Fonts used (STMZH-029, STMZH-045, STMZH-062,STMZH-053,SHREE TAM-0802, BAMINI

,
ALGERIAN )

12 - 



       
       


             
        
Physics PALANICHAMY

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil.,
P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS
GOVERNMENT HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL
ETTARAI, THIRUCHIRAPALLI DIST.

e-mail:physicspalanichamy@yahoo.co.in
Cell: 94421-36775

FOR PRIVATE CIRCULATION ONLY

2011


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

Unit
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1 Mark
4
1
2
4
4
4
2
4
3
2

(01)

__

3 Mark
2
3
1
2
2
2
1
2
4
1

5 Mark
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

PRACTICAL MARK
\©ß£õk + ÂÍUP®
ö\´•øÓ + _ØÖ¨£h® (3+3)
AmhÁøn + AÍÃkPÒ
PnURkPÒ
•iÄ + A»S

TkuÀ

10 Mark
1
--1
1
1
1
--1
1
1
4
6
10
8
2

30

Total
25
20
20
25
25
25
15
25
30
20

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM




(02)

_

1. {ø» ªßÛ¯À
K›Ú ªßÞmh[PÒ JßøÓö¯õßÖ Âµmk®. ÷ÁÔÚ ªßÞmh[PÒ JßøÓö¯õßÖ PÁ¸®
& ÷\õuøÚ:
• £mk
CøǯõÀ
öuõ[PÂh¨£m
kÒÍ
ªßÞmh¨£mh Psnõiz usk
JßÖ
QøhzuÍzvÀ
Aø»ÄÖQÓx.
• uØ÷£õx Auß •øÚUP¸QÀ
©ØöÓõ¸ ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ
Psnõiz
usk
öPõsk
Áµ¨£mhõÀ, C¸ •øÚPЮ
JßøÓö¯õßÖ ÂµmkÁøuU
Põn»õ®.
• ªßÞmh¨£mh G÷£õøÚm ushõÚx, öuõ[PÂh¨£mh Psnõiz usiß •øÚUP¸QÀ
öPõsk Áµ¨£mhõÀ, C¸ uskPЮ JßøÓö¯õßÖ PÁºQßÓÚ.
• Ca÷\õuøÚ ‰»® K›Ú ªßÞmh[PÒ JßøÓö¯õßÖ Âµmk®, ÷ÁÔÚ ªßÞmh[PÒ
JßøÓö¯õßÖ PÁ¸® GÚ öu›¯ Á¸QÓx.
ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ ö£õ¸ÒPÐUQøh÷¯ ÷uõßÖ® PÁ¸® ©ØÖ® µmk® £s¦PÎß
£¯ßPÒ ¯õøÁ?
• {ø» ªßÛ¯À •øÓ°À Ásn® öuÎzuÀ, xPÒ §a_, ¦øPU TskPÎÀ £ÓUS® \õ®£ø»
÷\P›zuÀ, ø© öuΨ¦ £v¨¦ G¢vµ® ©ØÖ® Aa_ £Pº¨¦ |PÀ G¢vµ® ÷£õßÓ £À÷ÁÖ
£¯ß£õkPøÍU öPõskÒÍÚ.
PhzvPÒ ©ØÖ® Põ¨£õßPÒ: GßÓõÀ GßÚ? GkzxUPõmk u¸P.
• ªßÞmhzøu uß ÁÈ÷¯ ö\À» AÝ©vUS® ö£õ¸ÒPÒ ªß PhzvPÒ GÚ¨£k®.
• GkzxUPõmkPÒ: E÷»õP[PÒ, ©Ûu EhÀ, ¦Â.
• ªßÞmh[PøÍ uß ÁÈ÷¯ ö\À» AÝ©vUPõu ö£õ¸ÒPÒ ªßPhzuõ¨ ö£õ¸ÒPÒ
(Põ¨£õßPÒ) GÚ¨£k®.
• GkzxUPõmkPÒ:
Psnõi, ø©UPõ, G÷£õøÚm, ¤ÍõìiU .
ªßÞmh[PÎß Ai¨£øh¨ £s¦PÒ:
(i) ªßÞmh[PÎß SÁõsh©õUPÀ: GßÓõÀ GßÚ?
• C¯ØøP°À G¢u J¸ Aø©¨¤ß ªßÞmh•®, J¸ ªßÞmhzvß ]Ö© ©v¨¤ß •Ê Gs

©h[SPÍõP÷Á Aø©QÓx.
ªßÞmhzvß AÍÄ, e- ß •Ê Gs ©h[S öPõsh £» uÛzu ©v¨¦PÎÀ H÷uÝ® JßøÓ
©mk® ö£ÖQÓx. GÚ÷Á ªßÞmh® q = ne.
(ii) ªßÞmh[PÎß AÈÂßø© Âvø¯U TÖ. GkzxUPõmk u¸P.
• ªßÞmh[PøÍ BUP÷Áõ AÈUP÷Áõ •i¯õx.

ªßÞmh AÈÂßø© Âv°ß£i, uÛzu Aø©¨¦ JßÔß ö©õzu ªßÞmh® G¨÷£õx®
©õÔ¼¯õS®.
• GkzxUPõmk: ²÷µÛ¯® BÀ£õ xPøÍ öÁΰmk ÷uõ›¯©õP ©õÖQÓx.
]øuÄUS •ß ö©õzu ªßÞmh® = + 92e,
]øuÄUS¨ ¤ß ö©õzu ªßÞmh® = 90e + 2e = 92e
(iii) ªßÞmh[PÎß TmhÀ £s¦ ¯õx? GkzxUPõmk u¸P. (Oct’07)
• J¸ Aø©¨¤ß ö©õzu ªßÞmh©õÚx, Aø©¨¤À EÒÍ AøÚzx ªßÞmh[PÎß SÔ°¯À
Tmkz öuõøPUSa \©®.

GkzxUPõmk: +2q, -5q ªßÞmh[PÒ öPõsh C¸ ö£õ¸ÒPÒ ÷\ºzx
øÁUP¨£k®÷£õx, Aø©¨¤ß ö©õzu ªßÞmh® -3q BS®.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(03)
__
{ø» ªßÛ¯¼À T¾® Âvø¯U TÖ (BB), (Mar’06), (July’07), (Mar’10), (Jun’10)
C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÐUS Cøh÷¯¯õÚ PÁºa] Âø\ AÀ»x µmk Âø\¯õÚx,

ªßÞmh[PÎß ö£¸USz öuõøUS ÷|ºzuP¾®,
• AÁØÔØS Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ öuõø»Âß C¸©iUS GvºzuP¾® Aø©²®.
• ªßÞmh[PøÍ CønUS® ÷Põmiß ÁÈ÷¯ Âø\°ß vø\ Aø©²®.
{ø» ªßÛ¯¼À T¾® Âv°ß öÁUhº ÁiÁ®:
q q 
F12 = k 1 2 2 r21
r21
ÂkvÓß ©ØÖ® J¨¦ø© ÂkvÓß GßÓõÀ GßÚ? AøÁ GÆÁõÖ
öuõhº¦£kzu¨£mkÒÍÚ? (BB)
• FhPzvÀ C¸ ªßÞmh[PÐUQøh÷¯¯õÚ Âø\°ß AÍøÁ •iÄ ö\´²® C¯À¦ ÂkvÓß (ε)
GÚ¨£k®.
• öÁØÔhzvß C¯À¦ ÂkvÓß = ε0

FhPzvß J¨¦ø© ÂkvÓß = εr

ε = ε 0 εr

ªßÞmhzv ß A»S Áøµ¯Ö. (T¾® Âv°ß Ai¨£øh°À T¾® Áøµ¯Ö) (Mar’06)
• ªßÞmhzv ß A»S T¾®.
• PõØÔ÷»õ AÀ»x öÁØÔhzv÷»õ, J¸ «mhº CøhöÁΰÀ, øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ, Jzu
ªßÞmh[PÐUQ øh÷¯¯õÚ Âµmk Âø\ 9 × 109 N GÛÀ A®ªßÞmh ©v¨¦ J¸
T¾®.
÷©Øö£õ¸¢xuÀ uzuÁzøuU TÖP. (BB)
• J¸ ªßÞmhzvß «uõÚ ö©õzu Âø\ Gߣx ©ØÓ ªßÞmh[PÒ A®ªßÞmhzvß «x
÷uõØÖÂUS® Âø\PÎß öÁUhº Tku»õS®.
J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»® Áøµ¯Ö. Auß A»øPU TÖ.
(BB)
• J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»®, ªß¦»a ö\ÔÂß ‰»® AÍÂh¨£kQÓx. ªß¦»zvÀ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ
øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ Kµ»S ÷|º ªßÞmh® En¸® Âø\, A¨¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»a ö\ÔÄ
GßÓøÇUP¨£kQÓx.
• Cx J¸ öÁUhº AÍÁõS®. ªß¦»a ö\ÔÂß A»S N C−1.

¦ÒÎ ªßÞmhzuõÀ ÂøͲ® ªß¦»®: (÷PõøÁø¯¨ ö£ÖP.), (BB)
• PõØÔÀ O GßÓ ¦ÒΰÀ øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ q GßÓ ªßÞmhzøuU P¸x÷Áõ®.
• ªßÞmh® q ¼¸¢x r öuõø»ÂÀ, ¦ÒÎ P °À, ÷\õuøÚ ªßÞmh® qO
øÁUP¨£mkÒÍx.

T¾® Âv°ß£i,

q& ÂÚõÀ qO «uõÚ Âø\,

F=

q q0
4π ε0 r 2
1

E=

F
1 q1 q 2
=
q0 4π ε0 r 2

¦ÒÎ P°À ªß¦»®

E&ß vø\, O, P ¦ÒÎPøÍ CønUS® ÷Põmiß ÁÈ÷¯, ÷|º ªßÞmh©õP C¸¢uõÀ
öÁÎ÷|õUQ²®, Gvº ªßÞmh©õP C¸¢uõÀ EÒ ÷|õUQ²® Aø©²®.

ªß¦»zvß öÁUhº \©ß£õk

E=

1

q 
r
4π ε0 r 2

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM

      

(04)

_

ªß Âø\U ÷PõkPÒ: (GßÓõÀ GßÚ? A»S ¯õx?) (June’08)
• ªß¦»zvÀ Kµ»S ÷|ºªßÞmh® JßÖ, |Pµ •¯Ø]US® ÷|µõÚ AÀ»x ÁøÍÁõÚ PØ£øÚ¨
£õøu ªßÂø\U÷Põk GÚ¨£k®. Cuß A»S Nm2 C-1
(ø©U÷PÀ £õµ÷h GߣÁµõÀ ¦»U÷PõkPÒ GßÓ P¸zx AÔ•P¨£kzu¨£mhx.)
ªßÂø\U÷PõkPÎß £s¦PÒ: (BB), (Mar’07), (Oct’07), (Mar’08), (Mar10), (Jun’10)
• ªßÂø\U÷Põk ÷|º ªßÞmhzvÀ öuõh[Q Gvº ªßÞmhzvÀ •iÁøhQÓx.
• ªß Âø\U÷PõkPÒ J¸÷£õx® JßøÓö¯õßÖ öÁmia ö\À»õx.
• J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»zvß vø\, A¨¦ÒΰÀ EÒÍ ªß Âø\U÷PõmkUS Áøµ¯¨£k®
öuõk÷PõmiÚõÀ SÔUP¨£k®.

JÆöÁõ¸ Kµ»S ÷|ºªßÞmh•®,

1

AÍÄÒÍ ªßÂø\U ÷PõkPøÍ öÁØÔhzvÀ E¸ÁõUS®.
ε0
ªßÂø\U÷PõkPÐUS ÷|ºUSzuõÚ vø\°À, Kµ»S \©uͨ £µ¨¤ß ÁÈ÷¯ ö\À¾®
Âø\U÷PõkPÎß GsoUøP ªß¦»a ö\ÔÄ E&US ÷|ºzuPÂÀ C¸US®. E&ß ©v¨¦
AvP©õÚ Ch[PÎÀ ÷PõkPÒ ö|¸UP©õPÄ®, E&ß ©v¨¦ SøÓÁõÚ Ch[PÎÀ ÷PõkPÒ
CøhöÁÎÂmk® C¸US®.

ªß C¸•øÚ : (vd;why; vd;d? ) (BB), (Oct’09)
• C¸ \©©õÚ, GvöµvµõÚ, ªPa ]Ô¯ CøhöÁΰÀ ¤›UP¨£mkÒÍ ªßÞmh[PÒ J¸ ªß
C¸•øÚ¯õS®.
• GkzxUPõmkPÒ: }º, A®÷©õÛ¯õ, Põº£ß&øh&BUø\k ©ØÖ®
S÷Íõ÷µõ£õº® ‰»UTÖPÒ
C¸•øÚz v¸¨¦zvÓß (tiwaW): (BB), (Oct’09)
• ªß C¸ •øÚ°ß v¸¨¦zvÓÛß Gs©v¨£õÚx H÷uÝ® J¸ ªßÞmhzvß Gs©v¨¤øÚ
ªßÞmh[PÐUQøh÷¯²ÒÍ öuõø»ÂÚõÀ ö£¸UPU Qøh¨£uõS®.
SÔ¨¦:

·ªß C¸•øÚ°ß v¸¨¦z vÓß P = 2qd.
· Cx J¸ öÁUhº AÍÁõS®.
· Cuß vø\ -q¼¸¢x +q ÷|õUQ Aø©²®.
· Cuß A»S C m
BS®.

ªß C¸•øÚ°ß Aa_U÷PõmiÀ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»® \©ß£õk u¸Â.
(BB), (Mar ’06), (Jun ’06), (Mar ’09), (Jun’10)
• AB Gߣx, -q ©ØÖ® +q GßÓ C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÒ 2d GßÓ ]Ö öuõø»ÂÀ
¤›zx øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ J¸ ªß C¸•øÚ BS®.

C¸•øÚ°ß ø©¯® O¼¸¢x, Aa_U÷PõmiÀ, r öuõø»ÂÀ Aø©¢xÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P
BS®.

B&°À EÒÍ +q ªßÞmhzvÚõÀ ¦ÒÎ P&°À ªß¦»®
E1 =

1
q
4π ε0 ( r − d ) 2

(BP ÁÈ÷¯)

A&°À EÒÍ – q ÂÚõÀ ¦ÒÎ P&°À ªß¦»®
E2 =

1
q
4π ε0 ( r + d ) 2

(PA ÁÈ÷¯)

E1 ©ØÖ® E2 Gvöµvºz vø\°À ö\¯À£kQßÓÚ. GÚ÷Á, öuõS£¯ß ªß¦»® (E) ö£¸©
Gs©v¨¦ öPõsh öÁUh›ß vø\°À ö\¯À£kQÓx.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

          
          
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(05)
• ¦ÒÎ P°À öuõS£¯ß ªß¦»®

__
E = E1 + ( - E 2 )

ªß C¸•øÚ v¸¨¦z vÓß

p = q x 2d
∴ E=

1 2p
4πε0 r 3

(BP
ÁÈ÷¯)

E&¯õÚx ªß C¸•øÚ°ß v¸¨¦zvÓß vø\°À ö\¯À£kQÓx.

ªß C¸•øÚ°ß |kÁøµU ÷PõmiÀ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»®: \©ß£õk u¸Â.
(BB), (Mar ’06), (Mar’07),(Jun’09)
• AB GßÓ ªß C¸•øÚ JßøÓU P¸x÷Áõ®.
• 2d Gߣx C¸•øÚ°ß Cøhzöuõø»Ä, p Gߣx C¸•øÚ°ß v¸¨¦z vÓß GßP.

C¸•øÚ°ß ø©¯® O&¼¸¢x r öuõø»ÂÀ |kÁøµU ÷PõmiÀ Aø©¢xÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P
GßP.

+q ªßÞmhzvÚõÀ ¦ÒÎ P&°À ªß¦»®,

E1 =

-q ªßÞmhzuõÀ ¦ÒÎ P°À ªß¦»®,

q
4π ε0 ( r + d 2 )

E2 =

1

2

1

q
4π ε0 ( r + d 2 )
2

(BP ÁÈ÷¯)

(PA ÁÈ÷¯)

C¸•øÚ¯õÀ ¦ÒÎ P°À öuõS£¯ß ªß¦»®
E = E1 cos θ + E2 cos θ (PR vø\°À)
E = 2 E1cos θ

(  E1 = E2)

p = q x 2d ÷£õßÓ ©v¨¦Pøͨ¤µv°h
E=

1 p
4π ε0 r 3

E&ß vø\ ªß C¸•øÚ°ß Aa_US Cøn¯õP PR & ÁȯõPÄ®, C¸ •øÚ°ß v¸¨¦
vÓÛß vø\US Gvºz vø\°¾® Aø©QÓx.
ªß¦»zvÀ EÒÍ ªß C¸•øÚ°ß ªßÚÊzu BØÓÀ Áøµ¯Ö.
• ªß¦»zvÀ EÒÍ ªß C¸•øÚ°ß ªßÚÊzu BØÓÀ Gߣx ªß¦»zvÀ ªß C¸•øÚø¯
÷uøÁ¯õÚ {ø»US _ÇØÖÁuØS›¯ ÷Áø» BS®.
U = – pE cos θ

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM

     
ø©U÷µõ Aø» \ø©¯ÀP»ß: SÔ¨¦ÁøµP. (June’08)





(06)

_

Cx, ªPU SÖQ¯ Põ»zvÀ EnÄ \ø©UP¨ £¯ß£kQÓx.
P»ß ö\¯À£k®÷£õx, ø©U÷µõ Aø»PÒ ÷uõØÖÂUP¨£kQßÓÚ.
CøÁ ^µØÓ Aø»ÄÖ® ªß¦»zøu E¸ÁõUSQßÓÚ.
En¾ÒÍ }º© ‰»UTÖPÒ, ªß C¸•øÚPÍõP Aø©ÁuõÀ, Aø»ÄÖ® v¸¨¦
Âø\US EÒÍõUP¨£mk J¸ ]» }º© ‰»UTÖPÎß ¤øn¨¦PÒ •ÔUP¨£kQßÓÚ.
CuÚõÀ öÁ¨£ BØÓÀ E¸ÁõQ, EnÄ \ø©UP¨£kQÓx

ªßÚÊzu® Áøµ¯Ö: (BB), (Mar’07) , (Jun’09)
ªß¦»zvÀ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªßÚÊzu® Gߣx
• Kµ»S ÷|º ªßÞmhzøu •i»õz öuõø»Â¼¸¢x ªßÂø\US GvµõP, A¨¦ÒÎUS öPõsk
Áµa ö\´¯¨£k® ÷Áø» BS®.
ªßÚÊzu
÷ÁÖ£õk
Áøµ¯Ö:
.
ªß¦»zvÀ C¸ ¦ÒÎPÐUQøh÷¯ EÒÍ ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk Gߣx
• J¸ ¦Òΰ¼¸¢x ©ØöÓõ¸ ¦ÒÎUS ªß µmk Âø\US GvµõP Kµ»S ÷|º ªßÞmhzøu |
Pºzua ö\´¯¨£k® ÷Áø» BS®.
ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õmiß A»S (÷ÁõÀm) Áøµ¯Ö:
• ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õmiß A»S ÷ÁõÀm BS®.

J¸ ¦Òΰ¼¸¢x ©ØöÓõ¸ ¦ÒÎUS J¸ T¾® ÷|º ªßÞmhzøu ªß Âø\UöPvµõP Gkzxa
ö\À»a ö\´¯¨£k® ÷Áø» J¸ áúÀ GÛÀ A¨¦ÒÎPÐU Qøh÷¯ EÒÍ ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk J¸
÷ÁõÀm BS®.
J¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmhzuõÀ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ HØ£k® ªßÚÊzu®: \©ß£õk u¸Â. (BB), (Mar’ 09)
• PõØÔÀ ¦ÒÎ O°À øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ uÛzu ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh® +q GßP.
• +q&¼¸¢x r öuõø»ÂÀ EÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P GßP.

¦ÒÎ O-°¼¸¢x x ©ØÖ® x + dx öuõø»ÂÀ EÒÍ ¦ÒÎPÒ A ©ØÖ® Bø¯U
P¸x÷Áõ®.

A ©ØÖ® B ¦ÒÎPÐUQøh÷¯ EÒÍ ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk,
dV = -E.dx
Kµ»S ÷|º ªßÞmhzuõÀ Enµ¨£k® Âø\,
1 q
E=
4π ε0 x 2



ö\´¯¨£k® ÷Áø», ªß Âø\US GvµõÚx Gߣøu GvºUSÔ SÔUQÓx.
+ q ªßÞmhzvÚõÀ P&À ªßÚÊzu® Gߣx, Kµ»S ÷|º ªßÞmhzøu •i»õz
öuõø»Â¼¸¢x, A¨¦ÒÎUSU öPõsk Áµa ö\´¯¨£k® ö©õzu ÷Áø»¯õS®.
r

1

q
dx
4π ε0 x 2

V = -∫

V =

1

q
4πε0 r

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(07)
__
ªß C¸•øÚ¯õÀ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªßÚÊzu®:(\©ß£õku¸Â)
(BB), (Oct’06), (Mar’08), (June’08), (Mar’10)
• 2d GßÓ ]Ö öuõø»ÂÀ ¤›UP¨£mh, -q ©ØÖ® +q GßÓ C¸ ªßÞmh[PÒ ªß
C¸•øÚBS®.
• P Gߣx C¸•øÚ°ß O GßÓ ø©¯¨ ¦Òΰ¼¸¢x r
öuõø»ÂÀ EÒÍ ¦ÒÎ.
• ÷©¾® C¨¦ÒÎø¯²®, ø©¯zøu²® CønUS®
÷PõhõÚx (PO) C¸ •øÚ°ß Aa_hß (OB) HØ£kzx®
÷Põn® θ GßP.
• r1 ©ØÖ® r2 Gß£Ú •øÓ÷¯ +q ©ØÖ®
- q¼¸¢x ¦ÒÎ P°ß öuõø»ÄPÒ GßP.
V1 =

q ªßÞmhzvÚõÀ P°À ªßÚÊzu®

1

q
4πε0 r1

 q
−
4π ε0  r2
1

-q ªßÞmhzuõÀ P °À ªßÚÊzu®

V2 =

ªß C¸•øÚ¯õÀ P °À ªßÚÊzu®

V = V1 + V2

V =




1
1

− 
− − − − − − − (1)

4π ε0  r1 r2 

q

öPõø\ß Âvø¯¨ £¯ß£kzv wºUP
1 1
d

= 1 + cos θ  − − − − − − − −(2)
r1 r 
r

C÷u÷£õÀ,
1 1
d

= 1 − cos θ  − − − − − − − − (3)
r2 r 
r

÷©¾®

p = q x 2d
p cos θ
V =
4π ε 0 r 2

\©ß£õk (1) I wºUP

]Ó¨¦ ÷|ºÄPÒ :
1. ¦ÒÎ P ¯õÚx C¸•øÚ°ß Aa_U÷PõmiÀ +qUS A¸QÀ Aø©¢uõÀ, θ = 00
p
V =
4π ε0 r 2
2. ¦ÒÎ P¯õÚx C¸•øÚ°ß Aa_U÷PõmiÀ –qUS A¸QÀ Aø©¢uõÀ θ = 180o,
p
V =4π ε0 r 2
3. ¦ÒÎ P¯õÚx C¸•øÚ°ß |kÁøµU ÷PõmiÀ Aø©¢uõÀ, θ = 90o,
L

V=0

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM



(08)

_
C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÎß ªßÚÊzu BØÓÀ: (Áøµ¯Ö) (Oct’09)
• C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÎß ªßÚÊzu BØÓÀ Gߣx AƸ ªßÞmh[PøÍ J¸[Pø©¯a ö\
´¯¨£mh ÷Áø»
(AÀ»x)
JÆöÁõ¸ ªßÞmhzøu²® A¨¦ÒÎUS öPõskÁµ ö\´¯¨£mh ÷Áø»
(AÀ»x)
J¸ ªßÞmhzøu •i»õz öuõø»Â¼¸¢x A¨¦ÒÎUS öPõsk Áµ ö\´¯¨£mh
÷Áø» GÚ¨£k®.
\© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¦ GßÓõÀ GßÚ?
• J¸ £µ¨¤Ýøh¯ AøÚzx¨ ¦ÒÎPЮ, \© ªßÚÊzuzvÀ EÒÍÚ GÛÀ, A¨£µ¨¦ \©
ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¦ GÚ¨£k®.
\© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¤ß£s¦PÒ ¯õøÁ?
• uÛzu ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmhzv¼¸¢x \© öuõø»ÂÀ EÒÍ AøÚzx¨ ¦ÒÎPЮ \© ªßÚÊzuzvÀ
C¸US®.
• \© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¦PÒ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmhzøu ø©¯©õPU öPõsh öuõhºa]¯õÚ £À÷ÁÖ
÷PõÍ[PÍõS®.
• \© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¤ß «x G¢u C¸ ¦ÒÎPÐUQøh÷¯²®, J¸ ªßÞmhzøu GÆÁȯõP |
PºzvÚõ¾® ö\´¯¨£mh ÷Áø» _ȯõS®.
• ªß¦»U ÷PõkPÒ \© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¦USa ö\[SzuõP C¸US®.
• ^µõÚ ªß¦»zvÀ, \© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¦PÒ Cøn uÍ[PÍõPÄ®, AÁØÔß £µ¨¦PÒ ªßÂø\U
÷PõkPÐUSa ö\[SzuõPÄ® EÒÍÚ.
ªß¦»¨ £õ¯®: Áøµ¯Ö. (BB), (June’08)
• ªß¦»¨ £õ¯® Gߣx öPõkUP¨£mh £µ¨¦ ÁÈ÷¯ ö\À¾® ªßÂø\U ÷PõkPÎß ö©õzu
GsoUøP BS® GÚ Áøµ¯ÖUP¨£kQÓx.
• ªß¦»¨£õ¯® J¸ ì÷P»õº AÍÁõS®. Cuß A»S Nm2 C-1
Põì Âv ø¯UTÖ. (BB), (June ’06), (Oct’06), (Mar’09)

G¢uöÁõ¸ ‰i¯ £µ¨¤¾® ö\¯À£k® ªß¦»zvß ö©õzu £õ¯ ©v¨¦, A¨£µ¨¤À EÒÍ
ö©õzu ªßÞmhzvß

©h[SUSa \©®.

Põì Âv°ß £¯ß£õkPÒ ¯õøÁ?
(i) ÷|µõÚ •i»õ }Í® öPõsh ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ P®¤°ÚõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»®
(ii) ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ •i»õ, \©uͨ £µ¨¤ÚõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»®
(iii) C¸ Cøn¯õÚ ªßÞmh¨£mh uPkPÍõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»®
(iv) ^µõÚ ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU TmiÚõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»® BQ¯ÁØøÓU
PnUQh¨£¯ß£kQÓx.
(i) ÷|µõÚ •i»õ }Í® öPõsh ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ P®¤°ÚõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»®:
(BB),
• •i»õ }Í® öPõsh, P®¤ JßÔß ªßÞmh }Ò Ahºzv λ,
• P®¤°¼¸¢x r öuõø»ÂÀ EÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P °À ªß¦»® E GßP.
• l }Í•®, r Bµ•® Eøh¯ J¸ E¸øÍ, Põìê¯ß £µ¨£õS®.
• Põìê¯ß £µ¨¤ß «x ds GßÓ ªPa]Ô¯ £µ¨ø£U P¸x÷Áõ®.

E¸øÍ°ßÁøÍ£µ¨¤À EÒÍ AøÚzx¨ ¦ÒÎPξ ªß¦»®
\©©õPÄ®, BµU÷Põmiß
ÁÈ÷¯ öÁÎ÷|õUQ²®
Aø©QÓx.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G
TEACHER IN PHYSICS, GHSS, ETTARAI


 12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

θ = 00

©ØÖ®
©ØÖ®

(09)

__

J÷µ vø\°¾ÒÍÚ.ÁøÍ£µ¨¤ß ÁÈ÷¯ ªß¦»¨£õ¯®
cos θ = 1

φ = E (2πrl )
©ØÖ®

ÁÈ÷¯ ªß¦»¨ £õ¯® = 0

Põìê¯ß £µ¨¦ ÁÈ÷¯¯õÚ ö©õzu ªß¦»¨ £õ¯®,
φ = E. ( 2 π r l)
Põìê¯ß £µ¨¤ÝÒ EÒÍ ö©õzu ªßÞmh®
q=λl
Põì Âv°ß£i,
λl
E ( 2π rl ) =
ε0
AÀ»x
E =


λ
2π ε0 r

ªß¦»® E&ß vø\¯õÚx, ÷|ºªßÞmh® GÛÀ, Bµzvß ÁÈ÷¯ öÁÎ÷|õUQ Aø©QÓx.
Gvº ªßÞmh® GÛÀ Bµzvß ÁÈ÷¯ EÒ÷|õUQ Aø©QÓx.

ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ •i»õ, \©uͨ £µ¨ÚõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»® (BB)
•i»õ \©uͨ £µ¨¤ß ªßÞmh¨ £µ¨¦ Ahºzv σ.
£µ¨¤¼¸¢x r öuõø»ÂÀ EÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P°À ªß¦»® E GßP.
ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ £µ¨¦US SzuõP, 2r }Í•®, A SÖUS
öÁmk¨ £µ¨¦ öPõsh E¸øÍ ÁiÁ Põìê¯ß £µ¨ø£U P¸x÷Áõ®.
E¸øÍ°ß C¸ •øÚ¨£SvPξ®, £µ¨¤ØSU SzuõP,
\©a^µõÚ ªß¦»[PÒ ö\¯À£kQßÓÚ.
‰h¨£mh £µ¨¦ ÁÈ÷¯¯õÚ ö©õzuªß¦»¨ £õ¯®
θ = 00 ©ØÖ® cos θ = 1

φ=EA+EA=2EA
\©uͨ £µ¨¤ß Kµ»S £µ¨¤À EÒÍ ªßÞmh® σ GÛÀ, Põìê¯ß £µ¨¤À EÒÍ ö©õzu ÷|
ºªßÞmh®,
q = σA
2E A =

Põì Âvø¯¨ £¯ß£kzu,

σA
ε0

σ
2ε0

E =

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
        
(10)
_C¸ Cøn¯õÚ ªßÞmh¨£mh uPkPÍõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»®:
• C¸ Cøn¯õÚ, \©uÍ ÁiÁ,•i»õ¨ £µ¨¦ öPõsh, uPkPÒ,\©©õÚ BÚõÀ ÷ÁÔÚ ªßÞmh
AhºzvPÒ +σ ©ØÖ® -σ øÁ ö£ØÖÒÍx.
• ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ J¸ uPkUS C¸¦Ó•® ªß¦»zvß
AÍÄ
E =


σ
2ε0

C®ªß¦»® uPmiØS SzuõPÄ®, ÷|ºUSÔ
ªßÞmh©õÚõÀ öÁÎ÷|õUQ-²®,
GvºUSÔ ªßÞmh©õÚõÀ EÒ÷|õUQ ²®
ö\¯À£k®.

(i) P1 GßÓ ¦ÒÎ C¸ uPmiØS® |k÷Á Aø©¢uõÀ,
• C¸ uPkPÍõÀÂøͲ® ªß¦»[PЮ \©©õPÄ®, J÷µ
vø\°¾® Aø©²®.
• P1&ß öuõS£¯ß ªß¦»®,
E = E1 + E2
E =
E =

σ
ε0

σ
σ
+
2 ε0
2ε0

(Á»¨¦Ó® ÷|

õUQ)
(ii) öÁΨ¦Óz÷u²ÒÍ P2 GßÓ ¦ÒΰÀ,
• ªß¦»[PÒ AÍÂÀ \©©õPÄ®, vø\°À GvöµvµõPÄ® C¸US®.

P2&ß öuõS£¯ß ªß¦»®

E = E1 – E 2

E =

σ
σ

2 ε0
2 ε0

E=0
^µõÚ ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU TmiÚõÀ HØ£k® ªß¦»®:
ÁøP (i) ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU TmiØS öÁÎ÷¯ EÒÍ ¦ÒΰÀ
• Bµ® R Eøh¯, ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU Tk
JßøÓU P¸x÷Áõ®.
• Auß ø©¯® O&¼¸¢x r öuõø»ÂÀ ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU
TmiØS öÁÎ÷¯ EÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P GßP.

r Bµ® öPõsh ÷PõÍ ÁiÁ Põìê¯ß £µ¨ø£
Áøµ÷Áõ®.
• £µ¨¦US, ªß¦»® E&¯õÚx SzuõPa ö\¯À£kQÓx.

Põìê¯ß ÷PõÍzvß ÁÈ÷¯, £µ¨¦USU SzuõP öÁÎ÷|
õUQ ö\¯À£k® ªß¦»¨ £õ¯®

(HöÚÛÀ E ©ØÖ® ds&US Cøh÷¯¯õÚ ÷Põn® θ = 0)

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(11)

__
Põì Âv°ß £i,
q

E ( 4π r 2 ) =

ε0
1

E =

4π ε0

q
r2

Cx÷PõÍ ÁiÁU Tmiß ö©õzu ªßÞmh•® ø©¯¨¦ÒΰÀ Aø©¢v¸¢uõÀ HØ£kzx®
ªß¦»zvØSa \©©õS®.
ÁøP (ii) £µ¨¤ß «x EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ:
ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ ÷PõÍÁiÁU Tmiß £µ¨¤ß ÷©À EÒÍ ¦ÒÎPÎÀ

E =

1
4π ε 0

q
R2

( R = r )

ÁøP (iii) ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU Tmiß Em¦ÓzvÀ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ:
• ÷PõÍ ÁiÁU Tmiß ø©¯zv¼¸¢x r' öuõø»ÂÀ,
÷PõÍzvÝÒ Aø©¢xÒÍ ¦ÒÎ P GßP.
• Põìê¯ß £µ¨¦ ÁÈ÷¯, ö\¯À£k® ö©õzu
ªß¦»¨£õ¯®
φ =∫E . ds
S

φ = E x 4π r ′ 2

Põìê¯ß £µ¨¤ÝÒ GÆÂu ªßÞmh•® CÀø».
Põì Âv¨£i,

E x 4π r ′ 2 =

q
=0
ε0
E=0

{ø» ªßÛ¯À uk¨¦øÓ: GßÓõÀ GßÚ? (Mar’08)

¦Ó ªß¦»zv¼¸¢x, öÁ롧 J¸ £Svø¯ uÛø©¨£kzx® {PÌÄ {ø» ªßÛ¯À uk¨¦øÓBS®.
Cx, Phzv°ß Em£Sv°À ªß¦»® _ȯõS® Gߣuß Ai¨£øh°À Aø©QÓx.

Ci, ªßÚ¼ß ÷£õx J¸ ©µzvÚi°À {Ø£øu Âh J¸ Põ›ß EÒ÷Í C¸¨£x £õxPõ¨£õÚx.
Hß? (BB), (Mar’06) , (June’06), (Jun’09), (Mar’10)
• Ci²hß Ti¯ ªßÚ¼ß ÷£õx, vÓ¢u öÁΰ÷»õ AÀ»x ©µzvÚi°÷»õ A©ºÁøuU
Põmi¾®, ÷£¸¢vÝÒ C¸¨£x ªPÄ® £õxPõ¨£õÚuõS®.
• ÷£¸¢vß E÷»õP¨ ¦Ó¨£µ¨¤ÝÒ, ªß¦» ©v¨¦ _ȯõS®.
• ÷£¸¢x, {ø» ªßÛ¯À uk¨¦øÓ¯õPa ö\¯À£kQÓx.
• ªßÚ¼ß ÷£õx ÷£¸¢vß ¦Ó¨£µ¨¦ ÁÈ÷¯ ªßÛÓUP® |øhö£ÖQÓx.
{ø» ªßyshÀ GßÓõÀ GßÚ?
• .J¸ ªßÞmhzvß öuõkuÀ CßÔ÷¯ ÷ÁöÓõ¸ ªßÞmhzøu ysk® {PÌÄ {ø»ªß yshÀ
GßÓøÇUP¨ £k QÓx.
• CÆÁøP ªßÞmh[PÒ ysh¨£mh ªßÞmh[PÍõS®.

Cx Áõß i Qµõ¨ ÷£õßÓ {ø»ªß G¢vµ[Pξ®, ªß÷uUQ Pξ® £¯ß£kQÓx.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
        
(12)
_
{ø» ªßyshÀ •øÓ°À, E÷»õPU ÷PõÍ® JßÖ £i¨£i¯õP ªß÷ÚØÓ¨£k® B´Ä:
• {ø» ªßyshÀ •øÓ°À, E÷»õPU ÷PõÍ® JßÖ £i¨£i¯õP ªß÷ÚØÓ¨£kuø» £h®
PõmkQÓx.
• (a) ªßÞmh©ØÓ E÷»õPU ÷PõÍ©õÚx ªßPhzuõ¨
ö£õ¸Íõ »õÚ uõ[Q «x øÁUP¨£mk EÒÍx
• (b) Gvº ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ ¤ÍõìiU usk JßÔøÚ
÷PõÍzvß A¸QÀ öPõsk Á¸® ÷£õx, µmk Âø\
Põµn©õP, PmkÓõ G»UmµõßPÒ Â»Qa ö\ßÖ
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• GÚ÷Á, A¸÷P EÒÍ •øÚ°À G»Umµõß SøÓÄ
HØ£mk, ÷|ºªßÞmh©øhQßÓx.
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{PÌa] {Özu¨£kQÓx.
• (c) E÷»õPU ÷PõÍ® uøµ°øn¨¦ ö£ØÓÄhß, Gvº
ªßÞmh® uøµø¯ AøhQÓx.
• A¸÷P EÒÍ •øÚ°À EÒÍ ÷|ºªßÞmh®, Dº¨¦ Âø\PÎß Põµn©õP A[÷P÷¯ {ßÖ
ÂkQÓx.
• (d) E÷»õPU ÷PõÍ©õÚx uøµ°¼¸¢x APØÓ¨£mh ¤ÓS® A¸÷P EÒÍ •øÚ°À ÷|
ºªßÞmh® öuõhº¢x {ø»zv¸UQÓx.

(e) ¤ÍõìiU usk }UP¨£mhÄhß, AøÚzx ÷|º ªßÞmh[PЮ ÷PõÍzvß «x J÷µ ^µõP¨
£µÄQßÓÚ.
ªß÷uUQ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? Auß ªß÷uUSzvÓøÚ Áøµ¯Ö. (BB), (Mar’09)
• ªß÷uUQ Gߣx ªßÞmh[PøÍ ÷\ªUS® \õuÚ©õS®.
• J¸ Phzv°ß ªß÷uUSvÓß Gߣx, AUPhzvUS AÎUP¨£k® ªßÞmhzvØS®, Phzv°À
E¸ÁõS® ªßÚÊzuzvØS® Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ uPÄ BS®.
• ªß÷uUSz vÓÛß ö\¯À•øÓ A»SPÒ µF ©ØÖ® pF BS®.
ªß÷uUQ°ß uzxÁ®:(BB),
• ªßPõ¨¥k ö£ØÓ Phzv JßÖ q AÍÄ ÷|º ªßÞmhzøu²®, V ªßÚÊzuzøu²® ö£ØÖÒÍx.

A °ß ªß÷uUS vÓß,

C =

q
V

ªßPõ¨¦ ö£ØÓ B GßÓ ©ØöÓõ¸ E÷»õPz umk A°ß A¸÷P öPõsk Áµ¨£k®÷£õx, A
US A¸÷P EÒÍ B&°ß £UPzvÀ Gvº ªßÞmh® ysh¨£kQÓx.

AuØS \© AÍÄ ÷|º ªßÞmh® B&ß
©Ö£UPzvÀ ysh¨£kQÓx. B°ß Gvº
ªßÞhh®
A
°ß
ªßÚÊzuzøuU
SøÓUS®.

B°ß ÷|º ªßÞmh®, A°ß ªßÚÊzuzøu
AvP›US®.
• B°ß
÷|º ªßÞmhzøu Âh Gvº
ªßÞmh® AUS A¸QÀ C¸¨£uõÀ AÀ
ªßÚÊzu® SøÓ¢x ÂkQÓx. CuÚõÀ
Aß ªß÷uUS vÓß AvP›UQÓx.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(13)
__
• umk Bø¯¨ ¦Â²hß CønUS®÷£õx, Av¾ÒÍ ÷|ºªßÞmh® |k{ø»¯õUP¨£kQÓx.
CuÚõÀ A°ß ªßÚÊzu® ÷©¾® SøÓQÓx.

A°ß ªß÷uUS vÓß SÔ¨¤k® AÍÄUS AvP›UQÓx.
• ªß÷uUSz vÓß PhzvPÎß ÁiÁzøu²®, FhPzvß C¯Àø£²®, ö£õÖzux. ªß÷uUQ Gߣx
ªßÞmh[PøÍ ÷\ªUS® \õuÚ©õS®.
Cønzumk ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß÷uUSz vÓß: (BB), (Jun’10)
• Cønzumk ªß÷uUQ°À X, Y GßÓ C¸
E÷»õPz umkPÎß £µ¨¦ A.
• CøhöÁÎ d °À JßÖUöPõßÖ Cøn¯õP
øÁUP¨£mkÒÍÚ.
• Auß ªßÞmh £µ¨£hºzv σ GßP.
• umk X&US +q AÍÄ ÷|ºªßÞmh®
uµ¨£kQÓx.
• CuÚõÀ -q AÍÄ Gvº ªßÞmh® umk
YUS÷©Ø¦ÓzvÀ ysh¨£kQÓx.
• Põì Âv°ß £¯ß£õmiߣi, C¸ umkPÐUQøh÷¯²ÒÍ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»®,

X ©ØÖ® Y umkPÐUS Cøh÷¯¯õÚ, ªßÚÊzu ©õÖ£õk

Cønzumk ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß÷uUSz vÓß,
C=

C=

q
V

ε0 A
d

ªß÷uUSz vÓÚõÚx umkPÎß £µ¨¦US (A) ÷|ºzuP¾®, Cøhzöuõø»ÂØS (d) Gvºz
uP¾® Aø©QÓx.
ªßPõ¨¦PÒ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? GkzxUPõmkPÒ u¸P. (BB),
• AøÚzx G»UmµõßPЮ AqUP¸Ähß CÖP ¤ønUP¨£mkÒÍ AqUPøͨ ö£ØÖÒÍ
ö£õ¸ÒPÒ ªßPõ¨¦PÒ GßÓøÇUP¨£kQßÓÚ.
• GkzxUPõmkPÒ: G÷£õøÚm, ø©UPõ, Gsön´.
•øÚÁØÓ ‰»UTÖPÒ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? GkzxUPõmkPÒ u¸P.
• ÷|º ªßÞmh[PÎß Dº¨¦ ø©¯•® Gvº ªßÞmh[PÎß Dº¨¦ ø©¯•® JßÓõP ö£õ¸¢v
Aø©QßÓ ‰»UTÖ •øÚÁØÓ ‰»UTÖ GÚ¨£k®.
• GkzxUPõmkPÒ : O2, N2, H2.
(SÔ¨¦: •øÚÁØÓ ‰»UTÖPÒ {ø»¯õÚ C¸•øÚ v¸¨¦zvÓøÚ¨ ö£ØÔ¸¨£vÀø».)
ys h¨£mh C¸•øÚPÒ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? GkzxUPõmkPÒ u¸P.
• •øÚÁØÓ ‰»UTÖPøͨ ö£ØÖÒÍ, ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸øÍ ªß¦»zvÀ øÁzuõÀ, AÁØÔß
ªßÞmh[PÎß ø©¯® ©õØÔ¯ø©UP¨£kQßÓÚ.

uØ÷£õx A®‰»UTÖPÒ •øÚÁõUPÀ Aøh¢xÒÍÚ GÚÄ®, AøÁ ysh¨£mh
C¸•øÚPÒ GßÖ® AøÇUP¨£kQß ÓÚ.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
        
(14)

_
•øÚÄÒÍ ‰»UTÖPÒ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? GkzxUPõmkPÒ u¸P. (Mar’07)

÷|º ªßÞm h[PÎß Dº¨¦ ø©¯®, Gvº ªßÞmh[PÎß Dº¨¦ ø©¯zv¼¸¢x ¤›UP¨£mkÒÍ
‰»UTÖ •øÚÄÒÍ ‰»UTÖ GÚ¨£k®.
GkzxUPõmkPÒ : N2O, H2O, HCl, NH3.
(C®‰»UTÖPÒ {ø»¯õÚ C¸•øÚ v¸¨¦z vÓøÚ ö£ØÖÒÍÚ.)

ªß•øÚÁõUPÀ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? (BB), (Oct’06), (Oct’09)

¦Óªß¦»® ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® ÷£õx, {ø»¯õÚ AÀ»x ysh¨£mh C¸•øÚPÎß C¸•øÚ
v¸¨¦zvÓßPÒ, ¦»zvß vø\°÷»÷¯ J¸[Pø©UP¨£kQßÓ {PÌÄ ªß•øÚÁõUPÀ
GßÓøÇUP¨£kQÓx.

•øÚÁõUS® vÓß Áøµ¯Ö

ysh¨£mh C¸•øÚ v¸¨¦zvÓß p&°ß ©v¨£õÚx ¦Ó ªß¦»zvØS ÷|ºz uPÂÀ Aø©QÓx.
AuõÁx
L
p=αE
CvÀ α Gߣx ‰»UTÖPÎß •øÚÁõUS® vÓß GßÓøÇUP¨£k®.

Cønzumk ªß÷uUQ°À, umkPÐUQøh÷¯ ªßPõ¨¦ EÒÍ ÷£õx ªß÷uUSzvÓß:
(BB)

J¸ Cønzumk ªß÷uUQ°ß X, Y GßÓ C¸ uPkPÎß £µ¨¦ A öuõø»Ä d.





X&US ÷|º ªßÞmh® AÎUP¨£kÁuõÀ, Auß ªßÞmh¨ £µ¨£hºzv σ BS®,
Y&BÚx ¦Â°øn¨¦ ö£ØÖÒÍx.
umkPÐUQøh°À, t ui©Ý®, εr J¨¦ø©
ÂkvÓÝ® öPõsh ªß Põ¨¦¨ £õÍ® JßÖ,
¦Szu¨£mkÒÍx.
ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸Îß ui©ß = t.
PõØÖ CøhöÁ롧 ui©ß (d - t).
umkPÐUS Cøh¨£mh PõØÔÀ EÒÍ J¸
σ
¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»® E =
ε0
ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸ÎÝÒ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»®
E′ =

σ
εr ε0

umkPÐUQøh÷¯¯õÚ ö©õzu ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õhõÚx,
V = E (d − t ) + E ′ t
q =σ A

C=

C=

q
V

ε0 A
(d − t ) +

t
εr

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(15)
__
ªßPõ¨¤ß ÂøÍÄ ¯õx?
• PõØÖ {µ¨£¨£mkÒÍ ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß÷uUSzvÓß,
ε A
C= 0
d
• ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸ÍõÀ {µ¨£¨£mkÒÍ ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß÷uUSzvÓß

C′
= εr
C

C′=

ε 0ε r A
d

ªßPõ¨¦ FhPzvØS® εr > 1 GߣuõÀ, ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸Ò øÁUP¨£k®÷£õx,
ªß÷uUSzvÓß AvP›US®.

ªß÷uUQ°ß £¯ß£õkPÒ ¯õøÁ? (Oct’07)


uõÛ°¯[Q G¢vµ[PÎß, G›ö£õ¸Ò G›³mk® Aø©¨¦PÎÀ, w¨ö£õÔ HØ£kÁøuz uºUP¨
£¯ß£kzu¨£kQÓx.
ªßvÓß ÁÇ[QPÎÀ ªßÚÊzu HØÓ CÓUPzøuU SøÓ¨£uØS®, ªßvÓß Aݨ¥miÀ Auß
£¯ÝÖ vÓøÚ AvP›UPa ö\´¯Ä® ªß÷uUQPÒ £¯ß£kQßÓÚ.

ªß÷uUQPÒ, ªßPõ¢u Aø»ÄPøÍz ÷uõØÖÂUPÄ®, ÷µi÷¯õ _ØÖPøÍ Jzvø\Ä ö\´¯Ä®
£¯ß£kQßÓÚ.

(i) öuõh›øn¨¤À ªß÷uUQPÒ: (BB), (July’07), (Oct’07)
• C1, C2, C3 GßÓ ªß÷uUSzvÓßPÒ
öPõsh ªß÷uUQPÒ öuõh›øn¨¤À
CønUP¨£mkÒÍÚ.
• öuõh›øn¨¤ß öuõS¨¦ •Êø©US®
ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk V
GßP.
• JÆöÁõ¸ ªß÷uUQ²® \© ªßÞmh AÍÄ
öPõskÒÍx.
• C1, C2, C3 &UQøh÷¯ EÒÍ ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õkPÒ •øÓ÷¯ V1, V2, V3 GßP.
BP÷Á,
V = V1 + V2 + V3
q
q
V2 =
C1
C2
q
q
q
V =
+
+
C1 C 2 C 3
V1 =

V3 =

q

q
C3

( Cs -- öuõS£¯ß ªß÷uUSzvÓß GÛÀ)
V =

q
CS

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
Cs
C1 C 2 C 3

£» ªß÷uUQPÒ öuõh›øn¨¤À CønUP¨£k®÷£õx öuõS£¯ß ªß÷uUSzvÓÛß uø»RÌ
©v¨¦, uÛzuÛ ªß÷uUQPÎß ªß÷uUSz vÓßPÎß uø»RÌ ©v¨¦PÎß Tmkz
öuõøPUSa \©®.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
        
(16)
(ii)
£UP
Cøn¨¤À
ªß÷uUQPÒ:
(BB),
(July’07),
(Oct’07)
_
• C1, C2, C3 GßÓ ªß÷uUSz vÓßPÒ öPõsh ‰ßÖ ªß÷uUQPÒ £UP Cøn¨¤À
CønUP¨£mkÒÍÚ.
• CÆÂøn¨¤À, ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk V GßP. JÆöÁõ¸ ªß÷uUQ°ß
ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk® \©©õP C¸US®.
• ‰ßÖ ªß÷uUQPξ® EÒÍ ªßÞmh[PÒ
q1 = C1V, q2 = C2 V, q3 = C3V
q = C1V + C2V + C3V
BÚõÀ
q = CPV.
CPV = V (C1 + C2 + C3)
C P = C1 + C2 + C3
£UP Cøn¨¤À ªß÷uUSPÎß öuõS£¯ß ªß÷uUSzvÓß,
uÛzuÛ ªß÷uUQPÎß ªß÷uUSz vÓßPÎß Tmkz
öuõøPUSa \©®.
ªß÷uUQ°ÝÒ ÷uUQ øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ BØÓÀ: (BB)
• ªß÷uUQ°ÝÒ, ªßÞmhzøuz ÷uUQ øÁUP, ÷Áø» ö\´¯¨£h ÷Ási²ÒÍx.


C¢u ÷Áø»¯õÚx, ªß÷uUQ°ÝÒ {ø» ªßÚÊzu BØÓ»õP ÷\ªUP¨£kQÓx.
ªß÷uUQ°ß ªßÚÊzu® V ©ØÖ® ªßÞmh® q .
umiØSU Tku»õP uµ¨£mh ªßÞmh® dq GÛÀ, ö\´¯¨£mh ÷Áø»,

dw = Vdq
q

dw = ∫

0

q
dq
C

C¢u ÷Áø»¯õÚx, ªß÷uUQ°ÝÒ {ø»ªßÚÊzu {ø» BØÓ»õP (U) ÷\ªUP¨£kQÓx.
U =

1 q2
2 C

q = CV
GÚ÷Á
U =

1
CV
2

2

• ªß÷uUQ¯õÚx, ªßÛÓUP® ö\´¯¨£k®÷£õx, C¢u BØÓÀ v¸®£¨ ö£Ó¨£kQÓx.
Tº•øÚ ö\¯À£õk (AÀ»x ) JÎÁmh ªßÛÓUP®: (July’07), (Oct’08)
• ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ Phzv°ß Tº•øÚPμ¸¢x ªßÞmh® P]QßÓ {PÌÄ Tº•øÚPÎß ö\¯À£õk
AÀ»x JÎÁmh ªßÛÓUP® GßÓøÇUP¨£kQÓx.
• C¢uz uzxÁ® ªßÞmhzøua ÷\P›US® {ø»ªß G¢vµ[Pξ®, ©ØÖ® ªßÚÀ
PhzvPξ® £¯ß£kzu¨£kQßÓx.
ªßÚÀ Phzv: (Ciuõ[Q) SÔ¨¦ÁøµP.
• ªP E¯µ©õÚ Pmih[PøÍ ªßÚ¼¼¸¢x £õxPõUP EuÄ® Kº Gί \õuÚ® ªßÚÀ
Phzv BS®. Cx Tº•øÚPÎß ö\¯À£õk uzxÁzvÀ ö\¯À£kQÓx.
• Cx Pmihzvß ÁÈ÷¯ uøµUSa ö\À¾® J¸ }sh, uizu uõªµz
usiøÚU
öPõskÒÍx. usiß RÌ •øÚ¯õÚx, uøµ°ß AvP BÇzvÀ ¦øuUP¨£mkÒÍ uõªµz
umkhß CønUP¨£mkÒÍx.
• Auß ÷©À•øÚ°À GsoUøPªUP Tº•øÚPÒ Eøh¯ uõªµ F]PÒ CønUP¨£mk,
Pmihzvß E¯µ©õÚ £Sv°À øÁUP¨£mkÒÍx.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(17)

__

Áõß&i&Qµõ¨ C¯ØÔ (BB), (Oct’08), (Oct’09)
Cx 107 V AÍ»õÚ AvP {ø»ªßÛ¯À ªßÚÊzu® EØ£zv ö\´²® {ø» ªß G¢vµ®
BS®.
uzxÁ® :
{ø»ªßyshÀ ©ØÖ® Tº•øÚa ö\¯À£õk.
Aø©¨¦:
• J¸ EÒÏhØÓ E÷»õPU ÷PõÍ® A ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£ØÓ ysPÒ «x ö£õ¸zu¨£mkÒÍx.
• ÷PõÍzvß ø©¯zvÀ B GßÓ P¨¤²®, yoß Ai¨£Sv°À C GßÓ P¨¤²® EÒÍÚ.
• £mkz xo°»õÚ £møh JßÖ P¨¤PÒ ÁÈ÷¯ ö\ÀQÓx.
• P¨¤ C ªß÷©õmhõº JßÔß ‰»® öuõhº¢x C¯UP¨£kQÓx.
• P¨¤PÐUS A¸÷P Tº•øÚPÒ
öPõsh D ©ØÖ® E GßÓ ^¨¦ ÁiÁU PhzvPÒ
ö£õ¸zu¨£mkÒÍÚ.
• ^¨¦ D-US 104 V ÷|ºªßÚÊzu® ÁÇ[P¨£kQÓx.
• ^¨¦ E&BÚx EÒÏhØÓ E÷»õPU ÷PõÍzvß Em¦Ó® CønUP¨£mkÒÍx.

ö\¯À£õk:
^¨¦ DUS A¸QÀ EÒÍ E¯º ªß¦»zvÚõÀ, Tº•øÚa ö\¯À£õmiß Põµn©õP PõØÖ
A¯Û¯õUP¨£kQÓx.

PõØÔÀ EÒÍ GvºA¯ÛPÒ Tº•øÚPÒ ÷|õUQ |PºQßÓÚ. ÷|ºA¯ÛPÒ £møhø¯
÷|õUQ µmh¨£kQßÓÚ.

C¢u ÷|º A¯ÛPÒ £møh°À JmiU öPõsk ^¨¦ E&ø¯ ö|¸[SQÓx.

{ø»ªßyshÀ uzxÁzvß ÂøÍÁõP ^¨¦ E
GvºªßÞmh® ö£ÖQÓx. ÷PõÍ® ÷|
ºªßÞmhzøu¨ ö£ÖQÓx.

^¨¦ E&À EÒÍ AvP AÍÄ ªß¦»® PõØøÓ
A¯Û¯õUQ £møh°À EÒÍ ÷|º ªßÞmh[PÒ
\©ßö\´¯¨£mk ÂkQßÓÚ. GÚ÷Á £møh
RÈÓ[S®÷£õx ªßÞmh©ØÓ {ø»ø¯
AøhQÓx.

CÆÁõÖ G¢vµ® öuõhºa]¯õP, ÷|
ºªßÞmhzøu ÷PõÍzvØS ©õØÖQÓx. Cuß
ÂøÍÁõP ÷PõÍzvß ªßÚÊzu® J¸ ö£¸©
©v¨ø£ AøhQßÓ x.

C¢{{ø»°À PõØÔß A¯Û¯õUPzvß
Põµn©õP ªßÞmh[PÒ P]¯z öuõh[SQßÓÚ.
E¯º AÊzuzvÀ PõØÖ {µ¨£¨£mh GLSU
P»zvÚõÀ ÷PõÍzøu ‰kÁvß ‰»®,
÷PõÍzvß ªßÞmhU P]øÁU SøÓUP»õ®.

C®ªßÛ¯ØÔ ‰»® ö£Ó¨£k® E¯º ªßÚÊzu® AqUP¸¨ ¤ÍøÁ°À £¯ß£k® ÷|º
A¯ÛPøÍ •kUSÂUP¨ £¯ß£kzu¨£kQÓx.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM



(18)

_
1.

2.

J¸ Psnõiz usk, £mkz xo²hß ÷u´UP¨£k® ÷£õx +8 × 10 -12 C ªßÞmhzøu
HØQÓx. Ax HØÖUöPõsh AÀ»x CÇ¢u G»UmµõßPÎß GsoUøP (BB)
(a) 5 × 10 -7 (HØÓx)
(b) 5 × 10 7
(CÇ¢ux)
-8
-12
(c) 2 × 10 (CÇ¢ux)
(d) -8 × 10 (CÇ¢ux)
kpd;D}l;lq;fspd; Fthz;lkhf;fisf; Fwpf;Fk; rkd;ghL (Oct’08)
(a) q = ne

3.

(b) q = CV

(c)

(d)

C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÒ, εr = 6 öPõsh FhPzvÀ, d öuõø»ÂÀ¤›zx øÁUP¨£kÁuõÀ
E¸ÁõS® {ø» ªßÛ¯À Âø\ 0.3 N.öÁØÔhzvÀ, A÷u öuõø»ÂÀ ¤›zx
øÁUP¨£mhõÀ, A®ªßÞmh[PÐU Qøh÷¯¯õÚ Âø\ (BB)
(a) 20 N
(b) 0.5 N
(c) 1.8 N
(d) 2 N

4.

J¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmhzv¼¸¢x 2 m öuõø»ÂÀ ªß¦»a ö\ÔÄ 400 V m-1. Gzöuõø»ÂÀ Auß
ªß¦»a ö\ÔÄ 100 V m-1 BP Aø©²®? (BB) (Mar’07)
(a) 50 cm
(b) 4 cm
(c) 4 m
(d) 1.5 m

5.

C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÒ +4q ©ØÖ® +q, 30 cm öuõø»ÂÀ ¤›zx øÁUP¨£mkÒÍÚ.
A®ªßÞmh[PøÍ CønUS® ÷Põmiß «x G¨¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»® _ȯõS®? (BB)
(a) ªßÞmh® +q &¼¸¢x 15 cm
(b) ªßÞmh® +q&¼¸¢x 7.5 cm
(c) ªßÞmh® +4q &¼¸¢x 20 cm
(d) ªßÞmh® +q&¼¸¢x 5 cm

6.

^µõÚ ªß¦»zvÀ, ¦»zvØS Cøn¯õP, Auß Aa_ Aø©²©õÖ J¸ ªß C¸•øÚ
øÁUP¨£mhõÀ, Ax EnºÁx (BB) ( Mar’06 ),( Mar’07 ),(Oct’07)
(a) ö©õzu Âø\ø¯ ©mk®
(b) v¸¨¦ Âø\ø¯ ©mk®
(c) ö©õzu Âø\ ©ØÖ® v¸¨¦ Âø\
(d) ö©õzu Âø\²® AÀ», v¸¨¦ Âø\²®
AÀ»

7.

^µØÓ ªß¦»zvÀ, ¦»zvØS θ ÷PõnzvÀ , øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ J¸ ªß C¸•øÚ, EnºÁx
(Mar’08) , (Oct’08)
(a) ö©õzu Âø\ø¯ ©mk®
(b) ö©õzu Âø\²® AÀ», v¸¨¦ Âø\²® AÀ»
(b) v¸¨¦ Âø\ø¯ ©mk®
(d) ö©õzu Âø\ ©ØÖ® v¸¨¦ Âø\
Cµsøh²®

8.

ªß C¸•øÚ°ß ø©¯zv¼¸¢x x öuõø»ÂÀ Aø©²® ¦ÒΰÀ ªßÚÊzu®, GuØS ÷|
ºzuPÂÀ Aø©QÓx? (BB)
(a)

9.

1
X2

(b)

1
X3

(c)

1
X4

(d)

1
X 3/ 2

a £UP® öPõsh Aa\xµzvß |õßS
‰ø»PÒ A,B,C ©ØÖ® D UPÎÀ •øÓ÷¯
+q, +q, - q ©ØÖ® – q BQ¯ ªßÞmh[PÒ øÁUP¨£mkÒÍÚ. \xµzvß ø©¯® O À
ªßÚÊzu®
(BB), (Oct’06)
(a) U =

1

q
4πε0 a

(b) U =

1

2q
4πε0 a

(c) U =

10. C¸ ¦ÒÎ ªßÞmh[PÎß ªßÚÊzu BØÓÀ (U) ...... BS®.

(a)

q1 q 2
4π ε0 r 2

(b)

q1 q 2
4πε0 r

1

4q
4πε0 a

(d) _È

(BB) (Mar’09)

(c) p E cosθ

(d) pEsinθ

11. \© ªßÚÊzu¨ £µ¨¤À EÒÍ C¸ ¦ÒÎPÐUS Cøh÷¯ 500 µC ªßÞmhzøu |Pºzu ö\

´¯¨£k® ÷Áø» (BB) (Jun’07), (Mar’08), (Mar’10)
(a) _È
(b) Áµ®¦ÒÍ ÷|ºUSÔ ©v¨¦
(c) Áµ®¦ÒÍ GvºUSÔ ©v¨¦

(d) •i¼

12. RÌUPsh AÍÄPÐÒ Gx ì÷P»õº AÍÁõS®? (BB) (Jun’06), (Jun’08), (Mar’09)

(a) C¸•øÚ v¸¨¦z vÓß (b) ªß¦» Âø\ (c) ªß¦»®

(d) ªßÚÊzu®

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

          
          
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(19)

__

13. ÂkvÓÛß A»S... (BB) (Mar’08) , (Oct’08)

(a) C 2 N -1 m -2

(b) N m 2 C -2

(c) H m -1

(d) N C -2 m -2

14. 1 T¾® ªßÞmhzv¼¸¢x E¸ÁõS® Âø\U÷PõkPÎß GsoUøP (BB)

(a) 1.129 × 10 11

(c) 6.25 × 10 18

(b) 1.6 × 10 -19

(d) 8.85 × 10 12

15. J¸ ø©U÷µõ T¾® ªßÞmhz v¼¸¢x E¸ÁõS® ªßÂø\U ÷PõkPÎß GsoUøP..(Oct’07)

(a) 1.129 × 10 5

(b) 1.6 × 10 -19 (c) 6.25 × 10 18

(d) 8.85 × 10 -12

16. ªßÞmh Ahºzv σ öPõsh, C¸ Gvöµvº ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ E÷»õPz uPkPÐUS öÁÎ÷¯ EÒÍ
¦ÒΰÀ
ªß¦»® (BB) (Mar’06), (Oct’09)
(a)


2ε0

(b)

−σ
2ε 0

(c)

σ
ε0

(d) _ȯõS®

17. J¸ Cønzumk ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß÷uUS vÓÚõÚx umkPÐUQøh÷¯ ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸øÍU
öPõsk {µ¨¦ÁuõÀ, 5 µF¼¸¢x 60 µF US AvP›UQÓx. ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸Îß ªßPõ¨¦
©õÔ¼.... (BB) (Jun’08)
(a) 65
(b) 55
(c) 12
(d) 10
18. ªßÞmh® ö£ØÖÒÍ EÒÏhØÓ E÷»õP¨ £¢x JßÖ, _È ªß¦»zøu G¨¦ÒÎPÎÀ
÷uõØÖÂUQÓx? (BB) (Jun’06), (Mar’10)
(a) ÷PõÍzvØS öÁÎ÷¯
(b) Auß £µ¨¤ß ÷©À
(c) ÷PõÍzvß Em¦Ó®
(d) C¸ ©h[S öuõø»ÄUS A¨£õÀ
19. ªß¦»¨ £õ¯zvß A»S....... ( Mar’06 ), (Jun’09)

(a) N m2 C-1

(b) N m-2 C-1

(c) N m2 C

(d) N m-2 C

20. ªß¦»zvÀ J¸ EÒÍ J¸ ¦Òΰ¼¸¢x ©ØöÓõÔØS 4 μC ªßÞmhzøu Gkzxa ö\À»a ö\
´¯¨£k® ÷Áø» 0.012 J GÛÀ A¨¦ÒÎPÐUQøh÷¯ EÒÍ ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk.( Mar’06)
(a) 3000 V
(b) 6000 V
(c) 30 V
(d) 48 x 103 V
21. ^µõÚ ªß¦»zvÀ øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ J¸ªß C¸•øÚ, p ©ØÖ® E Cøh÷¯¯õÚ G¢uU÷PõnzvØS
ö£¸© v¸¨¦ Âø\ø¯¨ö£¸®? (Jun’06), (Oct’09)
(a) 00
(b) 900
(c) 450
(d) 1800
22. E vd;w rPuhd kpd;Gyj;jpy; Gyj;jpd; jpirf;F θ Nfhzj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;s kpd;
C¸•øÚkPJ nray;gLk; jpUg;Gtpir (Jun’09)
(a) pE cos θ
(b) - pE cos θ
(c) pE sin θ
(d) 2pE sin θ
23. JÆöÁõßÖ® 2 μC ªßÞmh® ö£ØÓ C¸ \©©õÚ¦ÒÎ Gvº ªßÞmh[PÒ 1« öuõø»ÂÀ
¤›UP¨ £mkÒÍÚ.C¢u Aø©¨¤ß ö©õzu{ø» ªßÚÊzu BØÓ»õÚx………… ( Jun’06)
(a) 2 J
(b) 0.36 J
(c) 4 J
(d) 0.036 J
24. ªß¦»a ö\ÔÂß A»S...... ( Oct’06 ), (Jun’08), (Mar’09)
(a) N C-2
(b) N C
(c) V m-1
25. ªß¦»a ö\ÔÂß A»S...... (Mar’09)
(a) N C-2
(b) N C-1

(d) V m

(c) V m

(d) V m

26. öÁØÔhzvÀ, ÂkvÓÛß ©v¨¦..... ( Oct’06 )
(a) 8.854 X 10 12 C 2 N −1m −2
(b) 9 X 10 9 C 2 N −1m −2
(c)

1
C 2 N −1 m −2
9 X 10 9

(d)

1
4π X 9 X 10

27. ªßÚÀ PhzvPÎÀ £¯ß£k® uzxÁ®.......
(Oct’06)
(a) JÎÁmh ªßÛÓUP®
(b) £›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ
uß ªß yshÀ
(d) ªßPõ¢uz yshÀ

9

C

2

N

−1

m

−2

(c)

28. ªß C¸•øÚ°ß v¸¨¦z vÓÛß A»S....... (Mar’07)
(a) ÷ÁõÀm / «mhº (V/m)
(c) ÷ÁõÀm . «mhº (V.m)

(b) T¿® / «mhº (C / m)
(d) T¿® . «mhº (C m)

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI



12 -PHY-TM

_

(20)

29. ªß¦»zvÀ EÒÍ ªß C¸•øÚ°ß ªßÚÊzu BØÓÀ (Mar’07)
(a) pE sin θ
(b) - pE sin θ
(c) - pE cos θ

(d) pE cos θ

30. ¤ßÁ¸ÁÚÁØÖÒ Gx ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸Ò AÀ» (Mar’07)
(a) G÷£õøÚm
(b) ø©UPõ
(c) Gsön´

(d) u[P®

31. kpd;D}l;lq;fs; vg;nghUs; topahf vspjhfg; gha;e;Jnry;Yk;? (Oct’07)
(a) FthHl;];
(b) ikf;fh
(c) n[Hkhdpak;
(d) jhkpuk;
32. ªß Phzv GkzxUPõmk (Oct’08)
(a) Psnõi
(b) ©Ûu EhÀ

(c) E»º¢u©µ®

(d) G÷£õøÚm

33. öPõkUP¨£mh ªß_ØÔÀ A US® B US® Cøh÷¯²ÒÍ öuõS£¯ß ªß ÷uUSvÓß..........
(Jun’07)
(c) 13 µF

(a) 3 µF

(b)

36
µF
13

(d) 7 µF

34. C¸ ªß÷uUQPÒ öuõh›øn¨¤À EÒÍ÷£õx öuõS£¯ß ªß÷uUSzvÓß 1.5 μF.J¸
ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß÷uUSzvÓß 4 μF GÛÀ ©ØÓvß ªß÷uUSzvÓß..... (Oct’07)
(a) 2.4 μF
(b) 0.24 μF
(c) 0.417 μF
(d) 4.17 μF
35. ªß C¸•øÚ°ß |kÁøµU ÷PõmiÀ EÒÍ J¸ ¦ÒΰÀ ªß¦»zvß vø\.....
(Jun’07)
(a) |kÁøµU ÷PõmiÁÈ÷¯ ªß C¸•øÚø¯ ÷|õUQ
ö\¯À£k®
(b) |kÁøµU ÷PõmiÁÈ÷¯ ªß C¸•øÚø¯ Âmk»Qa ö\¯À£k®
(c) ªß C¸•øÚ°ß Aa_US Cøn¯õPÄ® C¸ •øÚ°ß v¸¨¦z vÓÛß vø\US Gvºz vø\°¾®
ö\¯À£k®.
(d) ªß C¸•øÚ°ß Aa_ ©ØÖ® C¸ •øÚ°ß v¸¨¦z vÓÝUS Cøn¯õP ö\¯À£k®.
36. ªßÞmh[PÐUQøh÷¯ HØ£k® Âø\ø¯z wº©õÛUS® Âv...... (Oct’07)
(a) B®¤¯º¬ Âv
(b) L£õµ÷h¬Âv
(c) T¾® Âv
37. 6μF ªß ÷uUSvÓß öPõsh ªß÷uUQ
JßÖ 100V ªßP»zxhß CønUP¨
ªß÷uUQ°À ÷\ªzx øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ BØÓÀ.... (Mar’08)
(a) 30 J
(b) 3 J
(c) 0.03 J

(d) K®Âv
£mkÒÍx.
(d) 0.06 J

38. v¸¨¦vÓß p öPõshªß C¸•øÚø¯ E GßÓ ªß¦»zvß vø\°À J¸[Pø©zuõÀ ªßC¸•øÚ°ß
{ø»¯õØÓÀ...... (Jun’08)
(a) pE
(b) _ȯõS®

(c)

pE
2

(d) –pE

39. 10 Vm-1 rPuhd kpd;Gyj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;s 2 x 10-10 C kpd;D}l;lj;jpd;kPJ nray;gLk;
tpirapd; vz;kjpg;G ……(Mar’09)
(a) 2 x 10-9 N
(b) 4 x 10-9 N
(c) 2 x 10-10 N
(d) 2 x 1010 N

40. 1 μF, 2 μF ©ØÖ® 3 μF ªß ÷uUSvÓß öPõsh ‰ßÖ ªß÷uUQPÒ öuõh›øn¨¤À
CønUP¨£mhõÀ AÁØÔß öuõS£¯ ªß ÷uUSvÓß (Mar’10)
(a) 6 µF

(b)

11
µF
6

(c)

6
μF
11

41. Vjph;Fwpaplg;gl;l kpd;dOj;jr; rhpT Fwpg;gJ (Jun’09)
(a) kpd;Gytpir
(b) jpUg;Gtpir
(c) kpd;Ndhl;lk;
kpd;Gyr;nrwpT

(d)

1
µF
6

(d)



42. p jpUg;Gjpwd; nfhz;l xU kpd;,UKid E vd;w nrwpT nfhz;l rPuhd kpd;Gyj;jpy;
Gyj;jpd; jpirf;F θ Nfhzj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjd;kPJ nray;gLk; jpUg;GtpirahdJ
(Mar’10)
(a) p apd; jpirapy; nray;gLk;

p
(b)
apd; jpirf;F vjph;jpirapy; nray;gLk;

(c) E apd; jpirapy; nray;gLk;


(d) p kw;Wk; E ,tw;iw cs;slf;fpa jsj;jpw;F nrq;Fj;J jpirapy; nray;gLk;.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
   2.ªß÷Úõmh¯À
 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
• ªßÞmh[PÎß C¯UPzøu¨ £ØÔ ÂÍUPUTi¯ C¯Ø¤¯¼ß J¸ ¤›Ä ªß÷Úõmh¯»õS®.
PmkÓõ G»UmµõßPÒ
• ö£õ¸Îß öÁ¨£ BØÓÀ ÷£õx©õÚuõP C¸¢uõÀ, uÛzuÛ¯õÚ AqUPÎß öÁÎUTmiÀ EÒÍ
G»UmµõßPÒ ÂkÂUP¨£mk ö£õ¸Îß ÁÈ÷¯ C¯[SQßÓÚ. C¢u GÀUmµõßPÒ
PmkÓõ G»UmµõßPÒ GÚ¨£k®.
ªßÛ¯US Âø\:
• PmkÓõ G»UmµõßPøÍ, SÔ¨¤mh vø\°À C¯[P øÁUPz ÷uøÁ¨£k® ¦Ó BØÓø»
ªßÛ¯US Âø\ GÚ»õ®.
• ªßÛ¯US Âø\ Gߣx Âø\¯À».
• J¸ •øÚ°¼¸¢x ©ØöÓõ¸ •øÚUS Kµ»S ªßÞmhzøu |Pºzua ö\´¯¨£k® ÷Áø»¯õS®.
ªß÷Úõmh®:
• Phzv JßÔß J¸ £Sv°ß ÁÈ÷¯ ªßÞmh® £õ²® Ãu® ªß÷Úõmh® BS®.
• ªß÷Úõmh zvß A»S B®¤¯º.
• ªß÷Úõmh® J¸ ì÷P»º AÍÄ.
E÷»õPU PhzvPÎÀ ªßÞmh[PÒ £õ²® •øÓ(ø¯ ÂÍUSP.): Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁPzvß
\©ß£õmøhz u¸Â.
• ªßP»zxhß CønUP¨£mh XY GßÓ Phzvø¯U
P¸xP. X&À C¸¢x YI ÷|õUQa ö\¯Ø£k® E GßÓ
^µõÚ ªß¦»® Phzv°À {ÖÁ¨£kQÓx.
• ªß¦»® ö\¯À£kzu¨£mhÄhß Y •øÚ°À EÒÍ
G»UmµõßPÒ, Gvº vø\°À En¸® Âø\
F = eE
• CuÚõÀ, G»UmµõßPÒ •kUP©øh¢x,
÷©õu¾USm£kQßÓÚ. ÷©õu¼ß ÂøÍÁõP G»UmµõßPÎß «x ¤ß÷ÚõUQ¯ Âø\
ö\¯Ø£k®.

CøÁ ªß¦»zvØS GvµõÚ vø\°À, vd GßÓ ^µõÚ \µõ\› Cʨ¦z vø\÷Ázxhß
uÒͨ£kQßÓÚ.
Cʨ¦z vø\÷ÁP®:(Áøµ¯Ö) , (Mar’07), (Oct’08), (Jun’09), (Oct’09), (Mar’10)
• öÁΨ¦Ózv¼¸¢x ö\¯À£k® ªß ¦»zvÚõÀ, Phzv°ß ÁÈ÷¯ Pmk¨£õhØÓ C¯UPzvÀ
EÒÍ G»UmµõßPÒ «x voUP¨£k® vø\÷ÁP® Cʨ¦z vø\÷ÁP® GÚ¨£k®.
• Cuß A»S ms–1.

C¸ ÷©õuÀPÐUS Cøh¨£mh \µõ\›U Põ»® τ , G»Umµõß ö£Ö® •kUP® a GßP.
• Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁP®.
Vd = a .τ
• m {øÓ öPõsh G»Umµõß En¸® Âø\
F = ma

a=

C[S

E .e
m

L Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁP®.
Vd =

E .e
τ
m

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM

2.

      

(22)

__

C¯UP Gs: (Áøµ¯Ö) mjd; myifj; jUf (Oct’06), (Mar’08), (Mar’09)
• Kµ»S Á¼ø© öPõsh ªß¦»zvÚõÀ ö£Ó¨£k® Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁP® C¯UP Gs GÚ¨£k®.
• Cuß A»S m2 V–1 s–1.

ªß÷Úõmh Ahºzv:
• ªßÞmh® C¯[S® vø\US ö\[SzuõPU P¸u¨£k®, Kµ»S £µ¨¤ß ÁÈ÷¯ Kµ»S Põ»zvÀ
£õ²® ªßÞmhzvß AÍÄ ªß÷Úõmh Ahºzv GÚ¨£k®.
• ªß÷Úõmh Ahºzv öÁUhº AÍÁõS®.
• Cuß A»S A m–2
ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS® Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁPzvØS® EÒÍ öuõhº¦: (Mar ’06)
• L }Í•®, A SÖUS öÁmk¨ £µ¨¦® öPõsh XY GßÓ Phzvø¯U P¸xP.
• Auß •øÚPÐUQøh÷¯ ö\¯À£k® ªß¦»® E GßP.
• Phzv°ß Kµ»S £¸©ÛÀ EÒÍ PmkÓõG»UmµõßPÎß
GsoUøP n GßP.
• G»UmµõßPÎß Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁP® Vd .
• Phzv°À EÒÍ PmkÓõ G»UmµõßPÎß GsoUøP


G»UmµõÛß ªßÝmh® = e
Phzv°ß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²® ö©õzu ªßÞmh®
q = (nAL) e
ªßÞmh[PÒ Phzv°ß ÁÈ÷¯ ö\À» BS® Põ»®,
t=

l
Vd

Phzv°ß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh®, I =

q
t

∴ I =

(n A L) e
( L / Vd )

I = nAeVd

Kªß Âv: (Mar ’06), (Oct’07), (Oct’09), (Mar’10)
• ©õÓõ öÁ¨£{ø»°À, Phzv JßÔß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²® ^µõÚ ªß÷Úõmh® Phzv°ß •øÚUS
Cøh¨£mh ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õmiØS ÷|ºzuPÂÀ Aø©²®.

Phzv°ß ªßuøh :
• Phzv JßÔß •øÚPÐUS Cøh¨£mh ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õmiØS® Auß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²®
ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS® EÒÍ uPÄ Phzv°ß ªßuøh GÚ Áøµ¯ÖUP¨£kQßÓx.
• ªßuøh°ß A»S ohm.
ªßPhzxz vÓß:
• ªßuøh°ß uø»RÈ ªßPhzxz vÓß BS®.
• Cuß A»S ÷©õ (mho ).
uß ªßuøh Gs :
• Kµ»S }Í•®, Kµ»S SÖUS öÁmk¨ £µ¨¦® öPõsh Phzv JßÖ ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS
HØ£kzx® ªßuøh AUPhzv¨ ö£õ¸Îß uß ªßuøh Gs BS®.
• Cuß A»S K® «mhº.( ohm m)
ªß Phzx Gs:
• uß ªßuøh Gsoß uø»RÈ ªß Phzx Gs GÚ¨£k®,
• ªßPhzx Gsoß A»S mho m–1
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(23)
__
«UPhzxz vÓß : «UPhzvPÒ :
• ªPU SøÓ¢u öÁ¨£{ø»PÎÀ, J¸ ]» E÷»õP[PÒ, ªßuøh _È ©v¨ø£ Aøh²®.
• _È ªßuøh²hß ªß÷ÚõmhzøuU Phzx® ußø© «UPhzxzvÓß GÚ¨£k®.
• C¨£sø£ öÁΨ£kzx® ö£õ¸ÒPÒ «UPhzvPÒ GÚ¨£k®.

öÁ¨£{ø» ö£¯ºÄ öÁ¨£{ø» AÀ»x ©õÖ{ø» öÁ¨£{ø»:
• \õuõµn PhzvPÒ, u[PÒ ªßuøhø¯ vjöµÚ CÇ¢x «UPhzvPÍõP ©õÖQßÓ öÁ¨£{ø»
ö£¯ºÄ öÁ¨£{ø» AÀ»x ©õÖ{ø» öÁ¨£{ø» GÚ¨£k®.
ö£¯ºÄ öÁ¨£{ø»°À Põn¨£k® ©õÖ£õkPÒ (Jun’10)
1. uߪßuøh Gs _ȯõQßÓx.
2. ªßPhzx Gs •i»õ v¨ø£ AøhQÓx.
3. Põ¢u¨ £õ¯U ÷PõkPÒ ö£õ¸Î¼¸¢x JxUQz uÒͨ£kQßÓÚ.
«UPhzvPÎß £¯ßPÒ: (June ’06), (Oct’06), (July’07), (Oct’07), (Oct’08), (Mar’09)
• «UPhzx C¯ØÔPÒ Aø©¨¦PÎÀ, BØÓÀ ÷\ª¨¦ vÓß Aø©¨¦PÍõP «UPhzvPÒ EÒÍÚ.
• «UPhzxz vÓß öPõsh Põ¢u[PÒ Cµ°À ÁsiPøÍ ushÁõÍ[PÎÀ C¸¢x E¯ºzu¨
£¯ß£kQßÓÚ.
• «UPhzx {ø»°À EÒÍ PhzvPøÍ ªß Aݨ¤U P®¤PÎÀ £¯ß£kzu»õ®.
• PoÛPÎÀ {øÚÄ (AÀ»x) ÷\ªUS® Ai¨£øhU TÖPÍõPa ö\¯À£kQßÓÚ.
• CµõUöPmkPÎß Eu°ßÔ, xønU÷PõÒPøÍ ÷|µi¯õP AÁØÔß Ámh¨£õøuUS HÁ,
«UPhzxvÓß öPõsh Põ¢u HÄ Aø©¨¦Pøͨ £¯ß£kzu»õ®.
• «UPhzxvÓß öPõsh Põ¢u[PøÍU öPõsk, uõxUPøͨ ¤›zöukUS®, ªPz vÓß Áõ´¢u G
¢vµ[PøÍ E¸ÁõUP»õ®. CU Põ¢u[Pøͨ £¯ß£kzv |À» {ø»°À EÒÍ ö\ÀPÎÀ C¸¢x,
PmiPøÍ E¸ÁõUS® ö\ÀPøÍ, AvPa \›Ä ªUP Põ¢u¨¦»zøu¨ öPõsk ¤›UP»õ®.
öuõhº Cøn¨¤À ªß uøh¯õUQPÒ:
• R1, R2, R3, R4 ªßuøhPÒ öuõhµõP CønUP¨£mkÒÍÚ. ªßuøh¯õUQPÒ öuõhµõP
EÒÍ÷£õx, JÆöÁõ¸ ªß uøh¯õU
Q°ß ÁȯõPÄ® J÷µ AÍÄ
ªß÷Úõmh® £õ²®.
• ªßuøh¯õUQPÎß öuõS¨¤ß
•øÚPÐUS Cøh÷¯ ö\¾zu¨£k®

ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk VGÛÀ, R1, R2, R3 ©ØÖ® R4 ªß uøh¯õUQPÐUS Cøh¨£mh
ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õkPÒ
V1, V2, V3, V4 GßP.
Kªß Âv¨£i
V = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4

V1 = IR1, V2 = IR2,
V3 = IR3, V4 = IR4
©ØÖ®
öuõS£¯ß ªßuøh)
GÚ÷Á
IRS = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 + IR4
or
RS = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4

V = IRs (Rs -

öuõhµõP CønUP¨£mkÒÍ £» ªß uøh¯õUQPÐUS öuõS£¯ß ªßuøh, uÛzuÛ ªß
uøh¯õUQPÎß ªßuøh¯[PÎß Tku¾USa \©®.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI



12 -PHY-TM
2.
£UP Cøn¨¤À ªßuøh¯õUQPÒ : (Oct’06)

R1, R2, R3, R4 GßÓ |õßS ªßuøh¯õU QPÒ£UP Cøn¨¤À ÷\ºUP¨£mkÒÍÚ.
CzöuõS¨¦hß V ªßÛ¯US Âø\ CønUP¨£mkÒÍx.
• ªß uøh¯õUQPÒ £UP Cøn¨¤À EÒÍ÷£õx, JÆöÁõ¸
ªßuøh¯õUQ°ß SÖU÷P ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk V&USa
\©®.
• öuõS¨¤øÚ Aøh²® I GßÓ ªß÷Úõmh® I1, I2, I3, I4 GÚ¨
¤›¢x •øÓ÷¯ R1, R2, R3, R4 ÁÈ÷¯ ö\À¾®.
• C¨÷£õx
I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4.
Kªß Âv¨£i
I1 =

V
R1

I2 =

V
R2

(Rp - öuõS£¯ß ªßuøh)

I3 =

V
R3

V
V
V
V
V
=
+
+
+
RP
R1 R2 R3 R4

1
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+
RP
R1 R2 R3 R4

I4 =

V
R4

©ØÖ®

I =

V
RP

GÚ÷Á, £» ªßuøh¯õUQPÒ £UP Cøn¨¤À CønUP¨£k®÷£õx, uÛzuÛ ªßuøh¯õU
QPÎß ªßuøh°ß uø»RÈPÎß TkuÀ, öuõS£¯ß ªßuøh°ß uø»RÈUSa \©®.
ªßuøh öÁ¨£{ø» Gs: (Jun’08)
• 1oC öÁ¨£{ø» E¯ºÁõÀ HØ£k® ªßuøh ©õÖ£õmiØS®, 0oC&À EÒÍ ªßuøhUS®
EÒÍ uPÄ ªßuøh öÁ¨£{ø» Gs BS®.
• Cuß A»S: / oC
R − R0
SÔ¨¦:
α= t
Rt = R0 ( 1 + α t )
R0 t

kpd;fyj;jpd; mfkpd;jiliaf; fhzy; : (June’08), (Oct’09)

mfkpd;jil fhzg;glNtz;ba kpd;fyk;> mjw;F FWf;fhf cau; kpd;jil cila Nthy;l; kPl;lu;>
rpwpa kjpg;Gila kpd;jil R kw;Wk; rhtp K>
Mfpait kpd;Rw;wpy; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

rhtp K jpwe;j epiyapy; Nthy;l; kPl;lupd; msT
kpd;fyj;jpd; kpd;dpaf;FtpirE d; kjpg;ig msf;fpwJ.
rhtp K %lg;gl;l epiyapy;> R f;F FWf;Nf cs;s kpd;dOj;j
NtWghL

V= IR
(1)
kpd;fyj;jpd; FWf;Nf cs;s kpd;dOj;j NtWghL
V =E–Ir
(2)
Ir = E – V
(3)
Ir

rkd;ghL (3) I (1) y; tFf;f> I R =
my;yJ

my;yJ

E −V
V

E −V 
R
r =
 V 

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(25)
__
fph;r;r/g; Kjy; tpjp (kpd;Ndhl;l tpjp): (June ’06), (Mar’08)
xU kpd;Rw;wpy;> ve;jnthU re;jpg;gpYk; re;jpf;fpd;w kpd;Ndhl;lq;fspd;
Fwpapay; $l;Lj; njhif RopahFk;.
tpsf;fk; :
re;jp O- I Nehf;fp nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lk; Neh;f;Fwp cilaJ vdTk;> ntspr;nry;Yk;
kpd;Ndhl;lk; vjph;f;Fwp cilaJ vdTk; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
1,2,3,4,5 flj;jpfspy; topNa nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lq;fs;
KiwNa I1, I2, I3, I4, I5 vdpy;>
fph;r;r/g; Kjy; tpjpg;gb>
I1 + (-I2) + (- I3) + ( I4) + I5 = 0
I1 + I4 + I5 = I2 + I3
vdNt> re;jpia Nehf;fp nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lq;fspd;
$Ljy;>
re;jpiatpl;L ntspr;nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lq;fspd; $LjYf;Fr; rkk;.
,J kpd;D}l;l moptpd;ik tpjpapd;gb mikfpwJ.
fph;r;r/g; ,uz;lhk; tpjp (kpd;dOj;j tpjp): (Jun’06), (Mar’07), (Jun’07), (Mar’08),
(Mar’09)
xU %ba kpd;Rw;wpd; ntt;NtW gFjpfspy; cs;s kpd;jil kw;Wk; kpd;Ndhl;lk;
Mfpatw;iwg; ngUf;fp tUk; msTfspd; Fwpapay; $l;Lj;jd;ik mk;%baRw;wpy;
cs;s kpd;dpaf;Ftpirfspd; Fwpapay; $l;Lj; njhiff;Fr; rkk;.
,t;tpjp Mw;wy; moptpd;ikapd;gb mikfpwJ.

FwpaPl;L kuG :

tyQ;Ropahfr; nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lq;fis
cilajhfTk;>
• ,lQ;Ropahf
nry;Yk;
kpd;Ndhl;lq;fis
cilajhfTk; fUjg;gLfpwJ.
ABCDA vd;w %bag; ghijiaf; fUjpdhy;>

Neu;f;Fwp
vjph;f;Fwp

fph;r;r/g; ,uz;lhk; tpjpg;gb
I R2 + I R3 + I r2+ I R4 + I r1 + I R1 = E1 – E2

tPl;];ld; rkdr; Rw;wpy; rkepiyf;fhd epge;jidiag; ngWf: (Mar ’06), (June’06),
(Oct’06), (Mar’08), (Jun’09), (Mar’10)
P, Q, R, S vd;w kpd;jilfs; xU %ba Rw;iw cUthf;FkhW ,izf;fg;gl;L;s;sd.
kpd;dpaf;Ftpir E nfhz;l kpd;fyj;jpd; %yk; nrYj;jg;gLk; I vd;w kpd;Ndhl;lk; I1, I2 ,
I3 , I 4 vd;w ehd;F gFjpfshfg; gphpfpd;wJ.
fhy;tdhkPl;lh; topNa nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lk; Ig >
mjd; kpd;jil G vd;f.
fph;r;r/g; Kjy; tpjpg;gb>
re;jpg;G B-y;
I1 – Ig – I3 = 0
(1)
re;jpg;G D-y;

I2 + Ig – I4 = 0

fph;r;r/g; ,uz;lhk; tpjpg;gb>
ABDA vd;w %ba ghijf;F>
I1 P + IgG – I2 R = 0

(2)

(3)

BCDB vd;w %ba ghijf;F>
I3 Q – Ig G – I4 S = 0
(4)
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI



12 -PHY-TM
2.
(26)
__
fhy;tdhkPl;lh; topahf nry;Yk; kpd;Ndhl;lk; Ropahf epge;jid :
fhy;tdhkPl;lhpy; Rop tpyf;fk; fhl;Lk;NghJ B kw;Wk; E Gs;spfs; xNu kpd;dOj;jj;jpy;
mikAk;..
NkYk;
Ig = 0
vdNt>
I1 = I3
I2

= I4
I1P = I2 R
I3 Q = I4S

(5)
(6)
P
R
=
Q
S

rkd;ghL (5) ÷ (6)

kPl;lh; rkdr;Rw;W :
,J tPl;];ld; rkdr; Rw;wpd; kw;nwhU tbtkhFk;.
mikg;G :
%d;W jbj;j jhkpug;gl;ilfs; kug;gyif kPJ
nghUj;jg; gl;Ls;sd.
G1 kw;Wk; G2 vd;w ,uz;L ,ilntspfs;
cs;sd.
xU kPl;lh; ePsKila rPuhd khq;fdpd;
(AC) fk;gpapd; Kidfs; A kw;Wk; C apy; jhkpug;
gl;ilAld; gw;witf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. fk;gpf;F ,izahf
msTNfhy; xd;W nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

kpd;Rw;W :
kjpg;G fhzg;glNtz;ba kpd;jil P-ahdJ, ,ilntsp G1 ,Yk;> kjpg;G njhpe;j gbj;ju
kpd;jil Q , ,ilntsp G2 tpYk; ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
Rw;wpy; fhy;tdhkPl;lh;> cau;kpd;jil> njhLNfhy; J> nyf;yhQ;rp kpd;fyk;> kw;Wk;
rhtp Mfpait glj;jpy; fhl;bathW ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

nra;Kiw :
njhLNfhiy khq;fdpd; fk;gp kPJ jFe;jthW efh;j;jp fhy;tdhkPl;lhpy; Rop tpyfy;
Vw;gLk; Gs;sp J fz;lwpag;gLfpwJ. fk;gpapd; AJ ( =  1) kw;Wk; JC (=  2) gFjpfs;
tPl;];ld; rkdr;Rw;wpd; R, S kpd;jilfSf;F gjpyhf mikfpd;wd.
P
R
=
Q
S

/

vd;w epge;jidg;gb>

P
r. AJ
=
Q
r. JC

r vd;gJ XuyF ePsf; fk;gpapd; kpd;jilahFk;.
P

/ Q

=

1
2

P = Q

1
2

fk;gpahdJ. A kw;Wk; C y; gw;w itf;fg;gl;bUg;gjhy;> P d; kjpg;gpy; rpW gpio
Vw;gLk;. ,g;gpioia Fiwf;f> P kw;Wk; Q kpd;jilfis ,ilntspfspy; ,lkhw;wk; nra;J
mstPLfs; vL;f;fg;gLfpd;wd. gpd;dh;> P – d; ruhrup kjpg;G fzf;fplg;glNtz;Lk;.
kPl;lh; rkdr; Rw;iwf; nfhz;L fk;gpg; nghUspd; jd;kpd;jilvz;izAk;> kpd;jil
ntg;gepiy vz;izAk; fzf;fpl ,aYk;.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(27)
__
kpd;dOj;jkhdpapd; jj;Jtk;: (Oct’07)
glj;jpy; fhl;bathW Kjd;ikr; Rw;wpy; kpd;fy mLf;F> rhtp> Mfpait ,izf;fg;
gLfpd;wd.
vdNt
kpd;dOj;jkhdpf;
fk;gpapd;
topNa
I
vd;w
rPuhd
kpd;Ndhl;lk; gha;fpwJ.
Jizr; Rw;wpy; Kjd;ik kpd;fyd;>
fhy;tdhkPl;lh;> cah;kpd;jil> njhLNfhy;
Mfpaitnjhluhf ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
njhLNfhyhdJ kpd;dOj;jkhdp
fk;gpapd; kPJ nkJthf efh;j;jg;gLfpwJ.
Kid A kw;Wk; njhLGs;sp J f;F ,ilg;gl;l kpd;dOj;j NtWghLghdJ kpd;fydpd; kpd;dpaf;F
tpir E - f;F rkk; MFk; epiyapy; fhy;tdhkPl;lh; Rop tpyf;fk; fhl;LfpwJ me;epiyapy; AJ =
ℓ rkdPl;L ePsk; vdg;gLk;
r vd;gJ XuyF ePsKs;s kpd;dOj;jkhdpf; fk;gpapd; kpd;jil vdpy;>
AJ f;F ,ilapy; kpd;dOj;j NtWghL (I r ℓ) = kpd;fydpd; kpd;dpaf;Ftpir (E )
/ E=Irℓ

I kw;Wk; r khwpypfs;

/E

α ℓ

kpd;;fydpd; kpd;dpaf;F tpir rkd; nra;Ak;; ePsj;jpw;F Neh;j;jftpy; mikAk;. ,JNt
kpd;dOj;jkhdpapd; jj;JtkhFk;.

kpd;dOj;jkhdp - ,U kpd;fyq;fspd; kpd;dpaf;F tpirfis xg;gply;: (Mar’07)
Kjd;ikr; Rw;wpy; kpd;fy mLf;F> rhtp> kpd;jil khw;wp Mfpait ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

Jizr;Rw;wpy; Xg;gplg;gl Ntz;ba
kpd;dpaf;F tpirfs; E1 kw;Wk; E2 cila ,U kpd;fyq;fs;
DPDT rhtpAlDk;>
NkYk; fhy;tdhkPl;lh;> cau; kpd;jil kw;Wk;
njhLNfhy; Mfpaitw;Wld; njhluhfTk; glj;jpy; cs;sthW
,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
Kjd;ikr; Rw;wpy; ghAk; kpd;Ndhl;lk; I vd;f. XuyF
ePsKs;s kpd;dOj;jkhdpf; fk;gpapd; kpd;jil r vd;f.
DPDT rhtpapd; %yk; Kjypy; E1 kpd;dpaf;F tpir
cila kpd;fyd; Rw;wpy; ,izf;fg;gLfpwJ. njhLNfhy; cjtpAld; fhy;tdhkPl;lh; Roptpyfy; fhl;Lk;
rkdPl;L ePsk; mse;jwpag;gLfpwJ.
AJ =  1
kpd;dOj;jkhdp jj;Jtj;jpd;gb> E1 = I r  1
(1)
Kd;Nghd;Nw E2 kpd;dpaf;Ftpir cila kpd;fyDf;F rkdPl;L ePsk;  2 mse;jwpag;gLfpwJ
/
E2 = I r  2
(2)
rkd;ghL (1) I> (2) My; tFf;f>

E1 1
=
E 2 2

vd;w rkd;ghl;bd; %yk; nfhLf;fg;gl;l ,U kpd;fyq;fspd; kpd;dpaf;Ftpirfs;
kpd;dOj;jkhdpiaf; nfhz;L xg;;gplg;;gLfpwJ.

kpd;dpaf;F tpir kw;Wk; kpd;dOj;j NtWghL xg;gPL: (July’07), (Oct’08)
t
vz;

kpd;dpaf;F tpir

kpd;dOj;j NtWghL

jpwe;e kpd;Rw;wpy; xU
%ba kpd;Rw;wpy; VNjDk; ,U
kpd;fydpd; ,U kpd;tha;fSf;F
Gs;spfSf;F ,ilg;gl;l kpd;dOj;jq;fspd;
,ilg;gl;l
NtWghL
1
kpd;dOj;jq;fspd; NtWghL
MFk;.
MFk;
kpd;Rw;wpy; cs;s kpd;jilia
kpd;Rw;wpy; ,U Gs;spfSf;F ,ilNaahd
2
rhh;e;jJ my;y
kpd;jilf;F Neh;j;jftpy; mikAk;
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM

2.

      

(28)

__

kpd;jpwd;:
kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpdhy; xU tpdhbapy; nra;ag;gLk; Ntiyapd; msT kpd;jpwd; vdg;gLk;.
,jd; myF thl;.

kpd;dhw;wy;:

kpd;dhw;wy; vd;gJ Ntiy nra;Ak; jpwikahFk;. ,jd; myF [{y;. eilKiwapy; kpd;dhw;wypd;
myF thl; kzp my;yJ fpNyh thl; kzpahFk;.

thl; kPl;lh;:
gad;gLj;jg;gLk; kpd;jpwid mstplg; gad;gLk; fUtp thl; kPl;luhFk;.
epiyahfg; nghUj;jg;gl;l xU Nrhb fk;gpr; RUs;fSf;fpilNa xU ,aq;ff;$ba fk;gpr;RUs; cs;sJ.
,f;fk;gpr; RUs;fspy; kpd;Ndhl;lk; ghAk;NghJ> ,aq;F RUSld; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;s
FwpKs;spy; Vw;gLk; tpyf;fkhdJ gad;gLj;jg;gLk; kpd;jpwDf;F Neh;j;jftpy; mikAk;.

kpd;dhw;gFj;jy;:
/ ghuNlapd; kpd;dhw;gFj;jy; tpjpfs;: (Mar ’06), (Jun’10)

Kjy; tpjp
kpd;dhw;gFj;jypd; NghJ kpd;thapy; ntspg;gLk; nghUspd; epiwahdJkpd;gF jputj;jpd;
topNa ghAk; kpd;D}l;lj;jpw;F Neh;j;jftpy; mikAk;.

kpd; Ntjpa vz; (z) tiuaiw:

kpd;gF jputk; xd;wpd; topNa 1 $Yk; kpd;D}l;lk; nry;Yk;NghJ ntspg;gLk; jdpkj;jpd;
epiwahFk;. ,jd; myF kg C-1.
,uz;lhk; tpjp
:
kpd;gF jputj;jpd;

topNa Fwpg;gpl;l msT kpd;D}l;lk; nrYj;jg;gLk;NghJ> xU kpd;thapy; ntspg;gLk; jdpkj;jpd;
epiw> mj;jdpkj;jpd; Ntjpa ,izkhw;Wf;FNeh;j;jftpy; mikAk;.

/ghuNlapd; kpd;dhw;gFj;jy; tpjpfis rhpghh;j;jy; :
Kjy; tpjpia rhpghh;j;jy; : (June’08), (Oct’09)
• kpd;gFg;Gf; fyDld; kpd;fy mLf;F> rhtp> kpd;jilkhw;wp kw;Wk; mk;kPl;lh;
Mfpait njhluhf ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
• vjph; kpd;tha; jfl;il ed;whf fOtp cyu itj;J
mjd; epiw fhzg;gLfpwJ.
• mjid kPz;Lk; nghUj;jpagpd; I1 msT
kpd;Ndhl;lk; t fhy mstpw;F nrYj;jg;
gLfpwJ. vjpu;kpd;thia ntspNa vLj;J
ed;whf ePhpy; myrp> cyu itj;J mjd;
epiw fhzg;gLfpwJ.
• ,jpypUe;J I1 kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpdhy;
ntspg;gLk; jdpkj;jpd; epiw m1 vdf;
fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ.
• kpd;Ndhl;l mstpid kl;Lk; I2 vd khw;wp mNj fhy mst t f;F Kd;NghyNt Nrhjid
jpUk;gTk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. jw;NghJ ntspg;gLk; jdpkj;jpd; epiw m2 vd;f. .
m1
I1
=
m2
I2

vd miktijf; fhzyhk;.


m α I

(1)
kpd;Ndhl;lk; XNu msthf itf;fg;gLfpwJ. t1 kw;Wk; t2 vd;w ntt;NtW fhy msTfSf;F
Kd;NghyNt Nrhjid kPz;Lk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
ntspg;gLk; jdpkj;jpd; epiwfs; KiwNa m3 kw;Wk; m4 vdpy;>
m3
t1
=
vd miktijf; fhzyhk;.
m4
t2

m α t

(2)

m α I t my;yJ m α q vd mwpayhk;.
• ,jd; %yk; / ghuNl kpd;dhw;gFg;G Kjy;tpjp rhpghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
• rkd;ghLfs; (1) kw;Wk; (2) ypUe;J

          
          
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(29)

__

,uz;lhk; tpjpia rhpghh;j;jy; : (June ’06), (Mar’08)
• vjph; kpd;tha;fis Kjypy; ed;whf
fOtp cyu itj;J mtw;wpd; epiwfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
• mtw;iw nghUj;jpagpd; rpwpJ Neuj;jpw;F
kpd;Ndhl;lk; nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ.
gpd;dh; vjpu;kpd;tha;fis ntspNa vLj;J ed;whf
ePhpy; myrp> cyu itj;J mtw;wpd; epiwfs;
fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
• ,jpypUe;J kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpdhy; ntspg;gLk;
jhkpuj;jpd; epiw m1 vd;f. nts;spapd; epiw m2
vd;f.
,g;NghJ

m1
E1
=
m2
E2

vd miktijf;fhzyhk;.
/m

α E.

,jd; %yk; / ghuNl kpd;dhw;gFg;G ,uz;lhk; tpjp rhpghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ.

Nldpay; kpd;fyd;: (Mar’08), (Oct’08), (Jun’09), (Jun’10)
mikg;G
Ez;Jis ghj;jpuk; xd;wpDs; ePh;j;j fe;jf mkpyj;jpy; Jj;jehfj; jz;L itf;fg;gLfpwJ.
,e;j mikg;ghdJ xU jhkpug; ghj;jpuj;jpDs;
cs;s njtpl;ba jhkpu ry;/Ngl;; fiurypy; itf;fg;gLfpwJ.
Neu;kpd;tha;
vjph;kpd;tha;
kpd;gF jputk;

: jhkpug; ghj;jpuk;
: Jj;jehfj; jz;L
: jhkpu ry;/Ngl;; fiury;

nray;ghL :
• Jj;jehfj; jz;L fe;jf mkpyj;Jld; tpidGupe;J Zn++
madpfisAk; ,U vyf;l;uhd;fisAk; jUk;. ,e;j
vyf;l;uhd;fs; Jj;jehfj;jz;by; ,Uf;Fk;.
• Zn ++ madpfs; Ez;Jisfspy; CLUtpr; nrd;W jhkpu ry;/Ngl; fiurYld; tpidGupe;J Cu +
+
madpfis cUthf;Fk;. ,e;j Cu ++madpfs; jhkpug; ghj;jpuj;jpy; gbAk;.
• kpd;fyj;jpy; ,Ue;J kpd;Ndhl;lk; ngWk;NghJ Jj;jehfj; jz;by; gbe;j vyf;l;uhd;fs;
kpd;Rw;W ,izg;Gf; fk;gpapd; topahf nrd;W jhkpu madpfis eLepiyahf;Fk;.vdNt
ntspr; Rw;wpy; kpd;Ndhl;lk; jhkpuj;jpypUe;J - Jj;jehfj;jpw;F gha;fpwJ.
• Nldpay; kpd;fyj;jpd; kpd;dpaf;F tpir 1.08 Nthy;l;.

nyf;yhQ;rp kpd;fyd;: (July’07)
mikg;G :
• fhh;gd; jz;bidr; Rw;wp khq;fdPR il-Mf;i]L kw;Wk; fhh;gd; J}s; fye;j fyit
itf;fg;gl;L mit xU Ez;Jisg; ghz;lj;jpDs; nghUj;jg;gLfpwJ.
• ,e;j mikg;ghdJ njtpl;ba epiyapy; cs;s mNkhdpak; FNshiuL fiurypYs;s Jj;jehfj;
jz;L cila fz;zhbg; ghj;jpuj;jpDs; itf;fg;gLfpw.J.
Neu;kpd;tha;
: fhh;gd; jz;L
vjph;kpd;tha;
: Jj;jehfj; jz;L
kpd;gF jputk; : mNkhdpak; FNshiuL;
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
(30)
__

2.

nray;ghL :
• Mf;]p[Ndw;wj;jpd; %yk; Jj;jehfj; jz;by; Zn mZf;fs; Zn ++ madpfshfTk; ,U

vyf;;l;uhd;fshfTk; khw;wkilfpd;wd.
Zn ++ madpfs; mNkhdpak; FNshiuLld; fPo;f;fz;lthW tpidGhpfpd;wd.
Zn ++ + 2 NH4Cl

2 NH3 ↑ + ZnCl2 + 2 H + + 2 e -

mNkhdpah thA ntspapy; nrd;W tpLfpwJ. i`l;u[d; madpfs; Ez;Jisfspy; CLUtpr;
nrd;W>khq;fdPR-il-Mf;i]Lld;
tpidGupe;J fhh;gd; jz;bid Neh;
kpd;D}l;;lk; milar; nra;fpwJ.
kpd;fyj;jpy; ,Ue;J kpd;Ndhl;lk;
ngWk;NghJ Jj;jehfj; jz;by; gbe;j
vyf;l;uhd;fs; ,izg;Gf; fk;gpapd; topahf
nrd;W fhh;gd; jz;bd; Neu;madpfis

eLepiyahf;Fk;. vdNt ntspr; Rw;wpy; kpd;Ndhl;lk; fhh;gdpypUe;J Jj;jehfj;jpw;F gha;fpwJ.
• nyf;yhQ;rp kpd;fyj;jpd; kpd;dpaf;F tpir 1.5 Nthy;l; ,jd; kpd;Ndhl;lk; 0.25 A
fhHPa mkpy Nrkf;fyk;: (Oct’07)
mikg;G :
• ,jpy; cWjpahd ,ug;gh; my;yJ
fz;zhbahyhd ghj;jpuj;jpy; ePh;j;j fe;jf mkpyk;
cs;sJ.
• mjDs; nkd;ikj; jd;ik nfhz;l fhHPaj;
jz;Lk; fhhPa Mf;i]L jz;Lk; nghUj;jg; gl;Ls;sd.
• jFe;j kpd;fhg;Gg; nghUs;fs; %yk; ,it
gphpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.vdNt
,e;j
kpd;fyj;jpd;
mfkpd;jil Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk;. (uõÛ¯[QPÎÀ £¯ß£k®
ªßP» AkUSPÎß AP ªßuøh SøÓÁõP C¸¨£x Hß?)

Neu;kpd;tha;
(PbO2)
vjph;kpd;tha;
kpd;gF jputk;

: fhHPa Mf;i]L
: nkd;ikj; jd;ik nfhz;l fhHpak; (Pb)
: ePh;j;j fe;jf mkpyk; (H2SO4)

nray; tpsf;fk; ( vjph; kpd;thapy; )
• Mf;]p[Ndw;wj;jpd; %yk; fhHPak; fe;jf mkpyj;Jld; tpidGhpe;J fhhPa ry;/Ngl;
kw;Wk; ,U vyf;l;uhd;fisj; jUk;.
nray; tpsf;fk; : Neh; kpd;thapy;
• Mf;]p[d; ,wf;f tpid %yk; fhhPa Mf;i]L fe;jf mkpyj;Jld; tpidGhpe;J fhhPa
ry;/Ngl; kw;Wk; ,uz;L Neu;kpd; madpfisj; jUk;.
vjpu;kpd;thapy;:
kpd;fyj;jpypUe;J kpd;Ndhl;lk; ngWk;NghJ vjpu;kpd;thapYs;s ,U vyf;l;uhd;fs;
,izg;Gf; fk;gpapd; topahf nrd;W Neu;kpd;thapYs;s madpfis eLepiyahf;Fk;. vdNt
ntspr;Rw;wpy; kuG kpd;Ndhl;lk; Neh;kpd;thapypUe;J vjph;kpd;thapw;Fg; ghAk;.
• Gjpajhf kpd;Ndw;wk; nra;ag;gl;l epiyapy; kpd;fyj;jpd; kpd;dpaf;F tpir 2.2 V.

kpd;gFjputj;jpd; xg;glh;j;jp 1.28.
,e;jkpd;fyd; %yk; mjpf kpd;Ndhl;lk; ngw;W kpd;dpwf;fk; nra;Ak;NghJ kpd;dpaf;F
tpir 2 V Mff; FiwAk;
fhhPa mkpy Nrkf;fyj;ij kpd;Ndw;wk; nra;Ak;NghJ Ntjp tpidfs; kPs epfo;fpd;wd.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(31)

__

Jiz kpd;fyq;fspd; gad;ghLfs;;: (Oct’06), (Oct’08)
• Jiz kpd;fyq;fspd; mfkpd;jil kpfTk; FiwT. vdNt Njitf;Nfw;gmjpf
kpd;Ndhl;lj;ij Vw;gLj;jty;yd. mjpf kpd;Ndhl;lk; Njitg;gLk;,lq;fspy; ,tw;iwg;
gad;gLj;jyhk;.
• ,tw;wpd; gz;Gfspy; khw;wk; VJkpd;wp mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; mtw;iw kPz;Lk;
kPz;Lk; kpd;Nd;wwk; nra;ayhk;.
• fhu;fs;> ,U rf;fu thfdq;fs;> buf;Ffs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; gad;gLfpd;wd.

kpd;dOj;jkhdpapy; jhkpuf;fk;gp gad;glhJ. Vd; ?

jhkpuj;jpd; kpd;jil vz; FiwT. Mdhy; kpd;jil ntg;gepiy vz;mjpfk;.
jhkpuf;fk;gp vdpy; ntg;gepiy cau;thy; kpd;jil cau;e;J tpLk;.

vdNt jhkpuf;fk;gpiag; gad;gLj;j ,ayhJ.

Kjd;ik kpd;fyd;> Jiz kpd;fyd; NtWgLj;Jf.
Kjd;ik kpd;fyd;

Jiz kpd;fyd;

kpd;Ndw;wk; nra;a ,ayhJ

kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; kpd;Ndw;wk; nra;a
,aYk;

2

mfkpd;jil mjpfk;

mfkpd;jil FiwT

3

njhlh;e;J kpd;Ndhl;lj;ij ngw ,ayhJ

njhlh;e;J kpd;Ndhl;lj;ij ngw ,aYk;

4

Fiwthd kpd;Ndhl;lk; jUgit

mjpf kpd;Ndhl;lj;ij jUgit

1

jhdpaq;fpfspy; gad;gLk; kpd;fy mLf;Ffspd; mfkpd;jil FiwT Vd;?
•vdNt> kpd;fy mLf;Ffspy;> jFe;j kpd;fhg;Gg; nghUs;fspd; %yk; kpd;tha;fs;
gphpf;fg;gl;L> Fiwe;j mfkpd;jiliaj; jUk; tifapy; Nrh;f;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.
(fhh; Nghd;w jhdpaq;fpfspd; njhlf;f ,af;fj;jpw;F mjpf kpd;Ndhl;lk; Njitg;gLfpwJ.)
1. 60 C AÍÄÒÍ ªßÞmh® J¸ ªßÂÍUQß ÁÈ÷¯ 2 {ªh[PÐUSa ö\ßÓõÀ, ªßÂÍUQÀ

ö\À¾® ªß÷Úõmh® (BB)
(a) 30 A
(b) 1 A

(c) 0.5 A

(d) 5 A

2. ªßÞmh[PÒ G¨ö£õ¸Îß ÁÈ÷¯ GÎuõP¨ £õ´¢x ö\À¾®? (BB), (Oct’07)

(a) SÁõºmì

(b) ø©UPõ

(c) öẩۯ®

(d) uõªµ®

3. Phzv°ß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® GuØS ÷|ºzuPÂÀ Aø©²®? (BB)

(a) Cʨ¦ vø\÷ÁP®
(c) 1/ G»UmµõßPÎß GsoUøP

(b) 1/ SÖUS öÁmk¨ £µ¨¤ß C¸©i.
(d) SÖUS öÁmk¨ £µ¨¤ß C¸©i

4. 240 V ªßÚÊzuzvÀ ö\¯Ø£k® ªß `÷hØÔ°ß ªßuøh 120Ω GÛÀ ªßvÓß (BB)

(a) 400 W

(b) 2 W

(c) 480 W

(d) 240 W

5. SÔ¨¤mh }Í® öPõsh uõªµU P®¤°ß ªßuøh R . Auß }Í®

C¸©h[PõUP¨£k® ÷£õx Auß ªßuøh Gs (BB) (Oct’06), (Jun’08), (Oct’09),
(Mar’10)
(a) C¸
©h[PõS®
(b) |õßQÀ J¸ £[PõS®
(c) |õßS ©h[PõS®
(d) ©õÖ£hõx
6. C¸ 2 Ω ªßuøhPÒ £UP Cøn¨¤À C¸¢uõÀ, öuõS£¯ß ªßuøh

(a) 2 Ω

(b) 4 Ω

(c) 1 Ω

(BB) (Oct’08)
(d) 0.5 Ω

7. öÁ¨£{ø» SøÓ²® ÷£õx, ªßPõ¨¦¨ ö£õ¸ÒPÎß uߪßuøh Gs.... (BB) (Mar’08),
(Mar’09)

(a) SøÓ²®

(b) AvP›US®

(c) ©õÖ£hõx

(d) _ȯõS®

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI



12 -PHY-TM
2.
(32)
__
o
o
o
8. 0 C À P®¤a _¸Îß ªßuøh2 Ω ©ØÖ® α = 0.004 / C GÛÀ 100 C À Auß ªßuøh
(BB)
(a) 1.4 Ω
(b) 0 Ω
(c) 4 Ω
(d) 2.8 Ω

9. L£õµ÷h°ß ªßÚõØ£SzuÀ Âv¨£i, ªß£S vµÁzvß ÁÈ÷¯ ªß÷Úõmh®

ö\À¾®÷£õx, GvºªßÁõ°À £i²® A¯ÛPÎß {øÓ Gøua \õº¢ux AÀ»? (BB)
(a) ªß÷Úõmh®
(b) ªßÞmh®
(c) Põ»®
(d) ªßuøh
10. \©©v¨¦ ªßuøh (R) Eøh¯ n ªß uøhPÒ öuõh›øn¨¤À C¸¨¤ß, öuõS£¯ß

ªßuøh (BB)
nR

(a) n/R

(b) R/n

(c) 1/nR

(d)

11. 10 cm }Í® öPõsh E÷»õPUP®¤°ß

P®¤°ß ªßuøh 0.5 Ω, Cx 50 cm }Í•øh¯
P®¤¯õP ^µõP }mh¨£kQÓx GÛÀ ªßuøh°ß ©v¨¦....... (BB), (Mar’06)
(a) 25 Ω
(b) 10 Ω
(c) 5 Ω
(d) 50 Ω
12. Põº£ß ªßuøh¯õUQ°ß «x SÔUP¨£mkÒÍ {ÓUSÔ±hõÚx ]Á¨¦ -]Á¨¦ - P¸ø©.

A¢u ªßuøh¯õUQ°ß ªßuøh..... (BB), (Jul’06)
(a) 2.2 Ω
(b) 22 Ω
(c) 220 Ω

(d) 2.2 k Ω

13. Põº£ß ªßuøh¯õUQ°À J¸ •øÚ°À EÒÍ £Ê¨¦ {Ó Áøͯ® SÔUS® , ªßuøh°ß

©õÖ£õmk AÍøÁõÚx ....... (BB), (Mar’07)
(a) 1 %
(b) 2 %
(c) 5 %

(d) 10 %

14. ªßPhzx Gsoß A»S .... (BB), (Jun’07)

(a) mho

(b) ohm

(c) ohm-m

(d) mho-m-1

15. ghjurj;jpd; ngaHTntg;g epiy (Jun’09)

(a) 4.20C

(b) 4.2 K

(c) 2.40C

(d) 2.4 K

16. xU kpd;jilahf;fp topahf ghAk; khWjpir kpd;Ndhl;lkj;jpd; rms kjpg;G 5

A. mjd; ngUk kjpg;G …… (Mar’10)
(a) 3.536 A
(b) 70.7 A

(c) 7.07 A

(d) 7 A

,e;j glq;fspy; cs;s gpiofis rhpnra;a Kaw;rpf;fyhNk!! Ngdhth! ngd;rpy;
vL!!

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI




12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®
Põ¢u¨ £õ¯® (Áøµ¯øÓ) :
Põ¢u¨¦»® B&À øÁUP¨£mh ‰h¨£mh £µ¨ø£ (A) Ph¢x ö\À¾® Põ¢uÂø\
÷PõkPÎß GsoUøP £µ¨¦hß öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ¢u¨ £õ¯® ( φ), GßÖ Áøµ¯ÖUP¨£kQÓx

Põ¢u¨ £õ¯zvß A»S öÁ£º (weber)

φ = BA cos
θ

ªßPõ¢uz yshÀ vd;why; vd;d? (Mar’08)
ªß_ØÖhß öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ¢u¨£õ¯zvÀ ©õØÓ[PÒ HØ£k® ö£õÊx ªßÛ¯US
Âø\ ysh¨£k® {PÌÄ ªßPõ¢uz yshÀ GÚ¨£kQÓx.
A¢u ‰h¨£mh £õøu°À E¸ÁõS® ªßÛ¯US Âø\ ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\
GÚ¨£k®. £õøu°À £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® ysh¨£mh ªß÷Úõmh® GÚ¨£k ®.
ªßPõ¢uz yshÀ £ØÔ¯ L£õµ÷h ÂvPÒ: (Jun’06), (Jun’07), (Oct’07), (Mar’08), (Oct’08)
•uÀ Âv :
J¸ ‰h¨£mh _Ø÷Óõk öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ¢u¨£õ¯® ©õÖ®ö£õÊx A¢u _ØÔÀ
ªßÛ¯US Âø\ ysh¨£kQÓx. Põ¢u¨ £õ¯zvÀ ©õØÓ® {PÌ¢x öPõsi¸US® Áøµ°À ©mk÷©
ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\ }iUS®.
Cµshõ® Âv:
‰h¨£mh _ØÔÀ ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\°ß Gs ©v¨¦, _ØÖhß öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ

e =
¢u¨£õ¯® ©õÖ® ÃuzvØS ÷|ºzuPÂÀ C¸US®.
dt

ö»ßì Âv : (Mar’08), (Oct’08), (Jun’10)
J¸ _ØÔÀ ysh¨£mh ªß÷Úõmhzvß vø\, G¨÷£õx® Aøu E¸ÁõUPU Põµn©õP C¸¢u
Põ¢u¨£õ¯ ©õØÓzøu GvºUS® ÁøP°À Aø©²®.


e =−
dt

L¤öͪ[ Á»xøP Âv : (ªßÛ¯ØÔ Âv) : (Mar’07), (Mar’09), (Oct’09), (Mar’10)
Á»x øP°ß BÒPõmi µÀ, |kµÀ ©ØÖ® ö£¸ÂµÀ BQ¯ ‰ßøÓ²® JßÖUöPõßÖ ö\
[SzuõP øÁzxU öPõsk, BÒPõmi µÀ Põ¢u¨¦»zvß vø\ø¯²®, ö£¸ÂµÀ Phzv C¯[S®
vø\ø¯²® SÔ¨£uõPU öPõshõÀ |kµ»õÚx ysh¨£mh ªß÷Úõmhzvß vø\ø¯U SÔUS® .

uß ªß yshÀ : (Áøµ¯øÓ) :
J¸ P®¤a _¸ÎÀ £õ²® ªß÷ÚõmhzvÀ ©õØÓ® HØ£k®ö£õÊx AUP®¤a _¸ÎÀ J¸ Gvº
ªßÛ¯USÂø\ ysh¨£k® {PÌÄ uß ªßyshÀ GÚ¨£k®.
uß ªßyshÀ Gs : (Áøµ¯øÓ) :
(Jun’09)
P®¤a _¸Ò JßÔÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® J¸ Â|õiUS J¸ B®¤¯º GßÓ ÃuzvÀ
©õÖ® ö£õÊx AUP®¤a
_¸ÎÀ ysh¨£k® Gvº ªßÛ¯US Âø\ GsnÍÂÀ Aa_¸Îß
uß ªßyshÀ GsoØSa \©® BS®. uß ªß yshÀ Gsoß A»S öíßÔ BS®.
uߪßyshÀ Gsoß A»S Áøµ¯øÓ (öíßÔ Áøµ¯øÓ)
P®¤a _¸Ò JßÔÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® J¸ ÂÚõiUS J¸ B®¤¯º GßÓ ÃuzvÀ
©õÖ®÷£õx, AUP®¤a _¸ÎÀ ysh¨£k® Gvº ªßÛ¯US Âø\ 1 ÷ÁõÀm GÚ Aø©²©õÚõÀ,
Aa_¸Îß uߪßyshÀ Gs 1 öíßÔ BS®.

£›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ : (Áøµ¯øÓ) :
J¸ _¸ÎÀ £õ²® ªß÷ÚõmhzvÀ ©õØÓ® HØ£k®ö£õÊx ©ØöÓõ¸ _¸ÎÀ ªßÛ¯USÂø\
ysh¨£k® {PÌÄ £›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ GÚ¨£k®.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®
(34)
__
£›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ Gs :
(Áøµ¯øÓ) :
_¸Ò JßÔÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® J¸ Â|õiUS J¸ B®¤¯º GßÓ
ÃuzvÀ ©õÖ®ö£õÊx ©ØöÓõ¸ _¸ÎÀ ysh¨£k® Gvº ªßÛ¯USÂø\
GsnÍÂÀ AƸ
_¸ÒPÐUS Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ £›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ GsoØSa \©©õS®.
£›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ Gsoß A»S öíßÔ BS®.

C¸ P®¤a _¸ÒPÐUQøh÷¯ EÒÍ £›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ Gs \õº¢xÒÍ PõµoPÒ :
(i) _¸Îß £›©õn®, ÁiÁ®, _ØÖPÎß GsoUøP ©ØÖ® EÒÍP©õP¨ £¯ß£k® ö£õ¸Îß
Põ¢u Em¦SvÓß BQ¯ÁØøÓa \õº¢ux.
(ii) P®¤a _¸ÒPÒ JßÖUöPõßÖ GÆÁÍÄ A¸QÀ EÒÍÚ GߣuøÚa \õº¢ux.
ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\ø¯ E¸ÁõUS® •øÓPÒ (¯õøÁ? ): (Mar ’06)
(i) Põ¢uz yshø» (B) ©õØÖÁuß ‰»®,
(ii) _¸Ò EÒÍhUQ¯ £µ¨¤øÚ (A) ©õØÖÁuß ‰»® ©ØÖ®
(iii) Põ¢u¨¦»zøu¨ ö£õÖzx _¸Îß vø\ Aø©¨ø£ (θ) ©õØÖÁuß ‰»®
ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯UP Âø\ø¯¨ ö£Ó»õ®.

_¸Ò EÒÍh[Q¯ £µ¨ø£ ©õØÖÁuß ‰»® ªßÛ¯US Âø\ø¯z yskuÀ
(Jun’07), (Oct’07), (Oct’08), (Mar’09)
PQRS GßÓ Phzv £hzvÀ
Põmi²ÒÍ ÁiÁzvÀ ÁøÍUP¨ £mkÒÍx.
L1 M1 Gߣx l }Í•øh¯ |ÊÄ®
Phzv PQ ©ØÖ® RS GßÓ ¦¯[PÎß
«x øÁUP¨£mkÒÍx.
B GßÓ ^µõÚ Põ¢u¨¦»®
Phzv°ß
uÍzvØS
SzuõPa
ö\¯À£kQÓx.
|ÊÄ® Phzv dt Põ» AÍÂÀ dx
öuõø»Ä |P¸QÓx. Phzv EÒÍhUS®
£µ¨¤À ©õÖ£õk L2L1M1M2 BS®.
£µ¨¤À ©õÖ£õk,
dA = l dx
Põ¢u¨£õ¯ ©õØÓ®,
BÚõÀ

d φ = B.dA = B l dx

e =−


dt

e =−
e

CvÀ v Gߣx |ÊÄ® Phzv |P¸® vø\÷ÁP® BS®.

B  dx
dt

=

B  v

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

          
          
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(35)

__

Põ¢u¨¦»zvß _¸Îß vø\¯ø©¨ø£ ©õØÖÁuß ‰»® ªßÛ¯US Âø\ø¯z
ysk® •øÓø¯ ÂÁ› :
(June’08), (Oct’09), (Mar10), (Jun’10)
PQRS Gߣx N _ØÖPøͲ® A SÖUS¨
£µ¨ø£²® öPõsh ö\ÆÁP ÁiÁ P®¤a _¸Ò
BS®. Cx B GßÓ ^µõÚ Põ¢u¨ ¦»zvÀ
øÁUP¨£mkÒÍx.
C¢uU P®¤a _¸Ò, Põ¢u¨¦»zvØS ö\
[SzuõP
Aø©¢u
Aaø\¨£ØÔ
ω
GßÓ
÷Põnzvø\÷ÁPzxhß
Á»g_ȯõP
_ÇØÓ¨£kQÓx.
öuõhUPzvÀ P®¤a _¸Ò ö\[SzuõÚ {ø»°À EÒÍx GÚU öPõshõÀ _¸Îß SzxU÷Põk Põ
¢u¨¦»zxhß HØ£kzx® ÷Põn® _È BS®.

t GßÓ Põ»zvÀ _¸ÍõÚx

(θ = ω t)
_¸Ðhß öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ¢u¨£õ¯® φ GÛÀ ,

÷Põn®

_ÇØÓ¨£kQÓx.

A¨÷£õx

φ = NBA cos θ
ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\,

e =−


dt

d
Cos (ωt )
dt
∴ e = N B A ωSin ωt − − − − − − − − −(1)
∴ e =−N B A

ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\°ß ö£¸© ©v¨¦
E0 = NABω
GÚ÷Á ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\
e = E0 sin ωt
• Põ»® t I¨ ö£õÖzx ysh¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\ e ¯õÚx Aø» ÁiÁzvÀ ©õÖQÓx.
Auß AvºöÁs ν _ØÖPÒ / ÂÚõi BS®.
(i) ωt = 0 GßÓ {ø»°À, _¸Îß uÍ®, B GßÓ Põ¢u¨¦»zvØS SzuõP EÒÍx.
GÚ÷Á e = 0.
(ii) ωt = π/2 GßÓ {ø»°À, _¸Îß uÍ®, B GßÓ Põ¢u¨¦»zvØS Cøn¯õP EÒÍx
GÚ÷Á e = E0.
(iii) ωt = π GßÓ {ø»°À, _¸Îß uÍ®, B GßÓ Põ¢u¨¦»zvØS ö\[÷PõnzvÀ EÒÍx
GÚ÷Á
e = 0.
(iv) ωt = 3π/2 GßÓ {ø»°À _¸Îß uÍ® «sk® Põ¢u¨¦»zvØS Cøn¯õP EÒÍx.
GÚ÷Á e = -Eo.
(v) ωt = 2π GßÓ {ø»°À, _¸Îß }Í® «sk® B GßÓ Põ¢u¨¦»zvØS ö\[SzuõP EÒÍx.

GÚ÷Á e = 0.

_¸Îß •øÚPÒ R GßÓ ªßuøh ‰»©õP ¦Óa_ØÖhß CønUP¨£k® ö£õÊx
Aa_ØÔÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh•® ø\ß ÁøÍ÷PõhõP Aø©²®.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
__

4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®

(36)

J¸ Pmh AC ªßÛ¯ØÔ : (Mar’07), (Jun’07), (Oct’07), (Mar’08)
C¯¢vµ BØÓø» ªßÚõØÓ»õP ©õØÓ EuÄ® P¸Â ac ªßÛ¯ØÔ¯õS®.
uzxÁ®:
P®¤a _¸Ò JßÖ ^µõÚ Põ¢u¨¦»zvÀ _ÇØÓ¨£k®
÷£õx AvÀ ªßÛ¯US Âø\ ysh¨£k® GßÓ ªßPõ¢uz
yshÀ uzxÁzvß Ai¨£øh°À ªßÛ¯ØÔ ö\¯À£kQÓx.

AC ªßÛ¯ØÔ°ß Aø©¨¦:
(i) _ÇÀ _¸Ò
_ÇÀ _¸Ò Gߣx uPkPÍõÀ BÚ ÷uÛ¸®¦ EÒÍPzvß
«x

AvP

GsoUøP°À

ªßPõ¨¦øh¯

uõªµU

P®¤¯õÀ

_ØÓ¨£mh ö\ÆÁP ÁiÁ P®¤a _¸Ò BS®.
(ii) ¦»U Põ¢u®
vÓß SøÓ¢u øhÚ÷©õÂÀ J¸ {ø»¯õÚ Põ¢uzvß
‰»® ÷uøÁ¯õÚ Põ¢u¨¦»® E¸ÁõUP¨£kQÓx. AvP vÓß öPõsh øhÚ÷©õÂÀ ªßPõ¢u®
£¯ß£kzu¨£kQÓx.
(iii) |ÊÄ Áøͯ[PÒ
_ÇÀ _¸Îß Cµsk •øÚPЮ R1 ©ØÖ® R2 GßÓ Cµsk EÒÏhØÓ E÷»õP Áøͯ[PÐhß
CønUP¨£mkÒÍÚ. C¢u Áøͯ[PÒ _ÇÀ_¸Îß Aa_hß ö£õ¸zu¨ £mkÒÍuõÀ _ÇÀ _¸Ðhß ÷\º¢x
|ÊÄ Áøͯ[PЮ _ÇÀQßÓÚ.
(iv) y›øPPÒ
B1 ©ØÖ® B2 Gß£Ú Cµsk ö|QÌÄz ußø©²øh¯ E÷»õPz uPkPÒ AÀ»x Põº£ß
y›øPPÒ BS®. y›øPPÒ, |ÊÄ Áøͯ[PÐhß Cøn¨ø£ HØ£kzxQßÓÚ.
y›øPPÒ, _ÇÀ _¸ÎÀ E¸ÁõS® ªß÷Úõmhzøu |ÊÄ Áøͯ[PÒ ÁȯõP öÁÎa_ØÔÀ ö\À»
EuÄQßÓÚ.
÷Áø» ö\´²® Âu®
Põ¢u¨¦»zjpy; P®¤a _¸Îß vø\¯ø©¨¦
©õÖ® ÷£õx _¸÷Íõk öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ¢u¨
£õ¯®
©õÖQÓx.
AuÚõÀ,
P®¤a_¸ÎÀ
ªßÛ¯USÂø\ ysh¨£kQÓx.
_ÇÀ _¸Ò ABCD öuõhUPzvÀ ö\[SzuõÚ
{ø»°À EÒÍx. Cx Chg_ȯõP _ÇØÓ¨£kQÓx.
_¸Îß AB GßÓ £Sv RÌ÷|õUQ²® DC GßÓ £Sv
÷©À÷|õUQ²® |P¸®.
L¤öͪ[ Á»x øP Âv °ß£i AB GßÓ ¦¯zvÀ ysh¨£k® ªß÷Úõmh® B °¼¸¢x A
US®, CD °À ysh¨£mh ªß÷Úõmh® D °¼¸¢x CUS® £õ²®. GÚ÷Á P®¤a _¸ÎÀ
ªß÷Úõmh® DCBA GßÓ vø\°À £õ²®. öÁÎa_ØÔÀ ªß÷Úõmh® B1 ¼¸¢x B2US £õ²®.

_ÇÀ _¸Ò ÷©¾® _ÇØÓ¨£k®÷£õx, _¸Îß ¦¯® AB ÷©À ÷|õUQ²® DC RÌ÷|
õUQ²® |P¸®. C¨÷£õx, _ÇÀ _¸ÎÀ ªß÷Úõmh® ABCD GßÓ vø\°À £õ²®. öÁÎa_ØÔÀ
ªß÷Úõmh® B2 ¼¸¢x B1US £õ²®. ªß÷Úõmh®, _¸Îß JÆöÁõ¸ Aøµa _ØÖUS® uß
vø\ø¯ ©õØÔU öPõs÷h C¸US®.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
__
_ÇÀ _¸Ò J¸ ÂÚõi°À ν _ÇØ]PøÍ •iUS©õÚõÀ ν _ØÖPÒ / Â|õi AvºöÁs öPõsh
©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh® E¸ÁõUP¨£k®.
G¢u J¸ Pnzv¾® ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\
e = E0 sin ωt
ªßÛ¯US Âø\°ß ö£¸© ©v¨¦
(37)

CvÀ

E0= NBAω
N Gߣx _¸ÎÀ EÒÍ _ØÖPÎß GsoUøP
A Gߣx _¸Ò EÒÍh[S® £µ¨£ÍÄ
B Gߣx Põ¢u¨£õ¯® ©ØÖ®
ω Gߣx _¸Îß ÷Põnzvø\÷ÁP©õS®.

_ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh[PÒ : (÷£õPõÀm ªß÷Úõmh®): (Mar’09)
E÷»õPU Pmi JßÖ Põ¢u¨¦»zvÀ C¯[S® ö£õÊx E÷»õPU Pmi°ÝÒ ªß÷Úõmh®
ysh¨£kQÓx. C¢u ªß÷Úõmh®, }ºa_ÇÀ ÷£õßÓ ‰h¨£mh £õøu°À £õ´QÓx. GÚ÷Á,
CÆÁøP ªß÷Úõmh® _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõm h® GÚ AøÇUP¨£kQÓx.

_ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmhzvß £¯ßPÒ:

(Mar’07), (Mar’09)

(i) Aø»Â»õ PõÀÁÚõ «mhº:
J¸ PõÀÁÚõ «mhº ÁÈ÷¯ ªß÷Úõmhzøua ö\¾zvÚõÀ P®¤a_¸Ò
Aø»ÄÖ®.
EhÚi¯õP Aø»ÄPøÍ {Özu P®¤U _¸ÍõÚx J¸ E÷»õPa \mhzvß «x _ØÓ¨£kQÓx. P®¤a_¸Ò
»PÀ Aøh²® ÷£õx E÷»õPa \mhzvÀ _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh[PÒ E¸ÁõS®. uØ÷£õx HÓzuõÇ
Aø»ÄPÒ EhÚi¯õP {ßÖ ÂkÁuõÀ Cx Aø»Â»õ PõÀÁÚõ «mhº GÚ¨£k®.
(ii) yshÀ Eø» :
CvÀ AvP AvºöÁs öPõsh ©õÖ® C¯À¦øh¯ Põ¢u¨¦»® E¸ÁõUP¨£kQÓx GÚ÷Á
CvÀ øÁUP¨£k® ö£õ¸ÎÀ Á¼ø©¯õÚ _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh® E¸ÁõQÓx. ªß÷Úõmhzvß öÁ¨£
ÂøÍÁõÀ E÷»õP® E¸SQÓx.
(iii) yshÀ ªß÷©õmhõºPÒ :
RoYfpd;w fhe;jg;Gyj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;l cNyhf cUisapy; cUthFk; Roy;
kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpdhy; cUis Roy njhlq;FfpwJ. Kjypy; cUisapd; Row;rp ,k;khw;wj;ij
vjph;f;fpwJ. Mdhy; fhe;jg;Gyj;jpd; Row;rp njhlh;tjhy; cNyhf cUis njhlh;e;J
Roy;fpwJ. ,e;j jj;Jtj;jpd;gb ,aq;Fk; Nkhl;lhh; kpd;tprpwpfspy; gad;gLfpwJ.
(iv) ªßPõ¢uz uøhPÒ :
Cµ°À Ási°ß \UPµ[PÐhß J¸ EÒÏhØÓ E÷»õP E¸øÍ CønUP¨£mkÒÍx. Cµ°À Ási
C¯UPzvÀ
EÒÍ÷£õx \UPµzxhß E¸øͲ® ÷\º¢x _Ǿ®. uøhø¯ ö\¯À£kzx®÷£õx
Á¼ø©¯õÚ Põ¢u¨¦»® E¸ÁõUP¨£mk E¸øÍ°À _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh[PÒ E¸ÁõUP¨£kQßÓÚ. C
¢u _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh[PÒ E¸øÍ°ß C¯UPzøu GvºUS®. GÚ÷Á, Cµ°À Ási K´Ä {ø»US
Á¸QÓx.

(v) ÷ÁP® Põmk® P¸Â :
,jpy; thfdj;jpd; Ntfj;jpw;F Vw;g fhe;jk; xd;W Roy;fpwJ. ,e;jf; fhe;jkhdJ>
FwpKs; nghUj;jg;gl;l xU mYkpdpa cUisapDs; Roy;fpwJ. vdNt mYkpdpa cUisapy;
Roy; kpd;Ndhl;lq;fs; cUthFk;. ,e;j kpd;Ndhl;lq;fs; RoYk; fhe;jj;jpd; ,af;fj;ij
vjph;f;fpd;wd. ,jd; fhuzkhf> cUisapd; kPJ xU jpUg;Gtpir Vw;gLfpwJ.
,e;jj;
jpUg;GtpirahdJ thfdj;jpd; Ntfj;jpw;F Vw;g miktjhy;> FwpKs;; fhl;Lk; msT>
thfdj;jpd; Ntfj;ijf; fhl;Lk;.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
__

4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®

(38)

ªß©õØÔ°ß Aø©¨¦ ©ØÖ® öPõÒøPø¯ ÂÍUS. ªß©õØÔ°À HØ£k® vÓß
CǨ¦PøÍ ÂÍUS: (Mar’06), (Jun’10)
SøÓ¢u ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzuzøu AvP ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzu©õPÄ®, AvP ©õÖvø\
ªßÚÊzuzøu SøÓ¢u ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzu©õPÄ® ©õØÓ EuÄ® ªß\õuÚ® ªß©õØÔ
GÚ¨£kQÓx.
ªß©õØÔ°ß uzxÁ® :
ªß©õØÔ¯õÚx ªßPõ¢uz yshÀ uzxÁzvß Ai¨£øh°À ö\¯À£kQÓx.
Aø©¨¦
:
ªß©õØÔ°À
÷uÛ¸®¦ EÒÍPzvß «x _ØÓ¨£mh JßÖhß JßÖ ªßöuõhº¦ AØÓ •ußø© ©ØÖ® xøna
_¸ÒPÒ EÒÍÚ. (_ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh[PøÍU SøÓUP ö©À¼¯ uPkPÎÚõÀ BÚ ÷uÛ¸®¦ EÒÍP®
£¯ß£kzu¨£kQÓx.)
ÂÍUP®:
©õÖvø\ EÒÏk ªßÚÊzu® •ußø©a_¸ÐUS uµ¨£kQÓx. •ußø©a_¸ÎÀ öuõhº¢x
©õØÓ©øh¢x öPõs÷h C¸US® ªß÷Úõmh®, ©õÖ£k® Põ¢u¨£õ¯zøu •ußø©a _¸ÎÀ
EshõUS®. Cx xøna _¸Î¾® Põ¢u¨£õ¯ ©õØÓzøu HØ£kzx®. CuÚõÀ xøna _¸ÎÀ
ªßÛ¯USÂø\ ysh¨£kQÓx.
EP
©ØÖ® ES Gß£Ú •øÓ÷¯ •ußø© ©ØÖ® xøna _¸ÒPÎÀ ysh¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\PÒ
GÚÄ®, NP ©ØÖ® NS Gß£Ú •øÓ÷¯ •ußø© ©ØÖ® xøna _¸ÒPÎÀ EÒÍ _ØÖPÎß
GsoUøP GÚÄ® öPõÒ÷Áõ®.
•ußø© ©ØÖ® xøna _¸ÒPÐhß J÷µ AÍÄ Põ¢u¨£õ¯® öuõhº¦ öPõskÒÍuõÀ Cµsk
_¸ÒPξ® _ØÖ JßÔØPõÚ ysh¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\ \©©õP C¸UP ÷Ásk®.
AuõÁx

E
EP
= S
NP
NS
EP
N
= P
ES
NS

AÀ»x

− − − − − − (1)

J¸ |À¼¯À¦ ªß©õØÔ :US EÒÏk ªßvÓÝ® öÁΰk ªßvÓÝ® \©®.
Ep Ip = Es Is
CvÀ Ip ©ØÖ® Is Gß£Ú •ußø© ©ØÖ® xøna _¸ÒPÎÀ ªß÷Úõmh[PÒ BS®.
AuõÁx

ES
I
= P
EP
IS

− − − − − − (2)

\©ß£õkPÒ (1) ©ØÖ® (2) ¼¸¢x
ES
N
I
= S = P =k
EP
NP
IS

CvÀ k Gߣx ªß©õØÔ ÂQu® GÚ¨£kQÓx.

HØÖ ªß©õØÔ :
SøÓ¢u ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzuzøu E¯º¢u ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzu©õP ©õØÖ® Aø©¨¦
HØÖ ªß©õØÔ GÚ¨£k®. ( k > 1)
CÓUS ªß©õØÔ :
E¯º¢u ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzuzøu SøÓ¢u ©õÖvø\ ªßÚÊzu©õP ©õØÖ® Aø©¨¦
CÓUS ªß©õØÔ GÚ¨£k®. (k < 1)
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(39)
__
HØÖ ªß©õØÔ, CÓUS ªß©õØÔ - ÷ÁÖ£õk :
Gs
1

HØÖ ªß©õØÔ
öÁαk ªßÚÊzuzøu AvP›UQÓx.

CÓUS ªß©õØÔ
öÁαk ªßÚÊzuzøu SøÓUQÓx.

2

öÁαk ªß÷ÚõmhzøuU SøÓUQÓx

öÁαk ªß÷ÚõmhzøuU
AvP›UQÓx.

3

xøna_¸ÎÀ _ØÖUPÒ AvP®
N2 > N1

xøna_¸ÎÀ _ØÖUPÒ SøÓÄ
N2 < N1

4

ªß©õØÔ ÂQu® k > 1

ªß©õØÔ ÂQu® k < 1

ªß ©õØÔ°ß £¯ÝÖ vÓß :
ªß ©õØÔ°ß £¯ÝÖ vÓß Gߣx öÁαk vÓÝUS® EÒÏk vÓÝUS® EÒÍ uPÄ GÚ
Áøµ¯ÖUP¨£kQÓx.

ªß©õØÔ°À HØ£k® vÓß CǨ¦PÒ : (Mar’06), (June’06), (Oct’06), (Oct’09)
(1) u¯UP CǨ¦ :
EÒÏk ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh®, C¸®¦ EÒÍPzøu v¸®£z v¸®£ Põ¢u©õUSÁuõ¾®,
Põ¢uzußø©ø¯ CÇUPa ö\´Áuõ¾® HØ£k® vÓß CǨ¦ u¯UP CǨ¦ GÚ¨£k®. ª³ö©mhÀ
©ØÖ® ]¼UPß ìjÀ ÷£õßÓ P»¨¦ E÷»õP[Pøͨ £¯ß£kzv u¯UP CǨø£U SøÓUP»õ®.
(2) uõªµ CǨ¦ :
•ußø© ©ØÖ® xøna _ØÖPÎÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® áüÀ öÁ¨£ÂøÍøÁ HØ£kzx®.
GÚ÷Á, ]Ôx BØÓÀ, öÁ¨£ BØÓÀ ÁiÂÀ CÇUP¨£kQÓx. SøÓ¢u AÍÄ ªßuøh öPõsh
ui©ÚõÚ P®¤PøÍ £¯ß£kzxÁuß ‰»® CzuøP¯ CǨø£U SøÓUP»õ®.

(3) _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh CǨ¦ (C¸®¦ CǨ¦) :
©õÖ£k® Põ¢u¨£õ¯®, EÒÍPzvÀ _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmhzøu HØ£kzxQÓx. CuÚõÀ,
BØÓÀ CǨ¦ öÁ¨£ ÁiÂÀ HØ£kQÓx. GLQß P»¨¦ E÷»õP©õÚ ìöhÀ»õ´ GßÓ E÷»õPU
P»øÁ¯õÀ E¸ÁõUP¨£mh ö©À¼¯ uPkPÎÚõÀ EÒÍPzøu Aø©¨£uß ‰»® C¢u CǨø£U
SøÓUP»õ®.
(4) £õ¯ CǨ¦ :
•ußø©a _¸ÎÀ E¸ÁõS® Põ¢u¨£õ¯® •ÊÁx®, £õ¯U P]Âß Põµn©õP, xøna _¸Ðhß
öuõhº¦ öPõÒÁvÀø». Cx BØÓÀ CǨø£ HØ£kzxQÓx. TkÁøP EÒÍPzøu¨ £¯ß£kzxÁß
‰»® CzuøP¯ CǨø£U SøÓUP»õ®.

(5) J¼ BØÓÀ CǨ¦ :
EÒÍPzvß AvºÄPÒ Põµn©õP HØ£k® J¼ BØÓÀ CǨ¦ HØ£kQÓx.

khWjpir kpd;dpaf;F tpir vd;why; vd;d?:
RUspy; J}z;lg;gLk; kpd;dpaf;F tpir vz; kjpg;gpYk;> jpirapYk; fhyj;ijg; nghWj;J
khwpf;nfhz;Nl ,Ug;gjhy; ,J khWjpir kpd;dpaf;F tpir vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
rpwg;G mk;rk;:
i)

kpd;khw;wpfisg; gad;gLj;jp trjpf;F Vw;g khWjpir kpd;dpaf;F tpiria Fiwe;j
kpd;dOj;jkhfNth my;yJ mjpf kpd;dOj;jkhfNth khw;w ,aYk;>

ii)

Roy;RUspd; Row;rp Ntfj;ij khw;Wtjd; %yk; mjd; mjph;ntz; kjpg;ig khw;wKbAk;.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
__

4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®

(40)

gad;ghLfs;:
(i) ,e;jpahtpy; tPLfSf;F gad;gLk; khWjpir kpd;jpwdpd; mjph;ntz; 50Hz MFk;
(ii) njhiyf;fhl;rp xspgug;gpy; xyp kw;Wk; fhl;rpf;fhd iriffis mDg;gg; gad;gLk;

khWjpir kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpd; mjph;ntz;fs; 100 KHz Kjy; 100 MHz tiu ,Uf;Fk;.
Fwpg;G : xU KOr;Rw;Wf;fhd khWjpir kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpd; ruhrhp kjpg;G
RopahFk;.

©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmhzvß RMS ©v¨¦ (£¯ÝÖ©v¨¦) \©ß£õku¸Â.: (July’07),
(Oct’09)
RMS ©v¨¦: Áøµ¯Ö :©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh©õÚx J¸ ªßuøh¯õUQ JßÔß ÁȯõP
SÔ¨¤mh ÷|µ® £õ²®ö£õÊx E¸ÁõUS® öÁ¨£ BØÓø», A÷u ÷|µzvÀ A÷u ªßuøh°À
E¸ÁõUS® ©õÓõu ÷|ºªß÷Úõmhzvß ©v¨¦,
©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmhzvß ©v¨¦ rms ©v¨¦
BS®.
I = I0 sin ωt
GßÓ ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh® ªßuøh R
ÁȯõP¨ £õ²®÷£õx (dt) Põ»zvÀ E¸ÁõUS®
öÁ¨£®
dH = i2 R dt
J¸ •Êa _ØÖUS ªßuøh°À E¸ÁõS®
ö©õzu öÁ¨£®

H =

I 2 RT
2

C¢u öÁ¨£©õÚx, A÷u ªßuøh¯õUQ°À A÷u Põ»zvÀ ªß÷Úõmhzvß ©v¨¦
E¸ÁõUS® Á¨£zvØSa \©®.
2
H =I rms
RT

∴ I rms =

I0
2

ªßuøh¯õUQ ©mk® Eøh¯ AC _ØÖ:
R ªßuøh²øh¯
ªßuøh¯õUQ²hß J¸ ©õÖvø\
ªßÛ¯US Âø\‰»®
CønUP¨£mkÒÍx.
ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\

e = Eo sin ωt ...........(1)
t GßÓ Põ»zvÀ, _ØÔÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® i.
ªßuøh¯õUQ°ß, SÖU÷P ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk
e =iR
ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk, ö\¾zu¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\USa \©®.
GÚ÷Á,
i R = Eo sin ωt
E
∴ I = 0 sin ωt
R
i = Io sin ωt ...,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,(2)
• \©ß£õkPÒ (1) ©ØÖ® (2) ¼¸¢x ªßÚÊzu•®, ªß÷Úõmh•® J÷µ PmhzvÀ
EÒÍÚ.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

          
     

12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(41)

__

ªßysi ©mk÷© Eøh¯ AC _ØÖ: (Mar’06) , (Mar’08), (OCT ’08)
• J¸ ©õÖvø\ ªßÛ¯US Âø\, L GßÓ y¯ ªßysiUS uµ¨£kQÓx.
• ªßysiUS ©õÖvø\ ªßÛ¯US Âø\ AÎUP¨ £kÁuõÀ
ö\¾zu¨£k® ªßÚÊzuzøu GvºUPUTi¯ uߪß
yshÀ ªßÛ¯US Âø\, AvÀ E¸ÁõUP¨£kQÓx.
• G¢u J¸ Pnzv¾® ö\¾zu¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\
e = Eo sin ωt ..........(1)
yshÀ ªßÛ¯US Âø\
e =− L

di
dt

CvÀ L Gߣx P®¤a _¸Îß ußªß yshÀ Gs BS®. J¸ |À»
ªßysiUS ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\,
e = - e´
∴E 0 sin (ωt ) =L

di
dt

E0
sin( ωt ) dt
L
E
i = 0 ∫ sin( ωt ) dt
L
π
i =I 0 sin( ωt − )
di =

2

CvÀ

I0

E
= 0
ωL

C[S ωL Gߣx P®¤a_¸Ò u¸® ªßuøh BS®. Cx ªß
ysi°ß ªß ©Ö¨¦
GÚ AøÇUP¨£kQÓx. Cuß A»S Ohm BS®.
\©ß£õkPÒ (1) ©ØÖ® (2)¼¸¢x, ªß÷Úõmh® ªßÚÊzuzøu Âh π/2 Pmh AÍÂÀ
¤ßu[Q C¸US® Gߣx öuÎÁõQÓx.
ªßysi°ß ªß ©Ö¨¦ GßÓõÀ GßÚ?
XL = ωL = 2π ν L, Gߣx P®¤a_¸Ò u¸® ªßuøh BS®. Cx ªß ysi°ß ªß ©Ö¨¦ GÚ
AøÇUP¨£kQÓx. Cuß A»S Ohm BS®. CvÀ ν Gߣx ö\¾zu¨£k® a.c ªßÚÊzuzvß
AvºöÁs BS®.
( ÷|ºvø\ ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS
ν = 0; .
XL = 0
CÆÁõÓõP
y¯ ªßysi ÷|ºvø\ ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS _È ªßuøhø¯ öPõkUS®. BÚõÀ a.c. _ØÔÀ P®¤a _¸Îß
ªß ©Ö¨¦ AvºöÁsøn¨ ö£õÖzx AvP›US®.)

ªß÷uUQ ©mk÷© EÒÍ AC _ØÖ: (10 Mark) (OCT ’06)
©õÖvø\ ªßÛ¯US Âø\‰»®, C GßÓ ªß÷uUQ°ß SÖU÷P CønUP¨£kQÓx.
G¢u J¸ Pnzv¾®, ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\
e = Eo sin ωt ……..(1)
G¢u J¸ Pnzv¾®, ªß÷uUQ°ß SÖU÷P EÒÍ ªßÚÊzu ÷ÁÖ£õk
e=

q
C

i=

dq
dt

BÚõÀ

i=

d
( C E 0 sin ωt )
dt

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G
TEACHER IN PHYSICS, GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®
__
π
∴ i = I 0 sin( ωt + )

(42)

2

E0
I0 =
(1 / ωC )

ªß÷Úõmh©õÚxªßÚÊzuzøuÂh π/2 Pmh AÍÂÀ •¢v C¸US®.
ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß©Ö¨¦ GßÓõÀ GßÚ? J¸ ªß÷uUQ ÷|ºvø\
ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS
•i»õ
ªßuøhø¯z
u¸®.
XC =

1

ωC

1
=
2 πνC

Hß?

ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß©Ö¨¦ Gߣx

ªß÷uUQ u¸® ªßuøh BS®.
Cx ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß©Ö¨¦ GÚ¨£kQÓx.
Cuß
A»S
K®.
CvÀ
ν
Gߣx
a.c.
‰»zvß
AvºöÁs
BS®.
÷|ºªß÷Úõmh _ØÔÀ
ν = 0 : XC =∞
GÚ÷Á, J¸ ªß÷uUQ ÷|ºvø\ ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS •i»õ ªßuøhø¯z u¸®.
(4.31) DC A®«mhº ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmhzøu AÍÂhõx. Hß? (Oct’07)
*DC A®«mhº ªß÷Úõmhzvß \µõ\› ©v¨ø£÷¯ AÍÂk®.
*©õÖvø\ ªß÷ÚõmhzvÀ J¸ •Êa_ØÖUS ªß÷Úõmhzvß \µõ\›©v¨¦ _ȯõS®.
GÚ÷Á DC A®«mhº _È©v¨ø£÷¯ Põmk®.
*÷©¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh® uß vø\ø¯ ©õØÔUöPõÒЮ ÷ÁPzvÀ DC
A®«mh›ß SÔ•Ò Aø»ÄÓ C¯»õx.

kpd;jilahf;fp> kpd;J}z;b kw;Wk; kpd;Njf;fp Mfpait njhlh; ,izg;gpy;
(RLC njhlh; Rw;W): (June ’06), (Jun’09)
kpd;jil R cs;s kpd;jilahf;fp> kpd;J}z;ly; vz; L nfhz;l kpd;J}z;b kw;Wk;
kpd;Njf;Fj;
jpwd;
C
nfhz;l
kpd;Njf;fp Mfpatw;NwhL e vd;w
kpd;dpaf;F
tpirAila
khWjpir
kpd;dpaf;F
tpir
%yk;
njhlhpizg;gpy; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
Rw;wpy; ghAk; kpd;Ndhl;lk; I
vdf; nfhs;Nthk;.
kpd;jilf;F FWf;Nf cs;s
kpd;dOj;j NtWghL

VR = I R (,J I-Ald; XNu fl;lj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;)

kpd;J}z;bf;F FWf;Nf cs;s
kpd;dOj;j NtWghL

VL = I XL (,J I-I tpl

π
2

fl;lk; Ke;jp ,Uf;Fk;)

kpd;Njf;fpf;F FWf;Nf cs;s

VC = I XC (,J I-I tpl

kpd;dOj;j NtWghL

π
2

fl;lk; gpe;jp ,Uf;Fk;.)

VL kw;Wk; VC ,itfSf;fpilNa cs;s fl;l NtWghL 180°.
VL kw;Wk; VC d; njhFgad; = VL – VC
nray;gLj;jg;gLk; kpd;dOj;jk; V MdJ> VR, VL kw;Wk; VC
Mfpatw;wpd; ntf;lh; $LjYf;F rkk;.
/OB2 = OA2 + AB2
2
V 2 = VR2 + ( VL − VC )

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(43)

__
V = ( I R) 2 + ( I XL - I XC ) 2
V = Ι R 2 + (XL
Z =

V
=
Ι

R 2 + ( XL

XC ) 2

XC )

2

 (1)

 (2)

,q;F Z vd;gJ RLC Rw;wpd; kpd;-vjph;g;G vdg;gLk;.
kpd;dOj;jj;jpw;Fk;> kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s fl;l Nfhzk;

tan φ =

V L − VC IX L − IX C
X − XC
=
= L
VR
IR
R
X L − X C 

R

φ = tan −1 

∴ i = I0 sin (ω t ± φ)
vd;gJ
ve;j
xU
fzj;jpYk;
Rw;wpy;
ghAk;
kpd;Ndhl;lkhFk;.
Jzvø\Ä:
÷Põn AvºöÁsoß J¸ SÔ¨¤mh ©v¨¤ØS Aø©²®. AuõÁx I, V²hß J÷µ PmhzvÀ
C¸US®. ªßöÚvº¨¦ ]Ö©©õPÄ®, ªß÷Úõmh® ö£¸©©õPÄ® C¸US®. ö£¸©
ªß÷Úõmhzøu AÝ©vUS® CzuøP¯ {PÌÄ Jzvø\ Ä GÚ¨£k®
xj;jpirT mjph;ntz; (ν0)
ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l mjph;ntz;Zf;F Rw;wpd; kpd;ndjph;g;G rpWkkhfTk;>
kpd;Ndhl;lk; ngUkkhfTk; khWNkh me;j mjph;ntz; xj;jpirT mjph;ntz; vdg;gLk;.
ν0 =

1
2π LC

Vw;gpr; Rw;W: (xj;jpirT Rw;W):
kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpw;F Fiwe;j kpd;ndjph;g;ig jUtjd; %yk; gy mjph;ntz;fspypUe;J xU
Fwpg;gpl;l mjph;ntz;iz cldbahf Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; njhlh; xj;jpirT Rw;W Vw;gpr; Rw;W
vdg;gLk;.
gad; : NubNah kw;Wk; njhiyfhl;rp Vw;gpfspy; gad;gLfpwJ.

Q – fhuzp my;yJ juf;fhuzp : (Oct’06)
Q – fhuzpahdJ fk;gpr; RUs; my;yJ kpd;Njf;fpapd; FWf;Nf cs;s kpd;dOj;j

NtWghl;bw;Fk;> nrYj;jg;gLk; kpd;dOj;jj;jpw;Fk; cs;s jfT vd tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ.
Q=

L my;yJ

Q=

C d; FWf;Nf cs; s kpd;
dOj; jk;
nrYj; jg; gLk; kpd;
dOj; jk;

1
R

L
C

(myF

,y;iy).

A.C. kpd;Rw;wpd; jpwd; tiuaW:
ve;j xU fzj;jpYk; AC kpd;Rw;wpd; jpwd; vd;gJ> mf;fzj;jpy; kpd;dpaf;F

tpirf;Fk;>
Rw;wpy;
tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ.

ghAk;

kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpw;Fk;

Pav = E rms . I rms ×

cs;s

ngUf;fy;

gyd;

vd

cosφ

Pav = Njhw;wj;jpwd; x jpwd; fhuzp
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®
__
jpwd; fhuzp tiuaW
vÓß Põµo =

(44)

\ µõ\› vÓß
÷uõØÓ
vÓß

milg;Gr; RUs;: (June’08)
AC

kpd;Rw;wpy; kpd;Ndhl;lj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j gad;gLk; Fiwe;j kpd;jil nfhz;l

fk;gpr;RUs;.
AF

milg;Gr; RUs;

milg;Gr; RUs;
cah; mjph;ntz; my;yJ NubNah
mjph;ntz; Rw;Wfspy;
gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
RF

1.

Fiwe;j mjph;ntz; Rw;Wfspy;
gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

2.

NjdpUk;G cs;sfj;ij ngw;Ws;sJ.

fhw;W cs;sfj;ij ngw;Ws;sJ.

3.

mjpf kpd;J}z;ly; vz; nfhz;lJ.

Fiwe;j kpd;J}z;ly; vz; nfhz;lJ.

(G.Põ : 4.4) J¸ _¸ÎÀ £õ²® 4A ªß÷Úõmh® 0.5 S Põ»zvÀ 8A BP ©õÖ®÷£õx
©ØöÓõ¸ _¸ÎÀ 50 mV ªßÛ¯US Âø\ ysh¨£kQÓx GÛÀ, AƸ _¸ÒPÐUQøh÷¯
EÒÍ £›©õØÖ ªßyshÀ GsønU PnUQkP. (Mar’06)
e = −M

dI
dt

∴M = −

e
e
=−
=−
 dI 
 I 2 − I1 
 


 dt 
 dt 

50 x 10 −3
= − 6 . 25 x 10 −3 = 6 . 25 x 10 −3 henry
8 −4 


 0.4 

1. ªßPõ¢uz yshÀ £¯ß£kzu¨£hõux.....

(BB), (Mar’06),(Jun’07), (Mar’08), (Jun’08), (Oct’08)
(a) ªß©õØÔ
(b) AøÓ `÷hØÔ
(c) AC ªßÛ¯ØÔ

(d) Aøh¨¦a _¸Ò

2. 0.5 m2 £µ¨£ÍøÁ²® 10 _ØÖPøͲ® öPõsh J¸ P®¤a _¸Îß uÍ® 0.2 Wb/m2 Põ¢u¨

¦»zvØS SzuõP EÒÍ÷£õx P®¤a _¸Îß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²® Põ¢u¨£õ¯®... (BB)
(a) 100 Wb
(b) 10 Wb
(c) 1 Wb
(d) _È

3. 0.5 m2 £µ¨£ÍøÁ²® 10 _ØÖPøͲ® öPõsh J¸ P®¤a _¸Îß uÍ® 0.2 Wb/m2 Põ¢u¨

¦»zvØS Cøn¯õP EÒÍ÷£õx P®¤a _¸Îß ÁÈ÷¯ £õ²® Põ¢u¨£õ¯®... (Mar’10)
(a) 100 Wb
(b) 10 Wb
(c) 1 Wb
(d) _È
4. ö»ßì Âv ________Âv°ß Ai¨£øh°»õÚx (BB), (Mar’07) , (Mar’08)

(a) ªßÞmh AÈÂßø© (b) £õ¯ AÈÂßø©

(c) E¢u AÈÂßø©

(d) BØÓÀ AÈÂßø©

5. ÷|ºUPhzv°ß uß ªß yshÀ Gs.... (BB), (Mar’07), (Mar’08), (Mar’09)

(a) _È

(b) •i¼

(c) ªP AvP®

(d) ªPÄ® ]Ô¯x

6. öíßÔ GßÓ A»QøÚ C¨£i²® GÊu»õ® (BB)

(a) Vs A -1

(b) Wb A -1

(d) AøÚzx®

(c) Ω S

7. öíßÔ GßÓ A»QøÚ C¨£i²® GÊu»õ® (Jun’06)

(a) V A s -1

(b) Wb -1 A

(d) AøÚzx®

(c) Ω S

8. J¸ P®¤a _¸ÎÀ £õ²® ªß÷Úõmh® ÂÚõiUS 40 As–1 GßÓ ÃuzvÀ©õÖ® ö£õÊx,

ysh¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\ 12 V GÛÀ, P®¤a _¸Îßußªß yshÀ Gs........ (BB)
(a) 0.3 H
(b) 0.003 H
(c) 30 H
(d) 4.8 H
9. 5A DC ªß÷Úõmh® E¸ÁõUS® A÷u AÍÄ öÁ¨£ ÂøÍøÁ E¸ÁõUS® ©õÖvø\

ªß÷Úõmhzvß AÍÄ....... (BB), (Oct’08), (Mar’09)
(a) 50 A rms ªß÷Úõmh®
(b) 5 A ö£¸© ªß÷Úõmh®
(c) 5A rms ªß÷Úõmh®
(d) ÷©ØPsh GxÄ® CÀø»

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(45)
__
10. J¸ ªßuøh¯õUQ ÁȯõP¨ £õ²® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmhzvß rms ©v¨¦ 5A. Auß ö£¸©
©v¨¦ ..... (Mar’10)
(a) 3.536 A
(b) 70.7 A
(c) 7.07 A
(d) 7 A
11. ªß©õØÔ ö\¯À£kÁx (BB), (Mar,07), (Oct’07)

(a) AC °À ©mk®
(c) AC ©ØÖ® DC °À

(b) DC °À ©mk®
(d) DC I Põmi¾® AC °À vÓ®£h ö\¯À£k® .

12. P®¤a _¸ÎÀ C¸¢x ¦Óa_ØÖUS ªß÷Úõmhzøu £õ¯a ö\´²® ©õÖvø\ ªßÛ¯ØÔ°ß

EÖ¨¦ (BB), (Mar’10)
(a) ¦»UPõ¢u® (b) ¤ÍÄ £mh Áøͯ®

(c) |ÊÄ Áøͯ[PÒ

(d) y›øPÒ

13. J¸ ©õÖvø\ ªß_ØÔÀ ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\

e = Eo sin ( ωt + π/2), I = Io sin ( ωt – π/2) GßÓ
ªß÷ÚõmhzøuÂh ..........GßÓ Pmh AÍÂÀ •¢va ö\À¾®. (BB), (Oct’06)
(a) π/2
(b)
π/4
(c) π
(d) 0
14. RÌUPshÁØÖÒ GuøÚ ªß©õØÔø¯¨ £¯ß£kzv E¯ºzu •i¯õx? (BB), (Jun’08),
(Oct’09)
(a) EÒÏk
ªß÷Úõmh®
(b) EÒÏk ªßÚÊzu®(c) EÒÏk vÓß
(d) AøÚzøu²®
15. ªß Aݨ¥mkU P®¤PÎÀ HØ£k® vÓß CǨ¦ G¨ö£õÊx SøÓÁõP C¸US®? (BB),
(Oct’07)
(a) ªßÚÊzu® SøÓÁõPÄ® ªß÷Úõmh®
AvP©õPÄ® EÒÍ÷£õx
(b)
ªßÚÊzu® ©ØÖ® ªß÷Úõmh® Cµsk® AvP©õP EÒÍ÷£õx

(c) ªßÚÊzu® AvP©õPÄ® ªß÷Úõmh® SøÓÁõPÄ® EÒÍ÷£õx
(d) ªßÚÊzu® ©ØÖ® ªß÷Úõmh® Cµsk®SøÓÁõP EÒÍ ÷£õx
16. ÷|ºvø\ ªß÷Úõmhzøu ußÁÈ÷¯ £õ¯ AÝ©vUPõu P¸Â Gx? (BB), (Jun’09),
(Mar’10)
(a)
ªßuøh
(b) ªß÷uUQ
(c) ªßysi
(d) ÷©ØPsh AøÚzx®
17. ªß÷uUQ ©mk÷© EÒÍ AC _ØÔÀ,¬ ø\øP°ß AvºöÁs _ȯõS® ÷£õx
ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß©Ö¨¦ (Jun’07)
(a) •i¼¬
(b) _È
(c) Áµ®¦ÒÍö£¸©®¬
(d) Áµ®¦ÒÍ]¸©®
18. ÷|ºvø\ ªß÷ÚõmhzvØS J¸ ªß÷uUQ°ß ªß©Ö¨¦.... (Jun’08)

(a) _ È

(b) •i¼

(c) π

(d) π/2

19. J¸ AC ªß _ØÔÀ (BB), (Mar’09)

(a) ªß÷Úõmhzvß \µõ\› ©v¨¦ _È
(b) ªß÷Úõmh[PÎß C¸©ia \µõ\› ©v¨¦ _È

(c) \µõ\› vÓß CǨ¦ _È

(d) rms ªß÷Úõmhzvß ©v¨¦, ªß÷Úõmhzvß Ea\ ©v¨ø£¨ ÷£õÀ

©h[S

20. ‰ßÖ Pmh ªßÛ¯ØÔ°À ‰ßÖ P®¤a _¸ÒPÒ EÖv¯õP JßÖhß JßÖ \õ

´¢v¸US©õÖ ÷\ºzx øÁUP¨£mkÒÍ ÷Põn AÍÄ (Oct’08)
(a) 900
(b) 1800
(c) 1200

(d) 3600

21. J¸ _ÇØ]°À (cycle) £¯ß£kzu¨£k® ¬ J¸ ac ªß _ØÔß \µõ\› ªß vÓß..... (Mar’06)

(a) Erms . Irms

(b) Erms . Irms . cos φ

(c) Erms . Irms . sin φ

(d) E0 . I0 . Cos φ

22. £µ¨¦öÁUhº A US® Auß \©uÍ® ¬A US® Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ ÷Põn®..... (Mar’06),

(Jun’09)

(a) π

(b) 2π

(c)

π
2

(d) _È
23. P®¤a _¸÷Íõk öuõhº¦ öPõsh Põ¢u¨ £õ¯® ©õÖ® Ãu®¬ 1öÁ£º/{ªh® GÛÀ

ysh¨£k® ªßÛ¯US Âø\...... (Mar’06)
(a) 1V
(b) 1/60 V

(c) 60 V

(d) 0.60 V

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
4.ªßPõ¢uz ysh¾® ©õÖvø\ ªß÷Úõmh•®
(46)
__
24. J¸¬ LCR öuõhº¬©õÖvø\ ¬ªß÷Úõmha _ØÔÀ¬ ªß÷ÚõmhzvØ-S®¬
ªßÚÊzuzvØS®¬ Cøh÷¯ EÒͬ Pmh ¬÷ÁÖ£õk¬ 30o. AÁØÔ߬ öuõS£¯ß¬
ªß©Ö¨¦ 17.32 Ω .ªßuøh°ß©v¨¦ (Jun’06)
(a) 30 Ω
(b) 10 Ω
(c) 17.32 Ω
(d) 1.732 Ω
25. J¸ P®¤a_¸ÎÀ £õ²®

ªß÷Úõmh® 2 B®¤¯›¼¸¢x¬ 6< B®¤¯¸US 0.5< ÂÚõi
÷|µzvÀ¬ ©õÖ®÷£õx ysh¨£mh ªßÛ¯US Âø\ 12 V GÛÀ P®¤a_¸Îß uß ªß
yshÀ Gs.......
(Jun’06)
(a) 1.5 H
(b) 6 H
(c) 0.3 H
(d) 30 H

26. y¯ ªßysi ©mk÷© EÒÍ AC _ØÔÀ, (Jun’06)

(a) ªßÚÊzu®, ªß÷Úõmhzøu Âh π/2 Pmh AÍÂÀ ¤ßu[Q C¸US®.
(b) ªßÚÊzu•®, ªß÷Úõmh•® J÷µ PmhzvÀ EÒÍÚ.
(c) ªßÚÊzu®, ªß÷ÚõmhzøuU Âh π Pmh AÍÂÀ •ß÷ÚõUQ C¸US®.
(d) ªß÷Úõmh® ªßÚÊzuzøu Âh π/2 Pmh AÍÂÀ ¤ßu[Q C¸US®

27. J¸¬HØÖ ªß©õØÔ°À EÒÏk ªßÚÊzu®¬ 220 V ©ØÖ® öÁΰ±k ªßÚÊzu® 11- kV

GÛÀ, ¬•usø© ©ØÖ® xøna _¸ÒPÎÀ EÒͬ_ØÖUPÎß uPÄ ................(Oct’06)
(a) 20 : 1
(b) 22 : 1
(c) 50 : 1
(d) 1 : 50
28. J¸¬HØ֪ߩõØÔ°À öÁΰ±k ªßÚÊzu®¬11- kV EÒÏk ªßÚÊzu® 220 VGÛÀ¬

xøna_¸ÎÀ¬ EÒͬ _ØÖUPÎß GsoUøPUS® •usø©a _¸ÎÀ EÒͬ _ØÖUPÎß
GsoUøPUS® EÒͬÂQu®........ (Jun’07)
(a) 20 : 1
(b) 22 : 1
(c) 50 : 1
(d) 1 : 50
29. ªßÛ¯ØÔ Âv (n[dNul;lH tpjp)GÚ¨£kÁx. (Oct’06), (Jun’07)

(a) L¤öͪ[ ChxøP Âv
(c) ÷©UìöÁÀ¼ß Á»UøP v¸S Âv

(b) L¤öͪ[ Á»xøP Âv
(d) Á»x EÒÍ[øP Âv

30. ac ªß_ØÖJßÔÀ I = Io sin ( ωt – π/2) GßÓ ªß÷Úõmh©õÚx e = Eo sin ( ωt + π/2), GßÓ

ªßÛ¯US Âø\ø¯Âh G¢u Pmh AÍÂÀ ¤ßu[Q EÒÍx ?(Oct’07)
(a) 0
(b) π/4
(c) π/2

(d) π

31. J¸ ¬LCR _ØÔÀ XL=XC GßÖ C¸US®÷£õxAu߬ªß÷Úõmh® ..... (Mar’07)

(a) _È
C¸US®
ªßÚÊzuzøuÂh ¬¤ßu[Q C¸US®

(b) ªßÚÊzuzxhß Jzu PmhzvÀ
(c) ªßÚÊzuzøuÂh ¬•ß÷ÚõUQ C¸US®

(d)

32. xU RLC njhlHRw;wpy; xj;jpirT epiyapy; (Oct’08)

(a) kpd;Ndhl;lk; rpWk kjpg;igg; ngWk; (b) kpd; vjpHg;G ngUk kjpg;igg; ngWk;
(c) kpd;Rw;W kpd;epiykj;jd;ik cilaJ (d) kpd;Ndhl;lk; kpd;dOj;jj;Jld; xNu
fl;lj;jpy; cs;sJ
33. xU RLC njhlHRw;wpy; xj;jpirT epiyapy; (Oct’09)

(a) kpd; vjpHg;G ngUk kjpg;igg; ngWkk;
ngWk;

(b) kpd;Ndhl;lk; rpWk kjpg;igg;

(c) kpd;ndjpHg;G (Z) kpd;jil R f;F rkk;

(d)

34. 50 Hz AvºöÁs¬ öPõsh¬ AC ‰»zxhß 300 mH ªßysi¬ CønUP¨£k® ÷£õx¬

HØ£k®¬ ªß©Ö¨¦ ............ (Oct’07)
(a) 1046 Ω
(b) 94.2 Ω

(c) 9420 Ω

(d) 104.6 Ω

35. 311V< ö£¸© ©v¨¦ öPõsh¬ ©õÖvø\¬ ªßÚÊzuzvß rms ©v¨¦....... (Oct’07)

(a) 110 V

(b) 220 V

(c) 50 V

36. ö\²nº AvºöÁs Aøh¨¦a _¸ÎÀ¬£¯ß£kzu¨£k®EÒÍP®..

(a) C¸®¦

(b) Põº£ß

(c) PõŸ¯®

(d) 70.7 V
(Sep’07), (Oct’09)
(d) fhw;W

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(47)
__
37. 11,000W ªßvÓß,¬ 220 V ªßÚÊzuzvÀ¬ Aݨ£¨£kQÓx¬GÛÀ Cøn¨¦U P®¤°ß
ÁÈ÷¯¬£õ²®¬ ªß÷Úõmh®...... (Mar’08)
(a) 50 A
(b) 5 A
(c) 500 A
(d) 0.5 A

38. ªß©õØÔ°À _ÇÀ ªß÷Úõmh CǨ¤øÚU SøÓ¨£uØS £¯ß£kzu¨£kÁx......(Mar’08)

(a) ª³ö©mh¼ÚõÀ E¸ÁõUP¨£mh ö©À¼¯ uPkPÎÚõÀEÒÍP®
(b) ìöhÀ»õ°ÚõÀ E¸ÁõUP¨£mh ö©À¼¯ uPkPÎÚõÀEÒÍP®
(c) TkÁøP EÒÍP®
(d) ui©ÚõÚ uõªµU P®¤PÒ
39. ªßuøh R ªßysi L ©ØÖ® ªß÷uUQ C öPõsh J¸ öuõhº _ØÔß uµUPõµo

Gߣx.... (Jun’08), (Mar’09)
(a) Q =
Q =

1
LC

(b) Q = 1

R

C
L

(c) Q = 1

R

L
C

(d)

1
LR

,e;j glq;fspy; cs;s gpiofis rhpnra;a Kaw;rpf;fyhNk!! Ngdhth! ngd;rpy;
vL!!

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
__

7.PvºÃa_ , £¸¨ö£õ¸Îß Cµmøh¨ £s¦ ,- \õº¤¯À

7. PvºÃa_ ©ØÖ® £¸¨ö£õ¸Îß Cµmøh¨ £s¦

(48)

©ØÖ® \õº¤¯À uzxÁ®
xspkpd;tpisT:
rpy cNyhfg; nghUs;fspd; kPJ γ-fjpu;fs;> X fjpu;fs;> GwCjhf;fjpu;fs;> kw;Wk;
fl;GydhFk; xsp Nghd;wit gLk; NghJ vyf;l;uhd;fs; ckpog;gLk; epfo;T xspkpd; ckpo;jy;
vdg;gLk;;;.

epWj;J kpd;dOj;jk;: (Oct’09)
xsp kpd;Ndhl;lk; RopahFkhW MNdhl;bw;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gLk; rpWk vjpu;
kpd;dOj;jk; “ntl;L kpd;dOj;jk;” my;yJ “epWj;J kpd;dOj;jk;” vdg;gLk;.

xspkpd; ckpo;jypd; tpjpfs; ( Mar’07), (Mar’09)

Fwpg;gpl;l xsp czh;jpwd; kpf;f nghUspw;F gLfjph; xspapd; nrwpT vt;tsT
mjpfkhf ,Ue;jhYk;> ve;j mjph;ntz;zpw;Ff; fPo; xspkpd; ckpo;jy; Kw;wpYk;
epd;W tpLfpwNjh> me;jr; rpWk mjph;ntz; gad; njhlf;f mjph;ntz; vdg;gLk;.

Fwpg;gpl;l xsp czh;jpwd; kpf;f nghUspw;F gad; njhlf;f mjph;ntz;zpw;F Nky;>
xsp kpd;Ndhl;lk; gLfjphpd; nrwptpw;F Neh;j;jftpy; ,Uf;Fk;.

xspkpd; ckpo;T xU cldb epfo;thFk;. nghUspd; kPJ fjph;tPr;R gLk;NghJ xsp
vyf;l;uhd; cldbahf ckpog;gLfpwJ.

xsp vyf;l;uhd;fspd; ngUk ,af;f Mw;wyhdJ. mjph;ntz;zpw;F Neh;j;jftpy; ,Uf;Fk;.
Mdhy; nrwptpidr; rhh;e;jJ my;y.

J뻧 ÂøÍÂØPõÚ Ißìjß \©ß£õmøh u¸Â: (Mar’06), (Jun’06), (Oct’09), (Jun’10)
BÀ£ºm Ißìjß SÁõsh® öPõÒøP°øÚ J뻧 ÂøÍÂØS¨ £¯ß£kzvÚõº.
Ißìjß TØÖ¨£i, £kPvºÃa]ß J¸ L÷£õmhõÝUS®, E÷»õPzvÀ EÒÍ J¸ G»UmµõÝUS®
Cøh÷¯ {PÊ® ¤ßÛ¯a ö\¯À ÂøÍÂÚõÀ JÎ G»UmµõßPÒ EªÇ¨£kQßÓÚ.
h ν BØÓÀ
öPõsh J¸ L÷£õmhõß, E÷»õPzvß £µ¨¤À ÷©õx®÷£õx, Auß BØÓÀ C¸ ÁÈPÎÀ
£¯ß£kQÓx.
(i) £kQßÓ L÷£õmhõÛß BØÓ¼ß J¸ £Sv, G»UmµõøÚ E÷»õPzvß £µ¨¤¼¸¢x
öÁÎ÷¯ØÓ¨ £¯ß£kQßÓx.
(ii)
BØÓ¼ß Gg]¯ £Sv öÁÎ÷¯Ö® G»UmµõÝUS C¯UP BØÓ»õPU öPõkUP¨£k®.
G»UmµõÛß {øÓ m GÚÄ®, vø\÷ÁP® v GÚÄ® öPõshõÀ
L÷£õmhõÛß BØÓÀ = öÁÎ÷¯ØÖ BØÓÀ + G»UmµõÛß C¯UP BØÓÀ
G»UmµõÛß C¯UP BØÓÀ CÇUP¨£hõ©À C¸¢uõÀ, (h ν –W) GßÓ •Ê
BØÓ¾® G»UmµõÛß C¯UP BØÓ»õPz ÷uõßÖ®.
GÚ÷Á (h ν–W) Gߣx öÁΨ£k® G»UmµõÛß ö£¸© C¯UP BØÓø»U
öPõkUS®.
v ö£¸©® Gߣx G»UmµõÛß ö£¸©z vø\÷ÁP® GÛÀ
Ca\©ß£õk Ißìjß JΪß
ÂøÍÂØPõÚ \©ß£õk BS®.
£kQßÓ PvºÃa]ß
AvºöÁsnõÚx (ν) E÷»õPzvß £¯ß öuõhUP AvºöÁsoØSa (νo) \©©õP C¸¢uõÀ,
G»UmµõÛß C¯UP BØÓÀ _ȯõS®.
\©ß£õk (2) I
CÆÁõÖ GÊu»õ®.
h νo = W ………(3)
W
©v¨¤øÚ \©ß£õk (2)À ¤µv°h

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(49)
__
J뻧 öÁÎ÷¯ØÖ BØÓÀ: (Mar’07)
J뻧 öÁÎ÷¯ØÖ BØÓÀ Gߣx E÷»õPzvß £µ¨¤¼¸¢x J¸ G»UmµõøÚ öÁÎ÷¯ØÓz
÷uøÁ¯õÚ ]Ö© BØÓÀ BS®.
xspkpd;fyq;fspd; gad;fs;: (June’06), (Oct’06), (Jun’07), (Mar’08), (Jun’09), (Mar’10)

jpiug;glj; Jiwapy; gjpT nra;j xypapid kPz;Lk; Vw;gLj;jg; gad;gLfpd;wd.

ciyfspd; ntg;gepiyfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jg; gad;gLfpd;wd.

njUtpsf;Ffis jhdhf ,af;f cjTfpd;wd.

fjTfisj; jhdhf jpwf;f> %l> gad;gLk; fUtpfspy; ,it cs;sd.

jpUlu; mwptpg;G kzpapYk;> jP mwptpg;G kzpapYk; ,it gad;gLfpd;wd.

jpUlu; mwptpg;G kzp:
• topapy; itf;fg;gl;l xsp kpd;fyj;jpd; kPJ Gw Cjhf;fjpu;fs; njhlh;e;J
tpOkhW itf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.
• vtNuDk; me;j topNa nrd;why; GwCjhf; fjpu;fis mth; jLg;gjhy;>
xsp kpd;Ndhl;lj;jpy; xU jpBu; khWjy; Vw;gLk;.
• clNd xU kpd;rhu kzp ,aq;fp vr;rupf;if irifapid Vw;gLj;Jk;.
jP mwptpg;G kzp:
• fl;blj;jpy; jFe;j ,lq;fspy; gy xsp kpd;fyq;fs; nghUj;jgl;bUf;Fk;.
• jP Vw;gLk; NghJ Vw;gLk; xspf;fjpu;fs; xU rpy xsp-kpd;fyq;fspd; kPJ tpOk;.
• clNd kpd;rhukzp my;yJ kpd;rhu-rq;F xd;W ,aq;fp vr;rupf;if irifapid
Vw;gLj;Jk;.

£¸¨ö£ õ¸Ò Aø» AÀ»x i ¤µõ¼ Aø» GßÓõÀGßÚ?
uS¢u `ǼÀ C¯[S® xPÒ JßÖ Aø» ÷£õßÓ £s¦Pøͨ ö£ØÔ¸UQÓx. Cx £¸¨ö£õ¸Ò
Aø» AÀ»x i ¤µõ¼ Aø» GÚ¨£k®.

gUg;nghUspd; b gpuhyp miyePsj;jpw;fhd rkd;ghl;ilj; jUtp:
(Oct’06), (Mar’07), (Mar’09), (Jun’10)

Mw;wYf;fhd
gpshq;fpd; rkd;ghl;ilAk; (miy) Id;];Bd; rkd;ghl;ilAk; (Jfs;) b gpuhyp rkd;gLj;jpdhh;.
• υ mjph;ntz; nfhz;l /Nghl;lhdpd; Mw;wy;
E = hυ
( h vd;gJ gpshq;f; khwpyp)
• Id;];Bd; epiw Mw;wy; rkd;ghl;bd;gb> m epiwf;F rkkhd Mw;wy;
(c vd;gJ xspapd; jpirNtfk;)

E = mc2
hυ = mc2
hc
=m c 2
λ

λ=

h
mc

v jpirNtfj;jpy; ,aq;Fk; JfSf;F c = v vdg; gpujpapl> mj;JfSld;
njhlh;Gila miyePsk;>
λ

=

h
mv

=

h
p

(,q;F p = mv> - Jfspd; ce;jkhFk;)

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
7.PvºÃa_ , £¸¨ö£õ¸Îß Cµmøh¨ £s¦ ,- \õº¤¯À
(50)
__
G»Umµõß ~s÷nõUQ°ß £¯ßPÒ ¯õøÁ? (Mar’07)
(i) öuõÈØ\õø»PÎÀ, ¡¼øÇPÎß Aø©¨¦, E÷»õP¨ £µ¨¦PÒ, Ásn¨ §a_PÎß BUPU TÖPÒ
÷£õßÓøÁPøÍ AÔ¢x öPõÒͨ £¯ß£kQßÓx.
(ii) ©¸zxÁ® ©ØÖ® E°›¯¼À, øÁµì ©ØÖ® £õUj›¯õøÁ¨ £ØÔ AÔ¢x öPõÒͨ
£¯ß£kQßÓx.
(iii) C¯Ø¤¯¼À, Aq Aø©¨¦ ©ØÖ® £iP Aø©¨¦PøÍ ÂÍUP©õP AÔ¢x öPõÒͨ
£¯ß£kQßÓx.
G»Umµõß ~s÷nõUQ°ß Áµ®¦PÒ ¯õøÁ? (Mar’06), (Mar’09)
G»Umµõß ~s÷nõUQ¯õÚx E¯º öÁØÔhzvÀ ö\¯À£kÁuõÀ A¢{ø»°À B¯õPU Ti¯
©ØÖ® ]øu¢x÷£õPU Ti¯ E°º¨ ö£õ¸ÒPøͨ £ØÔ AÔ¯ C¢u ~s÷nõUQø¯¨ £¯ß£kzu
C¯»õx.
{ø»© (AÀ»x •kUP¨£hõu )SÔ¨£õ¯[PÒ (Mar’08)
SÔ¨£õ¯zvÀ EÒÍ ö£õ¸ÒPÒ {³mhÛß {ø»© Âv ©ØÖ® G¢vµÂ¯À ÂvPÐUS
Em£k©õÚõÀ, Ax {ø»©U SÔ¨£õ¯® GÚ¨£k®.

{ø»©©ØÓ (AÀ»x •kUP¨£mh ) SÔ¨£õ¯[PÒ (Mar’08)
SÔ¨£õ¯® JßÔÀ, öÁΨ¦Ó Âø\ ö\¯À£hõu÷£õv¾® ö£õ¸Ò •kUP©øh¢uõÀ, Ax
{ø»©©ØÓ SÔ¨£õ¯® GÚ¨£k®.

]Ó¨¦ \õº¤¯À öPõÒøP°ß Gk÷PõÒPÒ : (Oct’07), (Jun’09)
(i) C¯Ø¤¯À ÂvPÒ, AøÚzx {ø»©U SÔ¨£õ¯[PÐUS® J÷µ ©õv›¯õP Aø©²®.
(ii) AøÚzxU SÔ¨£õ¯[Pξ®, öÁØÔhzvÀ J롧 vø\÷ÁP® ©õÔ¼¯õS®.
ePsf; FWf;fk;.(nyhuz;l;];-gpl;];n[uhy;L FWf;fk; XH vLj;Jf;fhl;Lld;
tpsf;Ff) (Mar’06), (Mar’08),
(Mar’10)

njhlf;fj;jpy; Xa;T epiyapy; cs;s S
kw;Wk; S’ vd;w ,U
Fwpg;ghaq;fisf; fUJNthk;.

S’ Fwpg;ghaj;jpy; jz;L xd;W
itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. S Fwpg;ghaj;jpy;
Xa;T epiyapy; cs;s xU Ma;thsh; jz;bd; ePsj;ij l0 vd mstpLfpwhh;.

S’ Fwpg;ghak;> Neu;Fwp X - mr;rpd; jpirapy; v vd;w jpirNtfj;Jld; ,aq;Fk;NghJ> S- y;
cs;s Ma;thsuhy; jz;bd; ePsk; l vd
mstplg;gLfpwJ.

rpwg;G rhh;gpay; nfhs;ifapd;gb
l = l0


1 −

v2
c2

mjhtJ l < l0
vdNt Xa;T epiyapy; cs;s Ma;thsiug; nghUj;J v vd;w
jpirNtfj;Jld; ,aq;Fk; jz;bd; ePsk;> ,af;f jpirapy;

1 −

v2
c2

vd;w msT FWf;fk; milAk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L :
• kpf Ntfkhf efUk; Ma;thsUf;F tl;l tbtg; nghUs; xd;WePs; tl;lkhfj; njhpAk;.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

          
          
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(51)

__

fhyePl;bg;ig xU vLj;Jf;fhl;Lld; tpsf;Ff: (June’06), (Jun’08)
K´Ä {ø»°À EÒÍ B´Áõ͸US, C¯UP {ø»°À EÒÍ PiPõµ® SøÓÁõÚ ÷|µzøuU
PõmkÁuõPz ÷uõßÖ®. AuõÁx, ö©xÁõPa ö\ÀÁuõPz ÷uõßÖ®. Cx Põ» }mi¨¦
GÚ¨£k®. GkzxUPõmk : C¯[S® ÂsöÁÎU P»zvÀ EÒÍ PiPõµ®, ¦Â°À EÒÍ PiPõµ[PøÍ
Âh ö©xÁõPa ö\ÀÁuõPz ÷uõßÖ®.
tpsf;fk;:



S kw;Wk; S′ vd;w ,U Fwpg;ghaq;fisf; fUJNthk;.
S′ Fwpg;ghakhdJ S Ig; nghUj;J v vd;w jpirNtfj;Jld; Neu;jpir X mr;rpy; ,aq;Ftjhff;
nfhs;Nthk;.
S′ Fwpg;ghaj;jpy; cs;s xU fbfhuk; t0 fhy ,ilntspapy; iriffis ntsptpLtpjhff; fUJNthk;.
S Fwpg;ghaj;jpy; cs;s Ma;thsh; ,e;jf; fhy ,ilntspiaf; fzf;fpl;lhy;> mtuhy; fzf;fplg;gLk;
fhy ,ilntsp t vdpy;>

t0
t =

1 −

v2
c2

mjhtJ t > t0

S Fwpg;ghaj;jpy; Xa;T epiyapy; cs;s Ma;thsUf;F> fhy ,ilntsp

1
1 −

v2
c2

vd;w mstpw;F ePz;L fhzg;gLk;.

Xa;T epiyapy; cs;s Ma;thsUf;F ,af;f epiyapy; cs;s
fbfhuk; nkJthfr; nry;tjhfj; Njhd;Wk;. ,J fhy ePl;bg;G vdg;gLk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L : ,aq;Fk; tpz;ntspf; fyj;jpy; cs;s fbfhuk; Gtpapy; cs;s
fbfhuq;fistpl nkJthfr; nry;tjhfj; Njhd;Wk;.

1. ν AvºöÁs öPõsh L÷£õmhõß, £¯ß öuõhUP AvºöÁs νο öPõsh

E÷»õPzvß«x £kQÓx. öÁÎÂh¨ £k® G»UmµõÛß C¯UP BØÓÀ (BB), (Oct’07)
(a) h (ν – νο)
(b) hν
(c) hνο
(d) h (ν + νο)
2. ö£õ¸Ò JßÔß J뻧 öÁÎ÷¯ØÖ BØÓÀ 3.3 eV GÛÀ, £¯ß öuõhUP AvºöÁs....

(BB), (Mar’08)
(a) 8 × 1014 Hz

(b) 8 × 1010 Hz

(c) 5 × 1020 Hz

(d) 4 × 1014 Hz.

3. E÷»õP¨ £µ¨¦ JßÔß {Özx ªßÚÊzu® GuøÚa \õº¢vµõx? (BB)

(a) £k® PvºÃa]ß AvºöÁs
(c) E÷»õP¨ £µ¨¤ß ußø©

(b) £k® PvºÃa]ß ö\ÔÄ
(d) öÁΨ£k® G»UmµõßPÎß vø\÷ÁP®

4. £¯ßöuõhUP AvºöÁsoÀ, G»UmµõßPÎß vø\÷ÁP® (BB), (Oct’06), (Mar’09),

(a) _È

(Oct’09)
Ö©®

(b) ö£¸©®

(c) ]

(d) •i¼

5. J뻧 ÂøÍøÁ Guß Ai¨£øh°À ÂÍUP •i²®? (BB), (Mar’10)

(a) J롧 ~sxPÒ öPõÒøP
(c) J롧 ªßPõ¢uU öPõÒøP

(b) J롧 Aø»U öPõÒøP
(d) J롧 SÁõsh® öPõÒøP

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
7.PvºÃa_ , £¸¨ö£õ¸Îß Cµmøh¨ £s¦ ,- \õº¤¯À
__
6. £¸¨ö£õ¸Ò Aø»}Í® GuøÚa\õº¢uuÀ»? (BB), (Jun’08), (Oct’09)
(a) {øÓ
(b) vø\÷ÁP®
(c) E¢u®
(d) ªßÞmh®

(52)

7. C¯[S® ö£õ¸Ò JßÔß C¯UP BØÓÀ E GÛÀ Auß j ¤µõ¼ Aø»}Í®..... (BB)

(a) λ =

h
2mE

(b) λ =

2mE
h

(c) λ = h

(d) λ =

2mE

h
E 2m

8. m epiwAk; e kpd;D}l;lKk; nfhz;l xU vyf;l;uhd; Xa;Tepiyapy; ,Ue;J V

vd;w kpd;dOj;jj;jpdhy; KLf;fgg;gLk;NghJ> mjd; ,Wjp jpirNtfk; (Oct’08)
(a) v =

Ve
m

(b) v =

Ve
2m

(c) v =

2V e
m

(d) v =

2V e
2m

9. 2Å Aø»}Í® öPõsh G»UmµõÛß E¢u®
24

(BB)
(b) 6.6 × 10 24 kg m s -1
(d) 6.6 × 10 -24 kg m s-1

-1

(a) 3.3 × 10 kg m s
(c) 3.3 × 10 -24 kg m s-1

10. \õº¤¯¼ß£i, C¯UPzv¾ÒÍ usiß }Í® (BB), (Jun’06), (Jun’07), (Jun’09)

(a) {ø»¯õP EÒÍ÷£õx C¸¢u }ÍzvØSa \©®
(b) {ø»¯õP EÒÍ÷£õx C¸¢u }ÍzøuÂh AvP©õP Aø©²®
(c) {ø»¯õP EÒÍ÷£õx C¸¢u }ÍzøuÂh SøÓÁõP Aø©²®
(d) usiß ÷ÁPzøu¨ ö£õ¸zx, {ø»¯õP EÒÍ÷£õx C¸¢u}ÍzøuÂh AvP©õP÷Áõ AÀ»x
SøÓÁõP÷Áõ AÀ»x \©©õP÷Áõ Aø©²®.
11. 1 kg {øÓ²ÒÍ ö£õ¸Ò •ÊÁx©õP BØÓ»õP ©õØÓ¨£k®÷£õx E¸ÁõS® BØÓÀ

(BB)
(c) 1 J

(a) 9 × 1016 J

(b) 9 × 1024 J

(d) 3 × 10 8 J

12. £¯ßöuõhUP AvºöÁsoÀ, {Özx ªßÚÊzuzvß ©v¨¦.... (Mar’06)

(a) ö£¸©®

(b) _È

(c) ]Ö©®

(d) •i¼

13. 2.5 eV BØÓÀ öPõsh Cµsk L÷£õmhõßPÒ J÷µ \©¯zvÀ E÷»õPzvß «x

£kQßÓÚ. E÷»õPzvß öÁÎ÷¯ØÖ BØÓÀ 4.5 eV. E÷»õPzvß £µ¨¤¼¸¢x.....
(Jun’06)
(a) J¸ G»Umµõß EªÇ¨£k®
(b) Cµsk G»UmµõßPÒ EªÇ¨£k®
(c) CµsiØS® ÷©Ø£mh
G»UmµõßPÒ EªÇ¨£k®
(d) G»UmµõßPÒ GxÄ® EªÇ¨£hõx
14. ]Ó¨¦ \õº¤¯À öPõÒøP°ß£i

C¸¨£x ......
(a) {øÓ

AÚzxU SÔ¨£õ¯[Pξ® ©õÔ¼¯õP
(Oct’06), (Mar’07), (Mar’09)
(b) }Í®
(c) Põ»®
(d) J롧 vø\÷ÁP®

15. ö£õ¸Ò JßÔß J뻧 öÁÎ÷¯ØÖ BØÓÀ 6.626 x10-19 J GÛÀ, £¯ß öuõhUP

AvºöÁs.... (Mar’07)
(a) 1 x 1015 Hz
(b) 10 x 10-19 Hz

(c) 1 x 10-15 Hz

(d) 10 x 1019 Hz

16. K´Ä{øÓ m0 öPõsh J¸ £¸¨ö£õ¸Ò J롧 vø\÷ÁPzvÀ ö\ßÓõÀ Auß {øÓ....

(Oct’07)
DÔ¼

(a) 0

(b) 2 m0

(c) 4 m0

(d)

17. Id;];Bd; xspkpd; tpistpw;fhd rkd;ghL (Jun’09)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

18. vyf;l;uhd; Ez;Nzhf;fp vjd; mbg;gilapy; nray;gLfpwJ? (Mar’10)

(a) xspkpd; tpisT
(c) ,aq;Fk; vyf;l;uhdpd; miyg;gz;G

(b) vyf;l;uhdpd; Jfs; gz;G
(d) gUg;nghUspd; miyg;gz;G

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(53)

__

8. AqUP¸ C¯Ø¤¯À
I÷\õ÷hõ¨¦PÒ:
\©©õÚ Aq Gsøn²® ÷ÁÖ£mh {øÓ Gsøn²® öPõsh J÷µ uÛ©zvß AqUPÒ
I÷\õ÷hõ¨¦PÒ GÚ¨£k®.
GkzxUPõmkPÒ: 1H1, 1H2 ©ØÖ® 1H3.
I÷\õ£õºPÒ:
\©©õÚ {øÓ Gsøn²® ©õÖ£mh Aq Gsøn²® öPõsh öÁÆ÷ÁÖ uÛ©[PÎß
AqUPÒ I÷\õ£õºPÒ BS®.
GkzxUPõmkPÒ:8O16 ©ØÖ® 7N16 .
I÷\õ÷hõßPÒ:
\© GsoUøP°À Aø©¢u {³mµõßPøÍU öPõskÒÍ öÁÆ÷ÁÖ uÛ©[PÎß AqUPÒ
I÷\õ÷hõßPÒ GÚ¨£k®.
GkzxUPõmkPÒ:6C14 ©ØÖ® 8O16
Aq {øÓ A»S:
J¸ Aq {øÓ A»S Gߣx Põº£ß 6C12 AqÂß {øÓ°À (1/12) £[QØSa \©®.
1 amu = 1.66 × 10-27 kg
1 amu US \©©õÚ BØÓÀ = 931 MeV
Gߣx {øÓÁÊ:
AqUP¸ÂÀ EÒÍ AqUP¸z xPÒPÎß ö©õzu {øÓUS®, AqUP¸Âß Esø© {øÓUS®
Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ ÷ÁÖ£õk {øÓÁÊ GÚ¨£k®.
¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ: (Oct’09)
¦÷µõmhõßPЮ, {³mµõßPЮ ÷\º¢x AqUP¸ E¸ÁõS®÷£õx ©øÓ²® {øÓ
AuØSa \©©õÚ BØÓ»õP ©õØÓ¨£kQßÓx. C¢u BØÓÀ AqUP¸Âß ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ
GÚ¨£k®.

E = mc2

¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ Áøµ£h®:
• A q U P ¸ Â ß ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ Ax ]
øuÁøh¯õ©ÀGߣx Aø©ÁuØPõÚ
{ø»¨¦z ußø©ø¯U SÔUS®.
• ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ AvP® GÛÀ AqUP¸
{ø»¨£õk ªUPuõPÄ®.
• ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ SøÓÄ GÛÀ AqUP¸
{ø»¨£õk SøÓ¢uuõPÄ® Aø©²®
GÚU TÓ»õ®.
• J¸ AqUP¸zxPÐUPõÚ ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ
BE
A

J¸ AqUP¸z xPÐUPõÚ ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ uÛ©zvØS uÛ©® ©õÖ£k®.

gpizg;G Mw;wy; tisf;Nfhl;bw;fhd tpsf;fk;: (Oct’06), (Jun’10)
AqUP¸Âß {øÓ Gs A øÁ X.Aa]¾®, AqUP¸z xPÒ JßÔß ¤øn¨¦ BØÓø» Y.Aa]¾®
öPõsk Áøµ£h® Áøµ¯¨£kQßÓx.

Cx

BE
Áøµ£h® GÚ¨£k®.
A

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
(54)
_

8. mDf;fU ,aw;gpay;

BE
– MdJ epiw vz; A-ia nghUj;J khWgLjy;.
A
BE
d; kjpg;G Ntfkhf mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.
A

A = 20 tiu

A = 20 f;F gpwF nkJthf mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.

A < 20 kw;Wk; epiwvz; ehd;fpd; klq;fhf cs;s mZf;fUf;fs; tiuglj;jpy; kPz;Lk;
kPz;Lk; KfLfspy; mikfpd;wd. v.fh 2He4,

Be8 , 6C12 , 8O16 , 10Ne20

4

A = 40 Kjy; 120 tiu tisNfhL Vwf;Fiwa fpilkl;lkhf mikfpd;wJ.

A = 120-it tpl mjpfhpf;Fk;NghJ

A = 56 cs;s ,Uk;gpd;

epiw vz; 40 f;Fk; 120 f;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l mZf;fUj; Jfs; xd;wpd; ruhrhp gpizg;G

BE
A

nkJthf Fiwfpd;wJ

BE
d; kjpg;G 8.8 MeV (mjpf epiyg;ghL cilaJ.)
A

Mw;wy; 8.5 MeV – epiyg;G jd;ik mjpfk;. ,it fjphpaf;fj;jpw;F cl;glhJ.

epiwvz; mjpfhpf;Fk; NghJ gpizg;G Mw;wy; Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl tUk;. ANudpaj;jpw;F
BE
= 7.6 MeV. epiyg;ghL mw;wit. fjphpaf;fj;jpw;F cl;gLk;.
A

,Nyrhd mZf;fUf;fspd; Fiwthd gpizg;G Mw;wy; mZf;fU ,izT epfo;Tfis tpsf;FfpwJ.

fdkhd mZf;fUf;fspd; Fiwthd gpizg;G Mw;wy; KiwNa mZf;fU ,izT kw;Wk; mZf;fU
gpsT epfo;Tfis tpsf;FfpwJ.

ngapd;gphpl;[; epiw epwkhiykhdp:(Mar’09), (Jun’10)

(June’06), (Oct’06), (Jul’07), (June’08),

xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l vyf;l;uhd;fs; ePf;fg;gl;l mZf;fs; Neh;kpd;madpfshfpd;wd.
kpd;dpwf;ff; FohapypUe;J ntsptUk; ,f;fw;iw S1, S2
gpsTfspd; topNa nrYj;jg;gl;L nky;ypa fw;iwahf
ntsptUfpd;wJ.
,f;fw;iwahdJ> jpirNtfj; Njh;e;njLg;ghdpy;
nrYj;jg;gl;L Fwpg;gpl;l jpirNtfj;jpy; nry;Yk; madpfs;
kl;Lk; ntsptUfpd;wJ.
jpirNtf
Njh;e;njLg;ghdpy;> xd;Wf;nfhd;W ,izahf cs;s P1, P2
jfLfisf; nfhz;L E vd;w rPuhd kpd;GyKk;> kpd;fhe;jk;
xd;wpd; %yk; B vd;w rPuhd fhe;jg;GyKk;
cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
,t;tpU Gyq;fSk; xd;Wf;nfhd;W nrq;Fj;jhfTk;
kw;Wk; madpf; fw;iwapd; jpirf;F nrq;Fj;jhfTk; mikAk;.
fw;iw tpyf;fkilahj epiyapy;> kpd;Gy tpirAk;> fhe;jg;Gy
tpirAk; xd;Wf;nfhd;W rkk;.
Bqv = E q
E
(1)
B
,e;j v jpirNtfk; nfhz;l madpfs; kl;Lk; S3. gpsitia fle;J gpd;dh;> D – vd;w
ntw;wplkhf;fg;gl;l fyj;jpDs; Eiofpd;wJ.

/v =

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

          
          
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(55)

__

fyj;jpy;> jhspd; jsj;jpw;F nrq;Fj;jhf cs;Nehf;fp nray;gLk; B’ fhe;jGyj;jpw;F ,e;j
madpfs; cl;gl;L R - Muk; nfhz;l tl;lg; ghijapy; nrd;W xspg;glj; jfl;il milfpd;wd. fhe;jg;
Gytpir> Njitahd ikaNehf;F tpiria jUfpd;wJ.
B ′qv =
m=

mv 2
R
B ' qR
v

rkd;ghL (1) I kjpg;ig gpujpapl>

m
/m

BB ' qR
E

=

α

R

fyj;jpd; jpwg;gpw;Fk;> xspg;glj; jfl;by; madpfs; Vw;gLj;Jk; fUikf; Nfhl;bw;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l
njhiyT 2R ,ypUe;J Muk; R fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ.
vdNt madpfspd; mjhtJ INrhNlhg;Gfspd; epiwfis fzf;fplyhk;.
mZf;fU
tpir vd;why; vd;d?
mZf;fUtpDs;

Neh; kpd;D}l;lk; nfhz;l GNuhl;lhd;fSf;F ,ilNa nray;gLk; tpul;L tpiria typikahd kw;nwhU
tpir nray;gl;L GNuhl;lhd;fisAk;> epa+l;uhd;fisAk; gpizf;fpd;wJ. ,t;tpir mZf;fU tpir
vdg;gLk;.
mZf;fU tpirapd; gz;Gfs;: (Jun’08),
(Mar’09)
1.mZf;fU tpir kpd;D}l;l
rhh;gw;wJ. mjhtJ epiy kpd;dpay; tpiray;y
2.fz;lwpag;gl;l tpirfspy; mZf;fU
tpirNa kpf mjpf typik nfhz;lJ.
3.mZf;fU tpir <h;g;gpay; tpir my;y. <h;g;gpay;
40
tpiria tpl 10 klq;F
typikahdJ.
4.FWfpa neLf;fk; nfhz;lJ.
5.mZf;fUj; Jfs;fSf;F ,ilNaahd kPrhd; vd;w Jfspd; ghpkhw;wk; fhuzkhf
mZf;fU tpir Vw;gLfpwJ.
fjphpaf;fk;:
mZ vz; 82-I tpl mjpfkhd mZ vz; nfhz;l fdkhd jdpkq;fs; jd;dpr;irahf α >
β >γ Nghd;w fjph;fis ntspapLk; epfo;T fjphpaf;fk; vdg;gLk;.

fjphpaf;f ,lg;ngah;r;rp tpjp:
α - rpijT:- (Mar’06)
fjphpaf;f jdpkk; α - Jfs;fis ntsptpLk; NghJ mjd; mZ vz; ,uz;Lk; epiwvz;
ehd;Fk; FiwAk;.
88

Ra 226 → 86 Rn 222 + 2 He4

β - rpijT :fjphpapf;f jdpkk; β Jfs;fis ntsptpLk; NghJ mjd; mZ vz; xd;W mjpfhpf;Fk;.
epiwvz; khWgLtJ ,y;iy.
γ - rpijT:J¸ Pv›¯UP
AqUP¸ γ.PvºPøÍ öÁÎÂk® ÷£õx, AqUP¸Âß BØÓÀ ©mh® ©õÖ£k®. Aq Gs ©ØÖ®
{øÓ Gs ©õÖ£hõx.
GkzxUPõmk :
90

Th 234 → 91 Pa 234 +

-1

Pv›¯UPa ]øuÂÀ ÷µhõß Qͺa] {ø»°À C¸¢x
Ai{ø»USz v¸®¦®÷£õx, 0.187 MeV BØÓÀ öPõsh γ.Pvº öÁΨ£k® .

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
(56)
_
α > β > kw;Wk; γ
α

8. mDf;fU ,aw;gpay;
fjph;fspd; gz;Gfs;:-

fjph;

β fjph;

γ

fjph;

1.

,U myF Neh;kpd;D}l;lk;
nfhz;lJ (2He4) `Pypak;
mZf;fU

xuyF vjph; kpd;D}l;lk;
nfhz;lJ (-1e0) vyf;l;uhd;

Fiwe;j miyePsk;
nfhz;l kpd;fhe;j
miyfs;

2.

mjpf jpirNtfj;jpy;
Neh;f;Nfhl;by; nry;Yk;.

xspapd; jpirNtfj;ijg;
Nghd;W 0.3 Kjy; 0.99
klq;F jpirNtfk; nfhz;lJ.

xspapd; jpirNtfj;jpy;
nry;Yk;.

3.

kpd;kw;Wk; fhe;jg;
Gyq;fshy;
tpyf;fkilfpd;wd.

kpd; kw;Wk; fhe;jg;
Gyq;fshy; tpyf;fk;
milfpd;wd.

kpd; kw;Wk; fhe;jg;
Gyj;jhy; tpyf;fk; miltJ
,y;iy.

4.

madpahf;Fk; jpwd; kpf
mjpfk;

madpahf;Fk; jpwd;
FiwT

madpahf;Fk; jpwd;
kpff; FiwT.

5.

xspg;glj; jfLfis ghjpf;Fk;

xspg;glj; jfLfis ghjpf;Fk;

xspg;glj; jfLfis

ghjpf;Fk;
6.

xsph;jiy Vw;gLj;Jk;

xsph;jiy Vw;gLj;Jk;

xsph;jiy Vw;gLj;Jk;

7.

CLUT jpwd; FiwT

CLUT jpwd; α fjpiu
fhl;bYk; mjpfk;

CLUT jpwd; kpf
mjpfk;

8

-

-

X- fjph;fisg; Nghd;W
gbfq;fspy; tpspk;G
tpistpw;F cl;gLk;

fjphpaf;f rpijT tpjp:- (Oct’08), (Oct’09)

xuyF Neuj;jpy; rpijtilAk; mZf;fspd; vz;zpf;if> me;Neuj;jpy; mj;jdpkj;jpy; cs;s
mZf;fspd; vz;zpf;iff;F Neh;jftpy; ,Uf;Fk;.
fhyk; t =
0 njhlf;fj;jpy; cs;s mZf;fspd; vz;zpf;if No vd;f.
t fhyj;jpy; mjpy;
cs;s mZf;fspd; vz;zpf;if N vd;f.
dt fhyj;jpy; rpijtilAk;
mZf;fspd; vz;zpf;if dN
vdNt rpijT tPjk; −

dN
αN
dt
dN
dt

= -λ N

dN
= - λ .dt
N

njhifapl>
t=0

log e N = -λ t + C

vdpy;

N = No

log e No = C
∴N = N 0 e

−λt

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(57)
__
miu MAl;fhyk; ( T½ ) : (Oct’08)
fjphpaf;fj; jdpkj;jpd; miuMAl;fhyk; vdg;gLtJ> mjpYs;s mZf;fspy; ghjpasT
mZf;fs; rpijtila MFk; fhyk;;.
ruhrhp MA+l; fhyk; ( τ ):
fjphpaf;f jdpkj;jpy; Muk;gj;jpy; cs;s midj;J mZf;fspd; nkhj;j MAl;fhyj; jpw;Fk;
mjpYs;s nkhj;j mZf;fspd; vz;zpf;iff;Fk; cs;s tpfpjk; ruhrhp MAl; fhyk; vdg;gLk;.
fpa+hp tiuaW: (Oct’06), (Mar’08), (Mar’10)
xU tpdhbf;F 3.7 x 1010 rpijTfisj; jUk; fjpupaf;fj; jdpkj;jpd; msTfpa+hp
vdg;gLk;. ,J xU fpuhk; Nubaj;jpd; fjphpaf;fr; nray;ghl;bw;Fr; rkk;.
µõsmáß tiuaW: (Jun’07), (Oct’08)

10

12

PvºÃa]ß AÍÄ µõsmáß (R) GßÓ A»PõÀ AÍÂh¨£kQßÓx. J¸ Qµõ®PõØÔÀ 1.6 ×
÷\õi A¯ÛPøÍ E¸ÁõUS® PvºÃa_ J¸ µõsmáß GÚ¨£k®.

epA+l;uhd; fz;Lgpbg;G:-

1930B® Bsk ö£õz÷u ©ØÖ® ö£UPº GߣÁºPÒ ö£›¼¯® uÛ©zøu α – xPÒ PøÍU
öPõsk uõUS®÷£õx ªS¢u Fk¸ÄvÓß öPõsh PvºÃa_ öÁΨ£kÁøuU PshÚº.

1932À,IöµÛ Q³› ©ØÖ® F. ÷áõ¼¯m BQ¯ C¸Á¸®, C¢uU PvºÃa_PÒ £õµL¤ß
ö©ÊS
÷£õßÓ øímµáß {øÓ¢u ö£õ¸ÒPÎß ÁȯõPa ö\À¾® ÷£õx ¦÷µõmhõßPøÍ
öÁΨ£kzxÁøuU PshÚº.
• A÷u Á¸hzvÀ \õmÂU GߣÁº, öÁΨ£k® PvºÃa]À ªßÞmh©ØÓ, HÓUSøÓ¯
¦÷µõmhõÛß {øÓUSa \©©õÚ {øÓ öPõsh xPÒPÒ Ah[Q²ÒÍÚ GÚU Psk¤izuõº.
CzxPÒPøÍ {³mµõßPÒ GßÖ AøÇzuõº.
• ÷©ØTÔ¯ AqUP¸ ÂøÚUPõÚ \©ß£õk
9
4
12
+ 0n 1
4 Be + 2 He → 6 C

epA+l;uhdpd; gz;Gfs;: (June’06), (Mar’08)
1. i`l;u[id jtpu midj;J mZf;fUf;fspYk; epA+l;uhd;fs; mlq;fpAs;sd.
2. epA+l;uhd; Rop kpd;D}l;lk; nfhz;ljhy; kpd; kw;Wk; fhe;jg; Gyq;fshy;
tpyf;fkilahJ.
3. mZf;fUtpDs; epA+l;uhd; epiyg;ghL nfhz;lit ntspNa ,J GNuhl;lhd;> vyf;l;uhd;
kw;Wk; Mz;l;b epA+l;hpNdhthf rpijtilAk; ,jd; miu MAl;fhyk; 13 epkplq;fs;.
4. kpd;D}l;lk; mw;wjhy; mZf;fUtpDs; vspjhf CLUtpr; nry;Yk;.
5. ,af;fMw;wypd; mbg;gilapy; epA+l;uhd;fis ,uz;L tifahf gphpf;fyhk;.
(i) FiwNtf epA+l;uhd; - Mw;wy; 0 Kjy; 1000 eV tiu
(ntg;g epA+l;uhd; - ruhrup ,af;f Mw;wy; 0.025 eV )
(ii ) Ntf epA+l;uhd;- Mw;wy; 0.5 MeV Kjy; 10MeV tiu
nraw;if fjpupaf;fk; :fjphpaf;fkw;w Nyrhd jdpkq;fis nraw;if my;yJ J}z;lg;gl;l Kiwfspy; fjpupaf;f
jdpkq;fshf khw;Wk; epfo;T nraw;if fjphpaf;fk; vdg;gLk;.
fjphpaf;f
INrhNlhg;Gfs;:mjpf mstpy; epA+l;uhd;fisf; nfhz;Ls;s mZf;fU ciyappDs; ,yf;F jdpkj;ij itj;J
nraw;if fjphpaf;f INrhNlhg;Gfs; ngwg;gLfpd;wd.
fjphpaf;f fhh;gd; taJ fzpg;G:
C14 - fjphpaf;fKilaJ. ,jd; miu MAl; fhyk; 5570 Mz;Lfs;. caphpdq;fs; ,wg;G
Vw;gLk; NghJ C14 vLj;Jf;nfhs;tJ epWj;jg;gl;L mJ rpijtila njhlq;FfpwJ. ,we;j nghUspy;
cs;s C14 msit fz;lwpe;Jk;> rpijT tPjj;ij fz;lwpe;Jk; me;j caphpdq;fs; ,we;j fhyj;ij>
mjhtJ mtw;wpd; taij fzf;fplyhk;.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
8. mDf;fU ,aw;gpay;
(58)
_
fjphpaf;f INrhNlhg;Gfspd; gad;fs; :(Oct’08)
1.

kUj;Jt gad;ghL:
Co 60 - Gw;WNeha; rpfpr;irf;Fk;
Na 24 - ,uj;j ehsq;fspy; cs;s milg;Gfis fz;lwpaTk;> ,jaj;jpd; nray;ghl;il
mwpaTk; gad;gLfpwJ.
І 131 - ijuha;L Rug;gpapd; jd;ikia fz;lwpaTk; mjd; rpfpr;irf;Fk; %isf; foiyfis
,lkwpaTk; gad;gLfpwJ.
Fe59 - ,uj;j Nrhifia fz;lwpaTk;
P 32 -Njhy; Neha;fspd; rpfpr;irf;Fg; gad;gLfpwJ.

2.

tptrhak;: ( P32 ) gaph;;fspd; tpisr;riy mjpfg;gLj;jTk; ntq;fhak;. gaW tiffspy;
Kis tpLtij> nfl;Lg;Nghtij jLf;fTk; kw;Wk;jhdpa tiffspd; MAis mjpfhpf;fTk;
gad;gLfpd;wd.

3.

njhopw;rhiy:fjpup;af;f INrhNlhg;G fye;j caT vz;nza;fis gad;gLj;jp
ve;jpuq;fspd; Nja;khdq;fis gw;wp mwpayhk;.

4.

%yf;$W caphpay; : kUe;J jahhpj;jy; kw;Wk; mWit rpfpr;ir fUtpfspy;
Ez;Zaph; fpUkpfis mopf;f gad;gLfpd;wd.

fjphpaf;f fhh;gd; taJ fzpg;G:
C14 - fjphpaf;fKilaJ. ,jd; miu MAl; fhyk; 5570 Mz;Lfs;. caphpdq;fs; ,wg;G
Vw;gLk; NghJ C14 vLj;Jf;nfhs;tJ epWj;jg;gl;L mJ rpijtila njhlq;FfpwJ. ,we;j nghUspy;
cs;s C14 msit fz;lwpe;Jk;> rpijT tPjj;ij fz;lwpe;Jk; me;j caphpdq;fs; ,we;j fhyj;ij>
mjhtJ mtw;wpd; taij fzf;fplyhk;.
fjph;tPr;rpd; jPa tpisTfs;: (Oct’08)
fjph;tPr;rpd; msT uhz;l;[d; (R) vd;w myfhy; mstplg;gLfpd;wJ.
100 R – fjph;tPr;rpdhy; Yf;Nfkpah my;yJ Gw;WNeha; cUthFk;.
600
R – fjph;tPr;R kuzj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk;
thuj;jpw;F 250 mR - vd;gJ xUth; ngwf; $ba fjph;tPr;rpd; ghJfhg;ghd msthFk;.
ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffs;:
1. fjph;tPr;R nghUs;fs; jbj;j Rth; nfhz;l fhhPa nfhs;fyj;jpy; itf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
2. fjphptPr;R Ma;tfq;fspy; gzpahw;Wgth;fs; fhhPa Milfs; kw;Wk; ifAiwfis mzpa
Ntz;Lk;.
3. fjphpaf;fj; jdpkq;fs; njhiyf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwapy; ifahsg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.
nraw;if jdpk khw;wk; :nraw;if Kiwapy; xU jdpkj;ij kw;nwhU jdpkkhf khw;Wjy; nraw;if jdpk khw;wk;
vdg;gLk;.
v.fh.

7

N 14 +

2

He4

nfa;fh; Ky;yh; vz;zp:-

O17 +

8

H1

1

(Mar’07), (Oct’07), (Jun’09)

fjph;tPr;Rfspd; nrwpit mstpl nfa;fh; - Ky;yh; vz;zp gad;gLfpwJ.
jj;Jtk; :fjph;tPr;Rfs; thAf;fspd; topNa nry;Yk; NghJ thAf;fis madpahf;fk; nra;fpd;wd.
mikg;G:fz;zhbahy;
#og;gl;l cNyhff; Foha; (C) NfNjhlhf nray;gLfpwJ. Fohapd; mr;rpd; topNa mike;Js;s lq;];ld;
fk;gp (W) MNdhlhf nray;gLfpwJ.
FohahdJ> MNdhL fk;gpapypUe;J kpd;fhg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.Fohapy; Fiwe;j kpd;dOj;jj;jpy;
Mh;fhd; thA cs;sJ.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top

(59)

__

Fohapd; xU Kid ikf;fh jfl;lhy; %lg;gl;Ls;sJ. 1000V kpd;dOj;j NtWghL> 100
nkfh Xk; nfhz;l cah; kpd;jil R topahf MNdhbw;Fk;> NfNjhbw;Fk; ,ilNa
nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ.
nray;ghL :
madpahf;Fk; fjph;tPr;R ikf;fhj;
jfl;bd; topNa vz;zpapDs; EioAk; NghJ
cUthFk Kjd;ik madpahf;fj;jpdhy; rpy
madpfs; Njhd;Wfpd;wd.
,it
kpd;dOj;j
NtWg;gl;lhy; KLf;fg;gl;L nry;Yk; NghJ
NkYk; rpy madpfis cUthf;fpd;wd.
vdNt rpW fhy ,ilntspapy;
Vuhskhd vyf;l;uhd;fs; cUthfp MNdhil
mile;J
xU
kpd;Ndhl;lj;
Jbg;ig
cUthf;Fk;. ,J kpd;jil R topahfg;
ghAk;NghJ Vw;gLk; kpd;dOj;j NtWghL ngUf;fg;gl;L vz;zpia nray;gl nra;Ak; vz;zp
Fwpg;gpLk; vz;zpf;if fjph;tPr;rpd; nrwpTf;F Neh;j;jftpy; mikAk;.
mZf;fU gpsT:fdkhd jdpkj;jpd; mZf;fU ,U Jz;Lfshf ciltJld; kpf mjpfkhd Mw;wYk; ntspg;gLk;
epfo;T mZf;fU gpsit vdg;gLk;.
92

U 235 +

0

n1 →

56

Ba141 +

36

Kr 92 + 3 0 n1 + Q (Mw;wy;)

njhlh;tpid:mZf;fUg; gpsitahdJ fl;Lghlw;w Kiwapy; njhlh;e;J eilngWk; epfo;T njhlh;tpid
vdg;gLk;.
khWepiy gUkd;: (Oct’08)
xt;nthU gpsitf;F
gpwFk; Fiwe;jJ xU epA+l;uhdhtJ mLj;j gpsitia
Vw;gLj;Jk; tifapy; mikAk; gpsitg;nghUspd; gUkd; khWepiyg; gUkd; vdg;gLk;.
khWepiy epiw (Oct’08)
khWepiy gUkd; nfhz;l gpsitf;F cl;gLk;
nghUspd; epiw khWepiy epiw vdg;gLk;.
mZf;fU ciy: (Mar’06)
mZf;fU
ciy
vd;gJ
KOikahd
fl;Lg;ghl;NlhL> jw;rhh;Gila mZf;fU gpsT tpid
eilngWk; mikg;G MFk;.
1. gpsitf;F cl;gLk; nghUs; my;yJ vhpnghUs;:

U 235 gpsitf;F cl;gLk; nghUs; (my;yJ)
vhpnghUshf nghJthf gad;gLfpd;wJ. rpy ciyfspy; Pu239 kw;Wk; U 233 vhpnghUshf
gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. vhpnghUs; nky;ypa Foha;fspy; milf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,J gpsitf;F
cl;gLk; jz;L MFk;. ,j;jz;Lfisf; nfhz;l mZf;fU ciyapd; gFjp> mZf;fU ciy ikak; vdg;gLk;.
92

2. jzpg;ghd;:
mZf;fU gpsitapd;NghJ ruhrhp Mw;wy; 2 MeV cila ,uz;L Ntf epa+l;uhd;fs;
ntsptUfpwJ. ,e;j Ntf epa+l;uhd;fis ruhrhp Mw;wy; 0.025 eV nfhz;l FiwNtf
epa+l;uhdhf (ntg;g epa+l;uhdhf) khw;wpj; jUtNj jzpg;ghdpd; gadhFk;.
rhjhuz ePh;; kw;Wk; fdePh; vd;git> nghJthf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; jzpg;ghd;fshFk;.
rpy ehLfspy; fpuh/igl; jzpg;ghdhf gad;gLfpd;wJ. thpirahf mikf;fg;gl;l
vhpnghUs; jz;LfSf;fpilNa jzpg;ghd; mikAk;.
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

12 -PHY-TM
8. mDf;fU ,aw;gpay;
(60)
_
3. epA+l;uhd; %yk;:mZf;fU gpsT njhlh;tpidia Kjy; Kiwahf njhlq;fp itf;f epA+l;uhd; %yk;
Njitg;gLk;. Nubak; my;yJ GSl;Nlhdpak; my;yJ nghNyhdpaj;Jld; nghpypak;
fye;j fyit nghJthf epA+l;uhd; %ykhf nray;gLfpwJ.
4. fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; jz;Lfs;: (Oct’07)
,it njhlh;tpidia fl;Lg;gLj;j cjTf;$baitahFk;. ,it epA+l;uhd;fis mjpf mstpy;
cl;ftUk; jd;ik nfhz;lit.
nghJthf fhl;kpak;> Nghuhd; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; jz;Lfshf gad;gLfpd;wd.
,j; jz;Lfis mZf;fU ciyapDs; nrYj;jpNah my;yJ ntspNa vLj;Njh tpid tPjj;ij
fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;
ek;ehl;by; cs;s midj;J jpwd; mZf;fU ciyfspYk; Nghuhd; fhh;igL (B4C) fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
jz;lhf gad;gLfpd;wJ.
Fsph;tpf;Fk; mikg;G:
• mZf;fU ciyapDs; Vw;gLk; ntg;gj;ij ePf;f ,e;j mikg;G gad;gLfpwJ.
• rhjhuz ePh;> fdePh; kw;Wk; jput Nrhbak; Fsph;tpg;gdhf gad;gLfpwJ.
• ey;y Fsph;tpg;ghd; vd;gJ cah; jd;ntg;g Vw;Gj;jpwd; kw;Wk; mjpf nfhjpepiy
Mfpait ngw;wpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
,it vhpnghUs; jz;Lfspy; ,Ue;J ePuhtp cw;gj;jp epiyaj;jpw;F ntg;gj;ij vLj;Jr;
nry;;fpwJ. ,e;j ePuhtpiaf; nfhz;L lh;igd;fisr; Royr; nra;J kpd;dhw;wy; cw;gj;jp
nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.
6. epA+l;uhd; vjpnuhspg;ghd; :
,it epa+l;uhd;fis vjpnuhspj;J kPz;Lk; mZf;fU ciyf;Fs; nrYj;jp
epa+l;uhd; ,og;ig ngUkstpy; jLf;fpd;wd.
Ntf cw;gj;jp ciyfspy; ANudpak; my;yJ Njhhpak; epa+l;uhd; vjpnuhspg;ghdhfg;
gad;gLfpd;wJ.
7. ghJfhg;G mikg;G:
jPq;F tpistpf;Fk; fjphptPr;Rfspy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;L mZf;fU ciyahdJ
Rkhh; 2 kP Kjy; 2.5 kP tiu jbkd; nfhz;l fhd;fphpl; Rth;fshy; #og;gl;Ls;sJ.
mZf;fU ciyfspd; tiffs; kw;Wk; gad;fs; (Mar’09)
1.
Muha;r;rp ciyfs;:
Muha;r;rpf;F Njitahd epA+l;uhd;fisAk;>
fjphpaf;f INrhNlhg;GfisAk; cUthf;fg; gad;gLfpd;wd.
2.
cw;gj;jp ciyfs;: (Mar’09) gpsitf;F cl;glhj> mjpfk; fpilf;Fk; nghUs;fis
238
(U ) gpsitf;F cl;gLk; ( Pu239 ) nghUshf khw;Wfpd;wd.
3.
jpwd; ciyfs;:
mZf;fU gpsitapdhy; cUthFk; ntg;g Mw;wiy kpd;
Mw;wyhf khw;Wfpd;wd.
mZf;fU ,izT:
,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l ,Nyrhd mZf;fUf;fs; ,ize;J xU fdkhd mZf;fU
cUthFk; epfo;T mZf;fU ,izT vdg;gLk;.
i`l;u[d; Fz;L:
mZf;fU ,izTj; jj;Jtk; i`l;u[d; Fz;by; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. mZf;fU ,iztpw;F Njitahd
ntg;gepiyia mZf;fU gpsT%yk; ngwg;gLfpwJ. (50 kpy;ypad; bfphp ntg;gepiy)
fh];kpf; fjph;fs; : (10-Mark-Mar’08), (10-mark-Mar’10), (3-Mark-Jun’10)
fhkhf; fjph;fis tpl gy klq;F madpahf;Fk; jpwd; nfhz;l fh];kh]; vdg;gLk;
Gwntspapd; midj;J jpirfspy; ,Ue;Jk; Gtpia milAk; fjph;tPr;Rfs; fh];kpf; fjph;fs;
vdg;gLk;.
Kjd;ik fh];kpf; fjph;fs;: (Mar’08)
tspkz;lyj;jpd; ntspg;Gwg;glyj;jpDs; EioAk; fh];kpf; fjph;fs; Kjd;ik fh];kpf;
fjph;fs; vdg;gLk;. ,jpy; 90 % GNuhl;lhd;fs;> 9% `Pypak; kw;Wk; fdkhd mZf;fUf;fSk;
cs;sd. ,jd; Mw;wy; 108 MeV.

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI


 
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(61)
__
Jiz fh];kpf; fjph;fs;:
(10-Mark-Mar’08), (3-Mark-Jun’08)
Gtpapd; tspkz;lyj;jpd; Nkw;gug;gpYs;s thAf;fSld; Kjd;ik fh];kpf; fjph;fs; tpid
Guptjhy; Jiz fh];kpf; fjpu;fs; cUthfpd;wd.
,jpy; α Jfs;fs; GNuhl;lhd;fs;>
vyf;l;uhd;fs;> ghrpl;uhd;fs;> kPrhd;fs;> /Nghl;lhd;fs; ntt;NtW tpfpjq;fspy; fye;J
,Uf;Fk;.
FWf;Ff;Nfhl;L tpisT:(Mar’08) (Oct’07), (Jun’09), (Mar’10)
FWf;Ff;
Nfhl;ilg;
nghUj;J
fh];kpf;
fjph;fspd;
nrwpT
khWgLtNj
FWf;Ff; Nfhl;L tpisT
vdg;gLk;.
JUtg; gFjpapy;
nrwpT ngUkkhfTk;
(θ = 900) Gtp
eLtiuf; Nfhl;Lg;
gFjpapy; (θ = 00)
rpWkkhfTk;> 420 Kjy; 900 tiu nrwpT khwpypahfTk; cs;sJ. JUt gFjpapy; fh];kpf;
fjph;fs; Gtp fhe;j tpirf; NfhLfSf;F ,izahf tUtjhy; vt;tpj tpirAk; nray;gLtJ ,y;iy. vdNt
nrwpT ngUkkhf cs;sJ.
eLtiuf; Nfhl;Lg; gFjpapy; fh];kpf; fjpu;fs; Gtp fhe;jg;Gyj;jpw;F nrq;Fj;jhf
tUtjhy; tpyf;fkile;J tpyfpr; nry;tjhy; nrwpT Fiwthf cs;sJ. mjpf Mw;wYld; neUq;Ffpd;w
Jfs;fs; kl;LNk eLtiuf; Nfhl;bid mila KbAk;.
Fj;Jau tpisT: (Mar’08), (Mar’10)
Fj;Jauj;ijg; nghUj;J fh];kpf; fjph;fspd;
nrwptpy; Vw;gLk; khWghL Fj;Jau tpisT
vdg;gLk;.
cauk; mjpfhpf;Fk; NghJ fh];kpf;
fjph;fspd; nrwpT mjpfhpj;J Rkhh; 20Km
cauj;jpy; ngUkj;ij milAk;. mjw;F Nky; nrwpT
FiwAk;. Gtpapd; midj;J gFjpfspYk; Nrhjid
KbT xNu khjphpahf mikfpd;wJ. .
fh];kpf; fjph; nghopTfs;:
fh];kpf; fjph; nghopT> fjph;tPr;R
Nkhjy; kw;Wk; Nrhb cUthjy; fhuzq;fshy;
cUthfpd;wd.
fh];kpf; fjphpYs;s Mw;wy;
kpFe;j
vyf;l;uhd;
my;yJ
ghrpl;uhd;
mZf;fUf;fSld; Nkhjp Mw;wiy ,of;fpd;wd. ,e;j
Mw;wy; ,og;G cah; Mw;wy; nfhz;l /Nghl;lhdhf
ntsptUfpd;wJ.
,e;j /Nghl;lhd; mZf;fUTld;
tpidGhpe;J vyf;l;uhd; - ghrpl;uhd; Nrhbia
cUthf;fpwJ (Nrhb cUthjy;) ,e;j vyf;l;uhd;>
ghrpl;uhd; mZf;fUf;fSld; Nkhjp kPz;Lk;
/Nghl;lhid cUthf;FfpwJ. (gUg;nghUs; mopjy;).

,it NkYk; mjpfg;gbahd vyf;l;uhd; - ghrpl;uhd; Nrhbfis
cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd. ,;t;thwhf nghopT Nghd;W /Nghl;lhd;fSk; vyf;l;uhd;fSk;>
ghrpl;uhd;fSk; kpf mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; cUthfpd;wd. ,JNt fh];kpf; nghopT vdg;gLk;

Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
12 -PHY-TM
(62)

8. mDf;fU ,aw;gpay;
_

÷\õiE¸ÁõuÀ ©ØÖ® £¸¨ö£õ¸ÒAÈuÀ: (Mar’06), (June’06), (Mar’07)

AvP BØÓÀ öPõsh L÷£õmhõßPÒ AqUP¸øÁa _ØÔ²ÒÍ Á¼ø©¯õÚ ªß¦»zxhß
ÂøÚ¦›ÁuõÀ G»Umµõß & £õ]mµõß ÷\õi E¸ÁõQÓx. Cx ÷\õi E¸ÁõuÀ GÚ¨£k®. ÷\õi
E¸Áõu¾US ©Öuø»¯õP G»UmµõÝ®, £õ]mµõÝ® Cøn¢x L÷£õmhõß E¸ÁõQßÓx. Cx
£¸¨ö£õ¸Ò AÈuÀ GÚ¨£k®.
mbg;gil Jfs;fs;:
/Nghl;lhd;:
,J kpd;D}l;lkw;w> epiwaw;w Mw;wiy vLj;Jf;nry;Yk; kpd;fhe;j
fjph;tPr;rpd; Fthz;lk; MFk;. ,J xspapd; jpirNtfj;jpy; nry;Yk;.
nyg;lhd;: (Jun’07)
vyf;l;uhdpd; epiwia tpl 207 klq;F my;yJ mjw;F Fiwthd epiw nfhz;l
Nyrhd Jfs;fs; MFk; v.fh: vyf;l;uhd;> ghrpl;uhd;> epA+l;hpNdh kw;Wk; Mz;l;b
epA+l;hpNdh > Neu; kw;Wk; vjph;kpAahd;fs;
kPrhd;fs;: ,it 250me kw;Wk; 1000me f;F ,ilg;gl;l xa;T epiw nfhz;lit
v.fh: π -kPrhd; > k.-kPrhd; (Nfahd;) kw;Wk; η-kPrhd;.
ghhpahd;fs;:
fdkhd Jfs;fspd; njhFjp ghhpahd;fs; vdg;gLk;. GNuhl;lhd;fs;
kw;Wk;
epA+l;uhd;fs;> epA+f;spahd;fs; vdg;gLk; (epiw Rkhuhf 1836 me )
vQ;rpa fdkhd Jfs;fs; i`g;uhd;fs; vdg;gLk;. i`g;uhdpd; epiw 2180 me
f;Fk; 3275 me f;Fk; ,ilapy; mikAk;.
v.fh: Nyk;lh> rpf;kh> ir> kw;Wk; XNkfh
i`g;uhd;ffs;;.
__________________________________________________________________________________
1. 4Be8 AqUP¸Âß Bµ®............. (BB)
(a) 1.3 × 10 -15 m
(b) 2.6 × 10 -15 m
(c) 1.3 × 10 -13 m
(d) 2.6 × 10 -13 m
2. 13Al27 ©ØÖ® 14Si28 GßÓ AqUP¸UPÒ GuØS GkzxUPõmhõP Aø©²®?
(BB), (Mar’07), (Oct’07), (Mar’08)
(a) I÷\õ÷hõ¨¦
(b) I÷\õ£õº
(c) I÷\õ÷hõß
(d) I÷\õ©º
3. AqUP¸ JßÔß {øÓ ÁÊ 0.03 amu GÛÀ, Auß ¤øn¨¦ BØÓÀ (BB)
(a) 27.93 eV
(b) 27.93 KeV
(c) 27.93 MeV
(d) 27.93 GeV
4. AqUP¸¨ ¤ÍøÁø¯ ÂÍUSÁx (BB)
(a) Tk ©õv›
(b) vµÁz xΩõv›
(c) SÁõºU ©õv› (d) ÷£õº Aq
©õv›
5. AqUP¸ÂÝÒ EÒÍ AqUP¸z xPÒPÒ GuÚõÀ PÁµ¨£kQßÓÚ? (BB)
(a) Dº¨¤¯À Âø\ (b) {ø»ªßÛ¯À Âø\
(c) AqUP¸ Âø\
(d) Põ¢u¯À Âø\
6. ö£¸© A¯Û¯õUS® vÓøÚ¨ ö£ØÖÒÍøÁ (BB)
(a) {³mµõßPÒ
(c) γ – PvºPÒ
(b) α – xPÒPÒ
(d) β - xPÒPÒ
7. ]øuÄ ©õÔ¼ 0.0693 / |õÒ öPõsh Pv›¯UPz uÛ©® JßÔß AøµB²m
Põ»®
(BB), (Oct’07), (Oct’08)
(a) 10 |õÒPÒ
(b) 14 |õÒPÒ
(c) 140 |õÒPÒ
(d) 1.4 |õÒPÒ

8. ÂÁ\õ¯zvÀ £¯ß£kzu¨£k® Pv›¯UP I÷\õ÷hõ¨¦
(BB), (Jun’06), (Jun’08), (Oct’08), (Oct’09)
(a) 15P31
(b) 15P32
(c) 11Na23
(d) 11Na24
9. AqUP¸¨ ¤ÍøÁ JßÔÀ öÁΨ£k® \µõ\› BØÓÀ (BB)
(a) 200 eV
(b) 200 MeV
(c) 200 meV
(d) 200 GeV
10. AqSsk öÁizu¼À £¯ß£k® uzxÁ® (BB), (Jun’09), (Mar’10)
(a) Pmk¨£õhØÓ AqUP¸ ¤ÍøÁ ÂøÚ
(b) Pmk¨£õhõÚ AqUP¸ ¤ÍøÁ ÂøÚ
(c) AqUP¸ CønÄ ÂøÚ
(d) öÁ¨£ AqUP¸ ÂøÚ
11. Cµzua ÷\õøPø¯U PshÔ¯¨ £¯ß£kÁx (BB), (Mar’07), (Jun’07) , (Jun’09), (Mar’10)
(a) 15P31
(b) 15P32
(c) 26Fe59
(d) 11Na24
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

               
      
12-,aw;gpay; jkpo;top
(63)
__
12. RÌPshÁØÔÀ Cµzu|õÍ[PÎÀ EÒÍ Aøh¨¦PøÍU PshÔ¯¨ £¯ß£kÁx (Mar’08)
(a) 15P31
(b) 15P32
(c) 26Fe59
(d) 11Na24
13. 80Hg198 + X → 79Au198 + 1H1, GßÓ AqUP¸ ÂøÚ°À X Gߣx GuøÚU
SÔUS®?
(BB), (Jun’08), (Mar’09)
(a) ¦÷µõmhõß
(b) G»U mµõß
(c) {³mµõß
(d)
i³mµõß
14. RÌUPõq® AqUP¸ ÂøÚ°À 7N14 + 0n1 → X + 1H1 uÛ©® X Gߣx.... (Mar’06)
(a) 6N14
(b) 6C14
(c) 6O14
(d) 7C13
15. 4Be9 + X → 6C12 + 0n1 GßÓ AqUP¸ ÂøÚ°À X Gߣx GuøÚU SÔUS®?
(Mar’10)
(a) ¦÷µõmhõß
(b) α-xPÒ
(c) G»Umµõß
(d) i³mµõß
27
4→
16. RÌUPõq® AqUP¸ ÂøÚ°À
X + 0n1 X - Gߣx...... (Oct’06)
13Aℓ + 2He
(a) 15 Si30
(b) 15P30
(c) 15Si31
(d) 15Si29
17. β – ]øuÂß÷£õx ------.....................(Mar’09), (Oct’09)
(a) Aq Gs JßÖ SøÓ²®
(b) {øÓ Gs JßÖ SøÓ²®
(c) ¦÷µõmhõß GsoUøP ©õÖ£hõx
(d) {³mµõß GsoUøP JßÖ SøÓ²®
18. I÷\õ÷hõ¨¦PÒ GߣøÁ ............ (BB)
(a) J÷µ {øÓ Gsøn²® ÷ÁÖ£mh Aq Gsøn²® öPõshøÁ.
(b) \©©õÚ ¦÷µõmhõß ©ØÖ® {³mµõß GsoUøPø¯U öPõshøÁ.
(c) \©©õÚ ¦÷µõmhõß GsoUøP²® ©õÖ£mh {³mµõß GsoUøP²® öPõshøÁ.
(d) \©©õÚ {³mµõß GsoUøP²® ©õÖ£mh
¦÷µõmhõß GsoUøP²® öPõshøÁ
19. Pv›¯UPz uÛ©® JßÖ öuõhUP AÍÂÀ 1/e ©h[PõPU SøÓ¯ GkzxU öPõÒЮ
Põ»®....
(BB), (Mar’06)
(a) Aøµ B²m Põ»®
(b) \µõ\› B²mPõ»®
(c) Aøµ B²mPõ»zvÀ £õv
(d) \µõ\› B²mPõ»zvß C¸©h[S
13
20. N ß Aøµ B²mPõ»® 10.1 {ªh[PÒ. Auß B²mPõ»® (BB)
(a) 5.05 {ªh[PÒ

(b) 20.2 {ªh[PÒ

(c)

10 .1
0.6931

{ªh[PÒ

(d) •i¼

21. Pv›¯UPz uÛ©® JßÖ öuõhUP AÍÂÀ e-1/2 ©h[PõPU SøÓ¯ GkzxU öPõÒЮ
Põ»®.... (Jun’06)
(a) Aøµ B²m Põ»®
(b) Aøµ B²m Põ»® /2
(c) \µõ\› B²mPõ»®
(d) \µõ\› B²mPõ»®/2

22. Pv›¯UPz uÛ©® JßÔß Aøµ B²m Põ»zvØS® \µõ\› B²m Põ»zvØS® EÒÍ
öuõhº¦¯õx ? (Mar’08)
(a) τ = 2 T1/ 2

(b) τ =

T1/2
0.6931

(c)

T1/ 2
2
23. xU fjphpaf;fj; jdpkj;jpd; miuMAl;fhyk; 300 ehl;fs; vdpy;mjd; rpijT
khwpyp (Mar’09)
(a) 0.00231 ehl;fs; (b) 0.00231 / ehs;
(c) 0.0231/ ehs; (d) 0.0231 ehl;fs;
24. J¸ uÛ©zvß ÷|ºªß PvºPÒ, ö£°ß¤›mä {øÓ©õø»°À C¸ ÷ÁÖ£mh _ÁkPøÍz
÷uõØÖÂUQßÓÚ. C¢u ÷|ºªß A¯ÛPÒ (BB)
(a) J÷µ {øÓø¯²® ÷ÁÖ£mh vø\÷ÁPzøu²® öPõsi¸US®
(b) J÷µ {øÓ ©ØÖ® vø\÷ÁPzøuU öPõsi¸US®
(c) ÷ÁÖ£mh {øÓ ©ØÖ® J÷µ vø\÷ÁPzøuU öPõsi¸US®
(d) ÷ÁÖ£mh {øÓ ©ØÖ® vø\÷ÁPzøuU öPõsi¸US®
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI
τ = 0.6931 T1/ 2

(d) τ =

12 -PHY-TM
8. mDf;fU ,aw;gpay;
(64)
_
25. 26Fe56 AqUP¸Âß ¤øn¨¦BØÓÀ (BB), (Oct’07)
(a) 8.8 MeV
(b) 88 MeV
(c) 493 MeV
(d) 41.3 MeV
26. AqUP¸Âß AhºzvUS®, £õuµ\zvß AhºzvUS® EÒÍ ÂQu® _©õµõP (BB)
(a) 1.3 × 1010
(b) 1.3
(c) 1.3 × 1013
(d) 1.3 × 104
27. G¢uzxPÒ £›©õØÓ® öuõhº¢x
|øhö£ÖÁuõÀ AqUP¸Âø\
÷uõßÖQÓx....
(Mar’06), (Jun’07),(Mar’09), (Oct’09)
(a) ö»¨mhõßPÒ
(b) «\õßPÒ
(c) øí¨£µõßPÒ
(d)
L÷£õmhõßPÒ
28. RÌUPõq® xPÎÀ Gx ö»¨hõß BS®..... (Mar’06)
(a) G»Umµõß
(b) ¦÷µõmhõß
(c) {³mµõß
(d) π-- «\õß
29. 1 amu US \©©õÚ ©v¨¦ ....... (Jun’06), (Oct’06) , (Oct’08)
(a) 931 eV (b) Põº£ß AqÂß {øÓ
(c) 1.66 x 10-27 kg
(d) BU]áß AqÂß
{øÓ
30. 1 amu US \©©õÚ ©v¨¦ ....... (Jun’09)
(a) 931 MeV
(b) 931 meV
(c) 931eV
(d) 913 MeV
31. ö£¸© Fk¸Ä® vÓß öPõshøÁ....... (Oct’06)
(a) α – xPÒPÒ
(b) β - xPÒPÒ
(c) γ – PvºPÒ
(d) ¦÷µõhõßPÒ
32. AqUP¸ Eø»°À uo¨£õÚõP¨ £¯ß£kÁx... (Mar’07)
(a) Põmª¯® (b) ÷£õµõßPõºø£k
(c) PÚ}º
235
(d) ²÷µÛ¯® (92U )
33. ¤ßÁ¸ÚÁØÔÀ GøÁ uo¨£õß AÀ» .... (Jun’07)
(a) vµÁ ÷\õi¯®
(b) \õuõµÚ }º
(c) Qµõø£m
(d)
PÚ}º
34. 92U238 I÷\õ÷hõ¨¦ α ©ØÖ® β ]øuÄPøÍ Aøh¢u ¤ÓS 82Pb206 BP ©õÖQÓx.
AUPv›¯UPzvÀ öÁΨ£k® α ©ØÖ® β xPÒPÎß GsoUøP •øÓ÷¯ .... (Mar’07)
(a) 6, 8
(b) 4, 3
(c) 8, 6
(d) 3, 4
A
35. ZX GßÓ uÛ©® Akzukzx ‰ßÖ α- ]øuÄPøͲ® |õßS β- ]øuÄ PøͲ® Aøh
¢u ¤ÓS YGßÓ uÛ©©õP ©õÖQÓx GÛÀ, YuÛ©zvß {øÓGs ©ØÖ® AqGs

•øÓ÷¯... (Jun’07)
(a) A-12, Z-2
(b) A-12, Z+2
(c) A-12, Z+4
(d) A - 8, Z+4
A
36. ZX GßÓ uÛ©® Akzukzx ‰ßÖ α-]øuÄPøͲ® |õßS β- ]øuÄ
PøͲ®
Aøh¢u ¤ÓS YGßÓ uÛ©©õP
©õÖQÓx GÛÀ, uÛ©® Gߣx...
(Mar’08)
A-12
A-12
(a) Z-6Y
(b) Z+2Y
(c) ZA-12
A-12
(d) Z-10Y
2Y
37. PõªÛ AqUP¸ Eø»°À G›ö£õ¸ÍõP¨ £¯ß£kÁx.... (Oct’07), (Oct’09)
(a) 92U238
(b) 92U233
(c) 92Pu239
(d) SøÓÁõP ö\ÔÅmh¨£mh ²÷µÛ¯®
38. {øÓ _ȯõPÄ® BÚõÀ BØÓÀ Eøh¯uõPÄ® EÒÍ xPÒ.... (Mar’08)
(a) G»Umµõß
(b) L÷£õmhõß
(c) ¦÷µõmhõß
(d) {³mµõß
39. J¸ L÷£õmhõÛØS...... (Jun’08)
(a) BØÓÀ Esk BÚõÀ {øÓ _ȯõS®
(b) {øÓ Esk BÚõÀ BØÓÀ
_ȯõS®
(c) {øÓ BØÓÀ Cµsk÷© _ȯõS®
(d) {øÓ BØÓÀ
Cµsk÷© •i¼¯õS®
40. kpd;D}l;ldw;w epiwaw;w Mdhy; xspapd; jpirNtjj;jpy; nry;Yk; Jfs;……
(Oct’08)
(a) ghhpahd;
(b) kPrhd;
(c) nyg;l;lhd;
(d) /Nghl;lhd;
41. J¸ AqUP¸Âß Bµ® 2.6 x 10-15 « GÛÀ Auß {øÓGs ¯õx? (Jun’08)
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 8
(d) 16
42. SøÓ÷ÁP {³mµõßPÎß C¯UP BØÓÀ.... (Jun’08)
(a) 1000 eV •uÀ 2000 eV Áøµ
(b) 2000 eV •uÀ 0.5 MeV Áøµ
(c) 0 eV •uÀ 1000 eV Áøµ
(d) 0.5 MeV •uÀ 10 MeV Áøµ
43. fPo; tUtdtw;wpy; vJ ghupahd; gphpitr;NrHe;jJ? (Mar’10)
(a) /Nghl;lhd;
(b) vyf;uhd;
(c) igahd;
(d) GNuhl;lhd;
Physics M.PALANICHAMY,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,M.Phil., P.G TEACHER IN PHYSICS,
GHSS, ETTARAI

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