate or non-existent many countries. OF WATER QUALITYAND AQUATIC ECOSYSIE'YIS Major problemsaffecting the water quality of rivers and lakes arise.T h e M a r d e l P l a t a A c t i o n P l a n h a s a l r e a d yr e c o g n i z e dt h e i n t r i n s i c l i n k a g e b e t w e e nw a t e r r e s o u r c e e v e l o p m e n t r o j e c t sa n d d p t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n tp h y s i c a l . I 8. where appropriate.includingwomen. heal th and soci o-economi c repercussi ons. c h e m i c a l . inadequate controlson the discharges indusof trial waste waters.in some cases. and to protectecosystems". of (b) Establishing strengthening and education trainand ing programmes water-related on topics.with adequate terms of employmentbeing a national responsibility.

according to a managementprinciple of preservingaquatic er-osystems. simultaneously. with a view to an ongoingimprovementof waterquality: (g) To adoptanintegrated approach environmentally to sustainable management water resources.the UNEP Environmentally Sound Managementof Inland Waters (EMINWA).animal grazing. (b) Public healthprotection.conservation and rationaluse. of including the protection of aquatic ecosystemsand freshwater livine resources: (h) To put in place strategiesfor the environmentally sound managementof fieshwater and related coastal e c o s y s t e m s i. (v) Mandatoryenvironmental impactassessment all of major water resourcedevelopment projectspotentially impairing water quality and aquaticecosystems.health. productandprocess pollution change. and commensurate with their socio-economic development. international as in water-quality monitoringand management programmes suchastheGlobalWaterQualityMonitoring Programme (GEMSAV'ATER).but degraded.n c l u d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n f f i s h e r i e s . throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation. with a focuson pollution minimization and preventionthrough use of new technologies.according to capacitiesand needs. 173 . combined with the delineationof appropriateremedial measures and a strengthened control of new industrial installations. key to capacitya building and a prerequisitefor implementing waterquality management. (iii) Establishment standards the dischargeof of for effluentsand fcrrthe receivingwaters. the FAO regional inland fishery bodies. including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate.could implement the folas lowing activities: A) WATER RESOURCES PROTECilON CONSERVATION: AND (i) Establishment and strengthening technicaland of institutionalcapacities identify and protectpotential to sources water-supply of within all sectors society.sis. accordingto their capacityand available resources. (0 To establish. far asappropriate. to for conservation and rational use of these resources a on sustainable basis. (iv) Rehabilitationof important.40All States. 18.could set the following targets: (a) To identify the surfaceand groundwaterresources thatcouldbe developed useon a sustainable for basisand othermajor developable water-dependent resources and.where appropriate. (d) To panicipate. (v) Strengthening administrative of and legislative measures prevent to encroachment existingandpotenon tially usablecatchment areasl B)WATER POLLUTTON PREVENTIONCONTROL: AND (i) Applicationof the "polluter pays" principle. (e) To reducethe prevalence water-associated of diseases. whereappropriate. includingUnitedNationsandotherrelevant clrganizations appropriate. accordingto their capacityand available resources. environmental impact assessments enforceable and standards major for point-source discharges high-risknon-pointsources. catchment areas.solid waste landfills and infrastructure development projects.39All States.treatment and environmentally safedisposal. includingliving resources. biological. (c) To initiateeffectivewaterpollution prevention and controlprogrammes.and the Conventionon Wetlands of International Importance Especially as WaterfowlHabitat(RamsarConvention). particularlyon small islands.recycling and recovery. based an appropriate on mixture of pollution reduction-at-source strategies. of (ii) Identificationof potentialsources water-supply of and preparationof national profiles.38Three objectiveswill have to be pursued concurrently to integrate water-qualityelementsinto water resource management: (a) Maintenanceof ecosystemintegrity. reduction at source and effluent reuse.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. o aquaculture.physicaland chemicalquality criteria for all water bodies (surfaceand groundwater). ACTIVITIES 18.18.starting with the eradicationof dracunculiasis (guineaworm disease) (river blindand onchocerciasis ness)by the year 2000. taking into accourltsoundtraditionaland indigenous practices.agricultural activities and biodiversity. allkindsof sources. of disease (c) Human resources development. (b) To identifyall potential sources water-supply of and prepareoutlines for their protection. initiateprogrammes theprotection. (iii) Preparationof national plans for water resources protectionand conseruation. of effectivelyprotecting and them from any fonn of degradation a drainage on basinba.a task requiringnot only the provision of safe drinking-waterbut also the control vectorsin the aquaticenvironment. to including on-site and off-si te sani tati onl (ii) Promotionof the construction treatment of facilities for domestic sewageand indr"lstrial effluents and the developmentof appropriatetechnologies. (iv) Introduction theprecautionary of approach waterin quality management.

(i) Rehabilitationof polluted and degradedwater bodiesto restoreaquatichabitatsand ecosystems.taking into accountsoundtraditionaland practices. (iv) Control of noxiousaquaticspecies that may destroy someother water species. in an integrated mannerand throughapplication of precautionary measures derivedfrom a broad-based lifecycle analysis. erosionand siltationof lakesand other waterbodies: D) GROUNDWATER PROTEOTON: (i) Developmentof agriculturalpracticesthat do not degradegroundwaters. PARTICULARLY FOR: (i) Monitoring and control of pollution and its effects in nationaland transboundary waters. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION E) PROTECTON OFAQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS. rational and planned use of (pestnitrogenousfertilizers and other agrochemicals icides. (iii) Development biotechnology. (ii) Application of the necessary measures mitigate to salineintrusioninto aquifersof smallislandsand coastal plainsas a consequence sealevel of rise or overexploitation of coastal aquifers. including low-wasteproductiontechnologies and water recirculation. (iii) Prevention aquiferpollution throughthe regulaof tion of toxic substances permeate groundandthe that the es t ablis hm e n t f p ro te c ti o n z o n e s i n g r oundw ater o rechargeand abstractionareas. (vii) Identificationand applicationof bestenvironmental practices reasonable to avoiddiffusepollution. Water-quality monitoring. of inter alia. (ii) Rehabilitation programmes for agricultural lands and for otherusers.protection wetlands(owing to of their ecological and habitat importance for many species). for waste productionof biofertilizers treatment. C} DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONCLEAN AND TECHNOLOGY: OF (i) Control of industrial waste discharges. takinginto account socialandeconomic factors. in (viii) Encouragement and promotion of the use of adequately treatedand purified waste watersin agriculture. of (ii) Promotionandextension the application enviof of ronmentalimpact assessments geographical informaof tion systems. OFWATER ASAPPROPRIATE. (iii) Surveillance pollution sources improve comof to pliancewith standards regulations to regulate and and the issue discharge permits: of (iv) Monitoring of the utilization of chemicalsin agriculture that may have an adverseenvironmentaleffect. surface of and groundwaterpotentially affectedby sites storing toxic and hazardous materials: H} DEVELOPMENT OFNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL AND LEGAL INSTRUMENTS MAY REQUIREDPROTECT AUALIW THAT BE TO THE RESOURCES.(vi) Use of risk assessment risk management and rn reachingdecisions this areaand ensuringcompliance in with thosedecisions. through a limited. (iv) Developmentof appropriatemethodsfor water pollution control. at cost namely. takinginto account equivalent action for the protection and use of groundwaterresources important for agricultural productivity and for the biodiversityof the tropics: (iii) Conservation and. aquaculture. (v) Promotionof measures improve the safetyand to integrityof wells and well-head areas reduceintrusion to of biological pathogens and hazardous chemicalsinto aquifersat well sites.. of (ii) Protection ecosystems of from pollutionand degradation for the development of freshwater aquaculture projects. and otheractivities. industry and other sectors. (v) Rational land use to prevent land degradation. 18. (ii) Treatmentof municipal wastewater for safereuse in agriculture and aquaculture.asneeded. (ii) Controlof long-range atmospheric transport polof l utants: (iii) Control of accidentaland/or deliberatespills in nationaland/ortransboundary water bodies: (il') Environmental impact assessment.herbicides) agriculturalpractices. G) MONITORTNG SURVETLLANCE AND OFWATER RESOURCES ANDWATERS RECEIVING WASTES: (i) Establishment networksfor the monitoring and of continuoussurveillance watersreceivingwastesand of of point and diffusesources pollution. (vi.41The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the agetotal cost( 1993-2000) irrplementingthe activities of 174 . using the bestpracticable bestavailable and technology. (iv) Designandmanagement landfillsbased of uponsound hydrogeologicinformation and impact assessment. indigenous F} PROTECNON OFFRESHWATER RESOURCES: LIVING (i) Controlandmonitoringof waterquality to allow for the sustainable development inland fisheries.

inter alia. whatevertheir stage development their socialand of and economicconditions. for these It is alsorecognized that humanexcretaand sewage are importantcauses the deterioration water quality in of of DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE should be adopted for 18. One in threepeoplein the developingworld still lacks two mostbasicrequirements healthanddignity. including development of training skills. dependupon. in-servicetraining. anduse. States should consider strengtheningand developingnationalresearch centreslinked throughnetworks and supportedby regional water researchincentres stitutes.which resultedfrom the Mar del PlataAction Plan adopted theUnitedNationsWaterConference by in1977. innovaand of adoptedfor specificaspects tive teachingtechniques water-qualitymonitoring and control.The North-Southtwinning of research instituwater research and field studies international by tions shouldbe actively promoted. will any that are non-concessional.problemsolvingworkshops and refresher trainingcourses. Int er nat ional wa te r-q u a l i ty p ro g ra m m e s .45Suitable approaches includethe strengthening and improvement the humanresource of capabilities local of in Governments managingwater protection. 18. should be oriented towards the waterquality of developingcountries. Dl DRTNKTNG-WATER Suppry AND SANTTATTON BASIS ACTION FOR 18. taken periodicallyat all levels within the organizations responsible water-quality for management. 18. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. the poverty.One of the key problemstoday and for the future is the sustained operation and maintenanceof thesefacilities.It is importantthat a minimum percentageof funds for water resource development projects is allocated to researchand particularlyin externallyfundedprojects.User-friendlysoftware (GIS)andGlobal InformationSystems andGeographical (GRID) methods Resource InformationDatabase should and for analysis interpretation be developed thehandling. 18. In order gainedfrom previousinvestments not to allow resources to deterioratefurther. Concerted efforts during the 1980s brought water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of the world's poorestpeople.47Safewater-supplies environmental sanitation and improvinghealth arevital for protecting environment.particularlyin urbanareas. immediate action is required in a numberof areas.43Monitoring and assessment complex aquatic of involving systems oftenrequiremultidisciplinary studies in severalinstitutions and scientists a joint programme. The commonly agreedpremisewas that "all peoples.2 The target of the Decadewas to provide safedrinking-water and sanitationto underserved urban and rural areasby 1990.Flexibility and adaptabilityregardingemergingwater pollution issues Trainingactivitiesshould underbe shouldbe developed. women and otherwater-user D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG AND TFCHNOLOGICAL MEANS B/ SC/ENr/F/C proresearch 18.The most outin standing these of effortswasthe launching 1981of the InternationalDrinking WaterSupplyandSanitationDecade. development.treatment 175 .have the right to have access to drinking waterin quantities of a qualityequalto their and basic needs".44Innovative approaches professional managerial stafftrainingin orderto cope and with changing needs and challenges.Safewateris alsocrucialto many andalleviating traditionaland cultural activities. but even the unprecedented progressachievedduring the Decadewas not enough.Theseare indicative andorder-ofmagnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby including Governments. theestablishment and of nationaland regionaltechnicaland engineeringcourses on the subjects water-qualityprotectionand control at of on existingschools andeducation/training courses water resources protectionand conservation laboratoryand for groups. Water-quality management programmesrequire a certain minimum infrastructureand staff to identify and implement technical solutionsand to enforceregulatoryaction.An estimated80 per cent of all diseasesand over one third of deaths in developingcountriesare caused the consumption of by contaminated water. includingabout $340 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. Actualcosts andfinancialterms.46The effective protectionof water resources and ecosystems from pollution requiresconsiderable upgrading of most countries'presentcapacities. of monitoring data and for the preparationof management strategies.42States shouldundertake cooperative jects to developsolutionsto tecltnicalproblemsthat are appropriatefor the conditions in each watershedor country.to of this programme be about$1 billion. field technicians.s u ch as GEMSflVATER.andon average much asone-tenth as of eachperson'sproductivetime is sacrificedto waterrelated diseases.

(d) Soundfinancialpractices. OBJECTIVES 18.local management risk reducon and ti on. (iv) Building and expansion.on a sustainable basis. 176 . emphasizing the "some for all ratherthan more for some" approach. in (iii) Linkages betweennational water plans and community management local waters. achieved throughbetter management existing assets. it is by estimated that annualinvestments mustreachdoublethe currentlevels.and the full participationof women at all levelsin sector institutions. (v) Treatmentand saf-e reuseof domesticand industrial wastewaters in urban and rural areas. (iii) Applicationof the principlethat decisions to be are takenat the lowestappropriate level.backed by of measures strengthen to localinstitutions implementing in and sustaining waterand sanitation programmes. of (iv) Humanresource developmentat levels. giving of f ull recognitionto the role of local authorities.therefore.50 All States.AND HEALTH: (i) Establishmentof protected areas for sourcesof drinking-watersupply. of and widespread use of appropri technologies. accessto safe water in sufficient quantitiesand proper sanitationfor all. (vi) Assistance serviceagencies becomingmore to in cost-eff-ective responsive consumer and to needs. particularly on small islands. Even for the more realistic target of achievingfull coveragein water-supply 2025.49Past experiencehas shown that specific targets shouldbe set by each individual country. including the United Nations and other relevant organizations appropriate.whi c h w a s h e l d a t N e w D e l h i from l 0 to 14 September 1990)formalizedthe needto provide. with particular emphasis hygiene.in addition to the reticulated water-supply system. watermanagement.in September 1990. at the same time.especially of w omen. ludingappropri technologies. (ii) Encouragement the local population. (vi) International support mechanismsfor programme funding. (vii) Providing of more attentionto underserved rural and low-incomeperiurbanareas. ate 18. and (b) Institutionalreforms promoting an integratedapproach and including changesin procedures.48The New Delhi Statement (adopted the Global at Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990s . (ii) Sanitary disposal of excreta and sewage. and throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation. according theircapacity available to and resources. using appropriatesystemsto treat waste waters in urban and rural areas. as could implementthe following activities: A) ENVIRONMENT. of (iv) Integration of community managementof water within the contextof overallplanning.One realisticstrategy meetpresent to and future needs. (c) Cornmunity management services. planners and policy makersat all levels. ACTIVITIES I 8. (viii) Rehabilitation defectivesystems.including all specialprogramlnes women.of sewage treatment facilitiesand drainage systems. Four guiding principles provide for the programme objectives: (a) Protection the environment of and safeguarding of health through the integrated managementof water resources liquid and solid wastes. i ndi genouspeopl e and l o cal com munities.At the World Summit for Children. (v) Promotionof primary healthandenvironmental care at thelocallevel. youth. (vi) Control of water-associated diseases: B) PEOPLE |NST|TUT|ONS: AND (i) Strengthening the functioningof Govemments of in water resourcesmanagementand.implementation and follow-up.is to develop lower-cost but adequate services canbe implemented sustained that and at the communitylevel.includingtrainingfbrlocal communities in appropriatewater management techniquesand primary health care.where appropriate. C} NATIONAL COMMUNITY AND MANAGEMENT: (i) Supportand assistance communities managing to in their own systems a sustainable on basis. for (v) Broad-based education programmes.with public consultation and involvement of users in the planning and implementation waterprojects.and the introductionof available technologies. (ii) Encouragement waterdevelopment manageof and mentbasedon a participatory approach.developingcountries. of reductionof wastage and sa{'e reuseof water and wastewater. involving users.heads State of or Governmentcalled for both universalaccess waterto supplyandsanitation theeradication guineaworm and of diseaseby 1995. attitudes and behaviour. (iii) Expansion of urban and rural water-supplyand development expansion rainwatercatchment and of systems. the inc ate and construction sewagetreatmentfacilities could brinB of significantimprovement.

taking must establishmanpowerdevelopment into considerationpresentrequirementsand planned developments. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG D) CAPACITY-BUILDING has estimatedthe 18. D) AWARENESS CREATTON AND INFORMATION : PUBLIC /PARTICIPATION (i) Strengthening sectormonitoring and information of management subnational nationallevels. increase particularlyin communitycapacity.4 billion from the international terms. Relevant international support programmes should addressthe inter alia: concerning.analysis and publication of monitoringresultsat nationaland local levelsas a sector management and advocacy/awareness creationtool. is also importantthat countries It provide adequatetraining fbr women in the sustainable maintenance equipment.should to at developmechanisms procedures collaborate all and is levels. institutional and factorsthat determine characteristics.waterresource management of s and environmental sanitation. the specific strategiesand prografirmes Governments decideupon for implementation.in planning. designcriteria will involve technical.53To effectivelyplan and manage water-supply and sanitationat the national.community pafticipation. economic. depend upon. as far as practicable. This will entaila high degree communityparticipation.This is particularlyimportantif full advantage to be taken of community-basedapproaches and selfrelianceastoolsfcrrsustainability.55Overall nationalcapacity-building all adrninisat trativelevels. health and hygiene educationand literacy. concerned. will terms.as far as practicable.(ix) Programmesfor rational water use and ensured operationand maintenance. Capacity- MFANS B/ 5C/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOT. do this. 18.52To ensure feasibility.including any that arenon-concessional. inter alia. provincial.51The Conferencesecretariat total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of average the activities of this progranuneto be about $20 billion. coordination. district and community level.andto utilizefundsmosteffectively. commensurate (b) Utilization of traditional and indigenouspractices. (iii) Use of limited sector indicators at regional and global levelsto promotethe sectorand raisefunds.54The implementation water-supply and sanitaof To tion programmes a nationalresponsibility. health. plannedwater-supply services. comincludingabout$7. (xi) Substantial increase in urban treatment capacity with increasing loads. at and (ii) Annual processing. of involving women. the environmental magnitude and cost of the planned system.provincial. the development and performance of country-level training institutions should be enhanced that they can play a pivotal role so in capacity-building. together with the agencies and bodies of the United Nations system and other external support agencies providing support to national programmes. planningand of o im plem ent at io n . adoptedtechability of nologies should be responsiveto the needsand constraints imposedby the conditions of the community Thus. (iv) Improvement sectorcoordination. This also meansthat nationalauthorities. implementatheconception. to maximize and sustain local involvement. social. 177 .decision-making.Subsequently.Theseare indicmunity on grantor concessional estimates only andhavenot ative andorder-of-magnitude Actual costsand financial beenreviewedby Governments.w i th th e a s s i s ta n c e f i m p roved the to monitoring and information management. has to be to connection both developed according its fundamental with any efforts to improve health and socio-economic development through water-supply and sanitation and with their impact on the humanenvironment. for tion andevaluation connected with projects domestic water-supply and sanitation. trained professional technical within and staffmustbe developed eachcountryin sufficientnumbers. varying is degrees.involving institutional development.OGICAL the acceptability sustainand 18. developingcountries (a) Pursuit of low-cost scientific and technological means. responsibi ty for thei mplementation projects Ii of to and the operatingof systems shouldbe delegated all administrative levels down to the community and individual served. (c) Assistance country-level to technical/scientific institutes to facilitate curricula development to support fields critical to the water and sanitationsector. sector'sabsorptive projects. self-help based C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 18. human resources.countries To plans. (x) Research development appropriate and of technical solutions. 18.

FROM A) PROTECnON WATER OF POLLUTION DEGRADATION: AND (i) Introduction of sanitary waste disposal facilities basedon environmentallysoundlow-cost and upgradabletechnologies. the actionsto ensure continuedsupplyof affordablewater for presentand future needsand to reversecurrenttrends of resourcedegradation and depletion. to have an importance building should be considered comequalto that of the sectorsuppliesand equipment This can be ponentso that funds can be directedto both. OBJECTIVES objectiveof this programmeis 18. to have ensuredthat all urban residentshave accessto at least 40 litres per capita per day of safe water and that 75 per cent of the urban population are provided with on-site or community facilitiesfor sanitation. accompanied a cleardetlnition tives and targets.Sucha course proved has the already. could setthe following targets: (a) By the year 2000. as lowing activities: RESOURCES DEPLETION. to have established applied and quantitative and qualitative discharge standardsfor municipaland industrialeffluents. (vi) Promotion of researchinto the contribution of waterresources development. according theircapacity available to resources. formuat undertaken the planningor programme/project of objecby lation stage.is crucial.58All States.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. the year 2025.Special on of to be givento thegrowingeff'ects urbanization water and and demands usage to the criticalrole playedby locai and municipal authoritiesin managingthe supply.Rapid urbanpopulation growth and industrializationare putting severe protecon and strains the waterresources environmental needs attention of tion capabilities many cities. according their capacityand available resources.57The development to supportlocal and central Govemments'efforts and and productt-r capacities sustainnationaidevelopment of tivity through environmentallysound management for water resources urbanuse.56Early in the next century. to 1S.technicalcooperation among developing countries.to haveensured that 75 per cent in of solid waste generated urban areasis collected and safeway.that proportion will have risen to 60 per cent.building should thereforebe one of the underlying keys Institutionalcapacityin implementationstrategies. A high proportion of large urban agglomerations locatedaroundestuaries in coastal and are leads to pollution from zones. comprisingsome5 billion people.In this regard.particularlyin developing of countriesfor which specialsupportis needed.Bettermanagement including the elimination of of urban water resources.Scarcity of freshwater resourcesand the escalating costs of impacton new resources havea considerable developing national industrial. patterns. (iv) Control of industrial pollution sourcesto protect water resources. throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation. 178 . of recycledor disposed in an environmentally ACTIVITIES and 18. foreststo sustainable (vii) Encouragement the bestmanagement practices of with a view to minimizing for the useof agrochemicals their impact on waterresources. and including the United Nations and other relevantorganizations as appropriate. including the United Nations and other relevant could implementthe folorganizations appropriate.Supportingthis objective and is the identiflcation andimplementation strategies of RESOURCES: B) EFF|C|ENT EaU|TABLE AND ALLOCATTON OFWATER (i) Reconciliationof city development planning with of the availabilityand sustainability waterresources. drainage (iii) Promotion recyclingandreuse wastewaterand of of solidwastes. (b) By the year 2000. makea substancan consumption unsustainable tial contributionto the alleviation of poverty and improvementof the healthand quality of life of the urban and rural poor.use and overall treatment water.59All States.more than half of the By world's populationwill be living in urban areas. in many countryprojects cost-effective URBAN DEVETOPE) WATER AND SUSTAINABLE A/TENT FOR BASIS ACTION 18. (ii) Implementation urban storm-waterrun-off and of programmes.agriculturaland human settlement and development economicgrowth. (ii) Satisfaction the basicwater needsof the urban of population. (c) By the year 2000. (v) Protectionof watersheds with respectto depletion and degradationof their forest cover and from harmful upstream activities. Such an arrangement combinedwith overmunicipalandindustrial discharges and threatens exploitationof availablewater resources the marine environmentand the supply of freshwater resources.owing to their available and wealthof infbrmation and experience the needto avoid "reinventing wheel".

MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 18. depend will upon. D) PROMOTIONPUBLIC OF PARTICIPATION: (i) Initiationof public-awareness campaigns encourto agethe public'smove towardsrationalwaterutilization. (iii) Basing of choiceof technologyand servicelevels on userpreferences willingnessto pay.financial management. includingany thatarenon-concessional. eachcountry andwhereaffordable. taking into accountthe circumstances. with particularemphasis on development appropriate of sanitation wastedisposal and technologies low-income high-densityurban settlefor ments.61The 1980s saw consi derabl e progressi n t he development and applicationof low-cost water-supply and sanitation technologies. solid waste and sewerage utilities. 8/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MFANS 18. theextentpossible. water.youth. (ii) Provisionof seedmoney and technicalsupportto the local handlingof materialssupplyand services. F) PROVISION OF ENHANCED ACCESS TO SANITARY SERVICES: (i) Implementationof water. (v) Encouragement equipment local waterassoand of ciations and water committeesto managecommunity water-supply systems and communallatrines. Specificprogramme activitieswill involve the training and retentionof staff with skills in community involvement. sanitationand waste programmes management focusedon the urbanpoor. The public-awarenesscampaigns will also includecomponents overto come userresistance second-class to services emphaby sizing the benefitsof reliability and sustainability. E) SUPPORT TOLOCAL CAPAC|TY-BU|LD|NG: (i) Developrnent legislation of and policiesto promote investmentsin urban water and waste management. and (iv) Mobilizationand facilitationof the activeinvolvement of women in water management teams. the specific strategies programmes and Govemmentsdecideuponfor implementation. (ii) Sensitization the public to the issueof protecting of water quality within the urbanenvironment.62Implicit in virtuallyall elements thisprogramme of is the needfor progressive enhancement the training of andcareer development personnel all levelsin sector of at institutions. (ii) Making available of low-cost water-supplyand sanitation technology choices. including about $4.that in reflect the marginal and opportunity cost of water. with tech- c) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T R DE 18.to ensurea widespreadrecognitionamong sectorprofessionals the availability and benefitsof of appropriatelow-cost technologies. (iv) Creationand maintenance a cadreof professionof als and semi-professionals. low-cost technology. private sectorand local people. by Actualcosts frnancial and ternls. of in recyclingand eliminationof wastes. autonomy to of and financial viability of city water. waste-water for and solid wastemanagement. (iii) Utilizationof the skillsandpotential non-governof mental organizatrons.indigenous peopleand local communitiesin water management teamsand for supporting the development water associations of and water committees. There should also be international information exchange.Special provision should be madefor mobilizing andfacilitatingthe activeparticipation of women. (iii) Pronrotion public participation the collection. reflecting the major contribution of cities to national economicdevelopment.These indicative are and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed Governments. the the taking into account public's and strategic interests in water resources.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. and integratedplanning of urban water resourcesmanagement. The programmeenvisages continuationof this work.(iii) Introductionof water tariffs. (vi) Consideration of the merits and practicality of rehabilitating existing malfunctioning systems and of correctingoperation and maintenance inadequacies. (iii) Encouragement.60The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-20A0)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$20 billion. (ii) Promotion at the national and local level of the plansthat give dueconsideration elaboration land-use of to waterresources development.with appropriate training of such personnel as 179 . inter alia.especially for productiveactivities. nical back-upavailablewhen required. C) INSTITUTIONAL/LEGAL/MANAGEMENT REFORMS: (i) Adoption of a city-wide approachto the management of water resources.

and treasurers.67Freshwater important sourceof food and protein.The rural populationmust alsohave better accessto a potablewater-supplyand to sanitation one.Soil erosion.Technicaland financial supportare neededto inadequacies build up and correctpresent help countries the capacity to operate and maintain rehabilitated and new systems.Specialeducation secretaries caretakers.This requiresthe conservationof water quality and quantity. to for A prerequisite progressirt enhancingaccess water of services the establishment an instituis and sanitation tional framework that ensuresthat the real needs and populations potentialcontributionsof currentlyunserved planning. any this rise. both rain-fed and irrigatedagriculture.63In combination with human resourcedevelopandmanlegislative of ment. as well as of the functional morphology of the aquaticenvironment. pollutionof water-supplies forboth humans The drinking-water requirementsof livestock vary acin and cordingto species the environment which they are kept.4 billion future. litres per annum in the foreseeable fisheriesin lakes and streamsare an 18.and agriculturemust not but also save only provide food for rising populations. hungerand famine in the developingcountries.The for the support strengthening capabilityof water includes and for developingtheir autonagencies and sewerage omy and financial viability. the neither is of development irrigation schemes supported identifyinghydroimpactassessments by environmental of within watersheds interbasin logic consequences of transfersnor by the assessment social impacts on peoples river valleys.66The non-availability water-supplies suitable quality is a significantlimiting factor to livestockproduction in many countries. It is estimated that the current global livestock is drinking-waterrequirement about60 billion litresper day this and. productivityresponse sustainability irrigationsysof and by temshavebeenconstrained problemsof waterlogging and salinization. intersectoral proposals establishing for Proposalsfor greater pollution control and prevention dependfor their successon the right combinationof backed by adeeconomic and regulatory mechanisnts.mismanagement and and overexploitationof naturalresources acutecompetition for water have all influenced the extent of poverty. is daily requirement predictedto increaseby 0.The challengeis to develop and apply water-savingtechnology and managementmethenablecommunities ods and. are about 7 million tons per year and could increaseto 16 million tons per year by the year 2000. taskbut not an impossible It services. is anddischarge consents therewater-quality objectives programmealso fore amongthe proposedactivities. is an immense provided appropriate policies and programmes are adoptedat all levels.On the other hand. increase environmental in sffess couldjeopardizn r80 . Most often. by quatemonitoring and surveillanceand supported enissues the on environmental hancedcapacityto address part of local Governments. agementstructuresare key elementsof the programme.local. high priority in many countries. water for other uses. basedon livestockpopulationgrowth estimates.The multiarereflectedin urbandevelopment sectoralapproach.livestockwater-supply.throughcapacity-building. nationaland international. hencetheir development levels of production lines for impact limitation. Present from inland fisheries.andthe programme planninggroups. resources includes the nationaland city levels. Operationand maintenance of existing water and sanitationfacilities have been in recognized entailing a seriousshortcoming many as countries. however.64Establishmentof appropriatedesign standards. Fisheriesof inland watersshouldbe so managed to maximizethe yield of as aquatic food organismsin an environmentallysound manner.Soil erosioncausedby overgrazingof livestock is also often responsiblefor the siltation of lakes. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 18.strengthening institutional. fishing and the may themselves damage aquaticecosysaquaculture shouldconform to guidetem.from both fresh and brackish water.including water managementwith inland respectto rain-fedareas. to introduceinstitutionsandincentivesfor therural popufor lation to adopt new approaches. FOOD PRODUCTION Fl WATERFOR SUSTATNABLE AND RURATDEVETOPMENT FOR BASIS ACTION deof 18. 18. While significant expansionof the area under rain-fed the agriculturehasbeenachievedduring the pastdecade. Financial and market constraintsare also a commonproblem. in of of 18.which is a vital part of urban water linkagesat requires institutional management. Achieving food securityis a fisheriesand agro-forestry.and improper disposal of result in animal wastes can in certain circumstances andanimals.65Sustainability food productionincreasingly pendson soundand efficientwateruseand conservation primarily of inigation development practices consisting and management. for and training programmes women shouldbe launched and with regardto the protectionof waterresources water quality within urban areas.

ACTIVITIES 18.71FAO globalprojections irrigation.could implement the following activities: A) WATER-SUPPLY ANDSANTTATTON FOR UNSERVED POOR: THE RURAL (i) Establish nationalpoliciesandbudgetprioritieswith regardto increasing servicecoverage. taking into accountefficiencyandequity throughdemand management mechani : sms (iv) Promotecommunity ownershipand rights to watersupply and sanitation facilities. on 18.drainage waterprogrammes the year 2000 for 130 by small-scale developingcountriesare as follows: (a) 15. The activeinvolvement of water-usergroupsis a supportingobjective.75The objectiveswith regardto water management for livestock supply are twofold: provision of adequate amountsof drinking water and safeguarding drinkingof water quality in accordancewith the specific needsof differentanimal species. (iii) disastermitigation plans.76All States. (c) Water resource managementmust be developed set within a comprehensive of policies for (i) human and distribuhealth. improvement of existing irrigation schemesand reclamationof waterloggedand salinized lands through drainage for 130 developing on countries estimated thebasisof food requirements. Technologies for new irrigation schemes shouldbe thoroughly evaluated. 7 million hectares and water control facilities. (ii) Promoteappropriatetechnologies.74The objectiveswith regardto water management for inland fisheriesand aquaculture includeconservation of water-quality and water-quantity requirements for optimum productionand preventionof water pollution by aquaculturalactivities.increased sedimentation a reduction and Therefore.69An International Action Programme Waterand Agricultural Development(IAP-WASAD) Sustainable has been initiated by FAO in cooperation with other The main obiective of the internationalorganizations. consideringproposalsfor new irrigation schemes.2 million (b) of hectares new irrigation development. ensuring the full involvement of women in view of their crucial role in the practical and day-to-daysupply. according to their capacities and available resources of and taking advantage internationalcooperation as appropriate. accordingto their capacityand available resources. Quantitativetargetsfor new inigation development.management useof water. (b) Local cornmunities mustparticipate all phases in of water management. (ii) food production.70The Action Programmehas developeda framework for sustainable water use in the agricultural sector and identified priority areas for action at national. of any existing schemes capableof serving the same localities. of small-scale 18. r8t .No globaltargets be setowing to largeregional can and intra-countryvariations. l2 million of hectaresof improvement/modernization existing (c) installedwith drainage schemes. This entailsmaximum salinity tolerancelevels and the absence pathogenicorganof isms.72The developmentof new irrigation areasat the level may give rise to environmental above-mentioned of in concerns sofar asit impliesthedestruction wetlands. waterpollution. including their potential conflictswith otherland uses.with particularemphasison women.OBJECTIVES principleslor holistic and inte18. are zonesand availabilityof water and land.73It shouldbe ensured of that rural communities all countries. 18. (iv) environmental protectionandconservation the naturalresource base. of (d) It is necessary recognize to and activelysupport the role of rural populations.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. casesignifidepending When cantnegativeenvironmentalimpactsareexpected.developingand managingwater resources on an integratedbasisto meet presentand future needsfor agriculturalproduction. including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate. agro-climatic for and 18. 18.taking into accountenvironmental considerations. impactassessment.preservation tion.and (d) l0 million hectares waterprogrammes and conservation. consideration shouldalsobe given to a morerationalexploitation. (iii) Introduce suitable cost-recoverymechanisms. and an increasein the efflciency or productivity.will have accessto safe water in sufficientquantitiesand adequate sanitationto meettheir health needsand maintain the essentialqualitiesof their local environments. regional and global levels. 18. 18.68The key strategic grated environmentallysound management water reof sourcesin the rural context may be set forth as follows: (a) Watershouldbe regarded a finite resource having as an economicvaluewith significantsocialand economic implications reflecting the importance of meeting basic needs.The Action Programmeseeks to assistmember countriesin managingthe tlsheriesof inland watersthroughthe promotion of sustainable managementof capturefisheriesas well as the development of environmentally soundapproaches intensification to of aquaculture. be accompanied anenvironmental by in upon the scaleof the scheme. Action Programmeis to assistdevelopingcountriesin planning. new irrigationschemes should in biodiversity.

taking into accounttheir effects on the local level. (v) Dispose properlyof sewage from humansettlements produced intensive livestockbreeding.in orderto both reduce distance aroundwatersources. (iii) Promotelocal initiativesfor the integrated development and management water resources. by andof manure FOR LIVESTOCK: G} WATER-SUPPLY (i) Improve quality of water available to livestock. (iii) Formulate specializedprogrammesfocused on with emphasison food scarcity drought preparedness. (iii) Encourage conjunctiveuseof surfaceand groundstudies. (ii) Introduce in artificialdrainage inigatedandrain-fed agriculture. (ii) Preventadverse effectsof agriculturalactivitieson and waterqualityfor othersocialandeconomicactivities on wetlands. PROGMMMES: DEVELOPMENT E)WATER RESOURCES (i) Developsmall-scale for irrigationand water-supply humans livestockandfor waterandsoilconservation. management (v) Supportthe appropriate use of relatively brackish water for irrigation. for waterandpreventovergrazing (iii) Preventcontamination water sources with anirnal of in excrement order to preventthe spreadof diseases.physicaland chemicalwaterand quality criteriafor agriculturalwater-users for marine and riverineecosystems. taking into accounttheir tolerance (ii) Increase quantityof water sources availableto the livestock. (vii) Increase hygieneeducationand eliminatedisease foci: transmission (viii) Adopt appropriate technologiesfor water treatment. making sure that environmentalconcernsare duly takeninto account: EFFTCTENCY: Bl WATER-USE (i) Increaseof efficiency and productivity in agricultural water use for better utilization of limited water resources: (ii) Strengthenwater and soil managementresearch underirrigationand rain-fedconditions. (iv) Minimize soil run-off and sedimentation.inter alia. (iv) Encourage through multiple use of water-supplies promotionof integrated systems. through optimal use of on-farm input andthe minimizationof the useof externalinput in agriculturalactivities. cals by useof integrated (vii) Educatecommunitiesabout the pollution-related impacts of the use of fertilizers and chemicalson water quality. of (iv) Provide adequate technicaladvice and supportand of enhancement institutionalcollaborationat the local communitylevel. (iv) Support groupswith a view to improving water-user performanceat the local level. and (ii) Formulate large-scale and long-term irrigation developmentprogrammes. and environmental (iv) Promoteand enhance reusein agriculwaste-water ture.in particularthose in extensivegrazing systhe needed travel to tems. of (vi) Plan and develop multi-purposehydroelectric power schemes. water. (i) Develop long-term strategies and practical implementation programmesfor agricultural water use under scarcityconditionswith competingdemandsfor water. (ii) Recognize wateras a social. limits. (iii) Establishbiological.efficient managementand an appropriate framework for financingof services. food safetyand human health. (ix) Adopt wide-scaleenvironmentalmanagement vectors: to measures control disease (vi) Minimize adverseeffects from agriculturalchemipestmanagement.(v) Establish monitoringand evaluationsystems. (vi) Strengthenthe rural water-supply and sanitation sectorwith emphasison institutional development. that the capacity to mobilize local communitiesand the ecosystemrequirements arid and semi-aridregions. safeguards. (iii) Monitor andevaluate irrigationprojectperformance to ensure. (v) Promote a farming approach for land and water of management takesaccount the levelof education. MANAGEMENT: D) WATER. the optimal utilization and proper of maintenance the project. agro-livestock-fishery (v) Encouragewater-spreading for schemes increas- 182 .includingmonitoringand water-balance (iv) Practise drainagein irrigatedareasof arid and semiarid regions.economicand strategic good in inigation planningand management. CONTROL DRAINAGE: (i) Introducesurface to in drainage rain-fedagriculture pr ev ent te mp o ra ry w a te rl o g g i n g a n d fl oodi ng of lowlands.inter alia. F} SCARCE WATER RESOURCES AAANAGEMENT: AND SALINITY cl WATERLOGGING. the economyand the environment. in particularzoonosis.OUALITY (i) Establishand operatecost-effectivewater-quality for monitoringsystems agriculturalwateruses.

80 ducati on and trai ni ng of human resour ces E shouldbe activelypursued the nationallevel through: at (a) assessment currentandlong-termhumanresources of management and training needs.Priority requirements research as follows: for are (a) Identification of critical areas for water-related adaptive research. (ii) Study specificaspects the hydrobiologyand enof vironmentalrequirements key inland fish species of in relationto varying waterregimes. and (c) initiationandimplementation trainingprogrammes of for staffat all levelsaswell asfbr farmers. the specific strategies programmes and Governments decideupon for implementation. and improvethe availabilityand dissemination of data to planners. (c) Develop practical training coursesfor improving the ability of extensionservicesto disseminate technologiesand strengthen farmers'capabilities. I) AOUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT: (i) Develop environmentally sound aquaculture technologies that are compatible with local. for shouldbe expanded multiple usesand shouldassist for in developingthe rural economy. farmersand fishermen. Mechanismsto provide credit. financial terms.ing waterretention extensive of grasslands stimulate to forage production and preventrun-off. MEANS IMPLEMENTAIION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND CCSTEVALUATTON 18. in (c) Enhancement translationof water-related of farming andfishingsystems research results into practical and accessibletechnologiesand provision of the support neededfor their rapid adoptionat the field level. will depend upon.markets. needsto be strengthened. 8/ SC'ENIIFIC AND IECHNOIOGICA.(b) establishment a of nationalpolicy for human resources development. (v) Establishand maintainadequate systems the for collection and interpretation data on water quality of and quantity and channel morphology relatedro the state and managementof living aquatic resources. both horizontaland vertical.taking into consideration the use of marginal-quality water and investment andoperational requi rements. including fisheries.78There is an urgentneed for countriesto monitor waterresources water-quality. in (iii) Assess environmental impactsof aquaculture with specific reference commercialized to culture units and potentialwaterpollution from processing centres.L A4FANS 18.77The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of theactivities thisprogramme be about$ 13.compile inventories type and extent of of agricultural water developmentand of present and future contributionsto sustainable agricultural development. of to includingabout$4. H} INLAND FISHERIES. (i) Developthe sustainable management fisheries of as part of nationalwaterresources planning.2billion. regional and nationalwaterresources management plansandtakeinto consideration socialfactors: (ii) Introduceappropriate aquaculture techniques and relatedwaterdevelopment management and practices in countriesnot yet experienced aquaculture. The necessary actionsare as follows: (a) Assesstraining needsfor agriculturalwater management. ncluding facilitie s for water-related i edu cation and training and supportservices agriculture.appropriatepricing and jointly by countries transportation mustbedeveloped and extemal supportagencies. (iii) Prevent mitigatemodificationof aquatic or environments by other usersor rehabilitateenvironments subjected to suchmodificationon behalf of the sustainable use and conservation biological diversity of living of aquaticresources. (iv) Develop and disseminate environmentallysound water resources development and management methodologiesfor the intensification fish yield from inland of waters. input supplies.technicians. with special reference small-scale to producers. Actual costsand r83 . inter alia. (iv) Evaluateeconomicfeasibilityof aquaculture rein lation to alternativeuse of water.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. 18. Integratedrural water-supply i nfrastructure. including any that are non-concessional. and waterandland useand crop production. evaluatethe potentialfor fisheriesand aquaculture development. C ) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N I R DE 18. (b) Increase formal and informal trainingactivities.79Transferof technology. (b) Strengtheningof the adaptive researchcapacities of institutions developingcountries.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.

This topic the following objectives. and international be undertakenat the national. through longinstitutional strengthening.in addition. D) CA P A C IT Y . (c) To study the potentialimpactsof climate changeon areasprone to droughtsand floods. Any rise in sealevel smallislandsandcoastal waterinto estuaries.consistentwith the United NationsFrameworkConventionon Climate Change: (a) To understand and quantify the threatof the impact resources.functional relationshipsand organizational linkages arnong ministries and departmentswithin a given ministryl (d) Provisionof specificmeasures requiresupport that inter alia. equipment (e) Enhancement involvementof the privatesector. humanresource provisionof infrastructure.84 The verv natureof thistopiccallsfirst andforemost of for more information about and greaterunderstanding into may be translated the threatbeing taced. on these. of and development in whereappropriate.85 All States. structure.while recognizingthe need to in water-related level. national and local levels. general consistent Actions shouldbe purof management water resources. their capacities in institutions orderto enhance of existing activities. of the necesferencethereforecalled for a strengthening sary researchand monitoring programmesand the extheseactionsto changeof relevantdataand information.fishermen and membersof local communities..82Thereis uncertainty of climate changeat the global level. incentives. addition.and through bilateral or multilateral cooper- r84 . OBJECTIVES I 8. through in Increase incidence systems.81The importanceof a functional and coherentinstitutionalframework at the national level to promote agriculturaldevelopmenthas water and sustainable ln generallybeenfully recognizedat present.including farmers.and water-management programmes. mechanisms.3 most important imferencerecognizedthat among the pactsof climate changewere its effectson the hydrologic cycle and on water managementsystemsand. an adequatelegal framework of rules and regulations should be in place to facilitate actions on agricultural smalldrainage. Although the un- ACTIVITIES and to according theircapacity available 18.sftengthening restructuring. it is at the national level that the most important decisions would need to be made. and the functioningof waterwater programmes scale Legislationspecific associations.83The Ministerial Declaration of the SecondWorld Climate Conferencestatesthat "the potential impact of suchclimate changecould posean environmentalthreat of an up to now unknown magnitude. required. puts low-lying countries 18. Higher precipitation would lead to and decreased temperatures water demands.with particular to reference women.arid and semi-aridareas".theremight be a likelihoodof increased will often causethe intruflooding. socio-economic and droughts. at waterresources the lowestappropriate manage of where necessary. if and (b) Review. resources. of climate changeon freshwater (b) To facilitate the implementation of effective naas tional countermeasures.BU IL D IN G 18.(d) Train staff at all levels.staff training.regional l evel s. water-use. suedin the following areas: policiesrelatedto agri(a) Improvement water-use of culture. of year when it could be that it would occur at the time used. exchange certaintiesincreasegreatly at the regional. users'and fishermen's the needsof the agriculturalwater sectorshould be to forthe legislation with. technologies (0 Transfer existingandnew water-use of and for mechanisms cooperation information by creating amongnationaland regionalinstitutions. putting strains on the already fragile balance betweensupply and demandin many countries. flooding of low-lying coastal aquifersand the at greatrisk. (e) Increasethe opportunitiesfor career development and of the to enhance capabilities administrators officers at all levels involved in land. for term programmebudgeting.would cause such as floods of extremes. sionof salt this areas. and coordination mobility.water-qualitymanagement. fisheries and rural developmentand of legal frameworksfor implementingsuchpolicies. andstemfrom. G) rrriPAcTsOF CUMATECHANGE ON WATERRESOURCES FOR BASIS ACTION to with respect the prediction 18.. and when the threatening impact is seenas sufficiently confirmed to justify such action. The Conincreased frequencyand severityof disasters. and could even threaten survival in some small island Statesand in The Conlow-lying coastal. water suppliesand increased decreased in thequality of freshwater deterioration they might cause bodies. (c) Review and strengthening.Even thereis no guarantee whereprecipitationmight increase.

SolesNo. Most critical is the requirement for a socio. Consffuction of major engineeringworks and installationof forecastingsystemswill require significant sffengthening the agenciesresponsible.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. 35.penetrati and transpiration on of water quality. in MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Ai FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 18. one.A. of to includingabout$40 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. discussed as underprogramme area B above. particularthoseconcerned in with the atmosphere.ation. andthe hydrosphere. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 18.review and implementresponse sfrategies.chopter resolution l. 18. preomble. especially in the regionsandcountriesmost likely to sufferfrom the adverse effects climatechange of andwherethelocalities vulnerableto theseeffects shouldthereforebe defined.including the installationof flood and droughtwarningsystems the construction and of nerv water resourcedevelopmentprojects such as dams.12).'. including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate.on freshwater resources the flood risk: and (c) Initiate case-studies establish to whetherthereare linkagesbetween climatechanges the currentoccurand rences droughtsand floods in certainregions.to build a capacityat the national level to develop. climate change as a basis for developing remedial measures a complextask. groundwaterbalance. 2lbid.includingany that arenon-concessional.90Thereis a need. (0 Develop agriculturalactivitiesbasedon brackishwater use. of whether in the public or the private sector. 3a/$/Ogo/Add.Intemationalprojectscan help by enumerating alternatives. discussed as underother sections Agenda of 21. and related climare factors. The analysisof data for indication of 185 .l.and to mitigatesalineintrusioninto aquifers.could implement the following activities: (a) Monitorthehydrologicregime. includingchanging groundwater levels. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 18. C. aqueducts. del Ploto.chopter section porogroph pori l.economic mechanism canreview predictions that of the impact of climate change and possible response judgemenls decisions.77. onnexlll. the World Climate Programme.87Monitoring of climate changeand its impact on freshwaterbodies must be closely integratedwith national and international programmes monitoringthe for environment.desalination works. ll. (g) Contribute theresearch to activitiesunderway within the framework of currentinternationalprograffunes. hiredandretained service.OGICAL MFANS 18.88The development implementation response and of strategies requires innovative of technological use means and engineering solutions..includingsoil moisture.Extensive is research necesis sary in this area and due accounthas to be taken of the work of the Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change (IPCC).economicand environthe mentalimpacts.89 The developmental work and innovationdepend for their success good academictraining and staff on motivation. throughchanges temperature.banks and drainage channels. in so that they may servetheir countries thesetasks. in precipitation sealevel and rise. to Suchspeciahzed personnel needto betrained. Researchand Training (IGBP/START) network. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. Actual costs and financialterms. will dependupon. E.however.well fields. eachcountryneeds establish but to and implementthe necessary policiesandto developits own expertise the scientificand engineering in challenges to be faced. waste-watertreatment plants. of (d) Assess resultingsocial. (e) Developand initiate response strategies counter to theadverse effects thatareidentified. There is also a needfbr coordinated research networkssuchas theInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis. levees.1. portone. inter alia. 8/ SC/ENTIFrc ANDTECHNOI.as well as a body of dedicated individualswho are able to interpretthe complex issuesconcemedfor thoserequired makepolicy decisions.86The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2(n0)of implementing the activities thisprogramme be about$ 100million. sfrategies makethenecessary and and 'Report of the United Notions WoterConference. (b) Developandapplytechniques methodologies and for assessing potentialadverse the effectsof climate change. International the Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and other relevantintemationalprogrammes. porogroph 2. Mor l4-25 Morch 1977 lUnitedNotions publicotion.

a greatdealremainsto be done degreeof safety. other programmes. and tendingevento the fundamentalchemicerl physicalpro and of cesses the Eafth'satrnosphere climate. humanhealth. dangerous In addition. (b) Harmonization of classification and labelling of chemicals. for of chemicals which dataare at hand. exof new techniques. effor-ts Cooperationwith this be madeto strengthen programme. (d) Establishment risk reductionprogrammes.Suchwork hasinternational Hownationalboundaries.educationaland fiTo countries.has in recent times been continuing within someof the world's most imporlant industrialareas. products trofficin toxicond dongerous internotionol INTRODUCTION to is use 19. the InternationalLabour Organisation(ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the International Programme on ChemicalSafety (IPCS) should be the nuon cooperation environmentally cleus for international should All of soundmanagement toxic chemicals. traffic in toxic and (0 Prevention illegal international of products. of ensurethe environmentallysound management to chemicals. risks do not respect chemical of ever.suchas thoseof the Organisationfor Economic Cooperationand Development (OECD) and the EuropeanCommunities(EC) and other regional and governmentalchemical programmes.19 of monogement toxic sound Environmentolly of prevention illegol including chemicols.6 Collaborationon chemical safety between the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme(UNEP).are (a) lack of sufficient scientific information of for the assessment risks entailedby the use of a great for and (b) lack of resources asnumber of chemicals. for are 19. many countries work programmesfor the promotion of chemical safety as implications. particularly in developing countries. a significant strengthening both national and an to effortsis needed achieve environmeninternational of soundmanagement chemicals.scientific. of (e) Strengtheningof national capabilities and capacof ities for management chemicals.the progralruneareas involve hazatd (basedon the intrinsic properties chemiof assessment (including assessment expoof cals). in nancialmeans. tally areasare proposed: 19.as well as on the identificationand applicationof technical. arein place. sure).4 Six programme internationalassess(a) Expanding and accelerating ment of chemicalrisks.7 Increasedcoordinationof United Nations bodies involved in chemiand other internationalorganizations shouldbe furtherproand cals assessment management r86 .geneticstucturesandreproductive and the environment.risk acceptability 19.3 A considerable In involved in work on chemicalsafety.5 The six programmeareas togetherdependent their successfulimplementationon intensive international work and improved coordinationof current international activities. and development will requiremajor investment Restoration The long-rangeeffectsof pollution. sessment to with gravedamage 19.1 A substantial of chemicals essential meet and economic goals of the world community the social that they can be and today's best practice demonstrates mannerand with a high widely in a cost-effective used However. outcomes.arebecomrng only recently and the importanceof thoseeffects understood only recentlyaswell. is becomingrecognized bodiesare numberof international 19. (c) Information exchange on toxic chemicals and chemicalrisks. particularfor developing varying degrees.2 Grosschemicalcontamination. 19. the short final subsectionG deals with the enhancementof cooperation related to several programme areas. within the principles of sustainable toxic and development improvedquality of life forhumankind. risk assessment and risk management.should be promoted. Two of the major problems.

Within the framework of IPCS. for The principle of the right of the community and of workers to know those risks should be recognized.76). is It couldbe made cost-effective strengthening by international cooperation and better coordination. many appear pollutantsand contaminants food.000 chemicalsubstances in commerceand the thousands substances natural of of origin with which humanbeingscomeinto contact.which are two importantcomponents risk assessment. throughthe cooperation relevant of international organizations industry. However.)The industrv initiative on responsible care and product stewardship shouldbe developed and promoted. The Assemblyalsorequested regional the commissionsto interact among themselves and to cooperate with the United Nations Environment Progralnme. Among the approximately100.I The objectives this programmeareaare: 3 of (a) To strengthen international assessment. as most are usedin very small amounts. WHO) andtheFoodandAgricultureOrganizationof the United Nations(FAO). rogether with other organizations. are Within the framework of the OECD chernicalsprogramme such data are now being generated for a number of chemicals.industry. crucial datafor risk assessment often lacking. peer review and linkages to risk management activities.10In resolution 441226 22 December1989.14Governments. However. risk Several hundredpriority chemicalsor groupsof chemicals. a seriousproblem is that even for a great number of chemicalscharacterized high-volume producby tion. (Industry.with a view to maintainingefficient and coordinatedmonitoring and assessment the illegal traffic of in toxic and dangerous productsand wastes. thedetriment to of the environmentand public health of all countries. thereby making the bestuseof available resources avoidingunnecessary and duplicationof effort. (some1. academiaand relevant non-governmental organizations involved in the various aspects risk assessment chemicals of of and relatedprocesses. contribute the prevention to to of the illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous productsand wastesby monitoring and making regionalassessments of that illegal traffic and its environmental and health implications. However. as referred to in this chapter.the of GeneralAssemblyrequested eachregionalcommission.Industry shouldapplyadequate standards operof ationin all countries ordernotto damaee in humanhealth and the environment. particularlydeveloping countries. of OBJECTIVES 19. 19. based on an agreed approach data-quality to assurance. an intergovernmentalmeeting.75and 19. 19. including major pollutants and contaminanrs global of significance.500 exposure mostchemicals to cover 187 .moted. basedon peer review and scientificconsensus distinguishing between health-or environment-based exposure limits and thoserelatingto socio-economic factors.should: (a) Strengthen and expand programmes chemical on risk assessment within the United NationssystemIPCS (UNEP.8 The broadest possible awareness chemicalrisks of is a prerequisite achievingchemicalsafety.was held in London in December1991to further explorethis matter(seeparas.ILO.12Risk assessment resource-intensive. the right to know the identity of hazardous ingredients should be balancedwith industry'sright to protectconfidential businessinformation.eachnationshouldhave a critical mass of technical staff with experiencein toxicity testing and exposureanalysis. ACTIVIIIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIV ES ITI 19.Fortunately. within existingresources. 19. particularthe promoting and coordinatingof in P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) EXPANDTNG AND ACCETERATTNG INTERNATIONAT ASSESS'IAEM CHETATAIRISKS OF l9. including the Organisation Economic for Cooperationand Development(OECD).taking into accountthe precautionary approach. 19.l I Assessing risksto humanhealthandthe envithe ronment hazardsthat a chemical may causeis a prerequisite to planning for its saf'eand beneficial use.using by currentselection and assessment criteria: (b) To produceguidelines acceptable for exposure a for greaternumber of toxic chemicals. (b) Promote mechanismsto increase collaboration among Governments. and whereappropriate.19.shall be taken to include large industrialenterprisesand transnational corporations well asdomestic as industries.9Thereis international concernthat paft of the internationalmovementof toxic and dangerous productsis being carried out in contravention existing national of legislation international and instruments. commeras in cial productsand the variousenvironmental media. over 95 per cent of total world production) is rather limited. shouldbe assessed the year 2000. application of assessment criteria.convened the ExecutiveDirector of by UNEP.

methtin. 2 1 c t i ri t i e si n c l u d e : A (a) S trengtheni ng alt research nsafe/saf' er er nat ives cl and to toxrcchemi cal s poseanunrcasonab le ot her that or w ' i se unmanageablri sk to thc cnvi ronntent hum an e toxi c.should: (a) Developcriterialor priority-setting cherricals for n'ith respcct assessment.20Major research as of chemicals work lor to improvemethods assessntent and towardsa commonframeworkfor risk assessffIent to andepidemifor toxicological improveprocedures r-rsing on of the datato predict effbcts chemicals human ological so health and the environntent.thatis. decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes uponfor i nrpl cnrentati on.that areconsiderable are not included. the InternationalRegister of Potentially Toxic (IRPTC) and OECD. AN CO O P E R AIION D C O OR D /N AI/ON clf throughthecooperation relevant I 19. ot ttreirintrinsicpropefties the appropriate basisfor risk assessment: building. and to the greatest claimsof confidentiality. 7 Governments.It shouldbe notedthat there to costs. whereappropriza organi ti onsandindttstry. interested possibleextent to the public also. otherregions pateactively. inter alia.15Governments. cal assessrnent AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA of the through cooperation relevant 19. whereappropriand organizations industry. The Conf-erence 19 the of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing to of activities this prograntme be about$30million from the intemationalcommunitv on grant or concessional estiterms.Thesecomprisecoststo industry and dataunderlying the the of Governments generating safety of assessments coststo Governments providingbackand statements to ground documentsand draft assessment IPCS. pro19.16Industryshouldprovidedatatbr substances of cificallyfor the assessment ded spe ducedthat are nee potentialrisks to human health and the environment. 1 9 .of to activities improveunderstanding themechresearch of toxic chemicals. persi ste nt and bioheal thand to thosethat are c he adequately ona accumulative nd that cannot trol l ed. to of globalconcern and (b) Revicu' strategies 1-orexposureassessment monitoring to allclrvfor the best use o1' environnrental of s. i nternational ate. AL B i 5C /E N IFtCA N D TE C H N OLOG\CME A NS in effortsshouldbe launched order 19. programmes FAO. the non-concessional. of interulia. They also includethe Chemicals work in non-UnitedNations bodies cost of accelerated suchas OECD and EC. 1 8M o s t o f t h e d a t a a n d m e t h o d s f o r c h e m i c a l r i s k arc assessment generatedin the developedcountries and an expansion and acceleration of the assessmentwork in u'ill call for a considerableincrease researchand safety r88 . national to Suchdatashouldbe madeavailable relevant bodiesand other and international authorities competent parties and involvedin hazard risk assessment.including any that are will depend upon. for ods consti tuti nga rcpl accrnent those using t est (thus rcducingthe use ol' animalsfor testing animals purposes ): (c) Promotion relevant with studies of epidemiological relationship a a vie$' to establishin-s canse-and-ef1-ect of to and the occurrence betweenexposure chemicals certaindiseases: (d) P romoti onof ecotoxi col ogi cal studieswit h t he to the ai m of assessi ng ri sks of chemi cal s t he environment. ILO). international ate. compatibility dataand resource to ensure available t o e n c o u r a g cc o h e r e n tn a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l ltt. the has secretariat estimated aver19. (b) Promotionof research iind validationof. for stratesies that assessnte MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Al F/NANC/AIAND COST EVALUATION 1 9 . A CJ / NI E R N AIION AI N D R F G ION A. olten not possible quantify.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude mates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. (b) Generate for datanecessary assessment.The cost the to projections the address needs strengthen capacities of relevant United Nations bodies and are based on in currentexperience IPCS. Actual costsanclfinancial terms. of anisms action (c) Encourage development procedures the for of the reports on of their assessment exchangeby countries for with clther countries usein nationalchemichemicals programmes. OECD anciEC and on established particiIndustryshould andGovernments. as to enabledecision policiesandmeasures reduce to makers adoptadequatc to bv ri sksposed cherrri cal s. on programmes IPCS(UNEP WHO.should: of (a) Give high priority to hazard assessment chemias cals. legitimate takinginto account testing by industry and researchinstitutions.

including material safety shouldbe symbols. the InternationalMaritime (IMO). in of tasksto the participants the coordinating (c) Elaboratea harmonizedhazard sysclassification tem: (d) Draft proposalsfor standardization hazardcomof munication terminologyandsymbolsin ordertoenhance risk management chemicalsand facilitateboth interof national trade and translation of information into the language. inter alia. B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON OF B) HARMONTZATION CLASSIFICATION OF AND LABELLING CHEMICATS 19. can be tnadefor difof honre. organizations. hazards health to on based assessed how to andmostefficientway of indicating the simplest saf-ely. ar the workplace in the use of chernicals.risk in the manufacturing Technicalcooperchemicals. of 19. 19. and hazard classiflcation labe harmonized buildingon ongoingwork.29Internationalbodies including. other information-dissemination groupto: lish a coordinating (a) Evaluateand. 19. The new to systemshoulddraw on curent systems the greatest extent possible. enablecountries. handleand usechemicals goods. studiesof undertake to and existinghazardclassification informationsystems establishgeneralprinciplesfor a globally harmonized system. in orderto womenand children. end-user's (e) Elaborate harmonized labellingsystem. Thereis a needto der.24Adequate suchasICSCs(International nationof saletydatasheets written materials. IPCS (UNEP.whereappropriate. ChemicalSafetyCards)and sin-rilarly are andenvironment.by the year 2000. assessto make maximum nationaluse of international risks" mentsof chemical OBJECTIVES 19. the United NationsCommitteeof Organization Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and OECD. ILO.in developingand capabilities nationaland at risk strengthening assessillent r egional lev el s tc l m i n i m i z e .if feasible.22lnLemational organizations.'elop establishrng lline systems. (b) Developand implementa work plan for the establishment of a globally harmonizedhazardclassification of system. group. throughthe cooperation relevant and intemationalorganizations industry. a n d a s fa r a s p ossi bl e and use control and prevent. datasheets easilyunderstandable and available.it should be developedin steps and shouldaddress subjectof compatibility with labelsof the variousapplications. of Governmentsand non-governmental projectsinvolving shouldlaunchtrainingand education risk.23lnternational work. and hazardclus of toxic at ion and f ina n c i a l s u p p o rt o r o th e r c o n tr i buti ons aimed at expandingand should be given to ac-tivities assessment the accelerating nationaland international and controlof chemicalrisks to enablethe bestchoice of chemicals.Classification chemicals tool in purposes and is a particularlf itnportant l-erent labelling systems. entandfutureassessment particularlydevelopingcountries. Such a labelling systemshouldnot lead to the imposition of unjustified trade barriers. ACTIVITIES IVITI ES ELAT A) MANAGEMENI-R EDACT D) CA P A CT TY-B U tL D IN G presbuildingon past. shouldsupport countries.28Governments. comprehensive a in the United Nations systemis in currentuse.DE C) HUM A NRE S O U R C E VE L O P M EN T with the participation organizations. if appropriate.25For the safetransporlof dangerous withscheme elaborated ing chemicals.who are at greatest and particularlydevelopingcountries. The plan shouldincludea description thetasks andassignment for deadline completion to be cornpleted.includ19.27A globally harmonizedhazard classificationand compatible labelling system. This of the scheme mainly takesinto account acutehazards c hem ic als . a FOR BASIS ACTION and labellingof chemicals the dissemi19. shouldlauncha project with a view to establishing and elaboratinga harmonizedclassificationand compatible labelling system for chemicalsfor use in all United Nations official languagesincluding adequate pictograms. in cooperationwith regional and national auand labellingand thoritieshaving existingclassification shouldestabsystems. r89 . and 19. FAO.16Globally harmonizedhazard classil'ication the to are labelling systerns notyetavailable promote safe or inter aliu. WHO).

inter alia.including any that are will depend upon.36In order to address were introducedin Informed Consent(PIC) procedures (UNEP) and in the Inter1989in the London Guidelines nationalCodeof Conducton the Distnbutionand Useof P esti ci des(FA O).vsterns. programmes the UnitedNations. In addi ti on a j oi nt FAO / UNEP programmehas been launchedfor the operationof the of includingthe selection for PIC procedures chemicals. to extend of the mandate the working groupfor a periodof three months. owing portingcountries lack theability to ensure for infrastructure controlling the irnporto inadequate of tormulationand disposal tation. for implementin-r account.as statedin its decisioncontainedin Clll{l25l. the GATT Council has agreed. and prepto chemicals be includedin the PIC procedure The ILO arationof PIC decisionguidancedocuments. They estimate matesprovidedin programme for total annualcost (1993-2000) strengthening average to organizations be about $3 rnilliort from international the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiand order-of-magnitude terms.economic ancllegal inforrtraticltt.provisionsfor Prior 19. of and ateorganizations should launch training coursesand infonnationcamand paignsto lacilitatcthe understanding useof a new labellingsyscompatible and classification harmonized t em f or c he mi c a l s . negotiations on a pursued with a view to creating bindinginstrument in restricted the domestic productsbannedor severely market. chemicals. related tci infbrrnation exchange on the benefits as well as the risks associated u'ith the use of chemicals.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A A / F / NA N C IAL N DC OS I EV AL U AT T ON has secretariat includedthe tech19. this issue. parties: (b) To achieve the year 2000.30The Conference in to costsrelated this programme estinical assistance the areaE.as some itnsafeuse.38The objectives this programme (a) To promoteintensified of exchange intormationon amongall involved use and emissions chemicalsafety.if possible.31Governments of with the collaboration approprirnentalorganizations.information EXCHANGE ON TOXIC c) TNFoRMATTON RISKS AND CHEMICAL CHEMICATS FORACTION BASIS 19.Theseare inclicative by mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. i ncl udi ng possi bl emandatoryappl i cati onst hr ough in legally binding instruments contained the Amended Code London Guidelines and in the FAO International gained the of Conduct. r90 . Further. guidelinesadoptedby Governmentswith a view to increasingchemical safety through the exchangeof information on chemicals. should takeninto tull be suchs. decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes upon for irnplernentation. and has authorized the Chairman to hold to on consultations timing with respect conveningthis meeti ng. Actual costsand financialterms.33 The lollowing activitics. D EV R B ) HUM A N E SOU R C E EL OP M EN I and institutionsand non-govern19. n c l u d i n g d e v e l o p ment and to.3-1The London Guidelines for the Exchange of Inforn'rationon Chemicals in International Trade are a set of OBJECTIVES areaare: of 19. dure.distribution. technical.37Notwithstanding importance thePIC proceis on exchange allchemicals necessary.storage. plementation andadaptation newclassification of. the non-concessional. developing numberof countries.35The exportto developing that have beenbannedin producingcountriesor whose use has been severelyrestrictedin some industrialized countrieshas been the subjectof concern.32In strengthening and i mi I nent o1'c h e m i c a l s . are ainted at enhancing the sound management of toxic chemicals through the exchange of scientific.taking into accclunt experience wrthin the PIC procedure. i 9.Special provisions have been included in the guidelineswith regard to the exchangeof i nformati on on banned and sever ely restricted chemicals. between convention callsfor communication chemicals exporting and importing countries when hazardous of havebeenprohibitedfor reasons safetyand chemicals healthat work. parfull by of ticipation in and implementation the PIC procedure. Within the GeneralAgreementon Tariffs have been and Trade (GATT) framework. creation tradebarriers labelling of and and avoided thelimitedcapacities resources a large particularly countries. to begin from the date of the group's next meeting. of countries chemicals 19. of the 19. be should of the systems. c ) c A P A C tT Y-B U tL D tN G for nationalcapacities manageic).

) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED tVtT ACT tES 19.Thus. in the light of experience internationalorganrzations.especiallythose with shortages technical of expertise.suchasEnvironof mental Health Criteria Documents. responsible information exchange for on toxic chemicals. suchas UNEP.Theseareindicativeandorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. suchas promotion products technologies. (b) Improve databases and information systemson tox ic c hem ic al s . (c) Provide knowledge and information on severely restricted bannedchemicals importingcountries or to to enablethem to judge and take decisionson whetherto import. monographs the Evaluationof Caron cinogenicRisks of Chemicals Humans(published to by the International Agency for Researchon Cancer (IARC)).and in consumer goods. WHO and others.including food and water. strengthening expanding. GATI FAO.all international informationnaterial on toxi c chemi cal sn al l U ni tedN ati onsol fi ci al lani guages. as hardware andotherfacilities. and provide information to. Actual costsand financialterms.42 Governments and relevantinternationalorganrzations with the cooperation industryshouldcooperate of in establishing. Suchapproaches couldencompass bothregLrlatory and non-regulatory measures. will depend upon.including any that are non-concessional.ACTIVITIES A. constitute another example of risk reduction. AND REG/ONAI. taking into account entirelife cycle of the the chemicals.44There are often alternativesto toxic chernicals currentlyin use. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 19. Establishment pollutionprevention of proceduresand settingstandards chemicals eachenfbr in vironmentalrnedium.the networkof designated nationalauthorities for exchangeof information on chemicalsand establisha technical exchangeprogrammeto produce a core of trainedpersonnel within eachparticipating country. Health and Safety Guides and International Chemical SafetyCards (publishedby IPCS). other countries. of theuseof cleaner pollution and prevention procedures programffles.risk reduction can sometimes be achieved usingotherchemicals evennon-chemical by or technologies. and emission inven- 191 . 19. D) ESTABUSHi/IENT R|SK REDUCTTON OF PROGRATAMES BASIS ACTION FOR 19. B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 19. and decision guidancedocuments(provided throughtheFAOfuNEPjointprogrammeon PIC).43The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activities thisprogramme be about$ l0 rnillion from of to the internationalcornmunity on grant or concessional terms. approand as priate.andhow to handle. s u c h a s e mi s s i o n i n v e n to ry prograntmes. throughprovisionof trainingin theuseof those systems well assoftware.40Governments and relevantintemational organizations with the cooperation industryshould: of (a) Assistin the creation nationalchemicalinformaof tion systems developing in countries andimproveaccess to existinginternational systems. inter alict.risk reductioninvolves In broad-based approaches reducing the risks of toxic to chemicals.as far as possible. by (d) Implementthe PIC procedures soonas possible as gained. includingtrainingin the interpretation relevanttechnicaldata. (d) Provide data necessary assess risks to human to health and the environmentof possiblealternatives to bannedor severelv restricted chemicals.41UnitedNationsorganizations shouldprovide.39Governments and relevantintemational organrzations with the cooperation industryshould: of (a) Strengthen national institutionsresponsiblefor information exchange toxic chemicalsand promotethe on creation of national centreswhere these centresdo not exist: (b) Strengthen internationalinstitutionsand networks. suchasIRPTC. a wider context. the specificstrategies programmes and Govemrnents decide upon for implementation. classic The example risk reduction the of is substitution harmless lessharmfulsubstances of or for harmfulones. COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON 19.invite relevant and. thosechemicals establish and joint responsibilities tradeof chemicalsbetweenimin porting and exportingcountries.in their respective areaof competence to considerworking expeditiously towardsthe conclusion of legally binding instruments. C/ /NIERNAIIONAI. aswell as thosesubmitted industryand other sources. (c) Establishtechnical cooperationwith.

and whoseusecannotbe adequately (c) Adopt policies and regulatoryand non-regulatory measures identify. (b) Undertakeconcertedactivitiesto reducerisks for toxic chernicals. productlabelling. throughland-use on planning. throughthe cooperation relevant whereappropriand international organizations industry. in (e) Develop nationalpoliciesand adoptthe necessary regulatory framework for prevention of accidents. ate. persistentand bio-accumulative controlled. approas and prompt priate.of national poisoncontrolcentres ensure to of and adequate diagnosis treatment poisonings.emergencyresponse procedures preparation ofon-siteand and plans. and (h) Requiremanufacturers.48The objective theprogramme of risks and. to the extent or unacceptable unreasonable economicallyfeasible. toxic to chemicalsby replacingthem with lesstoxic substitutes and ultimately phasingout the chemicalsthat pose unrisk reasonable and otherwiseunmanageable to human health and the environmentand those that are toxic. persistent and whose use cannot and bio-accumulative be adequately controlled: (d) lncrease for needs standetfortsto identify'national ard setting and implementation in the context of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius in order to minimize adverse effectsof chemicals food. to of producersof such chemicals.economicinreguprocedures safehandlingandexposure for centives. including the use of biological control agentsas is to to alternatives toxic pesticides. reduceand rninimize. and (g) Reduceoverdependence the use of agricultural on l int chemi cal s throughai ternati vearmi ng pract ices. emissioninventories. egratedpestmanagement other appropriate means. of recognizingin particularthe responsibilityfor making informationon potential risksandenvironmenavailable practices thosechemicals tally sounddisposal if become wastes. response otf-siteemergency (i) Identify.trade. and inter alia. well and life-cycleapproaches anticipatory as precautionary.and the phasingout or banningof chemicals risks to poseunreasonable otherwiseunmanageable and human health and the environmentand of thosethat are and whose use toxic. risks fiom storage outdated of chemicals.uselimitations.tories. and disposal. to chemical use transport.ILO haspublished Codeof Practice a response and is prethe preventionof major industrialaccidents paring an internationalinstrument on the prevention of for industrialdisasters eventualadoptionin 1993.49Governments. taking into accountthe entirelife cycle both of the chemicals. one approach risk reduction.should: (a) Consider adopting policies based on accepted as producerliability principles. and the phasingout or banningof and toxic chemicals that posean unreasonable otherwise risk or unmanageable to the environment humanhealth and and thosethat aretoxic.to reducerisks posed by toxic involvapproach by chemicals. ACTIVITIES ACT ELATED IVITIES A) MANAGEMFNI-R of 19.41The OECD Councilhasdecided nationalrisk or shouldestablish strengthen ber countries reduction programmes. suchaspromoartdnon-regulatory tion of the use of cleanerproductsand technologies. thatOECD mem19. economicincentives.integratedpest management. preparedness response. use limitations. of of and the undertaking toxicovigilance ing by chemicals of of and coordination clean-upand rehabilitation areas by damaged toxic chemicals. and minintize exposureto.The InternationalCouncil of (ICCA) hasintroduced initiatives ChemicalAssociations regarding responsiblecare and product stewardship and of aimedat reduction chemicalrisks. work with the OECD/UNEPinternational directory of regionalresponse centresand the APELL programme. that lations. 19. OBJECTIVES areaisto eliminate 19.50Industryshouldbe encouraged to: (a) Develop an internationallyagreedupon code of principles for the management trade in chemicals. importersand othershanwith thecooperation dling toxic chemicals develop. product labelling.permit systems and reportingrequirements and accidents.45In the agriculturalarea. Theseactivitiescould encompass regulatory measures. managemen covering manufac t.in cooperation with Governments and relevant agencies intemationalorganizations and appropriate of the United Nationssvstem: 192 .or eliminate as far as feasible by environmentallysound disposal practices. 19.The Awareness at for Preparedness Emergencies Local Level (APELL) programmeof UNEP is designedto assistdecision personnel improvingcommunity in makersandtechnical installationsand in preparing awareness hazardous of on plans.whereappropriate. assess.46Other areas of risk reduction encompassthe preventionof poisonprevention chemicalaccidents. (0 Promoteestablishment strengthening. persistent bio-accumulative controlled. employingabroad-based ing a wide rangeof risk reductionoptionsand by taking lifeprecautionary measures derivedfrom a broad-based cycle analysis. turing. cannotbe adequately 19.where applicable.

communityright-toguidelines. (g) Encourage national rvorktclharmonize andregional evaluationof pesticides : (h) Promote and develop mechanisrns for the saf-e production. dispose to ont of.(b) Develop applicationof a "responsiblecare" approach by producersand manufacturers towards chemical products. (b) Carry out national reviews.c o n c e s s i o n a l w i l l c l e p e n dL r p o n . of industry. toxic chemicals in all countries. with reference to the environmentally sound management toxic chemicals. B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 19. formulating programmesto substitutefor thenr sal-er alternatives. phase as appropriate.51Governments. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/AL AND COSI EVALUATION 1 9 . tal and potentialreleases meansof preventing andreporting annualroutineemissions toxic chemion of of cals to the environmentin the absence host country requirements. These are indicative and order-of-nragnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by G o v e r n m e n t s . chemicalsof toxicity information declaring risks and emergency response arrangements: (d) Encouragelarge industrial enterprises including whertransnational corporations and other enterprises policiesdemonstrating everthey operate introduce to the commitment. E) STRENGTHENTNG OF NAnONAT CAPABTUnES AND CAPACITIESFOR MANAGE'VIENT OF CHEMICATS BASIS FORACTION 1 9 . AND REGIONA/ c/ INTERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 19. (c) Develop guidelinesand policiesfor the disclosure importers and others using toxic by manufacturers. know programmes basedon international includingsharingof informationon causes accidenof and ihem.severelyrestricted. not approved healthor environmental for reasons. (i) Formalize networks ernergency response centres. 5 5 M a n y c o u n t r i e sl a c k n a t i o n a ls v s l c m st o c o p e w i t h r93 . (c) Adopt.taking into accountthe total life cycle of suchproducts. particr-rlarlv the case of pesticides that are in toxic. (b) Cooperatein the development communication of guidelines on chemical risks at the national level to promote informationexchangewith the public and the understanding risks. c t u a l c o s t s a n d f i n a n c i a l t e r r n s .with the help ol'rnultilateral 0t Encourage cooperation. . (e) Encourage and supportthe development and adoption by small. (b) Coordinate concerted risk reductionactivities.should: (a) Collaborateto developcommon criteria to deterfor mine which chemicalsare suitablecandidates concertedrisk reductionactivities. and ate.whereappropriand ate. adoptstandards to of of operation equivalent or not lessstringent thanthose to existingin the countryof origin. persistentand/or bio-accumulative. of whensuchexporthasreceived prior writtenconsent from the importingcountryor is otherwise accordance with in the PIC procedure. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decide upon lbr inrplernentation. on a voluntarybasis. where approved and appropriate. as appropriate.should: (a) Promoteexchange informationon nationaland of regionalactivitiesto reducethe risksof toxic chemicals.54 Governments.52Governments. and exposure to. for (0 Develop regulatory and non-regulatorymeasures aimedat preventing exportof chemithe and procedures withdrawn or cals that are banned. management useof dangeroLls and materials. irtter alia. except B/ SCIENI/F/C ND IECHNOTOGICAL EANS A M 19. o1'relevant throughthe cooperation whereappropriinternational organizations industry. whereappropriate. throughthe cooperation relevant of internationalorganizations industry. includingsaf'e reuse. 5 3 T h e C o n t e r c r t c c s e c r e t a r i a th a s i n c l u d e d m o s t costs relatedto this prograr"nme estimatesprovided for in -fhey programme areasA and E.of previously acceptedpcsticidcswhose acceptance was based on criteria now recognizedas insufficie-nt outdatedand or of their possiblc rcplacement with othe'r pest control rnethods. in cooperatiorlri.i n c l u d A i n g a n y t h a t a r e n o n . and any banned chemicals that are still in stockor in usein an environmentally soundmanner. estinlateother requirements for training and strcngthening thc cinergcncy and poison control centres to be about $'l rnillion annually from the international community on grant or concessional terms.shoulcl: (a) Promote technology that would mininrize release of.ith relevant international organizaticlns and programrnes.and medium-sized industriesof relevant procedures risk reductionin their activities.

national registers databases. possible reduction as risk tools. informationgather(c) for ing and dissemination. particularlydevelopingcountries. environment. (b) Consider the need to establishand strengthen. economic research institutions. establishment risk management policy. and poisoncontrolcentres). N4ost of collectingevidence misuseand of judging the impact because the of of toxic chemicalson the environment. manufacturing. monitorandcontroleff-ectively generto thc ation. police.shouldconsider possibility other interested the of developing guidance a document theestablishntcnt on 194 . in developing and further strengthening national legislation and its implementation. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 19.58By the year 2000. with systems placethereis an urgent in several countries needto make thosesystems more efficient. safetyactivities agriculture. response identifying meansand equiprnent to in industriesand plants necessary reduceinrpactsol' accidents. (e) Develop nationaland local capabilities prepare to for and respondto accidents taking into accountthe by UNEP APELL programmeand similar programmes on preparedness responsc. (d) Establish whereapproand developor strengthen. and laboration relevantintergovemmental of organizations.er alternatives and emissioninventories that could alsobe a tool for risk reductionto the general public to increase awareness probletns chenical the of of safety.Appropriate internationalorganizations. i ndustry.(g) eff'ectiveeducationprogrammes and (h) capacityto respondto emergencies. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES ELATED 19. includingregularlytested updated and crnergencyplans. whenappropriate. environmentallysaf.60Governments should: (a) Direct informationcampaigns suchasprogranlmes providinginformation aboutchemicalstockpiles. whereappropriate.(e) capacity implementation enforcement. (c) Consider adoption communityri-eht-to-know of or other public information-dissemination programlt"les.theEconomic forEurope Cornmission parties. Significantnew uses amongthepotential are hazards human to ln health and the environmentin developingcountries.and provide accurate reportingof relevantdata. for and (f) capacityfor rehabilitation contaminated of sitesand poisonedpersons. placewithin a 19. erlrergency procedures. (d) Cooperate with international r. and including sa{'ety information. should in placein all countries theextent be to possible. for 19. nationalsystems environfor mentally sound management chemicals.transp(rr-tation aud disposal activities relatingto toxic chenricals. distribution.in cooperation with industry. (b) Establish. shctuld: (a) Prepareguidelines.57As management chemicals of takes numberof sectors relatedto variousnationalministries. nationalcoordinating a mechanism to provide a liaison tor all partiesinvolved in chemical (fbr example.in conjunctionwith IRPTC.61Governments.56Basic elements soundmanagement chemiof (b) calsare: (a) adequate legislation. whereappropriate.including of legislationand provisionsfor implementation and enforcement.vhere organizations. particularIJNEP in (ECE)and OECD. education.networksof emergency response includcentres. and of should: (a) Promoteand supportmultidisciplinary approaches to chemicalsafetyproblems. ing poisoncontrolcentres: c/ /N IE R N A TTONA N D R E G/ON A r AL AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAI/ON 19. labour. health. with thc cooperation internaof tionalorganizations. capacity risk assessment (d) of andinterpretation. transportation. priate. tbr chemicals: (c) Generate field monitoring datafor toxic chernicals of high environmental importance. (0 Develop. includineeffectivemeans enforceof ment. appropriate. with adviceandcheck-lists enactins for lesislation the in chemicalsaf'ety field: (b) Supportcountries. and wherc appropriate. aff'airs. accidentprevention. OBJECTIVE 19.countrieslack scientificmeansof chemicalrisks. experiencesuggests that a coordinatingmechanismis es s ent ial . civil defence. agencies progranlmes the United Nationssystem.-59 whereappropriate with the colGovernments. of difficultiesinvolvedin thedetection manyproblematic chemicals and systematically trackingtheir flow. foster to preventiveand precautionaly approaches and ensure compliance with safetymanagement rules. (c) Developinstitutional nrechanisms the ntanagefbr mentof chemicals. where not alreadl'available.

rirarrtc lN Toxlc ANDDANGERoUS promote principlesfor accident (i) Invite UNEP to lg. inclu<ling $150 rnillion cOmmunity cln grant or concessional terms.capaci ty-bui l di ngatthenati onal l evelisneededt o i mprove moni tori ng and enforcementcapa bilit ies penalol involving recognition the fact that appropriate tiesmayneedtobeimposeclunderaneffectiveenforcein Other activitiesenvisaged the presment programme.prepareclness response Governments' products(toxic ment on traffic in toxic and dangerous on builcling ILO. i ing c ot t nt r ies . erely restricted.withclrawnor not approvedfor use or and in saleby Governments orderto protectpublichealth MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A l F / N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T T O N lg. upon for :tnttegies anrJprogramnles Govemments decide irrplettti:ntation. irncl to (h) Devclop mechanisms make maximum use in OF F) PREVENTION ltLEGAt INTER'NATIoNAL PR'oDucrs countriesofinternationallyavailableinformation. OECD andECE and industry thepublic.66Thereiscumentlynoglobalinternationalagreefor aud prerctttion.64 International work at an internationallevel.However.training programmes particularlydevelop(fl Cooperate with all countries.nt more.6TFurtherstrengtheni ngofi ntemati onal andr egional to is cooperaticln ncederJ preventillegal transboundary products' Furtherof toxic and clangerous -ou. at capabilities nationaland risk strengthening orr.6r Itttctrlatiotral ( i l ) P r o t r l o t c t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n ta n d s t r e n g t h e n i n go f of adet t n a t i o l a l l u b o t ' i t t o r i e s0 e n s L l r e h e a v a i l a b i l i t y regarding the imqLlatctrittionalcontrol in all countries and potlation. including any that will clepend Llpon' inter alia' the specific cottcsssional.*.rr.thereisinternationalconcernthati l l egal i nternati onal traffi ci nthesepr oduct sis detrimentaltopublichealthandtheenvironment'parby ticularly in developingcountries'as acknowledged and441226.in centres.ttnt activities supportfor research (b) Promoteandincrease and regionallevelsto rninimizerisk in themanufacturing for grantsand fellowships at the local level by providing us eof t ox icc hern i c a l s : institutionsactivein disresearch studiesat recognized ( e) P r om ot e i m p l e me n ta ti o no f U N E P' s A P E I-L for ciplinesof importance chemicalsafetyprogrammes' use pelrticular.S u c h g u i d a n c e s h o ul di ncl ude definitionsand dataeleof harmonization requirements. cclncern productsthat are not carried dary movementsof those adopted intemationally with applicable out in accordance guidelinesandprinciples.present should: organizations I 9.Activitiesunderthisprogrammeareaareintencledtoimprclvedetectionand preventionof the traffic concerned' l g..65Governmentsshouldorganize. international estimates Thcse are indicative and order-of-magnitude not beenreviewed by Governments'Actual only and have are noncosts and financral ternls.r.upport anc linc lr idenew g u i d a n c e c l n to x i c e mi s s i o ni nventori es ge' gy technolo transferand information exchan a ndr is k c om m u tri c a ti o n .incollabcrration response of emergency directory international in with industryand trade unions. and allow sharingof data mentsto promoteunitormity DE C / H U MA NR E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T internationallY. n th e s e tti n g u p o f a n i n s ti tuti onal of targetedat all levels. Governments' for of suchprogrammes useby interested into on documents chemicalsaf'ety local languages prepzfed 'rhe on shoulclbuild existingworkon accidents docun-rent variouslevelsof regionalactivitiesrelatedto und .wherefeasible. lg. and future risk assessment (d) Build on past. objectives' these to alsocontribute achieving C B / S C / F N T / F /A N D r E c H N o t o G l c A L M E A N S should: clrganizations I c).fheConlerencesecretariathasestimatedtheaverthe age total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing programme in developing countries to activities of this from the bc abour $600 million. ttrltnttf'acture use of chemicals: 195 . to support countries' for developingcountries (a) Enhance technicaltraining particularly developingcountries'in developingand of in relationto risk management chemicals. 421183 the GeneralAssemblyin resolutions Illegal traffic refers to traffic that is carried out in contraventionof a country'slaws or relevantinternational to alsorelates transbounThe legalinstruments. of an OECD/UNEP programmcancl. level and the development at mechanism the national mentsof chemicalsafetyprinciplesshouldbe included of toolsfor management chemicals.62.of intemationally fu) Promotetranslation.. appropriate production in the primary educationcurricula' atall courses levelsof (. reemergency inclr"rding of the management chemicals. 19'39(d))will paragraph under (for entchapter example.In all countriesbasicelesponse. Arrangc information working on chemicalsafetyissues: aimedat stafluse-. theenvironment). thosethat are banned'sevproductsare and dangerous work in this area.

n tional alert systenl\ to assistin detecting illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous prodr. l and detcct and cleterviolations through appropriate penaltics.a s appropriate.according to their capacities and available lesolrrces and ivith the cooperation of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s a n d o t h e r r c l e v a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s .74Governments and international organizations.made recommendations for increased coordination amongUnitedNationsbodies and otherinternational organizations involved in chemical risk assessment management.asappropriate. clbtaining irppropriate in all information concerningillegaltrafllc in toxic and dangerous products.which could constitute first meetingof the the i ntergovernmental forum. G) ENHANCE'YIENT INTERNATTONAL OF COOPERATION RETATING SEVERAT TO OF THE PROGRAMMEAREAS 19.rcts. 19.lclrrct s: (b) [)evekrp appropriatc national enforcelnent prog r a m r n e st o m o n i t o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s r . o 19. held in London in f)ecember 1991. expected be of to completedin August 1992. economic and health implications.in each region. ACTIVITIES I A) MANAGFA4FNRELATED CTIVITIES A 19. such to a s L l N l r P a n d t h e r e s i o n a lc o m m i s s i o n s . countries. illegal attempt to introclucetoxic and dan_{erous prodLrcts the tcnitory of any State" contravention into in cll'nationallegislation and rele.should monitor. ' e l o pa s a p p r o p r i a t e . a . 7 0 G o v e r n m e n t ss h o u l d d e r . shouldcooperate with developing countries in strengthening their institutional and regulatory capacities in orderto preventillegal import andexportof toxic and dangerous products.lnitcdNations bodies. local cornr-nunities. and implernent legislation to prevent the illegal inrpofi and export of toxic and dangerousprr. drawing upon the resultsandexperience gainedin thejoint UNEP/ESCAP preliminaryassessment illegal traffic. B ) D A T AA N D / N F O R M A T / O N 1 9 . 19.69 Gove-rnnlents. and Thatmeeting called for the takingof appropriate measures enhance role to the of IPCS and establishan intergovernmental forum on chemicalrisk assessment management.76To further considerthe recommendations the of Londonmeetingandinitiateactionon them.7 Governrnentsshoulrl cociperate thc exchangeof | in i n lirrnration on i I I egaI tmn sbounclaryrnovernents of tox i c lrnclclangerous pnrdLrcls ancl should make such infomration a'u'ailable appropriateL. on the basis of data and information provided by Governments.vant intemational legal instruments: ( b) ' I o a s s i s ta l l c o u n tri c :sp a rti c u l a r l ydevel opi ng . ILO and UNEP are invited to convenean intergovernmental meetingwithin one year. where nr-cessary.68The ob-jectives the programme of are: (a) To reinlbrccnationalcapacities detectand hait to ani. c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL RFG/ONAL AND COOPERAI/ON AND COORDINAI/ON 19 2 Furtherstrengthening internationalandregional .OBJECTIVES 19. the ExecutiveHeadsof WHO.73l'he regional commissions.7 of cooperation neededto preventillegal transboundary is movementof toxic and dangerclus products. as appropriate.should: (a) Adopt.and on a continuous basis make regional assessments the illegal traffic in toxic and of dangerous products andits environmental. and o t h e r sc o u l d b e i n v o l v c c li n t h c o p e r a t i o n f s u c ha s y s t c m .r c he g i s l a t i o n .in cooperationwith and relying upon expertsupportand advicefrom UNEP and other relevantbodiesof the United Nations. 196 . and 19.75A meetingof government-designated experts.

5 In sectionI of resolution441226 22 December each regional 1989.recyclingandreuse. well as to managethosewastes sucha as ous way that they do not cause harm to health and the environment. 20. and minimize. The movementsthat take place should be on transboundary environmental and economic grounds and based upon concemed. betweenthe States agreements (b) Ratification theBaselConvention onthe Control of Movementsof HazardousWastesand of Transboundary of elaboration related their Disposalandthe expeditious protocol on liability and compenprotocols.7 The overall targetsare: (a) Preventingor minimizing the generation hazerdof part of an overall integratedcleanerproous wastesas eliminating or reducingto a minimum duction approach.storage.20 of sound Environmentolly monogement hozordous internotionol of prevention illegol including wostes. as referredto in this paper.shall include large corporaincluding transnational industrial enterprises. environment countries. community.6 Within the framework of integrated life-cycle the overall objective is to prevent to the management. wostes trofficin hozordous INTRODUCTION cooperatewith the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). wastes of of 20. traffic in toxic and dangerous treat20J Effective control of the geueration. ment. TARGETS OVERALL 20. the General Assembly requested to commission. hazardouswaste managementoptions are tally sound pursued to the maximum extent possible within the country of origin (the self-sufficiencyprinciple).consistmovementsof hazardous transboundary environmentally sound and efficient manent with the that environmenand ensuring of agement thosewastes. 20. sal of hazardouswastesis of paramountimportancefor protectionand naturalreproperhealth. tions and domesticindustry.so that an overall integratedapproachto hazardouswaste is management necessary.thegeneration hazardextent in wastes. of (c) Ratification and full implementationby the counof tries concerned the BamakoConventionon the Ban on the Import into Africa andthe Control of Transbound- 197 .4 There is internationai concern that part of the internationalmovement of hazardouswastesis being of carriedout in contravention existingnationallegislation and internationalinstrumentsto the detrimentof the particuand public healthof all countries. and sourcemanagement.3 The activitiesoutiined in the presentchapterare very closelyrelatedto.environmental This development. contributeto the preventionof the illegal traffic in toxic anddangerous by productsand wastes monitoringand makingregional of assessments that illegal traffic and its environmental alsorequestedthe The Assembly andhealthimplications. with a view to maintaining efficient of monitoring and assessment the illegal and coordinated productsand wastes. larly developing of 20. many of the progralnmeareasdescribedin other chapters. and to regionalcommissions interactamongthemselves OVERALL OBJECTIVE 20. the international Industry. recoveryanddispotransport. wastes. and have implicationsfor.financial resources scientificcapacities.facilities. suchas the sation.within existingresources. sustainable and participationof will require the active cooperation and Governrnents industry. of possible. experienced and technicaland people.2 Prevention the generation hazardous and the rehabilitation of contaminatedsites are the key elements. mechanismsand guidelines to facilitate the implementation the BaselConvention. and both require knowledge.

the fourth Lom6 Conventionor other relevantconventions. (b) Promotion of the use of reguiatory and market mechanisms. partof a broader as approach changing to industrialprocesses consumer patterns and throughpollution prevention and cleanerproductionstrategies.Technology application. There are increasingdirect and indirect costs to society and to individual citizens in connectionwith the generation. the contractingpartiesto the Bamako Conventicln.and therebyreduce the impactand costof industrialdevelopment.to the extent teasible. PROGRAMME EAS AR A) PROI OTING THEPREVENTTON AND MINIMIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE BASIS ACTION FOR 20. mainly throughactivities aimedatreducing their hazardous characteri stics .1I The objectives this programmeareaare: of (a) To reduce the generationof hazardouswastes. (b) Promoting and strengthening institutionalcapacities in hazardous wastemanagement. (0 Facilitationof the establishment cost-effective of policies and approaches hazardouswaste prevention to and management. taking into considerationthe stateof developmentof eachcountry. to stimulateindustrialinnovationtowardscleanerproduction methods.and the adoptionof specific goals. 20. (c) Establishment an intermediate goal for the sta. Oneof thefirstprioritiesin hazardous wastemanagement is minimization.ary Movement of HazardousWasteswithin Africa and the expeditious elaboration a protocolon liability and of compensation.ti The following programmeareasare included in this chapter: (a) Promotingthe prevention andminimizationof hazardouswaste. residues the from productionprocesses. (b) To optimize the useof materialsby utilizing. agreements. encourage to industryto investin preventive and/orrecyclingtechnologies as to ensureenviso ronmentallysoundmanagentent all hazardous of wastes. suchas. (e) Achievement a qualitative of improvement waste of streams.as part of an integratedcleanerproduction approach. wheresuchprohibitionis providedfor. (c) Promotingand strengthening international cooperation in the management transboundary of movements of hazardous wastes: (d) Preventing illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMENI-R EDACTIVITI ELAT ES 20J3 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governmentsshouldestablishor modify standards or purchasing specificationsto avoid discrimination against recycledmaterials. (d) E stabl i shment l ong-term programm esand of policiesincluding targetswhereappropriate reducing for the amount of hazardouswaste produced per unit of manufacture. 20.in ordertclensure that the necessary capital investmentis made availablein programmes development througheconomicincentives. OBJECTIVES 20. where practicable andenvironmentally sound.shouldprovide economicorregulatoryincentives.It is therefore crucial to enhanceknowledge and information on the economics prevention of and management hazardous clf wastes.9 Human healthand environmental quality are undergoing continuous degradationby the increasing amountof hazardous wastesbeing produced. including recyclable wastes. handling and disposal of such wastes. of bilizationof the quantityof hazardous wastegenerated.and to encouragewaste mi ni mi zat on i nvestments: i 198 . (b) Governments. whereappropriate. accordingto their possibilitiesand with the help of multilateralcooperation. individually or through international prohibit the import of suchwastes. modificaticlnand development new low-waste of technoklgiesare thereforecurrently a central focus of hazardous wasteminirnization. providedthat thosematerials are environmentally sound. (c) To enhance knowledgeand information on the economics of prevention and managementof hazardous wastes. countries that canafford to adoptthe requisitetechnologies without detrimentto their development shouldestablish policies that include: (a) Integration of cleaner production approaches and hazardous wasteminimization in all planning. 20.including the impact in relationto the employment and environmental benefits. (d) Elimination of the export of hazardous wastesto countries that.12To achievethoseobjectives. 10A m on g th e mo s t i mp o rta n t fa c to rs i n these strategies the recoveryof hazardous is wastesand their tranformation into usefulmaterial.

orderto identify where in production distribution or is of the installation cleanerproductionntethods needed. posed is cooperatingin monitoring the effects of the wastes. in cooperation for the to organizations. takinginto of includingrehabilitation contaminated the account. cleanerproductioninformation: (d) All UnitedNations should organs organizations and of promotethe use and dissemination informationc. examplethroughthe useof technology mentcentres.AI/ON 20.should support the establishment of domestic facilities to handle hazardous wastesof domesticorigin.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizationsand industries. (e) Govemmentsof developedcountriesshould prosoundtechnologies of mote the transfer environmentally and know-how on clean technologiesand low-waste productionto developingcountriesin conformity with chapter34. developguidelines estimating to costsand benefitsof variousapproaches the adoption of cleanerproductionand wasteminimizationand enviof ronmentally sound management hazardouswastes. which will bring about changesto sustain with industry shouldcooperate Governments innovation. given to alternativesthat could be economically accountries. CleanerProduction tend and strengthetl existilrg \vslettrs lirt'tolleeliolt r'. anddissemia tions.14The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. as appropriate. informationsystems: value of existing (b) Governments nationwideand reshouldestablish cleargional information collection and dissemination for Government ing-houses and networksthat are etrsy institutions and industry and other non-governmental and use.where appropriate. (j) A relevant and competentUnited Nations organwith other ization should take the lead.including environmentalauditing of its sites. whenever and when it is wastegeneration unavoidable hazardous efficient for is both economicallyand environmentally industryto do so.and devel(c) Governments shouldintensifyresearch for alternatives proopmentactivitieson cost-effective that and substances currentlyresult in the genercesses wastes that poseparticularproblems ation of hazardoLts for environmentallysound disposal or treatment. sites. (k) Governments that lay regulations shouldestablish the ultimate responsibilityof industriesfor envidown wastes their of sounddisposal the hazardous ronmentally generate.1 International/regional cooperation 5 age the ratificationby Statesof the Basel and Bamako of Conventionsand promote the implementation those for will be necessary Regional cooperation Conventions. experiences membercountries and incentive adopting economic regulatory schemes and for waste management for mechanisms hazardous wastef rom such that theuseof cleantechnologies prevent being generated. of management disposal hazardous and AND cJ INTERNATONAT" REG/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON CCOPERAIION shouldencour20. through the {JNEP shoulcl crprograntme altd ICPICI. assess(g) Governments technology shouldencourage assessfor ments. report of the l99l Naiexpertson an robi meeting of government-designated includand an actionprogramme. if so required. (h) Governments should promote cleanerproduction of throughthe establishment centresproviding training soundtechnologies.in particularin the management hazardous of context of the work of the Basel Convention.undertake comprehensive in of nateinformationon. cessible developing to (d) Governments. strategy international ing technicalguidelinesfor the environmentallysound wastes. (0 Governments to industries be transshouldencourage parcntin their operations providerelevantinformation eurd by to thecommunities mightbe affected thegeneration.olnetwork: lectedthroughthe CleanerProduction (e) OECD should. activities B) DATA AND /NFORM. recycle. to organizations access (C) Ittternationalorganizations. persistentand bio-accumulativeto be Emphasisshould be as considered soon as practicable. additionthereis a needfor regionaland naeffectivecoordinationof international Another activity protional policies and instruments.the that of possibilityof ultimatephase-out thosesubstances risk unmanageable or present unreasonable otherrvise an and are toxic.in cooperation with otherorganizasurveyof. reuse and disposeof wastesat the source of generation. whereapproguidelines codes conduct. in of the development similar conventions regionsother In than Africa.being developed underthe UNEP secretariat.or as close as possiblethereto. assisted internationalorganizaby the should establishmechanismsfbr assessing tions. of and to develop priate" leading to cleaner production through sectoral tradeindustryassociations: (f) Governmentsshould encourageindustry to treat. that wastes. andinformationon environmentally (i) Industry should establishenvironmentalmanagement systems. management hazardous of 199 .

and industries.takinginto account "polluterpays"principle.2AMany countries lack the national capacity to handleand manage hazardous wastes.as well as their final disposal. (c) All sectors society prodshoulddevelop of cleaner uction awareness and prornclte campaigns dialogueand partnership with industryand other actors.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 20. incorporating hazardous wastepreventionand minimizationtechniques and launchingdemonstration projects at the local level to develop"success stories"in cleaner production. 8/ S C/ E N IIF IC D T EC H N O IOG| C AL N S AN MFA 20J7 The following activitiesrelatedto technologydevelopmentand research shouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. Actualcosts andfinancialterms. the and adopt programmes hazardous for wastereduction.18 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments.thror"rgh of saf'er handling. as national procedures for environmental i mpact assessnlent. inter alia. including will any that are non-concessional. deficiencies regulain tory frameworks. with the cooperation international of organizationswhereappropriate. collaboration in u. ngintoaccount taki the cradle-to-grave approach the management hazto of ardous wastes. B) PRO'VIOTING AND STRENGTHENTNG INSTITUTIONAT CAPACITIES HAZARDOUS IN WASTEMANAGEMENT BASIS ACTION FOR 20.16The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. shouldencourage industryto promoteand undertake research into thephase-out the of processes posethe greatest that environmentalrisk based wastes generated.driven by preventionand sourcereduction criteria. orderto identilyoptionsfor minimizing in the generation hazardous wastes. development includingthe useof biotechnologies. the specific strategiesand prograrrunesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. dependupon.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments. includingsmall-and medium-sized enterprises. This is prirnarily due to inadequate infiastructure. well ason the reduction such as of wastes and otheremissions. includingtargets and adequate environmental control. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 20. D ) C A P A C TTY -B U tLD tN G 20. appropriate. appropriate. storage.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations. cooperation with industry and with the cooperation approof priateinternational organizations. (b) States.recycling and recovery of hazardous wastes. (d) Governments should take the lead in establishing and strengthening. disposal and destruction: (e) Governments. as should significantlyincrease financial support fcrr cleaner technologyresearchand prograrrunes.19The following activities be should undcrtaken: (a) Governments developing in of countries. on hazardous ( c ) S t ate s s h o u l d e n c o u ra g ei n d u s tr y to devel op schemes integrate cleaner to production the approach into designof productsand management practices: (d) States shouldencourage industryto exercise environmentallyresponsible care through hazardous waste reduction and by ensuringthe environmentallysound reuse. (0 Bilateraland multilateraldevelopment assistance agenci esshoul d substanti al l y ncreasefu nding f or i cleaner technologv transfer developing to countries. insufficient education ti'aining and programmes and lack of coordination between difl-erent the ministries institutions and involvecl various in aspects of 200 . shoulddevelop procedures monitoringthe applicationof the cradlefor to-grave approach.ith industryand appropriate intemationalorganizations. includingenvironmental audits. (b) Industryshouldintegratecleanerproductionprinciples and caseexamples into trainingprogrammes esand projects/networks sector/country tablishdemonstration by . orderto identify in their needswith respectto technologytransferand implementation measures the soundmanagement of for of hazardous wastes andtheir disposal: (b) Governments shouldincludein nationalplanning and legislation integrated an approach environmental to protection. invenshould develop toriesof hazardous wasteproduction. internationalorganizations and industryshouldencourage industrial trainingprogrammes. (c) Governments shouldwork with industry/ sectoron by-sector production cleaner wasteminand hazardous imizationcampaigns.

and contarnination pollution ledgeaboutenvironmental health risk from the exposureof and the associated and womenandchildren. sound manageprioritiesin ensuringenvironmentally eduis ment of hazardous wastes to provideawareness.takinginto accclunt of and in makingprocesses. appropriate b1'establishing guidelines standards: and criteriaand/oreflluent-related (h) To improve knowledge regarding the effbcts of wastes humanhealthandthe environment. addition. of the Finally. wastes. and accordingto their capacities available resourcesand rvith the cooperationof the as and UnitedNations otherrelevantorganizations appropriate.In thereis a lack of knowwastemanagement. toringand in environmentally (f) To promote human exposLlre with reassessment wastesitesand identifythe rernedial spectto hazardous requircd: measures (g) To facilitate assessmcnt impacts andrisksof of the wastes humanhealthandthe environment on hazardous procedures. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 20. (d) International shoulddevelopimproved organizations national decisionhealttr-based criteria. organizaindustryand international and in tions shouldcollaborate developingguidelines and for easy-to-implement methods the characterization wastes: classification hazardous of (c) Governments and shouldcarryout exposure health residingnear uncontrolled assessments populations of hazardous wastesitesand initiateremedialmeasures.21The obiectives this programme (a) To adopt appropriate legislativeand coordinating. coveringall levelsof cation and trainingprogrammes proresearch There is also a needto ttndertake society. at diatelyto identify populations high risk and to take One of the main where necessary. wastes. assist the preparation practical minimizationand fbr technicalguidelines the prevention. programmes (c) To establish research comprehensive wastes countries: in on hazardous (d) To strengthen to serviceindustries enablethem to wastes.23The fbllowing activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. should encourageas far as possiblethe estabfacilities for lishment of combined treatment/disposal industries. expertise financing and with the purpose.and the tems to hazardous of Stepsneedto be takenimmecharacteristics wastes. for be shoulcl available this ogies. informationavailable . public on the eff-ects hazardous of to the general wastes. on hazardous (i) To makeinformationavailable Governments and to wastes. of safehandlingand disposal hazardous (e) Governments developing shouldencountries of courage interdisciplinaryand intersectoralgroups. remedialmeasures.to implement waste prevention controlofhazardous and to evaluation. and to build up international handlehazardous networking. assess exposure and risk to humanhealthand the environment: requiredto clean they shouldalso identify the measures Industryshouldmakethenecessary up thedisposal sites. assessment risks. grammesto understand natureof hazardclus the effectsand to to identify their potentialenvironmental to develop technologies safely handle those wastes. far aspossible as andwhenappropriate of application the "polluterpays"principle: (h) Governments should ascertainthat their military conform to their nationallyapplicable establishments environmentalnorms in the treatmentand disposalof hazardous wastes. methodologies. hazardous of including tories. wastes srnallhazardous in andmedium-sized (g) Governments should promote identificationand wastesin collaboration clean-upof sitesof hazardolrs Technolwith industryand international organizations. computerized sites. Such groups should serve as models to developsimilarregionalprogrammes. OBJECTIVES areaare: in 20. (0 Governments.as well as of wastesand their treatment/disposal and contaminated sitesthat requirerehabilitation. human health and the on including inf'ectious environment. health risks. of mentally soundmanagement hazardous and of cludingtheimplementation international regional conventions. (e) To develop in capacities all developing endogenous and train statfat all levelsin envito countries educate wastehandling andmonihazardous ronmentally sound soundmanagement. (b) Governments. there is a neecito strengthen capacities of for that are responsible the management institutions wastes. ecosyspopulations. especially of wastes.22The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments invenshould establish ntaintain and inventories. pro(b) To establish publicawareness information and waste issuesand to ensurethat grammeson hazardous are basic educationand training programmes provided for industryand govemmentworkersin all countries. in and agenwith international organizations cooperation related activities training andresearch cies. hazardous ACTIVITIES ELATED ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R 20. measures the nationallevel for the environat regulatory inwastes. and organizainternational regional 201 .

otherorganizations non-governmenand tal organizations. (c) Develop training and educationprogrammesfor men and women in industry and Governmentaimed at specific real-lif'eproblems.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations and industry as appropriate.26The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments.conducting hazardousmaterials audits and establ shing appropri regulatoryprogranilne . c/ /NTERNATTONAL REG/ONAL AND COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 20. management risk risk risk and reductionwith respect hazardous to wastes. accordingto theircapabilities.25 The Conference secretariat estimated average has the total annualcost( 1993-2000) implementingttreactivities of of thisprogramme beabout$ 18.treatmentand disposaland on hazardous waste assessment. activities in oriented towards strengthening assessment.24Governments. (b) Governments shouldestablish notificationsystems and registriesof exposedpopulationsand of adverse healtheffectsand databases risk assessments hazon of ardouswastes: (c) Governments shouldendeavour collectinformato tion on thosewho generate dispose/recycle or hazardous wastesand provide suchinformationto the individuals and institutions concerned.5billion on a globalbasis to with about $3.transport. dependupon.tions and industry shouldfacilitateand expandthe dissemination technicaland scientificinformationdealof ing with the varioushealthaspects hazardous of wastes. should: (a) Promoteand supportthe integration and operation. (c) Governments shouldconductresearch aimedat the needsof small and medium-sized industries.for example.should increasesupportforhazardouswasteresearch management developingcounin tries. storage.as appropriate. management remediation and . according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations. includingthe long-termeffectson childrenand women. for treatment and disposalof hazardous wastes.5 billion related to developingcountries. the specificstrategies programmes and Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. should: (a) Increase public awareness informationon hazand ardouswasteissuesand promote the development and dissemination hazardous of wastesinformationthat the generalpublic can understand. c) H U MA NR E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T DE 20. and includingany thatarenon-concessional.28 following activities shouldalsobeundertaken: (a) Governments. will inter alia. collaborationwith international in organizations. including about $500 million fiom the intemational community on grantorconcessional terms.industrialmanagement and govemment regulatory staff in developing countrieson technologies minimize andmanagehazto ardouswastesin an environmentally soundmanner.storage. (b) Governments. (d) Govemments and intemationalorganizations coin operation with industry should expand technological research on environmentally sound hazardouswaste handling.should conduct research on the health effects of hazardouswastes in developing countries. should collaborate developingand in MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 20.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the UnitedNations.The transboundary movements that take place shouldbe on environmental and economicgroundsand basedupon agreements between all States concerned. 'Ihe 20. with particular supportto be given to consolidating networks. by Actualcosts financialterms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed Governments.planning and implementrng hazardous waste minimization programmes. particularly women. (b) Support capacity-building technological and developmentand research developingcountriesin connecin tion with human resource development. and promoteits application. at the regionaland local levelsas appropriate. 8/ SC/ENilF/C AND TECHNOLOGTCAL TIEANS 20. 202 . (c) Encourage self-sufficiency hazardous in wastedisposal in the country of origin to the extent that is environmentally sound and feasible. accordingto their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant oreanizations and industryas appropriate. (e) International organizations shouldidentify relevant and improvedtechnologies handling.27Governments. (b) Increase participation hazardous in wastemanagement programmesby the general public. instituof tional and interdisciplinary groupsthat collaborate. i ate s (d) Promotethe training of labour.includingparticipation grass-roots at levels.

disseminatingeducationalmaterialsconcerninghazaroous wastesand their effects on environmentand human by health,for usein schools, women'sgroupsandby the generalpublic; (b) Governments,according to their capacitiesand available resources and with the cooperation of the shouldestablish United Nationsand other organizations, programmes the environmentallysound for or strengthen with, as wastesin accordance management hazardous of appropriate,health and environmental standards,and extend surveillance systems for the purpose of identifying adverseeffects on populationsand the environwastes; tohazardous ment of exposure (c) International organizationsshould provide assistin the anceto memberStates assessing healthand environmental risks resulting from exposure to hazardous wastes,and in identifying their priorities fbr controlling of or the variouscategories classes wastes; (d) Governments,according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the should United Nationsand otherrelevantorganizations, promote centresof excellencefor training in hazardous nationalinwastemanagement, building on appropriate stitutions and encouraginginternational cooperation, developed links between inter alia, throughinstitutional countries. and developing

(b) Develop industry-based institutions for dealing forhandling industries wastes service and with hazardous hazardous wastes; (c) Adopt technicalguidelinesfor the environmentally wastesand supportthe of soundmanagement hazardous implementation of regional and international conventions; (d) Develop and expand international networking among professionalsworking in the area of hazardous wastesand maintain an information flow among countries; (e) Assess feasibilityof establishing operating and the national, subregionaland regional hazardouswastes could be usedfor educatreatment centres. Suchcentres tion andtraining,aswell asfor facilitation andpromotion of the transfer of technologiesfor the environmentally wastes; soundmanagement hazardous of (0 Identify and strengthen relevantacademic/research to institutionsor centresfor excellence enablethem to carry out educationand training activitiesin the environwastes; of mentallysoundmanagement hazardous (g) Develop a programme for the establishmentof and train nationalcapacities and capabilitiesto educate wastesmanaqestaff at various levels in hazardous ment; (h) Conductenvironmental auditsof existingindustries of to improve in-plant regimesfor the management hazardouswastes.

D) CAPACTTY-BUTLDING corporations transnational 20.29 Whereverthey operate, should be encouraged and other large-scaleenterprises to introduce policies and make commitments to adopt wasteto standards operationwith reference hazardous of to or no less generationand disposalthat are equivalent in stringentthan standards the country of origin, and Governments are invited to make efforts to establish regulationsrequiring environmentallysound managewastes. ment of hazardous shouldprovide assisorganizations 20.30 International in assessing healthand envithe tanceto memberStates from exposure to hazardous ronmental risks resulting wastesand in identifying their priorities for controlling of or the variouscategories classes wastes. accordingto their capacitiesand 20.31 Governments, available resourcesand with the cooperationof the and United Nations and other relevant organizations should: industries, (a) Supportnational institutionsin dealing with hazardous wastesfrom the regulatory monitoring and enwith such support including forcement perspectives, to enablingof thoseinstitutions implementinternational conventions: AND STRENGTHENING c) PROMOTTNG IN INTER.NATIONAT COOPERATION THE MANAGEMENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTSOF HAZARDOUSWASTES

BASIS ACTION FOR 20.32 In order to promote and strengtheninternational including control and in cooperation the management, movementsof hazardous monitoring, of transboundary wastes,a precautionaryapproach should be applied. and criteria There is a needto harmonizethe procedures There andlegalinstruments. usedin variousintemational is also a need to developor harmonizeexisting criteria and for identifyingwastes dangerous the environment to to build monitoringcapacities.

OBJECTIVES 20.33The objectives this programne areaare: of (a) To facilitate and strengtheninternational cooperof soundmanagement hazation in the environmentally wastes, includingcontrolandmonitoringof transardous including wastes boundarymovements such wastes, of

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for recovery,by using internationallyadoptedcriteria to identify and classify hazardous wastesand to harmonize relevantinternationallegal instruments; (b) To adopt a ban on or prohibit, as appropriate,the export of hazardous wastesto countriesthat do not have the capacityto deal with thosewastesin an environmentally soundway or that have bannedthe import of such wastes; (c) To promote the developmentof control procedures for the transboundarymovement of hazardouswastes destinedfor recovery operationsunder the Basel Convention that encourageenvironmentally and economically soundrecyclingoptions.

gionally - agreedcriteria and preparea list of hazard profilesforthe hazardous wastes listedin nationallegislation; (i) Develop and use appropriatemethods for testing, characterizing and classifying hazardous wastes and adopt or adapt safety standards and principles for managing hazardous wastes in an environmentally sound way.

> lmplementing existingogrements 20.35 Governments urgedto ratify the BaselConvenare tion and the Bamako Convention, as applicable,and to pursuethe expeditiouselaborationof relatedprotocols, such as protocols on liability and compensation, and of mechanisms and guidelinesto facilitate the implementation of the Conventions.

ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIVITIES > Strengthening hormonizingcriferio and rqulotions ond 20.34 Governments,according to their capacities and available resourcesand with the cooperationof United Nations and other relevantorganizations, appropriate, as should: (a) Incorporatethe notification procedurecalled for in the BaselConventionand relevantregionalconventions, as well as in their annexes, into nationallegislation; (b) Formulate,whereappropriate, regionalagreements such as the Bamako Convention regulating the transboundarymovementof hazardouswastes; (c) Help promote the compatibility and complementarity of such regional agreementswith international conventions and protocols; (d) Strengthen national and regional capacities and capabilities to monitor and control the transboundary movementof hazardous wastes; (e) Promote the development of clear criteria and guidelines,within the framework of the Basel Convention and regional conventions,as appropriate,for environmentally and economically sound operation in resource recovery, recycling reclamation, direct use or alternativeusesand for determinationof acceptable recovery practices,including recovery levels where feasible and appropriate, with a view to preventingabuses and false presentation the above operations; in (0 Considersettingup, at nationaland regionallevels, as appropriate,systemsfor monitoring and surveillance of the transboundary movementsof hazardous wastes; (g) Developguidelines the assessment environfor of mentally soundtreatmentof hazardous wastes; (h) Develop guidelinesforthe identification of hazardous wastes at the national level, taking into account existing internationally - and, where appropriate,re-

MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A' F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON 20.36 Becausethis programmearea covers a relatively new field of operationand because the lack so far of of adequatestudieson costing of activities under this programme, no cost estimateis available at present.However,the costsfor someof the activities relatedto capacity-building that are presentedunder this programme could be consideredto have been covered under the costing of programmeareaB above. 20.37 The interim secretariatfor the Basel Convention shouldundertake studiesin orderto arrive at a reasonable costestimatefor activitiesto be undertaken initiallv until the year 2000.

B) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 20.38 Governments,according to their capacities and available resourcesand with the cooperationof United Nations and other relevantorganizations, appropriate, as should: (a) Elaborateor adoptpoliciesfor the environmentally sound managementof hazardous wastes, taking into accountexistingintemationalinstruments; (b) Make recommendations the appropriateforums to or establishor adaptnorrns,including the equitableimplementationof the "polluter pays" principle, and regulatory measures comply with obligations and princito ples of the Basel Convention, the Bamako Convention and other relevantexisting or future agreements, including protocols,asappropriate, settingappropriate for rules

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in andprocedures the field of liability andcompensation movement for damageresultinglrom the transboundary wastes; of and disposal hazardous of ( c ) I m plem en tp o l i c i e sfo r th e i mp l e m e n ta t i on a ban or pr ohib i ti o n , a s a p p ro p ri a te ,o f e x p o rts of was te sto c o u n tri e sth a t d o n o t h ave the haz ar dous i c apac it yt o dea l w i th th o s ew a s te s n a n e n v i ronment ally s ound way o r th a t h a v e b a n n e dth e i mport of s u c hw a s t e s ; (d) Study,in the contextof the BaselConventionand the feasibility of prorelevantregionalconventions, in financialassistance the caseof an viding temporary emergencysituation, in order to minimize damage movements arisingfrom transboundary from accidents wastesor during the disposalof those of hazardous was t es .

ACTIVITIES IV ES ELAT A) MANAGEMENI-R EDACT ITI accordingto their capacitiesand 2A.42Governments, available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations,as should: appropriate, (a) Adopt, wherenecessary, implementlegislation and to prevent the illegal irnport and export of hazardous wastes; (b) Develop appropriatenational enforcementprogrammesto monitor compliancewith such legislation, penalties detectand deterviolationsthroughappropriate attention thosewho areknown to have to andgive special wastes and to hazillegal traffic in hazardous conducted to ardouswastesthat are particularlysusceptible illegal traffic.

TRAFFIC lttEGAt INTERNATIONAL D) PREVENTING IN HAZARDOUS WASTES B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON FOR BASIS ACTION 20.39The prevention of illegal traffic in hazardous and public healthin will benefrtthe environment wastes all countries,particularlydevelopingcountries.It will also help to make the Basel Conventionand regional such as the BamakoConveninstruments, international more effectiveby tion and the fourth Lomd Convention, in promoting compliancewith the controlsestablished Article IX of the Basel Convention those agreements. the specificallyaddresses issueof illegal shipmentsof wastes may Illegaltraffic of hazardous wastes. hazardous causeseriousthreatsto human health and the environment and imposea specialand abnormalburdenon the suchshipments. thatreceive countries actionthrougheffecrequires Effectiveprevention 20..10 and impositionof tive monitoringand the enforcement penalties. appropriate an should develop as appropriate, 20.43Governments informationnetworkand alert systemto assistin detecting illegal traffic in hazardouswastes.Local combe munitiesand otherscor"rld involved in the orreration of sucha network and system. of in shouldcooperate the exchange 2A.44Governments of movements hazinformationon illegal transboundary ardouswastesand shouldmake suchinformationavailUnited NationsbodiessuchasUNEP ableto appropriate and the regionalcommissions.

AND COOPERATION c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL REGIONAI in 20.45The regional commissions, cooperationwith and relying upon expertsupportand advicefrom UNEP and otherrelevantbodiesof the United Nationssystem, taking full accountof the Basel Convention,shall conthe tinueto monitorandassess illegaltraffic in hazardous and economic health wastes, includingits environmental, implications, a continuingbasis,drawing upon the on gainedin thejoint UNEP/ESCAP resultsandexperience of preliminary/ assessment illegal traffic. as 20.46Countries and international organizations, the to shouldcooperate strengthen instituappropriate, in tional and regulatorycapacities, particularof develin oping countries, orderto preventthe illegalimport and wastes. export of hazardous

OBJECTIVES areaare:of 20.41The objectives this progranlffle to (a) To reinforcenationalcapacities detectand halt wastesinto any illegal attemptto introducehazardous the ten'itory of any State in contraventionof national legis lat ion and re l e v a n t i n te rn a ti c l n alle g a l i nstruments: (b) To assist all countries,particularlydeveloping informationconin countries, obtainingall appropriate wastes; cerningillegal traffic in hazardous (c) To cooperate, within the frarneworkof the Basel the in countriesthat suff'er conseConvention. assisting quences illegal traffic. of

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21

Environmentolly monogement solid sound of wostes ond sewoge-reloted issues

INTRODUCTION

2l.l This chapter beenincorporated Agenda21 has in in response General to Assembly resolution441228, section I, paragraph in which the Assemblyaffirmedthat 3, the Conference shouldelaborate strategies measures and to halt and reverse effectsof environmental the degradation in the contextof increased nationalandintemational effortsto promotesustainable environmentally and sound dcveloprnent all countries, in and to sectionI, paragraph l2 (g), of the sameresolution, which the Assembly in affirrned that environmentallysound managementof wasteswas among the environmentalissuesof major concernin rnaintaining the quality of the Earth'senvironment and especiallyin achievingenvironmentally soundand sustainable development all countries. in 21.2 Programme areasincludedin the presentchapter of Agenda21 arecloselyrelatedto the following programmeareas otherchapters Agenda2l : of of (a) Rotection of the quality and supply of freshwaterresources: application integrated of approaches thedevelopto ment,management useof waterresources (chapter and l8); (b) Promotingsustainable humansettlement development(chapter 7); (c) Protecting and promotinghumanhealthconditions (chapter 6); (d) Changingconsumption (chapter patterns 4). 21.3 Solid wastes, definedin this chapter, as includeall dorlesticrefuseand non-hazardous wastes suchas comrnercialand institutional wastes,streetsweepings and construction debris.In somecountries, solid wastes the management systern alsohandles humanwastes suchas night-soil, ashes from incinerators, septic tanksludge and sludge fiom sewagetreatmentplants. If these wastes manif-est hazardous characteristics shouldbe treated thev as hazardous wastes.

21.4 Environmentally soundwastemanagement mustgo beyondthe meresafedisposal recoveryof wastes or that are generatedand seek to addressthe root causeof the problemby attempting changeunsustainable to patterns of productionand consumption. This implies the application of the integrated cycle management life concept, which presents uniqueopportunityto reconciledevela opmentwith environmental protection. 21.5 Accordingly,theframeworkfor requisiteactionshould be foundedon a hierarchyofobjectives and focusedon the four major waste-related prograrnme areas, follows: as (a) Minimizing wastes; (b) Maximizing environmentallysound waste reuse and recycling; (c) Promotingenvironmentallysound waste disposal and treatment; (d) Extendingwasteservicecoverage. 21.6 The four programme areas are interrelated and mutually supportive and must thereforebe integrated in order to provide a comprehensive environmentally and responsiveframework for managing municipal solid wastes. The mix and emphasis given to eachof the four programmeareas will vary accordingto the local socioeconomicand physicalconditions, ratesof wastegenerationandwaste composition. sectors society All of should panicipatein all the programmeareas.

P R O G R A M MA R E A S E
A) MtNtMtZtNG WASTES BASIS ACTION FOR 21.7 Unsustainable patterns production of andconsumption areincreasing quantities the and varietyof environ-

/Li0

rates.The wastesat unprecedented mentally persistent the of trendcouldsignificantlyincrease quantities wastes quantities produced theendof thecenturyandincrease by four to fivefold by the year 2025. A preventive waste in focusedon changes lifestyles management approach and in production and consumption pattems offers the best chancefor reversingcurrent trends.

OBJECTIVES in 21.8 The objectives this areaare: (a) To stabilize or reduce the production of wastes destinedfor final disposal,over an agreedtime-frame, on by formulatinggoalsbased wasteweight,volumeand to compositionand to induceseparation facilitatewaste recyclingand reuse; wastequan(b) To strengthen procedures assessing for for changes the purposeof formutity and composition wasteminimizationpoliciesutilizing lating operational modito instruments inducebeneficial economic other or patterns. productionand consumption ficationsof 21.9 Governments,according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof thc United Nations and other relevant orsanizations.as appropriate, should: (a) By the year 2000, ensure sufficient national. process and to capacity access, regionalandinternational monitor wastetrend information and implement waste minimizationpolicies ; (b) By theyear2000,havein placein all industrialized to countriesprogrammes stabilizeor reduce,if practicproductionof wastesdestinedfor final disposal, able, (wherethis conceptapplies includingper capitawastes ), prevailingat that date;developingcountries at the level as well shouldwork towardsthat goal without jeopardizing their developmentprospects ; (c) Apply by the year 2000.in all countries, pzu'ticular in progralrlmes reducethe proto in industriaJizeA countries. and wastes, containers packaging ductionof agrochemical characteristics. which do not meethazardous materials,

(a) Develop and strengthen in nationalcapacities researchand design of environmentallysound technolto ogies, as well as adopt measures reducewastesto a mi ni mum: (b) Providefbr incentives reduceunsustainable patto ternsclf productionand consumption; (c) l)evelop, where necessary. nationalplans to minimize wastegeneration part of overallnationaldevelas opmentplans; (d) Emphasizewaste minimization considerations in procurement within the United Nationssystem.

AND /NFORMAI/ON B) DATA for 21.t I Monitoring is a key prerequisite keepingtrack in of changes wastequantityand quality and their resuiGovemments, on tantirnpact healthandtheenvironment. should: with the supportof international agencies, (a) Developandapplymethodologies forcountry-level wastemonitoring; (b) Unclertake data gatheringand analysis,establish nationalgoalsand monitor progress; (c) Utilizc clata assess soundness of to environmental nationalwastepoliciesas a basisfbr correctiveaction; (d) Input inf'ormation into global informationsystems.

C] /NIERNAI/ONAI. AND REG/ONAt COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 21.12The UnitedNations andintergovernmental organshould izations. r,vith collaboration Governments, the of help promotewasterlinimization by facilitatinggreater The know-how of andexperience. exchange inforrnation. fbllowing is a non-exhaustive of specificactivities list that couldbe undertaken: (a) Identifying, methoddeveloping and harmonizing suchmethmonitoringandtransferring ologiesfor rvaste odol ogi u'trl countri es: s (b) Iclentifying and furtherdeveloping activitiesof the networks cleantechnologies and existingint-ormation on w aste ni mi zati on: rni (c) Llndertaking periodic assessment, collating and in analvsingcountrydata and reportingsystematically, an concemed; appropriate itedNationsfomm,to thecountries Un (d) Reviewing effectiveness all waste minimizathe of tion instrunrents and identifyingpotentialnew instruby mcnts that could be usedand techniques which they be at cor.rld rnac'le operational the country level. Guideof shouldbe developed; linesand codes practice (e) Undertakingresearch the social and economic on level. impactsof wasteminimizationat the consumer

ACTIVITIES IT ACTIV IES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED t s 2 1 . 1 0G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d i n i t i a t e p r o g r a m m e s o minimization of waste generation. achieve sustained and consumergroups Non-governmental organizations in to shouldbe encouraged participate suchprogrammes. of which could be drawn up with the cooperation interThese prowhere necessary. national organizations, build upon existing grammes should,whereverpossible, or plannedactivitiesand should:

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MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 21.13The Conferencesecretariat suggests that industrialized countriesshould considerinvesting in waste minimizationthe equivalentof about I per cent of the expenditures solid wastesand sewagedisposal.At on currentlevels,this would amounttcl about $6.5 billion annually, including about to $1.8billionrelated minimizing municipal solid wastes.Actual amountswould be determinedby relevant municipal, provincial and national budgetauthorities basedon local circumstances.

C) HUIAAN RFSOURCE DEVELOPMENT 21.15Human resource development wasteminimifor zationnot only shouldbe targeted professionals the at in wastemanagement sectorbut also shouldseekto obtain the support of citizens and industry.Human resource developmentprogrammesmust thereforeaim to raise consciousness educate and and inform concerned groups and the public in general.Countriesshouldincorporate within schoolcurricula, whereappropriate, principles the and practices preventingand minimizing wastesand of materialon the environmental impactsof waste.

B / S C/ F N IIF IC N D IEC H N O I.OGIC ME A N S A AL 21.14Wasteminimizationtechnologies and procedures will needto be identifiedand widely disseminated. This work shouldbe coordinated nationalGovernments, by with the cooperation and collaborationof non-governmentalorganizations, research institutions and appropriate organizations ol'the United Nations,and could include the folloi,ving: (a) Undertakinga continuous review of the effectivenessof all waste minimizationinstruments and identifying potentialnew instruments that could be usedand techniques which instruments by could be made operational at the country level. Guidelinesand codes of practiceshoLrld developed; be (b) Promotingwastepreventicln and minimization as the principal objective of national waste management programmes; (c) Promotingpublic education and a rangeof regulatory andnon-regulatory incentives encourage to industry to changeproductdesignand reduceindustrialprocess wastes throughcleaner produciion technologies good and housekeeping practices and to encourage industries and consumers use typesof packagingthat can be safely to reused: (d) Executing,in accordance with nationalcapacities, demonstration and pilot programmes optimize waste to minimizationinstruments ; (e) Establishing proceduresfor adequatetransport. storage,conseryation and management agricultural of products,foodstuffs and other perishablegoods in order to reducethe lossof thoseproducts, which results the in production solid waste; of (0 Facilitating transfer waste-reduction the of technologies to industry,particularlyin developingcountries, andestablishing concrete nationalstandards effluents fbr and solid waste, taking into account, inter a.lia, raw materialuseand energyconsumption.

B) i AXrMtZtNc ENVTRONTUENTAIrY SOUND WASTEREUSE AND RECYCTING BASIS ACTION FOR 21.16Theexhaustion traditional of disposal sites, stricter environmentalcontrols governing waste disposaland increasing quantities more persistent of wastes, particularly in industrializecl countries. haveall contributed a to rapidincrease thect-rst waste in of disposal services. Costs could double or triple by the end of the decade.Some currentdisposalpractices pose a threatto the environment. As the econr-rmics waste disposalservices of change, waste recycling and resourcerecovery are becoming increasingly cost-effective.Future waste managernent prograntmes should take maximum advantage resource-efficient of approaches the control to of wastes.These activities should be carried out in conjunctionwith public educationprogrammes. is It important t.hat markets for products from reclaimed materials identifiedin the development reuseand be of recyclingprogrammes.

OBJECTIVES 21.17The ob.jectives this areaare: in (a) To strengthen increase and nationalwastereuse and recycl i ng systems: (b) To create modelinternalwastereuse recycling a and programmefor waste streams, including paper,within the UnitedNationssystem; (c) To make available informaticln,techniquesand appropriate policy instruments encourage to and make operational wastereuseand recyclingschemes. 2l .18 Govemments, accclrding theircapacities availto and ableresources with thecooperation theUnitedNations and of and otherrelevantorganizations, appropriate, as should: (a) By the year 2000,promotesufficientfinancialand technologicalcapacitiesat the regional, national and locallevels, appropriate, implementwastereuse as to and recycling policiesand actions;

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collecting. the specific programmes proposed by internationalinstitutions and approved by their g o v e r n i n gb o d i e s . These are indicative and order-of-rnagnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govc-rnmcnts. through bilateral ntultjlateral and cooperation. (d) Producingguidelinesand bcst practices waste for reuse andrecycling. The secretariatestintatesthe total annual c o s t ( 1 9 9 3 . should launch programmes to demonstrate and make operational enhanced waste reuse and recycling. waste reLrse and recycling. to relevantinformation on wasteissues.whereverpossible. including any that are non-concessional. For example. Actual costs and financial terms. grantscould be nrade Specialresearch available a competitive on basisfbr innovative research projects recycling on techniques.Assessing extent and practice o1'waste the reuseand recvcling operations cllrentlv undertaken and identiff ing \\ avs by which these could be increasedand suppofiecl: (c) Incrcasing funding for researchpilot programmes to test various options tor reuse and recycling.'astes. taking into account the saving in energy and raw materials: (e) Develop public education and awarenessprogrammes to promote the use of recycled products.analysingand disseminating. targets efficientwastcreuseand recycling. (e) Intensifyingefforts.19 Governments and institutions and non-governmental organizations. including the use of' small-scale.23 The transfer of t.2 0 0 0 )o f i r n p l e r r e n t i n gt h e a c t i v i t i e so 1 ' t h i s programme areain developing countriesto be about $850 million on grant or concessionalterms. (b) Review the effectiveness techniques and of for approaches waste reuseand recycling and ways clf to enhancing their application countrie in s: (c) Revierv guidelines the and update international for safereuse wastes: of (d) Establish appropriate prograntrnes support to small communities'wastereLlsc and recy'cling industricsin developing countries. worldwide e-xpenditr-rres this purpose would amount lor to $8 billion. nationalprogramme. in all developing countries.(b) By theyear2000. for ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES ELATED 21.including. (d) Modify existing standardsor purchase specifications to avoid discrimination against recycled materials. (a) Undertaking an extensive review of options and techniquesfbr reuseand recycling all lbrms of municipal solid u. irttcr olirt.22 The Contercncc sccrctariat has estimated that if the equivalent of I per cent o1'waste-related municipal expenditures was clevotedto sale rvastereuse schemes. asapprclpri shclul : i ate. and have a by the year 2010.20 Information and research is required to identify promising socially acceptableand cost-effective forms of u'astereuseand recycling relevantto each country. includingthroughthe United Nationsand otherrelevant i ntemati onal organzations. to the extent possible. in collaboration with appropriate organizations of the United Nations system. potential markets rccycled for c/ /NIERNAI/ONAL AND RFG/ONA/ COOPERAI/ON AND COORD/NAI/ON 21. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A / F I N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T T O N B) DATAAND /NFORMAIION 21. Policies fbr leuse and recycling should be madc an integral component of national and local waste millliigenlent programme s: (b ) .women's and youth groups.build upon existing orplanned a c t i v i t i e sa n d s h o u l d : (a) Develop and strengthennational capacity to reuse and recycle an increasing proportion of wastes.echncllogy should support waste recycling and rcuse hy the following means: 209 .in all industrialized countries.inch. These programmes should. at. supporting actii'ities undeftaken by national and local govemments in collaboration with the United Nations and other international organizationscould include. (0 Identifying products. (b) Review and rclorm national rvastepolicies to provide incentives for waste reuse and recycling. B / s C / E N I / F / CA N D I F C H N O T O G T C AM E A N S L 21. compostproduction treated waste I and energyrecoveryfrom wastes.rding consumer.21 States. tries. d (a) Undertake penodicreviewof the extent which a to countries reuse and recycletheir wastes. will depend upon. -waterirri gation. key targetgroups. cottage-basedrccycling indus21. and give priority to. (c) Develop and implement national plans fbr waste management that take advantage of.

(a) Including the transfer of recycling technologies, suchasmachineryfor reusingplastics, rubberandpaper, within bilateral and multilateral technicalcooperation and aid programmes; (b) Developingand improving existing technologies, especially indigenous technologies, facilitatingtheir and transferunder ongoingregionaland interregional techprogrammes; nical assistance (c) Facilitating transferofwastereuse recycling the and technology. 21.24Incentives for waste reuse and recycling are numerous.Countriescould considerthe following options to encourage industry,institutions, commercialesinstead tablishments individualsto recyclewastes and of disposing them: of (a) Offeringincentives local and municipalauthorities to that recyclethe maximumproportionof their wastes; (b) Providing technical assistance informal waste to reuseand recyclingoperations: (c) Applying economicandregulatory instruments, including tax incentives, supportthe principlethat gento eratorsof wastespay fbr their disposal; (d) Providing legal and economic conditionsconducive to investments wastereuseand recycling; in (e) Implementingspecific mechanisms such as deposit/refund systems incentives reuseand recycling; for as (f) Promoting the separatecollection of recyclable partsof household wastes; (g) Providing incentives improve the marketability to waste; of technically recyclable (h) Encouraging the use of recyclablematerials,particularly in packaging, wherefeasible; (i) Encouragingthe developmentof markets for reprogrammes. cycled goodsby establishing

(d) Encouraging non-governmentalorganizations, community-based ganization andwomen's,youth and or s public interestgroup programmes, collaboration in with local municipalauthorities, mobilizecommunitysupto port for wastereuseandrecyclingthroughfocused community-levelcampaigns.

D) CAPACITY.BUILDING 21.26Capacity-buildingto support increasedwaste reuseand recyclingshouldfocuson the following areas: (a) Making operational policiesandincentives national for wastemanagement; (b) Enablinglocal and municipal authorities mobito lize communitysupportfor wastereuse andrecyclingby involving and assisting informal sectorwastereuseand recyclingoperations undertaking wastemanagernent and planningthat incorporates resource recoverypractices.

c) PROMOTTNG ENVIRONMENTATTY SOUND WASTEDISPOSAI AND TREATMENT BASIS ACTION FOR 21.21Even when wastesare minimized, some wastes will still remain.Even after treatment, discharges all of wastes have someresidualimpacton the receivingenvironment. Consequently, there is scope for improving waste treatment and disposal practices such as, for example,avoiding the dischargeof sludgesat sea. In developing countries, problemis of a morefundamenthe tal nature: lessthan l0 per centof urbanwastes receive some form of treatmentand only a small proportion of treatmentis in compliancewith any acceptable quality standard. Faecalmattertreatmentand disposalshouldbe accordeddue priority given the potentialthreatof faeces to humanhealth.

C) HUM A NR E SOU R C E EL OP M EN I D EV 21.25Training will be required to reorient current waste management practicesto include waste reuse and recycling. Governments,in collaboration with United Nationsinternational regionalorganizations, and shouldundertake following indicativelist of actions: the (a) Including wastereuseand recycling in in-service trainingprogrammes integralcomponents technical as of cooperationprogrammeson urban managementand infrastruc ture devel opment; (b) Expandingtraining programmes water supply on anclsanitation incorporate to techniques policiesfor and wastereuseand recycling; (c) Including the advantages civic obligationsasand sociatedwith wastereuseand recycling in schoolcurricula and relevantgeneraleducational courses;

OBJECTIVES 21.28The objective in this area is to treat and safely disposeof a progressively increasing proportionof the generated wastes. 21.29Governments, accordingto their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant orsanizations.as appropriate, should: (a) By the year 2000, establishwaste treatmentand disposalquality criteria,objectives and standards based on the natureand assimilative capacityof the receiving environment; (b) By the year 2000, establishsufficientcapacityto

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pollution impact monitoring and waste-related undertake includingepidemiological conductregularsurveillance, : lance.whereappropriate surveil and countries, (c) By the year 1995,in industrialized that at by the year 2005,in developingcountries,ensure wastewatersand solid least50 per cent of all sewage, wastes are treated or disposed of in conformity with national or international environmental and health quality guidelines; (d) By the year 2025, disposeof all sewage,waste watersand solid wastesin conformity with nationalor quality guidelines. international environmental

ACTIVITIES ACT lE ELATED tVlT S A) MANAGEMENT-R and non-govemmental institutions 21.30Governments, in togetherwith industries, collaboration organizations, of with appropriate organizatrons the United Nations to system,shouldlaunchprogrammes improve the conpollution. These of trol and management waste-related possible, wherever build uponexistprogrammes should, ing or plannedactivitiesand should: (a) Develop and strengthen nationalcapacityto treat of and safelydispose wastes; (b) Review and reform national waste management pollution; policiesto gain controlover waste-related (c) Encourage countriesto seek wastedisposalsolutions within their sovereignterritory and as close as with of possible the sources origin thatarecompatible to In soundand efficient management. a environmentally movementstake number of countries,transboundary in placeto ensurethat wastesare managed an environobrnentallysoundand efficient way. Suchmovements includingthosethatapply the conventions, sen/e relevant that are not undernationaljurisdiction; to areas plans,giving (d) Develophumanwastesmanagement due attention to the developmentand application of and technologies theavailabilityof resources appropriate for implementation.

(a) Assemblingand analysingthe scientificevidence and pollution impactsof wastesin the environmentin scienrecommended order to formulate and disseminate for tific criteriaandguidelines theenvironmentallysound of management solid wastes; (b) Recommending local nationaland,whererelevant, quality standards basedon scientificcrienvironmental teria and guidelines; (c) Incl udi ng w i thi n techni cal cooperati on pr ogrammesand agreements provision for monitorinp the equipment and for the requisitetrainingin its use; (d) Establishingan information clearing-house with extensivenetworks at the regional,national and local informationon all aslevels to collect and disseminate pectsof wastemanagement, including safedisposal.

AND REG/ONAT C/ 'NIERNAI/ONAT AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERAIION 21.32States, through bilateraland multilateralcooperation, including through the United Nations and other as relevant internationalorganizations. appropriate, should: (a) Identify,develop harmonize and methodologies and environmentalquality and health guidelines for safe wastedischarge and disposal; (b) Reviewand keepabreast developments disand of of seminateinformation on the effectiveness techniques and ways of supto and approaches safewastedisposal portingtheir application countries. in

MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai FINANCTNG are relevantto 21.33Safe waste disposalprogrammes In both developed and developingcountries. developed focus is on improving facilities to meet countriesthe quality criteria,while in develophigher environmental is to ing countries considerable investment required build facilities. new treatment the has secretariat estimated aver21.34The Conference (1993-2000)of implementingthe age total annualcost in activitiesof this programrne developingcountriesto be about$15 billion, includingabout$3.4 billion fronr the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms.Theseareindicativeandorder-of-magnitude by matesonly andhavenotbeenreviewed Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter nlia, the non-concessional, decide Govemments specificstrategies progrartmes and upon for implementation.

AND INFORMAI/ON B) DATA settingand monitoringare two key ele21.31 Standard for gaining control over waste-related ments essential are pollution.The following specificactivities indicative actionsthat could be taken by of the kind of supportive bodies such as the United Nations Centre international (Habitat), the United Nations for Human Settlements Environment Programmeand the World Health Organization:

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L t I

ME AN 8/ S C/ F N I/F /C D IE C H N OT OGIC AL A N S and research variousason 21.3-5 Scientiticguidelines pollutioncontrol rvill be crucial pectsof waste-related Governof the for achieving obiectives thisprogramme. with approand ments,municipalities local authorities, should: priateinternational cooperation, (a) Prepare reporls subjects guidclines tcchnical on and planningin human of such as the integration land-use quality environmental settlements with wastedisposal, u'astetrcl.ttl-nent saf-e disposal and criteriaanclstandards" options.industrialwaste treatmentand landflll operations; (b) Undertakerescarchon critical subjectssuch as waste-water sYstreatment low-cost,low-maintenarlcc waste treatclisposal options; industrial terns: safesludge di e s m ent ;and l o w -tc c h n o l o g y .c o l o g i c a l l y afew aste sposaloptions; (c) Transl'er as tcchnclkrgies,conlormitywith theterms in of well as the provisions chapter (Transf-er environ34 of mentally sound technology,cooperationand capacityprocesses through wastetreatnreltt building),on indusffial programmes cooperation tcchnical bilateral muitilateral and u'ith bLrsincss industry. and including and in cooperation as largeand transnatiorlal corprlratiotts. irppropriate. (d) Focuson the rehabilitatic-rn. operation and mainteassi stance on nanc eof e x i s ti n gl a c i l i ti e s n d te c h n i c al a practice's and techniques folinrprovedmaintcnance of lowed by the planningand constluction wastetreatmentfacilitics; (e') Irstablish prograrnrxeto traximizethc sollrce s segol'thc hazardous conrponents regation and saf-e disposal l ot 'niunic i p as o l i dw a s te " (f ) Ensure investrnent the and prclvision wastecolof provision water of with ther concomitant lcctionfacilities and sen,ices ancirl'ith an equaland parallclinvestmerlt provision wastetreatme facilities. nt of

D) CAPACITY-BUILDING will 21.37Institutional reformsandcapacity-building be indispensable countriesare to be able to quantify and if pollution. Activities to achieve mitigate waste-related this objectiveshouldinclude: (a) Creatingand strengthening independent environmental control bodies at the national and local levels. Internationalorganizations and donors should support neededupgradingof manpowerskills and provision of equipment; (b) Empoweringof pollutioncontrolagencies with the to requisitelegal mandateand financialcapacities carry out their dutieseffectively.

DI EXTENDING COVERAGE WASTE SERVICE BASIS ACTION FOR 21.38B y theendof thecentury, over2.0bi l lion people w i l l be w i thout accessto basi c sani tation, and an esti mated l ' ol ' the urbanpopul ati on n developing hal i w sol disposal countri es i l l be w i thoutadequate i dw ast e servi ces. s many as 5.2 rni l l i on peopl e,i ncluding4 A mi l l i on chi l drenunderfi ve yearsof age,di e eachyear from waste-related The health impacts are diseases. particularlyseverefor the urbanpoor. The healthand waste lnanageenvironmentalimpacts of inadequate ment, however,go beyond the unservedsettlements themsel ves resul ti n w ater.l and and a ir cont am iand E nati onand pol l uti onover a w i der area. xt ending and ser i mprovi ngw astecol l ecti on and safedi spo sal vices are crucial to gaining control over this form of polluti on.

OBJECTIVES R D EV C) HUM A N ES O U R C E EL OP M EN T 21.36Training would bc requiredto improve curuent practices includesafecollection to wastemanagement list The following is an indicative of and waste disposal. in that shouldbe takenby Governments, collabactions organizations: orationwith international ( a) P r ov i d i n g b o th to rn -ra a n d i n -s e rvi cetrai ni ng. l and disfocusedon pollLrtior.l control,wastetreatment p t - r s r le c h n o l o g i e sa n d o p e r a t i n ga n d n r a i n t a i n i n g t , w aste- re latedi nfiastrLlcture. I ntercountry staffexchange programnles shouldalsobe established; (b) Undertaking reqr-risite the trainingfbr waste-related pollr.rtion monitoring andcontrolen{rlrcement. 21.39The overall objective of this programmeis to provide health-protecting, Iy environmental safewaste col l ecti on anddi sposal servi ces al l people. over nto G ments,accordi ng thei r capaci ti es r to and av ailable esources w i th thecooperati on theU ni tedNat ions and of a n d o t h e r r e l e v a n t o r g a n i z a t i c l n s ,s a p p r o p r i a t e , a shoul d: (a) By the year 2000, have the necessary technical, flnancial and humanresource capacityto providewaste serviccs with collection commensurate needs: (b) By the year 2025. provide all urban populations with adequiite wasteservices: (c) By the year 2025, ensure that full urban waste servicecoverageis maintainedand sanitation coverage achieved all ruralarcas. in

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ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-RELATED ACTIVITIES 21.4AGovernments. accordingto their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the coopcrationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations. as should: appropriate, (a) Establish financingmechanisms wastemanagelbr ment servicedevelopment deprive-d in areas.including appropriate modesof revenuegeneration: (b) Apply the "polluter pays" principle.where appropriate,by settingwastemanagement charges ratesthat at reflect the costsof providing the serviceand ensurethat pay thosewho generate wastes thefull costof disposal the in an environmentally safeway; (c) Encourage institutionalization ofcomnrunities' parprocedures for ticipationin planningandimplernentation solid wastemanagement.

(a) Launcha settlement infrastructure andenvironment programmefollowing the United NationsConference on EnvironmentandDevelopment coordinate activities to the of all organizations the UnitedNationssysteminvolved of in this areaand include a clearing-house infonnation for dissemination all wastemanagement on issues; (b) Undertake reporlon progress and systematically in providingwasteservices thosewithout suchservices; to (c) Review the effectiveness techniqueslor and of approaches increasingcoverageand identify innovato tive ways of accelerating process. the

MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 21.43The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000)of irnplementing the activities of this programmeto be about $7.5 billion, includingabout$2.6 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alio, the specifrcstratcgies and progranrmes Govemments decideuponfor implementation.

B) DATA AND /NFORMATION with the United 21.41Governments. collaboration in Nations and international organizations. should undertakethe following: (a) Developingand applyingmethodologies waste for monitoring; (b) Data gatheringand analysisto establish goalsand monitor progress; (c) Inputtinginformationinto a _elobal informationsystem buildinguponexistingsvstems, (d) Strengthening activitiesof existingintbrmation the networksin orderto disseminate focusedinformationon the applicationof innovativeand low-cost alternatives for wastedisposalto targeted audiences.

8/ SC/ENI/FIC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 21.44Governments and institutions. togetherwith nongovernmentalorganizations.should, in collaboration with appropriateorganizations the United Nations of system, launch programmesin different parts of the developingworld to extend waste servicesto the unpopulations. served programmes These should. rvherever possible,build upon and reorient existing or planned activities. 21.45Policy changesat the national and local levels could enhance rateof wasteservicecoverage the extension.Thesechanges shouldincludethe following: (a) Giving full recognitionto and using the full range of low-cost options for waste management. including, where appropriate, their institutionalization and incorporationwithin codesof practiceand regulation; (b) Assigninghigh priority to the extensionof waste nanagementservices, necessary as and appropriate, to all settlements irrespective their legal status,giving of due emphasis meetingthe wastedisposal to needs the of unserved, especially unserved the urbanpoor: (c) Integrating provisionandmaintenance waste the of management services with other basic services such as water-supply and storm-water drainage.

ci /NTERNAI/ONA/ AND REG/ONAt ERAI/ON AND COORD/NAI/ON COOP 71.42Many United Nations and bilateral programmes exist that seek to provide water supply and sanitation sen'icesto the unserved. The Waterand Sanitation Collaborative Council, a global forum. currently acts to coordinatedevelopmentand encourage cooperation. Even so, given the ever-increasing numbersof unserved in urbanpoor populations the needto address, addiand tion. the problem of solid waste disposal,additional mechanisms essential ensure are to accelerated coverage of urbanwastedisposalservices. The international community in generaland selectedUnited Nations organizationsin particularshould:

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Countries. couldbe enhanced. 21.46Research activities in cooperation with appropriateinternational organtal za i zationsandnon-governmen or gani t i ons,shouId, f or instance: u'astes (a) Find solutions equiprnent managing for and islands. populations on sn-rall and in areas concentrated of refusestorage In particular,thereis a needfor appropriate and hygienic and coilectionsystemsand cost-effective humanwastedisposal options; (b) Prepareand disseminate guidclines,case-studies, policy reviews and technical reports on appropriate solutions and modes of service delivery to unserved low-incomeareas; (c) Launchcampaigns encourage to activecommunity participation involving women'sandyouth groupsin the waste; management waste,parlicularlyhouseht-lld of (d) Promoteintercountrytransferof relevanttechnologies, especiallytechnologies high-densitysettlefor ments.

21.48Improvementsin managementtechniquesare returnsin termsof improving likely to yield the greatest rvastemanagementservice efficiency. The United Naand financial institutions, internationalorganizations tions should, in collaborationwith national and local manageGovernments, developand renderoperational for ment informationsystems municipalrecordkeeping and accounting and for efficiency and effectiveness assessment.

D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 21.49Governments, institutionsand non-governmental organizatrons,with the collaboration of appropriate organizations the United Nations system,should of developcapacities implementprogramrnes provide to to waste collection and disposalservicesto the unserved populations.Some activities under the programmes shouldincludethe following: (a) Establishinga specialunit within current institutional arrangements plan and deliver servicesto the to poor communities, unserved with their involvementand participation; (b) Making revisions existingcodesandregulations to to perrnitthe useof the full rangeof low-costalternative technologies wastedisposal; tor (c) B ui l di ng i nsti tuti onalcapaci tyand d eveloping proceduresfor undertaki ng servi ce pl a nning and delivery.

DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 21.47Intemationalorganizations and national and locai in Governrnents, collaborationwith non-governnrental providefocused organizations, should trainingon low-cost particularly' wastecollectionand disposalopticlns, techIntercountr-.1 staff niquesfor their planning and deliverry. programmes exchange amongdeveloping countricscould fbrm part of such training. Particuiarattentionshoulci be givento upgrading status skillsof managcmcnt-lcvel the and personnel wastemanagement in agencies.

21A

) ) ^L z-

sound Sofe ond environmentolly monogement wostes of rodiooctive

P R O G R A M MA R E A E

havingonly nuclearapplications, suchsystems still are needed.

PROA'IOTING THE SAFEAND ENVIRONA/IENTALLY WASTES SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE BASIS ACTION FOR wastes generated thenuclear in fuel 22.1 Radioactive are cycle as well as in nuclear applications(the use of radionuclides medicine,research in and industry).The risk from radioactive wastes radiological and safety variesfrom very low in short-lived, low-level wastes up very large for high-level wastes.Annually about to waste 200,000m3 of low-level and intermediate-level and 10,000m3 of high-levelwaste (as well as spent nuclear fuel destinedfor final disposal)is generated world wide from nuclearpower production.Thesevolpowerunitsaretaken umesareincreasing morenuclear as into operation, facilitiesaredecommissioned and nuclear the useof radionuclides increases. high-levelwaste The containsabout99 per cent of the radionuclides thus and representsthe largest radiological risk. The waste volumesfrom nuclearapplications generallymuch are smaller.typically sometensof cubic metresor lessper year and country.However,the activity concentration, in mightbehigh,thus especially sealed radiation sources, j u s t i f y i n g v e r y s t r i n g e n tr a d i o l o g i c a lp r o t e c t i o n measures. growthof wastevolumes The should continue to be kept underclosereview. 21. 2 T he s af ean d e n v i ro n m e n ta l sy u n d m a n a gement lo w o f r adioac t iv e a s te s ,i n c l u d i n gth e i r mi n i mi zati on, g an t r ans por t at ion d d i s p o s a l i.s i m p o rta n t, i v en thei r In c har ac t er is t ic s . mo s t c o u n tri e sw i th a s u b stanti al nuclearpower programme,technicaland administrative measures have been taken to irnplementa wa-ste s . m anagem enty s te mIn ma n yo th e rc o u n tri e s ti l l onl y s in preparationfor a national nuclear programmeor

OBJECTIVE 22.3 The objectiveof this programmeareais to ensure that radioactive wastesare safelymanaged, transpofted, storedand disposed with a view to protecting human of, health and the environment,within a wider framework of an interactive and integratedapproachto radioactive wastemanagement and safety.

ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT. RELAT ACT ED IVITI ES 22.4 States, cooperation in with relevantinternational organizations, whereappropriate, should: (a) Promotepolicies and practical measurcs minto imize and limit, where appropriate, the generationof radioactive wastes and providefor their safeprocessing, conditioning,transpofiation disposal; and (b) Supportefforts within IAEA to develop and promulgateradioactive wastesafetystandards guidelines or andcodes practice an internationally of as accepted basis for the safeandenvironmentally soundmanagement and disposal radioactir,e wastes: of (c) Promotesaf'estorage, and disposal transportation of radioactive wastes, well as spentradiationsources as and spentfuel from nuclearreactorsdestinedfor final disposal,in all countries,in particular in developing countries, facilitatingthe transferof relevanttechnoby logiesto thosecountries and/orthe returnto the supplier of radiationsources with after their use, in accordance relevantinternational regulations guidelines; or (d) Promoteproperplanning,includingenvironmental impact assessment whereappropnate, safeand enviof

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of ronmentally sound management radioactivewaste, procedures, storage. transportation includingemergency and disposal,prior to and after activitiesthat generate suchwaste.

MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON 22.6 The costs at the national level of managingand wastes considerable will are and disposing radioactive of vary, depending the technologyusedfor disposal. on 22.1 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averhas organto agetotal annualcost( 1993-2000) international to izationsto implementthe activitiesof this programme be about $8 million. Actual costs and financial terms, will depend including any that are non-concessional, and upon, inter alia, the specificstrategies programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.

AND REGIONAL B/ /NIERN,AI/ONAi. AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERAIION 22.5 States,in cooperationwith relevant intemational where appropriate,should: organizattons, (a) Strc'ngthen their efforts to implementthe Code of 1\{ovements o1'RadittPracticeon the Transboundary o1'IAEA.in cooperactiveWasteand,underthe auspices dealing ation with relevant intemationalorganizations keep the questionof with differentmodesof transport, such movementsunder active review, including the of a desirability concluding legallybindinginstrument; (b) Encouragethe London Dumping C'onventiott to on expeditework to completestudies replacingthe current voluntary moratorium on disposal of low-level radioactivewastesat seaby a ban, taking into account with a view to taking a well approach, the precautionary informedand timely decisionon the issue: (c) Not promote or allow the storageor disposalof and high-level,intermediate-level low-level radioactive wastesnear the marine environmentunlessthey deterwith the applicconsistent mine that scientificevidence, able internationallyagreed principles and guidelines, poses unacceptable no thatsuchstorage disposal or shows or risk to people and the marine environtnent doesnot with otherlegitimateusesof the sea,making,in interf'ere appropriate of the conuse of the process consideration, approach; cept of the precautionary (d) Not export radioactivewastesto countriesthat, proindividually or through internationalagreements, hibit the import of such wastes,suchas the contracting parties to the Bamako Conventionon the Ban of the lmport into Africa and the Control of Transboundary within Africa, thefourth Wastes N{ovement Hazardous of where or conventions. Lom6 Convention otherrelevant for; suchprohibitionis pror,'ided (e) Respect, accordance law. the with international in to decisions, far as applicable them, takenby parties as to other relevant regional environmentalconventions of dealing with other aspects safe and environmentally wastes. of soundmanagement radioactive

MEANS 8/ sC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL 22.8 States,in cooperationwith internationalorganizations,whereappropriate, should: (a) Promoteresearch and developmentof methodsfor processing thesafeandenvironmentally sound treatment, of anddisposal, includingdeepgeological disposal, highlevel radioactive waste ; (b) Conductresearch assessment programmes conand cerned with evaluating the health and environmental impact of radioactive wastedisposal.

/NCtUD/NG HUMAN c) .APAC\TY-BU|LD\NG, R E S OU R C E V E LOP MFN I DE 22.9 States,in cooperationwith relevant international assistance organizations, shouldprovide,asappropriate, to developingcountriesto establishand/or strengthen radioacti ve wastemanagement infrastructure including s, legislation, organizations,trained manpower and fastorage disposal and cilities for the handling,processing, of wastesgenerated from nuclearapplications.

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Section3

Strengthening the Roleof Moiot Groups

23

Preomble

23.1 Critical to the effective implementationof the objectives, policies and mechanisms agreedto by Governments in all programmeareasof Agenda 2l will be the commitment and genuine involvement of all social groups. 23.2 One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement sustainable of development broadpublic is participation in decision-making. Furthermore,in the more specific context of environmentand development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includesthe needof individuals, groupsand organizations to participate in environmentalimpact assessment proceduresand to know about and participate in decisions,particularly thosewhich potentially affect the communities which they live and work. Individuals, in

groupsand organizations shouldhaveaccess informato tion relevant to environment and developmentheld by national authorities,including information on products and activitiesthat have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment,and information on environmental protectionmeasures. 23.3 Any policies, definitions or rules affecting access to and participationby non-governmental organizations in the work of United Nations institutions or agencies associated with the implementationof Agenda 21 must apply equally to all major groups. 23.4 The prograrnmeareasset out below addressthe means for moving towards real social partnership in supportof common efforts for sustainable development.

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val ues: (h) To consideradopting. miurpar-ticipationnational in ccosystetn regzud wor-nen's to degradation: and agement controlof environment ( b) T o inc re a s e h c -p ro p o rti o no f w o m en deci si on l and technical advisers.particularly theinforntalsector.strengthening enforcing and prohibitingviolenceagainstwomen and to legislation 220 . and tensiol workersin enyironment development (c) To consider and by developing issuing theyear2000 to a strategyof changesnecessary eliminate constitusocial cultural.4/4*5/6?5. with non-governmental organizations. tional. wcll as throughtraining institutions.curricula and other educationalmaterial. (d) To establish the year 1995 mechanisms the at by the levels to assess national. to with a view to promotingthe dissemination both men knowledgeand appreciand women of gender-relevant ation of women's roles throughformal and non-formal in as education. review.behavioural. in particular the N airobi Forward-looki n g Strategies for the Advancemc-nt clf Wonten. (gt To irnplemcnt.eand equal employrnent.educationand means.r'illdepend on the active involvernent of rvomen in economic and political decision-making and ivill be critical to the successful i m p l e m e n t a t i o no f A g e n d a 2 1 . anncx) and conventions of tLO and UNESCO have also been discrimination and ensure adopted to end gender-based wornen accessto land and other resources. of includingthe promotion \ . including the Convention of on the E. lacilitatingbetteraccess all lbrms of by takingmeasures in credit.administrative. and policiesand national strategies plansfor of of the achievement equality in all aspects society. enablethem to exercisethis right in held dignity andpersonally keepingwith theirfreedom. legal. equal and benr:flcialintcgration of women in alldeveloprnentactivi ti es. Protection and Developnrent of Chilclren and the Plan ctfAction f or irnplementing the Declaration (. a matterof urgency.t I i'he following objectives proposed national G ov er nnt e n ts : ( a ) 1 o r r n p l e m e n tt h e N a i r o b i F o r r v a r d . collaboration (0 To formulate and implcrnent clear govetnmental guidelines.l o o k i n g with panicularly of for Strategics theAdvancement Wotnen.annex).l which emphasize women's participation in national and intemational ecosystenr management and control of environment degradation. OBJECTIVES ftrr are l. fields. managers exmakers.24 towords sustoinoble for Globoloction women development ond equitoble AR PROGRAMME EA FORACTION BASIS 24. accordance in as measures ensure to that u'ith country-specific conclitions. right to decidefreely and women and men have the sarne of andspacing theirchildrenand responsibly number the have access information.1 The internationalcontmunity has endorsed several plans clf action and ceinventionsfor the full.regionaland international and and implementation irnpactof development environon ment policiesand programlnes women and to ensure their contributions and beneflts: (e) To assess. where appropriate. Also relevant are the 1990 World Dcclaration on the Sun'ival. education.nutritionand healthand their participation positions in management the of and key decision-making particularlyas it pertains their access to to environnrent" to resources. Several conl'entions. wonlen'saccess propertyrights as to towardsensuring well as agriculturai inputsand implements. Effective implementation of thesc prograrnlnes r.lirnination All Forms of Discrimination against Wornen (General Assembiy resolution 34l180. revise and implement.as to Ltl appropriate.eclucationand saf. literacy. in to and economicobstacles women'sfull participation and sustainable development in publiclife.olnen's in training.planners.

Progriunmes shouldfully supportwomen'sproductive and reproductiveroles and well-being and should pay special attention to the need to provide equal and improved health care for all children and to reducethe risk of maternaland child mortality and sickness. social and educational measures eliminate violenceagainst to womenin all its forms. dignity and personally held values. including thepreparation a review andappraisal of report which includesrecommendations be submittedto the to 1995 world conferenceon women. which include womencentred.managers. the media.and to promote the provision of environmentallysoundtechnologies which have been designed.6 Countriesshould take urgent measures avert the to ongoing rapid environmentaland economicdegradation 221 .developedand improved in consultationwith women. ACTIVITIES 24. 24.particularlyday-carefacilities and parentalleave.4 Governmentsare urged to ratify all relevant conventions pertaining to women if they have not already done so.required under particulararticlesof the Convention. advertising. responsible planning of family size and services. (d) Programmes to promote the reduction of the heavy workload of women and girl children at home and outside through the establishmentof more and affordable nurseries andkindergartens Governments. land and other naturalresources. including p:e-natalcare. constitutionaland administrative procedures transformagreedrights into domesto tic legislation and should adopt measures implement to them in order to strengthen legal capacityof women the for full and equalparticipationin issuesand decisionson sustainable development. and to increase educational and training opportunitiesfor women and girls in sciences and technology.technology. education and information on health and responsibleparenthood. (b) Measures to strengthen and empower women's bureaux. safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable. (i) Prograrnmesto eliminate persistent negative images. creative banking facilitiesandlow-costhousing. accessibleand clean water.women-managed.accessible.and formal and non-formal education.women's non-governmentalorganizations and women'sgroupsin enhancing capacity-building susfor tainabledevelopment.in keeping with freedom. and equal accessto credit.5 Statespartiesto the Conventionon the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen should review and suggestamendments it by the year 2000.in order to encourageinvestmentin environmentallysoundproductive activities and induce environmentally and socially friendly industrial development. Programmes shouldfocus on providing comprehensivehealth care. attitudes andprejudices againstwomen through changes in socialization patterns. scientistsand technicaladvisersin the design. and shouldprovidethe opportunityfor all women to fully breastfeed leastduring the first four monthspost-parat tum.stereotypes. G) Programmes to establish rural banking systems with a view to facilitating and increasingrural women's accessto credit and to agricultural inputs and implements: (h) Programmesto develop consumerawareness and the active participation of women. an efficient fuel supply and adequate sanitationf4cilities. emphasizing their crucial role in achievingchangesnecessary reduceor to eliminateunsustainable patterns consumption of andproduction. Statesparties should also clarify the extent of the Convention'sscope with respectto the issuesof environmentand development and requestthe Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines regarding the nature of reporting such issues. giving specialattentionto the issueof accessand entitlements to natural resources. particularly at the post-secondary level. by local authorities. 0) Measuresto review progressmade in these areas.take all necessaryadminisbative. to with a view to strengthening thoseelementsof the Convention relatedto environmentand development.development and implementationof policies and programmes sustainable for development.3 Governmentsshould take active stepsto implement the following: (a) Measuresto review policies and establishplans to increasethe proportion of women involved as decision makers. 24.planners. A) AREAS REQU/RING URGENT ACTTON 24. (c) Measures eliminateilliteracy amongfemalesand to to expand the enrolment of women aurd girls in educational institutions. (f) Programmesto support and strengthenequal employment opportunitiesand equitable remunerationfor women in the formal and informal sectors with adequate economic. the controlof pollution and and toxicity in the home and workplace.including child care.employers and other relevant organizations and the sharingof householdtasksby men and women on an equal basis.as appropriate. particularly in industrializedcountries. (e) Programmes establishand strengthen to preventive and curative health facilities. Those that have ratified conventions should enforce and establishlegal.political and social support systemsand services.to promotethe goal of universalaccess to primary and secondary educationfor girl children and for women.

urisuitablcagrc'-chcnrical 1.t1 bases. 222 . particularlv dror. the specific strategies and programmesGovernrnents decide upon for implernentation.using reviseciguidelinesf or the United Nations S v s t e r nt r f N a t i o n a l A c c o u n t s . (g) Prograrnrnes 1<.governmentsand non-govemmentalorganizations involvedin the follow-up to the Conference theimplementation Agenda2l should and of ensure that genderconsiderations fully integrated are intcl all the policies. of 24. accordance Economicand SocialCouncil resolution1991l17on the improvementof the status women in the Secretariat. depend will upon.U A TION A 21. deserrification.arnrcdhostilities.12The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) intplementing of the activitiesof this chapterto be about$.'omen's a focal point on development and environmentin each of its residentrepresentative officesto provideinformationand promoteexchange of experience informationin these fields. women should be fully involvcd in decision-making and in the implen-rentation o f s u s t a i n a b l e e v e l o o m e n ta c t i v i t i e s .\. including any that are non-concessional. UNDP shouldestablish \. research and rcsource centres in developing and developed countrie\ that wrll serveto disseminateenvironr n e r t t a l l ts o u n d t e c h n o l o g i e s o \ \ ' o m e n .t o b e i s s u e di n 1 9 9 3 : (t) I\{eiisures develop and inclLrde to environmental. ln rt:su'rrrclt donc c-utstructural adjustment programnres. where appropriate. by Actual costs and financial terms.Institutions in thatrequirespecial attention this area include the Division for the Advancement Women of (Centrefor Social f)evelopmentand Humanitarian Affairs.rght.SEMINAI/ON INFORMAI/ON OF ('ountries should develop gender-sensitivedatal-tr. Bodiesof the and United Nations system. in meetingdevelopment environment and objectives.inter ulia. toxic rvasteand the aftermath of the use of products.c i i i lo n s . t T ' h ei n t e g r a t i o n f t h e v a l u eo f u n p a i dr v o r k .in dcveloping countriesthat generally atfects the lives of \'omen and children in rural areas sLrfferingdrouglrt. c r r v i n r n r t t c na n d d c v c l o p m e n t . programmcs activities.social and genclcr irnpact analyses as an essential step in the ancl developrnc-n1 monitoring of prograrnmesand policies. suslow-income in tainabledevelopment and in decision-rnaking. and make recommendations strengthening fbr their capacities.toxic chemiea l s i l r t da n r e c l h o s t i l i t i e s : (rj ) .\nalvsis of the structural linkages between gender r .education and health and in the remrlvai of subsidiescln tbcld and fuel: (c) The impact ()n women of environmental degradation.adopt progranlmes increase to in with that nurnber. with a view to promoting operationalprogrammes and projectson sustainable development that will strengthen particithe pationof women.1. rtification and delorcstation. the International Research TrainingInstitutefor the Adand vancementof Women (INSTRAW) and the women's programmes regionalcommissions. reviewshould The of considerhow the environmentand developmentprogrammesof each body of the United Nations system could be strengthened implernerlt Agenda2l and how to to incorporatethe role of women in programmes and decisions relatedto sustainable developmenf. in resource accounting mechanisms in order better to reprcscnt thi: truc value of the contribution of rvomen to the cconon)v. N D/S. t ( c .specialaitention should be given to the difl-erential inipact o1'thoseprograrnmcson women. United NationsOffice at Vienna). inforn-ration systems and participatory actionorientcd research and policy analyses with the coliaboration of acaclemic institLrtionsand local women rcsearchers the following: on (at Knowledge and experience on the part of women of' thc managenrcnt trndconsen.11UNIFEM should establish regularconsultations with donorsin collaboration with UNICEF.l create rural and urban training.10 million from the intemational communityon grantor concessional terms. natudese rai disasters.7In order to reachthesegoals. 74J0 Each body of the United Nations systemshould review the numberof women in seniorpolicy-leveland decision-makingposts and. and MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF F/N A N C /N G N D C OS I E V A I. I c j / N T F R N A T / O N AA N D R E G / O N A L COOPERAI/ON ND COORD/NAI/ON A l-{. especially in lr-rnrsot'cut-hacks in sociai scrvices. d 8 l R E S F A R C HD A T AC O L L F C T T OA N D . These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates onlv and havenot beenreviewed Governments. (b) The' irnpact of structural adjustment prograffunes on worncn.especially wornen.t) I'hc Sccretary-Generalofthe United Nations should rcr icu the adequacy of all United Nations institutions.ationclf natural resources lor incorporation in thc databasesand intbrmation systems for sristainablcdeveloprnent. i n c l u d o rng u'ork that is currently designated "domestic". ' t includingthosewith a special focuson therole of women.the United Nations DevelopmentFund for Women (UNIFEM).

l V . s e c t . Noirobi. I ltJ . 8 5 . Development ond Peoce. 15-26 July 1985 (United . . .Reporf of the World Conference to Review ond Approise fhe Achievementsof the United Nofions Decode for Women: Equality. A . l 0 )c h o p t e r l. E . N o t i o n s p u b l i c o t i o nS o l e sN o .

In addition to their intellectual contributionandtheir ability to mobilize support. 25.6 Each country should undertakeinitiatives aimed at particureducingcurrentlevels of youth unemployment.9 Governments.These planning.4 Each country should. that within the 25.are enrolled in or have access appropriatesecondary to education or equivalenteducational vocationaltraining or programmes increasingparticipationand access by rates on an annualbasis. larly where they are disproportionately high in comparison to the overall unemploymentrate.in consultationwith its youth 224 .INTRODUCTION 25"1 Youth comprise nearly 30 per cent of the world's population. establisha processto promote dialogue between the youth community and Government at all levels and to establish mechanismsthat permit youth access information and provide them with the opporto tunity to presenttheir perspectives governmentdecion sions.opportunities and thesupportnecessary for them to fulfil their personal.theybring uniqueperspectives needto be takeninto account.by the year 2000. 1993.2 lt is imperativethat youth from all partsof the world participate levelsof decision-making activelyin all relevant processes because affectstheir lives today andhasimpliit cations for their futures. of P R O G R A M MA R E A S E AND Al ADVANCTNG ROLE YOTTTH TF|E OF IN ACTIVETY INVOTVINGIHE'YT THEPROIECTION AND THEPRO}TONONOF OF THEENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAIDEVETOPfrIENT ECONO}Trc FOR BASIS ACNON 25. and shouldconsiderprovidingall youth with legal protection. issues needto be addressed development in communities. genderbalanced.economic and social aspirations potentials.accordingto their strategies. 25.3 Numerousactionsand recommendations internationalcommunity have been proposedto ensure that youth are provided a secure and healthy future.5 Each country.includingthe implementation Agenda21. particulariy young women and girls. should ensurethat more than 50 per cent of its youth.8 Each country shouldcombathuman rights abuses againstyoung people.skills. OBJECTVES 25. improved standards to of living and access educationand employment. and ACTIVITIES 25.7 Eachcountryandthe United Nationsshouldsupport the promotion and creation of mechanismsto involve youth representation all United Nations processes in in order to influencethoseprocesses.in possible of by decision-making processes with regardto the environment. national and regionallevels. of 25. involving youth at the local. including an environmentof quality.The involvementof today'syouth in environment and developmentdecision-makingand in the implementationof prograrnmes critical to the long-term is success Agenda21. 25. should take measures to: (a) Establish proceduresallowing for consultation and participation youth of both genders. (b) Promotedialoguewith youth organizations regarding the drafting and evaluationof environmentplansand programmesor questionson development.

5 million on to activitiesof this terms. grammesGovernments DEVETOPMENT B) CHIIDRENlN SUSTAINABTE FOR BASIS ACTION of 25. (0 Establishtask forces that include youth and youth non-goverrlmentalorganizations to develop educational and awarenessprogramlnes specifically targeted to the youth population on critical issuespertainingto youth. to: shouldtake measures of anddevelopment (a) Ensure survival. implement strategiesfor creating alternative employment opportunities and provide required training to young men and women.They are also highly aware supportersof of thinking. literacyand povertyalleviation.10The United Nations and internationalorganizato: shouldtake measures tions with youth programmes (a) Review their youth programmesand considerhow betweenthem can be enhanced. and otherorganizations (g) Give support to programmes.non-govemmental in shouldassist thesetaskforces. OBJECTIVES to according their policies. focusingparticularly on the needsof youth from developingcountries. a 1985 nd1989. local media. 25.projects.providing alternativelearning structures. involvementof youth in project identification. 1990World Summitfor Children(A1451625.developand izations. children and indigenous 225 . and environmental development MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 25.nutriespecially environmentand developn-rent. Thesetaskforcesshoulduseformal andnon-formaleducaNationaland tional methodsto reacha maximum audience. 25.Actual costsand financial will terms.13Nationalgovernments. accordance to international GeneralAssemblyresolutionsadoptedin 1968. education. the andmonitorandevaluate applicationof Agenda21. careactivitiesthat (c) Promoteprimaryenvironmental addressthe basic needsof communities. practicalskills. people.in accordance annex). inter alia.suchasenvironmental creasing (e) In cooperationwith relevant ministries and organof includingrepresentatives youth.includingany that are non-concessional. These are indicative and grant or concessional order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments. wherever appropriate. (c) Promote the United Nations Trust Fund for the InternationalYouth Yearand collaboratewith youth repof in resentatives the administration it. implementation in (h) Include youth representatives their delegations with therelevant in meetings.Furthermore.annex).(c) Consider for incorporation into relevant policies the of rccommendations intemational. l9ll .improve the environmentfor children at the householdand comthe participationand emmunity level and encourage powerment of local populations.youth organizationsand other non-governand on mentalorganizations ctrrent youthpositions activities.The specificinterests children environmental need to be taken fully into accountin the participatory processon environmentand developmentin order to of the safeguard future sustainability any actionstaken to improvethe environment. destrategiesand propend upon.12Childrennot only will inherit the responsibility looking after the Earth.but in many developingcountries they comprisenearly half the population.14Governments (a) Implement programmesfor children designedto of in goalsof the 1990s the areas reachthe child-related health. of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe programme be about$1.towardsthe obyouth.implementing scouting.design. of (b) Ensurethat the interests childrenaretakenfully for process sustainable into accountin the participatory improvement. and expand vocational innovativemethodsaimedat intraining. and follow-up.including wolnen.ensurethat educationreflects the economic the and social needsof youth and incorporates concepts of environmental awarenessand sustainabledevelopment throughout the curricula. countries childrenin both developingand industrialized are highly vulnerable to the effects of environmental degradation.protection the by with the goalsendorsed the children. coordination of (b) Improve the dissemination relevantinformationto govemments. businesses organizations.at the earliest the addressing basicneedsof youth and children. the specific decideupon for implementation. and socialandeconomicdevelopment resource (d) Ensure for access allyouth to all typesof education.11 The Conference secretariat has estimated the aver- ACTIVITIES shouldtake activestepsto: 25. tion. networks.regional and local youth and conferences otherforumsthat offer youth penpectiveson mirnagement. (b) Ratify the Conventionon the Rights of the Child (GeneralAssembly resolution 44125of 20 November momentandimplementit by 1989. national organizations and youth non-governmental to organizations examinethe integrationof programmes the encouraging in relationto their projectrequirements.

jective of integrated community management of resources. Governmentsand non-governmental to organizations developprogrammes for children and programmesto mobilize children in the activities outlined above. UNICEF cooperate andcollaborationwith other shouldmaintaincooperation organizationsof the United Nations.including thoseconcerningallocationof and entitlement to natural resources.or* healthcentresso that childrenand their parents of effective focal points for sensitization communitiesto : .N RESOURCE DEVELaPMENT AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 25.and control of pollution and toxicity in both rural and urbanareas.with overriding attentionto the educationof the girl child.lS Internationaland regional orgamzatrons should and coordinatein the proposedareas. especiallyin developingcountries.16Financingrequirements most of the activities for are included in estimatesfor other programlnes' B) HUMA. including educationfor environmentaland developmentalresponsibility. : envlronmenttu (0 Establishprocedures incorporatechildren's conto for cernsinto all relevantpolicies and strategies environment and developmentat the local. regionaland national levels. (e) Mobilize communitiesthrough schoolsand local u.17The activitiesshould facilitate capacity-building andtrainingactivitiesalreadycontainedinotherchapters of Agenda 21' 226 . (d) Expand educationalopportunitiesfor children and youth. Z5. lssues. housing and recreation needs.. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC'NGAND cosT EVALUATI?N 25.

continues be essential the culto tural.presents timely opportunity to mobilize further international technical and fi nancial cooperation. (v) Development and strengtheningof national dispute-resolution in of arrangements relation to settlement land and resource-management concerns.They a over many generations holistictradihavedeveloped tional scientificknowledgeof their lands. BASIS ACTION FOR havean peopleandtheir communities 26. peopleand (ii) Recognition thatthe landsof indigenous from activitiesthat their communitiesshouldbe protected are environmentally unsound or that the indigenous peopleconcerned considerto be socially and culturally inappropriate. social. peopleand their communities. economicand physical well-beingof indigenous people. shouldrecognize.proclaimed the General Assemblyin its resby OBJECTIVES 26. on renewable to tainableharvesting.naturalrepeopleand their Indigenous sources and environment. where appropriate.traditionalknowledge practiceswith a view to proand resourcemanagement developmoting environmentally soundand sustainable menU (iv) Recognition that traditionaland direct dependence including susresources and ecosystems. In view of the and between naturalenvironment the interrelationship its sustainable developmentand the cultural. conrmunitiesshall enjoy the full measureof human without hindrance or freedoms rightsand fundamental discrinrination.l Some of the goals inherentin the objectivesand activitiesof this programmeareaare alreadycontained as in such internationaliegal instruments the ILO InConvention(No.The lntemational Year for the World's IndigenousPeople (1993).1Indigenous historicalrelationshipwith their landsand are generof ally descendants the original inhabitantsof such lands.being prepared the United Naon indigenous tions working group on indigenouspopulations.) A Z-V the nizingond strengthening roleof Recog ond indigenous people theircommunities P R O G R A M MA R E A E a of olution 451164 18 December1990.intergovernmentalorganizationsshould aim at fulfillins the following objectives: (a) Establishment a process empowerindigenous of to people and their communities through measuresthat include: (i) Adoption or strengtheningof appropriatepolicies at and/orlegal instruments the nationallevel. basedon the adaptation 227 .Governmentsand. (vi) Support for alternative environmentally sound meansof productionto ensurea rangeof choiceson how to improvetheir quality of life so thatthey caneffectively participatein sustainable development. 169) and digenousand Tribal Peoples into the draft universaldeclaration arebeingincorporated by rights.Inwhich the peopleconcerned digenouspeople and their communitiesrepresenta of significantpercentage the global population. (iii) Recognitionof their values.3 ln full partnership with indigenouspeopleand their communities. In the context of this chapterthe term "lands" of to is understood include the environment the areas traditionallyoccupy. social and historical nature. nationaland international efforts to implement development environmentallysound and sustainable promoteandstrengthen accommodate.Their ability to participate fully in practiceson their lands has development sustainable tendedto be limited as a result of factorsof an economic. economicand physical well-beingof indigenous peopleand their communities. (vii) Enhancement capacity-building indigenous for of of and exchange communities. thcrole of indigenous 16.

full partnership in with indigenous peopleand their communitiesshould.where appropriate.knowledge traditional experience. arrangements of to strengthenthe active participation of indigenous peopleandtheircommunities thenationalformulation in of policies.and applying this to contemporary development challenges . The following are someof the specificmeasures which Governments could take: (a) Consider ratiflcationandapplication existing the of international conventions relevantto indigenous people (wherenot yet done)and provide and their communities supportfor the adoptionby the GeneralAssemblyof a declaration indigenous on rights. Actual costs and financial 228 . in decisions affecting them.laws and prograrrrmes relating to resource management otherdevelopment processes may and that affect them. 26. ensure to their sustainable development. 26. appropriate. greatercontrol over their lands. (d) Contributeto the endeavours indigenouspeople of andtheircommunities resource in management conand (suchasthosethat may be developed servationstrategies under appropriateprojects funded through the Global Environment Facility and the Tropical Forestry Action Plan)andotherprogramme areas Agenda21. example. Under this procedure. (b) Adopt or strengthenappropriatepolicies and/or legalinstruments will protectindigenous that intellectual andculturalpropertyandthe right to preserve customary and administrative systems and practices. (c) Involvementof indigenouspeopleand their communities at the national and local levels in resource management conservation and strategies otherrelevand ant prografiunes established supportand review susto development strategies.and organizeannual interorganizational coordinationmeetingsin consultation with Governments and indigenous organizations. ft) Provide technicaland financial assistance cafor pacity-buildingprograrnmes supportthe sustainable to self-developmentof indigenouspeople and their communities. these policies and prograrnmes should take fully into account strategies basedon local indigenous initiatives.by promotfor ing the adaptationand disseminationof suitabletechnological innovations.in particular regardingregional and internationalcooperativeefforts. as anddevelopa procedure within and between operational agenciesfor assistingGovernmentsin ensuringthe coherentand coordinated incorporation the views of of indigenous peoplein the designand implementation of policies and programmes. analyseand use data and other information in support of sustainable development projects.drawing on the activeparticipationof peopleandtheircommunities. contributionof indigenous women. appropriate. andresource-management practices.including of programmesto collect. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 26.-5 United Nations organizations and other international development and financeorganizations Govand ernments should. inter alia.self-management their of participation development resources. In addition.whereappropriate: (a) Develop or strengthennational arrangementsto consult with indigenouspeople and their communities with a view to reflecting their needsand incorporating their values and traditional and other knowledge and practicesin nationalpoliciesand programmes thefield in of natural resourcemanagement and conservation and other development progranxne affecting them. participation in theestablishrnent management protected or of areas.7 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averhas age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activities of this programmeto be about $3 million on grant or concessional terms. (b) Establishment. and their initiation of proposalsfor such policiesand programmes. of ACTIVITIES 26.4 Some indigenouspeople and their communities may require. s (b) Cooperateat the regionallevel. These are indicativeand order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments. to incorporate views and knowledge. tainable suchasthosesuggested in otherprogramme areas Agenda21. in- digenouspeople and their communitiesshould be informed and consultedand allowed to participatein national decision-making. to addresscomfiton indigenousissueswith a view to recognizing and strengthening their participation susin tainabledevelopment.including.in resource management and otherpoliciesand programmes that may affect them: (a) Appoint a specialfbcal point within each international organization. where appropriate.6 Governments. indigenous as take the following measures.includingthe unique their values. (c) Strengthen research and education programmes aimedat: (i) Achieving a better understandingof indigenous people'sknowledgeand management experience related to the environment. in accordance with national legislation. whereappropriate. (ii) Increasingthe efficiency of indigenouspeople's resourcemanagement systems.

229 .and to contribute to and participatein sustainable and equitabledevelopmentat the national level. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. Particular attention should be given to strengthening role of indigenous the women. AND ADM/N/srRAr/y TRAMEwoRKs E B) LEGAL 26.will terms.in collaboration with the indigenouspeople affected. the rights and responsibilities of indigenous people and their communities in the legislationof eachcountry.9 Internationaldevelopmentagenciesand Governments should commit financial and other resourcesto education and training for indigenouspeople and their communities developtheir capacities achievetheir to to sustainableself-development.g Governmentsshould incorporate.suitableto the country'sspecificsituation.including any that are non-concessional. depend upon. Developingcountriesmay requiretechnical assistance implement to these activities. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 26. inter alia.

6 With a view to strengthening the role of nongovernmentalorganizationsas social partners.8 Governments international and bodies shouldpromote and allow the participationof non-governmental organizations in the conception. enabled and strengthcncd in support of efforfs to achieve these c ( ) n r m o ng o a l s . of 230 . independence is a major attribute of non-govenrmental organizations and is the prcconclitionof real participation.e s t a b w iishe-cl and divcrse experience. establishment and evaluationof official mechanismsand formal proceduresdesigned to reviewthe implementation Agenda2I atall levels.7 By 1995.atrons.lr. The chances ril' lilrging such a sense of prirylosewill clependon the rvillingnessof all sectorsto participatein genuine social partnership and dialogue.the fullest is possible communication cooperation and betweeninternationalorganizations.2 One of the major challengesfacing the world contntunitv as it seeksto replace unsustainable development patterns with environmentally sound and sustainable developnlent is the need to activate a sense of common pLrrposeon behalf of all sectors of society.i . should ils b e r e c o g n i z e d a s p a r t n e r s i n t h e i m p l e r n c n t a t i c l no f Agenda 21.a mutuallyproductivedialogueshouldbe established thenationallevelbetween Governments at all and non-governmental organi zati ons and t heir self organized networks to recognize and strengthentheir respective rolesin implementing environmentally sound and sustainable development. 17. consultation in with non-goverrrmental organizations.to review formal procedures and mechanisms for the involvementof theseorganizations all levels at from policy-makinganddecision-making implemento tati on. p o s s e s s e l l . while recognizing the independent roles.. nationaland local governments andnon-governmental organizations shouldbe promoted in institutionsmandated. including those rron.expertise and capacity in fielcls u'hich will be of particular importance to the implcinc'ntation and review of environrnentally sound and socially responsiblesustainable development. 27.5 Society. Governments and international bodies shoulddevelopmechanisms allow non-governmental to organizations play their partnership to role responsibly and effectivelyin the process environmentally of sound and sustainable development.. 27.1Non-goveil)mental organizations. Non-governmental organizations will also need to foster cooperationand communicationamongthemselves reinforcetheir effecto tiveness actorsin the implementation sustainable as of devel opment.4 To ensure that the full potential contribution of non-governmental organizations realized. OBJECTIVES 27.the United Nationssystemand Govemments shouldinitiate a process. The nature of the independentrole played by non-governmental organizations within a society calls fbr real participation: therelore. well as grass-rootsnlovements. 27..prof it organizationsrepresentinggroups addressed i n t h c p r c s e n ts e c t i o no f A g e n d a 2 1 . Formal and inlbrmal org:rni. programmes and designed to carry out Agelrda 21. t h e r e f c l r e .as ellrisaged throughout Agenda 21.o f f e r s a o global network that should be tapped. 27. 27. The community of n ( r n . I N n n .rpi g uriri rrr crricntati ol' participatory democrr rpl on -['hei r:ac r credi bi I i tv I ies i n the responsible and constnlcv Ine rolc lhel pla] in srlcietv. responsibilitiesand special capacities of each.27 the Strengthening roleof non-governmentol Portners sustoinoble orgonizotions: for development PROGRAMME EA AR BASIS FORACTION l .. s o v e r n n r e n i ao r g a n i z a t i o n s l a v a v i t a l r o l e i n l p ! ltr: .g ( ) \ ' e l ' n n r e n t a l r g a n i z a t i o n s .

as appropriate.11 Depending on thc outcome of rcvieu' processes and the evolution of r.'ing the participation of non-governnrentalclrganizationsin the processes established to rer. i n c l u d i n g s u p p o r tf o r developin g country non -governntcntalorganizationsand their sell-organizednetworks.a n d a l l i n tergovernnrental r:rganizations and lbrurns should.9 The LlniteclNations systern. w i l l b e s i g n i f i c : a nb u l c a n n o t b e r e l i a l . ( c ) I n v o l v e n o n . in accordance u ' i t h t h e r e v i e w .which could serveto: u orks representing ( i ) considerthe rights and responsibilitiesof'theseorganizations: (ii I efficiently channel integraled non-governnrental inputs to the governmental policy development process:and (iii ) facilititte non-governmentalcoordina- tion in implernenting national policies at the programnrc level: (b) Encourage and enable partnership and dialogue between local non-governmental clrganizationsand local authorities in activities ainred at sustainable development. take measures to: (a) Review and report on ways of enhancing existing procedures and mechanisms by rvhich non-governmental organizations contribute to policy design.rrppclrt of their establishrnentof.antl pror icle 231 .r. where they do not exist. p o v erty alleviation and cnvironnrentalprotection and rehabilitation: (d) Take into accountthe lindings r:f non-govcrnntental monitoring and revieu. prosr'. with a view to augmenting their role as social partners: (d) Design open and effective means of achier.. (f) Tlrke into account the findings of non-govemmental processes in relevant rel'iew s)'stems and evalr"ration reports of the Secretary-General to the Gencral Assembly'.e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f i e l d s o f e d u c a t i o n .. decisionanclevaluation at the individual rnaking. (e) Review government education systems to identil'r' w a y s t o i n c l u d e a n d e x p a n d t h e i n v o l v e n t e n to 1 ' n o n governmental organizations in the f ielci of lbrrnal and informal education and of public awareness: (f) Make available and accessible non-govrrnrnental to lirr and organizationsthe cLata infbrnration ncccssarr' their' effective contribution tr) rescitrch itntl to lht ilesi.nrechanisms and procedureswithin each agency to draw on the expertise and views of non-governmental organizations in policy and programme design. 1 2 T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n so l ' t h c l .ACTIVITIES 21. and evaluation ol' Agencla 2 | progranrnres. making the best use ol-their particular c a p a c i t i e s .lrilntes" implementation and eviiluatiortcil- MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A ' F / N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T I O N 27.g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a f tions to accurateand timely data and informaticln to promote the ef1'ectiveness f thcir prograntmes and o l u c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e i r n r l e s i n s r . relative: l"v* limited but unprcdictahlc.i n i t e d a t i o n s s y s t e n l N and other intcrgovcrnnrcntalorganizations and forurrris. irnplernentatiott and in United agency level" in inter-agency disc:ussions Nations conlerences: (b) On the basis of subparagraph(a) above.gover"nmental organizaticlnsand the extent and efl'ectivenessof their involvement in project and programnre impiementation. in particular thosc l-rased i n d e v e l o p i n gc o u n t r i e s t h a t c i i n t r i b u l et o t h c n r o n i t o r i r t g . will need to provide' increasedfinancial anclatlnrinistrativesLlpport or non-govcrnmcntalorganizltions iind f their sell-organized nctw'orks. establish.tt thr-bc international and national levels in enhancing con:iultative procedures and mechanisnrs.including internat i o n a l f i n a n c e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . mechanisrns in the design and evaltiation of policies concenlll'rgthe irlplementiiticlii of' Agenda 21 at all levels. Non-govgrnrnentiil organizations'uvilI iilso rccluircaclditionall. irnplernentation and evaluation: (c) Review levels of financial and administrative support fbr non-. enhance existing or. in consultation with non-sovernmental organizations.r l c s t i n r a t c t l o n h c t v t b a s i so f e x i s t i n g i n l o r n r a t i c r n " B) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 2 1 .costs r. p r o c e s sb r A g c n d i i 2 l : l ( g ) P r o v i d e a c r c e s so r n o n .:n. irnprol'enrerlto1'ot corr The'se costs tributions to Age nda 2l rnonitoring sy'stcnrs.'iew and evaluate the imp l e m e n t a t i o no f A g e n d a 2 1 a t a l l l e v e l s : (e) Promote and allow' non-govemmental organizations and their self-organizednetworks to contribute to the review and evalualion of policies and programtnes d e s i g n e dt o i m p l e m e n t A g e n d a 2 1 . bilateral programmes anclthe private sectrlr.undingin .ill involved.r p p o no f s u s t a i n a b l e derelopment.and of all pertinent United Nations organizationsand othcr intergovernmentalrtrganizationsand forums concerning implenrentation of Agenda 21. l7 l0 Governments shor-rld take measuresto: (a ) Establishor enhancean existing dialogue with nonsovenlmcntal organizationsand their self-organizednetvarious sectors.g o v e r n m e n t a l c l r g a n i z u t i o n si r t r t a t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s o r p r o c e d u r e se s t a b l i s h e dt o c a r r y out Agenda 21.'iews as to hclw bcst to builcl partnership iind dialogue hctu'een olllcial organizaticins and groups of non-govcrnmcntal organ i z ati on s.

and to enof surethe right of non-govemmental organizations protect to the public interestthrough legal action. 27.training for non-governmental organizations(and assist them to develop their own training prograrnmes)at the internationalandregionallevelsto enhance their partnership role in programmedesign and implementation.13 Govemments needto promulgate will orsftengthen. any legislative measures necessary enable establishment non-govto the by ernmentalorganizations consultativegroups. 232 . subject to country-specific conditions.

conrmunity.representatives associattions cities of of levels shouldhaveincreased and otherlocal authorities with thegoalof enhancof cooperation coordination and among ing the cxchange informationand experience of localauthoriticsr (d) All localauthorities each should encourbe in country which aim at agedto implementand monitorprograrnmes in ensuring womenandyoutharerepresented decisionthat processes. i th a vi ew to mobi l i zi ngi ncreasednt er naw i An ti onal support for l ocal authori ty progran" l m es. the As environmental national and subnational theyplay a vital levelof governance closest thepeople. assist implementing policies. Summitof Great Citiesof theWorld. wor-rld assessed be and achieveAgenda 2l objectives m o d i f i e d . b a s e d o n l o c a l p r o g r a m m e sa d o p t c d .the participationand cooperationof local in authoritieswill be a determiningl"actor fulfilling its and construct. making. developtnent. World Bank"regionalbanks. supportAgendo of P R O G R A M MA R E A E ACTIVITIES 28. proposals for Strategies couldalsobe usedin supporting funding. local. operate mainLocal authorities objectives. tain economic. awareness sustainable of development policies. international communityshouldhave the process coaimedat increasing initiateda consultative local authoritiesl operation between (c) By 1994.1 Because many of the problemsand solutions try beingaddressed Agenda2l havetheir rootsin local activities. WorldAssociation the thc MajorMetropolises. local organizations privateenter-l'hrough prisesand adopt"A local Agenda21"" consullocal authorities would tation and consensus-building. to to mobilizing andresponding thepublic rolein educating.civic.ocalAuthorities.3 Each local authorityshouldenter into a clialogue and with its citizens.4 Partnerships should be fostereclamong relevant such as UNDP. Intcrnational the of Unionof l. Sucha sectoral consultation plementconcurrent such country-fircused consultatiotts.P.most lclcalauthontiesin each country process with thcir haveundertaken consultative a should o n " a l ocal populat ionsan d a c h i e v e da c o n s e l l s u s A genda2I " f or th e c o mmu n i ty ' .2 The followingobjective areproposcdor this programmearea: (a) By 1996. to promotesustainable OBJECTIVES f s 28. i mportantgoal w oul d be to support. infrastructure. establish localenvironmenplanning oversee in ancl tal policiesand regulations. thi s purposc: For (a) Habitat and andotherrelevant organs organizations a o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s s ) ' \ t L ' m r e c a l l e d L l p o nt o s s t r e n g t h e n e r v i c e si n c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o no n for strategies localauthorities. The process consultation would increase household of l-ocalauissues. (b) By 1993. regional and international 28.laws anclregulations to thority programmes. prarlicular thosethat of in needinternational support: (b) Periodic involvingbothinternational consultations panners developing and countries couldrcviewstrategies how suchinternational support ccluldbest and consider wclulcl contbe mobilizcd. and acquirethe business and industrialorganizations information neededfor formulatingthe best strategies. the U ni ted Tow ns Organi zati on and other relevant partners. the United organsand organizations (Habitat)and Nations Centre for Human Settlements the UNE.national. extendan d im proveexi sti ng nsti tuti ons orki ngi n thef i el d of local i w authori ty capaci ty-bui l di ng and l ocal envi ronm ent management. FOR BASIS ACTION so 28.planning andimplementation lJ3 . learn from citizensand from lclcal.A n lU '.socialand envirclnmental processes.ocql initiotives outhorities' 21 l.

5 Representatives associations local authorities of of are encouragedto establish processesto increasethe exchangeof information. experienceand mutual technical assistance among local authorities. The Conferencesecretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) for B) HUMANRFSOURCE DEVELOPMENI AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 28. of 234 .Theseare indicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot been reviewed by Governments. 28.6 It is recommended that all partiesreassess funding needsin this area.as those taking place in consultativegroups and round tables.7 This programme should facilitate the capacitybuilding and training activitiesalreadycontainedin other chapters Agenda21. strengthening internationalsecretariat services implefor menting the activities in this chapterto be about $1 million on grant or concessional terms. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Al F/NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON 28.

healthand sustainable development.2 The overall objective is poverty alleviationand full and sustainable ernployment. on including employment policies.implementation and evaluation of national and internationalpolicies and programmes environmentand development. (b) To establishbipartite and tripanite mechanisms on safety.4 For workersand their tradeunionsto play a full and informedrole in supportof sustainable development.employersand Governments should cooperate ensure to thatthe concept sustainable of developmentis equitablyimplemented. communityandthe physicalenvironthe ment.clean and healthyenvironments the working environment. injuriesand diseases according recognized to statistical reportingprocedures.5 Governments. s 29. with workers foremost among those concerned.29 Strengthening roleof workers the ond theirtrodeunions P R O G R A M MA R E A E BASIS ACTION FOR 29.and their promotion of socially responsibleand economic development. ACTIVITIES A) PROMOIING FREEDOM ASSOCIATION OF 29. The existing network of collaboration among trade unions and their extensive membership provide important channels through which the conceptsand practicesof sustainable development can be supported. labour adjustmentprogramme and technologytranst-ers. Governments and employersin the implementation of sustainable development. 2 29. if OBJECTIVES 29. unionsarevital As trade actorsin facilitatingthe achievement sustainable of development in view of their experiencein addressing industrialchange. The established principlesof tripartismprovide a basisfor strengthened collaboration between workersandtheirrepresentatives. industrial strategies.3 To that end the following objectivesare proposed for accomplishment the year 2000: by (a) To promoteratiflcationof relevantconventions of ILO and the enactment legislation supportof those of in conventions: 8/ SIRENGIHEN'NG PARTTCTPAIION AND CONSUIIAI/ON 29. Workersshouldbe full participants the imin plementationand evaluationof activities related to Agenda 1. (e) To increasethe provision of workers' education. (c) To increase numberof environmental the collective agreements aimedat achieving sustainable development. theirrepresentatives. training and retraining. which contributeto safe.the extremelyhigh priority they give to protectionof the working environmentand the related natural environment.particularlyin the areaof occupationalhealthand safetyand environment. 235 . they havenot alreadvdoneso.1 Effortsto implementsustainable development will involve adjustments opportunities the nationaland and at enterpriselevels. (d) To reduceoccupational accidents. Governments shouldconsider ratifying and implementing thoseconventions. businessand industry should promote the active participationof workers and their trade unions in decisionson the design. Govemments and employers shouldpromotetherightsof individual workersto freedomof association the protection and of the right to organizeas laid down in ILO conventions.6 Tradeunions.

Suchtraining should skills are availableto promote ensurethat the necessary sustainablelivelihoods and improve the working environment. thesedecision-making 29.14Particular attention ing the capacity of each of the tripartite social partners (Governmentsand employers' and workers' organizations) to facilitate greatercollaborationtowardssustainabledevelopment. depen alia. Governments and international agenciesshould cooperatein assessing of spheres activity. and set priorities to improve the working environment and the overall environmentalperformanceof enterprise. 7 I or nt (e mp l o y e r/w o rk e r) o r tri p a rti te (employer/worker/Govemment)collaborative mechanisms at the workplace. particularlywithin the United Nationssystem.13 The Conference (1993-2000) implementingthe of age total annualcost activities of this programme to be about $300 million from the intemational community on grant or concessional terms.health and environment.29. within their respective trainingneeds should be involved in Workers and their representatives the design and implementationof worker training andGovernments. IRA/N/NG ADEQUAIE C) PROVIDE shouldhaveac29. includwill dupon.inter ing any that arenon-concessional. by programmes conducted employers OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A) F/NANC/NG has the secretariat estimated aver29.9 Tradeunionsshouldcontinueto define. B ) C A P A C ITY -B U ILD IN G shouldbe given to strengthen29. including specialreferenceto the rights and status of women in the workplace.coffImunity and national levels should be establishedto deal with safety. employers. the 29. 29. activ(b) Participate environment and development in joint action itieswithin thelocal communityandpromote on potentialproblemsof commonconcern. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. their economicand social welfare.8 Governments and employers should ensure that are workers and their representatives provided with all relevantinformation to enableeffective participationin processes. Trade unions.developand developof promotepolicieson all aspects sustainable ment.and improve awareness.10Tradeunionsand employersshouldestablish framework for a joint environmental policy.11Tradeunionsshould: (a) Seekto ensurethat workers are able to participate auditsat the workplaceand in environin environmental mentalimpact assessments . Actual costsand financial terms.12Workersand their representatives cess to adequatetraining to augment environmental ensuretheir safetyand health. (c) Play an activerole in the sustainable development activities of internationaland regional organizations. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. 236 . 29.

competitivenessand voluntaryinitiativesarenecessary stimulating for more varied. and includingftansnational corporations. are P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) PROMOTTNG CLEANER PRODUCTTON BASIS FORACTION 30.promoting and implementing self-regulationsand greater responsibilities ensuringtheir activitieshaveminimal in impacts on human health and the environment.4 The improvementof productionsystemsthrough technologies and processes that utilize resources more efficiently and at the sametime producelessyysstss achievingmore with less. can play a major role in reducingimpactson resource use and the environment.Increasing prosperity. Business industry. preventive stategies. Technological innovations. applications. contributed primarilyby the activities is of business industry. of Theseleadersin business and industry. play a crucial role in the socialand economic development a country. policiesand operations the of busine andindustry. have all contributed to this. To address thesemajor requirements and strengthen further the role of business industry. of 30.formalandinformal. and including transnational corporations.3 Buslness and industry. lacilitating and encouraginginventiveness. henceminithe mizing or avoiding wastes.3 0 Shengthening roleof business industry the ond INTRODUCTION 30. includingtransnational corporations.providemajortrading. ss includingtransnational corporations.is an importantpathwaytowards sustainability business for and industry. sffengthenrng their economicrole and transforming socialsystems. ffansferand the more comprehensive aspects partnershipand cooperationare to a very large of extentwithin the provinceof business industry.2 Through more efficient production processes.includingtransnational corporations. Similarly. 237 . 30. sustainable to developmentcan increasingly achieved using economic be by instruments suchas free marketmechanisms which the in pricesof goodsrurdsen. Business opportunities availableto women are contributingtowardstheir professionaldevelopment. the following two programmes proposed. stable of A policy regimeenables and encourages business industryto operate and responsibly and efficiently and to implement longer-term policies.including transnational corporations.1 Business and industry. shouldrecognize environmental management as among the highestcorporateprioritiesand as a key determinant sustainable to development.cleanerproductiontechnologies and procedures throughout productlife cycle. are increasingly taking voluntaryinitiatives. production.recycling anddisposalsubject country-specific to conditions. and 30. of and including transnational corporations. fosteringopenness dialoguewith emand ployeesand the public and carrying out environmental auditsand assessments compliance. The regulatoryregimesintroducedin many countriesand the growing consciousness consumersand the general of public and enlightened leaders business industry. development.Business and enterprises.5 There is increasing recognition that production.includingtransnational corporations.Someenlightened leadersof enterprises are already implementing "responsible care" and productstewardship policiesand programmes. A positive contributionof business and industry. employment and livelihood opportunities. efficient and effective options.ices shouldincreasingly reflectthe environmental costsof their input. their representative and organizations shouldbe full participants the implementain tion andevaluation activitiesrelatedto Agenda21.use. major goalof thedevela opmentprocess. largeand small.

the UNEP InternationalCleaner Production Clearing House(ICPIC). including transnational corporations.8 Governmentsshould identify and implement an appropriatemix of economicinstrumentsand normative in measures such as laws. The production impliesstrivingfor optimal of concept cleaner efficienciesat every stageof the product life cycle. accountits influenceon suppliers shouldcooperassociations 30. particulaq play a very important role in the social and economic developmentof a country.17 Entrepreneurship one of the most important driving forces for innovations. and should forge information networking of nationaland international systems. promoting the best environmental of conduct Developsuch as the BusinessCharteron Sustainable ment of the InternationalChamberof Commerce(ICC) care initiative. with business consultation that national corporations.l6 International and non-governmentalorganizati ons. increasing market effiand to ciencies andresponding challenges opportunities.businessand industry. as well as on their useof energy (b) To adoptandreporton the implementation codes of practice. transnational and shouldwork towardsthedevelopment organizations.should strengthenpartnershipsto implementthe principlesandcriteriafor sustainable development. researchand developing identification. trainingand awareness activitiesrelatingto cleaner production.includingincreasing of resource efficiency and to reducethe the reuseand recycling of residues. per quantityof wastedischarge unit of economicoutput .11Governmentsshould promote technologicaland encompassknow-howcooperation between enterprises. RESPONSTBLE ENTR. assessment. they are the major means tor rural development. of ment. (a) To reportannuallyon their environmental and naturalresources. 30. will promotetheuseof cleaner for production. includingtransand industry.EPRENEURSHTP Bl PROTVTOnNG BASIS ACTION FOR is 30.The need for a transition towardscleanerproductionpolicies was recognizedat Conferenceon the UNlDO-organizedministerial-level held IndustrialDevelopment. reducingrisks and hazards.15 International organizations tion.management marketingand application cleaner production.needto good engineeringand be replacedwith technologies. nationallyaccepted management educashouldincrease 30. environmental minimizing wastes and safeguarding qualities.l0 Business industry.technology and managementthat use resourcesineffiwastes discharge thatarenotreused. 238 .6 Governments.l3 Industryand business ate with workers and trade unions to continuously improvetheknowledge sustainandskillsfor implementing operations. abledevelopment shouldencourassociations 30. A of resultwould be the improvement the overall competitiveness of the enterprise. including academiaand international corporations. Ecologically Sustainable in at Copenhagen Octoberl99l. in Small and medium-sizedentrepreneurs.l OBJECTIVES 30. corincludingtransnational and 30. with special consideration smalland meVoluntary private initiatives dium-sized enterprises.12Industry should incorporatecleaner production policiesin its operations investments. including the shouldaim to increase corporations. shouldbe encouraged: records. ACTIVITIES 30. i ncl udi ng trade and sci enti fi c associat ions. legislationsand standards.theUNIDO IndustrialandTechnological Information Bank (INTIB) and the ICC International Environment Bureau (IEB). porations.businessand industry. practicesand know-how that would mimanagement nimize waste throughout the product life cycle. should strengthen cleanerproduction information dissuch as seminationby expandingexisting databases. takingalsointo and and consumers.14 Industryandbusiness age individual companiesto undertakeprogrammesfor improvedenvironmental awareness responsibility and at dedicatedto the task all levels to make theseenterprises basedon interof improving environmentalperformance practices. 30. transnational utilization.businessand industry.9 Governments. Responsible preneurship can play a major role in improving the efficiency of resourceuse.7 Governments.increasingoff-farm employment and providing the transitionalmeansfor imentreproving the livelihoodsof women. 30. ciently form residues that have adverse impacts on human health and the environment and manufactureproductsthat when used have further impacts and are difficult to recycle. 30.academia and in relevantnationaland local authorities. Often. for of and methodologies the implementation concepts of internalization environmentalcosts into accounting and pricing mechanisms. and the chemicalindustry'sresponsible 30. collaboration with industry. shouldalsobe encouraged.

safetyandenvironmental aspects. Towardsthis end. in MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 30.2. arrange for environmentally soundtechnologics be available to to affiliatesownedsubstantially their parentcompany by in developing countries without extraexternal charges.OBJECTIVES 30.25Business industry.infiastructural supportand stewardship responsibilities. collaboration in with academia and the scientific/engineering establishments.1 Business and industry should establish national councilsfor sustainable development help promote and entrepreneurship the formal and inlitrnralsectors. with national Govemments and intemational ganizations. shouldincrease research development and of environmentally soundtechnologies environmental and management systems. and fosteringopenness and dialogue with employees and the public. or 30. 30. and including transnational corporations.shoul cons d iderestablshing partneri ship schemes with small and medium-sized enterprises to help facilitatethe exchange experience manageof in rial skills. shouldensure responsible ethicalmanageand ment of products and processes from the point of view of health. academia and internationalorganizations. The cost of activities by Governmentsand international organizationsare already included in other programme areas.where appropriate. / 239 . 30.27Multilateraland bilateralfinancialaid institutions should continue to encourage and support small. Governments should supporttrainingin the environmental aspects enterof prise management Attention should also be dilected towardsapprenticeship schernes youth. economic incentives and streamlining administrative of procedures to ensure maximumefficiency dealing in with applications for approvalin order to facilitateinvestrnent decisions. (b) To increase numberof entrepreneurs the engaged in enterprises subscribe andintplement that to sustainable policies. and including transnational corporations.and medium-scale entrepreneursengaged in sustainable development activities.vith busincss. l 5 1 P C / 1 2 5 .22Business industry. guidedby appropriate codes. development ACTIVITIES 30. indr.28 United Nationsorganizations agencies and should improve mechanisms business for and industry inputs. fbr 30. 30. shouldbe encouraged establish to world-wide corporatepolicieson sustainable development. 30. in The inclusion wornenentrepreneurs of shouldbe facilitated.19Governments should encourage establishment the and operations sustainably of managed enterprises. drawing upon indigenousknowledge. 30.18The followingobjectives proposed: are (a) To encouragethe concept of stewardshipin the management utilizationof naturalresources enand by trepreneurs. The mix wouldinclude regulatory measures.30The activitiesincludedunderthis programme area aremostlychanges theorientation existingactivities in of and additional costs are not expectedto be significant.charters and initiatives integratedinto all elementsof businessplanning and decision-making. ensurethat to environmental aspects strengthened foreign investare in ment.marketdevelopntent technological arrd knowhow. encourage overseas afilliates to modify procedures in order to reflect local ecological conditions and share experiences localauthorities. with the assistance internaof tionalorganizations. cooperation in with the private sector.20Governmentsshould encourage.21In collaboration r.the establishment venture of capitalfunds for sustainable projects development and programmes. 30.rstry. advice and assistance with infbrmation.29Internationalorganizations should increasesupport for researchand development on improving the technologicaland managerialrequirementsfor sustainable development.26Business industry.including transnationalcorporati ons.in particular for small and mediumsizedenterprises developingcountries. business and industry should increase self-regulation. and includingtransnational corporations. 30. 30. I ' S e eA / C O N F .23Large business and industry. policy and strategyformulation processes. where appropriate.

which includes.2 The scientificand technological communityand policy makersshould increase their interactionin order to irnplementstrategies sustainable for development on the basisof the bestavailable knowledge.It is importantthat the role of science and technologyin humanaffairsbe more widely known and betterunderstood. DECISION MAKERSAND THEPUBTIC BASIS ACTION FOR 31. amongothers.3t qnd Scientific technologicol community INTRODUCTION focuses horv to enable 3l. ts. This implies thatdecision makers shouldprovidethenecessary framework for rigorous researchand for full and open communicationof the tindings of the scientificand technological community.this dialoguewould assist scientific the andtechnological prioritiesfor comrnunity developing in research proposing and for actions constructive solutions. enginc architec i ndustrial designers. scientificandtechnological ers. in communicating their sentiments the scientificand to communityconcerning how science technologicerl and technologymight be bettermanaged affecttheir lives to way. The adoptionand irnplementation ethicalprinciplesand codesof pracof tice for the scientif and technological ic communitythat professionalareinternationally accepted could enhance ism and may improveandhasten recognition the value of of its contributionsto environmentand development. At the sametime. ing multidisciplinary will approaches have to be strengthenedand more interdisciplinary studies developed between the scientific and technologicalcommunity and policy makers and with the generalpublic to provide leadershipand practical know-how to the concept of The public shouldbe assisted sustainable development. By the sametoken. to make a more clpenand effectivecontributionto processes concerning the decision-making environment and development. and policy rnaurban plannersand other professionals kers. OBJECTIVES 31. Decisionmakersshouldcreate more favourableconditionsfor improving training and independent research sustainable Existin development.l The present chapter on the community. The determine cooperative relationship existing betweenthe scientific and technologicalcommunity and the general public and deepened into a full partnership. and developwith it ways in which researchresults and the concernsstemmingfrom the fi ndi ngs can be communi cated deci sion. shouldbe extended Improved communication and cooperation betweenthe scientific and technologicalcommunity and decision makerswill facilitategreateruse of scientificand technical information and knowledgein policies and programmeimplementation. recognizingthe continuingevolutionand uncertainty of scientific knorvledse.3 The following objectives proposed: are 240 .m aking to bodiesso as to betterlink scientificand technical knowledge'with policy andprogramme strategic formulation. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E A) TMPROVTNG COMMUNTCATION AND AMONG THESCIENTIFIC COOPERATION AND TECHNOTOGICAT COMMUNITY. both by decisionmakerswho help public policy and by the generalpublic.the independence in a beneficial a of t he s c ie n ti fi c n dte c h n o l o g i c a lo m m u ni ty i nvesc to tigate and publish without restrictionand to exchange their findings freely must be assured.

including throughstrengthening widening the membership and of nationalscientificand technological advisorycouncils. depend will upon. industry.(a) To extendandopenup the decision-making process and broadenthe range of developmental and environmentalissues wherecooperation all levelsbetween at the scientificand technological community and decision makerscan take place. 31. non-governmental educational institutions and other domestic and international organizations.rt 15million from to $ the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. Actual costsand financialterms.5 The Conf'erencre secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) irnplementing of rhe activitiesof thisprogramme be abor. (h) Developand implenrent information technologies to enhance dissemination infclrmation sustainthe of f-or able development. (el Improveand strengthen programmes dissemifor nating research resultsof universities and research institutions.inter alio. organizations committees ensure and to that: (i) The full rangeof nationalneedstor scientiflcand technological programmes commllnicated Governare to mentsand the public. o o p e ra ti v e n d n e g o ti a ti n g rocesses c a p torvards international and regionalagreements.The publication of national scientificresearch reportsand technicalreportsthat are understandable relevantto local sustainable and developmentneeds would alsoimprovethe interface between science and decision-making. This requires full and open sharing dataand information of amongscien- tists and decision makers. well as the implemenas tation of scientificresults. technologists teachers and who are en_eaged communicating in and interpreting scientific and technological inforrnation policy makers.AIED SCIENCE TO AND TECHNOTOGY BASIS ACTION FOR 31. (0 Improvelinks between official andindependent the research sectors and industry so that researchmay becomean importantelementof industrialstrategy. by strengthening and globalprofessional networks: (c) Improveandexpand scientiflc andtechnical inputs throughappropriate mechanisms intergovemmental to c ons ult at iv e.8 Increased ethicalawareness environmental in and developmental decision-making should help to place 241 .includingany that are non-concessional.l1'an overall eftbrt to strengthen nationalresearch and development systems. with emphasis on their scientificand technical aspects. (d) Strengthen scienceand technologyadviceto the highestlevelsof the United Nations. (g) Promoteand strengthen role of women as full the partners the science technology in and disciplines. Such regionalcooperative mechanisms could be facilitated throughpublic/private partnerships providesupport and to Governments. B ) C A P A C TTY -B U tLD tN G 31.4 Governments shouldundertake lollowins acthe t iv it ies : (a) Reviewhow nationalscientificand technological activities couldbe moreresponsive sustainable to development needsas part t. studies and of responsiveness adaptability and includedin subsequent programmes ' acti on. and ACTIVITIES 31.7 S ci enti sts technol ogi sts and havea speci al of set responsibilities which belongto them both as inheritors of a traditionand asprof'essionals members disciand of plines devotedto the searchfor knowledgeand to the needto protect biosphere thecontext sustainable the in of development.Suchsupport shouldfbcuson the transf-er skills and the transfer of andadaptation planning of techniques. to professionals othertieldsand the general in public. order to ensurethe inclusionof in science technology and know-howin sustainable developmentpoliciesand strategies. (b) To improvetheexchange knowledge of andconcerns between scientific andtechnological the cornm qr andthe uni generalpublic in orderto enablepoliciesandprogrammes to be betterformulated.6 Intergovernmental panels development enon and vironmental issues shouldbe organized. ol B) PROMOTTNG CODES PRACTTCE OF AND GUIDEUNES REI. Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments. (ii) The variousstrandsof public opinion are represented: (b) Promoteregionalcooperative mechanisms adto dress regional needs sustainable fbr development. This requires recognition and greater of suppoft to the scientists. understood supported. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 31. the specific strategies and programmesGovernnrents decideuponfor implementation. and otherinternational institutions.

To be effective in the codesof pracprocess. develop ation. would build to andcontribute sustainable regard for the scientific and up the level of esteemand technological community and facilitate the "accountand technology. decision-making guidelines must not only be agreedupon by the tice and scientific and technologicalcommunity. curriculaand research tives into education (d) Reviewingand amending relevantnationaland inlegal instruternationalenvironmentand development codesof practiceandguidementsto ensure appropriate lines are incorporatedinto suchregulatorymachinery. OBJECTIVES 31. (b) Strengthening national advisory and establishing B ) C A P A C ITY . 242 .and in ment of so doing ensure that the functioning of viable natural is processes properly valued by presentand future soof cieties.and enhanceappropriatepriorities for the maintenance life-support systemsfor their own sake. dependupon. as a whole.l I The Conference of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $5 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional esterms.improve and of promoteinternationalacceptance codesof practiceand guidelinesrelating to scienceand technologyin which is the integrityof life-supportsystems comprehensively for and where the important role of science accounted in and technology reconcilingthe needsof environment and development is accepted.9 The objectiveshouldbe to develop. by MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AJ FINANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATION the has secretariat estimated aver3l.10The following activities (a) Strengthening national and internationalcooperto sector. ability" of science ethics.in groups on environmental and developmental order to develop a common value framework betrveen community and society the scientificand technological dialogue. inter alia. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.shouldbe developed and by appropriate communityin the pursuit the scientificandtechnological of its researchactivities and implementationof programmesaimedat sustainable development.taking into tally sound and sustainable and existingcodesof pracaccountthe Rio Declaration tice and guidelines. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementaticln. and promotecontinuous (c) Extending andtrainingin developmental education suchobjecto ethicalissues integrate and environmental priorities.includingthenon-governmental environmenregarding codesof practiceand guidelines development. ACTIVITIES couldbe undertaken: 31. Actual costsand financial terms. Therefore.a strengthening the codesof pracguidelinesfor the scientificand technological tice and community would increaseenvironmentalawareness It development. suchprinciples.12Codes of practiceand guidelines. but also be recognized the societyas a whole.B U ILD IN G including on 31.including any will that are non-concessional. for principles.

2 The rural household.5 The following objectivesare proposed: (a) To encourage decentralized a decision-making processthroughthe creationand strengthening local and of village organizations that would delegatepower and responsibility primary usersof naturalresources. substantialnumber a of whom are women. 32. to (b) To support andenhance legalcapacity women the of and vulnerablegroups with regard to access. 32. As a result.Rural activitiestake place in close contact with nature. udingindigenous incl practices. OBJECTIVES 32. andthefamily farmer. have beenthe stewards much of of the Earth's resources. adding value to it by producing renewable resources. (d) To introduceor strengthen policiesthat would encourage self-sufficiencyin low-input and low-energy technologies. men and 243 .they are engaged in the overexploitation natural resources. they have limited accessto resources.4 The sustainable development peoplein marginal of and fragile ecosystems also addressed Agenda 21. and meansof production. such fishing ond forest horvesting. A significanrnumber of the rural population developing in countries depend primarily upon small-scale. pricing and mechanisms that internalize environmental costs.the natural resources that sustain farming activity needpropercare. (c) To promote and encouragesustainable farming practices and technologies.subsistence-oriented agriculture basedon family labour. face a high degreeof economic. 32. technology. Over the past 20 years there has been an i mpressiveincreasen aggregate i agricultural production. particularly women.Farmers.use and tenureof lartd. indigenouspeople and their communities. and is the centralactivity for much of the world's population. However. term"forming" The olsoincludes fishing onJ foresi horvesting.this increase beenoutstripped has by population growth or internationaldebt or falling commodity prices.and thereis a growing concernaboutthe sustainability agricultural of productionsystems. references oll to "formers" include ollrurolpeople who derive theirlivelihood fromoctivities os forming.1 Agriculture occupiesone third of the land surface of the Earth. (e) To developa policy frameworkthatprovidesincentives and motivation among farmersfor sustainable and efficient farming practices .alternativelivelihood * Inthischopter. (f) To enhancethe participation of farmers. in someregions. Further. Yet. This programmeareadealswith activitieswhich can contributeto this end. is in The key to the successful implementationof theseprogrammes in themotivationandattitudes individual lies of farmers and government policies that would provide incentivesto farmers to managetheir natural resources efficiently andin a sustainable way.3 2 Skengtheningrole theformers the of P R O G R A M MA R E A E BASIS ACTION FOR 32.Farmers* must conserve their phvsical environmentas they depend on it fbr their sustenance. of including marginallands. decentralization decision-making The of towardslocal and community organizations the key in is changingpeople'sbehaviourand implementing sustainable farming strategies.legal and institutionaluncertainties when investingin their land and otherresources. while at the sametime becoming vulnerableto overexploitation and improper management.3 A farmer-centred approach the key to the attainis mentof sustainability both developed in and developing countriesand many of the programmeareasin Agenda 2l address this objective.

ment) are alsorelevantto this programme MEANS B/ sC/FNilFtC AND TECHNOLOGtCAL organinternational and 32.7 Support for farmers' organizations rangedas follows: research centresshould (a) Nationaland international in cooperatewith farmers' organizations developing farming techenvironment-friendly location-specific niques : (b) National Governments. (d) Protect.m an a g i n g g i l ee c o s y s te m s . ogies that enhancecrop waterand energyand control conserve recyclenutrients. ynthesi ze s to proj ect lo dis s er nin a te c a l k n o w l e d g e . pests and weeds: (b) Conduct and studies high-resource low-resource of productivity and sltstainagricultureto comparetheir ability. pricingmechanisms. providingadequate could be ar32.11The financing neededfor this programmeareais agriculsustainable in estimated chapterl4 (Promoting particularly in the proture and rural development). by organizations (e) Supportthe fcrrmation f-armers' of legaland socialconditions. and integrated managementof natural res our c es .technology. a tcr usei n agri culture.through towardsthese directed orsanizations.of women.aswell asrightsto land. ol' organizations farmers should 32.12Governments appropriate research organizations. (b) Promote that positively and other policy instruments incentives aboutanefficientand r's affectindividualt-arme decisions and use sustainable of naturalresources. of (b) Establish networksfor the exchange experiences land.recognizeand forrnalizewotnen'saccess anduseof Iand. water with regardto farming that help to conserve and of chemicals minimize the use and forestresources.access to tenure inputsand training: to credit. 244 . fiscal tradepolicies. the regionaldeinorganizations velopmentbanksand other intemational should involve fanners and in rural development volved AS in theirrepresentativestheirdeliberations. that (c) Developpilot projectsand extensionservices and knowledgebaseof would seekto build on the needs women farmers.forestand fishing populations.6 National(iovernmentsshould: on of (a) Ensurethe implementation the programmes and rural developlivelihoods. IFAD.10Representative and support programmes the development filr establish particularlyin developing of farmers' organizations.agriculture sustainable w fra m ent . ACTIVITIES ACT IE ELATED IVIT S A) MANAGEMENI-R 32. organizations and non-govemmental izations appropriate: (a) Developenvironmentally soundfarming technolyields. in the design and implernentation policies theirrepresentative ends. and l3 (Mancombatingdesertification mountain developsustainable agingfragileecosystems: area. agro-ecological T AN C / /N IE R N A TION A L D R E G/ON AC OOPERAI I O N 32.in collaborationwith national as should. reduceor reutilizefarm wastes. The researchshould preferably be conducted settings. maintain land quality. takefull account of the impact of thesedecisionson householdfbod security.The developrnent fanr-r and resources the role farmers'available takeinto account and of animalsin fanning households the ecology.employmentand the environment: organiza(c) Involve farmersand their representative of tionsin the tormulation PolicY.9 FAO.8 Governments farmers'organizations and ( a) I nit ia tem e c h a n i s ms d o c u m e n t. gramme area entitled "Ensuring people'sparticipation for development sustainandpromotinghumanresource able agriculture". WFP.farm incomes. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA should: and 32. countries. OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A) FINANCING 32. and environmental sociological undervarious that would op(c) Supportresearch mechanization on and timize humanlabourand animalpowerandhand-held easily operatedand equipmentthat can be animal-drawn should technologies of maintained. appropriate. multilateraland bilateral organizaand agencies non-governmental development in with tamrers'organizations tions shouldcollaborate ific opmentprojects to spec fomrulating agricultural devel zones.l2 (Managing and drought). the World Bank.The costs shown under chapters3 fragileecosystems: (Combating poverty).p ra c ti c esand of so experiences that they will makeuseof the lessons policies and irnplementing the past when forrnulating affectingtarming.

Interdisciplinaryprogrammesin agricultural ecologyareessential the trainingof a new to generation agriculturalscienti andfield-levelextenof sts sion agents. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 32.14Governments should. The absence of legislationindicatingland rightshasbeenan obstacle in taking action againstland degradation many farming in communities developingcountries. with the support multilateral of and bilateraldevelopment agencies and scientificorganizations. in (b) Strengthenrural institutionsthat would enhance sustainabilitythrough locally managedcredit systems and technicalassistance. thelight of eachcountry's in specificsituation: (a) Create the institutionaland legal mechanisms to ensureeffectiveland tenureto farmers.andmarketing anddistribution systems.credit and useclf improvedtechnology for ensuringfood security. of in particular womenandfarmers from indigenous groups. local productionand distribution facilities for inputs. (c) Establish mechanisms increase to access farmers. 245 .C) HUM A NRE S O U R C E EL OP M EN I D EV 32.shoulddevelopcurriculafor agricultural colleges andtraininginstitutions would integrate that ecoiogyinto agricultural science.13Governments. appropriateequiprnentand small-scale processing units. to agricultural training.

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Section4 Meons of Irplementotion .

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particularly develoto ping countries. prioritiesand plans and to consider waysof effectivelymonitoringtheprovisionof suchnew andadditional financialresources. with a view to ensuring. owing. Inactionwill narrow the choices futuregenerations. "Considervariousfundingmechanisms. BASIS ACTION FOR 33. to "Quantify thefinancialrequirements the successful for implementation Conference of decisionsand recommendationsand identify possiblesources. includingvoluntary ones. their lack of financialresources. to expertise technical or capacity.socialdevelopment poverty and eradicationare the first and overriding priorities in developingcountriesand are themselves essential to meetingnationaland global sustainability objectives.5 For dealing with environmental issues. which reflectsa globalconof sensus integrating environmental considerations an into accelerated development process.2 This chapterdeals with the financing of the implementation Agenda21. of 33. a favourable on basis. particular in developingcountries. In the light of the global benefits be realizedby rhe ro implementation Agenda21 asa whole. environmentally for sounddevelopment programmes projects accordance and in with national developmentobjectives.6 Economic conditions.in resolution 441228 22 of December 1989. decided thattheUnitedNations Conference Environment on and Development should: "Identify ways and meansof providing new and additional financial resources.the provision of to developing countries effectivemeans. 249 .includingfuturegenerations. and withoutwhichit will be difficult for them to fully implemenrtheir commitments.both domesticand international. Thesereflectthe needfor a substantially increased effort.4 The cost of inaction could outweigh the financial costsof implementing Agenda2l . special efforts will be required." 33. that encourage free tradeand access markets to will help make economic growth and environmental protection mutually supportive all countries. for particularly for developingcountries and countries undergoing theprocess transition a marketeconomy(see of to chapter 2 for a fuller discussion theseissr:es of ). of financial resources technology. 33.For eachof the other chapters. in particular.inter alia.so as to enablethe international community to take further appropriateaction on the basisof accurate reliabledata.parlicularly to developing countries.the secretariat the Conferencehas provided of indicativeestimates the total costsof implementation of for developingcountriesand the requirements grant for or otherconcessional financingneeded from theinternational community. and "Identify ways and meansof providingadditionalfinancialresources measures for directed towardssolving major environmental problemsof global concernand especiallyof supportingthosecountries.33 Finonciol resources mechonisms ond INTRODUCTION 33.will servethecommoninterests developed of ancl developingcountriesand of humankindin general. most the effectiveand expeditious transferof environmentally soundtechnologies developingcountries. including innovativeones. Globalandlocal environmental issues are interrelated. two 33.inter alia.1 The GeneralAssembly. The United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change and the Conventionon Biological Diversityaddress ol the most importantglobal issues.3 Economicgrowth.of additionalresources.and exanrinethe possibilityof a special intemationalfund and other innovative approaches.for which the implementation of suchmeasures would entaila special orabnomral burden. both by countries themselves and by the international community.

tributionsof the developed of 33.developfor cooperation sustainable 33.particucountries.This review process cally combine the monitoring of the implementationof Agenda 21 with a review of the financial resources available. include. developingcountriesshould arliculatetheir own priority actions and needs for support and developedcounffies In priorities. For that purpose. and optionsthat IDA deputies Among the variousissues will examine in connectionwith the forthcorning tenth madeby the Presireplenishment IDA. and substantial new and additional and development implementation funding f or sustainable of Agenda 21 will be required.Other counamongdeveloped of the tries.14Fundingfor Agenda2l andotheroutcomes the shouldbe providedin a way that maximizes Conference and the availabilityof new and additionalresources uses These all availablefunding sourcesand mechanisms.sustainable levelsof funding in support and and enhanced predictable are of longer term objectives required.agree theextentthatthey havenot yet achieved to augmenttheir aid prografiImesin order to reach that target as soon as possible and to ensureprompt and of effectiveimplementation Agenda21. including. banks. Somecountries have agreedto reachthe targetby the year 2000.8 2I into national policies and programmesthrough a process that will integrateenvironmentand development National and local priorities shouldbe considerations.11 Fundamentally.ironment managedjointly Facililvn. nationallybased develof The implementation thehugesustainable 33. the importance of equitable burden-sharing countriesis recognized.undingmechanisms be utilized for the implementation Agenda21. (iii) TheGlobalEnt. these to shouldcommit themselves addressing groupsandroundtablesandother respect. (c) To seekfull useandcontinuingqualitative improveto merlt of f. (b) To provide new and additionalfinancial resources and that are both adequate predictable.10 of oprnentprogrammes Agenda2l will requirethe pronew and vision to developingcountriesof substantial fiGrant or concessional additionaifinancial resources. by initial phase will be accelerated substantialearly funding.agreeto make their level of ODA.The progressiveimplementation Agenda 21 should be matchedby the of The provision of such necessaryfinancial resources. developingcountries. consultative this can mechanisms play a facilitativerole. of commitments concessional OUECTN/ES are 33.amongothers: ACTIVITIES the 33.Thosecountriesthat have alreadyreachedthe to targetare to be commendedand encouraged continue to contributeto the colrlmon effort to make availablethe that have to be mobiladditionalresources substantial in countries.includingthoseundergoing process transition to a market economy. the statement of dent of the World Bank at the United NationsConference shouldbe given speon Environmentand Development in cial consideration order to help the poorestcountries objectivesas condevelopment meet their sustainable in tained Agenda21. nancing should be provided according to sound and equitablecriteria and indicators.7 International in ment shouldalso be strengthened order to supportand complementthe efforts of developingcountries. Developed countries United reaffirm their commitmentsto reachthe accepted Nations target of 0. OF MEANS IMPLEMENIATION of the 33.7 per cent of GNP for ODA and.9 For anevolvingpartnership world.may voluntarily augmentthe concountries. of amongall countries the 33.particularlythe least developedcountries. The development (ii) Regionaland subregional banksand funds development regionaiand subregional should play an increasedand more effective role in or providingresources concessional otherfavourable on termsneededto implementdgenda 21. UNDP andUNEP. line with their support ized. by the World Bank.Otherdeveloped for reform effbrts in developingcountries. financingfor the implernentation Agenda 2l will corle from a country'sown public and BANKS DEVELOPMENT ANDFUNDS: MULTILATERAL A) THE (i) The InternationalDevelopment Association(lDA). of For private sectors.ODA is a main source of external funding.whoseadditional 250 .13 in general. It was Developdecidedthat the Commissionon Sustainable toment would regularly review and monitor progress shouldsystematiwardsthis target. to thattarget. activitiesof this chapterare of of relatedto the implementation all the otherchapters 2 Agenda l.between developedand developmentstrategies developingcountries.promoting equal opportunity for men and women. in particular. by meansthat include public participation established and community involvement.11The objectives as lollows: (a) To establish measures concemingfinancialresources of f and mechanismsor the implementation Agenda21. larly the leastdeveloped Agenda how assess to translate should Allcountries 33. In this their besteffortsto increase context.

17A supportive intemational domestic and economic climate conducive to sustained economic growth and development is important.20Developingcountries shouldalsobeginto draw up nationalplansfor sustainable development give effect to to the decisionsof the Conference. (b) The rclevant specialized agencies. relatedto the effectivefollowQuestions up of the Conferenceare discussed chapter38 (Interin national institutional arrangements).These programmeswill needto be strengthened orderto promote in sustainable development. orderto achievesustainability.All creditors in the Paris Club should promptly implement the agreement December1991to provide debt relief for of thepoorest heavilyindebted countries pursuingstructural adjustment. Mobilization of higher levels of foreign direct investment and technology transfers shouldbe encouraged through nationalpolicies that promote investment and through joint venturesand other modalities. 33. inter alia: so > Encourageuniversalparticipation. (b) The use of economic and fiscal incentivesand mechanisms. in 33. Voluntary conrributionsthrough non-governmental channels.in particularto developing countries. 251 .as agreed.taking into account the importanceof equitableburden-sharing. (d) Bilateral assistance programmes. (e) Debt relief.and middle-income developingcountriesin order to provide them with the neededmeansfor sustainable development.21 Reviewandmonitoring thefinancingof Agenda of 2l is essential.grant and concessional funding is designedto achieve global environmentalbenefits. which have designated roles to play in supportingnational Govemments implementing in Agenda2l: (c) Multilateral institutionsfor capacity-buildingond technical cooperatiorz. and have not been reviewed by Governments. Measuresto address continuing the debtproblems low. 33. includingin termsof decision-making and operations. > Ensureaccess anddisbursement the fundsunder to of mutually agreed criteria without introducing new forms of conditionality. > Ensure a governancethat is transparentand democraticin nature. debt relief measures should be kept under reviewsoasto address continuing the difficultiesof those countries.19 Developed countries and othersin a positionto do so should make initial financial commitments to give effect to the decisionsof the Conference. it shouldbe restructured as to. (c) The feasibilityof tradeable permits. other United Nations bodies and other international organizations.should cover the agreed incremental costsof relevant activitiesunderAgenda2l . including effortsto reachagreedobjectives of thepresentchapter. They should report on such plans and commitments to the United NationsGeneralAssemblyat its forty-seventh session. making full useof the expertise of the specialized agenciesand other United Nations bodies within their respectiveareasof competence.Therefore.andmiddleof -incomecountries shouldbe keptunderreview. 33. includingabour$125 billion on granr or concessional termslrom the internationalcommunity. with global environmentalbenefits. inter alia. in particular for developing countries. It is important to achievedurable solutionsto the debt problemsof low. the specific strategies programmes and Governments decideuponfor implementation. (d) New schemes fund-raisingand voluntaryconfor tributionsthroughprivatechannels. Actual costs will dependupon. (e) The reallocationof resources presentcommitted at to military purposes. including non-governmentalorganizations. Necessaryfinancial resources should be provided to UNDP to use its network of field offices and its broad mandateand experience the field in of technicalcooperation facilitatingcapacity-buildfor ing at the countrylevel. (0 Private funding. guaranteeing balancedand equitby a able representationof the interests of developing countriesand giving due weight to the funding efforts of donor countries. > Have sufficient flexibility to expand its scope and coverageto relevantprogrammeareasof Agenda 21. in 1992. including targets whereapplicable.15Investmenr.l8 The secretariat theConference estimated of has the averageannual costs (1993-2000) of implementing in developingcountriesthe activitiesin Agenda 2l to be over $600 billion.includinggreateruseof debt swaps. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only.16 Innovativefinancing. New ways of generating new public and private financial resourcesshould be explored. 3-1. apart from official or ParisClub debt. 33.in particular: (a) Various forms of debt relief. particularly for developing countries. > Ensurepredictabilityin the flow of fundsby contributions from developedcountries. might be increased. in particular UNEP and including the multilateral and regional development banks. 33. will be important It to review on a regularbasisthe adequacy funding and of mechanisms. which havebeenrunningat about l0 per centof ODA. D Ensure new and additional financial resourceson grantandconcessional terms.

useall resources a more sustainablemanner. particularLo of environmentally that through supporlivemeasures developingcountries. in technology.and improving cluding their environmental soundtechnologies. Providing adequate conof aspects presenttechnologies the environmental sists of two interrelatedcomponents: upgrading inforintechnologies.and alleviate activities povertyandhumansuffering. humanresource includchoices.8 The primarygoal of improvedaccess technology 252 .sustainthe tries. This implies that when discussingtransfer of and development local the technologies. orderto promotesustainable to will be essential intechnologies New and efficient counin particularof developing the crease capabilities.protectthe environment. handleresidual and for mannerthan the technologies which they were substitutes. to achieve sustainable world's economy. 34. to 34. entailsan iterativeprocessinvolving govcooperation ernment. in 34.technical. 34. ment as well as organizationaland managerial procedures. such Therefore. of aspects technology capacity-building should also be addressed.Technology cooperation inboth and volvesjoint effortsby enterprises Governments.2 Envtonmentally soundtechnologies the context that of pollution are "processand producttechnologies" of forthe prevention pollution' low generate orno waste. and of suppliers technology its recipients.5 The activitiesproposedin this chapteraim at imon and processes information.and researchand develop- ment facilities to ensurethe best possible results from long-termpartnerships Successful transferof technology.are lesspolluting.6 This chapterof Agenda 2l is without prejudiceto specific commitmentsand affangementson transfer of instruin to technology be adopted specificinternational ffrents. FOR BASIS ACTION 34. mation on presentand state-of-the-art access risks. procedures. in34. well ason capacity-building developing in and partnerships the field of cooperativearrangements development.1 Environmentally itr vironment. the private sector. in particularto and as countries.4 Thereis a needfor favourableaccess and transfer in soundtechnologies. + technology.3 Environmentallysound technologiesare not just which include but individual technologies.7 The availabilityof scientificand technological of to formationand access and transl'er environmentally for requirements sustainare soundtechnology essential information on able development. sound and more environmentally with more accessible technology.? / \.when appropriate.Inherentin these of technology is the need to addressthe improvement currently used and its replacement. recycle more of their wastes and wastes amoreacceptable in products. sound of Tronsfer environmentolly ond cooperotion copocity-building INTRODUCTION protecttheensoundtechnologies 34.and managerial pabilities for the efficient use and further development clf transferredtechnology. total systems and equipgoods and services.access proving conditions (including the state-of-theto and transferof technology art technologyand relatedknow-how). requirecontinuing necessarily in technologycooperation at capacity-building all levels training and systernatic over an extendedperiod of time. aspects. development. ing gender-relevant Environmentallysound technologiesshould be comculsocio-economic. know-how. patiblewith nationallydetermined tural and environmentalpriorities. and that shouldenable promotetechnologycooperation know-how as well as technological of transfer necessary cabuilding up of economic. for They alsocover "end of the pipe" technologies treatment of pollution after it hasbeengenerated. to environmentally to 34.

of in accordance with countries' plans. This could be achieved throughinter alia: (i) Human resource developrnent. particular developing in by countries.A[. regionaland internationalinformation systemsshouldbe developedand linked throughregionalclearing-houses coveringbroad- 253 . REG/ONAI. Transferringenvironmentally sound technologies also involves innovatively adapting andincorporating theminto thelocalor national culture. the access and the transf'er environmentally to of sound technologies corresponding and know-how. SUBREG/ONAI.includinginformationon state-of-the-art technologies. scientificand technological to infbrmation. l (e) To promote long-term technologicalpartnerships betweenholdersof environmentally soundtechnologies and potentialusers. 34. farilitated and financedas appropriate.10 Consideration must be given to the role of patent protectionand intellectualpropertyrights along with an examination their impacton the access and transfer of to of environmentallysound technology.facilitate. so adopt. (b) To promote. objectivesand priorities as foreseenin the implementation Agenda of 2l at thenati onalevel . well as to further exploring as efficiently the conceptof assured for access developing countriesto environmentallysound technologvin its relation to proprietary rights with a vierv to developing effectiveresponses the needs developing to of countries in this area..subregional.informationis to enableinformed choices.in particulardeveloping countries. scientists.9Alargebody of usefultechnological knowledgelies in the public domain.in particular of developingcountries. technological.1I Proprietary technologyis availablethroughcommercialchannels. as well as improve uponalready existingtechnologies adaptthernto suit and their specificdevelopment needsand priorities. There is a need for developing countriesto have access suchtechnologies are not to as coveredby patents lie in the public domain. taking into account existingtechnologies capacities. (d) To supportendogenous capacity-building. as mutually agreed.leadingto access to and ffansferof suchtechnologies the strengthening and of countries'own technological capabilities.including on concessionaland preferential terms. ACTIVITIES A) DEVELOqMENT /NTERNAT/ONAI OF TNFORMAITON NEIWORKS WHICHIINK NAT/ON. AND /NIERNAT/ONAT SYSIEMS 34. as well as developingtheir corespondingsocialor managerialsupport systems.1-lA critical massof research and development capacitvis crucialto the effectivedissernination useof and envi ronmental soundtechnologies theirgeneration ly and lcrcally. while providing fair incentivesto innovatorsthat promoteresearchand development new environmentally of sound technologies. professional anclrelatedcapacities.to make more rational technology choices. of technicians and middle-levelmanagers. OBJECTIVES 34.15Existing national. 3 4 . 34. theycanassess. -74. including state-ot--the-art technologies. manageand apply environmentally soundtechnologies. and finance. (ii) Strengthening institutional of capacities research for and development and programme implementation. Achieving this critical massinvolves buildingthecapabilities craftspersons.14The following objectives proposed: are (a) To help to ensure the access. continuedto be explored" enhanced access to e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d t e c h n o i o g i e ss h o u l d b e promoted.Developor ing countries would also need to have accessto the know-horv and expertiserequired for the effective utilizationof the aforesaidtechnologies. Educationand training programmes should reflect the needsof specificgoal-oriented research activities and should work to producespecialists literate in environmentally soundtechnologyand with an interdisciplinary outlook. payingparticularattention their to priority needs takinginto account complementary and tlre roles of men and women. of (c) To facilitate the maintenanceand promotion of environmentally sound indigenous technologies may that have been neglecteCor displaced. international and business an imporis tant vehicle for technologytransfer. engineers and educators.in particular to developing cor-lntries. At the sametime that conceptsand modalitiesfor assured access environmentally tu soundtechnologies. parin ticularin developing countries. f'avourable on terms. as appropriate.in particular to developingcountries. taking into accounttheneedto protectintellectual propertyrightsaswell asthe special needs developing of countriesfor the implementation Agenda2l.1 ?Rec ipient c ou n tri e s re q u i re te c h n o l o e y a nd strengthened supportto help furtherdeveloptheir scientific.Thesecountriescould then better assess environmentally sound technologie prior to their transfcrand s properly apply and managethem. (iii) Integrated sectorassessments technologyneeds. 34. Tappingthis pool of knowledgeand recombiningit with local innovations to generate alternative technologies shouldbe pursued. in particular in developing countries. and This supportwould enablecountries.

their environmental risks.including the use of existing news.training. by which might be in a positionto aswell asothercountries do so. as decided by UNCTAD at its eighth session. regional of positiverolesandcontributions international. environmentally (c) Examinationby Governments and. order to be effective. (e) In the case of privately owned technologies.fiscal or otherwise. or and tional Governments. (iv) In compliancewith and underthe specificcircumrecognizedby the relevantinternationalconvenstances tions adheredto by States.11An inventory of existing and international resystems gionalclearing-houses informationexchange or should be undertakenby the relel'ant United Nations and be should strengthened bodies.of environmentallysound techincludingthe following: nologiesby means activities.held at Cartagenade Indias. non-governmental tradeassociations.market and use soundtechnologies.in parwhile takinginto account countries.Colombia. or 34. public infonnation. sound and detail concretecaseswhereenvironmentally technologieswere successfullydeveloped and implemented. Sucha network might. particular to developingcountries. as integralto sustainable (ii) Enhancement the access and transfer patent of to of in protectedenvironmentallysound technologies. The clearingand technologies technologyassessment. of appropriateincentives. and subregionalorganizations. (b) Creationof favourable the to conditions encourage private and public sectorsto innovate.but also referrals of including sources advice.in a framework which fully integrates barriersto the transferof environmentand development. where necessary. The internationaland regional clearing-houses 34.in particular for developingcountries: (i) Creationand enhancement developedcountries.16. newly established strengthenednationalnetworks.by relevant subsidiesand tax policies. in February 1992. and the broad terms under which they may be acquired. protect intellectualproperty rights.and communication informationwould highlight The disseminated systems. particular to developingcountries. identifiedgapsin this international TO OF B) SUPPORT AND PROMOilON ACCESS OF IRANSFER TECHNOLOGY OF should d. businessconununities. order to fill network. and encouragethe private sector to promote. privately owned environmentallysound technologies to and adoption of appropriategeneralmeasures reduce suchbarrierswhile creatingspecificincentives. in and for effectivemodalities the access transfer. ticularto developing developmentin the processof negotiating an international code of conduct on transfer of technology. (d) Addressing.the adoption of the following measures. whetherthey encourage impedethe access transferof or and introductionof environmentallysoundtechnologies. helping inforusersto identify their needsand in disseminating mation that meets those needs. of (a) Formulationof policies and programmesfor the tec ly effective transfer of environmental sclund hnologi es that are publicly ownedor in the public domain. in ogy by companies.I 8 Governments internation organizations promote. inter alia. and 34. including rules with respectto their acquisitionthrough and with theprovisionof equitable licensing. naorganizations.to stimulatethe transferof environmentallysoundtechnolcountries. tional levels should be establishedand/or strengthened 254 .the clearing-houses In needto provide not only information.They would operateon an basisand focus on the information information-demand the They would takeinto account of needs the end-users. TO OF c) TMPROVEMENT THECAPACTTY DEVELOP SOUND AND MANAGEENV'RONMENTALLY TECHNOLOGIES regionaland interna34. (iii) Purchaseof patentsand licenceson commercial terms for their transferto developing countrieson nonfor cooperation commercialtermsaspart of development taking into accountthe needto sustainable developrnent. in if tems should be developed.and rrgulations to determine to. particularto developing development. (0 Developmentof mechanisms the accessto and for transfer of environmentally sound technologies. The clearing-house their sources.indusof basedsectors the economysuchasagriculture. The existingstructure Additional informationsysimprovedwhen necessary. include and regionalpatentoffices that are national.subregional technolequippedto producereportson state-of-the-art networks would disseminate ogy. information on available technologies. necessary. of ate.fiscal or otherwise. to other services.for the transferof such technologies.19Frameworksat subregional. compulsory adequate compensation . in would take the initiative. of houseswould thus facilitate the establishment joittt of ventures and partnerships variouskinds.whereappropri- including organizations existingpolicies. (v) Provisionof financialresources acquireenvironto in mentally soundtechnologies order to enablein parto ticular developingcountriesto implementmeasures promote sustainable developmentthat would entail a specialor abnormalburdento them. try and energy.the undertakingof measures to prevent the abuseof intellectual property rights.

25Visits should be sponsored and. nationaltechnology needs assessments.developmentand demonsfrationcentreswhich iue linked with the national institutions. technologicaland human resources capacity-buildingin the fields of training. regional. to develop. theareas research in of and development.industryandGovernments.for the development. subregional nationalenvironmentally or soundtechnology assessment centres. and other appropriate public and private organizations. disserninating and implementingtechnologies sustainable for development.bilateral organizations. The possibilityof assigning activity to already this existing regional organizations should be fully explored beforecreatingentirelynew institutions.24Thc developmentof global. regional and subregional programmesshould include identification and evaluationof regional. often throughpartnerships within and amongcountries between scientificandtechnologiand the cal community. subregional. dissemination informationand of technologydevelopment among developingcountries. the return of qualified experts from developing countriesin the field of environmentally soundtechnologies who are currentlyworking in developedcountry institutionsshouldbe facilitated. They should: (a) Build up technologyassessment capacity for the rnanagement environntentally of sound technology. Multinational companies.21 A collaborativenetwork of national.subregional.I.and educationof the end-user at of the technology.This shouldinclude in developing links amongthese facilitiesto maximizetheir efficiency in understanding. on a voluntary basis.Y OF SOUNDTECHNOLOGY 34. other and appropriateand private organizations should help exchangeexperiences developcapacityfor technology and needsassessment. international organizations. sustainable and development planning. as well as funding for technical cooperationamong developing countries'programmes this area. development and transfer of environmentally soundtechnologies. as G) COLLABORATIV E ARRANGEMENIS AND PARTNERSH/PS 34. 34.Suchframeworkswould tacilitateinitiativesfrom both developingand developed countriesto stimulatethe research.as repositoriesof scarcetechnicalskills neededfor the pro- 255 . including through the involvementof both public and private enterprises and researchfacilities.20Nationalcapacities assess. 34. provide advice and training for specific national situations and promotethe building up of national capacity in environmentallysound technologyassessment. including environmental impactand risk assessment. closecooperation in wittr the privatesector. environmental impactassessments. regionaland internationalresearch centreson environmentally sound technology shouldbe established enhance to the access and development. to management and transferof environmentally sound technologies. in particular developing to countries.in particular United Nationsagencies.26The international community. includingthoseprovidedby United Nations agencies. includingtransfer and cooperation amongdevelopingcountries and betrveen developed developing and countries. These centrescould. (b) Strengthen the internationalnetwork of regional. transt'er applicationof environand mentally soundtechnologies and corresponding technical know-how with a specialfocuson developing countries'needs. multilateral andbilateralprogrammes of scientificresearch. with due regard to appropriatesafeguards the transfer of on technologies subjectto prohibitionon environmental or healthgrounds.subregional and national needbasedpriorities. maintenance. addingsuchfunctionsto alreadyexisting by bodies. to tap the technology assessment sources mentioned above for the benefit of all nations.training of personnel all levels. privatesectorinterests and non-governmental organizations.22 Support should be provided for programmesof cooperation and assistance.23Supportshouldalsobe providedfor national. in to enable themto makechoices based environmentally on soundtechnologies. coupledwith clearing-houses. E) SUPPORT PROGRAMMES FOR OF COOP ERAI/ON AND ASS/SIANCE 34. 34.27Long-tenn collaborative arangementsshouldbe promotedbetweenenterprises developedand develof oping countries the development environmentally for of sound technologies. manage and apply new technologies shouldbe developed.irrternational organizations. particularin developingcountries. D) ESTABLISHMENI A COLLABORATTVE OF NFTWORK RESEARCH OF CENTRES 34.Plansand studiessupporting theseprogrammesshouldprovide the basisfor potentialfinancing by multilateraldevelopment banks. 34. appropriatc. This will require strengthening existing institutions. and funding of this activity throughpublic-privare parrnerships should alsobe explored. in principle. F/ TECHNOLOGY ASSFSSMENT SU??ORT tN OF THEMANAGEA4ENT ENY/RONMENIAI. primarilybased existon ing subregionalor regional research.

These are indicative and orderof-magnitude estimates only andhavenotbeenreviewed by Governments. and for building a trained human resourcepool and infrastructure. the specific strategies and programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. have a specialrole and interestin promoting cooperationin and related to technology transfer. suchjoint venturesand direct investment.28Joint venturesshould be promotedbetweensuppliers and recipients of technologies. Actual costs and financial terms. 256 . includingany that arenon-concessional. as they are important channels for such transfer.tection and enhancementof the environment. inter alia. 34.29 The Conference has secretariat estimated averthe age total annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this chapterto be between$450 million and $600 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. MEANS IMPLEMENTANON OF F'NANC'NGAND COSI EVALUATION 34.soundenvipracticescould be transferred ronmental management and maintained. these venturescould constituteimportant channelsof transThrough ferring environmentally sound technologies. depend will upon.taking into account developing countries' policy priorities and objectives.Togetherwith direct foreign investment.

improve long-term scientific assessments. for basedon existing and emerging innovationswithin the sciences. A first step towards improving the scientific basis for these strategiesis a better understandingof land.1 This chapterfocuses the role and the useof the on sciencesin supporting the prudent managementof the environmentand developmentfor the daily survival and future developmentof humanity. oceans.robotic monitoring instrumentsand computing and modelling capabilities. There is a need for the sciences constantly to reassess promote lessintensivetrendsin resource and utilization. and transportation.nutrientandbiogeochemical cyclesandenergy flows which all form part of the Earth system.demographictrends. growth in rates resource of consumption.particularly in developingcountries.resources. lack of full scientific understanding should not be an excusefor postponingactions which are justified in their own right. agriculture. 257 . Changes thoseand other areasneedto be in taken into account in working out long-term strategies for development. The sciences playing an important role in linking the are fundamental significance of the Earth system as life supportto appropriatestrategies developmentwhich for build on its continuedfunctioning. The prograrnmeareas proposedhereinare intendedto be over-arching.One role of the sciences shouldbe to provide information to betterenableformulation and selection of environment and development policiesin thedecision-making process.and alternatives. An increase in the scientific capacity and capability to achievethesegoals will also be required. 35. strengthen scientific capacities all countries in and ensure thesciences responsive emerging that are to needs. through scientific assessments currentconditionsand of future prospects the Earth system.Such assessments. will be essential enhance it to scientific understanding. 35. atmosphere their interlockand ing water. shouldbe usedin the decision-making process and in the interactiveprocesses betweenthe sciences and policy-making. including lessintensiveutilization of energy in industry. effective and efficient tools that are now available.3 Scientificknowledgeshouldbe appliedto articulate and support the goals of sustainabledevelopment. and environmental degradation.The sciences can provide this understandingthrough increasedresearchinto the underlying ecologicalprocesses throughthe applicationof modand em.3 5 Science sustoinoble for development INTRODUCTION 35. order in to supportthe specific scientific requirements identified in the otherAgenda21 chapters. There needs to be an increasedoutput from the sciences order to enhanceunderstanding in and facilitate interaction between science and society. The sciencesshould continue to play an increasingrole in providing for an improvementin the efficiency of resource utilization and in finding new developmentpractices. thefaceof threats irreversible In of environmental damage. the sciences increasinglybeingunderstood anessential are as componentin the searchfor feasiblepathwaystowards sustainable development. orderto fulfil In this requirement.Thus.Of crucial importanceis the need for scientists developingcountriesto participatefully in in internationalscientific researchprogrammesdealing with the global problems of environmentand development so as to allow all countriesto participateon equal footing in negotiations on global environmental and developmental issues. The precautionary approach could provide a basis for policies relating to complexsystems arenotyet fully understood whose that and consequences disnrrbances of cannotyet be predicted. such as remote-sensing devices.2 Scientistsare improving their understandingin areas suchasclimaticchange. This is essentialif a more accurateestimateis to be provided of the carrying capacity of the planet Earth and of its resilience under the many stresses placed upon it by human activities.

and Good environmental and develtherervill be surprises.6 The primaryobjectiveis for eachcountrywith the supportof intemationalorganizations.5 Sustainable perspectives.seekingto keep open a rangeof options tifically The precautionary apto ensureflexibility of response. the future is uncertain. (d) Develop.5. gap is a communication proachis important.should: (a) Prepare an inventory of their natural and social sciencedata holdingsrelevantto the promotionof sustainabledevelopment. priate. ACTIVITIES 35. (a) Large-scale widening of the scientific base and of and strengthening scientific and research capacities capabilities in particular. and (c) The interaction betweenthe sciences decisionand making. education. regional and international levels.social welfare. of to (d) The generationand application of knowledge. (b) Identify their researchneeds and priorities in the context of internationalresearch efforts. with regardto: (i) Quality-of-life indicators covering. (c) Improvinglong-termscientificassessment. decisionmakers. (e) Improving cooperation betweenscientists proby programmes moting interdisciplinaryresearch and activities. policiesmust therefore scienmanagement be opmental robust. (ii) Economic approaches environmentallysound to development new andimprovedincentivestructures and for better resourcemanagement. building upon the best scientitic knowledge and assessments. as to identify the state of its scientificknowledgeand its research needs and prioritiesin orderto achieve. taking into accountthe needto enhance and international cooperationand the relative uncertainties of the variousprocesses optionsinvolved. P R O G R A M MA R E A S E BASIS A) STRENGTHENTNG SCTENTTF|C THE FOR SUSTAINABTE MANAGEMENT tion. whoseinterests articulated both governmental by and are governmen organization Bettercommunication s. and the economy. BASIS ACTION FOR requirestaking longerdeveloprnent 35. (f) Participation of people in setting priorities and in decision-making relatingto sustainable development.and the general public. whererequired.to achieve sustainedlevels of development. (b) Enhancing scientiflcunderstanding. Often. soon as in: substantial improvements as possible.to the capacities of different environmentsand cultures. nontal is requiredamong scientists. to changethe existing patternsof production and consumptionand to gain time for reducing uncertainty with respect the selection policy options. 4T he pro g ra m m ea re a s . (iii) Long-termenvironmental policy formulation. health. the best scientific process The development shouldbe constantly re-evaluto ated.thoseof developingcountries .Currentresearch this area in shouldbe broadened includemore involvementof the to publicin establishing goalsforformulong-termsocietal lating the sustainable development scenarios.especially indigenous and local knowledge. requested. using the precautionary whereapproapproach. state of the environment. integratinglocal and regionaleffects term process. amongscientists.in areasrelevantto environmentand developnlent: (b) Environmental developmental policy formulaand 258 . using into thedeveloprnent and of globalchange and traditionalknowledgeavailable. at subregional and regional levels and within the United Nationssystem developing stronger for a scientificbasis for the improvementof environmentaland developmental policy formulationconsistent with long-termgoalsof sustainable development.analyse and integratedataon the linkages betweenthe stateof ecosystems the healthof hurnan and OBJECTIVES 3. (e) Collect.w h i c h a re i n harmony of wit h t he c o n c l u s i o n sa n d re c o m m e n d a ti ons the InternationalConference an Agcnda of Sciencefor on Environmentand Developrnentinto the ZIst Century (ASCEND/21) are (a) Strengthening scientific basis for sustainable the management.there policy makers.apply and institutethe necessary toolsfor sustainable development.with the assistance international of organizations. utilizationhas reducedimpactson ensurethat resource the Earth system. (d) Building up scientificcapacityand capability.7 Countries. in light of the findings of scientific research. (c) Strengthenand design appropriate institutional mechanisms the highest appropriatelocal. national. taking into account interrelationsat the national. for example.risk management environmentally and soundtechnology assessment.and the public at large.Even so.35.

environmentalconditions) to studymethodologies formulateguidelines. study of the human dimensionsof the causesand consequences enviof ronmental changeand of more sustainable development pathsi s essenti al . should to a largeextentinvolve local expertise and be conducted by multidisciplinaryteamsfrom regionalnetworksand/or research centres.national. The globalenvironits ment is changingmorerapidly thanat any time in recent centuries. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation.At the sametime. inter ulia. will dependupon.The methodsshould be testedusing pilot studies.regions and culture. Social processes subjectto multiple variationsacrosstime are and space. particularlyin developingcountries. They both affect and are influencedby changingenvironmental conditions. Human factors are key driving forcesin theseintricate setsof relationships and exert their influencedirectly on global change.This is a processthat involves scientific judgementsregarding short-term long-ternt and benefits possible and long-term costsand risks. the and at community.with particularfocus on disserninatingand applying the results to environmental protectionand sustainable development. the atmosphereftrydro sphere/lthosphere/cryo ere sysi sph tem. risk-evaluation methodologies : (h) Developmethodsto link the findings of the establishedsciences with the indigenous knowledge differof ent cultures. It shouldbe adaptiveand responsive to perceived "userneeds be carriedout via transparent. the and next century coul d see si gni fi cant envi ronment al changes. the humanconsumption of energy. socio-economic. B / S C/ F NI I F I C N D T E C H N OL OGICME AN S A AL 35. to including about$30 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. agro-ecosystem and the and otherterrestrial and aquaticecosystems: (b) Developingand applying new analyticaland pre- 259 . MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Ai F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 35.to complement andencourage synergies between traditional and conventionalscientific knowledge and practicesand strengthening interdisciplinaryresearch relatedto environmentaldegradation and rehabilitation: (b) Settingup demonstration modelsof differenr types (e. suchas the biogeochemical cycles. usingcomparable and complementary methodologies.communities order to improve knowledgeof the cost in and benefit of different development policies and strategiesin relation to health and the environment. (g) Improve capabilities determiningscientificrefor prioritiesat thenational.11One key objective to improveand increase is the fundamental understandingof the linkages between human and naturalenvironmental systems and improve the analytical and predictive tools required to better understand environmentalimpactsof development the optionsby: (a) Carrying out research programmesin order better to understand carryingcapacityof the Eafih asconditioned the by its naturalsystems.10In ordertopromotesustainable development.andshortages may ensuein many partsof the world even if environmental conditionswere to remain unchanged. Actual costsand financiai terms. regional and global OBJEC'IIVES 35. subregional. current "advancedscience". and (c) Supporting researchby developing relative-risk evaluationmethodsto assistpolicy makersin ranking scientifi research c priorities. levels. Such studies.8 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activitiesof this programme be about$150 million. and friendly".includingany thatarenon-concessional. They shouldbe developed the local level and at shouidconcentrate the links betweenthe traditional on knowledgeof indigenoLls groupsandcorresponding.waterand non-renewable resources increasis ing.. B) ENHANCTNG SC|ENTIFIC UNDERSTANDTNG BASIS ACTION FOR 35. appropriate according national as and to capacities and the availableresources. includingtheir socio-ecclnomic humanaspects.thebiosphere biodiversity. more extensiveknowledge is required of the Earth's carrying capacity. Therefore.surprises as may be expected. on both a total anda per capitabasis. search regionalandgloballevels to meetthe needsof sustainable development. a result. coordinated by an internationalscienceeffort.9.9 The scientific and technoloeical means includethe follorving: (a) Supportingnew scientific researchprogrammes. includingthe processes could eitherimpair that or enhance ability to supportlife. (0 Conductscientificstudiesof nationaland regional pathways sustainable to development.Theseareindicative andorder-of'-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.

biologicalanclsocialhuman processes which.economicand social on responses global change. strengthen global terrestrial databases their of components. (ii) Promoteresearch human.and developthe intertacewith the research usersof Earth observationdata and with the United NarionsEARTHWATCH sysrem. to (l) Supportdevelopment new user-friendlytechnolof ogiesand systems facilitatetheintegration multidisthat of ciplinary.develop Eatth observationsystemsfrom spacewhich will provide integrated. subregional.terrestrialandatmospheric processes provide and advance warningof naturaldisasters. continuousand long-termmeasurements the of interactions theatmosphere. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. subregional. particularlyin developing countries. developfurtherrestoration and ecology. in particular: (i) Developresearch humanattitudes behaviouras on and driving forcescentralto an understanding the causes of and consequences environmental of changeand resource use. (i) Develop and apply sysremsand technologythat automaticallycollect. of hydrosphere lithosphere. (e) Developthe capacityfor predictingthe responses of terrestrial. in tum.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. depend will upon.and long-term pernrrbations the of environment. (k) Intensify researchto integratethe physical. including modelling of the f'unctioningof these systemsassumingdifferent intensities of human impact. regionaland international observationand researchprogrammesin global atmosphericchemistryand the sources and sinks of greenhousegases. and anddevelopa distribution system datawhich will facilitate for the utilizationof dataobtained throughobservation.the networks. coastaland marineecosystems and biodiversityto short.13 The Conference secretariat estimated aver_ has the age totai annualcosr (1993-2000) implemenringthe of activitiesof this programmeto be about $2 billion.biogeochemical and hydrologicalcycles) and test hypotheses regarding their behaviour. (0 Studythe role of biodiversityandthe lossof species in the functioningof ecosystems the global life-supand port system: (g) Initiate a global observing system of parameters needed therationalmanagement coastal mountain for of and zones and significantly expand freshwaterquantity/ quality monitoring systems. the 0) Enhance contributionof the engineering sciences to multidisciplinary researchprogrammes on the Earth system. (c) Support national. The researchprogrammes shouldincludethe programmes mentioned otherAgenda in 2l chapters which suppoft mechanisms cooperation for and coherence research of programmes global change.subregional.recordand transmitdataand information to data and analysiscentres. on ACTIVITIES 35. at regional and global levelsas guidesto tolerance and vulnerability. and ensurethat the resultsare presented a in publicly accessible understandable and form. (h) In order to undentandthe Earth as a system. order to monitor in marine. systemsand procedures for processing and disseminating their data.and the impact and consequences thoseactionsand trends. (b) Supportnational. MEANS IMPTEMENTATION OF Ai F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALTJATTON 35.12The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Supportdevelopment an expandedmonitoring of networkto describe cycles(for example.physical. regionalandinternational researchprograrnmeson marine and terrestrial systems.chemical. expand correspondi systern for monitoring ng s their changingstates and enhance predictivemodellingof the Earth systemand its subsystems. and improveresearch into the interactions among the various global cycles and their consequences national. global. Actual costsandfinancial terms. in particular with regard to increasing emergencypreparedness and reducing the negativeef_ fectsof major naturaldisasters. of (c) Integrating physical. freshwater.both deliberate and inadvertent.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. on (d) Encouragecoordinationof satellitemissions.dictive tools in orderto assess more accurately ways the in which the Earth'snaturalsystems being increasare ingly influencedby human actions.economicand socialsciences in orderbetter understand impacts economic to the of and socialbehaviour theenvironment of environmenon and tal degradation local and global economies.14The scientificandtechnological means includethe following: (a) Supporting and usingtherelevantnational research 260 .includinganythatarenon-concessional. and demographic trends. including about $ 1. Bi sc/ENI/FtCAND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 35.economic and social sciences better understand imto the pactsof economicand socialbehaviouron the environment and of environmentaldegradationon local and global economies and. inter alia. provide informationand know_ ledgefor decisionmakersand the generalpublic.

regionalandlocallevers..activities of academia.un often be madeat the nationarand local revels. includ- 261 ..JATION 35'18 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993_2000) implementing of the activities of this progranrme be about to $35 million. Actuarcosts and financial terms. space_based observational technology. i l l depend w upon. Theseaudits shouldthen be madeavailableto the generalpublic. Full use shouldbe made of traditionalknowredgeof the rocal e n v ir onm ent .At the same time.including any that are non_ concessi onal . ACTIVITIES 35'17 The following activitiesshourdbe under-taken: (a) Coordinateexisting data. This task would involve the integrationof arl rerevantsciences at the national.and statistics-gathering systemsrelevantto developmental and environ .15 Meeting scientificresearch needsin the environment/development field is only the first stepin the sup_ port that the sciences can provide for the sustainabre development process. (b) Increasing useof appropriate the enablingsystems and technologies.g. such as supercomputers. upon for implementation. assisted by internationalgovernmentaland non_govern_ mentalorganizations and united Nations bodiei when necessary and as appropriate. 35. at Many countries and organizationsalready preparereports on the environment and deveropment which review current conditionsand indicate future trends. energy use. of examiningin particularthe capacities globarand regionar of life-s"upporting systemsto meet the needsof human and non_ human life forms and identifying areasand resources vulnerableto further degradation. s. Such assersments should be designedto map out manageable develop_ ment pathwayswithin the environmentaland socioeconomiccarrying capacityof each region.. at regionar andgloballevelson thebasisof the bestavailable scientific knowledge orderto deverop in artemative strategies. (b) Develop a methodorogy carryout to nationaland regionalauditsand a five-yeargtobaraudit on an integrated basis. Thus scientificassessments projections and arerequired theglobal. c) |frrpRovtNc t oNG-TERlr SCtENTtFtc ASSESSMENT ing indigenous approaches. regional. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALI.19 With regard to the existing data requirements underprogrammeareaA.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not beenreviewedby Governments.ntur issues asto support so preparation rong-term of scientific assessments for example. in particular. human activitiesat the locar and regionarlevels often contributeto global threats.apply the dataobtained throughthe activities identified in programmearea B to environment/development assessments the global.i nteral i a. particularlyin developingcountries.andpromotethe wide distribution of the assessments a form that is responsive public in to needs and can be widely understood. i ncl udi ng about $18 mi l l i on from the i nternati on al community on grant or concessional terms.thespeci fic strategies and programmes Governments decid. . are key chang". information and OBJECNVES 35. The standardized auditsshould helpto refine the patternand character development. Earth-andocean-based observational technologies. developingand expand_ ing the Global Climate ObservingSystem.16The primaryobjective to provideassessments is of the currentstafusand trendsin major developmental and environmental issues the national. the differentscales time for of and spacerequiredfor long-termpolicy formulation.non_governmental or ganization universities and researchinititutions. supporishould provided be for nationaldatacollectionand warningsystems. using the best avairablemoders.dataon resource depletion. and would be or_ ganized by governmentalagencies. import/export flows.r. und pro_ moting their active participationin regionalano gtobat programmes. and global levels. data management and database technologies and. regional at and local levels.rpoi.This impliesthatthe biosphere mustbe maintained in a healthystateand that losses biodiversity in must be sloweddown. knowledge The acquired may then be usedto provide scientificassessments (audits)of the currentstatusand for a rangeof possiblefuture conditions. researchinstitutesand governmental and non-governmental organizations.subregional. BASIS ACTION FOR 35. stratospheric ozone depletion.€. health impacts and demographic trends. This would involve setting up database. Althoughmany of the long_term environ_ mental changes that are likely to affect peopleand the biosphere globarin scare.Regional and global assessments courd make full use of such reports but shouldbe broaderin scopeand include the results of detailedstudiesof future conditionsfor a rangeof assumptions about possiblefuture human .

meetnational.20In view of the increasing and of play in dealingwith the issues environment develto opment. activitiesto reduceinformationbarriersdue to language differences. (d) Improvingaccess relevant informationfor sciento tists and decision makers. and 262 . in (b) Strengthen scientificinfrastructure schools. (e) Develop. capable management provided:anddevelopspecialists is relatedto of working in interdisciplinaryprogrammes environmentand development. Increasettre applications particularly in . for velopmentof mechanisms the sharingof basic redata and inforrnation. (c) Developandexpandnationalscientificandtechnoprocessing datain unifiedformatsand logical databases. allowing full andopenaccess thedeposiand tory libraries of regional scientific and technological of submission scientific informationnetworks. AD.in particular. collect. and in view of the sizeandcomplexityof globalenvironmental disciplines in problems.and the improvementand search. in science tries to improve infrastructuresfor researchand developto ment which could enablescientists work more producresearch and to of tively. FOR BASIS ACTION haveto role the sciences 35. to systems.including the field of appliedsocialsciences. needfor more specialists several a hasbecomeevidentworld wide. Prornote to informationanddatabases globalor andtechnological and network systems. the universities and researchinstitutions -.particularly those in developingcountries. processand disseminate expand from regional and global scientificprogrammes. ACTIVITIES 35.for the purposeof achieving and in of a sustaining criticalmass highly qualifiedscientists thesecountries.22The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: not (a) Promote education trainingof scientists.21The primary objectiveis to improve the scientific of capacities all countries. knowledgeof sustainability: (b) A substantialincreaseby the year 2000 in the womenscientists numberof scientists particularly in thosedevelopingcountrieswhere their number is at present insufficient.thoseof developingcountries with specificregardto: (a) Education. development incentives encourage and greaterutilizationof their resultsin the development. research.Suchcapacity-building of would alsoform the basisfor improving public awareness must Specialemphasis of and understanding ttresciences. productivesectors theeconomy.particularly strengthen in developingcountries to enablethem to participate and applicationof the resultsof fully in the generation sustainconcerning and scientificresearch development There are many ways to build up able development. includingmultidisciplinaryresearch.by the provision of adequatescientific equipment and accessto current scientific literature.i n c l u d i n g d a ta a s sessment i inf or m at i o nd i s s e mi n a ti o nn e a c h re g ion.Suchmech- OBJECTIVES 35. capacity.regionaland in proresearch global environmental and developmental grammes.of cornputer-based retrievalsysdevelopingcountries temsin ordertocopewith thegrowthof scientiflcliterature. trainingand monitoring.InFrc (e) Involvementof scientists national.Someof the most scientificand technological and importantof themarethe following: education training to assistance developingcounand technology.it is necessary build up scientificcapacityand suchcapacityin all countries.with the aim of improving in public awareness participation decision-making. regionaldatacentres (d) Developand expandregionaland global scientific informationnetworkswhich arebased and technological on and linked to national scientific and technological infonnation databases. of development intemationalnetworksand centres. manageand incorporateenvironmentalconsiderations into researchand developmentprojects:ensurethat a ecology and resource sound base in natural systetns. strengthenand forge new partnerships tcl among national. regional globalchallenges.regional and global capacities proof mote the full and open exchange scientificand technologicaldataandinformationand to facilitatetechnical soundand sustainrelatedto environmentally assistance This shouldbe done throughthe deable development. and the but only in theirdisciplines alsoin theirability to identili.lGUP SCIE]. (c) Reducing from of the significantly exodus scientists those who have developingcountriesand encouraging left to return. trainingand facilitiesfor local research and developmentand human resourcedevelopmentin basic scientific disciplinesand in environment-related andlocal traditional utilizing whereappropriate sciences.including regional linking vr'ithnational scientiflc datafor bases.and r epor t ing s y s te ms . be put on the need to assist developingcountriesto bases to theircapacities studytheirown resource strengthen them betterin orderto and andecologicalsystems manage Furthermore. (f) P eri odi c academi c update o1' sci en t ist sf r om fields o1'knowdevelopingcountriesin their respective ledse.ID C/N4BUTY CAPACITY D) BUlLDll.

These indicative are and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Govemments. for example: (a) Supportand coordination scientificcooperation of amongall nationsin the region. (b) Enhancingnational. and assist communities the that possess suchknowledge to benefit from them. equipment. monitoringand assessment systems and databases. (c) Support and coordinationof national studies of pathways towardssustainable development.so that they will be able to function effectively and efflcientlyin satisfying scientificneeds the of developingcountries.professional anismsshouldbe designed asto enhance so cooperationamong scientistsin all countriesand to establish strong national and regional alliancesbetween industryand research institutions.libraries) ensure to that the scientists work effectively will in their home countries. (0 Improve and develop new links betweenexisting networksof naturaland socialscientists universities and at the internationallevel in order to strengthen national capacities the formulation of policy optionsin thefield in of environment and development.as may be appropriate.Promote and use the potentialof independent initiativesand indigenousinnovationsand entrepreneurship.23 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million. (e) Establishmentand maintenanceof information. Ensurethe capacity-building of women by recruitingmore women in research and research trainins. (b) Linking with monitoringcentresand carryingout assessment environmental of and developmental conditions.regionaland global capacities forcarrying out scientificresearch applyingscientific and and technologicalinformation to environmentallysound and sustainable development. salaries.24Suchmeansincludeincreasing and strengthening regional multidisciplinary researchand training networks and centresmaking optimal use of existing fa- 263 . c) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 35. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F'NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 35.g. This includesa need to increase financial resourcefor globalandregionalsciens tific and technological informationnetworks. Actual costs and financial terms.. (g) Compile. cilitiesandassociated sustainable development techand nology supportsystems developing in regions. (d) Organizationof scienceeducationand training. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. inter alia. The function of such networks and centrescould include. including about $470 million from the intemationalcommunityon grantor concessional terms.25Capacity-building includesthe fbllowing: (a) Creatingconditions(e.includinganyttratarenon-concessional. 8/ SC/FNilF'C AND TECHNOLOG\CAL MEANS 35. depend will upon. analyseand pubiish information on indigenous environmental developmental and knowledge.

needsto be incorporated an essential as Both fonnal educationand non-formal educationare so to indispensable changingpeople'sattitudes that they their sustainable havethe capacityto assess address and It development concerns" is also critical for achieving values and attienvironmentaland ethical awareness.This chaptersetsout broadproposals. velopmenteducationshould deal with the dynamicsof enviand socio-economic both the physical/biological ronmentandhuman(which may includespiritual)develand shouldbeintegrated all disciplines. virtuallyall areas Agenda21. and improvingthe capacityof the tainabledevelopment issues.the latter part of leaming.. of major groups.skills and behaviourconsistent developmentand for effective public participationin To environmentand dedecision-making. should in opment. relatedto sectoralissuesare while specificsuggestions The and in otherchapters. have provided the funprinciplesfor the proposals this document. primary education at least80 per cent and to achieve for of girls and 80 per cent of boys of prirnary schoolage through formal schoolingor non-fornraleducationand to reduce adultilliteracyrateto at leasthalf of its I 990 the level. Deciaration Recomcontained Conference mendations the Tbilisi Intergovernmental of by EnvironmentalEducation. with sustainable tudes. for providesthe underpinning any While basiceducation environmentaland developmenteducation.2 Programme are: (a) Reorienting develeducation towardssustainable opment: (b) Increasing publicawareness: (c) Prornotingtraining.3 Education.regionaland interwill developtheir own priorities nationalorganizations with in fbr irnplementation accordance and schedules policiesand programmes. and can reachtheir b1' which human beingsand societies Education criticalfor promotingsusis fullestpotential. the role and and information.including formal education.1 Education.lorganizecl UNESCO on and UNEP and held in l9ll. Effortsshor-rld focuson reducingthehigh illiteracy levelsand redressing lack of basiceducation among the women and shouldbring their literacylevelsinto line with thoseof men: AR PROGRAMME EAS TOWARDS EDUCATTON A) REORTENTTNG DEVETOPMENT SUSTAINABLE FOR BASIS ACTION 36. Promoting 3 6 INTRODUCTION raising publicawareness training of and 36. in damental in areasdescribed the presentchapter 36.1Recognizing that countries and. be eff'ective. of OBJECTIVES 36. employ formal and non-formal rnethodsand effective means communication. science. jectivesareproposed: (a) To endorsethe recommendations arisingfrom the World Conf'erence Educationfor All: Meeting Basic on (Jomtien.5-9 March 1990) Learning Needs2 to andto striveto ensure universal access basiceducation. and even in are linked to capacmore closelyto the oneson meetingbasicneeds.ond public oworeness troining educotion. following obthe their needs. peopleto address environment development and 264 .Thailand. data ity-building.public as should recognized a process be awareness training.

educational. are recommendedto assist or set up pre-serviceand in-servicetraining programmes all fbr teachers. (d) To promote integrationof environmentand development concepts. in ecological heritagesitesetc. with the participation of studentsand staff. universalizing access and promoting equity.including dernography. all educain tionalprogrammes.Non-governmentalorganizations make an importantcontribution can in designing andimplementing educational programmes and shouldbe recognized. (c) Countriesare encouraged set up nationaladvito sory environmentaleducationcoordinating bodies or round tables representativeof various environmental. information exchangeby enhancingtechnologies and capacities necessarv promoteenvironment to and development education and public atvareness. These bodies would help mobilize and facilitate different populationgroupsand communitiesto assess their own needsand to develop the necessary skills to createand implemeuttheir own environment and developmentinitiatives: (d) Educational authorities. broadening the means and scope of education.linking thesestudies with services andresearch nationalparks. includingnon-governmental organizations.administrators. nongovernmental organizations and others. genderand other interests. in addressing the nature and methodsof environmentaland development educationand making use of reler. and in relevantactivities.wildlife reserves.They should alsorecognize appropriate traditionaleducation systems in local communities. Countries 265 . social and gender disparities which interferewith theseaims. within five years. and identify needs. This should be done in cooperation with all sectorsof society. with theappropriate assistance from community groups or non-governmental organizations. Due respect shouldbe givento community-defined needs diverse and knowledgesystems. (g) Within two yearstheUnited Narionssystem should undertakea comprehensive review of its educational programmes.as well as non-formaleducators all sectors.including safe drinking-water. mobilizing resources and strengthening internationalcooperation to redressexisting economic.with environmentand development issuesand their socioculturaland demographicaspectsand linkages. Governments. ons (e) Relevant authorities shouldensure everyschool that is assistedin designing environmentalactivity work plans. means and schedulesfor their implementation.'ant experience of non-governmentalor ganizati .and giving of special emphasisto the further training of decision makers at all levels. A thoroughreview of curricula should be undertaken ensurea multidisciplinaryapto proach. ACTIVITIES 36. Regional organizations national and authoritiesshouldbe encouraged elaborate to similarparallel programmes opportunities conducting analysis and biu an of how to mobilize differentsectors the populationin of order to assessand addresstheir environmentaland development education needs . sanitation and food and ecosystems.to reassess priorities and reallocateresources. help mobilize resources. and provide a source of information and focal point for international ties. developmental.(b) To achieve environmental development and awarenessin all sectorsof societyon a world-wide scaleas soonas possible. (c) To striveto achieve accessibility environmenthe of tal and development education. (0 Educational authorities shouldpromoteproveneducational methods and the developmentof innovative teachingmethodsfor educational settings.5 Recognizing thatcountries andregionalandinternational organizationswill develop their own priorities and schedules implementationin accordance for with policiesand prografitmes. encompassing training and public awareness. following actheir needs. developing supporting a policy context. drawingon thebestavailable scientificevidence and other appropriate sources knowledge. culturaland socialsensitivities. linked to social education. particular analysis thecauses in the of of major environment and development issues a local in context. cost. Schoolsshould involve schoolchildren local and rein gional studieson environmental health. and educationalplanners.in cooperation with the appropriate bodiesof the UnitedNationssystem. The UNESCO/LTNEP Internati onal EnvironmentalEducation Programme should. from primary school age through adulthood to all groups of people.establish proa gramniewithin two yearsto integrate decisions the the of Conference into the existingUnited Nationsframework adapted the needsof eclucators differentlevelsand to at circumstances. the tivities are proposed: (a) All countries encouraged endorse recomare to the mendationsof the Jomtien Conferenceand strive to ensure Frameworkfor Action.. includingscience. This would encompass its the preparation of national strategiesand actions for meetingbasiclearningneeds. (b) Governments should strive to update or prepare strategies aimedat integratingenvironmentand development as a cross-cutting issueinto education all levels at within the next three years. The strategies shouldsetout policiesand activities. evaluationand review. encourage to partnerships. (h) There is a need to strengthen.

(nr ) Gor ernments and educational authoritics should opportunitics for wollten itl non-traditional fields l'ostc-r' T g i a n dc l i n r i r t a t c en d er s t e r e o t y p i n gn c u r r i c u l a . shouldpresent decisionsin a variety of fonns. for technology. legislationif necessary. use their experiby to development of ence and understanding sustainable and training: play a part in education (o) The United Nationscould maintaina monitoring and evaluativerole regardingdecisionsof the United on NationsConference }invironmentand Developlnent throughthe relevantUnited andawareness. suggestsustaitrable (l) Educational authoritics.should cooperatc rvith cach other and with the various social sectors and population grclups to prepare educaticlnaltools that include regional environment and development issues and initiativcs. and Actualcosts financial Governments. 266 . inter will any that are non-concessional. l'hc applopriatc bodies of the tJnited Nations non-govemrnentalorganizasystern irt cooperittiort'. more situations. cooperatitt-ruith ancl supporting the efforts of ators alid ot hcr cotnntunity -basedorg annon.training and could and related environment development to activities such throughmeasures cases.su t t l t c l o c a l .These authoritics and industry should encourage business. appropriate.in appropriate as the following: in (a) Giving higher priority to thosesectors budget cutting reprotecting them from structural allocations. environment development. and (c) Promotingconditiclns where a larger shareof the with rich comcost is borne by local communities. At network fbr the achiei entcrtttr1-global forums the nationaland ltrcal lcrcls.including women's and indigenous pr-oplcs'orgartizations. and and disseminate and implementation review the shouldensure continuous decisions. r e g i o n a l a n c l n a t i o n a l levcls bl. upon. aud knowledge exchange. basing acschools and local tivities around eletuentarv/secondauy problerns. depend and programmesGovernalia.t. and national university actions which proand ac:tivities on mote researchand cotntnon teaching apprclaches sustainable develclpntent should be built upon.7 In the light of country-specific public itwareness support for education. h i s c o u l d b e d o r r eh r i r n p r o v t n ge n r o l m e n to p p o r t u n i t i e si. could or strengthen cstablishnatiotlalor rcgional centresof exceland educalionin environresearch lence in irrterdisciplinary rnental and developtttetttalsciences.as well as with all countries. public and scholastic and should discussertviront. Such centres or could be urtiversitir's cristing networks in each country or region. Crclss-disciplinary courses could be Existing regionalnetworks made availableto ailstr"rdents. promoting literacy young femalesand to programmes amongwomen. Prograrnntcs at a postgraduatc includc specitic courscsainting at the f'urther ler el shoLrld t r a i n i n g o f d e c i s i o nm a k e r s . know-how. (n) Governments shouldaffirrnthc rightsof indigenous to peoples. quirernents. the specific strategies mentsdecideupon for irnplementation.and thosewith ratesof literacybelow 40 per cent.tcntal development issues.and altctratil'cs to policy makers. (b) S hi fti ng al l ocati onsw i thi n exi sti ng educat ion with focus on budgetsin favour of primarv education. governmental organizations and other sectors. includingabout $3.fbnn al cch. using learning materials and resourcessuited to their owtt requirentcnts: (i) Countriescould supportuniversity and othertertiary activities and networks for environmental and development education. MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSI EVALUATION F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated aver36.Theseare indicatir. prornotitig coopel'ativcresearchand infonnation At sharing and disscrnirtatiott. poorerones: munities assisting (d) Obtaining additional funds fiom private donors on concentrating the poorestcountries. shingchild-care ves providing incenti for establi Priority shouldbe given to educationof as appropriate.5 billion to $4. developrttcntin their education could include sustainable and training programtncs.assistcd internationalorganizations.reforming entranceanclteacherstaffingpoliciesand facilities.6 The Conference (1993-2000) implementing the of age total annualcost programmeto be about $8 billion to activitiesof this $9 billion. be provided.rc izations. it as mental organizations.5 billion from the intemationalcommunity on grant or concesand order-ot--magnisional terms. the giobal level these functions should Lrcperlirnred by appropriateinstitutions: (k) Countrics :hoLtlcl l'acilitateand promote non-formal e d u c a t i o n a c t i r i t i c . on education and non-governWith Governrnents Nations agencies. and ncw partnershipsand bridges created with the businessand other independent sectors.law and the managernent of specific environntental problems.industlial and agricultrrral schocllsto in'Ihe corporate sector clude such topics in their curricula. nonby 0) Countries.u'ith appropriateassistance of non-governmental orgattizations.should promote all kinds of adult educatron progralnmes for continuing education in environntent and delelclpment. of implications Conference of the educational in particularthroughrelevanteventsand conferences.r'ith of tht: tions should c-rtcountsc dr-r'cloptnent an intemational educationalaims.n c l u d i n g and programmes students instrucas in females advanced tors. 36.'c not treen reviewed by tude estimatesonly and have including terms.

public participationin discusThey shouldencourage s ions of env i ro n me n ta lp o l i c i e s a n d a s s essments. proSystematicsun/eys of the impact of awareness grammes shouldbeconducted. patible with sustainable It development. providepublic environmenas to tal and development informationservices raisingthe for awareness all groups. especially tertiary sector.popular theatre groups.due to inaccurate insufficientinformation. Such cooperation wouldalsoincrease activepublicparticithe pationin thedebate theenvironment. (g) Promotingthe effective use of existing facilities.involving for local participation. taking into and accountaesthetic and ethicaldimensions. National and local educationalauthoritiesand relevantLlnitedNationsagencies shouldexpand.f or the primarylevel. . (f) Countries.and should coordinate wit nonac t iv it ies h .fuller development and other long-distance teaching. is inrportantto stress principleof devolvingauthority'.behavioural and socialsciences. employing interactivemultimedia methods and integratingadvancedmethodswith fblk media. of open universities (h) Facilitatinglow-costor no-costuseof massmedia for the purposes education. Educational terialsof all kinds arrdfor all audiences shouldbe based on thebestavailable includingthe scientificinformation. (g) Countries shouldpromote. environmentallysoundleisureand tourisrnactivities. following acthe their needs.UNESCO.9 The objectiveis to promotebroadpublic awareness as an essential part of a global education effort to valuesand actionswhich are comstrengthen attitudes. of (c) Countries and regionalorganizations shouldbe encouraged. should establishways of employing rnodern communicationtechnologiesfor effective public outreach.as appropriate. useof audio-visual the methods.in cooperation with the scientificcommunity. the to contributemoreto awareness mabuilding. Bl TNGREASTNG PUBUCAWARENESS BASIS AC-TON FOR lack of 36. natural. especially in rural areasin mobile units.especiallyits informationbodiesand regionaland countryoperations. (d) Countries should stimulate educationalestablishmentsin all sectors. for example. zations.by producingtelevisionand radio prograrnmes developingcountries. of (i) Encouraging twinning of universities developed in and developingcountries.multiple schoolshifts. (0 Lifting restrictions privateschooling increa