an introduction to

reading and writing
Japanese
.....
·150&
.1011
F1
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Helen Gilhooly
Do you want to leam the basics of reading and writing Japane ..
and understand how the script works? Are you planning a trip to
Japan or thinking about learning the language? If so, Teach
Your •• 1f Seglnne,'. Japan ••• Script I. for youl
In this book, Helen Gilhooly has written a step-by-step introduction to
reading and writing simple Japanese. She guides you through the basic
techniques and teaches you how to build your skills, with tips and
practice suggestions to help you memorize what you are learning and
make it enjoyable along the way.
Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese Script features:
• the origins of the language
• a systematic approach to mastering the script
• lots of -hands on" exercises and activities
• practical examples from real-life situations
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II "'IIIC; FI
Helen Gilhooly
TEACH YOURSELF BOOKS
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y=
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2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999
CONTENTS
Introduction v
Unit 1
1
Linking kanji to pictures (I) 2
How to read the days of the week 5
Writing Practice ( 1) 7
Unit 2

11
Linking kanj i to pictures (2) 12
Reading dates and calendars 16
Writing Practice (2) 23
Test ( I) 27
Unit 3

28
Numbers 1- 10 28
Numbers 11- 99 31
Numbers 100- 10,000+ 32
Japanese moncy amounts 34
Writi ng Practice (3) 38
Unit 4
42
Action word kanji (verbs) 42
Reading sentences
49
Writing Practice (4) 53
Test (2)
57
Unit 5
58
Reading and writi ng hiragana 60
Simple hiragana rules 66, 67,69
Reading sentences in Japanese 71
I
,.
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Unit 6
i1l*_
73
Remembering kanji through stories 76
Building up kanj i 78
Writing Practice (5) 83
Test (3) 85
Unit 7
_-t;.
87
Locating the radical 92
Linking components wi th readings 94
Using kanji dictionari es 96
Writing Practice (6) 98
Unit 8
_A.
103
Recognisi ng shop and place signs 105
Everyday signs and information II I
Map of Japan 11 5
Reading authent ic signs 11 8
Unit 9
_11..
125
Reading and writing katakana 127
Simple kalakana rules 130, 135
Extra katakana sounds 136
Reading authentic katakana information 143
Unit 10
-+.
148
Simple grammar rules for reading 149
Readi ng and writing letters 164
Japanese haiku (short poems) 171
Key to the exercises 175
Index (1) Japanese-English 180
Index (2) English-Japanese 191
INTRODUCTION
The Japanese language presented such difficulties to sixteent h century
European missionaries that they called it the Devif's tongue. In actual
fact. there arc many features of the Japanese language which make it
relatively strai ghtforward to learn. The grammar, for example, follows
logical rules and is very regular. It is the reading and writing of Japanese
which offers the greatest challenge to the learner.
This book will make the reading and writ ing of Japanese accessible to
you through a step-by-step approach which will help you to gradually
build up your knowledge of Japanese script. The aim of this book is to
show you that written Japanese can be interesting, challenging and also
fun to learn.
In the Japanese education system, the learni ng of Japanese script is spread
throughout the nine years of compulsory education. By the end of this
period, the Japanese student will have ' learnt 1942 kanji (Chinese
characters). This is the basic number prescribed by the Japanese Ministry
of Education as essential for reading texts such as newspapers thoroughly.
There are many more kanji (over 5000 in many kanji di ctionaries) which
are used for more specialised vocabulary and texts. Although 1942 kanji
sounds like a large amount, it is worth making the comparison with
English where, although we learn the alphabet relatively qui ckly, learning
and understanding the meaning of vocabulary and different types of texts
takes a very long ti me.
A brief history
The Japanese writing system was introduced into Japan by the Chinese
around the middle of the 6th century AD. The Chinese language is very
different to Japanese in structure and so the writing system was gradually
adapted to fit the structure of the Japanese language. There are now three
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
scripts which make up the Japanese writing system (four if you include
roma]; or roman script, ie. alphabet). Let 's look at each of these in turn.
Kanji 1I*
Kan is an ancient word meaning 'Chinese' and] i means ' letter' or 'character',
hence kanji is translated as 'Chinese characters' . This was the script
which was invented by the Chinesc and introduced to Japan. Kanji are
ideographs; this means that the whole character conveys a meaning or
idea (whereas in the roman alphabet system, letters are grouped together to
make words). For example a is the kanji for sun. Kanji were originally
drawn from pictures of nature and gradually developed into the standardised
kanji used today. For example a sun developed like this:
- , ~ ~ ) : ~
• • •
You will learn more about this in unit I.
There is usually more than one pronunciation for a kanji character. There
are two types of pronunciation known as onyomi (Chinese reading) and
kunyomi (Japanese reading). You wi ll learn morc about this in unit 2.
Kana fJ,t.;,
The two other scripts in the Japanese writing system are called hiragana
and katakana and are known collectively as kana. They are phonetic
alphabets or syllabaries which means that each symbol represents one
sound only. This differs from the roman alphabet system where letters are
grouped into sounds and where the same letter can be pronounced in
differcnt ways depending on its grouping (eg: a in rat, rate, far and fare).
The difference between the Japanese phonetic system and the alphabet
system can be shown through an example:
In English the word house is made up of five letters: H-O- U-S-E.
In Japanese the word for house (uchi) is made up of two sounds
U-CHI. These sounds are represented by two hiragana symbols: .; I?
The hiragana and katakana scripts represent the same set of 46 basic
sounds but the symbols are written differently and the two scripts are
used for different purposes as described in the foll owing section.
INTRODUGION
Hiragana D G tJVJ.
The word hiragana means rounded/easy to use and indicates both the
shape and the relative simplicity of the script. Each symbol was developed
from simplified kanji with the same pronunciation. For ex.ample, the
hiragana symbol tJ\ ( ka) is a simp,lifi ed version of the kanji 1m
(pronounced ka). The left side remains very similar in the hiragana symbol,
the right side ' box' has been reduced to a slanting line.
Hiragana is used to write the grammatical parts of words and sentences
and to write Japanese words which don' t have a kanji. For example, when
writing verbs (action words) the kanji is used to express the main idea or
meani ng and hiragana is used to indicate the function of the verb:
I listen is written: Pfl ~ i t
The kanji IIH conveys the meaning listen; ~ i -t are three hiragana
which show that the action is present tense I listen.
I listened is written: M ~ i l- t.;
The same kanji lit) conveys the meaning listen. The four hiragana show
that it is a past action: I listened. You will learn more about this in units
5 and 10.
Japanese children learn hiragana first and then gradually replace words
and parts of words with kanji as they progress. Hiragana is also used to
indicate how to pronounce a kanji when it is first learnt or if it is unusual.
When used in this way, it is called furigana and is written beside or above
the kanji .
Katakana :b 'Y :b 'T
The kata of katakana means partial and this is because each katakana
symbol was developed from part of a kanji with the same pronunciation.
For example, the katakana symbol I.J (ka), comes from 1he left side of
the kanji :bn (pronounced 'ka') . (In this example, the same kanji is the
root of both the hiragana and katakana symbol; this isn't always the case.)
The katakana script represents the same set of sounds as hiragana but the
symbols are written differently and are used for different purposes. In
overall appearance, hiragana symbols are rounded in shape and katakana
symbols are more angular. This wi ll become more apparent once you
have worked through units 5 and 9.
viii BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Katakana has a number of uses. Firstly, it is used for writing non-Japanese
words which have been introduced into the language. These fall inlo two
categories:
1) Loan words For example, ?;:t - 'I "?' Y (wokuman) means
walkman;
T v 1::' (terebi) means teievi!,·ion.
2) Foreign names For example, countries, cities and personal names:
7 ;J. ~ :IJ (amerika) = America; ... ~ ~ (pan) = Paris;
;t.. ~ ;t.. (sumisu) = Smith.
There are also two categori es in whi ch katakana is used for writing
Japanese words:
3) To make words stand out Katakana makes words stand out in a si milar
way to writing a word in bold, ital ics or capitals. II is used increasingly
in advert ising (to make the product stand out), for slang words and
exclamations, for pop group names and in headlines. Examples incl ude:
,.. :3 7 (Toyota) and r ~ 1- Y ::z (Pachinko - the Japanese pinball game).
4) The classification of plants and animals
About this book
The 10 units which make up this book wil l graduall y increase your
knowledge of written Japanese. Units 1 to 4 introduce mai nly kanji which
developed from pictures of nature. About 3% of kanji fall into this
category but, as you will learn, they are also used as components of more
complex kanji . Units 4 and 6 to 8 will teach you how to decipher these
more complex kanj i giving you the tools to take your study further on
completion of this book. There are plenty of hints to aid your learning
and you will learn to build stories to remember the meanings of the kanji.
Units 8 and 10 give you the chance to put your learning into practice.
Unit 8 introduces you to a number of practical kanji words such as signs,
notices and warni ngs of the ki nd you would see all around you in Japan.
Unit 10 introduces a number of reading passages and helps you to decipher
them and extract their meaning. You will also encounter different styles
of printed and handwritten text.
Two of the units are devoted to teaching the two phonetic scri pts; hiragana
(unit 5) and katakana (unit 9). There are lots of practice acti vities and
INTRODUCTION
ideas to help you learn and remember these two scripts . You can leave
these units out and come back to them later if you wish to concentrate
only on kanji , but if you take your study of Japanese further, then a
knowledge of these scripts is essential.
There are sections throughout the book which concentrate on the teaching
of written Japanese. Again, you may wish to leave these out and concentrate
on reading only.
Pacing yourself
• Remember that it is YOU who sets the pace - keep enjoyment of,
learning at the top of your agenda!
• Find a balance between moving through the book and revi sing what
you have learnt. Don't expect to remember everything (even Japanese
people forget kanji!) and use the indexes at the back where possible to
find words you have forgotten.
• Build up a set of small flashcards with kanji on one side and English
on the other to test yourself from time to time, Start your own dictionary
too; use a notebook to write down new words.
Acknowledgements
Thank you to everyone who has advised me on the writing of this book,
In particular, to Masae Sugahara and Miyuki Nagai of the School of East
Asian Studies, Sheffield University - Masae for the calligraphy and for
reading and commenting on the text, Miyuki for the artwork and ideas for
mnemonics; to Niamh Kelly of the Japanese Department, Dublin City
University for reading the text and makingJots of useful suggestions;
Mavis Pilbeam of the Japanese Department of the British Museum for
her thorough and very helpful proof-reading; Robert Gilhooly for provid-
ing the photographs; my students ( incl uding Margaret Teasdale) for being
'gui nea pigs' ; Sue Hart and Carolyn Taylor at Hodder and Stoughton; and
John Rogers for doing all the' cooking!
The publishers and author would like to thank the following for the use of
material in this book: Kyoto Newspaper Company and Nobuko Kogawa
(29/ 10/98) and Kinako Matsumoto, Seikyo Newspaper (14/9192).
x BEGINNER' S WANESE SCRIPT
About the author
Helen Gilhooly has lived and worked in Japan and has extensive experi ence
of teaching Japanese and writing teaching materials at secondary school
and adult level. She has an MA and a PGCE in Japanese and has been the
Co-ordinator of Japanese for Derbyshire County and Derby City Council s.
She is also a teacher trainer of Japanese at Nottingham University. Previous
publications include Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese (Hodder and
Stoughton).
1
. - ill Dai ikka
UNIT 1
Ii V 3b1: (hajime nil Introduction
In the introduction to this book you learnt about the history and
development of the Japanese writing system and about the three different
scripts or writi ng forms: () f.; tJ{ 1" (hiragana), 11 7 iJ t- (katakana),
and (kanji). The focus of Units 1- 4 is going to be on (kanji)
and by the end of these four units you will have learnt to recognise 58
(kanji) characters and also to understand the meanings of words
made up from combinations of these.
il*" (knnji) characters are ideographs. This means that each character
represents a whole object or idea. For example:
a is the il.* (kanji) symbol for sun
JJ is the il"'i= (knnji) symbol for moon
As you learnt in the introduction, (kanji) were written originally as
pictures of the world which the ancient Chinese saw around them. These
pictures were gradually, over time, standardised into regul ar shapes with
rules about how to write them correctly. However, the pictures which
each (kanji) developed from can be very useful in helping you to
remember the meanings. Look at these developments:
a (sun) developed somet hing like this:

, , '
As well as sun it also has the meaning day. These two concepts are
connected because the rising and setting of the sun defines a day.
J.I (moon) developed something like this:
E
2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
As well as moon it also has the meaning month. These two concepts are
connected because the lengt h of a month (28 days) is measured by the
progress of each new moon.
You can see from these two examples that Ii*" (kanji) do not necessarily
have only one meaning but can represent a number of associated ideas.
l,., J;? (yonde mimasho)
Let's have a go at reading!
The aim of this section is to give you the opportunity to work out
for yourself the meanings (kanjI) by linking them to pictures of
the objects they represent. The (kanji) you will start with all have
meanings linked to nature and the world which surrounded the ancient
Chinese. To carry oul this activity, look at pictures 1- 12 below and then see
if you can link them to the l1l'i*" (kanji) a- I at the top of the opposite page.
Try to match the shape of the pictures to the (kanji) characters.
111{ A-li'"? -C (ganbatte) - good luck!
1) 2)
gold tree wood forest
5) 6) 7) 8)

)

/ '
"-
/'

"-

mountain stone
6,.
water
9) 10) 12)
bamboo ground nver ri ce field
UNIT 1
il* (kanj')
.) III b) )II
g) ;+; h) "*
d) EO
j) *
e)tt
k) ±
f) 1<
I) 15
3
Check your answers at the back of the book then look again at the
pictures and see if you can envisage how the pictures became the
standardised il¥ (kanji) which are used today.
JWJIIt- (kaisetsu - ichi) Explanation 1
Look at the following artist's impression of the sequence of progressive
changes, from standardised (kanjI) character back to original picture.
ifi* (kanji) (e) (eigo)
Character Picture English
u.,
...

.... rfh
mountain
.,
)II
' 'I
....
"I -+ /,Ij
nver


gold/money
EO ffi ->
ffi
ri ce field
'r'r ....
1t
->
11 .... it
bamboo
1< :k.
....
'k

*'
fire
*
....
:t- .... W
tree
;1:1 .... 14-

wood
4

forest
71<- -I' '-j' ...,. /..... -"J' .; '.

.--
± .±- .... ..:L .... T
water
ground

BEGINNER' S JAPANESE SCRIPT
ilYi<J< (kanji) fit (e)
Character Picture
:.G -. JO Jb,
Jl

8 G ... 9 --'> '8:

English
stone
moon
sun
Did you notice how two trccs are used to represent a wood and three trees
a forest? You will learn more about this type of (kanji) in Unit 2.
MtW- (renshu - ichi) Activity 1
How well can you remember the il* (ku.'1i.i) and meanings you have
learnt so far? Test yourself by linking each (kanji) with its English
meaning. The fi rst one is done for you.
I) ill
2) 1i
3) 1<.
4) 'it
5) lIl:
6) *
7) m
8) ;U<
9) )11
IO)±
II ) '*
12)
13) 13
14) Jl
a) water ( )
b) moon ( )
c) earth ( )
d) ri ver ( )
e) tree ( )
f) forest ( )
g) fire ( )
h) stone ( )
i) sun( )
j) mountain ( I )
k) rice field ( )
I) bamboo ( )
m) wood ( )
n) gold ( )
Ml&= (kaisetsu - ni) Explanation 2
Look at the il* (kanjI) that follow and remind yourself of their meanings:
a. jJ. j( *. *-. i'z. ± sun, moon, fire, water, tree, gold, earth
UNIT 1

These ~ * " (kanji) are also used to represent the first part of the words
for the days of the week. a is the first part of Sunday, JJ is the fi rst part
of Monday and so forth. Here are some tips to help you remember which
~ * - (kanji) represents which day of the week. The first two are easy!
a Sun --+ SUNday.
j.J Moon --+ MOONday or Monday as it has become in English.
*- Fire also represents Tuesday. In English, Tuesday derives from the
word Tiw who was the Norse god of war. If you connect the ideas of
war and fi re in your mind then you will remember that FIREday is
Tuesday!
71< Water also represents Wednesday - easy to remember because both
start with 'W'!
*- Tree also represents Thursday - both start with ' T' (but do not
confuse with Tuesday).
~ Gold/money also represents Friday - Friday is often payday!
± Earth/soil and Saturday. This is the beginning of the weekend and a
good day for worki ng in the garden!
~ .-W= (renshu - ni) Activity 2
Link the ~ * - (kanji) in the left column with the corresponding day of
the week in the right.
I) 1<- a) Monday ( )
2) a b) Tuesday ( )
3) ± c) Wednesday ( )
4) 71< d) Thun;day ( )
5) fl e) Friday ( )
6) ~ f) Saturday ( )
7) *
g) Sunday ( )
iilM:r.-W (yomu renshu) Reading practice
Throughout the book, this section wi ll give you opportuni ties to put into
practice and furt her develop your reading of il*- you have learnt.
The if*- (kanji) in Activity 2 represent the fi rst part of the words for
the days of the week. In fact, the days of the week are written using three
i#i*- (kanji) characters. The other two are III a and they represent day.
6 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Vou already know a and have learnt that it can mean day. !Ill represents
the concept of weekday but simply remember them as together representing
the day part of Monday, Tuesday, etc.
This is what the complete words for the days of the week look like in
i1I!'l' (!wnj<):
IHIH!
flllIH!
!kIlIH!
JJ<ilIH!
*iIfI!l'l

±iII!l'l
t Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
When two or morc (kanji) are combined in this way to produce
new words and meanings, they are called (jukugo) or compound
words. You will learn more about these in Unit 2.
the way, you will often see the days of the week written with the first
(kanji) only, for example, on calendars and diary sheets. This is like
writing 'Mon, Tues, in English.
.W':::: (renshu - san) Activity 3
The following is part of a music events column from a teenage magazine.
Notice that the groups and events are written partly in English script. It is
highly fashionable in the Japanese music world (and not only there) for
group names and song titles to be written in English. The effect of the
script is often far more important than the meaning of the words. (Rancid
Japan Tour and Michelle Gun Elephant from the extract are just two
examples of this!)
The day of the week 00 which each of the events will take place is
written in brackets next to the date (13th- 30th). Notice that only the first
7l* (knnjl) for each of the days of the week is written. Now have a go
at answering the questions that follow the text.
131*'
151.'
UNIT I
THE MICHEllE GUN ELEPHANT rWORLD PCHYCO BLUES
17
TOUR 'ALL STANDINGf MAXIMUMl ' *J ""/a'IiJ"'} ; .1'*1
( B) I H,2OCI '",,-t>·711-""

2,SOO(7" .f 2. 2
ot*ItJI/DJ KEN·B/l KOVA. ATSUSHt!IlJI<IJHIP
On which day of the week do the following events take place?
I) Rotten Orange Tour
2) Down Beat
3) The Michelle Gun Elephant ... Tour
4) Rancid Japan Tour
5) World Connection ' Kool' .
How many events are taking place on:
6) a Friday
7) a Saturday
8) a Thursday?
9) Which day of the week is not represented in the events extract'!
1!}<""'!1l - (kaku renshu - ichi)
Writing practice 1
7
This section will introduce you to some si mple rules for writing
(kanjI). You will learn some further rules in Unit 2 and will then practi se
writing some of the rl¥ (kanji) you have learnt.
The rules for writing il* (kanji) arc very precise and Japanese children
spend many hours of their school life learni ng and practising the correct
order for writing each I!* (kanji). (In a similar way, we learn how to
write the letters of the alphabet correctly at school). Each s ingle part of a
(kanji) is caJl ed a stroke and the order in which if.*, (kanji) are
written is called 1!.F Mi (kakijun) or stroke order.

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
The Japanese use squared paper when they arc learning how to write
because it hel ps to ensure that (kanj i) are all the same size and are
balanced correctly. If you can, use large squared graph paper which is
subdivided into four smaller squares during the init ial stages of learning
to write. This wi ll help you to balance left and ri ght, and top and bottom
of each il* (kanj I). Alternatively you could use graph paper and have
four smaller squares making up one larger square. The il¥ (kanji)
taught in the earlier units will also have an example written in this type of
square so that you can copy exactly from the book. Once you feel confident,
you can use clear squares or use smaller squared paper/graph paper for
practising and perfecting your technique.
Here are some simple rul es to get you started and examples to copy.
Rule I : Horizontal (kanji) strokes are written from left to right.
i9IJ (rei) Example: three

-
-
-
-
-

-
. .
-
-


-
• •
-

Rule 2: Vertical (kanji) strokes are written from top to bottom.
fJlJ (rei) Example: river

) ,
1
t-,---t
)
) ,
) I 1
Rule 3: Where the (kanji) character has an intersecting horizontal
and vertical stroke, the start ing stroke is usually the horizontal one (but
there are some exceptions).
i?lJ (rei) Example: earth
-±-. ±
-
t
..t-

Noti ce you work downwards; the final stroke is the bottom horizontal one.
UNIT 1 9
Rul e 4: A lefthand diagonal line is written before a right band di agonal
line.
(rei) Example: Iree
*
-Jf
-
t
;t

Rul e 5: Here is a ll* (kanji).
,
c1
0
,
l
0
,
--_ .. _-
,
,
,
Rule 6: When the square contains other strokes within it, you fi ll in this
part before writing the bottom line of the square.
#1J (rei) Example: sun
,
8
-8 -
\
(1
R
£3
,
You can combine these rules you have learnt to write ;0 (sl one):
,
;fj
jfu-
,

T
r- kl D
Using these six rules, you have learnt to write the foll owing (kanjI)
in this section:
=_JII _±.*.a.15
(three, river, earth, tree, sun, stone)
10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Now see if you can write them on square paper in the correct order from
memory (refer back to the rules to check when you have fi nished).
As a fi nal note in this section, although it is important to understand and
apply the basic rules for writing jl*" (kanji), there arc some aspects of
stroke order which do not fall easi ly into rules and so you also need to
learn and practise the stroke order for each ~ * (kanji) character. Do
not be daunted by this, however, because ' practice makes perfect' and i f
you write iJ.* (kanji) over and over again and concentrate on the
correct stroke order you will begin to develop a feel for the order in
which they are writt en. You will also begin to develop your own way of
rememberi ng and to apply this to wri ting more complicated ~ ~ (kanji).
In the meantime, you will be given lots of help and advice in the wri ting
sections of this book, and the uni t summaries at the back of the book give
the stroke order for the mai n il.*" (kanjI) taught in each uni t.
j ~ ~ I: (owari ni) Conclusion
This section in each unit will summarise the main aspects of the unit. In
addition, Uni ts 2, 4, 6 and 8 contai n a test so that you can eval uate how
well you have remembered the il* (kanji) you have learnl up to that
point. In this unit you have learnt 14 i l ~ (kanji), seven compound
words (days of the week) and six basic rules for writing if*- (kanji).
The followi ng terms and sub-headings have been used in this unit :
m- 1/.I! dai ikka . Uni t I
(! 1.-' ~ ( ~
hajime ni Introduction
il'1' kanji Kanji (Chinese characters)
liit,t,-C"".1I.-J:; yonde mimasho Let's have a go at reading
1W1& kaisetsu Explanat ion
l!I! '&' renshu Act ivity/practice
liit trl!l!'&' yomu renshii Reading practice
{i}( l!I!'&' kaku renshii Writi ng practice
jj1J
m Example
11 ~ ( ~ owanm Conclusion
The Engli sh meanings of these words and phrases wi ll not be given again in
future units in order to help you to build up your 11* (kanjI) recognition
skills but you can refer back to this list if you need to jog your memory!
However, any key words or tenns will be given at the begi nni ng of the unit.
2
. =ilI Dai nika
UNIT 2
In thi s unit you will
• add some new to the 14 you have learnt al ready
• learn the Japanese pronunciati on of these
• apply your learning to real reading situations
• learn more about writing Japanese script
Key word:
jM* Kanji
Hajime ni
I) Can you remember the meanings of the you were introduced to
in Unit 11 You can see them in the following list, so test yourself and
check back to Unit I if there are any you are unsure about.
2) Can you remember which represents which day of the week?
They arc li sted below in their full form. Remember it is the first
which tells you which day of the week it is.

Again, check back to Unit I if you are unsure of any them.
Yonde mimasho
In this section, as with Unit 1, you will be introduced to some new I!=¥
the pictures of natural objects that they are derived from. Most of
the ill!*" introduced in thi s unit are associated with the human body. Try
matching the pictures with the il*" (a- 1) that foll ow them. In two cases
.2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
(eye and car/vehicle) you may need to imagine the pictures turned on
their side to identity them.
' )
3) 4)
-
/\ ')

gate horse ea, child
6) 7) 8)
" ,

0 ®
--- woman mouth eye foot
9)
10) 11 ) 12)
\.Li7J-

-
hand power car/vehicle person
a) 1=1
b) JE c) 1'1 d) Y: e) T f) A
g) 1+ h) 'f i) j]
n1!l
k) 1)
Kaisetsu 1
An artist's impression of the changes from standardised iI¥ back to
picture follows. Check your answers to the previous activity with thi s
sequence.

Picture
A-+k-.x-->J;:.

+-+}--'-j--->.y
*m (eigo)
English
person
woman
child
UNIT 2
o
I"J

Picture


1'-->f -+ %-+tJ:
-
JL -> /i:.... -> b!!l
:h iJ ... iJJ .... "f!1):.
.w" --> ,1'0 -> h, ->
l -+ ! --. ,d:,. --.. • "
r, .... - fEI ... I=Et
(eigo)
English
eye
car
mouth
hand
foot
13
power/strength
horse
cart/vehicle/car
gate
In thi s set of new Ii¥: there is an example of an abstract noun, 11
(power/strength), being portrayed in picture form through the image of
the muscles in the ann. Anot her point of interest is that 111 originally
developed from the picture of a cart which would have been the type of
transport or vehi cle used when were first developed. In modern
times it has taken on the meaning of car.
_* build up
This section in this unit and throughout the book will introduce you to
new and new words based on the you have learnt so far.
Complex ll'¥
The pictorial tl* that you have been introduced to so far not only have
meanings in themselves but are also used as parts or components of Ii¥:
that are more complex. You actuall y learnt two of these morc complex
14 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
in Unit 1. They were ** (wood) and. (forest) . Both are created
from *- (tree) two trees represent a wood, three trees a forest. Here are
four more _* built from simpler ones which you have learnt already.
The meanings of the components arc incorporated into these complex
fonns. Notice that the simpler when used as components of
more complex 14¥ may change their shape slightly or appear ' squashed' .
.9j (man). Thi s is made from the components fB (rice field) and j]
(power). In other words, the man uses his power to work in the rice fields.
tf (like, love). This is a combinati on of -J;r: (woman) and T (child). The
abstract idea of love is expressed through the love between women and
children.
ijJJ (bright). This is a combinati on of a (sun) and 1) (moon) . The sun
and moon shining together would create a very bright light.
*' (root. origin). ;.+;:. (tree) with a horizontal line through the " runk'
indicates the root of the tree.
Uni t 4 will look at these complex il* in more detail but you can see
from these examples that a knowledge ofthc simplcr il* can also hclp
you to decipher the more complex ones .
• iIi (Jukugo) ll'i' Compounds
The four il* you have just been introduced to are created by combining
simpler to fonn one complex Another way in which
are used to create new meanings is by forming words from two or more
separate iI*. You have al ready been introduced to this idea through the
days of the week. Three separate i1l¥ are used to make up each day. For
example, JJ III a means Monday. Here are some more examples:
A 0 means population ('people' s mouths' = number of mouths to feed)
iJ means horse power
];r:=f means girl ('woman child' )
(Notice that these are two separate unlike M- (complex il¥)
which means lovell ike.)
a *' means Japan ('sun's root' describes Japan as the place east of
China whe}e the sun ri ses. This is where the term ' land of the
rising sun' comes from.)
To summarise the two points in this section: can join together and
form one (for example, or they can form compounds of two or
more (for example. A D).
UNIT 2 15
t!J IlkW- Renshu 1
Some compound words made up of two or three il* follow. Can you
work out their meanings? (You may want to look back at the il¥ you
have learnt so far in Units I and 2 and refresh your memory before trying
this activity.)
b) ~ T
g) 7l< Bl
e) At)
j ) A I'l
Once you have thought about the possi ble meanings of these words, look
at the list of English meanings that follows and decide which best fi ts
each ~ * before you check the answers at the back of the book.
I) volcano 2) boy 3) Japanese person
4) carnage 5) in the publ ic eye 6) water power
7) gateway 8) manpower
9) a rickshaw (man-pulled carriage)
10) a paddy fi eld (a field fl ooded with water for wet ri ce growi ng)
Kaisetsu 2
You will have not iced that somet imes the meanings are a direct
'translation' of the separate ~ ¥ into their new meaning. For example,
*- LlI ('fire mountain' or volcano). In other' cases you need to think more
laterally or abstractl y. For example, A ~ (i n the public eye). However,
once you know what the meanings are they are easy to remember because
the pictorial ~ ¥ act as a visual jog to the memory. And words are
created in a very logical fashion. For example, An:$ means literally
' human-powered vehicle' and that is what a rickshaw is as the following
ill ustration shows.
16 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
In fact, the word ' rickshaw' is a corruption of the Japanese word l in-riki-
sho' . In English, ' jin' (person) has been dropped and the other two words
(power, vehicle) have had their pronunciation ' angli ciscd' , Try sayi ng the
Japanese ' rikisha' and you' l! see what I mean!
fj[fI (Fukushii) Review
Before continuing any further, here is an activity to help you review the
single iM* learnt so far in this unit.
Match the followi ng il¥ with their English meanings from the selection
in the box. Then try the activity in reverse by taking the English meanings
from the bo;Jl first.
A. ~ .•. ~ . * . 00 . Q . ~ . •.•.•. ~ . • . r ~ .
;.is:.iE
vehicle
cae
mouth
man
fool
like
.
eye
woman
hor.;e
' 001
gate
power
pc""n
hand
bright
chi ld
I r there are any of these characters that yOll are not sure about, look back
through the unit and check your answers.
Yomu renshii
The way in which dates are written in Japanese is interesting. You were
introduced to the il* for moon 11 and sun a in Unit 1 and you also
learnt that these ~ * have the connected meanings of day a and month
~ - so let us look at how this works in practice. This is how a typical
Japanese calendar looks for the month of January:
IJ'l '
1'1 J'l 9<
*
;.is:
~ ±'
11'1 21'1 31'1 41'1 51'1 61'1 71'1'
81'1 91'1 101'1 I I 1'1 I 2 1'1 13 1'1 141'1
151'1 161'1 171'1 181'1 191'1 201'1 211'1
221'1 231'1 241'1 25 1'1 261'1 27 1'1 281'1
291'1 301'1 311'1
UNIT 2
· 17
a) is the month written in numerals and i l ~ . Japanese months do
not have a name as such, so they arc assigned a number from I to 12.
Therefore, 6 JJ is June (the sixth month), 1 JJ is January (the first month)
and 12 JJ is December.
b) are the i l ~ for the days of the week (as you learnt in Unit I). They
are shortened in this case to just the first ~ ~ of the three which you
learnt (for exampl e, *l1li a = Wednesday) because this is all that is
needed to identify each day of the week. (Thi s is rather li ke writing Tues,
Wed, etc. in English.)
c) are the days of the month. Each number is followed by a (si milarly
in English we foll ow the dates with st, nd, rd or Ih. For example, ISI,7th).
l!J I!I!fl =: Renshu 2
Using the calendar and information just given, try answering the following
questions.
I) On which day of the week is a) 1st b) 4th c) 9th d) 14th?
2) How many days in the month fall on a Wednesday and what are
they?
3) On which day of the week will IJJ 1 a fall ?
(Note that Japanese dates are written in the order: month t hen date.)
l!J I!I!fl ::::: Renshu 3
On the next page is a calendar from a Japanese travel brochure. Look at
it and answer questions 1-4.
I) What are the starting and fini shing months on this calendar?
2) In which months do the following happen:
a) the 2nd is a Tuesday
c) the 6th is a Friday?
b) the 24th is a Monday
3) On what day of the week is:
a) May 5th b) October 26th c) February 18th
d) August 21 st e) December 25th?
I. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
4) On what days of the week do these Japanese festivals fall :
a) Girls' Day (March 3rd)
b) New Year's Day
c) Tanabata (Star Festival, July 7th)
d) Golden Week (29th April-5th May)
e) Emperor's Birthday (December 23rd)?
l!J Ilkfll!!l Renshu 4
Convert the foll owing random dates into English as in the examples.
Remember the Japanese order: month. date, day.
WI] Rei ( I) 8ft3 a (!J() = Tuesday 3rd August (order: August 3rd
Tuesday)
/II] Rei (2) 101126 a ( ~ ) = Friday 26th October
a) 211141'1 (±)
d) 911101'1 (Ell
b) 1111201'1 Ot.:)
e) 1211251'1 (7l<)
c) 51151'1 (JI)
f) 41JI a ( ~ )
UNIT 2
_* Readings
(Kanji no yomikata)
,.
This section wil l teach you about reading nYi* in Japanese. As suggested
in the introduction, if you wish to focus on just understanding the meaning
of M$ then you can miss these sections out throughout the book or
come back to them later.
1) (kunyomi) and (onyomi)
In the int roduct ion you learnt t hat there are two ways of reading
in Japanese, the kunyomi or Japanese reading and the
onyomi or Chinese reading. The onyomi has developed from the,
original Chinese pronunciation but over the centuries it has been adapted
to and become part of the Japanese language. The kunyomi is the nat ive
Japanese word.
For example, )II (river) can be pronounced SEN (onyomi) and kawa
(kunyomi) . Kawa was the Japanese word for rivcr and so when il¥ were
introduced from China this word was linked to the ll$ character )11 .
By the way, notice that kawa (the kunyomi) when written in romaji
(romanised script or alphabet) is written in lower case and SEN (the
onyomE) in upper case. This system is used in many Ii$: workbooks and
dictionaries and is also followed in this book.
2) Rules for using kunyomi and onyomi
As a general rule, the kunyomi is used for single il* words whereas the
onyomi is used for compound words of two or more il$. Here is
an ill ustrati on of this.
a) Single _* words
A (person) is pronounced hilo (kunyomE)
1=1 (mouth) is pronounced kuchi (kunyomE)
b) Compound _* words
The above if$: make up the compound word A D (popul ation)
whi ch is pronounced JINKO.
lIN and KO are-the onyomi of A and 0 respectively.
There will be further examples and the opportuni ty to practise new
infonnation and rules as you progress through the book so do not worry
if you have understood only some of the details so far. There are exceptions
20 BeGINNER' S JAPANESE SCRIPT
to the rul es about when to use kunyomi and onyomi but these will be
pointed out to you when necessary and explained, and there wi ll be lots
of reinforcement activities too.
~ .fHi Renshu 5
In this unit you are going to concentrate on the kunyomi (Japanese readi ng)
only. In the following li st are the ll* you learnt in Unit I with thei r
kunyomi and a guide to how to pronounce th,?sc readings. Look over these
and practise saying them. Then see how well you can remember them by
covering up the kunyomi column, looking al the 1 l ~ and saying them
from memory.
ll'j<
Meaning Kunyomi Pronunciation
LlJ mountain yama ya·ma (a of mat)
Jif
nvcr tama ka-wa (a of mat)
~ gold/ money kane ka-ne (a of mat, e of end)
m ri ce field ta ta (a of mat)
17 bamboo take ta-kc (a of mat, e of end)
1<.
fire hi (i of hit)
*
tree ki (i of hit )
*"
wood hayashi ha-ya-shi (a of mat, i of hit)
~ forest mori mo-ri (0 of hot, i of hit)
'*
water mlZU mi-zu (i of hit, u of blue)
± ground, earth tsuchj tsu-chi (tsu is one syllable,
chi of chin)
1i slone ish; i-shi (i of hit)
}J
moon tsuki l<>U-ki (l<>U is one syllable, i of hit)
a sun hi (i of hit)
(hinto) Hints: Pronunciation
There are five vowel sounds in Japanese. These are D, i, u, e and o.
They are always pronounced in the same way. A general guide to their
pronunciation can be seen in the li st just given and can be summarised as
follows:
a as in mat i as in hit u as in blue e as in end 0 as in hot
UNIT 2 21
These vowels are attached to consonants to make new sounds but remember.
the pronunciation of each vowel remains constant. The sound tsu is an
unfamiliar one in English - it is one beat or syllable. ' squash' the I and s
together as you say it.
You may have noti ced that the readings of 9<. fire and a day are the
same - they are both pronounced hi. There are many examples of
Japanese words which have the same pronunciation but are written with
different il¥. The difference in meaning can be understood from reading
the il*- or from the context. There are many examples in English, too,
of words whi ch are pronounced in the same way but which have different
meanings. These differences in meaning are indicated by the spelling or
the context or both.
~ .fI:t\ Renshii 6
How well can you remember the kunyomi reading and pronunciation of
each jl!:J!:? You may want to look back at the readings on the previous
list and practise saying them oul aloud - looking at the iI* as you do
so - before trying the following activity.
i) Tick the correct il*:
1 ) ta 0) 'It b) Ell
2) mon 0) ± b) ~
3) ish; 0) ~ b) 15
4)
ka""
0) )II b) W
5)
k;
0) a b) !k
ii) This time ti ck the correct kunyomi:
I) ~ 0) kane b) kawa
2) 'It a) ta b) hayashi
3) fl 0) Isuchi b) Isuki
4) ~ 0) hayashi b) ki
5) 71< 0) mori b) kawa
0) )II
0) l!it
0) ±
0) 71<
0) *
c) k;
c) lake
c) ishi
c) mor;
c) mizu
iii) Now you are going to test your understanding of the three aspects
of il* you have learnt - the i l ~ itself, the kunyomi and the meaning
in Engl ish. You will link these three aspects by choosi ng one from each
of two categories (a- c and i- iii) to match the first item as in the examples:
22 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
{JIJ Rei t la a) JI b) i3
i) ri ce field..J ii) moon
b) Isuch;
ii) moon..J
c) Ell ,
iii) gold
c) hi
iii) earth
WIt Rei}
I) fi ..
3) yama
4) gold
5) it
6) miz,u
7) stone
8) ±
9) ka""
10) ""
a) 71<
i) ki
a) tsukN
;) day
a) mOrl
i) wood
a) )If
i) mountain
a) '"
i) kawa
a) wood
i) take
a) water
;) !k
a) Ell
i) ish;
a} sun
i) 'such;
a) )If
i) bamboo
a) wood
i) mori
l!J tU'l-t Renshu 7
b) '"
ii) hi
b) hayashi
ii) trce
b) it
ii) river
b) ~
ii) kane
b) bamboo
ii) tsuk;
b) moon
ii) *
b) ;r;
ii) Isuchi
b) moon
ii) Isuki
b) 71<
ii) gold
b) forest
ii) hayashi
c)
ii i)
c)
!k
mlzu
ishi
iii) forest
c) IlJ
iii} wood
c) !k
iii) mori
c) nver
iii) tsuch;
c) forest
ii i) *
c) i3
iii} ki
c) earth
iii) ish;
c) it
iii) river
c) tree
iii) ki
The following acti vity gives you the opportunity to use the kunyomi for
~ * learnt so far in a rcal rcading situation. Japanese surnames are made
up of either single ~ ~ or two or three compounded together. The . ~
used in surnames are often fairly simple ones including some of those
you have learnt in Units I and 2. Although 1l* used in surnames have
literal meanings (for example, the surname 11"LlJ (Takeyama) literally
means ' bamboo mountain '), the Japanese do not think of them in this way.
Many English surnames also have literal meanings (for example, Rivers,
Hill, Robinson) but agai n, they are known as names not meanings.
When saying Japanese surnames you use the kunyomi. You learnt at the
beginning of this section that in general the onyomi is used for com]X>und
_* words. However, names are an exception to this rule.
UNIT 2
Can you say these common surnames in Japanese:
a) :Ij;
0) ttlll
b)
f)
c)
g) :>!elll
d) IllJII
h) 'liJII
23
For the following surnames (i- m), III is pronounced ' da' instead of ' ta'
How do you say these names'!
i) III j) tt III k) 'lilll I) Illlll m) JIIIll
In Uni t I you learnt some basic rul es for jM*. Now you are
going to revise these rul es wit h some new you have learnt
in this unit. Vou wi ll learn some further rules and, once you are familiar
with these, you will have a go at writing in the correct order.
Rules 1- 3: You learnt in Unit I that you write from left to ri ght and from
top to bottom. Usually, where two lines intersect, the highest horizontal
line is written before the verti cal line, and then you work downwards.
For example, ' hand'. Note: the short top stroke is written from right to
left.
4-
/
/ /
4-
--"'.
-
-
---
- ,
oj
Rule 4: Diagonal lines follow the same rule of writing the left diagonal
before the right. For example, 'person' .
Rule 5: Vou also learnt in Uni t I how to write a square. Thi s is how
'mouth' is written (notice that the shape is different from the square).
,
,
0
-\3-
\ Cl
a ,
24 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Rule 6: When there is a middle part to the square, you write the bottom
line last. For ex.ample, 'eye'.
,
§ -til-
l
II
A
Fl
§
And ' rice field' (but noti ce this is an exception to Rule 3 because
the vertical intersecting line inside the square is written before the
hori zontal).
,
ill
-$I
\ Cl III
ffi
EEl
Here are two further rules.
Rule 7: Where a ~ ~ has a distinct left and right part, the left secti on is
written before the ri ght and where it has a distinct top and bottom part,
the top section is written first. For example, ' wood' .
;f}
f?f
-
t
;f
;f r ~
Note that the left section is smaller than the right.
UNIT 2 25
And 'forest' is similar.
A
~
-
-r
*
;f-.
""-
~
.if
You combi ne Rules 5, 6 and 7 to write 'gate' .

FE] F-ri
I
r
r
r
F' r1 F1
p ~
Rul e 8: Where a Wi¥: is symmetrical with a central 'axis' , you wri te the
'axjs' first followed by the left side and then the right side. For example,
' water' .
7K
j/
j
71
7Y 7K
/ ' ~
And 'mountain' is another similar instance .

~
d:i-
I Ll
J-J
26 BEGINNER' S JAPANESE SCRIPT
l!J .W A Renshu 8
Can you write the following iil* applying the rules you have been
introduced to so far? Remember to usc squared paper to achieve the right
balance and proportions.
Rules 1- 4:
)II (ri ver) = (three) 11 (power) A (person)
Rules 5 and 6:
a (sun)
Rule 7:
(moon) m (rice fi eld - exception to Rule 3)
# (wood)
Rule 8:
it (bamboo)
tl' (small - Unit 6) :.1<. (water) III (mountain)
You can check your answers by looking back through the writing sections
of units I and 2. For 1;, J) , it look up their stroke order in the unit-by-
unit il¥- charts at the back of this book. Then use the wriling sections
and charts for Units I. and 2 to practise writ ing al l the you have
learnt so far. The rules given in these two units will give you general
guidance in most cases but they are not exhaustive so pay attention to the
stroke order for individual il¥ and remember that there are exceptions
to rules.
Owari ni
In this unit you have been tntroduced to 16 new single il* as well as 14
compound il* words and 13 Japanese surnames. You have also learnt
to read dates and have been introduced to the readings of some il*.
And you have reviewed writing rules and learnt two new ones.
The following new terms and sub-headings have been used in this unit:
jukugo Compound Kanji words
W. '8/ fukushii Review

1iJ lililt ""
i}'lilt""

kanji no yomikata
kunyomi
onyomJ
hinto
Kanji readings
Japanese reading
Chinese reading
Hint, tip
UNIT 2 27
'j- A J-. (tesuto) Test
This section is designed to test how well you have remembered what you
have learnt in Units I and 2.
I) The _* below are grouped by theme. Which is the odd one out?
a) Parts of the body: ~ . ~ . !J! • .=f-. 1+
b) Days of the week: Jl. ±. !k. *. fl. ;It<
c) People and animals: . ~ . :::r-. fJ . .Jj. f;(
d) Abstrnct ideas: }J. jji;. 1JIl . 7J
2) What do these compound . ~ words mean? «f) is a new word) :
b) fI*
3) Match these dates to the festivals and holi days on the right :
a) 12Jl25f1
b) l Jl lfi
c) 7Jl4f1
d) 3Jl2 1fl
e) 4Jllfl
f) loJl31fl
g) 5Jl l fl
i) April Fool ' s Day
ii) Christmas Day
iii) Hallowe'en (October 31 sl)
iv) May Day (May lsI)
v) Spring Equinox (March 21st)
vi) New Year's Day
vii) American Independcnce Day (July 4th)
f) !1J3(
4) Can you say these Japanese surnames? (. indi cates a change in
pronunciation from fa to da):
a) llJEEI- b) ttllJ c) ~ E E I d) ~ e) :OEEl-
5) Can you write the following nl* in thc correct stroke order?
±. fl . i'l.'f-.*.*. llJ . EEl
3
• .=:" Dai sanka
UNIT 3
In this unit you will
• learn to read numbers in Japanese
• use these numbers in real reading situations
• practise writing ~ *
Hajime ni
In Unit 2 you learnt how to read dates. You are now going to review this
by reading the following dates . Choose the Engl ish equivalent from the
selection below the dates. (Remember that the order in Japanese is
month, date, day.)
a) 4J1211'l Uk) b) 1I}'l51'l (±) c) 9}jIOI'l Cd<)
i) Wednesday 21 April iii) Tuesday 21 April
Ii) Wednesday 10 September IV) Saturday 5 November
If you are still unsure about reading dates then look back at the section on
dates in Unit 2 to refresh your memory.
Yonde mimasho
Two systems of numbering have already been used in t his book. One
of these is the Arabic number system ( 1,2,3 ... ). This system is
internationally recognised and is used widely in Japan. However, every
language has its own words when counting (English: one, two, three . . . ;
French: un, deux, trois . .. etc.). In Japanese there are ~ * which represent
the words for numbers. They have been used alongside Arabic numbers
in this book to number act ivities and explanations. These are the ili=-
numbers \-10:
UNIT 3 29
The following section gives some tips for memori sing thesc and
you may already have thought of some. First, though, a word on how
they developed. These represent abstract concepts and so instead of
developing from pictures, they are made up ofa series of poi nts and lines.
You have learnt one other abstract ftl¥= so far - j) ( power/strength).
Thi s looks similar to the nl* for ' nine' jL so look carefull y at the
difference. There is also a picture to help you remember the difference:
you bend your ann inwards to flex your muscle en); 1L has a Q-shape.
Now look at the
MllI!.- Kaisetsu 1
Here are some tips for remembering the jl¥ for numbers:
-. =. = ( I, 2, 3) are easy as you have probably noticed - 'one line,
two lines, three lines'
1m is a four-sided square and so is easy to relate to the number 4.
1i When you look at Ihis .¥, you can trace the arabic number 5 in it.
Try it!

/'\ The number 6 in Japanese is pronunced 'roku' - nol unlike the Engli sh
word ' rocket'! With a little imagination, you should sec a rocket laking
off in this
ft
'I'

-t If you tum this jl¥ upside-down, a continental number 7 emerges.
" 't"" rt t
}\.. The Arabic number 8 turned on its side is also the mathematical
symbol for infinity. Imagine that the _* is a road leadi ng inlo the
distance and on into infinity!
30 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
:tL With a lot of imagination this looks like a combination of the
for 8 and for 1, and of course 8 + I = 9.
+ The Roman numeral for 10 is X. This looks like the tilted to
one side.
You may find your own ways of remembering these and other
I find that it really helps to try to associate a new with an idea
or picture in your mind (and you will be learning more about this in
future units). Once you have begun to remember new you will
probably not need to refer to these ideas again but they can really hel p
at first.
.fl- Renshu 1
1) Match the sequence numbers on the left with thei r equi valent
sequences on the right:
a) - I!!l i) 3, 6, 9 , - , - ,
b) +,
:Jt"
1\.,
-I:;
Ii) 2, 4, 6, 8
c) -
:Ji,
-I:;
iii) 8, 9, 10 , - ,
d)

1L IV) 1, 2,3, 4 -, h,
e)
I!!l,

I\. v) 1,3,5, 7 - , /\ ,
f) 1\. ,
:Jt" +
vi) 10,9,8,7
2) The following sequence of numbers \-\ 0 is out of order. Point at each
of these numbers in sequence then look back to the section above
to check that you are correct:

3) The odd one out. The following sequences of numbers all have
one number missing when matched with the Arabic numbers on the ri ght.
Which number is it?
a) - I!!l, :Ji 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , - , -,
b) +, J\ ,

10,8, 6,4,2 /\,
c)
I!!l ,

-1:;,
J\ 4,5,6,7,8 /\,
d) =,
I!!l,

+
2, 4,6,8, )0 /\ ,
UNIT 3 31
_* build up (1); Numbe rs 11-99
These are easy to read because Ihey are logicall y made from combinations
of the il* numbers 1- 10. It is nOI neccessary to write them all oul for
you, but here are the numbers 11- 21 (in sequence) to give you an idea of
how it works.
+- . +=. +=. +I!!I. +li. +1\. +1::. +JI.. +1L.
=+. =+-
Can you see the pattern? The numbers 1 1- 19 are made up of 10 plus the
relevant unil:
+ -= 10+1= 11; i-= = 10+2 = 12
20 is made up of a 2 in front of a 10: .=:. ,... Remcmber the order like this:
2 x 10 (:::: 20). You then add the relevant unit to make 21 , 22, 23, and so on:
'=:' '''- = 2 x 10+1 =2 1
= + '=:'= 2 x 10+2=22
'=:' + == 2x 10 +3 = 23
~ . WI .:::: Renshu 2
I) The numbers 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 follow in sequence. Look
at them and make sure you can recognise them before moving on to the
next activity.
=+. =+.I!!I+.li+.1\+.1::+./I.+.1L+
2) Now the same sequence has been jumbled up. Return the numbers to
the original sequence by pointing at each in turn. Then check with the
above sequence to see jf you are right.
1\+. 1L-t-. =+.I!!I+.1::+.li+. ::::: +.!I.-t-
3) How are you getting on so far? Remember you can always look back
to earlier sections if you need to refresh your memory. Next you are going
to practise reading the sequence of numbers from 21- 30. This lime they
have already been jumbled up. Can you put them in the correct sequence?
a) =+1L b) =+= c) =+1\ d) =+-t c) =+I!!I
f) =+/1. g) =+= h) =+- i) =+li j) :::::+
Now check your answers at the back of the book.
32 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
4) Finally, in Ihis section you are going to pull together everything you
have learnt so far about numbers and have a go at reading a random
selecti on of numbers between 1 and 99! Try writing down your answers
in arabic numbers and then checking them at the back of the book. Ii It."
It'? "C (ganbatte) Good Luck!
a) 1L b) '* c) 1;
f) += g) =+ h) n+
k) =+= I) I!!! += m) n+1!!!
p) J\. i --1; q) J\. + J\. ,) :IL +:lL
0) +-1;
j) =+-
0) -1;+1;
How did you get on? You might fi nd that this is a good place to lake a
break and digest what you have learnt so far before moving on to the next
secti on.
_* build up (2); Five new _*
B 100 =f 1000 n 10,000 P1 yen (Japanese currency) ~ year
Here are some visual cl ues and ideas to help you associate each ~ ~
with its meaning:
a ( 100) Turned on its side the il* looks li ke this: lJIl -=,. ~
You can trace the numerals 100 in this.
T (1000) This looks li ke the ~ ~ for ten (+) but wi th an extra part
on the top in the same way that 1000 looks like 10 but with
2 extra zeros!
n ( 10,000) In the Western counting system we count in thousands until
we reach one million. The Japanese system of counting
is slightly different. Instead of saying ten thousand, there is
an extra word to represent this amount. Hence the ~ ~
symbol n. If you look carefully at this, you can see a leaning
' T' on the left and, ignoring the line at the top, you can also
make out the shape of an ' h'. Using a little ·twisted logic (!)
you can let the T represent ' te·n' and the Th represent
'thousand' - ten thousand!
To work out larger amounts of this uni t, mult iply the number by 10,000.
For example:
+n = 10 x 10,000 = 100,000
an = 100 x 10,000 = 1.000,000
UNIT 3 33
fq The Japanese currency is the yen, represented by this and by the
international symbol ¥ . All currencies can be written in words or numerals.
For exampl e: six pounds or £6, six dollars or $6, and in Japanese:
Words: -}) P) Numerals: ¥ 6
The character Pl , because it is a suffi x to money amounts, is easy to
recognise and remember.
Here is a visual image for remembering this
Can you make out the left half of the for bamboo (ft) at the front
and a house shape behind? In Japan, bamboo decorations are put out side
the front of houses at New Year, hence the visual clue leads you to the
meaning 'year'.
Look back over this section and remind yourself of the visual clues to the
meanings; then try the next section.
L!J Renshu 3
1) Put these multiples of 100 into the correct order ( 100- 900). Which
one is missing?
a) :lL a
e) a
b) = 13
f) = 13
c) lia
g) /\13
d) Illia
h) -ta
2) How do you write these number amounts in Arabic nUf!lbers?
a) /\ 'f- b) li 'f- c) -t'f- d) 1\'f-
e) ='f- f) 'f- (0'
3) Match these multiples of 10,000 with their Arabic number equivalent
below them:
a) = JJ b) :lLJJ c) :IL+JJ d) aJJ
(;) 90,000
(;v) 900,000
(ii ) 1000,000
(v) 10,000,000
4) Combinations of a, T, JJ
(iii) 20,000
e) 'f-JJ
34
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Put these amounts in order from the smallest to the largest:
a) = 11 b) = 9'-= 11 c) = 1171 d) = + 71
e) = 9'- f) = 9'-71 g) = 71
Now write out these amounts (in the new order) in Arabic numbers.
5) Match the 1M¥ money amounts on the left with thei r equi valent on
the right:
a) = 1IPl
b) Ji9'-Pl
c) 1IJi+Pl
d) 1L411Ji -t- ty
e) {:;71Pl
f) {:;9'-Ji1l Pl
g) ="9'- Pl
i)
i i)
ii i)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
¥7500
¥300
¥3000
¥70,OOO
¥5000
¥450
¥150
WlllIt= Kaisetsu 2 More about dates
There arc a numberofways)n which the year can be written in Japanese.
Let us look at these usi ng the year 1999 as the model. Notice that the
iro* for year is written after the numbers.
I) 1-:11. 1:f1L This is 1999 written out in full usi ng il¥ numbers
2) Here 1999 is written as it looks. \- 9- 9-9
3) Theycar is written in arabic numbers, norice that
99 &F is still used.
The first example is rarely used and the most commonly used is the third.
Zero is usuall y written as O.
.fll!!! Renshu 4
I) In this activity you are goi ng to match the years wri tten in with
those in Arabic numerals:
a) 2000 4-
b) 19634-
c) 1960 4-
d) 16164-
e) 1863 4-
2) Now match the dates written in with those written in Arabic:
UNIT 3
I) + - fl+- a
2) t<;fl + J\. a
3) +fl = a
4) J\.fl = + - a
5) = fl = + - a
6) t<;fl=+1!!l a
a) 6fl24a
b) 3fl31 a
c) 6fllsa
d) llfllla
e)Sfl2 1a
f) lofl2a
Dates are most often written with Arabic numeral s but not always.
3) Now write out the dates 1- 6 (in (2» in English.
3.
MliIt::::. Kaisetsu 3 The Japanese calendar
Used alongside the Western calendar in Japan is the Japanese system of
(nengO) or era names. An era is defined by the length of rule of each
Emperor. The present Emperor, AkihilO, began his reign (t he Emperor in
modern Japan has a symbolic role with no political power) in 1989 and the
new era is called.3fJ& (Heisel) which means ' Attainment of Peace'. The
previous era was called 1Il);fn (ShOwa) which means 'Enlightened Peace'.
Once an Emperor has died, he is referred to by the name of his era.
Akihito's father, Hirohito who died in 1989 is, therefore, now referred to as
Emperor Showa. The PBfU (ShOwa) era lasted for 63 years from 1926- 89.
When the year is written accordi ng to the (nengO) system, it follows
this pattern:
Heisei 11th year
To match this to the Western calendar, you count up from and including
1989 which was Heisei 1st Year. Therefore:
-'i' JiI1;+- 4' 1999
Arabic numbers can also be used: 3f,li!(; 11
IIBfU (ShOwa) years are counted from and including 1926. A good way
of calculating these is to have an ' anchor' year, for example, your year of
birth, then count from here:
1I!U1I= +J\.4' 1963
Alternatively, add 25 years to the Shi)wa year to get the Western year, or
take 25 years away from the Western year to arrive at the Showa year:
1IlI'!II = +4' (ShOwa 20th year) 20 + 25 (19)45
1985 = 85 - 25 = (Showa 60th year)
36 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
~ .flJi Renshii 5
I) Match the followi ng -'fJ& (Heisel) years with their Western calendar
equivalents:
i) 1994
ii) 1990
iii) 1997
iv) 1992
v) 1998
vi) 1995
The fi rst year of an era is written not wi th - (one) but wit h 7G which
means ' beginning':
-'fJ&J'"G:tp = Heisei l Si year (1 989)
2) Match the following 1IU:fu (Showa) years with their Western calendar
equivalents:
i) 1939
ii) 1926
iii) 1973
iv) 1988
v) 1950
vi) 1968
lbliu.fI ¥omu renshu
This section will pull together everything you have learnt in this unit and
give you the opportunity to read numbers and dates in authentic contexts.
~ .WA Renshii 6
I) iM* numbers are most often used when the text is written vert ically
(see question 3, p. 37). Japanese business cards are often produced wi th
Ihe Japanese script written vertically on one side and the Romanised
script (for the benefit of non-Japanese clients) written hori zontally on the
other. The following phone numbers are written horizontally. Notice that
the area code is in brackets and a horizontal line separates the two parts
of the phone number. Do not confuse this with the number ~ (one). Can
you convert them into Arabi c numerals?
UNIT 3
(a) ( 0 = ) = Ii}\ --=-t:-t:
(b) ( 0 :IL-t: ) Ii:IL= -1!lI =--
(c) (0 1:;= 0 ) ' - =JI..:**
(d) (0 = ) = Ii:IL= - = -t: 0 I!lI
(e) (0 = -t::IL) ==- - =-Iil!ll
. 37
2) The following is part of a newspaper advertisement for a seri es
of three conferences. When will the conference be held (give the full date)
m:
a) London (tJ ~ r ~ ~ )
b) Tokyo ( i\[)j()
c) Dusseldorf ( r ~ .;J.... 'Y -Clv r ~ Iv -:7)
o /' t: /' ' 9 8 ~ 12F.1 58 (±)
** ' 9 8 ~ 12F.1 68 (8)
T.:I. '!I-t!)11 t: )117 ' 9 8 ~ 12F.1128 (±)
3) The advertisement reproduced
here is for a Japanese theatre
production. Give the year, month,
date and day of the performance
in the Western calendar.
38
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Readings
(kanji no yomikata)
In thi s section you are going to focus on saying the numbers 1- 10 in
Japanese. I f you have worked through Teo'ch Yourself Beginner 's Japanese,
Ihis is on page 31. Otherwise, turn to the chart for Unit 3 at the
back of the book and learn to say the onyomi reading for the numbers
1- 10. Turn back to this section in Unit 2 (pp. 20- 1) if you need to re·
check the pronunciation rules.
Hinto Hints for remembering
the numbers
Try memorising how to say the numbers in Japanese by relating them to
English-sounding words. For example, - (ichi) and = (ni) sound like
' itchy knee' !
•• -1:; Renshu 7
Align the numbers that follow with their tt* and onyomi reading. Check
your answers against the Unit 3 i«!*" chart at the back of the book.
(eigo) English (onyomi)
one SH1CH
Ji two KYU
-
}\
;iL
three
four
five
so,
seven
eight
mne
ten
NI
SHI
ICHI
HACHI
.ID
ROKU
GO
SAN
i!I' < .fi Kaku re nshu 3
In Units I and 2 you learnt eight basie rules for writing nYi*" and you
practised writing all the !!¥ you had learnt in those units. Next you are
going to learn three si mple rules for improving the shape of your strokes by
looking at stroke endings. The Japanese learn calligraphy in order to petfcet
UNIT 3 39
the shape of ~ ~ using brushes but if you pay attention to these three
rules, you will be able to improve the way in which you write j f ~ even
with a pcn or penciL The three main types of stroke ending are as follows:
I) STOP ending. .
Your pen/pencil stops
and lifts off the page.
2) GRADUAL STOP.
You pull the pen gradually off
the page with a sweeping motion.
3) FLICK.
The stroke flicks up at the end.
- - ~ t l
,
-
-
d \
Now you are goi ng to try writing the numbers 1- 10 on squared paper (do
not look at the stroke order that follows yet). Employ the eight rul es you
have learnt, the only exception is the number nine where the vertical
(iefthand) line is written first. Think about the stroke endings too from
the previous examples.
-
-
-
~
-

-
-

,
t
tL +
-
J'\..
-
J '\
How did you get on? The numbers 1- 10 foll ow, written out for you. Look
at the stroke order· and the shapes and proportions of the strokes (for
example, the left side of eight is a different shape to the right side, and
the same for four and six; the strokes of two and three are not all the
same length) then try 10 copy them as closely as possible.
40
-
-

-
-
- -




,
,

-




->-
"
-
. ~ - - - -

-




-t-"

"....-

,



-
--
-
\z:9 \Z9


3l :k


...
-
"
. :0 ____
J '\
J
:'\


-t it-

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
-
-
-

-
-
-
- -
- -
-
T 17
,
\
,
...
-
- - -
J J
'\
t
UNIT 3 41
,
,
)
\..

J
J"-.
,
,
,
,
1L
-1t-t
,
tL
,
,
+ +
+
,
Owari ni
In this unit you have been introduced to numbers up to 10,000 through 13
You have also learnt the for yen and for year. You have put
this learning into practice to read number and money amounts, dates
and telephone numbers. You have also learnt about the Japanese calendar
and have been introduced to two compound words for the present and
previous eras. Altogether, you have learnt 15 single (plus related
compounds) and three new compound words IIlIln. If..q-). You
have learnt to count in Japanese from 1- 10 and have applied the writing
rules you learnt previously to writing numbers.
.I!!t. Da; yonka
UNIT 4
In this unit you will
• learn to recognise 121i* used in action words (verbs)
• be introduced to words made up of combi nations of these and other
• learn more about pronounci ng and writing
Hajime ni
In Unit 2 you learnt that some il*". as well as meanings in
themselves, afC used as components of more complex (see pp. 13-
14). The il* you will be introduced to in this lesson are created from
simpler iM*. some of which you have learnt already. In the following
activity you are going to review some key il* to refresh your memory
before moving on to learning the new il*" in thi s unit.
I) Can you remember the meanings of the iI¥: that follow?
a) Q b) l'j: c) A d) l'I e) tlJ
f) g) '" h) a ;) =r
2) Now look at the new in the foll owi ng li st. They each contain
as part of their structure. Can you spot them'! (You do not need to
know the meaning of the whole at thi s stage.)
a) Pft b) J!, c) l!l' d)
e)?F f) t:l g) i* h) til
Check the answers to these two activities in the back berore moving on to
the next section.
MiIIt- Kaisetsu 1
The new nt*" introduced in the second acti vity you have just completed
can all be used as verbs (that is, action or doing words). So far, you have
UNIT 4 43
not learnt the meani ng of any of them but you have identified simpler
within them. These can be a clue to thei r meanings and you are
goi ng to use these cl ues to work out the meanings for yourself. Before
you can do this, here are three extra pieces of information.
I) This shape JL (i) when used as a component has
the meaning ' human legs'. You can see it in 2 (b).
2) This shape } \. has the meaning ' animal legs'. You
can see it in 2 (f) .
3) The for person (A) takes this form 1 when used as pari of a
more complex 1M*-. You can see an example of this in acti vity 2 (g).
Renshu 1
The foll owing seven (a- g) all represent verbs. The story clues
( 1- 7) link the different components of each into a story which
indicates the il* meaning. (The component meanings are in bold.)
This technique should help you to remember that meaning. Now can you
work out which f!Xi=¥- has which meaning?
O.
Story clues
I) A penon resting by a tree duri ng thei r work break. Meaning: 10 resl;
holiday.
2) An eye runni ng around on human legs. Meaning: 10 look, watch or
see.
3) Mountains upon mountains but somewhere there is a way out .
Meaning: to go out.
4) A neighbour is pressing an ear between the gates of the house to hear
the goss ip. Meaning: to hear or listen.
S) An eye with animal legs is a shell fish. A sideways eye above it is a
human inspecting it before buying. Meaning: to buy.
6) At school the child is expected to wear a special hat when studying.
Meaning: 10 study.
7) The mouth spoke words which rose up in lines. Meaning: to say;
words.
44 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
How did you get on? The same this time with their meanings and a
picture representation as well can be seen in the foll owing list.
e'r 11>0
11ft to listen.
to hear
®
blo.h it to say
V bl.h ...
I -II ", ... 111:5
-
.
'&, to buy

tl1 to go out
Lt.t',S '0 Stt. !
..) J! to see,
wal ch, look
tosrudy
to rest
Now read through the stories again. Do you see how the components of
these hel p to indicatc their meani ngs?
This is a quick activity designed to help you review the learnt so
far in this lesson. Simply match the ll* on the left wi th the meanings
on the right.
I ) n: a) to listcn
2) 1* b) to look
3) tfl c) to say
4) PI! d) to study
5) "t e) to go out
6) J!. f) to buy
7) g) to rest
UNIT 4 45
~ . f 1 ~ Renshu 3
Here are seven more il* which you are goi ng to learn in this lesson:
nilltillilll'ftllXA
Some ofthe components which make up these ~ * are contained in the
following list. Can you locate and ring the appropriate part on the ~ *
you have just seen. The number in brackets indicates the number of times
the component appears.
t) JL human legs (x 2)
2) ~ to say (x 2)
3) IJ mouth (x 3)
4) ± e,rth (x 2)
5) a sun (x I)
6) 'f 1000 (x 1)
How did you get on? You can find the answers in the explanations that
follow.
WIliIt= Kaisetsu 2
The handwritten iM* which follow have had their component parts
numbered. These numbers are referred to in the explanations. A story is
given to help you remember the meaning.
t1f,. th;,_
I) This upper part looks like ± (earth) exc.:pt that the top horizontal
line is longer, like this: ± . In fact this ~ ~ means 'samurai' but
when used as part of a more complex il¥ we are going 10 take its
meaning as 'earth'.
2) In between the legs and the earth is a table.
3) ' Human legs'.
46 BEGINNER' S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Story: People walked over to the tabletop sale to see a samurai selling
clods of earth.
Meaning: to se/J n.
1) You should have identified 10 sayAmrds ( p) at the left of this
2) Can yOli see that this is the same as the i.€* you have just learnt? (10
se/l, n).
Story: Notice outside a bookstore: ' Words fOI" sale. Buy a book and read
the words'.
Meaning: 10 read
I) Once again, the left side is (0 say/words.
2) 1000 ( f) .
3) mouth ( IJ) . Together 2) and 3) make up the _* for tongue ('IS).
Story: Thousands of words were spoken by the tongue.
Meaning: 10 talk.
I) This comes from a you have not learnt yet, brush (m). Before
pens were invented, writing was done with calligraphy brushes. Here
is a picture to help you li nk the meaning to the character:
UNI T A . 47
2) You will have recognised this as sun. An alternative meaning
is mouth (1=1) with a line in it (1=1). You could think of this as a
condensed version oeW (to say) with the words about to come out of
the mouth.
Story: Written words are created by a calligraphy brush.
Meaning: to write t!t.
I) Think of this as a roof, in this case, the roof of a house.
2) This means white and represents the sun with a ray coming off it. In
ancient China the rays of the sun were seen as white.
3) This lower part is actually a truncated version of *- (fire) which you
learnt in Unit I .
Story: White rice boiled over a fire in a Japanese home.
Meaning: to eat;/ood tt.
0 ' ~ ' ' -
I) You have just been introduced to the left side of this ~ ¥ . It is
slightly truncated but indicates the same meaning, food.
2) A more detailed picture of the right side wi ll help you with the meaning.
Story: The left side gives the general meaning (food) . The right side is a
person taking a drink.
Meaning: to drink; a drink tx.
48 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Notice the difference between the handwritten and printed versions
CAl of this ~ * . And do not confuse it with person (printed = A;
handwritten = A.). '
In this new ia'!¥ the person appears to be walking back across the pagc.
The printed version shows this person clearly indicating their directi on
(flick at the top points to the left) .
Story: People going in walk to the left.
Meaning: enter, go in 7\..
l!J .WI!!! Renshii 4
This is a review activity for you to test yourself on the second set ofil* you
have just learnt. Match the I!-¥ on the left with the meanings on the right.
I) '€I" a) drink
2) ]I. b) eat
3) n c) read
4) l!l' d) talk
5) ~ e) enter
6) llli f) sell
7) ~ g) write
How did you get on? If you arc still uncertain about some of these, read
through the stories and look at the composition of each ll¥ again, until
you are sure.
Yomu renshu
You now know the first ~ * - of the instructi on in this heading - it means
read. Before you try this next secti on, let us summarise the m*- you
have learnt in this unit. First look at the tl*- and see if you can remember
the meaning before looking at the English beneath them.
I) IIIl 2) J!. 3) ill' 4) .. 5) "'F-
6) Jl 7) «< 8) Ifl 9) n 10) ill
II) llli 12) '€I" 13) ft!: 14) ]I.
I) listen 2) look 3) write
6) buy 7) rest 8) go out
II ) speak 12) eat 13) drink
4) say
9) sell
14) enter
5)
10)
study
read
UNIT.4 49
L!J .. fBi Renshu 5
Here are some sentences in Japanese followed by some in English. At this
stage you will not be able to read the whole sentence because you have
not learnt hiragana yet (Unit 5). There is also one (im) which you
have not seen yet. However, you will be able to understand the key words
of the sentence from your knowledge of By matching these with
the full English sentences you will be able to get the meaning of the
whole sentence. For example:
JJ Q) A tt $: Ii: l ' '* l t:. 0 The man (male person) bought a car.
2 2 2 4
The il* you have already learnt have numbers below them. These refer
to the lesson in which the was first introduced so that you can
check back if you need to. Did you notice that the verb comes at the end
of the sentence? The order would sound like this: the man a car bought.
In the sentences. this will appear in brackets (marked as lit.). Now have a
go yourself. ganbatte! (Good luck).
1) 3r;Il)Ali a*iilti' "fa" £.'-' to.
22 1 27 4
2) 3r;ll)rli ±1111 a «-'" £ '-' t" .
2 2 I 4
3) !II Il) A Ii !'l i' .lU '-' t".
2 2 I 4
4) ilH£ c '".
2 1 2 4
5) !II Il) r Ii )!f; "" -C -t •
2 2 2 2
6)3r;Il)Ali ttll)ri' J:t"'£cto..
2 2 1 2
7) ill III Iv Ii 1\l i'
2 1 2 4
Match each one to its Japanese partner in Ihe previous list (not in
order).
a) The woman (female person) ate some bamboo shoots (bamboo
children). (lit. The woman some bamboo shoots ate.)
b) The girl (female child) rested on Saturday. (lit. The girl on Saturday
rested.)
50 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
c) Mr Yamada (Mountain-rice field) sold his car. (lit. Mr Yamada his car
w Id.)
d) The boy (male child) likes horses. (lit. The boy horses likes.)
e) The woman (female person) studied Japanese. (lit. The woman Japanese
studied.)
f) Mr Hayashi (Wood) talked to Mrs Morita (Forest-ri ce field) . (lit.
Mr Hayashi to Mrs Morita talked.)
g) The man (male person) looked at the moon. (lit. The man at the moon
looked.)
How did you gct on? Check your answers at the back of the hoolc
_* build up
In this secti on yOll wi ll be introduced to some new compound rJ!*
words. First you need to learn a new l«!$:
thing
This ii4$ is used to make verbs inlo nouns. This is best explained with
an example:
it ('to buy' ) + 4'tI (thing) == = shopping (/it. buying things)
The that foll ow have been made nouns by adding :1m (thing) to
them. Can you work out what their meanings would be in English? There
is a list of English words in random order beneath the I.!* words which
you can refer to if you need to.
I) f!I:'Im 2) tt'lm
(a) wntmg
(d) sightseeing
(b) food
(e) book
l!J I!ItW-t Renshu 7
4) JI.'Im
(c) items for sale
(f) drinks
Here are some more compound words using you have been
introduced to in this unit. See if you can work out their meanings by
matching them wi th their English equivalents on the ri ght.
UNIT .4 51
I ) 3'Crl a) a study visit
2) 1Il0 b) start school
3) A,* c) eating and drinki ng
4) lil A d) absence from school (long teon)
5) e) reading
6) JI.,* f) buying and selling
7) 1*'*
g) goi ng in and out
Renshu 8
This activity introduces compound words which use 114* from the
first four units of this book. Think about the li teral meaning and then see
if you can work out what you would say in Engli sh. The box of English
words (in random order) will act as a check list once you think you have
worked oul the meaning of a word. Here are some amusing ex.amples to
get you started!
iI1J Rei 1
iI1J Rei 2
iI1J Rei 3
I ) 3'CA
5) ,*1J
buyer
ex.it
lit. go oul eye gold = a pop· eyed goldfish
li t. resting fire mountain = a dormant 1JQlcano
lit. two feet = two pairs (of footwear)
2) AP
6) Jl 'f
3) til P
7) 1* a
dealer (seller)
drinking water
entrance
holiday
Japanese person
academic ability
Kanji no yomikata
You were first introduced to how il*" are pronounced in Unit 2 and you
can refer back to that unit for guidance on pronunciation (pp. 20- 21).
In thi s section in Unit 3 you used the unit chart at the back of the book
to learn the onyomi (Chinese readings) of the numbers 1- 10. Now turn
to chart 4 at the back of the book which contains all the single
introduced in this unit. Focus on the onyomi readings and try to memorise
them. Here are some hints to help you.
52 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Hinto Hints for memorising
1I¥' readings
1) Look back at the simple pronunciation rules you were given in Unit 2
(pp. 2()"'21).
2) Say the readings out loud.
3) Sec if you can match each reading to an English word and make a
little story to help you remember. For example, the onyomi of ft (eal)
is SHOKU. So how about: ' It was a SHOCK how much food he CQu id
eat !' And the onyomi of J! (look) is KEN so: ' KEN looked out of the
window. ' Do you gct the idea?
4) Test yourself by covering up the reading, looki ng at the and
saying the reading out loud.
Now try Activity 9.
.W:IL Renshu 9
1) This is a simple linking activity. Link the on the left with their
correct reading:
I) }1
a) DOKU
2) f* b) SHOKU
3) tfj c) NYU
4) 11ft d) BAI (usc twice)
5) "l- e) KYO
6) JI. r) SHUTSU
7) tr g) WA
8) h) BUN
9) "
i) KEN
10) j) IN
II ) fj!( k) GAKU
12) il5 I) SHO
13) Jlf m} GEN
14)
2) Now try saying these compound words in Japanese:
a) nTI (buying and selling) b) (reading)
c) A?!f. (start school) d) iliA (going in and out)
e) fiXit (eating and drinking) f) (study visit)
g) (absence from school) h) JtPfJ (knowledge; experience)
UNIT 4 53
3 < .W I!!l Kaku renshu 4
You should now recognise the first il¥ in this heading ~ it means
·write'. In this section you are going to learn to write the 14 il¥ which
have been introduced in this unit. Remember: stroke order is important
for writing accurately, for helping you to remember the il¥ and for
counting the number of strokes. And there are sometimes,sli$ht differences
between handwritten and printed versions of the same nl¥.
Hinto
One way to remember how to write more complex _¥ is to visual ise
the components they are made up of. For example, in preparing yourself
to write lIf:I (li sten) from memory, say to yourself 'gate and ear'. Look
carefully at the proportions and overall balance of eaeh lM¥. For example,
where a il!¥ has a distinct left and right side, the left side is narrower
(the proportions are approximately left side ;::; 1/3; right side ;::; 213).
\.' I I c'1' I
~
- - ~ - -
\
\ ~
,
,1"/
\1 J ,
\J'
I
tfD
~
~ - * ' A*
/
1
~ * '

tt,
--dj-
I
y-
f
~ ~
54 8EGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
F/\
r ~ '
rj
r--i
f,'
rr-i
r ~ i fl\
r ~ 9
" "'
,,: 7
,
,... 1
r '
-'-,," ' -
+
_r.
,
-'
-' , " ,
\
" ,
",
~
)).L,
C
I
\-'"7 "J
\.-,.
\+
)
~ - - ~ - ~
§l
~
~
-
:>j
-
--
-
... ~ - . -
-
to Q
, , ,
,
-
- - - -
- -
-
-
-
a
UNIT .:1
55

p."


J /"-. A
14


k--.


f/ 11t

A

/
A
--±-
-,1:
YL
-
-r-
-::t:'
-:;±-
-::t-
1",
::r-
\
\.... ,
7L

I
lI'
Ii'


r
k
l
-7
J!.

56 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
::;JA:.:
> 1
-.
. ',--

..... .
-aD
\ \
,
,
, ,
/
-:;
-
-
-
-
-
-
0 0
,
I

,
/
--
gE -
-
tl
0

r:t:-
a
..,
--,
..:;::3
...g
-
.
..... 3
-:i:
-:Ii
-
-

\

"::--::r ..;:--z-
_.
p?
-:s. ... r
-
-
:::y--?

-
-
ph ..
0
CI 0
Owari ni
In this unit you have been introduced to 14 which represent action
words and have learnt to pronounce their onyomi (Chinese reading) and
to write them. You have also learnt the meanings of 26 compound
words and have identified the key words in a set of Japanese sentences.
Now try the test to see how well you have remembered the il* you
have learnt in the first four units!
UNIT.4 . 57
TA" Tesuto
The i f J ! ~ ( including some compound words) you have learnt so far are
grouped in themes. Can you remember their English meanings? (Some
i l ~ appear more than once if they cover more than one category.)
I) People and animals
,) ,!iO b) A c) J,:
e) r f) J,:r g) 'llr
2) Elements of nature
,) tli b) 1<tli c) JII
f) * g) "* h) ~
3) Numbers and money
,) - b) 'Ii
e) I1lI 'f Pl f) = li
4) Dates
,) :h.fl +- a (±)
c) - :IL ;!tr &f'
5) Verbs (action words)
,) IlIJ b) tt c) ill:
f) i1t
-
g) n: h) .It
6) Parts of the body
,) ;q:
b) 0 c) IE
d) 71<
i) Ell
d) 11
i) IT
d) 1'1
e) 1<.
e) ~
j) lI<
e) 'f
.lift Dai goka
UNIT 5
In this unit you will :
• learn to read the 46 t.J ~ h; ~ (hiragana) symbols which make up the
phonetic 'alphabet'
• learn some rules for making exIra sounds from the 46 mai n symbol s
• be introduced to picture-sound associations to make learning easier
• learn how to write V ~ IJt ~ (hiragana)
• have a go at reading some words and phrases
Key word:
V ; Ii .>j:" Hiragana
Hajime ni
Look back to page vi of the Introduction which deals with an overview
of the different types of Japanese script and in particular the section on
{J ~ I J ~ l' (hiragana). Then answer the following questions based on the
information you have just read.
I) What are the two main uses of (J ~ / J ~ 1' ?
2) Which script (t4*, () ~ tJ{ 1' . IJ, IJ T (katakana» is learnt
firs t by Japanese children in primary schools?
3) What did V G IJ{ ~ develop from?
4) How many basic symbols make up the modem (J ~ IJ{ ~ syllabary?
Yonde mimasho
You have not learnt to read any (J ~ I J ~ ~ yet (apart from these four
symbols) but try this simple matching activity. There are six U t;, I J ~ ~
words (a- f ) in the left column which are repeated in a different order in
UNIT 5 s.
the right column. Match up the same words and write the correct letter in
the brackets on the right. The first one is done for you.
(a) t ~
-:>( ..
( )
(b) I, !
-It('1:
( )
(c) .:.t t ~ (a)
(d) -:> ( ..
-.
~ ; < . ( )
(c) ~ I: ? I,! ( )
(f) -It ( • I:
~ I: ? ( )
MllI!.- Kaisetsu 1
Let us begin by looking anhe first four lines of the {) ~ / ) t ~ syllabary'
with the romanised pronunciation and learn how to read it.
Notice that the chart is written in the traditional way, from top to bottom
and from right to left. Therefore, you read in columns rather than rows.
And you begin to read from the top righthand corner. Can you now
answer these two questions:
ta t.:. sa ~
Iw ~ .
chi I:> shi I.., ki !
tsu "? su t ku <
te -C se -It ke It
to I: so 't ko ..:
I) What is the first () ~ 11: 1j: symbol?
2) Which column do you read firs t and in what order?
To save you looking in the back, the answers are 1) 1, (a)
2) I, (a). ( . (i). :> (u) ... (c). :I> (0) .
01,
it·
u -;

e;<.
0:1>
The next point to notice is that the first five sounds are what we call vowel
sounds. In Unit 2 (pp. 20- 21) you were introduced to the pronunciation
of Japanese sounds. A quiek check list follows to help you remember the
pronunciation.
I, a as in mat ;\. e as in end
,.

as in hit :I> 0 as in hot
-;
u as in blue
And, as you also learnt in Unit 2, consonants are attached to each of these
vowels to create new sounds. And each of these sounds is represented by
60 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
a (J ~ n{.Jj: symbol. This is why the Japanese syllabary is called 'a
phoneti c alphabet' . (The Roman alphabet consists of 26 letters which are
used in various combinations to creale a range of sounds.)
~ .nw- Renshu 1
In the ttlv L" Jj. j L.. ~ -; (yonde min/asM) activit y earlier in this unit
you matched six U ~ o{ 1" words. This time you are going to try to read
these words. Use the chart of the fi rst 20 symbols on p. 59 and see if you
can say the words. Thei r English meanings are written in brackets.
(a) t I., (sushi )
(d) ') ( ;t (desk)
(b) ;, ~ (autumn)
(e) ~ C ? (sugar)
MliIt::: Kaisetsu 2
(c) .:: ;t (voice)
(f) -It ~ • C (school pupil )
You are now goi ng to be introduced to the whole () t;, I J ~ ~ chart,
including the correct order to write each symbol. To help you understand
the layout of the chart. an explanation is now given usiog the first
symbol 1, .
printed _
versIon
;,
-
0,
f--...... ~
()( ) -
t ;h
_romaji
- symbol
- stroke order
The printed version of each symbol is also incl uded (top lefthand comer)
because this sometimes differs slightly from the handwritten version.
Have a go at writing the (J ~ I J ~ ~ because thi s will help you to remember
how to read them. The basic rules you learnt for ~ ~ also apply here -
you write hori zontal strokes from left to right, and vertical/diagonal strokes
from top to bottom. As you write each one (using graph paper if possible),
say its sound to yourself.
UNIT 5 61
I t "m -\' ,. kJ
,- fJ'\
J-. '- '-
;In -.;
- [,
1- It r- 10

7
-

fE -;;;
I ., ":!i- t- ,h'
I
;
.! "\
,
1
-
L
\
\,

'-
-
It, l
- " -
,
ffil

""
-t

( '"
11
u
<
-
n
1
, In
Ii
-
I.:, -,
-
]
"
'( I ..

-e.-"
f '
I t _
n l
l
"-

1
-
ItC'So
. Ii

-;;;
7f
';;;
Ito h"O
0)
t


'--
IIll I
\
-
>(
-
-
-
II->
t
-
l!J flkf!1 = Renshii 2
The activities in this lesson will keep referring you back to the different
charts, so do not worry about learning all the symbols at once! There is
also a section later 10 hel p you explore ways to remember the 46 basic
V t;, symbols but first here is an activity to get you reading.
Each sequence of V symbols in the activit y is taken from a
column, row or diagonal of the chart . Try 10 read (out loud) each of the
(J t:> , then refer back to the relevant part of the chart to refresh
your memory. Then try again to read the sequence from memory. Continue
like this until you can read the sequence confidently, then move on to the
next one.
62 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
tol
~
'"
ffi
~ I
,.
£1 ~
111 ""
,
1
h ~ ~ 11
, ,
- -
1 I h '-,
->
to
I 1-
I ~
t2
N
1J.
m;
V
"
f)
1+ U
,
'I J.- Ii- v-
{> I a
7.>
~
'WI 'u tr
mu
J- f"
~ is v:b
L'
,
-J
'\
-
~
t ?
>:I>
L
,
, , ,
'"
-
1..: )
,) ) ,
t1.
~
If)
m.
~
'"
M
n
/"-...."
I
¥l
\ II> ~
",I
n
'5
"
J: 1
1
,.
{,
rna
11
ho
IG
7-:;
t ~ J
A. l,
-
J: L
t t
I I'
I'
11
The fi rst part of this activity refers to the first page of the chart (p. 61).
1) The third colwnn (always count from the right): ~ , L., -t, -l:t • .:c
2) The third row (reading from right to left): -j, <., -t , ""? tJ.
3) The diagonal from top left to bottom right: ~ , f;,: 1". (t. :B
4) The diagonal from top right to bottom left: J" 1!, -;. -C. f/)
5) The second column: /)'. ~ , <., (t, .::
6) The fourth row: it, (t . 'it. L. tl
Have you not iced that the syll ables in the row sequences always end with
the same vowel sound?
UN1T 5 63
Now look at the sequences 1- 6 again and answer these questions:
7) How many times do these symbols a) l" b) ~ c) -C appear?
8) Which symbol appears three times?
9) Which symbol appears the most times?
(Answers to 7- 9 are at the back of the book.)
The second part of this activity refers to the second page of the chart
(p. 62).
10) The first column: Ii, V . .,)... -. Ii
II) The fourth column: ~ . t), 9. tt. 0
12) The fifth <ow, 11, (" J;, '3, A-
13) The diagonal from top left to bottom ri ght: h, t), ~ . 1/). "t
14) The diagonal from top right to bottom left: Ii, .lj.., ~ , tt. A-
Now look at the sequences 10- 14 again and answer these questions:
15) How often does the symbol a) tt and b) A- appear?
16) How many symbols only appear once?
17) Which symbol appears the most times?
(Answers to 15- 17 are at the back of the book.)
l : : ~ J-. - Hinto 1 Remembering '01;'Ii\'/6.
This section will introduce you to a way of remembering () ~ tJ: 'd:
through visual and sound association (mnemonics). The basic idea is that
you find a way to make the shape of each symbol suggest a picture or
story which connects it to its sound. For example. here are some ideas
for the first five () ~ tJ: 1" . Concentrate on the sounds (for example.
aim = 'e') rather than the letters or spellings.
,
1 (a) 2 (i) 3 (u) 4 (e) 5 (0)
64 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Stories
I $, (a) is an opera si nger singing an lria (Japanese pronunciation has
a short 'a' sound)
2 ~ . (i) is an American Indian
3 '1 (u) !!<lb, my back hurts!
4 i. (e) .lim for the target
5 1:1 (0) is an .2strich
Do you get the idea? Here are another 10 to get you started. then, if you
find this method hel ps you, try to think of your own. You might not have
inspiration fOT all of them at first , but try a few at a time and write down
your ideas in a notebook.
1 2
3 .
6 .,!,
7 8
Stories
() (hi) is someone laughing,
mhee
2 h (wa) is a baby crying, waaaa
3 ( (ku) for cuckoo
4 C (to) is the toe of a shoe
5 tl (De) is the Loch ~ s s monster
l!J Ilk. =: Renshu 3
4 5
G
9 10
6 t:, (chi) is a t.Il£erl eader
7 tl (nu) looks like a bowl of
JmDCIl cs
8 l, (shi) ill's got long hair
9 (t (ke) for KO (knocked out)
10 ..: ( ko) is a ~ x apple
Now that you have been introduced to the 46 0 t, I J ~ ~ symbols. it is time
to put your learning into practice and try reading some words . .To make it
easier for you, the words are in three sets. Set I cons ists of U t, I J ~ ~
from the first page of the chart and Set 2 consists of those from the second
page. The fmal challenge is Set 3 which comprises words usi ng 0 t, IJt ~
from the whole chart. Sec how many symbols/words you can read from
UNIT 5 65
memory then use the chart to search for those you cannot remember. Keep
coming back to this activity. Try keeping a score of how many words you
can read each time and chall enge yourself to improve it! Where you have
already learnt the ~ ~ for a word this is also given in brackets. However,
the purpose of this activity is to practise reading (J ~ /.1: 1" .
Set 1
a) ~ ~ (morning)
d) I: It ~ . (clock)
g) !#l 0) (cloth)
Set 2
a) ,t G (evening)
d) ¢. igJ (Winter)
g) t ry (fo,est l!i;)
Set 3
b) -C (hand 'f-)
e) ~ t3 (salt)
b) "'''' (ea,l'j:)
e) tr ~ (village)
h) b", (bowl)
c) 1""'? (summer)
f) 1" I.:: (what)
c) Ii.., (Spring)
f) ~ . t (mountain ili)
a) 15 tt J: '1 (Good morning)
c) t.I ~ (cat)
b) ~ J: ? l' " (Goodbye)
d) it /v-tt l' (teacher)
e) I·t.l(dog) f) /1) ( eye §)
g) ~ t (navel) h) () I: (petSon A)
i) IU'(exampleillJ)
j) Ie (1 '" (lopan a *)
1:: /' J- -= Hinto 2 Similar D f, i J ~ t ~
You have probably confused some of the simiiar· \ooking (J G Il ~
already. Thi s section will line these up and point out the differences to
help you keep them separate in your mind. Notice the punctuation, by the
way - a comma, and a full stop 0 - not all that different from English.
~ , ~ .
~ , to.
I • , -
~ .
I • , ry •
~ (Id) has two horizontal lines, ~ (sa) has one.
~ (sa) leans to the left, ~ (chi) looks like the number 5
(the top has slipped!)
l' (i) is more or less vertical, .: (ko) is horizontal.
l' (i) - the left stroke is slightly longer than the right,
I) (ri) - the right stroke is longer than the left.
66 SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
It, U:, It.. It (Ire) has no loop at the end, {;l: (ha) has only one
horizontal line, (,1 (ho) has two horizontal li nes.
It, .t 0 The top hori zontal line in (,1 (ho) si ts on top of
the vertical line whereas in .t (ma) both horizontal lines
cut through the vertical.
-t, tr.. -t (su) curves to the lcft, tr (mu) curves to the right
and has an extra strokc.
tJ.. Ii). t.l o tJ. (nu) has two stroke ends at the top and a loop at the
bottom whereas I/) (me) has the same stroke ends but no
loop, and t.l. (ne) has only one verti cal stroke.
Q. -00 7.;, (ru) has a loop, .is (ro) looks a bit like a number 3.
MliIt:=:. Kaisetsu 3 (Yoon)
Contracted sounds
You have now been introduced to the 46 basic (J Il.Jj;- symbols. As
well as these 46, there are other sounds whi ch are made by combining
some ofthe basic symbols. This is done by combining the symbols which
end in the ' i ' sound L-. (.:, V, Jj.., with a small version
of Ig). or J:" Each sound is pronounced as a single syll able or ' beat'.
Look at the following chart:
(k.) -> <' (kya)
L- (sht) ---t L- (sha)
(chI) ---t (cha)
{.:. (ni) ---t (nya)
V (hi) -> V'<' (hya)
Jj.. (mi) ---t Jj..'<;> (mya)
9 (ri) -> 9'<' (rya)
(kyu)
l (shu)
(chu)
(nyu)
(hyu)
(myu)
9 $ (ryu)
.!'o!'ll!!! Renshu 4
(kyo)
l (sho)
., (cho)
(nyo)
V (hyo)
(myo)
9 (ryo)
This activity is going to utilise some of the wide range of ' onomatopoeic'
words which the Japanese have in their language. These are words which
sound like the action or sound word they name. In Japanese, such words
usually repeat a sound twice. The nearest English equivalents are phrases
such as 'woof woof' for a dog's bark; ' plip plop' for the sound of rain;
and 'gobble gobble' for the sound of a turkey but words like this in
Japanese are not limited to children's words.
UNIT 5 . 67
One point to note before you start thi s activity - many of the words
that follow are lengthened by the addi tion of a vowel sound, normally
? (u), at the end (but J5 (a) is also used in these examples). For instance,
t:> +1> '7 (a mouse's squeak) is pronounced 'chuu chuu' (usuall y
wri tten 'chu chu'). Let one sound run into the other smoothly - do not
separate t:> tfI (chu) and '7 (u).
Now practise reading and saying the foll owing onomatopoeic words. Refer
back to the earlier chart to help you as necessary. TWo symbols you have
learnt previously, Iv (n) and (ro) are also used here.
a) ! iJ ! iJ (scream wit h laughter)
b) L. +1> Iv L. +1> Iv (fizzi ng sound)
c) L. '7 L. '7 (fizzi ng sound)
d) t:> '7 t:> '7 (mouse' s squeak)
e) ." ;, (m;aow)
f) V .; V tfI .; (whistling sound)
g) () J: '5 () J: '5 (sway;ng; lanky)
h) J: 1! J: -? (looking around)
Mll!I.l!!I Kaisetsu 4
D G that change their sound
You have learnt nearly all the extra rules for V t:J tJt.>j: so you can relax,
they are not endless! And also, if you think you have taken in enough at
any stage, leave this unit, carry on with the units and come back to
this later. You are not expected to remember everything in this unit in one
go and no one is setting the pace except you!
Some of the V t; symbols change their sound with the addition of
two small strokes" at the top right of the symbol. Let us look al these:
I) ' k' sounds become ' g' sounds (hard ' g' as in ' get'):
<. (t. .:: --> j)<. elf. ::::
(ka, ki, leu, Ire, ko) ga gl gu ge go
2) ' 5' sounds --+ 'z' sounds:
(sa, shi, SU, se, so)
• L: is pronounced 'ji' .
za
•••
l'
zu ze zo
68 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
3) 't' sounds become ' d' sounds:
(ta, chi, tsu, Ie, 10) da (ji ZIt)· de do
• the sounds t; (ji) and ""). (ZII) are not normally used because they
create the same sound as t: (ji) and 1" (zu) . See (2).
4) ' h' sounds become 'b' sounds:
U, ,"" Il -->
(ha, hi, fu, he, ho)
U',
ba bi
.;:,
bu be
5) In addition, 'h' sounds become ' p' sounds when a small circle · is
added:
U -->
(ha, hi, ju, he, ho) pa pi pll pe po
These fi ve sets of rules cover all the sound changes for single lJ tJ:
symbols. Look over these rules, cover up the romaji and try readi ng
them, then try the simple activity that follows.
.flJi Renshu 5
Say the sounds out loud or write them down. Refer to the rules given
earlier for the answers.
a) 1:, U', U
c) tJ:, If, I.f. If
e) :::, 'I:', c', Il'. Ij'
b) if, -If, ,(" "-',
d) C 1', .;:, .;:
Finally in this section, do you remember the contractcd sounds you Icarnt
in kaiselSu 37 Well, the rules just given also apply to these. The chart that
follows groups these sounds on the left. The romaji is also given on the
right but cover this up and see if you can work out how 10 read the ()
IJ: before you refer to the romaji.
"',
t-' .., ,
U' .., ,
U.., ,
gya,gyu,gyo
. . .
ja,ju,)o
bya, bYII , byo
pya, pyu, pyo
UNIT 5 69
IfIf&Ji Kaisetsu 5 The small J (tsu)
The final rule you need to know in order to read V' f..:J 1J:" properly
is the usc of the small "'J in a word. When you see this, you do not
pronounce it but pause slightly (a glottal stop) before saying the next sound.
This is shown in riimaji by doubling the next consonant. The length of
this pause is the same as in these English examples: ' headdress' (pause
after ' hea', not ' head dress' ); and 'bookcase' (pause after ' boo'). Here
are some Japanese examples with the riimaji and a pronunciation guide
beneath:
a) £: "? '"C (wait!)
matte
b) -? "C (stamp)
kitle
c) ! "? J: (ticket)
kippu
rna (pause) te ki (pause) te ki (pause) pu
l!)'Cu.f1- Yomu renshii 1 Reading words
Take a deep breath! You are now goi ng to put into practice everything
you have learnt in this unit. These initial activities will keep referring you
back to the different sections and remember - you can keep revisit ing
these activities to see if you can improve your score. You do not need to
be perfect fi rst time round! Most of these words are usually written with
but the purpose of the activities that follow is to practise reading

This acti vity will use (j tJ{ 1J:" from the initial chart (p. 61) and
contracted sounds (pp. 66, 68).
See how many of these words you can read.
a) 1! < (customer)
c) ! ' 19> 1 (0 19> 1 (m;lk)
e) t: t.l (See you!)
g) to 19> 1 " < (lunch)
;) U"" 1 (. It.. (hosp;tal)
b) " 1 (today)
d) " It.. (photogmph)
f) to " ? " < (b,eakfast)
h) U''' < ( 100)
j) 9"': 1 (travel)
70 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
l!J en? 1; Renshu 7
This activity will use () IJ: from the initial chart ( p. 61) plus {)
-/): which change Iheir sound (p. 67). Once again, see how many of
these words you can read.
a) Jj<.-r (water) b) (keys)
c) L-."'C A., (dictionary) d) ""C" A.-h (telephone)
e) t.; A.,tftf (dandelion) f) c· ! c· ! (sound of heart beating fast)
g) J.!lJt J.! (gulping sound - when dri nking)
l!J en? A Renshu 8
This acti vity gives you practice at reading words with the small "?
( p. 69).
a) I?.t ""? C (a little) b) .t ""? "'C (wait)
c) -'?>""? tr IJ (as expected) d) -b: ""? ':: -; (school)
e) ii' h..li' '? -C (Good luok! ) f) ! ""? , C (siraight ahead)
Yomu renshu 2

and
You will already have noticed from the instruction words used throughoul
this book (and in the lasl activity) that Japanese is wrilten as a mixlure of
() -/): and (and :IJ 7 :IJ T - kalakana, introduced in Unit 9).
The '{) -# parts of the words have a grammatical funcli on. As
mentioned in the Introduction, Japanese children first learn to read and
wri te using only '{) /){ . As Ihey learn they make their writing
more sophisti cated by replacing words and parts of words written in
U- f:J -b: with i#!*. Although it may seem to be a simpler task 10 read
using U- /): (rather than having 10 learn 2000 il*!) in fact, once
you know I!*. texts become easier to read and scan because 11* offer
visual cl ues to the meaning.
l!J .'l'l:h. Renshu 9
You have learnt that U /): has a grammatical functi on. Now you are
goi ng to put this to practice. Below are five of the verbs (action words)
you learnt in Unit 4. The '{) /): symbols aft er each serve to
UNIT 5 71
show the tense of the verb. J: t endings indicate the present or fut ure
(for instance, 1 cat /wi ll cat) and J: L.. t:. indicates the past ( I ate). (For
those of you who have Teach Your:"elf Beginner s Japanese, verbs are
introduced in Unit 8.) The kunyomi (Japancse reading) is used for single
il* verbs with V ~ lit 1" endings. I.n Japanese texts, unfamiliar read-
ings are indicated in J.. ~ tJ: 1" (furigana) which is V ~ tJ: 'j: written
above, below or beside ~ * to show the pronunciation.
Now sec if you can read these verbs:
t.: t.:
a) 1:t -< £ T (I eat) 1:t -< £ ~ f.; (I ate)
Q) Q)
b) 111:", £ T ( I drink) 111:", £ ~ tc (I drank)
'" '" c) JI. £ T (I look) JI..t ~ tc (I looked)
'11' 'II'
d) I'} ~ .t T (I write) I'} ~ .t ~ tc (I wrote)
Ii", Ii(;
e) illi ~ .t T (I talk) illi ~ £ ~ f.; (I talked)
L!J _Wi" Renshu 10
In Unit 4 ( p. 49) you worked out the meanings of a set of Japancse
sentences by identifying the key _* words. The same sentences now
follow again, but this time you are goi ng to practise reading the whole
sentence in Japanese. You can do this now because you have learnt to
read CJ ~ tJ{ 'j: . The readings for the ~ * words or parts of words are
given in J.. ~ tJ{ 1" (furigana). Check the English meanings of the sen-
tences by referring back to Unit 4. Read out aloud!
G ... ammar note: t t , .z , (.: and tJ: have grammar functions whi ch
you will learn more about in Unit 10. When {i has thi s functi on it is
pronounced 'wa' (and when it is used as part ofa word it is pronounced
in the usual way as ' hat).
n A . ~ V t t: (j A-.::' 1. ~
I ) 3J: (1) A !i a *ilIl i' "'I- I)' £ ~ tc.
n A. ~ .: t' ,t .; v' "(:> "t
2) 3J: (1)'1' Ii ± 1IlII a IZ. f* '" £ ~ tc.
nt.: Vt -?l!
3) '1.\ (1) A Ii fl
72
(i L.
4) '*
.Be..:
5) !J!

6) *

7) tlJ IB
'(J C: t.: It
iT) A it
(i
Iv I: 1lIi
t
"('To
Owari ni
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
In this unit you have learnt the 46 basic 0 tJ{ Ij: symbols plus related
sounds and rules. Vou have had the chance to write them and to read
words and phrases in 0 G tJ{ . You have learnt the two main uses of

• to write words not normally written in Ii*
• to indicate grammar functions and word endings.
You will come across () ?y tJ{ Jj:' again in Unit 10 and you can refer back
to this unit whenever you need to, so do not worry if you have not taken
everything in with the first attempt!
6
Jb',lI Dai rokka
UNIT 6
In this unit you wi ll
• learn to decode the meanings of 39 new ~ *
• learn to read morc compound 1Jt*" words
• try some activities to review all the tl* you have learnt so far
• learn to read and write II adjectives (descri bi ng words)
Hajime ni
In Units I and 2 you looked at ~ ~ whi ch derive from pictures of
nature. Here is a selection of them. Can you remember their meanings?
a) ±
e) Q
c) ~
g) a
d) :u
h) 11
Yonde mimasho
As you did in Units I and 2, see if you can match the following pictures
wi th the correct ~ * (a- j).
I) tall / high
2) old
3) big
II
I
B; -j'
4) small
5) bird
6) rice

••
74
7) thread
8) cow
a) :Sf.
f) JT
b) /IIi
g) lj=
c) ~
h) '"
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
9) axe
10) stand
e) *
j) Ij,
I \
How did you get on? Check your answers at the back and then look at the
development sequence from picture to modern kanji that follows.
I ) iWi
tall/ high
2) '"
old
3)
4)
5)
6)
*
big
'J'
small
.Il!;
bird
*
flee

.. -
~
"
I
So -.'I'
,
~
,j,
"
~ ~ / 5 ~ , ~

~
)K' -7 * ~ ~
UNIT 6
7) '*
thread
8) 'F
cow
9) fT
axe
10) 1L
stand
I \
\


75
.w- Renshu 1
Match the in the left column with the Engli sh meanings in the right
column. Look back at the pictures if you need to remind yourself
of the meanings.
a) 'F
b) fT
c) i\'!
d) 1L
c) '*
f) ...
g) IJ'
h)
Q ;Ie
j) *
I) small .
2) big
3) old
4) tall/ high (also means 'expensive')
5) bird
6) cow
7) rice
8) thread
9) axe
10) stand (up)
Kaisetsu 1
About 2- 3% of derive from simple pictorial representations. As
you have already learnt, many of these simple pictorial are also used
as components in more complex You wi ll be looking at this in more
detail in Unit 7 but one of the purposes of Ihis unit is to introduce you to
76 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
some more simple whi ch will help you in this unit, and later, to
decode the meaning and make-up of other more complex
Lei us start with four new and look al how their components can be
brought together into a story to give the meaning.
I) iJJ: (mother). You can see the outline oCtt: (woman) in this
4 The two short strokes within the m* indicate breasts, hence
mother.
2) (cheap, safe). Again, you can see the for woman. The
component above is like a hat or covering. So the 1l$- looks like
a woman wearing a cheap hat!
3) 1Z. (wide, spacious). The left side of Ibis should remind you of
a cliff or cave.
Within it is a triangular shape with a wide base <it also looks like
a wide nose!).
4) tT (new). You have learnt two of these components in this unit. The
top left is :iL (stand (up)), the rightside is fi (axe) . The remaining
component (bottom left) is * (tree).
The story: cut down a standing tree and get new wood.
l!J .W =: Renshu 2
Now you are going to try to link new with stories to establish their
meanings. Three of the foll owing represent colours (blue, white,
black) and the other two mean 'father' and 'min'. Which is which? Look
at the il*, read the stori es and link them up.
aJ bJ S cJ l'f d) 5i: eJ jIj
i) Rain. This fi* looks like drops of rain against a window.
2) White. The components, 'sun' (S) and 'my' (short stroke) depict the
white rays of the sun.
3) Father. He has a long moustache and dimples in his cheeks!
4) Biack. The components, rice field, earth and fire (four short ' flamelike'
strokes) depict the deep black colour whi ch the earth turns when the
rice stubble is burnt after the harvest.
5) Blue. il'¥ also means 'green' (for example, the colour of traffic
lights and apples). Its components are 'earth' with an extra horizontal
UNIT 6
. 77
line which means plants growing out of the ground and 'moon'. Young
plants are green and we speak of a blue moon .

IlkW Renshii 3
As in Renshii I you are going to see how we ll you can remember the
you have been introduced to in thi s secti on (nine in total). Link the
to the English meaning.
a) I) father
b) ]iIj 2) mother
c) l'i 3) white
d) ;!Ii 4) black
e) J4 5) bluc, green
f ) Jlt 6) cheap, safe
g) E 7) wide, spacious
h) Ilh 8) new
i) :l<: 9) cam
MJlIt=
Kaisetsu 2
In Unit 3 you learnt the for numbers (- . =. _. etc.). These
are from a small group of which depict abstract ideas using shapes
and lines. The for the words above, below and inside are formed in
a similar way. Look at these
I) ..t (above, on top) has a baseline with a ' I' shape above it.
2) r (below, under) has a baseline with a ' t ' shape below it.
3) if! (i nside, middle) is a box with a Hnc through the middle.
You can also imagine ..t and r to look li ke the top and roots of a plant.
You have now learnt 22 new in thi s unit. Let us revi ew them,
grouping them together by theme.
78 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Colours
l'f (bl ue) i3 (white) JA\ (black)
Adjectives (describing words)
* (big) Ij , (small ) ;'; (old) >lIT (now)
jtfj (tall, expensive) :1< (cheap, safe) 14 (wide)
People, animals
Jg, (moth.,) :li: (father) 4 (cow) J\lo (bird)
Nature, basic items
iifii (min) * (rice) IT (axe) ~ (thread)
Position
J: (above) ""f (below) '1' (inside) rr (stand up)
_* build up 1
In Units 2 and 4 you learnt that more complex 11* are made from
combinations of simpler i l ~ . These simpler _ ~ become components
of the more complex ones. Examples you have learnt include :9} (man),
*1- (like) and fJtJ (li sten). Now let us look at _* you have learnt in this
unit which are also used as components in more complex 11*.
Nij Rain is used as a component of more complex _¥ to indicate types
of weather (with rain as their basis), such as:
W Cloud. The lower components are two and triangle shape - think of
them as ' two cloud shapes'!
:II: Cloudy weather. The lower part is doud and the upper component is
a (sun). Cloudy weather blocks out the sun!
'Jf Snow ('frozen rain ' ). The lower component (E) looks like ll.J
(mountain) on its side. Think of snow-covered mountains!
ill Thunder. The lower component is rice field, a place where farmers
would be very aware of thunderstorms.
m Electric is an interesting progression from thunder. This time you
can see a fl ash of light ning through the rice field - and lightning
creates electricity!
Renshii 4
You are going to try identifying more complex il* by looking at· the
components and linking them into a meaning. Here are the ~ * :
UNIT 6
,) :Jt
e) 01>
b) Ii1J
f) MI
Story meanings
c) if
g) if
d) $
h) '"
79
I) Meaning: island. Japan is made up of many, many small islands, often
just rocky hills in the sea with only birds living on them. This il*,
therefore, is a depiction of a bird sitting (you can' t see its tail feathers) on
a mountain.
2) Meaning: dove, pigeon. The components bird and nine represent a dove.
3) Meaning: hot/biller (taste). The components stand up and ten combine
to give an image of strong flavours which make the taste buds stand up to
the power of 10! .
4) Meaning: dog. The components big + short stroke depict a large dog
with its tongue hanging out!
5) Meaning: sound, noise. Components: stand up and sun. Stand in the
sun and li sten to the sounds.
6) Meaning: pointed, tapered. Components big and small. Put simply,
tapering to a point involves something becoming smaller.
7) Meaning:few. a lillie. Components: small and a diagonal stroke.
8) Meaning: frost. Components: rain, tree and eye. Frost (made from
rain) on trees looks like millions of sparkling eyes.
Finall y. the € for fat is :;te. This looks very similar to 7t (dog) . You
can distinguish them by thinking of the short stroke in dog as the tongue
and of the short stroke infat as a marker indicating the widest or fattest
p,rt of the iliI'1'.
In this section of il¥ Build up you have been introduced to 14 new
They are listed here. Can you remember their meanings? Check
back through the section if there are any you are unsure about.
m. m .•. •
• build uJ? 2 (jukugo)
Compound. words
Remember that (jukugo) are words created from two or more il!f:.
You have come across examples of these in Units 1- 4. Words such as A Q
(P.,Opulation). a III a (Sunday) and (food) are some of the or
compounds you have learnt so far.
10
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
The next two activities are designed to get you thinking about the meanings
of some new il* words usi ng the il* you have been introduced to in
this unit plus others you have learnt in earlier units.
~ .flJi Renshu 5
This activi ty uses combinations of il¥ you have learnt in this unit only.
Match the two ~ * words in the box wi th the Engli sh meanings from
the li st beneath it.
Meanings
c) :li:J!F
g) 1Z.:k
I) vast 2) swan 3) calf 4) puppy, small dog 5) poli shed (white)
rice 6) parents 7) pale; blue-white 8) heavy rain.
~ .fl1\ Renshu 6
This activity combines il* from this unit with some you have learnt
from previous units. Those from previous units arc:
<r (year). ~ (st udy). :9: (woman). 1lI (vehicle) . 'f (hand).
A (person), 0 (mouth), ~ (eye), 11a (listen). im (talk), '1:
1
(middle)
Again. choose the appropri ate ~ * word from the box to match its
English meaning. The bracketed infonnati on gives the literal meaning in
cases where the meaning may not be immedi ately obvious.
I ) university (big study)
3) good at (upper hand)
5) youth (blue years =
innocence)
c) &4'
h) AHl
m) ~ 1 l I
d) &:9:
i) 4'L
n) ~ 1 I I l
e) :k?'l
j) 1'1 L
0) .. 1lI
2) trai n (electric vehicle)
4) bad al (lower hand )
6) your superi ors (their eye level is
above you)
UNIT 6 81
7) child (small person) 8) adult (big person)
10) telephone (electric talk) 9) clue (the thread mouth!)
II) new year
13) boy (few years)
15) new car
12) older {than you} (years above)
14) girl (aJewla little bit a woman)
17) newspaper (newly heard)
16) second-hand car (in the middle
of being old)
Check your answers before moving on to the next activity.
Finally in this secti on, you are going to extend your knowledge of il*
compounds a little further by learni!l.1 3 new il* and looking at how
these are used in combination wit h you have learnt in this unit to
make new words.
I) m means country and is the depiction ofa ki ng (3i. lit.jewel) withi n
the boundari es (D) of his kingdom. Examples of its usage are:
* 00 rice country is the Japanese WQrd for America. (The rice grown in
America is short -grained like Japanese rice and often packaged
and sold as Japanese rice.)
tp * middle rice is the Japanese word for Central America.
4
1
00 middle country means China (the central country of Asia).
ffl:OO Mother country means exactly that., the country you originate from.
!bOO Island country (such as Japan, Britain and Australia).
2) f4 means meat orflesh. You can see two people (A ) hanging from a
frame!
If: f4 cow meat means beef.
f4 bird meat means chicken.
3) ;Ii means school. The left side, tree (*) indicates a wooden building
(Japanese schools were traditionally made of wood) and the right side is
father (:1<:) weari ng a hat. Think of this as a teacher.
study school means school .
small school elementary or primary school.
means middle school or junior high school .
means high school (abbreviated version of
Renshu 7
In this section you have been introduced to 36 new il* compounds. You
can see them all in the foll owing list and your task is to test your memory
.2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
by writing the meanings in the brackets after each word. Then check your
answers by looking back through the previous sections.
s.fl,(
) ::klfi( ) x:llJ ( ) 'i'ls ( )
Ij"" ( )
Ij,'F (
) 1L.::k ( )
1"1*
( )
>Iii"l'-( ) W"I'-( )
1>"1'-
( )
1>:k
( )
::k"l" ( ) Ij'A ( ) ::kA ( ) h\1::t ( )
"1'-.1:( ) 1'1.1:( ) .1:'f- ( ) r'f- ( )
>liiJ!i( ) >Iii!lll ( )
*00
( )
'1'*
( )
'1'00 ( ) llJOO ( ) &.\00 ( ) 'Fill ( )
X.H\I( ) "1<;I;« ) Ij'''1<;1;( ( ) 'I' ''l'';1;« )
illi;l;« ) 'iliJ!i( )
iffi
( )
(
)
(Kanji no yomikata)
• Readings
In this section you are going 10 learn to say 11 adjectives (describing
words), learnt in this unit, in Japanese. Look up the kunyomi (Japanese
reading) for the following in the unit chart at the back of the book.
f.li. '$<. Jj' . ::k. >Iii. :;!C. IL.. 1"1
• P- has two kunyomi - sukuna(i) means few; suko(shi) means a littfe.
Notice that part of the reading is writt en in brackets. This is the part
which is written in (J G Ij:. For example: taka(i) is written ?Ji
meaning: tall , expensive.
Memorise the whole reading including the part in brackets then try the
activity that follows.
l!.I MlW A Renshu 8
You are now going to practise reading the II adjectives as complete
words including the () /)t endings. Even if you have not yet worked
through Uni t 5, you can still do this because the whole word is given in
the unit chart. And the answers are given at the back of the book.
a) f.li\.
c) 1>\'
i) :;!c\.
b)
f) 1> I.-
j) IL.\'
UNIT 6 83
• < .UBi Kaku renshii 5
In Units 1 and 2 you learnt some general rules for writing You put
these into practice in Unit 3 to write numbers and in Unit 4 to write
verbs. Now you are going to learn to write the ten il* from Activity
8 in this unit. US,e squared paper and focus on the proportions and overall
balance of each Once you feci confident, see if you can write them
from memory. Keep saying the meani ng (and the readings) to yourself as
you wri te them to help fix all the different elements into your memory.
)
y
Q
c::>
II:»

,
)
·0 b
--'-
,
-
'"
""
1
(J
10)
)
"
\- ,
T

,
,
\.J-,
,
, ,
I
,- )
III
,...-"?
l.....
A
-/k
-
t
Jz.


J
j ,
-,+"
1
d J\
,
I};'
.I.J.;-:, J d
d,
J};
84 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
6
-0--
-
1-
6
Yr
~
,
>
-?- .0-
:it
-
tf./
~
, /
~
j
~

~
-....
-
t
;K
is--
-j .. ,


~
/t-
,
,
"
~
"
- -
;;.
} )1-

8
-ffi-

.
I
I
I
A 8 \
"
UNIT 6 85
Owari ni
In this unit you have been introduced to a total of39 si ngle il* through
picture association and through analysing their component parts. You
have also learnt 36 new compounds and have practised reading
and writing the il*" words for II adjectives. Units have altogether
introduced you to 97 single il¥:, 100 compounds (including 13
surnames) and the whole V &.;, -'j:" syllabary! 1:; lIJ""L C -1 (omedetiJ)
Congratulations! Of course, you might not remember all or even most of
these but the purpose of this book is to help you understand more about
Japanese script, about how it is made up and to find ways for you to
break the 11* code and to build on your learning. Even Japanese people
forget il* from time to time; it takes time and practice to build up your
knowledge of them. But remember - Japanese script can be fun to learn
tool
Tesuto
A) The test at the end of Unit 4 contained a summary of all the single
nl* you had learnt up to that point. This activity pulls together all the
single you have learnt in this unit. Can you identify them all ? They
are in ascending order of stroke number. The answers are at the back but
do not worry if you can not do them all on the first attempt - you can
keep coming back to this activity!
I) J: 2) r
3) Ij ,
4) *-
S) <P
6) *-
7) '"
8) Y 9) IT 10) Jt Il)'t 12) 3r
13) ... 14) Jlt IS) IZ. 16) S
17) *
18) 'ti:
19) *'
20) 'k 21) iIiJ 22) 'i" 23) III 24) ft
2S) 00 26) tr 27) Iili 28) &;, 29) :fi< 30)
31)
32) *
33) 34) !'Ii 3S) W 36) lit
37) JI(j 38) it 39) m
B) This actIvIty is des igned to test how well you remember the
compound words you have learnt so far. The surnames are not included,
you can review these by turning to Activity 7 of Unit 2. The words below
are grouped by theme (loosely in some cases!). What do they mean in
English?
86
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Days of the week
I) 1'11111'1
2) ± IIII (:I
3) *l1li (:I
4) 1<.l1li a
School and study
5) "'* 6) Ij''*t!< 7) <I' '*t!<
8) loOt!< 9) #:"l'
10) JI.,*
Countries
II ) 13 '"
12) <1'00
13) *00
14) <1'*
15) Jltoo 16) Qoo
Food and drink
17) 'fill I 8) .t:l. III I 9) tI" 'IIiJ
20) tiI:'IIiJ 21) S* 22) tiI:*
Transport
23) lllllr 24) 1ii$ 25) <I'!!ill!
26) ~ $ 27) A:IJ$
Animals
28) Ij,* 29) Ij,'f 30) s£l,
People
31) :ltJlt 32) Ij'A 33) :kA
34) &"1'- 35) &:9: 36) :9:r
Shopping and travel
37) fl'IIiJ 38) JI.'IIiJ
39) "p
40) til P 41) #: (:I
7
.-t. Dai nanaka
UNIT 7
In this unit you wi ll
• learn about the different types of ~ *
• learn morc about ~ * radicals and components
• identify i.l* meanings from their radical
• learn to write ~ * in the correct proportions
Ii t; 3<'>1: Hajime ni
In Units 2. 4 and 6 you looked at how si mpler im* are used as components
of more complex ones. Look back over these units if you find now or later
that you need to refresh your memory. In this unit you arc goi ng to look
in morc depth at ways you can crack the code for more complex ~ * .
First of all you are going to lest your memory of some of the complex
~ * you have learnt so far.
I) What are the meanings of the i?l¥ that follow?
a) *"
g) Jt
m) ~ 1
b) lil:
h) I'f
n) f*
c) Jg
.) ~
I ~
0) :lJ
d) !if
j) 7f.
p) "l!
0) IJIJ
k) ~
f) Jill
I) 1m
2) What arc the meanings of the left sides of the il* in this li st? (You
wilt not know the whole meaning at this stage.) Refer to Uni t 4 if you
need more infonnation about (a).
a) f*
h) #
b) P/l
i) jill
c) l!l
ill[
d) !I*
k) D ~
f) *
m) i t
MliIt- Kaisetsu 1 Types of tl*,
There are a number of ways in whi ch ~ * have been developed. You are
already familiar with the first three of these categories:
88 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
1) Pictorial ll'i'
These fairly simple derive from pictures of nature. Examples are
L1J (mountain), )II (river) and A ( person). They make up about 2- 3% of
all 1l'1'.
2) Simple abstract ll'i'
These il* convey abstract ideas through symbols, for example, the
numbers (Unit 3). There are only a very few oflhis kind.
3) Complex pictorial ll'i'
These are made up of two or more basic pictorial which together
convey a new meaning. Examples are '** (wood), J1 (man) and f!ij (bright)
but Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit has more examples which
you will be learni ng. Again, this type of Ii¥: makes up about 2- 3% of
aull'1'.
4) Sound and meaning ll'i'
Part of the at*- conveys the general meaning and part conveys the
pronunciation (onyomi or Chinese reading). By identifying the component
parts you have a clue to the meaning and how to say it. Examples (from
Activity 2) incl ude 1ft; (time) and :fi; (turn). About 90% of belong
to this group.
This unit is going to focus on categories 3) and 4) and you are going to
learn ways of cracking the code!
Mit:: Kaisetsu 2 _* components
As you have already learnt, more complex are made up of simpler
ones which we have called components. One of these components, known
as the radical, often gives a clue to the general meani ng of the whole
Many radicals are themselves usually of the simple pictorial
kind. In dictionaries, are grouped by their radical (same radical,
same group). You will learn more about this later in the unit.
In Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit, you identified the left part of
each You were, in fact , identifying the radical in this activity - the
most common location of a radical is on the left side of a Th;re are
UNIT 7 89
in total 214 radi cals accordi ng to the tradi ti onal Chinese classification.
The purpose of this unit is 10 introduce you to a few of the more common
radi cals and to make you familiar wi lh the idea of radicals so that you
have a solid foundati on to build on.
.w- Renshu 1
In this activit y you will have a go at new which are
formed by combining two or morc pi ctorial m* 3 from
earli er). You have already come across some ofthesc new in Activity
2 in the introduction to this unit. Beneath these are a number of stories
and meanings. See if you can match each with a story and meaning '
by looking at the components that make up the .
a) m
g) 'im
b) IlOl
h) i1i.
c) iIII
i)
Stories and meanings
d) It!I1
j) Jm
e) l'l\
k) g
f) ij()
I)
I) Th ... ee women together are very wicked! Meaning: wickedness.
2) Heaping fire upon fi ... c creates a bl aze. Meaning: blaze. flame.
3) A fire burning wood (two trees). Meani ng: burn, kindle.
4) A field burnt by fire is ready for culti vation. Meani ng: cullivaled
field.
5) The mouth of the bird creates birdsong. Meani ng: cry. chirp (of
birds, animal s).
6) A penon's words are to be believed. Meaning: believe.
7) The three mouths (the lines in two look like tongues) chanted in
unison. Meaning: chant, recite.
8) They dug up the rice field and buried the treasure in the euth
beneath. Meaning: be buried.
9) The visual image is ' speaking fiery words' . Meaning: discussion,
conversation.
10) ' Speaking five mouths '. In other words, five languages. Meaning:
langllage(s).
I I) The sun ri sing'above the hol"izon. Meaning: dawn .
12) The child is attached to its ancestors by a genetic thread (there is a
sho ... t line above the thread whi ch is attached to the chi ld). Meaning:
grandchild.
90
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
MilIt:: Kaisetsu 3 More about radicals
and components
In the last acti vi ty you got to the meaning of the by linking the
components into a story. You can do this wit h many and even
though sometimes the story or link may seem far-fetched, if the meanings
of the components are kepi consistent , this method can be a very useful
code-breaker and memory 'jog' when learning new
You have already learnt in this unit that the radi cal of a r!4* usually
conveys its general meaning. Let us look at "this in more detail using the
radical tl (say). Some il* follow which contain this radical (on the left
side):
ia (narrat ive, history)
iU£ (proof, certificate)
(conversation)
mt (language)
(translation)
.. (tune)
lI;f (poem)
II (lesson)
These examples show that the radical indicates a general li nk with the
meaning of speech or words (including musical 'words' or notes in the
case - tune). Now let us look at some of the more common radicals.
Remember there are 214 altogether but the aim of this uni t is to introduce
you to the idea of radicals and to show you ways in which they can be
hel pful in learni ng
Here arc the lefthand radi cals which ·you ident ified in Activity 2
(introduction). You learnt the meanings in earlier uni ts.
A (pcn;on) r:t (mouth) ± (earth)
-j;:: (woman) a (sun, day) T (chi ld)
jJ (moon) ;;+;: (tree) !k (fire)
fl1 (rice field) (eye) (say; words)
(gold. metal - as a radical it nonnally means ' meta l' )
1fI (car, vehi c le also wheel)
You have already learnt that a may change shape slightly when
used as a radical. Here are some examples (the radical is on the left):
I) Radi cals may appear ' squashed'
2) Radicals may have some shorter strokes
3) Radicals may change their shape
:.l.t (radical = earth)
(radical = tree)
-f* (radical = person)
UNIT 7 91
Here are two more useful radicals whose shape di tTers from the ~ * you
have met already:
71< (water) as a lefthand radical ----7 jEJ (looks like three splashes of water)
.=f (hand) as a lefthand radical ----7 :fJi (squashed and the top line has gone)
One more point to notc before you begin the next activity is that two of
the radicals already mentioned have two meanings. They are:
11 (moon) but this has the second meaning ' fl esh' (from a 'squashed'
version of ~ - flesh/meat) .
a (sun) but can also take the meaning 'speak' (from S ' to speak' . A
tongue in a mouth - although thi s is rare!)
~ .W = Renshu 2
In this activity you will look at a number of ~ * with the radical missing.
The meaning of the full ~ * is given (plus a story where appropriate)
and you have to decide which radical (from the list given in Explanation 3)
will complete the ~ ~ . Here is an example to help you:
l§- Components: tongue and mouth. Story: you must drink water to
live. M.eaning: to live. Answer: m (radical = water).
a)
*
Components: root (of tree). Story: the root /origin of a person is
their body. Meaning: body.
b) T
Component : a marker or post. Story: ri ce field s mark a town's
boundaries. Meaning: town.
c) >t
Component: measurement. Story: the vi llagers measured and
cut wood to make thei r homes. Meaning: village.
d)
*'
Components: tree and short top branches = not yet (that is, not
yet a full y grown tree) Stor y: someone who is not yet a woman.
Meaning: younger sisler.
e) T Component: a marker or post. Story: fire on a post makes a
lamp to mark your way. Meaning: lamp.
f)
JT
Component: axe. Story: with his hand he wielded the axe to
break the object. Meaning: break, snap, fold.
g) til
Component: people, nation. Story: the people closed their eyes
and slept. Meaning: sleep.
h) ;Ii: Component : dog. Story: dogs bark with their mouths. Meaning:
bark.
92 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
i) -t Compone nt : measurement. Story: part of the body (flesh)
used as an old measurement, from elbow to fingerti p. Meaning:
elbow.
j) B Component : white. Stor y: the hotel wc stayed at had water and
clean white towels. Meaning: slayal .
k) + Component ten, but imagine it to be a needle with thread coming
out of it (horizontal line). Story: needles are made of metal.
Meaning: needle.
I) = + b. Components: two (+ a shape which looks like a nose! In the
the two is above the nose). Story: the car's two wheels
rotat c. Meaning: 10 rotale, t urn.
m) Components: earth and measurement:: temple (t hink of the
Buddhist priests plott ing out the area of land before building the
temple). St or y: the temple bell struck each hour all through
the day. Mea ning: lime, hOllr.
How did you get on'! Here are the you have identified, complete
with thei r radical and meaning. Think about how the radical gives a cl ue
to the general meaning and how you can fit the components together into
a story.
, ) f* (body)
d) .u: (younger sister)
g) (sleep)
j) lI'l ("'y al)
m) P# (nme)
b) lIlT (Iown)
e) n (lamp)
h) Ilk (b.,k)
k) it (needle)
Renshii 3
c) # (village)
f ) tIT (fold, sn,p)
i) !It (.11>0.,)
I) f;; (!urn)
In Act ivity 2 in the introducti on to this unit you identified the lefthand
radicals of iOO.!::f.: but not the full meaning. You have now come across all
these meanings so turn back to Activity 2 on page 87, and see if you can
identify all the nx!¥:. The answers are in Renshii I and 2.
Kaisetsu 4 Locating the radical
So far you have identified radicals on the left side of Thi s is the
most common position of a radical but not the only one. Here are the
other locations with examples (the radical is in brackets).
UNIT 7 .3
~ /. 4Rl It
Right side w shape ( ~ ) ill' capila/ ( I" )
Above * tea C .... ") 11: cheap ( ~ )
Below ~ enjoyable (;;te) ~ emergency (,eo,)
Surround - complete 00 country (D)
Surround - partial m shop (I) m mad, way (L) ~ listen ( r ~ )
Some radi cals are located in more than one position. For example, *
(tree) is found:
I) left side (*f\ woods)
3) below ( ~ enjoy)
2) above ( ~ investigate)
And in different positions, some radicals change their shape. For example,
1< (ft"' ):
I) left side t:Pl (field)
,
And ' L' (heart):
I) left side 111 (feeling)
2) below 1t (boil) Here it looks like four
small flames
2) below ~ (emergency)
Renshii 4
The box contains some common radicals found in the righthand position,
or above, below or surround. Their names/meanings are given in brackets.
;,-
(vegetation) 'J:... (yawn)
'-'\.
(vapour)
F
(village) ...L (lid) n (hat !)
,.., (cover)
'J. or ~ , .. (fire)
NT
(bambao)
o (enclosure) r77 (hole)
iiF.,
(rain)
1\' or J\..:: (heart)
Look at the ll*- a-m and decide I) which is its radical (from the box)
and 2) its location. Here is an example to help you. Think as well how the
radical may indicate the general meaning.
9f Rei: ~ (potato) I) vegetation radical
2) above (link: a potato is a vegetable)
94
a) :Ii (cheap)
~
c) )1, (capital city)
e) ~ (picture. diagram)
g) m (writing brush)
i) !l; (ai, sky)
k) it (spirit)
m) ~ (snow)
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
b) 16 (floW.,)
d) j\JI (/o.ge dlY)
f) 111: (song)
h) m (black)
j) '" (army)
I) 'i!! (think)
M\lIUi Kaisetsu 5 _* readings
It has already been mentioned earli er on in this unit that as well as the
radical often giving the general meaning of il*. the other component(s)
sometimes indicate the reading (anyomi). Below are six ~ * whose
right sides (or in the case of lemple tile whole ll*) are all the same and
are read either JI or SHI.
~ (temple) JI B;¥ (lime) JI
* (samurai) JI ~ (Io\o\-'er; soar) JI
f,'j (hold) Jl
'JIi (poem) SHI
Notice how the left side (the radical) gives a clue to the meaning. We
have discussed some already, for example, J;j (poem) has the radical if
(say, words). ~ (hold) has the radical .=f (hand-remember it changes its
shape slight ly). Look at the radicals of the others and think about how
these give a pointer to their meaning. (The radical for temple is ' earth').
l!J _flJi Renshu 5
This act ivi ty gets you to look at ~ * whose right sides and onyomi
reading are the same. You wi ll fi rst be given the right side (this can stand
alone as a ~ * too) and then will choose from a selection of radicals
(the full m* is also given in brackets) which radical gives the full ~ * '
its particular meaning. Refer to pp. 90-1 , 93 if you can not remember the
meaning of a radical. The firs t one has been done for you.
Right side: -B (SHO) Meaning: call, send for, summon
Radicals (lJ.*) Meanings
a) =f (UI) i) beckon, invite ()
b) a (1I!1) ii} inherit ( )
c) 71< (m) iii) imperial edict, decree ( )
d) *' (J!!) iv) elm. bright ( )
e) 1=1 (iRI) v) swamp, marsh ()
UNIT 7
Answers
i) == a == m (link: beckon with your hand)
ii) = d = Mf (l ink: inheritance 'thread' to relatives)
iii) = e = 1m (link: spoken 'summons' = decree)
iv) = b = Iffl (link: sun and bright)
v) = c = m (link: swamps are watery)
t/ i' - Hinto 1
95
Sometimes the right side meaning can be clearly included in the link ( ~ s
in i- iii) and sometimes it is not quite so clear (as in iv and v).
t/ i' =: Hinto 2
The radicals are given in their full ~ * form but they may change shape
when used as part of a I!* as you have already learnt (as in i and v).
1) Right side: 'R' (SEI) Meaning: blue
Radicals ( ~ * ) Meanings
a) IL' (heart) (M) i) purify, cleanse ()
b) S (uri) ii) request, ask ( )
c) *" (Wi) iii) spi ri t /white ri ce/purity ( )
d) ~ (im) iv) fine weather, clear up ( )
e) * (rice) (rt) v) feeling, emotion ()
2) Right side: 'I' (SAKU) No meaning
Radicals
a) a
b) A
( ~ " ' )
(lit)
(m
Meanings
i) yesterday, previous ( )
ii) make, create ()
c) 9< (:1$) ii i) vinegar ( )
d) ]!!j (liqu;d, , ' coho') (i!I') iv) explosion ( )
3) Right side: 'f (KAN)
( ~ " ' )
Radicals Meanings
Meaning: get dry, parch
a) 'f elf)
i) wickedness, mischief ( )
b) 1r: (lif) ii) liver ( )
c) 71< (if) iii) perspire ( )
d) }j (fl esh) (Iff)
e) 9J. (nose) (M)
f) tt (¥)
iv) snore ( )
v) pole, rod ( )
vi) restrain ( )
g) a l''''-)
vii) drought, dry weather ( )
96 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
fllI!t:t\ Kaisetsu 6 Using ijt*
dictionaries
How did you get on in the last acti vity? It is important to restate at
this stage that although many ~ ~ have a part whi ch gives a clue to
the reading (of the onyomi) and that the radical oft en gives a clue
to the general meaning, they do not all fall into these categori es.
However, remember, you can reall y begin to make inroads into your
learning of ~ * when you have some rules and clues like this. to
help you.
Knowing about radicals does become essential when you start to use a
il.* dictionary. As you learnt in the introduction, the Japanese Ministry
of Education made a list of 1942 ~ * which are essential to know in
everyday communication. However, there are many more i l ~ than this
which are used in specialist, academic and pre-war writings and documents.
(Compare this situation with the many more words in an English di ctionary
than most people know or use in everyday life.) A .. * dictionary,
therefore, may have 5000 or more entries but many of these are not in
common usage. .
The most commonly used ~ * dictionary for non-Japanese people is
the Japanese-English Character Dictionary by Andrew Nelson (but
often referred to si mply as 'Nelson'). ~ * are traditionall y looked up
in a dictionary by first identifyi ng the radi cal and then locating the
section where all $ l ~ with this radical are grouped. Radi cals are
ordered by their number of strokes from those of one stroke through
to those of 16/ 17 (i n Nelson) . The number and type of radi cal does
vary slightl y from di cti onary to dictionary. In Nelson each radi cal is
numbered (from 1- 214) and its number is clearly printed al the top of
every page so that it is easy to turn to the section you are looking for.
There is a list of all the radicals wit h their number in the inside front
cover.
Once you have identified the radical and turned to the relevant section,
you next count the number of remaining strokes in the i l ~ you are
looking up, excluding the radical stroke number. All i l ~ with the same
radi cal are grouped according to the number of remaining strokes, from
I through to the highest number (this can be up to 24 or more in the case
of very complicated i l ~ ) . As an extra guide, on the side of every page,
the radi cal on that page is given in square brackets wi th the number
UNIT 7 97
of remaining strokes grouped on the same page printed next to it. For
example:
St-4
\ I
tells you that on this page are ~ * with the radical *- and
four remaining strokes.
Here are the steps for looking up a ~ * (using Nelson). You want to find
the meaning of tt:
I) You identify the radical (*-).
2) Count the number of its strokes (four).
3) Turn to the radical list in the inside cover, find *- in the 4-stroke
group and make a note of its number (75).
4) Turn to section 75 (radical numbers are labelled at the top of each
page).
5) Count the number of remaining strokes in tt (four).
- -t-
J
-t-
J.-.
6) Find the sub-section containing all ~ * with four remai ning strokes
(quick reference at the side of each page) .
7) Run your eye down the ~ * listed until you find {t. Meaning:
branch.
If you know the pronunciation of the i!.t!¥ you can look it up in the
index at the back. Look through all i!.t! ¥ of the same reading until you
see the one you want. There is a number next to it (every ii€* is given
its own number). Find this number by looking at the bottom edge of
each page.
These steps are to hel p you get started if you want to use a ~ * dict ionary.
Identifying the radical is not always easy (Nelson lists a seri es of steps at
the beginning of the dictionary to assist you) and at the begjnning you are
bound 10 make mistakes in counting the number of strokes. But practice
makes perfect (!) and with time and experience you will be able to master
9'
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
looking up even very complicated r.!¥. You can now see onc reason
why writing iM.¥ correctly is so important - so that you can COllnt how
many strokes there are!
If you have access to a Ii¥ dictionary, 5;tart by looking up the ~ * " you
have been introduced to in this unit because the radical has already been
identified for you.
This is the last formal teaching section tor writing in this book (although
in Unit 10 you will be taught techniques for letter writing). This writing
section is goi ng to focus on the balance between the components of il*
(this has already been mentioned in Units 4 and 6). The _* that follow
have left sides which you are already familiar with as separate _* but
which change their shape slightly when used as radicals. Copy the models
carefully and notice changes in size, proportion and orientation of the
radical. Look carefully at the way the whole ~ * is written and do not let
the different components divide and look like separate iJ!*. As a rule of
thumb, where there is a left and right side, the left side takes up one-third
and the right side two-thirds.
The ~ ~ you are going to learn to writ e are: ~ (time), t:lII (cultivated
field) , # (village), lEI (stay), tt (needle), ~ (turn), U (younger sister),
l!I! (bury) and", (spirit) .

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UNIT 7
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100 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPl
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UNIT 7 101
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Owari ni
In this unit you have covered more than 70 il*- and 38 of the 214
radicals. However, the purpose of this unit was to introduce you to a
technique of breaking down 1 I ~ into their component parts in order
to extract meaning. Therefore, you are not expected to remember all the
i l ~ which you have analysed during this unit. More important is the
method you have been introduced to for de-coding i I ~ . The unit chart
at the back, therefore, will not include all the iI*- from this unit, but
those learnt in Renshu I and 2 will be included for reference purposes.
Units 8, 9 and 10 wi ll build on the knowledge and techniques that you
have acquired from the first seven units of this book. Unit 8 covers general
signs and infonnati on notices that you woul d see if you went to Japan;
Unit 9 teaches :IJ 7 :IJ r (katakana) the script for non-Japanese words;
and Unit 10 offers you the chance to read a variety of Japanese texts. You
102 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
could take these units in any order - Unit 8, for example, teac;hes a large
number of signs and so you might wi sh to 'dip into' that unit and then
move on and return to it at a later date. It is up 10 you - you take control
of your learning and if you find that something is difficult, or you j ust
want a change, then move on to another unit.
8
. AIl Dai hachika
UMT8
In this unit you wi ll
• learn to read everyday signs and writt en infonnalion
• fi nd clues and stories to help you remember new ~ ~ words
• learn to recognise different writing styles
• look at authentic everyday street signs and information
About this unit
You will be introduced to a large number of ~ ~ signs in this unit with
lots of clues to help you remember them. You are certainly not expected
to remember them all but to help you progress through thi s unit, the
il* Build up sections conlai n additional m* words whi ch you can
leave out or come back to later if you find there is already enough new
information to take in.
Hajime ni
When we travel around places, even withjn our own local area, we arc
constantly being informed by written signs and notices all around us. We
pick out the infonnation of use or interest ('sale', ' no entry', ' closed',
' danger') and scan over the information we do not require. Visi tors to Japan
wi th no knowledge of written Japanese arc struck almost immediately by
the lack of information they arc able to get from the signs and notices
around them. There is some infonnal ion in English, parti cularly in larger
cities such as Tokyo, but your experience of Japan can be so much richer
if you can understand some of the information that is written in Japanese.
When children firs t learn to read they will obsessively read out all the
shop names and road signs they see. In the same way, once you can
recognise some oflhe common signs in Japanese, your eyes will feast on
104 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
the new source of information open to you. Neon signs, advertisements,
shop notices, tourist places, signs al stations - you find yoursel r able to
operate much morc cfficiendy and with more confidence because you can
pick out the infonnation you need and get to the places you want to go to.
This and the next unit will introduce you to some of the more common signs
you may sec around you in Japan. And not only in Japan - television
programmes and films often show neon lights and other signs written in
Japanese which, once you have completed this book, yOll can have a go at
reading. And in Japanese department stores, restaurants and other speciality
shops in large cities outside Japan you see many signs and information
written in Japanese. So there are plenty of opportunities to practise what
you are going to learn in thi s unit.
I) First of all you are going to try reading some common signs which
you have already learnt in previous .units. The fl*" words that follow
have a box of English meanings beneath them (with clues and stories in
brackets where necessary). Can you match them up?
b) til 0
g) m.
I) l\1l!I
c) Y:
h) *A
m) tIlll!l
I ) immigration (enter a country)
2) train (electric vehicle)
3) chi ld (small person)
4) entrance
5) up
6) 1000 yen
7) men
8) holiday
e) J: 9
j) t o ~
0) «- i3
9) emigration (exit a country)
10) adult (big person)
11 ) school
12) exit
13) down
14) women
15) temple
The answers in the back also have in brackets the number of the unit where
the word was first introduced so that you can look it up again if you need to.
IVts;I:'::H\'"( (Nihon ni tsuite)
About Japan
A qui ck note about L ~ (up) and r IJ (down): these signs are used
specifically on trains. 'Up' trains are travelling to Tokyo (from any
direction) and ' down' trains are travell ing away from Tokyo.
UNIT 8 105
iWliIt- Kaisetsu 1
iI* for places
There are a number of t l ~ which are used to indicate different types of
places such as shops, rooms, public institutions and offices. Let us look at
seven key ones. They are:
I) m (,hop)
4) P!i (place)
7) IllI (garden)
2) m ("0,.. roof)
5) J&} (place)
Now let us look at each one in more detail .
3) ~ (bureau, office)
6) If (hall, large building)
I) r.s (shop). The radical for this is r- whi ch means ' dolted cliff'
(r means 'clitr). Both these radicals indicate some type of enclosure.
Think of it in this case as the roof and back wall of the shop. The front
wall is, of course, a window and so is open. Inside the shop is t'- (fortune)
and t=J (mout h), together meaning &" (fortune telling). To run a shop you
have to be good at divining the customer's needs!
2) it (store, roof). The radical is F meaning ' flag'. Within it is 3i
(meaning ' arrive') which has within it ± (earth). The flag is a banner
advertising a newly built store (earth connection! ), waiting for the
customers to arrive!
3) f.l} (bureau, office). The radical again is F (flag) and within it is a
mouth or opening enclosed on two sides.· This 1 I ~ is used in words
such as 'post office' so think of it as the glass counter behind which the
office clerk sits. The ' flag ' is the board calling the next customer!
4 and 5) pfr and :1M (place). jiJf is generally used to indicate an office
or 'over-the-counter' type of place (tourist information office, foreign
exchange bureau) whereas :Ji,} has the general meaning 'grounds' (hence
± - earth - as the radical). The radical for jiJf is P (flag with ' one' above
it) and this by itself means ' door'. You came across the right side in the
previous unit, ff meaning 'axe'. (Use the axe on the door to mark the
spot or place!)
6) I1'i1r (hall, large building). Thi s . ~ is often used in public or
government buildings. You should recognise the left side. It is the radical
version of 1t (food) . The right side -g has the general meaning of
' government'. Put together, large halls (such as concert halls, art galleries)
are often funded by local government and you can usually buy refreshments
too!
106 SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
7) iii (garden). This is very easy to remember! First, there is the
radical which you have already come across in the previous unit - D
which means 'enclosure' or, in thi s case, the walls around a garden.
Within the walls there is ± (earth - think of flower beds !), IJ (mouth -
but think of this as a pond!) and off the 'pond' are a number of garden
paths. Can you see it now?
l!J .fl- Renshu 1
Now let us put what you have learnt so far into practice. Some iI:*
which you have already learnt follow. The meaning is in brackets
and, remember, if you want to review a at any time, look up the
English word in the index and it will refer you back to the page where
you first learnt it. There are also some new _* with some tips on how
to remember them. Here are the
3\j (sell) !'f (wr;te) '* (book) J\. B (800) iii (meat) (dr;nk)
III (vehicle) =f (hand)
art (the first if* looks like an artist' s easel!).
city, market (woman in hat holding shopping bags).
construction (looks like scaffolding or tower!).
public (J\. eight + 1:.. looks like a nose! Eight nosey people = the
public!).
drawing, map (D is the picture frame, the inside is modern art).
fi sh (components: hook, rice field, fire. The fish is hooked, cooked
on fire, eaten with rice).
rice wine, alcohol (water radical indicates liquid. Ri ght side looks
li ke a decanter).
lea (vegetation radical indicates tea leaves + umbrella shape for
drinking tea under).
medicine (vegetation and tree indicate herbal medicine. B white +
four short strokes = aspi rin dissolving!).
wash (water radical on left).
Now you are going to match some common signs and shop names wi th
their English equi valents.
UNIT 8 107
I) 0m1 ()
2) lliJiU ()
a) bookshop (two answers)
b) a newsstand, a kiosk

c) pharmacy (two answers) 3) iIl.lj;j ()
d) butcher's 4) ( )
e) toilet (hand washing) 5) iiUI ()
f) art gall ery 6) IIJ! ,\\;r,!i ( )
g) greengrocer's (800 varieties! ) (focus on 2nd + 3rd nxa;*)
h) park
i) fishmonger's
j) market (place)
k) library
I) tea/coffee shop
m) wine shop, liquor store
n) drinking place, bar
0) factory
7) 'if.m ()
8) lliJ£ ()
9) >'1m ()
10) iJlJ£ ()
II ) f!l:iI'im ( )
12) ( )
13) I.Ij;j ()
14) JUfJ£ ( )
IS) Jt.;J£ ()
16) f.llIi! ()
17) 1o''frA;l' ( )
fWlllt= Kaisetsu 2 More about places
How did you get on wi th this activity? Some of the words need further
explananlion. J\. a m (greengrocer's) literally means '800 shop' so thi nk
of 800 types of fruit and vegetables! You should have worked out
the meaning of (coffee/tea shop) from the second and third
The first one has a general meaning of 'cat, drink, smoke' and
its radical tl (moulh) indicates this general meaning. It is not widely
used and focusing on the second two gives you the meaning. IJj}
(factory) and Iti:ij,} (market) are both places which have grounds and so
use for · place'.
a ;/lq;::J n -C (Nihon ni tsuite)
About Japan
:t:ifiitl> (toilet) has hiragana 10' (0) at the beginning which is used in
fTont of some words to make them sound more (X) li te and genteel. This is
sometimes translated as ' honourable', so in this case ' the honourable hand
washing (place)' alt hough its real meaning is toil et! The end hiragllna l>
is somet imes left off (see this book cover for an example of this sign).
108 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
il* build up 1 More place names
As explained in the introduction, these sections will leach additional
~ * words which you can leave out or come back to later if you feel
you have taken in enough at this stage . .
The following nl* are key to the additional place names introduced
further on:
1) ±. (master) 2) ~ (station)
4) fr (go) 3) ~ (convenience: mail)
Now let's look at them in detail.
1) ±. looks like a candlestick with a Harne on lOp so you can remember
it as 'candle' (its real meaning is ' master' ). It is a component of the
foll owing two il*:
Sf (reside, stop-over) tl: (reside. dwell)
It The radical is ~ (horse). In old times, stop-over places or inns were
a place to rest horses on a long journey. A welcoming candle in the
window would light your way.
it The radical is A (person) . A person is master (real meaning of .:1:.) in
their own residence.
Car park (stop-over place for vehicles)
Address (place of residence)
2) ~ The radical is 'horse', the right side R is the measurement ' foot' .
Think of it in this case as being R for railway. Meaning: Railway station
(before trains, transport was by horse!).
3) fI. (convenience; mail) The left side is person, the right is - (one)
and ~ (tug). Here are two words it is used in - you supply the story!
Places
fJ!P!T
Toilet, urinal (A place for your convenience, perhaps? The
first il¥ might conjure up a strong image here!)
Post office (fi rst two ~ * " both mean 'mail' plus NU -
'bureau')
UNIT 8 109
4) fi (to go) The radical 1 means ' going person'.
Places
ilHj (bank) • means ' silver' (radical is metal). Story:
go to the bank to get silver (money)
i6ili!iUi (shopping area) You should recognise m (shop), iRi
means ' trade' , {!j cons ists of double earth (±)
between fi and means 'street ' or 'quarters' (earth
piled up to make a road)
(travel information).&afT means ' travel'. '* has the
left side radical 7i which means ' direction' , the
side comes from;t{. meaning 'clothes' . Story: go (ft)
in the direction of a holiday with a suitcaSe of clothes!
means ' information (place)', Quick story for
tourists would certainly want more information
about a woman wearing a large hat in a tree! (r.q is
introduced laler in this unit)
5) More places containing jiJT (place) :
N"M'pJi (Money exchange place) . means ' both', You can see ilJ
(mountain) within this with a small mountain on both sides of the large
one! The upper part of 1f: (exchange) looks like two people who are
exchanging. Both gain from the exchange!
MffjiJi (Fare adjustment office). You learnt the first in Unit 7: it
means ' purity' or ' white rice' . The radical means ' rice' , Focus on this
meaning to give you a story for the whole word. In ancient times, riee
rather than money was used as payment including fares!
(Nihon ni tsuite)
About Japan
If you travel by underground in Japan and do not know the fare to your
destination, buy the cheapest ticket and pay the difference when you
arrive, at the tt,nm -fare adj ustment office.
6) More places containing Jj;} (place) :
m:f.fni&} (Ticket office). literally means 'sclling placc' , -m means
'cut' (7J means 'sword'). means ' token' and has 17 (bamboo) at the
110 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
top and M (attach) below. Maybe in ancient limes a ticket was a token
cut from bamboo!
filii" (theatre) . fII means drama. If you look hard enough you can make
out the outline of the arch and curtains around a stage with a kabuki actor
standing in the middle!
7) More places containing til (hall):
i!:*:iiIDi'il (cinema). Focus on m which means ' picture' but you can
also see within it four squares representing the screens of a multi-screen
cinema!
.&am (Japanese inn). Mi means ' travel' . A place to stay when travelling.
t t ~ m (museum). You learnt ~ in Unit 4 - it means ' things', Focus on
'It: meaning PhD or esteem. Esteemed items afC kept in museums. Also,
think of the left side of 1t: as an ancient Japanese sword!
~ MlW-= Renshu 2
In the previous __ * Build up section you were introduced to 15 more
place names. The following activity gives you the chance to see how
many you can now recognise. If you do not get them al l on the first try.
simply go back over the ex.planations - then try again!
Match the Engli sh words (t here are clues in brackets) to the il!f: words
in the box.
a) Travel information (woman in tree)
b) Japanese inn (travel place)
c) Museum (Japanese sword)
d) Theatre (proscenium arch)
e) Car park (stop-overs/or horses! )
f) Address (mOSIer o/residence)
g) Fare adjustment office (pay wilh rice)
h) Money exchange (rwo people exchange)
i) Shopping area (double earth/or road)
j) Railway station (horse + R for railway)
k) Ticket office (CUI bamboo selling place!)
I) Bank (go 10 bank for silver money)
m) Cinema (four squares = four screens)
n) Post office (mail bureau)
0) Toilet (conveniencelyour own SIOry)
UNIT 8 11\
1) St!lI41 ( ) 2) itpJi ( ) 3) ( )
4) fJl[pJi ( ) 5) ill fJI[ Ilil ( ) 6) ilifi ( )
7) illir.sllI ( ) 8) lKfill'iPlPJi ( ) 9) jijtl'PJi ( )
10) fIljJpJi (
) 11) tlm3'f41 ( ) 12) /IlJ.Ij;j ( )
13) i!I! ii!ii tI'! ( ) 14) lKtI'! ( ) 15) ( )
MliIt.::: Kaisetsu 3 _* Signs
You have so far been exposed to a total of 47 place names (or 32 if you
missed out the _* Build up section). Next you are goi ng to learn to
recognise more common signs and written information containing if*
or components that you are already familiar with. These are:
1) !lI (vehicle) 2) 1il: (room) 3) Jl!I (country)
4) Jf/i (seat) 5) (tMng) 6) .. (fte)
Now let us look at these in detail.
1) nr (vehicle). Here are fi ve il* words containing Jti: :
unoccupied taxi occupied taxi JlJ1fi long-distance train
sleeper train bicycle
and n,qIfi . These signs are displayed on the windscreens of taxi
cabs and at car parks. means 'sky' or 'empty' and, if you look carefully,
looks like an aeropl ane taking off into the ai r from a runway! It is also
used in (airport).
n,q means 'full ' or 'enough '. The radical is water and it contains a
component you have already learnt in this unit, FIi (both). Above this is
the component 'vegetation'. Story: water and vegetation together are
enough to live on!
Jll1lr. You have already learnt m.. (electric train). This is used generically
but also for local lrajns, whereas 7l $ denotes long-distance trains. The
ri ghthand component looks like a long rail track!
4l tt Itt . tt means 'J(Cdestal' but can you see a person with a large nose
b. lying on a bed! means '10 sleep' and has the radical ""'" (l id), in
thi s case ' roof'. On the left is a component which looks like a bed
standing upright - the type you pull down from the wall on a trai n.
You met:fi; (turn, rotate) in Unit 7. means ' automati c' or
'sclf'. You can see (eye) with an extra short stroke. Think of this as a
112 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
small nose (between the eyes!). The Japanese poi nt to thei r nose
(rather than their chest) when they refer to ' mc'. Altogether we have
·sclf·rotating vehicle', in ot her words, a bicycle!
2) 3! (room). This is si mi lar to m (shop) whi ch you learnt earlier in this
unit (Kaisetsu I ). The radical is different. Here it is r4 (li d, roof). The
lower part is (arrive) but focus on its difference 'from 'shop' because it
has a roof - ' rooms have roofs'. Here are two words
Western-style room Japanese-style room
and arc words used in hotels and estate age nts. ;fn1i!
(Japanese-style rooms) have tatami mats on the floor, futon matt resses to
sleep on and Japanese baths whereas W* (Western-style rooms) have
carpets on the floor and in hotels have Western beds and bathrooms.
i$ means ' ocean ' (t he West is across the ocean!) and the radical is
· water'. The ri ght side $: means 'sheep' (can you see Ihe horns of the
ram?), an animal associated with the West.
;fO is the old Chi nese word for Japan. You learnt it as ' peace' in Unit 3
(as part of the Showa era). The left side represents the ears of rice as
it grows in the fields, and ri ce is Japan's staple food.
3) (country). Here are fi ve words containing this
p:] domestic 9HE abroad, foreign t1= foreign
internati onal phone AOOiiJm passport control
P:] means inside (i nside the country). You can sce a person A inside a
frame. (Do nol confuse with fl csh - two persons in a frame).
;'-1- means outside (outsidc the country). The radical !Y means 'evening'
(i magine it as a crescent moon shape) and imagine a person f' standing
outside looki ng at the moon. means 'foreigner' (outsi der).
;'-I- OOZ1 tf contai ns 1} meaning (p. 109).
IEllf k'iUim. You learnt mim (telephone) in Uni t 6. is used to indicate
' international' and consists of the radical ' vi lI age' (think of the global
vi llage) and meani ng ' fes ti val' . (Think of the upper part being a
marquee and the lower part a trestle table, set up for a retc or restival. )
AOOifll. First you have enter the country (to enter a country you have
to show your passport). Focus then on if. You learnt in Kaisetsu I that
the component 1r means ' government' and passport control is a government
or civil service organisation.
I
UNIT 8 113
4) ffC (seal). The radi cal is r- (dotted cliff) but for this imagine it
is the roof and side of a train carriage (with electri c cable on the roof).
Thc component within looks like a computer game character! He has a
square head, stick body and arms. You cannot see his legs because he is
sitting down! Here are two signs containing $ :
mlrf. unreserved seat reserved seat
You have already learnt that means 'self' . m means ' freedom'-
the freedom to make your own (self) decisions. With $ it means ' free!
unrescrved seat'.
m means ' finger/ indicate'. The meani ng is indi cated by the
lefthand radical ' hand' (from means ' fixed'. The general meaning
( putting a li mit on something) is indicated by the radical .->-. (a crown or
in this case a lid). Therefore the seats indicated are limited/reserved.
Note: means 'set meal' <in other words. the menu is fixed).
5) ft (thing). You first learnt thi s in Unit 4 ( p. 50).
:r.:Jft luggage, parcel :@ttft left behind by mistakel10st luggage
Look at as a picture of a suitcase ( []) coming through the conveyor belt
at the airport! ;€,; means' forgotten'. Remember that the radical (heart)
is used for emotions and thoughts. "C means ' deceased' or ' lost'.
6) (fee). Focus on the radical * (rice) which you know can represent
payment:

A.II.)*'I
1I!1*'I
means fee (lit ' fee money')
mcans entrance fee (lit 'cnter place fee')
means admission free (lit ' no fee'). 11 means ' nothing' and
looks like a prison window with no prisoner inside!
I!I!W'::::' Renshu 3
In the last secti on you were introduced to 22 new information words and
three new general il* M. *4). Test yoursel f by seeing how
many you can recognise (write the English meanings in the brackets). If
you cannot remember all of them at first, check your answers by looking
back through the section.
) (
) (
) JlHEA (
) }lJIIl ( ) iii! 1'1 III ( )
) fUllO ( ) OOJll ( )
) JlHE 1;j 'If ( ) 00 lliHllllli ( )
"4
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
) 13 illJ.II (
) '" tL 1IiJ (
)
build up 2
) llilEJI/i (
) ( )
)
As with the last build up section, you can leave this one out and
come back to it laler if you wi sh to.
I) Here are three compound words containing (room):
bathroom powder room, toilet t.\iit3?: waiting room
m means bathe and has the water radical on the left. The righthand
component looks like a house, as in 'bath house'!
Note: The word for a Japanese-style bath is !ia g . Thi s type of bath is
deeper and shorter than Western ball1s, and you sil with your knees bent
and only your head above water. g means backbone (can you see the
vertebrae?) - you sit in the bath with back straight.
{l:.m means cosmetics (think of the ri ce radi cal * as a powder
pum). Powder room is a euphemism for ladies' toilet or bathroom.
t#f.J3!. Focus on #i which means wait. The lefthand radical is ' going
person' and the righthand radical is (temple).
2) In the previous section (Kaiselsu 3) you learnt (Japanese) and if
(Western). Here are four more words containing these:
:fntt Japanese cuisine ittt Western cuisine
Japanese-style Western-style
Renshii 4
In the last secti on you were introduced 10 eight new compound words.
Can you match them up wi th their English meanings?
1) a) Western-style
2) lti:Jt b) Japanese-style
3) c) Western cuisine
4) d) Japanese cuisine
5) B!l S e) bathroom
6) f) (Japanc,c) bath
7) tf tt g) waiting room
8) tf:Jt h) powder room (ladies' toilet)
UNIT 8
IWliI!.l!!I Kaisetsu 4
In thi s secti on you will learn to
recognise the main islands and cities
of Japan. First, you are goi ng to leam
the four compass directions:
A map of Japan
~ t
And here are quick clues to help you remember them:
115
~ I : : North (looks li ke two people sitting back to back to keep warm (cold
in the North»
m South (yen symbol ¥ (more money in the South of Japan! »
* Ea!J't (components: sun and tree. Sun ri sing in the East from behind
the tree)
R!i West (looks like (!!I four - do not confuse them - and it is the fourth
compass direction)
Now look at the map of Japan with the main islands and cities labell ed in
~ * and ramaji . How many _* do you recognise? There is a list of
clues on the next page to help you learn the names. You have not learnt
any of the ~ ! : f : for 3, 6 and 12. They are included for interest only.
Nagasaki
II"
0 NIHON (Japan)
S'*'
HOKKAIOO
jt:¥il!
Sapporo
1\,11
HONSHO ,*,ffl
{TOk'yO. Jl!
, Y Oikoh,.ma lUi
' SHIK:DKU I!!IIII
116
Place
I) 1'1*
2) ~ t i l i l 1 1
3) lUI!
4) *#1
5) :110](
6) ~ ~
7) *11&
8) J]('M\
9) 1M:;
10) P.!@
II) 1L#I
12)1>l:.
8(!¥ Meanings
sun, root
North, sea, way
paper mOlley. hood
root /main, province
East, capilal
side, seacoast
big, slope
capital, city
wide, island
four. CQutJIry
. .
mne, province
long, promontory
Kaisetsu 5
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Story clue
' Land of the ri sing sun'
' North island across the sea'
Winter Olympics held here - brought
in money!
Main (biggest) island of Japan
(Which it is!)
' City on the seacoast to the side of
Tokyo'
Osaka is built on a hillside
Kyoto used to be the capital of Japan
Hiroshima stands in a wide bay
dotted with small islands
Shikoku is the fourth of the main
islands of Japan
KYlIshu is divided into nine provinces
(admini strative)
Describes Nagasaki harbour
Warning signs
It is very useful and often essential to be able to read this type of sign.
A friend of mine drove up a closed road and got stuck in a snow drift
because she could not read the sign at the head of the road. After that she
learnt to recognise ~ (forbidden) as ' two Harry Worths (the entertainer
who used to stand hal f behind mirrors li fting his leg and arm up and
down) dancing on a picnic table'! That ll!¥ alone would have prevented
her going up that road.
We start by learni ng some general warning iM¥ then look at how they
are used.
~ forbidden Uust mentioned) ~ J l : no, not aJ/owed (ll: means 'stop' )
J i t ~ strictly forbidden f:I to smoke (fi re radical)
[Jl middle. In signs means during or under
L!J IIkW Ji Renshu 5
Here are some common warning signs using the 11* we have just met
plus ones you know already.
UNIT 8 117
Match each word to its English meaning.
a) Outdoor shoes stri ctly forbidden ( )
b) No smoking ( )
c) No parking ( )
d) Under construction ( )
e) No admittance ( )
Finall y in this sect ion, three more useful warning signs wit h clues to
remember:
0 Emergency exit (# looks like a path cleared of clutter for easy
access)
ttt! Caution ('i± story: 'pour water on a candle to caution against
firc'!)
Danger (iB looks like a snake in a box - dangerous if it
escapes!)
fllIIt* Kaisetsu 6 Signs of opposition
This is the final kaisetsu section! Ten follow which can be paired as
opposites in meaning.
ti. left
ti right
jtp 1" push
51 < pull
M open
M close
JlJt( arrival
ili.g departure
open/or business
closed
Use of I for I (am/am not left handed)
o ('Tick the right box')
Hand radical is pushing the doorbell
looks like an archery bow which you
pull
Gates (elevator doors). Two people holding
one door each open
One person cannot hold the doors and they
close
Remember that 3§: means arrive or 'the nose
of the plane touching ground'
ili means go out
11t is a backbone with a hat on - a shop
assistant!
means holiday
118 SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
a¥ build up 3
And finally, some miscell aneous signs. Once more, you can miss thi s
section out if you need to consolidate what you have learnt so far.
Mi means grilled (fi re radical plus component looking like a barbcque).
Look at these words:
mill



yakiniku - grilled meat
yakitori - barbequed chicken on bamlxto skewers
okollQmiyaki - a type of thick pancake cooked on an iron
griddle at your table.
sukiyaki - beef gri lled then cooked with vegetables in a
cast iron pot.
shinlwnsen or bullet train. $i (new) helps you to remember
this.
undergrollfld(train). Lit: 'ground under iron'. Iron indicates
the rail track.
express (train). Lit 'hurry go'.
special express. Lit: ' special hurry'
Renshu 6
Look at t he pictures of various Japanese signs. There is a range of
written styles, both vertical and horizontal left to right. How many can
you You may need to come back to this acti vit y aftcr you have
worked through the conclusion (which includes a review of all the
signs learnt in this unit) but keep a score and see if you can improve
on it !
UNIT 8 119
2)
AO
3) 4)
The name of a temple entrance
5) 6)
7) 8)
120 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
9) 10)
II ) r-.,..--".-------
12)
13)
~
~
/.
SHIMOKITAZAWA
What is Shimokitazawa the name of? (Focus on the last kanji)
The fi rst two kanji mean 'Fuji ', What is this building called?
UNIT 8 121
14) IEiiill 15) §J EI3
16) Toy
17) tJD §it

Owari ni
t:J li)"('" C '7 (omedeto) Congratulations! You have worked through a
mini mum of 76 signs in thi s unit. This does not include the \ 2
island and city names, and the 31 signs in the Bui ld up sections.
Thi s makes an overall total of 119 signs, whi ch is a huge amount and
obvi ously you are not going to remember them all in one go. To help you
review and consolidate your learning. all the signs are grouped below by
theme. How many do you remember? The Engli sh is also given at the end
of the unit so test yourself, then check and then use these pages as a
check list. (Signs taught in the Bui ld up sections are marked wit h
an asterisk. )
Hinto Remembering.¥ words
Try writing out the words on small squares of card. Put the il* on
one side and the English on the other. Use these mini flashcards to test
yourself by looking at the side, giving your answer then turning the
card over to see if you are ri ght. Try doing 10 in the morning, 10 in the
evening and gradually build up the number you can remember.
.22
General
1) til
5) *A
9)
13) if.>I:.-
Shopping and places in town
1) rn
2) II;! 101
5) if<\m 6) ilfm
9) lIfrn 10) rtrn
13) 111lj! 14) i}im
17) 18) iliff-
21) j\jtl'jl)f-
22) Itl\!l&!-
25) IlIJ 26) M
29) Xl&! 30) "l":Il<
Sightseeing and entertainment
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
3) Ai'fm
7) I!li!*rn
11) ll!fiii
15) OlIl1fill
19) lI1ilfiii-
23) JIll t
27) 1!tl'l< <P
4) !ll
8) ili')f-
12) flJ>I:.-
4) *lOl.
8) il:ilfrn
12) ll!m
16) iIIlrnm-
20)
24) I <
28) l*l'I<<P
1) 2) t,<C/j 3) l* a 4) !R 5) J!/! I!ii ill-
6)
7) Jllll&!- 8)
Travel and transport
1)
4) l!!i
7) tII-g
10)
13) r ry
16) <litilli
19)
22)
25) 41\'*'1;-
28) mIl!
2) JIij
5)
8) AOOWllI!
11) \IlJ!!
14) ?lJl\!
17) lli)i!m;
20) fIIJJi')f-
23)
26) it!!rllJ<-
29) <I fi<J!!
9) A.lIM
3) JI!
6) ilJ:II'
9) 00 P3
12) ..try
15) li!itl\!
18)
10) 1II\M
21) Wf.H'tljj-
24) ;(;:ff-
27)
30)
UNIT 8
Accommodation
I ) M<ftI'!-
4) 1If",-
2) 1$",
5) !i!./S-
3) 1'11",
6) tti'Ji-
Warnings
I)
5) I$'/'
Food and drink
I) fu11t'
4)
2)
6) ill'lit r:1
2) 1$11t-
5)
English meanings
General
3)
7) ttX!
3) li>iIl-
4)
8)
6)
I) exit
4) man
7) toi let
I 0) left
2) entrance
5) adult
3) woman
6) ehild
13) Western-style
8) toilet
I I) right
Shopping and places in town
I) shop
3) greengrocer
5) fish shop
7) coffee shop
9) bookstore
I I and 12) pharmacy/chemist
14) park
16) shopping area
18) bank
20) foreign exchange
22) car park
24) pull
26) close
28) closed
30) school
9) toil ct/powder room
12) Japancse-style
2) butcher
4) book shop
6) liquor store
8) bar
10) kiosk
13) market
15) library
17) international telephone
19) post office
21) exchange bureau
23) push
25) open
27) open (for business)
29) factory
123
124 BEGINNER' S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Sightseeing and entertainment
I ) art gall ery
5) cinema
2) temple
6) museum
3) holiday
7) theatre
9) entrance fce 10) admission free
Travel and transport
1) North
3) East
5) foreigner
7) departure
9) domestic
11) train
13) down
15) sleeper
17) reserved scat
19) lost property
21) ti cket office
23) bullet train
25) special express
27) unoccupied
29) bicycl e
Accommodation
1) Japanese inn
3) Japanese-style room
5) (Japanese) bath
Warnings
2) South
4) West
6) arrival
8) passport control
10) station
12) up
14) long-distance train
16) unreserved seat
18) luggage
20) fare adjustment office
22) travel infannati on
24) express
26) underground/subway
28) occupi ed
30) waiting room
2) Western-style room
4) bathroom
6) address
2) no admittance
4) festival
8) fee
I) no parking
3) no smoking
5) under constructi on
7) caution
4) outdoor shoes stri ctly forbidden
6) emergency exit
8) danger
Food and drink
1) Japanese cuisine
3) yakiniku - grilled meat
5) okonomiyaki - grilled pancake
2) Western cui sine
4) yakitori - grilled chicken
6) sukiyaki - beef ' hot pot '
9
fflLiI Da; kyuka
UNIT 9
In this unit you will
• learn to read the 46 11 f; IJ r (katalcana) symbols whi ch make up the
phonetic 'alphabet'
• learn some rules for making extra sounds from the 46 main symbols
• be introduced to picture- sound associations to make learning easier
• learn how to write tJ f; IJ T (lwtakana)
• have a go at reading some words and phrases
Key words:
fJ !J fJ T (kalakaaa)
Ii t; 3D I: Hajime ni
11 11 iJ r is the script used to represent foreign words which have heen
adopted into the Japanese language (loanwords) and foreign names
(personal names, countries etc.). Most of the loanwords are derived from
English words and this means that once you can read the script you can
normall y work out what a word means. This makes h 7 h T a fun
script to learn and working out the meanings can be an enjoyable challenge!
In Unit 5 you learnt to read the 0 t, t J ~ ~ . scri pt . You may have dt.:cidcd
to work through the il¥ units first and then to work on Units 5 and 9.
And you could work through this unit wit hout learning V t, nt ~ first
but as most of the rul es are the same for both scripts you will be referred
back to the appropriate page in Uni t 5 to read through the explanations
there.
Begin by looking back to the section of the introduction which deals wi th
an overview of the different types of Japanese scri pt (pp. vi- viii) and
the section on h !J 1J ..,.. Can you answer these questi ons based on the
information you have j ust read?
12. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
I) What is 11 7 11 -r used for? (name four uses)
2) What do iJ !I tJ r symbols originate from?
3) How many basic symbols make up the" 7 IJ t syllabary?
Yonde mimasho
You have not learnt to read any /J !I IJ r yet (apart from these three
symbols) but as you did in Uni t 5 you arc goi ng to pair up !J !J JJ T
words which are the same. There are six words (a- f) in the left column
which are repeated in a different order in the right column. Match up the
same words and write the correct letter in the brackets on the left. The
first one is done for you.
(a) 7-"'<
(b) 7 -1 :1.
(e) ~ -:1. ~
(d):1. 7'- "'<
(e) :1. 11 - ~
(f) :1. - '/
: 1 . 1 1 - ~ ( )
:1.7'-"'< ( )
7-'< (a)
:1.-'/ ()
7-1:1. ()
~ - : 1 . ~ ( )
MiiIt- Kaisetsu 1
Let us begin by looking al the first four lines of the 11 7 11 r syllabary
with the romanised pronunciation and learn how to read them. The order
and pronunciation is exactly the same as U ~ ,;t ~ (see p. 59 to refresh
your memory). Only the symbols are different. The chart is writtcn in
the traditional way from top to bottom right to left. This is to give you
practice at reading vertically. Remember that you read in columns not
rows and begin to read from the top right symbol.
ta :9 sa -+f
chi 1- shi ~
tsu'Y sU A
te 7' se -t:.
to ,.. so ;J
l!J .W- Renshu 1
ko 11
ki ~
ku ,
ke 7
ko ;2
07
; -1
u7
In the ronde mimashii activity you matched six fJ :9 fJ t- words. Now
you are going to try to read those words. Use ·the chart of the first 20
symbols and say the words out loud then see if you can match them 10
UNIT 9 127
their English meanings in the box that follows. Remember that fJ , fJ j-
is used to wri te foreign (mainl y English) words. The pronunciation is
adapted to suit Japanese' pronunciation rules (every consonant is followed
by a vowel) but you can usually recognise the word once you have read it
correctly. A dash - after a symbol means that you lengthen the sound of
that symbol (., [u] performs this function in U ~ t J ~ ~ . See p. 67).
a) 7-'< b) r-;<r c) ;1."}--'<
d) 7 -( ;< e);1. h - r f);1. - '/
skirt ( )
cake ( )
suit ( )
ice ( )
steak ( )
toast ( )
1:: /' J- - Hinto 1 Remembering jJ 9 jJ T
In Unit 5 you were introduced to the idea of remembering U ~ Ii ~
through visual and sound association (p. 63). Here are a few ideas for
fJ , fJ j- symbols to get you started. Try to think of your own and write
them down. Some symbols are easier than others but just do a few at a time.
T (a ) looks like an antelope ~
-1 (i) is a leaning T which rhymes with i
? (u ) looks like a uisukii (whisky) flask 0
:r.. (e i looks like elevator doors I + \@l
'< (ki l looks like a dooc key ~
MlIIt= Kaisetsu 2
You arc now goi ng to be introduced to the whole jJ' fJ j- chart,
including the correct order in which to write each symbol. This follows
exactly the same format as for U ~ I;t ~ in Unit 5 (p. 60).
As with () t;, tJt ~ try to learn to write IJ 7 jJ t because this will help
you to remember how to read them too. Look carefully at the stroke order
and remember that in general you write horizontal strokes from left to
right and vertical /diagonal strokes from top to bottom (variations to the
direction are marked with an arrow on the individual symbol).
12. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
rl -t
3' 1
~
-lt l ..
nlf;
,.
7 1

9
+)
7
-
t
I
'7
'7
-
..-
-If J fJ
~
?
-
n'
1-
<.h;
'"
"';
"
"
1
,
-
:\
+
-
~
-
-

-.//
- -
, ,
+
.
-
-
- -
'I
/
-1
-
- -/
-
-
"
-
'7
, ~
"
~
~
m
?
"
J
");
7.-
I}
\
I)
I
,
-
,
7
:;z
,
" "/
7 A
'7
,
'7
*
~
7
..
t
~
'f
..
:z. •
-
-
}T
- 1 ~
T
t?
l
, ,
-
-
-
7
;r ;f-
-
-
I J-
'J
-
T
~
t
T
I
J
~
I-
'0
:J
~
"
' 0
;;t 0
)
r
\ ) ,1
:J
;t
J I I-
,
, I -,
:J
-
t 1"
1:: ;..t l- =- Hinto 2 Organise your learning
Don' t worry ahout learning all the symbols in one go - keep referring
back to the charts.
You might find it useful to make a j; ? j; r vocabulary book for this
unit. You could either organise the words by theme (food, drink, clothes.
electri cal gadgets etc.) or alphabetically using the 46 basic symbols (onc
per page) and cnter all words beginning with a particular symbol on the
same page. Whichever way you choose, write out each 11 , :IJ r word
with its romaji pronunciation (optional) and its English meaning next to
it. You can then test yourself by covering up the Englj sh and seeing if you
can read the IJ ? IJ -r word. And it wi ll form a useful di ctionary too!
UNIT 9 129
'7T
-
:iT
~
~ T
,.
.,.T
-
" I
'"
)
-
-V
-;
--:;
}
\
,
'7
-
-
-\' 7
-
~
-Z
,
"
I
"
,
,
~
~
~
1
)
-...
t
""
-----
,
, 1 - -
,
-
t - - ,
1 Iv
' "
.:<-1
,..
J.
-
7
,-
) ~ .-l
[:,.,
.
-;
,
, ~
,
~ L- A 7
V
..
.>
~
~ ...
l-
) /'-......
t..
/ f
"-
.:'T
"
0
"
3T
~ .
-c
-
;t.
...
,
0 :3 -E
It,
.//'
,
- -
.f:
-
t .t
,t ,
- I
n
0
,
'I 3
/
l!'J .W = Renshu 2
Now that you have been introduced to the 46 :IJ :7 :IJ t- symbols, it is
time to put your learning into practice and have a go at reading some
words. As in Unit 5, the words are in three sets. Set I refers to the first
part of the chart, set 2 refers to the second and set 3 to the whole chart.
You also have to select the correct English meanings so say the words out
aloud. You may be 'able to do this even if you cannot read all the Ir Jj:
(kana) symbols. See how many symbols/words you can read from memory
before using the chart to search for those you cannot remember. Keep
coming back to this activity and try to improve your score each time!
130 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
l:: / l- Hinto 3 Pronunciation
Japanese pronunciation does not distinguish between ' r' and 'I' sounds.
Try replacing ' r' sounds with'!' sounds if you cannot work out the
meaning. For exampl e '7 ;,- .:f (ranchi) means lunch.
Set 1
a)
e) -c - 3' -
I) skating ( )
5) cake ( )
Set 2
a) 7-;l./
1) memo ( )
4) ham ( )
Set 3
a) /
e)
I) restaurant (
4) chicken ( )
7) camera ( )
b):z:z-r
f)
2) ski ing ( )
6) sweater ( )
c) 3' 'J ,,-
g)
3) cqcoa ( )
7) coat ( )
d) ;7 -
4) taxi ( )
b) "J" c) -" -lO d) -"" /
e) L.- -c ./
2) lemon () 3) melon ( )
5) ramen (Chinese noodles) ( )
b) 7 1 A 'J - J"

d) 71"
h) !J -" 7
) 2) tennis ( )
5) curry ( )
8) tomato ( )
3) rice ( )
6) ice cream ( )
Hinto 4 Similar:JJ 51:JJ-r
You have probably already confused some of the s imilar-looking
IJ !J " r. This section will line these up so that you can look at the
differences and keep them separate in your mind.
7, "7 (a, rna) '!t , t (sa, se)
-7 , 7, )t (ku, la, nu) ?, 7. '7 (u,Ju, wa)
T . ;(na,me) )it. v (ru,re)
:..-, 'Y (shi, tsu) * The long stroke in is written upwards
and the short strokes are almost at right angles to the long stroke.
The long stroke in '/ is written downwards and is at a steeper angle. The
short strokes stand side by side.
'".J, ;.; (so, n) * '.I has the same feat ures as '/ (but only
one short stroke). Y has the same features as (but only one short
stroke).
UNIT 9 131
l::;,- J- Ji Hinto 5 Similar D;; 'lJV;I. and

The good news is that some 11 1111 r symbols are very similar to their
(J equivalents (in many cases they ori ginated from the same
i.l*). This can make them easier to remember. They are listed here,
(J >? IJt first then 11 1111 T :
1.
., (u)
II' • :IJ (ka) . '< (k;)
It. 7 (ke)
-
;2 (ka) -It. -e (se)

I.: , .::. (ni)

....... (he)
t. (rna)

'(>.
'" (ya)
9 . (ri)
MliIt.=:. Kaisetsu 3 n7n'J- that
change their sound
Again, the rules are exactly the same as for (J IJt , onl y the script is
different. Read over the () IJ{ section again (p. 67) then fill in the
gaps in the following activity. And remember, just as with all the units in
this book, you set the pace!
.W'=:' Renshu 3
When you add ' to certai n symbols you get a change in sound.
I) ' k' sounds become 'g' sounds (hard 'g' as in 'get '):
:IJ. '<. 'l. 7. ;2
(ka) (Id) (ku) (ke) (ko)
--. :If. '<. '1.7'. ;2'
()()()()()
2) ' s' sounds ' z' sounds:
"\1". :-. ::<. -C. Y
(sa) (shi) (Sll) (se) (so)
-? X, -C, -:/
()().()()( )
3) 't' sounds become ' d' sounds:
". '7".
(ta) (te) (to)
--. "'. '7"'.
( )( )( )
4) 'h' sounds become ' b' sounds:
r., t, 7, ........ , ;j;
. '7' , ,y,' , / .... _ t
---r • , , ",
(ha) (h;j (fu) (he) (ho) ()()()()()
132 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
5) In addition, ' h' sounds become ' p' sounds when a small circle ' is
added:
(ha)(hi) (fu) (he) (ha) ()()()()()
Check whether you have filled in the bmckcts correctly by referring back
to this section in Unit 5 (pp. 67- 8).
This activity is designed to help you build up your confidence in
readi ng IJ, tJ r and to ease you away from referring back to the
charts (bul lhey arc always there if you need them!). This will be done by
fe-introducing a few IJ !J jJ t symbol s at a time and getti ng you to
read words which contain them. Section by section you will build up the
number of symbols unt il you are reading words contai ni ng them all.
For each section look over the tJ , IJ t- symbols then match up the
words and meanings beneath them. When a symbol has linked sounds
(for example, IJ (ka). tl (ga» they are given toget her but not all are
necessarily used in that section.
I)
<t (sa) . <to (za). :;- (sh'). :: (j0. A (su). '" (zu). '1- (chi).
'j" (<e). 'j"" (de). r (w). V (do). / (n)
a) r - A r
d) ~ - / ; (
i) jeans ( )
b) 'j""f- r
e) ~ - /
c) '1--'"
iii) toast ( )
iv) (movie) scene ( )
ii) cheese ( )
v) dessert ( )
2) .----------------------------------,
:iJ (ka). :If (ga). -c (,,). -t: (ze). Y (so). :/ (za).
'/ (ISU) • .I'" (ha). r./; (ba) • .I{ (pa)
a)
-c ."
"'/- -:,.-
b)
.I'" /' .1.1;- tl -
c)
/ ~ / ' ' /
d)
.I{ A
e) A:iJ-r
i) pants, trousers ( ) ii) skirt ( ) iii) sausage ( )
iv) bus or bath ( ) v) hamburger ( )
UNIT 9 133
3)
"(ko), ,," (go), 7 (to), '/ (do), t (hi), '" (bi), ,," (pi),
7 (Ju), 7" (bu), 7 (pu)
a) At;-7 b) r-7
e) "-7- f) 7'<"
i) tobacco (cigarettes) ( )
iii) healer ( )
v) scarf ( )
vii ) dance ( )
c) ,," j!'
g) ,//70
ii) (cassette) tape ( )
iv) pub ( )
vi) pizza ( )
4) ,-------------------------------,
It (ki), "< (gi ), 7 (ke), 7' (ge) , (he), '" (be),
'" (pe), ;j; (ho), ;(, (bo), ;1"; (po)
a) 1- It /
e) 70 - '/7-70
i) passport ( )
iv) pen ( )
vii) button ( )
b) "<7-
f) ;(,7 /
ii) suitcase ( )
v) bench ( )
c) ... I-
g) '" / 1-
iii) chicken ( )
vi) guitar ( )
d) .-..: y

'7 (ra), Y (n), 11.-* (rn), v (re), a (ro) (' }' or 'r' sound
can be used for these)
* Iv is often used as the final '\, sound, for example, *' 7" 1(., (hotel),
7 -I" (pool).
a) ..,. 7 '/

g) r-7","
j) 1:" -I"
i) tabl e ( )
b) tJ v-
e) 7" /
h) '/ 'J" I"
k) -t - I"
c) "/7tJ-

i) ;1' / (.,"7
I) .....:.-
ii) curry ( ) iii) golf ( )
iv) front (reception) ( )
vii) sale ( )
v) beer ( )
vii i) double ( )
xi) rental car ( )
vi) salad ( )
ix) ice rink ( )
xii) restaurant ( ) x) baseball ( )
134 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
6)
7 (ku) , 'T (gu), .,. (ma), , (mi), 1. (mu), ;I. (me),
"" (mo)
b) ' J ~ 7
e) 'T 71.
c} " .... J..
f) "" 'I;
a) ~ . , . ~
d) '1;;1. 7
i) tomato (
IV) camera (
) ii) ham
) v) mocha (coffee) ( )
iii) gram ( )
vi) milk ( )
7) I r (no), =- (ni), ;( (nil), i (ne), ./ (no)
a) " j- j- b) 7=-A c) -f77 1
d) J- ~ c)
'I;;l.-
i) tennis ( ) ii) canoe ( ) ii i) banana (
iv) necktie ( ) v) notc(book) ( )
8) I 7 (a), 1 (i), "J (u), :z. (e), ;t (0), 'J (wa)
a) 71 A 7 ~ - 1 .
d)A;rL-;t
i) ice cream ( )
iv) stereo ( )
b) 7'7 "J A
c) 'J 1 /
i i) escalator ( )
v) blouse ( )
iii) wine ( )
MliItl1!l Kaisetsu 4 . ~ (Yoon)
Contracted sounds
)
The only three symbols you did not use in the last activi ty were
~ , ::1-, 3 (ya, yu, yo). These are used as normal symbol s but also are
used to form contracted sounds. You learnt about these for () ~ n: Jj: in
Unit 5. The rules arc the same for 11 !J IJ t. Read back over this section
(p. 66) to remind or familiarise yourself with the rules before trying the
next activi ty.
~ .Wli Renshu 5
Write the pronunc iation of the contracted 11 !I 11.,. sounds in the
brackets. The first line has been done for you:
UNIT 9 13.
" (k.)
-> " '< (kya) " "- (kyu) " • (kyo)
>< (gO -> >< '< (
) ><"-( ) ><. ( )
;;... (skI), '( (
)
;;"'.:1.(
) ( )
:; (ji) , :; '( (
) :1.:1.( )
..
'" .
( )
1- (chi) -> 1- '< ( ) 1-"-( ) 1- • ( )
..=:. (ni)
, ..=:. '(
( )
"=:'.:1.(
)
:..
( )
t (hi)
->
t '< ( ) t "- ( )
t •
( )
t " (hi)
->
"" '<
( )
.:1. (
)
to.
( )
t.' (pi) , t " '<
( )
t.' .:1. (
)
t " •
( )
(ml) , ( )
.:L (
)
, .
"
( )
(ri)
, Y '( (
) "- ( )
.
( )
Now check your answers wi th the equivalent chart in Unit 5 (p. 66).
Now let us put into practice what you have learnt above. Match the
jJ ? jJ r words in the left col umn to their Engli sh meanings on the right.
a) -\ )/ -f I ) computer ( )
b) ? - 2) communi cati on ( )
c) :; .t.. 3) camp(ing) ( )
d) :;.:1.-;A 4) jam ( )
e) :;:3 y 'J' 5) musical ( )
f) 1-:3 ;:J V - t- 6) menu· ( )
g) .J..:::..:L - 7) shower ( )
h) ;:J)/ t ' .:L - ? 8) jogging ( )
i} -:; jJ Jv 9) chocolate ( )
j) ;:J Y 10) juice ( )
Mll!tli Kaisetsu 5 The small 'Y (tsu)
This was introduced for (I in Uni t 5 ( p. 69). When you see a
small 'Y (tsu) in a word. you do not pronounce it but pause sli ghtl y (a
glottal stop) before saying the next sound. In 11 ? 11 r words this has
the effect of ' holding back' the next sound so that it becomes closer in
pronunciation to the ori ginal word or at least easier for the Japanese to
pronounce. An example wi ll make this clearer:
;f; 'Y I- 'Y (hotdog) is pronounced hot(to)dog(gu)
The pronunciation of ' to' and 'gu' is ' held back' (and written here in
bmckets).
136 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
t!J .fl-t; Renshii 7
Match the jJ , jJ r words with their English meanings:
a) jJ 'Y 7" I) toilet paper ( )
b) -'t '" '" -1 " r 2) eo;n locke' ( )
c) ~ -;I 'J 7- 3) jacket ( )
d) -'t ,, ;/]- 4) cup ( )
e) >1> " 7- 5) hockey ( )
f) ... " r 6) soce" (football) ( )
g) ':2 -1 /' r:r '7 jJ - 7) sandwich ( )
h) .... { 7- '7 'Y to ;f. -)1.... 8) mix ( )
i) r -1 v 'Y r .....:-.... ~ - 9) match ( )
j) :;" 7 " riO) basketball ( )
MiiIt* Kaisetsu 6 Extra tJ!if'J:rr sounds
You learnt in the introduction that there are a number of uses of jJ !J 1; r
but this unit focuses on the two main uses of 11'11 r: I) to represent
forei gn words adopted into the Japanese language (loanwords) and 2) to
represent foreign names (cities, countries, personal names, designer and
brand names). However, not every sound in a foreign language has an
equivalent sound in Japanese and, as you will have noticed already, this
leads to changes in pronunciation when the word is adapted to Japanese.
Some of these changes have already been pointed out. This section deals
with the rest.
1) th sounds. This sound does not exist in Japanese and so is replaced by
5 sounds:
-? '7 ;J /' rna ra so n (marathon)
7- ~ ;t. su mi su (Smith)
-!t '7 1- ~ - sa r chd (Thatcher)
-« :;.- .1- ma shu (Matthew)
si also does not exist and is replaced with :;.- (shi) or :: (ji):
:;.- r°'=' - shi do nl (Sydney) t." ;; .:t ;t. hi j i ne Sll (business)
2) er sounds. This is replaced by a lengthened a sound (using -):
.... ' /' .... {- 1 1 ~ - ha n bii gii- (hamburger) to_, -pi tii (Peter)
3) Some f sounds arc replaced with h sounds:
7' v ;f; /' 11 - r" te re ho n kii do (telephone card)
':2 - t - kO hi (coffee)
UNIT 9
'37
4) v sounds. This sound does not eKist naturall y in Japanese, the nearest
equi valent being a b sound:
..%. v"""': - !J - ere bi tii (eleva/or)
.... \ v - ;f. - /1., ba ri bO ru (voJJeybaJl)
t '7' ;t bi de 0 (video)
7 -:/;f; T JI,., ra bu ho te ru (Love HOle/)
There also exists a group of sounds which have been designed to represent
v sounds:
"f 7 (va) "f 1 (vi) "f (vu) "f 3- (,,) "f" (vo)
The rule is that these are used in foreign names and countries but rules
are often broken! Foreign names and countries are also written using the
b sounds; other loanwords are sometimes written using the v sounds:
"f -1 'J t- ~ 7 vi ku (0 ri a (Victoria) or t' 'J t- ~ 7 hi 1m to r; a
"f 7 -1 ;t ~ /' va i 0 ri n (viol in) or .... ~ -1 ;t ~ /' ha i 0 r; n
5) w sounds. These are fonned in two ways:
;) ? 1 (ui). ?;L. (ue). ?;t (uo)
ii) ? -1 (wI), ?:r. (we), ?;t (wo) (the second symbol is small)
Traditionall y, (i) arc used for loanwords and (ii ) are used for foreign
names and countries. However, as with (4), in practi ce this is not a ' hard
and fast' rule. It has become very fashionable to use the small symbol s
and young people in particular are tending to use them.
(i) ? -1 ;r. :\ - u i su kl (whisky) ? ..%.!J - u e tii (waiter)
(i i) .I J(...." :r. - no ru wi (Norway) ?;t - 'J '7 Y wo ku ma n
(walkman)
6) Combination sounds using small .,. (a), 1" (i), ? (u), 3- (c), ;t (0):
In (4) and (5) these arc used in forming v and w sounds. They are also
used to make a number of other sounds which do not eKist in Japanese
but are needed for foreign words. They are easy to read if you remember
that the vowel part of the first symbol is replaced with the vowel sound of
the small symbol. For eKampie:
"7 l' (fa) the u sound of "7 (fu) is replaced with l' (a)
Now you work out these sounds:
) 7 3- (
) "/7(
) 7 .. (
) "/3-(
)
)
138 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
There are a few other sounds such as 'J -, (kwa) , -, (gwa) and
'J ;:t (kwo) but these are not used very often. Here are the sounds you
should have written/worked out in the previous paragraph:
7 -1 (ft)
1- "- (che)
7 "- (fe)
'Y -, (lsa)
7 ot (fo)
'/ (/se)
v (she)
T -1 (ti)
:; .x. (je)
7' -1 (dJ)*
• Sometimes this sound is represented by :; (ji) '7 ;;:t raji 0 (radio).
l!J IllW A Renshu 8
This activity is designed so that you can practise reading words which
contain the extra sounds you have just learnt (rules 1- 6). Match the words:
a) -y 7"-1
b) 1- "- 7 -1 y
c) 7 '" "- -1 7
d)
e) ?;L- v;<
f) 7 -1

h) 7" 7 ;<
i) 7 ot-7
j)
. , . . ,
:,..- ;v"" - ;r - j '
k)
I)
7-?.x.-:Y'y
7' l' .A :;r
I) earphone(s) ( )
2) check- in (counter) ( )
3) fax ( )
4) spaghetti ( )
S) disco ( )
6) Sweden ( )
7) fork ( )
8) waitress ( )
9) milk shake ( )
10) milk tea ( )
II ) (camem) film ( )
12) silver seat (seats for elderly/disabled)
MlR--t Kaisetsu 7 Contracted words
Thi s the final explanation section - you will then be ready to put
your learning into real practice! Loanwords adopted into any language
often change pronunciation either to fit that language or because that is
the way the word is 'heard', Take the word ' Japan' , for example, which
actually is sounded ' Nihon ' or ' Nippon' in Japanese but was heard as
' Japan' by earl y European travellers, You have already seen the ways that
loanwords are adapted to fit Japanese pronunciation rules. One final way
in which loanwords are adapted is by shortening or contracting them. You
have already met some examples of shortened words:
) - r (noto) notebook (the book part is no longer part of the word)
UNIT 9
Other examples of shortened words are:
-r v t' (terebi) television (sian is missing; vi is pronounced bi)
They can sometimes take on new or specific meanings:
139
~ /' ~ . (sando) toasted sandwich (from ~ /' ~ . l' "7 r· (sandoitchi)
meaning sandwich)
• ~ /' ~ . 1 "7.:r (small 1) is used increasingly (see Kaisetsu 6:5)
/' h 4f /' ~ . (hamu sando) toasted ham sandwich
Examples of contracted words are:
:; :J 1J.e (rajikase) means radi(o)casse(tte) (missing parts in brackets)
"'7 ;t. ::1 ~ (masukomi) means mass comm(unicatiQn) or' mass media
These types of words can cause (he most confusion when you are trying
to work out meanings but practice makes perfect! So try the matching
activity that follows.
~ Ilkfl:h. Renshu 9
Match the IJ 7 IJ r words in the left column 10 their riimaji and Engli sh
equivalents and write thc appropriate letters in the brackets.
I ) ;t - ~ ,< -1 ( )
a) toire a) supermarket
2) ~ -1 " ()
b) waishatsu b) word processor
3) '7O'tO-7.( )
c) wanp'isu c) personal computer
4) '7-70 () d) hiimu d) department store
5) '<:/ ;2 0' () e) ii/ohai e) one piece (= dress)
6)77i ;2 O'() f ) siipii f) white shirt
7) ;j;-t. () g) wiipuro g) ( plat)form
8) 7"0 , <- ~ ()
h) /amikon h) aulobike (= motor bike)
9) 7.-,<- ( )
i) pasokon i) toi let
10) '7 -1 :;, " ';/ ( ) j ) depato. j) fa mily computer
Yomu renshu
Congratulations! You have worked through the whole of IJ 7 IJ rand
you ean now put your learning into practice. There foHows a series of
activi tes which use tJ 7 tJ T words in a range of contexts which you
140 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
might encounter if you vi sit Japan or if you watch TV programmes or
videos about Japan.
I.!J .-fit- Renshii 10
We will begin wi th a coffee shop menu. These popular places sell an
assortment of drinks and light Western-style meals which means the menus
are written in tJ , 11 r. Once you can read the menu, you can order
your food!
;1;71'-:1-1:.-

<'''771-
L--l:Yj" 1'-
::1 -» ::1 -7
;;:tV Y V'$!.1-A
"" 7
500 Pl
600 Pl
400 Pl
500 Pl
600 Pl
400 Pl
350 Pl
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
-1/>' ,,1-/ -1/>' r
1--;( 600 Pl
,,", 700 Pl
<,,7;< 700Pl
-f

;-r':l-A

-If';?'
700 Pl
800 Pl
600 Pl
500 Pl
700 Pl
700 Pl
500 - 800 Pl
UNIT 9 141
I) What is the name of this coffee shop? (clue: there is a link with the moon!)
2) What two types of coffee can you buy?
3) What two types of tea can you buy?
4) How much (PJ 0:::: yen) is
5) How much does an orange juice cost?
6) What types of sandwich filling can you order?
7) How much would you pay for a meat sauce spaghetti dish?
8) How much would a drink of milk, pizza toast and apple pie cost in total?
9) You have a maximum of 1000 yen to spend. What drink and main
meal would you choose?
10) Which two desserts cost 700 yen?
IlIlfl-t- Renshu 11
You learnt in the introduction to this book and to this unit that tJ 7 IJ t-
is used a lot nowadays in advertising. Thi s is because it has the effect
of making words stand out (as we use capital letters or italics). Native
Japanese words written in IJ 7 tJ r require a knowl edge of Japanese
vocabul ary to work out their meanings. In this activity you should recognise
all the words because they are the names of Japanese
companies. Different fonts have been chosen for this activity so that you
can get used to reading different styles. These styles are used frequently,
for example; on neon signs. A check list of Japanese compani es written
in riimaji is also given - but not all appear in the activity! So now work
out which companies are advertising in the signs.
2) Y "" =,
Checklist
Sony, Toyota, Sanyo, National, Mitsubishi, Honda, Casio, Seiko, Yamaha,
Nikon, Suzuki, Kawasaki, Matsui, Subaru.
142 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
t!J j!l(w-t= Renshu 12
Electrical stores housing the latest gadgets can be found all over Japan.
Most electrical gadgets are given forei gn names and so are wri tten in
11 !I :IJ t . Look at the floor plan, and answer the questions.
Floor 6 77/ , t -!l-, :L. 7 :2 /, -{I,...-
Floor 5 r v", t"r";t, v --I;I'-r" 1 A 7
Floor 4 7'" 9 7 A , ?-7' o, 1 v
Floor 3 :2 / t °:J--!l, 7"1} / !I-, -;/7
Floor 2 11 7, v /;(, 7 1 I V.t. , 1 v
Basement '7:; 11 -C , 7" - 7" I,...- ::r - !f -, '7:J *
I) On whi ch floors are the toilets?
2) Which floor do you think specialises in computer ware?
3) Besides computers, what else is sold on this floor?
4) Which fl oor sell s air conditioners?
5) What is being sold on the fifth floor?
6) Where could you buy a camera lens?
7) Where could you buy a stereo?
8) How many floors sell audio equipment?
9) As well as word processors, what else can you buy on the fourth floor?
10) Which fl oor would you go to for a tape recorder?
t!J Renshu 13
Match the currencies in the left col umn with the countries on the right
(some may require a little guesswork! ):
I )
;f, / ,..
a) 1 :Y ( )
2) .,. Iv 7
b) 7 :fJ ( )
3) 7
c) 1 '" A (
)
4) d)77/A( )
5) 7'7 / e) 1 / ( )
6) I V t " -
f)
)
UNIT 9 143
Here is an extract from a real Japanese financial li sting. Can you identify
which countries and currencies from Renshu 13 are included here?
Have a go at identifying the rest! For example, the second one down is:
11 r ,. t-' II..- (kanada doru) = Canada dollar. Two countries have
these are * (you learnt this in Unit 6, the currency should tell you which
country) and which is the _* for England. The European Union is
written in _* in brackets but 'ECU' makes this easy to identify (Many
countries can be written in il* or tJ, 1J r).
*' I' )v 119 .25
:tJ T 57" I' )v 78.29
E C U 143.22
". / 1'202.20
I' -1" ";/ <' )v 7 72 .23
::<: -1" ::<: 7 "7 / 88.80
7 7 / ::<: 7 "7 / 21.73
;t "7 / 57" )v 57" 64.02
-1" 5' 'J Y 1 0 0 'J 7 7.53
;t-::<:r'JY:'-'J/Y 10.32
::<:""-1" /100 ""t5' 86.11
;t -::<: r"7 'J Y I')v 74.90
=:. "'- - -7/ I' I')v 63.90
:.- / t:I - )v I' )v 73.60

5' -1" ";/ 3.25
I!IPHt+1!!I Renshii 14
Finally, there is a sel of tJ , tJ r signs from photographs taken in
Tokyo. Can you read them and work out the English meaning? lJe fl., tr
., "( (ganbatte) good luck!
I )
Which famous restaurant is this?
144
2)
What act ivity can you do here?
4)
" .....
t:T
3)
5)
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
What is happening at this shop?
The two kanji mean environment.
What are people being asked to
do?
UNIT 9
What is CoCo?
7)
8) 9)
1
10)
12)
145
E
~
I
,.,
146
13)
16)
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
14)
7
15) ~
7
1) 1)
~
J
A
A
What type of tree is this?
What type of whisky is this?
What is the ti tle of the film? (bouom line)
What are the actors' names? (above picture)
Kaku renshu
This short activity is designed to help you write your name in IJ!J IJ T.
A short list of popular fi rst names follows. Try saying your name oul loud
and matching the appropriate tJ !J h r symbol to each syllable. You
wi ll need to refer back to the various rules given in this unit. For example,
the name Laura has the sounds 10 ra. The nearest to these sounds are:
UNIT 9 147
1:1-:7 (rura)
And CHRISTOPHER sounds out as k ri s to phaa. In Japanese this
becomes:
, ~ ;:t. ~ "7 7 - (J.:urisutojii)
If you know a Japanese person, work out your name and get them to
check it. Here is a list of 20 names to help you.
ANNA 7t- (ana) ANDREW 7 Y ~ ~ ~ .;r.- (andoryu)
CATHY
"IJ;,-
(kashi-) BILL t' /1.- (biru)
CLARE 71.-7 (kurea) BRAD -1''7 '' ~ - (buraddo)
DIANA ';f 1 7 t- (do'ona) GREGG 7"1.- ~ " 7 " (gureggu) "
HILARY l: :7 ~ - (hirari-) JOHN
-- :r3Y
(jon)
JANE ;; ;L. -1 Y (jein) MIKE "-17 (maiku)
MARY j. 7 ~ - (meari-) PAUL
;t:-/v
(po-ru)
MICHELLE ; ;, :L}I.- (misheru)
ROBERT
1:1 ... '- ~
(mba-to)
SARA -t.-'7 (se-ra) STEVE
"'7"1-7
(suti-bu)
SUE
"'-
(su- ) TOM ~ J . (tomu)
Owari ni
You have covered the whole of the 11!J:IJ r syllabary in this unit
including the various rules and adaptations of non-Japanese words. You
have had opportunities to read a wide range of words and to identify typical
street signs. Hopefully you have discovered that because :IJ !J :IJ r is
used to write non-Japanese (and often English words) it can be fun and
very accessible. There is a lot to take in so treat this unit as one you can
keep re-visiting and that you can enjoy! And look for opportunities to
read 11 !J 11 r around you (TV programmes, newspapers, magazines,
visits to Japan) so that you can impress your friends and family!
10
fJ+a Da; jukka
UNIT 10
In this unit you will
• learn to read different types of text including:
- cooking instructions
- cartoons
- weather forecast
- song lyrics
- haiku (short poems)
• learn the basics for reading and writing Ictters
Key phrase
~ * m f l (kanjifukushi;) Kanji review
Hajime ni
The aim of this unit is to pull together everything you have learnt throughout
this book and apply it to reading Japanese texts. There are many types of
text which use different styles of writing and have different levels of
difficulty. This unit will gct you started on reading and will introduce you
to some techniques for accessing text which you can then build on.
Some tips on grammar functions and particles are given first and you can
refer back to these as necessary. Where _* appear in a text which have
been introduced in earli er units, there is a short pre-activity for you to see
how many you can remember. However, do not worry if you cannot
remember them all, the activit y is simply a device to get you thinki ng
about what you have learnt and making connecti ons. Check the answers
10 these pre-activities in the back before proceedi ng and if you want to
look back to where the ll* was first introduced, remember that you can
look up the English meaning in the index and this wiU refer you back to
that unit.
UNIT 10 149
You will be asked to mark parts of the texts as a way of ident ifying and
separating different words and features. This is especially helpful because
Japanese writing does not nonnally have gaps between words (as you will
notice in the texts that follow). You could use different coloured highlighter
pens or use different types of markings (circle, underline, overline). Or
you could copy the relevant parts of the text onto paper and mark them.
lWilIt Kaisetsu Grammar functions
Read through the information that follows but do not worry if you are not
clear about all of it because the texts will have practical examples and
you can then refer back tothe summaries beneath the text to consoli date
your learning.
Particles and sentence order
1) Every noun in a Japanese sentence is usually followed by a particle. A
particle is a grammar marker which tells you the function of the noun it
marks. Let us look at some examples to help you understand this. In
English. the sentence order tells you the function of the main sentence parts:
I ate Japanese food
' I' is the subject of the sentence (who ate) and comes at the beginning of
the sentence
'ate' is the verb
'Japanese food ' is the object of the sentence (what I ate) and comes after
the verb
This order is called SVO (subject, verb, object).
We also use particle-type words (called prepositions) such as 'with', ' by'
and 'at' :
I ate Japanese food at home with chopsticks
at marks 'home' and with marks 'chopsticks'. They are placed before
( pre-position) the noun they mark.
2) This is what happens in Japanese:
fl,. (i ;fait a- tt.....: i L. k. 1 Japanese cuisine ate
fl,. (I) is followed by the particle lot. It marks the subject of the sentence
~ - t t (Japanese food) is followed by the particle a-. It marks the object
of the sentence.
150 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
The order in Japanese is SOY (subject, object, verb).
There arc other particles with different functions such as -r: (with):
lItit -1' it '" * l- t" I chopsticks with Japanese food ate
However, the order of the Japanese sentence is morc fl exible than the
English order because the particles, not the order, tell you the functi ons
of the different parts. So you could say:
:fUit-1' it"'*l-t" I Japanese food chopsticks with ate
But the verb always comes al the end of the sentence.
3) Particles arc always placed after the noun or ti me expression they
mark. Look at the diagram showing the key particles:
GhO eats they cat V
they eatoy EAT they cat V
With what they eat -r:
4) Part icle descri ptions
(,1 (pronounced 'wa' as a particle not ' ha') topic or subj ect marker of
sentence
IJI{. (ga) subject marker of verb
(0) object marker ofscntcnce
-c" (tie) I. wi th, by: '1 t, -c" (with chopsticks); (by train)
2. place where action happens: V.A r"7 /-c" (at / in the restaurant)
t: (ni) I. to (direction): JJDj( {.: (to Tokyo) (also can use" pronounced
• e')
2. at, on (after time): rJ PIlI. a {.: (on Monday); - at I.: (at one
o'clock)
3. at, in, on (place/position): J.f.rJiu.: {£ A .. :L" l' .t l' (I live in
Tokyo)
0) (no) I. of, 's: a *0)* (Japan's ri ce or Japanese ri ce)
2. links a noun with its positio"n: LI.I t7) J: (mountain's top or on
top of the mountain)
t (to) I. and (between nouns): a:;$: t *m (Japan and America)
2. wi th (accompanied by): a *A t (with a Japanesc person)
UNIT 10 151
Quick translation tips
You will be given lots of pointers throughout thi s unit so this is a summary
list for you to refer back to as necessary.
I ) Fi nd the topic/subject of the sentence by looki ng for Ii:
fLli *-., lI\t"" £ -t (I book , cad) subje" is fL (I)
2) Then translate ' backwards' from the end of the sentence:
(fLli) *-., ~ " " £ -t
,
book read
3) Describing words arc generally placed in the same order as Engl ish:
fLu o'i ~ • *-., llit"" £ L. t ~ (I old book read)
4) In the texts that follow, both literal (lit.) and natural English are given
to help you understand the phrases and structuring.
5) Where relevant or helpful the meaning of the ~ * " radical is given in
brackets. Assume it is a lefthand radical unless stated otherwise.
l!J j!l(fI- Renshu 1 H® Mango Cartoon
r t=ltJ'l= Q)1c*-i-MC.;;.t":;:'PJ
c(i= 1 t=ljc···
152 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
itii and 7::.. .J. (anime) or animation are very popular in Japan and are
known around the world. Cartoon books fill bookshops and kiosk shelves
and Japanese people of all ages can be seen reading them on trains, in
bookshops and at home. The one· frame cartoon here is taken from the
Kyoto News, a Japanese newspaper. It is from the education section and is
a joke about ttlf '"7 ""7 (kyijjku mama) or 'education mothers' who go to
great lengths to ensure their children study hard and get into the best
schools. Now work through the series of activities starting with a review.
1) ."'1!!f'I Kanji lukushu
There are three iI.* in the cartoon and yOll have learnt them all! Do you
remember them? They are:
a) * b) m c)
2) Find and mark these '0 a; 'bitt. words:
a) L- tJ' (.:: (tashikrJ ni) certainly, indeed
b) t"'J C (motto) more
c) It C· (kedo) but
3) Mark these particles and grammar functions:
a) (0) object marker
b) ... l' l' (nasai) verb ending indicating a command, in this case
' read! '
c} ... c tt (to wa) used in reported speech (I said that ... ). (;;1 adds
emphasis (l did say ... )
d} r indicates open quote mark (close quote mark is J). r J means
quote within a quote.
4) .1{ Honyaku Translation
... clHhtc
r {, -:> C '" ·Hlt<l> ,., J
It C· ...
' lndeed I did say ...
"Read more books!"
but ...
The ' but' trails off, the reader fills in the rest from the picture ('but this is
ridiculous!').
Notice the technique of translating the information outside the double
quotes first then adding the part in double quotes. This would be the order
in which we would say it in English whereas in Japanese the ' I said' part
comes at the end. Emphasis on t::. l,.. Ir (,: (indeed) is achieved by placing
it at the beginni ng.
UNIT 10 153
Henshu 2 Cookery instructions
".

.-
(
j
• •

"e. . '£a7rt1:
;t, t:: t ::.!JIJ
GJ
{
"-
,
@.a:'ill:: .k t. -,r'tt
77';: ". ;; t:.;J.t 1".
+-i"·tr :::.30 ..... 1:'1 +Sl

The sequence is from the children's educational section of a newspaper.
There arc two sets of si mple cooking instructions.
1) _*Utff Kanjifukushii
Write down the English meanings of these I!* and :IJ !I 1) r words:
a) * (mizu) b) 3i (tama) c) !k (h') d) m (yubi)
e) r A f) 7' -1 ;J.. g) 7=] -1 /'
Now mark them in the text. Remember to eheck your answers in the back
before proceeding.
2) Title: Jlf:O,g (top three pictures)
a) Find and mark these il*:
Jtt (tamago) egg iII (kado) comer, edge -C (ate) hit
mta (oya yubi) thumb (li t: parent finger)
154 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
b) Find and mark these (j IJ{ words:
h G (waru) break Ir t;; l' (kataj) hard httll) (wareme) a crack
I> "C "'C (ate/e) put i.t (= ftr mae) front
? L- -? (= tl;:, ushiro) back tl t: ¢ (nejiru) twist
c) Find and mark these tJ 7 11 t- words:
::t Y ::t Y (konkon) tap tap (sound) Y (polon) with a plop (sound)
d) Mark these particles. Remember that particles are positioned after the
word they mark:
i' (0) positioned after the object of the sentence - the object marker
(appears two times)
(.: {nil to, in, on (appears three times)
,
C. (to) with (placed after the word); and (placed between two nouns)
e) lIIiR Honyaku Translation
Title fII h '"


httlllC

LU: ? '3CI:lt: '"
Breaking an egg
on a hard edge
hit with a tap tap
in the crack
put (your) thumb
twist to the front and back (forwards and
backwards)
3) Title::deli. 'T A t- (lower three pictures-exduding thought bubble)
a) Find and mark these il*:
jJij (abura) oil *3i (mizutama) water ball /drop
1ti;t (yubisakt) fingertip ft i!: (okt) place
1& C 1" (otosu) drop +7} (jiibun) enough
b) Find and mark these () /JI{ and j; , 11 r words:
t::. t::. A... t:! t t7) (tatanda mono) folded (thing) 0) tr1' (nobasu) spread
"'? It -r (tsukete) switch on, apply (appears twice) .
$, t::. t::. d) (lid) Q = alatameru) warm up (also appears as $, t:. t:.

.: .75 /J
t
"? t::. (korogauara) if (it) rolls L. Q L. (shirushi) sign
t: $ "? (ju) ping :z Y a (konro) hob
UNIT 10
c) Mark these particles and grammar functions:
?: (0) object marker (appears five times)
-(' (de) with, by means of
t.: (ni) on, into (three times)
'"C (te) verb ending meaning and
IJt (ga) subject marker
t.:. ~ (fara) verb endi ng meaning if. when
d ) . ~ Honyaku Translation
Title *3i 7* 7.. f-
7" 1 " "- ., to to ,,-t! t ",-c"
ill!?? '" 1.1' 1"
Water drop test
with a folded tissue
spread the oil
155
7 7 1 ,'Y ., ;7 Y 0 C l'l ~
9<.., -:> It -c l, to to ~ 7,
lll%I:*.,-:>lt-c
771 "Yc1Ii1: 1"
*;tin' .: '5 n' ., to "
place the frying pan on the hob
switch on the heat (fire) and warm up
appl y water to the fingertip and
drop into the frying pan
if (when) the water drop rolls
-Hi l, to to j. ., -c ~ . 7, ~ 7, ~ (it's) a sign that it is warmed up
enough.
I.!:II!I!W=: Renshu 3 How to make
green tea
The sequence of four instructions on the tea packet show you how to
make perfect Japanese green tea. Once you can read them, you can try
making green tea for yourself!
I ) il¥Utff Kllnjifukushii
Write down the English meanings of thesc 100:* words. Then mark them
in the tcxt and write down how many times each appears.
a) 1lX
f){ol!
b) A
g) "*
2) General points
cJ 1'1
h) :Il
d) J\
i) IIIj
e) 1>*
Here are some general words used throughout the text which are useful to
look at first. They will be referred to again in the translations so use this
list as a reference list.
156
A I\: (J) il!{f"" :>.rill"
I'IIl!' A/1.
MI (J)ilI.it i'J80"C
iII{f"''' ill!' 01 (J) /I:
fi 1Il-t6HJ! flJ -r-t.
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
UNIT 10 157
-* (- bun) means share, part , per. Three A* means three people 's
'worth or three helpings (food)
- (- me) means -th, -rd, -nd as in 4 "J (fourth). 1 rut means
first infusion

• #' (fun) also means minute. 251 means two minutes.
The vocabulary and translation is now introduced section by section.
Once introduced, vocabulary is not repeated in later sections so you will
need to refer back as nccessary.
Picture 1
3a) Find and mark these if*:
(llomikata) how to drink Ali (nillzii) number of people
* (bun) part, per m (yu) hot water tlWJJ. (alternative:
1:QfiXJJ. = yu noml) teacup - # (bunme) parts
lfAJJt (ondo) temperature j{J (yaku) approximately
! L. (yuzamashi) hot water cooler
it I,: (kawan) in place of, instead of
ftJfl t- 9 (shiyo suru) use f51!fJJ (benrr) convenient, handy
b) Find and mark these {) t; tJt Jj:' words:
t:>' L. t· (ohhii) delicious ttl::: (hOOo) about
Atl. L ! L. ! l' (irele samashimasu) put in and cool
c) Mark these particles and grammar functions:
U) (no) between two nouns indicates that the second noun belongs to the
fi .. , (x 3)
t.: (m) into, in (x 2)
.t-3 (0) before a noun makes the word sound more honorifi c . .t-31M (x 2)
a- (0) object marker (x 2)
I: (to) ir(x I)
d) 8j{J Honyaku Translation
Match the Japanese on the left with the translation on the right. The first
is done for you:
,.8
I ) !H' l.- ('/il:o/I>:IJ (I;lle)
2) AII'I5t (1) UHf 0/1> 10
3) tllIH> 8 5t i'I I1/:' l\ tt -c

4) t111.l (1) 80 C
5) 0/1> ...• f1! III T '" I:
6) J l.- (1) fI: ry 10
7) iUJ"C'T
Picture 2
4a) Fi nd and mark these
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
i) If you use teacups ... ( )
ii) it is handy ( )
iii) instead of a water cooler ( )
iv) the temperature of the hoi water
"is about 80 C ( )
v) a delicious drinking method ( I )
vi) put in ahout e ight paris hot
water and cool ( )
vii) into drinking cups per number
of people ( )
(ha) leaves (kyUsu) tcapot 3 Aft (sanninbun) 3 helpings
*- t: (osa)1) tablespoon f.J (see a» (haibun) cupful /spoonful
b) Circle the particle -r: (de) meaning ' for'; t7) x 1; x 1; (.: x 1
c) Honyaku Translati on
1 T .
3 A5t"C' 6-8g
t:I'J 1 · 5 U5t )
Picture 3
5a) Find and mark these
Put the tea leaves in the teapot
for three hcl pings(people) (it is) 6-8
grams
(in tablespoons (it's) approximately
1.5 spoonfuls)
lim t .Q (shinto suru) brew, penneate tt l t (machimasu) wait
ifili (shinshuIsu) brewing Iff rdl (jikan) time 1 7t (ippun) I minute
m > (koO strong, dark M-! 1j: A (sukina hito) people who li ke
*d.> I: (nagame) lengthen 1 mt (ichimaeme) the first infusion
lOt;- (jilbyo) to seconds lWH' (atsUI) hot
b) Mark these particles and grammar functions:
:8 (honorific) x 4; Q) x 3; (: x 3; a- x 3; t} x 2; Ii x 2
J= (yori) than (placed after)
UNIT 10 159
Honyaku Translation
Match the Japanese on the left with the correct translati on on the right:
I) lQ-lf JJ.. C1) 1:J & -t i) the hot water on the tea leaves ( )
2) ;(,);iJic i :,It"C ii) lengthen (thctime) ( )
3) L.: 1:J1£l nt iii) put in the teapot ( )
4) 1" Q Q) -t t, 1. 1" iv) wait for it (the hot water ... ) to brew
( )
v) people who like strong tea ( )
vi) the hot water in the teacups ( )
vi i) brewing ti me (is) about I minute
( )
Asterisked part: the brewing time for the second infusion (refill) is
about 10 seconds
2nd Bracketed part: use hot water that is hotter than for the first infusion
Picture 4
6a) Find and mark these
it <. (sosogu) pour into #"A: (bumy5) quantity
(kinto ni) uniformly fi::ff. (saigo) final
- nlj (irtekl) one drop t) (shibort) squeeze, extract
b) Grammar points:
1. -r: (made) up 10 - IJ 1. L- .t oj (kirimashii) let's finish .. .
c) lfiUR Honyaku Translation
1; ;\\: HI: <. j)-lI! 1;1 10
1;;\\:1;1 , , Il( 9 ! 9 1. l J; ,
/fl:iJ!Q) - illiJ."C'
L!J antI!!! Renshii 4
pour the quantity of tea uniformly
(let' s) squeeze out the tea
to the final drop
*1&7* Tenki yoho The weather forecast
The weat her forecast shown here is taken from the Kyoto newspaper. Its
title (top left hand corner) is:
.t oj (kyo no tenia) Today's weather
I) .¥=Utf.'l Kanjifukushu
Decode the place names that follow (refer to map of Japan in Unit 8, p. I 15):
0) ::kJl!i b) lID¥- c) *l.tl d) )l\tiI

29 8 lro.EEO)t):O)tt:::
. -C, It:=
0?o
1'3ptl"'Ci:;t ltc. t
!<\tctJ:'-'>w'h. B<I'O)!<\
i!! <: 0l , * -C Jot,).
I), lItrBciolL:<:0l 'O)B!!
IJ ..:e 3 0
: 1l*I* IT:r.rn:
-
* i ...
...... ... Il.;t\.

* "
*
*
.• '"
: , ..
- ... '
, t..
" t



28
B
21
'"

U
*
b
I)
5

!II
It
tJ;:(1B
-
IS

z


);
)i
Iii
i<l
Q
:!i
UNIT 10 161
Now fi nd them on the weather report (look at the left side of the text) and
mark them (Ji( :tJS appears four limes).
2) Key
Below the written text (begi nning 29 a ... ) there is a key consisti ng
of two boxes. Can you see them?
The box with the straight line in the middl e indicates (/) I? (nochi) which
means later. For example: ' means 'sunny later cloudy'.
The box with the slanti ng line indicates Ifi¥ (tokodoki iehiji)
meaning sometimes/for a lime. For example: 'sometimes sunny, for
a time cloudy'.
J) Look al the lefthand column .l. "3
a) Find these place names:
tlHf Fukui Fukuoka JIII p Kobe Nara
0'1 I<! Nagoya 1II\%&t. Kagoshima
Now answer these questions from the information given in the lefthand
column.
b) What is the weather going to be like in:
i) Tokyo . ii) Osaka iii ) Fukui IV) Kagoshima?
c) Name two other cities where it will be:
i) cloudy then sunny ii) sunny then cloudy
4) Middle and lower picture-symbol columns
a) (Kanjifukushii ). Write down the meanings of these _*:
ii) iii ) iv) ± v) fJ vi) 1<.
vii) *
iii- vii also represent the days of the week. Which days do they represent?
(see Unit I, p. 5). Check your answers in the back then find them in the
text.
b) You should have identified (Kyoto) four ti mes in these col umns.
The other place name (also mentioned four times) is (Shi ga). After
both these place names are these (hokubu) and m$ (nanbll).
$ means part, therefore 'North part ' and 'South part'. The middle column
162 BEGINNER'S WANESE SCRIPT
is today's weather, the lower column is the forecast for the 30th-4th. Now
answer these questions.
e) What is loday's weather like in:
i) the North part of Kyoto
iii) the South part of Kyoto?
ii) the South part of Shiga
d) What is the weather forecast for:
i) South Kyoto on Friday
iii) North Kyoto on Sunday
v) South Shiga on Wednesday
Ii) South Kyoto on Tuesday
IV) North Shiga on Saturday
vi) North Kyoto on Monday?
e) On which day and where might you need an umbrella? (Two answers)
5) rughtside pictures (top and bottom)
a) a preceded by a number indicates a dale. 3 a means 3rt! (day).
by a number indicates ·o'clock' . 31J.--j means 3 o'clock.
Look at the top satellite picture. When was it taken? (time and dat e)
b) The lower picture has a number of circular symbols to the right followed
by iM¥. You learnt most of these in Units 6 and 7. Can you identify
them now? They are quit e small, the size of a real newspaper:
i) RU i i) (also look up iii) ilJij
iv) HI v)
Look back to the previous units if you need to, then cheek your answers
in the back and mark the terms in the text (some are quite small).
c) There are four other circular symbols with weather terms. Find and
mark them:
tkPi' good weather :lI mist, fog liI. (IiJ .1J wind directi on/strength
lj. t· tl.. sleet
6) The text
A short text is located above the symbol columns. Go through steps 1- 4
thai follow then try your own translation before looking at step 5 (the
translation).
i) Find and hi ghli ght the following i1ti:* words and phrases. What do
they mean?
a) 29 a b) W c) Iili d) Iii'i tL
e)
f) 1:
UNlT 10 163
ii) Find and highli ght the foll owing il¥ words and phrases:
a) (yoww) weak b)
c) 1¥ (lam) vall ey (trough) d) (eikyiJ) influence, effect
e) WI (asa) morning f) (ooi) many
g) t q:)1t (sono go) after that h) (kokiatsu) high pressure
i) (mikomi) expectation j) I3I:J:t (nitchu) all day
k) 1t\ifi (hon) temperature I) nl (do) degrees
m) ry (agari) to ri se n) nO a (zen)itsu) previous day
0) FnJ t: (ona)i) same p) IIlh' (atatakasa) warmth
iii) Find and mark these V t, h t words:
a) ? t;, (uchi) during
b) f!. ? (daro) wi ll probably
c) ... I.: 1::1 1::1 h tt -C (n; oowarete) be covered by (literal translation)
d) t.; l' t:. L' (daitai) generally
e) ... (.: -rt Q (ni naru) become ...
f) (' t, L' (gumi) about (x 2)
g) 1. -c" (made) up to
h} ... (.: -rt ry t ? (n; nariso) it looks like it will be (come) ... (t ? -
seem, look like)
iv) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions:
t1 (wa) topic marker (x 3) (J) (no) of, 's (x 7)
-c" (de) through, by means of (x I) ht (ga) subj ect marker (x I)
C (to) as (x 1)
t ;/ r Hinto: Try to translate the text yourself before working through
step 5. Remember: find the topic or subject then work through the sentence/
phrase from the end.
v) IJHlR Honyaku Translation
29 13 Ii
ilil L ' 1<\ EE "l "l Jilj\.-e
Wl"l 1t,
mil'$L't':,? 1
t "l fi! Ii . . . Jl.jz, '"
The 29th
(start from the end of this senl ence
and work backwards): through the
influence (because of the effect) of a
trough of low (weak) pressure
during the morning
the clouds will probably be many
(there will be a lot of cloud)
after that ... it is expected (that)
164
i\1j 11.\E£ 10 10 to It L
t! ( • ( . aI/it Q) ;JC 11.\ (0 '"
a '" Q) 11.\ iliW:
24 Ill:<· t, ( • .t -C J:i>' ?
...
lli! a I: foil L: (' t, ( • Q) 1IIli>'
I!I!Wli Renshu 5
Tegami Letters
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
high pressure will spread and
generally it will be (come) fine weat her
the dayt ime temperature
wi ll ri se up to about 24 degrees
it looks like it wil l be
about the same warmth as the previous
day (yesterday)
This section will get you fi rst to read a letter which is handwritten, and
then will giye you some tips for wri ting a letter yourself!
This letter is written downwards and you start reading at the top ri ght,
down the column. This is the tradi ti onal way of writing letters but many
Japanese people nowadays write in Western style, horizontally from left to
right. Writing downwards can give a lettcr a morc fonnal or traditional tonc.
This is a New Year' s greetings card and as this is a traditional custom, such
cards are often (but not always) wri tten in the traditional downwards style.
New Year cards, like Christmas cards in the West, are sent by al I Japanese
people to a wide range of fri ends, acquai ntances, colleagues and clients.
They normall y have a short greeting but this card has been sent by a
Japanese friend to a friend in England and is a combi ned New Year's
greeting card and letter.
t) Start by identifying and marking i'OO.* you have already been introduced
to. As before, see how many you can remember then check the answers in
the back before proceeding further.
a) itIi&f b) IJIj 0) 'f
g) 13 h) ffil' ;) IT
m) 11.\ n) &f: 0) !!
d) 1m
j) ,1M,
p) lipi"
e) 111'
k)
q) 'f
f) 1'1*
I)
2) Find and mark these set phrases and read the explanations:
a) 1'3 (,=. tr Ir tt "C (o- me ni kakarete) li t. I was able to set eycs on
you. This is a respectful way of saying ' I was able to see/\TI eel you'.
b) ... !$ t., lj. (,=. (tanoshimi ni) I am looking forward to ... This phrase
ends with (,=.. The full sentence would end with t., "C l ' ;t. -t
(shiteimasu) but this is often omitted.
c) (o-genki de) Take care!
UNIT 10
-
-
K ...
165
1;: '
B)1 !f
I r -'t
i
L
-C
h
II)
"'C
t
7
l '
1
1
166 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
3) Now mark these il* words and phrases.
a) lI)J't.t L- '"C (akemashite) 10 dawn ( from I!IJ (t .9 (akeru»
b) .tI.f-JIl; (o-legami) letter c) 7X. (otto) husband
d) (sakunen) last year e) :EJ1J;. (shashin) photograph
f) t) .1 "t (okurimasu) send g) (rainen) next year
h) H (natsu) summer i) .J( (mata) again
j) 7Gil (ganlan) New Year's Day k) :ffi T Hanako (girl 's name.
means ' flower')
4) Next mark these () 0 tJ{ words and phrases:
a) 1:) -r: C 1 t· i 1'" (omedet6 gozaimasu) congratulations
b) $, IJ C ., t, .i l., t.::.. (arigatii gQzaimashita) Thank you (for
what you have done)
c) '7 tt L, ( (ureshiku) happily ., tL l., Ir ..., t.; (ureshikatta) was/were
happy
d) l ' t.::.. t! ,; L. t.::.. (itadakimashita) received (see 6c this secti on)
e) -L Q (dekiru) be able to
f) "t tt -C (,1 (sore dewa) and so, we ll, finall y (used at end of letter)
5) Mark these two iJ!I tJ r words:
a) v Y (heren) Helen b) -1 !lit 7- (lgirisu) England
6) Find and mark these particles and grammar functi ons:
a) t:; (0) adds tone of respect Lo nouns (put before the word) (x 2; also
see 2a and c above).
b) C (to) and, wit h (see also (k».
c) 11:t"( (yomasete) (you) let me read + t::. t.! ! 1 t... t.:. (I
received). li t . " received you letting me read'. It is a polite way of
acknowledging something which someone has done for you. Another
example is: 1* it -t! -C t > t.:. t! ! 1 t... t.:. (yal'umasete itadakimashita)
'(You) let me take a break',
d) tt (wa) topic marker (x 2),
e) '"C" (de) in, at (particle used 10 mark the place (where somet hing
happens),
f ) (:. (ni) with, to (x 2; also see 2a this section),
g) t try (sono) that.
h) try (no) see notes at beginning of unit (x 2),
i) (0) object marker (x 2).
j) fi 1! t.:. t > (ikitai) I want to go (t;; t, = want to).
UNIT 10 167
k) C ,w."") "'C l' .t l' ( .. . to omotleimasu) I think that . _ . (l: here
m'eans ' that').
I) .:: l: (koto) placed after a verb this can be translated as •... ing' .
Therefore: -(' ! 9 .:: t. J dekiru /coto) being able to.
7) .1{ Honyaku Translation
This time you are going to do some of the work! The translation foll ows,
phrase by phrase. It is not in order, however, and your task is to work out
the correct order. Some of it may be obvious from the English (!) but
keep referring back to the text and points (1- 6) of this section so that you
get a good understanding of how the letter is structured.
a) IiI. Next year's summer I think that 1 would like to go to England =
Next summer 1 hope to .. J would like to ...
b) With my husband (my husband and I) read your Ictter happil y (wi th
pleasure).
c) I look forward to being able to meet again.
d) Thank you for your letter
e) 1 am sendi ng (you) the photographs of (lfrom) that timc.
f) Well, take care.
g) lit. the new year has dawned, congl"'dtulations = Happy New Year!
h) New Year's Day, 1999. (From) Hanako Yamamoto (in Japanese,
surname precedes first name)
i) I was happy that last year 1 was able to meet with Helen in Japan.
(The Japanese often use your name instead of saying ·you').
1!f < MI. Kaku renshjj Writing letters
I ) Let's start by looking at some of the features of the letter you have just
read.
a) Did you notice that the date is written at the end of the letter, and is
followed by the name of the writer? This is standard practice.
b) Hanako (the writer) begins with a greeting, in this case ' Happy New
Year'. You will learn some more seasonal greetings in the next section.
c) Hanako then says thank you for the letter she recei ved. You can use
this structure to thank someone for something they have sent you such as:
-:I v -t! y t- present; t1 postcard; h - (kiidQ) card
Just add I> IJ t. ., ::: .t l, (thank you) after the item.
168 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
d) Hanaka bri ngs the lctter to a close with it. "('" tt, .t17G3{\ '"C" (Well,
lake care).
2) Now let us look at useful phrases and techniques you can use to write
a letter to a Japanese friend.
a) Begin with their name followed by ft., (san) if you know the person
well or :! .t (sarna) for a very formal letter. In this case you might use
the surname. For example:
;rET It,., (Hanako san) Ll.p$:. .t (Yamamoto-sarna) (or Jffir i
Honako-sama)
b) Rather than beginning with an enquiry about a person's health ('How
arc you?' ) the Japanese lend to comment on the weather first and then
maybe a comment about the person's health. Here are some useful phrases
for different times of the year:
&. -to (yo; a-Ioshi 0) Have a good year (normally used before
New Year's day).
IYJlt .t l,; Ltd IJ)"C (: ., Happy New Year (used during New Year) .
.f. y - 'J y ;t.""? ;t. (merl kurisumasu) Merry Christmas .
.t t! .t t!!.@! liJ)tl' "'( l' .t 1" (mada mado samusa ga tsuzuileimasu)
The cold weather continues .
.t -1 {> < ! .t L., t.; (yayaku haru ga kimashita) At last Spring
has come.
I! U· L., l '. l' .t 1" (kibishii atsusa ga tsuzuiteimasu)
The unrelenting heal continues.
1f'!t ..0' (: {> ., "'( ! "'( l' .t 1" (shizuka ni aki ga yalte kileimasu)
Autumn has crept up on us quietly.
c) Enquiries about health: ..0' (o-genki desu ka) How are
you? (i nformal) L., L" L., J: -1 /J' (o-genki de o-sugoshi
desha ka) How are you? (formal)
d) Closing phrases:
Either:
Or:
-t tt. L" {.t, 1-3:7GX(L" (see I d this section) Well, take care.
L" tL ! :d*t: X\ i> ·':Ht '"'( (dewa, o-karada ni ki 0 tsukete)
Well, take care ofyourself(altemative to (a» .
1-3J6.lJ1-3M'= i;, L., "'( l' .t 1" (o-henj i o-mach; shiteimasu) I wait
for your reply
J: -1 t;, (sayOnara) Goodbye.
Ir l.- .: (kashiko) sincerely (used by women; formal) .
UNIT 10 169
e) You don't need to use an equi valent of ' Dear' or 'from' when writing
a letter. The person' s name plus A- I ;t (see 2a thi s section) and
you own name at the end (after the date) is enough.
I f you are writing a brief note or postcard, you can miss out the seasonal
greeti ngs and closing phrases and use this pair of phrases instead: "trill
(zenryaku) Greetings! (used at the beginning); .!f!. (s5 so) Excuse Ihe
rosh (used at the end)
l!J jjfHW:t\ Renshu 6
<.; (Sakura) The cherry blossom song
This is perhaps the most well-known Japanese song: The music is
reproduced as well, so that you can try singi ng it once you have studied
its meaning! Notice that the lyrics are written in () b{ so that it is
clear which sound fits which note.
Here are the words of the song, this time with as weil. The romaji
is written to the side, You could write the romaji below the () G b{ on
the music but try instead to read the () G Ii 1" because this will be very
good reading practice! Here is the text:
Sakura, Sakura
Jf LlJ t • t noyarna rno salo mo
ttl 'J miwatasu kagiri
kasumi ka kuma ka
:@J a I: -tJ "1 asahi ni niou
Ri . Ri Sakum, Sakum
'J hanazakari
i) What are the meanings of the following _*:
aj tlJ bj J!. cH!€
d) \'OJ (Unit 10, Renshii 4) e) a f) lE (Unit 10, Renshii 5)
2) Find and mark these 11* words:
a) (sakura) cherry blossom (x 4)
b) JfLlJ (noyama) fields and hills
c) • (salo) home' town
d) J!Mt t (miwatasu) survey the scene, look out over
e) tI 'J (kagiri) endless, everywhere; as far as
f) W (kasumi) mist (notice the rain radical)
170
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
UNIT 10 171
g) ~ a (axahl) morning sun
h) ~ ; (niou) be fragrant
i) :fE.§ IJ (hanazakan) (Bowers) in full bloom
3) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions:
a) t ... t (rna ... mol both ... and
b) I)' ... I)' (ka ... ka) either ... or
c) t.: (ni) in
.lIR Honyaku Translation
This lime you are going to try the translation completely by yourself!
Song lyrics and poems often use very minimal language, and use words
to evoke a sense of what is being described rather than spelling it all out.
Whcn translating into English, there are a number of stages to follow:
i) Translate individual words and phrases (here done for you).
ii) Put toget her in ' literal ' English.
iii) Consider what meanings are being conveyed and change into a more
natural English structure.
IV} AI this stage, translators need to decide whether it is more important
to keep closely to the original Japanese or to ' interpret ' the text and
put their: own individual mark on it. This may depend on the text or
on the purpose of the translation. Certainly with poems and songs it
may be necessary to change words in order to make the song fit the
tune or for the poem to retain its structure, rhythm or rhyme.
In the case of this song, however, you will be singing it in Japanese so
focus on conveying the sense of the Japanese words in more natural
Engl ish (but why not have a go at getting the English to fit the tune
too!). There is a sample translation at the back so that you can check for
meaning but as long as the meaning is correct, other versions are equally
acceptable.
L!l .f!l-l:; Renshu 7 fW.fu Haiku
Haiku were developed in Japan but nowadays are known and written all
over the world. They are a style of poetic writing using a small number of
words to convey a much deeper feeling or emotion. Traditionally the
poems were observations of nature which would evoke a strong sense of
172 BEGINNER' S JAPANESE SCRIPT
the scene described or of the emotions underlying it. Modern haiku explore
many themes and continue to be popular both in Japan and internati onally.
A haiku traditionally is a poem of three lines: 5-7-5 (5
syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables) . The four great masters of Japanese
haiku were BasM (1644- 94), Buson (1 716- 84), Issa (1762- 1826) and
Shiki ( 1867- 1902). A few haiku by these great masters follow - you are
going to have a go at translating them 1 A choice of English translations
of a word wi ll often be given so that you can ' experiment ' with your
translation. There arc sample translations at the back so that you can
check on meanings. Most translators try to capture the sense of the poem
in English without retaining the 5- 7- 5 form but once you have the meaning
you could try to reduce it to 17 syllables!
I

i'f III Q) '1' I::
- :JtI;
suzushisa ya
aola no naka n;
hi/olsu matsu
Shiki
I) You have met these in thi s book. What do they mean?
a) 'j!f b) Ell c) '1'
2) The new words are:
a) Th< L- (suzushisa) coolness (water radical)
b) (matsu) pine tree (tree radical)
3) Particles and grammar functions
a) "'(:l (ya) A poetic convention, for emphasis translated as ' the' or ' a'
(l ike I:t wa) Some translators use ... after the word to set the scene.
For example: Th< L- "'(:l The coolness ...
b) Il) (no) of
e) (.: (ni) in
d) -") (hitotsu) one (item); a single (thing)
II

iUWIH1
*Q)'i\'
furuike ya
kawaz" tobikomu
mhu no 0(0
BashO
I) You have met in this book. What do they mean?
a) 1; c) 'i\'
UNIT 10
2) The new words are:
a) 1& (ike) pond (water radical)
b) !t (kawazu)/rog (insect radi cal)
c) (tobikomu) leap/plunge/diveljump into
3) Particles and grammar functions:
,) '(> (ya) see 3. (p. 172)
III
!if" yiikot.e yo
*WBO) mhu aosagi no
hag; 0 ulSU
b) 0) (110) of
lilHt Buson
1) You have met these if* in this book. What do they mean?
a) 8\ (Unit 10, Renshii 4) b) *' c) W
2) The new _* words arc:
a) fY (yu) evening
b) II (sagi) heron (bird radical . below)
c) .1m (hag/) leg. shin (flesh radical)
d) n"") (utsu) hit. knockllap against (hand radical)
3) The particles and grammar functions arc:
a) (ya) see 3a b) (J) (no) of c) t (0) object marker
IV
.. lIki no yo yo
iiO)JjO) tabi no otoko no
Itf:l::$ har; shigoto
Issa
1) You have met these in this book. What do they mean?
.) M( b) 9J c) it-
2) The new words are:
173
a) '* (aki) autumn b) (yo) night c) i±$ (shigolo) work
3) The particles and grammar functions arc:
a) (ya) see 3a b) (J) (no) of. connects linked words
174 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Owari ni
~ ~ - r : c. .; ; : : ~ . t· 11" (omedet6 gozaimasu) Congratulations! You
have completed Teach Yourself Beginner 's Japanese Script. I hope that
you now feel you have a good grounding in Japanese reading and writing
and are ready to take your study further and tackle new challenges! Look
for every opportunity to use your learning so that you can consolidate it,
and re-visi t the units in this book to refresh your learning. If you have not
yet tackled the spoken language or only have the basics, then how about
trying Teach Yourself Beginner 's Japanese next! And please write to me
(c/o Hodder and Stoughton) to let me know how you got on with this
book.
'tln:"I: , ~ J: -) "' ''!
KEV TO THE EXERCISES
UNIT 1
Yonde mimasho: Ie, 2g, 3h, 4i , Sa, 61, 7f, 8j, ge, 10k, lib, 12d. Renshu I:
a6, b14. clO, d9, e ll , fl2, g3, h2, il3, jl , k7, 14, m8, 05. Renshii 2: a5,
bl , c4, d7. e6, f3, g2. Renshii 3: I) Wed 2) Tues 3) Sun 4) Fri 5) Sat
6) 2 7) I 8) 2 9) Mon.
UNIT 2
Yonde mimashO: II , 2k. 3g, 4e, 5<1, 6a, 7c, 8b, 9h, lOi, Ilj , 12f. Renshu I:
a6, h2, c3, d4, e8, f9, glO, h i , i7. j5. Renshii 2: ( 1) a) Sun b) Wed
c) Mon d) Sat. (2) 4 (4th, 11th, 18th, 25th). (3) Sun. Rcnshii 3: ( I ) April,
March (2) a) April, Jul y b) June, Feb, March c) Sept, Dec (3) a) Sun
b) Sat c) Tues d) Wed e) Wed (4) a) Mon b) Wed c) Sun d) Mon- Sun
e) Mon. Renshii 4: a) Sat 14th Feb b) Thl:lrs 20th Nov c) Mon 5th May
d) Sun 10th Sept e) Wed 25th Dec f) Fri 1st ApriL Renshii 6: (i) Ib, 2e.
3b, 4a, 5c (ii) la, 2e, 3b, 4a, Sc; (iii) I ) c,ii 2) a,iii 3) c,i 4) b,ii 5) b,i
6) a,iii 7) b,i 8) c, i 9) a,iii 10) a,ii. Renshii 7: a) Hayashi b) Morit a
c) Moriyama d) Yamakawa e) Takeyama f) Mori g) Kita h) Ishikawa
i) Kaneda j) Takeda k) Ishida I) Yamada m) Kawada. Test: ( I) a) man
b) wood c) power d)gold. (2) a) population b) Japan c) girl d) gateway
e) volcano f) men and women. (3) a) ii b) vi c) vii d) v e) i f) ii i g) iv.
(4) a) Yamada b) Takeyama c) Morita d) Mori e) Ishida. (5) check writing
sections/charts.
UNIT 3
Hajime ni: a) iii b) iv c) ii. Renshu I: ( 1) a) iv b) vi c) v d) i e) ii f) iii.
(3) a6, b4, c5, d8. R,n,h. 2: (3) h, g, b, e, i, c, d, f, a, j . (4) a) 9 b) 6
c) 7 d) 19 e) 17 f) 13 g) 20 h) 50 i) 70j) 21 k) 32 I) 43 m) 54 n) 65
0) 76 p) 87 q) 88 , ) 99. Ren,h. 3: I) e, f , b, d, c, h, g, a; 600 (2) a) 8000
b) 5000 c) 7000 d) 6000 e) 2000 f) 1000. (3) a) iii b) i c) iv d) ii e) v
(4) a, e, b, g, d, c, f. 200; 2000; 2200; 20,000; 200,000; 2,000,000;
176 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
20,000,000. (5) a) ii b) v c) vii d) vi e) iv f) i g) iii. Renshu 4: ( I) lb. 2e
t
3a, 4d, Se. (2) Jd, 2e
t
3f, 4c, 5b. 6a. (3) I) 11th Nov 2) 18th June 3) 2nd
Oct 4) 21s1 Aug 5) 3 1s1 Mar 6) 24th June. Renshu 5: ( I ) a) iv b) v c) vi
d) i e) i ii f) ii . (2) a) iii b) v c) iv d) i e) vi f) ii Renshii 6: ( I) a) (03)
358- 1377 b) (097) 592- 4211 c) (0720) 2 1- 3866 d) (03) 3593- 2704
c) (0279) 22 1- 3154. (2) a) Sat 5th Dec 1998 b) Sun 6th Dec 1998 c) Sat
12th Dec 1998 (3) Sal2 l s! Oct 1995.
UNIT 4
Hajime ni: ( I) a) mouth b) car c) person d) eye e) mountain f} gate
g) tree h) SUIl i) child. (2) a) gate and car b) eye c) sun d) mouth c) child
f) eye g) tree h) mountain. Renshii I: a4, h2, c7, d6, e5, n. g3. Renshu 2:
If, 2g, 3e, 4a, Sd, 6b, 7e. Renshii 4: 1 b, 2e, 3r, 4g, Sa, 6d, 7e. Renshii 5:
\) e 2) b 3) g 4) r 5) d 6) a 7} c. Renshii 6: I f, 2b, 3c, 4d, 5a, 6c.
Renshii 7: 1 f, 2e, 3b, 4g, 5c, 6a, 7d. Renshii 8: I) dealer 2) entrance
3) exit 4) drinking water 5) academic abi li ty 6) buyer 7) holiday
8) Japanese person. Renshii 9: (I) Id, 2e, 3f, 4h, 5k, 6i, 7m, 8b, 9c, 10<1.
11 j , 12g, 13 I . 14a. (2) a) baibai b) dokusho c) nyiigaku d) shutsunyu
e) inshoku f) kengaku g) kyugaku h} kenbun.
TEST
( I) a) horse b) person c) woman d) man e) child f) gi rl g) boy h} Japanese
person. (2) a) mountain b) volcano c) river d) water e} f ire f) tree
g) wood h) forest i) ri ce field. (3) a) 1 b) 5 c) 60 yen d) 100 e) 4000 yen
f) 20,000 g) gold, money h) 3700. (4) a) Sat 11th Sept b) 20th August
c) 1991 (yea r) d) Heisei 12th year = Year 2000. (5) a) li sten b) cat
c) drink d) say e) talk f) read g) sell h) look i) buy j) rest (6) a) car
b) mouth c) foot d) eye e) hand.
UNIT 5
Hajime ni: I) to write grammar and n o n - ~ ~ Japanese words 2) '() t;,
IJt'j: 3) simplified i l ~ with the same pronunciat ion 4) 46. Vonde
mimasho: (Reading down): d, f , a, c, b, e. Renshii I: a) sushi b) aki
c) koe d) tsukue e) sato f) seito. Renshii 2: (7) a) I b) 2 c) 2. (8) (t
(9) . ( 15) a) 2 b) 2 ( 16) 10 (1 7) 11 Renshii 3, Sella) asa b) Ie
c) natsu d) toke i e) shio f) nani g) nuno. $et 2 a) yoru b) mimi c) haru
d) fuyu e) mura f) yama g) mori b) wan. Set 3 a) ohayo b) sayonara
c) neko d) sensei e) inu f) me g) hew h) hito i) rei j) nihon. Renshii 4:
KEY TO THE EXERCISES 177
a) kyaa kyaa b) shun shun c) shu shu d) chu chii e) nyaa nyaa f) hyii hyii
g) hyoro hyoro h) kyoro kyoro. Renshii 6: a) kyaku b) kyo c) gyunyii
d) shashin e) ja ne f) choshoku g) chushoku h) hyaku i) byoin j ) ryoko.
Renshu 7: a) mizu b) kagi, c) j iten d) denwa e) tanpopo f) doki doki
g) gabu gabu Renshu 8: a) cholto b) mane c) yappari d) gakko e) ganbatte
f) massugu. Renshii 9: a) tabcmasu, tabernash ita b) nomimasu,
nomi mashita c) mimasu, mimashita d) kakimasu, kakimashita
e) hanashimasu, hanashimashita.
UNIT 6
"sjime ni: a) earth b) tree c) woman d) stone e) mouth f) horse g) sun h)
moon Yonde mimasho: al0, bl , cS, d6, e3, f9, g8, h2, i7, j4. Renshii I:
a6, b9, c4, d I 0, e8, f3, g I, hS, 12, j 7. Renshii 2: a4, b2, cS, d3, el.
Renshli 3: a6, b9,cS, d8, e7, f2, g3, h4, i l. Renshli 4: a4, b l, cS, d3, e7,
f2, g8, h6. Renshii 5: a2, b8, c6, d7, e4, n. g l , hS. Renshli 6: a) II
b) 5 c) 13 d) 14 e) I f )7 g) g h) 9 ;) 12 j) 6 k)3 I) 4 m) 15 n) 17 0) 2
p) 10 q) 16. Renshli 8: a) takai b) yasui c) chiisai d) okii e) sukunai
f) sukoshi g) furui h) atarashii i) futoi j) hiroi k) shiroi.
TEST
(A) I) above 2) below 3) small 4) big S) middle (also inside) 6) dog 7) fat
8) a li ttl e 9) axe 10) father I I) cow 12) stand 13) old 14) mother
IS) wide 16) white 17) ri ce 18) cheap, safe 19) thread 20) pointed
21) meat 22) hotlbitter 23) rain 24) blue 2S) country 26) sound 27) tall,
expensive 28) island 29) school 30) black 31) bird 32) snow 33) cloud
34) new 3S) thunder 36) electric 37) dove 38) cloudy 39) frost.
( B) 1) Sunday 2) Saturday 3) Wednesday 4) Tuesday 5) start school
6) primary school 7) middle school 8) high school 9) absent from school
10) study visit 11) Japan 12) China 13) Ameri ca 14) Central America
I S) mother country 16) island country 17) beef 18) chicken 19) food
20) drink 21) white rice ~ 2 ) drinking water 23) trai n 24) new car
2S) secondhand car 26) carriage 27) ri ckshaw 28) puppy 29) cal f
30) swan 31) parents 32) child 33) adult 34) boy 35) girl 36) girl
37) shopping 38) sightseeing 39) entrance 40) exit 41 ) holiday.
UNIT 7
Hajime ni: ( I) a) wood b) forest c) man d) li ke e) bri ght f) listen g) see
h) write i) say/words j) sell k) read I) speak m) buy n) rest 0) go out
178 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
p) study. (2) a) person b) mouth c) earth d) woman e) chi ld f) sun
g) moon h) tree i) fire j) rice fi eld k) eye I) say/words m) gold n) car.
R,n,hii l :a)6b)7c)4d)ge) 12 f) Sg) IOh)2 ;) 3j)8 k) III) I.
Renshii 4: a) I. hat radical 2. above b) 1. vegetation 2. above c) I. lid 2.
above d) I. village 2. right side e) 1. enclosure 2. surround f) 1. yawn 2.
right side g) 1. bamboo 2. above h) I . fire 2. below i) I . hole
2. above j) I. cover 2. above k) 1. vapour 2. partial surround \) I. heart
2. below m) 1. rain 2. above. Renshii 5: (I) i) c ii) d iii) e iv) b v) a
(2) i) a ii) b i ii) d iv) c (3) i) b ii) d iii) c iv) e v) f vi) a vii) g.
UNIT 8
Hajim, ni: a) 4(4) b) 12(4) c) 14(2) d) 7(2) e) S(6) Q 13(6) g) 2(6) h) 10(6)
;) 3(6)j) IS(7) k) 11 (6) I) 1(4/6) m) 9(4/6) n) 6(3) 0) 8(4). R,n,hii I :
I) h 2) c 3) j 4) k S) m 6) I 7) b 8) c 9) a 10) d II) n 12) f 13) 0 14) g
IS) a 16) i 17) c. Renshii 2: I) c 2) f 3)j 4) 0 5) n 6) I 7) i 8) a 9) h
10) gil) k 12) d 13) m 14) b IS) c. R,n,hii 4: Id, 2b, 3g, 4e, Sf, 6h, 7c,
8a. Renshii 5: Ie, 2e, 3b, 4a, Sd. Renshii 6: \) toilet 2) entrance 3) toi let
4) ' Thundcrgatc' 5) push 6) pull 7) south gate 8) north gate 9) Hiroshima,
Osaka 10) gri lled (food) II ) railway station 12) Fuji Bank 13) opening
times 14) inte rnat ional phone 15) unreserved 16) unoccupied taxi
17) Japanese-style room 18) no admittance 19) no smoking.
UNIT 9
Hajime oi: I) loanwords; foreign names; to make words stand out; plant!
animal classificati on. 2) part of ~ ~ 3) 46. Yonde mimasho: ( in order
from top) e, d, a, f. b, c. Renshii 1: skirt(e) suit(f) steak(c) cake(a) ice(d)
toasl(b). Renshii 2: SCI (I) Ig, 2f, 3b, 4c, 5a, 6e, 7d. Set (2) Ie, 2e, 3d,
4b, 5a. Set (3) I f, 2g, 3d, 4a, 5c, 6b, 7h, 8e. Renshii 4: (I ) i) d ii ) c
iii) a iv) e v) h. (2) i) c Ii) e iii) a iv) d v) b. (3) i) f i i) b iii) c iv) d v) a
vi) c vi i) g. (4) i) c ii ) e iii) a iv) d v) g vi) b vii) r. (5) i) g ii) b iii) i
IV) e v) j vi) a vii) k viii) h IX) f x) I xi) c xii) d 6) i) a ii) c iii) e IV) d
v) f vi) b. (7) i) b ii ) e iii) a IV) c v) d. (8) i) a ii) c iii) e iv) d v) b.
Renshii 6: I h, 2j , 3a, 4c, 5i, 6g, 7b, 8e, 9f, 10d. Renshii 7: Ii, 2g, 3j , 4a,
5e, 6d, 7b, 8c, 9f, IOh. Renshii 8: Ig, 2b, 3h, 4a, 51, 6k, 7i, 8e, 9c, IOd,
Ilf, 12j. Renshii 9: I) eh 2) ai 3) ce 4) gb 5) ic 6) hj 7) dg 8)jd 9) fa
10) bf. Renshii 10: I) Luna 2) hot, iced 3) milk, lemon 4) 600 yen 5) 400
yen 6) cheese, ham, mi xed 7) 800 yen 8) 350 + 600 + 700 = 1650 yen
9) your choice 10) parfait , apple pie. Renshii 11: I) Toyota 2) Sony
KEY TO THE EXERCISES 179
3) Casio 4) National 5) Sanyo 6) Mitsubishi . Renshii 12: (1) 2, 4. 6 (2) 3
(3) printers. software (4) 6 (5) TV. video, laserdiscs (6) 2 (7) I (8) 2:
basement, fl oor I (9) fax machines (10) basement. Renshii 13: a2. b4,
cl , d5. e6. fJ . Renshii 14: I) McDonald' s 2) karaoke 3) opening sale
4) videos and books 5) recycle 6) a curry house 7) Valentine's Day 8) beer
9) dessert 10) E-mail I I) piano 12) Toyota 13) single malt 14) wine
15) Christmas tree 16) City of Angels, Nicholas Cage, Meg Ryan.
UNIT 10
Renshii 1: ( I) a) book b) read c) say. Renshii 2: (I) a) water b) jewel
(ball ) c) fire d) finger e) test f) tissue g) frying pan. Renshii 3: (I) a)
drinkll b) person/ 3 c) eye/3 d) enterl2 e) tealS f) convenience/mailll
g) big/ I h) go out12 i) timel2. (3d) I l v, 21vii, 3/vi, 4/iv, 51;, 61i ii, 7/ii. (Sc)
IIvi. 2liii, 31i, 4/ iv, Slvii, 61v, 7/ ii . Renshii 4: (I) a) Osaka b) Tokyo
c) Sapporo d) Kyoto. (3b) i) cloudy later sunny ii) sunny later cloudy
iii) sunny sometimes cloudy iv) rainy later cloudy. (3c) i) two of: Nagoya,
Fukuoka, Sapporo ii) Kobe, Nara. (4a) i) north ii) south ii i) gold/ Friday
iv) earth/Saturday v) moon/ Monday vi) firelTuesday vii) water/ Wednesday.
(4c) All are cloudy later sunny. (4d) i) cloudy sometimes sunny ii) sunny
sometimes cloudy iii) cloudy sometimes rainy iv) cloudy sometimes sunny
v) sunny sometimes cloudy vi) cloudy. (4e) Sunday: North Kyoto and
North Shiga. (Sa) 28th, 21:00 or 9 o'clock. (5b) i) sunnylfine ii ) cloudy
(cloud) iii) rain iv) thunder v) snow. (6i) a) 29th b) cloud c) tall (high)
d) fine e) weather f) above. Renshii S: a) New Year b) bright c) hand
d) read e) previous f) Japan g) eye h) time i) go j) think k) meet I) enjoy
m) spirit n) year 0) dawn p) Yamamoto q) child. (7) order = g, d, b, i, e,
a, c, f, h. Renshii 6: (I) a) mountain b) look c) cloud d) morning e) sun
f ) fl ower. Sample translation: Cherry blossom, cherry blossom, over fields
and hill s. I survey the endless scene (or: as far as the eye can see; or: an
endless scene). (like) mist or cloud, fragranrin the morning sun, cherry
blossom, cherry blossom, in full bloom. Renshii 7: (I) la) blue/green
b) ri ce field c) middle d) one. Sample translation: The coolness, In the
middle of a green rice field, one pine tree. (II) 1a) old b) water c) sound.
Translation: An old pond, A frog dives in, The sound of water. (111) I a)
wind b) water c) blue. Translation: The evening breeze ... , water laps
against the legs of a blue heron. (IV) la) travel b) man c) needle.
Translation: An autumn night ... , A travelling man's, Needlework.
INDEX (1) JAPANESE-
ENGUSH: UNIT CHARTS
A unit-by-unit summary of mai n iiX!* includi ng: number of strokes (i n
brackets), on and kun readings, Engli sh meani ngs and jukugo (compound
word) examples .
• For stroke order of main il* refer to the wri ting sections of each unit.
The stroke order for those ~ * in units 1 and 2 which don' t appear in
the writing sections is given in these charts .
•• On readings are given in capital s, kun readings in lower casc. The
bracketed parI of a kun rcading indicates the part written in hiragana
(dictionary form is given for verbs).
UNIT 1
LlJ
(3)
}II
(3)
a
(4)
fJ
(4)
±
(3)
11
(6)
'*
SAN, yama;
mounla;n
SEN, kawa, gawa;
river
NICHI , JITSU. hi, bi, ka;
day, sun
GETSU, GATSU, tsuki;
month, moon
DO, TO, tsuchi;
earth, ground
CI-IIKU, take;
bamboo
MOKU, BOKU, ki;
(4) tree. wood
# RI N, hayashi, bayashi ;
(8) woods
.. SHIN, mori;
( 12) forest
[pic In. I ]
[pic In.2]
INDEX II)
'*
(4)
SUI, mizuj
water
DEN, ta /da;
ricejieJd
KIN, KON, kane;
gold. money
KA, hi, bi ;
IU
(5)
;1i
(8)
9<
(4)
1i
(5)
ji,.
In. 1
In.2
In.3
In.4
SEKI, SHAKU, ishi, koku;
stone
UNIT 2
J:l
(3)
,Ii'.
(7)
'"
(5)
Y::
'f
(3)
KO, KU, kuchi, guchi;
mouth
SOKU (ZOKU), 3shi. ta (riru);
foot (leg)
MOKU, me;
eye
JO, NYO, onn3j
woman
SHI , SU, ko;
child
181
[pic In.3]
[pic In.4]
[pic In.5]
[pic In.6]
[pic In.7}
182
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
A
NIN. HN, hito;
(2) person
lj:
11, mimi;
(6) ear [pic In.81
~ SHU, te;
(4) hand
;h RYOKU, RIKI , chikara;
(2) POYl-'€r, strength [pic 10.9]
$ SHA, kUl'"uma;
(1) vehicle. car [pic 10. 10)
,\ll BA, urn. ;
( 10) horse [Pic In. 11]
r'J
MON, kado;
(8) gate
'1.1
DAN, NAN, otoko;
(7) man [pic In.12]
jJ
KO, kono(mu);
(6) like. love [pic In.13]
IJl
MEl, MYO, aka(rui), aki(raka);
(8) bright, light [pic 10. 14]
'*
HON, moto;
(5) root, origin. main. book [pic In. 15]
In.5
10.6
1+1'f1 ~ 131+1
In.7
I! IiI - I' If I f I . f - - I ~ I
In.8

INDEX III 183
Ih!iDIJI1J1
In.9
In.IO
In. 11
[n. 12
In.13
In. 14
1¥J¥j - 1 t 1,,1 1;K1i1
In.15
UNIT 3
- ICHI, hito(tsu);
( I) one
NI. futa(tsu);
(2) two
SAN, mit(tsu);
(3) three
1m SHI, yon, yo, yot(tsu);
(5) four
'14
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
"Ii GO. itsu(tsu};
(4) five
~
ROKU, mut(Lsu};
"
(4) six
1:;
SHICHI, nana(tsu};
(2) s ... n
J\ HACHI. yat(tsu};
(2) eight
:II.
KYO. KU; kokono (Lsu);
(2) nine
+
JO, t o;
(2) ten
a HYAKU;
(6) hundred
T
SEN, chi ;
(3) thousand
li MAN, BAN;
W
ten thousand, all
EN;
(4) yen, circle
4'
NEN, toshi;
(6) year, age
UNIT 4
PIl
BUN, Id(ku);
( 14) hear, listen
~
KEN, mi(ru};
(7) look, see, watch

SHO, ka(ku};
(1 0) write
tf GEN, (GON), i(u), kot o;
(7) say
'If.
GAKU, mana(bu};
(8) study, learn
n
BAI, ka(u);
( 12) buy
«-
KYO, yasu(mu);
(6) rest
INDEX [11
185
III SHUTSU. de(ru).
(5) go/come 0 111
'lC
BAI , u( ru);
(7) sell
III DOKU. yo(mu);
( 14) read
lt8
WA, hanashi, hana(su);
(13) talle
1l"
SHOKU, ta(heru);
W
eat
IN, no(mu);
( 12) drink
A
NYU, i(ru), hai(ru);
(2) enter, put in
til
BUTSU, MOTSU, mono;
(8) thing
UNIT 6
:Jr. RITSU, t.a(lsu), tachi;
(5) stand (up)
0:; KO. 'aka(I);
( 10) high. expensive
CHO, tori;
( II ) bird
*
BEl , MAl, kome;
(6) rice
*
DAI, TAl . o(kii);
(3) big. great
fi-
KIN, ORO;
(4) axe
tf
GVU. ushi ;
(4) cow, callie
-,!i
KO. furu(i);
(5) old

SHI , ito;
(6) thread
IJ'
SHOo chii(sai), ko, OJ
(3) small
186 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
i!t 80, haha, (o)ka(san);
(5) mother
*
AN, yasu(i);
(6) cheap, safe
JZ. KO, hiro(i);
(5) wide, spacious
kif
SHIN, atara(shii);
(13) new
J!\ KOKU. kuro(i);
(11) black
S HAKU, BYAKU, shi..-o(i), jiro;
(5) white
1f
SEI, SHO, 30(1);
(8) blue, green, inexperienced
:l<: FU, chichi, to, (0)tO(580);
(4) father
jij
V, arne;
(8) rom
1: JO, ue, nobo (ru), a(garu);
(3) above. on, top
l' KA, GE, shita, moto, kuda(ru);
(3) below, under. go down
<P CHU, oaka;
(4) inside, middle, within
~ UN, kumo;
( 12) cloud;

DON, kumo(ri);
(16) cloudy weather
1If RAI, kaminari;
(13) thunder
1!t SETSU, yuki;
(II) snow
lit
DEN-
,
(13) electric
:k KEN, inu;
(4) dog
&l, TO, shima, jima;
(10) island
'Ii ON, IN, oto, ne;
(9) sound
INDEX III
'it'
(7)
ill
( 17)

(4)
:;Ie
(4)
00
(8)
rJj
(6)
:tlt
( 10)
SHIN, kara(i);
hot, bitter, spicy;
SO, shimo;
frost
SHOo suku(nai),
few. a (jtlle
TAl, TA, ruto(i);
fat, deep (voice)
KOKU, kuni, guni;
country
NIKU;
meal. flesh
KO' ,
school
UNIT 7
(fl
(9)
P/1

(9)
III<
(l 5)
l'i
( 10)
P.f.l
(14)

(8)
jt
(12)
iIIi
( 14)
l1I!
(10)
J!
(5)
SHlN, shin(jiru);
believe, trust;
SHO, tona(eru);
chant, recite;
hata, hatake;
cultivated field
DAN' ,
talk. discussion
SON, mago;
grandchild
MEl. na(ku);
cry, chirp
EN, hono;
blaze. flame
FUN. t a( ku), ya( ku);
burn. kindle
GO; kata(ru);
language. word. tell
MAl , u(meru);
bury/be buried
TAN;
dawn
187
188 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
;{f;
KAN'

(9) wicked. noisy
!Ii KATSU;
W
live. energy
TAl , TEl , karada;
(7) body
NT CHOt machij
(7) lown
ff SON, muraj
(7) village
~ MAJ , imoto;
(8) younger sister
!:T T6, hi ;
W
lamp. light
SETSU, o(ru)j
(7) f old, snap. bend
iii'. MIN, nemu(i)j
(10) sleep(y)
~
HAl, ho(eru);
(7) bark
Ilt
CHO, hiji
(7) elbow
Ia
HAKU, to(maru)j
(8) stay at, put up
tI' SHIN, hari;
(10) needle
fi(
TEN, koro(garu);
( 11 ) lurn, change
~
)1, toki, dokij
( 10) lime
UNIT 8
m TEN, mise;
(8) shop. store
S OKU, yaj
(9) shop
JGl KYOKU;
(7) bureau, office
INDEX II) 189
PIi SHOt JO. tokoroj
(8) place
.11.1 JO, bat
(12) place
111 KAN;
(16) hall. large building
Ill!
EN, sono;
( 13) garden
Tti SHI , ichi ;
(5) city. market
I KQ, KU;
(3) construction
1}
KD, oyake;
(4) public
Ill! TO, ZU. haka(ru);
(1) drawing. map
f.(l OVO, !akana, 00;
( 11 ) fish
ill
SHU, sake, saka;
( 10) rice wine, alcohol
'lit CHA;
(9) l eu
if! YAKU. kusuri j
( 16) medicine
~ SEN, ara(u);
(9) wosh
:E SHU, nushi;
(5) master. owner
II' CHU;
( 15) reside. stO{H:Jl'er

JO, ! u(mu);
(1) reside, live
~
EKI ;
( 14) station
fl
BEN, BIN;
(9) convenience. mail
ff
KO, OYO, AN, i(ku). yu(ku), okona(u);
(6) go, hold
~ SHITSU;
(9) room
190 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
p;j
NAI, OAI , uchi;
(4) inside, home
jlf GAl , GE, solo, hoka;
(5) outside. foreign
If/i
SEKI ;
(10) seat, place
*'I RYO' ,
(10) charge, materials
~ t HOKU, BOKU, kita;
(5) north
Jl!
NAN, minami;
(9) south
JI[
TO, higashi;
(8) east
1l!i
SEI, SAl, nishi;
(6) west
~
KIN' ,
(13) forbidden
;t;
U, yO, migi j
(5) right
ti SA, hidarij
(5) left
IlIl
KAI, a (keru), hira, (ku);
( 12) open
!ill HEI , shi (meru), to (jiru);
(II ) close
INDEX (2) ENGUSH-
JAPANESE: WORD INDEX
The number in brackets indicates the page where the wordfirst appears.
A
above (77) abroad (112) absence from school (51) academic ability
(51) address (108) admission free (113) adult (81) alcohol ( 106)
a IiUie (79) America (81) arrival (117) art (106) art gallery (\07)
ask (95) axe (75)
B
bad al (80) bamboo (3) bamboo shoots (49) bank ( 109) bar (107)
bark (91) bathroom (114) beckon (94) beef (8 1) believe (89)
below (77) bicycle (111) big (74) bird (74) bitler (79) black (76)
blaze (89) blue (76) blue-white (80) body (91) book (50)
bookshop (107) boy (15,81) branch (97) break (91) bright (14,
94) brush (46) bullellrain ( 11 8) bureau (105) bum (89) bury (89)
be buried (89) buy (43) buyer (5 1) buying and selling (51)
c
calf (80) car (13) car park (108) carriage (15) cart (13) Central
America (8\) certificate (90) chant (89) cheap (76) chicken (81)
child (12, 81) China (81) chirp (89) cinema (1 10) city (l06)
cleanse (95) clear (94) clear up (95) close (117) closed (117)
cloud (78) cloudy weat her (78) clue (81) coffee shop (107)
construction ( 106) convenience (108) conversation (89) cosmetics
(114) country (8 1) cow (75) create (95) cry (animal - 89)
cultivated field (89)
192 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
o
dawn (89) day (I) dealer (51) decree (94) departure (1 17)
discussion (89) dog (79) domesti c ( 11 2) donnant volcano (5 1) dove
(79) down ( 104) drawing (\06) drink (47) drinking place (107)
drinking water (51) drinks (50) drought (95) dry weather (95) dwell
( 108)
E
car (13) earth (3) east (1 15) cat (47) eating and drinking (5 1) eight
(29) elbow (92) electri c (78) elementary school (81) emolion (95)
enler (48) entrance (5 1) entrance fee ( 11 3) exit (51) explosion (95)
express (118) eye ( 13)
F
factory (107) fare adjustment office ( 109) fat (79) father (76) fee
(III, \13) feeling (95) few (79) fine weather (95) fire (3) fish
(106) fi shmonger ( 107) five (29) fl ame (89) flesh (81) fold (91)
food (47, 50) foot (13) forbidden ( 11 6) foreign (1 12) foreign
exchange ( 11 2) forest (3) four (29) Friday (5) frost (79)
G
garden ( 105) gate (13) gateway ( 15) girl ( 14, 81) go ( 108) go
in (48) going in and out (5 1) gold (3) good at (80) go out (43)
grandchild (89) greengrocer (107) grilled (1 18) ground (3)
H
hall (105) hand ( 13) hear (43) heavy rain (80) ~ i g h (74) high
school (8 1) hi story (90) hold (94) holiday (43, 5 1) horse (13)
horse power (14) hot (79) hour (92) hundred (32)
I
imperial edict (94) information (109) inherit (94) inn, Japanese ( 110)
inside (77) international phone (112) invite (94) island (79) island
country (81) items for sale (50)
INDEX (2)
,.3
J
Japan ( 14) Japanese: bath ( 114), cuisine (1 14), inn ( 11 0), person ( 15),
room ( 11 2), style (114) j uni or hi gh school (81)
K
kindle (89) kiosk (107)
L
lamp (9 1) language (89) large bui lding (105) left ( 11 7) left
luggage (113) lesson (90) library ( 107) like ( 14) listen (43) liquor
store (107) live (91) liver (95) long-distance train ( II I) look (43)
love (14) luggage ( 113)
M
make (95) mail (108) man ( 14) manpower (IS) map (106) market
(106, 107) marsh (94) master (108) meat (81) medicine (106)
middle (77) middle school (81) mischief (95) Monday (5) money
(3) money exchange (109) month (2) mother (76) mother country
(8 1) mountain (3) moon (I) mouth (13) museum ( 110)
N
narrative (90) needle (92) new (76) new car (81) newspaper (81)
new year (81) nine (29) noise (79) north (1 15) not allowed ( 11 6)
o
occupied taxi ( III ) office ( 105) old (74) older (81) one (29) on
top (77) open (1 17) open for business (117) origin ( 14)
p
paddy field (15) pair (5 1) pale (80) parcel (Ill) parents (80) pari<
(107) passport control ( 11 2) person (12) perspire (95) pharmacy
( 107) pigeon (79) place (105) poem (90) pointed (79) pole (95)
, ..
BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
polished rice (80) population ( 14) post office (I 08) powder room
( 114) power (13) previous (95) primary school (8 1) proof (90)
public (106) public eye, in the (15) pull ( 11 7) puppy (80) purify
(96) purity (95) push ( 11 7)
R
rain (76) read (46) reading (51) recite (89) request (95) reserved
seat ( 113) reside (108) rest (43) restrai n (95) ri ce (74, 106) ri ce
field (3) ri ckshaw ( 15) right( I 17) rive< (3) rod (95) roof (105)
room ( 11 1) root ( 14) rotate (92)
s
safe (76) samwai (94) Saturday (5) say (43) school (81) sea'(III)
secondhand car (81) sell (46) seller (5 1) set meal ( 113) seven (29)
shop (105) shopping (50) shopping area ( 109) sightseeing (50) six
(29) sleep (91) sleeper train (111) small (74) small dog (SO)
smoke ( 11 6) snap (91) snore (95) snow (78) soar (94) sound (79)
soulh ( 11 5) spacious (76) speak (46) special express ( li S) spirit
(95) Siand ( news) ( 107) stand (up) (75) start school (5 1)
station (108) stay at (92) stone (4) store ( 105) strength ( 13) strictly
forbidden ( 116) study (43) study visi t (5 1) Sunday (5) superiors
(80) swamp (94) swan (80)
T
talk (46) tall (74) tapered (79) tea (106) tcashop (107) telephone
(81) temple (92) tcn (29) ten thousand (32) theatre (I [0) thing
(50) thousand (32) thread (75) three (29) thunder (78) Thursday
(5) ticket office (109) time (92) toilet (107, 108, 114) tower (94)
town (9 1) train (80) transl ation (90) travel (109) tree (3)
Tuesday (5) tune (90) tum (92) two (29)
u
under (77) underground (1 18) uni versity (80) unoccupied taxi (I II )
unreserved seat (113) up ( 104)
INDEX (2) 195
v
vast (80) vehi cle ( 13) village (9 1) vinegar (95) volcano (1 5)
w
wai t ( 114) waiting room ( 114) wash (106) watch (43) water (3)
water power (15) Wednesday (5) west ( 11 5) western-style (114) +
cuisine ( 114), room (1 12) white (76) white ri ce (80, 95) wickedness
(89, 95) wide (76) wine ( 106) wi ne shop ( 107) woman (12)
woodIs (3) words (43) wri te (47) writing (50)
y
yen (32) year (32) yesterday (95) younger sister (91 ) youth (80)
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BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT
Helen Gilhooly
Do you want to leam the basics of reading and writing Japane. . and understand how the script works? Are you planning a trip to Japan or thinking about learning the language? If so, Teach Your••1f Seglnne,'. Japan ••• Script I. for youl

In this book, Helen Gilhooly has written a step-by-step introduction to reading and writing simple Japanese. She guides you through the basic techniques and teaches you how to build your skills, with tips and practice suggestions to help you memorize what you are learning and make it enjoyable along the way.

Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese Script features: • the origins of the language • a systematic approach to mastering the script • lots of -hands on" exercises and activities • practical examples from real-life situations
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TEACH YOURSELF BOOKS

For UK orden: please contact Bookpoint Ltd, 78 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OXl4 4TD, Telephone: (44) 01235 400414, Fax: (44) 01235 400454. Lines are open from 9.00- 6.00, Monday to Saturday, with a 24 hour message answering service. Email address: ordcB@bookpoinl.co.uk For U.S.A. &. Canada ordcrs: please contact NTC/Contcmporary Publishing, 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood, Illinois 60646- 1975, U.S.A. Telephone: (847) 679 5500, Fax: (847) 679 2494. Long renowned as the authoritative source for self-guided learning - with more than 30 million copies $Old worldwide - the Teach Yourself series includes over 200 titles in the fields of languages, crafts, hobbies, business and education. British Library auaioguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this title is available from The British Library. Libr.1ry of Congress Catalog Card Number: On fil e, First published in UK 1999 by Hodder Headline Pic, 338 Euston Road, London, NWI 3BH. First published in US 1999 by NTClContempontry Publishing, 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood (Chicago), Illinois 60646-1 975 U.S.A. The ' Teach Yourself' name and logo arc registered trade marks of Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. Copyright C 1999 Helen Gilhooly In UK: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any infonnation storage and retrieval system, without peonission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Ljccnsi ng Agency Limited, of9() TOilenham Court Road, London WI P 9HE. In US: All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, el~tronie, mechanical, photocopying, or Otherwise, without prior peonission of NTCtContemporary Publishing Company. Typeset by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong. Printed in Great Britain for Hodder & Stoughton Educational, a division of Hodder Headline Pic, 338 Euston Rood, London NWI 3BH by Cox & Wyman LId. Reading, Berkshire. Impn:ssion number
y=

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000

1999

99 Numbers 100. 67.000+ Japanese moncy amounts Writing Practice (3) 28 28 31 32 34 38 Unit 4 11I1!!1~ Action word kanji (verbs) Reading sentences Writing Practice (4) Test (2) 42 42 49 53 57 Unit 5 l1Ili~ Reading and writing hiragana Simple hiragana rules Reading sentences in Japanese 58 60 66.~ Linking kanji to pictures (I) How to read the days of the week Writing Practice ( 1) Unit 2 v 1 2 5 7 11 11I = ~ Linking kanj i to pictures (2) Reading dates and cale ndars Writing Practice (2) Test ( I) 12 16 23 27 Unit 3 11I = ~ Numbers 1.69 71 I .10 Numbers 11.CONTENTS Introduction Unit 1 11I .10.

11 5 11 8 Reading and writing katakana Simple kalakana rules Extra katakana sounds Reading authentic katakana information 125 127 130. 135 Unit 10 Simple grammar rules for reading Reading and writing letters Japanese haiku (short poems) Key to the exercises -+... 73 76 78 83 85 87 92 94 96 98 103 105 II I Locating the radical Linking components with readings Using kanji dictionaries Writing Practice (6) Unit 8 _A.. Unit 6 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT i1l*_ Remembering kanji through stories Building up kanj i Writing Practice (5) Test (3) Unit 7 _-t. Recognising shop and place s igns Everyday s igns and information Map of Japan Reading authentic signs Unit 9 _11.. 136 143 148 149 164 171 175 180 191 Index (1) Japanese-English Index (2) English-Japanese .

A brief history The Japanese writing system was introduced into Japan by the Chinese around the middle of the 6th century AD. There are many more kanji (over 5000 in many kanji dictionaries) which are used for more specialised vocabulary and texts. the learning of Japanese script is spread throughout the nine years of compulsory education . The grammar. It is the reading and writing of Japanese which offers the greatest challenge to the learner. By the end of this period. although we learn the alphabet relatively quickly. for example. In the Japanese education system. The aim of this book is to show you that written Japa nese can be interesting. learning and understanding the meaning of vocabulary and different types of texts takes a very long time. there arc many features of the Ja panese la nguage which make it relatively strai ghtforward to learn. This book will make the reading and writing of Japanese accessible to you through a step-by-step approach which will help you to gradually build up your knowledge of Japanese script. There are now three . challenging and also fun to learn. follows logical rules and is very regular. This is the basic number prescribed by the Japanese Ministry of Education as essential for reading texts such as newspapers thoroughly. In actual fact. it is worth making the comparison with English where. The Chinese language is very different to Japanese in structure and so the writing system was gradually adapted to fit the structure of the Japanese language. Although 1942 kanji sounds like a large amount. the Japanese student will have 'learnt 1942 kanji (Chinese characters).INTRODUCTION The Japanese language presented such difficulties to sixteenth century European missionaries that they called it the Devif's tongue.

There is usually more than one pronunciation for a kanji character. There are two types of pronunciation known as onyomi (Chinese reading) and kunyomi (Japanese reading).BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT scripts which make up the Japanese writing system (four if you include roma]. Kanji 1I* Kan is an ancient word meaning 'Chinese' and] i means ' letter' or 'character'. They are phonetic alphabets or syllabaries which means that each symbol represents one sound only. Kanji are ideographs.. Kana fJ. For example is the kanji for sun . This differs from the roman alphabet system where letters are grouped into sounds and where the same letter can be pronounced in differcnt ways depending on its grouping (eg: a in rat. rate. For example a a -. These sounds are represented by two hiragana symbols: . The two other scripts in the Japanese writing system are called hiragana and katakana and are known collectively as kana. I? The hiragana and katakana scripts represent the same set of 46 basic sounds but the symbols are written differently and the two scripts are used for different purposes as described in the fo llowing section. In Japanese the word for house (uchi) is made up of two sounds U-CHI. hence kanji is translated as 'Chinese characters' .U-S-E.. this means that the whole character conveys a meaning or idea (whereas in the roman alphabet system.t. ie. far and fare). .. Kanji were originally drawn from pictures of nature and gradually developed into the standardised sun developed like this: kanji used today.~~): ~ • •• You will learn more about this in unit I. letters are grouped together to make words). alphabet). This was the script which was invented by the Chinesc and introduced to Japan. or roman script. You wi ll learn morc about this in unit 2. The difference between the Japanese phonetic system and the alphabet system can be shown through an example: In English the word house is made up of five letters: H-O. Let 's look at each of these in turn.

(In this example. Japanese children learn hiragana first and then gradually replace words and parts of words with kanji as they progress. when writing verbs (action words) the kanji is used to express the main idea or meani ng and hiragana is used to indicate the function of the verb: I listen is written: Pfl ~ i t The kanji IIH conveys the meaning listen. the same kanji is the root of both the hiragana and katakana symbol.lifi ed version of the kanji 1m (pronounced ka). The word hiragana means rounded/easy to use and indicates both the shape and the relative simplicity of the script. the hiragana symbol tJ\ ( ka) is a simp.t. Hiragana is also used to indicate how to pronounce a kanji when it is first learnt or if it is unusual. The four hiragana show that it is a past action: I listened. In overall appearance. For example. it is called furigana and is written beside or above the kanji . ~ i -t are three hiragana wh ich show that the action is present tense I listen. The same kanji lit) conveys the meaning listen. This wi ll become more apparent once you have worked through units 5 and 9. I listened is written: M ~ i l. the katakana symbol I. For example. Katakana :b 'Y :b 'T The kata of katakana means partial and this is because each katakana symbol was developed from part of a kanji with the same pronunciation. . When used in this way.) The katakana script represents the same set of sounds as hiragana but the symbols are written differently and are used for different purposes.INTRODUGION Hiragana D GtJVJ. this isn't always the case. You will learn more about this in units 5 and 10. comes from 1he left side of the kanji :bn (pronounced 'ka') . Each symbol was developed from simplified kanji with the same pronunciation. the right side ' box ' has been reduced to a slanting line.ample. Hiragana is used to write the grammatical parts of words and sentences and to write Japanese words which don' t have a kanji. For ex. hiragana symbols are rounded in shape and katakana symbols are more angular.J (ka).. The left side remains very similar in the hiragana symbol.

J. There are plenty of hints to aid your learning and you will learn to build stories to remember the meanings of the kanji.'I "?' Y (wokuman) means walkman. notices and warni ngs of the kind you would see all around you in Japan. for pop group names and in headlines.t. 1) Loan words There are also two categories in whi ch katakana is used for writing Japanese words: 3) To make words stand out Katakana makes words stand out in a similar way to writing a word in bold.. Firstly. countries. . ?. Units 4 and 6 to 8 will teach you how to decipher these more complex kanj i giving you the tools to take your study further on completion of this book. Examples include: . Unit 10 introduces a number of reading passages and helps you to decipher them and extract their meaning..Y ::z (Pachinko . they are also used as components of more complex kanji . Two of the units are devoted to teaching the two phonetic scripts. hiragana (unit 5) and katakana (unit 9). You will also encounter different styles of printed and handwritten text. 4) The classification of plants and animals About this book The 10 units which make up this book wil l gradua lly increase your knowledge of written Japanese. cities and personal names: 7 .the Japanese pinball game). :3 7 (Toyota) and r~ 1.·ion..viii BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Katakana has a number of uses.:t . II is used increasingly in advert ising (to make the product stand out).t. (sumisu) = Smith.. T v 1::' (terebi) means teievi!.. 2) Foreign names For example. ital ics or capitals. These fa ll inlo two categories: For example. ~ :IJ (amerika ) = America. ~ ~ (pan) = Paris. About 3% of kanji fa ll into this category but. as you will learn. Units 8 and 10 give you the chance to put your learning into practice.. . Unit 8 introduces you to a number of practical kanji words such as signs. There are lots of practice activities and . for slang words and exclamations. it is used for writing non-Japanese words which have been introduced into the language. Units 1 to 4 introduce mainly kanji which developed from pictures of nature. ~ .

keep enjoyment of. Don't expect to remember everything (even Japanese people forget kanji!) and use the indexes at the back where possible to find words you have forgotten. Acknowledgements Thank you to everyone who has advised me on the writing of this book. use a notebook to write down new words. learning at the top of your agenda! • Find a balance between moving through the book and revi sing what you have learnt. to Niamh Kelly of the Japanese Department. Sue Hart and Carolyn Taylor at Hodder and Stoughton. Robert Gilhooly for providing the photographs. Pacing yourself • Remember that it is YOU who sets the pace . Seikyo Newspaper (14/9192). Sheffield University . then a knowledge of these scripts is essential. and John Rogers for doing all the' cooking! The publishers and author would like to thank the following for the use of material in this book: Kyoto Newspaper Company and Nobuko Kogawa (29/ 10/98) and Kinako Matsumoto. Dublin City University for reading the text and makingJots of useful suggestions. .INTRODUCTION ideas to help you learn and remember these two scripts . you may wish to leave these out and concentrate on reading only. There are sections throughout the book which concentrate on the teaching of written Japanese. Again. to Masae Sugahara and Miyuki Nagai of the School of East Asian Studies. In particular. my students ( including Margaret Teasdale) for being 'gui nea pigs' . Miyuki for the artwork and ideas for mnemonics. • Build up a set of small flashcards with kanji on one side and English on the other to test yourself from time to time. Mavis Pilbeam of the Japanese Department of the British Museum for her thorough and very helpful proof-reading. but if you take your study of Japanese fu rther. You can leave these units out and come back to them later if you wish to concentrate only on kanji . Start your own dictionary too.Masae for the calligraphy and for reading and commenting on the text.

. She has an MA and a PGCE in Japanese and has been the Co-ordinator of Japanese for Derbyshire County and Derby City Councils.x BEGINNER'S WANESE SCRIPT About the author Helen Gilhooly has lived and worked in Japan and has extensive experience of teaching Japanese and writing teaching materials at secondary school and adult level. She is also a teacher trainer of Japanese at Nottingham University. Previous publications include Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese (Hodder and Stoughton).

Look at these developments: a (sun) developed something like this: -.4 is going to be on ~* (kanji) and by the end of these four units you will have learnt to recognise 58 ~* (kanji) characters and also to understand the meanings of words made up from combinations of these. standardised into regular shapes with rules about how to write them correctly. These two concepts are connected because the rising and setting of the sun defines a day.~~j: ~ .1 UNIT 1 Ii V 3b1: .. For example: JJ a is the is the il. over time.ill Dai ikka (hajime nil Introduction In the introduction to this book you learnt about the history and development of the Japanese writing system and about the three different scripts or writing forms: () f. These pictures were gradually.(katakana).* (kanji) symbol for sun il"'i= (knnji) symbol for moon As you learnt in the introduction. J.' As well as sun it also has the meaning day. However. tJ{ 1" (hiragana). and ~* (kanji).I (moon) developed something like this: ~ ~ E ~)j~Fl . ~* (kanji) were written originally as pictures of the world which the ancient Chinese saw around them. il*" (knnji) characters are ideographs. 11 7 iJ t. This means that each character represents a whole object or idea. the pictures which each m~ (kanji) developed from can be very useful in helping you to remember the meanings. The focus of Units 1. . .

l1l'i*" 111{ A-li'"? -C (ganbatte) .I at the top of the opposite page.. J. look at pictures 1.? (yonde mimasho) Let's have a go at reading! The aim of this section is to give you the opportunity to work out for yourself the meanings of~* (kanjI) by linking them to pictures of the objects they represent. W'CA.• stone 10) 6. Try to match the shape of the pictures to the ~~ (kanji) characters.good luck! 1) 2) gold 5) 6) tree 7) wood 8) forest ~ mountain 9) ) • • "/' / ' ".. The ~* (kanji) you will start with all have meanings linked to nature and the world which surrounded the ancient Chinese. 12) water bamboo ground nver rice field . To carry oul this activity.\?~* l.2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT As well as moon it also has the meaning month. You can see from these two examples that Ii*" (kanji) do not necessarily have only one meaning but can represent a number of associated ideas. These two concepts are connected because the length of a month (28 days) is measured by the progress of each new moon..12 below and then see if you can link them to the (kanji) a.

. ~ ± ...... .ichi) Explanation 1 ~ (e) Picture ~1Ili (eigo) English Look at the following artist's impression of the sequence o f progressive changes. T .- .. -"J' .lL ' 'I ~ "I ... ifi* u. "* d) EO * e)tt f) I) 1< JWJIIt(kanji) C haracter (kaisetsu ... 'k ... .. /. ~ cL~t.... . ~ ~ 71<-I' '-j' ~/ 'r'r ~ it bamboo fire * *' tree wood forest water ground . . )II .. . :k....~~ 4 ~!t.....:L .... from standardised 1l ~ (kanjI) character back to original picture....1:1 . rfh mountain n ver gold/money rice field -+ /..+. g) .) III b) )II h) k) ± 15 j) Check your answers at the back of the book then look again at the pictures and see if you can env isage how the pictures became the standardised il¥ (kanji) which are used today... 14..n&L EO ffi -> ffi ~ -$- 1< ... :t.Ij ~ ~ £ ~..... ... ' . W ..±.UNIT 1 3 il* (kanj') . 1t -> 11 ..

. *-.U< 9) )11 * m 1<. jJ.ichi) How well can you remember the il* (ku.. I) 2) 3) 4) 5) ill 1i 6) 7) 8) .G -. ± sun. earth . j( *.'1i. Jl JO ~ Jb. 9 --'> stone moon sun Fl--'>8-'J3. water. 'it lIl: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) m) water ( moon ( ) ) earth ( ) river ( ) tree ( ) forest ( ) fire ( ) IO)± II ) 12) ~ 13) 13 14) Jl '* stone ( ) sun( ) mountain ( I ) rice field ( ) bamboo ( ) wood ( ) n) gold ( ) Ml&= Look at the (kaisetsu .i) and meanings you have learnt so far? Test yourself by linking each ~¥ (kanji) with its English meaning.~iJ 8 ~ G . The fi rst one is done for you . ~ MtW- (renshu .ni) Explanation 2 il* (kanjI) that follow and remind yourself of their meanings: a. fire. gold. '8: Activity 1 Did you notice how two trccs are used to represent a wood and three trees a forest? You will learn more about this type of ~* (kanji) in Unit 2. i'z.• (kanji) C haracter BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ilYi<J< fit (e) Picture ~m(eigo) English :. tree. moon.

-W (yomu renshu) Reading practice Throughout the book. JJ is the fi rst part for the days of the week. of Monday and so forth.both start with ' T ' (but do not confuse with Tuesday). If you connect the ideas of war and fi re in your mind then you will remember that FIREday is Tuesday! 71< Water also represents Wednesday . In fact.day ( ) Friday ( ) f) Saturday ( ) g) Sunday ( ) iilM:r. the days of the week are written using three (kanji) characters.(kanji) in the left column with the corresponding day of the week in the right. ~ Gold/money also represents Friday . this section will give you opportunities to put into you have learnt.(kanji) represents which day of the week.easy to remember because both start with 'W'! Tree also represents Thursday . a a) b) c) d) e) 7) * Monday ( ) Tuesday ( ) Wednesday ( ) T hun. Tuesday derives from the word Tiw who was the Norse god of war. practice and fu rther develop your reading of (kanji) in Activity 2 represent the fi rst part of the words for The the days of the week.UNIT 1 These ~*" (kanji) are also used to represent the first part of the words is the first part of Sunday.Friday is often payday! ± Earth/soil and Saturday. Moon --+ MOONday or Monday as it has become in English.J *- *- Sun --+ SUNday. This is the beginning of the weekend and a good day for working in the garden! ~ . In English. Fire also represents Tuesday.-W= I) 1<2) 3) ± 4) 71< 5) fl 6) ~ (renshu . The first two are easy! • a a j. The other two are III and they represent day. if*i#i*- il*a . Here are some tips to help you remember which ~*.ni) Activity 2 Link the ~*.

You will learn more about these in Unit 2. a This is what the comp lete words for the days of the week look like in i1I!'l' (!wnj<): IHIH! flllIH! !kIlIH! JJ<ilIH! *iIfI!l'l ~iII!l'l t Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday ±iII!l'l Saturday When two or morc ~¥ (kanji) are combined in this way to produce new words and meanings. 7l* 131*' 151. It is highly fashionable in the Japanese music world (and not only there) for group names and song titles to be written in English. for example.san) Activity 3 The following is part of a music events column from a teenage magazine. Tues. Now have a go at answering the questions that follow the text. ~ ~ . !Ill represents the concept of weekday but simply remember them as together representing the day part of Monday. the way.6 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Vou already know and have learnt that it can mean day. This is like writing 'Mon. Tuesday. The effect of the script is often far more important than the meaning of the words.' . Notice that the groups and events are written partly in English script. Notice that only the first (knnjl) for each of the days of the week is written. etc. ~ed ' in English. you will often see the days of the week written with the first ~* (kanji) only. (Rancid Japan Tour and Michelle Gun Elephant from the extract are just two examples of this!) The day of the week 00 which each of the events will take place is written in brackets next to the date (13th.W':::: (renshu . on calendars and diary sheets. they are called ~lm (jukugo) or compound words.30th).

SOO(7 " .*. (kanji) are written is called 1!. '". .UNIT I THE MICHEllE GUN ELEPHANT rWORLD PCHYCO BLUES TOUR 'ALL STANDINGf MAXIMUMl ' *J ""/a'IiJ"'} ... Tour Rancid Japan Tour World Connection ' Kool'.2OCI IIIJOP ENI6 : 00-STARTl8 : ~7JW{t. ~""!1 :n" ~ .1'*1 H.. we learn how to write the letters of the alphabet correctly at school). How many events a re taking place on : 6) 7) 8) 9) a Friday a Saturday a Thursday? Which day of the week is not represented in the events extract'! (kaku renshu .f -t>-t~tt't' ~ 2.. 8?"~""~1I""-~-~-9600 eIMi~y[llowe«a/~ 7 17 ( B) I 2.ichi) Writing practice 1 This section will introduce you to some simple rules for writing ~¥ (kanjI). You will learn some further rules in Unit 2 and will then practise writing some of the rl¥ (kanji) you have learnt. The rules for writing il* (kanji) arc very precise and Japanese children spend many hours of their school life learning and practising the correct order for writing each (kanji). ATSUSHt!IlJI<IJHIP On which day of the week do the following events take place? I) 2) 3) 4) 5) Rotten Orange Tour Down Beat The Michelle Gun Elephant . (In a similar way.-'l-~7-.F ~ Mi (kakijun) or stroke order. OOO-~ 2 ot*ItJI/DJ KEN ·B/l KOVA.-t>·711-"" ~~.. 1!}<""'!1l- I!* ."y"... Each s ingle part of a ~* (kanji) is caJled a stroke a nd the order in which if.

Alternatively you could use graph paper and have four smaller squares making up one larger square. i9IJ (rei) Example: three .• • ...t ) . ~ - . the final stroke is the bottom horizontal one. This will help you to balance left and right. fJlJ (rei) Example: river ) 1 t.t-±-. • • • • . you can use clear squares or use smaller squared paper/graph paper for practising and perfecting your technique. Here are some simple rules to get you started and examples to copy.--i?lJ (rei) Example: earth .• il* BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT The Japanese use squared paper when they arc learning how to write because it helps to ensure that ~* (ka nj i) are all the same size and are balanced correctly. If you can. and top and bottom of each (kanjI). Rule I : Horizontal nt~ (kanji) strokes are written from left to right. The il¥ (kanji) taught in the earlier units will also have an example written in this type of square so that you can copy exactly from the book. ± • Notice you work downwards. . use large squared graph paper which is subdivided into fou r smaller squares during the initial stages of learning to write.. ) I 1 Rule 3 : Where the il~ (kanji) character has an intersecting horizontal and vertical stroke. .t . • . the starting stroke is usually the horizontal one (but there are some exceptions).. Once you feel confident.) • Rule 2: Vertical jJ~ (kanji) strokes are written from top to bottom.

stone) . you have learnt to write the fo llowing ~*" (kanjI) in th is section: = _JII _±. river. l c1 0 (1 R £3 . T r.. you fi ll in this part before writing the bottom line of the square. . sun. .*.-\ . . --_ _.a.kl D Using these six rules.UNIT 1 9 Rule 4 : A lefthand diagonal line is written before a rightband diagonal line. Example: sun 8 8 . Rule 6: When the square contains other strokes within it. . earth.fj jfu• . .t .t ~ Jf * ll* (kanji).15 (three. ~J (rei) Example: Iree Rule 5: Here is a squ~re . 0 #1J (rei) . . You can combine these rules you have learnt to write .0 (slone): . tree.

there arc some aspects of stroke order which do not fall easi ly into rules and so you also need to learn and practise the stroke order fo r each ~* (ka nji) character. .t. In addition.-J:. As a fi nal note in this section. 4. you will be given lots of help and advice in the writing sections of this book. Do not be daunted by this. and the unit summaries at the back of the book give the stroke orde r for the main (kanjI) taught in each unit.-' ~ (~ liit. Units 2. You w ill also begin to develop your own way of remembering and to apply this to writing more complicated ~~ (kanji).1/.(kanji).1I. because ' practice makes perfect' and if you write (kanji) over and over again and concentrate on the correct stroke order you w ill begin to deve lop a feel for the order in which they are written.* il. any key words or tenns w ill be given at the beginning of the unit. il* The followi ng terms and sub-headings have been used in this un it: m. although it is important to unde rstand and apply the basic rules for writing jl*" (kanji). 6 and 8 contai n a test so that you can evaluate how (kanji) you have learnl up to that well you have remembered the point.-C"".I! il'1' (! 1. In the meantime.*" j~~ I: (owari ni) Conclusion This section in each unit will summarise the main aspects of the unit. iJ. 1W1& jj1J l!I! '&' liit trl!l!'&' {i}( l!I!'&' 11 ~ (~ dai ikka . In this unit you have learnt 14 il~ (kanji).10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Now see if you can write them on square paper in the correct order from memory (refer back to the rules to check when you have finished). Unit I hajime ni Introduction kanji Kanji (Chinese characters) yonde mimasho Let's have a go at reading kaisetsu Explanation renshu Activity/practice yomu renshii Reading practice kaku renshii Writing practice m Example owanm Conclusion The English meanings of these words and phrases wi ll not be given again in future units in order to help you to build up your 11* (kanjI) recognition skills but you can refer back to this list if you need to jog your memory! However. seven compound words (days of the week) and six basic rules for writing if*. however.

to the 14 you have learnt al ready learn the Japanese pronunciation of these nl~ apply your learning to real reading situations learn more about writing Japanese script Key word : jM* Kanji Hajime ni I) Can you remember the meanings of the ll~ you were introduced to in Unit 11 You can see them in the following list. Try matching the pictures with the (a. Most of the introduced in this unit are associated with the human body. ~~a a~a ±~a *~a ~~a *~a ~~a Again. so test yourself and check back to Unit I if there are any you are unsure about.2 • • • • . Yonde mimasho In this section . as with Unit 1. you will be introduced to some new I!=¥ thro~~h the pictures of natural objects that they are derived from.1) that fo llow them. =ilI2 Dai nika UNIT In this unit you will add some new ~¥. In two cases ill!*" il*" . 2) Can you remember which ~* represents which day of the week? They arc li sted below in their full form. Remember it is the first ~* which tells you which day of the week it is. check back to Unit I if you are unsure of any them.

Check your answers to the previous activity with thi s sequence.:.Li7J~ power car/vehicle person 1=1 1+ b) h) JE 'f c) i) d) n1!l Y: e) k) ..~ T f) 1) r~ A M1lIt~ Kaisetsu 1 An artist's impression of the changes fro m standardised iI¥ back to picture follows. 7) child 8) 6) " .2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT (eye and car/vehicle) you may need to imagine the pictures turned on their side to identity them. ') 3) 4) gate woman / \ ') horse ~ ea. t-~-k~j:~j: person woman +-+}--'-j--->.x-->J. ~ mouth 0 1'1 j] ® 11 ) eye 12) foot --- 9) 10) hand a) g) \.y child . ~(e) Picture *m (eigo) English A-+k-.

.d:.w" --> . "f!1):. .E->} car mouth hand foot o O~O~O-O 1'-->f -+ %-+tJ: JL -> /i:.• " r.. Another po int of interest is that 111 originally developed from the picture of a cart which would have been the type of transport or vehicle used when ~* were first developed... . I=Et :h ~ power/strength horse cart/vehicle/car gate ! --. In thi s set of new Ii¥: there is an example of an abstract noun. _* build up Complex ll'¥ The pictorial that you have been introduced to so fa r not only have meanings in themselves but are also used as parts or components of Ii¥: that are more complex.. being portrayed in picture form through the image of the muscles in the ann. In modern times it has taken on the meaning of car..UNIT 2 13 ~(e) Picture ~Mt (eigo) English eye Jf~q ~. iJJ . This section in this unit and throughout the book will introduce you to new ~¥: and new words based on the ~* you have learnt so far. --. ..fEI .. r~ .. 11 (power/strength).. -> b!!l I"J iJ .1'0 -> h.. You actually learnt two of these morc complex tl* . -> ~ l -+ ..

Unit 4 will look at these complex il* in more detail but you can see from these examples that a knowledge ofthc simplcr il* can also hclp you to decipher the more complex ones .9j (man). • iIi (Jukugo) The four you have just been introduced to are created by combining simpler . unlike M. The abstract idea of love is expressed through the love between women and children.14 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT il~ in Unit 1. (tree) with a horizontal line through the " runk' indicates the root of the tree. The meanings of the components arc incorporated into these complex m~ fonns. A D). love). This is a combination of -J. Three separate i1l¥ are used to make up each day.~ can join together and form one ~* (for example. Here are from four more built from simpler ones which you have learnt already.) A0 a *' To summarise the two points in this section: . origin).:. Another way in which iM~ are used to create new meanings is by forming words from two or more separate iI*.. For example. This is where the term ' land of the rising sun' comes from. In other words. (forest) . . Both are created (tree) ~ two trees represent a wood.r:=f means girl ('woman child' ) (Notice that these are two separate ~~. . Here are some more examples: il* ll'i' Compounds a means population ('people's mouths' = number of mouths to feed) ~ iJ means horse power ].(complex il¥) which means lovell ike. They were (wood) and. This is a combination of (sun) and 1) (moon) .r: (woman) and T (child). a (root.) means Japan ('sun's root' describes Japan as the place east of China whe}e the sun ri ses. the man uses his power to work in the rice fields. three trees a fo rest. Notice that the simpler ~~ when used as components of more complex 14¥ may change their shape slightly or appear ' squashed' . ~) or they can form compounds of two or more fi~ (for example. The sun and moon shining together would create a very bright light. You have already been introduced to this idea through the days of the week . *- _* ** .+. tf (like. *' ijJJ (bright). Thi s is made from the components fB (rice field) and j] (power). JJ III means Monday.~ to fonn one complex jl~ .

In other' cases you need to think more laterally or abstractly. For example.LlI ('fire mountain' or volcano). For example.) b) ~T g) 7l< Bl e) j) At) A I'l Once you have thought about the possible meanings of these words. And words are created in a very logical fashio n. For example. An:$ means literally ' human-powered vehicle' and that is what a rickshaw is as the follow ing illustration shows. However. . Can you work out their meanings? (You may want to look back at the il¥ you have learnt so far in Units I and 2 and refresh your memory before trying this activity. look at the list of English meanings that follows and decide wh ich best fi ts each ~* before you check the answers at the back of the book .UNIT 2 15 t!J IlkW- Renshu 1 Some compound words made up of two or three il* fo llow. I) 4) 7) 9) 10) 3) Japanese person volcano 2) boy carnage 5) in the publ ic eye 6) water power gateway 8) manpower a rickshaw (man-pulled carriage) a paddy fi eld (a field fl ooded with water fo r wet rice growing) Kaisetsu 2 You w ill have not iced that somet imes the meanings are a direct 'translation' of the separate ~¥ into their new meaning. once you know what the meanings are they are easy to remember because the pictorial ~¥ act as a visual jog to the memory. A ~ (in the public eye). *.

e ' 001 gate power pc""n hand bright chi ld .. look back throug h the unit and check your answers. the word ' rickshaw' is a corruption of the Japanese word l in-rikisho' . * . Yomu renshii T he way in which dates are written in Japanese is interesting.~ . • .. . ~ . You were introduced to the for moon 11 a nd sun in Unit 1 and you a lso learnt that these ~* have the connected meanings of day and month ~ . ~ .•. A. he re is an activity to help you review the s ingle iM* learnt so far in this unit. r~ . Try saying the Japanese ' rikisha ' and you' l! see what I mean! fj[fI (Fukushii) Review Before continuing any further. • .iE vehicle cae mouth man fool like eye woman hor.so let us look at how this works in practice. ~ .16 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT In fact.. • . Match the following il¥ with their English meanings from the selection in the box .is:.is: 51'1 I 2 1'1 191'1 261'1 ~ ±' 71'1' 141'1 211'1 281'1 61'1 13 1'1 201'1 27 1'1 . vehicle) have had their pronunc iation ' angliciscd ' .Jl first. In English. • . Q . 'jin' (person) has been dropped and the other two words (power. This is how a typical Japanese cale ndar looks for the month of January: il* a a IJ'l ' 1'1 11'1 81'1 1 51'1 221'1 291'1 J'l 21'1 91'1 161'1 231'1 301'1 9< 31'1 101'1 171'1 241'1 311'1 41'1 I I 1'1 181'1 25 1'1 * . 00 . Ir there are any of these characters that yOll are not sure about. Then try the activity in reverse by taking the English meanings from the bo.

Therefore.) *l1li a c) are the days of the month. rd or Ih . = Wednesday) because th is is all that is needed to identify each day of the week.) l!J I!I!fl::::: Renshu 3 On the next page is a calendar from a Japanese travel brochure. I) On which day of the week is a) 1st b) 4th c) 9th d) 14th? 2) How many days in the month fall on a Wednesday and what are they? 3) On which day of the week will IJJ 1 a fall ? (Note that Japanese dates are written in the order: month t hen date.7th). I) What are the starting and fini shing months on this calendar? 2) In which months do the following happen : a) the 2nd is a Tuesday c) the 6th is a Friday? b) the 24th is a Monday 3) On what day of the week is: a) May 5th d) August 21 st b) October 26th e) December 25th? c) February 18th . try answering the following questions. They are shortened in this case to just the first ~~ of the three which you learnt (for exampl e. so they arc assigned a number from I to 12. in English. Japanese months do not have a name as such. a l!J I!I!fl =: Renshu 2 Using the calendar and information just given. For example.UNIT 2 · 17 a) is the month written in numerals and il~ . 1 JJ is January (the first month) and 12 JJ is December. nd. (This is rather like writing Tues. 6 JJ is June (the sixth month). etc. b) are the il~ for the days of the week (as you learnt in Unit I). Wed. Look at it and answer questions 1-4. Each number is followed by (si milarly in English we fo llow the dates with st. ISI.

day.I.:) e) 1211251'1 (7l<) c) 51151'1 (JI) f) a) 211141'1 (±) d) 911101'1 (Ell 41JI a (~) . Remember the Japanese order: month. July 7th) Golden Week (29th April-5th May) Emperor's Birthday (December 23rd)? l!J Ilkfll!!l WI] Renshu 4 Convert the fo ll owing random dates into English as in the examples. date. Rei ( I) 8ft3 /II] Rei (2) a (!J() = Tuesday 3rd August (order: August 3rd Tuesday) 101126 a (~) = Friday 26th October b) 1111201'1 Ot. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 4) On what days of the week do these Japanese festivals fall : a) b) c) d) e) Girls' Day (March 3rd) New Year's Day Tanabata (Star Festival.

notice that kawa (the kunyomi) when written in romaji (romanised script or alphabet) is written in lower case and SEN (the onyomE) in upper case. 2) Rules for using kunyomi and onyomi As a general rule. Kawa was the Japanese word for rivcr and so when il¥ were introduced from China this word was linked to the ll$ character )11 . _* . Here is an illustration of this. the kunyomi is used for single words whereas the onyomi is used for compound ~$: words of two or more il$ . if you wish to focus on just understanding the meaning of M$ then you can miss these sections out throughout the book or come back to them later. By the way. There are exceptions _ * . lIN and KO are-the onyomi of A and 0 respectively. There will be further examples and the opportunity to practise new infonnation and rules as you progress through the book so do not worry if you have understood only some of the details so far. The onyomi has developed from the . As suggested in the introduction. the kunyomi (Wl[iJl~) or Japanese reading and the onyomi (ifn~) or Chinese reading.. This system is used in many Ii$: workbooks and dictionaries and is also followed in this book. For example. The kunyomi is the native Japanese word.UNIT 2 _*O)iWE~jj Readings (Kanji no yomikata) This section wil l teach you about reading in Japanese. original Chinese pronunciation but over the centuries it has been adapted to and become part of the Japanese language. nYi* 1) Jlm~ (kunyomi) and 'j}'m~ (onyomi) In the int roduct ion you learnt t hat there are two ways of reading il~ in Japanese. a) Single words A (person) is pronounced hilo (kunyomE) 1=1 (mouth) is pronounced kuchi (kunyomE) il* _* b) Compound words The above if$: make up the compound word A D (popul ation) which is pronounced JINKO. )II (river) can be pronounced SEN (onyomi) and kawa (kunyomi) .

e of end) ta (a of mat) kane ta take hi ta-kc (a of mat. u of blue) ts u-c hi (tsu is o ne syllable. tsuki hi a (hinto) Hints: Pronunciation There a re five vowel sounds in Japanese. These are D. earth slone moon sun tsuchj ish. i of hit) mi-zu (i of hit. ll'j< LlJ Jif ~ 17 m 1<.fHi Renshu 5 In this unit you are going to concentrate on the kunyomi (Japanese reading) only. looking al the 1l~ and saying them ll* from m emory. ~ Meaning mountain nvcr gold/ money rice field bamboo fire tree wood Kunyomi yama tama Pronunciation ya·ma (a of mat) ka-wa (a of mat) ka-ne (a of mat. They are always pronounced in the same way.20 BeGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT to the rules about when to use kunyomi and onyomi but these will be pointed out to you when necessary and explained. ~ . i of hit) mo-ri (0 of hot. and there will be lots of reinforcement activities too.?sc readings. Look over these and practise saying them. In the following list are the you learnt in Unit I with their kunyomi and a guide to how to pronounce th. chi of chin) i-shi (i of hit) l<>U-ki (l<>U is one syllable. e of end) (i of hit) (i of hit) ha-ya-shi (a of mat. i of hit) (i of hit) * *" ± '* 1i }J ki hayashi mori mlZU forest water ground. u. Then see how well you can remember them by covering up the kunyomi column. A general guide to their pronunciation can be seen in the list just given and can be summarised as follows: a as in mat i as in hit u as in blue e as in end 0 as in hot . e and o. i.

i) Tick the correct 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ta il*: b) Ell b) ~ b) 15 b) W b) !k 0) )II 0) l!it 0) 0) mon ish. the kunyomi and the meaning in English.the il~ itself. fire and day are the same . a il*- ~ . the of words which are pronounced in the same way but which have different meanings.before trying the following activity. The sound tsu is an unfamiliar one in English . These differences in meaning are indicated by the spelling or the context or both. ka"" k. The difference in meaning can be understood from reading or from the context.c and i. c) mizu iii) Now you a re going to test your unde rstanding of the three aspects of il* you have learnt . There are many examples of Japanese words which have the same pronunciation but a re written with different il¥. There are many examples in English. c) lake ki kawa c) ishi c) mor.UNIT 2 21 These vowels are attached to consonants to make new sounds but remember.it is one beat or syllable. You may have noti ced that the readings of 9<.fI:t\ Renshii 6 How well can you remember the kunyomi reading and pronunciation of each jl!:J!:? You may want to look back at the readings on the previous list and practise saying them oul aloud .iii) to match the first item as in the examples: . ' squash' the I and s together as you say it. too.they are both pronounced hi. You will link these three aspects by choosing one from each of two categories (a. the pronunciation of each vowel re mains constant.looking at the iI* as you do so . 0) 'It 0) ± 0) ~ 0) )II 0) ± a 0) * 71< ii) This time tic k the correct kunyomi: I) ~ 2) 'It 3) fl 4) ~ 5) 71< 0) kane a) ta 0) Isuchi 0) hayashi 0) mori b) b) b) b) b) kawa hayashi Isuki c) k.

)If bamboo Isuchi moon Isuki wood mori gold forest hayashi l!J tU'l-t Renshu 7 The following activity gives you the opportunity to use the kunyomi for ~* learnt so far in a rcal rcading situation. Many English surnames also have literal meanings (for example. Although 1l* used surnames have literal meanings (for example. c) forest ii i) c) i3 iii} ki c) earth iii) ish.) day a) 71< i) ki a) mOrl i) wood a) )If 3) yama 4) gold 5) i) mountain a) ' " it 6) m iz.. However. they are known as names not meanings. a) tsukN .~ used in surnames are often fairly simple ones including some of those you have learnt in Units I and 2. Japanese surnames are made up of either single ~~ or two or three compounded together. names are an exception to this rule.22 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT {JIJ Rei t la a) JI b) i3 i) rice field. ii) moon.) !k 7) stone 8) a) Ell ish. moon . The . 71< c) nver iii) tsuch. the Japanese do not think of them in this way. Robinson) but again.r. * .u i) kawa a) wood i) take a) water b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) '" hi hay ashi trce it rive r ~ kan e c) !k ii i) mlzu c) ishi iii) fo rest c) IlJ iii} wood c) !k iii) mori bamboo tsuk. You learnt at the beginning of this section that in general the onyomi is used for com]X>und words. Hill. c) it iii) river c) tree iii) ki * ± 9) ka"" 10) "" i) a} i) a) i) a) i) sun 'such. When saying Japanese surnames you use the kunyomi. the surname 11"LlJ (Takeyama) literally means 'bamboo mountain ').J ii) moon b) Isuch.. iii) gold c) hi iii) earth WIt Rei} I) fi . Rivers.. in _* .J c) Ell.

For example. 4- --"'. Rules 1.-. Cl a . --. Vou wi ll learn some further rules and . the highest horizontal line is written before the vertical line. once you are familiar with these. ' hand'.UNIT 2 23 Can you say these common surnames in Japanese: a) :Ij. For example. Usually. you will have a go at writing ~$: in the correct order. How do you say these names'! i) ~ III j) III is pronounced ' da' instead of ' ta ' I) Illlll m) tt III k) 'lilll JIIIll In Unit I you learnt some basic rules for writi~.~ jM*. and then you work downwards. 0 -\3. Thi s is how 'mouth' is written (notice that the shape is different from the square). . oj / . Rule 5: Vou also learnt in Unit I how to write a square. .\ .4/ / Rule 4 : Diagonal lines follow the same rule of writing the left diagonal before the right. where two lines intersect. Now you are going to revise these rul es with some new ~$: you have learnt in this unit. 'person ' .3: You learnt in Unit I that you write from left to right and from top to bottom. 0) ttlll b) ~Ill f) ~ c) ~Ill g) :>!elll d) IllJII h) 'liJ II For the following surnames (i. Note: the short top stroke is written from right to left.m).

§ And ' rice field' (but noti ce this is an exception to Rule 3 because the vertical intersecting line inside the square is written be fore the $I ill \ Cl III ffi EEl Here are two further rules.f} f?f . For ex.ample. . ' wood' . 'eye'.f r~ . you write the bottom line last. . the top section is written first. § l horizontal). Rule 7: Where a ~~ has a distinct left and right part. .f . the left section is written before the right and where it has a distinct top and bottom part.t Note that the left section is smaller than the right.24 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Rule 6: When there is a middle part to the square. For example. tilII A Fl .

For example.I Ll J-J . you write the 'axjs' first followed by the left side and then the right side. FE] Fri - r r r F' r1 F1 p~ I Rule 8: Where a Wi¥: is symmetrical with a central 'axis' . 6 and 7 to write 'gate' . 7K ~ j/ /'~ • j 71 7Y 7K And 'mountain' is another similar instance .if ""- ~ You combi ne Ru les 5.UNIT 2 25 And 'forest' is similar. A~ - -r * • .f-. d:i. ' water' . .

The rules given in these two units will give you general guidance in most cases but they are not exhaustive so pay attention to the stroke order for individual il¥ and remember that there are exceptions to rules. Then use the wriling sections and charts for Units I. (water) III (mountain) You can check your answers by looking back through the writing sections of units I and 2.you have learnt so far. You have also learnt to read dates and have been introduced to the readings of some il*. For 1.. Owari ni In this unit you have been tntroduced to 16 new single il* as well as 14 compound il* words and 13 Japanese surnames. '8/ ~~ ~*O)lilt""1J t:y~ 1iJ lililt "" i}'lilt"" jukugo fukushii kanji no yomikata kunyomi onyomJ hinto Compound Kanji words Review Kanji readings Japanese reading Chinese reading Hint. J) .4: Renshu 8 write the following iil* )II (river) = (three) 11 (power) A (person) exception to Rule 3) Rules 5 and 6: a (sun) Rule 7: ~ (moon) m(rice fi eld - # (wood) it (bamboo) Unit 6) Rule 8: tl' (small - :. And you have reviewed writing rules and learnt two new ones.W A Can you applying the rules you have been introduced to so far? Remember to usc squared paper to achieve the right balance and proportions.26 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT l!J . Rules 1. The following new terms and sub-headings have been used in this unit: W.1<. and 2 to practise writ ing al l the ~¥. it look up their stroke order in the unit-byunit il¥.charts at the back of this book . tip .

2) What do these compound . . i'l.~. fl. jji. EEl . Which is the odd one out? a) Parts of the body: ~. :::r-. !J! • .Jj. indi cates a change in pronunciation from fa to da): a) llJEEI- b) ttllJ c) ~EEI d) ~ e) :OEEl- 5) Can you write the follow ing nl* in thc correct stroke order? ±. .It< People and animals: . (tesuto) Test This section is designed to test how well you have remembered what you have learnt in Units I and 2. 1JIl . fl .~. I) The b) c) d) _* below are grouped by theme.A J-. !k.. llJ .( Abstrnct ideas: }J. f. 7J *.UNIT 2 27 'j.~ words mean? «f) is a new word) : b) fI* f) !1J3( 3) Match these dates to the festivals and holidays on the right : 12Jl25f1 b) l Jl lfi c) 7Jl4f1 d) 3Jl2 1fl e) 4Jllfl f) loJl31fl g) 5Jl l fl a) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) April Fool ' s Day Christmas Day Hallowe'en (October 3 1sl) May Day (May lsI) Spring Equinox (March 21st) New Year's Day American Independcnce Day (July 4th) 4) Can you say these Japanese surnames? (. 1+ Days of the week: Jl.=f-. ±.'f-.*. fJ .*.

• . In Japanese there are ~* which represent the words for numbers.2. However. . Yonde mimasho Two systems of numbering have already been used in t his book. These are the ili=numbers \-10: . etc. . date..=:"3 Dai sanka 3 UNIT In this unit you will • learn to read numbers in Japanese • use these numbers in real reading situations • practise writing ~* Hajime ni In Unit 2 you learnt how to read dates. French: un. trois . They have been used alongside Arabic numbers in this book to number activities and explanations. day. You are now going to review this by reading the following dates . two. every language has its own words when counting (English: one. ).3 .. One of these is the Arabic number system ( 1. T h is system is internationally recognised and is used widely in Japan. deux. (Remember that the order in Japanese is month. Choose the Engl ish equivalent from the selection below the dates.) a) 4J1211'l Uk) b) 1I}'l51'l (±) c) 9}jIOI'l Cd<) i) Wednesday 2 1 April Ii) Wednesday 10 September iii) Tuesday 2 1 April IV) Saturday 5 November If you are still unsure about reading dates then look back at the section on dates in Unit 2 to refresh your memory. three .. .). .

T hese ~¥= represent abstract concepts and so instead of developing from pictures.¥. fo r ' nine ' jL so loo k carefully at the Thi s looks similar to the difference.UNIT 3 29 The follow ing section gives some tips fo r memoris ing thesc ~¥ and you may already have thought of some. There is also a picture to help you remember the difference: you bend your ann inwards to flex your muscle 1L has a Q-shape. =. nl* en).nol unlike the English word ' rocket'! With a little imagination. 1i When you look at Ihis . you can trace the arabic number 5 in it.'one line.. 2. two lines.j) ( power/strength). First.- Kaisetsu 1 ( I. You have learnt one other abstract ftl¥= so fa r . Try it! /'\ The number 6 in Japanese is pronunced 'roku' . The A rabic number 8 turned on its side is also the mathematical symbol for infinity. Imagine that the is a road leadi ng inlo the distance and on into infinity! _* . though. you should sec a rocket laking off in this ~*! ~ -. three lines' 1m is a fou r-sided square and so is easy to relate to the number 4. = Here are some tips for remembering the jl¥ for numbers: ft 'I' ~ -t If you tum this jl¥ upside-down. a continental number 7 emerges. ~T " 't"" ~ rt ~ t }\. they are made up ofa series of points and lines. MllI!. 3) are easy as you have probably noticed . a word on how they developed. Now look at the pictu~es.

+. 9 Ii) 2. This looks like the ~¥ tilted to one side. The Roman numeral for 10 is X. -I:. 2. .3 . 6 10.8.fla) b) Renshu 1 1) Match the sequence of~~ numbers on the left with their equivalent sequences on the right: c) . / \ .4. ~ . + . e) . 4.. / \ .. . .6.. 6. 6. I!!l.:Ji. 10 IV) 1. :Jt" + I\. b) c) I!!l . 6. I find that it really helps to try to associate a new ~* with an idea or picture in your mind (and you will be learning more about this in future units).3.. .2 4 .. I!!l.. 9. f) 1\.~ 3) The odd one out. 4 v) 1. /\ . I!!l. :Jt" 1\. / \ . 8 iii) 8. Point at each of these ~* numbers in sequence then look back to the section above to check that you are correct: = .30 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT :tL + With a lot of imagination this looks like a combination of the ~* for 8 and for 1. 5.. 2. :Ji. = .. The following sequences of ~* numbers all have one number missing when matched with the Arabic numbers on the right. I!!l. 4. ~ d) . )0 .. .6.7..5.8.. and of course 8 + I = 9.8. Once you have begun to remember new ~* you will probably not need to refer to these ideas again but they can really help at first. -..~. Which number is it? a) J\ . -1:. d) ~ - +.7 2) The following sequence of numbers \-\ 0 is out of order. ~ :Ji =. 7 vi) 10.. h . 1L ~ I!!l -I:. You may find your own ways of remembering these and other ~* . ~ + J\ 1.8 2. . 3.:Jt"I\.5. .9. i) 3. 4.

li+.. 90 follow in sequence. Numbe rs 11-99 These are easy to read because Ihey are logically made from combinations of the il* numbers 1. 50.=:.. . 40. 1L-t-. Then check with the above sequence to see jf you are right. It is nOI neccessary to write them all oul for you. and so on : .1L+ 2) Now the same sequence has been jumbled up.1::+.. +1L . WI . 60..UNIT 3 _ * 31 build up (1). 1\+. 23.+. 70.1\+. Can you see the pattern? The numbers 11. =+. Return the numbers to the original sequence by pointing at each in turn . Next you are going to practise reading the sequence of numbers from 21 .1::+. +=. +1\.li+. 80. You then add the relevant unit to make 21 . =+. +=. '=:''''. 30. =+.21 (in sequence) to give you an idea of how it works. :::::+. +I!!I. i-= = 10+2 = 12 +JI.!I.30.I!!I+. This lime they have already been jumbled up.. Can you put them in the correct sequence? a) f) =+1L =+/1.I!!I+. 22. +1::. +li.10. but here are the numbers 11./I.. =++ .= 2 x 10+1 =2 1 = + '=:'= 2 x 10+2=22 '=:' + == 2x 10 +3 = 23 ~ .= 10+1= 11. +.:::: Renshu 2 I) The numbers 20. Look at them and make sure you can recognise them before moving on to the next activity.-t3) How are you getting on so far? Remember you can always look back to earlier sections if you need to refresh your memory. b) g) =+= =+= c) h) =+1\ =+- d) i) =+-t c) =+I!!I =+li j) :::::+ Now check your answers at the back of the book.19 are made up of 10 plus the relevant unil: 20 is made up of a 2 in front of a 10: Remcmber the order like this: 2 x 10 (:::: 20). =+.

Using a little ·tw isted logic (!) you can let the T represent ' te·n' and the Th represent 'thousand' .+1. + J\.000 = 100.000. Ii It. ignoring the line at the top. ~ Yo u can trace the numerals 100 in this. 0) j) 0) +-1. The Japanese system of counting is slightly different.000 P1 yen (Japanese currency) _* ~ year Here are some visual cl ues and ideas to help you associate each ~~ with its meaning: Turned on its side the looks like this: lJIl -=.000 . in Ih is section you are going to pull together everything you have learnt so far about numbers and have a go at reading a random selection of numbers between 1 and 99! Try writing down your answers in arabic numbers and then checking them at the bac k of the book. Hence the ~~ symbol If you look carefully at this.000.32 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 4) Finally..) :IL +:lL a) 1L f) b) g) '*+ = c) 1. (1000) T his looks like the ~~ for ten (+) but with an extra part on the top in the same way that 1000 looks like 10 but with 2 extra zeros! ( 10. q) J\." It'? "C (ganbatte) Good Luck! += h n+ ) k = += I) I!!!+= m) n+1!!! ) p) J\. there is an extra word to represent this amount. Five new =f 1000 n 10.000 = 1.000 = 100 x 10. B _* a T 100 build up (2). i --1. For example: +n = 10 x an 10. To work out larger amounts of this unit. . you can see a leaning ' T' on the left and. How did you get on? You might fi nd that this is a good place to lake a break and digest what you have learnt so far before moving on to the next section.000) In the Western counting system we count in thousands until we reach one million . multiply the number by 10. Instead of saying ten thousand. =+-1.ten thousand! ( 100) il* n n. you can also make out the shape of an ' h'.

T. then try the next section . Which one is missing? :lL a e) a = 13 = 13 c) g) lia d) h) /\13 -ta Illia 2) How do you write these il~ number amounts in Arabic nUf!lbers? a) /\ 'fe) ='f- b) f) li 'fc) -t'f'f. and in Japanese: Words: -}) P) Numerals: ¥ 6 The c haracter Pl. is easy to recognise and remember.000. All currencies can be written in words or numerals. six dollars or $6. JJ . represented by this ~~ and by the international symbol ¥ .000 (. he nce the visual clue leads you to the meaning 'year'.v) 900.fi ~ a) Renshu 3 b) f) 1) Put these multiples of 100 into the correct o rde r ( 100 .900).000 (ii) 1000. Look back over this section and remind yourself of the visual clues to the meanings.000 w ith their Arabic number equivalent below them: a) = JJ b) :lLJJ c) :IL+JJ d) aJJ e) 'f-JJ (. bamboo decorations a re put o utside the fro nt of houses at New Year. For example: six pounds or £6.000 4) Combinations o f a.UNIT 3 33 fq The Japanese currency is the yen. because it is a suffix to money amounts.000 (v) 10.(0' ~'f-) d) 1\'f- 3) Match these multiples of 10.000 (iii) 20. ~ Here is a visual image fo r remembering this il~ : Can you make o ut the left half of the il~ for bamboo (ft) at the front and a ho use shape behind? In Japan. L!J .) 90.

Let us look at these usi ng the year 1999 as the model. Notice that the iro* for year (~) is written after the numbers.71Pl {:.9-9 Theycar is written in arabic numbers. norice that ~ is still used.:1L::JL~ 3) 1999 ~} 99 &F Here 1999 is written as it looks.9'-Ji1l Pl ="9'.Pl ¥7500 ¥300 ¥3000 ¥70. I) 1-:11. ~ . \. Zero is usually written as O. 5) Match the the right: a) b) 1M¥ money amounts on the left with their equivalent on i) i i) ii i) iv) v) vi) vii) c) d) e) f) g) = 1IPl Ji9'-Pl 1IJi+Pl 1L411Ji-t.9.fll!!! Renshu 4 I) In this activity you are going to match the years written in ~* with those in Arabic numerals: a) 2000 4- b) 19634c) 1960 4d) 16164e) 1863 42) Now match the dates written in ~* with those written in Arabic: .34 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Put these amounts in order from the smallest to the largest: a) e) = 11 = 9'- b) f) = 9'-= 11 = 9'-71 c) g) = 1171 = 71 d) = + 71 Now write out these amounts (in the new order) in Arabic numbers.ty {:. The first example is rarely used and the most commonly used is the third.OOO ¥5000 ¥450 ¥150 WlllIt= Kaisetsu 2 More about dates There arc a numberofways)n which the year can be written in Japanese.1:f1L+jL~ This is 1999 written out in full using il¥ numbers 2) -:It.

or take 25 years away from the Western year to arrive at the Showa year: (ShOwa 1985 = 85 .4' ~ 1999 Arabic numbers can also be used: 3f.fl = + .~. The previous era was called 1Il). The PBfU (ShOwa) era lasted for 63 years from 1926.li!(. A good way of calculating these is to have an ' anchor' year. Akihito's father.25 = RB.a 5) = fl = + .fl=+1!!l a 6fl24a 3fl31 a c) 6fllsa d) llfllla e)Sfl2 1a f) lofl2a a) b) Dates are most often written with Arabic numeral s but not always. I) + .3fJ& (Heisel) which means ' Attainment of Peace'.)~ 1963 Alternatively.fl + J\. began his reign (the Emperor in modern Japan has a symbolic role with no political power) in 1989 and the new era is called.+. Hirohito who died in 1989 is. your year of birth.fl+. add 25 years to the Shi)wa year to get the Western year.89. Heisei 11th year To match this to the Western calendar.(nengO) system. When the year is written according to the :f¥. Kaisetsu 3 The Japanese calendar Used alongside the Western calendar in Japan is the Japanese system of :f¥. a 3) +fl = a 4) J\. it follows this pattern: fJ&+~:f¥. 3) Now write out the dates 1. he is referred to by the name of his era.~ (nengO) or era names.a 6) t<. AkihilO. MliIt::::. There fore: -'i'JiI1.fn (ShOwa) which means 'Enlightened Peace'. Once an Emperor has died.fU:A+~ 20th year) ~ 20 + 25 ~ (19)45 (Showa 60th year) .a 2) t<.6 (in (2» in English .UNIT 3 3. therefore. 11 ~ (ShOwa) years are counted from and including 1926. then count from here: IIBfU 1I!U1I= +J\. now referred to as Emperor Showa. for example. The present Emperor. you count up from and includ ing 1989 which was Heisei 1st Year.4' 1IlI'!II= +4' (Sh "wa38thy". An era is defined by the length o f rule of each Emperor.

Japanese business cards are often produced with Ihe Japanese script written vertically on one side and the Romanised script (for the benefit of non-Japanese clients) written horizontally on the other.WA Renshii 6 I) iM* numbers are most often used when the text is written vertically (see question 3. The following phone numbers are written horizontally.36 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ~ . Can you convert them into Arabic numerals? .fI ~ ¥omu renshu This section will pull together everything you have learnt in this unit and give you the opportunity to read numbers and dates in authentic contexts. p.flJi Renshii 5 I) Match the following equivalents: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) -'fJ& (Heisel) years with their Western calendar 1994 1990 1997 1992 1998 1995 The fi rst year of an era is written not with means ' beginning': (one) but with 7G which -'fJ&J'"G:tp = Heisei l Si year (1 989) 2) Match the followin g equivalents: 1IU:fu (Showa) years with their Western calendar i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 1939 1926 1973 1988 1950 1968 lbliu. . Notice that the area code is in brackets and a horizontal line separates the two parts of the phone number. Do not confuse this with the number ~ (one). 37).

1128 (±) o /' t: /' ** 3) The advertisement reproduced here is for a Japanese theatre production.= -t: 0 I!lI (0 = -t::IL) ==. 37 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (0= ) ( 0 :IL-t:) = Ii}\ --=-t:-t: Ii:IL= -1!lI=-' - (0 1:.1 68 (8) '!I-t!)11 t: )117 '98~ 12F... 'Y -Clv r~ Iv -:7) T.UNIT 3 . '98~ 12F. When will the conference be held (give the full date) m: a) London (tJ ~ r~ ~) b) Tokyo ( i\[)j() c) Dusseldorf (r~ . date and day of the performance in the Western calendar..1 58 (±) '98~ 12F. Give the year. . month..= 0 ) (0 = ) = Ii:IL= .: * * 2) The following is part of a newspaper advertisement for a series of three conferences.:I.=-Iil!ll =JI...J.

The Japanese learn calligraphy in order to petfcet nYi*" . seven eight mne ten .(ichi) and (ni) sound like ' itchy knee' ! = ~ • • -1:.fi ~ Kaku re nshu 3 In Units I and 2 you learnt eight basie rules for writing and you practised writing all the !!¥ you had learnt in those units. Otherwise.(onyomi) SH1CH KYU NI SHI ICHI HACHI . Turn back to this section in Unit 2 (pp. Check your answers against the Un it 3 chart at the back of the book.iL so.38 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT . If you have worked through Teo'ch Yourself Beginner 's Japanese. Next you are going to learn three simple rules for improving the shape of your strokes by looking at stroke endings. turn to the ill~ chart fo r Unit 3 at the back of the book and learn to say the onyomi reading for the numbers 1.10 in Japanese. i«!*" tt* iJi. .ID ROKU GO SAN i!I' <. ~ Readings (kanji no yomikata) In thi s section you are going to focu s on say ing the numbers 1. Hinto Hints for remembering the numbers Try memorising how to say the numbers in Japanese by relating them to English-sounding words.1) if you need to re· check the pronunciation rules.~ Ji - }\ ttf~ (eigo) English one two three four five if~c?I.10. 20.~ (7)lb'Ch n . For example. R enshu 7 Align the numbers that follow with their and onyomi reading. Ihis is on page 31.

10 fo llow. --~tl 2) GRADUAL STOP.. 3) FLICK. you will be able to improve the way in which you write jf~ even with a pcn or penciL The three main types of stroke ending are as follows: I) STOP ending. . Now you are goi ng to try writing the numbers 1..~ -. . You pull the pen gradually off the page with a sweeping motion. -d \ . Employ the eight rules you have learnt.. written out for you. The stroke flick s up at the end. Look at the stroke order· and the shapes and proportions of the strokes (for example. tL J '\ • • + How did you get on? The numbers 1. the strokes of two and three are not all the same length) then try 10 copy them as closely as possible.UNIT 3 39 the shape of ~~ using brushes but if you pay attention to these three rules. Your pen/pencil stops and lifts off the page. the left side o f eight is a different shape to the right side.t J'\..10 on squared paper (do not look at the stroke order that follows yet). . . and the same for four and six . Think about the stroke endings too from the previous examples. the only exception is the number nine where the vertical (iefthand) line is written first.

:0 ____ " . • BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT • .-.".'\ J ..- - " ->.. ..-.... T 17 . -t it• • t .40 • • . •• • • • • .. ~---- • .•• • • • • -t-" • • -- \z:9 \Z9 • • • 3l :k • • • ........J \ J '\ J :'\ • . -. - ..

If. .~ numbers. Altogether.t-t tL ++ .UNIT 3 41 .. J"-. You have also learnt the il~ for yen and for year. .. 1 1L .q-). ) \. dates and telephone numbers. . . you have learnt 15 single ~~ (plus related compounds) and three new compound words (~$.. . + Owari ni In this unit you have been introduced to numbers up to 10. You have learnt to count in Japanese from 1. You have put this learn ing into practice to read number and money amounts. IIlIln. You have also learnt about the Japanese calendar and have been introduced to two compound ~~ words for the present and previous eras. . .000 through 13 ~* .10 and have applied the writing ru les you learnt previously to writing . . )--~ J .

t:l c) g) til Check the answers to these two activities in the back berore moving on to the next section. They each contain jl~ as part of their structure.) a) Pft e)?F b) f) J!. The you will be introduced to in this lesson are created from simpler some of which you have learnt already. you have nt*" . action or doing words). So far. afC used as components of more complex ~~ (see pp. MiIIt- Kaisetsu 1 The new introduced in the second activity you have just completed can all be used as verbs (that is. il* I) Can you remember the meanings of the a) Q f) I'~ b) l'j: g) '" c) h) A a l!l' i* d) . 13 14). In the following activity you are going to review some key il* to refresh your memory before moving on to learning the new in thi s unit.4 Da. il*"..I!!t.) =r d) ~ h) l'I tlJ 2) Now look at the new il~ in the fo llowi ng list. yonka UNIT In this unit you will • learn to recognise 121i* used in action words (verbs) • be introduced to words made up of combi nations of these and other jl~ • learn more about pronounci ng and writing ~* Hajime ni In Unit 2 you learnt that some themselves. Can you spot them'! (You do not need to know the meaning of the whole ll~ at thi s stage. as well as havin~ meanings in il*" iI¥: that follow ? e) iM*.

7) The mouth spoke words which rose up in lines. (The component meanings are in bold.has which meaning? ~ ~ ~R ~. 4) A neighbour is pressing an ear between the gates of the house to hear the goss ip. 6) At school the child is ex pected to wear a special hat when studying. You t)S~ for person (A) takes this form more complex 1M*-. Meaning: 10 study. A sideways eye above it is a human inspecting it before buying. 2) T his shape } \. You can see an example of this in activity 2 (g). Meaning: to go out. 2) An eye running around on human legs. ~.g) all represent verbs. words. You can see it in 2 (b). ~ W Story clues I) A penon resting by a tree duri ng their work break . Before you can do this. These can be a clue to their meanings and you are going to use these clues to work out the meanings for yourself.UNIT 4 43 not learnt the meaning of any of them but you have identified simpler nY!~ within them. watch or see. Meaning: to hear or listen. Now can you work out which f!Xi=¥. Renshu 1 1 when used as pari of a The foll ow ing seven il~ (a. S) An eye with animal legs is a shell fish. . Meaning: to say. 3) The (~) has the meaning ' animal legs'. here are three extra pieces of information. holiday. ~ n O. The story clues ( 1. Meaning: 10 resl. Meaning : to buy.7) link the different components of each iI~ into a story which indicates the il* meaning.) This technique should help you to remember that meaning. Meaning: 10 look. can see it in 2 (f) . 3) Mountains upon mountains but somewhere there is a way out. I) This shape JL ( i ) when used as a ~~ component has the meaning ' human legs'.

to buy - ~ to rest ~~ tl1 to go out Now read through the stories again. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) to to to to to to to listcn look say study go out buy rest ... e'r .~ 11>0 ~ot.. Lt..S .44 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT How did you get on? The same ~* this time with their m eanings and a picture representation as well can be seen in the fo llowing list..t'. ~ PI··S~ .h it bl. Simply match the on the right. ll* I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1* n: 6) 7) ~ tfl PI! "t J!. ! 11ft to listen. to say ~ tosrudy I -II ". 111:5 '&. walch.. to hear .h .. look ~ V ® blo.) to see.S '0 J! ~ Stt. Do you see how the components of these nl~ help to indicatc their meanings? This is a quick activity designed to help you review the ~* learnt so on the left with the meanings far in this lesson.

These numbers are referred to in the explanations. WIliIt= The have had their component parts numbered. The number in brackets indicates the number of times the component appears. Kaisetsu 2 handwritten iM* which follow t1f. 3) ' Human legs'. t) JL human legs (x 2) 2) ~ to say (x 2) 3) IJ mouth (x 3) 4) 5) 6) ± 'f a e._ I) This upper part looks like ± (earth) exc. .rth (x 2) sun (x I) 1000 (x 1) How did you get on? You can find the answers in the explanations that follow.:pt that the top horizontal line is longer.UNIT 4 45 ~ .f1 ~ Renshu 3 Here are seven more il* which you are goi ng to learn in this lesson: nilltillilll'ftllXA Some ofthe components which make up these ~* are contained in the following list. like this: ± . In fact this ~~ means 'samurai' but when used as part of a more complex il¥ we are going 10 take its meaning as 'earth'. th.. Can you locate and ring the appropriate part on the ~* you have just seen. 2) In between the legs and the earth is a table. A story is given to help you remember the meaning..

46 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Story: People walked over to the tabletop sale to see a samurai selling clods of earth . 3) mouth ( IJ) . Together 2) and 3) make up the for tongue ('IS). brush (m). 2) 1000 ( f) . Story: Notice outside a bookstore: ' Words fOI" sale. Story: Thousands of words were spoken by the tongue. Buy a book and read the words'. 0 _* I) This comes from a Ii~ you have not learnt yet. Meaning: 10 read ~ n). Before pens were invented. speak~. the left side is (0 say/words. writing was done with calligraphy brushes. 1) You should have identified 10 sayAmrds ( p) at the left of this ~¥. Meaning : 1 talk. Meaning : to se/J n.€* I) Once again. 2) Can yOli see that this is the same as the you have just learnt? (10 se/l. Here is a picture to help you link the meaning to the character: . i.

Meaning: to write t!t. a drink tx. . 47 2) You will have recognised this as sun. Story: Written words are created by a calligraphy brush. Story: The left side gives the general meaning (food) . 3) This lower part is actually a truncated version of (fire) which you learnt in Unit I . the roof of a house. Story: White rice boiled over a fire in a Japanese home. The right side is a person taking a drink. Meaning: to eat. I) Think of this as a roof./ood tt. 2) This means white and represents the sun with a ray coming off it. in this case.UNIT A . *- 0'~''I) You have just been introduced to the left side of this ~¥. 2) A more detailed picture of the right side will help you with the meaning. In ancient China the rays of the sun were seen as white. food. Meaning: to drink. It is slightly truncated but indicates the same meaning. You could think of this as a condensed version oeW (to say) with the words about to come out of the mouth. An alternative meaning is mouth (1=1) with a line in it (1=1).

3) 8) 13) ill' Ifl ft!: 4) . let us summarise the you and see if you can remember have learnt in this unit. tl*n m*- I) 6) II) IIIl llli Jl 2) 7) 12) «< '€I" J!. . go in 7\. Yomu renshu You now know the first ~*. Meaning : enter. Match the I!-¥ on the left with the meanings on the right. 5) 10) "'Fill 5) study 10) read I) listen 6) buy II ) speak 2) look 7) rest 12) eat 3) write 8) go out 13) drink 4) say 9) sell 14) enter .48 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Notice the difference between the handwritten and printed versions CAl of this ~* . 3) 4) l!l' 5) ~ Renshii 4 a) b) c) d) drink eat read talk This is a review activity for you to test yourself on the second set ofil* you have just learnt. read through the stories and look at the composition of each ll¥ again.it means read. l!J . The printed version shows this person clearly indicating their direction (flick at the top points to the left) . n llli e) enter f) sell g) write 6) 7) ~ How did you get on? If you arc still uncertain about some of these.of the instruction in this heading . Story: People going in walk to the left.WI!!! I) '€I" 2) ]I. 9) 14) ]I. until you are sure. Before you try this next section.. First look at the the meaning before looking at the English beneath them. handwritten = A.) . ' In this new ia'!¥ the person appears to be walking back across the pagc. And do not confuse it with person (printed = A.

4 !II Il) A Ii !'l i' . "" ~t ~ -C -t • 2 2 1 2 6)3r. In the sentences. Now have a go yourself. 1\l i' 2 4 ill III 2 1 Iv Ii Match each one to its Japanese partner in Ihe previous list (not in order). There is also one l4. 4 t".tr ""?"(1 ganbatte! (Good luck).) b) The girl (female child) rested on Saturday.Il)Ali ttll)ri' J:t"'£cto. The woman some bamboo shoots ate. ±1111 a I~ I I 4 1 27 2 3) 2 2 2 «-'" £ '-' t". However.~ (im) which you have not seen yet. By matching these with the full English sentences you will be able to get the meaning of the whole sentence.Il)Ali 22 2) 3r. For example: JJ Q) A tt $: ~ Ii: l ' 2 2 2 4 '* l t:.'-' to.fBi Renshu 5 Here are some sentences in Japanese followed by some in English. this will appear in brackets (marked as lit.).) . The girl on Saturday rested. a) The woman (fe male person) ate some bamboo shoots (bamboo children). il* 1) 3r.. you will be able to understand the key words of the sentence from your knowledge of il~. n~A. Did you notice that the verb comes at the end of the sentence? The order would sound like this: the man a car bought. you have already learnt have numbers below them.ll)rli a*iilti' "fa" £. (lit.lU '-' 4) tj.. (lit.4 49 L!J . These refer The to the lesson in which the il~ was first introduced so that you can check back if you need to. 0 The man (male person) bought a car. c '".~lvli 2 5) !II Il) Ii r 2 2 7) 2 2 ~ ~1II~1v1~ ilH£ 1 2 4 )!f.. At this stage you will not be able to read the whole sentence because you have not learnt hiragana yet (Unit 5).UNIT.

(lit. The woman Japanese studied. This is best explained with an example: it ('to buy ' ) + 4'tI (th ing) == J. The boy horses likes. Can you work out what their meanings would be in English? There is a list of English words in random order beneath the I. Mr Yamada his car w Id. buy ing things) The ll!~ that foll ow have been made int~ nouns by adding :1m (thing) to them. Mr Hayashi to Mrs Morita talked. See if you can work out their meanings by matching them with their English equivalents on the right. (lit.) d) The boy (male c hild) likes horses.'Im (d) sightseeing (c) items for sale (f) drinks l!J I!ItW-t Renshu 7 Here are some more compound words us ing ~* you have been introduced to in this unit.) How did you gct on? Check your answers _* at the back of the hoolc build up yOll In this section ~ will be introduced to some new compound rJ!* words. (lit. The man at the moon looked.!* words which you can refer to if you need to. I) f!I:'Im (a) wntmg 2) tt'lm (b) food (e) book 4) JI. .) e) The woman (female person) studied Japanese. (lit.50 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT c) Mr Yamada (Mountain-rice field) sold his car. First you need to learn a new l«!$: thing This ii4$ is used to make verbs inlo nouns.) g) The man (male person) looked at the moon.) f) Mr Hayashi (Wood) talked to Mrs Morita (Forest-rice field) .l~ = shopping (/it. (lit.

* 4) lil A 5) ~-tt 6) JI.UNIT . 20. resting fire mountain = a dormant 1JQlcano lit.*(})~OI:/.* 7) 1*'* a) b) c) d) e) a study visit start school eating and drinking absence from school (long teon) reading f) buying and selling g) going in and out Renshu 8 This activity introduces compound ~~ words which use from the first four units of this book. In this section in Unit 3 you used the unit chart at the back of the book to learn the onyomi (Chinese readings) of the numbers 1. two feet = two pairs (offootwear) 2) 6) 3'CA buyer ex.amples to get you started! 114* iI1J iI1J iI1J I) Rei 1 Rei 2 Rei 3 lit. Here are some amusing ex. Here are some hints to help you. Think about the literal meaning and then see if you can work out what you would say in English. Now turn to chart 4 at the back of the book which contains all the single ~~ introduced in this unit.it 5) .4 51 I ) 3'Crl 2) 1Il0 3) A. go oul eye gold = a pop·eyed goldfish lit.10.jj Kanji no yomikata You were first introduced to how are pronounced in Unit 2 and you can refer back to that unit for guidance on pronunciation (pp. The box of English words (in random order) will act as a check list once you think you have worked oul the meaning of a word. Focus on the onyomi readings and try to memorise them.2 1). il*" .*1J AP Jl 'f 3) 7) 1* a entrance holiday Japanese person academic ability til P dealer (seller) drinking water ..

For example. (start school) e) fiXit (eating and drinking) g) -f*~ (absence from school) nTI b) ~i!f (reading) d) iliA (going in and out) f) R. experience) .~ (study visit) h) JtPfJ (knowledge. So how about: ' It was a SHOCK how much food he CQu id eat !' And the onyomi of J! (look) is KEN so: ' KEN looked out of the window. 2()"'21).W:IL Renshu 9 1) This is a simple linking activity. 7) tr 8) ~ " ~ r) SHUTSU g) WA h) BUN i) KEN 9) 10) II ) 12) 13) 14) fj!( j) IN k) GAKU I) SHO m} GEN il5 Jlf ~ 2) Now try saying these compound ~~ words in Japanese: a) (buying and selling) c) A?!f. ~ . Now try Activity 9. looki ng at the lM~ and saying the reading out loud. 2) Say the readings out loud .52 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Hinto Hints for memorising 1I¥' readings 1) Look back at the simple pronunciation rules you were given in Unit 2 (pp. the onyomi of ft (eal) is SHOKU. ' Do you gct the idea? 4) Test yourself by covering up the reading. Link the il~ on the left with their correct reading: I) }1 2) f* 3) tfj 4) 11ft 5) "l- a) b) c) d) e) DOKU SHOKU NYU BAI (usc twice) KYO 6) JI. 3) Sec if you can match each reading to an English word and make a little story to help you remember.

::. right side . say to yourself 'gate and ear'.' I I ~ \ -. _¥ \. in preparing yourself to write lIf:I (li sten) from memory.UNIT 4 53 3 <. for helping you to remember the il¥ and for counting the number of strokes. For example.sli$ht differences between handwritten and printed versions of the same nl¥. In th is section you are going to learn to write the 14 il¥ which have been introduced in this unit. 1/3.f . where a il!¥ has a distinct left and right side. Kaku renshu 4 recognise the first il¥ in this Hinto One way to remember how to write more complex is to visual ise the components they are made up of.1"/ \1 J. And there are sometimes. For example.~-- c'1' I \~ . 213). \J' I tfD ~ ~-*' A* / 1 ~*' ~ ~ tt. the left side is narrower (the proportions are approximately left side . Look carefully at the proportions and overall balance of eaeh lM¥.W I!!l You should now heading ~ it means ·write'. . --d j- • I y. Remember: stroke order is important for writing accurately.::.

~ §l --~. -'-.. ) \+ ~ ~ .. C " .-a . -' -' . )).' rr-i r~i fl\ r~9 . .-.. -to :>j ~ -." '' r _r.-. -Q .- - . "' . .: 7 1 .54 8EGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT F/\ r~' rj r--i f.~ ...I \-'"7 "J ". ~ \. \ " .. " + .L.. -.

..:1 55 /. A 14 I~ ~ k--. ::r- 7L ix~k I lI' ~ Ii' r ~ ~ ~ J!. -r-::t:' \..~ f/~" p." ~ J /"-.UNIT . ~ 1". - -::t-./ • -1: . ~ ~ f/ 11t A -:. kl -7 ~~~ .±\ A YL --±- -~-.

r .. . Now try the test to see how well you have remembered the you have learnt in the first four units! il* .. You have also learnt the meanings of 26 compound ~~ words and have identified the key words in a set of Japanese sentences.56 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ..'. CI - "::--::r :::y--? 0 .. . ~ . -:Ii 0 \ -:s...:--z- 6£ Owari ni In this unit you have been introduced to 14 ~* which represent action words and have learnt to pronounce their onyomi (Chinese reading) and to write them.-:i: p? ~-:t" _. / tl -I .. ....0.. ~-t0 .. .g - -..~ ~-i- ph. ..gE --..JA:.::3 ...:.3 a r:t:. .0 / . .: .-> 1 ...::.. . ~6 -aD \ \ -:.

:IL.) :h.!iO e) r b) f) A J.) .a (±) g) 5) Verbs (action words) .) I) People and animals .fl c) .) IlIJ b) c) ill: f) i1t n: tt d) h) .q: 6) Parts of the body b) 0 c) IE d) 1'1 e) 'f .UNIT.!tr &f' +.:r c) g) J. .) tli b) 1<tli c) g) h) 3) Numbers and money f) * "* 71< Ell e) 1<.: 'llr JII ~ d) i) 2) Elements of nature .) . 57 TA" Tesuto The ifJ!~ ( including some compound words) you have learnt so far are grouped in themes.4 . Can you remember their English meanings? (Some il~ appear more than once if they cover more than one category.It i) 11 IT e) ~ j) lI< .) e) I1lI 'f Pl b) f) 'Ii = li 4) Dates .

. () ~ tJ{ 1' .>j:" Hiragana Hajime ni Look back to page vi of the Introduction which deals with an overview of the differe nt types of Japanese script and in particular the section on {J ~ IJ~ l' (hiragana). Yonde mimasho You have not learnt to read any (J ~ IJ~ ~ yet (apart from these fo ur symbols) but try this simple matching activity.f ) in the left column which are repeated in a different order in .. Ii . ~ (hiragana) symbols which make up the phonetic 'alphabet' • learn some rules fo r making exIra sounds from the 46 main symbol s • be introduced to picture-sound associations to make learning easier • learn how to write V ~ IJt ~ (hiragana) • have a go at reading some words and phrases Key word: V . IJ ~ ~ words (a. I) What are the two main uses of (J ~ /J~ 1' ? 2) Which script (t4*. IJ T (katakana» is learnt firs t by Japanese children in primary schools? 3) What did V G IJ{ ~ develop from? 4) How many basic symbols make up the modem (J ~ IJ{ ~ syllabary? IJ. There are six U t. Then answer the following questions based on the information you have just read .lift Dai goka UNIT 5 In this unit you will : • learn to read the 46 t.J ~ h.

from top to bottom and from right to left.21) you were introduced to the pronunciation of Japanese sounds. (a). The next point to notice is that the first five sounds are what we call vowel sounds... The first one is done for you. 01. A quiek check list follows to help you remember the pronunciation.: < 0:1> I) What is the first () ~ 11: 1j: symbol? 2) Which column do you read firs t and in what order? To save you looking in the back. And you begin to read from the top righthand corner. ( ) -It('1: ( ) (a) t~ ~. (i). . And each of these sounds is represented by . (c) ~ I: ? (f) -It ( • I: -.<. the answers are 1) 1. -. it· u -. Notice that the chart is written in the traditional way. su se -It so 't Iw ~. as you also learnt in Unit 2.. ( ) I.UNIT 5 s. consonants are attached to each of these vowels to create new sounds. the right column. t ki ! ku ke It ko . ! (c) . . chi I:> tsu "? te -C to I: sa ~ shi I. e as in end 0 :I> as in hot And..! ( ) ~ I: ? ( ) MllI!. you read in columns rather than rows. Therefore. (a) 2) I. • e.:.. Match up the same words and write the correct letter in the brackets on the right. 20. (c).:. (a) t ~ (b) I.- Kaisetsu 1 Let us begin by looking anhe first four lines of the {) ~/)t ~ syllabary ' with the romanised pronunciation and learn how to read it.<. Can you now answer these two questions: ta t.. I. In Unit 2 (pp. -:>( . a as in u • mat as in hit as in blue . :> (u) .t (d) -:> ( . .\. :I> (0) . ( .

Use the chart of the fi rst 20 symbols on p. . To help you understand the layout of the chart. The basic rules you learnt for ~~ also apply here you write horizontal strokes fro m left to right.t (desk) (b) .t (voice) (f) -It ~ • C (school pupil) MliIt::: Kaisetsu 2 You are now going to be introduced to the who le () t.. IJ~ ~ chart. (a) I.. printed _ versIon . This time you are going to try to read these words.symbol . This is why the Japanese syllabary is called 'a phonetic alphabet' .:: ..Jj: symbol.. ~ -.t . j L. As you write each one (using graph paper if possible). ()( )- . Thei r English meanings are written in brackets.. Have a go at writing the (J ~ IJ~ ~ because this will help you to remember how to read them. an explanation is now g iven usiog the first symbol 1.h - stroke order The printed version of each symbol is also included (top lefthand comer) because this sometimes differs slightly from the handwritten version . and vertical/diagonal strokes from top to bottom. _romaji f--... (yonde min/asM) activity earlier in this unit you matched six U ~ o{ 1" words.60 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT a (J ~ n{. . (The Roman alphabet consists of 26 letters which are used in various combinations to creale a range of sounds. ~ (autumn) (e) ~ C ? (sugar) (c) . 59 and see if you can say the words.. including the correct order to write each symbol.nwt Renshu 1 In the ttlv L" Jj.) ~ .. say its sound to yourself. (sus hi) (d) ') ( .. ~ 0.

t~ \. .[..1 .. \ . u .. J-. Ii It _ ItC'So '.. I . so do not worry about learning all the symbo ls at once! There is also a section later 10 help you explore ways to remember the 46 basic V t. l ":!i- t- I~ I~' . 1 - -. Continue like th is until you can read the sequence confidently. then refer back to the relevant part of the chart to refresh your memory. 7f < .. Try 10 read (out loud) each of the (J t:> IJ~ ~ . '( I . ~ ~ -t~ -" ( ~ ~ . Then try again to read the sequence from memory. row or diagonal of the chart ... In n "" ~ n = " ... . ~ ~ 0) IIllI 1 I~ t \ -.Ii ] -e.In-.! "\ '- .h' L l -t ffil ~ It. - 1 - It r- 10 .. .UNIT 5 I ~I-r fE .>( - - '-- .:. Each sequence of V ~ /J~ ~ symbols in the activity is taken from a column..I. ..-" l f ' ".If~l 61 kJ 7 '- '- fJ'\ I~ .II-> l!J flkf!1 Renshii 2 The activities in this lesson will keep referring you back to the different charts. t "m -\' . - '" 11 ~ Ito h"O t ..h ~ ~ . ! ..~. -~ -. then move on to the next one. IJ~ ~ symbols but first here is an activity to get you reading.

. The diagonal from top left to bottom right: ~. £1 ~ 1 11 11 1. -t . I m. 7-:. " J: 1 . If) M ¥l n II> rna /"-.. :B T he diagonal from top right to bottom left: J" 1!. 1 J: {. '-. ~. (t . ~ .) . ) .. .: m. L.I n '5 IG A. f" '\ t '" >:I> . 1". -l:t • .. .62 to l h '" . 'it.:c The third row (reading from right to left): -j. t I 11 ho ~J I' I' 11 L t t The fi rst part of this activity refers to the first page of the chart (p.Iitr mu .. L. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The third colwnn (always count from the right): ~. ""? tJ. <. 'u J. ~ -J .1 1J." ~ '" I ".. f/) The second column : /)'. <. -t. (t..: Have you noticed that the syllables in the row sequences always end with the same vowel sound? .. -C. f) 'I V 1+ ~ U vJ- " {> I - ~ ~ a 7. \ l... ~ to BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ~ -> N I h 1 . -. (t..> 'W I is ? t1. ) . 61). . ~ v:b L' L 1. ffi ~I .I~ "" t2 .. tl f.:: The fourth row: it.

(" J. ~. Concentrate on the sounds (for example. '3.UN1T 5 63 Now look at the sequences 1. t). Ii fourth column: ~. diagonal from top right to bottom left: Ii.appear? 16) How many symbols only appear once? 17) Which symbol appears the most times? (Answers to 15. tt. ~.. 9. aim = 'e') rather than the letters or spellings.. 10) II) 12) 13) 14) The The The The The first column: Ii.) l::~ J-. 1/).'Ii\'/6. t). A- "t Now look at the sequences 10. 0 fifth <ow. Adiagonal from top left to bottom right: h. - Hinto 1 Remembering '01. . 11. This section will introduce you to a way of remembering () ~ tJ: 'd: through visual and sound association (mnemonics). 1 (a) 2 (i) 3 (u) 4 (e) 5 (0) . 62).) The second part of this activity refers to the second page of the chart (p.).lj..17 are at the back of the book. V .. tt. -. .9 are at the back of the book.6 again and answer these questions: 7) How many times do these symbols a) l" b) ~ c) -C appear? 8) Which symbol appears three times? 9) Which symbol appears the most times? (Answers to 7. here are some ideas for the first five () ~ tJ: 1" . ...14 again and answer these questions: 15) How often does the symbol a) tt and b) A. The basic idea is that you find a way to make the shape of each symbol suggest a picture or story which connects it to its sound. For example.

64

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

Stories
I $, (a) is an opera si nger singing an lria (Japanese pronunciation has a short 'a' sound) 2 ~. (i) is an American Indian 4 i. (e) .lim for the target 3 '1 (u) !!<lb, my back hurts! 5 1:1 (0) is an .2stric h
Do you get the idea? Here are another 10 to get you started. then, if you find this method helps you, try to think of your own. You might not have inspiration fOT all of them at first , but try a few at a time and write down your ideas in a notebook.

1

2

3 .

4

5

6

.,!,

7

8

9

G
10
~x

Stories
() (hi) is someone laughing,

mhee 2 h (wa) is a baby crying, waaaa
3 ( (ku) for cuckoo 4 C (to) is the toe of a shoe 5 tl (De) is the Loch ~ss monster

6 t:, (chi) is a t.Il£erleader 7 tl (nu) looks like a bowl of JmDCIlcs 8 l, (shi) ill's got long hair 9 (t (ke) for KO (knocked out)

10 ..: ( ko) is a

apple

l!J Ilk. =:

Renshu 3

Now that you have been introduced to the 46 0 t, IJ~ ~ symbols. it is time to put your learning into practice and try reading some words . .To make it easier for you, the words are in three sets. Set I cons ists of U t, IJ~ ~ from the first page of the chart and Set 2 consists of those from the second page. The fmal challenge is Set 3 which comprises words using 0 t, IJt ~ from the whole chart. Sec how many symbols/words you can read from

UNIT 5

65

memory then use the chart to search for those you cannot remember. Keep coming back to this activity. Try keeping a score of how many words you can read each time and challenge yourself to improve it! Where you have already learnt the ~~ for a word this is also given in brackets. However, the purpose of this activity is to practise reading (J ~ /.1: 1" .

Set 1
a) ~ ~ (morning)
d) I: It ~. (clock) g) !#l 0) (cloth)

b) -C (hand 'f-) e) ~ t3 (salt)

c) f)

1""'? 1" I.::

(summer) (what)

Set 2
a) ,t G (evening) d) ¢. igJ (Winter) g) t ry (fo,est l!i;) e) tr ~ (village) h) b", (bowl)
b) "'''' (ea,l'j:)

c)

Ii.., (Spring)

f) ~.t (mountain

ili)

Set 3
a) 15 tt J: '1 (Good morning) c) t.I ~ (cat) e) I·t.l(dog) g) ~ t (navel) i) IU'(exampleillJ) b) ~ J: ? l' " (Goodbye) d) it /v-tt l' (teacher) f) /1) ( eye §) h) () I: (petSon A) j) Ie (1 '" (lopan

a *)

1:: /' J-

-=

Hinto 2

Similar D f, iJ~t~

You have probably confused some of the simiiar· \ooking (J G Il ~ already. Thi s section will line these up and point out the differences to help you keep them separate in your mind. Notice the punctuation, by the way - a comma, and a full stop 0 - not all that different from English.
~,

~ ,

. to.
~
~

~ (Id) has two horizontal lines, ~ (sa) has one. ~ (sa) leans to the left, ~ (chi) looks like the number 5

I •, I • , ry •

-.

(the top has slipped!) l' (i) is more or less vertical, .: (ko) is horizontal. l' (i) - the left stroke is slightly longer than the right, I) (ri) - the right stroke is longer than the left.

66

SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

It, U:, It.. It (Ire) has no loop at the end, {;l: (ha) has on ly one
horizontal line, (,1 (ho) has two horizontal li nes. It, .t 0 Th e top horizontal line in (,1 (ho) si ts on top of the vertical line whereas in .t (ma) both horizontal lines cut through the vertical. -t, tr.. -t (su) curves to the lcft, tr (mu) curves to the right and has an extra strokc. tJ.. Ii). t.l o tJ. (nu) has two stroke ends at the top and a loop at the bottom whereas I/) (me) has the same stroke ends but no loop, and t.l. (ne) has only one vertical stroke. Q. -00 7.;, (ru) has a loop, .is (ro) looks a bit like a number 3.

MliIt:=:.

Kaisetsu 3

~-ti' (Yoon)

Contracted sounds

You have now been introduced to the 46 basic (J ~ Il.Jj;- symbols. As well as these 46, there are other sounds which are made by combining some ofthe basic symbols. This is done by combining the symbols which end in the 'i ' sound (~. L-. ~, (.:, V, Jj.., ~) with a small version of ~, Ig). or J:" Each sound is pronounced as a single syllable or ' beat'. Look at the following chart:
~ (k.)

L~

{.:. V
Jj..

<' (kya) (sht) ---t L- ~ (sha) (chI) ---t ~~ (cha) (ni) ---t t.:~ (nya) (hi) -> V'<' (hya) (mi) ---t Jj..'<;> (mya)
(ri)

->

~

(kyu) l ~ (shu) .,~ (chu) ,O~ (nyu)
V~ (hyu)

~ ~

~~

l

~

., ~
'O~

9

-> 9'<' (rya)

"'~ (myu)

9$

V ~ "'~

(ryu)

9~

(kyo) (sho) (cho) (nyo) (hyo) (myo)
(ryo)

~

.!'o!'ll!!! Renshu 4
This activity is going to utilise some of the wide range of ' onomatopoeic' words which the Japanese have in their language. These are words which sound like the action or sound word they name. In Japanese, such words usually repeat a sound twice. The nearest English equivalents are phrases such as 'woof woof' for a dog's bark; ' plip plop ' for the sound of rain; and 'gobble gobble' for the sound of a turkey but words like this in Japanese are not limited to children's words.

UNIT 5

. 67

One point to note before you start thi s activity - many of the words that follow are lengthened by the addi tion of a vowel sound, normally ? (u), at the end (but J5 (a) is also used in these examples). For instance, t:>~? t:> +1> '7 (a mouse's squeak) is pronounced 'chuu chuu ' (usually written 'chu chu'). Let one sound run into the other smoothly - do not separate t:> tfI (chu) and '7 (u). Now practise reading and saying the fo llowing onomatopoeic words. Refer back to the earlier chart to help you as necessary. TWo symbols you have learnt previously, Iv (n) and ~ (ro) are also used here. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

! ~ iJ ! ~ iJ (scream with laughter)
(fizzing sound) ~ '7 L. ~ '7 (fizzing sound) t:> ~ '7 t:> ~ '7 (mouse ' s squeak) ~"';' (~ ." ;, (m;aow) V ~ .; V tfI .; (whistling sound) () J: '5 () J: '5 (sway;ng; lanky) ~ J: ~ 1! J: -? (looking around)
+1> +1>

L. L.

Iv L.

Iv

Mll!I.l!!I Kaisetsu 4

D G tJ~fd. that change their sound

You have learnt nearly all the extra rules for V t:J tJt.>j: so you can relax, they are not endless! And also, if you think you have taken in enough at any stage, leave this unit, carry on with the ll~ units and come back to this later. You are not expected to remember everything in this unit in one go and no one is setting the pace except you! Some of the V t; tJ~ ~ symbols change their sound with the addition of two small strokes" at the top right of the symbol. Let us look al these: I) ' k' sounds become ' g' sounds (hard ' g' as in ' get'):
~'. ~.

<. (t. .::
leu ,

-->

j)<. ~'.
ga gl

elf. ::::
gu
ge go

(ka, ki,

Ire, ko)

2) ' 5' sounds --+ 'z' sounds: (sa, shi, se, so)

SU,

za

l'

•••

zu

ze

zo

• L: is pronounced 'ji' .

....:. U tJ:. gya. cover up the romaji a nd try readi ng them.: ~ Il'.)o bya. The chart that follows groups these sounds on the left. ~' "'.ju.(" "-'. . added: ~. -If. .gyo .~ (ha.:. Ie. If. a) ~'.f. The romaji is also given on the right but cover this up and see if you can work out how 10 read the () ~ IJ: ~ before you refer to the romaji.. . t-' . . . (ji) and "").flJi Renshu 5 Say the sounds out loud or write them down. c'. fu. he. Refer to the rules given earlier for the answers. ja. ~ . ~.. . hi.68 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 3) 't' sounds become ' d' sounds: (ta. do you remember the contractcd sounds you Icarnt in kaiselSu 37 Well. 4) ' h ' sounds become 'b' sounds: I~. U' . byo pya . 10) da (ji ZIt)· de do • the sounds t.". U --> ~."" ~ Il --> I~'. 1:. U.. C 1'. bYII .. pyu. If 'I:'. chi.:. pyo . 'h' sounds become ' p' sounds when a small circle · is . he. tsu. (ZII) are not normally used because they create the same sound as t: (ji) a nd 1" (zu) . See (2). ju. ho) ba U'. I.~.. then try the simple activity that follows.. ..U. U.gyu. the rules just given also apply to these.. (ha. ~'. . b) d) if.U. ho) pa pi pll pe po These five sets of rules cover all the sound changes for single lJ ~ tJ: ~ symbols. c) e) :::. Look over these rules. bi bu be 5) In addition.. hi. Ij' Finally in this section.. U'.

a) c) 1! !' ~ 19> (m. (hosp. 68).you can keep revisiting these activities to see if you can improve your score. The length of this pause is the same as in these English examples: ' headdress' (pause after ' hea'. not ' head dress').UNIT 5 69 IfIf&Ji Kaisetsu 5 The small J (tsu) The final rule you need to know in order to read V' f. 6 1) and contracted sounds (pp..Q'~. It.eakfast) h) U''' ( 100) j) 9"': 1 (travel) b) ~ " 1 < .f1- Yomu renshii 1 Reading words Take a deep breath ! You are now goi ng to put into prac tice everything you have learnt in this unit. This acti vity will use (j ~ tJ{ 1J:" fro m the initial chart (p. 66. Here are some Japanese examples with the riimaji and pronunciation guide beneath: a a) £: "? '"C (wait!) matte rna (pause) te b) ~ -? "C (stamp) kitle ki (pause) te c) ! "? J: (ticket) kippu ki (pause) pu l!)'Cu.) U"" 1 (..:J IJ~ 1J:" properly is the usc of the small "'J in a word. These initial activities will keep referring you back to the different sections and remember . When you see this. You do not need to be perfect fi rst time round! Most of these words are usually written with ~~ but the purpose of the activities that follow is to practise reading U' '' . and 'bookcase' (pause after ' boo '). (photogmph) f) to " ? ~ " < (b.l (See you!) g) to 19> 1 ~ " (lunch) . See how many of these words you can read..lk) e) t: ~ t. This is shown in riimaji by doubling the next consonant.tal) 19> 1 (0 <(customer) 1 < (today) d) ~ " ~ It. you do not pronounce it but pause slightly (a glottal stop) before saying the next sound.

As Ihey learn ~* they make their writing more sophisti cated by replacing words and parts of words written in U.when dri nking) c· ! c· l!J en? A tr Renshu 8 b) . A. Japanese children first learn to read and write using only '{) ~ /){ ~ .~ /): ~ (rather than having 10 learn 2000 il*!) in fact. The '{) ~ /): ~ symbols aft er each ~* serve to . The '{) ~ -# ~ parts of the words have a grammatical funcli on. (keys) a) d) ""C" A.t ""? "'C (wait) d) -b: ""? ':: -. C (siraight ahead) This activity gives you practice at reading words with the small "? ( p.kalakana ..-r Renshu 7 This activity will use () ~ IJ: ~ from the initial chart ( p. Renshu 9 Y have learnt that U ~ /): ~ has a grammatical function.70 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT l!J en? 1. a) I?.f:J -b: ~ with i#!*. see how many of these words you can read."'C A. As mentioned in the Introduction.t ""? C (a little) IJ (as expected) c) -'?>""? e) ii' h.tftf (dandelion) g) IJ~ J.li' '? -C (Good luok!) Yomu renshu 2 and ~* DG'IIV~ You will already have noticed from the instruction words used throughoul this book (and in the lasl activity) that Japanese is wrilten as a mixlure of () ~ -/): ~ and ~* (and :IJ 7 :IJ T . (school) f) ! ""? .'l'l:h. 67).. Although it may seem to be a simpler task 1 read 0 using U. once you know texts become easier to read and scan because offer visual clues to the meaning. introduced in Unit 9). 11* l!J .. Now you are ou going to put this to practice.. 6 1) plus {) ~ -/): ~ which change Iheir sound (p .!lJt J. (water) b) -/)~~. I!*. 69). (dictionary) f) ! (sound of heart beating fast) e) t.! (gulping sound . Jj<. Below are five of the verbs (action words) you learnt in Unit 4 . Once again.-h (telephone) c) L-.

t:. below or beside ~* to show the pronunciation .UNIT 5 71 show the tense of the verb. £ T " '11' (I look) 'JI. You can do this now because you have learnt to read CJ ~ tJ{ 'j: . nA.t T ..n Japanese texts.::' 2) 3) 3J: t' .ammar note : t t . ~ tJ: 1" (furigana) which is V ~ tJ: 'j: written above.: '1.t T (I write) I'} ~ Ii(.: (I eat) 1:t -< £ Q) t. ~ A . a *ilIl i' "'I"(:> "t I)' £ ~ tc. (I ate) 111:".: t !i t: (j A-. unfamiliar readings are indicated in J. indicates the pas t ( I ate)... (.: and tJ: 1. _* have grammar functions which you will learn more about in Unit 10. 49) you worked out the meanings of a set of Japancse sentences by identifying the key words. The same sentences now follow again. (For those of you who have Teach Y our:"elf Beginner s Japanese.~ . £ T ( I drink) 111:". tc. Now sec if you can read these verbs: a) b) c) 1:t -< £ T Q) t.) The kunyomi (Japancse reading) is used for single il* verbs with V ~ lit 1" endings.. The readings for the ~* words or parts of words are given in J. Read out aloud ! G . but this time you are goi ng to practise reading the whole sentence in Japanese.. ~ tJ{ 1" (furigana). I. Check the English meanings of the sentences by referring back to Unit 4. 1 cat /wi ll cat) and J: L.\ a f* '" £ ~ Vt (1) A -?l! Ii fl . verbs are introduced in Unit 8... e) illi ~ .: ~ f.z .t .t " 'II' ~ tc ~ (I looked) d) I'} ~ Ii".. v' (1)'1' Ii ± 1IlII IZ. When {i has thi s fun ction it is pronounced 'wa ' (and when it is used as part ofa word it is pronounced in the usual way as ' ha t). (I talk) illi ~ . (I talked) L!J _Wi" Renshu 10 In Unit 4 ( p. ~ V (1) I) 3J: n A. J: t endings indicate the present or fut ure (for instance..t £ tc (I wrote) ~ f. nt. £ ~ tc (I drank) 'JI.

~ ~ "('To t * C: t. ~ (i ~ Iv I: 1lIi .: 1:Uv~ '(J ~.72 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 4) 5) 6) '* !J! (i ~ L.~ • to write words not normally written in Ii* • to indicate grammar functions and word endings.: It iT) A I~ it ~J.. You will come across () ?y tJ{ Jj:' again in Unit 10 and you can refer back to this unit whenever you need to. so do not worry if you have not taken everything in with the first attempt! .Be. Vou have had the chance to write them and to read words and phrases in 0 G tJ{ ~ .t! 7) tlJ IB Owari ni In this unit you have learnt the 46 basic 0 ~ tJ{ Ij: symbols plus related sounds and rules.~. You have learnt the two main uses of ()t.

j). .6 Jb'.j ' I 6) rice . see if you can match the following pictures with the correct ~* (a. Here is a selection of them.lI Dai rokka UNIT 6 In this unit you will • learn to decode the meanings of 39 new ~* • learn to read morc compound words • try some activities to review all the you have learnt so far • learn to read and write II adjectives (describing words) 1Jt*" tl* Hajime ni In Units I and 2 you looked at ~ ~ which derive from pictures of nature. I) tall / high 4) small • •• 2) old 5) bird 3) big II B. Can you remember their meanings? a) ± e) Q c) ~ g) a d) h) 11 :u Yonde mimasho As you did in Units I and 2.

• ~ . I) iWi tall/ high 2) '" old 3) big * 'J' So -. 5) . e) * development sequence from picture to modern kanji that follows..'I' " I 4) small . f) JT h) ' " How did you get on? Check your answers at the back and then look at the b) /IIi g) lj= c) ~ j) Ij.Il!.74 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 7) thread 9) axe 8) cow 10) stand I \ a) :Sf.~ • ~ 6) flee * )K' -7 *~ ~ . " ~ .j. bird ~ ~/5 ~ .

3% of f«!~ derive from simple pictorial representations. big old tall/ high (also means 'expensive') bird cow rice thread axe stand (up) Kaisetsu 1 About 2. many of these simple pictorial ~~ are also used as components in more complex il~.. Look back at the jl~ pictures if you need to remind yourse lf of the meanings. 'F fT i\'! 1L c) f) ..Ie j) * I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) small . You will be looking at this in more detail in Unit 7 but one of the purposes of Ihis unit is to introduce you to . As you have already learnt.UNIT 6 75 7) thread '* fT ~ \ ~ ~-+~ 8) 'F cow EPJ~i--+4 f~if I \ 9) axe 10) 1L stand ~ . g) IJ ' h) .f~ '* Q .wa) b) c) d) Renshu 1 Match the 1l~ in the left column with the English meanings in the right column.

rice field. He has a long moustache and dimples in his cheeks! 4) Biack. I) iJJ: (mother). Which is which? Look at the il*. 4 ~ m* indicate breasts.looks like a woman wearing a cheap hat! (wide. earth and fire (four short ' flamelike' strokes) depict the deep black colour which the earth turns when the rice stubble is burnt after the harvest. read the stories and link them up. 'sun' (S) and 'my' (short stroke) depict the white rays of the sun. to decode the meaning and make-up of other more complex ~~. 5) Blue. black) and the other two mean 'fathe r' and 'min'. white. The components. 4) tT component above is like a hat or covering. Again. This looks like drops of rain against a window. 3) Father. 2) White. safe). (new). hence 2) ~ (cheap. spacious). The remaining (tree). the rightside is fi (axe) . You have learnt two of these components in this unit. The top left is :iL (stand (up)). * l!J . The components. Its components are 'earth ' with an extra horizontal fi* . Lei us start with four new t!I!~ and look al how their components can be brought together into a story to give the meaning.76 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT some more s imple il~ which will help you in this unit. you can see the ~* for woman . The 3) 1Z.W =: Renshu 2 Now you are going to try to link new ~* with stories to establish their meanings. You can see the outline oCtt: (woman) in this ~* ~ The two short strokes within the mother. T~is il'¥ also means 'green ' (for example. Three of the fo llowing ~* represent colours (blue. So the 1l$. The left side of Ibis tl~ should remind you of a cliff or cave. the colour of traffic lights and apples). component (bottom left) is The story: c ut down a standing tree and get new wood. Within it is a triangular shape with a wide base <it also looks like a wide nose!). aJ ~ bJ S cJ l'f d) 5i: eJ jIj i) Rain . a nd later.

etc.t and r to look like the top and roots of a plant. below and inside are formed in a similar way. under) has a baseline with a ' t ' shape below it.t r if! (above. Link the ~* to the English meaning. You have now learn t 22 new ~¥ in thi s unit. You can also imagine . _. . safe 7) wide.~ : I) 2) 3) =. Let us review them . 77 line which means plants growing out of the ground and 'moon'.. (below. • ~ IlkW ~ Renshii 3 As in Renshii I you are going to see how we ll you can remember the ~~ you have been introduced to in thi s section (nine in total). spacious 8) new 9) cam MJlIt= Kaisetsu 2 In Unit 3 you learnt the 1*:~ for numbers (. on top) has a baseline with a 'I' shape above it. The ~~ fo r the words above.). Y oung plants are green and we speak of a blue moon . middle) is a box with a Hnc through the middle..!Ii J4 Jlt g) h) i) Ilh :l<: E 3) white 4) black 5) bluc.UNIT 6 . (i nside. These are from a small group of tl~ which depict abstract ideas using shapes and lines. a) ~ b) ]iIj c) l'i d) e) f) I) father 2) mother . .. green 6) cheap. Look at these nl. grouping them together by theme.

such as: _* ""f (below) '1' (inside) rr (stand up) build up 1 _* _¥ W Cloud .) :li: (father) Nature. Now let us look at you have learnt in this unit which are also used as components in more complex 11*.78 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Colours l'f (blue) i3 (white) JA\ (black) Adjectives (describing words) (big) Ij . The lower part is doud and the upper component is (sun). a place where farmers would be very aware of thunderstorms. expensive) :1< (cheap. *1. Examples you have learnt include :9} (man). These simpler _~ become components o f the more complex ones.'. Here are the ~* : il* . (moth. The lower component (E) looks like ll.J (mountain) on its side. safe) 14 (wide) People.(like) and fJtJ (li sten). animals Jg.and lightning creates electricity! a Renshii 4 You are going to try identifying more complex by looking at· the components and linking them into a meaning. basic items iifii (min) (rice) Position J: (above) * 4 (cow) J\lo (bird) * IT (axe) ~ (thread) In Units 2 and 4 you learnt that more complex 11* are made from combinations of simpler il~. The lower components are two and triangle shape :II: think of 'Jf ill m them as ' two cloud shapes'! Cloudy weather. (small) . T his time you can see a fl ash of lightning through the rice field . Cloudy weather blocks out the sun ! S now ('frozen rain ' ). Think of snow-covered mountains! Thunder. T he lower component is rice field. (old) >lIT (now) jtfj (tall. Nij Rain is used as a component of more complex to indicate types of weather (with rain as their basis).. Electric is an interesting progression from thunder.

~ • . 3) Meaning: hot/biller (taste). tapered. In this section of il¥ Build up you have been introduced to 14 new ~!f: . therefore. Components: rain. 7) Meaning:few. The components stand up and ten combine to give an image of strong flavours which make the taste buds stand up to .*. a a . a lillie.Opulation). You have come across examples of these in Units 1. Frost (made from rain) on trees looks like millions of sparkling eyes. the i1. Components: small and a diagonal stroke. The components big + short stroke depict a large dog with its tongue hanging out! 5) Meaning: sound. You can distinguish them by thinking of the short stroke in dog as the tongue and of the short stroke infat as a marker indicating the widest or fattest p. tapering to a point involves something becoming smaller. 6) Meaning: pointed. 2) Meaning: dove. tree and eye.rt of the iliI'1'. Can you remember their meanings? Check back through the section if there are any you are unsure about. Components: stand up and sun . the power o f 10! 4) Meaning: dog .~.~. Japan is made up of many.~.if.•.€~ for fat is :. many small islands. Stand in the sun and listen to the sounds.te. This il*.UNIT 6 79 . .$. Components big and small. Words such as A Q (P. often just rocky hills in the sea with only birds living on them . ~~ words Remember that ~m (jukugo) are words created from two or more il!f:. is a depiction of a bird sitting (you can't see its tail feathers) on a mountain . 8) Meaning: frost. pigeon. • ~ build uJ? 2 ~lIf (jukugo) Compound. Finally. noise.) :Jt e) b) f) 01> Ii1J MI c) g) if if d) $ h) ' " Story meanings I) Meaning: island. The components bird and nine represent a dove.4. m m :Jt.oI>. III (Sunday) and it~ (food) are some of the J~9 or ~~ compounds you have learnt so far.. Put simply. They are listed here. ~. This looks very similar to 7t (dog) .

'f (hand).:k :li:J!F Meanings I) vast 2) swan 3) calf 4) puppy. small dog 5) poli shed (white) rice 6) pare nts 7) pale.10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT The next two activities are designed to get you thinking about the meanings of some new il* words using the il* you have been introduced to in this unit plus others you have learnt in earlier units.1lI I) university (big study) 3) good at (upper hand) 5) youth (blue years = innocence) 2) trai n (electric vehicle) 4) bad al (lower hand ) 6) your superiors (their eye level is above you) . ~ . 1 (person). ~ . ~ (eye).flJi Renshu 5 This activity uses combinations of il¥ you have learnt in this unit only. choose the appropri ate ~ * word from the box to match its English meaning. im (talk). Match the two ~* words in the box with the Engli sh meanings from the list beneath it.fl1\ Renshu 6 This activity combines il* from this un it with some you have learnt from previous units. c) g) 1Z. 1lI (vehicle) . 11a (listen). c) &4' h) AHl m) ~1lI d) &:9: i) 4'L n) ~1IIl e) :k?'l j) 1'1 L 0) . 0 (mouth). '1: (middle) Again. A ~ (st udy). Those from previous units arc: <r (year). . The bracketed infonnation gives the literal meaning in cases where the meaning may not be immediately obvious. blue-white 8) heavy rain. :9: (woman).

(The rice grown in America is short-grained like Japanese rice and often packaged and sold as Japanese rice. You can see two people (A ) hanging from a frame! cow meat means beef.Ii means school. bird meat means chicken. you are going to extend your knowledge of il* compounds a little further by learni!l 1 3 new il* and looking at how . The left side.Ii ~~. Think of this as a teacher. 3) . lit. small school m~ans elementary or primary school. You can see them all in the fo llowing list and your task is to test your memory . study school means school .UNIT 6 81 7) 9) II) 13) 15) 17) child (small person) clue (the thread mouth!) new year boy (few years) new car newspaper (newly heard) 8) 10) 12) 14) 16) adult (big person) telephone (electric talk) older {than you} (years above) girl (aJewla little bit a woman) second-hand car (in the middle of being old ) Check your answers before moving on to the next activity.jewel) within I) the boundaries (D) of his kingdom. Mother country means exactly that. middle country means C hina (the central country of Asia). these are used in combination with ~* you have learnt in this unit to make new words. Britain and Australia). Finally in this section.Ii). tree (*) indicates a wooden building (Japanese schools were traditionally made of wood) and the right side is father (:1<:) weari ng a hat. means high school (abbreviated version of 1. means middle school or junior high school .) middle rice is the Japanese word for Central America. Examples of its usage are: m *00 tp * 4 00 1 ffl:OO !bOO 2) f4 If: f4 ~ f4 rice country is the Japanese WQrd for America. Island country (such as Japan. the country you originate from. means country and is the depiction ofa king (3i.. Renshu 7 In this section you have been introduced to 36 new il* compounds. means meat orflesh.

b) ~~> f) 1> I.j) IL.I.li. suko(shi) means a littfe. s. And the answers are given at the back of the book. in Japanese. Look up the ku nyomi (Japanese reading) for the following ~* in the unit chart at the back of the book. expensive. This is the part which is written in (J G tJ~ Ij:.( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1>:k h\1::t r'f- 'i'ls 1"1* ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) '1'* 'Fill 'I' ' l' .!c\. Notice that part o f the reading is written in brackets. Jj' . you can still do this because the whole word is given in the unit chart.lQ)~~jj (Kanji no yomikata) • Readings In this section you are going 1 learn to say 11 adjectives (describing 0 words).. Even if you have not yet worked through Unit 5.li\.I MlW A Renshu 8 You are now going to practise reading the II adjectives as complete words including the () ~ /)t ~ endings.1:'f- ::kA *00 &.( >Iii"l'-( ::k"l" ( "1'-.« '1'~J!i ) ( ) .. ::k.1.'F ( W"I'-( Ij'A ( >Iii!lll ( llJOO ( "1<.2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT by writing the meanings in the brackets after each word. 1>\' :. learnt in this unit.1.1:( >liiJ!i( '1'00 ( X.l. >Iii.1:( Ij"" ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ::klfi( Ij. IL. meaning: tall . a) c) i) f.« ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1L.!C. Then check your answers by looking back through the previous sections. For example: taka(i) is written ?Ji ~. ~".::k x:llJ 1>"1'. l!. ~.\' .H\I( illi.has two kunyomi - sukuna(i) means few.fl. Memorise the whole reading including the part in brackets then try the activity that fo llows. :. 1"1 • P.« 'iliJ!i( 1'1.\00 iffi ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Ij'''1<. f. '$<.

Now you are going to learn to write the ten from Activity 8 in this unit. • .- . \- ..' d d. !~2. .t Jz.. ) ·0 b 1 '" "" (J 10) --'- .e squared paper and focus on the proportions and overall balance of each . Once you feci confident." III l.J. . T .. . Keep saying the meaning (and the readings) to yourself as you write them to help fix all the different elements into your memory. . I}. A/ \.-"? ~ .~.UBi Kaku renshii 5 In Units 1 and 2 you learnt some general rules for writing ll~. -k .. il* ) Q II:» c::> -~ ) y ... 1 d J\ J . ) I .UNIT 6 83 • <. US.I.-:. -+" . see if you can write them from memory.J-. J}.. • J j.. You put these into practice in Unit 3 to write jf.~ numbers and in Unit 4 to write ~~ verbs.

/ j ~ ~~ . • -" } • )1- ~ .. " .0... > -?- 1- 6 :it .K is-• • - tf. -j ..84 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 0 6 -Yr ~ . ~ . t . /t./ • ~ ... ffi8 I \ I I " A 8 ..

. 100 ~~ compounds (including 13 surnames) and the whole V &. tJ~ -'j:" syllabary! 1:.. The surnames are not included. you might not remember all or even most of these but the purpose of this book is to help you understand more about Japanese script.. Units 1 ~6 have altogether introduced you to 97 single il¥:. What do they mean in English? . 34) !'Ii *- S) <P Il) ' t 17) 23) 29) 3S) * III :fi< W 6) 12) 3r 18) 'ti: 24) ft 30) ~ 36) lit *- B) This actIvIty is des igned to test how well you remember the compound words you have learnt so far. The answers are at the back but do not worry if you can not do them all on the first attempt .. 19) 2S) 00 31) £~ 37) JI(j *' 2) 8) 14) 20) 26) 32) 38) r 3) Ij . about how it is made up and to find ways for you to break the 11* code and to build on your learning. You have also learnt 36 new ~~ compounds and have practised reading and writing the words for II adjectives.. you can review these by turning to Activity 7 of Unit 2. The words below are grouped by theme (loosely in some cases!). But remember . This activity pulls together all the single ifl~ you have learnt in this unit. it takes time and practice to build up your knowledge of them . Even Japanese people forget il* from time to time.Japanese script can be fun to learn tool il* il*" Tesuto A) The test at the end of Unit 4 contained a summary of all the single nl* you had learnt up to that point.UNIT 6 85 Owari ni In this unit you have been introduced to a total of39 single through picture association and through analysing their component parts. lIJ""L C -1 (omedetiJ) Congratulations! Of course.you can keep com ing back to this activity! I) J: 7) '" 13) . tr Y Jlt 'k * it 9) IT IS) IZ. 21) iIiJ 27) Iili 33) ~ 39) m 4) 10) Jt 16) S 22) 'i" 28) &. Can you identify them all? They are in ascending order of stroke number.

'f 32) Ij'A 35) 30) 33) 36) 39) s£l.* 13) 16) 14) <1'* 'fill tiI:'IIiJ 13 '" Jltoo <1'00 *00 Qoo Food and drink 17) 20) .t:l..* People 3 1) :ltJlt 34) &"1'- 29) Ij.86 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Days of the week I) 4) 1'11111'1 1<.l1li a 2) ± IIII (:I 3) *l1li (:I School and study 5) "'* 8) loOt!< Countries II ) 6) Ij''*t!< 9) #:"l' 12) 15) I 8) 2 1) 24) 27) 7) <I' '*t!< 10) JI.'IIiJ 4 1) #: (:I 40) til P "p . &:9: :kA :9:r Shopping and travel 37) fl'IIiJ 38) JI. III S* 1ii$ A :IJ$ I 9) 22) tI" 'IIiJ tiI:* Transport 23) lllllr 26) ~$ Animals 25) <I'!!ill! 28) Ij.

3<'>1: Hajime ni In Units 2.l* meanings from their radical learn to write ~* in the correct proportions Ii t. Dai nanaka In this unit you will learn about the different types of ~* learn mo rc about ~* radicals and components identify i. k) ~ p) "l! f) I) 1m Jill 2) What arc the meanings of the left sides of the in this list? (You wilt not know the whole meaning at this stage.-t. 4 and 6 you looked at how simpler are used as components of more complex ones. First of all you are going to lest your memory of some of the complex ~* you have learnt so far.7 • • • • UNIT 7 . You are already familiar with the first three of these categories: . I) What are the meanings of the a) g) Jt m) ~1 im* *" b) h) n) lil: I'f f* c) Jg . Look back over these units if you find now or later that you need to refresh your memory.) Refe r to Unit 4 if you need more infonnation about (a). There are a number of ways in which ~* have been developed. In this unit you arc goi ng to look in morc depth at ways you can crack the code for more complex ~*. a) h) il* # f* b) P/l i) jill c) l!l d) ill[ k) D~ !I* f) m) it * MliIt- Kaisetsu 1 Types of tl*.) ~ I ~ 0) :lJ i?l¥ that follow? d) !if 0) IJIJ j) 7f.

Examples (from Activity 2) incl ude 1ft. You will learn more about this later in the unit.88 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 1) Pictorial ll'i' These fairly simple il~ derive from pictures of nature. )II (river) and A ( person). usually of the simple pictorial kind. 2) Simple abstract ll'i' These convey abstract ideas through symbols. same group). Examples are L1J (mountain). J1 (man) and f!ij (bright) but Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit has more examples which you will be learning. nl~ are grouped by their radica l (same radical. You were.re are . this type of Ii¥: makes up about 2. (time) and :fi. Again. you identified the left part of each iI:~ . more complex jl~ are made up of simpler ones which we have called components. Many radicals are themselves iJi~. the numbers (Unit 3). One of these components. Examples are (wood).3% of '** 4) Sound and meaning Part of the ll'i' part conveys the at*. In Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit. By identifying the component parts you have a clue to the meaning and how to say it. (turn).conveys the general meaning and pronunciation (onyomi or Chinese reading).3% of all 1l'1'. for example. known as the radical. il* 3) Complex pictorial ll'i' aull'1'.the most common location of a radical is on the left side of a il~. identifying the radical in this activity . In dictionaries. These are made up of two or more basic pictorial ~* which together convey a new meaning. in fact . About 90% of il~ belong to this group. This unit is going to focus on categories 3) and 4) and you are going to learn ways of cracking the il~ code! Mit:: Kaisetsu 2 _* components As you have already learnt. often gives a clue to the general meaning of the whole 3i~. There are only a very few oflhis kind. They make up about 2. Th.

A field burnt by fire is ready for culti vation. Beneath these are a number of stories and meanings. t line above the thread which is attached to the chi ld). IlOl c) iIII i) ~ d) j) It!I1 Jm e) k) l'l\ g f) ij() I) ~ Stories and meanings Th . 9) The visual image is ' speaking fie ry words' . 6) A penon's words are to be believed. 7) The three mouths (the lines in two look like tongues) chanted in unison. flame. In other words. See if you can match each ~~ with a story and meaning ' by looking at the components that make up the 1l~. Meani ng : cullivaled field. five languages. Meaning: dawn . 10) ' Speaking five mouths '. 5) The mouth of the bird creates birdsong.c creates a bl aze. ~ . Meaning: langllage(s). I) 2) 3) 4) . 12) The child is attached to its ancestors by a genetic thread (there is a sho . Meani ng: cry.. Heaping fire upon fi . . You have already come across some ofthesc new ~~ in Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit.. kindle. Meaning: chant. recite. Meaning: blaze.UNIT 7 89 in total 214 radicals according to the tradi tional Chinese classifica tion. The purpose of this unit is 1 introduce you to a few of the more common 0 radicals and to make you fa miliar wi lh the idea of radicals so that you have a solid foundation to build on.ee women together are very wicked! Meaning: wickedness.. A fire burning wood (two trees). 8) They dug up the rice field and buried the treasure in the euth beneath. I I) The sun ri sing'above the hol"izon . Meaning : discussion. conversation. Meaning: grandchild. Meaning: believe. Mean ing: be buried.w- Renshu 1 In this activity you will have a go at idenli fyi~~ new ~* which are formed by combin ing two or morc pi ctorial (c~te~o ry 3 from earlier).. m* a) g) m 'im b) h) i1i. animal s). chirp (of birds.. Meani ng: burn..

t (radical = earth) 2) Radica ls may have some shorter strokes ~ (radical = tree) -f* (radical = person) 3) Radicals may change their shape . metal . You can do this with many jJ!~ and even though sometimes the story or link may seem far-fetched.l. Y learnt the meanings in earlier units. Remember there are 2 14 altogether but the aim of this unit is to introduce you to the idea of radicals and to s how you ways in wh ich they can be helpful in learni ng ~* .tune).90 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT MilIt:: Kaisetsu 3 More about radicals and components In the last activity you got to the meaning of the il ~ by linking the components into a story. if the meanings of the components are kepi consistent . history) (proof..f (poem) II (lesson) These examp les show that the radica l indicates a general link with the meaning of speech or words (including musical 'words' or notes in the case o f ~ . words) ~ (gold. Here arc the lefthand radi cals which ·you ident ifie d in Activity 2 (introduction). Here are some examples (the radical is on the left): I) Radicals may appear ' squashed' :. vehic le also wheel) A a You have already learnt that a ~* may change shape slightly when used as a radical. You have already learnt in this un it that the radi ca l o f a usually conveys its general meaning.+. (tune) lI. day) T (chi ld) jJ (moon) .as a radical it nonnally means ' meta l' ) 1fI (car.on) r:t (mouth) ± (earth) -j. Let us look at "this in more detail using the radical tl (say).:: (woman) (sun. ou (pcn.: (tree) !k (fire) fl1 (rice fie ld) ~ (eye) ~ (say. certificate) mt ~ (conversation) (language) ~ (translation) . Some il* follow which contain this radical (on the left side): r!4* ia iU£ (narrative. Now let us look at some of the more common radicals. this method can be a very useful code-breaker and memory 'jog' when learning new rl~..

M. Story: the people closed their eyes and slept.Ii: Component : dog. Story: you must drink water to live. fold. Meaning: village. Meaning: break. nation.UNIT 7 91 Here are two more useful radicals whose shape ditTers from the ~* you have met already: 71< (water) as a lefthand radical ----7 jEJ . Co mponent: measurement. The meaning of the full ~* is given (plus a story where appropriate) and you have to decide which radical (from the list given in Explanation 3) will complete the ~~ . version of ~ . T Component : a marker or post.fle sh/meat) (sun) but can also take the meaning 'speak' (from S ' to speak' . T Component: a marker or post.eaning: to live. Meaning: lamp . snap. Answer: a) b) c) m(radical = water). Meaning : town. Meaning: body. Story: the villagers measured and cut wood to make their homes.although thi s is rare!) . JT Component: axe. til Component: people.W = Renshu 2 In this activity you will look at a number of ~* with the radical missing. not yet a fu lly grown tree) Stor y: someone who is n ot yet a woman. Meaning: sleep. Story: dogs bark with their mouths.Co mponents : tongue and mouth. *' . Sto ry : with his hand he wie lded the axe to break the object. * >t d) e) f) g) h) Components: root (of tree). Story: the root/origin of a person is their body. A tongue in a mouth . . They are: 11 a ~ (moon) but this has the second meaning ' fl esh' (from a 'squashed' . Meaning: bark. Story : fire on a post makes a lamp to mark your way. Here is an example to help you: l§. Meaning: younger sisler. Components : tree and short top branches = not yet (that is.=f (hand) as a lefthand radical ----7 :fJi (looks like three sp lashes of water) (squashed and the top line has gone) One more point to notc before you begin the next activity is that two of the radicals already mentioned have two meanings. Story: rice field s mark a town's boundaries.

Story: the car's two wheels rotatc. complete with thei r radical and meaning. i) -t + = How did you get on'! He re a re the il~ you have identified. (!urn) ~ .. You have now come across all these meanings so turn back to Activity 2 on page 87. k) Compone nt ten.p) i) !It (. turn .11>0. and see if you can identify all the nx!¥:. from elbow to finge rtip. Stor y: the hotel wc stayed at had water and clean white towels. Mea ning: lime..) I) f. The answers are in Renshii I and 2. Story : part of the body (flesh) used as an old measureme nt. m) ~ Compone nts: earth and measurement:: temple (think of the Buddhist priests plotting out the area of land before building the temple). sn. . Here are the other locations with examples (the radical is in brackets). hOllr. but imagine it to be a needle w ith thread coming out of it (horizontal line). Think about how the radical gives a cl ue to the general meaning and how you can fit the components together into a story. Kaisetsu 4 Locating the radical So fa r you have ide ntified radicals on the left side of ~* . ) f* (body) d) (younger siste r) g) U~ (sleep) j) lI'l ("'y al) m) P# (nme) . Meaning: elbow. Meaning: needle..92 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Co m po ne nt : measurement. Components: two (+ a shape which looks like a nose! In the iM~ the two is above the nose). St o r y: the temple bell struck each hour all through the day.!::f. I) + b. j) B Compone nt : white.: but not the fu ll meaning.W ~ Renshii 3 In Act ivity 2 in the introduction to this unit you identified the lefthand radicals of iOO.k) it (needle) n (lamp) lIlT (Iown) c) # (village) f ) tIT (fo ld. Meaning: 10 rotale.u: b) e) h) k) Ilk (b. Meaning: slaya l . Thi s is the most common position of a radical but not the only one. Story : needles a re made of metal. .

3 capila/ ( It ) I" tea C. or above. (tree) is found: * I) left side (*f\ woods) 3) below (~ enjoy) 2) above (~ investigate) And in different positions. (cover) NT (bambao) iiF.. (fire) r77 1\' (hole) or J\. Here is an example to help you.....a-m and decide I) which is its radical (from the box) and 2) its location. For example.eo.:: (heart) (enclosure) Look at the ll*.UNIT 7 . For example.. 2) below 1t (boil) Here it looks like four small flames 2) below ~ (emergency) 111 (feeling) Renshii 4 The box contains some common radicals found in the righthand position. ) ~ Right side Above Below Surround Surround - * 4Rl ill' m m Some radicals are located in more than one pos ition... 1< (ft"' ): I) left side t:Pl (field) And 'L' (heart): I) left side . some radicals change their shape.") 11: cheap (~) ~ enjoyable (. way (L) ~ listen ( r~) ~ w shape ( /.. . Think as well how the radical may indicate the general meaning. below or surround.) complete 00 country (D) partial shop (I) mad. 9f Rei: ~ (potato) I) vegetation radical 2) above (link: a potato is a vegetable) ... (rain) o 'J... (yawn) . Their names/meanings are given in brackets..L (lid) '-'\.. or ~ .- (vegetation) (village) 'J:. (vapour) n (hat !) F ..te) ~ emergency (.

'j (hold) Jl 'JIi (poem) SHI l!J _flJi Renshu 5 Th is act ivity gets you to look at ~* whose right sides and onyomi reading are the same. send for. sky) k) it (spirit) m) ~ (snow) ~ m m M\lIUi Kaisetsu 5 _* readings It has already been mentioned earlier on in this un it that as well as the radical often giving the general meaning of the other component(s) sometimes indicate the reading (anyomi).) d) j\JI (/o. * ~ (Io\o\-'er. ~ (hold) has the radical . (a i. m* Right side: -B (SHO) Meaning: call. Below are s ix ~* whose right sides (or in the case of lemple tile whole ll*) are all the same and are read either JI or SHI. Look at the radicals of the others and think about how these give a po inter to their meaning. il*. 93 if you can not remember the meaning of a radical. soar) JI Notice how the left side (the radical) g ives a clue to the meaning.94 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT b) 16 (floW. words). The firs t one has been done fo r you.ge dlY) f) 111: (song) h) (black) j) '" (army) I) 'i!! (think) a) :Ii (cheap) c) )1.*) a) =f (UI) b) (1I!1) c) 71< (m) (J!!) d) (iRI) e) 1=1 *' a Meanings i) beckon.¥ (lime) JI f. bright v) swamp. Refer to pp. invite ii} inherit iii) imperial edict. 90-1 . marsh . (capital city) e) ~ (picture. summon () ( ) ( ) ( ) () Radicals (lJ. diagram) g) (writing brush) i) !l. (The radical fo r temple is ' earth'). J.j (poem) has the radical if (say. You wi ll first be given the right side (this can stand alone as a ~* too) and then will choose from a selection of radicals (the fu ll is also given in brackets) which radical gives the fu ll ~*' its particular meaning.. ~ (temple) JI (samurai) JI B.=f (hand-remember it changes its shape slight ly). decree iv) elm. We have discussed some already. for example.

UNIT 7 95 Answers i) ii) iii) iv) v) == = = = a == d = Mf e = 1m b = Iffl =c = m(link: beckon with your hand) m (l ink: (link: (link: (link: inheritance 'thread ' to relatives) spoken 'summons' = decree) sun and bright) swamps are watery) t / i' - Hinto 1 (~s Sometimes the right side meaning can be clearly included in the link in i. . parch Meanings i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) wickedness. ask iii) spirit /white rice/purity iv) fine weather. t / i' =: Hinto 2 The radicals are given in their full ~* form but they may change shape when used as part of a I!* as you have already learnt (as in i and v). mischief liver perspire snore pole. rod restrain drought. emotion 2) Right side: Radicals 'I' (SAKU) (~"') No meaning Meanings i) yesterday. dry weather ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) b) (lif) c) 71< (if) d) }j (fl esh) (Iff) e) 9J. 'coho') (i!I') (m 3) Right side: Radicals a) 'f (KAN) Meaning: get dry. create ii i) vinegar iv) explosion ( ) () ( ) ( ) a) (lit) b) A c) 9< (:1$) d) ]!!j (liqu.iii) and sometimes it is not quite so clear (as in iv and v). clear up v) feeling. cleanse ii) request. (nose) (M) f) tt (¥) g) l''''-) 'f 1r: (~"') elf) a .d. previous ii) make. 1) Right side: Radicals a) IL' (heart) b) S c) d) ~ (rice) e) 'R' (SEI) Meaning: blue () ( ) ( ) ( ) () (~*) (M) (uri) * a *" (Wi) (im) (rt) Meanings i) purify.

il. However. they do not all fall into these categories. In Nelson each radical is numbered (from 1. therefore. you can really begin to make inroads into your learning of ~* when you have some ru les and clues like this. As you learnt in the introduction. to help you. As an extra guide. you next count the number of remaining strokes in the il~ you are looking up. Radicals are ordered by their number of strokes fro m those of one stroke through to those of 16/ 17 (i n Nelson) . may have 5000 or more entries but many of these are not in common usage. .96 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT fllI!t:t\ Kaisetsu 6 Using ijt* dictionaries How did you get on in the last activity? It is important to restate at this stage that although many ~~ have a part which g ives a clue to the reading (of the onyomi) and that the radical oft en g ives a clue to the general meaning. the radical on that page is given in square brackets with the number . there are many more il~ than this which are used in specialist. ~* are traditionally looked up in a dictionary by first identifying the radical and then locating the section where all $l~ with this radical are grouped. However. There is a list of all the radicals with their number in the inside front cover. academic and pre-war writings and documents. remember. Once you have identified the radical and turned to the relevant section. than most people know or use in everyday life. Knowing about radicals does become essential when you start to use a dictionary.2 14) and its number is clearly printed al the top of every page so that it is easy to turn to the section you are looking for. (Compare this situation with the many more words in an English dictionary dictionary.* * The most commonly used ~* dictionary for non-Japanese people is the Japanese-English Character Dictionary by Andrew Nelson (but often referred to si mply as 'Nelson'). .) A . the Japanese Ministry of Education made a list of 1942 ~* which are essential to know in everyday communication. All il~ with the same radical are grouped according to the number of remaining strokes. The number and type of radi cal does vary slightly from dictionary to dictionary. on the side of every page. from I through to the highest number (this can be up to 24 or more in the case of very complicated il~). excluding the radical stroke number.

UNIT 7 97 of remain ing strokes grouped on the same page printed n ext to it. 3) Turn to the radical list in the inside cover. 4) Turn to section 75 (radical numbers are labelled at the top of each page). There is a number next to it (every is given its own number).t!¥ you can look it up in the index at the back. 6) Find the sub-section containing all ~* with four remai ning strokes (quick reference at the side of each page) . You want to find the meaning of tt: I) You identify the radical 2) Count the number of its strokes (four). For example: St-4 \ I tells you that on this page are ~* with the radical four remaining strokes. Look through all i!. find in the 4-stroke group and make a note of its number (75). *.and Here are the steps for looking up a ~* (using Nelson). *- - -t- J -t- J. 5) Count the number of remaining strokes in tt (four). ii€* These steps are to help you get started if you want to use a ~ * dictionary. (*-). 7) Run your eye down the ~* listed until you fin d {t. If you know the pronunciation of the i!. Identifying the radical is not always easy (Nelson lists a series of steps at the beginning of the dictionary to assist you) and at the begjnning you are bound 10 make mistakes in counting the number of strokes. Meaning: branch.-. Find this number by looking at the bottom edge of each page.t!¥ of the same reading until you see the one you want. But practice makes perfect (!) and with time and experience you will be able to master .

. _* _* il* The ~~ you are going to learn to write are: ~ (time).!¥.9' BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT look ing up even very complicated r. Look carefully at the way the whole ~* is written and do not let the different components divide and look like separate iJ!*. (spirit) .so that you can COllnt how many strokes there are! If you have access to a Ii¥ dictionary. tt (needle). aft.::1:- e:t- 84 aft . Copy the models carefully and notice changes in s ize. U (younger sister). # (village).¥ correctly is so important . t:lII (cultivated field) . ~ (turn). l!I! (bury) and". 84j. where there is a left and right side. This writing section is going to focus on the balance between the components of (this has already been mentioned in Units 4 and 6). lEI (stay).tart by looking up the ~*" you have been introduced to in this unit because the radical has already been identified for you. proportion a nd orientation of the radical. This is the last formal teaching section tor writing in this book (although in Unit 10 you will be taught techniques for letter writing).11 :• I n A 8 8 8-t 8. The that follow have left sides which you are already familiar with as separate but which change their shape slightly when used as radicals. As a rule of thumb. You can now see onc reason why writing iM. the left side takes up one-third and the right side two-thirds. 5.

1£8 \ ~~ \ .t1 .t j/ti .8 . . 1. . I 'L .UNIT 7 99 ./. .f1 rth .' / I I j\ ~h jA ~8 . y' 'f 11 ~11 ~m ~Ifl )ffi . . . .~ 1/ If *- ~8 "'.

'I -- ~.l~ +.. tfF~ I. t 4.:.E3 e . .- n . ~t ~t / 0 » e 4' ~.~t i>. 1. : - 'i t~ -- ( -It:::- ti/J # .~.l ..A . I~~~ ~. I .100 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPl .- .

.t' . Therefore.. and Unit 10 offers you the chance to read a variety of Japanese texts.tlt' )-:: A - J:3: . Units 8. therefore. More important is the method you have been introduced to for de-coding iI~. Un it 8 covers general signs and infonna tion notices that you would see if you went to Japan. However.UNIT 7 101 . )tc A )::. . you are not expected to remember all the il~ which you have analysed during this unit..t-t ~. but those learnt in Renshu I and 2 will be included for reference purposes. t j 1 l' . will not include all the iI*.:.from this unit. 9 and 10 wi ll build on the knowledge and techniques that you have acquired from the first seven units of this book.:A J8 . . Unit 9 teaches :IJ 7 :IJ (katakana) the script for non-Japanese words. You il*- r .:: Owari ni In this unit you have covered more than 70 and 38 of the 214 radicals. The unit chart at the back.( )- - }-::: \. the purpose of this unit was to introduce you to a technique of breaking down 1I~ into their component parts in order to extract meaning. I::::: ) .

then move on to another unit.hes a large number of signs and so you might wi sh to 'dip into' that unit and then move on and return to it at a later date. or you j ust want a change. for example. .you take control 0 of your learning and if you find that something is difficult.Unit 8. teac. It is up 1 you .102 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT could take these units in any order .

' danger') and scan over the information we do not require. ' no entry'. You are certainly not expected to remember them all but to help you prog ress through thi s unit. There is some in fonnal ion in English. ' closed'. parti cularly in larger cities such as Tokyo. but your experience of Japan can be so much richer if you can understand some of the information that is written in Japanese. Visitors to Japan with no knowledge of written Japanese arc struck almost immediately by the lack of information they arc able to get from the s igns and notices around them. A Il Dai hachika UMT8 In this unit you will learn to read everyday signs and written infonnalion fi nd clues and stories to help you remember new ~~ words learn to recognise different writing styles look at authentic everyday street signs and information About this unit You will be introduced to a large number of ~~ signs in this unit with lots of clues to help you remember them. We pick out the infonnation of use or interest ('sale'.8 • • • • . In the same way. When children firs t learn to read they will obsessively read out all the shop names and road signs they see. your eyes will feast on . m* Hajime ni When we travel around places. the il* Build up sections conlain additional words which you can leave out or come back to later if you find there is already enough new information to take in. we arc constantly being informed by written signs and notices all around us. even withjn our own local area. once you can recognise some oflhe common signs in Japanese.

yOll can have a go at reading. Can you match them up? fl*" b) g) I) l\1l!I m. And in Japanese department stores. signs al stations . IVts.television programmes and films often show neon lights and other signs written in Japanese which. Neon signs. advertisements. tourist places. This and the next unit will introduce you to some of the more common signs you may sec around you in Japan .104 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT the new source of information open to you.you find yoursel r able to operate much morc cfficiendy and with more confidence because you can pick out the infonnation you need and get to the places you want to go to. So there are plenty of opportunities to practise what you are going to learn in thi s unit. The words that follow have a box of English meanings beneath them (with clues and stories in brackets where necessary). r .units. til 0 c) h) m) *A tIlll!l 9) 10) 11 ) 12) Y: e) J: 9 j) to~ 0) i3 «- I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) immigration (enter a country) train (electric vehicle) chi ld (small person) entrance up 1000 yen men holiday emigration (exit a country) adult (big person) school exit 13) down 14) women 15) temple The answers in the back also have in brackets the number of the unit where the word was first introduced so that you can look it up again if you need to.I:'::H\'"( (Nihon ni tsuite) About Japan A quick note about L ~ (up) and IJ (down): these signs are used specifically on trains. And not on ly in Japan . I) First of all you are going to try reading some com mon signs which you have already learnt in previous . 'Up' trains are travelling to Tokyo (from any direction) and ' down' trains are travell ing away from Tokyo. shop notices. restaurants and other speciality shops in large cities outside Japan you see many signs and information written in Japanese. once you have completed this book.

The right side -g has the general meaning of ' government'. large building). You came across the right side in the previous unit. art galleries) are often funded by local government and you can usually buy refreshments too! . Let us look at seven key ones. jiJf is generally used to indicate an office or 'over-the-counter' type of place (tourist information office.hop) 2) ("0. The ' flag ' is the board calling the next customer! 4 and 5) pfr and :1M (place). Think of it in this case as the roof and back wall of the shop. Both these radicals indicate some type of enclosure. The flag is a banner advertising a newly built store (earth connection! ).as the radical). of course. I) (r means 'clitr). together meaning &" (fortune telling). Thi s .} has the general meaning 'grounds' (hence ± . Inside the shop is t'. rooms. The radical is F meaning ' flag'. large building) Now let us look at each one in more detail ..l} (bureau.UNIT 8 105 iWliIt- Kaisetsu 1 iI* for places There are a number of tl~ which are used to indicate different types of places such as shops. Put together. waiting for the customers to arrive! r. roof). The radical again is F (flag) and within it is a mouth or opening enclosed on two sides. office).· This 1I~ is used in words such as 'post office ' so think of it as the glass counter behind which the office clerk sits.earth . a window and so is open. public institutions and offices. Within it is 3i (meaning ' arrive') which has within it ± (earth). ff meaning 'axe'.s (shop). To run a shop you have to be good at divining the customer's needs! 2) it (store.. The radical for this is r.which means ' dolted cliff' 3) f. You should recognise the left side.(fortune) and t=J (mouth). The front wall is. roof) 5) J&} (place) m 3) ~ (bureau. large halls (such as concert halls. The radical for jiJf is P (flag with ' one' above it) and this by itself means ' door'. It is the radical version of 1t (food) . (Use the axe on the door to mark the spot or place!) 6) I1'i1r (hall. T hey are: I) 4) 7) P!i (place) IllI (garden) m(.~ is often used in public or government buildings. foreign exchange bureau) whereas :Ji. office) 6) If (hall.

drawing. Here are the l. B (800) iii (meat) ~ (dr. IJ (mouth but think of this as a pond!) and off the 'pond ' are a number of garden paths.fl- Renshu 1 Now let us put what you have learnt so far into practice. Now you are going to match some common signs and shop names wi th their English equivalents. eaten with rice). The En~li s h meaning is in brackets and. fi sh (components: hook.. wash (water radical on left). remember. lea (vegetation radical indicates tea leaves + umbrella shape fo r drinking tea under). the inside is modern art).D which means 'enclosure ' or. . market (woman in hat holding shopping bags).106 SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 7) iii (garden). construction (looks like scaffolding or tower!). in thi s case. eight + 1:. Some which you have already learnt follow. The fish is hooked. B white + four short strokes = aspi rin dissolving!). alcohol (water radical indicates liquid. if you want to review a ~~ at any time. Within the walls there is ± (earth . There are also some new with some tips on how to remember them. cooked on fire .think of flower beds !). city. map (D is the picture frame.te) (book) III (vehicle) =f (hand) '* J\. rice wine. look up the English word in the index and it will refer you back to the page where you first learnt it. the walls around a garden. This ~* is very easy to remember! First.l~: iI:* _* 3\j (sell) !'f (wr. fire. public (J\. medicine (vegetation and tree indicate herbal medicine. there is the rad ical which you have already come across in the previous unit . Can you see it now? l!J .nk) art (the first if* looks like an artist's easel!). Right side looks like a decanter). looks like a nose! Eight nosey people = the public!). rice field.

The first one ~ has a general meaning of 'cat.::J n -C (Nihon ni tsuite) . IJj} (factory) and Iti:ij.. drink. so in this case ' the honourable hand washing (place)' although its real meaning is toilet! The end hiragllna l> is somet imes left off (see this book cover for an example of this sign). a .lj. am About Japan :t:ifiitl> (toilet) has hiragana 10' (0) at the beginning which is used in fTont of some words to make them sound more (X)lite and genteel.UNIT 8 107 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) m) n) 0) bookshop (two answers) a newsstand.j 14) IS) JUfJ£ Jt.j () 4) ~I!fll'! ( ) 5) iiUI () 6) IIJ! .J£ ( ) () 16) f.llIi! () 17) 1o''frA. of 800 types of fruit and vegetables! You should have worked ou t the meaning of lIj!~m (coffee/tea shop) from the second and third ~*.r.m () () nxa. a kiosk • pharmacy (two answers) butcher's toilet (hand washing) art gallery greengrocer's (800 varieties! ) park fishmonger's market (place) library tea/coffee shop wine shop.*) 9) >'1m 10) iJlJ£ II ) f!l:iI'im 12) ~lIill'! () () ( ) ( ) 13) I. J\. bar factory I) 0m1 () 2) lliJiU () 3) iIl. It is not widely used and focusing on the second two ~* gives you the meaning.l' ( ) fWlllt= Kaisetsu 2 More about places How did you get on with th is activity? Some of the words need further (greengrocer's) literally means '800 shop' so think explananlion.!i ( ) (focu s on 2nd + 3rd 7) 8) lliJ£ () 'if.\\.} (market) are both places which have grounds and so use ~ for · place'.Ij./lq. liquor store drinking place. smoke' and its radical tl (moulh) indicates this genera l meaning. This is sometimes translated as ' honourable'.

. stop-over) tl: (reside. it The radical is A their own residence. the right is . 1) ±. transport was by horse!). In old times. stop-over places or inns were a place to rest horses on a long journey. the right side R is the measurement ' foot' . A welcoming candle in the window would light your way.you supply the story! Places fJ!P!T Toilet. 3) fI. (convenience.) in Car park (stop-over place for vehicles) Address (place of residence) 2) ~ The radical is 'horse'.(one) and ~ (tug).108 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT il* build up 1 More place names As explained in the introduction. (master) 3) ~ (convenience: mail) Now let's look at them in detail. looks like a candlestick with a Harne on lOp so you can remember it as 'candle' (its real meaning is ' master' ). Here are two words it is used in .:1:. Think of it in this case as being R for railway. The following further on : nl* are key to the additional place names introduced 2) ~ (station ) 4) fr (go) 1) ±. (person) . these sections will leach additional ~* words which you can leave out or come back to later if you feel you have taken in enough at this stage . mail) The left side is person. It is a compone nt of the fo llowing two il*: Sf (reside. dwell) It The radical is ~ (horse). Meaning: Railway station (before trains. perhaps? The first il¥ might conjure up a strong image here!) Post office (fi rst two ~*" both mean 'mail' plus NU 'bureau') . A person is master (real meaning of . urinal (A place for your convenience.

~ means 'both'. Quick story for ~ : tourists would certain ly want more information about a woman wearing a large hat in a tree! (r.nm - 6) More places containing Jj. Story: go (ft) in the direction of a holiday with a suitcaSe of clothes! ~tJ.t{.JjiJT means ' information (place)'.fni&} (Ticket office).} (place) : m:f. T he radical means ' rice' .!'t side comes from. Story: go to the bank to get silver (money) i6ili!iUi (shopping area) You should recognise (shop). at the fare adjustment office.::':)~n: (Nihon ni tsuite) About Japan If you travel by underground in Japan and do not know the fare to your destination. -m means 'cut' (7J means 'sword'). In ancient times. ~ means ' token ' and has 17 (bamboo) at the .&afT means 'travel'. riee rather than money was used as payment including fares! 1'I*1. meaning 'clothes' .JjiJi (travel information). iRi means ' trade' . {!j cons ists of double earth (±) between fi and means 'street ' or 'quarters' (earth piled up to make a road) MtfT~tJ. Both gain from the exchange! MffjiJi (Fa re adjustment office). You learnt the first ~* in Unit 7: it means ' purity ' or ' white rice' .q is introduced laler in this unit) (bank) • m '* 5) More places containing jiJT (place) : N"M'pJi (Mon ey exchange place) . tt. has the left side radical 7i which means ' direction' . Places ilHj means ' silver' (radical ~ is metal).UNIT 8 109 (to go) The radical 4) fi 1 means ' going person'. the ri~. buy the cheapest ticket and pay the difference when you arrive. 7C~ literally means 'sclling placc'. Focus on this meaning to give you a story for the whole word . You can see ilJ (mountain) within this with a small mountain on both sides of the large one ! The upper part of 1f: (exchange) looks like two people who are exchanging.

Also. Focus on which means ' picture ' but you can also see within it four squares representing the screens of a multi-screen cinema! i!:*:iiIDi'il m . Mi means ' travel' . Focus on 'It: meaning PhD or esteem.it means ' things'. think of the left side of 1t: as an ancient Japanese sword! ~ MlW-= Renshu 2 In the previous __ Build up section you were introduced to 15 more place names. You learnt ~ in Unit 4 .110 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT top and M (attach) below.&am (Japanese inn). fII til (hall): (cinema). tt~m (museum). If you do not get them al l on the first try. If you look hard enough you can make out the outline of the arch and curtains around a stage with a kabuki actor standing in the middle! 7) More places containing filii" (theatre) . The following activity gives you the chance to see how many you can now recognise.then try again! Match the Engli sh words (there are clues in brackets) to the in the box . A place to stay when travelling. simply go back over the ex.planations . Esteemed items afC kept in museums. Maybe in ancient limes a ticket was a token cut from bamboo! means drama. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) m) n) 0) Travel information (woman in tree) Japanese inn (travel place) Museum (Japanese sword) Theatre (proscenium arch) Car park (stop-overs/or horses! ) Address (mOSIer o/residence) Fare adjustment office (pay wilh rice) Money exchange (rwo people exchange) Shopping area (double earth/or road) Railway station (horse + R for railway) Ticket office (CUI bamboo selling place!) Bank (go 10 bank for silver money) Cinema (four squares = four screens) Post office (mail bureau) Toilet (conveniencelyour own SIOry) * il!f: words .

looks like an aeroplane taking off into the air from a runway! It is also used in ~ ~ (airport). if you look carefully. These are: 1) 4) _* 3 _ * Signs !lI (vehicle) Jf/i (seat) 2) 1il: (room) 5) ~ (tMng) 3) Jl!I (country) 6) .the type you pu ll down from the wall on a train. Think of this as a 4l tt Itt. These signs are n.::: Kaisetsu Y have so far been exposed to a total of 47 place names (or 32 if you ou Build up section).UNIT 8 11\ 1) 4) 7) 10) 13) St!lI41 ( fJl[p ( ) Ji illir.sllI ( fIljJpJi ( i!I! ii!ii tI'! ( ) ) ) ) 2) 5) 8) 11) 14) itpJi ( ) ill fJI[ Ilil ( ) lKfill'iPlPJi ( ) tlm3'f41 ( ) lKtI'! ( ) 3) ~ ( ) 6) ilifi ( ) 9) jijtl'PJi ( 12) /IlJ. means 'full ' or 'enough '. bicycle ~Itr and displayed on the windscreens of tax i cabs and at car parks.j ( ) 15) j1IJ'~ tI'! ( ) ) MliIt. On the left is a component which looks like a bed standing upright . Above this is the component 'vegetation '. Here are fi ve il* words containing Jti: : JlJ1fi long-distance train ~1II unoccupied taxi ~1II occupied taxi ~ttllr sleeper train ~~. (turn. This is used generically but also for local lrajns. The righthand component ~ looks like a long rail track! means 'J(Cdestal' but can you see a person with a large nose b. Next you are going to learn to missed out the recognise more common signs and written information containing if* or components that you are already familiar with. ~ means ' automati c' or 'sclf'. tt . Story: water and vegetation together are enough to live on! n. . 1) nr (vehicle). (electric train). The radica l is water and it contains a component you have already learnt in this unit. You met:fi. ~tG. ~ means 'sky' or 'empty' and. rotate) in Unit 7.You have already learnt m. FIi (both). (fte ) Now let us look at these in detail. You can see ~ (eye) with an extra short stroke.q Jll1lr. in thi s case ' roof'.qIfi .I1I . lying on a bed! ~ means '10 sleep ' and has the radical ""'" (l id).. whereas 7l $ denotes long-distance trains.Ij.

You learnt mim (telephone) in Unit 6.'-1- means outside (outsidc the country). The left side ~ represents the ears of rice as it grows in the fie lds. Here it is r4 (li d. You learnt it as ' peace' in Unit 3 (as part of the Showa era).two persons in a fram e).' rooms have roofs'. . Focus then on if. The radical is different.fO is the old Chinese word for Japan.) AOOifll. You learnt in Kaisetsu I that the component 1r means ' government' and passport control is a government or civil service organ isation.'-I-OOZ1 tf contains 1} meaning 'c~cha nge ' (p. First you have enter the country (to enter a country you have to show your passport).fu ~ Japanese-style room m jf~ and :fiI ~ arc words used in hotels and estate age nts. T he Japanese poi nt to thei r nose (rather than the ir chest) when they refer to ' mc'. You can sce a person A inside a fra me. an animal associated with the West. . The ri ght side $: means 'sheep' (can you see Ihe horns of the ram?). The radical !Y means 'evening' (imagine it as a crescent moon shape) and imagine a person f' standing outside looki ng at the moon . IE llf 'iUim.fn1i! (Japanese-style rooms) have tatam i mats on the floor. T his is simi lar to (shop) which you learnt earlie r in this unit (Kaisetsu I ). . (Think of the upper part being a marquee and the lower part a trestle table. Altogether we have ·sclf·rotating vehicle '. . roof). 3) ~ (country). I .'-H~24 t1= fo reign e~change IEFlm~ international phone AOOiiJm passport control P:] means inside (inside the country).112 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT s ma ll nose (between the eyes!). Here are two ~* words conta inin g~: j$~ Western-style room . foreign . 109). and rice is Japan 's staple food. (Do nol confuse with ~ fl csh . futon mattresses to sleep on and Japanese baths whereas W* (Western-style rooms) have carpets on the floor and in hotels have Western beds and bathrooms. T he lower part is ~ (arrive) but focus on its difference 'from 'shop' because it has a roof . in other words. 9H~A means 'foreigner' (outsider). Here are fi ve words containing this ~* : ~ p:] domestic 9HE abroad. a bicycle! 2) 3! (room). i$ means ' ocean ' (the West is across the ocean!) and the rad ical is · water'. k ~ is used to indicate ' international' and consists of the radical ' vi lIage' (think of the global vi llage) and ~ meani ng ' fes ti val' . set up fo r a retc or restival.

means' forgotten '. :r. m mmeans ' finger/ indicate'. "C means ' deceased ' or ' lost'. With $ it means ' free! unrescrved seat'.->-. Focus on the radical payment: * (rice) which you know can represent *'I~ A. The general meaning ( putting a li mit on something) is indicated by the radical . You first learnt thi s in Unit 4 ( p. Test yoursel f by seeing how many you can recognise (write the English meanings in the brackets). *4). the menu is fixed ). IE means ' fixed '. unreserved seat m~ff& reserved seat You have already learnt that ~ means 'self' . 6) ~ (fee).II. Thc component within looks like a computer game character! He has a square head. Note: ~tt means 'set meal' <in other words.€. ~ means ' freedom ' the freedom to make your own (self) decisions. Remember that the radical ~. (heart) is used for emotions and thoughts. Therefore the seats indicated are limited/reserved. M. 11 means ' nothing ' a nd looks like a prison window with no prisoner inside! I!I!W '::::' Renshu 3 In the last section you were introduced to 22 new information words and three new general il* (~.. check your answers by looking back through the section.)*'I 1I!1*'I ~ means fee (lit ' fee money') mcans entrance fee (lit 'cnter place fee ') means admission free (lit ' no fee ').UNIT 8 113 4) ffC (seal). ) ( ) JlHEA ( ~IIl ( ) ~llO ) }lJIIl ( ) iii! 1'1 III ( ) ) fU llO ( ) OOJll ( ) ) JlHE 1. The radical is (dotted cliff) but fo r this ~* imagine it is the roof and s ide of a train carriage (with electric cable on the roof). The ~enera l ft (thing). 50). meaning is indicated by the lefthand radical ' hand ' (from ~) . (a crown or in this case a lid).j 'If ( ) 00 lliHllllli ( ) . stick body and arms. parcel :@ttft left behind by mistakel10st luggage 5) Look at ~ as a picture of a suitcase ( []) coming through the conveyor belt at the airport! . If you cannot remember all of them at first. You cannot see his legs because he is sitting down! Here are two signs containing $ : ~ r- mlrf.:Jft luggage.

you can leave this one out and come back to it laler if you wi sh to. . 2) In the previous section (Kaiselsu 3) you learnt ~I (Japanese) and if (Western).II ( ( .\iit3?: waiting room Note: The word for a Japanese-style bath is !ia g . The lefthand radical is 'going person' and the righthand radical is ~ (temple).J3!. {l:. and you sil with your knees bent and on ly your head above water. Focus on #i which means wait. Thi s type of bath is deeper and shorter than Western ball1s. means bathe and has the water radical on the left. The righthand component looks like a house.m means cosmetics (think of the rice radical as a powder pum). Powder room is a euphemism for ladies' toilet or bathroom.you sit in the bath with back straight.m~ powder room. I) Here are three compound words containing ~ (room): m~ bathroom m~. 1l:. t#f. toilet t."4 ) '" tL 1IiJ ) BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ) 13 illJ. Here are four more words containing these: * :fntt Japanese cuisine ~I~ Japanese-style ittt Western cuisine tf~ Western-style Renshii 4 In the last section you were introduced 10 eight new compound words.'t~. g means backbone (can you see the vertebrae?) . Can you match them up with their English mean ings? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) ~Itt *-ft"~ m~ lti:Jt B!l S a) b) c) d) e) f~1!tliO tf tt tf:Jt Western-style Japanese-style Western cuisine Japanese cuisine bathroom f) (Japanc. as in 'bath house'! m ~l:.~ build up 2 ) llilEJI/i ( ) f'I~ ( ) ) As with the last build up ~* section.c) bath g) waiting room h) powder room (ladies' toilet) .

First.ffl {TOk'yO.and it is the fourth compass direction) Now look at the map of Japan with the main islands and cities labelled in ~* and ramaji. They are included for interest only. Jl! II" Nagasaki ' SHIK:DKU I!!IIII . YOikoh.ma lUi . HOKKAIOO _* jt:¥il! Sapporo 0 NIHON (Japan) 1\. You have not learnt any of the ~!:f: for 3.l!!I Kaisetsu 4 In thi s secti on you will learn to recogn ise the main islands and cities of Japan. How many do you recognise? There is a list of clues on the next page to help you learn the names. 6 and 12.UNIT 8 115 IWliI!.do not confuse them . you are going to leam the four compass directions: A map of Japan ~t And here are quick clues to help you remember them: ~I:: North (looks like two people sitting back to back to keep warm (cold * R!i m in the North» South (yen symbol ¥ (more money in the South of Japan! » Ea!J't (components: sun and tree.11 S'*' HONSHO .. Sun rising in the East from behind the tree) West (looks like (!!I four .*.

province long. way paper mOlley. city wide. .brought *#1 in money! Main (biggest) island of Japan (Which it is!) ' C ity on the seacoast to the side o f Tokyo' 7) 8) 9) *11& 1M:. After that she learnt to recognise ~ (forbidden) as ' two Harry Worths (the e nte rta iner who used to stand hal f behind mirrors li fting his leg and arm up and down) dancing on a picnic table'! That ll!¥ a lone would have prevented her going up that road. We start by learni ng some general warning are used. In signs means during or under L!J IIkW Ji Renshu 5 Here are some common warning signs using the plus o nes you know already. sea. promontory . not aJ/owed (ll: means 'stop' ) Jit~ strictly forbidden f:I to smoke (fire radical) [Jl middle. CQutJIry mne. root North. 11* we have just met . Describes Nagasaki harbour Kaisetsu 5 Warning signs It is very useful and often essential to be able to read this type of sign.!@ four. capilal side.116 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Place I) 2) ~tilil11 3) lUI! 4) 5) :110]( 6) ~~ 1'1* Meanings sun. province East. A friend of mine drove up a closed road and got stuck in a snow drift because she could not read the sign at the head of the road. slope capital. island 8(!¥ Story clue ' Land of the ris ing sun' ' North island across the sea' Winter O lympics held here . Osaka is built on a hillside Kyoto used to be the capital of Japan Hiroshima stands in a wide bay dotted with small islands Shikoku is the fourth of the main islands of Japan KYlIshu is divided into nine provinces (administrative) II) 1L#I 12)1>l:. iM¥ then look at how they ~ forbidden Uust mentioned) ~Jl: no. seacoast big. hood root/main. J]('M\ 10) P .

Two p eople holding one door each open One person cannot hold the doors and they close Remember that 3§: means arrive or 'the nose of the plane touching ground ' ili means go out ili. left right Use of I for I (am/am not left handed) ('Tick the right box') o jtp 1" p ush 51< pull M open Hand radical is pushing the doorbell ~I look s like an archery bow which you pull M close JlJt( arrival Gates (elevator doors)..*~!:f:1 closed 11t is a backbone with a hat o n .g departure 11t~tp open/or business .dangerous if it escapes!) fllIIt* Kaisetsu ti. a) b) c) d) e) Outdoor shoes strictly forbidden ( No smoking ( ) No parking ( ) Under construction ( ) No admittance ( ) ) Finally in this sect ion.UNIT 8 117 Match each word to its English meaning.a shop assistant! ~ means holiday . ti 6 Signs of opposition This is the final kaisetsu section! Ten ~~ follow which can be paired as opposites in meaning. three more useful warning signs with clues to remember: ~~1lt 0 Emergency exit (# looks like a path cleared of clutter fo r easy access) ttt! Caution ('i± story: 'pour water on a candle to caution against firc'!) fit~ Danger (iB looks like a snake in a box .

118

SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

a¥ build

up 3

And finally, some miscellaneous signs. Once more, you can miss thi s section out if you need to consolidate what you have learnt so far.

Mi means grilled (fire radical plus component looking like a barbcque).
Look at these words:

mill

yakiniku - grilled meat YU~ r,,~ yakitori - barbequed chicken on bamlxto skewers tI~fo/l-m ~ okollQmiyaki - a type of thick pancake cooked on an iron griddle at your table. sukiyaki - beef gri lled then cooked with vegetables in a t~m~ cast iron pot. shinlwnsen or bullet train. $i (new) helps you to remember this. undergrollfld(train). Lit: 'ground under iron'. Iron indicates the rail track. express (train). Lit 'hurry go'. special express. Lit: ' special hurry'

Renshu 6
Look at t he pictures of various Japanese signs. T here is a range of written styles, both vertical and horizontal left to right. How many can you ~ognisc? You may need to come back to this activity aftcr you have worked through the conclusion (which includes a rev iew of all the signs learnt in th is unit) but keep a score and see if you can improve on it !

UNIT 8

119

2)

AO
3)
4)

The name of a temple entrance
5)

6)

7)

8)

120

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

9)

10)

II )

r-.,..-- " . - - - - - - ~
~

/.
SHIMOKITAZAWA
What is Shimokitazawa the name of? (Focus on the last kanji)
12)

The fi rst two kanji mean 'Fuji ', What is this building called?

13)

UNIT 8

121

14)

IEiiill
~

15)

§J

EI3

16)

Toy

17)

tJD §it

1 9) ~~

Owari ni
t:J li)"('" C '7 (omedeto) Congratu lations! Y have worked through a ou mini mum of 76 n'.Ii~ signs in thi s unit. This does not include the \ 2 island and city names, and the 3 1 signs in the ~~ Bui ld up sections. Thi s makes an overall total of 119 signs, which is a huge amount and obviously you are not going to remember them all in one go. To help you review and consolidate your learning. all the signs are g ro uped below by theme. How many do you remember? The English is also given at the end of the unit so test yourself, then check and then use these pages as a check list. (Signs taught in the ~ ~ Bui ld up sections are marked with an asterisk.)

Hinto Remembering.¥ words
Try writing out the words on small squares of card. Put the il* on one side and the English on the other. Use these mini flashcards to test yourself by looking at the ~* side, giving your answer then turn ing the card over to see if you are right. Try doing 10 in the morning, 10 in the evening and gradually build up the number you can remember.

:ff27) ~l\! 30) I\fit~- ..mIl! 2) JIij 5) 9H~A 8) AOOWllI! 11) \IlJ!! 14) ?lJl\! 17) lli)i!m. 20) fIIJJi')f23) ~¥'f".j'll' 24) ~ I 28) l*l'I<<P *lOl.lIM 5) 10) 1II\M J!/!I!ii ill- 1) ~t 4) l!!i 7) 10) 13) 16) 19) 22) 25) 28) tII-g ~- r ry .>I:.- 1) 5) *A til ~ 4) 8) 12) !ll ili')f- flJ>I:.26) it!!rllJ<29) <I fi<J!! 3) JI! 6) ilJ:II' 9) 00 P3 12) .(.H'tljj24) ..<C/j 7) Jllll&!3) l* 8) M~ a 4) 9) !R A. 8) il:ilfrn < Sightseeing and entertainment 6) "~iIlTravel and transport 1) ~jfjill 2) t.@It~ j{>ff~PJii)f- <litilli 41\'*'1.try 15) li!itl\! 18) :(.- Shopping and places in town 1) rn 5) if<\m 9) 13) 111lj! 17) oo~mil! 21) j\jtl'jl)f25) IlIJ 29) Xl&! 2) II.! 101 6) ilfm 10) rtrn 14) i}im 18) iliff22) Itl\!l&!26) M 30) "l":Il< 3) 7) 11 ) 15) 19) 23) 27) lIfrn Ai'fm I!li!*rn ll!fiii OlIl1fill lI1ilfiiiJIll t 1!tl'l< <P 4) 12) ll!m 16) iIIlrnm20) 9~001.22 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT General 9) {~1lf~ 13) if.Ij~ 21) Wf.

6) tti'Ji3) ~~ 7) ttX! 4) ±JEjj.~ Warnings I) ~:q./S- 3) 1'11".UNIT 8 123 Accommodation I) 4) 1If".:~1I: 5) I$ '/' Food and drink I) fu11t' 4) Ii>~.- M<ftI'!- 2) 5) 1$".~ 8) fe.- 2) Jl:A~lI: 6) ill'lit r:1 2) 1$11t5) MifJJ-Ii>~' 3) li>iIl6) T~m~- English meanings General I) 4) 7) I 0) 13) exit man toilet left Western-sty le 2) 5) 8) I I) entrance adult toilet right 3) 6) 9) 12) woman ehild toilct/powder room Japancse-style Shopping and places in town I) shop 3) greengrocer 5) fish shop 7) coffee shop 9) bookstore I I and 12) pharmacy/chemist 14) park 16) shopping area 18) bank 20) foreign exchange 22) car park 24) pull 26) close 28) closed 30) school 2) butcher 4) book shop 6) liquor store 8) bar 10) kiosk 13) market 15) library 17) international tele phone 19) post office 2 1) exchange bureau 23) push 25) open 27) open (for business) 29) factory .q. !i!.

124 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Sightseeing and entertainment I ) art gallery 5) cinema 9) entrance fce 2) temple 6) museum 10) admission free 3) holiday 7) theatre 4) festival 8) fee Travel and transport 1) North 3) East 5) foreigner 7) 9) 11) 13) 15) 17) 19) 21) 23) 25) 27) departure domestic train down sleeper reserved scat lost property ticket office bullet train special express unoccupied 29) bicycle 2) 4) 6) 8) 10) 12) 14) 16) 18) 20) 22) 24) 26) 28) 30) South West arrival passport control station up long-distance train unreserved seat luggage fare adjustment office travel infannation express underground/subway occupied waiting room Accommodation 1) Japanese inn 3) Japanese-style room 5) (Japanese) bath Warnings 2) Western-style room 4) bathroom 6) address I) 3) 5) 7) no parking no smoking under construction caution 2) 4) 6) 8) no admittance outdoor shoes strictly forbidden emergency exit danger Food and drink 1) Japanese cuisine 3) yakiniku .beef ' hot pot ' .grilled pancake 2) Western cuisine 4) yakitori .grilled meat 5) okonomiyaki .grilled chicken 6) sukiyaki .

.viii) and the section on h !J 1J . countries etc. vi. ~ first but as most of the rules are the same for both scripts you will be referred back to the appropriate page in Unit 5 to read through the explanations there. 3D I: Hajime ni 11 11 iJ r is the script used to represent fore ign words which have heen adopted into the Japanese language (loanwords) and foreign names (personal names.:cidcd to work through the il¥ units first and then to work on Units 5 and 9. This makes h 7 h T a fun script to learn and working out the meanings can be an enjoyable challenge! In Un it 5 you learnt to read the 0 t.. And you could work through this unit without learning V t. script . Can you answer these questions based on the information you have j ust read? .. You may have dt. IJ r (katalcana) symbols which make up the phonetic 'alphabet' • learn some rules for making extra sounds from the 46 main symbols • be introduced to picture.sound associations to make learning easier • learn how to write tJ f. kyuka UNIT 9 In this unit you will • learn to read the 46 11 f.).9 fflLiI Da. Most of the loanwords a re de rived from English words and this means that once you can read the script you can norma lly work out what a word means. tJ~ ~. nt Begin by looking back to the section of the introduction which deals with an overview of the different types of Japanese script (pp.. IJ T (lwtakana) • have a go at reading some words and phrases Key words: fJ !J fJ T (kalakaaa) Ii t.

~ ( ) :1..2 l!J . There are six words (a.f) in the left column which are repeated in a different order in the right column. so . Match up the same words and write the correct letter in the brackets on the left. ke ko u7 te 7' to .11.-'/ 7-1:1. The chart is writtcn in the traditional way from top to bottom right to left.12.'/ () () ~-:1. (a) (d):1.7'-"'< ( ) :1. 11 . On ly the symbols are different.~ 7-'< :1.J 7 .t ~ (see p. -1 ku . (a) 7-"'< r (b) 7 -1 :1.words. 7'. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT I) What is 11 7 11 used for? (name four uses) 2) What do iJ !I tJ symbols originate from? 3) How many basic symbols make up the" 7 IJ -r r t syllabary? Yonde mimasho You have not learnt to read any /J !I IJ yet (apart from these three symbols) but as you did in Unit 5 you arc going to pair up !J !J JJ T words which are the same. . This is to give you practice at reading vertically. The order and pronunciation is exactly the same as U ~ .. (e) ~ -:1. se -t:.~ (f) :1.~() MiiIt- Kaisetsu 1 Let us begin by looking al the first four lines of the 11 7 11 syllabary with the romanised pronunciation and learn how to read them. Use ·the chart of the first 20 symbols and say the words out loud then see if you can match them 10 .. Now you are going to try to read those words. ta :9 chi 1tsu'Y sa -+f shi ~ sU A ko 11 ki ~ r 07 . The first one is done for you."'< (e) :1.W- Renshu 1 In the ronde mimashii activity you matched six fJ :9 fJ t. Remember that you read in co lumns not rows and begin to read from the top right symbol. 59 to refresh your memory).

Look carefully at the stroke order and remember that in general you write horizontal strokes from left to right and vertical /diagonal strokes from top to bottom (variations to the direction are marked with an arrow on the individual symbol).1.1. fJ j. (e i looks like elevator doors '< (ki l looks like a dooc key ~ MlIIt= Kaisetsu 2 You arc now goi ng to be introduced to the who le j J ' fJ j. Some symbols are easier than others but just do a few at a time. The pronunciation is adapted to suit Japanese' pronunciation rules (every consonant is followed by a vowel) but you can usually recogn ise the word once you have read it correctly. .chart. . [u] performs this function in U ~ tJ~ ~. fJ jis used to wri te fore ign (mainly English) words.1.r c) . As with () t. A dash . See p. This follow s exactly the same format as for U ~ I. a) 7-'< d) 7 -( . 67).symbols to get you started.UNIT 9 127 their English meanings in the box that follows. Remember that fJ . Try to think of your own and write them down.t ~ in Unit 5 (p..<r e).after a symbol means that you lengthen the sound of that symbol (. 63)..'/ steak ( ) toast ( ) skirt ( cake ( suit ( ) ice ( ) 1:: /' J. Here are a few ideas fo r fJ ."}--'< f). including the correct order in which to write each symbol. T (a ) looks like an antelope ~ I + \@l -1 (i) is a leaning T which rhymes with i ? (u ) looks like a uisukii (w hisky) fla sk 0 :r. tJt ~ try to learn to write IJ 7 jJ t because this will help you to remember how to read them too. 60). h .< ) ) b) r-..- Hinto 1 Remembering jJ 9 jJ T In Unit 5 you were introduced to the idea of remembering U ~ Ii ~ through visual and sound association (p.

drink.t 1" 0 J I I- .f... write out each 11 . You can then test yourself by covering up the Engljsh and seeing if you can read the IJ ? IJ word.// .. I) \ " '7 .r .12. :J :J . . And it wi ll form a useful dictionary too! r r -r .t l- =- Hinto 2 Organise your learning Don' t worry ahout learning all the symbols in one go .t '0 7 A 'f t? ~ }T J- . • t ~ I 'J '0 .. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT - -t 9 rl 3' 1 ~ -lt l t I -- - n' 1• '7 '7 <. T -7 . * . .1 .. nl f .I " -. .keep referring back to the charts. ~ -1 / 7..h. "J 7 :. clothes. You might find it useful to make a j. :z. vocabulary book for this unit. ? j..~ ..'I J -/ ~ +) . - .t l T I J I- r :J \ ) . ~ -1~ ) 7 . electrical gadgets etc. Whichever way you choose. . You could either organise the words by theme (food..T . :IJ word with its romaji pronunciation (optional) and its English meaning next to it.I ~ ~ m I} '7 ? ...) or alphabetically using the 46 basic symbols (onc per page) and cnter all words beginning with a particular symbol on the same page. " "/ " "). fJ " :\ " '" -.. 7 1 • 7 ~ ? 1 .z ~ '7 + -+ .-If "'.t 1:: . ...

..... ~ . the words are in three sets.. . :3 'I 3 .. -V -\' ~ --:. t 7 - t . it is time to put your learning into practice and have a go at reading some words. See how many symbols/words you can read from memory before using the chart to search for those you cannot remember.//' I 0 n 0 .[:. Set I refers to the first part of the chart...W = Renshu 2 Now that you have been introduced to the 46 :IJ :7 :IJ t.:<-1 Iv . -Z 129 " I } '" \ ~ . '7 - :iT -. V )~ . /'-. . . You also have to se lect the correct English meanings so say the words out aloud. 1 ) " . set 2 refers to the second and set 3 to the whole chart.UNIT 9 '7T ) . Keep coming back to this activity and try to improve your score each time! .t . / " 0 " 3T -c - .J. . You may be 'able to do this even if you cannot read all the Ir Jj: (kana) symbols. .It.. .:'T . L.. ..~ ...A ~ 7 ~ lt... ) / f "~..t .-l .... .-. -.. 1 ~ ~T .1 ' " .- .. . As in Unit 5. "" ----.f: - t . .> .T -7 I .. -E .symbols.t. ~ ~ " . l!'J .

7... la .- -c . The short strokes stand side by side. tsu) * The long stroke in ~ is written upwards and the short strokes are almost at right angles to the long stroke. '". Set 1 a) e) -c . wa) . (a. .re) :.. '7 (u...J. For example '7 ./ Set 3 a) T~ / e) ~ ... t (sa . nu) '!t .~ Hinto 3 Pronunciation Japanese pronunciation does not distinguish between ' r' and 'I' sounds.J" 3) rice ( 6) f)L--A~7O' d) 71" h) !J -" 7 ) I) restaurant ( 4) chicken ( ) 7) camera ( ) 2) tennis ( ) 5) curry ( ) 8) tomato ( ) ice cream ( ) Hinto 4 Similar:JJ 51:JJ-r You have probab ly already confused some of the s imilar-looking IJ !J " Th is section will line these up so that you can look at the differences and keep them separate in your mind. rna) 7. )t (ku.me) )it.7 . "7 .130 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT l:: / l. r.-.Ju .:f (ranchi) means lunch .~ b):z:z-r f) . (so..~- I) skating ( ) 5) cake ( ) d) . ~ b) 7 1 A ) 'J ~ . Y has the same features as ~ (but only one short stroke).g) "7-~ 4) taxi ( 2) ski ing ( ) 3) cqcoa ( ) 6) sweater ( ) 7) coat ( ) ) Set 2 a) 7 ..3' - 7.(na. The long stroke in '/ is written downwards and is at a steeper angle. T.I has the same feat ures as '/ (but only one short stroke). -7 . Try replacing ' r' sounds with'!' sounds if you cannot work out the meaning. 7. / 1) memo ( ) 4) ham ( ) b) "J" c) -" -lO d) -"" / 2) lemon ( ) 3) melon ( ) 5) ramen (Chinese noodles) ( ) e) L. se) ?. l ...~ c) 3' 'J . n) * '. 'Y (shi. v (ru.

67) then fill in the gaps in the following activity. (ni) '(>.7 ' . o nly the script is different. Y -? ~'..j (fu) (he) (ho) ---r . ::<. -e ~ '< (k.. . ~' )( )( ) 4) 'h' sounds become ' b' sounds: r. '7"..j.. ~ "... Kaisetsu 3 n7n'J.. :-.. the rules are exactly the same as for (J ~ IJt ~ . 'lJV.. .()()( 3) 't' sounds become ' d' sounds: (ta) (te) (to) ".' ()()()()() . '7"'. (ka) . just as with all the units in this book. '<. and The good news is that some 11 1111 symbols are very similar to their (J ~ IJ~ ~ equivalents (in many cases they originated from the same i.. -:/ ) (sa) (shi) (Sll) (se) (so) ()(). Read over the () ~ IJ{ ~ section again (p. . 7 (ke) I. (he) ~ (ri) . t . . (u) II' • :IJ (ka) ~.Ji Hinto 5 Similar D.W'=:' Renshu 3 When you add ' to certai n symbols you get a change in sound. ( "'. I) ' k' sounds become 'g' sounds (hard 'g' as in 'get'): :IJ. They are listed here. ~ --.l*)..y. This can make them easier to remember.2 -It. _ t ' ... .7'. :If.I. ~ It. 'l.::.. (J >? IJt ~ first then 11 1111 T : r 1. . (ha) (h. .. -C. . '" (ya) - ~ . X.. .) (se) (rna) change their sound MliIt.. And remember. you set the pace! ~ .UNIT 9 131 n~jI'jrT l::.that Again.2' (ka) (Id) (ku) (ke) (ko) ()()()()() 2) ' s' sounds ' z' sounds: "\1". • 9..2 --... t. 7..: ..J.:. '1.• / . ~ .=:. -C. 7. '<.

. V (do).I'" / ' ." b) . '/ (ISU) • a) "'/d) . 'j"" (de). Section by section you will build up the number of symbols unt il you a re reading words contai ning the m all. 67. Y (so).I{ A . (ba) • . This will be done by fe-introducing a few IJ !J jJ t symbol s at a time and getting you to read words which contain them. :iJ (ka).. :/ (za).(sh'). / (n) r '1- (chi).I{ (pa) c) /~/''/ -c -:. W hen a symbol has linked sounds (for example. tl (ga» they are given together but not all are necessarily used in that section.8). IJ. IJ symbols then match up the words and mean ings beneath the m. <to(za).tl e) A:iJ-r i) pants. :.----------------------------------. This activity is designed to he lp you bu ild up your confidence in readi ng tJ and to ease you away from referring back to the c harts (bul lhey arc always there if you need them!). ' h ' sounds become ' p ' sounds when a small circle ' is added: (ha)(hi) (fu) (he) (ha) ()()()()() Check whether you have filled in the bmckcts correctly by referring back to th is section in Unit 5 (pp. -t: (ze).. '" (zu). For each section look over the tJ . a) d) ~-/. IJ (ka). trousers ( ) iv) bus or bath ( ) ii) skirt ( ) v) hamburger ( ) iii) sausage ( ) .1.( i) jeans ( r- A r b) 'j""fe) ~-/ r c) '1--'" iii) toast ( ) iv) (movie) scene ( ) ii) cheese ( ) v) dessert ( ) ) 2) . (w).1. A (su). r. :: (j0. -c (.I'" (ha). 'j" (<e).132 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 5) In addition.. :If (ga).)./. r t- I) <t (sa) ..

.~.7 / r---------------------------------~ (ra). a) ...... Y (n)... .'/7-70 i) passport ( ) iv) pen ( ) vii) button ( ) 5) d) ...Ig) '" / 1ii) suitcase ( ) iii) chicken ( ) vi) guitar ( ) v) bench ( ) b) "<7f) ."7 I) ." (pi).-* (rn). At.. '/ (do).-------------.t.It / e) 70 .. ... It (ki). (bo).: y c) . 7' (ge) ..-7 "-7tobacco healer ( scarf ( dance ( b) i) iii) v) vii) f) (cigarettes) ( ) ) ) r-7 7'<" ) c) .(. -I" *' 7" 1(..UNIT 9 133 3) "(ko).I" c) "/7tJ- I" f)7 1A~Y7 i) . "< (gi ). g) 7 '/ d)vA~'1/ r-7".. . 7 (pu ) t (hi). sound.f. a) e) 7 (to).1' / (. 7 (Ju). . 7" (bu). '" (bi)..-." j) 1:" i) table ( ) iv) front (reception) ( vii) sale ( ) x) baseball ( ) -I" b) tJ ve) 7" / ~ h) '/ 'J" k) -t .//70 ii) (cassette) tape ( iv) pub ( ) vi) pizza ( ) ) 4) .." (go).(.. (ho).. ~ ~. 7 (pool). 7 (k e). . (hotel)." j!' g) . for example.1". ~ (he). '" (be).. a (ro) (' }' or 'r' sound * Iv is often used as the fina l '\.:.-.. '" (pe).. 11.j. .-IV ) ii) v) vii i) xi) curry ( ) beer ( ) double ( ) rental car ( ) iii) vi) ix) xii) golf ( ) salad ( ) ice rink ( ) restaurant ( ) . (po) a) 1. can be used for these) '7 v (re).-------.

These are used as normal symbol s but also are used to form contracted sounds. ~ .134 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 6) 7 (ku) . A "J (u).( (nil).- c) -f77 1 ii i) banana ( ) ) ) ) iv) necktie ( 8) a) ii) canoe ( ) v) notc(book) ( I 7 (a)../ (no) Ir (no). ~ d) '1.1... (mu).. ii) ham v) mocha (coffee) ( (ni). :z. "" (mo) b) 'J~ 7 e) 'T 71.t (0).. d)A.l. (me). . .~ (Yoon) The only three sy mbols you did not use in the last activi ty were ~.jd) J . The rules arc the same for 11 !J IJ Read back over this section (p.1. ) ) 1. 'J (wa) b) 7'7 c) 'J 1 71 7 ~ . (mi). You learnt about these for () ~ Jj: in Unit 5. ) iii) gram ( ) vi) milk ( ) .. a) " j. .I.... yu. J. . ::1-. (e). . 1 (i)..Wli Renshu 5 Write the pronunc iation of the contracted 11 brackets. yo). The first line has been done for you: !I 11. 'T (gu).. 66) to remind or fam iliarise yourself with the rules before trying the t. f) "" 'I. (ma). a) ~. =- i (ne).t i) ice cream ( "J / A iii) wine ( ) iv) stereo ( ) ii) escalator ( ) v) blouse ( ) ) Contracted sounds MliItl1!l Kaisetsu 4 . 3 (ya. sounds in the .rL-.~ i) tennis ( b) 7=-A c) 'I. n: next activity. 7 i) tomato ( IV) camera ( 7) c} " ..

( t ".(kyu) ) .:L ( ~ ". ~ '( :..=:.A :.:L ...:1. . ( 1. In 11 ? 11 the effect of ' ho lding back' the next sound so that it becomes closer in pronunciation to the original word or at least easier for the Japanese to pronounce. '( t (hi) -> t '< t " (hi) -> "" '< t.. ( t" • ( ( " ~ ( t.(chi) -> 1. ..( ><.) -> " '< (kya) (gO -> '< ( ) >< ><"-( " ".( t.:1. (ji) .. ( t • ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) :1.:3 -\~ y 'J' 1-:3 . (skI). ( ) ) ) ) .' (pi) . Match the jJ ? jJ words in the left column to their English meanings on the right. :.:L"=:' 7 -~:3 Y camp(ing) ( ) jam ( ) musical ( ) menu·( ) shower ( ) jogging ( ) chocolate ( ) juice ( ) Mll!tli Kaisetsu 5 The small 'Y (tsu) T his was introduced for (I ~ IJ~ ~ in Uni t 5 ( p. When you see a small 'Y (tsu) in a word.( . " • (kyo) ) ~:3 ( ) Y '( ( ( ( ( ~ ~ ( ) ) ) ) ) to.=:."'. .~ . (ni) .:::.f.• ( :.-.:1.: . 66).:1.J. you do not pronounce it but pause slightly (a words this has glottal stop) before saying the next sound. ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Now check your answers wi th the equivalent chart in Unit 5 (p.( 1-"-( "=:'.:J t? 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ~. .:1.:J V ... An example will make this clearer: r .UNIT 9 13. jJ Jv ~ .t. 69). '" .'< . .... :. '( 1.:L . ( ~ .:J)/ t ' . 'Y I- I-~ 'Y -7~ (hotdog) is pronounced hot(to)dog(gu) The pronunciation of ' to' and 'gu ' is ' held back' (and written here in bmckets). . t " '< (ml) ..' .:1. r a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i} j) -\ ~ )/ -f ~ ~ ? - I ) computer ( ) 2) communication ( ) :. Now let us put into practice what you have learnt above.:1. ~ >< " (k. ~ (ri) .. ~ .

this leads to changes in pronunciation when the word is adapted to Japanese.I Renshii 7 jJ Match the jJ .f.1- sa r chd (Thatcher) ma shu (Matthew) si also does not exist and is replaced with :.... .. as you will have noticed already./]- e) >1> " 7 f) .. This sound does not exist in Japanese and so is replaced by 5 sounds: -? '7 . countries. . r: r 1) th sounds. This is replaced by a lengthened a sound (using -): .. ' /' .- ~ - 7.:t ... ~ 9) match ( ) j) :... " g) ':2 -1 /' r:r '7 jJ h) .. su mi su (Smith) .'7 'Y to ." 7 " r i O ) basketball ( r ) v ) MiiIt* Kaisetsu 6 Extra tJ!if'J:rr sounds You learnt in the introduction that there are a number of uses of jJ !J 1. .. This section deals with the rest.. r words with their English meanings: I) toilet paper ( 3) jacket ( ) 4) cup ( ) 7" 'J 7- b) -'t '" '" -1 " r ) 2) eo. Some of these changes have already been pointed out. but this unit focuses on the two main uses of 11'11 I) to represent forei gn words adopted into the Japanese language (loanwords) and 2) to represent foreign names (cities. -)1.. hi j i ne Sll (business) pi tii (Peter) 2) er sounds.t.(shi) or :: (ji) : :.t. { 7. However.... 3) Some f sounds arc replaced with h sounds: 7' v ..r°'=' - shi do nl (Sydney) t." . personal names.(hamburger) to _.n locke' ( ) 5) hockey ( ) 6) soce" (football) ( 7) sandwich ( ) .f.~ .:-... {. a) jJ 'Y c) ~ d) -'t -. .. 8) mix ( ) i) r -1 'Y r .136 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT t!J .J /' rna ra so n (marathon) -!t '7 1-« :. not every sound in a foreign language has an equivalent sound in Japanese and.fl-t..11~ - ha n bii gii.. designer and brand names). /' 11 ':2 - r" te re ho n kii do (telephone card) t - kO hi (coffee) .

?. ra bu ho te ru (Love HOle/) ... the nearest equivalent being a b sound: ere bi tii (eleva/or) ... However. u i su kl (whisky) no ru wi (Norway) ? .!J - There also exists a group of sounds which have been designed to represent v sounds: "f 7 (va) "f 1 (vi) "f (vu) "f 3- (. ( ) "/3-( ) ) ..) "f" (vo) The rule is that these are used in foreign names and countries but rules are often broken! Foreign names and countries are also written using the b sounds. :\ (i i) . .t . in practice this is not a ' hard and fast' ru le.f.( "/7( Now you work out these sounds: ) 7 .UNIT 9 '37 4) v sounds.. ?.r.~ -1 ..%. For eKampie: "7 l' (fa) ) ) the u sound of "7 (fu) is replaced with l' (a) 7 3. 1" (i). v"""': ..!J ?./1.f.'J (walkman) u e tii (waiter) '7 Y wo ku ma n 3- 6) Combination sounds using small .t (uo) ?:r..t (0): In (4) and (5) these arc used in formin g v and w sounds. These are fonned in two ways: (ui).I J(. ?.t (wo) (the second symbol is small) Traditionally.t . T JI.%. ... (c). a ~ /' ha i 0 r.. n 5) w sounds.... (i) arc used for loanwords and (ii) are used for foreign names and countries.. ba ri bO ru (voJJeybaJl) t '7' . It has become very fashionable to use the small symbol s and young people in particular are tending to use them.. other loanwords are sometimes written using the v sounds: "f -1 'J t"f 7 -1 .t t' ~ 7 hi 1m to r. (we). ? (u). T his sound does not eKist naturally in Japanese.. (ue). -1 (wI).) ? 1 ii) ? ~ 7 vi ku (0 ri a (Victoria) or ~ /' va i 0 ri n (viol in) or 'J t. (a). (i) ? -1 .. They are easy to read if you remember that the vowel part of the first symbol is replaced with the vowel sound of the small symbol. They are also used to make a number of other sounds which do not eKist in Japanese but are needed for foreign words.L.\ v . as with (4).t bi de 0 (video) 7 -:/." :r.

. l!J IllW A a) .in (counter) ( fax ( ) spaghetti ( ) disco ( ) ) ) f) 7 -1 /~. (gwa) and 'J .:t (radio).L- ~ v. .(fe) 'Y -.you will then be ready to put your learning into real practice! Loanwords adopted into any language often change pronunciation either to fit that language or because that is the way the word is 'heard '.."- (che) 7 ".-1 7 d) "~7T-1e) ?. One final way in which loanwords are adapted is by shortening or contracting them.6). which actually is sounded ' Nihon ' or ' Nippon' in Japanese but was heard as ' Japan' by early European travellers. (kwa) .-:Y'y 7' l' .r 7-?. Here are the sounds you should have written/worked out in the previous paragraph: 7 -1 (ft) 1..A :.. .x. Take the word ' Japan' .~ 7 -1 y c) (/~ 7 '" ". You have already seen the ways that loanwords are adapted to fit Japanese pronunciation rules.".v"" . ~ -. for example. (ji) '7 .:t (kwo) but these are not used very often. .. j' fork ( ) waitress ( ) milk shake ( ) milk tea ( ) (camem) film ( ) silver seat (seats for elderly/disabled) MlR--t Kaisetsu 7 Contracted words Thi s the final explanation section ... You have already met some examples of shortened words: ). .138 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT There are a few other sounds such as 'J -.< I) 2) 3) 4) S) 7) 8) 9) 10) II ) 12) earphone(s) ( ) check.r . Match the words: 7"-1 b) 1.y -y Renshu 8 This activity is designed so that you can practise reading words which contain the extra sounds you have just learnt (rules 1.1.x.r (noto) notebook (the book part is no longer part of the word) .< i) j) k) I) 7 ot-7 :.t. (lsa) 7 ot (fo) '/ ~ v~ T -1 (she) (/se) (ti) :./~. . 6) Sweden ( g)-1~*-Y h) 7" ~ 7 . (je) 7' -1 (dJ)* raji 0 • Sometimes this sound is represented by :.

<. Renshu 9 Match the IJ 7 IJ words in the left column 10 their riimaji and English equivalents and write thc appropriate letters in the brackets. There foHow s a series of activites which use tJ 7 tJ T words in a range of contexts which you . a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) supermarket word processor personal computer department store one piece (= dress) white shirt ( plat)form aulobike (= motor bike) toi let fa mily computer Yomu renshu Congratulations! You have worked through the whole of IJ 7 IJ rand you ean now put your learning into practice.j.~ () 9) 7.<( ) 10) '7 -1 :.< -1 ( ) ~ -1 " () 3) '7O'tO -7. () 8) 7"0.UNIT 9 139 Other examples of shortened words are: -r v t' (terebi) television (sian is missing. I ) ..-.( ) 4) '7-7 0 () 5) '<:/ .2 O'() 7) .t 2) ~ r . " '.t./ ( ) toire waishatsu wanp'isu hiimu ii/ohai siipii g) wiipuro h) /amikon i) pasokon j ) depato. ~ Ilkfl:h.e "'7 . :J 1J. l' "7 r· (sandoitchi) meaning sandwich) • ~ /' ~.2 0' () 6)77i . vi is pronounced bi) They can sometimes take on new or specific meanings: ~ /' ~. (hamu sando) toasted ham sandwich "7.-t. (sando) toasted sandwich (from ~ /' ~. 1 (small 1) is used increasingly (see Kaisetsu 6:5) /' h 4f /' ~.:r Examples of contracted words are: :. ::1 ~ (rajikase) means radi(o)casse(tte) (missing parts in brackets) (masukomi) means mass comm(unicatiQn) or' mass media These types of words can cause (he most confusion when you are trying to work out meanings but practice makes perfect! So try the match ing activity that follows .

.<"-~­ <'''771L--l:Yj" 1'- ::1 -» ::1 -7 .<~ -If'. These popular places sell an assortment of drinks and light Western-style meals which means the menus are written in tJ .( .1-A •"" 7 • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••• -1/>' ~'1 ./ ~ 7~')I7 -f .800 Pl <.-fit- Renshii 10 We will begin with a coffee shop menu . 11 Once you can read the menu.71.. 500 600 400 500 600 400 350 Pl Pl Pl Pl Pl Pl Pl r 600 Pl 700 Pl 700Pl 700 Pl 800 Pl 600 500 700 700 500 Pl Pl Pl Pl . ~7Y ..< .".-r':l-A ~' jI'~-.1.!J . you can order your food! r.hf.71'-:1-1:.7.7.140 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT might encounter if you visit Japan or if you watch TV programmes or videos about Japan.1-/ -1/>' 1--.:tV Y V'$!... I.?' .

Different fonts have been chosen for this activity so that you can get used to reading different styles. . In this activity you should recognise all the words because they are the names of we11~known Japanese companies. Yamaha.=~ =. Seiko. Suzuki. Native Japanese words written in IJ 7 tJ require a knowledge of Japanese vocabulary to work out their meanings. National. A check list of Japanese companies written in riimaji is also given . on neon signs.but not all appear in the activity! So now work out wh ich companies are advertising in the signs. These styles are used frequently. Mitsubishi. Sanyo. "" Checklist Sony. t- r 2) Y . Kawasaki. What drink and main meal would you choose? 10) Which two desserts cost 700 yen? I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) ~ IlIlfl-t- Renshu 11 Y learnt in the introduction to this book and to this unit that tJ 7 IJ ou is used a lot nowadays in advertising. Casio. Subaru. Thi s is because it has the effect of making words stand out (as we use capital letters or italics). for example. Honda. Toyota.UNIT 9 141 What is the name of this coffee shop? (clue: there is a link with the moon!) What two types of coffee can you buy? What two types of tea can you buy? How much (PJ 0:::: yen) is Coca~cola? How much does an orange juice cost? What types of sandwich filling can you order? How much would you pay for a meat sauce spaghetti dish? How much would a drink of milk. Nikon. pizza toast and apple pie cost in total? You have a maximum of 1000 yen to spend. Matsui.

.t... Iv 7 Renshu 13 a) ( b) 7 ~ ~ :fJ ( c) 1 '" ~ A ( f) 1'~7 ( ~" Match the currencies in the left col umn with the countries on the right (some may require a little guesswork! ): 1 :Y ) ) ) ) ) ) 3) ~ 7 4) ~"Iv 5) 7'7 / 6) I V t " - d)77/A( e) 1 / ~" ( . Most electrical gadgets are given foreign names and so are written in 11 !I :IJ t . .142 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT t!J j!l(w-t= Renshu 12 Electrical stores housing the latest gadgets can be found all over Japan.I'-r" 1 ~ A 7 7A. 7"1} / !I-. and answer the questions. 11 ~ 7.(. t"r". what else can you buy on the fourth floor? Which fl oor would you go to for a tape recorder? t!J j!l(W-t ~ I ) .7" I. v :L. 11 -C . 7 1 I V.t. '7:J * On which floors are the toilets? Which floor do you think specialises in computer ware? Besides computers. 7'" 9 :2 / --I. 1v -... t -!l-.. ?-7' o. what else is sold on this floor? Which fl oor sells air conditioners? What is being sold on the fifth floor? Where could you buy a camera lens? Where could you buy a stereo? How many floors sell audio equipment? As well as word processors. Basement I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) '7:.- ::r - !f -. Floor 6 Floor 5 Floor 4 77/ . 7" . ~ -{I./7 ~ ~ 1 v Floor 3 Floor 2 t ° :J--!l..f. 2) .. / . 7 :2 / ... Look at the floor plan.- r v" . v /.

these are (you learnt this in Unit 6. r ./ <' )v 7 72 . "( (ganbatte) good luck! I) tr Which famous restaurant is this? .60 <'v-~7~/-¥/ r 5' -1" J~ ".)v I' )v 73.(kanada doru) = Canada dollar. Can you identify wh ich countries and currencies from Renshu 13 are included here? Have a go at identifying the rest! For example./ t:I ~ . The European Union is country) and ~ which is the in brackets but 'ECU' makes this easy to identify (Many written in countries can be written in or 1J r).02 -1" 5' 'J Y 1 0 0 'J 7 7.11 .23 ::<: -1" ::<: 7 "7 / 88.t "7 / 57" ~ )v 57" 64.. Can you read them and work out the English meaning? lJe fl. * _* _* il* I' )v 119 .80 7 7 / ::<: 7 "7 / 21. there is a sel of tJ .UNIT 9 143 Here is an extract from a real Japanese financial listing.~ .32 ::<:""-1" / 1 0 0 ""t5' 86. 3.73 ..20 I' -1" ". the currency should tell you which for England.. tJ r signs from photographs taken in Tokyo.90 :..25 T 57" I' )v 78.25 ~ I!IPHt+1!!I Renshii 14 Finally. ./ *' :tJ tJ. the second one down is: 11 t-' II..22 ".t-::<:r'JY:'-'J/Y 10. ~ / 1'202.29 E C U (~iiiiili1ll:JiIl.t -::<: r"7 'J Y I')v 74.7 / I' I')v 63.90 =:... Two countries have ~~. "'.> 143.m.53 .

t:T " 5) The two kanji mean environment...144 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 2) 3) What act ivity can you do here? What is happening at this shop? 4) . What are people being asked to do? ...

.. 1 12) I .UNIT 9 145 What is CoCo? 7) 8) 9) 10) ~ E .

146 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 13) 14) 7 ~ 15) ~ 7 1) 1) JA A What type of tree is this? What type of whisky is this? 16) What is the title of the film? (bouom line) What are the actors' names? (above picture) Kaku renshu Th is short activity is designed to help you write your name in IJ!J IJ T. A short list of popular first names follows. You wi ll need to refer back to the various rules given in this unit. For example. The nearest to these sounds are: . the name Laura has the sounds 10 ra. Try saying your name oul loud and matching the appropriate tJ !J h r symbol to each syllable.

.- 71. magazines. 7 ~ . read 11 !J 11 visits to Japan) so that you can impress your friends and family! r r r . newspapers. ~ "7 7 - (J..(misheru) -t. Here is a list of 20 names to help you. 1:1 .-7 '.(meari-) .-'7 (se-ra) (su.. Hopefully you have discovered that because :IJ !J :IJ is used to write non-Japanese (and often English words) it can be fun and very accessible. There is a lot to take in so treat this unit as one you can keep re-visiting and that you can enjoy! And look for opportunities to around you (TV programmes.:r3Y ~- (andoryu) (biru) (buraddo) (gureggu) " -- ~ "7" "-17 . ~ . -1 Y (jein) j. ANNA CATHY CLARE DIANA HILARY JANE MARY MICHELLE SARA SUE 7t"IJ. . work out your name and get them to check it.:t.UNIT 9 147 1:1-:7 (rura) And CHRISTOPHER sounds out as k ri s to phaa. You have had opportunities to read a wide range of words and to identify typical street signs. :L}I.r.. .(do'ona) (hirari-) .) l: (ana) (kashi-) (kurea) :7 ~ - "'- ANDREW BILL BRAD GREGG JOHN MIKE PAUL ROBERT STEVE 7 Y t' /1.- ~~ ~ . ' ..- -1''7 '' 7"1.:urisutojii) If you know a Japanese person.~ TOM (jon) (maiku) (po-ru) (mba-to) (suti-bu) (tomu) Owari ni You have covered the whole of the 11!J:IJ syllabary in this unit including the various rules and adaptations of non-Japanese words. .t:-/v "'7"1-7 ~J. In Japanese this becomes: .L..f 1 7 t.

) Kanji review Hajime ni The aim of this unit is to pull together everything you have learnt throughout this book and apply it to reading Japanese texts. Some tips on grammar functions and particles are given first and you can refer back to these as necessary. do not worry if you cannot remember them all.haiku (short poems) • learn the basics for reading and writing Ictters Key phrase ~*mfl (kanjifukushi.cooking instruc tions . there is a short pre-activity for you to see how many you can remember.10 UNIT 10 In this unit you will fJ+a Da.cartoons . However. There are many types o f text which use different styles of writing and have different levels of difficulty. remember that you can look up the English meaning in the index and this wiU refer you back to that unit.weather foreca st . _* .song lyrics . jukka • learn to read different types of text including: . the activity is simply a device to get you thinking about what you have learnt and making connections. Where appear in a text which have been introduced in earlier units. This unit will gct you started on reading and w ill introduce you to some techniques for accessing text which you can then build on. Check the answers 10 these pre-activities in the back before proceeding and if you want to look back to where the ll* was first introduced.

. We also use particle-type words (called prepositions) such as 'with'. 2) This is what happens in Japanese: fl...fait tt. verb..UNIT 10 149 You will be asked to mark parts of the texts as a way of identifying and separating different words and features . underline. a- a-. .. ' by' and 'at' : I ate Japanese food at home with chopsticks at marks 'home ' and with marks 'chopsticks'. They are placed before ( pre-position) the noun they mark.. the sentence order tells you the function of the main sentence parts: I ate Japanese food ' I' is the subject of the sentence (who ate) and comes at the beginning of the sentence 'ate' is the verb 'Japanese food ' is the object of the sentence (what I ate) and comes after the verb This order is called SVO (subject. Let us look at some examples to help you understand this. You could use different coloured highlighter pens or use different types of markings (circle. k. Or you could copy the relevant parts of the text onto paper and mark them . This is especially helpful because Japanese writing does not nonnally have gaps between words (as you will notice in the texts that follow). overline). object). (I) is followed by the particle lot.: i L. lWilIt Kaisetsu Grammar functions Read through the information that follows but do not worry if you are not clear about all of it because the texts will have practical examples and you can then refer back tothe summaries beneath the text to consolidate your learning. 1 Japanese cuisine ate fl. Particles and sentence order 1) Every noun in a Japanese sentence is usually followed by a particle. A particle is a grammar marker which tells you the function of the noun it marks. It marks the subject of the sentence ~-tt (Japanese food) is followed by the particle It marks the object of the sentence. (i . In English.

: (at one J.I~ I~V(" -r: (with): lItit -1' it '" * l.I~ :fUit-1' I~l--(" it"'*l-t" IJapanese food chopsticks with ate But the verb always comes al the end of the sentence.: {£ A. 's: (Japan's rice or Japanese rice) links a noun with its positio" : LI.t" I chopsticks with Japanese food ate However.: (to Tokyo) (also can use" pronounced •e') 2. 2. tell you the functions of the different parts.r Jiu.: (on Monday). object. verb). on (afte r time): rJ PIlI.:L" l' .1 (pronounced 'wa' as a particle not ' ha') topic or subj ect marker of sentence IJI{. o'clock) 3.t l' (I live in 0) (no) I. -c" (with chopsticks).A r"7 /-c" (at / in the restaurant) t: (ni) I. Look at the diagram showing the key particles: Gh ttf~ ~hat V O ~ere eatoy ~en V eats they cat they EAT they cat With what they eat -r: 4) Particle descriptions (.I t7) J: (mountain 's top or on n top of the mountain) and (between nouns): t (Japan and America) with (accompanied by): t (with a Japanesc person) a*0)* a:. ~l!1fI'"L (by train) 2. at. at.150 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT The order in Japanese is SOY (subject. in. There arc other particles with different functions such as f/. on (place/position): a {. (ga) subject marker of verb ~ (0) object marker ofscntcnce -c" (tie) I. Tokyo) of.$: *m a *A .f. . t (to) 2. place where action happens: V.. I. not the order. to (direction): JJDj( {. 3) Particles arc always placed a fter the noun or ti me ex pression they mark. with.at I. the order of the Japanese sentence is morc fl exible than the English order because the particles. So you could say : f/. by : '1 t.

l!J j!l(fI- R enshu 1 H® Ma ngo Cartoon r t=ltJ'l= Q)1c*-i-MC..t":. Assume it is a lefthand radical unless stated otherwise. cad) subje" is fL (I) 2) Then translate ' backwards' from the end of the sentence : fLli *-.. lI\t"" £ -t (fLli) *-.:'PJ c(i= 1 t=ljc ··· . both literal (lit..) and natural English are given to help you understand the phrases and structuring. I ) Find the topic/subject of the sentence by looking for Ii: (I book .UNIT 10 151 Quick translation tips You will be given lots of pointers throughout this unit so this is a summary list for you to refer back to as necessary.. llit"" £ L. 5) Where relevant or helpful the meaning of the ~*" radical is given in brackets... ~"" £ read -t book 3) Describing words arc generally placed in the same order as Engl ish: fLu o'i ~ •*-. t~ (I old book read) 4) In the texts that follow. .

-:> C '" ·Hlt<l> . This would be the order in which we would say it in English whereas in Japanese the ' I said' part comes at the end. J means quote within a quote."'1!!f'I b) yOll have learnt them all! Do you a) * m c) ~ 2) Find and mark these '0 a. Emphasis on t::.. (...: .* in the cartoon and remember them? They are: .. ) d} indicates open quote mark (close quote mark is J). l' ~ l' (nasai) verb ending indicating a command... (anime) or animation are very popular in Japan and are known around the world. a Japanese newspaper. 1) Kanji lukushu There are three iI. c r r 4) r {. in this case ' read! ' c} . the reader fills in the rest from the picture ('but this is ridiculous!'). ~ ~.1{ Honyaku Translation ' lndeed I did say .. J It C· ... in bookshops and at home. 'bitt.: (indeed) is achieved by placing it at the beginning.. ... .. )... clHhtc The ' but' trails off. " Read more books!" but . tt (to wa) used in reported speech (I said that .J. . words: a) ~ L.tJ' (. The one· frame cartoon here is taken from the Kyoto News....:: (tashikrJ ni) certainly. Now work through the series of activities starting with a review. l. Cartoon books fill bookshops and kiosk shelves and Japanese people of all ages can be seen reading them on trains. Notice the technique of translating the information outside the double quotes first then adding the part in double quotes... Ir (... rI::G~·1.1 adds emphasis (l did say . indeed b) t"'J C (motto) more c) It C· (kedo) but 3) Mark these particles and grammar functions: a) ~ (0) object marker b) .152 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT itii and 7::. It is from the education section and is a joke about ttlf '"7 ""7 (kyijjku mama) or 'education mothers' who go to great lengths to ensure their ch ildren study hard and get into the best schools.

t 1".. Remember to eheck your answers in the back before proceeding. '£a7rt1: .. Kanjifukushii Write down the English meanings of these 1) a) e) _*Utff * r (mizu) A ~ I!* and -1 ~~ :IJ !I 1) r words: b) 3i (tama) f) 7' -1 ~ .!JIJ ~ 77'.g (top three pictures) a) Find and mark these il*: ~ -C (ate) hit mta Jtt (tamago) egg iII (kado) comer.f. There arc two sets of si mple cooking instructions.UNIT 10 153 Henshu 2 Cookery instructions ". .a:'ill:: .?L. t:..:n'~'t p~I.j ( • { . -.. 2) Title: Jlf:O. • • .flt. The sequence is from the children 's educational section of a newspaper.: ".. c) !k (h') d) g) 7=] /' m(yubi) Now mark them in the text.30. edge (oya yubi) thumb (lit: parent finger) .r'tt +-i"·tr :::.\·~~)~OI: "e.. t:: t ::.t. @..J..J.k t. "- GJ 0 7?. 1:'1 +Sl ..

154

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

b) Find and mark these (j ~ IJ{ ~ words:

h G (waru) break Ir t;; l' (kataj) hard httll) (wareme) a crack I> "C "'C (ate/e) put i.t (= ftr mae) front ? L- -? (= tl;:, ushiro) back tl t: ¢ (n ejiru) twist
c) Find and mark these tJ
::t

7

11

t-

words:
~ ~ Y (polon) w ith a plop (sound)

Y ::t Y (konkon) tap tap (sound)

d) Mark these particles. Remember that particles are positioned after the word they mark:
(0) positioned after the object of the sentence - the object marker (appears two times) (.: {nil to, in, on (appears three times) , C. (to) with (placed after the word); and (placed between two nouns)

i'

e)

lIIiR

Honyaku

Translation
Breaking an egg on a hard edge hit with a tap tap in the crack put (your) thumb twist to the front and back (forwards and backwards)

Title

~,t::~,jljc

fII ~ h

'"

:::1;;::tYc~-r

httlllC
t!1l1i~.,"C"C

LU: ? ~ '3CI:lt: '"
3) Title::deli. 'T A

t- (lower three pictures-exduding thought bubble)
il*:
+7}
(jiibun) enough

a) Find and mark these

*3i (mizutama) (okt) place/drop water ball 1ti;t (yubisakt) fingertip ft i!:
jJij (abura) oil

1& C 1"

(otosu) drop

b) Find and mark these () ~ /JI{ ~ and j; , 11

r

words:

t::. t::. A... t:! t
"'? It
1"c~',")

. $, t::. t::. d) ~ (lid) Q = alatameru) warm up (also appears as $, t:.

-r (tsukete) switch on, apply (appears twice)
"?

t7) (tatanda mono) folded (thing)

0) tr1' (nobasu) spread

t:.

.: .75 /J t t: $ "?

t::.

~ (korogauara) if (it) rolls

L. Q L. (shirushi) sign

(ju) ping

:z

Y

a (konro) hob

UNIT 10

155

c) Mark these particles and grammar fun ctions:
(0) object marker (appears five times) -(' (de) with, by means of t.: (ni) on, into (three times)

?:

'"C (te) verb ending meaning and IJt (ga) subject marker

t.:.

~ (fara) verb ending meaning

if.

when

d).~

Title

*3i 7*

Honyaku
7..

Translation Water drop test

f-

*;tin' .: n' .,

w ith a folded tissue spread the oil ill!?? '" 1.1' 1" 7 7 1 ;7 Y 0 C l'l ~ place the frying pan on the hob switch on the heat (fire) and warm up 9<.., -:> It -c l, to to ~ 7, apply water to the fingertip and lll%I:*.,-:>lt-c drop into the frying pan 771 "Yc1Ii1: 1" if (when) the water drop rolls '5 to " -Hi l, to to j. ., -c ~. 7, ~ 7, ~ (it's) a sign that it is warmed up enough.
7" 1 " "- .,

to to ,,-t! t ",-c"

,'Y .,

I.!:II!I!W=: Renshu

3

How to make green tea

The sequence of fou r instructions on the tea packet s how you how to make perfec t Japanese green tea. Once you can read them, you can try making green tea for yourself!

Kllnjifukushii Write down the English mean ings of thesc words. Then mark them in the tcxt and write down how many times each appears.
I)

il¥Utff 1lX

100:*

a)

b)

A

f){ol!

g)

"*

cJ 1'1
h)

:Il

d) J\ i) IIIj

e)

1>*

2) General points
Here are some general words used throughout the text which are useful to look at first. They will be referred to again in the translations so use this list as a reference list.

156

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

A I\: ~ (J) il!{f"" :>.rill" 8~ I'IIl!' A/1. -r~oI~a. MI (J)ilI.it i'J80"C iII{f"''' ill!'01 ~ (J) /I: ~<: ~r~::;:!: fi 1Il-t6HJ! flJ -r-t.

UNIT 10

157

-* (- orth ormeans share, part, per. Three A* means three people 's bun) 'w three helpings (food)
- ~ (- me) means -th, -rd, -nd as in 4 "J ~ (fourth). 1 first infusion

rut ~

means

• #'

(fun) also means minute.

251

means two minutes.

The vocabulary and translation is now introduced section by section. Once introduced, vocabulary is not repeated in later sections so you will need to refer back as nccessary.

Picture 1
3a) Find and mark these if* :

*

fiX~:II (llomikata) how to drink Ali (nillzii) number of people (bun) part, per (yu) hot water tlWJJ. (alternative: 1:QfiXJJ. = y u noml) teacup - # ~ (bunme) parts lfAJJt (ondo) temperature j{J (yaku) approximately m~' ! L. (yuzamashi) hot water cooler it ~ I,: (kawan) in place of, instead of ftJfl t- 9 (shiyo suru) use f51!fJJ (benrr) convenient, handy

m

b) Find and mark these {) t; tJt Jj:' words:

t:>' ~. L. t· (ohhii) delicious ttl::: (hOOo) about Atl. L ~ ! L. ! l' (irele samashimasu) put in and cool
c) Mark these particles and grammar functions:
U) (no)

between two nouns indicates that the second noun belongs to the fi .., (x 3) t.: (m) into, in (x 2) .t-3 (0) before a noun makes the word sound more honorific . .t-31M (x 2) (0) object marker (x 2)

aI:

(to) ir(x I)

d)

8j{J

Honyaku

Translation

Match the Japanese on the left with the translation on the right. The first is done for you:

j~' J l. 3 A5t"C' 6-8g CX~ Put the tea leaves in the teapot for three hclpings(people) (it is) 6-8 grams t:I'J 1 · 5 U5t) (in tablespoons (it's) approximately 1..: x 1 Honyaku tI*(1)~~:f.a (kyUsu ) tcapot 3 Aft (sanninbun) 3 helpings ~ t: (osa)1) tablespoon f.• 7) ~Jl.> J= m mt b) Mark these particles and grammar fun ctions: :8 (honorific) x 4..lle) 2) AII'I5t (1) UHf 0/1> 10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 3) tllIH> 8 5t i'I I1/:' l\ tt -c i) If you use teacups .J (see a» ~ft (haibun) cupful/spoonful b) Circle the particle c) IJJ~ -r: (de) meaning ' for'.l:jjjlol\tt 1 T .l (1) i!lllU~ 80 C 5) /j..5 spoonfu ls) Picture 3 5a) Find and mark these .Q (shinto suru) brew.j~ 0/1> ~ .-JT. ( ) ii) it is handy ( ) iii) instead of a water cooler ( ) 4) t111.(jilbyo) to seconds lWH' (atsUI) hot lim t tt *d... Q) x 3.('/il:o/I>:IJ (I... ~ x 1..x 3. dark M-! 1j: A (sukina hito) people who like I: (nagame) lengthen 1 ~ (ichimaeme) the first infusion lOt.8 I ) !H' l.~ : .. (: x 3. penneate ~ l t (machimasu) wait ifili (shinshuIsu) brewing Iffrdl (jikan) time 1 7t (ippun) I minute ~ > (koO strong. Translation t7) x 1. t} x 2. (.(1) fI: ry 10 f1! III T '" I: iUJ"C'T v) a delicious drinking method ( I ) vi) put in ahout e ig ht paris hot water and cool ( ) vii) into drinking c ups per number of people ( ) Picture 2 4a) Fi nd and m ark these ~* : *- ~ (ha) leaves ~.. iv) the temperature of the hoi water " about 80 C ( is ) 6) /j. Ii x 2 . ~ (yori) than (placed after) a.

Il( 9 ! 9 1.1 ~ !il' 10 1. ) to brew ( ) v) people who like strong tea ( ) vi) the hot water in the teacups ( ) vii) brewing ti me (is) about I minute ( ) C) . I 15): 0) b) lID¥- *l. p. extract b) Grammar points: it <.~ the brewing time for the second infusion (refill) is about 10 seconds 2nd Bracketed part: use hot water that is hotter than for the first infusion Asterisked part: Picture 4 6a) Find and mark these il~ : (sosogu) pour into #"A: (bumy5) quantity ~~. C1) 1:J & -t 2) . 1..¥=Utf.nlj (irtekl) one drop ~ t) (shibort) squeeze.'l ::kJl!i Kanjifukushu c) Decode the place names that follow (refer to map of Japan in Unit 8..It"C ii) lengthen (thctime) ( ) 3) ..t oj (kirimashii) let's fin ish . 1" iv) wait for it (the hot water . j)-lI! 1. (saigo) final .. 1.iJic i :. /fl:iJ!Q) . Its title (top lefthand corner) is: . .UNIT 10 159 Honyaku Translation Match the Japanese on the left with the correct translation on the right: i) the hot water on the tea leaves ( ) I) lQ-lf JJ. .: (kinto ni) uniform ly fi::ff.1 . L.\\: HI: <.\t~ L..illiJ."C' L!J antI!!! *1&7* ~ Renshii 4 Tenki yoho The weather forecast The weather forecast shown here is taken from the Kyoto newspaper.. pour the quantity of tea uniformly (let's) squeeze out the tea to the final drop lfiUR Honyaku Translation 1.t oj C1)~"jl\ (kyo no tenia) Today's weather I) . -r: (made) up 10 c) ~ IJ 1.(.).. l J.tl d) )l\tiI . .: 1:J1£l nt iii) put in the teapot ( ) 4) ~m 1" Q Q) -t ~ t. .\\:1.

:t~ IJ ..tJ~g. .t\. ~o):315. * ..•'" * . t..t z ~ ~ ~ ). Il.l'~ I. -C Jot. )i Iii i<l tJ.. . .. " ~I ' " ~I t * ~.t~t lro.:(1B .0)::R !<\tctJ:'-'>w'h. I).~~ _ i'IIi$3~~II~) Q :!i ... -C. ~ IT:r.EEO)t):O)tt::: ~" . .!O 1'3ptl"'Ci:.:e 3 0 * '" ~ 21 U B : 1l*I* - * .)..rn: - b I) 5 ~ * !II It : .!!. i . t \~.29 8 .. B<I'O)!<\ i!! t~24!!l: <: 0l .. . lItrBciolL:<:0l 'O)B!! t.t It:= • 28 IS - • 0? o ~O)&t~.f1.!<\EEtC.t ltc...

l. 5). "3 0)~1K) ~Ht Nara a) Find these place names: tlH f Fukui m~ Fukuoka JIIIp Kobe ~ 0'1 I<! Nagoya 1II\%&t. b) What is the weather going to be like in: i) Tokyo .) The box with the slanti ng line indicates Ifi¥ ~ /~ Ifi¥ (tokodoki iehiji) 'sometimes sunny.UNIT 10 161 Now find them on the weather report (look at the left side of the text) and mark them (Ji( :tJS appears four limes). Can you see them? The box with the straight line in the middle indicates (/) I? (nochi) which means later. Check your answers in the back then find them in the text. After (nanbll). vii) * iii. Write down the meanings o f these ii) ~ _*: iii) ~ iv) ± v) fJ vi) 1<.. The other place name (also mentioned four times) is 1I ~ (Shiga). b) You should have identified JX ~ (Kyoto) four times in these col umns. For example: ' means 'sunny later cloudy'. a . Which days do they represent? (see Unit I. p. ii) Osaka iii) Fukui IV) Kagoshima? c) Name two other cities where it w ill be: i) cloudy then sunny ii) sunny then cloudy 4) Middle and lower picture-symbol columns a) il~m'aW (Kanjifukushii).vii also represent the days of the week. 2) Key there is a key consisti ng Below the written text (begi nning 29 of two boxes. The middle column m$ . Kagoshima Now answer these questions from the information given in the lefthand column.. J) Look al the lefthand column (~ . For example: a time cloudy'. for mean ing sometimes/for a lime. both these place names are these .~: ~t$ (hokubu) and $ means part. therefore 'North part ' and 'South part'.

Now answer these questions. Go through steps 1. t· tl.--j means 3 o'clock. Look at the top satellite picture.1J w ind direction/strength 6) The text A short text is located above the symbol columns. i) Find and highlight the following they mean? a) 29 i1ti:* words and phrases. Find and mark them: tkPi' good weather lj. 3 a means 3rt! (day). fog liI. the lower column is the forecast for the 30th-4th. Whe n was it ta ken? (tim e a nd date) b) The lower picture has a number of circular symbols to the right followed by iM¥..162 BEGINNER'S WANESE SCRIPT is today's weather. then cheek your answers in the back a nd mark the terms in the text (some are quite small). the size of a real newspaper: i) RU i i) (also look up ~) iii) ilJij iv) HI v) ~ Look back to the previous units if you need to. What do d) a b) W c) Iili Iii'i tL e) "'~ f) 1: . 31J.4 thai follow the n try your own tra ns lation before looking at step 5 (the translation). e) What is loday's weather like in: i) the North part of Kyoto iii) the South part of Kyoto? ii) the South part of Sh iga d) What is the weather forecast for: i) South Kyoto on Friday iii) North Kyoto on Sunday v) South Shiga on Wednesday Ii) South Kyoto on Tuesday IV) North Sh iga on Saturday vi) North Kyoto on Monday? e) On which day and where might you need an umbrella? (Two answers) 5) rughtside pictures (top and bottom) a) ~preceded by a number indicates ·o'clock' . (IiJ . a preceded by a number indicates a dale. c) There are four other circular symbols with weather te rms. You learnt most of these in Un its 6 and 7. Can you ide ntify the m now? They are quite small. sleet :lI mist.

h t ~ words: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h} (uchi) during f!. . .. -rt . look like) (J) (no) of... t:.? 1 t "l fi! Ii . L' (gumi) about (x 2) 1.: Q (ni naru) become . (' t. (. oowarete) be covered by (literal translation) t.. (. mil'$L 't':. '" .. (eikyiJ) influence.: -rt ry t ? (n .-e Wl"l 1t.. (t seem.. (ooi) many if{~EE (kokiatsu) high pressure I3I:J:t (nitchu) all day I) nl (do) degrees n) nO a (zen)itsu) previous day p) IIlh' ~ (atatakasa) warmth iii) Find and mark these V t../ Hinto : Try to translate the text yourself before working through step 5. r v) IJHlR Honyaku Translation The 29th (start from the end of this senlence and work backwards): through the influence (because of the effect) of a trough of low (weak) pressure during the morning the clouds will probably be many (there will be a lot of cloud) after that . effect ~ ~.. it is expected (that) 29 13 Ii ilil L' 1<\ EE "l ~ "l Jilj\. I.." (mikomi) expectation 1t\ifi (hon) temperature J:h~ ry (agari) to rise FnJ t: (ona)i) same b) d) f) h) j) 3i:\EE (kia~u)atmosphericpressure ~. Jl. l' L' (daitai) generally . ~ ? (daro) wi ll probably . -c" (made) up to ? t.. nariso) it looks like it will be (come) . Remember: find the topic or subject then work through the sentence/ phrase from the end .: 1::1 1::1 h tt -C (n. 's (x 7) ? - iv) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions: t1 (wa) topic marker (x 3) -c" (de) through.. by means of (x I) C (to) as (x 1) ht (ga) subject marker (x I) t ..UNlT 10 163 ii) Find and highlight the following il¥ words and phrases: a) c) e) g) i) k) m) 0) jj9~' (yoww) weak 1¥ (lam) valley (trough) WI (asa) morning t q:)1t (sono go) after that J!~'..jz.

164

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

i\1j 11.\E£ (~ 10 10 to It L t! ( • t~ ( . aI/it Q) ;JC 11.\ (0 ~ Q) 11.\ iliW: 24 Ill:<· t, ( • .t -C J:i>' ?

a '"
...

'"

lli! a I: foil L: (' t, ( • Q) 1IIli>' ~
~

(~~?"tj

high pressure will spread a nd generally it will be (come) fine weather the daytime temperature wi ll rise up to about 24 degrees it looks like it wil l be about the same warmth as the previous day (yesterday)

I!I!Wli
~.

Renshu 5
Letters

Tegami

This section will get you fi rst to read a letter which is handwritten, and then will giye you some tips fo r w riting a letter yourself! This letter is written downwards and you start reading at the top right, down the column. This is the traditional way of writing letters but many Japanese people nowadays write in Western style, horizontally from left to right. Writing downwards can give a lettcr a morc fonnal or traditional tonc. This is a New Year' s greetings card and as this is a traditional custom, such cards are often (but not always) writte n in the traditional downwards style.
New Year cards, like Christmas cards in the West, are sent by al I Japanese people to a wide range of friends, acquaintances, colleagues and clients. They normally have a short greeting but this card has been sent by a Japanese frie nd to a friend in England and is a combined New Year's greeting card and letter.
t) Start by identifying and marking you have already been introduced to. As before, see how many you can remember then check the answers in the back before proceeding further.

i'OO.*

a) itIi&f g) 13 m) 11.\

b) IJIj h) ffil' n) &f:

0)

'f ;) IT
!!

0)

d) 1m j) ,1M, p) lip i"

e) 111' k) ~ q) 'f

f) I) ~

1'1*

2) Find and mark these set phrases and read the explanations:

a) 1'3 ~ (,=. tr Ir tt "C (o- me ni kakarete) li t. I was able to set eycs on you. This is a respectfu l way of saying ' I was able to see/\TIeel you'. b) ... !$ t., lj. (,=. (tanoshimi ni) I am looking forward to ... This phrase e nds with (,=.. The full sentence would end w ith t., "C l ' ;t. -t (shiteimasu) but this is often omitted. c) 1'37G~-C (o-genki de) Take care !

UNIT 10

165

-

B)1
I

r -'t

!f

1;: '

i
L

-C

h
II)

"'C
t

7

l '

1

-

1

K ...

166
3) Now mark these

BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT

il* words and phrases.

a) lI)J't.t L- '"C (akemashite) 10 dawn ( from I!IJ (t .9 (akeru» b) .tI.f-JIl; (o-legami) letter c) 7X. (otto) husband d) 1tF~ (sakunen) last year e) :EJ1J;. (shashin) photograph f) ~ t) .1 "t (okurimasu) send g) *~ (rainen) next year h) H (natsu) summer i) .J( (mata ) again j) 7Gil (ganlan) New Year's Day k) :ffiT Hanako (girl 's name. 1~ means ' flower')

4) Next mark these ()

a) b)
c)

0 tJ{ ~ words and phrases: 1:) ~ -r: C 1 .:::~. t· i 1'" (omedet6 gozaimasu) congratulations $, IJ 1J~ C ., ;:..~. t, .i l., t.::.. (arigatii gQzaimashita) Tha nk you (for

d) e)
f)

what you have done) '7 tt L, ( (ureshiku) happily ., tL l., Ir ..., t.; (ureshikatta) was/were happy l ' t.::.. t! ~ ,; L. t.::.. (itadakimashita) received (see 6c this section) -L ~ Q (dekiru) be able to "t tt -C (,1 (sore dewa) and so, we ll, finally (used at end of lette r)

5) Mark these two

iJ!I tJ

r

words: b) -1

a) ~

vY

(heren) Helen

!lit

~ 7- (lgirisu) Engla nd

6) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions:

a) t:; (0) adds tone of respect L nouns (put before the word) (x 2; also o see 2a and c above). b) C (to) and, with (see also (k». c) ~ 11:t"( (yomasete) (you) let me read + ~. t::. t.! ! 1 t... t.:. (I received). lit. " received you letting me read'. It is a po lite way of acknowledging something which someone has done for you. Another example is: 1* it -t! -C t > t.:. t! ! 1 t... t.:. (yal'umasete itadakimashita) '(You) let me take a break', d) tt (wa) topic ma rke r (x 2), e) '"C" (de) in , at (particle used 10 mark the place (whe re something happens), f ) (:. (ni) with, to (x 2; also see 2a this section), g) try (sono) that. h) try (no) see notes at beginning of unit (x 2), i) ~ (0) object marker (x 2). j) fi 1! t.:. t > (ikitai) I want to go (t;; t, = want to).

t

UNIT 10

167

k) C "'C l' .t l' ( .. . to omotleimasu) I think that . _ . (l: here m'eans ' that'). I) .:: l: (koto) placed after a verb this can be translated as •... ing' . Therefore: -(' ! 9 .:: t. J dekiru /coto) being able to. 7)

,w."")

Honyaku Translation This time you are going to do some of the work! The translation fo llows, phrase by phrase. It is not in order, however, and your task is to work out the correct order. Some of it may be obvious from the English (!) but keep referring back to the text and points (1 - 6) of this section so that you get a good understanding of how the letter is structured .
a) IiI. Next year's summer I think that 1 would like to go to England = Next summer 1 hope to .. J would like to ... b) With my husband (my husband and I) read your Ictter happily (with pleasure). c) I look forward to being able to meet again. d) Thank you for your letter e) 1 am sending (you) the photographs of (lfrom) that timc. f) Well, take care. g) lit. the new year has dawned, congl"'dtulations = Happy New Year! h) New Year's Day, 1999. (From) Hanako Yamamoto (in Japanese, surname precedes first name) i) I was happy that last year 1 was able to meet with Helen in Japan. (The Japanese often use your name instead of saying ·you').

.1{

1!f <MI.

Kaku renshjj

Writing letters

I) Let's start by looking at some of the features of the letter you have just

read. a) Did you notice that the date is written at the end of the letter, and is followed by the name of the writer? This is standard practice. b) Hanako (the writer) begins with a greeting, in this case ' Happy New Year'. You will learn some more seasonal greetings in the next section . c) Hanako then says thank you for the letter she received. You can use this structure to thank someone for something they have sent you such as:

-:I v -t! y t- present; t1 /J~ ~ postcard; h - ,.~ (kiidQ) card Just add I> IJ /J~ t. ., ::: ~·l' .t l, ~ (thank you) after the item.

1-3J6.. td~ -to . &.t 1" (shizuka ni aki ga yalte kileimasu) Autumn has crept up on us quietly.f.t17G3{\ '"C" (Well.t (Yamamoto-sarna) (or Jffir ~ i b) Rather than beginning with an enquiry about a person's health ('How arc you?' ) the Japanese lend to comment on the weather first and then maybe a comment about the person 's health. Here are some useful phrases fo r different times of the year: (yo.0' (o-genki desu ka) How are you? (informal) .. L" L.t (sarna) fo r a very forma l letter.p$:. (yayaku haru ga kimashita) At last Spring has come. "('" tt. < c) Enquiries about health: i:nG ~L" 1" . (merl kurisumasu) Merry Christmas .t.rET ~ It. I! U· L. IYJlt .'J y .t l..t t! ... ..: (kashiko) sincerely (used by women. (san) if you know the person well or :! . .t t!!. .. Happy New Year (used during New Year) .. take care ofyourself(a ltemative to (a» .@! ~ liJ)tl' "'( l' ... ~ .t.. "'( l' .lJ1-3M'= i. take care.. L. a) Begin with their name followed by ~ ft.( l' .t -1 {> :tf . y . (Hanako san) Honako-sama) Ll. For example: . L" tL ! : *t: X\ i> ·':Ht '"'( (dewa. ~ .t 1" (o-henj i o-mach.. o-karada ni ki 0 tsukete) d Well.$7G ~ "'("1-3~ L.t 1" (kibishii atsusa ga tsuzuiteimasu) The unrelenting heal continues.. (sayOnara) Goodbye.""? .t L. t. l ' . "'( ! "'( l' . a-Ioshi 0) Have a good year (normally used before New Year's day).. ~. 1f'!t . In th is case you might use the surname.o:~l'". Ir l..168 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT d) Hanaka brings the lctter to a close with ~ it.o~ {> .... Ltd IJ)"C (: . L" {.. 2) Now let us look at useful phrases and techniques you can use to write a letter to a Japanese friend .0' (: :f. lake care). shiteimasu) I wait for your reply ~ J: -1 ~ t.t.1c.t 1" (mada mado samusa ga tsuzuileimasu) The cold weather continues . 1-3:7GX(L" (see I d this section) Well.. formal) . J: -1 /J' (o-genki de o-sugoshi desha ka) How are you? (formal) d) Closing phrases: Either: Or: -t tt.o~ ! . .

t (see 2a thi s section) and you own name at the end (after the date) is enough. this time with ~* as weil. Ri :m. The romaji is written to the side.I ~ . Here are the words o f the song. Sakum hanazakari i) What are the meanings of the following aj d) _*: tlJ \'OJ (Unit 10. everywhere. ~ :@J Ri . If you are writing a brief note or postcard.. ~ (s5 so) Excuse Ihe rosh (used at the end) "trill l!J jjfHW:t\ ~ Renshu 6 (Sakura) <. . look out over e) tI 'J (kagiri) endless. You could write the romaji below the () G b{ ~ on the music but try instead to read the () G Ii 1" because this will be very good reading practice! Here is the text: Jf LlJ t • t Jt~ ttl 'J lalr~lJ' ~. a cH!€ f) lE (Unit 10. Sakura noyarna rno salo mo miwatasu kag iri kasumi ka kuma ka asahi ni niou Sakum.!f!. so that you can try singing it once you have studied its meaning! Notice that the lyrics are written in () ~ b{ ~ so that it is clear which sound fits which note. you can miss out the seasonal greetings and closing phrases and use this pair of phrases instead: (zen ryaku) Greetings! (used at the beginning). as far as f) W (kasumi) mist (notice the rain radical) .~ a I: -tJ "1 'J bj e) Sakura.UNIT 10 169 e) You don't need to use an equivalent of ' Dear' or 'from ' when writing a letter. Renshii 4) J!. The person' s name plus ~ A. The cherry blossom song This is perhaps the most well-known Japanese song: The music is reproduced as well. Renshii 5) 2) Find and mark these 11* words: a) ~ (sakura) cherry blossom (x 4) b) JfLlJ (noyama) fields and hills c) • (salo) home 'town d) J!Mt t (miwatasu) survey the scene.

170 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT .

In the case of this song.. rhythm or rhyme. ii) Put together in ' literal ' English. however.f!l-l:. or c) t. This may depend on the text or on the purpose of the translation.. They are a style of poetic writing using a small number of words to convey a much deeper feeling or emotion . I)' (ka ... L!l . Certainly with poems and songs it may be necessary to change words in order to make the song fit the tune or for the poem to retain its structure. and use words to evoke a sense of what is being described rather than spelling it all out.. Renshu 7 fW.fu Haiku Haiku were developed in Japan but nowadays are known and written all over the world. t (rna . Whcn translating into English....lIR Honyaku Translation This lime you are going to try the translation complete ly by yourself! Song lyrics and poems often use very minimal language. IV} AI this stage. translators need to decide whether it is more important to keep closely to the original Japanese or to ' interpret ' the text and put their: own individual mark on it. ka) either .§ IJ (hanazakan) (Bowers) in full bloom a 3) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions: a) t . mol both .. There is a sample translation at the back so that you can check for meaning but as long as the meaning is correct.UNIT 10 171 g) ~ (axahl) morning sun h) ~. there are a number of stages to follow: i) Translate individual words and phrases (here done for you). iii) Consider what meanings are being conveyed and change into a more natural English structure. (niou) be fragrant i) :fE. and b) I)' ..: (ni) in . you will be singing it in Japanese so focus on convey ing the sense of the Japanese words in more natural Engl ish (but why not have a go at getting the English to fit the tune too!).. Traditionally the poems were observations of nature which would evoke a strong sense of .. other versions are equally acceptable.

:JtI.~ in thi s book. after the word to set the scene. There arc sample translations at the back so that you can check on meanings.: (ni) in d) -") (hitotsu) one (item).5 form but once you have the meaning you could try to reduce it to 17 syllables! I Il!t"a~ suzushisa ya aola no naka n.1902).94).. Buson (1 7 16...you are going to have a go at translating them 1 A choice of English translations of a word wi ll often be given so that you can ' experiment ' with your translation.7. hi/olsu matsu i'f III Q) '1' I:: .84). The four great masters of Japanese haiku were BasM (1644. A haiku traditionally is a l7 ~sy l1able poem of three lines: 5-7-5 (5 syllables. What do they mean? c) 'i\' .~ in this book. 5 syllables) .. For example: Th< L. for emphasis translated as ' the' or ' a' (l ike I:t wa) Some translators use . A few haiku by these great masters follow . Modern haiku explore many themes and continue to be popular both in Japan and internationally.~ furuike ya kawaz" tobikomu mhu no 0(0 BashO iUWIH1 *Q)'i\' a) 1.~ (suzushisa) coolness (water radical) b) ~ (matsu) pine tree (tree radical) 3) Particles and grammar functions a) "'(:l (ya) A poetic convention. I) You have met these. Shiki I) You have met these .~ "'(:l The coolness . Issa (1762. 7 syllables. a single (thing) II 1. What do they mean? a) 'j!f b) Ell c) '1' 2) The new nl~ words are: a) Th< L. Most translators try to capture the sense of the poem in English without retaining the 5.1826) and Shiki ( 1867.172 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT the scene described or of the emotions underlying it.. b) Il) (no) of e) (.

shigoto 1) You have met these ~* in this book.) M( 9J c) itb) ~ (yo) night c) 2) The new ~* words are: a) '* (aki) autumn i±$ (shigolo) work 3) The particles and grammar functions arc: a) ~ (ya) see 3a b) (J) (no) of. below) . .1m (hag/) leg. Renshii 4) *' c) W words arc: a) b) c) d) fY (yu) evening II (sagi) heron (bird radical .) '(> (ya) see 3.e yo mhu aosagi no hag.UNIT 10 173 2) The new ~* words a re: a) b) c) ~O~~tr (tobikomu) leap/plunge/diveljump into 1& (ike) pond (water radical) !t (kawazu)/rog (insect radical) 3) Particles and grammar function s: . 172) yiikot. knock llap against (hand radical) ~ 3) The particles and grammar function s arc: a) IV (ya) see 3a b) (J) (no) of -~ c) t Issa (0) object marker . What do they mean? b) 8\ (Unit 2) The new _* 10.~n? *WBO) lilHt Buson 1) You have met these a) if* in this book. What do they mean? . shin (flesh radical) n "") (utsu) hit. connects linked words . (p. 0 ulSU b) 0) (110) of III !if" ~ . O)~ ~ iiO)JjO) Itf:l::$ b) lIki no yo yo tabi no otoko no har.

~ J: -) "' ''! . then how about trying Teach Y ourself Beginner 's Japanese next! And please write to me (c/o Hodder and Stoughton) to let me know how you got on with this book.::~. t· 11" 'tln:"I: . and re-visit the units in this book to refresh your learning. . . I hope that you now feel you have a good grounding in Japanese reading and writing and are ready to take your study further and tackle new challenges! Look for every opportunity to use your learning so that you can consolidate it. If you have not yet tackled the spoken language or only have the basics. ~ ~-r: c..174 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Owari ni (omedet6 gozaimasu) Congratulations ! You have completed Teach Y ourself Beginner 's Japanese Script.

July b) June. 2k. (4) a) 9 b) 6 c) 7 d) 19 e) 17 f) 13 g) 20 h) 50 i) 70j) 21 k) 32 I) 43 m) 54 n) 65 0) 76 p) 87 q) 88 .Sun e) Mon.iii 3) c. Ilj . bl . e ll . 3g.i 8) c. 11th. ge. h i . 6a. h. 5c (ii) la. lOi. d. (3) a) iii b) i c) iv d) ii e) v (4) a. b. g. e8. (2) a) population b) Japan c) girl d) gateway e) volcano f) men and women. 10k. Renshii 4: a) Sat 14th Feb b) Thl:lrs 20th Nov c) Mon 5th May d) Sun 10th Sept e) Wed 25th Dec f) Fri 1st ApriL Renshii 6: (i) Ib. i 9) a. (3) a) ii b) vi c) vii d) v e) i f) ii i g) iv. j5. 600 (2) a) 8000 b) 5000 c) 7000 d) 6000 e) 2000 f) 1000.ii. Feb. Rcnshii 3: ( I ) April. h2 . b. (iii) I ) c. UNIT 2 Yonde mimashO: II . 2e. Renshii 2: a5. d.i 6) a. m8.iii 7) b. c4. (3) Sun. lib.ii 2) a.KEV TO THE EXERCISES UNIT 1 Yonde mimasho: Ie. a. 12f. UNIT 3 Hajime ni: a) iii b) iv c) ii. Sa. Renshu I: ( 1) a) iv b) vi c) v d) i e) ii f) iii. Dec (3) a) Sun b) Sat c) Tues d) Wed e) Wed (4) a) Mon b) Wed c) Sun d) Mon. 4a. i. g. . 2: (3) h. Renshii 2: ( 1) a) Sun b) Wed c) Mon d) Sat. 4i . k7. 61. f9. b4.ii 5) b. March (2) a) April. 2200. 3b. g3. b14. c. March c) Sept. 9h. d4. 2g. 8b. 05. 3h. (4) a) Yamada b) Takeyama c) Morita d) Mori e) Ishida.000 . (5) check writing sections/charts. c. j . 4a . f. d7. 8j. f. Ren. 20.i 4) b. 2e. 3b. g. 25th). d9.h. 200.iii 10) a. 4e. 2000. 200.h. b. Sc . 14. (3) a6 .000. 18th. Rens hii 3: I) Wed 2) Tues 3) Sun 4) Fri 5) Sat 6) 2 7) I 8) 2 9) Mon.000. c. fl2 . i7. e6. 12d. d8 . d. h2.) 99. a. il3 . e. f . e. R. (2) 4 (4th. 2. 5<1. Test: ( I) a) man b) wood c) power d)gold. jl .n. Renshu I: a6.000. c5. Renshii 7: a) Hayashi b) Morita c) Moriyama d) Yamakawa e) Takeyama f) Mori g) Kita h) Ishikawa i) Kaneda j) Takeda k) Ishida I) Yamada m) Kawada. c3 . glO. clO. Renshu I: a6. 3: I) e. g2 . f3. 7c. 7f.

4d.1377 b) (097) 592.176 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT t 20. (2) a) mountain b) volcano c) river d) water e} f ire f) tree g) wood h) forest i) rice fie ld. e. Renshii 5: \) e 2) b 3) g 4) r 5) d 6) a 7} c. (2) a) gate and car b) eye c) sun d) mouth c) child f) eye g) tree h) mountain. Renshii 4: . 3c. (2) a) baibai b) dokusho c) nyiigaku d) s hutsunyu e) inshoku f) kengaku g) kyugaku h} kenbun. c. a. h2. 4g.3866 d) (03) 3593 .000. 5a. (4) a) Sat 11th Sept b) 20th August c) 1991 (yea r) d) Heisei 12th year = Year 2000. Renshii I: a) sushi b) aki c) koe d) tsukue e) sato f) seito . 3e. 2e 3f. 5b. b. f . (2) a) iii b) v c) iv d) i e) vi f) ii Re nshii 6: ( I) a) (03) 358. 2e. 9c. 5k. 6b. 6d. (3) I) 11th Nov 2) 18th June 3) 2nd Oct 4) 21s1 Aug 5) 3 1s1 Mar 6) 24th June.. 7m. 4g. $et 2 a) yoru b) mimi c) haru d) fuyu e) mura f) yama g) mori b) wan. 2g. 4h. Set 3 a) ohayo b) sayonara c) neko d) sensei e) inu f) me g) hew h) hito i) rei j) nihon. Renshii 7: 1f. Re ns hii 6: I f. Se. 3b. e5.2704 c) (0279) 22 1. Sd. t UNIT 4 Hajime ni: ( I) a) mouth b) car c) person d) eye e) mountain f} gate g) tree h) SUIl i) c hild.3154. Renshii I: a4. 6a. 4a. c7. 7e. 10<1. ( 15) a) 2 b) 2 ( 16) 10 (1 7) 11 Renshii 3. 12g. (8) (t (9) . 6c. 2e 3a. Renshii 8: I) dealer 2) entrance 3) exit 4) drinking water 5) academic abi li ty 6) buyer 7) holiday 8) Japanese person. 13 I . 5c. Renshii 4 : 1b. Sella) asa b) Ie c) natsu d) toke i e) shio f) nani g) nuno.000. 2e. 4c. 11 j . 4d. 3r. Renshii 9: (I) Id. 6i. Renshu 5: ( I ) a) iv b) v c) vi d) i e) iii f) ii . UNIT 5 Hajime ni: I) to write grammar and non-~~ Japanese words 2) '() t. Rens hii 2: (7) a) I b) 2 c) 2. Sa. (5) a) li sten b) cat c) drink d) say e) talk f) read g) sell h) look i) buy j) rest (6) a) car b) mouth c) foot d) eye e) hand. (2) a) Sat 5th Dec 1998 b) Sun 6th Dec 1998 c) Sat 12th Dec 1998 (3) Sal2 ls! Oct 1995. (5) a) ii b) v c) vii d) vi e) iv f) i g) iii. 3f. 6a. money h) 3700. n. (3) a) 1 b) 5 c) 60 yen d) 100 e) 4000 yen f) 20. 14a. Renshu 4: ( I) lb. d6. IJt'j: 3) s implified il~ with the same pronunc iation 4) 46. 7e. g3 . TEST ( I) a) horse b) person c) woman d) man e) child f) girl g) boy h} Japanese person . Renshu 2: If.000 g) gold. 2e. 8b. Vonde mimasho: (Reading down): d. 2b.4211 c) (0720) 2 1. (2) Jd. 7d .

n. g8 . b9.cS. kakimashita e) hanashimasu. Renshii 9: a) tabcmasu . b2. TEST (A) I) above 2) below 3) small 4) big S) middle (also inside) 6) dog 7) fat 8) a li ttl e 9) axe 10) father I I) cow 12) stand 13) old 14) mother IS) wide 16) white 17) ri ce 18) cheap. Renshli 4: a4. i7. j 7. h2. g l . g I.) 12 j) 6 k)3 I) 4 m) 15 n) 17 0) 2 p) 10 q) 16. d3. no mi mashita c) mimasu. bl . Renshli 6: a) II b) 5 c) 13 d) 14 e) I f )7 g) g h) 9 . d7. el. f3. d6. c6. UNIT 6 "sjime ni: a) earth b) tree c) woman d) stone e) mouth f) horse g) sun h) moon Yonde mimasho: a l0. d3. Renshii 6: a) kyaku b) kyo c) gyunyii d) shashin e) ja ne f) choshoku g) chushoku h) hyaku i) byoin j ) ryoko. g3. e4. Renshii 5: a2. g8. b l. f2 . Renshii 2: a4. cS. h4. expensive 28) island 29) school 30) black 31) bird 32) snow 33) cloud 34) new 3S) thunder 36) electric 37) dove 38) clo udy 39) fro st. hS. cS. ( B) 1) Sunday 2) Saturday 3) Wednesday 4) Tuesday 5) start school 6) primary school 7) middle school 8) high school 9) absent from school 10) study visit 11) Japan 12) China 13) America 14) Central America I S) mother country 16) island country 17) beef 18) chicken 19) food 20) drink 21) white rice ~2) drinking water 23) train 24 ) new car 2S) secondhand car 26) carriage 27) rickshaw 28) puppy 29) cal f 30) swan 3 1) parents 32) child 33) adult 34) boy 35) g irl 36) girl 37) shopping 38) sightseeing 39) entrance 40) exit 41 ) ho liday.KEY TO THE EXER CISES 177 a) kyaa kyaa b) shun shun c) shu shu d) chu chii e) nyaa nyaa f) hyii hyii g) hyoro hyoro h) kyoro kyoro. b8. f2. cS. d I 0. safe 19) thread 20) pointed 21) meat 22) hotlbitter 23) rain 24) blue 2S) country 26) sound 27) tall. h6. Renshii I: a6. e3. d8. b9. Renshu 7: a) mizu b) kagi. i l. Renshli 8: a) takai b) yasui c) chiisai d) okii e) sukunai f) sukosh i g) fu rui h) atarashii i) fu toi j) hiroi k) shiroi. c4. e7. e7. 12. f9. c) j iten d) denwa e) tanpopo f) doki doki g) gabu gabu Renshu 8: a) cholto b) mane c) yappari d) gakko e) ganbatte f) massugu. hanashimashita. mim ashita d) kakim asu. hS . e8. j4. Renshli 3: a6. UNIT 7 Hajime ni: ( I) a) wood b) forest c) man d) like e) bright f) listen g) see h) write i) say/words j) sell k) read I) speak m) buy n) rest 0) go out . tabernash ita b) nomimasu.

Renshii 4: (I ) i) d ii) c iii) a iv) e v) h. (4) i) c ii ) e iii) a iv) d v) g vi) b vii) r. partial surround \) I. foreign names. 3d. 3b. vapour 2. UNIT 8 Hajim. 2g. Set (3) I f. cover 2. surround f) 1.hii I : I) h 2) c 3) j 4) k S) m 6) I 7) b 8) c 9) a 10) d II) n 12) f 13) 0 14) g IS) a 16) i 17) c. 4a. 8c. apple pie. 5i. 3a.) 3(6)j) IS(7) k) 11 (6) I) 1(4/6) m) 9(4/6) n) 6(3) 0) 8(4). 5a. 7h. 8e. Renshii 2: SCI (I) Ig. above h) I . 7b. 6h. fire 2. 3g. above j) I. above k) 1. above c) I. 5e. Renshii 7: Ii. IOd.hii 4: Id.n. 6d. Sd. Renshii 6: \) toilet 2) entrance 3) toi let 4) 'Thundcrgatc' 5) push 6) pull 7) south gate 8) north gate 9) Hiroshima. 6g. Renshii 8: Ig. Set (2) Ie. below m) 1.n. 4b. (7) i) b ii ) e iii) a IV) c v) d. iced 3) milk. a. right side e) 1. Renshii 11: I) Toyota 2) Sony . Renshii 4: a) I. (2) i) c Ii) e iii) a iv) d v) b. 4e. ni: a) 4(4) b) 12(4) c) 14(2) d) 7(2) e) S(6) Q 13(6) g) 2(6) h) 10(6) . 4c. Osaka 10) gri lled (food) II ) railway station 12) Fuji Bank 13) opening times 14) inte rnational phone 15) unreserved 16) unoccupied taxi 17) Japanese-sty le room 18) no admittance 19) no smoking. 8a. (3) i) f i i) b iii) c iv) d v) a vi) c vi i) g. R. 2g. Renshii 1: skirt(e) suit(f) steak(c) cake(a) ice(d) toasl(b). 3b. above. lid 2. 6e.) 3j)8 k) III) I. 2b. Sf. R. yawn 2. 12j. 51. to make words stand out. 3h. 10d. UNIT 9 Hajime oi: I) loanwords. vegetation 2. hole 2. (5) i) g ii) b iii) i IV) e v) j vi) a vii) k viii) h IX) f x) I xi) c xii) d 6) i) a ii) c iii) e IV) d v) f vi) b. 6k. Renshii 5: (I) i) c ii) d iii) e iv) b v) a (2) i) a ii) b i ii) d iv) c (3) i) b ii) d iii) c iv) e v) f vi) a vii) g. heart 2. 4a. c. above d) I. hat radical 2. 8e. 2f. enclosure 2. mi xed 7) 800 yen 8) 350 + 600 + 700 = 1650 yen 9) your choice 10) parfait . (2) a) person b) mouth c) earth d) woman e) chi ld f) sun g) moon h) tree i) fire j) rice fi eld k) eye I) say/words m) gold n) car. Renshii 5: Ie. 9f. 9f. 9c. 2e. 5c. Yonde mimasho: ( in order fro m top) e. R. right side g) 1.n. 2e. d. 5a. ham. rain 2. village 2. 2) part of ~~ 3) 46. b. 7c. 2b. 4a. 7b. 4c. 2j . Rens hii 9: I) eh 2) ai 3) ce 4) gb 5) ic 6) hj 7) dg 8)jd 9) fa 10) bf. Renshii 6: I h. 4a. above b) 1. 6b. 3j . Renshii 10: I) Luna 2) hot. bamboo 2 . f. 3d. 7i.hii l :a)6b)7c)4d)ge) 12 f) Sg) IOh)2 . 7d. Renshii 2: I) c 2) f 3)j 4) 0 5) n 6) I 7) i 8) a 9) h 10) gil) k 12) d 13) m 14) b IS) c. (8) i) a ii) c iii) e iv) d v) b. IOh. plant! animal classification.178 BEG INNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT p) study. Ilf. lemon 4) 600 yen 5) 400 yen 6) cheese. below i) I . 8e.

cherry blossom. (4e) Sunday: North Kyoto and North Shiga. (4c) All are cloudy later sunny. 4/iv. I survey the endless scene (or: as far as the eye can see.. (3d) I l v. 2 1:00 or 9 o'clock.. 3/vi.. 61iii. 4. 21vii. Renshii 4: (I) a) Osaka b) Tokyo c) Sapporo d) Kyoto. a. (5b) i) sunnylfine ii) cloudy (cloud) iii) rain iv) thunder v) snow. laserdiscs (6) 2 (7) I (8) 2: basement. 6 (2) 3 (3) printers. Sample translation: The coolness. (Sc) IIvi. one pine tree. water laps against the legs o f a blue heron. (4d) i) cloudy sometimes sunny ii) sunny sometimes cloudy iii) cloudy sometimes rainy iv) cloudy sometimes sunny v) sunny sometimes cloudy vi) cloudy. fl oor I (9) fax machines (10) basement. Fukuoka. (3b) i) cloudy later sunny ii) sunny later cloudy iii) sunny sometimes cloudy iv) rainy later cloudy. Slvii. fragranrin the morning sun. b. cherry blossom. d. Renshii 14: I) McDonald's 2) karaoke 3) opening sale 4) videos and books 5) recycle 6) a curry house 7) Valentine's Day 8) beer 9) dessert 10) E-mail I I) piano 12) Toyota 13) single malt 14) wine 15) Christmas tree 16) City of Angels. Needlework. . e6. Nicholas Cage. h. 4/iv. 61v. . In the middle of a green rice field. (4a) i) north ii) south ii i) gold/ Friday iv) earth/Saturday v) moon/ Monday vi) firelTuesday vii) water/ Wednesday. .. Renshii S: a) New Year b) bright c) hand d) read e) previous f) Japan g) eye h) time i) go j) think k) meet I) enjoy m) spirit n) year 0) dawn p) Yamamoto q) child. in full bloom. e. (like) mist or cloud. cl . (II) 1a) old b) water c) sound. Translation: An autumn night . 2liii. Renshii 3: (I) a) drink ll b) person/3 c) eye/3 d) enterl2 e) tealS f) convenience/mailll g) big/ I h) go out12 i) timel2. c. (7) order = g. Nara. 7/ii. The sound of water.. A travelling man 's. Renshii 13: a2. Renshii 7: (I) la) blue/green b) rice field c) middle d) one. A frog dives in. over fields and hills. 31i. Renshii 12: (1) 2.KEY TO THE EXERCISES 179 3) Casio 4) National 5) Sanyo 6) Mitsubishi . Meg Ryan. Renshii 6: (I) a) mountain b) look c) cloud d) morning e) sun f ) fl ower. f. (Sa) 28th. 7/ ii . Sample translation: Cherry blossom. Sapporo ii) Kobe. 51. or: an endless scene). Translation: The even ing breeze . (IV) la) travel b) man c) needle. video. UNIT 10 Renshii 1: ( I) a) book b) read c) say. Translation: An old pond. d5 . (111) I a) wind b) water c) blue. software (4) 6 (5) TV. (6i) a) 29th b) cloud c) tall (high) d) fine e) weather f) above. Renshii 2: (I) a) water b) jewel (ball) c) fire d) finger e) test f) tissue g) frying pan. (3c) i) two of: Nagoya. fJ . b4. cherry blossom. i.

month. hi. I] (3) 11 (6) [pic In.n SEN. yama. hayashi.. ( 12) RIN.2] '#* (4) (8) . day. moon DO. sun GETSU. mounla. earth. kun readings in lower casc. ki. bayashi . TO. il* UNIT 1 LlJ (3) }II (3) SAN. woods SHIN. river NIC HI . wood a (4) fJ (4) ± [pic In. bi. ka. tsuchi. take. on and kun readings. bamboo MOKU. • For stroke order of main refer to the writing sections of each unit. GATSU. •• On read ings are given in capital s. forest . mori. BOKU. The stroke order for those ~* in units 1 and 2 which don' t appear in the writing sections is given in these charts . The bracketed parI of a kun rcading indicates the part written in hiragana (dictionary form is given for verbs). ground C I-IIKU. gawa. tsuki. kawa. tree.INDEX (1) JAPANESEENGUSH: UNIT CHARTS A unit-by-unit summary of main iiX!* includi ng: number of strokes (in brackets). JITSU. Eng lish meani ngs and jukugo (compound word) examples .

SEKI. koku . [pic In . stone 1i (5) In. KU. child [pic In.Ii'. mouth SOKU (ZOKU). money KA . (7) (5) 'Y:: " 'f (3) KO. 1 In. 3shi.4 UNIT 2 J:l (3) . NYO. onn3j woman SHI . ricejieJd KIN. SU.INDEX II) 181 '* . kane. ishi. KON.4] ji. me. ta (riru). gold.3] [pic In . SHAKU.7} . ko. bi .2 In .3 In. foo t (leg) MOKU.5] [pic In..1i (4) IU (5) (8) 9< (4) SU I. hi. mizu j water DEN. eye JO.6] [pic In. ta /da. kuchi. guchi.

like. horse [pic In. .182 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT A (2) lj: (6) . moto.f-.h ~ (4) (2) $ (1) . person 11. origin. a ki(ra ka). 11] r'J (8) '1. vehicle. otoko.9] [pic 1 . kado. 15] In . love MEl.14] [pic In.I' If If In. chikara .1 (7) jJ (6) IJl (8) '* (5) MON. 10) 0 [Pic In. RIKI . book [pic In. kUl'"uma. te. strength SHA. ear SHU.8 I. MYO.13] [pic 10. POYl-'€r. NAN.5 10. car BA. hand RYOKU.12] [pic In. HN. a ka(rui).6 1 ~1 +1'f1 31+1 I! IiI .7 In. root. hito. man KO. main.I~ I • . gate DAN. bright. light HON. mimi.\ll ( 10) NIN. urn. kono(mu).81 [pic 10.

mit(tsu). yo. 11 [n.15 UNIT 3 ( I) (2) (3) ICH I. 1m (5) three SHI. yot(tsu).. two SAN.9 In.IO In. futa(tsu).INDEX III 183 Ih!iDIJI1J1 In.1 1.K1i1 t In.1 1.14 1¥J¥j . 12 In. one NI. four . yon. hito(tsu).13 In.

koto. KU. chi . ma na(bu}. (8) n ( 12) «- buy KYO. study. write GEN. thousand MAN. 'If. hundred SEN. toshi. listen KEN.n HACHI. J\ (2) :II. look. s. ka(u). year. watch SHO. nine JO. BAN. itsu(tsu}. all T (3) li W (4) 4' (6) EN. nana(tsu}. yat(tsu}. to. mut(Lsu}. ka(ku}.'14 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT "Ii (4) " (4) 1:. yasu(mu). six SHICHI. learn BAI. yen. rest (6) . ten thousand. kokono (Lsu). Id(ku). (GON).. mi(ru}. (2) ~ GO. • (7) (1 0) tf (7) say GA KU. circle NEN. i(u). (2) a (2) (6) + ten HYAKU. age UNIT 4 PIl ( 14) ~ BUN. hear.. eight KYO. see. five ROKU.

ORO. read WA. ushi . great KIN. i(ru). stand (up) KO. thread SHOo chii(sai). expensive CHO. eat IN. drink NYU. axe GVU. (5) 0:. furu(i). mono.!i (5) ~ (6) (4) IJ ' (3) SHI . hana(su). ta(heru). old * (6) (3) (4) * fitf -. bird BEl . hai(ru). enter. 'aka(I). callie KO. u( ru). cow. rice DAI.~ ( II ) RITSU. sell DOKU. t. tori. OJ small . ko. yo(mu). MAl. high. put in BUTSU. thing UNIT 6 :Jr. ( 10) . tachi. talle SHO KU. TAl . hanashi. o(kii).INDEX [11 185 III (5) 'lC (7) III ( 14) lt8 (13) 1l" W ( 12) A (2) til (8) SHUTSU. big. no(mu). kome. MOTSU.r. da (s u)~ go/come 0 111 BAI . d e(ru).a(lsu). ito.

white SEI. on. a(garu). above. safe KO. (10) TO. inu. chichi. arne. below. cloudy weather RAI. nobo (ru). kaminari. father (5) kif (13) J!\ (11) (5) 1f (8) :l<: (4) jij (8) V. black HAKU. BYAKU. jima. jiro. within UN. thunder SETSU. 30(1).-o(i). ne. inside. inexperienced FU. island ON. oto. shima. mother AN.. moto. sound 'Ii (9) . top KA. i!t (5) (6) * JZ. haha. dog 1!t (II) lit (13) :k (4) &l. spacious SHIN. electric KEN. kumo. ue. snow DEN-. shita. wide. IN. blue. oaka. yuki.186 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 80. green. (0)tO(580). GE. shi. new KOKU. kuda(ru). (o)ka(san). rom 1: (3) l' (3) <P (4) • 1If ~ ( 12) (16) (13) JO. yasu(i). atara(shii). to. middle. hiro(i). kuro(i). under. kumo(ri). cloud. DON. go down CHU. S cheap. SHO.

SHO. believe. hatake. u(meru). burn. ' talk. cultivated field DAN . grandchild MEl. kuni.Ie (4) 00 (8) rJj (6) :tlt ( 10) KO' . cry. mago. na(ku). chirp EN.INDEX III SHIN. bury/be buried J! (5) TAN. s hin(jiru). few. spicy. guni.f. bitter. shimo. ya( ku). tell MAl . hot. trust. s~ko(shi).l (14) ~ (8) jt (12) iIIi ( 14) l1I! (10) SHlN. recite. frost SHOo suku(nai). flesh 187 'it' (7) ill ( 17) ~' (4) :. school UNIT 7 (fl (9) P/1 ~') (9) III< (l 5) l'i ( 10) P. tona(eru). language. TA. SO. country NIKU. hono. meal. kata(ru). ruto(i). fat. hata. dawn . word. kindle GO. kara(i). ta( ku). blaze. discussion SON. chant. deep (voice) KOKU. a (jtlle TAl. flame FUN.

{f. lamp. hi . W (7) NT (7) live. muraj village MAJ . hari. imoto. koro(garu). bend MIN. snap. nemu(i)j !:T W (7) iii'. light SETSU. needle TEN. dokij lime Ilt (7) Ia (8) tI' (10) fi( ( 11 ) ~ ( 10) UNIT 8 m (8) TEN. shop. (9) !Ii KAN • ' wicked. noisy KATSU . store OKU. office . body C HOt machij lown ff (7) ~ (8) SON. hiji elbow HAKU. (10) ~ (7) sleep(y) HAl. bark CHO. o(ru)j f old. to(maru)j stay at. lurn. younger sister T6.188 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT . karada . TEl . toki. change )1 . ho(eru). energy TAl . yaj S (9) JGl (7) shop KYOKU. bureau. put up SHIN. mise.

ba t place 111 (16) Ill! ( 13) KAN. cons truction 1} (4) KD. rice wine.INDEX II) 189 PIi (8) . market Tti (5) I (3) KQ. drawing. ara(u). okona(u). ! u(mu). garden SH I. public Ill! (1) f.11. l eu if! ( 16) ~ (9) :E (5) II' ( 15) YAKU. 00. sake. kusuri j medicine SEN. OYO. hold SHITSU. fish SHU. mail KO. sono. master. saka. go. stO{H:Jl'er JO. nushi. city. alcohol CHA . !a kana. reside.1 (12) SHOt JO. owner CHU. room fl (9) ff (6) ~ (9) . ichi . KU. {£ (1) ~ ( 14) reside. AN. map OVO. wosh SHU. tokoro j place JO. oyake. convenience. ZU. hall. BIN. haka(ru). yu(ku). large building EN. i(ku). station BEN.(l ( 11 ) ill ( 10) 'lit (9) TO. live EKI .

west KIN'. (ku). (5) ti (5) IlIl ( 12) !ill (II ) HEI . nishi. uchi. yO. to (jiru).190 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT p.t. hidarij left KAI. solo. SAl. higashi. south TO. seat. hira. migi j right SA. charge. close . shi (meru). inside. GE. east SEI. BOKU. home jlf (5) If/i (10) *'I (10) ~t (5) Jl! (9) GAl. foreign SEKI . outside. north NAN. a (keru). OAI . fo rbidden U.j (4) NAI. place RYO' . hoka. open JI[ (8) 1l!i (6) ~ (13) . minami. kita. materials HOKU.

81) branch (97) break (91) bright (14. 81) China (81) chirp (89) cinema (1 10) city (l06) cleanse (95) clear (94) clear up (95) close (117) closed (117) cloud (78) c loudy weather (78) clue (81) coffee shop (107) construction ( 106) convenience (108) conversation (89) cosmetics (114) country (8 1) cow (75) create (95) cry (animal . A above (77) abroad (112) absence from school (51) academic ability (51) address (108) admission free (113) adult (81) alcohol ( 106) a IiUie (79) America (81) arrival (117) art (106) art gallery (\07) ask (95) axe (75) B bad al (80) bamboo (3) bamboo shoots (49) bank ( 109) bar (107) bark (9 1) bathroom (114) beckon (94) beef (8 1) believe (89) below (77) bicycle (111) big (74) bird (74) bitler (79) black (76) blaze (89) blue (76) blue-white (80) body (91) book (50) bookshop (107) boy (15.INDEX (2) ENGUSHJAPANESE: WORD INDEX The number in brackets indicates the page where the wordfirst appears.89) cultivated field (89) . 94) brush (46) bullellrain ( 11 8) bureau (105) bum (89) bury (89) be buried (89) buy (43) buyer (5 1) buying and selling (51) c calf (80) car (13) car park (108) carriage (15) cart (13) Central America (8\) certificate (90) chant (89) cheap (76) chicken (8 1) child (12.

50) foot (13) forbidde n ( 11 6) fore ign (1 12) exchange ( 11 2) fo rest (3) four (29) Friday (5) frost (79) foreign G garden ( 105) gate (13) gateway ( 15) girl ( 14. \13) feeling (95) few (79) fine weather (95) fire (3) fish (106) fi shmonger ( 107) five (29) fl ame (89) flesh (81) fold (9 1) food (47.192 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT o dawn (89) day (I) dealer (51) decree (94) departure discussion (89) dog (79) domestic ( 11 2) donnant volcano (5 1) (79) down ( 104) drawing (\06) drink (47) drinking place drinking water (51) drinks (50) drought (95) dry weather (95) ( 108) (1 17) dove (107) dwell E car (13) earth (3) east (1 15) cat (47) eating and drinking (5 1) eight (29) elbow (92) electric (78) elementary school (8 1) emolion (95) enler (48) entrance (5 1) entrance fee ( 11 3) exit (51) explosion (95) express (118) eye ( 13) F fac tory (107) fare adjustment office ( 109) fat (79) father (76) fee (III. Japanese ( 110) island (79) island . 5 1) horse (13) horse power (14) hot (79) hour (92) hundred (32) I imperial edict (94) information (109) inherit (94) inside (77) international phone (112) invite (94) country (8 1) items for sale (50) inn. 8 1) go ( 108) go in (48) going in and out (5 1) gold (3) good at (80) go out (43) grandchild (89) greengrocer (107) grilled (1 18) ground (3) H hall (105) hand ( 13) hear (43) heavy rain (80) ~igh (74) high school (8 1) hi story (90) hold (94) holiday (43.

room ( 11 2)..3 J Japan ( 14) Japanese: bath ( 114). style (114) j unior high school (8 1) K kindle (89) kiosk (107) L lamp (9 1) language (89) large bui lding (105) left ( 11 7) left luggage (113) lesson (90) library ( 107) like ( 14) listen (43) liquor store (107) live (91) liver (95) long-distance train ( II I) look (43) love (14) luggage ( 113) M make (95) mail (108) man ( 14) manpower (IS) map (106) market (106.INDEX (2) . cuisine (1 14). inn ( 11 0). 107) marsh (94) master (108) meat (8 1) medic ine (106) middle (77) middle school (8 1) mischief (95) Monday (5) money (3) money exchange (109) month (2) mother (76) mother country (8 1) mountain (3) moon (I) mouth (13) museum ( 110) N narrative (90) new year (8 1) needle (92) new (76) new car (81) newspaper (8 1) nine (29) noise (79) north (1 15) not allowed ( 11 6) o occupied taxi ( III ) office ( 105) old (74) older (8 1) one (29) top (77) open (1 17) open for business (117) origin ( 14) on p paddy fie ld (15) pair (5 1) pale (80) parcel (Ill) parents (80) pari< (107) passport control ( 11 2) person (12) perspire (95) pharmacy ( 107) pigeon (79) place (105) poem (90) pointed (79) pole (95) . person ( 15).

114) town (9 1) train (80) transl ation (90) travel (109) Tuesday (5) tune (90) tum (92) two (29) telephone [0) thing Thursday tower (94) tree (3) u under (77) underground (1 18) university (80) unreserved seat (113) up ( 104) unoccupied taxi (I II ) . 106) rice field (3) rickshaw ( 15) right( I 17) rive< (3) rod (95) roof (105) room ( 11 1) root ( 14) rotate (92) s safe (76) samwai (94) Saturday (5) say (43) school (8 1) sea'(III) secondhand car (8 1) sell (46) seller (5 1) set meal ( 113) seven (29) shop (105) shopping (50) shopping area ( 109) sightseeing (50) six (29) sleep (91) sleeper train (111) small (74) small dog (SO) smoke ( 11 6) snap (91) snore (95) snow (78) soar (94) sound (79) soulh ( 11 5) spacious (76) speak (46) special express ( li S) spirit (95) Siand ( news) ( 107) stand (up) (75) start school (5 1) station (108) stay at (92) stone (4) store ( 105) strength ( 13) strictly forbidden ( 116) study (43) study visit (5 1) Sunday (5) superiors (80) swamp (94) swan (80) T talk (46) tall (74) tapered (79) tea (106) tcashop (107) (8 1) temple (92) tcn (29) ten thousand (32) theatre (I (50) thousand (32) thread (75) three (29) thunder (78) (5) ticket office (109) time (92) to ilet (107. . R BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT polished rice (80) population ( 14) post office (I 08) powder room ( 114) power (13) previous (95) primary school (8 1) proof (90) public (106) public eye... in the (15) pull ( 11 7) puppy (80) purify (96) purity (95) push ( 11 7) rain (76) read (46) reading (51) recite (89) request (95) reserved seat ( 113) reside (108) rest (43) restrain (95) rice (74. 108.

95) wide (76) wine ( 106) wine shop ( 107) woman (12) woodIs (3) words (43) write (47) writing (50) y yen (32) year (32) yesterday (95) younger sister (91 ) youth (80) . room (1 12) white (76) white rice (80.INDEX (2) 195 v vast (80) vehicle ( 13) village (9 1) vinegar (95) volcano (1 5) w wait ( 114) waiting room ( 114) wash (106) watch (43) water (3) water power (15) Wednesday (5) west ( 11 5) western-style (114) + cuisine ( 114). 95) wickedness (89 .

. so you will be able to relax and enjoy your first taste of Japanese. explanation s and vocabulary_ In the second you move on to practising what you have just learnt in a range of real-life situations. with lively dialogues. The first teaches you the basic language you will need. Beginner's Japanese is idea1 for you because: • Everything is explained in simple English • There are hints throughout to make learning Japanese easy • • • • What you learn is useful rig ht from the start There's a special section on Kanji characters A quick pronunciation section starts you speaking There are plenty of varied and entertaining exercises and activities • Each of the 20 units includes some cultura1 notes to make your learning interesting • There are lots of illustrations to help your learning It is never difficult or boring. It is in two parts.Other related titles l5lJTEACII YOURSELF BEGINNER'S JAPANESE Helen Gilhooly Do you really want to learn Japanese? Do classes terrify you and other coursebooks overwhelm you? The n Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese is for you! Helen Gilhooly has writte n a friend ly introductio n to Japanese that is easy right the way through .

Their course structure means that you can work at your own pace. or if your Japanese needs brushing up. grammar and exercises • An extensive Japanese-English vocabulary list • A unique cross-referencing system to help you look up unfamiliar language When you have finished Teach Yourself Japanese you'll be able to hold your own anywhere. . from a karaoke bar to a business lunch. culture notes. Helen Ballatchet and Stefan Kaiser have created a practica1 course that is both fun and easy to work through. They explain everything clearly along the way and give you plenty of opportunities to practise what you have learnt. If you have never learnt Japanese before. Teach Yourself Japanese is for you. This course contains: • Graded units of dialogues. arranging your learning to suit your own needs.Other related titles [51JTEACII YOURSELF JAPANESE Helen Ba1lhatchet and Stefan Kaiser This is a complete course in spoken Japanese.

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