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Kuo Network Analysis Synthesis Text

Kuo Network Analysis Synthesis Text

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Atransfer function is a function which relates the current or voltage

at one port to the current or voltage at another port. In Chapter

? we

discussed various descriptions oftwo-port networks in terms ofthe open-

circuit parameters z„ and the short-circuit parameters yu. Recall that for

the two-port network given in Fig. 12.1, the open-circuit transfer im-

pedances «!, and Zu were defined as

hl/i-o

(12.1)

*1 lli-0

In terms ofthe open-circuit transfer impedances, the voltage-ratio transfer

function is given as

T,

Yl « £«

(12.2)

In terms of the short-circuit parameters, the voltage ratio is shown to be

Yl = _2»

(12.3)

When the network is terminated at port two by a resistor R, as shown in

Fig. 12.2, the transferimpedance of the overall network is

z £= _?S*_

(12.4)

"

h *« + *

341

342 Network analysis and synthesis

h

h

+

Two-port

network

+

Vi

V2

FIG. 12.1

FIG. 12.2

The transfer admittance of the overall structure in Fig. 12.2 is

Y„ = -' =

(12.5)

Vi y»2 + G

where G = l/R. When both ports are terminated in resistors, as shown in

Fig. 12.3, the voltage-ratio transfer function V^V

g is

*a

z

ai°2

V.

(12.6)

(z

u + RMtn. + *«) - 2gi«i8
Other transfer functions such as current-ratio transfer functions can

also be described in terms of the open- and short-circuit parameters. In

Chapter 10 we discussed the various properties of driving-point imped-

ances such as z

u and z

28. This chapter deals with the properties of the

transfer immittances z

M and ytl for a

passive reciprocal network. First, let

us discuss certain properties which

apply to all transfer functions ofpassive

linear networks with lumped elements.
We denote a transfer function as T(s).

1. T(s) is real for reals. Thisproperty

FIG. 12.3

is satisfied when T(s) is a rational

function with real coefficients.

2. T(s) has no poles in the right-half plane and no multiple poles on

they'to axis. If T(s) is given as T(s) = P(s)lQ(s), the degree ofP(s) cannot

exceed the degree of Q(s) by more than unity. In addition, Q(s) must be

a Hurwitz polynomial.

3. Suppose P(s) and Q(s) are given in terms of even and odd parts,

that is,

ns) =m=MM±IM

(12.

7)

e(S) m8(S) + w,(5)

where M£s) is even and N£s) is odd. Then T(ja>) is

MiC/oO +A^

MJja>) + NMa>)

The amplitude response of T(ja>)is

\T(j

UfA/co) + Nt*(ja>)]

(12.9)

Elements of transfer function synthesis 343

and is an even function in m. The phase response is

Arg TQm) = arctan

m—m '«—

If arg T(jO) = 0, we see that the phase response is an odd function in Now let us discuss some specific properties of the open-circuit and

short-circuit parameters.

1. The poles of z

gl(,s) are also the poles of z

u(j) and z

it{s). However,

not all the poles ofz

u(s) and z

M(y) are the poles ofz

n(s). Recall that in
Chapter 9 we defined the z parameters in terms ofa set ofnode equations

as

A Z^s) =

^

2.o — Z«l — ^12

A

Ifthere is no cancellation between each numerator and denominator ofz

u,

z

lt, and z

lg, then the poles are the roots ofthe determinant A, and all three

functions have the same poles. Consider the two-port network described

by the black box in Fig. 12.4a. Let z'

u, z'

a2, and z'

lt be the z parameters
ofthe network. Let us examine the case when we attach the impedances

Zx andZg to ports one and two, as shown in Fig. 12.46. The z parameters

for the two-port network in Fig. 12.46 are

z

ii = z

ii + Zj

Z

22 — Z

22 + Zj

Z

12 = Z

12

It is clear that the poles of z

u include the poles of Z^ the poles of z

M

include the poles of Zj. However, the poles of z

lt include neither the
poles of Zi nor Z,. Consequently, we see that all the poles ofz„ are also

poles of z

u and z„. The reverse is not necessarily true.

h

*\l> 2*22

z'tt

l_ h

+

+

v2

(a)

I,

*'ll. *'22

«'l2

—<-

r * £

3j -o

Vi

v2

w

FIG. 12.4

344 Network anal/sis and synthesis

h

h

* *

r^

A-i "

*

Vi

Y!

y'n, y'22

y'12

Y2

V2

- 4"

^T 7

h

o >

3f

/2

Vi

*h V*

FIG. 1X5

FIG. 12.6

2. The poles of yis(s) are also the poles of yu(s) and yM(s). However,

not all ofthe poles ofyu(s) and yM(s) are the poles ofyM(s). This property

is readily seen when we examine the two-port network in Fig. 12.5.

The y parameters are

.

,

v

y** = y'»* + y%

yit = v'm

Clearly, the poles of

y12(s) do not include the poles of either Yt and Yt.

Consider the network in Fig. 12.6. The y parameters are

2

ViM = - + 3s

s

y»(s) = - + 3s

s

yis(s) = -3s

Observe that

yu(s) and yM(s) have poles at s = and s = 00, whereas

ylt(s) only has a pole at s = 00.

3. Suppose yu(s),

yM(s), and y18(s) all have poles at s = s

t. Let us

denote by Jfc

u the residue of the pole at s

t of the function yu(s). The

residue of the pole s = Sj, ofyw(s) will be denoted as km, and the residue

of the same pole of

yia(s) will be denoted as klt. Without going into the

proof,1

a general property ofL-C, R-C, or R-L two-port networks is that

kakM - klt*

^

(12.11)

This equation is known as the residue condition. For example, for the

L-C network in Fig. 12.6, the residue condition applied to the pole at

s = 00 gives 3 x 3 — 3* = 0; whereas for the pole at s = 0, we have
2x4 — 0* = 8 > 0. Thus we see that the residue condition is fulfilled

for both poles.

l

For a general discussion, see M. E. Van Valkenburg, Introduction to Modem

Network Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1960, pp. 305-313.

Elements of transfer function synthesis

C

/

2

345

FIG. 12.7

+

-T7> h

< o
+

Vi

c

Vj

o

FIG. 12.8

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