NETWORK ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

FRANKLIN
F.

KUO

SECOND EDITION
£1.50

i-

->

PETER CLARKE SECOND HAND BOOKS
T«l.

Rochdale 50514

Network
Anal/sis and

Synthesis
Second Edition

Wiley International Edition

Network
Analysis and Synthesis
Second Edition

by Franklin
Bell

F.

Kuo
Inc.

Telephone Laboratories,

John Wiley

&

Sons,

Inc.,

New York

|

London

|

Sydney

Toppan Company. Ltd.

,

Tokyo, Japan

1962, 1966 by John Wiley Copyright All Rights Reserved

©

& Sons, Inc.

This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher

Wiley International Edition
This book
to
is

which

it

not to be sold outside the country is consigned by the publisher.

Libray of Congress Catalog Card

Number

:

66-16127

Printed in Singapore by Toppan Printing Co. (S) Pte. Ltd.

To My

Father and Mother

Preface

on computer computers have brought about many significant changes in the content of engineering subject matter concerned with both analysis and design. In analysis, computation has become an important adjunct to theory. Theory estate lishes the foundation of the subject matter; computation provides clarity, depth, and insight. In design, the computer has not only contributed precision and speed to existing procedures but has made practicable design methods that employ iteration and simulation. The importance of computer-aided design cannot be overemphasized. In Chapter 15 I have attempted to survey some digital computer applications in the areas of network analysis and design. I strongly encourage all students
applications (Chapter 15).

In the second edition, I have tried to keep the organization of the first Most of the new material are additions aimed at strengthening the weaknesses of the original edition. Some specific changes deserve mention. The most important of these is a new chapter
edition.

In the past

five years, digital

to read

this chapter for cultural interest, if

not for survival.

It

Another new section contains a rigorous treatment of the unit impulse. was difficult to decide whether to incorporate this material in Chapter 2

in the discussion of signals or in a separate appendix.
ized functions in

By putting

general-

an appendix, I have left the decision of whether to teach the rigorous treatment up to the individual instructor. Other changes worth mentioning are: (1) two new sections on the Fourier integral in Chapter 3 (2) a section on initial and final conditions in Chapter 5; (3) a section on Bode plots in Chapter 8; (4) revised material on two-port parameters in Chapter 9; and (5) new sections on frequency and transient responses of filters in Chapter 13. Major or minor changes may be found in every chapter, with the exception of Chapters 11 and 12. In addition, many new problems are included at the end of each chapter.
;

vii

viii

Preface

Chapters 1 and 2 brief description of the subject matter follows. certain general characteristics of deal with signal representation and and includes the linear systems. Chapter 3 deals with Fourier analysis,

A

and 5 impulse method for evaluating Fourier coefficients. Chapters 4 differential equations in the time domain. discuss solutions of network two preceding In Chapters 6 and 7, the goals are the same as those of the viewpoint here is that of the frequency domain. chapters, except that the
system function. Chapter 8 deals with the amplitude, phase, and delay of a chapters are concerned with network synthesis. Chapter The final seven realizability theory 9 deals with two-ports. In Chapter 10, the elements of drivingpresented. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with elementary are and transfer function synthesis procedures. In Chapter 13, some point Chapter 14 fundamental concepts in modern filter design are introduced. analysis and design. deals with the use of scattering matrices in network digital And, as mentioned earlier, Chapter 15 contains a brief survey of addition, there are five computer techniques in system analysis. In
appendices covering the rudiments of matrix algebra, generalized complex variables, proofs of Brune's theorems, and a visual aid to
functions,
filter

approximation.
intended for a two-semester course in network theory. or Chapters 1 through 8 may be used in a one-semester undergraduate transient analysis or linear system analysis. beginning graduate course in

The book

is

network Chapters 9 and 15 are to be used in a subsequent course on
synthesis.

The second edition is largely a result of the feedback from the professors who have used this book and from their students, Who have discovered express my sincere errors and weaknesses in the original edition. I wish to
appreciation to those

who provided this feedback. thanks are due to the following people: Robert Barnard of Special Wayne State, Charles Belove and Peter Dorato of the Polytechnic Sherman of the Bell Institute of Brooklyn, James Kaiser and Philip Telephone Laboratories, Evan Moustakas of San Jose State College, Welch of the University of Texas, and David Landgrebe of Purdue.
A.
I
J.

and Robert Tracey of Illinois for editorial advice and to Donald Ford of Wiley for help and encouragement. Zicchino, and addition, I wish to thank Elizabeth Jenkins, Lynn
In

am particularly indebted to Mac Van Valkenburg of Princeton University

Joanne Mangione of the Bell Telephone Laboratories for their and careful typing of the manuscript. F. F. » tj u. Berkeley Heights,
• i

efficient

Kuo

New Jersey,
December, 1965

Preface to the First Edition

This book is an introduction to the study of electric networks based upon a system theoretic approach. In contrast to many present textbooks, the emphasis is not on the form and structure of a network but rather on
excitation-response properties. In other words, the major theme is concerned with how a linear network behaves as a signal processor. Special emphasis is given to the descriptions of a linear network by its system function in the frequency domain and its impulse response in the time domain. With the use of the system function as a unifying link, the
its

transition

from network

analysis to synthesis can

be accomplished with

relative ease.

The book was

originally conceived as a set of notes for a second course

in network analysis at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. It assumes

had a course in steady-state circuit analysis. should be familiar with Kirchhoff's laws, mesh and node equations, standard network theorems, and, preferably, he should have an elementary
that the student has already

He

understanding of network topology.

A

brief description of the subject matter follows.

Chapters

1

and 2

deal with signal representation and certain characteristics of linear net3, 4, 5, and 6 discuss transient analysis from both a time domain viewpoint, i.e., in terms of differential equations and the impulse response, and a frequency domain viewpoint using Fourier and Laplace transforms. Chapter 7 is concerned with the use of poles and zeros in both transient and steady-state analysis. Chapter 8 contains a classical

works. Chapters

treatment of network functions. The final five chapters deal with network synthesis. In Chapter 9, the elements of realizability theory are presented. Chapters 10 and 1 1 are concerned with elementary driving-point and transfer function synthesis procedures. In Chapter 12, some fundamental concepts in modern filter
design are introduced. Chapter 13 deals with the use of scattering matrices
ix

x

Preface to the First Edition

in network analysis

and

synthesis.

In addition, there are three appendices

and proofs covering the rudiments of matrix algebra, complex variables, of Brune's realizability theorems. The book is intended for a two-semester course in network theory. or Chapters 1 through 7 can be used in a one-semester undergraduate system analysis. beginning graduate course in transient analysis or linear
Chapters 8 through 13 are to be used in a subsequent course on network
synthesis.

was my very good fortune to have studied under Professor M. E. Van Valkenburg at the University of Illinois. I have been profoundly influenced emphasis by his philosophy of teaching and writing, which places strong
It

of exposition. In keeping with this philosophy, I have tried viewpoint, and I have to present complicated material from a simple illustrative examples and exercises. In addition, included a large number of mathematical rigor and I have tried to take a middle ground between

upon

clarity

intuitive understanding.

Unless a proof contributes materially to the of a theorem, it is omitted in favor of an intuitive argument. understanding For example, in the treatment of unit impulses, a development in terms
unit of a generalized function is first introduced. It is stressed that the functions whose is not really a function but actually a sequence of impulse notion of an limit point is undefined. Then, the less rigorous, intuitive the impulse "function" is presented. The treatment then proceeds along

nonrigorous path.

There are a number of topics which have been omitted. One of these at present. I have puris network topology, which seems to be in vogue that posely omitted topology because it seems out of place in a book network analysis. de-emphasizes the form and structure approach to In an expository book of this nature, it is almost impossible to reference field of adequately all the original contributors in the vast and fertile

network theory. I apologize to those whose names were omitted either through oversight or ignorance. At the end of the book, some supplementary textbooks are listed for the student who either wishes to fill in some gaps in his training or wants to obtain a different point of view. given to me by my I acknowledge with gratitude the help and advice Bell Telephone Laboratories and by my former colleagues colleagues at the my sincere at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. I wish to express were appreciation to the many reviewers whose advice and criticism
invaluable in revising preliminary drafts of the manuscript. Professors Stanford R. D. Barnard of Wayne State University and R. W. Newcomb of of the entire University deserve specific thanks for their critical reading

manuscript and numerous helpful suggestions and comments. Miss Elizabeth In addition, I wish to thank Mrs. Elizabeth Jenkins and

Preface to the First Edition

xi

La

Jeunesse of the Bell Telephone Laboratories for their efficient and

careful typing of the manuscript.
Finally, to my wife Dora, I owe a special debt of gratitude. Her encouragement and cooperation made the writing of this book an

enjoyable undertaking.

Murray

Hill,

New Jersey,

F. F.

KUO

January, 1962

Contents
Chapter
I:

Signals and Systems
Signal Analysis

I

1.1

1

1.2
1.3

1.4

Complex Frequency Network Analysis Network Synthesis

4
7

14

Chapter 2:

Signals

and Waveforms

20

2.1

2.2
2.3

2.4

General Characteristics of Signals General Descriptions of Signals The Step Function and Associated Waveforms The Unit Impulse

20 24 28 33

Chapter 3:

The Frequency Domain: Fourier Analysis
Introduction

46

3.1

3.2
3.3

Orthogonal Functions Approximation Using Orthogonal Functions
Fourier Series Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients Using Unit Impulses

3.4
3.5

46 47 48 50 52
58 63 67

3.6

3.7
3.8

The Fourier

Integral

Properties of Fourier Transforms
xiii

xiv

Contents

Chapter 4:
4.1

Differential Equations

75 75

Introduction

4.2
4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Homogeneous Linear Differential Equations Nonhomogeneous Equations
Step and Impulse Response
Integrodifferential Equations

76

82 85
91

Simultaneous Differential Equations

93

Chapter 5:
5.1

Network

Analysis:

I

100

Introduction

5.2
5.3

5.4
5.5

Network Elements Initial and Final Conditions Step and Impulse Response Solution of Network Equations
Analysis of Transformers

100 103 106

HI
114 122

5.6

Chapter 6:
6.1

The Laplace Transform
The Philosophy of Transform Methods The Laplace Transform
Properties of Laplace Transforms

134

6.2
6.3

134 135 137

6.4
6.5

6.6
6.7
6.8

Uses of Laplace Transforms Partial-Fraction Expansions Poles and Zeros Evaluation of Residues The Initial and Final Value Theorems

144 148 155

162 165

Chapter

7:

Transform Methods

in

Network Analysis

175

7.1

7.2
7.3

7.4
7.5

7.6

The Transformed Circuit Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems The System Function The Step and Impulse Responses The Convolution Integral The Duhamel Superposition Integral

175 180

187 194 197 201

Contents

xv

Chapter 8:

Amplitude, Phase, and Delay

212

8.1

Amplitude and Phase Response

212
221

8.2
8.3

Bode

Plots

Single-Tuned Circuits

8.4
8.5

Double-Tuned Circuits On Poles and Zeros and Time Delay

229 238 245

Chapter 9:

Network

Analysis:

II

253

9.1

Network Functions
Relationships Between Two-Port Parameters Transfer Functions Using Two-Port Parameters

9.2
9.3

9.4
9.5

Interconnection of Two-Ports
Incidental Dissipation

9.6

Analysis of Ladder Networks

253 264 266 271 276 279

Chapter

10:

Elements of Readability Theory
Causality and Stability

290

10.1

10.2
10.3

10.4

Hurwitz Polynomials Positive Real Functions Elementary Synthesis Procedures

290 294 299 308

Chapter

11:

Synthesis of One-Port Networks with Two Kinds of Elements

315

11.1

11.2
11.3

Properties of L-C Immittance Functions Synthesis of L-C Driving-Point Immittances Properties of R-C Driving-Point Impedances Synthesis of R-C Impedances or R-L. Admittances Properties of R-L Impedances and R-C Admittances

11.4
11.5

11.6

Synthesis of Certain

R-L-C Functions

315 319 325 329 331 333

xvi

Contents

Chapter

12:

Elements of Transfer Function Synthesis
Properties of Transfer Functions

341

12.1

341

12.2
12.3 12.4

Zeros of Transmission Synthesis of Yn and ZS1 with a 1-Q Termination Synthesis of Constant-Resistance Networks

345 347 352

Chapter

13:

Topics in Filter Design

365

13.1

13.2
13.3

The Filter Design Problem The Approximation Problem in Network Theory The Maximally Flat Low-Pass Filter Approximation
Other Low-Pass Filter Approximations
Transient Response of Low-Pass Filters

13.4
13.5 13.6 13.7

A Method to Reduce Overshoot in Filters A Maximally Flat Delay and Controllable Magnitude

365 365 368 373 388 392
395 397

Approximation Synthesis of Low-Pass Filters 13.9 Magnitude and Frequency Normalization 13.10 Frequency Transformations
13.8

402 404

Chapter

14:

The Scattering Matrix
Incident and Reflected

413

14.1

Power Flow

14.2
14.3

The The

Scattering Parameters for a One-Port Scattering Matrix for

Network a Two-Port Network

14.4
14.5

Properties of the Scattering Matrix
Insertion Loss

413 415 419 426 429
431

14.6

Darlington's Insertion Loss Filter Synthesis

Chapter

15:

Computer Techniques

in Circuit Analysis

438

15.1

The Uses of Digital Computers

in Circuit Analysis

15.2
15.3

15.4

Amplitude and Phase Subroutine A Fortran Program for the Analysis of Ladder Networks Programs that Aid in Darlington Filter Synthesis

438 450 453 457

Contents

xvii

Appendix A:
A.1

Introduction to Matrix Algebra

461

A.2 A.3 A.4
A. 5

Fundamental Operations Elementary Concepts Operations on Matrices Solutions of Linear Equations
References

461

on Matrix Algebra

462 464 468 469

Appendix B:
B.l

Generalized Functions and the Unit Impulse
Generalized Functions
Properties of the Unit Impulse

470

B.2

470 476

Appendix C:
C.l

Elements of Complex Variables
Elementary Definitions and Operations
Analysis
Singularities and Residues Contour Integration

481

C.2 C.3 C.4

481 483 486 487

Appendix D:

Proofs of Functions

Some Theorems on

Positive

Real 490

Appendix E:

An Aid
mation

to the Improvement of Filter Approxi493

E.l

Introduction

E.2 E.3 E.4
E.5 E.6 E.7

Constant Logarithmic Gain Contours Constant Phase Contours

Contour Drawings
Correction Procedure Correction Network Design

Conclusion

493 494 495 496 498 502 504 £05 $09
si I

Bibliography

Name Index
Subject Index

chapter

I

Signals and systems

This book is an introduction to electric network theory. The first half of the book is devoted to network analysis and the remainder to network synthesis and design. What are network analysis and synthesis? In a
generally accepted definition of network analysis

and

synthesis, there are

three key words: the excitation, the network, and the response as depicted in Fig. 1.1. Network analysis is concerned with determining the response, given the excitation and the network. In network synthesis, the problem
is

to design the network given the excitation and the desired response. In this chapter we will outline some of the problems to be encountered in this book without going into the actual details of the problems.

We

will also discuss

some

basic definitions.

I.I

SIGNAL ANALYSIS
electric

voltages

networks, the excitation and response are given in terms of and currents which are functions of time, t. In general, these functions of time are called signals. In describing signals, we use the two universal languages of electrical engineering— time and frequency. Strictly speaking, a signal is a function of time. However, the signal can be

For

described equally well in terms of spectral or frequency information. As between any two languages, such as French and German, translation is needed to render information given in one language comprehensible in the

Excitation
>-

Response
Network

>

FIG.

I.I.

The

objects of our concern.

Network

analysis and synthesis

m
Ao-

FIG.

1.2.

Sinusoidal signal.

is effected by the and the Laplace transform. We shall have ample opportunity to define and study these terms later in the book. At the moment, let us examine how a signal can be described in terms of both frequency and time. Consider the sinusoidal signal

other.

Between time and frequency, the translation

Fourier series, the Fourier integral,

s(t)

=A
O is

sin (a>

t

+

O)

0.1)

where

A

is

the amplitude,

the phase

shift,

and

<w

is

the angular

frequency as given by the equation
coo

=

Y

<

L2>

where

in Fig. 1.2.

T is the period of the sinusoid. The signal is plotted aguinst time An equally complete description of the signal is obtained if we
D a Ao i o. E

b>0

W
A
versus angular frequency
<o.

Angular frequency

FIG.

1.3a. Plot

of amplitude

o>o

to

Angular frequency

FIG. 1.3b. Plot of phase 6 versus angular frequency

<o.

Signals and systems

— «a

—6>4 —6)3

— a>2 — 6>i

±
&>0
«">1

»2

"3

ft>4

+<<>

FIG.

1.4a. Discrete

amplitude spectrum.

—ft)

— fc>4 — W3 — ft)2 —

ft>i

T

b)i

0)2

0>3

ft>4

+0)

FIG.

1.4b. Discrete

phase spectrum.

let

the angular frequency
is

co

be the independent variable. In
>

this case, the

signal

described in terms of ^4
is

w o>

an£l

^0.

as

shown in

amplitude
is

plotted against frequency,

and in

Fig. 1.36,

where where phase shift
Fig. 1.3a,

plotted.

Now suppose that the signal is made up of 2n +
s(t)

1

sinusoidal components

=%A <—

i

sin

(<v

+

fy)

(1.3)

The spectral description of the signal would then contain 2n + l lines at ±(»„ as given in Figs. 1.4a and b. These discrete spectra ±<*>i, ±«>2 of amplitude A versus co and phase shift 6 versus co are sometimes called line spectra. Consider the case when the number of these spectral lines become infinite and the intervals oo i+1 — w f between the lines approach zero. Then there is no longer any discrimination between one frequency and another, so that the discrete line spectra fuse into a continuous spectra, as shown by the example in Figs. 1.5a and b. In the continuous case, the sum in Eq. 1.3 becomes an integral

xo
where A{m)
spectrum.
is

£

A(o>) sin [mt

+

0(to)]

dm
and
0(co)

(1.4)

known

as the amplitude spectrum

as the phase

As we

shall see later, periodic signals

such as the sine wave in Fig. 1.2

can be described in terms of discrete spectra through the use of Fourier series. On the other hand, a nonperiodic signal such as the triangular

4

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
Mo>)

—a
FIG.
1.5a.

<a

Continuous amplitude spectrum.

FIG.

1.5b.

Continuous phase spectrum.

pulse in Fig. 1.6 can only be described in terms of continuous spectra

through the Fourier integral transform.

1.2

COMPLEX FREQUENCY
we
will consider the concept of

In this section,

complex frequency. As

we

shall see, the

complex frequency variable
s

= a + ja>

(1.5)

a generalized frequency variable whose real part a describes growth and decay of the amplitudes of signals, and whose imaginary part/cu is angular frequency in the usual sense. The idea of complex frequency is developed by examining the cisoidal signal
is

S(f)

=

aJ»* Ae

(1.6)

FIG.

1.6.

Triangular signal.

Signals and systems

5

ReS

FIG.

1.7.

Rotating phasor.

when S(0 is represented as a rotating phasor, 1 as shown in Fig. 1.7. The angular frequency m of the phasor can then be thought of as a velocity
end of the phasor. In particular the velocity to is always at right shown in Fig. 1.7. However, consider the general case when the velocity is inclined at any arbitrary angle y> as given in Figs. 1.8a and 1.86. In this case, if the velocity is given by the symbol s, we see that s is composed of a component m at right angle to the phasor S as well as a component a, which is parallel to S. In Fig. 1.8a, s has a component — a toward the origin. As the phasor S spins in a counterclockwise fashion, the phasor decreases in amplitude. The resulting wave for the real and imaginary parts of S(r) are damped sinusoids as given by
at the

angles to the phasor, as

ReS(f)

ImS(0

= Ae~" cos cot = X<r*'sina>f

(1.7)

M
1

]<b)
(b)

FIG. 1.8. (a) Rotating phasor with exponentially decreasing amplitude, phasor with exponentially increasing amplitude.

Rotating

A phasor S is a complex number characterized by a magnitude and a phase angle
Appendix C).

(see

6

Network

analysis

and synthesis

/Envelope = Ae~

FIG.

1.9.

Damped

sinusoids.

/ ^~ Envelope = Ae**

FIG.

1. 10.

Exponentially increasing sinusoid.

Signals and systems

7

t

FIG.

I.I I.

Exponential signals.

which are shown in a positive
real

Fig. 1.9.

exponential envelope decay, Ae~" %

Note that the damped sinusoid has an In Fig. 1 .84, the phasor is shown with
.

component of velocity +o. Therefore, as the phasor spins, the amplitudes of the real and imaginary parts increase exponentially with an envelope Ae+at as shown by Im S(f) in Fig. 1.10.
,

From

this discussion, it is

apparent that the generalized cisoidal signal

S(0
describes the growth

= Ae" = Ae {a+Mt

(1.8)

frequency in the usual sense.
wheny'a>

=

0,

and decay of the amplitudes in addition to angular When a = 0, the sinusoid is undamped, and the signal is an exponential signal

as

shown in Fig.

1.11.

= Ae*' (1.9) Finally, if a = ja> = 0, then the signal is a constant
S(0
complex frequency
description.

A. Thus

we

see the versatility of a

1.3

NETWORK ANALYSIS

As mentioned before, the characterization of the excitation and response and frequency makes up only part of the analysis problem. The other part consists of characterizing the network itself in terms of
signals in time

time and frequency, and determining how the network behaves as a signal processer. Let us turn our attention now to a brief study of the properties of linear networks and the general characteristics of signal processing by

a linear system.

8

Network

analysis

and synthesis

BASIC DEFINITIONS
Linear

A
By
e[t)

(b) the principle

system (network) is linear if (a) the principle of superposition and of proportionality hold.
the superposition principle, the response
if,

for a given network, [ex (t), r^t)]
r(t)

and
the

[eg(0, r 2(f)l

are excitation-response pairs, then if the excitation were

= ex(t) + e2(t),
Cx
is

would be

= r,(f) + r£i).

By

proportionality principle, if the excitation were C^it), where x is a constant, then the response would be C^r^t), i.e., the constant of proportionality
linearity are

C

preserved by the linear network. The two conditions of summarized in Fig. 1.12. Another definition of a linear network is that the excitation and response of the network are related by a linear differential equation. We shall discuss this definition in Chapter 4 on differential equations.

Passive

A linear network is passive* if (a) the energy delivered to the network is
nonnegative for any arbitrary excitation, and (b) if no voltages or currents appear between any two terminals before an excitation is applied.

Reciprocal

A network is said to be reciprocal if when the points of excitation and
measurement of response are interchanged, the relationship between

Cieift)

..

System

CuiM

.

C2 e2(t)

System

C2 r^t)

_

Ci*t(0+Ck*gt)
System

Cm(t) *

CW<)

FIG.

1.12.

linear system.

1 G. Raisbeck, "A Definition of Passive Linear Networks in Terms of Time and Energy," /. Appl. Phys., 25 (Dec. 1954), 1510-1514.

Signals and systems
tit)
r(t)

9

A
System
>t

B

-

— —.M.

3<•

t

-Ti)

Ht-Tit

A
System

^

B
Tl
(

7\

TihTi

t

FIG.

1.13.

Time-invariant system.

excitation

and response remains the same, Thus must be true

for any

choice of points of excitation and response.

Causal

We say a system is causal if its response is nonanticipatory, i.e., if
«(0
then

= KO = °
if

t

<T
(1.10)

'

<r
is

In other words, a system is causal oo / T, the response is zero for

before an excitation
t

applied at

=

< <

T.

Time

invariant

T)-*-r(t± T), where the symbol -» means "gives rise to." To understand the concept of time invariance in a linear system, let us suppose that initially the excitation is introduced at f = 0, which gives rise to a response r(t). If the excitation were introduced at / = T, and if the shape of the response waveform were the same as in the first case, but delayed by a time T (Fig. 1.13), then we could say the system is time invariant. Another way of looking at this concept is through the fact that time-invariant systems contain only elements that do not vary with time. It should be mentioned here that linear systems need not be time invariant.
Derivative property

A system is time invariant ife(t) -* rtf) implies that e(t ±

From the time-invariant property we can show that,

if e{f)

at the input
e'(f),

gives rise to r(i) at the output (Fig. 1.14), then, if the input were

10

Network

analysis

and synthesis

System

de(t)

System

it

> *

dr(t)

dt

d*e(t)

System

,
'

d*Ht)
dt'

dt*

e(T)dr

System

k >

C'.{,\ l'(T) J
1

FIG.
i.e.,

1.14.

Some

implications of linear time-invariant systems.

r'(t). The proof is quite where e is a real quantity. By the time-invariant property, the response would be r(t + e). Now suppose the

the derivative of e(t), the response would be

simple. Consider an excitation e(*
excitation were

+

e)

e1 (r)--W*

+

«)-««)]

(1-11)

then according to the linearity and time-invariant properties, the response would be
ri (0

= - [r(I + e) we
see that

K0]

(112)

Taking the limit as

e ->- 0,

limc1(0
e-»0

= 7-c(0
at
(1.13)

lim rx(0
«-»o

= ^ K0
at

We
e(t)

can extend this idea to higher derivatives as well as for the integrals of

and

r(f),

as

shown

in Fig. 1.14.

Ideal

models

Let us now examine some idealized models of linear systems. The systems given in the following all have properties which make them very
useful in signal processing.

1

Signals and systems

1

e(t)

Amplifier

Km.

FIG.

1.15. Amplifier.

fit)

d K dt

1

.

Kdfltt
dt

FIG.

.16. Differentiator.

m
FIG.
1.17. Integ[rat or.

>K i

ff VaT

m
FIG.
1.18.

uyif

/Tt-JX

Time-delay network.

1

2

t

FIG.
1.

1.19.

Excitation function.

Amplifier:

An

amplifier scales

up

the magnitude of the input,
1.15).

i.e.,

lit)

= Ke(t), where Kis a constant (Fig.
The input
(Fig. 1.16).

2. Differentiator:

signal is differentiated

and possibly scaled

up or down
Fig. 1.17.

3. Integrator:

The output

is

the integral of the input, as
T,

shown

in

4. Time delayer: The output is delayed by an amount same wave shape as the input (Fig. 1.18).

but retains the

Fig. 1.19 as the input signal. the outputs for each of the four systems just described are shown in Figs. 1.200-1 .20(2.

Suppose we take the triangular pulse in

Then

12

Network analysis and

synthesis

m
1

i

2

t

-1
<b)

tit)

_L
Ti
(c)

Ti
(d)

+

1

Ti

+

2

FIG. I JO. la) Amplifier output,

(ft)

Differentiator output, (c) Integrator output,

(rf)

Delayed output.

Ideal elements

In the analysis of electric networks, we use idealized linear mathematical models of physical circuit elements. The elements most often encountered are the resistor R, given in ohms, the capacitor C, given in farads, and the inductor L, expressed in henrys. The endpoints of the elements are port is defined as any pair of two terminals into which called terminals. energy is supplied or withdrawn or where network variables may be measured or observed. In Fig. 1.21 we have an example of a two-port

A

network. The energy sources that
current or voltage sources,

make up the excitation functions as shown in Figs. 1.22a and b. The

are ideal
polarities

Two-port network

'/ measurement

*a Response

FIG.

1.21.

Two-port network.

Signals and systems

13

o

+

««p
FIG. 1.22a. Voltage source.

w Q)
FIG. 1.22b. Current source.

and the direction of flow for the current source are arbitrarily assumed for reference purposes only. An ideal voltage source is an energy source that provides, at a given port, a voltage
signal that
is

indicated for the voltage source

independent of the current at that port. If we interchange the
last definition,

words "current" and "voltage" in the
ideal current source.

we then

define

an

In network analysis, the principal problem is to find the relationships that exist between the currents and voltages at the ports of the network. Certain simple voltage-current relationships for the network elements also
serve as defining equations for the elements themselves. For example, when the currents and voltages are expressed as functions of time, then the

R, L, and

C elements,

shown

in Fig. 1.23, are defined

by the equations

or

i(t)

= -v(t) =i
L *o
J

t>(0

= L -J9
at

or

iQ)

v(x)

dx

+

j(0)

(1.14)

»(0

=7

I' CJo

«(*)

dx

+ v(0)

or

i(t)

=C

^
dt

where the constants of integration discussed in detail later.

i'(0)

and

»(0) are initial conditions to

be

Expressed as a function of the complex frequency variable s, the equations

m —*v(t) v(t)

m
v(t)

Ut) —*—

^=C

M
FIG.

(b)

(e)

1.23. (a) Resistor,

(b) Inductor,

(c) Capacitor.

14

Network

analysis and synthesis
1(3)

>

»—

Ks) —»—

V(s)

V(s)

]sL

V(s)

sC

(a)

(b)

(c)

FIG.

1.24. (a) Resistor,

(b) Inductor,

(c)

Capacitor.

defining the R, L,
initial

and

C

elements,

shown

in Fig. 1.24, are (ignoring

conditions for the

moment)
RI(s)

V(s)

=

or

I(s)

= ^V(s)
R

V(s)

= sLI(s)
= -^/(s)
sC

or

I(s)

=
=


sL

V(s)

(1.15)

7(s)

or

/(s)

sCV(s)

We see that in the time domain, i.e., where the independent variable is
relationships for the

t,

the voltage-current relationships are given in terms of differential equations. On the other hand, in the complex-frequency domain, the voltage-current

elements are expressed in algebraic equations. Algebraic equations are, in most cases, more easily solved than differential
equations. Herein lies the ration d'itre for describing signals in the frequency domain as well as in the time domain.

and networks

a network is made up of an interconnection of linear circuit elements, the network is described by its system or transfer function H(s). The response R(s) and the excitation E(s) are related by the equation
R(s)

When

= H(s) E(s).

(1.16)

In network analysis, we are given E(s), and we can obtain H(s) directly from the network. Our task is to determine R(s).

1.4

NETWORK SYNTHESIS
In network synthesis,

We will now briefly introduce some of the problems germane to network
synthesis.

we

are given the response R(s)
synthesize the network

excitation E(s),

and we are required to

and the from the

Signals and systems

15

m <b
FIG.
Z{s)

VM

1.25. Driving-point

impedance

FIG. I.M. Black box.

=

R.

system function

aw-™
£(s)

(1.17)

Since R(s) and £(5) are voltages or currents, then H(s) is denoted generally as an immittance if R(s) is a voltage and E(s) is a current, or vice versa. 9 driving-point immittance is defined to be a function for which the

A

variables are measured at the

same

port.

Thus a

driving-point impedance

Z(s) at a given port

is

the function

TO-™
I(s)

(1.18)

where the excitation

is

a current

I(s)

shown

in Fig. 1.25.

When we

and the response is a voltage V(s), as interchange the words "current" and

"voltage" in the last definition, we then have a driving-point admittance. An example of a driving-point impedance is the network in Fig. 1.25,

where
Z(s)

= ^i = R
I(s)

(1.19)

Now suppose the resistor in Fig. 1.25 were enclosed in a "black box." We have no access to this black box, except at the terminals 1-1' in Fig.
1.26. Our task is to determine the network in the black box. Suppose we are given the information that, for a given excitation /(*), the voltage response V(s) is proportional to I(s) by the equation

V(s)

= KI(s)
is is

(1.20)

An obvious solution, though not unique,
resistor

that the network consists of a

KCl. Suppose next that the excitation of value R V(s), the response is a current I(s), and that

=

a voltage

ns)
•IRE

_M.

3

+ 4j

(1.21)

Standards on Circuits "Linear Passive Networks," Proe. IRE, 48, No. 9

(Sept. 1960), 1608-1610.

16

Network
lo-

analysis
1

and synthesis
'
I

hM
+
Vi(s)

Us) —
Two-port network

o

+

=r 4
l'o—
FIG.
1.27.

>i
realiza-

V&)

Network

FIG.

1.28.

Two-port network.

tion for Y(s).

a network equivalent to the network in the black box. From a close scrutiny of the driving-point admittance Y(s), we see that a possible solution might consist of a resistor of J O in parallel with a capacitor of 4 farads, as seen in Fig. 1.27. The problem of driving-point synthesis, as shown from the examples just given, consists of decomposing a given immittance function into

Our task is to

synthesize

basic recognizable parts (such as 3

+ 4s).

Before

we proceed with

the

mechanics of decomposition, we must first determine whether the function is realizable, i.e., can it be synthesized in terms of positive resistances, inductances, and capacitances? It will be shown that realizable drivingpoint immittances belong to a class of functions known as positive real or, simply, p.r. functions. From the properties of p.r. functions, we can test a given driving-point function for realizability. (The Appendices present a short introduction to complex variables as well as the proofs of some theorems on positive real functions.) With a knowledge of p.r. functions, we then go on to examine special driving-point functions. These include functions which can be realized with two kinds of elements only the L-C,

R-C, and R-L immittances. Next we proceed to the synthesis of transfer functions. According to 4 the IRE Standards on passive linear networks, a transfer function or transmittance is a system function for which the variables are measured at different ports. There are many different forms which a transfer function might take. For example, consider the two-port network in Fig. 1.28. If the excitation is I^s) and the response Vjs), the transfer function is a
transfer impedance

Ztt(s)
we would

=

(1.22)

On the other hand, if Vl(s) were the excitation and
have a voltage-ratio transfer function
tf(S

V^s) the response, then

)=™
Fi(»)

(1.23)

4

Loe.

eit.

Signals and systems
\H(ju)\

17

FIG.

1.2?. Ideal

amplitude spectrum for low-pass

filter.

As

for driving-point functions, there are certain properties which a

transfer function

must

satisfy in

order to be realizable.

We

shall study

these realizability conditions

and then proceed to the synthesis of some
synthesis
is filter

simple transfer functions.

The most important aspect of transfer function

design.

A filter is defined as a network which passes

a certain portion of a frequency spectrum and blocks the remainder of the spectrum. By the term "blocking," we imply that the magnitude response \H(ja>)\ of the filter is approximately zero for that frequency range. Thus, an ideal low-pass
filter is

a network which passes all frequencies up to a cutoff frequency and blocks all frequencies above w c as shown in Fig. 1.29. One aspect of filter design is to synthesize the network from the transfer function H(s). The other aspect deals with the problem of obtaining a

mc

,

,

realizable transmittance H(s) given the specification of, for example, the

magnitude characteristic in Fig.

1.29.

This part of the synthesis is generally

referred to as the approximation problem.

Why

the

mation?" Because frequency response

characteristics of the R, L,

word "approxiand C

elements are continuous (with the exception of isolated points called
resonance points), a network containing these elements cannot be
cut off abruptly at
<o c

in Fig. 1.29. Instead,
characteristics

made to we can realize low-pass filters
1.30.

which have the magnitude
\H(J<*)\

of Fig.

In connection with

FIG.

1.30. Realizable

low-pass filter characteristics.

18

Network
filter

analysis

and synthesis

problems in magnitude a filter, we deal with element values such as R — 0.5 ohm and C = 2 farads instead of "practical" element values of, for example, R — 500,000 ohms and C = 2 picofarads (pico = 10-12). Also we will study a method whereby low-pass filter designs might be transformed into high-pass, band-pass, and bandelimination filters. The mathematical basis of this method is called
the

design problems,

we

will discuss certain

and frequency normalization so

that, in designing

frequency transformation. We next discuss some aspects of analysis and synthesis in which the excitation and response functions are given in terms of power rather than

of voltage and current.

We will examine the power-transfer properties of

which describe the incident power of the network at its ports. Finally, in Chapter 15, we will examine some of the many uses of highspeed digital computers in circuit analysis and design. In addition to a general survey of the field, we will also study some specific computer programs in circuit analysis.
linear networks, using scattering parameters,

and

reflected

Problems
1.1

Draw the line
s(t)

spectra for the signal

-

3 sin (t

+ ^1 + 4sin

(it

- 1| +

6 sin it

1.2
JtTir/4

Find the response to the excitation sin / into a sampler that closes every »= 0, 1, 2, seconds where Draw the response for ^ / ^ 2*.

K

13 Find the response to the excitation shown in the figure when the network
is (a)

an

ideal differentiator;

(ft)

an ideal integrator.

Mt)

_L
1 1.5
1.3

2

PROS.
1.4
If the system function of

a network

is
1

given as

H{s)~
(s

+ 2X* +

3)

Signals and systems
find the response R(s) if the excitation
is

19

s
1.5 ations.
(«)

Given the driving-point functions find

their simplest

network

realiz-

Z(s) 3*

(*)

Y(s)

= 2s

H

s

+
*

2

Z(s)

-3 i+
1

s*+2
2,

id)

r(s)

_
3s

1

+

2

s*

+4

1.6 For the network shown, write the mesh equation in terms of (a) differential equations and (b) the complex-frequency variable s.

R l ——wv—npfir*—

-0
PROB.
1.7
1.6

For the network shown, write the node equation in terms of (a) differential

equations and (6) complex-frequency form.

PROB.
1.8
r(t)

1.7

Suppose the response of a linear system to an excitation

= 3e-*'. What would the response be to an excitation of t(t — 2)1

«(/)

were

chapter

2

Signals and

waveforms

Our main concern

in this chapter

is

the characterization of signals as

signals functions of time. In previous studies we have dealt with d-c with time, or a-c signals which were sinusoids of that were constant A sin (cot 0). In engineering practice, constant amplitude, such as s(t) than signals encountered is substantially broader in scope the class of

=

+

of simple a-c or d-c signals. To attempt to characterize each member variety of signals is foolhardy in view of the almost infinite the class be encountered. Instead, we will deal only with those signals that can
building characterized in simple mathematical terms and which serve as will concentrate on formublocks for a large number of other signals. than deal with lating analytical tools to aid us in describing signals, rather

We

limitathe representation of specific signals. Because of time and space exhibit random behavior, tions, we will cover only signals which do not characterized as functions of time. i.e., signals which can be explicitly

These signals are often referred to as deterministic

signals.

Let us

first

discuss certain qualitative aspects of signals in general.

2.1

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SIGNALS

In this section we will examine certain behavior patterns of signals. Once these patterns are established, signals can be classified accordingly, and some simplifications result. The adjectives which give a general continuous. qualitative description of a signal axe periodic, symmetrical, and Let us discuss these terms in the given order. signal First, signals are either periodic or aperiodic. If a
it is

is

periodic, then

described by the equation
s(t)

= s(t±kT)
20

k

=

0,1,2,...

(2.1)

Signals

and waveforms

21

1

-2T -r

T 2T 3T AT 5T
-l

FIG.

2.1.

Square wave.

where
given

period

T is the period of the signal. The sine wave, sin is periodic with T = lit. Another example of a periodic signal is the square wane in Fig. 2.1. On the other hand, the signals given in Fig. 2.2 are
/,

aperiodic, because the pulse patterns
interval T. Alternatively, these signals

do not repeat

after

a certain

finite

may be considered "periodic" with

an

infinite period.

Next, consider the symmetry properties of a signal. The key adjectives signal function can be even or odd or neither. here aie even and odd.

A

An even function obeys the relation
j(0-*(-0
For an odd function
For example, the function
pulse in Fig. 2.2a
is

(2.2)

s(i)

=

-s{-t)
t is

(2.3)

sin

t is

odd, whereas cos

even.
is

The square
(Fig. 2.26).

even, whereas the triangular pulse

odd

Observe that a signal need not be even or odd. Two examples of signals of this type are shown in Figs. 2.3a and 2.4a. It is significant to note, however, that any signal s(t) can be resolved into an even component 5,(0 and an odd component s9(t) such that
*(0

= *.(0 + *o(0

(2.4)

For example, the signals in Figs. 2.3a and 2.4a can be decomposed into odd and even components, as indicated in Figs. 2.3b, 2.3c, 2.4b, and 2.4c.

m
o

t
2
(b)

M
FIG. 12.
(a)

Even

function, (b)

Odd function.

22

Network

analysis

and synthesis
s(t)

1 i

i

-1

-t
(a)

(a)

sjt)

sM

-1

o
(b)

i 1

t

(b)

«oW

soft)

-1

-i
(0
FIG. 2.4. Decomposition into even and odd components, (a) Unit step function. (6) Even part of unit step, (c) Odd part of unit step.

(O
FIG.
(a)
2.3.

Decomposition into
function,
(6)

odd and even components,
Original
part,
(c)

Even

Odd part.
that

From

Eq. 2.4

we observe

s(-t)

= st(-t) + * (-0 - sXO - *o(0

(2.5)

Consequently, the odd and even parts of the signal can be expressed as

J#)- MK0 + *(-')] *(o = two - K-m

(2 .6;

Consider the signal s(t), shown in Fig. 2.5a. The function s(-t) is equal axis and is given in Fig. 2.5ft. We then to s(t) reflected about the t

=

obtain st(t) and j„(0 as

shown

in Figs. 2.5c

and

d, respectively.

j

Signals

and waveforms

13

rf-tf

i

1

1

t

-1l

t

(a)

m
lift)

*Jt)

i

-]I
1

L I

*

t

-i
(e)

(d)
s(t)

FIG. US. Decomposition into odd and even components from

and s(—t).

Now let us turn our attention to the continuity property of signals. Consider the signal shown in Fig. 2.6. At t T, the signal is discontinuous.

=

The

height of the discontinuity

is
)

f(T+) -f(Twhere

=A

(2.7)

/(T+)
f(T-)

= lim/(T+c)
€-»0

- lim/(T- «)

(2.8)

and

€ is

discontinuities in the

a real positive quantity. In particular, we are concerned with neighborhood of f = 0. From Eq. 2.8, the points

M

{
T
FIG. 24. Signal with discontinuity.
t

24

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Tl

FIG.

2.7. Signal

with two discontinuities.

/(0+) and/(0-)

are

/(0+)
/(0-)

- lim/(e)
€-•0

= lim/(-e)

(2.9)

For example, the square pulse in Fig. 2.7 has two discontinuities, at Tt The height of the discontinuity at Tx is
.

Tx and
(2.10)

s(Tx +)

- s(T -) = K
x

Similarly, the height of the discontinuity at

Ta is — K.

2.1

GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF SIGNALS

we consider various time domain descriptions of signals. In particular, we examine the meanings of the following terms: time constant, rms value, d-c value, duty cycle, and crest factor. The term, time
In this section
constant, refers only to exponential waveforms;

the remaining four

terms describe only periodic waveforms.

Time constant
important to know how quickly a of the decay of an exponential is the useful measure waveform decays. time constant T. Consider the exponential waveform described by

In

many

physical problems,

it is

A

r(t)

= Ke~*IT u(t)
we
see that

(2.11)

From a plot

of r(t) in Fig.

2.8,

when

t

=

T, (2.12)

r(T)

= 0.37KO)

Also

r(4T)

= 0.02r(0)

(2.13)

Signals and
1.00

waveforms

25

075
r(t)

0.50

037 025

-

O02
5

FIG.

2.8.

Normalized curve for time constant

T

1.

Observe that the larger the time constant, the longer it requires for the waveform to reach 37% of its peak value. In circuit analysis, common time constants are the factors RC and RjL.

RMS Value The rms or root mean square value of a periodic waveform e(t) is defined
as
Crms

-

i?f>*r

(2.14)

where T is the period. If the waveform is not periodic, the term rms does not apply. As an example, let us calculate the rms voltage for the periodic

waveform in

Fig. 2.9.

Inns

4^r(T-)M>]r
(2.15)

-fair
= J2J3Av
D-C Value
The
d-c value of a
periodic. It is the average value of the
1 =-

waveform has meaning only when the waveform waveform over one period
fT
e{t)dt
p

is

«oc

(2.16)

TJ

26

Network

analysis

and synthesis

¥
-A

2T

FIG.

2.9. Periodic

waveform.

The square wave

in Fig. 2.1 has zero d-c value, whereas the

waveform in

Fig. 2.9 has a d-c value of
1

[AT

ATI

A

(2.17)

Duty cycle The term duty cycle, D, is defined as the ratio of the time duration of the positive cycle t9 of a periodic waveform to the period, T, that is,
(2.18)

T
becomes important in dealing with waveforms of the type shown in Fig. 2.10, where most of the energy is conThe rms voltage of the waveform centrated in a narrow pulse of width f

The duty

cycle of a pulse train

.

in Fig. 2.10

is

,h

*--(iM'
= AJ7JT
(2.19)

An
(o

A

FIG. 2.10. Periodic waveform with small duty

cycle.

Signals and

waveforms

27

r

T

TT
FIG.
2.1 1. Periodic

waveform with zero d-c and small duty

cycle.

Wc see that the smaller the duty cycle, the smaller the rms voltage. The square wave in Fig. 2.1 has a 50% duty cycle.
Crest factor
is defined as the ratio of the peak voltage of a periodic waveform to the rms value (with the d-c component removed). Explicitly, for any waveform with zero d-c such as the one shown in Fig. 2.1 1 crest factor, CF, is denned as

Crest factor1

CF = -^£rms

or

-^£rms

(2.20)

whichever
voltage
is

is greater.

For the waveform
e, p

in Fig. 2.11, the peak-to-peak

defined as

=

*„

+

<?»

(2.21)

Since the waveform has zero d-c value

eJ*
Also,

= et(T-t )

(2.22) (2.23)

eb ea

= e„D = ePP(l is

and

D)

(2.24)

The rms value of the waveform
emg

= ( e»( l ~ D? ° +
f

enWr-

t )\

*
(2.25)

1

eppy/D(l

-

D)
No. 5

G.

Justice,

'The

Significance of Crest Factor," Hewlett-Packard Journal, 15,

(Jan., 1964), 4-5.

28

Network

analysis and synthesis

Since crest factor

CF =

ejerm*,

we have
e„(\

CF =

-

D)
D)
(2.26)

ep jD(l -

-Vi/J>-i
For example,
if

D=


CF
(2.27)

= ^100 -

1

10

UD =

10,000'

CF=VlO,000- 1~100
signals

(2.28)

A voltmeter with high crest factor is able to read accurately rms values of
whose waveforms differ from sinusoids, in particular, signals with low duty factor. Note that the smallest value of crest factor occurs for the maximum value of D, that is, X>m»x = 0.5,
CFnto

= Vl/iW =1

1

(2.29)

Z3

THE STEP FUNCTION AND ASSOCIATED WAVEFORMS
unit step function w(f)

The

shown

in Fig. 2.12
t

is

defined as

„(/)

= =

1

< f£0

(2.30)

The

which closes at

physical analogy of a unit step excitation corresponds to a switch S, and connects a d-c battery of 1 volt to a given circuit, t the as shown in Fig. 2.13. Note that the unit step is zero whenever

=

u(t)

^o
Switch

lv

Network

T.
FIG. 2.12. Unit step function.
FIG. 2.13. Network analog of unit
step.

Signals

and waveforms

29

m
l

*<t-a)

4

a
FIG. 2.14. Shifted step function.

(

1

2

FIG. 2.15. Square pulse.

argument argument

(/)

within the parentheses
greater than zero.
vit

is

negative,

(t) is

Thus

and is unity when the the function u(t a), where

a

> 0, is defined by

- a) = =

/
1

<a

t^a

{Zil)

and

is

occurs

shown in Fig. 2.14. Note that the jump discontinuity of the step when the argument within the parentheses is zero. This forms the

basis of the shifting property of the step function. Also, the height of the

jump discontinuity of the step can be scaled up or down by the multiplication of a constant K.

With the use of the change of amplitude and the shifting properties of the step function, we can proceed to construct a family of pulse waveforms.
For example, the square pulse in Fig. 2.15 can be constructed by the sum of two step functions
sif)

= 4u(t -

1)

+

(-4)

u(t

- 2)
shown

(2.32)

as given in Fig. 2.16.
characterized

The "staircase" by the equation
<

function,

in Fig. 2.17,

is

s(t)

=>J,u(t

- kT)

(2.33)

*t)

4

-4
FIG.
2.16. Construction

of square pulse by step function.

30

Network

analysis

and synthesis

3
2
1
1

T
FIG.

ZT
2.17. Staircase function.

t

Finally, let us construct the square

property,
s(t)

we

see

wave in Fig. 2.1. Using the that the square wave is given by (for t ^ 0)

shifting

-

m(0

-

2u(t

-

T)

+

2u(t

-

2T)

-

2k(*
is

- 3D +

'

(2.34)

A

simpler

way

to represent the square
is

wave

by using the property

zero whenever its argument is negative. Restricting ourselves to the interval f ;> 0, the function
that the step function

s(0
zero whenever sin (irtIT)

-«(*»?)

(2.35)

is

2.18.

by the waveform in Fig. wave in Fig. 2. 1 can be represented It is now apparent that the square
is

negative, as seen

S (0

= «(sin^)-u(-sin^)

(2.36)

Another method of describing the square wave is to consider a generalization of the step function known as the sgn function (pronounced signum).

The sgn function

is

defined as

sgn [/(f)]

=1 =

fit)

>o fit) < o
fit)

(2.37)

s(t)

T
FIG.
2. IS.

2T
The

3T

AT

signal u(sin7rr/r).

Signals

and waveforms

31

•ft)

ZT

3T

FIG. 2.19. Sine pulse.

Thus the square wave in

Fig. 2.1

is

simply expressed as

s(0

=

sgn

I

sin

1

(2.38)

single sine pulse in Fig. 2.19

Returning to the shifting property of the step function, can be represented as

we

see that the

s(r)

- sin ^ [u(t - IT) - u(t -

3T)]

(2.39)

The

step function is also extremely useful in representing the shifted or delayed version of any given signal. For example, consider the unit ramp
p(t)

=

tu(t)

(2.40)

shown in Fig. 2.20. Suppose the ramp is delayed by an amount t = a, as shown in Fig. 2.21. How do we represent the delayed version of ramp?

l

t

FIG.2JM.

Ramp function with zero time shift.

32

Network

analysis
s(t)

and synthesis

FIG. 2.21.

Ramp function with
t

time

shift

= a.
t'

First, let

us replace the variable
p(r')

by a new variable

— —
t

a.

Then
(2.41)

=

f u(t')

When
we

p(t') is plotted against
t

t',

of 5(0 versus then have

in Fig. 2.20.

If,

the resulting curve is identical to the plot t ' in p(t'), however, we substitute t — a

=

p(f)

=

(t

- a) u(t -

a)

(2.42)

When we plot p(t') against
Fig. 2.21.

t,

we have the delayed version of pit) shown in
is

From the preceding discussion, it is clear that if any signal /(/) u(t) delayed by a time T, the delayed or shifted signal is given by

f{t')=f{t-T)u{t-T)
For example,
let

(2.43)

us delay the function (sin irtfT) u(i) by a period T. Then
s(t'),

the delayed function

shown
[sin

in Fig. 2.22,

is

s(t')

=

- (t -

T)] u(t

-

T)

(2.44)

FIG. 2.22. Shifted sine wave.

Signals

and waveforms

33

m 2-

1

2

FIG. 2.23. Triangular pulse.

As a final example, consider the waveform in Fig. 2.23, whose component parts are given in Fig. 2.24. For increasing t, the first nonzero
component is
line

the function 2{t
/

1) u(t

1),

which represents the

straight

At ? = 2, the rise of the straight line is to be arrested, so we add to the first component a term equal to — 2(t — 2)u(t — 2) with a slope of —2. The sum is then a constant equal to 2. We then add a
of slope 2 at
1.

=

term

— 2u(t —
s(t)

2) to bring the level
1) u(t

down
2(t

to zero. Thus,
2) u(t

= 2{t -

-

1)

-

-

-

2)

-

2u(t

-

2)

(2.45)

1A THE UNIT IMPULSE
The unit impulse, or deltafunction, is a mathematical anomaly. P. A. M. first used it in his writings on quantum mechanics. 2 He defined the

Dirac

2(t-\)u(t-\)

FIG. 2.24. Decomposition of the triangular pulse in Fig. 2.23.

P.

A. M. Dirac, The Principles of Quantum Mechanics Oxford University

Press, 1930.

34

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

delta function d\t)

by the equations
6\t) dt

f:
Its

= <J(0 =

1

(2.46)

for

t

*

(2.47)

most important property

is

the sifting properly, expressed by

f J—
i

f(t)d(t)dt=f(0)

(2.48)

we will examine the unit impulse from a nonrigorous Those who prefer a rigorous treatment should refer to Appendix B for development of this discussion. The material in that appendix is based on the theory of generalized functions originated by G. Temple. 8 In Appendix B it is shown that the unit impulse is the
In this section
approach.
derivative of the unit step r

o(0
is

..

-

=


if

,.

(0
all,

/0 ao>l (2.49)

At

first

glance this statement
is

doubtful. After

the derivative of the

unit step

it does not even exist at that point! However, consider the function g t (i) in Fig. 2.25. It is clear that as e goes to zero, g ( (t) approaches a unit step, that is,

zero everywhere except at the jump discontinuity, and

lim ge(t)
«-»o

«(0
is

(2.50)

Taking the derivative of g t(t), we obtain £',(0. which
equations
g'«(0

defined by the

as
««

shown in

>

e 4+1 .

such that ( Consider the sequence of functions {g' c< (0} for decreasing
Fig. 2.26.

t<0, t>€ Now let « take on a sequence of values e

-e = 0;

;

(2.51)

et (t)

*V0

FIG.

US.

Unit step when

«

— 0.

FIG.

1M.

Derivative of

g((t)

in

Fig. 2.25.

*

G. Temple, "The Theory of Generalized Functions," Proe. Royal Society, A, 228,

1955, 175-190.

Signals and

waveforms

35

h-\W>

£
i

8it

m

5

i

n

«s «s

n

*

FIG. 127. The sequence {gfi (t)}.

values of c { , as

shown

in Fig. 2.27.

The sequence has the following

property:
J'«t>0g' (t)dt (i *1<0

=

l

(2.52)

where
g't t(t).

tx

and
€f

/,

are arbitrary real numbers.

there corresponds a well-behaved function

For every nonzero value of e, (i.e., it does not "blow up")

As

approaches zero,

g'«(o+)«,-»0

00

(2.53)

so that the limit of the sequence is not defined in the classical sense. Another sequence of functions which obeys the property given in Eq.
2.52
is

6{t) as the class

the sequence {/«//)} Fig- 2.28. now define the unit impulse of all sequences of functions which obey Eq. 2.52. In

m

We

particular,

we

define
r*t>o
J*«i>o
«i<0

«t)A-lim
e<-»0«/«i<0

g' t((t)dt
r*» >o

(2.54)

a 4hm

UQdt

36

Network

analysis

and synthesis

FIG. 2.28. The sequence {/ ,(0> £

It

should be stressed that this
is

is

not a rigorous definition (which, as
heuristic one.

stated previously,

found in Appendix B) but merely a

From

the previous definition

we can

think of the delta "function" as

having the additional properties,
<5(0)

<5(f)

= =

oo
(2.55)

for

t^O

Signals and

waveforms

37

Continuing with
the impulse
is

this heuristic treatment,

we

say that the area "under"
t

unity, and, since the impulse is zero for

# 0,

we have
(2.56)

d(t)dt

=

J—

<x>

Jo—
is

\

6{i) dt 6

=

1

Thus

the entire area of the impulse

"concentrated" at
t

t

=
is

0.

Con-

sequently, any integral that does not integrate through
/*o-

=

zero,

as seen by
J-oo

S(t) dt

=

r+oo
(5(f)

dt

=
(2.57)

s(t)

J0+

s(t)

= Au(t- a)

The change of scale and time shift properties
discussed earlier also apply for the impulse
function.

A,

The
s(t)

derivative of a step function

= Au(t — a) = A6(t- a)

(2.58)

yields

an impulse function
B'(t)

A

s\t)

(2.59)

which is shown in Fig. 2.29. Graphically, we represent an impulse function by an arrowhead pointing upward, with the constant
multiplier

A written Note that A is the A d(t - a).
we

s'(t)

= Ad(t-a)

next to the arrowhead.
area under the impulse
FIG. 2.29

Consider the implications of Eqs. 2.58 and 2.59. From these equations see that the derivative of the step at the jump discontinuity of height A

yields

an impulse of area A at that same point t = T. Generalizing on this argument, consider any function /(0 with a jump discontinuity at / = T. Then the derivative, /'(0 must have an impulse at t = T. As an example,
consider /(0 in Fig. 2.30.

At

t

=

T,f(t) has a discontinuity of height A,

M

T
FIG. 2.30. Function with discontinuity at

t

T.

38

Network
is

analysis

and synthesis

which

given as

A =/(r+) -f(T-)
Let us define

(2.60)
t

fx(t)

as being equal to f(t) for

<
t

T,

and having the
T, that
is,

same shape

as/(/), but without the discontinuity for

>

Ut)=f(t)-Au{t-T)
The
derivative

(2.61)

A0

is

then

A0 -AC) + ^
The following example
the function /(f)
is

<K*

-

T)
clearly.

(2.62)

illustrates this

point

more

In Fig. 2.31a,

fit)
Its derivative is

= Au(t-a)-A u(t - b) = Ad(t - a) - Ad(t - b)

(2.63)

fit)

(2.64)

and is shown in Fig.
t
t

2.316. Since/(/) has

— b, its derivative must have impulses at those points. the impulse at = b is negative because
f(b+) -fQ>-)

two discontinuities, at t = a and The coefficient of

- -A

(2.65)

m
A
8(0 4

a
(a)

b

t

2

r<*>

/
1

L

t

(a)

A'

g'(t)

2
6 2
t

a

~0]

'-A
(b)

t

(b) Derivative

FIG. 2.31. (a) Square pulse, of squairepulse.

FIG .2.32.

(a) Signal,

(*)] derivative.

Signals and

waveforms

39

consider the function g(i) shown in Fig. 2.32a. obtain #'(0 by inspection, and note that the discontinuity at / 1 produces the impulse in #'(0 of area

As a second example,

We

=

£0+)-£(l-) =
as given in Fig. 2.32*.
integral

2,

(2.66)

Another interesting property of the impulse function is expressed by the
+ f
This integral
1

7(0 S(t-T)dt= f(T)
we
consider that d(t

(2.67)

is easily

evaluated if

T)

=

for all

5* T.

Therefore, the product

f{t)d(t-T)
If/(r)
is

=

aXLtitT

(2.68)

single-valued at

t

=
|

T,f(T) can be factored from the
d(t

integral so

that

we

obtain

/(T)

J— O0

-T)dt= f(T)
is

(2.69)

Figure 2.33 shows /(r) and d(t - T), where /(/) If/(0 has a discontinuity at / = T, the integral
+00

continuous at i

=

T.

J
is

Jf(t)Ht-T)dt
o

not denned because the value of f(T) the following examples.

is

not uniquely given. Consider

Example

2.1

/(0
+0O

- 1*«* - e*» r
(2.70)

Example

Z2

J

e ~&*Hf -00

T)dt

/(/)

= sin t
(2.71)

£>''('- 5)*-^

40

Network

analysis
f(t)

and synthesis

FIG. 2.34. Impulse scanning.

Consider next the case where/ (0 is continuous for us direct our attention to the integral

-

oo

< <
t

oo.

Let

f
a thin

f(t)d(t-T)dt=f(T)

(2.72)

-oo to +oo, which holds for all / in this case. If T were varied from reproduced in its entirety. An operation of this sort then/(0 would be paper with corresponds to scanning the function/(f) by moving a sheet of
across a plot of the function, as shown in Fig. 2.34. higher order derivatives of the unit step function. Let us we represent the unit impulse by the function ft(i) in Fig. 2.28,
slit

now examine
e

Here

which, as

-* 0, becomes the unit impulse. The derivative of/£ (0 is given derivative of the in Fig. 2.35. As e approaches zero,/' £ (0 approaches the seen in Fig. 2.36. unit impulse d'(t), which consists of a pair of impulses as The area under d'(t), which is sometimes called a doublet, is equal to zero.
Thus,

r
The

6'(t)

dt

=
is

(2.73)

other significant property of the doublet

I
1
f2

/(») d'(t

-T)dt= -f\T)

(2.74)

rt (t)

t

—€

t

1

(2

FIG. 2.35. Unit doubles as

<=

-* 0.

FIG. 2.36. The doublet
d'(t).

Signals and

waveforms

41

where f'(T) is the derivative of/(0 evaluated at t = T where, again, we assume that/(/) is continuous. Equation 2.74 can be proved by integration by parts. Thus,

*/

f(t)d'(t-T)dt=f(t)d(t-T)\
(

(t)d(t-T)dt
-00

«/— oo

(2.75)

=
It

-f'(T).

can be shown in general that

f°° •r— oo

/(O

<B,
<5

(<

-T)dt = (-l)y »'(r)
(

(2.76)

d(t)

where (5< n and/ <"> denote nth derivatives. The higher order derivatives of can be evaluated in similar fashion.
>

Problems
2.1

Resolve the waveforms in the figure into odd and even components.

s(t)

s(t)

1

M
(a)
1

1

1

i

t

-v
a>)

+1

t

s(t)

m
1

?

2

1

\
1

2

t

-

I

\

1

t

PRO B. 2.1

42

Network

analysis

and synthesis
waveforms
in the figure using shifted step

2.2 Write the equation for the functions.

fit)

2
1

/

A
2
t

(b)

fit)

f(t)

2
1.5

-

2
1

1

2
(c)

(d)

PROB.

2.2

in Prob. 2.2 and write the equations using shifted step and/or impulse functions. for the derivatives, 2.4 For the waveform /(r) given in the figure, plot carefully

23

Find the derivative of the waveforms

for a value of

t

>

i
T.

f(r)dr

f(t)

f(t)

2*Wl EMt)
>*

-E6(t-T)

PROB. 2.4

PROB. 2.5

Signals and

waveforms
what value

43

the waveform /(r), must be so that
(«)

2^ For

shown

in the figure, determine

K

P/(0<//-0
J— 00
j"7<f)<fr-o
J0+

<*)

2.6

For the waveforms shown
is,

in the figure, express in terms of elementary
*

time functions, that
CU.1.1. *u_ Sketch

/",«(/

- Q, d(t -

+

/,),

r * j * x .. the .. waveforms for rL\ and (c) neatly. (6)

(„)/(/) (*)/'(/) (c) f /(T) A«f— J— 00

JW

m
20
"*

2

N
(0

At
PROS.
2.4
<*'(*)

.

*
1

o

i

;!

3

t

(ii)

J" 5

2.7
(a) (6)

Prove that

--<}'(--X)

-<»(a;)
/•oo

= x d'(x)
;*)

(c)

«&

-o

J— 00
2.8

The waveform /(0

in the figure is defined as

/W-^(/-e)*,
= 0,
Show that
as e

o<;/£«

elsewhere

— 0,/(/) becomes a unit impulse.

44
2.9
(a)
(ft)

Network
Plot

analysis

and synthesis

%°s
t

sgn (cos 0;

'

£t £2n

2.10

Evaluate the following integrals

(fl )

r
J— CO
OO

<*t

- TO u(t - T2) dt;
/•go
I

Ti <T^

a,)

<5(a>

a> )

cos

o>f rfo>

J— 00
(c)

f

[<5(0-/4<5(r-7'1 )+2/l<5(f-7 2)]e-^«"A
00

,

J—
2.11

Evaluate the following integral

f " sin

tU

(t

- l\ +

S'

('

"

f)
is

+

*'<'

~

»>]

*

2.12

The response from an impulse sampler
r(t)

given by the equation

=

P

sin

n s(t

l

-Kj\dt;

K = 0,

1, 2, 3,

.

.

Plot

KO for

<, t <.

IT.

If the step response of a linear, time-invariant determine the impulse response h(f), and plot.

2.13

system is r s (0

=

2e

'

u(t),

2.14 For the system in Prob. 2.13 determine the response excitation

due to a

staircase

j(0-i«(/-*r)
*=o
Plot both excitation

and response

functions.
is

impulse response of a time-invariant system determine the response due to an excitation
2.15
If the
e(t)

W) = «~* "(')»

=

2S(t

-

1)

-

2d(t

-

2)

Plot

e(t).

M

PROB. 2.16

Signals and

waveforms

45

2.16

The

unit step response of a linear system
<x(r)

is

=

(2e-

2t

-

1) «(/)

(a) (b)

Find the response

r(f) to the input /(f). a reasonably accurate sketch of the response. dimensions.

Make

Show

all

pertinent

chapter

3

The frequency domain:
Fourier analysis

3.1

INTRODUCTION
One of
the most

common

classes of signals encountered are periodic

signals.

If

T is the period of the signal, then
s(t)

= s(t±nT)

7i

= 0,l,2,...
finite

(3.1)

In addition to being periodic, if s(t) has only a tinuities in any finite period and if the integral

number of discon-

"T I
is finite

\s(t)\

dt

(where a

is

an arbitrary

real number), then s(t)

can be expanded

into the infinite trigonometric series

s(t)

=^+ +

a x cos

+ a t cos 2<ot + b x sin cot + b t sin "hot +
tot

2\

where

2w/r. This trigonometric series is generally referred to as the Fourier series. In compact form, the Fourier series is
s(t)

m=

= ?* + 2 («» cos not +
2
«— i

b n sin

ntot)

(3.3)

It is

apparent from Eqs. 3.2 and 3.3 that, when s(t) is expanded in a Fourier series, we can describe s(t) completely in terms of the coefficients
46

The frequency domain: Fourier
of
its
. .

analysis

47

harmonic terms, a* alt a„ . , bx, b These coefficients cona frequency domain description of the signal. Our task now is to derive the equations for the coefficients a( , b t in terms of the given signal function s(t). Let us first discuss the mathematical basis of Fourier series, the theory of orthogonal sets.
stitute

3.2

ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS
x (f)

Consider any two functions

and/»(/) that are not identically zero.

Then

if

r,

f JTx

/i(0/*(0dt

=O

(3.4)

we

say that/i(r) and/^/) are orthogonal over the interval [Tlt TJ. For example, the functions sin t and cos t are orthogonal over the interval
nlit

^

r <;


<j>

+

l)2n.

Consider next a set of real functions {&(*),

<f>&)

H(t)}.

If the functions obey the condition

(*.

4>i)

s
I

V<(0

4>M dt =

0,

i*j

(3.5)

then the set {<f>t } forms an orthogonal set over the interval [7\, TJ. In Eq. 3.5 the integral is denoted by the inner product (^ 4 , <f> ). For convent ience here, we use the inner product notation in our discussions. The set {^J is orihonormal over [Tu 7",] if

=
The norm of an element
<f>

(3.6)
1

t-.j

k in

the set

{^J

is

defined as

l&l

- (4, &)* - (£%»\0 *)*
set
{<f>x, <f>t,
. . ,

(3-7)

We can normalize any orthogonal term <f>k by its norm ||^J|.
3.1. The Laguerre time domain approximation,
'

fa} by dividing each

set,1
is

which has been shown to be very useful in orthogonal over [0, <»]. The first four terms

1

W. H.

Theory, CT-1,

Kautz, "Transient Synthesis in the Time Domain," Trans. No. 3 (Sept. 1954), 29-39.

IRE on

Circuit

48

Network

analysis

and synthesis

of the Laguerre set are
*i(0

- e~**
e-*[l

Ut) *,(/)
4>t(t)

- 2(fl01
(3.8)

= e-o'H - MfO) + Hatf\ = e-°'[l far

+ 6(flf)* - Ka/)8

]

To show

that the set is orthogonal, let us consider the integral

f"

Ut) hiO * = f V*"[l - MpQ +

2(«0*] dt

(3.9)

Letting t

= at, we have

«i,«-;;J'V a-4T+2,*>rfr
,,

(3.10)

-ill-®"©]The norms of &(/) and &(/) are

M

,«_(J[-^.*)
11*1

-^
a ') ]

(3,.,

-

(

Uo

f

"^[l ~ 4(«0 + 4<a
V2a

*}
J

(3.12)

It is

not

difficult

to verify that the

norms of all the elements
set

in the set are also

equal to l/V2aT Therefore, to render the Laguerre

orthonormal,

we

divide

each element fa by

1/ V2a.

3.3

APPROXIMATION USING ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS
we
explore

In this section

the linear approximation of functions.

some of the uses of orthogonal functions in The principal problem is that of

approximating a function/(0 by a sequence of functions/B(f) such that the

mean squared error
e

= lim
n-»oo

f JTi

*W) - /»(0]

2

dt

-

(3.13)

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

49

When
fit).

Eq. 3.13

is satisfied,

we

say that {/„(f)} converges in the mean to

To examine

the concept of convergence in the

mean more

closely,

we

must first consider the following definitions: Definition 3.1 Given a function/(f) and constant/;
T,

>

for which

(
JTi

\f(t)\*dt<ao,

we
[T»

say that /(f)

is

integrable

L*

in [7\,

TJ, and

we

Tt

write /(/)

e L»

in

].

Definition

12

If/(f)

eL'in [Tlt Tt], and {/„(f)> is a sequence of functhat if

tions integrable

L* in [Tlt TJ, we say

Bm.P|/(0-/^)r*-0
then
{/«.(*)}

converges in the

p—

2 we say that

{/„(f)} converges in the

mean of order/? to /(f). Specifically, when mean to /(f).

The

principle of least squares

Now let us consider the case when/„(f) consists of a linear combination
of orthonormal functions
4>i,<l>
<f>

n-

/„(0

= I *<&(<)
<-i

(3.14)

Our problem
squared error

is

to determine the constants at such that the integral

11/

- All* - f *W) - M9f dt
JTx

(3.15)

is

m inimum squared error, the constants a
Ci

a minimu m. The principle of least squares states that in order to attain ( must have the values

= ]Kt)Mt)dt
\\f
1, 2,
. . , .

(3.16)

Proof.

We shall show that in order for
a{

must

set

=

ct for every

i

=

— /„|| s to be minimum

,

we

n.

H/-/.II*

= </,/) - 2{f,fJ + (/„,/„) =
11/11*

-22a,(/,&)+2a,W

(3.17)

50

Network

analysis
is

and synthesis

Since the set

{&}

orthonormal, |«\| a

=

1,

and by

definition, ct

=

(/,&).

We thus have
I/-/-I'

-

l/l'

- 22«A + i

'*

(318)

Adding and subtracting

2 c«* gives
8

i/-/.!"

=

ii/n

- 2i«A + i^ + i«*' - i*" _1 <-l <-l <_1
»

(3.19)

n

We see that in order to
set

attain

minimum

integral squared error,

we must

at

= c<.

The

coefficients c t ,

defined in Eq. 3.16, are called the Fourier
set

coefficients

of/(*) with respect to the orthonormal

{+&)}.

Parseval's equality Consider f (t) given in Eq. 3.14. n
ft

We see that
<

I L/j(or*-i«'
since

320>

& are orthonormal functions.
and
is

equality,

This result is known as Parseval's important in determining the energy of a periodic signal.

3.4

FOURIER SERIES

Let us return to the Fourier series as denned earlier in this chapter,

aft)

_ £s + V (a , cos nmt +
2
£Ti

b n sin nmt)

(3.21)

From our discussion of approximation by orthonormal functions, we can
by a see that the periodic function s(t) with period T can be approximated in the mean to s(t), that is, Fourier series sn(t) such that s n(t) converges
lim im
-»oo

r^MO-s-O)]*^ —
Ja

(

322>
the

where a

is

any

real

number.
||j(0

We know, moreover, that if n

is finite,

mean squared error

- *»(0II* is minimized when
sin k<ot \

the constants a{ , b t

are the Fourier coefficients of s(t) with respect to the orthonormal set
/cos koat

.__«,«

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

51

m

-3x

fYVtW\
-2x

-x

x

2x

3x

t

FIG.

3.1. Rectified sine

wave.

earlier, are

in explicit form the Fourier coefficients, according to the definition given obtained from the equations
fl0=s

rJ«
2 r

*)A
s(t)

(323)

cos kmt dt

(3.24)

-If
We should note that because the
s(t) in the

s(0 sin tor

«/f

(3.2S)

mean, when

s(t)

contains a

Fourier series sn(t) only converges to jump discontinuity, for example,

S .0,)

= ^±I±J(£o=)

( 3. 26)

At any point
*»(*i)

tt that s(t) is differentiable (thus naturally continuous) converges to a(/J.* As an example, let us determine the Fourier coefficients of the fully rectified sine wave in Fig. 3.1. As we observe, the period is n so that the fundamental frequency is m 2. The signal is given as

T=

=

s{t)

= A |sin

t\

(3.27)
ir.

Let us take a
derived,

=

and evaluate between
.

and

Using the formula just
(3.28)

we have
TT

K = ~ Jo «(0 sin 2nt dt =
|

«,

2A &A = — C*sin tdt = —
\

IT

Jo

W

(3.29)

2[>
IT

s(0 cos 2nt dt

Jo
1

AA
(3.30)

1

-An*

• For a proof see H. F. Davis Fourier Series and Orthogonal Functions, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1963, pp. 92-95.

52

Network

analysis
series

and synthesis

Thus the Fourier

of the

rectified sine

wave

is

5(/)

- £i(l + f

—±—

cos 2nt)

(3.31)

3.5

EVALUATION OF FOURIER COEFFICIENTS

In this section we will consider two other useful forms of Fourier series. In addition, we will discuss a number of methods to simplify the evaluation of Fourier coefficients. First, let us examine how the evaluation of
coefficients is simplified by

symmetry considerations. From Eqs. 3.23-3.25 which give the general formulas for the Fourier coefficients, let us take a = —T/2 and represent the integrals as the sum of two separate parts,
that
is,

2

rr/t

ro

-i

T
ss

s(0 cos nmt dt
JO
T,t
s(t) sin

+
J-T/S T/a

s(t)

cos mot dt

J "
s(f) sin

(3.32)

2 —r f
I

TUo

nmt dt

+

f
I

°

nmt dt

i J

J-T/i

Since the variable (0 in the above integrals is a dummy variable, let us t in the substitute x t in the integrals with limits (0 ; r/2), and let x

=

=—

integrals with limits

(—T/2;
C
I

0).

Then we have

an

2 =—

T/ *
[s(x)

TJ °
*

+ s(—x)] cos nmx dx
(3.33)

bn

=

T/ 2 — C

T Jo

I

[s(a:)

— s(— *)] sin nmx dx
s(x)

Suppose now the function is odd, that is,
a„ =
for all n,

=

—s(—x), then we

see that

and

-if*
tJo
This implies that,
sine terms.
s(x)
if a

T/2
s{x) sin

nmx dx

(3.34)

function is odd,

its

Fourier series will contain only
is

On

the other hand, suppose the function

even, that

is,

= s(—x), then b n =
an

and

=—

I

s(x) cos

TJo

nmx dx

(3.35)

Consequently, the Fourier series of an even function will contain only
cosine terms.

The frequency domain: Fourier

anal/sis

53

FIG. 3.2

Suppose next, the function

s(t)

obeys the condition

,(,
as given

± l)--<0
Then we can show
neven

(3.36)

by the example in Fig. 3.2. only odd harmonic terms, that is,
«„

that s(t) contains

= bn = 0;
s(t)

and

-if TJo
T Jo

cos nmt dt
(3.37)

5(0 sin nmt

dt,

n odd

With this knowledge of symmetry conditions, let us examine how we can approximate an arbitrary time function s(t) by a Fourier series within an interval [0, 71. Outside this interval, the Fourier series sn(t) is not required to fit s(t). Consider the signal s(t) in Fig. 3.3. We can approximate s(t) by any of the periodic functions shown in Fig. 3.4. Observe that each periodic waveform exhibits some sort of symmetry. Now let us consider two other useful forms of Fourier series. The first is the Fourier cosine series, which is based upon the trigonometric identity,

C„ cos (na>i + 8J

=

C„ cos mot cos 0„

C„ sin nmt sin 0„

(3.38)

^|

T

t

FIG. 3J. Signal, to be approximated.

54

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

m
^"'
-T--

^A ^
(a)

^*«^T

^

t

m
A
"*•-«..

-r'- "~«^

°

f~"-~.

t

-A
(6)

m
A
**-

-T)
I**"

t
*

-A
(e)

FIG. 3.4. (a) Even function cosine terms only, (ft) Odd function Odd harmonics only with both sine and cosine terms.

sine terms only,

(c)

We can derive the form of the Fourier cosine series by setting
and

= C„ cos 0„ bn = — C„ sin 0„
a„

(3.39)

(3.40)

We then obtain Cn and 0„ in terms
a

of an and bn, as

c,-(fl.'

+

M
(3.41)

Ca =
0,

—(-!:)
C, cos (2o>f
• •

If we
series,

combine the cosine and sine terms of each harmonic in the original we readily obtain from Eqs. 3.38-3.41 the Fourier cosine series

f(t)

= C + Ct cos (mi + 00 + + C.cos (3fl>f + 0,) +

+

0.)
• • •

+ Cn cos(nmt + J +

(3.42)

The frequency domain: Fourier
It

anal/sis

55

should be noted that the coefficients C„ are usually taken to be positive. a term such as —3 cos 2cot carries a negative sign, then we can use the equivalent form
If however,

— 3cos2a>f =
For example, the Fourier was shown to be
s(0
series

3 cos (2<u/

+ tt)
wave in

(3.43)

of the fully

rectified sine

Fig. 3.1

= ^(l + f
2ir\

n=i

-^— cos 2nt) — An
,

(3.44)

1

I

Expressed as a Fourier cosine
s(0

series, s(t) is

= ^[l + 1 —£— cos (2nt + *)] 2wL n-i4n — 1

(3.45)

J

Next we consider the complex form of a Fourier series. If we express cos ncot and sin mot in terms of complex exponentials, then the Fourier
series

can be written as

(3.46)

= — + 2 ( "* ~ J&" **"* +
2
n-l n-l\

fl

" + ^* *-'"')

2

2

/

If we define

=
2
'

"~ n

2
is

'

2

then the complex form of the Fourier series
5(0

= A + i(/ff„e*"" + /*-„«-'"•")

"^

(

34«)

- 2 n—
Pn
/?

PSoo

We can readily express the coefficient fi„ as a function of s(t), since

~ Jb »
C
I


T
T

l =—

T Jo
f T Jo

s(0(cos nott

— j sin na»0 dt

(3.49)

=i
Equation 3.49
is

s(t)e-

i'

mt dt

sometimes called the discrete Fourier transform of

«(/)

and Eq. 3.48

is

the inverse transform of P„(na))

=

/?„.

56

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Cb

Ci

Ci

C2
Ci\

Ch

<h

c*.

,C*
4a>

-Au -3« -2w -w

w

2(i>

3d)

FIG.

3.5.

Amplitude spectrum.

-2T

HF -T •4
-A

¥ 2T

FIG.

3.6.

Square wave.

The frequency domain: Fourier
Observe that /?„
is

anal/sis

57

usually complex
/*n

and can be represented as

=

Re/8B

+yIm£,

(3.50)

The

real part

of fi„

Re /?„,

is

obtained from Eq. 3.49 as
CT

Re Pn

1 --

T Jo

«(0 cos tuot dt

(3.51)

and the imaginary part of /?„

is

JImfl,-^f
It is clear that

T Jo

s(0sinn«>r<fc

(3.52)

function in n.

Re /?„ is an even function in r, whereas Im /S„ is an odd The amplitude spectrum of the Fourier series is defined as
|/JJ-(Re"fc.+

ImP«M

(3.53)

and the />/uue spectrum

is

denned as

6,

= arctan^

(3.54)

It is easily seen that the amplitude spectrum is an even function and the phase spectrum is an odd function in n. The amplitude spectrum provides us with valuable insight as to where to truncate the infinite series and still maintain a good approximation to the original waveform. From a plot of the amplitude spectrum, we can almost pick out by inspection the nontrivial terms in the series. For the amplitude spectrum in Fig. 3.5, we see that a good approximation can be obtained if we disregard any harmonic above the third. As an example, let us obtain the complex Fourier coefficients for the square wave in Fig. 3.6. Let us also find the amplitude and phase spectra of the square wave. From Fig. 3.6, we note that s(t) is an odd function. Moreover, since s(t T/2) = — s(t), the series has only odd harmonics. From Eq. 3.49 we obtain the coefficients of the complex Fourier series as

n

--

Ae-'Mi

TJo
(I

dt--\
TJt/»
-)-

Ae' ,nat dt
(3.55)
,tuaT
)

— 2e~ linmT/i)

jnmT
Since ncoT

e~

= nlir, /?„ can be simplified to
/».

- rr- a - 2*"*" +

«"*"*)

( 3 - 56 >

58

Network analysis and

synthesis
Amplitude

1

1

1

1

-5

-3

-

1

I

3

5

u

<a)

Phase

1

-5

-3

-1
2

(b)

FIG.

3.7. Discrete spectra

of square wave, (a) Amplitude. (*) Phase.

Simplifying

/5»

one step

further,

we

obtain

n odd
jnir

(3.57)

=
The amplitude and phase

n even

spectra of the square

wave are given in

Fig. 3.7.

34 EVALUATION

OF FOURIER COEFFICIENTS USING UNIT IMPULSES
we make use of a basic property of impulse functions to

In this section

is simplify the calculation of complex Fourier coefficients. This method restricted to functions which are made up of straight-line components only. Thus the method applies for the square wave in Fig. 3.6. The method is

based on the relation

J— 00

f" /(*)«(«-

TO* -/(TO

(3.58)

Let us use this equation to evaluate the complex Fourier coefficients for ,fmt e~ , we have the impulse train in Fig. 3.8. Using Eq. 3.58 with/(f)

-

'•

=

e d% T fH' - 2 V'"" '~T

~ *~ 2V,,
<

(359>

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

59

A..

Al

A,i

A
_L

.

_L

1
2

r

3r T

2T

sr

T

FIG.

3.8.

Impulse

train.

We

see that the complex Fourier coefficients for impulse functions are obtained by simply substituting the time at which the impulses occur into the expression, e~,m" t . In the evaluation of Fourier coefficients, we must remember that the

P„ integral are taken over one period only, i.e., we consider only a single period of the signal in the analysis. Consider, as an example, the square wave in Fig. 3.6. To evaluate /?„, we consider only a single period of the square wave, say, from t to
limits for the

=

t

=

T, as
is

wave

shown in Fig. 3.9a. Since the square not made up of impulses, let us
of the square
s'(t),

>(t)

A

differentiate the single period

wave to
can

give

as

shown

in Fig. 3.96.

We
f

now evaluate

the complex Fourier coeffi-

T

cients for the derivative s(t),

which clearly

is

made up of impulses
s(t) is

alone. Analytically, if

-A
(<»)

given as

s(0

- 1 »——

P«e
00

inert

(3.60)

then the derivative of 5(0

•W
is

A
(3.61)

A|

Here,

we

define a

new complex

coefficient

(3.62)

or

jnm
If the. derivative s'(i)
is

(3.63)

-2A
a function which consists of impulse components alone, then
(6)

we
/?„

simply evaluate y n first and then obtain 3.63. For example, the derivative of the square wave yields the impulse train

from Eq.

FIG. 3.9. (a) Square wave over period [0, 71. (b) Derivative of square wave over
period
[0, T\.

60

Network

analysis

and synthesis
[0,

in Fig. 3.96. In the interval

T], the signal s'(f ) is given as

s'(t)

=

A6(t)-

2^4

d(t

- |) + A d(t -

T)

(3.64)

Then the complex

coefficients are

Tvo
(3.65)

= —(\— 2e- linmT/* +
}

e~

inmT
)

T

The Fourier

coefficients

of the square wave are

a

_


jnco
(3.66)

— ^
jnmT

(i

2e~

linaTI * )

+

e~

inmT
)

which checks with the solution obtained in the standard way in Eq. 3.55. If the first derivative, /(f), does not contain impulses, then we must
differentiate again to yield
s »(f)

= f n——

Xne
oo
1

inmt

(3.67)

where

K =jno>Yn = (P ™)* P«
[0,

(3 - 68)

For the
period

triangular pulse in Fig. 3.10, the second derivative over the

T]

is

s»(0

= ^Uf) - 2d(f - |) +
now
obtained as

**

- d]

( 3 - 69 >

The

coefficients

A n are

Xn

=-

T
( s"(i)einat

dt
(3.70)

TJo

2A
which
simplifies to give

,j

_ 2e-OfK»27*>
&A — T*

i

e

-fnmT\

X =s
"

n odd
(3.71)

.,

=

n even

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

61

A&1
2
(a)

3T T

24 »Y0

T

r
2"

T

t

2A

T
2A
[>"<'>

(b)

2A

(C)

FIG. 3.10. The triangular wave and

its

derivatives.

From

A_

we

obtain

P»-r.

(Jmnf

= = A
terms

2A

nV

nodd
neven

(3.72)

slight difficulty arises if the expression for s'(t) contains an impulse in addition to other straight-line terms. Because of these straight-line

we must

differentiate

once more.

However, from

this additional

obtain the derivative of the impulse as well. presents no difficulty, however, because we know that
°%(r) d'(t

differentiation,

we

This

-

T)

J— GO
I

-

-s\T)
'

(3.73)

so that

f " d'(t J— 00

-

T)e- im"dt

= jna>e-"u T

(3.74)


62

Network

analysis

and synthesis

We can therefore tolerate doublets or even higher derivatives of impulses
la. Its derivative in the analysis. Consider the signal s(f) given in Fig. 3.1 be expressed as *'(<), shown in Fig. 3.116, can

S '(0

=

|[

M (0

-

u(t

-

f )]

+ «0 - 2«(l - f)

0.75)

The second

derivative s"(t) consists of

a pair of impulses and a pair of

doublets as given by

mas

|[aco

-

*(t

-

f )]

+ *W -

2d'(t

1)

(3.76)

shown

in Fig. 3.11c.

We therefore evaluate A„ as
,-inmt

s"(t)e

dt
(3.77)

tJo

— 2. (i _ e-(*~»r/») + 1™± (i _ 2e- UnaTin )
s'(t)

2

'

.,

1

:

t

r
t

J

(o)

(W

t-M(l-f)

-*'('-!) «"W
pit)

r

?«(*-i)

to FIG. 3.11

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

63

The complex

coefficients /S„ are

now

obtained as

Qtonf

=
Simplifying,

(jconT)*

±— (i _ e-o»»Z7«) + _!_ n _ 2e-(^«»r/a))
janT
'

(3-78)

we have

Pn=-— + mr
t

1

j2irn
(3.79)


3

"odd
n even

=
In conclusion,
it

j

j2irn

must be pointed out that the method of using impulses
/3
.

to evaluate Fourier coefficients does not give the d-c coefficient, a /2 or

We obtain this coefficient through standard methods as given by Eq. 3.23.
3.7

THE FOURIER INTEGRAL
we
extend our analysis of signals to the aperiodic case.

In this section

We show through a plausibility argument that generally, aperiodic signals
have continuous amplitude and phase spectra. In our discussion of Fourier series, the complex coefficient (i n for periodic signals was also called the
discrete Fourier transform
1

CT
s(i)e-

M"'*dt
M

TJ-i -T/2
and the inverse
(discrete)

(3.80)

transform was

*(0

= 2 n=—

Knfo)e
oo

ln,'

(3.81)

From

the discrete Fourier transform

spectra which consist of discrete lines.
in the spectrum
is

we obtain amplitude and phase The spacing between adjacent lines

A/ -

(n

+

l)/„

-

«/„

=i

(3.82)

As the period T becomes larger, the spacing between the harmonic lines in the spectrum becomes smaller. For aperiodic signals, we let T approach infinity so that, in the limit, the discrete spectrum becomes continuous.

64

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

We now define the Fourier integral or transform as
s(/)

=
is

lim T—x>
A/-»0

£W£ = r
Jo

s(()c

-«"

it

(3.83)

J— oo

The

inverse transform

s

<0-f" J—

S(J)e

iU,t

df

(3.84)

00

Equations 3.83 and 3.84 are sometimes called the Fourier transform pair. 5~x denote denote the operation of Fourier transformation and If we let inverse transformation, then

7

*</>-*-<0 s(t) = ?-i-S(f)
In general, the Fourier transform S(f)
is

(3 . 85)

complex and can be denoted as
(3.86)

S(f)

= ReS(f)+ j Im S(f)

The

real part of

S(f)

is

obtained through the formula

ReS(/)

= =

J[S(/)

+

S(-/)]
(3.87)

|"
J— CO

s(t)

cos 2-nft dt

and

the imaginary part through

Im S(f)

= £ [SCO 2/

S(-/)]
(3.88)

=_ =

°°

J— CO

j

s (0 sin 2tt/(

dt

The amplitude spectrum of S(f)
A(f)

is

defined as

[Re SC/) 2

+ Im £(/)*]*

(3.89)

and the phase spectrum

is

«"-"— Sin
s(t)

**»

Using the amplitude and phase definition of the Fourier transform, the inverse transform can be expressed as

=

°°

f

A(f) cos

[lirft

-

<Kf)] df

(3.91)

J— 00
Let us examine some examples.

The frequency domain: Fourier
MS)
<Kf)

anal/sis

65

A

-f

+/

(a)

((,)

FIG. 3.12. Amplitude and phase spectrum of A d(t

/,).

Example

3.2.*
sit)

= A6\t-td

S(f)~ ("
J— 00
amplitude spectrum
its

A^t- t9)er^t* dt
(3.92)

- Ae-i**">
Its
is

A(f)=A
while

(3.93)

phase spectrum

is

<Kf) as shown in Fig. 3.12.

-

-2^//o

(3.94)

Example 33.
Formally,

Next consider the rectangular function plotted in Fig.
the rect function.

3.13.

we define the function as

1

W HSy
\x\

recta;/

>

W t

(3.95)

The

inverse transform of rect/is defined as sine

(pronounced

sink),

3r

-1

[rect/]

» sine t
•W/2
-Jf/2 -I

e>*"*df

(3.96)

sinirWr
Vt
* It should be noted here that the Fourier transform of a generalized function is also a generalized function. In other words, if e C, (^ <f>) £ C. For example, J" <5(f ) = 1, where 1 is described by a generalized function 1„(/). We will not go into the formal details of Fourier transforms of generalized functions here. For an excellent treatment of the subject see M. J. Lighthill, Fourier Analysis and Generalized Functions, England, Cambridge University Press, 19SS.
• •
<f>

66

Network

analysis and synthesis
recti

1.0

-*

"

w
2

+

2

FIG. 3.13. Plot of rect function.
1.0

0.8 0.6
sine
t

0.4
0.2

v

0.0

\ \
\
£.

-0.2
-0.3

w

± ~w

~w

3.

1. ~w

~w
/

-L

i.

W

W

2.

W

3.

W

4.

W

5.

FIG. 3.14. The sine
e(t)
Excitation

curve.

r(t)

System

Narrow pulse

Wide band

Narrow pulse

*(0
Excitation

r(t)

System

Response
10 Ti

10 Tx Wide pulse

Narrower band

Wide pulse

FIG. 3.15. Illustration of the reciprocity relationships between time duration and bandwidth.

The frequency domain: Fourier

anal/sis

67

From the plot of sine t in Fig. 3.14 we see that sine t falls as does |r| _1 , with zeros at t n\W, n We also note that most of the 1, 2, 3, . energy of the signal is concentrated between the points \\W t \\W.

=

=

.

.

< <

Let us define the time duration of a signal as that point, t , beyond which the amplitude is never greater than a specified value, for example, e We can effectively regard the time duration of the sine function as t 1/ W. The value W, as we see from Fig. 3.13, is the spectral bandwidth of the
.

rect function.

We

see that if

W increases,
It illustrates

t

decreases.

The preceding

example illustrates the reciprocal relationship between the time duration of a signal and the spectral bandwidth of its Fourier transform. This
concept
is

quite fundamental.
i.e.,

why

in pulse transmission,

narrow

pulses,

those with small time durations, can only be trans-

mitted through filters with large bandwidths; whereas pulses with longer time durations do not require such wide bandwidths, as illustrated in
Fig. 3.15.

3.8

PROPERTIES OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS
we
consider

In this section
transforms.

some important

properties of Fourier

Linearity

The

linearity property

transform of a

sum of two
is,

of Fourier transforms states that the Fourier signals is the sum of their individual Fourier

transforms, that

Hcx *i(0 + c

t sjflj]

= Cl S (/) + c
x

2

St(f)

(3.97)

Differentiation This property states that the Fourier transform of the derivative of a signal isjlnf times the Fourier transform of the signal itself:

J-s\i)=j2-nfS{f)
or more generally,

(3.98)

?- s ™(t) = (j2*frS(f)
The proof is obtained by taking the
transform definition,
00

(3.99)

derivative of both sides of the inverse

s'(0

= 7;f

S(J)e»*<*df
(3.100)

at J -oo

-f J—

j2nfS(f)e»*"df

CO

68

Network
it is

analysis

and synthesis
that the transform of the integral of s(t)
is

Similarly,

easily

shown
f

?

[

'

5(t)

dr\
J

= ^j2nf

S(J)

(3.101)

LJ-oo

Consider the following example

j(0
Its

= «-°'«(0

( 3 - 102>

Fourier transform

is

s(/)

=

f" J— CO

r^vHtyr^dt
(3.103)

a

+ j2irf
(3.104)

The

derivative of s(t)

is

s '(t)
Its

.

3(0

- aer** «(0
j2nf

Fourier transform

is

?[''«)]

-1-

a+j2wf

a+j2irf

(3.105)

= j2nfS(f)
Symmetry
The symmetry property of Fourier transforms
states that if

then

= X(f) ^ X(t) = *(-/)
3"

x(t)

(3.106)

(3.107)

This property follows directly from the symmetrical nature of the Fourier transform pair in Eqs. 3.83 and 3.84.

Example

3.4.

From the preceding

section,

we know

that
(3.108)

^
It is

sine /

= rect/

then simple to show that

&

rect

t

= sine ( -/) = sine/

(3.109)

which conforms to the statement of the symmetry property.
the Fourier transform of the unit impulse,

Consider next
the symmetry
(3.110)

&

8(t)

=

1.

From

property

we can show that

?•
as

1

=

8(f)

shown in Fig. 3.16. The foregoing example is also an extreme illustration of the time-duration and bandwidth reciprocity relationship. It says that zero time duration, 8(t), gives rise to infinite bandwidth in the frequency domain; while zero bandwidth, 8(f) corresponds to infinite time duration.

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

69

m
-t

HD

-/

o

f

FIG. 3.1*. Fourier transform of /(f)

=

1.0.

Scale change

The

scale-change property describes the time-duration
It states that

and bandwidth

reciprocity relationship.

[.(*)]
Proof.

-M*«0

(3.111)

We prove

this

property most easily through the inverse trans-

form
J-\\a\ S{af)]
Let/'

=

\a\

f" S(af)e™* df
J— oo

(3.112)

= af;

then

*^l«l

S(f')]

=

\a\

f " S(/V*"' J— co

( '/o,


a
(3.113)

As an example,

consider

T[e* "(01
then

(3.114)

J2vf+a
\a\

Sy
ifo>0.
Folding

1

«(01
j2iraf
1

+

a
(3.115)

j2nf+\

The

folding property states that

J-W-01

= s(-f)

(3.116)

70

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

The proof follows

directly

from the

definition of the Fourier transform.

An

example

is

3=V u(-t)]
Delay
If a signal

=

^—
l-j2vf

(3.117)

is delayed by an amount t in the time domain, the corresponding effect in the frequency domain is to multiply the transform of the undelayed signal by er iz"ft that is,
<>,

(3.118)

For example,
&[e- aU
-'° )

u(t-t

)]

=
a

-}2rftt>

+ j2nf

(3.119)

shift property of Fourier transforms a Fourier transform is shifted in frequency by an amount f the corresponding effect in time is described by multiplying the original

Modulation The modulation or frequency

states that if

,

signal

by e iufot that
,

is,

3^[S(f - /<,)]
Example

=

e

mM

s(t)

(3.120)

3.5. Given S(f) in Fig. 3.17a, let us find the inverse transform of 5"" 1 Si(f) in Fig. 3.176 in terms of s(t) = S(f). We know that

Sxif)

=

S(f -f )

+ 5(/ + /„)

(3.121)

-/

+/

-/
(b)

h

*f

FIG.' 3.17.

Demonstration of amplitude modulation.

The frequency domain: Fourier
Then

analysis

71
(3.122)

3^ 5,(/) - *>*".« s{t) + er'*'U* g(t) = 2s(t) cos 2nfy
.

Thus we see that multiplying a signal by a cosine or sine wave in the time domain corresponds to shifting its spectrum by an amount ±f In transmission terminology /„ is the carrier frequency, and the process of multiplying s(t) by cos
is

2itfy

called amplitude modulation.

Parseval's

theorem

important theorem which relates energy in the time and frequency domains is Parseval's theorem, which states that

An

" «i(0 St(0 dt I J— 00

= f"
J— no

Sx(/) S,(-/) df

(3.123)

The proof is obtained very simply

as follows:

f"

si(0 »i(0 dt

=

f " s„(t) dt f "

SiC/V""* d/

-f" •*—

Si(/)4rf"
J—ao

s&Vu"dt

(3.124)

oo

-f" sMSA-fldf J—
00

when ^(r) = *j(f), we have a corollary of Parseval's theorem known as PlancheraVs theorem.
In particular,

f " aty) J— 00

* = J—" f

1

ISC/)!

4T

(3.125)

00

If j(/) is equal to the current through, or the voltage across a
resistor, the total

1-ohm

energy

is
2

I
the curve of \S(f)\*. or energy spectrum.

s

(0 dt

We see from Eq. 3.125 that the total energy is also equal to the area under
Thus
\S(f)\* is

sometimes called an energy density

Problems
3.1 Show that the set {1, sin nnt/T, cos nnt/T}, n = 1,2, 3, , forms an orthogonal set over an interval [a, a + 2T], where a is any real number. Find the norms for the members of the set and normalize the set.
. . .

72
3.2

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Fourier Given the functions/^) and/i(0 expressed in terms of complex

senes

/l(/)=2«»^ n— — oo

B,,

"

/K0-2A.'*-'
where both/i(0 and/j(0 have the same period T, and
«„

= Kl e**\

A.

-

lft»l

e*»

show

that

Note that

«oA>

+ 22 l«g»»l cos(flB \0,

4>J

m * -n

33

For the periodic

signals in the figure, determine the Fourier coefficients

f(f>

-«-T
(h)
fit)

—»-

+T

A

T
5
(e)

A
T

PROB.3.3

The frequency domain: Fourier

analysis

73

3.4 For the waveforms in Prob. 3.3, find the discrete amplitude spectra and plot.

and phase

3.5 For the waveforms in Prob. 3.3 determine the complex Fourier coefficients using the impulse function method. 3.6
figure.

Find the complex Fourier

coefficients for the function

shown

in the

ST,

A AA
—r
3T.

~r

-t

Tj

T

T,

3T,

~T

~i

L,
51

PROB.
3.7

3.6

Find the Fourier transform for the functions shown in the

figure.

f(t)

m
1

/
/ -T

\
f(t)
.1

^C*
t t

*T

(«>

(b)

f<t)

y
3.8
(a)

/

V

t

3V

t

(c)

Id)

PROB.
Find the Fourier transform for

3.7

/« - A <3(0
/(f)

(*)

— A sin atf

74

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

3.9 Prove that (a) if /(f) is even, its Fourier transform F(ja>) is also an even function; (6) if /(/) is odd, its Fourier transform is odd and pure imaginary.

F(ju)

B

B

(i)

+«0

PROS.
3.10

3.10

Find the inverse transform of
F(jm)

= P 6(fo -

Wo)

+ P 8{(o +

eo )

as

shown domain?

in the figure.

What can you

say about line spectra in the frequency

chapter

4

Differential equations

4.1

INTRODUCTION
is

This chapter
equations.

We will concentrate on the mathematical aspects of differential
5.

devoted to a brief study of ordinary linear differential

tial

equations and leave the physical applications for Chapter equations considered herein have the general form

The differen-

/MO, *'('),
where
t.

,

*< B >(0,

t]

=

(4.1)

t is

The

the independent variable and x(t) is a function dependent upon superscripted terms ««>(/) indicate the rth derivative of x(t) with
t,

respect to

namely,
«>/a x(t)

=

d(i)

x(t)

~df~

(42)

explicit function

F in Eq. 4.1 is x(t) and must be obtained as an of /. When we substitute the explicit solution x(t) into F, the equation must equal zero. If fin Eq. 4.1 is an ordinary linear differThe
solution of
it is

=

ential equation,

given by the general equation
•••

+ «, x\t) + oo x(t) =f(t) (4.3) The order of the equation is n, the order of the highest derivative term. The term/(0 on the right-hand side of the equation is Xht forcing function or driver, and is independent of x(i). When /(f) is identically zero, the
equation is said to be homogeneous; otherwise, the equation is nonhomogeneous. In this chapter we will restrict our study to ordinary, linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Let us now examine the meanings of
these terms.
75

(B> «» * (0

+ a^x^Xt) +

76

Network
Ordinary.

anal/sis

and synthesis

An ordinary differential equation is one in which there is only
(in

one independent variable
partial derivatives.

our case,

t).

As a result there is no need

for

conConstant coefficients. The coefficients a n , o^, ...,a„ alt a„ are stant, independent of the variable t. the differential equation is linear if it contains only terms of Linear. derivatives, as given by Eq. 4.3. For first degree in x(t) and all its higher

A

example, the equation
3x'(t)

+ 2z(0 = sin

t

(4.4)

is

a linear

differential equation.

On the other hand,
5t
(4.5)

3[*
is

W

+ 2*(f) x\t) + 4x(0 =
and

nonlinear, because the terms [x'(t)]*

x(t) x'(t) are nonlinear

by the

definition just given.

important implication of the linearity property is the superposition and x^t) are x property. According to the superposition property, if x (0 equation for forcing functions/^) and/,(0, solutions of a given differential of then, if the forcing function were any linear combination

An

respectively,

Ut) and/,(0 such as J
the solution would be

AO-afM + btff)
x(r)-a«i(0

(4-6)

+ &*40

(4 - 7 )

that the where a and b are arbitrary constants. It should be emphasized kept in is extremely important and should be superposition property

mind
4.2

in

any discussion of linear

differential equations.

HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

homogeneous, This section deals with some methods for the solution of First, let us find linear differential equations with constant coefficients.
the solution to the equation
x'(t)

- 2*(<) =
=
Ce"

(4.8)

Now, with a little prestidigitation, we assume the solution to be of the form
*(0
where
is

(4.9)

C is any arbitrary constant.
2Ce* f

Let us check to see whether x(t)

=

Ce2 *
4.8,

truly a solution of Eq. 4.8.

Substituting the assumed solution in Eq.

we

obtain

- 2Ce»* =

(4.10)

tA

tn

.

Differential equations
It

77

differential

can be shown, in general, that the solutions of homogeneous, linear equations consist of exponential terms of the form C<e p <*. To

vt obtain the solution of any differential equation, we substitute Ce for x(t) for which the equation is in the equation and determine those values ofp

zero. In other words, given the general equation

an *<">(*)

+••• +
4.11
1

«! x'(t)

+ a, x(f) =

(4.1 1)

we

let x(t)

=

Ce", so that Eq.

becomes

(4.12) + a# + a,) = + a^tf*- + pt Since e cannot be zero except at/? = — oo, the only nontrivial solutions

Ce'Kanp"

for Eq. 4.12 occur

when the polynomial

H(p)

- <W" + a-tf"-1 +

• '

*

+

W+

«o

-

(4.13)

Equation 4.13 is often referred to as the characteristic equation, and is denoted symbolically in this discussion as H(p). The characteristic equation is zero only at its roots. Therefore, let us factor H(j>) to give
H(j>)

= an(p- PMp- Pi)---(p- p^

(4.14)

solutions t .... Cw_ 1c*«-»' are all of Eq. 4.11. By the superposition principle, the total solution is a linear combination of all the individual solutions. Therefore, the total solution of the differential equation is

From Eq. 4.14, we note that C^e"**, Cxe***

x(t)

= CV' +

Q**'

+

+

<:_!«»-»«

(4.15)

, C , x, B_i are generally complex. The solution x(t) in Eq. , Cn_x are uniquely not unique unless the constants C„, Cls specified. In order to determine the constants Cit we need n additional pieces of information about the equation. These pieces of information are usually specified in terms of values of x(t) and its derivatives at t 0+,

where

C C

.

.

.

4. IS is

.

.

.

and are therefore referred to as initial conditions. To obtain ft coefficients, "-1 , a; >(0+). In a number we must be given the values <r(0+), x'(0+),
(
. .

.

of special cases, the values at
/

t = 0—

are not equal to the values at

= 0+.
.

x'(0— ),

.

to solve

*(0— ), we must determine the values at f = 0+ In order ^"-^(O— ), for the constants C{ This problem arises when the forcing
If the initial specifications are given in terms of
,
. .

an impulse function or any of its derivatives. We will discuss this problem in detail in Section 4.4. For example, in Eq. 4.9 if we are given that *(0+) = 4, then we obtain the constant from the equation
function /(f)
is

x(0+)

= Ce*=C

(4.16)

p

78

Network
is

analysis

and synthesis

so that x(t)

uniquely determined to be
x(t)

= 4e*
+ 4a</) =
x'(0+)
(4.17)

Example

4.1

Find the solution for
*'(/)

+

5x\t)

given the

initial

conditions

a<0+)-2
Solution.

= -1 =

From the given equation, we first obtain the characteristic equation
H(p)

= p* +

5p

+
1)

4

(4.18) (4.19)
characteristic values)

which factors into

(/>

+ 4X/> +

=

The roots of the characteristic equation (referred to here as step = -1 p = —4. Then x(t) takes the form
;

x{t)

= Qe-* + =
2,

C^e-**

(4.20)

From

the initial condition

«(0+)

we

obtain the equation

x(0+)

=2 =

Q+C

a

(4.21)

In order to solve for Cx and C, explicitly, we need the additional initial condition x'(0+) = -1. Taking the derivative of x(i) in Eq. 4.20, we have

X '(f)

= -Qe-' - 4Q*-4

*

(4.22)

Atf =0+,a;'(0is
a:'(0+)

= -1 = =i

-Q -4C
we find

a

(4.23)

Solving Eqs. 4.21 and 4.23 simultaneously,

that

Ci

Thus the
Next,
root p

final solution is

a*/)

C% = —J = %r* - \e~**

(4.24)

we examine

the case

when

the characteristic equation H(p) has

multiple roots.

Specifically, let

us consider the case where H(p) has a

=p

of multiplicity k as given by

H(p)
It will

= an(p -

k )

(p

-pd---(p-pn)

(4-25)

be left to the reader to show that the solution must then contain k terms involving e" * of the form
x(i)

=

CV"»«

+ C01 te*>* +

Cnt'e***

+ + C^*** +

+ C^t*-^"* Cje "' + + Cne*'*

1

(4.26)

where the double-scripted terms in Eq. 4.26 denote the terms in the solution due to the multiple root, (p — #,)*•

Differential equations

79

Example 4.2

Solve the equation
*»(/)

- Sx'(t) +
is

16*(r)

=
"=4

(4.27)

with
Solution.

a<0+)«2 and
The characteristic equation
H{p) ~p*

*'(<>+)

-

ip

+

16

= (p - 4)»

(4.28)

Since H(p) has a double root at/>
x(t)

=4,

the solution must take the form
(4.29)

« C^* + Cy*"
x(f)

In order to determine

Q

and C„ we evaluate

and

»'(') at r

= 0+

to give

«(0+)
*'(<>+)

= C1 =2

=4Q +C =4
2

(4.30)

Thus the

final solution is

a<r)

= 2c*' - 4te*'
when H(p) has complex conjugate

(4.31)

Another

interesting case arises

roots.

Consider the equation

H{p)

- a (p -pMp-pJ
2 is,

(4.32)

where />! and />, are complex conjugate roots, that
Px,Pi

=

o±jo>

(4.33)

The

solution x(t) then takes the
x(t)

form

=

Ci«<*W">*

+

<V—'»>'
x(t)

(4.34)

Expanding the term
x(t)
t

e*"

f

by Euler's equation,

can be expressed as
cor

= C e*(cos cot +j sin cat) +
x(t)

Cje^cos

—y sin cat)
sin cor x(r)

(4.35)

which reduces to

= (Q +

C,y* cos

cor

+j(C1

CJe'*

(4.36)

expressed in the

Let us introduce two new constants, more convenient form
x(t)

M

x

and Af„ so that

may be
(4.37)

= Mje'* cos cor + Aftf"' sin cat
M! =

where 3/x and

M

t

are related to the constants

Cx and C2 by the equations
(4.38)

d + C,
manner from

^. =y(C! - C2)
The
constants Afj
conditions.

and

M

t

are determined in the usual

initial

80

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Another convenient form for the solution x(t) can be obtained if we and <f>, defined by the equations introduce still another pair of constants,

M

Ml = MsiD *

M
With the constants

t

= M cos

(4.39)
<f>

M and

<f>

we

obtain another form of x(i), namely,
<f>)

x{i)

- MC* sin (a>t +
+ 2*'(/) + 5x(t) = =
l

(4.40)

Example 4.3

Solve the equation

x\t) with the
initial

(4.41)

conditions

a<0+)
Solution.

*'(<>+)=

The

characteristic equation

H(p)
1

is

H(p) =/>*

+ 2/7 +

5

= (p +

+j2Kp +

1

-j2)

(4.42)
a>

so that, assuming the form of solution in Eq. 4.37,

we have a = -1 and

=

2.

Then
At

x\t) is

x(t)
t

= 0+
derivative of x(i) is

= M&-* cos 2t + Mtf-* sin It *(0+) - 1 - Mt

(4.43)
(4.44)

The

*'(*)

= Mx( -«"' cos 2/ - 2e"' sin 20 + M£ -e~* sin 2/ + 2c"« cos 2t)
+, we obtain the equation
«'(<)+)

(4.45)

At

/

=

=

-

-Afj

+ 2MS
find

(4.46)

Solving Eqs. 4.44 and 4.46 simultaneously, Thus the final solution is
x(t)

we

M

x

=

1

and

M, =

+$.

=

<r*(cos 2/

+ £ sin 2t)
we would have

(4.47)

If

we had used

the form of x(t) given in Eq. 4.40,

obtained the

solution
x(t)

-

Vfe-* sin

[2t

+

tan"1 (2)]

(4.48)

Now let us consider a differential equation that have discussed concerning characteristic values.
Example 4.4

illustrates everything

we

The

differential
(4

equation

is

*<«(/)

+ 9*
a!

>(f)

+ 32x<»(0 + 5Sx'(t) + 56<r'(0 + 24a</) =
5c

(4.49)

The

initial

conditions are

U)(0+)=0
x'(0+)

(S,

(0+)

=
=•

l

= -1

x'(0+)

a<0+)

-

1

Differential equations
Solution.

81

The characteristic equation
H(p)

is

= p* + 9/ + 32/>» + SSp* + 56p + 24 -

(4.50)

which factors into

H(p)

- (p +

1

+yi)0»

+

1

-;1)0>

+ 2)ty +

3)

=

(4.51)

From H(p) we immediately write x(t)
a<0

as

- Mi*-

*

cos

/

+ M^r* sin f + Qc-** +

Qte"**

+ Qe-3

*

(4.52)

Since there are five coefficients,

we need a corresponding number of equations

to evaluate the unknowns. These are

a<0+)
a;'(0+)

x'(0+)
a;«)(0+)
*<«((> +)

- Mx + C + C8 = 1 - -Mx + Mt - 2C - 3Ct + Q - -2M, + 4C - 4Q + 9Ct = -1 = 2Mj, + 2Mt - 8C + 12Q - 27C, = = -4M1 + 16C + 81C, - 32CX =
we obtain

(4.53)
1

Solving these five equations simultaneously,

Mi -

M
is

t

-1

C =

1

Q -i

C.

=0

so that the final solution

a</)

- $e~' sin /+«-*+ Jte-**
upon
the roots of

(4.54)

We have seen that the solution of a homogeneous, differential equation
may
take different forms depending
its

characteristic

equation. Table 4.1 should be useful in determining the particular form of
solution.

TABLE
Roots of H(p)
1.

4.1

Forms of Solution
e p,t

Single real root, p

=p

2. 3.

Root of multiplicity, k, (p -*)* Complex roots at/>, , = a ±jm

M C* cos mt + Mge"*
X

C„e*i*

+

Cje'i*

+

+ CfcV'-W

sin ait

Me°* sin (mt
4.

Complex roots of multiplicity k *tP*.6 = " ±j<>>

M^* cos mt + Mjte"* cos »/ + ••
+ Aft-if*-1**' cos mt + NtfP* sin mt + Nite?* sin mt H + Nk_1tk- sin mt

+ +)

V

82

Network

analysis and synthesis

4.3

NONHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS

a nonhomogeneous equation is one in which the forcing function f(t) is not identically zero for all t. In this section, we will discuss methods for obtaining the solution x(t) of an equation with constant coefficients

As we mentioned in the introduction to this chapter,

differential

an *<»>(*)

+ a^ x»-«(0 +

+a

x(t)

=f(t)

(4.55)

Let x p (f) be a particular solution for Eq. 4.55, and let x e (t) be the solution in Eq. 4.55. of the homogeneous equation obtained by letting f(t)

It is readily

seen that

<t)
is

= xjf) + x (0
e

(4-56)

also a solution of Eq. 4.55. According to the uniqueness theorem, the
is

solution x(t) in Eq. 4.56
differential
t

the unique solution for the
satisfies
is

nonhomogeneous
conditions at
is

= 0+. 1

equation if it In Eq. 4.56, x p(t)

the specified

initial

the particular integral; x a(t) the total solution.

the comple-

mentary function; and x(t)

is

Since we already know how to find the complementary function x e (t), we now have to find the particular integral x p(t). In solving for xp(t), a very reliable rule of thumb is that x p(t) usually takes the same form as the forcing function if/(0 can be expressed as a sum of exponential functions.
Specifically,

example,

if/(f)

xp{t) assumes the form of /(/) plus all its = a sin cot, then xjf) takes the form
x P(t)

derivatives.

For

= A sin cot + B cos cot

that must be determined are the coefficients A and B of the terms in xjf). The method for obtaining x p(t) is appropriately called the method of undetermined coefficients or unknown coefficients.

The only unknowns

In illustrating the method of unknown coefficients,

let

us take/(0 to be
(4.57)

/(0=<*e"
where a and
/S

are arbitrary constants.
is,

We

then assume x p (t) to have a
(4.58)

similar form, that

xjf)

= Ae"
To
determine A,

and

A

is

the

unknown
AefiXaJ"

coefficient.

we simply

substitute

the assumed solution x p(t) into the differential equation. Thus,

+

a,,.^"-

1

+

+ aj +

a

)

= oe"

(4.59)

•See, for example, C. R. Wylie, Advanced Engineering Mathematics (2nd McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1960, pp. 83-84.

ed.),

Differential equations

83

We sec that the polynomial within the parentheses is the characteristic equation H(p) with /» Consequently, the unknown coefficient is /?. obtained as

=

A = -^provided that H(fi) jt
0.

(4.60)

Example 4.5

Determine the solution of the equation
**(r)

+ 3x'(t) + Ttff) - 4e*
=
1,

(4.61)

with the

initial conditions,

a<0+)

x'(0+)

= — 1.
1)

Solution.

The

characteristic equation is

Hip) -/>»

+ 3/> + 2 = (p + 2Xp +
is

so that the complementary function
*JLi)

= cie-* + c*-*
a

For the forcing function /(f)

— 4e«, the constants in Eq. 4.60 are
^ = _i_ = ?
H(l)
3

= 4,

=> 1.

Then
Thus we obtain

xp(t)

= |e*

The

total solution is

*(')

- *c(0 + *„(0 = Cxe-« + Cir" + |e«

(4.62)

To

evaluate the constants

Q and C„ we substitute the given
1

initial conditions,

namely,

40+) =
*'(0+)
Solving Eq. 4.63,

"Q+Cg+f
(4 ' 63)

= -1 - -Ci - 2C, + f

we find

that
a</)

Q=

— 1,

C,

= $.

Consequently,
(4.64)

. _ e-' +

£«-»

+ fe*

we solve for the constants x and t from the conditions for the total solution. This is because initial conditions are not given for xe(t) or *„(/), but for the total solution.
It

should be pointed out that

C

C

initial

Next,

let

We may use Eq.

us consider an example of a constant forcing function/(f) 4.60 if we resort to the artifice
/(r)

= a.

=a=

ae*°

(4.65)

84
that

Network
is, j8

analysis

and synthesis
equation in Example 4.5 with/(/)

= 0.

For the

differential

= 4,

we

see that

and

*(0

= Cltr* + C*r« + 2

(4.67)

the forcing function is a sine or cosine function, consider the forcing function to be of exponential form and

When

we can still make use of

the

method of undetermined
fit)

coefficients
*

and Eq.

4.60.

Suppose
(4.68)

= oe* = a(cos <ot + j sin oat)
Re

then the particular integral x vlit) can be written as

x Plit)

MO + J Im MO
we can show
then then
that

(4 ' 69)

From the
if

superposition principle,

if

= fit) =
fit)

a.

cos

o>t

a sin tot

= Re MO *,(0 = Im * rt(f)
x„(0

mt or a Consequently, whether the excitation is a cosine function a cos iat <xe ; or, we can use an exponential driver fit) sine function a sin the real or imaginary part of the resulting particular integral. then we take

=

Example 4.6

Find the particular integral for the equation
x'it)

+ 5*'(0 + 4a<<) = 2 sin 3*

(4.70)

Solution.

First, let

us take the excitation to be /i(0

= 2e»*

(4.71)

so that the particular integral *«.(/) takes the form

»rt(0

- Ae*

(4.72)

From the characteristic equation
H(p)
=•/>*

+5p +4

we determine

the coefficient

A

to be

H(j2)

_ -5 +jlS
2

=,

—L^tan-Hs)--] 5 VlO
1
1

(4.73)

Then

MO

is

*«« -'5VI0

1^ o^ ^*-

<

474>

:

Differential equations

85

and the

particular integral x„(t) for the original driver /(f)

= 2 sin 3/ is
*]
(4.75)

xjf)

- Im xpl(t) = —-= sin [3f + tan"1 (3) 2

5V10

There are certain limitations to the applicability of the method of undetermined coefficients. If /(f) were, for example, a Bessel function 7 (f)> we could not assume xv(t) to be a Bessel function of the same form (if it is a Bessel function at all). However, we may apply the method to forcing functions of the following types

2. /(f)

= A; constant. = A(t n + Vi' + + V + b ); pt 3. /(f) = e real or complex. p
!•

/(0

M

'

n, integer.

;

4.

Any function formed by multiplying terms of type
linear

1, 2,

or

3.

For the purposes of
adequate.

network

analysis, the

method

is

more than

Suppose the forcing function were
/(f)

= At*e pt

p = a+jm

The

particular integral

can be written as

xp(t)
where the

= (AJ* +
A& A±_lf

4^ +
.
.

...

+ A 1t + A )e*

f

(4.76)

coefficients

. ,

A A
lt

are to be determined.

4.4

STEP

AND

IMPULSE RESPONSE
we
will discuss solutions of differential equations with

In this section

step or impulse forcing functions. In physical applications these solutions

are called, respectively, step responses and impulse responses.
quantities, the step
significant measures

As

physical

and impulse responses of a

linear system are highly

of system performance. In Chapter 7 it will be shown is given by its impulse response. Moreover, a reliable measure of the transient behavior of the system is given by its step and impulse response. In this section, we will be concerned with the mathematical problem of solving for the impulse and step response, given a linear differential equation with
that a precise mathematical description of a linear system
initial

conditions at

f

= 0—.
of the unit step function was
«(f)

From Chapter 2,

recall that the definition

= =

1

^ f <
f

»

.

86

Network

analysts

and synthesis

and the unit impulse was shown to have the properties:
d(t)

=
=

oo

t

=

tj*0
<3(0 df

and
in addition,

r
we have

=

1

JoJo-

the relationship
d(t)

= i*@
dt

As

the definitions of d(t) and u(t) indicate, both functions have dis-

continuities ait
drivers,
x'(t),

=

0.

In dealing with initial conditions for step and impulse
solution x{t)

we must then recognize that the x"(f), etc., may not be continuous at t

and

its

derivatives
it

= 0.

In other words,

may be

that
*<«>(()-) ji z<«>(0+)

x (»-i)(0_)
x(0-)
In

^ a;<"-"(0+)
5*

*(0+)
t

many

physical problems, the initial conditions are given at

= 0—

However, to evaluate the unknown have the initial conditions at t = 0+. Our
conditions at
t

constants of the total solution,

we must

task, then, is to determine the
t
.

= 0+, given the initial conditions at = 0—
is

The method
is

discussed here

borrowed from electromagnetic theory and

often

referred to as "integrating through a Green's function."*

Consider the

differential

equation with an impulse forcing function
(4.77)

a n *<»>(t)

+ a*.,. xt«-\t) +-- + a„x(f) = A d\t)
• • •

insure that the right-hand side of Eq. 4.77 will equal the left-hand x0) must contain an impulse. one of the terms z (B, (f), * (n_1) (0> The question is, "Which term contains the impulse ?" A close examination shows that the highest derivative term x ln) (t) must contain the impulse, because if * <n-1) (f) contained the impulse, x (B) (f) would contain a doublet C d'(t). This argument holds, similarly, for all lower derivative terms of *-u (n> (f) contains the impulse, then s x(i). If the term 3 (0 would contain a {n~* We conclude therefore that, for an impulse step and x (0> a ramp. forcing function, the two highest derivative terms are discontinuous at i = 0.
side,
(
,

To

'The Green's function is another name for impulse response; see, for example, Morse and Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York,

1952, Chapter 7.

Differential equations

87

For a step forcing function, only the highest derivative term is discontinuous
at
t

=

0.

0— , our task is to t determine the values a; (B) (0+) and * <n - 1, (0+) for an impulse forcing function. Referring to Eq. 4.77, let us integrate the equation between
Since initial conditions are usually given at
t

=

= 0—
Jo-

and

t

==

0+, namely,

• •

an

)xM
.

(t)

dt

+ a^ f ^'-"(O dt + Jowe
obtain

+

a ]x{t)dt Jo-

= A f %*)<*'
Jo—
(4-78)

After integrating,

AP

aB [*(»-»(0+)

- *<»-i>(0-)] + a„-i[* (B-

a,

(0+)

- *<-»(0-)] +

=A

(4.79)

We know that all derivative terms below (n —
Consequently, Eq. 4.79 simplifies to

1)

are continuous at

t

= 0.

an [x<»-1 >(0+)
so that

- ^—"(O-)] = A
(

(4.80)

xl

^v(0+) = — + * *-"(0-)
At
t

(4.81)

We must next determine * (n> (0+).
in Eq. 4.77
is

= 0+, the differential equation

an *<">(0+)
Since
all

+ a^ *<"-»(0+) + •• + Oo *(0+) = derivative terms below (« — 1) are continuous, and - - -±- [0^x^X0+) +
<*n

(4.82)

since

we

have already solved for z(B-1) (0+), we find that
*<">(<)+)

+

ai x'(0+)

+

flo

*(0+)]
(4.83)

For a step forcing function A u(t), all derivative terms except x<">(f), are (B) continuous at t 0. To determine a; (0+), we derive in a manner similar to Eq. 4.83, the expression

=

*<»>(0+)

= - - -±

[a^1 x(B
initial

-1>

(0+)

+

+

ao*(0+)]

(4.84)

The process of determining
is

conditions

when the

forcing function

an impulse or one of its higher derivatives can be

simplified

by the visual

88

Network

analysis

and synthesis

process
its

shown in Eqs.

4.85

associated highest-order singularity.

and 4.86. Above each derivative term we draw Note that we need only go as low

as a step in this visual aid.

OnX^Kt)

+

oB_1a: (B 1 »W

+ a^^-'KO + ••+ ao^O =

<*'(')

(4.85)

a„x<«\t)
It

+

OaV- ^) + (Wf^O +
1

+ flo^W = *0

(4.86)

should be noted that

if a derivative

term contains a certain singularity

for example, a

doublet—it

also contains all lower derivative terms.

For

example, in the equation

*'(/)

+

3»'(0

+

2a</)

=

4<5'(/)

(4.87)

we assume

the following forms for the derivative terms at

t

= 0:

*"(0

= A S'(t) + B 8{f) + C «(0 x'(f) - A 8(t) + B u(t) x(t) = A u(t)
we
obtain

(4.88)

Substituting Eq. 4.88 into Eq. 4.87,

A d'(t) + B (5(0 +
Or
in a

Cu(t)

+ I A 8(t) +

3B «(r)

+ 2A u(f) - 4d'(t)

(4.89)

more convenient form, we have

A d'(t) +
Equating

(B

+

3A)

<J(0

+ (C + 3B + 2A) u(0 - 4d'(0
sides of the Eq. 3.90 gives

(4.90)

like coefficients

on both

A=

4
(4.91)

= C + 3B + 2A =
B+
3A

Differential equations

89
it is

from which we obtain
true that

B = — 12

and

C=

28.

Therefore, at

t

= 0,

**(*)

= M(t) - 12(5(0 + 28«(0 x'(0 = 4d(0 - 12«(0 *(*) = 4u(t)
.

(4.92)

The w(0 terms
conditions at
t

in Eq. 4.92 gives rise to the discontinuities in the initial

= 0. We are given the initial conditions at t = 0—

Once
For

we

evaluate the A, B,
t

C coefficients in Eq. 4.88, we can obtain the initial

conditions at

= 0+ by referring to the coefficients of the step terms.

example,

if

= -2 *'(0-) - -1 *»(<)-) = 7
*(<)-)

Then from Eq. 4.92 we obtain
x(0+)

=-2 + 4 = 2
(4.93)

= -1 - 12 ex -13 **(()+) = 7 + 28 = 35
x\0+)

The total solution of Eq. 4.87 is obtained as though it were a homogeneous equation, since d'(t) = for t j*s 0. The only influence the doublet driver
has
is

to produce discontinuities in the initial conditions at i
initial

= 0.

Having

evaluated the

conditions at

t

= 0+,

we can

obtain the total

solution with ease. Thus,

z(0

= C <r* +
x

C*tr«

(4.94)

From

Eq. 4.93

we

readily obtain

*(0

= (-9er* +

ll<r-«) u(t)

(4.95)

function

The total solution of a differential equation with a step or impulse forcing For a step is obtained in an equally straightforward manner.

forcing function, only the highest derivative term has a discontinuity at
t = 0. Since we do not need the initial condition of the highest derivative term for our solution, we proceed as if we were solving a standard nonhomogeneous equation with a constant forcing function. For an impulse driver, once we determine the initial conditions at t = 0+, the equation is solved in the same manner as a homogeneous equation.

90

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Example 4.7

Find the step and impulse response for the equation
2x"(f)

+ 4x'(t) +

I0x(0 =/(f)

where /(f)
are

=

<5(f)

and/(f)

=

«(f), respectively.

The

initial

conditions at

f

= —

a<0-)
Solution.

=
;

*'(0-)

=

x"(0-)

= We
note that the x" term

Let us
is

first

find the impulse response.

contains an impulse

and a step

the x' term contains a step ; the
f

x term contains

a ramp, and

therefore continuous at

=

0.

Thus x(0+)

= x(0— ) = 0. To
(4.96)

obtain a;'(0+),

we use Eq.
*'(0

4.81

+)

- - + *'(0 -) a2

\
2.

+

=\

2.

Note that we

actually need only x(0

+) and

x'(0

for the second-order differential equation.

Next,

+) to evaluate the constants we proceed to the compleis

mentary function x e(t). The characteristic equation

H(p)

- 2(p* + lp +

5)

- lip +

1

+jlKp +

1

-j2)

(4.97)

Since H(p) has a pair of complex conjugate roots,

we use a standard form

for

= Me~* sin (2f + # Substituting the initial conditions at f = 0+, we obtain
x c (i)

(4.98)

a<0+)
x'(0+)

=0 = Afsin^
= J = 2Mcos $ -

M

(4.99)
sin
<f>

from which we find ^ denote here as xt(t), is

=

and

M=

\.

Thus the impulse response, which we
(4.100)
let

**) =

1«~* sin 2f u{i)

Next we must solve for the step response xu{t). For convenience, complementary function as

us write the

xe(t) The
particular integral
is

= e-KA^ sin 2f + A t cos 2f)

(4.101)

evaluated by considering the forcing function a

constant /(f)

=

1

so that
a,

jt) « _!_ = J-

(4.102)

The

total solution is then
a<f)

- (A t sin 2f + At cos 20*?-* + ^
a

(4.103)

Since x'(t) and x(t) must be continuous for a step forcing function,

<0+)=a<0-)=

a;'(0+)-a; , (0-)

=0

(4.104)

Differential equations

91

Substituting these initial conditions into x(i) and *'(/), we find that Ax -0.05 A t -0. 1 .

d/dt
*,(')

d/dt

=

=

> *»(0
C*
C*

> *j(0

Therefore, the step response

is

*„(*)=

0.1[1

-«-*(0.5sin2/+
cos 2,)]*)
(4.105)

L_

*,«>—

WO—
FIG.
4.1.

L>*,(/)

Note

that the impulse response

step response are related

and the by the equation
x,

(0

=

i. *„(<) at

(4.106)

Wecan demonstrate Eq.4.106by thefollowingprocedure.
xu(t)
into the original equation

Let us substitute

2

^

«.(*)

+ 4 ^ x.(0 +
we have

10*„(0

. h(0

(4.107)

Differentiating both sides,

_|

«.(*)]

+ 4 1[| *„(o] +

io[^ *„(*)]

=

<H0

(4.108)

from which Eq. 4.106
Generalizing,

follows.

we

see that, if we have the step response for a differential

obtain the impulse response by differentiating the step can also obtain the response to a ramp function f(t) — A p(t) (where A is the height of the step) by integrating the step response. The relationships discussed here are summarized in Fig. 4.1.
response.

equation,

we can

We

4.5

INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
we
will consider

In this section,

an

integrodifferential equation of the

form
a„ *"(t)

+

a,.!

*-\t)

+
,

+
.
.

a
.

x(t)

+

a_t f x(r) dr
Jo

*

= /(/)

(4.109)

where the coefficients {a„, a1K.1 , a_ t } are constants. In solving an equation of the form of Eq. 4.109 we use two very similar methods. The first method is to differentiate both sides of Eq. 4.109 to give
a n x (n+1 \t)

+ a^ xM (t) +
consists

+

a x\t)

+

a_t

x(t)

-/'(»)

(4.U0)

The second method
a, y(n+1)(t)

of a change of variables.

We let y'(f) = x(t);
y(t)

Eq. 4.109 then becomes

+

*„_! y \t)

(n

+

+

a„

y'(t)

+

a_x

= f(t)

(4.111)

:

1

92

Network

analysis and synthesis

Note that from Eq. 4.110 we obtain x(t) directly. From Eq. 4.111, we obtain y(t), which we must then differentiate to obtain x(t). An important point to keep in mind is that we might have to derive some additional the initial conditions in order to have a sufficient number to evaluate

unknown

constants. Solve the integrodifferential equation

Example 4.8

x'(t)

+

3a<0

+2f

*(t)

dr

=

5«(0

(4.112)

The

Solution.

we

is x(0 — ) = 1. Since the characteristic equation of Eq. 4.112 is of second degree, obtain *'(<)+) from the need an additional initial condition x'(0+).

initial

condition

We

given equation at

t

= +
*'(0+)
a< T) dr
J

+ 3»<0+) + 2 Since x(t) is continuous at / = 0,
<H

=

5

(4.113)

a<T)</T=0

(4.114)

I
and
Therefore,

«(0+)-a<0-)x'(0 +)
1.

(4.115)
(4.1 16)

=

5

- 3s(0 +) = 2
we
obtain

-Method

Differentiating both sides of Eq. 4.112,
x"(t)

+ 3*'(0 + 2a<0 =
is

5<K0

(4.117)

The complementary function

then

*.(0

= Car* + - 4e~' the

C*r*>

(4.118)

Using the

initial

conditions for

a<0+) and

*'(<>+),

we

obtain the total solution
(4.119)

x(t)

3e-*«
differential

Method
becomes

2.

Letting y'(t)

= x(t), +

original

equation then

y"(0

MO +

2y(t)

=

5«(0
1

(4120)
,„,„,,

We know that
From Eq.
4.120, at t

y'(P+)

= «(0+) -

(4.121;

j,'(0+)= *'(<>+)= 2

= 0+, we obtain
i[5

y(0 +)

- y'(0 +) - 3y'(0 +)] can be determined as

(4.122)

Without going into

details, the total solution

j<0

- -4e- + |e-*« + \

(4- 123 >

Differential equations
Differentiating y{t),

93

we

obtain

<i)

= y'(f) = 4e~' - 3<?-*'

(4.124)

4.6

SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
dependent variable
x{t).

Up to this point, we have considered only differential equations with a
single

In this section,
variable.

we

will discuss equations

with

more than one dependent

We shall limit our discussion to
The methods
described here,
first

equations with two unknowns, x(t) and y(t).

however, are applicable to any number of unknowns. Consider system of homogeneous equations
«x *'(0

the

+ a, x(0 + & y'(t) + y(t) y'(0 + \ y(t) = o yi *'(0 + Yo *(0 +
fi,
<$!

(4.125)

where a„

f} it y it d i are arbitrary constants. The complementary function obtained by assuming that

is

so that the characteristic equation

is

given by the determinant
<fc/>

H(p)

=

(a^
(ftP

+ + Yo>

oto)

+ A) (<V + to)

(4.126)

The
that

roots of H(j>) are found by setting the determinant equal to zero,
is,

- OV + PoXYiP + Vo) = It is seen that a nontrivial solution of H(p) = exists only if
(«tf>

+

««)(V

+

*•)

(4.127)

(«*

+ ««KV +

<>a)

* OV + &XftP + y<0

(4.128)

Assuming that the preceding condition holds, we see that H(p) is a seconddegree polynomial tap and can be expressed in factored form as
H(p) where

= C(p- Po)(p - />0
The complementary

(4.129)

C is a constant multiplier.
x(t)

functions are

= K^e** + K*** y(t) + Kf

W

(4.130)

94

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

and the constants
tf Po

K K K Kt are determined from initial conditions.
x,

t,

9,

As in the case of a single unknown,

if H(p)

has a pair of dduble roots;

i.e.,

=

/>i»

then
x(t)

= =

(#,
(tf,

+

K^e***
(4.131)

y(t)

+ Kt t)e*<*

If

H(p) has a pair of conjugate roots,

Pi
Pi*)
then
x(t)

= a ±jto
sin (cot

= =

M^e"*

+ +

<^)

(4.132)

y(f)

Mte" sin (tor

<f>J

Example 4.9.

Consider the system of equations
2x'(t)

+ 4x(t) + y'(t) -y(f)=0
(4.133)

x\t)

+

2x(0

+ y'(0 + y(t) =

with the

initial

conditions

*'(0+)«2

y '(o+)=-3
i/(0+)

a<0+)=0
Solution.

=

(4.134)
1

The

characteristic equation is

+4

»

+

1

p
Evaluating the determinant,

+2
that

(4.135)
1

we find

#0)
so that

=/>*

+

5/>

+ 6 = (p + 2Xp + 3)
+ A^-8
'

(4.136)

y{t)

=

Kjfi-"

a</)

- KtfT* + J>-»

(4.137)

With the initial conditions, z'(0+) - 2,a<0+) = 0, we obtain K, =2,Kt = -2. From the conditions y'(0+) - -3, y(0+) = 1, we obtain Kt = 0, JCg = 1. Thus the final solutions are
(4.138)
y(.t)

»-s«

Differential equations

95

us determine the solutions for a set of nonhomogeneous We use the method of undetermined coefficients here. Consider first an exponential forcing function given by the set of equations
let

Next,

differential equations.

+ aye + piy + p = Ne° Yi*' + y<P + b y' + d& = We first assume that xp(t) = Ae"
alX '
'

t

iff

(4.139)

x

yv(t)

= Be9

(4.140)
*

Then Eq. 4.139 becomes
Qtfl

+ xJA + (^0 + (.YJ + YM + O*i0 +

=N d )B =
o)B
is

(4.141)

The determinant

for the set of equations 4.141

H(8)

= A(0) =

«i0

YiO

+ + Y*

«<,

PiO

W
=

+ Po +\
0.

(4.142)

where H(6)
.

is

the characteristic equation with p

We now determine

#4he undetermined coefficients A and B from A(0) and its cofactors, namely,

A=

*A

1X (0)

A(0)

JVA ia(e) B=
A(0)

(4.143)

where

A„ is

the i/th cofactor of A(0).
Solve the set of equations
2x'

Example

4.10.

+ Ax + y' - y = 3e**
(4.144)

x'+2x+y'+y=0
given the conditions x'(0+)
Solution.
teristic

A and B in the equations

= 1, a<0+) = 0, y'(0+) = 0, y(0+) = -l. The complementary functions *c(f) and ye(i), as well as the characequation H(p), were determined in Example 4.9. Now we must find
*,(/)
y,(t)

- Ae** - Be**
(4)-l
(4)

(4.145)

The

characteristic equation withy*

= 4 is

2(4)

H(A)~
(4)

+4 +2

42

+

(4.146)

l

96

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Then we obtain from Eq. 4.143 the constants

A The incomplete
solutions are
*(f)
y(t)

A

B - -t

= KiT* + Ktfr** + &e» - K&-* + Kie-* - fe"
f

(4.147)

Substituting for the initial conditions,

we

finally

obtain

s y(0=K-4«" '-3«4') (4.148)

Example 4.11.

Solve the system of equations
lx'

+ 4x + y' + ly = x' +x +y' +3y =

5«(/)

(4.149)
56(f)

given the

initial

conditions

a<0-)
Solution.
First

= *'(<>-) = jKO-) = y'(0-) the characteristic equation
2/>

we find

J5T(Cp>

=

A(/,)

-

+4 / +

7
(4.150)

/>

+
l

1

p +

3

which

simplifies to give

H(p)

=(pt +2p+5)=(p +
functions x c (t)

+j2)(p

+

1

-j2)

(4.151)

The complementary

xe(t)
y e (t)

= ^e

and -'

j/

(f)

are then

cos It

+ A&-* sin 2/ + B^r* sin 2f
(4.152)

= jBiC

-'

cos 2/

The

particular solutions are obtained for the set of equations with t

>

0,

namely,
2x'

+ 4x + y' + ly = *' + + y' + 3y «a:
.

5
(4.153)

coefficients, we assume that x v and y,, are Since the forcing function 5 can be regarded as an exponential term with zero exponent, that is, 5 5e°', we can solve for a with the use of the characteristic equation H(p) with p = 0. Thus, x and

Using the method of undetermined
constants:
as,

= Q;

yv

= Ca

C

C

#(0)

=

A(0)

=

4
1

7

=
3

5

(4.154)

-

Differential equations

97

Dd

n c

5AU(0)

^--5(or
5

= 5(3) 1

3
(4.155)

c,«
The
general solution
is

then

x(t) y(t)

- ^e-' cos 2r + A^r* sin 2/ + 3 = fl^* cos 2/ + B&-* sin 2r - 1
,

(4.156)

In order to find
y'(0+).

A lt At Blt B* we

The

values for

a<0+) and y(0+) are

need the values a<0+), x'(0+), y(0+), first obtained by integrating the

original differential equations between t
/•0+

» 0— and f
/VH-

0+. Thus,

(2*'

+ 4* + y' + ly)dt Jo-

5«(f)<//

Jo/•0+

(4.157)

(*'

+ x + y' +

3y*<ft

-

f»H-

5d(t)dt

We know
impulses at

that only the highest derivative terms in both equations contain
f

continuities at t

- 0. Moreover, both x(t) and y(t) « 0. Therefore, in the integration

contain, at most, step dis-

r r
After integrating,

(4a;

+ ly) dt =
(4.158)

(x

+

3y)rff»0

we obtain

2a<0+)+y(0+)=0

*(0+)+y(0+)«5
Solving,

(4.159)

we find
a<0+)

= -5
Thus,

y(0+)

-

10

(4.160)

To

find x'(0+)

and y'(0+), we
t

substitute the values for

a<0+) and y(0+) into

the original equations at

= 0+.

2z'(0+)

so that

- 20 + j/'(0+) + 70 = 5 x\0+) - 5 + y'(0+) + 30 = x'(0+) = -20 y'(0+) = -5
14e~* sin It

(4.161)

(4.162)

Substituting these values into Eq. 4.156,
x(t)
y(/)

we eventually obtain the final solutions

- ( -%e~* cos It -

+

3) u(t)

- (1 \e~* cos 2/ + 3e~* sin It -

(4.163)
1) «(f)

98

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Problems
4.1

Show

that

3^(0

= Mxe~* cos It
m,

and

xjj)

M&-* sin It

are solutions for the equation
x'(t)

+ 2x'(t) + 540 =

Show
4.2
(a)

that

x1

+

xt

is

also a solution.

Determine only the form of the solution for the equation

(6)
(c)

(d)
(e)

(/)
4.3 Given the initial solutions for
(a)
(b)
(c)

+ 4x'(0 + 340 + 8x'(t) + 540 *"(/) - 540 x'(0 + 540 x"(t) + 6x'(0 + 2540 z'(0 + 6x'(.0 + 940 conditions 40+) = 1,
**(0
x"(t) x'(t)

= = = = = =
*'(0+)

=

—1, determine the

+ 2540 = &r'(0 + 16x(t) = x\t) x'(t) + 4.8lx'(t) + 5.7640 = + +
fo'(0

4.4
(a) (b) (c)

Find only the particular
x"(t)

integrals for the equations

(d)
(e)

(/)

+ 7x'(t) + 1240 x'(t) + 3x'(t) + 240 *'(0 + 2x'(t) + 540 x"(t) + 2*'(0 + Sx(t) x'(t) + 5.0x'(0 + 6.25x(t) **(/) + fo'(0 + 540

4.5 Given the initial conditions solutions for
(a)
(.b)

= e-8 = 2 sin 3f = e~* sin It = <r"/2 =6 = 2e-* + 3e~at 40+) = 1, x'(0+) =0,
'

determine the

x"(t) x"{t) *"(/)

(c)

+ 4*'(0 + 340 = 5e~* sin It + 6x'(t) + 254/) - 2 cos / + 8a;'(0 + 1640 = 2 +
3y'(/)

4.6

(a)

A system is described by the differential equation
y'(0

+

The

initial

conditions are y(0-)
differential

=

1;

- a(0 y'(0-) = 2. Find
2y(t)

y(0+) and y'(0+).

(b)

Given the

equation

as<*>(0

+

14*'(0

+ 840 -

6<K0

Differential equations

99

with the intial conditions *(0-) 12, *'(<>-) *<*>«)+), *'(0+), *'(0+), and a<0+).
4.7 Given the initial conditions x'(0—) for the equations
(a) (*)

=

= 6,

and x"(0-)

=

-7, find

= **(0-) = 0,

find the solutions

x'{t)

x"{t)

4.8

Given the

initial

+ 2x'(/) + 2a</) = 3<K0 + 7s'(0 + 12a<r) - 5«(0 condition x(0— ) = —2, solve +
5a</)

the integrodifferential

equations

(«)

x'(t)

+ 4 f a<r) </t =

2 sin

/

(b)

x'(t)

+ 2tft) + 2 f x{r) dr = | e-«
+ &<0 + 9 f *(t) oV = 2u(t)
*V) + *(/) + y{t) =

(c)

*'(')

4.9

Given the

set

of equations
«(/)

with s(0-) y'(0+).
4.10

*C)+y'(0 + 2y(0 - *'(0-) = y(o-) = y'(0-) = 0,

=

<K0

find *(0+), z'(0+), y(0+),

and

Solve the set of equations 2*'(0
6y(t)

+ 3*(0 + y'(t) + *'« + *(') + y'W + All initial conditions at f = 0— are zero.
4.11

6y(0

= */) = «(')

Solve the set of equations
2s'(0

x'(0

+ 2a<0 + y'(0 - y(i) = + a</) + y'(0 + 2y(r) =
a#)-)

2<5(0

3e~* uSj)

The

initial

conditions are

=

l

y(0-)=0
j,'(0-)=0

*'(0-)=-l

chapter

5
I

Network

analysis:

5.1

INTRODUCTION
We

In this chapter we will apply our knowledge of differential equations to will assume the analysis of linear, passive, time-invariant networks. that the reader is already familiar with Kirchhoff's current and voltage
laws,

and with methods for writing mesh and node equations for a-c or d-c 1 We will, therefore, consider only briefly the problem of writing circuits. mesh and node equations when the independent variable is time t. The problems in this chapter have the following format: Given an excitation signal from an energy source and the network, a specified response that is a current or voltage in the network is to be determined. When relating
these problems to the mathematics in Chapter 4, we shall see that, physically, the forcing function corresponds to the excitation ; the network
is

described by the differential equation; and the
the response.

unknown

variable x(t)

is

differential

will be twofold. First, we must write the problems of the network using Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws. Next, we must solve these equations for a specified current or voltage in the network. Both problems are equally important. It is useless, for example, to solve a differential equation which is set up in-

The problems encountered

correctly, or

conditions are incorrectly specified. The usual type of problem presented in this chapter might generally be 0, which connects an energy switch is closed at t described as follows.

whose

initial

A

=

(voltage or current) source to a network (Fig. 5.1).

The analog of a switch
is e{t) u(t).

closing at

t

=

is

the energy source whose output

Before the

1 For a comprehensive treatment, see H. H. Skilling, Electrical Engineering Circuits (2nd Edition), John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.

100

Network

analysis:

I

101

*«0
Energy source'

/\

Network

FIG.

5.1.

Switching action.

and voltages in the network have known are the initial conditions. We must then determine the values of the currents and voltages just after the switch closes (at / = 0+) to solve the network equations. If the excitation is not an impulse function or any of its derivatives, the current and voltage variables are continuous at t = 0. For an impulse driver the values at / = 0+ can be determined from methods given in Chapter 4. Having obtained the initial conditions, we then go on to solve the network
is

switch

closed, the currents
t

values. These values at

= 0-

differential equations.

Unless otherwise stated,

all

the solutions are valid

only for
Since
in

/

^ 0+.

it is essential that we bear the all-important principle of superposition. According to the superposition principle, the current through any element in a linear circuit

we are dealing only with linear circuits,

mind

with n voltage and current sources is equal to the algebraic sum of currents through the same element resulting from the sources taken one at a time, the other sources having been suppressed. Consider the linear

m

network depicted in Fig. 5.2a with n voltage and

m

current sources.

FIG. 5 Jo

102

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

FIG. 5.2b

Suppose we are interested in the current iT(f) through a given element Z, as shown. Let us open-circuit all the current sources and short-circuit n — 1 voltage sources, leaving only »/0 shown in Fig. 5.26. By iVj(t), we denote the current through Z due to the voltage source »/f) alone. In similar fashion, by iCk(t) we denote the current through Z due to the
current source ik(t) alone, as depicted in Fig. 5.2c.

By

the superposition

FIG. 5.2c. Superposition in linear

circuits.

Network
principle, the total current
i

analysis:
is

I

103

T(t) due to

all

of the sources

equal to the

algebraic

sum

h = \ + '.,+
5.2

••

+

I.,

+

t

H

+

»,,+ •••

+

(5.1)

NETWORK ELEMENTS
we
will discuss the voltage-current (v-i) relationships

In this section,
relationships,
it is

that exist for the basic network elements.

Before

we examine

these

important to assign

first

arbitrary reference polarities for

the voltage across an element, and a reference direction of flow for the
current through the element.

For the purposes of our
is

discussion,

we

assume that the

positive polarity for voltage
5.3.

at the tail

of the current

arrow, as shown by the resistor in Fig.

Now, let us review the voltage-

current relationships for the resistor, the inductor, and the capacitor,

which we

first

discussed in Chapter

1.

Resistor

The

resistor

shown

in Fig. 5.3 defines a linear proportionality relationi(t),

ship between v(t) and

namely,

K0 - r
i(0

m
(5.2)

= Gt*0

R

where

R is given in ohms and G in mhos.
in Fig. 5.4a the v-i relationships are

Capacitor For the capacitor shown

dt
(5.3)

<t)

= -\

i(r)

dr

CJo-

+ »o(0-)

-o
'

m
tR

+
Ut)\

ZZC

**>

i(*>\

v(t)

v(t)

={=C

(a)

(b)
(A)

FIG.

5.3. Resistor.

FIG. 5.4. (a) Capacitor. with initial voltage.

Capacitor

104

Network

anal/sis and synthesis
J(t)_

<

°

ml\
(a)

v(t)

(J).©-)

v(t)

(b) (6)

FIG.

5.5. (a) Inductor.

Inductor with

initial current.

initial value t> c (0— ) is the voltage across switching action. It can be regarded as an the capacitor just before the independent voltage source, as shown in Fig. 5.46. We should point out t> also that i>c(0— ) c(°+) for aU excitations except impulses and

where

C is given in farads.

The

=

derivatives

of impulses.

Inductor

The inductor in Fig. 5.5a describes a dual relationship between voltage and current when compared to a capacitor. The v-i relationships are

»-'5
(5.4)

m

i

LJo-

f ir)dr+iL(0-)

where L is given in henrys. The initial current iL(0— ) can be regarded as an independent current source, as shown in Fig. 5.56. As is true for the voltage across the capacitor, the current through the inductor is similarly continuous for all t, except in the case of impulse excitations. When the network elements are interconnected, the resulting i-v equations are integrodifferential equations relating the excitation (voltage or current sources) to the response (the voltages and currents of the elements).

There are basically two ways to write these network equations. The first way is to use mesh equations and, the second, node equations. Mesh equations are based upon Kirchhoff's voltage law. On the mesh basis, we establish a fictitious set of loop currents with a given reference direction, and write the equations for the sum of the voltages around the loops. As the reader might recall from his previous studies, if the number of branches in the network is B, and if the number of nodes is N, the + 1.* number of independent loop equations for the network is B —

N

1

See Stalling, op.

cit.

Network

anal/sis:

I

105

must, in addition, choose the mesh currents such that at least one mesh current passes through every element in the network.

We

F.™mpl« 5.1.

In Fig.

5.6,

We therefore need 7 - 5 +
of the mesh currents
ilt

a network is given with seven branches and five nodes. 1 = 3 independent mesh equations. The directions i* /» are chosen as indicated. We also note that the
Li
Vi(t)

I

</W»Ci"
'1

»c,
»»

biwQ

\

fCi'

»R 2

vatQ

0^9-r Qhfi-i
FIG. 5.6

capacitors in the circuit have associated initial voltages. These initial voltages are assigned reference polarities, as shown in the figure. Now we proceed to
write the

mesh equations.
:

Meshix

«i(0

-

*C,(0-)

- *1 h(0 + —
l

c
I

«» dr - — J^t) dr
C*
di.

if*

Mesh

it :

vCl(0-)

- vcfii-) = -

^ J^r) dr+Li

1

Mesh

it :

-vJLO
After

+ vCt(0 -) =

^P

i/r) dr

+

^r

J\(t) dr+Ki tf

(5.5)

currents

to find following relationships

three unknowns, ilf it , and /», we can determine the branch and the voltages across the elements. For example, if we were required the branch currents i Cl and iCt through the capacitors, we would use the

we find the

*<>*-'*-*•
(5.6)
»'c,

-

»i

- '»
is

Alternatively, if the voltage vj.t) in Fig. 5.6

our objective, we see that
(5.7)

v*t)

- tff)4

Network equations can also be written in terms of node equations, which are based upon Kirchhoff's current law. If the number of nodes in

106

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

^

Datum

FIG. 5.7

the network

N, the number of independent node equations required 3 We can therefore for the complete solution of the network is JV — l. datum node in the network. All the node voltages will be select one
is

datum node. Consider the network in Fig. 5.7. Let us write a set of node equations for the network with the datum node shown. Since the number of nodes 1 2 independent node equations. in the network is 3, we need JV These are written for nodes vx and vs , as given below.
positive with respect to this

N—

— =

Node

v^.

i

B (t)

-

i

L(0~)

= G1 Vl (t) + j(* Vl (r) dr-jl* v t(r) dr
L JoL Jo-

Node
j

ty.

i(0-)

. --

!
*

L Jo-

v t (r)

dr

+ 7 Jf
L

' V 2(r) dr o-

+C

^& + G
dt

t

t> 2

(»)

(5.8)

Further examples are given in the following sections.

5.3

INITIAL

AND

FINAL CONDITIONS

In this section,
integrals for

we consider some methods for obtaining initial conditions

for circuit differential equations.

We also examine ways to obtain particular

networks with constant (d-c) or sinusoidal (a-c) excitations. In the solution of network differential equations, the complementary function is called the transient solution or free response. The particular integral is known as the forced response. In the case of constant or periodic oo is the steady-state or final excitations, the forced response at t

=

solution.

*

See Stalling, op.

cit.

Network

analysis:

I

107

There are two ways to obtain initial conditions at / = 0+ for a network: through the differential equations describing the network, (b) through knowledge of the physical behavior of the R, L, and C elements in the
(a)

network.
Initial

conditions for a capacitor
at
t

For a capacitor, the voltage-current relationship

= 0+

is

»c(0+)
If
i(t)

i(r)dr
Jo-

+ vc(0-)

(5.9)

v

d°—

)•

does not contain impulses or derivatives of impulses, »c(0+) If? « the charge on the capacitor at t 0—, the initial voltage is

=

=

»o(0+)

-

vc<0-)

=

(5.10)

When

there

clude that
circuit at t

is no initial charge on the capacitor, »o(0+) = 0. We conwhen there is no stored energy on a capacitor, its equivalent

= 0+ is a short circuit.

This analogy is confirmed by examining

As a result of the conservation of charge principle, an instantaneous change in voltage across a capacitor implies instantaneous change in charge, which in turn means infinite
the physical behavior of the capacitor.
current through the capacitor.
instantaneously. Therefore at

Since

we

never encounter infinite current

in physical situations, the voltage across a capacitor cannot change
t

= 0+, we can replace the capacitor by a
exists,

voltage source
initial

if

an

initial

charge

or by a short

circuit if there is

no

charge.

Example 5.2. Consider the R-C network in Fig. 5.8a. The switch is closed at t = 0, and we assume there is no initial charge in the capacitor. Let us find the initial conditions i(0 +) and i'(0 +) for the differential equation of the circuit
Vu(.t)=Ri{t)

+

e£',(t)«/t

(5.11)

c

£_

I

i(t)

)

>B
I

T
R-C network

V

A-

'

»«>+))

>R

T
Equivalent circuit at <

T

W

m

- 0+

FIG. 5A. (a)

R-C network,

(b)

Equivalent circuit at /

— 0+.

108

Network

analysis
t

and synthesis

The

equivalent circuit at

- 0+

is

given in Fig. 5.86, from which

we

obtain

«>+>-5
To
obtain /'(u+),

(5.12)

we must

refer to the differential equation

V8(t) -Ri'(t)

+

i(0

C

(5.13)

At

t

= 0+ we have

» (0+) -Jt/'(0+) +'

c

(5.14)

We then obtain
The

i'(0+)-

-i(0+) RC

V
(5.15)

Fig. 5.8a is final condition, or steady-state solution, for the current in obtained from our knowledge of d-c circuits. We know that for a d-c excitation, is a capacitor is an open circuit for d-c current. Thus the steady-state current

i„(0
Initial

= »'(°°) relationship at
t

conditions for an inductor

For an inductor, the voltage-current
1

= 0+

is

iKr)dT+iL(0-)

(5.16)

If v(t) does not contain impulses, then
initial current,
i

If there is no iL(0+) — i£(0-). which corresponds to an open circuit at _ o+. This analogy can also be obtained from the fact that the current t through an inductor cannot change instantaneously due to the conserva-

L(0+)

= 0,

tion of flux linkages.

S3 In Fig. 5.9a, the switch closes at t = 0. Let us find the conditions i(0+) and i'(0+) for the differential equation
Example

initial

L^+JI*)
L
o.c.

-o

o-

t
FIG.

9
(a)
5.9. (a)

s=:

i(o+)J

W
(*) Equivalent circuit at / *=

R-L network.

0+.

Network

analysis:

I

109

From

the equivalent circuit at

f

= 0+, shown in Fig.
i(0+)=0

5.9b,

we

see that
(5.18)

We then refer to the differential equation to obtain <"(0+). V-L i"(0 +) + R i(0 +)
Thus
/'(0

(5.19)

+)

V R - - - - /(0 +)
(5.20)
as

V — L
is

The

steady-state solution for the circuit in Fig. 5.9a is obtained through the

knowledge that for a d-c source, an indicator
=/(«>)

a short

circuit.

/„(')

=•£

(5.21)

Example 5.4. In this example we consider the two-loop network of Fig. 5.10. As in Examples 5.2 and 5.3, we use the equivalent circuit models at t — + and t = oo to obtain the initial conditions and steady-state solutions. At f = the switch closes. The equivalent circuits at t = 0+ and / =• <x> are shown in Fig. 5.1 la and b, respectively. The initial currents are
*i(0+)
ig(0+)

= =

V
^~ *i
(5.22)

The

steady-state solutions are

«») - j^r^ = «")
Final conditions for sinusoidal excitations

<5 - 23 >

a pure sinusoid, the steady-state currents and same frequency as the excitation. If the unknown is a voltage, for example, 1^(0. the steady-state
the excitation
is

When

voltages in the circuit are also sinusoids of the solution

would take the form
»i,(0

-

I

KOo)l

sin

K< - <K<*J\

(5.24)

where

represent the magnitude

and \V(jcoJ\ and ^(<u ) and phase of vl9(t). A similar expression would hold if the unknown were a current. To obtain the magnitude and phase, we follow standard procedures in a-c circuit analysis. For example, consider the R-C circuit in Fig. 5.12. The current generator is ( 5 -25) W) - (Jo sJ n «*) "(0
is

m

the frequency of the excitation,

1

10

Network

analysis

and synthesis
*2

j

VWV
h(0
)

-VW\r
^=:C

+

|

3
kM
)

FIG. 5.10

«2

JVW\r

ww*


I

V!=

»i(0+)J

»2(0+)

O.C.

Equivalent circuit at

t

= 0+

-WWo
o.c.

WWg

Equivalent circuit at t

=

«>

FIG.

5.1

1,

(a) Equivalent circuit at t

= 0+.

(6)

Equivalent circuit at

/

=

oo.

itfO

Y
FIG. 5.12

'

Network
If the steady-state voltage takes the

analysis:

I

III

form shown

in Eq. 5.24,

IHM>)I |rOo)l

h
(G a
and
so that
vjLO

(5.26)
2/~*\W

+
1

co

*C*j

#o>

)

=

tan"

^
G

(5.27)
1

-

J

(G>+

^w

sin (°>o<

"

tan"

^)

(5.28)

We
5.4

refer to this

problem in Section

5.5.

STEP

AND IMPULSE RESPONSE

As an

introduction to the topic of solution of network differential

equations, let us consider the important problem of obtaining the step and

impulse responses for any voltage or
current in the network.

As we shall see in

Chapter

7,

the step and impulse responses

are precise time-domain characterizations

of the network. The problem of obtaining
the step and impulse response
follows
energy,
:

is

stated as
initial

Given a network with zero

we

are required to solve for a

specified response (current or voltage)

due

F,e * 5 * 3

to a given excitation function u(t) or <3(0, which either can be a current or a voltage source.

|

If the excitation

is

a step of voltage, the physical analogy is that of a switch closing at time t which connects a 1-v battery to a circuit. The physical analogy of an impulse excitation is that of a very short (compared to the time constants of the circuit) pulse with large amplitude. The problems involved can best be illustrated by means of examples. Consider the series R-C circuit in Fig. 5.13. The differential equation of

=

the circuit

is

KO =
We assume Vq(0—) =
x'(t) for j'(0 in 0.

*«)

= R 1(0 + — l(r) dr 7 J»~ CJi>C
I
ii

(5.29)

Since Eq. 5.29 contains an integral,

we substitute

the equation, giving us
d(t)

= Rx'(t) + ±z(t)

(5.30)

1

12

Network

analysis and synthesis

Integrating both sides between

0—

and

0+

gives

*>+>-The
characteristic equation is

(5.31)

H(p)

- Rp +

£

(5.32)

and with

little

effort

we have

_ *(0- L ,-t/RC n(0
so that

(5.33)

mis

R^'RC
We

6"'*

"®]

(5 ' 34)

response

thus arrive at the current impulse in Fig. 5.14a. as the result of an impulse voltage excitation. In the process we have also obtained the step response x(i) in Fig. 5. 146 since, by definition, the derivative of the step response is the impulse response. The reader

which

shown

i(t)

should check this result using a step excitation of voltage. In the second example consider the parallel R-C circuit in Fig. 5.12 7 «(/), where /„ is a constant. driven by a step current source i(f )

=

m
'

£aro

R*C
(*)

FIG. 5.14. (a) Impulse response of

R-C circuit.

(A)

Step response of R-C circuit.

Network

analysis:

I

113

»M

FIG. 5.15. (a) Step response of parallel
Jt-C circuit.

R-C circuit.

(A)

Impulse response of parallel

Assuming zero

initial

conditions, the differential equation

is

Jo „(0

=

Gt<0

+

C^p

(5.35)

from which we obtain the

characteristic equation

H(p)

=

Cp

+G

(5.36)

The

steady-state value

of KO

is

(5.37)

H(0)

G

m
/o

FIG. 5.1*. Pulse excitation.

1

14

Network

analysis

and synthesis

m

FIG.

5.17.

to pulse excitation.

Thus the complete solution
r(0

for the voltage step response

is

= (Ke-i/BC + 7oR) u(t)
—I^R

(5.38)

From the

initial

condition »(0+)

= 0, we obtain K = IRC u(t) t>(0 = JoR(l - e-* )

so that
(5.39)

Differentiating Eq. 5.39 gives us the voltage impulse response

f(0

= l* e -tlRC «(0
are plotted

(5.40)

The step and impulse responses

on

Figs. 5.15a

and

b.

Suppose

the excitation in Fig. 5.12 were a pulse

KQ = IMt) shown
in Fig. 5.16.

u(t

-

T)]

(5.41)

Then, according to the superposition and time-

invariance postulates of linear systems, the response

would be

K0 =
which
is

V*[(l

-

e-" BO) u(t)

- (1 -

e-

(i

- T)IBC )u(t

-

T)]

(5.42)

shown

in Fig. 5.17.

5.5

SOLUTION OF NETWORK EQUATIONS
this section

to the analysis of linear networks.

our knowledge of differential equations There are two important points in network analysis: the writing of network equations and the solution of these same equations. Network equations can be written on a mesh, node, or mixed basis. The choice between mesh and node equations depends largely upon the unknown quantities for which we must solve. For
In
will apply

we

Network
instance, if the

analysis:

I

115

unknown

quantity

is

a branch
if

current,

it is

preferable to

write

mesh

equations.

On

the other hand,
for example,

we wish

to find a voltage

across a certain element, then

node equations are

better.

the choice

is

quite arbitrary.

If,

we wish

In many cases to find the voltage v

across a resistor R, we can either find v directly by node equations or find the branch current through the resistor and then multiply by R.

Example network
source

5.5.

Find the current /(f) for the
5.18,

in Fig.

when

the voltage

is e(t)

= 2e-°-« ufjt) and »c(0-) = 0.
The
differential

Solution.

equation

is

*(/)

= Rl(t) + ^ j

i(r)dr

+ v^O-)
(5.43)

=fcC-if

Or, in terms of the numerical values,

we

have

2«~«" u{t)

= i(0 + 2

»(t)

dr

(5.44)

FIG. 5.18

Differentiating both sides of Eq. 5.44,

we

obtain

2(5(0

dm + 2i(t) - e-° u u(t) = dt
we must
to give «(0+)

(5.45)

To

obtain the
/

initial

condition i(0+),
t

integrate Eq. 5.45 between

the limits

= 0—

and

= 0+

= 2. From

the characteristic

equation

H(p)=p+2*°0
we obtain
the complementary function as

(5.46)

/<#)
If

= JCr« = Ae~°
2
3
bt
,

(5.47)

we assume the

particular integral to be iv(t)

then

we

obtain

A = The incomplete
solution
is

_1

(5.48)

//(-0.5)

= Ke~* - §<r° •" From the initial condition i(0+) = 2, we obtain the final solution, Kt) = (f«-* - f*-°-") «(0
»(0

(5.49)

(5.50)

As we already noted in Section 5.3, in the solution of network differential
is called the free response, whereas a particular integral, and in the case of constant or oo is the steady-state periodic excitation, the forced response at / solution. Note that the free response is a function of the network elements

equations, the complementary function
is

the forced response

=

1

16

Network
is

analysis

and synthesis

alone and

independent of excitation.

On

the other hand, the forced

response depends on both the network and the excitation. positive elements, It is significant that, for networks which have only
the free response
is

made up of only damped exponential and/or

sinusoids

characwith constant peak amplitudes. In other words, the roots of the all have negative or zero real parts. For example, teristic equation H(p) 0. a a ±j(o, then Re (pj is a root of H(p) written as x if
/»!

p

=

= ^

This a response that
network. If a

fact is intuitively reasonable because, if a
is

bounded excitation produces

exponentially increasing, then conservation of energy is passive not preserved. This is one of the most important properties of a whose real parts characteristic equation contains only roots

network are zero or negative, and if theyo> axis roots are simple, then the the network is unstable* which it describes is said to be stable; otherwise, will be discussed Stability is an important property of passive networks and
in greater detail later.

Example

5.6,

For the R-C network
v(t)

in Fig. 5.19 with the excitation given
it is

by

Eq. 5.25, find the voltage

across the capacitor;

given that v(0-)

-

p^O-) -

0.

Solution.

Now
node

let

have already obtained the particular integral in Eq. 5.28. on a us find the complementary function. The differential equation

We

basis is

C -r + Gv = I
at

sin mtiKt)

(5.51)

from which we obtain the characteristic equation as
H(p)
so that

-Cp+G

(5.52)
(5-53)

vJfl-KT* *®
solution
is

and the incomplete
*/)

- to-™*) + . °o)>c w sin {<* - tan"* J «(/) (G + -g ^ condition t<0 — ) — 0, we obtain From the initial
r

(5.54)

.(o^-KO^-Jf-^r^fe^^l^'V)From the argand diagram in
Fig. 5.20

/

a>C\

(555)

we see that,

Consequently,

This is not a formal definition of stability,

but

it

suffices for the

moment.

Network

analysis:

I

117

lm

A
Ao— «—
MG.SM
From the complementary function the circuit is T - C\G - RC.
in Eq. 5.53,

«C
1

Be

we see that the time constant of

kinds of free responses Next, let us examine an example of the different equation that depend on relative values of the of a second-order network 5.21 ; let us network elements. Suppose we are given the network in Fig. v^t) for the differential equation find the free response
(5.58)
'

dt

LJ*S.S8,

Differentiating

both sides of Eq.
VJf)

we have
(5.59)

- C p"(t) + G »'(0 + £ <0.
c(j>»

The

characteristic equation is then

H(p)

- Cp» + Gp + 1 =
is

+ 1 P + j^)

(5.60)

In factored form, H(p)

#(p)

= G(p-J>i)0>-/>i)

(5.61)

»£©-)

nasai

118

Network

analysis
v(t)

and synthesis

K

1

+ K2

t

FIG. 5.22. Overdamped response.

where

Pi P*

2C

2l\c)

LCI

A±B

(5.62)

There are three different kinds of responses depending upon whether
real, zero,

B is

or imaginary.

case

1.

Bis

real, that is,

(§1
then the free response
is

a,>± lc
%

vdt)

= Kie- U-B)t + K e- u+BU

(5.63)

which is a sum of damped exponentials. In this case, the response is said to be overdamped. An example of an overdamped response is shown in
Fig. 5.22.

case

2.

5=

0, that is,

(-T-\Cl LC
then

so that

= p = —A At vc(t) = (^ + K t)ep1
g

t

(5.64)
5.23.

When B

=

0,

the response
v(t)

is critically

damped, as shown in Fig.

o
FIG. 5.23. Critically damped response.

t

Network

analysis:

I

119

FIG. 5.24. Underdamped response.

case

3.

B is imaginary,

that

is,

Letting

B = jfl, we have
»c(0

®
=
is

LC

e

(*i sin

fit

+ Kt cos

fit)

(5.65)
is

In

this case, the

response

said to

be underdamped, and

shown by the

damped
Example

oscillatory curve in Fig. 5.24.

5.7. In this example we discuss the solution of a set of simultaneous network equations. As in the previous examples, we rely upon physical reasoning rather than formal mathematical operations to obtain the initial currents and voltages as well as the steady-state solutions. In the network of Fig. S.25, the switch S is thrown from position 1 to position 2 at t = 0. It is known that prior to t = 0, the circuit had been in steady state. We make the idealized assumption that the switch closes instantaneously at / = 0. Our task is to

find «i(0

and

/,(/)

after the switch position changes.

Vl and V% are Vx = 2 v, Vt =

3 v;

The values of the batteries and the element values are given as

L= C=
The mesh equations
for
ix{t)

lh,
if,
it(i)

jig

Rt = 0.5 n = 2.o n
t

and

after

=

are
(5.66)

Vt =Li\{t)+Rl i1{i)-R1 i£)
-vc(0-)= -/Mito +

cL ^T)dr+{R
k

l

l

+R^i^t)

(5.67)

120

Network

analysis

and synthesis

t.o^o—nnnr^
?2

-

v2 ^:

hit))

FIG. 5.25

Since Eq. 5.67 contains an integral,

we differentiate it to

give

= -Rt i\(0 + ^ i#) + (*i + **) i'#)

(5.68)

Using Eqs. 5.66 and 5.68 as our system of equations, we obtain the characteristic

equation

Lp +'*!

-Ri

H(p)-RiP

-+(R1+ RJp
<569>

- URx + *lp* + (| + *i*l)p + §
Substituting the

dement values

into H(p),
1.5

we have
(5.70)

H(p)

- 2.5p* + 4p +

- 2.5(p + lXp+ 0.6)

The

free responses are then

(5.71)

The

steady-state solutions for the

mesh

currents are obtained at
is

/

»

oo

by

considering the circuit from a d-c viewpoint. The inductor circuit and the capacitor is an open circuit; thus we have

then a short

(5.72)

Now let us determine the initial currents and voltages, which, incidentally, have sources are not the same values at / - 0- and t - 0+ because the voltage

Network
impulses. Before the switch is thrown at
f

analysis:

I

121

= 0, the circuit with Kx as the voltage

source was at steady state. Consequently,

ro

(0-)-K1 «2v
(5.73)

«0-)-^-4amp
«0-)-0
We next find i\(0+) from Eq. 5.66 at / - 0+. Vt ~Li\{0+) + 4*i<P+) - RiW+)
Substituting numerical values into Eq. 5.74,
«'

(5.74)

we find

1(0+)

-

1

amp/sec

From Eq.

5.68 at / <-

0+, we obtain similarly

*'«>+)

*!+*. /'i(0+)
it(t)

- 0.2 amp/sec

(5.75)

With these
solutions

initial

values of

and

i/t),

we can

quickly arrive at the final

/i(r)

i/f)

- (0.5*-* - 2.5e-° « + 6) i<0 - ( -0.5tf-« + 0.5*-°«) n(f)

which are plotted in Fig.

5.26.

6.0

5.5

h(t)
5j0

45 4.0,

o.io'

0.08

-

0.06 0.04

\«w
r
(>
i i

O02
1
1 1

1

1

1

1

0.5

1.0

IS

2.0

2.5

3.0

33

40 43

M

1

FIG. 5.26

122

Network

analysis

and synthesis

5.6

ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMERS

may

According to Faraday's law of induction, a current ix flowing in a coil L x induce a current it in a closed loop containing a second coil Lt The
.

sufficient

conditions

for

inducing the

current

it

are: (a) part of the flux

Ox

in

the coil
to the

Lx must be coupled magnetically coil L a (b) the flux O x must be
;

changing with time.

In

this section

we

will analyze circuits

containing a device

magnetically coupled coils
FIG. 5.27. Transformer.

made up of two known as a

transformer. In Fig. 5.27, the schematic

of a transformer is given. The Lt side of the transformer is usually referred to as the primary coil and the L t side as the secondary coil. The only distinction between primary and secondary is that the energy source is generally at the primary side. The transformer in Fig. 5.27 is described mathematically by the
equations

VO-L^ + M^
at
at
(5.77)
, x ,

,

du
at

,

.

di t

at
flux linking

is the mutual inductance associated with the where and is related to Lx and L2 by the relationship

M

Lt to Lt

,

M = k4IT
x z

(5.78)
It is

The constant bounded by the
coil

K in
limits

Eq. 5.78

is

<, \K\ <,
.

called the coefficient of coupling. 1. If \K\ 1, then all of the flux

=

Ox in

Lj is linked magnetically to L % In this case, the transformer is a unitycoupled transformer. If 0, the coils L x and L s may be regarded as two separate coils having no effect upon one another.

K=

For

circuits

with transformers,

we must

establish reference polarities

for the mutually induced voltages

M

dijdt.

Usually, the references are

given by small dots painted
as

on the input and output leads of a transformer, shown by the dots on the schematic in Fig. 5.28. The reference dots are

placed at the time of manufacture according to the procedure outlined here. voltage source v is connected to the primary Lx side of the voltmeter is attached on the secondtransformer, as shown in Fig. 5.28. side, the terminal is assigned the dot reference to ary. At the primary

A

A

Network

analysis:

I

123

Voltmeter

ttransformeri

FIG. 5.28.

An experiment

to determine dot references.

which we connect the positive lead of the voltage source. The dot reference is placed on the secondary terminal at which the voltmeter indicates a positive voltage. In terms of the primary current i the positive voltage at lt the secondary dot is due to the current i flowing into the dot on the t primary side. Since the positive voltage at the secondary dot corresponds

we can think of the dot references both currents are flowing into the dots or away from the dots, then the sign of the mutual voltage term Mdijdt is positive. When one current flows into a dot and the other away from the second dot, the sign of Mdijdt is negative.
/,

to the current

flowing into that dot,
If

in the following way.

If

N
it

t

and

N

t

are the

linkages of Ly

and L, are given by

and

flow into the

number of turns of coils L^ and L% then the flux and iV.O,, respectively. If both ix dots, the sum of flux linkages of the transformer is

N&

,

2 $ linkages = N&i + N^
however, one of the currents, for example, other ig flows out of the other dot, then
If,
ilt

(5.79)

flows into a dot, and the

2 $ linkages = N& - N Q
t

t

(5.8O)

An

important rule governing the behavior of a transformer is that the sum of flux linkages is continuous with time. The differential equations for the transformer in Fig. 5.29 are

V u(t) = Lt i\(t) + Rt i&) +
Q

M

i'tf)

=

M

i\(t)

+

R* i8(0

+ L, I'M

(581)

FIG. 5.29

124

Network

analysis

and synthesis
/

Integrating this set of equations between

= 0—

and

t

= 0+

results in

the determinant

Za&(0+)

- /i(o-)] MM>+) - «o-)] _ "Q M\ii(f>+) - ix(0-)] LJMP+) - '.(0-)]
we
obtain

(5.82)

By

evaluating this determinant,

(I^L,
If
t

-

M»)[i1(0+)
is,

-

*1 (0-)][i,(0+)

-

/,(0-)]

-

(5.83)

-

L^Lx

then the currents must be continuous at equal to zero. Thus in order for the determinant in Eq. 5.82 to be

>

M*, that

K<

1,

fl

(0+)

- /,((>-), ig(0-),

and
ir««ph»
5.8.

»*(0+)

K<\ *<1
Lt 6ii(0-

(5.84)

(5.85)
1A,

For the transformer circuit in Fig. 5.29, Rt -= 3Q, R, 80, and Jlf - 1A. The excitation is V - //0-) - 0. f (/) and i#), assuming that /x(0-)

-

2h,

-

Let us find

x

Solution.

The

differential

equations for the circuit are

6«(0

- i'i(0 + 3i\(0 + /',(<) - iVO + 2i'&) + 8i,(0
by the determinant

(5.86)

The

characteristic equation is given

Wj
(/>
ile{t)

+8 = 0> + 3)(2p + 8)-/>» = (^+14/» + 24)
2^

+ 2)(p +

12)

(5.87)

Thus the complementary functions are

i

= Kx<r« + A^e-"' = K*r« + JV"m Ie (0
we
rely

(5.88)

To

obtain the particular integral, or steady-state solution, physical reasoning to arrive at

upon

hJ®—t

V_

2

amp
(5.89)

Oamp

Network
Af1

analysis:

I

125

Since the excitation does not contain an impulse (and since I^L, jt 0, as we shall see later), we can assume that d(0+) and ^(0+) are

also zero.

Then using Eq.

5.86

we can find i\(0+) and i'J0+).
(5.90) '

Solving,
ditions,

we find i' With we obtain the final solutions of ix(t) and %(/)

+ f,(0+) o -r»<p+) + 2i',(o+) 1(0+) - 12 and i'£0+) - 6.
6«'"i(0+)

these initial con-

«0 - (-Ir* + *e-«0 «(0 Suppose, now, I^L, - M», that K - then i,(0 and £(/) need not be continuous at — 0. In fact, we will* show that the currents are discontinuous at > for a unity-coupled transformer. Assuming that K = 1,
is,

(5 ' 91)

1,

f

r

consider the

mesh equation
*t 'i(0+)

for the secondary at i

= 0+

= -M i'^O-H) - L, .',(0+)

(5.92)

--?[!* i'!(0+) + M i',(0+)]
The mesh equation of the primary
side then

(5.93)

becomes

V - Rt

it

(0+)

+

[L,.

i\(0+)

+ M iV0+)) = Rr h(Q+) -^R, iJ0+)

M

(5.94)

need an additional equation to solve for ^(0+) and /g(0+). This provided by the equation

We

is

£iPi(0+)

-

it

(0-)}

which we obtained from Eq.

+ MM>+) - i^O-)] = 5.82. Since x (0-) = i^0~) = 0,
i

(5.95)

we

solve

Eqs. 5.94 and 5.95 directly to give

1^(0+)

^3
R\JL%

+ R^Li
(5.96)

wo+)

=™RL
1 t

+ R^

Consider the following example. the element values are

For the transformer

in Fig. 5.29

£i«=4h,

At-8 0, M = 2h,

L,= lh R9 =*3Q

K=10v

126

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
at steady state before the switch
is

Assuming that the circuit is
t

closed at

= 0, let us find h(t) and

/2 (0-

The

differential equations written

on mesh

basis are

10-4^ + 8^ + 2^ dt dt
(5.97)

dt

dt

The

characteristic equation

is

4(p

+

2)

2p
(p

H{p)
2p-

+

=
3)

(5.98)

which yields

H(p)

- 20p +

24

= 20(p + |)

(5.99)

so that the complementary functions are

(5.100)

The

particular integrals that

we
(r)

obtain by inspection are
5
(5.101)

t

= ±1 = 12 =
8

hit)

The

initial

conditions are

*i(0+)

=
RtLi

VL,

+ R^

-!2-a5
20
(5.102)

i*(0+)

-

-VM
t

=

-1.0

We then find Kx =

-0.75 and
ijff)

K = - 1.0 so that
*

= (-O.lSe-11 + W) = -er^u{t)
We
see that as
t

1.25) u(t)

(5.103)

approaches

infinity

it(t)

-» 0, while

it (t)

goes

its

steady-

state value

of

1.25.

Network

analysis:

I

127

Problems
5.1

Write the mesh equations for the network shown.

I

—nnnp—

»Cl <0->

*^\{=
Ci

»'l(0-)

— —nnnp—
Pi
i

»2<0-)
*~-,

*1«

Q«Wb(«

»!

«te1

(0-)=J;C2

D

J8 2

PROB.
5.2
figure.

5.1

Write a

set

of node equations to solve for the voltage vjt) shown in the

W
ii
Ci

wm{(T)

SJlo

= = G>
»c <0-)

*2>

»2(0

PROB.

5.2

53 The network shown has reached steady state before the switch S is opened at t = 0. Determine the initial conditions for the currents 1-fy) and 4(0 and their derivatives.

R
o^f o

vW-

^WV


±C

»2WJ

1
PROB. 5.3
5.4

The network shown has reached steady
b.

state before the switch

moves
first

from a to

derivatives.

Determine the initial conditions for iL(t) and vdt) and their Determine also the final values for iL(t) and vc(t).

128

Network

analysis and synthesis

1
10 v

S

lh_

vc (t)

o—

T

5v-

*t

^
PROB.
5.4

If

==

:io

T
5.5 The network shown has reached steady state before the switch moves from a to b. Determine the initial conditions for the voltages vx(,t) and vt(t) and their first derivatives. Determine also the final values for v^t) and vjj).

b

t«0
a

*i

vi(t)

-

J:-

-

+

T

s
=C

r

R2 *

v 2 (t)

i
PROB.
5.5

5.6
(a)
(A)
(c)

Find

For the network shown ii{0— ) 0- < / < ». »(/);

= 0.
G
-» 0.

Show

that v(t) approaches an impulse as Find the strength (area) of the impulse.

ItfOQ)

PROB. 5.6

5.7 For the network shown, and sketch Jbto; 0- < r < «.

»(r)

-

d(t)

- tr*u(t)

and t<0-)

= 4.

Find


Network
10
I

analysis:

I

129

v/W-

m —o—
\k*t)

W(J)

•1Q

PROB.

5.7

5.8

state conditions prevailed.

For the network shown, before the switch moves from a to Find the current /(f).

b, steady-

6<?

PROB.

5.8

5.9

For the

circuit

been in steady

state.

shown, switch S is opened Find /(f); 0— <f < ».

at

f

=

after the circuit

had

>Tnnp

/^
PROB.
5.9

U\

f

5.10 Find the current /(f) in the network shown when the voltage source is a unit impulse. Discuss the three different kinds of impulse response waveforms possible depending upon the relative values of R, L, and C. All initial conditions are zero at/ —0—.

1

130

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

i

L

nnRp

Qm

*>J

PROB.

5.10

5.11 An R-C differentiator circuit is shown in the figure. Find the requirements for the R-C time constant, such that the output voltage v^t) is approxi-

mately the derivative of the input voltage.

uoW

PROB. 5.

1

5.12 An R-C integrator circuit is shown in the figure. Find the requirements for the time constant such that the output t> (f) is approximately the integral of the input voltage.

S A/V

O"

"«)
PROB.

ci

vo(t)

5.12

5.13 Find the free response for source; (b) a voltage source.

i(f)

in the figure

shown

for (a)

a current

Network

analysis:

I

131

Source

PROB. 5.13
At t = 0, the switch goes from position 1 to 2. Find /(/), given = e~* sin It. Assume the circuit had been in steady state for t < 0.

5.14
e(t)

that

PROB.

5.14

5.15
initial

For the circuit shown, switch S closes at t = 0. Solve for l(t) when the conditions arc zero and the voltage source is e(t) = sin (cat + 0). What

should be in terms of R, C, and term is zero?

m

so that the coefficient of the free response

R

-VNAr—
I"

^)
PROB.
5.15

5.16 For the circuit shown, the switch S moves from a to b and sketch v^t) for - < / < «. The circuit is in a steady

at

f

= 0.
f

Find

state at

= 0.

132

Network

analysis

and synthesis

l

MA—

->

°
t

=

+

1
PROB.

Xs
5.16

5.17

For the

circuit

shown,

i(r)

- 4«r« «(0g

Find

i<f);

- </<

°°.

»w

JQ^

lf=t=

ih

PROB.

5.17

in Prob. 5.4. 5.18 Find the complete solution for i L(t) and vdO Find t - 0. 5.19 For the circuit shown, the switch is closed at - < t < oo. Assume zero initial energy. ijj) for

irff)

ana

10Q

lh

10Q

PROB. 5.19
5.20
ijft)

For the transformer circuit shown, the switch and i2(f). Assume zero initial energy. S

closes at

t •= 0.

Find

5i>.

Af=lh PROB. 5.20

Network

analysis:

I

133

\

Q>

30

lh<3 1hg>lh

60^02(0

PROB.

5.21

switch S opens at 5.21 For the transformer circuit shown, the °°. Assume zero initial energy. / the voltage far) for

t

= 0.

Find

- < <

chapter

6

The

Laplace transform

6.1

THE PHILOSOPHY OF TRANSFORM METHODS
5,

In Chapters 4 and
ential equations.
since, in the process

The

discussed classical methods for solving differsolutions were obtained directly in the time domain

we

of solving the differential equation, we deal with time at every step. In this chapter, we will use Laplace functions of transforms to transform the differential equation to the frequency domain, where the independent variable is complex frequency s. It will be shown that differentiation and integration in the time domain are transformed into algebraic operations. Thus, the solution is obtained by simple
algebraic operations in the frequency domain.

a striking analogy between the use of transform methods to solve differential equations and the use of logarithms for arithmetic operations. Suppose we are given two real numbers a and b. Let us find

There

is

the product

c=axb
we have
log

(6.1)

by means of logarithms. Since the logarithm of a product is the sum of the
logarithms of the individual terms,

so that
If a

C = log a X b = log a + log b C = logr1 (log a + log b)

(6.2)

(6.3)

and b were two

six-digit

numbers, the use of logarithms would probably

facilitate the calculations, because logarithms transform multiplication

into addition.

An analogous process
differential equations.

is the use of transform methods to solve integroConsider the linear differential equation

yW))

-/(»)

(6.4)

134

The Laplace transform
Differential

135

Algebraic

equation^

equation

X(s)
^ Solve
Invert

x(t)

Transform

FIG.

6.1.

Philosophy of transform methods.

where /(0

the forcing function, x(t) is the unknown, and y(a<0) is the differential equation. Let us denote the transformation process by 7X-),
is

and
Eq.

let s

6.4,

be the frequency variable. we have

When we

transform both sides of
(6.5)

7W*(0)1

= W)]
= F(s)
and
Y(X(s), s)
is

Since frequency

domain functions are given by
Y(X(s),s)

capital letters, let us write
(6.6)

Eq-6.5as
where X(s)

=

TftOL

*W -

T[f(t)\,

an algebraic

equation in s. The essence of the transformation process is that differential equations in time are changed into algebraic equations in frequency.

We

can then solve Eq. 6.6 algebraically to obtain X(s). As a final step, we perform an inverse transformation to obtain

m
EM

Differential

equation

m
RM

*(0

-

r-

1

[*(*)]

(6.7)

System
function

In effecting the transition between the FIG. 6.2. Linear system. time and frequency domains, a table of very transform pairs MO, X(s)} can be diagram outlining the use of transform methods is given helpful. in Fig. 6.1. Figure 6.2 shows the relationship between excitation and response in both the time and frequency domains.

A

6.2

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
is

The Laplace transform of a function of time/(/)
CLf (01

defined as

= Hs) =
s

{"/(&-" dt
no-

(6.8)

where s

is

the complex frequency variable

=

a +ja>

(6.9)

This definition of the Laplace transform is different from the definition given in most standard texts, 1 in that the lower limit of integration is
1

M.

E.

Van Valkenburg, Network Analysis, 2nd Ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,

New

Jersey, 1964.

136
/

Network

analysis
t

and synthesis
thus take into account the possibility
It is clear that
*

= 0— =

instead of
for the

= 0+. We

that/(t)

may be an impulse or one of its higher derivatives.

C[d(0]

0+ definition, whereas for the 0- definition, C[($(0] =

In the case when no impulses or higher derivatives of impulses are involved, Therefore, all of the it was shown in Chapter 4 that/(0-) =/(0+). treatment of Laplace trans"strong results" resulting from a rigorous 0+ as a lower limit also apply for the 0— forms* obtained by using t

=

definition.

In order for a function to possess a Laplace transform,
condition

it

must obey the

f
Jofor a real, positive a.

\f{t)\e-"dt<

oo

(6.10)

form,

it

Note that, for a function to have a Fourier must obey the condition
— f
•/
i

trans-

|/(0I

dt<

oo

(6.11)

As a result, a ramp function or a step function will not possess a Fourier transform, 3 but will have a Laplace transform because of the added t% convergence factor er a *. However, the function e will not even have a
Laplace transform. In transient problems, the Laplace transform is preferred to the Fourier transform, not only because a larger class of

waveforms have Laplace transforms but also because the Laplace transform takes directly into account initial conditions at t = 0— because of
the lower limit of integration in the Laplace transform. In contrast, the Fourier transform has limits of integration (— oo, oo), and, in order to take
into account initial conditions

due to a switch closing

at

t

= 0, the forcing

function must take a form
sents the initial condition.

as/(0 u(t)
is

+ /(0-)

(3(0,

where /(0-) repre-

The

inverse transform C-lrjFT(.0]

/(0
where at
is

= -M

FWds

(6.12)

Alt} Jn—iaa

a real positive quantity that is greater than the a convergence factor in Eq. 6.10. Note that the inverse transform, as defined, involves a
D. V. Widder, The Laplace Transform, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1941. These functions do not possess Fourier transforms in the strict sense, but many possess a generalized Fourier transform containing impulses in frequency; see M. J. Lighthill, Fourier Analysis and Generalized Functions, Cambridge University Press, New
* *

York, 1959.

The Laplace transform

137

complex integration known as a contour integration.1 Since it is beyond the intended scope of this book to cover contour integration, we will use a
partial fraction expansion procedure to obtain the inverse transform.

To

find inverse transforms

by

recognition,

we must remember

certain basic

transform pairs and also use a table of Laplace transforms. Two of the most basic transform pairs are discussed here. Consider first the transform

of a unit step function

u(t).

Example 6.1. /(/)-«(/).
(6,13)

Next,

let

us find the transform of an exponential function of time.

Example 6.2. /(/)

~ e°<«(01

F(j)-J
With
these

e#e-«dt=s

—a

(6.14)

transforms, which

two transform pairs, and with the use of the properties of Laplace we discuss in Section 6.3, we can build up an extensive table

of transform

pairs.

6.3

PROPERTIES OF LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

In this section we will discuss a number of important properties of Laplace transforms. Using these properties we will build up a table of transforms. To facilitate this task, each property is illustrated by considering the transforms of important signal waveforms. First let us
discuss the linearity property.

Linearity
finite sum of time functions forms of the individual functions, that is

The transform of a

is

the

sum of the trans-

t[| /,«]=

2 OK')]
sin cat

(615)

This property follows readily from the definition of the Laplace transform.

Example 63. /(/)

= sin <ot.

Expanding

by Euler's

identity,

we have
(6.16)

fit)

= ^.(e** - r+*)

4

For a

lucid treatment, see S.

Transients, Prentice-Hall,

Goldman, Transformation Calculus and Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1949, Chapter 7.

Electrical

1

38

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
is

The Laplace transform of /(f) cisoidal e ±iat terms. Thus
C[sin cat]

the

sum of
1

the transforms of the individual

=-

1/1
— yto
:

2/\*

*

+./«/

—— \

)

=
**

m

+

«>*

(6.17)

Real differentiation Given that £[/(f)] = *(*), then

Eflwhere /(0-)
Proof.
is

sF(s)-/(0-)
f

(6.18)

the value of/(f) at

= 0-.
(6.19)

By

definition,

£[A0]=J*V'7'(0<*f
Integrating Eq. 6.19

by

parts,

we have

£[/'(')]

= «-7(0

+

s

/(Oe-'df
Jo-

(6.20)

Since e~" -»
£[/"(')]

as

f

-*

oo,

and because the

integral

on the right-hand

side

is

= ^)» we have
t[f'(t)]

= sF(s)-f(0-)

(6.21)

Similarly,

we can show

for the nth derivative
«-i
s

c

|"£7(0"l

=
is

n
s

f(s)

_ —
f

/(0 _)

_ S "-V(0-)
of /(f) at
is
f

/

(

- u (0-)
(6.22)

where f

1

"-"

the («

l)st derivative

= 0-. We

thus see

that differentiating

by

in the time

domain

equivalent to multiplying

by

complex frequency domain. In addition, the initial conditions by the terms / (i) (0— ). It is this property that transforms differential equations in the time domain to algebraic equations in the frequency domain.
s in the

are taken into account

Example

6.4a.

/(f)

= sin cot.

Let us find

C[cos

cot]

=

C

— j sin

cot)

(6.23)

By

the real differentiation property,

we have
(6.24)

cgsin<of]=,(^)

The
sothat
c[cosa,,]=

Laplace transform

139

i(_^ = _I 5
=
0.
is

(6.25)

In this example, note that sin <o(0—)

Example

6.4b.

unit impulse.

/(/) = «(/). Let We know that

us find £[/'(')], which

the transform of the

Ct«(0]

=s
1

(6.26)

Then
since

C[*0]

= *(j) =

(6.27)

«(0— )

= 0.
is

If £[/(*)]
flfa)

Real integration = F(s)> then the Laplace transform of the integral of /(f)
divided by
s,

that

is,

c[£/(r)dr]=^
Proof.

(6.28)

By

definition,

c
Integrating

LX
rfrl

/(t) dr]

e_rt

-.C

[£-

/(T) dT ]

d'

(6,29)

by

parts,

we

obtain

c|"

P

/(t)

=oo,

LJoSince e~" -*

J
as
f

—f
f

/(t) dr

"
o-

+-

°°

f

e-'/(f) dt

(6.30)

s Jo-

s Jo-

and

since

I

/(t)<*V
It-o-

=0

(6.31)

Jo-

we then have

c[£/(r)dr]=^
Example 6.5.
Let us find the transform of the unit ramp function, p(t)

(6.32)

" t u(t).
(6.33)

We know that
Since

j

h(t)

dr

=

p(f)

C[«(0]

=s
1

(6.34)

then

C[p</)]

-

-^ . _
£[«(')]

(6.35)

140

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Differentiation by •
Differentiation

by
t

s in the

complex frequency domain corresponds to
is,

multiplication

by

in the

domain, that

W)] =
Proof.

-^
as

(6-36)

From the
Jo-

definition

of the Laplace transform, we see that

±1® = f°7(0 ± e-* dt - - f " tf(t)e-* dt ds

-Z[t f(t)]

(6.37)

ds

Jo-

Example 6.6.

Given /(O

= g-*\ whose transform is

m—rrz
let

(

638>

us find

C[te~"']-

By

the preceding theorem,

we find that

«"-i--s(rh)-<rb
Similarly,

•*»

we can show

that

"a-^-crrb* 5
where n
is

(640)

a positive

integer.

Complex
By

translation
if

the complex translation property,
/=X5

F(s) <= £[/(/)], then
< 6 - 41 )

- a) = C[e°7(0]

where a
Proof.

is

a complex number.

By

definition,

£1*7(0]
Example 6.7.

-J"

^/(Oe"" dt

=

J"

e"

(M)

7(0 dt

= F(s -

a)

(6.42)

Given /(t)

= sin <»/, find
.

£[«-»' sin <»/].

Since

qsinorfl-^^

<

643>

by the preceding theorem, we find that

Similarly,

we can show that

c^coso,.]-

^;^;^

(«-45)

The Laplace transform

141

Real translation (shifting theorem) Here we consider the very important concept of the transform of a P(s), then the transform shifted or delayed function of time. If C[/(/)] of the function delayed by time a is

=

£[/('

- a) u(t -

a)]

= e-** F(s)

(6.46)

Proof.

By

definition,

C[/(r

- a) u{t -

a)]

= f V*7(r - a) dt = — a, we have
t

(6.47)

Introducing a

new dummy
f Jo°°

variable t

C[/(t) m(t)]

-

e-lT^f(r) dr

= g— ['°f(r)eJo-

T

dr

= <f~ F(s)

(6.48)

in Eq. 6.48/(t)u(t) is the shifted or delayed time function; therefore the theorem is proved. It is important to recognize that the term e~"' is a time-delay operator.
If

we

are given the function

e~"

G(s),

and are required to
ft (0,

find

C-i[r~G(,)]-

we can

discard er*' for the

moment,

find the inverse transform

E-HG(*)]-«('X
and then take
into account the time delay

by

setting

g(t-a)u(t-a)=g1(t)

(6.49)

Example 6.8a. Given the square pulse /(f) in Fig. 6.3, let us first find its transform F(s). Then let us determine the inverse transform of the square of F(s),
i.e., let

us find

Mt) =
Solution.

C-i[F«(5)]

(6.50)

The square pulse

is

given in terms of step functions as

/(/)
Its

- «(/) -uit-a)
fit)

(6.51)

Laplace transform

is

then
(6.52)

F(s)=\(l-e~«)
Squaring F(s),

we

obtain
(6.53)

F\s)

- -5 (1 - 2e-» + e"*")

To find the inverse transform of F\s), we need only to determine the inverse transform

FIG.

4.3.

Square pulse.

142

Network

analysis

and synthesis
is

of the term with zero delay, which

C-4-J -fN(<)
Then
C-»[F*(*)]

&]-

(6.54)

=

/«(/)-

2(*

a)u(t

- a) +(t - 2a) «(/ - 2a)

(6.55)

so that the resulting waveform is shown in Fig. 6.4. From this example, we see that the square of a transformed function does not correspond to the square of its inverse transform.

AW
f(t)

K2
Ki
Kq,,
it

K6
Xb

I
a
FIG.
6.4.

1
7Ti
train.
is

2a

Ti

2T!

3Ti 4Ti 5Ti 6Ti Impulse

Triangular pulse.

FIG.

6.5.

Example

6.8b. In Fig. of a train of impulses

6.5, the

output of an ideal sampler

shown.

It

consists

fit)

= *o <K0 + *i <K' ~ Tt) +

• •
"

+ *» *' - « ri) + *„e-*» r
e ,r »
is
i

(

656>

The Laplace transform of this impulse
C[/(/)l

train is

- *o + *!*-•*» + ^-2,Tl +

(6.57)

we can

In dealing with sampled signals, the substitution z = represent the transform of the impulse train as

often used.

Then

W)]-*. + T
The transform

Ai 1

+^ +

A.

A« ••+?

(6.58)

in Eq. 6.58 is called the z-transform of /(/). This transform widely used in connection with sampled-data control systems.

is

PERIODIC

WAVEFORMS

The Laplace transform of a periodic waveform can be obtained in two ways (a) through summation of an infinite series as illustrated in Example 6.8d, and (*) through the formula derived below.
:

£[/(*)]

-}

f(tyr"dt

+Jt

f{t)e-'*dt

+
flufUT
f(t)e-*dt
(6.59)

+

InT

The Laplace transform
Since /(0
is

143

periodic, Eq. 6.59 reduces to

£[/«]

=

T
dt \ f{i)e-'*dt Jo-

e+ e-' T [
\

f(t)e-*dt

+

Jo o-

+

e-nT f*f(t)e-* dt
Jo-

+

= (1 +

e-T

+ e-aT +
\

)

T
\ f{t)e-*dt Jo-

(6.60)

— l-eExample
6.8c.
its

T ~ J T Jo- f(f)e-'*dt
train in Fig. 6.6 let us use Eq. 6.60 to

Given the periodic pulse

determine

Laplace transform.
1


dt

-1
(6.61)

1 1

s

1

- €~" - e-' T

m
1

a
FIG.

T

T+a

2T

2T+a

6.6. Periodic pulse train.

Example

6.8d.

Fig. 6.6 using

In this example we calculate the Laplace transform of /(f) in summation of an infinite series. The periodic pulse train can be

represented as
/(/)
Its

=

iKt)

- iKt - a) + u(t - T) - u[t - (T + a)] + u(t - IT) - u[t - (2T + a)] +
is

{pM)

Laplace transform
F(s)

=

-

(1

- *-" + e~tT - e-<T+«)» +
- e~" +
e~,T(l

.

.)

(6.63)

=s

[1

- e-») +

*-2 « T(l

- «-") +

•]

144

Network

analysis

and synthesis

which

simplifies further to give

F(s)

=

s

(1

- «-^"Xl + e- T + e~UT +••)

(6.64)

We then see that F(s) can be given in the closed form 1 1 - e-™
Other periodic pulse trains also can be given in closed form. The reader end of this chapter.
is

referred to the problems at the

At

the end of the chapter

is

a table of Laplace transforms. Most of

the entries are obtained through simple applications of the properties just discussed. It is important to keep those properties in mind, because many
these properties.

transform pairs that are not given in the table can be obtained by using For example, let us find the inverse transform of
F(s)

=,

(s

+

j_


ay

+

, car

(6-66)

Since the s in the numerator implies differentiation in the time domain,

we

can write

F(s)-a
(s

"

+

ay

+

.

(6.67)

co'

Using the differentiation property,

we

obtain

y
/

dt

(6.68)
to

Note that e~"
6.4

sin

mt at

t

= (—«r sin oat + = 0— is zero.

cos oot)e~*

USES OF LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
often useful in the evaluation of definite occurs in the evaluation of

Evaluation of definite integrals

The Laplace transform
integrals.

is

An obvious example

c-**sin5rdr -/:•
If we replace tr %%

(6.69)

by er**, the integral /then becomes the Laplace transform

of sin

5/,

which

is

Z[S ux5t]

= -rj-s + 25

(6.70)

The Laplace transform
Replacing J by
2,

145

we have
I

=

¥TTs
is

=

i

(6 - 71)

Perhaps a more subtle example
/
First,

the evaluation of

=

+
J

W

,W dt

(6.72)

we note

that

t

%

eriW

is

an even function; therefore
/

= 2jVC-2'df
we
see that

(6.73)

From

the table of Laplace transforms

and the transform of

/(0

= f tV**Jo-

(6.75)

vm -^tv
Later

(<76)

we

consists

will see that the partial-fraction expansion of Z[f(t)] in Eq. 6.76 of three terms for the multiple root (s + If, as given by

pr//A1 ELKO]

= 0.25 "


0.25

~

^i - j^
0.5
1

.-_
(6.77)

Taking the inverse transform of Eq.
f{t)

6.77,

we

obtain
11(f)

= 0.25(1 - e-« = 2/(1) =

2te-**

- 2rtr-«)
is

(6.78)

Now
t

observe that the definite integral in Eq. 6.73
that
is,

=

equal to 2/(f) at
(6.79)

1,

t

-2.5<r*

+ 0.5 = 0.162

Solution of integrodifferential equations In Section 6.3 we said that the real differentiation and real integration properties of the Laplace transform change differential equations in time to algebraic equations in frequency. Let us consider some examples using Laplace transforms in solving differential equations.
Example
6.9.

Let us solve the
*"(/)

differential

equation
(6.80)

+ 3x'(t) + Irtf) - 4e* given the initial conditions a<0-) = 1, x'(Q—) = — 1.

146

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Solution.

We first proceed by taking the Laplace transform of the differential
3[s X(s)

equation, which then becomes
[i

2

X(s)

-sx(0-)- x'(0 -)] +

- x(0 -)] + 2X(s) =
and
simplifying,


4

-

(6.81)

Substituting the initial conditions into Eq. 6.81

we have
(6.82)

(** (s*

+

3s

+ 2) X(s)
:

s

+5+2
1

We then obtain

X(s) explicitly as

™-jr=mrm+%
To
find the inverse transform x(t)

(6 - 83)

= f'^W],

we expand

X(s) into partial

fractions

Solving for X_i,

A^i,

and

Kt algebraically, we obtain K_i = § JTi = -1 Kt = |
transform of X(s) or

The

final solution is thf inverse

a<0

=

fe*

- e-' + fe-»

(6.85)

solving differential equations, the reader

In order to compare the Laplace transform method to the classical method of is referred to the example in Chapter 4,
is

Eq. 4.64, where the differential equation in Eq. 6.80

solved classically.

Example

6.10.

Given the
2x'(f)

set of

simultaneous differential equations

+

4a<r)

+ x(t) with the initial conditions x(0 -) = y(0 -) = 0, let us find x(j) and y(t).
x'(t)

+ y'(t) + 7y(0 = 5u(t) + y'(t) + 3jK0 = 56X0
we
Y(s)

(6.86)

Solution.

Transforming the
2(s

set

of equations,

obtain

+ 2) X(s) + (* + 7) +
1)

-s
(6.87)

(s

X(s)

+ (* +

3) Y(s)

=

5

Solving for X(s) and Y(s) simultaneously,

we have

X(s)

(5/*)A u

+ 5^
(6.88)

A
(5/5)Au

+ 5A*

Y(s)

The Laplace transform
where
zyth

147
is

A

is

the determinant of the set of equations in Eq. 6.87, and

A tf

the

cofactor of A.

More explicitly,

X(s)

is

-5i»

- 30s +

15

™~-*FT2r+sr
Expanding X(s)
in partial fractions,

(689)

we have
K-s

^> = 7 + ?T27T5
Multiplying both sides of Eq. 6.90 by s and letting *

Kx

+ Kz

<690)

= 0, we find

K1

=sX(s)\,_ =3.

Kt and Ks are then obtained from the equation

*« "-7+5 + 5
of X(s), that
is,

3

-8s

- 36

(691)

A further simplification occurs by completing the square of the denominator
s*

+ 2s +

5

=

(s

+

1)*

+4

(6.92)

As a

result of

Eq. 6.92, we can rewrite X(s) as

*<'>-"
so that the inverse transform
«(/)
is

3

8(i
fr

+ 1) + 14(2) + iy+gy 14e-' sin It) «(/)

(693)

=

(3

-

8c-' cos 2/

(6.94)

In similar fashion,

we

obtain Y(s) as
*

Wrt y(s)

_ =

"* + 17 1 + ~s 7T27T5 - -; +
|

llfr
(,

+ l)+3(2) + i)* + (2)*

(6,95)

The

inverse transform is then seen to be

y (j) This example

= ( _ i +1 i e-* cos 2f +

3<r* sin It) u(t)

(6.96)

is also solved by classical methods in Chapter 4, Eq. 4.163. note one sharp point of contrast. While we had to find the initial conditions at t 0+ in order to solve the differential equations directly in the time domain, the Laplace transform method works directly with

We
the

=

In addition, we obtain both the complementary function and the particular integral in a single operation when we use Laplace transforms. These are the reasons why the Laplace transform method is so effective in the solution of differential equations.
initial

conditions at

t

= 0—

.

148

Network

analysis

and synthesis

&5

PARTIAL-FRACTION EXPANSIONS

As we have seen, the ease with which we use transform methods depends upon how quickly we are able to obtain the partial-fraction expansion of a given transform function. In this section we will elaborate on some simple and effective methods for partial-fraction expansions, and we discuss
procedures for (a) simple roots, (b) complex conjugate roots, and
multiple roots.
It (c)

should be recalled that if the degree of the numerator is greater or equal to the degree of the denominator, we can divide the numerator by the denominator such that the remainder can be expanded more easily
into partial fractions.

Consider the following example:

=
Since the degree of N(s)
into N(s) to give
is

m=
D(s)

+
s'

3s*

+ 3s + 2
2s

+

+

2

greater than the degree of D(s),

we

divide D(s)

F(s)

= 5 + 1s

'

+2s +

(6.98)

2

fractions.

Here we see the remainder term can be easily expanded into partial However, there is no real need at this point because the denominator s2 +^2s + 2 can be written as
s*

+ 2s +

2

= (5 +

1)*

+

1

(6.99)

We can then write F(s) as

so that the inverse transform can be obtained directly from the transform
tables,

namely,

C-W)] =
From this
form
example,

<5'(0

+

3(0

+ er*(sm t - cos i)

(6.101)

we see that intuition and a knowledge of the transConsider some further
role.

table can often save considerable work.

examples in which intuition plays a dominant

Example

6.11.

Find the

partial-fraction expansion of

2*

=

+3

(JTWTT)

(6102)

The
If we see that F(s)

Laplace transform

149

can also be written as

*Wthen the partial-fraction expansion

(s

fr

+ 1) + (s + 2) + Dfr+g

(6103)

is trivially

Exanpfe

6-12.

Find the

partial-fraction expansion

of
(6-105)

j + 5 s +5 F(s) = , T -,

We see that F(s) can be rewritten as

m = fe±a±i = _i_ T _i_^ W + + +
(s

(6 106)

2)»

(s

2)

(s

2)»

Real roots

Now let us discuss some formal methods for partial-fraction expansions.
First

we examine a method

for simple real roots.

Consider the function

m=
F(s)

,

(s

- s tt^t: — St) )(s — s0(s
:

(6-107)

where s<» st, and st are distinct, Expanding F{s) we have

real roots,

and the degree of N(a)

< 3.

= -£*- + -^- + -^S — Si S — Si S — S

(6.108)

Let us first obtain the constant A,. j ) to give of the equation by (s

We proceed by multiplying both sides
(6.109)

(s

— s«)F(s) = K
in Eq. 6.109,

H
s

1

«!

s

.

s,

If we let 5

=*
we

we

obtain

Ji-(#-J»)J^)|^
Similarly,

(6110)

see that the other constants can

be evaluated through the
(6.111)

general relation

A,
1

= (*-*) ft*) |_.,

6.13.

Let us find the partial-fraction expansion for
J +2j - 2 FV- j(*+2X*-3) .g» + J^- + J^_ FW * s+2+3-3
'

Z) (6.112) K°

c

l

150

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

Usin gEq. 6.111, we find

Ao

= ~

sF(s) |_>
s*
(*

+ 2s -2 + 2X* - 3)

1

«-o

3
1

s*

Kl

~
s2

sis

+2s -2 -3) »— a
13

(6.113)

5

*"
Complex

+ 2s - 2
s(s+2)

~15 3

roots Equation 6.111 is also applicable to a function with complex roots in its denominator. Suppose F(s) is given by

F(s)

=

JVC*)

D&Xs Ki

*

- JPK' - * + JP) +
JVi(s)

s-x-jfi
where A^/Di
is

s-x+jp

(6.114)

Djis)

the remainder term.

Using Eq. 6.111, we have

K1 =

ypDM+m
(6.115)

-irfD^-m
where we assume that j = a ± jP are not zeros of Z>i(s). It can be shown that the constants Kx and K% associated with conjugate roots are themselves conjugate. Therefore, if we denote K± as
(6.116)

then
If

K2 = A-jB = K *
1

(6.117)

fx(t),

we denote the we see that

inverse transform of the

complex conjugate terms as

A(0 i(o

= = =

_i

r

——— + ———
+
Kft-"*)

e"'(K ie "»

2c**(A cos Bt

- B sin pi)

(6.118)

The Laplace transform

151

A more convenient way to express the inverse transform f^t) is to introduce the variables

M and

<X>

denned by the equations

= 2A McosO = -25
sin
<1>

M

(6.119)

where

A

terms of

M and

and

B

are the real
<I>,

and imaginary parts of
is

Kr in Eq.

6.116.

In

the inverse transform

/i(0

= Me?* sin (0t + O)
we note
that

(6. 120)

To

obtain

M and $ from K
=

lt

Me'*

M cos O + jM sin O =

-2B + ;2,4 = 2;XX
we
see

(6.121)

When

related to the original function F(s),

from Eq. 6.115 that
(6 . 122)

Mf =
Example
6.14.

*<«+Jfl

Let us find the inverse transform of

w-vr^rkr+ii
For the simple root s

(6123)
.

=

—2, the constant

K is
i
(6.124)

K = (*+2)F(*)|,__8 =
For the complex conjugate roots

**+2j+5=(* +
We see that
a

1

+j2Xs

+

1

-y'2)

(6.125)

= — 1,
Me**

= 2, thus =
is

«*

+3

=

2(*+2) i—1+*2
then

— V5

c-i(tan-»j+W»)

(6.126)

The inverse transform
C-i[F(*)]

=

- e-**

+ —= <r* sin \^
2
-p e~*

~\~ tan-1 2j
(6.127)

= - e~u
5

7

V5

cos (2/

-1 tan 2)

Multiple roots Next let us consider the case
repeated or multiple roots.
requires differentiation;

which the partial fraction involves examine two methods. The first the second does not.
in

We

will

152

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Method

A
F(S)

Suppose we are given the function

- s )" ^(s) The partial fraction expansion with multiple roots of degree n at s = j
(s
.

W=

^

(6.128)

of F(s)

is

K
(s-s ) n

Kx
(s-so)""
1

Kt
(s-s )»-8

..... *«-i

.

*i(?)
J>i(«)

s-s

(6.129)

where N^jDjUs) represents the remaining terms of the expansion. The problem is to obtain K^K^..., K^. For the K^ term, we use the method
cited earlier for simple roots, that
is,

Ko
However,
t

= (s-s rF(s)\„
same formula

t

(6.130)

if

we were

to use the

to obtain the factors

Ku

K ,..., #„_!, we would invariably
dition.

arrive at the indeterminate 0/0 conn s ) and Instead, let us multiply both sides of Eq. 6.129 by (s

define

F1(s)s(s-s rF(s)
Thus

(6.131)

Fx(s) -

A,

+ Kt(s - s ) +

+ K^s - So)""1 + *(•*)(' - s*Y
(6.132)
differentiate

where R(s) indicates the remaining terms. If we
s,

Eq. 6.132 by

we

obtain

4 Fi(s) - *i + 2K^s as
It is evident that

s )

+

+

*„_!(/!

-

D(s

- so)""* +
(6.133)

Kx = — Ft(s)
ds

(6.134)

On the same basis
and
in general

Kt =

;

F^s)

(6.135)

2 ds

K = -tWs)! !«-«•>
t
.

J

= 0,1, 2

n

-1

(6.136)

j\ ds'

The
Example
6.15.

Laplace transform

153

Consider the function

'W-STTlJi
which we represent-in expanded form as

(6 - ,37)

™-(7Ti? + (JTI? + 7TT + 7
The constant A
for the simple root at s

<«'»>

=

is

A=sF(s)\^=-2
To obtain
the constants for the multiple roots

(6.139)

we first find Ft(s).

Fjis)

= (s +

l)

8 F(s)

=

S

-^
s

(6.140)

Using the general formula for the multiple root expansion, we obtain

1
!

d

fs
\

-2\
s

I

^i=T7T 1 ds

/

!_!

„ -3 |__! =2 «
I

2

<6142)

„,_„,.

*-i^)L-(-5)L-;
sothat

IW __2 gl +

^
),


(6.144)

i+

-i

1

-5

Method B
The second method
multiple roots requires
series expansion.*

for arriving at the partial-fraction expansion for

no differentiation. It involves a modified power Let us consider F(s) and F^s), defined in Eqs. 6.128 s Joand 6.131 in Method A. We define a new variable/; such that/>

= —

Then we can write F^s) as

*(p
Dividing N(p

+ tf-£?T^

(6145)

+s)

by

D%(p + s
obtain
1

with both polynomials written in

ascending powers ofp,

we

fiG*

+ s ) = K + K p + Ktpt +-- +

X^j,""1

+

0l(l>

n

f"f *o) +
(6.146)

* I

am

indebted to the late Professor Leonard O. Goldstone of the Polytechnic

Institute

of Brooklyn for showing

me this method.

154

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
is

The

original function F(s)

related to

F (p + s ) by the equation
x

F(P

+

°o)-

pn

-,„-%»-!+

+

,

+
Dl(p

+ So)
(6.147)

Substituting 5

s

= p in Eq. 6.147, we obtain
g
/

F(s)

=

—£*— +

\ Bl +

+

-^ + -£\

(6.148)

have thus found the partial-fraction expansion for the multiple-root terms. The remaining terms KjlD^s)] still must be expanded into partial fractions. Consider Example 6.16.
Example 6.16

We

*wUsing the method just given, F^s)

fr

+

ijUa

(6149)

is

F^s)
Setting p

-

(s

+ If F(s) =

-^

(6.150)

=s+

1,

we

then have

- 1) into a series as given in Eq. 6.146 requires dividing the numerator 2 by the denominator 1 + p, with both numerator and denominator arranged in ascending power of p. The division here is
The expansion of Ft(p
2

- lp + 2/

l+/0"2
2 +2/>

-2^

-2p-2f

Since the multiplicity of the root we have three terms in the quotient.

is

AT = 3, we terminate We then have

the division after

FX{P -l)=2-2p+2p*- j£x The original function F(p — 1) is
F(P

(6.152)

~

1)

Fx(d -1) =-J7T- -

2

? ?

-

2

+~ -pTl p

2

2

(6153)

The Laplace transform
Substituting s

155

+

1

= />, we have
- (7TT? " (7TI? + (7TT) " JT2
consider the function

m
Example
6.17.

(6154)

As a second example,
F(,)

=^T1?
(at s

(6155)

Since

we have two

sets

of multiple roots here

choice of expanding F^s) about s

expand about *

= 0;

since /j

=

—1) we have a Let us arbitrarily choose to s here, we do not have to make any substitutions.

= 0, and s =

— Ooi s = — 1. +
2

F&) is then
Expanding

™=(7TT? = rT2FT7
Ft(j), we obtain
F^s)

J

2+s

<6156>

-

2
2

- 3j +
3

F(s)

is

then

F(s)

-^ 3*
(s

j

+ 4) ^ + iy 3* + 4 + +^
s\3s
.

(6.157)

(6.158)

We must now repeat this process for the
+ +

term

+4
1)*

Fortunately

we

see that the term can be written as

3s
(s

+

+4 = 3Qr +
1)»

1)

1

(*

+

iy

~

s

1 3_ + + I (s +

(6159)
1)»

The

final

answer

is

then

"W-l-i+TTT + frTi?
6.6

(6160)

POLES

AND ZEROS
we
will discuss the

In this section

many

implications of a pole-zero

description of a given rational function with real coefficients F(s).
define the poles of F(s) to

We

be the roots of the denominator of F(s). The zeros of F(s) are defined as the roots of the numerator. In the complex s plane, a pole is denoted by a small cross, and a zero by a small circle. Thus,
for the function

_ ^-i+;D(s-i-Jl)
+ l)\s+j2)(s-j2) —1 s = (double) s = —y*2
(s

K

the poles are at

s

=

+y*2

156

Network

analysis

and synthesis
jo
|

j2 i
Double
.t
i

« plane

-<r

-3 -2 -1

—i_W_
pole.*.

,1

o
i i I

I

12
o

->2 x
-J<0

FIG.

6.7. Pole-zero

diagram of F(s).

and the zeros are

at

s

= = =
-j\

s S

1

00

The poles and
signals.

zeros of F(s) are shown in Fig. 6.7. Now let us consider some pole-zero diagrams corresponding to standard example, the unit step function is given in the complex

For

frequency domain as
C[u(0]

=s

(

6162>

and has a pole at the origin, as shown in signal e—*, where <x > 0, has a transform

Fig. 6.8a.

The exponential

C[e—']
S

+


Oq
Fig. 6.86.

(6.163)

which has a
function cos

single pole at s
<a
i,

=

-o-* as indicated in
is

The

cosine

whose transform
C[coso,

t]

= -r-1-~ t =

(6-164)

±7<u » poles at s has a zero at the origin and a pair of conjugate Figure 6.Sd shows the pole-zero diagram as depicted in Fig. 6.8c. is corresponding to a damped cosine wave, whose transform
Z[e-"* cos
co t ]

= — s + g° r=-* (s + r+
<r

(6.165)
o>
i

The
a
(a)

Laplace transform

157

I

(b)

]W

M,
-a
x

m»)' ""

«+«,

*******

— -jao
id)

FIG.

6A

Poles and zeros of various functions.

From these four pole-zero diagrams, we note that the poles corresponding to decaying exponential waves are on the — a axis and have zero imaginary parts. The poles and zeros corresponding to undamped
sinusoids are

poles

on the/o> axis, and have zero real parts. Consequently, the and zeros for damped sinusoids must have real and imaginary

parts that are both nonzero.

Now let us consider two exponential waves/x(0 = er'i* and/i(f) = er***,
where at
6.9a.

>

<r

x

> 0, so that/,0) decays faster than/iO), as shown in Fig.
functions are
*i(»)

The transforms of the two

=
s
s

1

+
1

ax
a,

(6.166)

F&) =
as depicted

+

by the pole-zero diagram in Fig. 6.96. Note that the further the pole is from the origin on the —a axis, the more rapid the exponential decay. Now consider two sine waves, sin atjt and sin co t t, where <o t > «>! > 0. Their corresponding poles are shown in Fig. 6.10. We note here

m
l

JU>

s plane

*2(«K

Fi(»K

—V2
(a)

— 0"1
(b)

a

FIG.

*.*. Effect

of pole location upon exponential decay.

-

1

158

Network
1

analysis

and synthesis

JU
X./C02
JO)

X
,

>«i

«2

X
«1

a
X
si*
(

-jwi
-j(i>2

X
«2*

<

FIG. 6.10. Pole locations corresponding to sin to,/ and sin mj.

FIG.

6.1

/

represents frequency of that the distance from the origin on theyco axis frequency. oscUlation; the greater the distance, the higher the responses fx {f) and these rules of thumb, let us compare the time Using shown in Fig. corresponding to the pole pairs {* lf s 1 *} and fo, s a *} a (0 damped sinusoids. see that both pairs of poles corresponds to
6.11.

The damped

fz

than/a(f) sinusoid/i(0 has a smaller frequency of oscillation part of s t Also, because the imaginary part of * x is less than the imaginary The time because Res1 2 x (t) decays more rapidly than f (t)
.

We

>Kcs

.

responses /x(0

and/a(0

are

shown

in Fig. 6.12.

f2 (t)

- lme«»*

h
\^" ~~-

h») =

lme«»'


—— •C-

___ __
-

=*-

S ^-^
(b)

in Fig. 6.11. FIG. 6.12. Time responses for poles

The Laplace transform
ju
« plane

159

-

m
at

a

-m

M

(b)

FIG. 6.13. Effect of right-half plane poles upon time response.

Let us examine more closely the effect of the positions of the poles in upon transient response. We denote a pole pt as a complex number ( at +jco i For a given function F(s) p with only first-order poles, consider the partial-fraction expansion
the complex frequency plane

=

.

F(s)

=

_*!L_

s-

+ _*!_ +
-Pi
is

Po

s-P«

(6.167)

The

inverse transform of F(s)
/(*)

= K e»« + Kie*« + = K^"*e im,t + K1e'

•+K
lt

ne"*

e

iait

+• + K^e*""*
is,

(6.168)

In/0), we see that if the real part of a pole is positive, that the corresponding term in the partial-fraction expansion

at

> 0, then

K e"
i

i

*e

iatt

an exponentially increasing sinusoid, as shown in Fig. 6.13a. thus see that poles in the right half of the s plane (Fig. 6.13*) give rise to exponentially increasing transient responses. system function that has poles in the right-half plane is, therefore, unstable. Another
is

We

A

unstable

situation arises if there

is

a pair of double poles on theyw

axis,

such as for

the function

F(

"-(7f^'
in Fig. 6.14a.

(6.169)

whose pole-zero diagram
F(s)
is

is

shown

The inverse transform of

/(0

= -— sin co
2io

t

(6.170)

160

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Vjao

*-.7«o

f(t)

m ^-

sin (dot

(a)

(b)

FIG. 6.14. Effect of double zeros on

they'd) axis

upon time

response.

which is shown in Fig. 6.146. It is apparent that a stable system function cannot also have multiple poles on theytu axis.
N(s)lD(s). Consider the system function H(s) numerator and denominator polynomials, we obtain

=

If

we

factor the

H(s)
It is clear that

=

Hg(s
(S

- Zq)(s - Zi) - P )(S - Pi)

- g„) - Pm) (S

(s

(6.171)

we can

H(s) is completely specified in terms of its poles and zeros and an additional constant multiplier #„. From the pole-zero plot of H(s), obtain a substantial amount of information concerning the

whether the behavior of the system. As we have seen, we can determine by checking the right-half plane for poles and the jm axis system is stable its transient for multiple poles. We obtain information concerning discuss behavior from the positions of its poles and zeros; and, as we will

diagram also gives us significant.information We thus concerning its steady-state (Jm) amplitude and phase response. see the importance of a pole-zero description. Suppose we are given the poles and zeros of an excitation E(s) and the response system function H(s). It is clear that the pole-zero diagram of the of the pole-zero diagrams of H(s) and R(s) is the superposition
in Section 8.1, the pole-zero

function
£(j).

Consider the system function

W"
and the
excitation

(6.172)
(i

- ftK» " A)
s

(6.173)

pt

The Laplace transform

161

Then

the response function

is

H(s)
It is clear that

=
(s

gpEofr

- Zq)(s - «i) - p )(s - pj(s - p»)

(6.174)

R(s) contains the poles and zeros of both H(s) and £(*), except in the case where a pole-zero cancellation occurs. As an example, let us take the system function

H(s)

=
(s

2(5

+

1)

+

2+j4)(s

+ 2-j4)

(6.175)

whose pole-zero diagram is shown in Fig. 6.15c. It is readily seen from the pole-zero diagrams of the excitation signals in Fig. 6.18a that the step response of the system has the pole-zero diagram indicated in Fig. 6.156.

The response to an
tion of Fig.
6. 1 5c.

excitation signal 3 cos It has the pole-zero representa-

To specify completely the given function F(s) on a polenumerator on the

zero plot,
plot
itself.

we

indicate the constant multiplier of the

Let us examine the significance of a pole or zero at the origin. We that dividing a given function H(s) by s corresponds to integrating the inverse transform h(t) C- l [//(*)]. Since the division by s corresponds

know

=

to a pole at the origin,

we

see that a pole at the origin implies

an

inte-

Because the inverse transform of H(s) in Fig. 6.15a is the impulse response, placing a pole at the origin must correspond to the step response of the system. In similar manner, we deduce that a zero at the origin corresponds to a differentiation in the time domain. Suppose we consider the pole-zero diagram in Fig. 6.15c with the zero at the origin removed; then the resulting pole-zero plot is the response of the system to an excitation E sin It. Placing the zero at
the origin must then give the response to an excitation
J(0

gration in the time domain.

Et cos It, which, of
ju

ju
X
J*

K-2

JT-2
j2::

JT-6

^r
-;4(a)

1

-2 -1

a

-2 -1
-j2x

X

-74
(b)

-74(0
excitation,
(c)

FIG. 6.15. (a) System function,
excitation e(j)

(jb)

Response to unit step

Response to

= 3 cos 2i.

162
course,

Network
is

analysis

and synthesis

true.

We

therefore conclude that the system function of a
at the origin; that of

differentiator

must have a zero
origin.

an integrator must

have a pole at the

6.7

EVALUATION OF RESIDUES

Poles and zeros give a powerful graphical description of the behavior of a system. We have seen that the poles are the complex frequencies of
the associated time responses.

What

role

do the zeros play? To answer
expansion

this question, consider the partial fraction

i

s

Si

where we
s

shall

assume that F(s) has only simple poles and no poles
is

at

=

oo.

The

inverse transform

/(0
It is clear that the

=

fV
i

(6-177)

frequencies s( but also

time response /(r) not only depends on the complex on the constant multipliers t These constants t are called residues when they are associated with first-order poles. We will show that the zeros as well as the poles play an important part in the

K

.

K

determination of the residues
Earlier

K

{

.

we

discussed a

number of

different

methods for obtaining

the residues by partial-fraction expansion. Now we consider a graphical method whereby the residues are obtained directly from a pole-zero

diagram. Suppose

we

are given

f(s)

= 4>(8 ~ goX5 ~ ^ (s - p )(s - Pi)

(s

(s

~ 2 ») - pj
F(s)
as

( 6 .i78)

where

m>

n and

all

the poles are simple. Let us expand

F(s)

= -&- + S — Po * —
A

-^ +
Pi
(Pi

+ -£=* — Pm

(6-179)

Our

task

is

to determine the residues A,.

We know that

'

^ = (s-ft)^(s)

— Zq)(p< - zi) (Pi - z«) (Pi - Pm) (Pi ~ Po)-" (Pi - Pi-^iPi - ft+l)
' * *

(6.180)

The Laplace transform

163

When we interpret the Eq. 6.180 from a complex-plane viewpoint, we see that each one z f) represents a vector drawn of the terms (p (

JU
ozo

Pix

from a zero

z t to the pole in question,

Similarly, the terms (p f

/>„),

where

i

^ k,

p

t.

from the other poles to the pole p^ In other words, the residue t of any
represent vectors

P0

a

K

pole

p

t

is

equal to the ratio of the product of

the vectors from the zeros to

p

t,

to the prod-

A*

o
*1

uct of the vectors from the other poles to

p

{.

To

illustrate this idea, let

us consider the pole-

FIG. 6.16. Poles and zeros of F(s).

zero plot of
F(s)

=
(S

Ms - zp)(s - Zl) - p )(s - p )(s - ft*)
x

(6.181)

given in Fig. 6.16.

The
F(s)

partial-fraction expansion of F(s)

is

- K s —

Kl
Pt,

I

^1

s

(6.182)

pt

-Pi-

where the asterisk denotes complex conjugate. Let us find the residues A" and Kx by means of the graphical method described. First we evaluate x by drawing vectors from the poles and zeros to/^, as shown in Fig. 6.17a.

K

The

residue

K

x is

then

K1 _

XqAB

CD

(6.183)

where symbols in boldface represent vectors. We know that the residue of the conjugate pole^* is simply the conjugate of x in Eq. 6.183. Next,

K

FIG. 6.17. Determining residues by vector method.

164

Network

analysis

and synthesis
to evaluate
6.176.

ju

K& we draw vectors from
/>
,

the

C-3

poles and zeros to

as indicated in Fig.

We see that

n

K - A °RL

MN

(6.184)

-,—

i

-1

we
-jl

With the use of a ruler and a protractor, determine the lengths and the angles of

the vectors so that the residues can be determined quickly and easily. Consider the fol-

lowing example. The pole-zero plot of
F(s)
FIG. «.I8. Pole-zero diagram
F(s).
of-

55

_
(6.185)

+

2)(s

+ 1 - jl)(« + 1 + jl)
is

is

shown

in Fig. 6.18.

The

partial-fraction expansion of F(s)

F(s)

=
s

Kt*

+ - jl
1

"*"

(6.186)
s

s

+

1

+ jl

+2
the pole

First let us evaluate

K

x.

The phasors from the poles and zeros to
in Fig. 6.19a.

at

—1 +jl

are

shown

We see that Kt is
^2/135°
2/90°

Kx =

3

X -p

_3
2

J2 1*5°_ X
JU

C-3

-2/\«&
-<r

AIVr
nJ
'

n

180*

V90* r—


(a)

— -a

(b)

FIG. 6.19. Evaluation of residues of F(s).

The

Laplace transform

165

From

Fig. 6.19*

we find the value of the
3

residue

Kt to be
= _3
is

^ K,=! _

x 2_

V2 /-13S° x 72 7+135°

Therefore, the partial-fraction expansion of F(s)

F(s)

=
s

-

+ l-jl

+
s

-

1—
s

+ l+jl

+2

(6.187)

6.8

THE

INITIAL

AND
the

FINAL VALUE THEOREMS
two very
useful theorems of Laplace
It relates the initial

In

this section

we

will discuss

transforms.
that

The
t
is,

first is

initial

value theorem.

value of /(/) at
infinity,

= 0+

to the limiting value of sF(s) as s approaches

lim f(t)

= lim s F(s) =

(6.188)

The only

restriction is that /(f)

must be continuous or contain,

at most,

a

step discontinuity at / == 0.

In terms of the transform, P(s) t[f(t)]; this restriction implies that F(s) must be a. proper fraction, i.e., the degree of the denominator polynomial of F(s) must be greater than the degree of the numerator ofF(s). Now consider the proof of the initial value theorem,

which we give in two
(a)

parts.
is

The

From

function /(f) the relationship

continuous at

t

= 0,

that is,/(0— )

=/(0+).

Cf/'(0I

=/ V(0«r" dt = s F(s) - /(0-)
lim s F(s)
•-»»

(6.189)

we

obtain

hm C[/'(01 »-»oo

- /(0-) =

(6.190)

Therefore

Um s F(s) = /(0-) = /(0+)
«-»oo

(6.191)

(b)

The function/(0 has a step discontinuity

at

/

= 0.

Let us represent

f{t) in terms of a continuous part/ (0 and a step discontinuity x as shown in Fig. 6.20. can then write /(/) as

D «(/),
(6^2)

We

/(0-/i(0
where

+ J>«W
is

D =/(0+) — /(0-).

The

derivative of/(f)

f'{t)=f\(f)

+

Do{t)

(6.193)

1

66

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
Du(t)
fi(t)

fit)

D

FIG. 6.20. Decomposition of a discontinuous function into a continuous function
plus a step function.

Since fx (t)

is

continuous at

t

=

0,

we know from

part (a) that
(6.194)

lim s F^s)

= A(0-) = /(0-)
sides

Taking the Laplace transform of both
s F(s)

of Eq. 6.193,

we have
(6.195) (6.196)

which

simplifies to

- /(0-) = s F^s) - M0-) + D s F(s) <= s F (s) + D
t

Now, if we take the limit ofEq. 6.196 as s-+ oo and let/(0+) -/(0-) = D we have (6.197) lim s F(s) = lim s F x (s) + /(0+) - /(0-)
By Eq.
6.194,

we then

obtain

limsF(s)=/(0+)
Example
6.18.

(6.198)

Given the function

m=
let

2(s
s*

+

1)

+2s +

(6.199)

5

us find/(0 -f ). Since the degree of the denominator is greater than the degree of the numerator of F(s), the initial value theorem applies. Thus
lim s F(s)
Since

2(s

+

\)s

lim

=2

(6.200)
(6.201)

C-H^Cj)]

=2c-*cos2r

we see that /(0+) =2.
Example
6.19.

Now let us consider a case where the initial value
f(t)

theorem does

not apply. Given the function

=

(5(0

+ 3r*
is

(6.202)

we see that/(0+)

=

3.

The transform of/(f)
F(s)

=

1

+
s

3

+

(6.203)
1

,

The Laplace transform
so that lim sF(s)
*-*«,

167

= lim si 1 +
.-co
\

——
s

+

-

=

oo

I

(6.204)

*

/ states that

Next we consider the final value theorem, which
lim /(0

= lim s F(s)

(6.205)

provided the poles of the denominator of F(s) have negative or zero real parts, i.e., the poles of F(s) must not be in the right half of the complexfrequency plane. The proof is quite simple. First
f'(t)e-' dt

=

s F(s)

i:
Taking the
limit as s

- /(0-)

(6.206)

->

in the Eq. 6.206,

we have

/'(«) dt

=

lim
«-»o

s F(s)

j;
Evaluating the integral, /(oo)

- /(0-)

(6.207)

we

obtain
(6 .208)

- /(0-) - hm 5 F(s) - /(0-)
/(oo)

Consequently,

= lim s F(s)
»-»o

(6.209)

Example

6.20.

Given the function
/(/)

=

3«(/)

+ 2e~* = ii±i *(s + l)

(6.210)

which has the transform
F(s)

=l +
s
s

»

+

(6 . 211)

1

let

we see

us find the final value/( oo). Since the poles of F(s) are at s the final value theorem applies. We find that

=0 and s = — 1
(6.212)

]imsF(s)=3
which
is

the final value of /(/) as seen
6.21.

from Eq.

6.210.
(6.213) (6.214)

Example

Given

f(t)

we see that
But from

lim/(f)

= le* = oo =
s

7s

sF(s) lim * F(s)
«-»o

;
1

(6.215)

we have

=

(6.216)

s

We see that the final value theorem does not apply in this case, because the pole = 1 is in the right half of the complex-frequency plane.

168

Network

analysis and synthesis

TABLE

6.1

Laplace Transforms
fit)

F(s)

1.

fit)

FW-JT/Oy**
+ «./««)
CxFxC^+fljF^)

2.

«i/i(0

3.

|/W
dn

»fW

-/(0-)

4-

^/<»

a" Fis)

- J f^'f^O-)

5.

f/W

rfT

!*w
>(,)

6.

f f fir)drda Jo- Jo-

7.

(-0"/W
fit -a)u(t

8. 9.

- a)

e-°«F(*)

**/X0
8(t)

F(s
1

- a)

10.

dn
1

12.

«(/)

s
1

13.

/

1

14.

-r
n\
1

15.

«-««

*
1

+

a
1

16.

/?-« (
sin cof

e-««

_ e-ft)
a>

17.

The Laplace transform

169

TABLE
18.

6.1 (cont.)

s

cos

cor

+ <0»
a

19.

sinh at
5

20.

cosh a/

i*-fl»
0>

21.

£ "'sin or
(*

+

«*)

+

CO

1

22.

*""' cos

mt
(5

(* + «) + «)* +
1

co»

e-**t* 23.
(j

+ +

a)**"1

24.


t

*
.

sin co/

2co

0*

<*»»)»

1

25.

—/„(«/); n -0,1,2,3,...
(Bessel function of first kind,

(5*

+

a«)W[(i»

+

a»)H

- 5]-»

nth order)
26.

(t/)-*
r*

J-«
T(*

+

1)

27.

(A:

need not be an integer)

Problems
6.1
(a)
(6) (c)
(</)

Find the Laplace transforms of

/(0-sin(orf+|8)
/(/)

(*)

= *-<*«> cos (at + P) f(t) .- (r» + 1>-" A" is a real constant /(/) - JT*; /« - (** + «- 0^**
f«)-td'(t)

>1.

(/)
(g)

/W - aW* - 4)]
Find the Laplace transforms of
/(/)

6 J,
(a)
(6)

- cos (t -

*/4) u(f

-

w/4)

/(0-cos(/-W4)«(0

170
6.3

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Find the Laplace transforms for the waveforms shown.
fit)

Kt)

2

4

t

1

3

t

-1
(a)
(b)

6.4

Find the Laplace transforms for the derivatives of the waveforms in Find the inverse transforms for
F(s)

Prob. 6.3.
6.5

(a)

=
(s

2s

+9
+ 4)

+

3X*

(6)

{S)

"

s*

5s - 12 + 4s + 13 4* + 13

GO
Note that
all the inverse transforms may be obtained without resorting to normal procedures for partial-fraction expansions.

.

The
6.6

Laplace transform

171

series

Find the Laplace transform of the waveforms shown. Use (a) the infinite (6) the Laplace transform formula for periodic waveforms. Both answers should be in closed form and agree.

method and

fit) fit)

A

1

2T

3T

uv\\A
T
2T
lb)

3T

t

-A
la)

*t)

+1

r/
2

>

T

\

/
2T

t

-1

(e)

PROB. 6.6

Id)

6.7

Evaluate the definite integrals
w
t

(«)

sin It dt

t

%

cos 3f dt

6.8
(a)

Solve the following differential equations using Laplace transforms
x'{t) x'(t) x"{t)
x"{f)

(b) (c)

id)
(e)
It is

+ fceXO + 9x(t) = cos 2t + 3x-(/) + 2a<0 = (5(0 + 2^(0 + 5a<0 = u(t) + Sx'(t) + MO = {e~* + <r**) «(0
sj-CO

given that

a<0— )

= as'fl)— )

+ 2as'(0 = «(0 + *~* «(0 = for all the equations.
sets

6.9
(«)

Using Laplace transforms, solve the following
2*'(0 x'(0
2x'{t)

of simultaneous

equations:

(b)

+ 4a<0 + y'(f) + 2y(t) = <J(0 + 3a</) + y'(f) + 2y(r) = + «(/) + y'{t) + 4jK/) = 2e-«
*'(0

+ jr*0) + The initial conditions are all zero at t = 0—

8y(0

=

(5(0

172
6.10
(«)

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

Find the inverse transforms for

H0-

(s*

j
(»)

+ 9X' + +a

3)

s+P
(*+!)»
S*

(c)

s
tf>

+

l

s*+2s +2
F(s).

to
(/)
(g)

ns)
F(s)

+ 3* + 1 s* +s s + 5 ~(s + W* + 2)»
s*

(A)

F(s)~

+ lX*+2)* 3j» - J* - 3s + 2
(*

sKs-W
1

6.11

Find the inverse transforms for

+«-*'
->*

(«)

sH.s+2)
F(')

(ft)

= =

se
**

_ «r-s« + 3s + 2

re-"
s

(c)

*"(*)

+0

write 6.12 Given the pole-zero diagrams shown in (a) and (b) of the figure, What can (s) and Fjs) as quotients of polynomials. the rational functions t you say about the relationship between the poles in the right-half plane and the signs of the coefficients of the denominator polynomials?

F

FiM

ju

Fzb)
*

A
>ij0.6

-A
1

>>0.6

1

-1
H-/D.6
1

+1
|->D.6

*

-A
to

-A

*

PROS. 6.12

The Laplace transform

173

6.13 For the pole-zero plots in Prob. 6.12, find the residues of the poles by the vector method.

6.14
poles.

For the pole-zero

plots

shown

in the figure, find the residues of the

j2
jl<

:

<

-2

-1
-jln
-J2

(a)

(b)

ja

f-H n
-<r-3

-2

-1

-x-1

+1

M
PROB. «. 14

W

6.15 Two response transforms, R^s) and R/s), have the pole-zero plots shown in (a) and (b) of the figures, respectively. In addition, it is known that »i(0 +) - 4 and /-,(/) - 4 for very large t. Find r^t) and rjf).

Sd»)

ja

X
I 1


'

n
i:

-V -2

-l

a

6 -1?
i

o

x

-n

(a)

(b)

PROB. 4.15

174
6.16

Network
It is

analysis

and synthesis

given that _. F(s)

=
s*

as*

+ bs + c
1

+ 2j* +s +

Find

and c such that/(0 +) =/'(0 +) = /'(0 +) = 1 Using the initial and final value theorems where they apply, find/(0 +) and/(oo) for
a, b,

6.17

+ +

3X*
s

+ 4) 1)

(6)

F(*)

(*
j

IX*
2

(c)

s* + 3s + 2 FW - «* + 3* + 3j +

1

5<s

+ 4X* +

8)

^-"cr+ixr+Q

chapter

7

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

7.1

THE TRANSFORMED CIRCUIT

In Chapter 5 we discussed the voltage-current relationships of network elements in the time domain. These basic relationships may also be represented in the complex-frequency domain. Ideal energy sources, for example, which were given in time domain as v(t) and i(f)> may now be
represented by their transforms V(s)
resistor, defined

= £[t<01

and

I(s)

= Cfl(f)].

The

by the

v-i relationship

»(0
is

= =

*«(')
7.1,

(

71 )

denned in the frequency domain by the transform of Eq.
V(s)

or
(7.2)

RI(s)

For an inductor, the

defining v-i relationships are

w- !
1
(7.3)

»(0

= 7p
we

t<T)dT-M(0-)
obtain

Transforming both equations,
F(s)

= sLI(s) - Li(0-)
=
J-F(S)
sL
175
1
; + ^—

i(O-)
s

CM)

/(5)

176

Network

analysis and synthesis

IM
IM

1

g

f\HO-)

VM

)i»(0-)

FIG.

7.1. Inductor.

The transformed
Fig. 7.1.

circuit representation for an inductor For a capacitor, the defining equations are

is

depicted in

v(t)

=-

'
I

i(r)

C Jo-

dr

+ v(0- )
(7.5)

*>- c

5
are then

The frequency domain counterparts of these equations

F« -J; /« + *&=>
sC sC
s

(7. 6)

I(s)

=

V(s)

- C o(0-)

as depicted in Fig. 7.2.

From this

analysis

we

see that in the complex-frequency representation

the network elements can be represented as impedances

and admittances in For example, from Eq. 7.4, we see series or parallel with energy sources. that the complex-frequency impedance representation of an inductor is sL, and its associated admittance is XjsL. Similarly, the impedance of a capacitor is 1/sC and its admittance is sC. This fact is very useful in circuit analysis. Working from a transformed circuit diagram, we can write mesh and node equations on an impedance or admittance basis directly.

-%

IM
•c

IM

VM
+
•K0-)

=PC (l)

V<»

FIG. 7.2. Capacitor.

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

177

vi(t)

vs(t)

FIG. 7.3

The process of solving network differential equations with the use of transform methods has been given in Chapter 6. To analyze the circuit on a transform basis, the only additional step required is to represent all the network elements in terms of complex impedances or admittances with associated initial energy sources. Consider the example of the transformer in Fig. 7.3. If we write the defining equations of the transformer directly in the time domain, we have

(7.7)

Transforming

this set

of equations, we obtain
Ly i^O-)

V&) = sLy I^s) V&) = sMIM -

+ sM I£s) - M ijp-) M ^(0-) + sL, Us) - U i,(0-)

(7.8)

This set of transform equations could also have been obtained by representing the circuit in Fig. 7.3 by its transformed equivalent given in Fig. 7.4. In general, the use of transformed equivalent circuits is considered an
easier

way

to solve the problem.

v2W

FIG. 7.4

1

178

Network

analysis

and synthesis
£2

-nnnp
fi,(0-)

+__
+
BC (0-)
12

FIG. 7.5

Example 7.1. In Fig. 7.5, the switch is thrown from position 1 to 2 at t = 0. Assuming there is no coupling between L^ and Z*, let us write the mesh equations from the transformed equivalent circuit in Fig. 7.6. The mesh equations are

*->• -l + A'i,(0-) = -^/
1


is

— £-.+.)«
1(5)

(7.9)

+

»

—'m^Qi —^
«Li

«I2
1

vuo'

L1M0-)

—^>—
1*1140-)

QviW

FIG. 7.6

Example
f

7.2.

In Fig. 7.7, the switch

is

thrown from position
initial
i(t)

1

to 2 at time

= 0.

Just before the switch

thrown, the

conditions are /^(O— )

=2

amp, »o(0— )

= 2 v.

Let us find the current

after the switching action.

S

lh

Qv(t)

>'

1

-—x

FIG. 7.7

Transform methods
3

in

network

anal/sis

179

i—vw

»

nnnp-

=0

2

^
Since the switch
is

f

/i«\

FIG. 7.8 closed at
/

= 0, we can regard the S-v battery as an equivacircuit is

lent transformed source 5/s.

The
2
s

now redrawn

in Fig. 7.8 as
is

a

trans-

formed

circuit.

The mesh equation
5 s

for the circuit in Fig. 7.8

+2
2s

(3

+s+ ?) 70)

C7.10)

Solving for

I(s),

we have
(j

Therefore,

Examine 73.

+3 1 (7.11) + IX* + 2) s + 1 s + 2 i(0 = C-HAO] = e~* + «-» (7.12) Consider the network in Fig. 7.9. At t = 0, the switch is opened.
vjCf)

Let us find the node voltages

and

v%(t) for the circuit. It

is

given that

Z,=Jh G = 1 mho

C= V=
L

lf
1

v

i<0-)

+
C=fcoc (0-)

FIG. 7.9

Before

we

substitute element values, let us write the

node equations for the

transformed circuit in Fig. 7.10. These are

NodeV1
Node

:

_ (l(0-0 + Vt
:

*_

CPc(o-)

/ \ = (sc + -)ki(o
1

-- vM
1

^-4™ (£«)•»

(7.13)

180

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

V2

•G

FIG. 7.10
If

state,

we assume that prior to then we have v^O-)

the switch opening the circuit

values into the set

(t(0— ) = of node equations, we have
1 v,
1

=

1

had been in steady amp. Substituting numerical

-

(*+^K (i)-?K/f)
1

(7.14)

Simplifying these equations,
s

we obtain

-

1 1

= (s* + 2)Vt(s) - 2V&) . -2Vx{s) + (s + 2)V£s)
we have

(7.15)

Solving these equations simultaneously,

KlW ."
Krf,)

J+l s +1 + 2s + 2 " (s + l)1 + 1 * +2 s +2 "" (s + 1)» + 1 s* + 25 + 2

/,

(7.16)

so that the inverse transforms are
Vl(t)

= e-« cos

»*(/)

- <r*(cos t + sin /)

(7.17)

7.2

THEVENIN'S

AND NORTON'S THEOREMS

single

In network analysis, the objective of a problem is often to determine a branch current through a given element or & single voltage across an element. In problems of this kind, it is generally not practicable to write a complete set of mesh or node equations and to solve a system of equations for this one current or voltage. It is then convenient to use two
very important theorems on equivalent circuits,

known

as Thevenin's

and Norton's theorems.

1

Transform methods

in

network

anal/sis

181

-3X
Networks

n voltage

sources

<S)

Zi(s)

in current sources

FIG.

7.1

Thevenin's theorem From the standpoint of determining the current I(s) through an element can be of impedance Z^s), shown in Fig. 7.1 1, the rest of the network replaced by an equivalent impedance Ze(s) in series with an equivalent voltage source V£s), as depicted in Fig. 7.12. The equivalent impedance Zt(s) is the impedance "looking into" from the terminals of Zt(s) when all voltage sources in JV are short circuited and all current sources are open circuited. The equivalent voltage source V,(s) is the voltage which appears between the terminals 1 and 2 in Fig. 7.1 1, when the element Z^s)

N

N

is

removed or open

circuited.

The only requirement

for Thevenin's

theorem is

that the elements in

Zx must not be magnetically coupled to any
in Fig. 7.11 contains n voltage

element in N.

The proof follows. The network
current sources.
is

and

m

We are to find the current I(s) through an element that

not magnetically coupled to the rest of the circuit, and whose impedance 1 According to the compensation theorem, we can replace Z^s) x (s). by a voltage source V(s), as shown in Fig. 7.13. Then by the superposition principle, we can think of the current /(*) as the sum of two separate parts
is

Z

Let the current It(s) be the current due to the n voltage and

m

current

<¥VM
\2M

fl

^
circuit.

Zi(e)

FIG.
1

7. IX

Thevenin's equivalent

Sons, See H. H. Skilling, Electrical Engineering Circuits, 2nd Ed. John Wiley and
1965.

New York,

182

Network

analysis

and synthesis

we short circuit the source V(s), as shown in Fig. 7.14a. equal to the short-circuit current 7gc Let IJs) be the current due to the voltage source V(s) alone, with the rest of the voltage sources short circuited and current sources open circuited (Fig. 7.146). current and n voltage With the
sources alone;
i.e.,

Therefore I^s)

is

.

m

sources removed in Fig. 7.146,
Network

we

see

N
it

m

voltage sources current sources

^
13

that the network
)V(s)

N

is

passive so that

7aC0

is

related to the source V(s)

by the

relation

FIG.

7.

««)

=-

V(s)
(7.19)

Zm(s)

where Zm(s)
source V(s).

is

the input impedance of the circuit at the terminals of the
7.18 as

We can now write /(*) in Eq.
/(s)

= Ms) -

(7.20)

Zm(s)
consider the particular case

Since Eq. 7.20 must be satisfied in

all cases,

when we open circuit the branch containing Zx(j). Then /($) is the open-circuit voltage Kocfa). From Eq. 7.20 we have
he(s)

=

and

V(s)

= Foc(s)
Z ln(s)

(7.21)

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

183

FIG. 7.14b

so that

we can

rewrite Eq. 7.20 as

Zla(s)I(s) -

KocCs)

=

V(s)

(7.22)

In order to obtain the current I(s) through Zx (s), the rest of the network can be replaced by an equivalent source Ve(s) Voc(s) in series, with an equivalent impedance Ze (s) Zm(s), as shown in Fig. 7.12.

N

=

=

Example 7.4.

Let us determine by Thevenin's theorem the current I^s) flowing through the capacitor in the network shown in Fig. 7.1S. First, let us obtain

LH0-)

'c<°-)

FIG. 7.15
Z,(s)

by opening all current sources and short circuiting Then, we have in the network in Fig. 7.16, where
Z,(s)

all

voltage sources.

=R+sL

(7.23)

Next we find

Ve(s)

between the terminals

by removing the capacitor so that the open-circuit voltage 1 and 2 is V,(s), as shown in Fig. 7.17. We readily

184

Network

analysis

and synthesis

-rnnp-

u

>i

—o2
FIG. 7.16

determine from Fig. 7.17 that
F,Cs)

-/(*)*+ Z/(0-)-

M0-)

(7.24)

By Thevenin's theorem we then have
/l(j)

VJto ~ Z.{s) + Z(s) =

7(j)Jt

+ Lt(0

-) -Pq(0-)/s
(7.25)

A+sL+ 1/sC

FIG. 7.17

Fvampk

7.5. For the network in Fig. 7.18, let us determine the voltage vjt) 0, and we across the resistor by Thevenin's theorem. The switch closes at t 0. assume that all initial conditions are zero at t

-

=

8

Li

Lj

Qv(t)

=£c

itftf

FIG. 7.IS

terms of its transformed representation, can almost determine by inspection that the which is given in Fig. 7.19. We of AT in Fig. 7.19 is Thevenin equivalent voltage source of the network to the left
First let

us redraw the

circuit in

VM

LiS

+ \jsC

(7.26)

I

Transform methods
Lis La»

in

network

analysis

185

*—

* Vo«

FIG. 7.19

and the input impedance to the

left

of AT is

slM/sC)
(7.27)

We know that
Therefore
Finally

V&)

"

ZJis)

+R + LJC

(7.28)

V&)

RVisYMsC) (R + sL^sLi + lIsC)
»o(0

(7.29)

=

e-HKtCi)]

(7-30)

Norton's theorem

When
tance
is

required to find the voltage across an element whose admitYifs), the rest of the network can be represented as an equivalent
it is

admittance Y£s) in parallel with an equivalent current source I,(s), as shown in Fig. 7.20. The admittance Yt(s) is the reciprocal of the Thevenin impedance. The current I,(s) is that current which flows through a short
circuit across Y^s).

From

Fig. 7.20,
/.(*)

Vx{s) =
The element whose admittance
is

Yt(s) + YM Yt must not be magnetically coupled to

(7.31)

any element in the rest of the network. Consider the network in Fig. 7.21. Let us find the voltage across the capacitor by Norton's theorem. First, the short-circuit current source Ie (s) is found by placing a short circuit across the terminals 1 and 2 of the

—91

Vi

(£)«•>

Yds)

Yito

FIG. 7.20

186

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

-nppp>

Pi

IM(

<P
FIG. 7.21

.1 •«c

'

'««)

FIG. 7.22

capacitor, as

shown

in Fig. 7.22.

From

Fig. 7.22 l£s)

is

e

sL+R

(7.32)

The admittance

Y,(s) is the reciprocal

of the Thevenin impedance, or
(7.33)

'

w

sL+R

Then

the voltage across the capacitor can be given as

V(s)

=

Yt(s) + Yds)

(sL

+ R)sC +

(7.34)
1

Example 7.6.
that v(t)

" O.le-6

In the network in Fig. 7.23, the switch closes at / = 0. It is given ' and all initial currents and voltages are zero. Let us find the

current

/g(/) by Norton's theorem. The transformed circuit is given in Fig. 7.24. To find the Norton equivalent current source, we short circuit points 1 and 2 in the network shown. Then

Ie(s)

is

the current flowing in the short circuit, or

Us) =

V(s)

0.1

1

Rt +

sL

Us + RILXs +
circuit as

5)

(s

+

S)(s

+
1

(7.35)

10)

The equivalent admittance of the
Y,(s)

viewed from points
1

and 2
10

is

- sC +
J?!

1

s*LC

+sL

+ sRxC + R± +sL

0.5s*

+ 5s + * + 10

(7.36)

o-iTJoTP-wv

c=J=t

FIG. 7.23

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

187

FIG. 7.24

I^s)

is

then

IM
/<(')

BJLYJto
1

+ GJ + 6)
as

(7.37)

(S

+

sy(s

(7.38)

By inspection, we see that /«(«) can be written
(*
/•(*)

+ 6) - (s + 5) (s + 5)V +6)

1

(s

+ 5)*

(*

+ 6X* +

(7.39) 5)

Repeating this procedure, we then obtain
1

//*)

(*+5)»

j+5 + j+6
finally

1

(7.40)

Taking the inverse transform of IJs), we

obtain
(7.41)

«0 = ('«"" - «"" + e"*')«(0
7.3

THE SYSTEM FUNCTION
discussed earlier, a linear system
is

As we

one in which the excitation

e(t) is related to

the response

tit)

by a

linear differential equation.

When

the Laplace transform is used in describing the system, the relation between the excitation E(s) and the response R(s) is an algebraic one. In particular,

when we
related

discuss initially inert systems, the excitation

and response are

by the system function H(s) as given the
R(s)

relation
(7.42)

= E(s)H(s)

a system function is obtained for a given network, can be used in determining the system response. As mentioned in Chapter 1, the system function may assume many forms and may have special names such as driving-point admittance, transfer
will discuss

We

how

and how

this function

188

Network

analysis

and synthesis

'R

'«w(D
a?-r
FIG. 7.25

^

T 1

This is because the impedance, voltage or current-ratio transfer function. voltage form of the system function depends on whether the excitation is a current or specified or current source, and whether the response is a We now discuss some specific forms of system functions.
voltage.

Impedance
a current source and the response is a voltage, excitation and then the system function is an impedance. When both pair of terminals, we have a response are measured between the same impedance. An example of a driving-point impedance is

When

the excitation

is

driving-point

given in Fig. 7.25, where

m = m = R+
HKS)
I,(s)
is

«I?22L
sL+l/sC

(7.43)

Admittance
a voltage source and the response is a current, admittance IJV, is H(s) is an admittance. In Fig. 7.26, the transfer obtained from the network as

When

the excitation

H(s)=

m=
*°t
1(

——
l_
fit

(7.44)

Voltage-ratio transfer function When the excitation is a voltage source and the response is also a voltage, the voltagethen H(s) is a voltage-ratio transfer function. In Fig. 7.27,
ratio transfer function

V (s)lVt(s) is obtained as follows. We first find the
sL

i—nnnp
T

— —wvSi-

J2W

^=r
FIG. 7.26

Transform methods

in

network

anal/sis

189

ZiM

)y t

M

m
FIG. 7.27

Z*8)

T 1
(7.45)
(7.46)

current
I{s)sa

Va(s)
x

Since

Z {s)+Zt(s) VJs) = Z&)I(s)
ZJs)

then

V (s) Vg(s)

ZM + Z

(7.47)
t(s)

Current-ratio transfer function the excitation is a current source and the response is another current in the network, then H(s) is called a current-ratio transfer function. As an example, let us find the ratio IJIa for the network given in Fig. 7.28. Referring to the depicted network, we know that

When

I„(s)

= IM + /„(s),
we find

(7.48, 7.49)

sC

Eliminating the variable Ilt

(7.50)

so that the current-ratio transfer function
Jofr)
I„(s)

is

_

1/sC

R + sL+1/sC

(7.51)

h(s)

7'

W Q)

4=ic

FIG. 7.28

190

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

FIG. 7.29

From the preceding examples, we have seen that the system function is a the function of the elements of the network alone, and is obtained from let us network by a straightforward application of Kirchhoff's laws. Now system obtain the response transform R(s), given the excitation and the excitation is the function. Consider the network in Fig. 7.29, where the that current source i„(t) and the response is the voltage v(t). We assume 0. Let us find closed at t the network is initially inert when the switch is

=

the response V(s) for the excitations:
1-

i„(t)

= (sin a>ot)u(i).
is

2. 3.

i„(0

the square pulse in Fig. 7.30.

i,(0 has the

waveform

in Fig. 7.31.

First,

we

obtain the system function as
1 s

H(S)

(7.52)

sC
1.
it (t)

+

1/sL

+G

C[s

8

+

s(G/C)
is

+

1/LC]

- (sin ou

f) u(t).

The transform of i„(t)

(7.53)

so that

V(s)

= /„(s)H(s) =
s*

<Oo

+

a> »

C[s*

+

s(GIC)

+

(7.54)

1/LC]

ig(t)
ig(t)

2

1

A
a
t

<i

t

FIG. 7.30

FIG. 7.31

)

Transform methods
2.

in

network

anal/sis

191

For the square pulse

in Fig. 7.30,

ig {t)

can be written as
(7.55)

i„(0

= u(t) - u(t - a)
= i (i _
s

Its

transform

is

j,(s)

e-«)

(7.56)

The response

V(s) is therefore given as

V(s)

=

—+
C[s*

1

p-0* -

s(G/C)

+

1/LC]

(7 57) l ;

Note that in obtaining the inverse transform C-1 [F(j)], the factor e-°* must be regarded as only a delay factor in the time domain. Suppose we
rewrite V(s) in Eq. 7.57 as

K(s)-^(l-0
s

(7.58)

Then

if

we denote

the inverse transform by v^t),

*<0 we
obtain the time response
v(t) <= Vl (t)

= -

r{^]
Vl (t

(7.59)

- a) u{t - a)

(7.60)

Observe that »x(0 in Eq. 7.59
excitation.
3.

is

the response of the system to a unit step

The waveform

in Fig. 7.31 can

be represented as

tf

=

«(0

and

its

transform

is

It (s)

V(s)

is

then V(s)

=

(l
\

^^ = +——— + 1 _ Cl) — +
+
- «(0
a

-

u(t

-

a)

(7.61)

a

-

1 1 s \

(7.62)
/

as

as

1

as

3 as J C[s

s(GIQ

+

1/LC]

(7 K

63)
'

If

we denote by

v,(t)

the response of the system to a

ramp

excitation,

we

see that

C-1 [F(s)]

= Vl (t) + - Vi(t) - - v (t a
t

a) u(t

-

a)

(7.64)

a

where vt(t)

is

the step response in Eq. 7.59.

192

Network

analysis and synthesis

Let us
R(s):

now

discuss

some

further ramifications of the equation for the

response R(s)

= H(s) E(s).
R(s)

Consider the partial-fraction expansion of

=

T
i

A<
Si

S —

, ! +vs — s

By

(7.65)
t

i

where s( represent poles of H(s), and s, represent poles of E(s). Taking the inverse transform of R(s), we obtain

rW^ZA^ + ZB^"*

(7.66)

The terms Af?** are associated with the system H(s) and are called free response terms. The terms B^'* are due to the excitation and are known as forced response terms. The frequencies st are the natural frequencies of the system and j, arc the forced frequencies. It is seen from our discussion
of system stability in Chapter 5 that the natural frequencies of a passive network have real parts which are zero or negative. In other words, if we jo> { , then <x< <, 0. <rt denote st as st

=

+

initially inert network in Fig. 7.32, the excitation is Let us find the response v (t) and determine the free and i cos t df). forced response parts of y (r). The system function is

Example
va(t) =•

7.7.

For the

K (*)
VJis)

1/sC

2
s

R +MsC
2\s*

+

(7.67)

2
(7.68)

Since V,{s)

is

V,(s)

+

1/

the response

is

then

W- VM™ =

(st

+ Ws + 2)

J+2 +

0.4

0.4*

+ 0.2 +l

(7.69)

We next obtain the inverse transform vjt) - -0.4* " + 0.4 cos t + 0.2 sin t

(7.70)

JK>

-WW
C-Jf=i= uoW

«-2Q

FIG. 7.32

1

Transform methods
It is

in

network

analysis

193
is

apparent that the free response
r

is

-0.4e~*, and the forced response

0.4 cos

+0.2 sin/.
our discussion,
let

us consider the basis of operation for the R-C differentiator and integrator shown in Figs. 7.33a and 7.336. We use the Fourier transform in our analysis here, so that the system function is given as H(ja>), where o> is the ordinary radian frequency
final topic in

As a

variable.

Consider

first

the system function of the differentiator in Fig.

7.33c.

VJjw)
V,(J(o)

_
R+

R
1/jcoC

_ jaRC jmRC +

(7.71)
1

Let us impose the condition that

coRC

«

(7.72)

We have, approximately,

*W» =! jcoRC
Then
the response

(7.73)

VJjm) can be expressed as
(7.74)

Taking the inverse transform of

V^ijco),

we

obtain

nMsiRC-vJtl)
at

(7.75)

Note that the derivation of Eq. 7.75 depends upon the assumption that the R-C time constant is much less than unity. This is a necessary condition.
Next, for the
function
is

R-C

integrator in Fig. 7.33ft, the voltage-ratio transfer

V/J*)
VJijm)

=

l/ja)C
1/jfoC

+R

=

1

jwCR

+

(7.76)
1

C

hgW

VO<t)

(a)

(b)

FIG. 7.33. (a)

R-C differentiator.

(6)

R-C integrator.

1

94

Network

analysis

and synthesis
1,

If

we assume

that

o>RC )J>

then
(7.77)

VM^T^zVjUa) jcoRC
Under
these conditions, the inverse transform
is

v

(t)~-±-r Va(r)dT

RC Jo
is

(7.78)

so that the

R-C circuit in Fig.

7.336

approximately an integrating

circuit.

7.4

THE STEP AND IMPULSE RESPONSES

In this section we will show that the impulse response h(t) and the system

we can obtain step and impulse responses directly from the system function. We know, first of all, that the transform of a unit impulse (5(f) is unity, i.e., C[<5(0] 1. Suppose the system excitation were a unit impulse, then the response R(s) would be
function H(s) constitute a transform pair, so that

=

R(s)

= E(s) H(s) = H(s)
is,

(7.79)

We

thus see that the impulse response h(t) and the system function H(s)

constitute a transform pair, that

= H(S) Z-^[H(s)] = h(t)
Z[h(t)]

(7.80)

Since the system function is usually easy to obtain, it is apparent that we can find the impulse response of a system by taking the inverse transform of H{s).

Example

7.8.

circuit in Fig. 7.34.

Let us find the impulse response of the current The system function is

/(/) in

the

R-C

~
Simplifying H(s) further,

VM ~ R + 1/*C ~ R(s + 1/RO

(7 ' 81)

we have

^^O-JTw)
The impulse response
Ht)
is

(7 - 82>

then
C-i[/f(5)]

=

= i ^r) - -L e-wj

„(,)

(7.83)

which

is

shown

in Fig. 7.35.

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

195

i(t)

)9(t)

m
/Z-t/RC
_
1

R*C
FIG. 7.34
response of
Fig. 7.34.

FIG. 7.35. Current impulse R-C network in

Since the step response is the integral of the impulse response, we can use the integral property of Laplace transforms to obtain the step response
as

•W-rf?]
where
oc(f)

(7.84)

denotes the step response.

Similarly,

we

obtain the unit

ramp

response from the equation

«^-m
obtain
all

(7.85)

where y(t) denotes the ramp response. From this discussion, it is clear that a knowledge of the system function provides sufficient information to
the transient response data that are needed to characterize the system.

Example
7.36.
is

7.9.

Since I(s)

Let us find the current step response of the R-L circuit in Fig. is the response and V (s) is the excitation, the system function g

V„{s)

R+sL

(7.86)

Therefore H(s)/s

is

h{s)
s

=

n_ i \ =i s(R+sL) R\s s + RjLJ
i

(7.87)

The

step response </) is

now

obtained as
1

a(/)=-(l -e-W*X)ii(/)

(7.88)

To

check

this result, let us consider the impulse response of the

R-L

circuit,

196

Network
in

analysis

and synthesis
5.
1

which we found

Chapter

Kt)

(7.89)

The

step response

is

the integral of the impulse response, or

a(0
It is readily

-J>

»</t=-(i -*-w*>0«(i)

(7.90)

if we know the impulse response of an initially inert can determine the response of the system due to any other linear system, we excitation. In other words, the impulse response alone is sufficient to characterize the system from the standpoint of excitation and response.

seen that

R
-VSMAV,M{
K»)

FIG. 7.36

FIG. 7.37

system 7.10. In Fig. 7.37, the only information we possess about the in the black box is: (1) it is an initially inert linear system; (2) when v&) = 6(t),

Example
then

With this information, let us determine what the excitation vjf) must be in order
to produce a response v£f) to be

- te~" u(f).
1

First,

we determine the system function
2*4-5
(7.92)

H(s)

=

V^s) Vjs)

7T2

t j+3
1

(j

+ 2X«

+3)

We next find the transform of te~* «(*)• Vjs) - titer"] <»

+2)*

(7.93)

The unknown

excitation is then

found from the equation
(s

VAs)
Simplifying

°

JW "
H(s)

20 +

+ 2Ks + 3) 2.5X* + 2)»
we have
0.5 *

(7.94)

and expanding V&s)

into partial fractions,

K<W =
The system

2(a

1 (s + 3) + 2.5X« + 2) " s + 2

+ 2.5

(7.95)

excitation is then

vtf)-{e-*t -0.5e-*

M)u(t)

(7.96)

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

197

7.5

THE CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL

In this section we will explore some further ramifications of the use of the impulse response Mj) to determine the system response r(t). Our discussion is based upon the important convolution theorem of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. Given two functions /,(*) and//*), which are zero for t 0, the convolution theorem states that if the transform of

/

x (f) is

< Ft(s),

and
is,

if

the transform of f£i)
is

is

F£s), the transform of the

convolution of/i(f)

WTO,

and/t(r)

the product of the individual transforms,

that

t[ j*Mt

- t)/,(t) dr] = F1(s) F&)
I

(7.97)

where the
is

integral

ft(t

— t)/,(t) dr
and
is

the convolution integral or folding integral,

denoted operationally

as

fm Proof.

t)/^t) dr

- fflVMt)

(798)

Let us prove that C[/, */J

= F&. We begin by writing
dt
(7.99)

C|/i(0V^0]

= V"[ J/iO ~ r)Mr) dr]
J

From

the definition of the shifted step function
u(t

- t) =

1

r£t r>t " t) «(* - t)A(t) dr
(7.100)

=
we have the
identity

f/i(' Jo

- t)/,(t) dr =

f 7i(«
Jo

(7.101)

Then Eq.

7.99 can be written as

C[/i(0Vi(0]
If

= f "e- f 7i(* - t) «(t - r)Mr) dr dt
Jo Jo
e
-.t

(7.102)

we

let

x

= — r so that
t
'

=

e-^»f,>

(7 103)

198

Network

analysis

and synthesis

then Eq. 7.102 becomes
£[/i(0* /*(')]

=
=

i 1 I*" f"'f (x)u(x)f (T)e-°'e->*dTdz Jo Jo

f 7i(«) Jo
1

u(x)e-" dx f 7»(r)e- w dr
Jo
(7.104)

= F (s)F2(s)
property. 2

The separation of the double integral in Eq. 7.104 into a product of two integrals is based upon a property of integrals known as the separability
Example 7.11. Let us evaluate the convolution of the functions/i(f) = e ' u(t) and fift) = t u(t), and then compare the result with the inverse transform of F^s) FJs), where
-2

W
The convolution
variable
/

(7.105)

=

p
obtained by
first

of_/i(f)
/

and/2(f)
fiff

is

substituting the

dummy
(7.106)

t for

in/i(/), so that

-

T)

=

c-* (

'-T)

u(t

-

t)

Then/iWVaOis
f *fi(f
Jo
Integrating

~

T)/*( T)

rfT

=

_2 r« " _T)

Jo

I

^T = «~a*

T« 2r
|

dr

(7.107)

Jo

by parts, we obtain
fi(0* fiff)

=

({-\+\ *-*) «W
From Eq.

(7-108)

Next
have

let

us evaluate the inverse transform of F^s) F£s).

7.105,

we

so that

C-Vito *a(*)l = (^ - ^ + \ e~*)

"(')

(

71 10)

An

important property of the convolution integral
„ .
t

is

expressed by the

equation

t

flit

- r)/a(r) dr =
Jo

Jo

MMA -

r)

dr

(7.111)

See, for example, P. Franklin,

A

Treatise

on Advanced Calculus, John Wiley and

Sons,

New

York, 1940.

/

Transform methods
This
is

in

network

analysis

199

readily seen

from the relationships

and

= *i(') CWOViC)] - Wi(«)
CC/i(0V*«]
- ,

W

(7-112)

(7113)

To give the convolution integral a more intuitive meaning, let us examine
the convolution or folding process

from a graphical standpoint. Suppose

we

take the functions

*

A(t) J

=

,

.

m(t)

Mr)
as

= t «(t)

(7.114)

shown

in Figs. 7.38a

and
.,

7.39a.

In Fig. 7.38, the various steps for

obtaining the integral

A('-t)/2(t)«V
Jo
are depicted. Part (b) of the figure shows /i(— t)
ft(t

= «(— t).

The

function
(7.115)

.

t)

- u(t - t)
by a variable amount
t.

in part (c) merely advances

/x (—t)
(t)

Next, the
(?

product

A(|
is

_

t)/

_

<f

_ t)t u(t)
(</).

n6)

shown in part (d).

We see that the convolution integral is the area under
Since the

the curve, as indicated by the cross-hatched area in part

convolution integral has a variable upper limit, under the curve of/i(f T)ft(r) for all t. With Fig. 7.38a", the area under the curve is

we must
t

obtain the area

considered a variable in

AV.-/(0 =
as plotted in part (e) of the figure.

(7.117)

!J«(0

In Fig. 7.39,

we

same

result as in

taking the inverse

by folding g(r) about a point t, we obtain the Fig. 7.38. The result in Eq. 7.117 can be checked by transform of F^s) Fjfa), which is seen to be
see that

c- 1 [F1 (s)f»W]

=

£-1

=
l3j
2

m(o

(7118)

analysis.

Let us next examine the role of the convolution integral in system From the familiar equation
R(s)

= E(s) H(s)

(7.119)

we

obtain the time response as
r(t)

=

£"*[£(«) H(s)]

=

('e(r) h(t

- t) dr

(7.120)

where e(r)

is

the excitation

and

k(r) is the impulse response of the system.

T

200

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Mr)
1

Mr)

T
(a)

/ /
(a) (b)

T

M-r)
1

\M-t)
r

T

Mt-r)
1
1

M-t)

—T

t

T
(e)

t

T

M-r) Mr)

hM M-t}
t

T
id)

t

T

ffh

«

M
FIG. 7.39

FIG. 7.38

Using Eq. 7.120, we obtain the response of a system directly in the time domain. The only information we need about the system is its impulse
response.
EVro-pW. 7.12a.
to the excitation

Let us find the response /(f) of the R-L network in Fig. 7.40 due
c(t)

- 2<r* y(f)
is

(7.121)

The impulse response for the current

.AW-|*-«ra«BW
Therefore, for the

(7.122)

R-L

circuit

under discussion

Kt) «*-"«(*)

(7-123)

Transform methods

in

network
i(i)

analysis

201

Using the convolution integral, we obtain the response
Kt)

as

-

J

V~

t)

Kr) dr

- 2j V"«-rtr* </r
(7.124)

- 2«-< f V"*</t - 2(«-* - *-*)«(0

VvWvV-

0*"

W

PIG. 7.40

FIG. 7.41

The ideal amplifier in Fig. 7.41 has a system function H(s) — K, s 7.12b. where Kis a constant. The impulse response of the ideal amplifier is then

Kt)-Kd(t)
Let us show by means of the convolution integral that the response r{t) to the excitation e(t) by the equation
is

(7.125) related

K0-JT4)
Using the convolution
integral,

(7.126)

we have

K0
Since
/ is

r-

«(t)*('-t)«/t-a:

r)dr-Ke(f)

(7.127)

a variable in the expression for r(t), we see that the ideal amplifier in domain is an impulse-scanning device which scans the input «(/) from the time / — to f — oo. Thus, the response of an ideal amplifier is a replica of the input e(f) multiplied by ibcgain IT of the amplifier.

7.«

THE DUHAMEL SUPERPOSITION INTEGRAL

In the Section 7.5, we discussed the role that the impulse response plays
in determining the response of a system to an arbitrary excitation. In this section we will study the Duhamel superposition integral, which also

describes

an input-output

relationship for a system.

The superposition

integral requires the step response a(f) to characterize the system behavior. plan to derive the superposition integral in two different ways.

We

202

Network
simplest
is

analysis

and s/nthesis
first.

The

examined

We

begin with the excitation-response
(7.128)

relationship

R(s)

= E(s) H(s)

Multiplying and dividing by s gives
R(s)

=

^
5

s

E(s)

(7.129)

Taking inverse transforms of both sides gives
C- 1 [«(5)]

=

C-1

[^- -s£(s)]
(7.130)

)

= £-ip£)l* t-i [s£(s)]
which then
yields

K0 =

a(0*[e'(0

+ *(0-)d(0]
'

= e(0-) a(f) +
where
e'(t) is
is

e'(r) a(f

- t) dr
/ is

J

(7.131)

the derivative of

e(t),

e(0— )

is

the value of e(i) at

=

0—,

and

<x.(t)

the step response of the system.

Equation 7.131

usually

referred to as the

Duhamel superposition

integral.

Example

7.13.

Let us find the current
is

i(t) in

the

R-C circuit

in Fig. 7.42

when

the voltage source

(7.132)

as

shown

in Fig. 7.43,

The system function of the R-C circuit
H(s)

is

=

Us)
V„(s)

s

R(s

+
is

IjRC)

(7.133)

Therefore the transform of the step response

M£)
s

1

R(s

+

l/RC)
vg (t)

(7.134)

»*WI

m
zizc

M

Slope

a A2

FIG. 7.42

FIG. 7.43

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

203

Taking the inverse transform of H(s)/s, we obtain the step response
1

<t)

~-tlRC

«(0

(7.135)

From the excitation in Eq.
The response
is

7.132,
v'^i)

we

see that e(0

— ) =0 and
(7.136)

= A 1 d(f) + A t u{t)

then
i(0
,(r)a(t -r)dr -jTj'V

-

j

A x <5(t) o(/ Hr)«(t

r)dr t) dr

+

\

At <x(f -

r)dr

Jo-

Joe-Ur-r)IRC fc
(7.137)

ic

/{

Jo_
)] u(t)

- [J e-"* + /<* C(l - e-**
As we
see transient problems.

from the Example 7.13, e(0— ) = 0, which is the case in many Another method of deriving the Duhamel integral avoids the problem of discontinuities at the origin by assuming the lower limit of integration to be t = 0+. Consider the excitation e(t) shown by the dotted curve in Fig. 7.44. Let us approximate e(t) by a series of step
functions, as indicated in the figure.

We can write the

staircase approxi-

mation of e(0 as
e(t)

= e(0+) h(0 + &E1 u(t- At) + AE, - 2At) +
i/(f

+ A£n u(t - /iAt)

(7.138)

•W
Signal

'11

}a£3

s /
«<P+>

-A£2

hABi

I

0h-AT-»|

2At

_L 3At

4At

t

FIG. 7.44. Staircase approximation to a

signal.

204

Network

analysis

and synthesis
t

where AE^ is the height of the step increment at

«=

*At. Since we assume

the system to be linear and time invariant, we know that if the response to a t). Therer) is X< a(f unit step is <x(f), the response to a step K+ u(t fore we can write the response to the step approximation in Fig. 7.44 as

K0 =
If

e(0+) a(0

+ AEX a(/ - At) + A£^a(r — 2At) +

+ A£„a(f - nAf)

(7.139)

At is

small, r(t)

can be given as

K0 -

e(0+) o(0

+

AE

— At

* oc(*

- At) At
(7.140)
• •

+ *h «(, - 2At)At +
At
which, in the limit, becomes

+ ^aO At

«At)At

n
r(t)

-

«(0+) «(0

lim 2 + Ar-»0<-©+
1»-»CO

tV ~ AT

AT

'

At) At
(7.141)

= e(0+) a(0 + f e'(r) «(« - t) dr
Problems
In the circuit shown sketch^;)7.1
v(t)

.- 2«(f)

and /£(0-)

-2

amps.

Find and

100
r

VWI

fe«|
1000

vwQ

5h

PROB.7.1
after having been at 7.2 The switch is thrown from position 1 to 2 at t t 1e~' sin fit. for a long time. The source voltage is vjif)
1

»V

(a) (b)
(c)

Find the transform of the output voltage

vtf).

Find the

initial

and final values of vjt)-

plane Sketch one possible set of locations for the critical frequencies in the * transform.) and write tint form of the response v&). (Do not take the inverse

Transform methods

in

network

anal/sis

205

MtOB. 7.2

13
/(f)

for

In the circuit shown, all initial currents and voltages are zero. using Thevenin's theorem. t >

Find

51(0

PROS. 7.3

7.4 In the circuit shown in (a), the excitation is the voltage source e{t) described in (6). Determine the response i(t) assuming zero initial conditions.

e(t)

10

*t)

o

'S*

4=i*
-1

A

1/2

t

M
PROS. 7.4

W

13

conditions.

Determine the expression for vji) when /(/) Use transform methods.

— Hi), assuming zero initial

206

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

PROB. 7.5
7.6

The Vlt

circuit

shown has zero

initial

opened.
0.5 sin

Find the value of the
n(0.

resistor

X such

energy. At t = the switch S that the response is v(t)
u(t).

is

=

The excitation

is i(t)

=

te~ **

m

i
v(t)

=r*

PROB. 7.6
7.7 Use transform methods to determine the expressions for i^t) and /j(/) -10 '. Assume zero initial lOOe in the circuit shown. The excitation is v(f) energy.

=

1000

K=\

PROB. 7.7
circuit shown, the switch S is opened at / = 0. Use Thevenin's theorem to determine the output voltage t^f). Assume zero initial or Norton's

7.8

For the

energy.

Transform methods

in

network

analysis

207

PROB. 7.8
For the transformer shown, find i^t) and «,(/). It is given that e(t) = and that prior to the switching action all initial energy was zero; also

7.9

6u(0>

M«=1A.

PROB. 7.9

7.10

For the circuit shown, find /,(/), given that the circuit had been in steady
/

state prior to the switch closing at

=

0.

WWW
I

10Q

Kml

—WW
400
«2
)

1

100

vl=
2hojlo8h
j=z=_40v

PROB. 7.10

7.11

Find
u(t).

/,(/)

using Thevenin's theorem.
initial

The

excitation is e(t)

=

100

cos 20

Assume zero

energy.

208

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

l

y/W
10O

—TVTP2h
•300
•7.50

|6h

PROB. 7.11
7.12
«(/),

Determine the transfer function H(s)

= V^IV^s). When

v^t)

find v t{i).

Assume zero
10

initial

conditions.

r-nAAA-

Y
7.13
find v(t)

1

*

h

if

=j=

T v
*

G) 5V

=r

3f

fOS v3

PROB. 7.12
Using (a) standard transform methods and
(b) the

convolution integral,

when

/(/)

» 2e~* u(t). Assume zero initial energy.

m —o—
m
io:

lf=t

ih<

PROB. 7.13
7.14

The impulse response of a
<*/) * 3e"*'«(0,

excitation were

linear system is shown in the figure. If the determine the response values r(l) and HA,)

using graphical convolution.

m

PROB. 7.14

Transform methods
7.15

in

network

analysts

209

is given as H(s) = l/(s* + 9)*. If the excitation determine the response #•(')• (Hint: Use the convolution integral to break up the response transform R(s).)

The system function

were

c(/)

= 3S'(t),

7.16

Solve the following integral equations for

x(t).

(a)

«(0

+ =

f(f

-

t)x(t)«/t

=

1

(*)

sinr

a<T)e-<«-f >«/T
J

«(/)

+j

x(jt

r) e-*

dr

=* t

7.17

Using the convolution

integral find the inverse transform of

K
(«)
(s

+ aXs + b)
+ 4)»
s

m
<<0

2fr+2)
(s*

F(s)
"

(s*

+

1)«

7.18

By

figure with itself

graphical means, determine the convolution of /(/) (i.e., determine/(/)*/(/)).

shown

in the

M

T
PROB.7.18
7.19

Using

(a) the convolution integral

and

(b) the

Duhamel

superposition

integral, find v(t) for e(t)

= 4e-**u(t). Assume zero initial conditions.

PROB.7.19

210
7.20

Network
Using

analysis

and synthesis

(a) the

integral, find

«<0 for

e(t)

convolution integral and (A) the Duhamel superposition = 2e-s * «(/). Assume zero initial conditions.

PRO B. 7JO
K(i)//(*) has the 7.21 For the circuit in (a) f the system function H(s) and C. If the excitation »'(/) poles shown in (c). Find the element values for has the form shown in (b), use the convolution integral to find v(t).

=

R

m

(b)

«W

C-0.5 ju

-«r

-2

-1

to

PROS. 7.21
7.22 The excitation of a linear system is x(r), shown in (a). The system impulse response is Hf), shown in (ft). Sketch the system response to x(t). neat, carefully dimensioned sketch will (No equations need be written.

A

suffice.)

1

Transform methods

in

network

anal/sis

21

(a)
h(t)

l

t

(b)

PROS.
7.23
is /(/)

7.22

A unit step of voltage is applied to the network and the resulting current
this network.
will yield this

= 0.01*^' + 0.02 amps.
admittance function.

(a) (b)

Determine the admittance Y(s) for

Find a network that

PROS. 7.23

PROB.

7.24

/

=

7.24 The current generator delivers a constant current of 4 amps. At the switch 5 is opened and the resulting voltage across the terminals 1, 2 is

c(r)

=6e-«'

+

12v.

(a)
(b)

Find Z(s) looking into terminals 1, 2. Find a network realization for Z(s).

chapter

8

Amplitude, phase, and delay

8.1

AMPLITUDE AND PHASE RESPONSE

In this section we will study the relationship between the poles and zeros of a system function and its steady-state sinusoidal response. In other words, we will investigate the effect of pole and zero positions upon the behavior of H(s) along the jw axis. The steady-state response of a

system function

is

given by the equation
H(j<o)

=M {my*™

(8.1)
is

where

Af(a>) is the amplitude

even function in o>. function of to. The amplitude and phase response of a system provides valuable information in the analysis and design of transmission circuits. Consider the amplitude and phase characteristics of a low-pass filter shown in
Figs. 8.1a

an or magnitude response function, and and is an odd ^(o>) represents the phase response,

and

8.1 A.

The

amplitude response curves as

cutoff frequency of the filter is indicated on the c. It is generally taken to be the "half-

m

power" frequency at which the system function \H(jt»a)\
of the

is

equal to 0.707

amplitude \H(j(Omu)\. In terms of decibels, the halfpower point is that frequency at which 20 log \H(j(o c)\ is down 3 db from 20 log |#(/a)max)|. The system described by the amplitude and phase characteristics in Fig. 8.1 shows that the system will not "pass" frequencies

maximum

that are greater than <o a .

Suppose we consider a pulse train whose We know amplitude spectrum contains significant harmonics above co harmonics below m c, but will block all that the system will pass the harmonics above (oc Therefore the output pulse train will be distorted when compared to the original pulse train, because many higher harmonic terms will be missing. It will be shown in Chapter 13 that if the phase
.
.

212

Amplitude, phase, and delay

213

0707

Amplitude response

-«b
(a)

«fc

Phase response

FIG.

8.1.

Amplitude and phase response of low-pass

filter.

response

<f>{w) is linear,

then

minimum pulse distortion will result.
in Fig. 8.1 that the phase
.

We see

from the phase response

<f>(a>)

is

approxi-

mately linear over the range —(o c <,w<, +co c If all the significant harmonic terms are less than coc then the system will produce minimum phase distortion. With this example, we see the importance of an
,

amplitude-phase description of a system. In the remaining part of this chapter,

-VWVAr
ViW

we

will

concentrate

on methods to

obtain amplitude and phase response
curves,
ically.

£=r
FIG.

V2 (s)

both analytically and graphobtain

To
curves,

amplitude
s

and

phase

84

we

let

=ju>

in the system

function,

and express H(ja>) in polar form. For example, for the amplitude and phase response of the voltage ratio VJVX of the R-C network shown
in Fig. 8.2, the system function
is

H(s)
Letting «

=

F^s)
V^s)
s

ljRC

+

l/RC

(8.2)

= jot, we see that H(Jco)
H(Jm)

is

l/RC

jm

+

l/RC

(8.3)

214

Network

analysis

and synthesis

M(w)

FIG.

8.3.

Amplitude and phase response of R-C network.

In polar form HQco) becomes

HO) = (to

l/RC
2

--/tan-i

+

1/K

2

C2)*

a>BC_ =

M(ft>)e'*

(0,)

(8.4)

The amplitude and phase curves are plotted in Fig. 8.3. At the point (o = 0, the amplitude is unity and the phase is zero degrees. As a> increases,
the amplitude and phase decrease monotonically.

amplitude

is

0.707 and the phase

is

point of the amplitude response.

When co *= l/RC, the —45°. This point is the half-power Finally as <o -» oo, Af(o>) approaches

zero and ^(g>) approaches —90°. Now let us turn to a method to obtain the amplitude and phase response

from the pole-zero diagram of a system function. Suppose we have the
system function H(s)
H(jco) can be written as

=
(s

Ms - Zq)(s p
)(s

Zi)

-

Pi)(«

- Ps)

(8.5)

HUco)

=

to a vector Each one of the factors t } from the zero zi or pole/*, directed to any point jco on the imaginary axis.

— Zq)0'<»>- gp - *,)0« — *P - Po)0«> - Pi)(J°> - P*) 0«> jco — z or jco — p corresponds
ApO'cu

^

(g6)

Therefore,

if

we

express the factors in polar form,

jco

- z, =
jj(jca)

rV»",

jco- p,=

M,e'*'

(8.7)

then H(j(o) can be given as

u

=

j4 °

N°Nl

e

i(y><>+v>i-a»-»i-ti)

(g 8 )

MoMiMj
0! is negative.

as

shown

in Fig. 8.4,

where we note that

Amplitude, phase, and delay

215

FIG.

8.4.

Evaluation of amplitude and phase from pole-zero diagram.

In general,

we can express the amplitude response

M(co) in terms of the

following equation.

H M(.) = ^-

n

vector magnitudes from the zeros to the point

on

thejco axis

XI vector magnitudes from
Similarly, the phase response
is

the poles to the point on the/co axis

given as

^(eu)

=J —2
m

n

angles of the vectors from the zeros to the/co axis

angles of the vectors from the poles to thejco axis

It is

important to note that these relationships for amplitude and phase

are point-by-point relationships only. In other words, we must draw vectors from the poles and zeros to every point on thejco axis for which we

wish to determine amplitude and phase. Consider the following example.

F(s)

=5*

4s

4s
(s

+ 2s + 2

+ H-jl)(s+l-jl)

(8.9)

Let us find the amplitude and phase for FQ2). From the poles and zeros 2, as shown in Fig. 8.5. From of F(s), we draw vectors to the point to

=

216

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

m
J2

V5/
/\45*
x
i

——
/
/

/

>

n

Vio7
i

>•
a
.

-l

/\71.8*
x
1

——

-n

FIG.

8.5.

Evaluation of amplitude and phase from pole-zero diagram,

the pole-zero diagram,

it is

clear that

MQ2)
and
<f>(j2)

= 4(

2
,_

,- )

=

1.78

= 90° - 45° - 71.8° =
<f>Q2)

-26.8°
at three or

With the values M(j2) and
four additional points,

and the amplitude and phase

we have enough

information for a rough estimate

JU
X

\M5'

r

-

yi

-s.90*
1.0

XX90*

2
x

a

I

J

/S A5 — —1

'

-yi

Br.

-j»

(a)

(6)

FIG.

8.6.

Determining amplitude and phase at zero and very high frequencies.

Amplitude, phase, and delay

217

of the amplitude and phase response. At w 0, we see that the vector magnitude from the zero at the origin to to 0, is of course, zero. 0. From Eq. 8.9 for F(s), F(j0) is Consequently, M(j0)

= =

=

lim F(ja>)
o>>0

=

4Q0)
(8.10)

(l+Jlxl-Jl)

this equation, we see that the zero at the origin still contributes a 90° phase shift even though the vector magnitude is zero. From Fig. 45° 45° 90°. 90° is #0) 8.6a we see that the net phase at <w

From

=

=

-

+

=

Next, at a very high frequency

mh

,

where

toh

y>

1,

all

the vectors are

approximately equal to

coJfii,0°,

as seen in Fig. 8.66.

Then

M(w»)

~ 4eoh _
ca k
<»»

and
Extending

#a>»)

~ 90° - 90° - 90° =

-90°
Table
8.1,

this analysis for the frequencies listed in

we

obtain

values for amplitude

and phase as given in the table. From this table we sketch the amplitude and phase curves shown in Fig. 8.7. can Next let us examine the effect of poles and zeros on the jto axis upon
frequency response. Consider the function

F(s)

= s* + s* +

1.03 1.23

_ (s + jl.015)(s - jlMS) ~ (s+ ;1.109Xs - jl.109)

(8.11)

^
Amplitude

Z
/
+90

/

/
10

-90

0123456789 —
Frequency,

10

w

»-

FIG. C7. Amplitude and phase response for F(s)

in

Eq.

8.9.

218

Network

analysis and synthesis

TABLE
Frequency,
1.0
1.5
CO

8.1

Amplitude
1.8

Phase, degrees
25.8

2.0
1.3

3.0

5.0
10.0

0.8

0.4

-5.3 -50.0 -66.0 -78.5

whose pole-zero diagram is shown in Fig. 8.8. At co <= 1.015, the vector from zero to that frequency is of zero magnitude. Therefore at a zero on the /o> axis, the amplitude response is zero. At co = 1.109 the vector from the pole to that frequency is of zero magnitude. The amplitude response is therefore infinite at a pole as seen from Eq. 8.11. Next,
consider
the

JU
i

co

< >

1.015,

it is

phase response. When apparent from the poleis

y'1.109

zero plot that the phase
co

zero.

When
is

<J./1.015

1.015

and o><
at
co

1.109, the vector

from the zero

=

1.015

now

pointing upward, while the vectors from

the other poles and zeros are oriented
O-./1.015
:

in the

same

direction as for co

<

1.015.

-y'1.109

We see that at a zero on the yw

axis, the

phase response has a step discontinuity of +180° for increasing frequency. Similarly, at a pole on the jco axis, the phase response is discontinuous by —180°. These observations are illustrated by the amplitude and phase plot for F(s) in Eq. 8.11 for the frequency range 0.9 <; co ^ 1.3, shown in Fig. 8.9. With a simple extension of these ideas, we see that if we have a zero at z — — a ± jco t , where a is very small as compared to co t , then we will have a dip in the amplitude characteristic and a rapid change of phase near co = co t as seen in Fig. 8.10. Similarly, if there is a pole atp = — a ± jco t with a very small, then the amplitude will be peaked and the phase will decrease rapidly near co co t as seen in Fig. 8.11. A contrasting situation occurs when we have poles and zeros far away from they'd) axis, i.e., a is large when compared to the frequency range of interest. Then we see that these poles and zeros contribute little to the shaping of the amplitude and phase response curves. Their only effect is to scale up or down the overall amplitude response. From stability considerations we know that there must be no poles in the right half of the s plane. However, transfer functions may have zeros
FIG. 8.8
, ,

=

,

Amplitude, phase, and delay

219

1.015

1.109

FIG.

8.9.

Amplitude and phase far F(s) in Fig.

8.8.

in the right-half plane.

Consider the pole-zero diagrams in Figs. 8.12a

and

8.126.

Both pole-zero configurations have the same poles; the only

difference is that the zeros in (a) are in the left-half plane at s

=—
(a),

1

±]1,

while the zeros in (b) are the mirror images of the zeros in
located at s

and are

= +1 ±jl. Observe that the amplitude responses of the two configurations are the same because the lengths of the vectors correspond for both situations. We see that the absolute magnitude of the

5.

E <

NX"

E

£

FIG. 8.10. Effect of zero very near
the/co axis.

FIG.

8.1 1. Effect

of pole very near

the/o> axis.

220

Network

analysis

and synthesis
JW

X

J2

-

X

>2
fl

o
1

o
l

yi

1

a

1

<r

-2

-l

-2

1

o-;i X
-y'2

-n
X

o

-J2

(a)

(b)
(b)

FIG. 8.12.

(a)

Minimum phase function,

Nonminimum phase

function.

phase of (b) is greater than, the phase of (a) for all frequencies. This is because the zeros in the right-half plane contribute more phase shift (on an absolute magnitude basis) than their counterparts in the left-half system plane. From this reasoning, we have the following definitions. function with zeros in the left-half plane, or on the jco axis only, is called a minimum phase function. If the function has one or more zeros in the

A

a nonminimum phase function. In Fig. 8.13, we see the phase responses of the minimum and nonminimum phase functions
right-half plane,
it is
^

in Figs. 8.12a

and

8.126.

Let us next consider the pole-zero diagram in Fig. 8.14. Observe that the zeros in the right-half plane are mirror images of the poles in the
100
y«- Minim urn phase

l-ioo

1„
^^/" Nonminimum phase
— YY)
-360
10 12

FIG. 8.13. Comparison of minimum and nonminimum phase functions.

Amplitude, phase, and delay
left-half plane.

221

Consequently, the vector
co x

JO>

drawn from a pole to any point

on
*

they a> axis is identical in magnitude with the vector drawn from its mirror image

>2

Kml
~
O
1

n

apparent that the amplitude response must be constant for all frequencies. The phase response, however, is anything but constant, as seen from the amplitude and phase response curves
to
<»!.

It is

l

-2 -i
x-yi

1

o

given in Fig. 8. 1 5 for the pole-zero configuration in Fig. 8.14.

FIG. 8.14. All-pass function.

A system function whose poles are only in the left-half plane and whose
zeros are mirror images of the poles about the jm axis
function.
is

called

an

all-pass

The networks which have

all-pass response characteristics are

often used to correct for phase distortion in a transmission system.
8.2

BODE PLOTS

In this section we will turn our attention to semilogarithmic plots of amplitude and phase versus frequency. These plots are commonly known
as

Bode plots. Consider the system function
H(s)

=

Ms)
D(s)

(8.12)

1.0

1

1

1

1

1

2

4

u
+ 180

6
*-

8

10

l -I*
-360
10
12

FIG. 8.15. Amplitude and phase of all-pass function in Fig.

8.14.

222

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Ka

W

>l

3 S
K2
l*KI
Magnitude
(a)

togu-

K positive
Phase

e-

K negative
—IT
logw(b)

FIG.

8. 16.

Magnitude and phase of constant.
is

We know that the

amplitude response

M(«)
If

-

|HC/»)I

- j^}
\D(J°>)\

(8.13)

we

express the amplitude in terms of decibels,

we have
|

20 log M(w)

= 20 log

\N(jco)\

- 20 log

D(jco)\

(8.14)

In factored form both N(s) and D(s) are
(a)
(b)
(c)

made up of four kinds of factors:

a constant,

K
+
a

a root at the origin, s a simple real root, s

(d) a

complex pair of roots, s2

+ 2<w +

a*

+

/?*

To understand the nature of log-amplitude plots, we need only examine the
amplitude response of the four kinds of factors just cited. If these factors are in the numerator, their magnitudes in decibels carry positive signs. If these factors belong to the denominator, their magnitudes in decibels carry negative signs. Let us begin with case (a).
(a)

The factor K. For the constant K, the db loss (or gain)
20 log

is

K = Kt

(8.15)

Amplitude, phase, and delay

223

t is either negative if \K\ < 1, or positive if \K\ > 1. The phase response is either zero or 180° depending on whether is positive or negative. The Bode plots showing the magnitude and phase of a constant

The constant

K

K

are given in Fig. 8.16.
(b)

The factor

s.

The

loss (gain) in decibels associated with
to.

a pole

(zero) at the origin is

±20 log

Thus the plot of magnitude
is

in decibels

versus frequency in semilog coordinates

a straight line with slope of

±20

db/decade or
all co.

±6 db/octave. From the
is

Bode
at to

plots in Fig. 8.17,
1,

we
is

see that the- zero loss point (in decibels)

=

and the phase

constant for

(c) The factor s magnitude is

+

a.

For convenience,

let

us set a

=

1.

Then the
(g
lfi)

±2Qlog

^

+^=
is

±2Qlog(o)S

+

, )M

as

shown

in Fig. 8.18a.

The phase

Arg
as

O+
+
1|

l)*1

=

±tan~x

a>

(8.17)

shown

in Fig. 8.186.

A straight-line approximation of the actual magnitude versus frequency
curve can be obtained from examining the asymptotic behavior of the factor y<o 1. For to 1, the low-frequency asymptote is

+

«

20 log

\j(o

\

a<1 s* 20 log
is

1

=

db

(8.18)

For

to

1,

the high-frequency asymptote

201og|7«o

+

l|

20 log

m db

(8.19)

0.1

02
FIG.
8. 17.

03

0.5

0.7

1.0

2.0

3.0

5.0

7.0

10.0

Frequency,

a

Magnitude and phase of pole or zero at s

= 0,

224

Network
12

anal/sis

and synthesis

(«+!)->.

2
8"

1

/

2

025

0.5
(ii

1
fc-

(b)

FIG. «.!«. Magnitude and phase of simple real pole or zero.

Amplitude, phase, and delay

225

TABLE

8.2
Straight-Line

Actual Magnitude,

Approximation,

Error,

Frequency
a> =o)

db
±0.3

db

db
±0.3

J

=i o) = 1 m =2

o-4
which, as

2 octaves below octave below break frequency octave above 2 octaves above

±1 ±3

±1

±3

±7
±12.3

±6
±12

±1
±0.3

we saw in (b), has a slope of 20 db/decade or 6 db/octave. The 1, which we designate low- and high-frequency asymptotes meet at m frequency. The straight-line approximation as the breakfrequency or cutoff is shown by the dashed lines in Fig. 8. 1 8a. Table 8.2 shows the comparison between the actual magnitude versus the straight-line approximation. We

=

see that the

maximum

error

is

at the break frequency

co

=

1,

or in un-

a. normalized form: m For quick estimates of magnitude response, the straight-line approximation is an invaluable visual aid. An important example of the use of these straight-line approximations is in the design of linear control

=

systems.
roots. For complex conjugate roots, it is conadopt standard symbols so that we can use the universal curves venient to

(d)

Complex conjugate

that result therefrom.

We describe the conjugate pole (zero) pair in terms
measured from the negative
real axis,
Explicitly, the

of a magnitude
as

a>

and an angle

shown

in Fig. 8.19.

parameters that describe the pole

(zero) positions are a>„

and £
factor.

= cos 0,
If

which we call the undampedfrequency of oscillation, known as the damping
pole (zero) pair
is

the

given in terms of its real and imaginary
parts,
/>i,.

- -« ±P
=
=

(8-20)

juo

Vw*

a and
a

ft

are related to £

and co by the
-J"«o

following:

=

g>

cos
sin

to«£

(8.21)

P = <u

o),

VI

— £*
£ and
<ot .

-/woVW 2
FIG. 8.19. Pole location in terms of

damping factor, £

Returning to the definition of the cos d, we see that

=

226

Network

analysis
is

and synthesis
7r/2,

the closer the angle the angle 6
is

to

the smaller

nearly zero degrees, the
the

is the damping factor. When damping factor is nearly unity.

To examine
«>

Bode
2

plots for the conjugate pole (zero) pair, let us set

=

1

for convenience.
|1

The magnitude

is

then
a> 8) 8

±20 log
and the phase
If

a)

+]2t,a>\

= ±20 log [(1 =
tan"

+ 4£ <u 8]*
8

(8.22)

is

-i

2gn>

<f>(w)

l-a>8

(8.23)

we examine the low- and high-frequency asymptotes of the magnitude, we see that the low-frequency asymptote is decibels; the high-frequency
asymptote (for <o y> 1) is ±40 log co, which is a straight line of 40 db/decade or 12 db/octave slope. The damping factor £ plays a significant part in the closeness of the straight-line approximation, however. In Fig. 8.20 the asymptotic approximation for a pair of conjugate poles (a> = 1) is indicated by the dashed line. Curves showing the magnitude
for £
1.0 are given by the solid lines. 0.6, and £ 0.1, £ see 0.6 is the straight-line approximation a close one. that only for £

=

=

=

~

We

Universal curves for magnitude and phase are plotted in Figs. 8.21 and 8.22 for the frequency normalized function

G(*)

=

(sK)8

+ 2£(s/a) ) + =
<w is

(8.24)
1

We see that the phase response, as viewed from a semilog scale, is an odd
function about
eo/a>

=

1

.

The phase at co
1

—90° or —n\2 radians.
1 1

1

1

+ 10 +5

^x^^-r-o.6y

-b
-10
-15
0.1
~~

r-io-^N.
Asymptote

^\
^\
vft.

— 1

1

,

A.
o>

0.2

0.5

1.0

Frequency,

—*

2.0

5.0

10.0

FIG. 8.20. Magnitude versus frequency for second-order pole.

Amplitude, phase, and delay

227

qp'IfflOl-

228

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

s
1

8 CM
1

woaiv

Amplitude, phase, and delay

229

For a conjugate pair of zeros, we need only reverse the signs on the scales of the magnitude and phase curves. KVraMpig 8.1. Using Bode plot asymptotes, let us construct the magnitude
versus frequency curve for
0.1s
(8.25)

GW

'(Ht
We see
there are

+ 16X10*

10»

+

1

two first-order break frequencies at o> «- and a> — 50. In addition, there is a second-order break frequency at m — 400. With a quick calculation we find that £ — 0.2 for the second-order factor. The asymptotes are shown in Fig. 8.23. The magnitude and phase plots are given in Fig. 8.24 through a microfilm plot computer program.

-12db/oetave

FIG. 8.23. Asymptotes for G(s) in Eq. 8.25.

8.3

SINGLE-TUNED CIRCUITS

We will now study a class of circuits whose system functions can be described by a pair of conjugate poles. These circuits are called singletuned circuits because they only need two reactive elements an inductor and a capacitor. The undamped frequency of oscillation of the circuit is

then

«w

= {LC)-

l/i
.

An

example of a single-tuned

circuit is the

R-L-C

circuit in Fig. 8.25,

whose

voltage-ratio transfer function is

H(S)

W=

!o(i>

=

1/sC

1/LC
ljsC
s*

V£s)

R+

sL

+

+ (K/L)s +

(8.26)

1/LC

230

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

FIG. 8.24a. Magnitude of G(s) in Eq. 8.2S. FIG. 8.246. Phase of G(s) in Eq. 8.2S.

FIG.

8.25. Single-tuned circuit.

Amplitude, phase, and delay

231

FIG. 8.26

The poles of H(s)
'

are
(8.27)

2L

2\LC

J} J

where we assume that (R*IL*)
//(5) is

< (4/LC).
»'

In terms of a and

/J

in Eq. 8.27,

ff(s)

=

+^ (s + a+j/f)(s + a-7/8)
We

(8.28)

From the pole-zero diagram of H(s) shown in Fig. 8.26, we will determine
the amplitude response \H(Jm)\. Let us denote the vectors from the poles to they'w axis as |MX and |M,| as seen in Fig. 8.26. can then write
|

|HO)l
where

(8.29)

K = a* +

|MJ

|M,|

j8*

and
iMii
|M,|

- [«• + (» + m* - [a» + (a, - W\"
eu

(8.30)

In characterizing the amplitude response, the point
\H(jco)\ is

=

a>msx, at

which

maximum, is highly significant from both the analysis and design
Since \H(ja>)\
is

aspects.

maximum corresponds exactly to the
Since \H(jm)\* can be written as

always positive, the point at which \H(Jco)\* is point at which \H(ja>)\ is maximum.

«

232

Network

analysis

and synthesis

|H0«>)|

8

=

+ F? + (a, + /?)*][«* +(«,-j8)8 («' + 8 4 «> + 2tt>\%* - f) + (a +
(«'
[a*
/?*)'

]

(8.31)

/?*)•

we can find a>max by taking the derivative of H(ja>) setting the result equal to zero. Thus we have
|

*
\

with respect to

a>*

and

dJH(U»>)\*
<fo>«

__

(a'

K

+ /8*)W + 2(q' + («* + /W + 2a» "

V
* 8

<8*)]

(8.32)

/**)

From the equation
we determine
damping factor

* |H

°f dm

)l

-

(8.33)

eoSuz

=

jS


«o

(8.34)

Expressed in terms of the natural frequency of oscillation

and the

^

£,

wj^ is

- (o) Vl

-£*)*-

1

(C^o)

= <(\ ~ 2£*)

(8-35)

Since comax must always be real, the condition for a>max to exist, i.e., the condition for \H(jw)\ to possess a maximum, is given by the equation

21* <,

1

(8.36)

45°. cos 0, o)max does not exist for so that t <, 0.707. Since £ In this When 8 45°, we have the limiting case for which ©max exists. 0.707 and the real and imaginary parts of the poles have the same case, £

=

<

= —

magnitude,

i.e.,

a

=

/?,

or
£«>.

=

«>

Vl

-

£*

(8-37)

We see from Eq. 8.34 that, when a /J, then o>max frequency at which o)max may be located. For £
£«>,

=

= 0. This is the lowest > 0.707, or
<8 - 38 >

> <Vl - P

comax

is

imaginary;

it

point in this analysis is or equal to the real part of the pole in order for a>max to exist. Interpreted graphically, if we draw a circle in the s plane with the center at —a and the then the circle must intersect theyVo axis in order for comax radius equal to
0,

therefore does not exist To summarize, the key that the imaginary part of the pole must be greater

to

as seen in Fig. 8.27. Moreover, the point at which the circle interfrom the triangle sects the positive jm axis is comax- This is readily seen
exist,

Amplitude, phase, and delay
JU

233

«max
i

i

/

>

1

<r

H-«-»>
i 1

1

-70 x

-"max
circle.

FIG. 8.27. Peaking

with sides a,
that

/S,

a>max in Fig. 8.27.

By

the Pythagorean theorem,

we find
(8.39)

(oJLx

- j8* - a*
called the peaking circle.
o>

The circle described in

Fig. 8.27

is

When a

=

/?,

the peaking circle intersects the jot axis at

= 0,
a,

as seen in Fig. 8.28a.
all (Fig. 8.286);
is

When a

>

/J,

the circle does not intersect the /to axis at

therefore, a>max cannot exist.

When

the imaginary part of the pole

much greater than the real part, i.e., when /J J>
the/a> axis at approximately
a>

=w

,

then the circle intersects the natural frequency of oscillation

of the

circuit (Fig. 8.28c).

A figure

circuit is the circuit

of merit often used in describing the "peaking" of a tuned Q, which is defined in pole-zero notation as

(8.40)

2 cos
axis (£ small) represent

From this definition, we see that poles near the ja>

high-g systems, as given in Fig. 8.28c, and poles far removed from the jo) axis represent low-Q circuits (Fig. 8.28a). Although the Q of the circuit given by the pole-zero plot of Fig. 8.286 is theoretically defined, it has no practical significance because the circuit does not possess a maximum
point in
point,
its

amplitude.
the peaking circle, the frequency
co c

By means of
which
is

we can

also determine the half-power
is

at which the amplitude response

\H(jw c)\

- 0.707 |#(./aw)|.

234

Network

analysis

and synthesis

ju
JP J0

jco

j- *Jmm

Umax

—a\

-jftk-

y
— «max
a

J
fi,

(a)

(6)
circles,

FIG. 8.28. Examples of peaking
undetermined,
(c)

p

» a, eomax ~ p.

(a)

a

= P, ma

0.

(6)

>

»„

We will now describe a method to obtain co c by geometrical construction. Consider the triangle in Fig. 8.29, whose vertices are the poles {pi,pi*} and a point to, on they'w axis. The area of the triangle is
Area (£piPi*aid
In terms of the vectors be expressed as

= fa
co it

(8.41)

|MJ and

|M,| from the poles to

the area can also

Area (&PiPi*<ot) =where
y> is

\MX

\

|M,| sin y

>

(8.42)

2
the angle at

m

it

as seen in the figure.

From Eqs.

8.41

and 8.42,
|

we
Ju
to

see that the product |Mi|

|M 2

is

equal

|MX

|

|M,|

= -^
sin
y>

(8.43)

Since the amplitude response

is

\H(ja>i)\

=

(8.44)

where

K is a constant, then
.Ksin

FIG. 129

|H(M)I
20*

y>

(8.45)

Amplitude, phase, and delay

235

Therefore,
the angle

For a given pole pair {puPi*} the parameters /J, a, and ^Tare prespecified. we have derived \H(Jm)\ in terms of a single variable parameter,
y>.

When the angle y>

= tt\2 rad, then sin =
rp

1, to,

= Wmax, and,
(8.46)

|H(/«>max)|

=

When v

=

w/4 rad, then sin

y>

= 0.707 and = 0.707 I^C/o^nu)!
now a geometric construction to
circle as

\H(ja>J\

so that a>t o) a Let us
.

= coc
first

.

Let us consider

obtain

draw the peaking

shown

in Fig. 8.30.

We will

A the point at which the peaking circle intersects the positive Now we draw a second circle with its center at A, and its radius equal to AB, the distance from A to either one of the poles, as seen in Fig. 8.30. The point where this second circle intersects the/a) axis is w c
denote by
real axis.
.

The reason is that,
is

at this point, the inscribed angle is

y>x

= w/4 because it

equal to one-half the intercepted arc, which, by construction, is w/2. o)max 0, the half-power point m c is also called the half-power bandwidth of the tuned circuit. In Fig. 8.31a the half-power point 's given

When

=

when

(Umax

= 0.

For a high-g

circuit,

highly peaked at

m=

<Um»x, as

\HQ0)\

< 0.707 |//(/ft>max)|, there

where comw <*><» the amplitude is shown in Fig. 8.316. In this case, if are two half-power points m Ci and co 0i

Peaking
'circle

FIG.

8.30.

Geometric construction to obtain half-power point.

236

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

0.707

Iff,

(a)

(b)

FIG.

8.31. (a)

Low-G

circuit response,

(b)

High-Q

circuit response.

about the point
just described,

that the point

a>max, as seen in Fig. 8.316. By the construction process we obtain the upper half-power point o> Ci It can be shown1 a>max is the geometric mean of m Ci and a> Ct that is,
.

,

(8.47)

As a

result, the

lower half-power point

is

°>Oi

= a>m»x
0>Ct

(8.48)

The bandwidth of the system for a high-g circuit of this type is described by

BW = m Ct —
filters.

(o

0i

(8.49)

In design applications these high-g circuits are used as narrow bandpass
Finally, there are certain aspects

of the phase response of high-g circuits

that are readily apparent. In Fig. 8.32

we

see several steps in the process

is 0, as seen of obtaining the phase response. The phase shift at eo it rad, as shown in part (c) oo, the phase shift is from Fig. 8.32a. At <a a> =i «>max, the phase of the figure. Finally, in the neighborhood of a in the lower half plane is approximately shift resulting from the pole tt/2 (Fig. 8.32&). The change in phase in this region is controlled 0, in large by the pole px It is readily seen that the phase response in the region of a> has the greatest negative slope, as seen from a typical phase

=

=

=

=—

.

response of a high-g circuit shown in Fig. 8.33.
1

See for example, F. E. Terman, Electronic and Radio Engineering, McGraw-Hill
1953.

Book Company, New York,

Amplitude, phase, and delay

237

?

J<*

Hi

b)0

k
(*)

(b)

(e)

PIG. S.32. Several steps in obtaining phase response for high-Q
>

circuit,

(«) o><

a.

Finally, as
circuits, let

an example to illustrate our discussion of single-tuned us find the amplitude response for the system function
#(s)

=
s*

34

+ 6s + 34
half-power points

(8.50)

Now we

determine the

maximum and
|/f(/*comax)|

awx

and

<o c ,

and also the amplitudes

and

\H(jo> c)\. In factored form, H(s) is

+ 3-;5) and the poles of H(s) are shown in Fig. 8.34. We next draw the peaking circle with the center at j = — 3 and the radius equal to 5. At the point where the circle intersects thejfa> axis, we see that eom»x — 4. To check this — a* gives result, the equation <»*„, = cBm»x = (5* - 3*)* = 4 (8.52)
(s

H{s)

34

+

(8.51)

3+;5)(s

/J*

-180*-

FIG. 8.33. Phase response of high-Q

circuit.

238

Network

analysis

and synthesis

The amplitude
6.78

|£f(/a>max)| is

then

= <or
|H(/4)|

-

34

(3+j9)(3-jl)

=—=
30

1.133

(8.53)

The
at s

point

A

at

which the peaking circle
at A,

intersects the positive real axis is located

= 2.0.

With the center
of radius

we

draw a
this

circle

AB

(equal to

At the point C where new circle intersects theyeo axis, we have o) c By measurement, we find
5-\/2 in this case).
.

to c

~ 6.78

(8.54)

FIG. 8.34. Peaking tion example.

circle construc-

Let us check this result. Referring to Fig. 8.34, we know_that the line segment
;

is

also 5-v/2 units long.
co c is

_.

Then

given as
co c

AB is of length 5>/2 it follows that AC The line segment AO is of length (8.55) AO = 5 — 3 = 2 units
sl(AC)1

=

- (AO)* =
34

V46

=

6.782

(8.56)

Finally,

we

obtain \H(j<o c)\ as
|H(j'6.782)| n
1

U

=

V(34

/

-

.

46)*

+

,

(6V46)

. S

=

0.802

(8.57)

which
8.4

is

precisely 0.707 \H(j(Ow**l)\-

DOUBLE-TUNED CIRCUITS
8.3,

In Section
poles.

we studied the frequency response for a pair of conjugate
attention to the amplitude response of
circuit

Now we turn our

two

pairs

of conjugate poles in a high-g situation. The double-tuned or stagger-tuned circuit given in Fig. 8.35.

we analyze here is the

We will consider

V2 (s)

FIG. 8.35. Double-tuned

circuit.

*

Amplitude, phase, and delay

239

the special case when the R, L, and C elements in the primary circuit are equal in value to their counterparts in the secondary. Since the primary and secondary inductances are equal, the mutual inductance is

M=KL
K

(8.58)

In this analysis we assume the coefficient of coupling to be a variable parameter. Let us determine the amplitude response for the voltage-ratio transfer function V^V^s). From the mesh equations

V^s)

=^R +

S

L+

/.(s)

J^j

- sM /2(s)
(8.59)

= -sM h(s) +
we readily determine
Vito

{r

+

sL

+ -M

/,(*)

& + WQs + 1/LC]* set

s

4

K*

l
'

}

Using tuned-circuit notation, we

2£<o

=(8.61)

H(s) can then be written as H(s)
(1
-

^RM'L
\

-

K*)(s*
\

+ -^2_ , + -ȣ-)( f + -fe_ s + _22jL\ 1 + K l + K/\ l-K 1-KI
(8.62)

If

we

set

A=
write

*M
,

I?(l

-

^
K*)

= ^2* 1 - K*
s»)(s

(8.63) K

'

then

we can

H(s)

=
(s

l

SiXs

-

sfXs

—°Li

(1

(8.64)
s,*)

where

{ Sl , Sl *}

11

^S_ ± j„J—L+ K J "ll + K

£-_]

+ —

K)*J
(8.65)

1

l

-k

-x

ci

jc)*J

Let us restrict our analysis to a high- Q circuit so that £* 1 . Furthermore, let us assume that the circuit is loosely coupled so that AT« 1. Under

«

240

Network

analysis

and synthesis
the pole locations by discarding Then the poles

these assumptions,

we can approximate

the terms involving £* under the radicals in Eq. 8.65. approximately as fai» *i*} can be given

(8.66) Similarly, {s„ *,*}

can be given as
{s„ s,*}

~ -£o> ± jo) ^l + —J
is

(8.67)

The

pole-zero diagram of H(s)

poles

— £<u

is greatly enlarged in

given in Fig. 8.36. The real part of the comparison to the imaginary parts for

FIG. 8.M. Poles and zeros of a dottble-tuned

circuit.

Amplitude, phase, and delay
clarity purposes.

241

Note that we have a triple zero at the of the vectors in Fig. 8.36, the amplitude response is
^4|Mo|'
]H(J(0}1

origin.

In terms

(8.68)

JM.I |M,| |M.| IMtl

Since the circuit

is

high- 2 in the vicinity of

a>

= a>

,

we have
(8.69)

|M,|-|M4 |=i2|M |-2o,
so that in the neighborhood of
<u

|HO»)|S' 4IMJIM.I
It is evident that

Aco

(8.70)

the amplitude response

of \H(jm)\ in the neighborhood of a> depends only upon the pair of vectors

IMJ and |M,|. The double-tuned problem has thus been reduced to a singletuned problem in the neighborhood of
results

Consequently, we can use all the on the peaking circle that were derived in Section 8.3. Let us draw a
o)
.

peaking

circle

with the center at

s

=

-£«„ +/«>,

(8.71)

and with a radius equal to tw^T/2, as shown in Fig. 8.37. The inscribed
angle

FIG. 8.37. Peaking circle for doubletuned circuit.

y> then determines the location of the maxima and half-power points of the response. Without going into the derivation, the amplitude response can be expressed as a function of y according to the equation

|HO)l

-

A<o sin
4a)

y
)

sin

y
K*)

K(ta>

2(1
let

-

(8.72)

Referring to the peaking circle in Fig. 8.37,
situations:

us consider the following

In this case, the peaking circle never intersects the jot axis; y> is always less than ir/2 (Fig. 8.38a), and the amplitude response never attains the theoretical maximum
1.

a>

£

> WiKfl:

iW =
circuit is said to

2(1

-K*)

*-=

(8.73)

as seen by the curve labeled (a) in Fig. 8.39. In this case,

K < 2£, and the

be undercoupled.

242

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
jo>

«8lM
2
i

\

7
WO
I

-f«o
T
2

y A
\

/

x^^
(a) (b)

ly\ w
(c)

lmax

FIG. 8.38.

(a)

Undercoupling. (6) Critical coupling,

(c)

Overcoupling.

2. o>,£

= <

co^Kjl:

Here the peaking
(Fig. 8.38ft).

circle intersects
,

the/eo axis at a
is

equal to #max in Eq. 8.73. In this case £ Kj2, and we have critical coupling. 3. <u £ cogA/2 The peaking circle intersects theytu axis at two points.
a>

single point

m=

At

a>

the amplitude

=

:

o> x

and

to,,

as seen in Fig. 8.38c.

The

intersecting points are given

by the

equation
<*>!,*

max

=

tt>

± «>

.[(!H*
(

(8.74)

Consequently, the amplitude response attains the theoretical maximum Hum* at two points, as shown by curve (c) in Fig. 8.39. In this situation, the circuit is said to be overcoupled.

Note that
have their

in Fig. 8.39 the undercoupled

maximum

points at

me

.

and critically coupled curves The overcoupled curve, however, is

"a mix
FIG. 8.39.
(a)

Undercoupled

case, (A) Critically

coupled case,

(c)

Overcoupled case.

Amplitude, phase, and delay

243

uCl

<<«

uCt
circuit.

FIG. 8.40. Half-power points of overcoupled

maximum at o>! and u>t
we can determine
struction

.

In the case of overcoupling and

critical

coupling,

the half-power points by using the geometrical con-

half-power points
Fig. 8.40.

method given in Section 8.3. Observe that there are two co c and co c as shown in the overcoupled curve in The bandwidth of the circuit is then
,

BW =
Example &2.
given as

a>

Ct

— m Ci
a double-tuned

(8.75)
circuit is

The

voltage-ratio transfer function of

H™

=
(*

As?

+2

-HylOOX*

+2

-ylOOX*

+2

+yl06X>

+2

-/106)

(8/76)

From H(s), let us determine the following: (a) the maximum points <ot ma and <o t „„; (b) the 3 db bandwidth BW; (c) the damping factor £; (d) the coefficient of coupling*; (e) the gain constant A; and (/) the maximum of the amplitude
response //max.
Solution, (a) The natural frequency of oscillation o> is taken to be approximately halfway between the two poles, that is, <o = 103 radians. In the neighborhood of »„, we draw the poles s — —2 +/100 and s = —2 +/106, as shown in Fig. 8.41 . From the peaking circle centered at the point s = — 2 + /<».,

shown

in Fig. 8.41,

we

obtain

mt max
so that
<°i
«»i

— mo =
= =
°*o

"^3*

— 2* = 2.236 radians
105.236 radians

(8.77)

max m*r

«»o

+ 2.236 = — 2.236 =
s

(8.78)

100.764 radians
1

(b)

Next we draw a

circle centered at

=
1

+ja> with radius 3V2. Where

this circle intersects theyVu axis,

we have

<o

Ct so that

">c,

V(3^2)»

-

- 4.123 radians

(8.79)

244

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

FIG. 8.41. Peaking

circle for

Example

8.2.

The

3

db bandwidth

is

then
o»j)

BW - 20»Ol (c) The damping factor from which we obtain

-

8.246 radians
£a>

(8.80)

{ is obtained

from the real part of the poles

=

2,

t 4

«
103

— 0.0194 u'" 15^

(8.81)

(d)

The

coefficient
is

of coupling

K is obtained from the radius of the peaking
o>oA:

circle,

which

(8.82)

We thus have
(e)

K = — = 0.0582
A
1

(8.83)

The gain constant

is

equal to
2(2X0.0582)
1

2{«.„A:

*
(f) Finally, the

- K*

- (0.0582)*

= "•"**

(8.84)

maximum

amplitude

Hmmx

is

flmiz

=
2(1

1

-**)

-0.5009

(8.85)

Amplitude, phase, and delay

245

83

ON

POLES

AND ZEROS AND

TIME DELAY

will

time delay? How do we relate it to frequency response? We attempt to answer these questions in this section. First consider the transfer function of pure delay (8.86) <r tT H(s)

What is

=

For a system described by Eq.
identical response signal e(t

to the excitation. This Bis)

is

any excitation e(f) produces an which is delayed by time T with respect shown by the Laplace transform relationship,
8.86,

T),

- C[e(/ -T)] = er' T C[e(0]

(8-87)

Let us examine the amplitude and phase response of the pure delay. From the equation *-*** < 8 - 88)

HO) -

we

obtain the amplitude response
\H(Jw)\

-

1

(8.89)

and the phase response

<f>(a))

=

—coT

(8.90)

We

see that the delay
is,

T is

equal to minus the derivative of the phase

response, that

T= -

d<f>(w)

(8.91)

dco

The magnitude, phase and delay characteristics of H(ja>) = erlaT are given in Fig. 8.42a, b, and c. If we define delay as in Eq. 8.91, we can readily deduce that for the
response to be nearly identical to the excitation, the system amplitude response should be constant, and its phase response should be linear over the frequency range of interest. If the phase is not linear, we have what is known as delay distortion. To visualize delay distortion more clearly,
M<»)
*te) A(«)

(a)

(h)

\
(a)

(e)

FIG. a.42. Amplitude, phase, and delay of ideal delay function,
(ft)

Amplitude,

Phase, (c) Delay.

246

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

we recall from Fourier analysis that any signal is made up of different frequency components. An ideal transmission system should delay each
frequency component equally. If the frequency components are delayed by different amounts, the reconstruction of the output signal from its Fourier components would produce a signal of different shape as the input.

For pulse
tion.

applications, delay distortion is

an

essential design considera-

Let us next examine how we relate delay, or envelope delay (as it is sometimes called) to the poles and zeros of a transfer function. For any
transfer function

n (»-««)
H(s)=*tf
(8.92)

IT(»-Pi)
with zeros at z €

= —a
lr
\

t

±jcot and poles
.

at/>,

=—

<r

y

±jco i , the phase for

real frequencies is

<K<»)

? = = 2 tan-1 W ±
*

fflj *

*-i

ot

-J

.IL

tan"

1 to
.

+ x CO,
'

(8.93) a,

J-l

Envelope delay

is

dm

~

h o' + (c ± (of + A o* + (« ±
The zeros
However,
linear physical systems

(894)
co,)*

We

see that the shapes of the delay versus frequency characteristic are
all

the same for

poles and zeros.

contribute "negative" delay;

the poles, positive delay.
exception. Its phase

transfer functions with zeros alone.

The inductor H(s)

=

do not have Ls is the only

Now

let

pole atp

=

is #a>) ir/2; thus the delay is zero. us consider the delay due to one singularity, for example, a —a +jcoQ The delay due to the one pole is
.

=

The following points are
1.

pertinent:

The maximum delay due

to this pole

is

Am = and occurs at
about
co to
.

(8.96)

=

co

.

The delay

versus frequency curve

is

symmetric

=

<w

Amplitude, phase, and delay

247

FIG.

8.43.

Graphic construction to obtain delay bandwidth.

2.

The frequency

at

which the delay
o>x

is

half the
ff

maximum, or

l/2or

,

is

A

=

co

±
is

(8.97)
eo

3.

The

"effective delay
.

bandwidth"

then

<r

<m<

to

+

cr

or

simply 2a

graphically

The upper and lower half-bandwidth points can be obtained by drawing a circle with center at a> = co, and radius a
.

The
4.
2.

intersections of the circle with the jco axis are the half-bandwidth

points, as

shown in Fig. 8.43. The product of the maximum delay and delay bandwidth
if

is

always

Thus,
5.

we wish

to obtain large delay

by placing zeros or poles near
is

theyeo axis, the effective delay bandwidth

then very narrow.

The delay of an

all-pass function is twice the delay

due to the poles
in Fig. 8.44.

alone.

The delay versus frequency curve

for the pole

is

shown

We

see that the delay-bandwidth concept is only useful for a

rough

approximation, since the delay versus frequency characteristic only falls as 1/to. To calculate the delay versus frequency characteristic for a
transfer function with

a number of poles and zeros, it is convenient to obtain the delay curves for the individual singularities and then to add the separate delays. It is not as desirable to obtain the total phase response

and then

differentiate numerically.
it

Finally,

should be pointed out that envelope delay only has meaning
is is

when

the phase response goes through the origin. If it does not, there

a frequency-shift component in addition to the delay that account for analytically.

hard to

248

Network

analysis

and synthesis

wo -

4<?o

">o

— 3»o wo - 2<ro wo — ^o

«o

«o +

ffo

«o +

2<ro

wo +

3<ro

wo + 4»o

<*

FIG.

8.44. Plot

of delay versus frequency.

Problems
8.1

and

plot

Find the poles and zeros of the impedances of the following networks on a scaled s plane.
o

—nnnr*
4h
la)

|f-

io

Z(s>-

o

M/*
20

1(iM

ZM-

m
20
4h

ZW-

PROB. 8.1

&2 The
(a)

circuit

shown

in the figure

is

a shunt peaking

circuit often

used in

video amplifiers,

Show that the admittance

Y(s) is of the

form

m

K(s

- s^s — s»>
(s

-*,)

Express slt sa , and ss in terms of R, L, and C.

Amplitude, phase, and delay

249

10"* mhos, find -10 -ylO», and Y(jB) -10 +yi0», st (6) When st the values of R, L, and C and determine the numerical value of *,.

-

-

-

Y(,>

=£c
:r

PROS.

U

83
sketch.

Find the amplitude and phase response for the following functions and

(«) F(s)

s

+K
s

(*) F(s)

s

+K

(c) F(s)

.

id) F(s)

7T °v

Note
8.4

that

and o> are positive Given the function

K

quantities.

<**">

C(») +71*.)

determine the amplitude and phase of G(jm) in terms of ^, B, C, D. the amplitude function is even and the phase function is odd.
for

Show that

85 By means of the vector method, sketch the amplitude and phase response
j
(a) F(s)
-

+0.5

s-l
(C) F(*)

sis

+

10)

s

+

1

s
(b)

F(s)

's*
s
(e)

+2s +2

(«/)

F(5)
s*

-2s +

2

F(s)

-

'

5

+1 -1

,

x

<*>

F(,)

«

x

5*

- 2j + 5
+2s +5
2X*

-(TTW+T)
=
s*
(j

^)F(j) - (,/2xV+ 9)
8.6

W
the

F(5)

+

+

1)

Plot

on semilog paper
F(*)

Bode
100(1
s(s

plots of magnitude

and phase for

= =

+ 0.5*)
+2)

F(s)

50(1
(1

+ 0.025jX1 + O-IJ) + 0.05*X1 + 0.01s)

250
8.7

Network
Plot

analysis

and synthesis
the

on semilog paper

Bode

plots of magnitude

and phase for

(«)
(1

+ O.OOZsXl +

10005 5 10~ 5*

+ 10~V)

W
8.8

F(*)

=
(1

200(1 + 0.05s) + 0.02jX1 + 4 10-** + 10-V)

For the function

*W-3 + 2s + 5
s*

determine o> mu , \F(jco m *x)\, the half-power point amplitude and phase response.

a>

,

and

\F(ja>

)\.

Sketch the

8.9 For the circuit shown, determine the current ratio IJIg and find: (a) the point €<>,„„, where its amplitude is maximum; (b) the half-power point <oc ; 1. Use geometric construction. (c) the point to„ where |/i(a) M)//B(<o u)|

=

2.5 h

PROS.
8.10

8.9

A network function consists of two poles at p
Show
/•<*

ltt

=

r^*^' -9

'

= — at ±

jco t , as given in the figure.

that the square of the amplitude response

Af\to)

is

maximum

at

o>

m* =

|cos 20|.

PROB.

8.10

8.11 In connection with Prob. 8.2 plot the poles and zeros of the impedance Find, approximately, the maximum point of the l/l%s). function Z(s) amplitude response. In addition, find the bandwidth at the half-power points and the circuit Q.

=

Amplitude, phase, and delay

251

8.12 The pole configuration for a system function H(s) is given in the figure. From the plot, calculate:
(a)

(6)

The undamped frequency of oscillation The bandwidth and Q.

a>

f

yioo

-5

<T

PROB.
8.13

h
8.12

-y'100

In connection with Prob. 8.10 determine the ratio Af\m aM)lM*(0). 8.14 Determine the amplitude and phase response for the admittance Y(s) of the circuit shown. Is the peaking circle applicable here? What can you say about the shape of the amplitude response curve in a high-g situation? Determine the bandwidth of the circuit and the circuit Q.

o——WW
YM-

20

lh

^SW"

1

=rif

PROB.

8.14

8.15 For the overcoupled case of a double-tuned circuit, derive an expression for the peak-to-valley ratio that is, M(o> m »x)/M(a> ), where A#(-) denotes amplitude. Use the notation in Section 8.4. {Hint: see Prob. 8.13.) 8.16

For the voltage
fri v\

ratio of a double-tuned circuit

™S
(s

+ 4 +y50X* + 4 -y50X* + 4

+j6Q)(.s

+4

-y60)

252

Network

analysis

and synthesis

and circle to determine the maximum and half-power points coupling K. the circuit Q. Find the gain constant A and the coefficient of and halfa x i mu 8.17 For the double-tuned circuit shown, determine the of power points and the circuit Q. Find the gain constant A and the coefficient

Use the peaking

m

m

coupling K.
10

"9

f

M=5xl<r 6 h
PROB.
8.18
8.17

Determine the delay at
F(s)

a =

0, 1,
1

and 2 for

(«)

(b)

F(s)

s+2 = s-3
s

+3
+

(c)

F(s)

=
(s

3*

IX*

+ 2)

(<*)

F(s)

=
s*

s + 1 + Is + 5

(e)

*

W

(s+2Ks*+2s+ 2)

chapter

9
II

Network

analysis

9.1

NETWORK FUNCTIONS
electric

port

network theory, the word port has a special meaning. A regarded as a pair of terminals in which the current into one terminal equals the current out of the other. For the one-port network shown in Fig. 9.1, 1=1'. A one-port network is completely specified when the voltage-current relationship at the terminals of the port is given. For example, if V = 10 v and 1 = 2 amp, then we know that the input or driving-point impedance of the one-port is
In

may be

Zi„

= — = sa

(9.1)

Whether the one-port is actually a single 5-Q resistor, two 2.5-Q resistors in series, or two 10-Q resistors in parallel, is of little importance because
the primary concern
is

the current-voltage relationship at the port.

Consider the example in which / admittance of the one-port is

=

2s

+

3 and

V=

1

;

then the input

Yto =
simplest case (Fig. 9.2).

^ = 2s + 3
parallel with

(9.2)

which corresponds to a 2-f capacitor in
its

a $-Q

resistor in

I

+

V
I'

One-port network

=!=2f

•io

FIG.

9.1

PIG. 9.2
253

254

Network

analysis and synthesis

1

h
Two-port network

h

2

+
Vi

v2
2'

r
FIG. 9.3

Two-port parameters

A general two-port network, shown in Fig. 9.3, has two pairs of voltagecurrent relationships. The variables are Vx , V2 , Ju lz Two of these are dependent variables ; the other two are independent variables. The number of possible combinations generated by four variables taken two at a time describing a two-port is six. Thus there are six possible sets of equations
.

network.

We will discuss the four most useful descriptions here.
a two-port network are the

The z parameters

A particular set of equations that describe
z-parameter equations

Vx = V2 =

z^ + zj
Z
21 l

t

(9 3)

7

+

S

wJ%

In these equations the variables Vx and Vt are dependent, and Iv I2 are independent. The individual z parameters are denned by
V,

z ll

h
v,

J,=0

h
'M

7,=0

(9.4)

«21

h

7,-0

/!=0

observed that all the z parameters have the dimensions of impedance. Moreover, the individual parameters are specified only when the current in one of the ports is zero. This corresponds to one of ports being open circuited, from which the z parameters also derive the name open-circuit
It is

Vi

zb

Vi

FIG. 9.4

Network

anal/sis

II

255

parameters. Note that z u relates the current and voltage in the 1-1' port only; whereas z M gives the current-voltage relationship for the 2-2' port.

Such parameters are called open-circuit driving-point impedances. On and z2l relate the voltage in one port to the current in the other. These are known as (open-circuit) transfer
the other hand, the parameters z liS

impedances. As an example,
in Fig. 9.4.

let

us find the open-circuit parameters for the

T circuit

We obtain the z parameters by inspection
Zll

h

=
7,=0

+z

6

z ti 7,-0

= zb + z =Z
7,-0
h

e

(9.5)
*1*

_^2
«*l

=Z
7»=0

h

6

Observe that z ia z 21 When the open-circuit transfer impedances of a two-port network are equal, the network is reciprocal. It will be shown later that most passive time-invariant networks are reciprocal. 1 Most two-port networks, whether passive or active, can be characterized by a set of open-circuited parameters. Usually, the network is sufficiently complicated so that we cannot obtain the z parameters by inspection, as
.

=

we

did for the T circuit in Fig. 9.4. The question is now, "How do we obtain the z parameters for any circuit in general?" The procedure is as

a set of node equations with the voltages at the ports and other node voltages within the two-port Va V4 Vk as the dependent variables. The independent variables are the currents It and I& which we will take to be current sources. We then proceed to write a set of node equations.
follows.

We write
,

Vx

and

Vt

,

,

.

.

.

,

h = nn V + n^Vi H - n.1^1 + +
1

+ n lk V„ ur* r + nSk Vk + nSk Vt s» r
t l

(9.6)

- "*iFi +
1

+ "**n

One important exception

is

the gyrator discussed later in this chapter.

256

Network

analysis

and synthesis
ith

where n it represents the admittance between the

and/th nodes, that

is,

»«
If the circuit is

= Gu +

sCu

+

1

(9.7)
sL, •il
it is

made up of R-L-C

elements only, then

clear that

n it

=n

ft

.

As a

result, the ijth

cofactor of the determinant of the node
they'ith cofactor,

equations,

AM

,

must be equal to

A

ti ,

that

is,

This result leads directly to the reciprocity condition z21
shall see.

= z^,

A w = AH
as

.

we

Returning to the and Vt We obtain
.

set

of node equations in Eq.

9.6, let

us solve for

Vx

Vl

~ A 1+ A

2

(9.8)

In relating this
parameters,
it is

last set

of equations to the defining equations for the z

clear that

z

u=

»ii

^
ztt

An A
(9.9)

= A8a

T

Since for a passive network

A^ = A w

,

it

follows that za

= z12

,

the

network is then reciprocal. As an example, let us find the z parameters of the Pi First, the node equations are

circuit in Fig. 9.5.

h"{TA + Yc)V -Yc V
1

l

Ia

=-Yc V
Vi

(9.10)

1

+ (YB + Yc)Vt
v2

CD

K

YB

d>

FIG.

9S

Network

anal/sis

II

257

The determinant

for this set of equations

is

Ay = YA YB + YA YC + YB YC
In terms of Ay, the open-circuit parameters for the Pi circuit are

(9.11)

+ ^~ YBAy

Yc
Zai

~Ay
(9.12)

*
Now
let

Ay

Zu

~

Y + YC A

Ay

us perform a delta-wye transformation for the circuits in Figs. 9.4 and 9.5. In other words, let us find relationships between the immittances of the two circuits so that they both have the same z parameters.

We readily obtain
Zl«

-z

-±s-

«M

- z„ + z - ^
e

Ay Ay

(9.13)

*11

- za + z r,
.

-T

YB + Yc

b

We then find

z Zo
Zc

-& Ay
(9.14)

Ay
of mesh equations for the two port in

The y parameters
Suppose we were to write a
Fig. 9.3.
set

Then the voltages

Vx and V2 would become independent sources,
would be just two of the dependent mesh mesh equations
• • "

and the currents Ix and

currents. Consider the general set of

Vi

- «uA + «iA + V% — »»mA + "hJ* H = msi/i+
= m uJ +
l

+ «i
r-

m^/j
(9.15)

+ W.A

+ m kkTk

where
the

sum of the impedances in the /th mesh and m ti is common impedance between mesh i and meshy. We note here again

m

it

represents the

258
that for
holds.

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

an R-L-C network,

m — mH
it

for all

i

and / Thus

reciprocity

Solving the set of mesh equations for /x and 7a ,
equations.

we

obtain the following

h~ A
A
The equations of 9.16

x

+

A A

*

(9.16)

*

define the short-circuit admittance parameters as

h = VuVi + yit v* h = y i^i + ynVt
S

(9

17 )

= A„/A for all i andy. Let us find the y parameters for the bridged-T circuit given in Fig. 9.6. The mesh equations for the circuit are
where ytj
s

'.

=A+
s

(-

+
s

l)h

+ ~h
s

(9.18)

\s

I

In straightforward fashion

we

obtain

A= A
A

2(2s

+

1)

-A

ls%

+ 4s +
S
*

1

(9.19)

-A - - ls + 2s +

1

FIG. 9.6

Network
The
short-circuit parameters are then

analysis

II

259

+ 4s + 1 2(2s + 1) 8 2s + 25+1 y«i = Vi* — 2(2s + 1) When ylx = yn or zu = za2 the network is symmetrical. 2
yu

=

sfa

=

2s

8

(9.20)

,

Returning to Eq. 9.17, which defines the y parameters, parameters are expressed explicitly as

we

see that the

y

911

_h
Vy Fi-0
/,

3/m

v* Fi-0

(9.21)

Vn

Vm
The reason
parameters
that the

h K h

Ft-0

v* Fi-0

y parameters are also called short-circuit admittance apparent. In obtaining yu and y a , the 2-2' port must be short circuited, and when we find yn and ylt , the 1-1' port must be short circuited, as shown in Figs. 9.7a and 9.76. As a second example, let us obtain the y parameters of the Pi circuit in
is

now

Fig. 9.5.

To

obtain y a and y M ,

we

short circuit terminals 2-2'.

We then
(9.22)

have

Vu
y»i

A

°

= -Yc

yn, *2i

,Jz

h>i

m yn Z3.
(b)

(a)

FIG. 9.7

*A
and

symmetrical network

is

easily recognized because

by interchanging the

1-1'

2-2' port designations, the network remains unchanged.

2

260

Network

analysis

and synthesis
1-1' to obtain
,g

We next short-circuit terminals
^22

= YB + Yc ^12 = -Yc

23)

The h parameters

A

set

circuits are the

of parameters that are extremely useful in describing transistor h parameters given by the equations
Vi

= *uA + hi*V* — "tl-M. "22'
"I"

(9.24)

The

individual parameters are defined

by the

relationships

h

-h
Fj=0
7l-0

(9.25)

h "21

-~ =

1*
F,-0

h "89

-h =
Jl-0

We

see that h lt

and h 91 are

short-circuit type parameters,

are open-circuit type parameters.

and hx% and h^ The parameter hn can be interpreted
It is easily
.

as the input impedance at port

seen that h u

is

1 with port 2 short circuited. merely the reciprocal of ylt

hu

=
yu
is

(9.26)

The parameter h 22
to z M by

is

an open-circuit admittance parameter and
h«a

related

=—

(9.27)

circuit current ratio,

Both the remaining h parameters are transfer functions; h 21 is a shortand h 12 is an open-circuit voltage ratio. Their relationships to the z and y parameters is discussed later in this chapter. For the Pi circuit in Fig. 9.5, the h parameters are

fcll

=
Ya

1

+ YC
(9.28)

h 12

=

h ai

fc_

Yc YA + YC = — Yc YA + YC YA YC v„ YA +YC
.

Network

analysis

II

261

h
+
NIC

h
1

t

^

1

1

FIG.

9.8.

Negative impedance converter with load impedance.

—hlt . This is the reciprocity Observe that for the Pi circuit, h^ condition for the h parameters and can be derived from their relationships to either the z or y parameters.
Next
let

=

us consider the h parameters of an ideal device called the

negative impedance converter (NIC), which converts a positive load

impedance into a negative impedance at its input port.* Consider the NIC with a load impedance ZL shown in Fig. 9.8. Its input impedance is
Z.„

= -Z,

(9.29)

which can be rewritten as
¥i

= ¥*
NIC.

(9.30)

The following voltage-current

relationships hold for the

Vx - kVt

A = kh
If

(9.31)

we

interpret Eq. 9.31 using

h parameters, we arrive at the following

conditions.

h vt

=

—=
«21

(9.32)

k

We see that since h u

j&

—h tl

,

the

In matrix notation, the h matrix of the
»ii

NIC is nonreciprocal. NIC is
k
(9.33)
.

i
.k

The NIC
is

is

a convenient device in the modeling of active

circuits.

It

not, however, a device that exists only in the imagination.

Practical

*

For a

lucid discussion of the properties of the

Matrices,

NIC, see L. P. Huelsman, Circuits, and Linear Vector Spaces, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1963,

Chapter

4.

262

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
transistors.

realizations of

these are described in

NIC's have been achieved using an article by Larky. 4

Some of

The ABCD parameters
Let us take as the dependent variables the voltage and current at the
port
1,

and define the following equation.

A
LA.

C

ara
is

(9.34)

This matrix equation defines the A, B, C,

D parameters, whose matrix is
that

known as the transmission matrix because it relates the voltage and current at the input port to their corresponding quantities at the output. The
reason the current It carries a negative sign

most transmission

engineers like to regard their output current as coming out of the output

port instead of going into the port, as per standard usage. In explicit form, the ABCD parameters can be expressed as

A=
C=
From
these relations

*
lt=0

B= - Yi
h
Fa=0
(9.35)

±
r«=o
see that

we

A

represents

an open-circuit voltage

a short-circuit transfer impedance; C is an opencircuit transfer admittance; and D is a short-circuit current ratio. Note that all four parameters are transfer functions so that the term transmission matrix is a very appropriate one. Let us describe the short-circuit transfer functions B and D in terms of y parameters, and the open-circuit transfer functions A and C in terms of z parameters. Using straightforward algebraic operations, we obtain
transfer function; J?
is

A=^
«n

B = _J_
J/21

(9.36)

c=
For the

iz 21

D = _2u
Vtl
is

ABCD

parameters, the reciprocity condition

expressed by the

equation

YA
det

B~]

C D

= AD-BC=l
Trans.

(9.37)

* A. I. Larky, "Negative-Impedance Converters,' CT-4, No. 3 (September 1957), 124-131.

IRE on

Circuit Theory,

Network

analysis

II

263

ABCD

Let us find, as an example, the parameter for the ideal trans9.9,

h
+
Vi

h
+

former in Fig.
equations are

whose denning

Vl - nVt
/1

= i(_ j8)

<*SD
FIG.
9.9. Ideal transformer.

If we express Eq. 9.38 in matrix form,

we have

n

h

1

(9.39)

n
is

so that the transmission matrix of the ideal transformer

A

B"
^s

~n

C D
L

I
«J

(9.40)

Note, incidentally, that the ideal transformer does not possess an impedance or admittance matrix because the self- and mutual inductances
are infinite. 5

For the

ideal transformer terminated in a load

impedance shown in

Fig. 9.10a, the following set of equations apply.

(9.41)

nZ,
Taking the
ratio

of

Vx to I we find the input impedance at port
l3

1

to be

Zl

=£= h

n*ZL

(9.42)

Thus we

see that

an

ideal transformer is

the load element were an inductor

L (Fig.

9.106), at port

an impedance transformer. If 1 we would see

an equivalent inductor of value n 2L. Similarly, a capacitor C at the load would appear as a capacitor of value C\n* at port 1 (Fig. 9.10c).

As a second example
*

indicating the use of the transmission matrix in

For a

detailed discussion concerning ideal transformers, see

M.

E.

Van Valkenburg,
York, 1960.

Introduction ta

Modem

Network

Synthesis,

John Wiley and Sons,

New

264

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

h
m:li

+

v2

(»)

c
n?i,

c=£

FIG. 9.10. Ideal transformer as an impedance transformer.

network
Fig. 9.5.

analysis, consider the

ABCD

parameters of the Pi circuit in

A

— Ys
1

+Yc
Yc
(9.43)

Yc YA YB + YB YC + YA YC C= Yc Y +YC A —
n
If

B=

we check for

reciprocity

from Eq.

9.43,

we

see that
)

AD-BC = (YA +

YC)(YB

+ Yc) - (YA YB + YB YC + YA YC
Ya In

-&*!
9.2

(9.44)

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO-PORT PARAMETERS

The relationships between two-port parameters are quite easily obtained because of the simple algebraic nature of the two-port equations. For example, we have seen that /t u = l/y u and h sa = l/z 2 ». To derive h lt in terms of open-circuit parameters, consider the z parameter equations

when port

1 is

open

circuited:

/x

= 0. *\ = z V = z22/2
i2-'a

(9.45)

t

Network
Therefore

analysis

II

265
(9.46)

we have

h lt
is

y = -1
V.

= 2H

Similarly, since h

n

defined as a short-circuit type parameter,

we can

derive h 21 in terms of y parameters as

h a ==

**

(9.47)

parameters alone.

We can express all the A parameters as functions of the z parameters or y An easy way to accomplish this task is by finding out
relationships are between the z
Certainly,

and y parameters themselves. and y parameters are not simply reciprocals of each other (as the novice might guess), since one set of parameters is defined for open-circuit conditions and the other for shortby
their very nature, the z
circuit.

what the

The

z

and y

relationships

can be obtained very

easily

by using matrix

notation. If we define the z matrix as

[Z]

=
L*si

(9.48)

and the y matrix as
[11

=

yu yn\
(9.49)
J/ti

Vt»]

In simplified notation

we can write
[V]

the two sets of equations as
[Z][7]

and
Replacing
[7]

= [/] =
=

(9.50) (9.51)

[Y][V]

in Eq. 9.50

by [Y][V], we obtain
[V]

[Z][Y)IV]

(9.52)

so that the product [Z][Y] must yield the unit matrix [U]. The matrices [Y] and [Z] must therefore be inverses of each other, that is,
[ZTr
1

=

[Y]

and

[IT-^IZ]

(9.53)

From
z

the relationship,

we can
Zjg

find the relations between the individual

and y parameters.
Zji


A.

A*
A.

(9.54)

266

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

TABLE

9.1

Matrix Conversion Table

[*]

M
s/«
3/12

[A]

[71
A12 Agg
1

A

ft

A

z

n

AT

z 12

a,
3/a

A,
3/u

Am
Agi

C
1

C
£>

w.

^
*22

z 22

\
3/n

A,

A*
1

Agg

c

C
Ay

z ia

A„
Au

D
B
1

A,

A,
«ii

J/12

M

Au

£
/<

«M A, A,
Z 22

A,
z 12
«*2
1

2/21

3/22

An An An

A*

An
A12

J?

J?

1

3/12

B

AT

3/ii

3/u

D
1

[A]

«a

2/21

A,
Ah. Agg Vii
1

*m
«ii

Z 22

3/ll

D
^

D C D
B

A.
Z21

3/22
3/21

An
Agi
1

m
where A„

«21
1

3/21

An
AM
A21

z22
««1

\
3/21
;

3/u
3/21

C

D

z

n
g

Agi

= zuz g — ZigZax
«ii

and
J/22

= T~ =—
2/12

=—
(9.55)

Zia

Zg!=

-

?21

where

Av =

^n2/ 22

Vi^/n-

Using these

identities

we can

derive the h

or ABCD parameters in terms of either the z or y parameters. Table 9.1 provides a conversion table to facilitate the process. Note that in the

tMe
9.3

b. T

= AD- BC

(9.56)

TRANSFER FUNCTIONS USING TWO-PORT PARAMETERS
we

will examine how to determine driving-point and of a two-port by use of two-port parameters. These transfer functions functions fall into two broad categories. The first applies to two-ports

In this section

Network
without load and source impedances.
described by

analysis

II

267

These transfer functions can be For example, let us derive the expressions for the open-circuit voltage ratio VJiVx by using paramz eters first and y parameters next. Consider the z parameter equations for the two-port when port 2 is open circuited.

means of z or y parameters

alone.

Vt =
If we take the ratio of V, to

z ai/j
(9.57)

Vx - z^ Vx we obtain
,

Yl
Vt

=

%L
*ii

(9.58)

By

letting

/2 of the second y parameter equation go to zero,

we

derive

the open-circuit voltage ratio as

(9.59)

V\

Via

In similar manner two-port as

we can

derive the short-circuit current ratio of a

(9.60)

and

Is

_ _«M

(9.61)

The open- and short-circuit transfer functions are not those we usually deal with in practice, since there are frequently source and load impedances to account for. The second category of two-port transfer
functions are those including source or load impedances. These transfer functions are functions of the two-port parameters z, h, or y and the source and/or load impedance. For example, let us derive the transfer

IJVX of a two-port network that is terminated in a resistor of/? ohms, as given in Fig. 9.1 1. For this two-port network, the following equate apply.
admittance

_

+

h
+
Vi
Two-port network

*?

+

V2

FIG. 9.11

268

Network
1

analysis

and synthesis
"~l

l°-

Zll

^-^
Vi

+1*12*2

1+

s~~-

v2

l'o-

2'

FIG.

9.12.

Two-port equivalent.

By

eliminating the variable

Vt we obtain
,

and ytl are not of the two-port network terminated in a

Note that

rsl

yJR V1 yu + 1/R the same. YS1 is
resistor

(9.63)

the transfer admittance

R, and y n

is

the transfer

make admittance when port 2 is short circuited. similar nature. this distinction in other cases of a In order to solve for transfer functions of two-ports terminated at either port by an impedance ZL , it is convenient to use the equivalent circuit of the two-port network given in terms of its z parameters (Fig. parameters (Fig. 9.13). The equivalent voltage sources z lg/a 9.12) or
careful to

We must be

y and z„Ix in Fig. 9.12 are called controlled sources because they depend 6 upon a current or voltage somewhere in the network. Similarly, the current sources y lt Vt and y^Yx are controlled sources. For the circuit in Fig. 9.12, let us find the transfer impedance Zm = VJIU with port 2
"1
1
1

+

a.
y2iVil
yi
'

1

y22

Y2

v2

1
I

2'

FIG.

9.13.

Two-port equivalent.

« For a lucid treatment of controlled 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company,

sources, see E. J. Angelo, Electronic Circuits,

New York,

1964.

Network
terminated in a load impedance
the /* mesh,

anal/sis

II

269
for

ZL

.

If

we

write the

mesh equation

we have

-«tA-(*ii
Since

+ Zx )li

(9.64)

Vt = —ItZL we readily obtain
,

z« two-port network
is

r = ^rr
=
"*» + zz,

< 9 - 65 >

It also is clear that the current-ratio transfer

function for the terminated

-*

(9.66)

h
In similar fashion,

Z22

we

obtain the voltage-ratio transfer function for the

circuit represented in Fig. 9.13 as

Via.

^8 + yM
Next, suppose

(9.67)

we

are required to find the transfer function

VJV„

for

the two-port network terminated at both ends, as

shown

in Fig. 9.14.

We first write the two mesh equations
(9.68)

Next,

we

solve for It to give

/t

From

the equation

+ 2ll)(^2 + «m) - *1**21 Vt = —RtI%, we may now arrive
(«1

=

(9.69)

at the following

solution.

Y*=_Ml =
V,

?«£t
{R1

V„

+

z^)(R t

+ z,,) - znZlt

(9.70)

*u

r^aro £>*
FIG. 9.14

270

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

—MAA"
211-Z12
»Z12

h WW—^O1-^
Z22-Z12

(Z21-«12Ml

Vl

v2

FIG. 9.15. Two-port equivalent

circuit

with one controlled-voltage source.

Note that the equivalent

circuits

of the two-ports in Figs. 9.12 and

9.13 are not unique. Two other examples are given in Figs. 9.15 and 9.16. Observe that the controlled sources are nonzero in these equivalent
circuits

only

if

the circuit

is

nonreciprocal.

Finally, let us consider the hybrid equivalent circuit

shown in

Fig. 9.17.

Observe the voltage-controlled source A gl F2 at port 1 and the currentcontrolled source Ag^ at port 2. Let us find the input impedance Z ln
.

The

pertinent equations are

Vi

=

h lxh

+ hi*V*

(9.71)

and

Va = -ZLh = ~(h 2lh + h^V^ ZL Vt we find
,

(9.72)

Solving Eq. 9.72 for

V = —
1

htiZiJi

(9.73)

+

h&ZL
we have
\ j

Substituting V, in Eq. 9.73 into Eq. 9.71,

t^

( i.
\ 1

hiah« z &

(9.74)

+

h^LjJ
(9.75)

so that

h
yi2

1

fc

MZ£
-<

o-ii-

-WW.yu + yn
y22

h

o

,73

Vi

+ yi2<

Q)

f
I

Vi

FIG. 9.1*. Two-port equivalent

circuit

with one controlled-current source.

Network

anal/sis

II

271

FIG. 9.17. Hybrid equivalent

circuit.

We can easily check to see that Eq. 9.75 is dimensionally correct since Au has the dimensions of impedance, h 22 is an admittance, and h 12 h tl are
,

dimensionless since they represent voltage and current ratios, respectively.

9.4

INTERCONNECTION OF TWO-PORTS
we
will consider various interconnections of two-ports.

In this section

We will see that when a pair of two-ports are cascaded, the overall transmission matrix is equal to the product of the individual transmission matrices of the two-ports. When two two-ports are connected in series, their z matrices add ; when they are connected in parallel, their y matrices
add.
ports
that
First let us consider the case in

which we connect a pair of two-

Na and N

h

in cascade or in tandem, as

shown

in Fig. 9.18.

We see
(9.76)

The transmission matrix equation

k
12a
+'

ra-ra
for

N

a is

ara
hb

(9.77)

z
i

+
Vi

\
Vn

*i

N

+

tt

Vsa


Nb

v2
-

FIG. 9.18. Cascade connection of two ports.

272

Network

analysis and synthesis

9-*-

h r"

h
Za

h'
<

9

Vi

DC
L.
Gyrator__

V2

Vi'

*b

V2

'

FIG. 9.19. Gyrator in tandem with

T circuit.

Correspondingly, for N„

we have

(9.78)

Substituting the second matrix into the

first,

we

obtain

Ma-eara
We
see that the transmission matrix of the overall two-port

<network
is

simply the product of the transmission matrices of the individual twoports.

As an example,
gyrator
is

let

us calculate the overall transmission matrix of a

gyrator 7 in tandem with a
related to

T network shown in Fig. 9.19. The ideal an impedance inversion device whose input impedance Zta is its load impedance ZL by

Zm =

a*YL

=
The constant a
in Eq. 9.80
is

21

(9.80)

Zi
defined as the gyration resistance.
its

If

we

regard the gyrator as a two-port,

denning equations are

Vx =

a(-/«)
(9.81)

h - - vt a

' B. D. H. Tellegen, "The Gyrator, a New Electric Network Element," Phillips Research Repts., 3 (April 1948), 81-101, see also Huelsman, op. eit., pp. 140-148.

Network
so that the transmission matrix of the gyrator
"0
1
is

analysis

II

in

a

-

We see that for the gyrator
Therefore the gyrator
is

.a

J
(9.82)

AD-BC<=-1

a nonreciprocal device, although it is passive. 8 The overall transmission matrix of the configuration in Fig. 9.19 is obtained by the product of the individual transmission matrices

A

B
i
La

za

+z

»

V* + V. + V.

C D

(9.83)

a

+ *»
az h

V* + Vc + V.
ah
we
see that for

If

we check

the configuration in Fig. 9.19 for reciprocity,

transmission matrix in Eq. 9.83

AD-BC=-\
We
gyrator yields a configuration that
is

(9.84)

thus see that any reciprocal network connected in tandem with a
nonreciprocal.
situation in

Next consider the

which a pair of two-ports

Na

and

N

b

are connected in parallel, as

shown

in Fig. 9.20.

Let us find the

FIG. 9.20. Parallel connection of two ports.
*

Most gyrators are microwave

devices that depend

upon the Hall effect in

ferrites.

274

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

lc

FIG. 9.21

y parameters for the overall two-port network. The matrix equations
for the individual two-ports are

L/J
and

V V

J/llo

Vila'
2/*2a-

-Vila
~2/ll6

W
>«"

>1«"

(9.85)

2/l2&

UJ
Fig. 9.20,

-2/216

2/226-

UJ
must hold.
'26

(9.86)

From

we

see that the following equations

V\

~ V\a = V\h h = Ao + Aft

V*

=

^2o

=

A = Ao + I»
we must be
is

(9.87)

In connecting two-ports in series or in parallel,
that the individual character of a two-port network

careful

not altered when connected in series or parallel with another two-port. For example, when we connect the two-ports in Fig. 9.21 in parallel, the impedances Z, and Zg will be short circuited. Therefore, to insure that a two-port network
does not interfere with the internal affairs of the other, ideal transformers are used to provide the necessary isolation. In matrix notation, the sum of the individual [/J matrices of the two-ports in parallel must equal the [/] matrix of the overall two-port network. Thus we have

(9.88)

4

Vila
2/21a

2/«« Vtia

J/116

2/126

2/226-

y**

Network
/la
/&,
*

anal/sis

II

275

+

+
JV«

+

3
C

e>

V2a
Vz

Ideal

Vi

In

lib

+

+
Vu,

Vu
'-'

Nb

^
FIG. 9.22. Series connection of two ports.

so that the y parameters of the overall two-port network can be expressed
in terms of the y parameters of the individual two-ports as
|yii

y«1
y»J

_

Ly«
If

+ lytia +
[vna
as

Vub Vtu

yita

+ y*ta +

Vin
(9.89)
ytu>-

we connect

two-ports in

series,

shown

the z parameters of the overall two-port
eters

in Fig. 9.22, we can express network in terms of the z param-

of the individual two-ports as

pil
LZ»i

^t]
2tJ

*11& _ pUa + «U» Z Lzaia + Zflb

Zl*.

21ft

+ 2m Z z Mo + z*i J
"l

(9.90)

222&-1

We may summarize by the following three points.
first,

two-ports are connected in parallel, find the y parameters and, from the y parameters, derive the other two-port parameters. 2. When two-ports are connected in series, it is usually easiest to find the z parameters. 3. When two-ports are connected in tandem, the transmission matrix
1.

When

is

generally easier to obtain.

As a

final

example,

let

us find the y parameters of the bridged-T circuit

in Fig. 9.6.

We see that the bridged-T circuit would be decomposed into

first

a parallel connection of two-ports, as shown in Fig. 9.23. Our task is to The y parameters find the y parameters of the two-ports a and b of b are obtained by inspection and are

N

N

.

N

= y*u, = — i = y*n = s Viiii
ym>

(9.91)

N

a is

a

T circuit so

that the z parameters can be obtained

by

inspection.

276

Network

analysis

and synthesis

These are
zllo

— 2Mo — S +
1

l

(9.92)
ZlSn — Z«]„ *12o *Mo

We then find the y parameters from the equations
Az„
2s

+
2s

1

(9.93)

yi2a = y«io = t
2 12a

+

1

Since both JV and
circuit are

N

b

are symmetrical two-ports,

for the overall bridged-T circuit.

we know that ylt — yat The y parameters for the bridged-T

now

obtained as
3/ii

=

+ Viu = s(s + 1) 2s + 1
Vila

1

=

2s*

2(2s

+ 4s + 1 + 1)
(9.94)
2s*

tflt

Vl2a

+

Vltb

sf_
2s

_

1

+

2s

+
l)

1

+

1

2

2(2s

+

9.5

INCIDENTAL DISSIPATION
seen, the system function H(s) of an

As we have

R-L-C network consists

of a ratio of polynomials whose coefficients are functions of the resistances, inductances, and capacitances of the network. We have considered, up
to this point, that the inductors

and capacitors are

dissipationless;

i.e.,

Network
there are

analysis

II

277

no parasitic resistances associated with the L and C. Since, at high frequencies, parasitic losses do play an important role in governing system performance, we must account for this incidental dissipation
effective way of accounting for parasitic resistances is to the pure inductances and capacitances with incidental dissipation by associating a resistance r, in series with every inductor L { ,

somehow.

An

"load

down"

and, for every capacitor Ct , we associate a resistor whose admittance is t , g as depicted in Fig. 9.24. Suppose we call the system function of the network without parasitic dissipation (Fig. 9.24a) H(s), and the system
function of the "loaded" network H^s) (Fig. 9.246). Let us consider the the relationship between H(s) and H^s) when the dissipation is uniform,
i.e.,

in a

manner such

that
(9.95)

Lt

Ct

where the constant a is real and positive. When a network has uniform dissipation or is uniformly loaded, the sum of impedances in any mesh of the unloaded network

m
becomes, after loading,

if

<=

R +
4

sL{

+—

(9.96)

m'a

= JR, + sL +
t

r,

+ +
1

(9.97)

= R + L&i +
{

a)

C (s +
4

a)

Si

c,

L-vw-J

HM
Hi(s)
(a)

* H(s + a)
(b)

FIG. 9.24.

(a) Original

network.

(A)

Loaded network.

278

Network

analysis and synthesis

Jf
-It-

2Q

=*=**

<2h

1Q

FIG. 9.25

Similarly,

on node

basis, if the

admittance between any two nodes of the

original (unloaded)

network
n if

is

=G +
t

sCt

+

1

(9.98)

then the same node admittance after loading
»'„

is

=G +
t

sCt

+

g(

+

1

(9.99)

=G +
t

Q(s

+ a) +
L,(s

1

+ a)
mesh or node equabecomes
is

Since any system function can be obtained through
tions,
it is

readily seen that the original system function H(s)

H(s H(s

+ +

«) after the
a).

network has been uniformly loaded, that
first

/^(s)

=

Consider the following example. Let us
the unloaded network in Fig. 9.25.
1 s
,

find the

y parameters for

By
s

inspection
1
,

we have

,

7s

2

3

4

2

12

Vu

= 1 + — + - - 1 + —7—
2s

(9.100)

4

4s

Via

= »»i=-4

Then, for a loading constant a = J, the loaded network is shown in Fig. 9.26. In parallel with the capacitor Cx = J f, we have an admittance
gl

= *C1 = $mho
Ct =
J
f,

(9.101)
is

In parallel with the capacitor
gt

the associated admittance

— *Ca = imho

(9.102)

Network

anal/sis

II

279

-vw
L-\H
J
20*

80

if

< 1Q
10

6Q<

=*f

1 2h 1 3
o—
FIG. 9.26. Loaded network a


= J.
resistor

In series with the inductor

L=
r,

2

h,

we have a

=

olL

=1Q
,

(9.103)

Now we determine the y parameters for the loaded network to be
>

1

.

s

,

1

s

.

1

= i + Ks + i) + - 1 + A(* + t)
y'«

K*

+

i)

=i+

+1 4 + D* + 2 =i+ 4(s + |)
2a-

8

(a

'-- (H~*H)
We
ship

(9.104)

see that the y parameters of the loaded network could have been obtained from the y parameters of the unloaded network by the relation-

H

t (s)

=

H(s

+

a).

We will make use of the uniform loading concept to prove an important
theorem concerning network
9.6
realizability in

Chapter

10.

ANALYSIS OF LADDER NETWORKS

In this section we will consider a simple method of obtaining the network functions of a ladder network in a single operation.* This method depends only upon relationships that exist between the branch
* F. F. Kuo and G. H. Leichner, "An Iterative Method for Determining Ladder Network Functions," Proc. IRE, 47, No. 10 (Oct. 1959), 1782-1783.

280

Network

analysis

and synthesis

z,

>

p

'i

*2

*
I

*

^

^*4

*J*i

FIG. 9.27. Ladder network.

currents

and node voltages of the
all

ladder.

Consider the network shown

in Fig. 9.27, where
all

the series branches are given as impedances and

the parallel branches are given as admittances.

voltages

and

i

If the v denote node denote branch currents, then the following relationships

apply.
vi+1

=

il+i

Zi+s +

vi+>

These equations form the basis of the method we discuss here. To illustrate this method, consider the network in Fig. 9.28, for which the following node voltage and branch current relationships apply.

- yJA v^s) VJL») - '*(*) U') + v&) = [1 + Z^*) Yt (s)] v&) h(s) - Y2 (s) VJLs) + Us) = {Y&)[1 + ZJs) Us)] + Y,{s)} VAs) V (s) = I (s)Z (s)+Va(s) = {zjlyai + z,yj + rj + (i+ z,n)} v&)
/•(*)
1 1 1

(9.106)

Upon examining the set of equations given in Eq. 9.106, we see that each equation depends upon the two previous equations only. The first equation, Vt V% is, of course, unnecessary. But, as we shall see later, it is helpful as a starting point. In writing these equations, we begin at

=

l

h

+
Vi

Zi

\-^H
Y2

z3
Y*

T
v2

j.
FIG. 9.28

Network
the 2-2' port of the ladder

analysis

II

281

and work towards the 1-1' port. Each succeeding equation takes into account one new immittance. We see, further, that with the exception of the first two equations, each subsequent
is obtained by multiplying the equation just preceding it by the immittance that is next down the line, and then adding, to this product the equation twice preceding it. For example, we see that /,(» is obtained by multiplying the preceding equation V&) by the admittance Yt(s). The next immittance is ZJis). We obtain KB(i) by multiplying the previous equation IJs) by ZJs) to obtain /gZjj then we add to this product the equation twice preceding it, V^s), to obtain Va It Z, Vt The process

equation

=

+

.

then easily mechanized according to the following rules (1) alternate writing node voltage and branch current equations; (2) the next equation is obtained by multiplying the present equation by the next immittance
is
:

(as

we work from one port
this set

to the other),

and adding to

this

product the

results of the previous equation.

Using

of equations,

dividing the equation for V^s)
voltage-ratio transfer

obtain the input impedance Z{n(s) by by the equation for I^s). We obtain the function V£s)IVi(s) by dividing the first equation

we

P*C0 by the

last

equation

V-fe).

We obtain other network functions such
ratios in similar

as transfer immittances
tions, the
if

every equation contains

VJs) term is
1.

manner. Note that In taking ratios of these equacanceled. Therefore, our analysis can be simplified

and current

Vt(s) as a factor.

we

let

K2(j) =
first

equation of the set were a current variable fj(s) instead of the voltage Vi(s), the subsequent equations would contain the current variable I£s) as a factor, which we could also normalize to 7/s) 1. An example
If the

=

a current rather than a voltage equation may be seen by determining the y parameters of a two-port network. Before we embark upon some numerical examples, it is important to note that we must represent the series branches as impedances and the shunt branches as admittances. Suppose the series branch consisted of a
first

in which the

equation

is

resistor

R=

1 £2 is

in parallel with a capacitor

C=

J f Then the impedance
.

of the branch

z(s) =
and must be considered as a
ladder.
Similarly, if a shunt

-^L = _i+R +
llsC
s

2

(9 . 107) v '

single entity in writing the equations for the

an inductor L^

=

1

h, then the admittance of the

branch consists of a resistor R1 branch is

= 2Q and

y(s)

=

7T~ 2 + s

( 9 - 108 >

,

282

Network

analysis and synthesis

The key point

in this discussion is that we must use the total impedance or admittance of a branch in writing the equations for the ladder.

Example 9.1. Let us find the voltage ratio VJVlt the current ratio Ijlu the input impedance Zx = VJIlt and the transfer impedance Zn = VJI-i for the network in Fig. 9.29. First, we must represent the series branches as impedances and the shunt branches as admittances, as shown in Fig. 9.30. The branch current and node voltage equations for the network are

h

h
-/fflnp-*—
3h

f
Vi

h —*3s

*h

2f=t=

V2

Vi

2«i
FIG. 9.30

V,

FIG. 9.29

V^s)

=

1

Us)

= 2s
3s(2s)

Va(s) =
It(s)

+ +

1

=

6s*

+

1

(9.109)

=

-(6s* s

1)

+ 2s = +
6s2

14s

+s

VM
{

14g+
\)

+ l=6s* + 57+-l
S*

The various network

functions are then obtained.

(a)

7 —


Yi

— 6^+57^+8 3
14s

+2s

s*

<*)

6s»

+

57s8

+

8
(9.110)

2s*
(c) li

14s*

+2
14s2

id)

** ~
9.2.

/x

"

+

2

Example network

Find the

short-circuit admittance functions

y n and

j/2 i

for the

in Fig. 9.31. To obtain the short-circuit functions, we must short circuit the 2-2' port. Then we represent the series branches as impedances and

the shunt branches as admittances so that the resulting network

is

given as

is

Network

analysis

II

283

l

h
»lh =j=2f

rVW*-i

V.

I.

2a
Vi 2f

FIG. 9.31
illustrated in Fig. 9.32.
/,

The

pertinent equations are

Ja

=1 Va =2 = K2) + 1 = * +

1

(9.111)
2$*

h

+

l/5\

5/2

We now obtain our short-circuit functions as

7J + 5 +
h
+
la

12

2

1

-,'

yn
1

h ~^~~5

2
's.aa

(9.112)

«» +

»

Vi

2

+l

«

o—
A
number of other
in the recent literature.

1

FIG. 9.32

contributions

Bashkow,10 O'Meara,11
10

on ladder networks have appeared but a few, there are the works of Bubnicki," Walker," and Dutta Roy. 14

To name

T. R. Bashkow, "A Note on Ladder Network Analysis," IRE Trans, on Circuit Theory, CT-8, (June 1961), 168. 11 T. R. O'Meara, "Generating Arrays for Ladder Network Transfer Functions," IEEE Trans, on Circuit Theory, CT-10, (June, 1963), 285. 11 Z. Bubnicki, "Input Impedance and Transfer Function of a Ladder Network,"

IEEE Trans, on Circuit Theory, CT-10, (June, "F. Walker, "The Topological Analysis
Proc. IEEE, 52,

1963), 286.

of Non-Recurrent Ladder Networks,"

No. 7, (July, 1964), 860. 14 S. C. Dutta Roy, "Formulas for the Terminal Impedances and Transfer Functions of General Multimesh Ladder Networks," Proc. IEEE, 52, No. 6, (June, 1964), 738.


284

>

Network

analysis

and synthesis

computer is an

Because of the recursive nature of the equations involved, the digital ideal tool for the analysis of ladder networks. In Chapter 15 a detailed description is given of a digital computer program based upon the algorithm described in this section for evaluating ladder network
functions.

Problems
9.1

Find the

z,

y, h,

and

T parameters of the networks shown in the figures.

Some of the parameters may not be defined for particular

c

circuit configurations.

-OQ—
'

PS Y

o
(a)

(b)

(e)

PROB.
9.2

9.1

Find the

z,

y, h,

and

T parameters for the networks shown in the figures,
1

lo

—iA/W

<
i

\AAA/

o2

Network

analysis

II

285

93 Find the z parameters for the lattice and bridge shown. (The results should be identical.)

circuits in the figures

9.4

For the

lattice

and bridge

circuits in Prob. 9.3 find the

terms of the admittances

Ya =

1/Z„

and

Yb

=•

MZb

y parameters

in

.

93 For the circuit shown, find the voltage-ratio transfer function VJVX and the input impedance x = V^lx in terms of the 2 parameters of the two-port network and the load resistor RL .

N

Z
1

h

I2

2

+
Vi

+

N

Rl<
1

v2
_

1'

2'

PROB. 9S

286

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

9.6 For the cascade connection of two-ports depicted in the figure, show that the transfer impedance Zj 8 of the overall circuit is given in terms of the a parameters of the individual two-ports by the equation

In addition, show that the short-circuit admittance yri
V-a

is

given by

= -

VnJti»
Vu.b

+

Vita

h
+
Vi

h
+

Na

Nb

v2 PROB.
9.7

PROB.
9.7
figure.

9.6

of

Lx

,

Find the z and y parameters of the transformer (nonideal) shown in the Determine the T- and w-equivalent circuits for the transformer in terms L2 , and M. {Hint: Use the z parameters for the T-equivalent circuit,

and the y parameters for the w-equivalent circuit.) 9.8 The inverse hybrid parameters of a two-port network are defined by the
equation

eh

*ii

gl*
<f22j

g parameters in terms of either the z or y parameters and give a physical interpretation of the meaning of these parameters; i.e., say whether a parameter is an open- or short-circuit parameter, and whether it is a driving point or transfer function. Finally, derive the conditions of reciprocity for the g parameters.
Express the
9.9

Prove that for a passive reciprocal network

AD - BC =
9.10 Find the z and h parameters of the sented by its T-circuit model.

1

where A, B, C, Dare the elements of the transmission matrix.

common

emitter transistor repre-

-VA
Vi

— —Wv-^O
i

-o
.

r

mh

+

J2

V2

PROB. 9.10

Network
9.11
input circuit

anal/sis

II

287

The circuit in part (a) of the figure is to be described by an equivalent shown in part (b). Determine Zeq in (b) as a function of the elements
in (a).

and voltages

R,

9.12

Find the
figure.

T parameters

of the configurations shown in parts (a) and (b)

of the

9.13 Find the y parameters of the twin-T circuit in Prob. 9.2c by considering the circuit to be made up of two T circuits in parallel.

9.14

Find the z parameters of the

circuits

shown.

288
1

Network
o

anal/sis

and synthesis
Y„

>—

h

h

-o

2

+

Vi

V2

V
1

Ideal

2*

transformer

(a)

h

Z„

h<

2

o

Vi

V2

Ideal

2'

<b)

transformer

PROB.

9.14

Ideal

transformer

PROB.

9.15

PROB. 9.16

i

Network
9.15 9.16 9.17

analysis

II

289

Find the

z

parameters of the circuit shown.
circuit

Find the z parameters of the

shown.

For the circuit in Prob. 9.26 determine the y parameters of the uniformly

loaded circuit derived from the original circuit with the dissipation a =0.1. Plot the poles and zeros of both cases.
9.18 Find the transfer impedance VJIX for the circuit in part (a) and the voltage ratio VJV1 for the circuit in part (b). Plot the poles and zeros for the transfer functions obtained.

o—>- /Tnnn^-r-^voTP
}h
Vi

h

.


+
10

in

:£4f

V2

(a)

2

—WWif;*:
(6)

2h

+
lf=:
:ia

Vi

v2

PROB.
network

9.18

9.19

Find the

short-circuit parameters for the ladder

utilizing the

method

in Section 9.6.

HWv—
20<
if

10

Hwv—i-'Tnnp-^
=t=if

20

_lh

PROB.
30

9.1*

|—VvV-|
Yf-rifippJfL£-

if

20-

Vi

if==

1Q<

V2

4f=r

PROB. 9.20
9.20 Determine the voltage ratio VJVlt the current ratio IJIlt the transfer impedance VJIlt and the driving point impedance Fi//a for the network shown.

chapter 10

Elements

<|>f

realizability

theory

10.1

CAUSALITY

AND

STABILITY

In the preceding chapters we have beep primarily concerned with the problem of determining the response, giver^ the excitation and the network; this problem lies in the domain of network analysis. In the next five chapters we will be dealing with the problem of synthesizing a network
given the excitation E(s) and the response R(s). any synthesis problem is the system function

The

starting point for

—3
Our task is The first
to synthesize a network

(10.1)

from a given system function. procedur^ is to determine whether H(s) step in a synthesis can be realized as a physical passive network. There are two important considerations causality and stability. By causality we mean that a
voltage cannot appear between any pair of terminals in the network before a current is impressed, or vice ver^a. In other words, the impulse

response of the network must be zero for
h(t)

t

<

0, that is,

=

<0
=
e- «(0

(10.2)

As an example,

the impulse response
h(t)

(10.3a) (10.36)

is

causal, whereas

h(t)

= e- "
290

Elements of

realizability

theory

291

W-T)

(a)

(b) (b) Realizable

FIG.

10.1. (a)

Nonrealizable impulse response,

impulse response.

is

not causal.

realizable (causal)

In certain cases, the impulse response could be made by delaying it appropriately. For example, the impulse
is

response in Fig. 10.1a
seconds,
10.16).

not realizable.

If

we

delay the response by

T

we

find that the delayed response h{t

T)

is

realizable (Fig.

In the frequency domain, causality is implied when the Paley-Wiener criterion 1 is satisfied for the amplitude function \H(jw)\. The Paley-Wiener criterion states that a necessary and sufficient condition for an amplitude
function \H(ja>)\ to be realizable (causal)
|log \H(ja>)\
is

that

£

1

+o>a

dco

<

oo

(10.4)

The following conditions must be satisfied before the Paley-Wiener criterion is valid: h(t) must possess a Fourier transform H(ja>); the square magnitude function \H(jw)\* must be integrable, that is,
\H(jco)\ *dco

r.

<

oo

(10.5)

The physical implication of the Paley-Wiener criterion is that the amplitude \H(jco)\ of a realizable network must not be zero over a finite band of frequencies. Another way of looking at the Paley-Wiener criterion is that
the amplitude function cannot
order.
fall off

to zero faster than exponential

For example, the ideal low-pass filter in Fig. 10.2 is not realizable because beyond m c the amplitude is zero. The Gaussian shaped curve

|HO)l
shown
in Fig. 10.3
is

=

e~°

(10.6)

not realizable because
|log|tf0a>)||

=

o*

(10.7)

1

Am. Math.

R. E. A. C. Paley and N. Wiener, "Fourier Transforms in the Complex Domain," Soc. Colloq. Pub., 19 (1934), 16-17.

292

Network

analysis
\H(ja>)\

and synthesis

\H(ju)\

FIG.

10.2. Ideal filter char-

FIG.
istic.

10.3.

Gaussian

filter

character-

acteristic

so that the integral

f" J-*

«>

1

+

i

dea

,

(10.8)

eof

is

not

finite.

On the other hand,

the amplitude function
1

\H(jo>)\

(10.9)

vrr

co-

does represent a realizable network. Ih fact, the voltage-ratio transfer function of the R-C network in Fig. 10.4 has an amplitude characteristic
given by \H(Jm)\ in Eq. 10.9. For the ideal filter in Fig. 10.2, the inverse transform A(f) has the form

h{t)

=A

sin <o c t

(10.10)

nt

A is a constant. From the sin xfx curve in Fig. 3J4, we see that nonzero for t less than zero. In fact, in order to make h(t) causal, it must be delayed by an infinite amount. In practice, however, if we delay h(i) by a large but finite amount t d such that for t < the magnitude of h(t — t^ is less than a very small quantity e, that is,
where
h(t) is

\Kt

~

Q\

<

e

*<0

—wwv
1Q
Vi(s)

lr.^z

v

w

FIG,. 10.4

Elements of

realizability

theory

293
is

we then can approximate
zero for
t

h(t

t£ by a causal response h^t) which

< 0.

(For a more
is stable,

detailed discussion of the Paley-Wiener

criterion, the reader is referred to

an

excellent treatment

by Wallman.*)
the response

then for a bounded excitation If a network is also bounded. In other words, if (0

e(t)

KOKCi
then

0^r<oo
0<.t<co
If a linear system
is

KOI

<

C*

where
stable,

Cx and

C, are

real, positive, finite quantities.

then from

the convolution integral

we

obtain

IKOI

<

CiJ"|*(t)I dr

<

C,

(10.11)

Equation 10.1 1 requires that the impulse response be absolutely integrable,
or
""|/i(t)|

dr

<

oo

(10.12)

/;

One important requirement for h(t) to be absolutely integrable
impulse response approach zero as
t

is

that the

approaches

infinity, that is,

lim/i(r)-"0
<-»00

can be said that with the exception of isolated impulses, the impulse response must be bounded for all t, that is,
Generally,
it

|A(0I<C

all*

(10.13)

where C is a real, positive, finite number. Observe that our definition of stability precludes such terms as sin ay from the impulse response because sin a> f is not absolutely integrable.
These undamped sinusoidal terms are associated with simple poles on the yw axis. Since pure L-C networks have system functions with simple poles on the jm axis, and since we do not wish to call these networks unstable, we say that a system is marginally stable if its impulse response approach zero as t is bounded according to Eq. 10.13, but does not
approaches infinity. In the frequency domain, the

stability criterion requires that the

system

G. E. Valley Jr. and H. Wallman, Vacuum Tube Amplifiers, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1948, Appendix A, pp. 721-727.

294

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

function possess poles in the left-half piane or on theyw axis only. More-

on theyVo axis must be sini]pie. 3 As a result of the requirement of simple poles on they'w axis, if H{,s) is given as
over, the poles

H(s)

=

a„s

n

bm

m s

+ +

a n_ 1 s

n~ 1

+

m~ l b m _ lS

+ +! +
• • •

fl x s

+a bis + b

(10.14)

then the order of the numerator n cannot exceed the order of the denominator m by more than unity, that is, n — m <£ 1. If n exceeded m by more than unity, this would imply that at s =jo> = oo, and there would be a multiple pole. To summarise, in order for a network to be stable, the following three conditions oii its system function H(s) must be satisfied:
1.

H(s) cannot have poles in the right-fealf plane.

2.
3.

H(s) cannot have multiple poles in

tjhey'w axis.

The degree of

the numerator of H(s) cannot exceed the degree of

the denominator by
Finally,
it

more than

unity.

should be pointed out that a rational function H(s) with poles
is

in the left-half plane only has an inverse transform h(t), which
t

zero for

< 0.*

In

this respect, stability implies causality.

Since system funct'ons

of passive linear networks with lumped elements are rational functions
with poles in the left-half plane or jco axis only, causality ceases to be a problem when we deal with system functions of this type. We are only

concerned with the problem of causality when we have to design a filter for a given amplitude characteristic such as the ideal filter in Fig. 10.2. We know we could never hope to realize exactly a filter of this type because the impulse response would not^ be causal. To this extent the Paley- Wiener criterion is helpful in denning the limits of our capability.

10.2

HURWITZ POLYNOMIALS
we saw
that in order fot a system function to be stable,

In Section 10.1
its

poles must be restricted to the left-half plane or theyeo axis. Moreover,

the poles

on

theyco axis

must be simple. The denominator polynomial of
of]

the system function belongs to a class

polynomials

known
gave

as Hurwitz

*
i tt

In Chapter 6
sin wot.

it

was shown that multiple poles on

they'co axis

rise to

terms as

4 G. Raisbeck, "A Definition of Passive Linear Networks in Terms of Time and Energy," /. Appl. Phys., 25 (Dec., 1954), 15ip-1514. The proof follows straightforwardly from the properties of the Laplace transform.

Elements of
polynomials.

realizability

theory

295

A

polynomial P(s)

is

said to be Hurwitz if the following

conditions are satisfied:
1.

P(s)

2.

is real when s is real. The roots of P(s) have real

parts which are zero or negative.
if P(s) is

As a

result

of these conditions,
P(s)

a Hurwitz polynomial given by
(10.15)

= ansn + a^s"-1 +-- + a1s + a
must be
real
;

then then

all
ac,

the coefficients a {

if s {

= +

<x

4

+ j@ is a root of P(s),
-js/2)
(10.16)

must be

negative.

The polynomial
1)(j

P(s)
is

= (s+
all

+

1

+js/2)(s

1

Hurwitz because hand,

of its roots have negative real parts.
G(s)

On the

other

=

(s

-

l)(.y

+

2)(j

+

3)

(10.17)

is

not Hurwitz because of the root s = 1, which has a positive real part. Hurwitz polynomials have the following properties:

1. All the coefficients a { are nonnegative. This is readily seen by examining the three types of roots that a Hurwitz polynomial might have. These are

= — y< s = ±.jm s — —cti±.jPi
s
t

yt

real

and

positive

(Of real
a-i

real

and

positive

The polynomial P(s) which contains
P(s)

these roots can be written as

= (s +

y< Xji

+

<»*)[(*

+

oO*

+

m

(10.18)
it

Since P(s)

is

the product of terms with only positive coefficients,

follows

must be positive. A corollary is that between the highest order term in s and the lowest order term, none of the coeffithat the coefficients of P(s)
cients

may be
• •

zero unless the polynomial
»

is

even of odd. In other words,

is neither even nor odd. This is readily seen because the absence of a term a{ implies cancellation brought about by a root s — y< with a positive real part. 2. Both the odd and even parts of a Hurwitz polynomial P(s) have roots on the ja> axis only. If we denote the odd part of P(s) as n(s) and the even part as m(s), so that

fln-i. a«-2>

fl»» <*i

must not be zero

if

the polynomial

P(s)

= n(s) + m(j)

(10.19)

296

Network

analysis and synthesis

then m(s) and n(s) both have roots on tne jw axis only. The reader is 8 referred to a proof of this property by Guillemin. 3. As a result of property 2, if P(s) is either even or odd, all its roots are

on

they'co axis.

4.

The continued

fraction expansion of the ratio of the

odd

to even

parts or the even to

odd

parts of a Hurwitz polynomial yields all positive

quotient terms.
y(j)

= m(s)ln(s),

n(s)lm(s) or Suppose we denote the ratios as y>(s) then the continued fraction expansion of y>(s) can be

written as
y(s)

= q xs +
«««

^
+
«ss

(10.20)

+

6 P(s) = «(j) + m(s) is Hurwitz.

where the quotients qlt q%,..-,qn must be positive

if

the polynomial

To

obtain the continued fraction expany>(s) is

sion,

we must perform a

series

of long divisions. Suppose
V<s)

= 2®
n(s)
if

(10.21)

where m(s)
m(s),

we

is of one higher degree than n(s). Then obtain a single quotient and a remainder

we

divide n(s) into

n(s)

The degree of the term R^s) is one lower than the degree of «(*). Therefore if we invert the remainder term and divide, we have
»(°L

=q . + M2l

(io.23)

Inverting

and dividing again, we obtain

RM^qj + M)
*,(*)
*

(10.24)

*.(«)

1949.

E. Guillemin, The Mathematics of Circuit Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, An excellent treatment of Hurwitz polynomials is given here. * proof can be undertaken in connection with L-C driving-point functions; see

A

E. Van Valkenburg, Introduction to Modern Network Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1960.

M.

Elements of

realteability

theory

297

We
of

see that the process of obtaining the continued fraction expansion

simply involves division and inversion. At each step we obtain a then invert the quotient term q<s and a remainder term, R {+1 (s)/RJ[s). into RJs) to obtain a new quotient. remainder term and divide There is a theorem in the theory of continued fraotions which states that
ip(s)

We

R^s)

the continued fraction expansion of the even to
7 finite in length.

odd or odd

to even parts

Another theorem states that, if of a polynomial must be fraction expansion of the odd to even or even to odd parts the continued of a polynomial yields positive quotient terms, then the polynomial must be Hurwitz to within a multiplicative factor JV(s).* That is, if we write

fTO-irO^M

(10.25)
let

then F(s) is Hurwitz, if W(s) and F^s) are Hurwitz. For example, test whether the polynomial
F(s)
is

us

- i* + s* +

5s*

+

3s

+4

(10.26)

Hurwitz. The even and odd parts of F(s) are

n(s)

= s* +

3s

We now

perform a continued fraction expansion of yfa)

dividing n(s)

by
s*

m(s),

= "»W/«C0 by and then inverting and dividing again, as given by + 5s* + 4(s s* + 3s* 2s* + 4)j» + 3j(*/2 j» + 2*
s)2s*
2s*

the operation

+

3s)s*

+ 4(2s
4)j(j/4

so that the continued fraction expansion of y(s)

is

*,)

= 2& - 5 +
»(«)

^
1

(10.28)

+

l

s/4
'

1

See Van Valkenburg, be. eit. W(s) is a common factor in mfc) and

n(*).

298
Since

Network
all

analysis

and synthesis

the quotient terms of the continued fraction expansion are

positive, F(s) is Hurwitz.

Example

10.1.

Let us

test

whether the polynomial

GO)
is

= 5s + 2s9 +

3s

+6
is

(10.29)

Hurwitz. The continued fraction expansion of n(s)lm(s)

obtained from the

division

2s2

+

6)5*
s*

+ 3* (s/2 + 3s

5s

We see that the division has been terminated abruptly + 3s. The polynomial can then be written as
G(s)

by a

common

factor

=

(s*

+

3s)

+ >H)
1

-

(10.30)

s*

We know + 3s is

that the term

1

+

2/s

is

Hurwitz.
Hurwitz.

Since the multiplicative factor

also Hurwitz, then G(s)

is

The term

s*

+

3s

is

the mul-

tiplicative factor fV(s),

which we referred to

earlier.

Example

10.2.

Next consider a case where W(s)
F(s)

is

non-Hurwitz.
85*

= 57 + 2s* +

2s5

+ s* + 4s3 +
now
1

+

8*

+4

(10.31)

The continued

fraction expansion of F(s) is

obtained.

«(*)

•*

wiO)

2

'

1

fr

+

j^t)
(S4-+-4)

(1 °- 32)

We thus see that

fV(s)

=

s*

+ 4, which can be factored into = (s* + 2s + 2X*8 -2^+2)
(10.33)

W(s)
It is clear

that F(s)

is

not Hurwitz.

Example 103.

Let us consider a
F(s)

more obvious non-Hurwitz polynomial
2t*

= 5* + 5s +

+

35

+2

(10.34)

Elements of

realizability

theory

299

The continued

fraction expansion is
j 3

+

3s)S*
s*

+ 2s* + 2 (s + 3s* -j*+2)j» +

3*(-,j

5s)-5*+2(-,s/5
-4*
2}5iXfs

We see that F(j) is not Hurwitz because of the negative quotients.
10.4. Consider the case where F(s) is an odd or even function. It is impossible to perform a continued fraction expansion on the function as it stands. However, we can test the ratio of F(s) to its derivative, F'(s)* If the ratio F(s)IF'(s) gives a continued fraction expansion with all positive coefficients,

Example

then F(s)

is

Hurwitz. For example,
F(s)

if

F(s)

is

given as
(10.35)
1

then F'(s)

is

F'(s)

= s7 + 34s + 2s3 + * = 7s* + 15** + 6s» +

(10.36)

Without going into the details, it can be shown that the continued fraction expansion of F(s)IF'(s) does not yield all positive quotients. Therefore F(s) is not Hurwitz.

10.3

POSITIVE REAL
this section

FUNCTIONS
of a class of functions These functions are important because

In

we

will study the properties

known

as positive real functions.

they represent physically realizable passive driving-point immittances. function F(s) is positive real (p.r.) if the following conditions are satisfied:
1.

A

F(s)

is

2.

The

real part
is

part of s

is, F(a) is real. of F(s) is greater than or equal to zero when the real greater than or equal to zero, that is,

real for real s; that

Re

[F(s)]

^

for

Re s

^

Let us consider a complex plane interpretation of a p.r. function. Consider the s plane and the F(s) plane in Fig. 10.5. If F(s) is p.r., then a
point
<r

on

the positive real axis of the s plane

would correspond

to,

or

map

onto, a point

F(p^ which must be on the

positive real axis of the

F(s) plane.
*

In addition, a point st in the right half of the s plane would
cit.

See Guillemin, he.

300

Network

analysis

and synthesis

j\mF
JU
• plane

F(t) plane

o
«i

o F(sO

(TO

F(ao)

Ref

FIG.

10.5.

Mapping of s plane onto F(s) plane.

map onto a point Ffo) in the right half of the F(s) plane.

for a positive real function, the right half of the s plane

In other words, maps onto the right half of the F(s) plane. The real axis of the s plane maps onto the real axis of the F(s) plane. A further restriction we will impose is that F(s) be rational. Consider the following examples of p.r. functions:
1.

a real, positive number) is p.r. by definition. impedance function, then L is an inductance. If F(s) an 2. F(s) = R (where R is real and positive) is p.r. by definition. If F(s) is an impedance function, R is a resistance. 3. F(s) = K/s (K real and positive) is p.r. because, when s is real, F(s) is real. In addition, when the real part of s is greater than zero, Re (s) =
F(s)
is

= Ls (where L is

a>0.
Then
Therefore, F(s)
is p.r. is

Re

Ka

(f)"

o*

+

>0
a>

(10.37)

If F(s) is

an impedance

function, then the correfunctions.

sponding element

a capacitor of I IK farads. We thus see that the basic passive impedances are Similarly, it is clear that the admittances
Y(s) 7(5)
Y(s)

p.r.

=K
=
Ks
(10.38)

= K
s

are positive real if

K

is

real

and

positive.

We now show that all drivingp.r.

point immittances of passive networks must be

The proof depends

upon

the following assertion: for a sinusoidal input, the average power dissipated by a passive network is nonnegative. For the passive network

Elements of
in Fig. 10.6, the average

realizability

theory
is

301

power

dissipated

by the network
|/|»

Average power

=

I

Re

[ZJtjco)]

^

(10.39)

We then conclude that, for any passive network
Re
[Zjytt))]

^

(10.40)

We can now prove that for Re s =
point impedance

a

^ 0, Re Z^o- + jm) ;> 0.
/

Consider

the network in Fig. 10.6, whose drivingis ZJ^s). Let us load the network with incidental dissipation

such that if the driving-point impedance of the uniformly loaded network is
ZxCO, then

Passive

Zi»W

network

Zfc)

= ZJis +

a)

(10.41)
is

no.
and
positive.

10.6

where a, the dissipation constant, impedance of a passive network,

real

Since Z^s)

is

the

Re Z^jco)
so that

^

(10.42)
(10.43)

Re ZJa

+ jm) ^

Since a is an arbitrary real positive quantity, it can be taken to be a. Thus the theorem is proved. Next let us consider some useful properties of p.r. functions. The proofs of these properties are given in Appendix D.
1.

If F(s) is p.r., then l/F(s)
is

is

also p.r. This property implies that if a

driving-point impedance

p.r.,

then

its

reciprocal, the driving-point

admittance,
2.

is

also p.r.

we

functions is p.r. From an impedance standpoint, two impedances are connected in series, the sum of the impedances is p.r. An analogous situation holds for two admittances in parallel. Note that the difference of two p.r. functions is not necessarily

The sum of p.r.

see that if

p.r.

;

for example, F(s)

=s—

1/s is

not

p.r.

3.

The poles and

zeros of a p.r. function cannot have positive real

i.e., they cannot be in the right half of the s plane. Only simple poles with real positive residues can exist on the yco axis. 5. The poles and zeros of a p.r. function are real or occur in conjugate pairs. We know that the poles and zeros of a network function are

parts,
4.

functions of the elements in the network. Since the elements themselves are real, there cannot be complex poles or zeros without conjugates

because this would imply imaginary elements.

302
6.

Network

analysis and synthesis

The

highest powers of the numerator

may
7.

differ at

most by
oo.

unity. This condition prohibits multiple poles

and denominator polynomials and

zeros at 5

=

The lowest powers of the denominator and numerator polynomials may differ by at most unity. This condition prevents the possibility of
multiple poles or zeros at s
8.

=

0.

The necessary and

sufficient conditions for
p.r.

a rational function with

real coefficients F(s) to
(a) F(s)
(b) F(s)

be

are
right-half plane.

must have no poles in the

may have only simple poles on theyco axis with real and positive

residues.
(c)

Re F(jm)

^

for

all

a.
definition with the original

Let us compare this
the two conditions.
1.

new

one which requires

F(s)

is

real

2.

Re F(s)

^

when s is real. 0, when Re s ^

0.

In order to test condition 2 of the original definition, we must test every single point in the right-half plane. In the alternate definition,
condition (c) merely requires that

jm

axis.

It is

we test the behavior of F(s) along the apparent that testing a function for the three conditions

given by the alternate definition represents a considerable saving of effort, except in simple cases as F(s) 1/j.

=

Let us examine the implications of each criterion of the second definition.

Condition
F(s)

(a) requires that
i.e.,

the right-half plane,

we test the denominator of F(s) for roots in we must determine whether the denominator of

is Hurwitz. This is readily accomplished through a continued fraction expansion of the odd to even or even to odd parts of the denominator. The second requirement condition (b) is tested by making a partial

fraction expansion of F(s)

and checking whether the residues of the poles on theya) axis are positive and real. Thus, if F(s) has a pair of poles at s = ±ja> lt a partial fraction expansion gives terms of the form shown.

S

— jCOi

s

+ jco^

The
t

the residues are real

K = Ki* so that

residues of complex conjugate poles are themselves conjugates. If as they must be in order for F(s) to be p.r.— then


S

— JO)

1

S

+ JCOx

s*

+

(O*

Elements of
If

reaiizability

theory

303

K

x is

found to be

positive, then F(s) "satisfies the

second of the three

conditions.

In order to
let

test for the third

condition for positive realness,
original function F(s).

first find the real part of F(ja>)

from the

we must To do this,

us consider a function F(s) given as a quotient of two polynomials

F(s)

=

^
6(s)

(10.45)

We

can separate the even parts from the odd parts of P(s) and Q(s) so
is

that F(s)

M
Q(s)

8( S )

+

JV 2(s)

where Mj(s) is an even function and N£s) is an odd function. F(s) is now decomposed into its even and odd parts by multiplying both P(s) and

by A/g

- Ns so that
r(s)

_ M + NiM*- N* Mt + JVa Ma - Nt = M M8t - N * Nt M 8 - Nt
i t t

M

t

Nx - Mj Nt M* - Nt
*

(10.47)

We
x

MN

see that the products
t

and

MN
s

MM
x

z

and

JV,

Nt

are even functions, while
is

x

are

odd

functions.

Therefore, the even part of F(s)

Ev[F(s) ]
and the odd part of F(s)
is

=

M

^-^
any polynomial
is

(10.48)

Odd
If

[F(s)]

=

^VY'
+ j Im [F(jo>)]

(10.49)

we

let s

= joy, we

see that the even part of

is real,
is

while the
written as

odd part of the polynomial
F(ja>)

imaginary, so that if F(jw)

=

Re

[F(jo>)]

(10.50) (10.51)

it is

clear that

Re
j Im

[F(ja>)]
[F(ja>)]

and

= Ev [F(s)] \_ja = Odd [F(s)] \^, a

(10.52)

Therefore, to test for the third condition for positive realness,

we

determine the real part of F(ja>) by finding the even part of F(s) and then joy. We then check to see whether Re F{joy) for all <w. letting s

=

^

304

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

A(u)

Single root

FIG. 10.7

FIG. 10.8
is

The denominator of Re F(j(o)

always a positive quantity because

M
That
is,

a(ja>)*

- JVaO)2 =

M^to)*

+ N ((o)* ^
2

(10.53)

an extra j or imaginary term in N^jco), which, when —1, so that the denominator of ReF(ja>) is the sum of two squared numbers and is always positive. Therefore, our task resolves into the problem of determining whether
there
is

squared, gives

A(a>)

4 M O) MJjai) x

Ntito) NJJm)

£

(10.54)

we see that A(a>) must not have of the type shown in Fig. 10.7; i.e., A(co) must never have single, real roots of to. However, A(a>) may have double roots (Fig. 10.8), because A(t») need not become negative in this case. As an example, consider the requirements for
positive, real roots

If we call the preceding function A{m),

F(s)

s*

s

+
bs

a

+

+

(10.55)

c

to be p.r.

First,

we know

that, in

order for the poles and zeros to be in

the left-half plane or

on they'd)

axis, the coefficients a, b, c

must be greater

or equal to zero. Second, if * 0, then F(s) will possess poles on the jco axis. We can then write F(s) as
F(s)

=

S*

3

+C

+
• '

°
5*

+

(10.56)
C

We will show later that the coefficient a must also be zero when b = 0.
Let us proceed with the third requirement, namely, the equation

Re F(ja>)

^ 0. From
(10.57)

M^o)) Mfim)
we have
which
It is

simplifies to

- JVxO) NAjo>) £ a(-(o* + c) + 1x0*^0 A(co) = (b — a)afi + ac ;>
a, that
is,

(10.58a)
(10.586)

evident that in order to prevent A(m) from having positive real roots

of

eu,

b must be greater than or equal to

b^a. As

a

result,

Elements of readability theory

305

when b

= 0,
c
a.

fulfilled in
1. a, b,

then a 0. To summarize, the conditions that must be order for F(s) to be positive real are

=

^ 0.
Fx(s) = F«<S) =
s
,

2.

b

^

We see that
is p.r.,

+
3s

sr

+

\ +

, 2

(10.59)

while the functions

TT1 +2
s

(ia60)

are not p.r.

As a second example,

let

us determine the conditions for the

biquadratic function

F(s)

=

s"

TT^TT + b^ + b

<

ia62>

will assume that the coefficients au Aq, b u b are all real, to be p.r. positive constants. Let us test whether F(s) is p.r. by testing each require-

We

ment of the second

definition.

of the denominator * x and b are positive, the denominator must be Hurwitz. Second, if bx is positive, we have no poles on the yeo axis. Therefore we can ignore the second condition. The third condition can be checked by first finding the even part of
First, if the coefficients

F(s),

which

is

(s

+

O

)


bof

t»i

s

_
The

s*

+

[(a„

+ («* +

ft„)

-

fliftjs'

+

a &.
(10.63)

-

ft x

V
flA

real part of F(j(o) is then

Re

[F o»1

- W< - ««" t !0) ~ °:y 8+ 1 to ( — CO + O )" +
t»i

dO.64)

We

see that the denominator of

Re

[F(jca)] is truly

always positive

so it remains for us to determine whether the numerator of ever goes negative. Factoring the numerator, we obtain

Re

[F(jco)]

m, t =

(a.

+

b

)

-

a 1b1

±I^

[(flo

+

feo)

_ aAf _ 4flA

(1Q65)

306

Network

analysis and synthesis

There are two situations in which
root.
1

Re

[F(jco)]

does not have a simple real

When the quantity under the radical sign of Eq.
K«o

10.65

is

zero (double,

real root) or negative

(complex roots). In other words,

or
If

then

+ *o) - «AP - 4aA <. + b ) - aAP <, 4a<A> (a + K) - cA ^ (a + b ) - «A <, 2y/a^
[(fl

(10.66)
( 10 - 67)

(10.68)

(10.69)
(10.70)

or
If

*A ^ (V^ - yfb
(a,

)*

then

but
so again
2.

+ ^-aA<0 aA - (a + b ) <, 2VaA < aA - (a + fa, + * ) - aA <

(10.71)
(10.72)

b

)

(10.73) (10.74)

aA ^ (\Za — V*o)
situation in
eo*
g

2

real root is

The second when

which Re

[F(jco)]

does not have a simple

in Eq. 10.65 is negative so that the roots are imagi-

nary. This situation occurs
[0*o

when
(10.75)

and

+ *o) - aAl 8 - 4aA > (a + b ) - dA <
)

(10.76)

From Eq.

10.75

we have
(10.77) (10.78)

Thus

«A - 0*o + *o) > 2VoA > («o + b - aA aA > (V^ - VV)
8

We

thus see that Eq. 10.70

is

a necessary and

sufficient condition for

a

biquadratic function to be positive real. If we have

aA = (V^o~-V6o>
then

00.79)

we will have double zeros for Consider the following example:

Re
g

[F(jeo)]

F(s) =

s s

a

We see that

+ T +

2s

!

5s

+ T +

~
25
16

(10-80)

aA = 2
so that F(s)
is p.r.

X

5

^

(s/a

- V^ )2 = (V25 - Vl6 )*

(10.81)

Elements of

realizability

theory

307

The examples
illustrate the

just given are, of course, special cases. But they do procedure by which functions are tested for the p.r. property.

Let us consider a number of other helpful points by which a function might be tested quickly. First, if F(s) has poles on they«w axis, a partial fraction expansion will show if the residues of these poles are positive

and

real.

For example,
F(S)

=

s(s*

+5 TTTT, + 1)
3s 8

<

ia82>

has a pair of poles at s

=

±j\. The partial fraction expansion of F(s),

F
not

-2s 5 & = -rr7 + +
s
2

(io.83)

l

s

shows that the residue of the poles at s
is

= ±j is negative.

Therefore F(s)

p.r.

and admittances of passive time-invariant networks use of our knowledge of impedances connected in series or parallel in our testing for the p.r. property. For example, if Z^s) and Z^s) are passive impedances, then z\ connected in parallel with Z, gives an overall impedance
Since impedances

are p.r. functions,

we can make

Z(s)

= Zi(s) +

i77^
Z^s)
that Z(s)

<

1084>

Since the connecting of the the passivity of the network,
that if Fjis)

two impedances in

parallel has not affected

we know

must

also be p.r.

We see

and FJs) are

p.r. functions,

then

m = JMM.
must also be
p.r.

(1085)

Consequently, the functions
F(s)

= -£*s + a =— s + a
must be
p.r.

(10.86)

and
where a and

F(s)

(10.87)

K are

real

and

positive quantities,

We

then

observe that functions of the type

s

+

a
fi

s

+a

s

+a

(10.88)

must be

p.r. also.

308

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Finally, let us determine
jr( s)

whether

= _*L_ s + a
F(s) V

o,K£0

(10.89)

is p.r.

If we write F(s) as

=
s/K

+ a/Ks

^—
Therefore, the
is

(10.90)

we

see that the terms

s/K and
is p.r.

ctfKs are p.r.

sum of

the

two terms must

be p.r. Since the reciprocal of a p.r. function

also p.r.,

we conclude
10.4

that F(s)

ELEMENTARY SYNTHESIS PROCEDURES
basic philosophy behind the synthesis of driving-point functions up a p.r. function Z(j) into a sum of simpler p.r. functions

The
is

to break

Ziis), Z4s), .... ZJs), and then to synthesize these individual Z,(j) as elements of the overall network whose driving-point impedance is Z(j).

Zis)
First, consider the

= Us) + Z£s) +

---

+ Zn(s)

(10.91)

"breaking-up" process of the function Z(s) into the One important restriction is that all Zj(s) must be sum p.r. Certainly, if all Z 4(s) were given to us, we could synthesize a network whose driving-point impedance is Z(s) by simply connecting all the ZJs)
of functions Z£s).
in series. However, if we were to start with Z(s) alone, how would we decompose Z(s) to give us the individual Z/j)? Suppose Z(«) is given in

general as

+ ""-i* 1 + ••• + «»' + « . Jfi> 1 + hs + ba Q(s) ms" + t^s"- + (that b = 0). pole at s = Consider the case where Z(s) has a
7( *

W=
as

fl

-s "

1

""

(1(>

92)

fe

is,

Let us

divide P(s)

by

Q(s) to give a quotient D/s

and a remainder

R(s),

which

we can denote

Z1(^)

and
Z(s)

Za(s).

= - + R(s)
s


(10.93)

=
From

Z^s)

+ Z&)

previous discussions, we know that Z^ Are Z! and Z, p.r. ? p.r. IsZa(5)p.r.? Consider the p.r. criteria given previously. is
1.

=

D/s

ZgCO must have no poles in the right-half plane. 2. Poles of ZJLs) on the imaginary axis must be simple, and their residues must be real and positive.
3.

Re

[ZJJa>)]

^

for all m.

Elements of

realizabiiity

theory

309
because

Let us examine these cases one by one. Criterion

1 is satisfied is satisfied

the poles of ZJ&) are also poles of Us). Criterion 2

by

this

simple partial fraction expansion does not affect the residues of the other poles. When s —jo>, Re [Z(y«w) D/jco] 0. Therefore we have

same argument.

A

=

=

Re ZAjco)

= Re Zjja>) ^
seen that
if

(10.94)

From the
a- partial

foregoing discussion,

it is

Us) has a pole
remain
p.r.

at s

= 0,
is

fraction expansion can be

made such

that one of the terms

of
is,

the form Kfs and the other terms combined

still

n

A similar argument shows that if Us) has a pole at s = oo (that — m = 1), we can divide the numerator by the denominator to give a
Us)

quotient Ls and a remainder term R(s), again denoted as Z^s) and Zt(s).

= Ls + R(s) = Z^s) + Z^s).
ZXjs)

(10.95)

Here ZJs)

is

also p.r. If

the imaginary axis, for example, poles at s

has a pair of conjugate imaginary poles on ±jto1 , then Z{s) can be

=

expanded into

partial fractions so that

(10.96)

Here
so that

Re
Zj(.y) is p.r.

(_2*M

=Re (_i^L_\ =0

Re [Z(/<u)] is minimum at some point m^ and if the value of Re ZijcDf) = Kf as shown in Fig. 10.9, we can remove a constant K<, Kt from Re [Z(ya>)] so that the remainder is still p.r. This is because Re [Z(/o>)]
Finally, if
still be greater than or equal to zero for all values of w. Suppose we have a p.r. function Z(s), which is a driving-point impedance function. Let Z(s) be decomposed, as before, so that

will

Z(s)
ReZfjwi

=

74s)

+

ZJs)

(10.98)

310

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
Zi(s)

Z(s)
^

ZzM

>

FIG. 10.10

where both 2^ and Zj are p.r. Now let us "remove" ZjCs) from Z(,s) to give us a remainder Z^s). This removal process is illustrated in Fig. 10.10 and shows that removal corresponds to synthesis of ZjO).
Example
10.5.

Consider the following
Z(s)

p.r.

function

= s* +2s +6 s(s + 3)
2 *

(10.99)

We see that Z(s) has a pole at s = 0. A partial fraction expansion of Z(s) yields
*(*)

=

+

j

j

+3
(10.100)

-2&)+2fr)
If

we remove Zt(s) from Z(s), we obtain Z2(s), which can be shown by a resistor
f

in parallel with an inductor, as illustrated in Fig. 10.11.
*

r—

o

1(

1Q
Z<s)

i"

Za

FIG.

10.11

Example 10.6
7s

n»>- 2j +4
where ]%?) is a p.r. function. Let us synthesize the network by first removing min [Re part of Y(jco) can be easily obtained as
8
Y(jco)].

+2

(10.101)

The

real

+

14o>*

(10.102)

We

see that the

minimum of Re [Y(ja>)]

occurs at

to

= 0,
from

and
Y{s)

is

equal to

min [Re YQw)] =\. Let us then remove

Yx =\ mho

and denote

Elements of
the remainder as YJs), as
p.r.
is

realizability

theory

3

1

shown

in Fig. 10.12.

The remainder function Y^s) is
real part of YJjm).

because

we have removed

only the

minimum
1

Y^s)

obtained as
3s
(10.103)

It is readily

seen that YJp)
final

is

capacitor.

Thus the

network

made up of a J-ii resistor in series with a is that shown in Fig. 10.13.

f-farad

:jo

>20
Y(s)
>"
]

^20
Y*'}
,

"

YM

>

=§f

J
FIG. 10.12

FIG. 10.13

Example

10.7.

Consider the

p.r.

impedance
fo8

+

3**

+

3s

+

1

Z{s)
6s*

+3s
unity.

(10.104)

The real part of the function is a constant, equal to of 1 il, we obtain (Fig. 10.14)

Removing a constant

Z1(s)=Z(s)-l =
The
reciprocal of

3^ +
6s*

1

+ 3s

(10.105)

Zt(s) is an admittance
no) fit

8

+3s

3s*

+

(10.106)
1

which has a pole at s expansion of Yjfs);

=

<x>.

This pole

is

removed by finding the

partial fraction

r1(i)=25+

5?4n

(10107)

o

—WWW
10

Z(s)

Zi(s)

FIG. 10.14

312

Network

analysis and synthesis

o

—WWW
in
FIG. 10.15

Z(3)

and then by removing the term with the pole
2 farads in parallel with Y£s) below (Fig.

at *

=

oo

to give a capacitor of

10.15).

YJs)

is

now

obtained as

Y&) The
reciprocal of YJs)
is

Tito

-

25

-

^--j-j

(10.108)

Zjfc)

=

3*

+

1

(10.109)

final

which is, clearly, an inductor of 3 h in network is shown in Fig. 10.16.
o

series with

a capacitor of

1

farad.

The

www10
Z\z!=.

3h

ZM

FIG. 10.16

thesis

These examples are, of course, special cases of the driving-point synproblem. However, they do illustrate the basic techniques involved. In the next chapter, we will discuss the problem of synthesizing a network with two kinds of elements, either L-C, R-C, or R-L networks. The synthesis techniques involved, however, will be the same.

Problems
10.1
(«)
(ft)

Test the following polynomials for the Hurwitz property.
s8
5*

+5* +2s + 2 +5* +5 + 1

to

S1

w
to

+ 5s + 5* + 5 + 45* + 55 + 2

5s 5
7

V)

+5 + 25* + 2/ + 5
+25»

Elements of readability theory

31

10.2 Determine whether the following functions are p.r. For the functions with the denominator already factored, perform a partial fraction expansion
first.

(a)

F(»)

=

** 5»

+

!

+4*
+2s +4
IX*8

(&)

F(s)

=
=

2s*
(s

+ + +
+

+ 2)
+ 4) + 3)

(s (*

(c)

F(s)

2X« 1X5
.*»

W
(«)

F(s)

+4
+
3*

«*

3«*

+

1

F(s)

-

5**
**

+s
+
l

103
F(s)

Suppose Fj(5> and Ft(s) are both p.r. = FjKs) - FJ.3) is also p.r.

Discuss the conditions such that

10.4 Show that the product of two p.r. functions need not be p.r. Also show that the ratio of one p.r. function to another may not be p.r. (Give one example

of each.)
10.5

GivenZfr)-

*+

*\

-

(a)
(A)
(c)

What

are the restrictions

on

X for Z(s) to be a p.r. function?
co

Find A* for

Re [ZQot)]

to have a second-order zero at

= 0.

Choose a numerical value for
Prove that
if

10.6

X and synthesize Z(s). Zt(s) and Zt(s) are both p.r.,
ZUi -

WW®

must also be
10.7

positive real.

Z(»)

— -j—

———

is

p.r.

Determine min [Re Z(/o>)] and synthesize

Z(s) by
10.8

first

removing min [ReZ(/co)].

Perform a continued fraction expansion on the ratio

W=

S8

+ 2j* + 3j + 1 + 5s + 2* + 1

What does the continued expansion imply if Y(s) is the driving-point admittance of a passive network ? Draw the network from the continued fraction.

3 4
1

Network

analysis

and synthesis

the 10.9 The following functions are impedance functions. Synthesize impedances by successive removals of/« axis poles or by removing min [Re (/»)].

(«)

+ 4s 7*T2 j + i
s8
s(*

(*)

+

2)

2?
<c>

+4
1

W

s*

27+1 + 3s + s» + l

chapter

1

Synthesis of one-port networks

with two kinds of elements

In this chapter we will study methods for synthesizing one-port networks with two kinds of elements. Since we have three elements to choose
from, the networks to be synthesized are either R-C, R-L, or L-C networks. We will proceed according to the following plan. First we will discuss the
properties of a particular type of one-port network, synthesize it. Let us first examine some properties of functions.

and then we

will

L-C

driving-point

I

I.I

PROPERTIES OF

L-C

IMMITTANCE FUNCTIONS
Let us

Consider the impedance Z(j) of a passive one-port network.
represent Z(s) as

„,

.

Z(S)

=

M

M^s) i^
a (s)

+ JVj(s) ±^i + N&)
dissipated

/J J j-j (U1)

where

N N
x,

M M
lt

t

are even parts of the numerator
parts.

s

are

odd

The average power

and denominator, and by the one-port is
(1 \ .2)

Average power

= J Re [Z(jd)] \I\*

where J is the input current. For a pure reactive network, it is known that the power dissipated is zero. We therefore conclude that the real part of
Z(/to)iszero; that
is

Re Z(»
where

=

Ev 2ija>)

=

(11.3)

Ev Z(s)

= tf'('W)-^')^) Mt\s)-Nt\s)
315

n ,, (1L4)
,

316

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
is,

In order for

Ev Kjio)

= 0, that

MJlJm)

M

80'o>)

~ W») fUja>) =

(11.5)

either of the following cases
(a)

must hold:

(b)

M M
(a), Z(i) is

x

= - Nt «N t =
t

(11.6)

In case

Z(s)

= -

^ ^

(H.7)

and in case

(A)

Z(s)

(H-8)

We
1.

see

from

this

development the following two properties of L-C

functions:
'" Zjj^s) or YxcC*) is tne ratio of even to odd or odd to even P013 nomials. have only imaginary 2. Since both Mis) and N£s) are Hurwitz, they follows that the poles and zeros of Z^s) or Y^s) are on roots, and it

the imaginary axis.

Consider the example of an

L-C immittance
a,*'

function given by

+

a*1

+

a,

(u

9)

know, Let us examine the constraints on the coefficients a { and *,. We to be positive real, the coeffifirst of all, that in order for the impedance impedance cients must be real and positive. We also know that an poles or zeros on theyw axis. Since qo is function cannot have multiple and the defined to be on theyw axis, the highest powers of the numerator polynomials can differ by, at most, unity. For example, if denominator of the highest order of the numerator is 2n, then the highest order
the

denominator can either be 2n - 1 so that there is a simple pole at s = oo, s = oo. or the order can be 2n + 1 so that there is a simple zero at can differ by Similarly, the lowest orders of numerator and denominator or zeros of Z(s) at at most unity, or else there would be multiple poles
s

= 0.

Another property of the numerator and denominator polynomials is for example, the next that if the highest power of the polynomial is In, In - 2, and the succeeding powers must highest order term must be There cannot be any missing differ by two orders all the way through.

Synthesis of one-port networks

317

no two adjacent terms of either polynomial may differ by more than two powers. For example, for Z(s) given in Eq. 11.9, if ft, = 0, then Z(s) will have poles when
terms,
i.e.,

V+
so that the poles will be at *

*i*
at

=

(11.10)

=

and

*It is clearly seen that

(^V

"*"

*

= 0,1,2,3

dm)

none of the poles sk are even on theyto axis, thus one of the basic properties of an L-C immittance function. From the properties given in Eq. 11.11, we can write a general L-C impedance or admittance as
violating

Z(S)

=

Jft'

+ 'Ofr' + « *')•••(»' + «**)••• + coW + <»*) .•(,» + «,,«)... tf
we
obtain

< 1112>

Expanding Z(j) into
2(.)

partial fractions,

= S + -2p-j + -*&- +

.

.

.

+

KkS

(1L13)

where the t are the residues of the poles. Since these poles are all on theyco axis, the residues must be real and positive in order for Z*» to be positive real. Letting s =jm, we see that Z(;o>) has zero real part, and can thus be written as a pure reactance jX(o>). Thus we have

K

\

ft)

ft),


a>,

1
ft)

/

= J x(<°)
Differentiating X(a>) with respect to

(11.14)

we have

dco

+K +
<o*

(«,,»-cV
it is

+

(1U5)

Since

all

the residues

K

t

are positive,

seen that for an

L-C function,
<

dX(io)

IT*
A
is

.

.

1116>

similar development

shows that the derivative of Im [Y{jw)]

= B(m)

also positive, that

is,

318

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
is

Consider the following example. Z(s)

given as
<o a*)

+ ™ _ + co^ + ^'(s'
**»*
Letting s

(11.18)

to*)

= jco, we obtain
zo«»)

X{a>) as

= ; x(co) =

+j

^—^—^ <}
Kco(-coa

+

cog )

2

(11.19)

0, Let us draw a curve of X(co) versus o>. Beginning with the zero at co encountered as <o let us examine the sequence of critical frequencies the next increases. Since the slope of the X(io) curve is always positive, X(co) becomes infinitely large or critical frequency we encounter is when As we pass a> 2 , X(co) changes sign and goes from the pole is at a> 2
.

=

+

pass through any critical frequency, to -. In general, of sign, as seen from the wayy X(to) is written in there is always a change X(a>) the last equation. After we pass through a> 2 , with the slope of zero positive, it is easy to see that the next critical frequency is the always Thus, if an impedance function is an L-C immittance, the poles

whenever we

at «,.

and zeros of the function must alternate. The particular X(a>) under powers discussion takes the form shown in Fig. 11.1. Since the highest the of the numerator and the denominator always differ by unity, and s = oo, and at lowest powers also differ by one, we observe that at s =
there

frequency, whether a zero or a pole. and a zero at is a zero at s oo are called external and s s frequencies are critical frequencies, whereas the remaining finite critical previous example, cog, a> 3 , and to t referred to as internal. Thus, in the
is

always a

critical

For the example just discussed, there = oo. The critical frequencies at s =

=

=

are internal critical frequencies. admittance Finally, let us summarize the properties of L-C impedance or
functions.
1.

ZiC(s)

or

YLC&s)

is

the ratio of

odd

to even or even to

odd poly-

nomials.

IM

FIG.

I

I.I

9

Synthesis of one-port networks

3

1

X(w)

+1

+2

+3

FIG.

I

I.Z

2.
3.

4.

The poles and zeros are simple and lie on theyeo axis. The poles and zeros interlace on they'eo axis. The highest powers of numerator and denominator must
by
unity.

differ

by

unity; the lowest powers also differ
5.

There must be either a zero or a pole at the origin and

infinity.
left.

The following functions are not L-C

for the reasons listed at the

2.

1.

+ l)(s + 3) 3 s + 4s + 5s Z(s) = 3s* + 6s 2 K(s + l)(s* + 9) z( = 2 (s + 2)(s + 10)
(s
5 a 2 2

Z(5)«

Ks(s
2

2

+

4)

(11.20)

On

the other hand, the function Z(j) in Eq. 11.21,
is

whose pole-zero

diagram

shown

in Fig. 11.2,

is

an L-C immittance.
»

_ 2(s +
11.2

1)(s

»

+

9) (11.21)

s(s*

+ 4)

SYNTHESIS OF

L-C

DRIVING-POINT IMMITTANCES

We saw in Section 11.1 that an L-C immittance is a positive real function with poles and zeros on the jco axis only. The partial fraction expansion
of an

L-C function

is

expressed in general terms as

s

s

2

+

+ Kxs
cog

(11.22)

The synthesis is accomplished directly from the partial fraction expansion by associating the individual terms in the expansion with network elements.
If F(s)
is

an impedance

Z(s), then the
is

l/Ko farads; the term

Kx s

term I^/s represents a capacitor of an inductance of K„ henrys, and the term

320

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
1 ,

2X,

1

o—^HTHf—
'-vOOOv-'
2X1
Z(s).
.

tf.h

Wi

f

—l0Q0>—
2«! h 7T5" n

'

FIG.
2

11.3

2^5/(5

+

o) 42) is

a parallel tank circuit that consists of a capacitor of

\f2Kf farads in parallel with an inductance of IKjcof. Thus a partial fraction expansion of a general L-C impedance would yield the network shown in Fig. 11.3. For example, consider the following L-C function.

Z(S)

_,.

2(s

8

+ l)(s* + *- + 4)
¥s

9)

(11.23)

A partial fraction expansion of TUjs) gives
Z(s)

=

2s

+ * + -72-

(11.24)

We then obtain the synthesized network in Fig.
The
partial fraction expansion

11.4.

method is based upon the elementary synthesis procedure of removing poles on the jco axis. The advantage with L-C functions is that all the poles of the function lie on the jco axis so that we can remove all the poles simultaneously. Suppose F(s) in Eq. 11.22 is an admittance Y(s). Then the partial fraction expansion of Y(s) gives us a circuit consisting of parallel branches shown in Fig. 11.5. For example,

W

s( S « (s

2

+ 2)(s» + 4) + l)(s* + 3)

HI—
2h

if

Z<8)

FIG. 11.4

Synthesis of one-port networks

321

K„lziz
Y(s),

FIG. 11.5

The

partial fraction expansion of Y(s) is

r(s)

=s+
s

is
8

is
3
s*

+

+

(11.26)
1

from which we synthesize the network shown in Fig. 11.6. The L-C networks synthesized by partial fraction expansions are sometimes called Foster-type networks. 1 The impedance form is sometimes called a Foster series network and the admittance form is a Foster parallel network. A useful property of L-C immittances is that the numerator and the denominator always differ in degree by unity. Therefore, there is always a zero or a pole at $ = oo. Suppose we consider the case of an L-C impedance Z{s), whose numerator is of degree In and denominator is of degree 2n — I, giving Z(j) a pole at s = oo. We can remove this pole by removing an impedance L^ so that the remainder function Z^s) is still L-C:
ZjCO

=

ZCO

is

LiS

(11.27)
1,

The degree of the denominator of Z 2(j)
degree
invert
2/i

2n

but the numerator

is

of


1.

2,

degree by

because the numerator and denominator must differ in oo. If we Therefore, we see that Z 8 (s) has a zero at s

=

have a pole at s = oo, which we can again remove to give a capacitor C*s and a remainder Ya(s), which is

Zt(s)

to give

Yt(s) =

l/Z^s),

Ys(s)

will

Y&) = Y2(s) - C2s.

(11.28)

2h<

lf=t

YM.

if:

FIG.

11.6

1

a. M. Foster,

"A Reactance Theorem," Bell System Tech. J., No. 3 (1924), 259-267.


322

i

Network

analysis and synthesis

Ll

£3

Cizk

c*3=

FIG.

1

1.7

FIG. 11.8

We readily see that F3(s) has a zero at s oo, which we can invert and remove. This process continues until the remainder is zero. Each time we remove a pole, we remove an inductor or a capacitor depending upon whether the function is an impedance or an admittance. Note that the
final structure

=

are inductors and

of the network synthesized is a ladder whose series arms whose shunt arms are capacitors, as shown in Fig. 1 1 .7.

Consider the following example.

s

We

see that Z(s) has a pole at s

+ 4s1 + 3 = oo, which

we can remove by

first

dividing the denominator into the numerator to give a quotient 2s

and a

remainder

Z,(j), as

shown

in Fig. 11.8.

Then we have
10s
a

Zt(s) -

Z(s)

-

2s

s = -4s + 4 s

+ 4s +

(11.30)
3

Observe that Z^s) has a zero at s
the pole at infinity.

=

oo.

Inverting Z^s),

we

again remove

Then we realize a capacitor of J farad and a remainder

y3(s),

as

may

be seen in Fig. 11.9.

Y3(s)=Y£s)-±s= *f + s 4 4s + 10s
3

(11.31)

Removing of | h and

the pole at s

=

oo of

Z^j)

=

llYs(s),

gives a series inductor

Zt(s) - Z3(s) -~s =
3

FTT1 fs + 3

(11.32)

2h
o
r

Ginr*


if-

Y3 (s)

FIG.

1

1.9

i

Synthesis of one-port networks

323

/toot^

2h
Remainder

Z4>
FIG. 11.10

in Fig. 11.10. The admittance y4(s) = 1/Z4(j) has a pole at which we remove to give a capacitor of f farad and a remainder y6(j) = 3/2y, which represents an inductor of f h. Removing this inductor gives us zero remainder. Our synthesis is therefore complete and the final network is shown in Fig. 11.11. Since we always remove a pole at s = oo by inverting the remainder and dividing, we conclude that we can synthesize an L-C ladder network by a continued fraction expansion. The quotients represent the poles at s = oo, which we remove, and we invert the remainder successively until the remainder is zero. For the previous example, the continued fraction

as

shown
oo,

s

=

expansion
s*

is

+ 4s2 +

3)25°

2s

5

+ +

12s3

+ fo + 4s3 +
3

16s(2s<-->

Z

6s
I0s)s*
s*

+ +

4s 2
5.2
2->

+
+

3(ts <->

Y
I0s(is<->Z
is
3(|$ <->
3.2
2s

is'

3)4s3

4s3

+ +

Y
Z

3)2y(fj*->

2s

We see that the quotients of the continued fraction expansion give the elements of the ladder network. Because the continued fraction expansion
2h

-'innp—
fh
f"

**4=

ffi
11.11

FIG.

324

Network

anal/sis an

synthesis

always inverts each remainder and divides, the successive quotients alternate between Z and Y and then Z again, as shown in the preceding
initial function is an impedance, the first quotient must an impedance. When the first function is an admittance, the first quotient is an admittance. Since the lowest degrees of numerator and denominator of an L-C admittance must differ by unity, it follows that there must be a zero or a pole at s = 0. If we follow the same procedure we have just outlined, and remove successively poles at s = 0, we will have an alternate realization in a ladder structure. To do this by continued fractions, we arrange both numerator and denominator in ascending order and divide the lowest power of the denominator into the lowest power of the numerator; then we invert the remainder and divide again. For example, in the case of the impedance we have

expansion. If the
necessarily be

z( S)

(s* i*

+ l)(s* + 3) j» z ;r 2) s(s* +

(H.33)
is

The continued
2s

fraction expansion to give the alternate realization

+ 58)3 + As* + s\3I2s <-> Z 3 + fs fs* + s*)2s + ^(4/5$ *-> Y 2s + $s* isP^s* + 5*(25/2s <-> Z
2

|j

2


The final synthesized network is shown in Fig.
realized are called
11.12. The ladder networks Cauer ladder networks because W. Cauer2 discovered the continued fraction method for synthesis of a passive network. Note that for both the Foster and the Cauer-form realizations, the number of o |( 1( L L elements is one greater than the number of ^f §f internal critical frequencies, which we defined 5 h oj oj
1

5h

*p
[

*p
[

previously as being

all

the poles

and zeros

FIG.

1

1.12

of the function, excluding those at s — and 00. Without going into the proof of the s

=

•Wilhelm Cauer, "The Realization of Impedances with Prescribed Frequency Dependence," Arch. Electrotech., 15 (1926), 355-388.

Synthesis of one-port networks

325

can be said that both the Foster and the Cauer forms give elements for a specified L-C driving-point function. These realizations are sometimes known as canonical forms.
statement,
it

the

minimum number of

11.3

PROPERTIES OF R-C DRIVING-POINT IMPEDANCES
properties of
properties of

The

known
we
will

R-C driving-point impedances can be derived from L-C functions by a process of mapping the ja> axis
will

onto the

— a axis. 8 We
all

not resort to this formalism here. Instead,

assume that

driving-point functions that can be realized with

two kinds of elements can be realized in a Foster form. Based upon this assumption we can derive all the pertinent properties of R-C or R-L
driving-point functions.

Let us consider

first

the properties of

R-C

driving-point impedance functions.

L-C impedance given in obtain a Foster realization of an R-C impedance by simply replacing all the inductances by resistances so that a general R-C impedance could be represented as in Fig. 11.13. The R-C impedance, as seen from Fig. 11.13, is
Referring to the series Foster form for an
Fig. 11.3,

we can

Z(s)

where C l/A^, x X, lf and so on. In order for Eq. 11.34 to represent an R-C driving-point impedance, the constants K\ and at must be positive and real. From this development, two major properties of R-C impedances are obtained, and are listed in the following.
Ci

=

- ^ + K„ + -&_ + -&- + s s + a s + g R a = K„, C = \\K Rx = Kja
x
cr

(11.34)

—IH
Co

Hf-AMr*i

R2

FIG. 11.13

*

M

.

E.

Van Valkenburg,

Introduction to

Modern Network

Synthesis,

John Wiley and

Sons,

New York,

1960, pp. 140-145.

326
1.

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

R-C driving-point impedance are on the negative can be shown from a parallel Foster form that the poles of an R-C admittance function are also on the axis. We can thus conclude that the zeros of an R-C impedance are also on the —a axis. 2. The residues of the poles, Kit are real and positive. We shall see later that this property does not apply to R-C admittances.
The
poles of an
It

real (—or) axis.

Since the poles and zeros of

us examine the slope of
dZ{a)lda,

Z(<r)

R-C impedances are on the — a axis, let along the — a axis." To find the slope,
derivative of

we

first let

s

=

Z(c) with respect to
Z(<r)

a.

a in Z(s), and then we take the Thus we have
. .

= £ + K. + -&- + _&_ + a a+ a + a
o-j

(11.35)

%

and

—— = da
that

a*

? H *

1

(a

+

+
1

?

atf

(a

+

o%?

+

1-

(n ^^
36}
(11-37)

It is clear

^^^0 da
at the behavior of Z(s) at the

two points where the a = <a — and at a = (o = oo. This is readily done by examining the general R-C network in Fig. 11.13 at these two frequencies. At a = 0, (d-c), if the capacitor C is in the circuit, it is an open circuit and there is a pole of Z(s) at a = 0.
real axis

Let us

now look

and the imaginary

axis intersect, namely, at

If

C

is

not in the

circuit,

then Z(0)

is

simply the

sum of all

the resistances

in the circuit.

+ R„ (11.38) because all of the capacitors are open circuits at a = 0. At a = oo, all the capacitors are short circuits. Thus, if R^ is in the circuit, Z(oo) = R^. If R x is missing, then Z(oo) = 0. To summarize
Z(0)
t

= R + R2 +

these last

two statements, we have
f

oo,

C

present

Z(0)

=
C„ missing
o,

Z(oo)

=

Rn Rm

missing
present
see that

If

we examine

the

two cases for Z(0) and Z(oo), we
Z(0)

£

Z(oo)

(11.39)

Synthesis of one-port networks

327

Next,

let

function alternate.
nearest the origin

us see whether the poles and zeros of an R-C impedance We have already established that the critical frequency

must be a pole and the
is

critical

frequency nearest a

=

oo

must be a

zero.

Therefore, if Z(s)

given as

Z( S)

=

(5!

(s

+ +

ga)(s
ffOO

+ +

g4)
(11.40)
or,)

Then, if Z(y) is R-C, the singularity nearest the origin must be a pole which we will assume to be at s = — gx the singularity furthest from the origin must be a zero, which we will take to be s = — g Let us plot 4
;
.

z , ff) =
versus

(g (g

+ +

+ a^ia +
ga)(ff

g4) a3)
(11.41)

— g,

beginning at a

=

and extending to a

= — oo.

At a

= 0,

Z(0)

is

equal to a positive constant Z(0)

= ^* —

(11.42)

Since the slope of Z(g) is always positive as a increases, Z(g) must increase until the pole s is reached (Fig. 11.14). At a x

= -a

= —au

Z(g) changes sign, and
reached.
*

We

Since Z(g) increases for increasing a, the third critical frequency must be the pole s g8 Because Z(g) changes sign at g„ the final critical frequency must be the zero, s g4 . Beyond a g4 , the curve becomes asymptotic to Z(oo) 1. From this analysis we see that the poles and zeros of an R-C impedance must alternate so that for

= — <V

negative until the next critical frequency is see that this next critical frequency must be the zero,
is

= —

.

=—

— =—

=

Z(»)

—a

a*

FIG. 11.14

328

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

the case being considered
oo

>

<r4

>

<r8

>

or

g

>

Oi

^

0.

(11.43) (11.44)

In addition,

we see

that
a, ex.

>1

which shows that Z(0) > Z(oo). To summarize, the three properties we need to recognize an impedance are:
1.

R-C

Poles and zeros

lie

on the negative

real axis,

2.

The The

singularity nearest to (or at) the origin

and they alternate. must be a pole whereas

the singularity nearest to (or at) a
3.

= — oo must be a zero.
real

residues of the poles

must be

and

positive.

An

example of an

R-C impedance
Z(s)

is:

= (s +

l)(s

s(s

+ 4)(s + + 2)(s + 6)

8)

(11.45)

The following impedances

are not R-C.

= (s + l)(s + 8) (s + 2)(s + 4) (s + 2)(s + 4) Z(s) = (s + D (s + l)(s + 2) Z(s) = s(s + 3)
Z(s)

(11.46)

Let us reexamine the partial fraction expansion of a general impedance.
F(s)

R-C

= ^ + K + -^i- + S + Ot s
a

(11.47)

Instead of letting F(s) represent an impedance, consider the case where F(s) is an admittance Y(s). If we associate the individual terms in the

expansion to network elements,

we

then obtain the network shown in

FIG. 11.15

Synthesis of one-port networks
Fig. 11.15.

329

as an

We sec that an R-C impedance, ZBC(s), also can be realized R-L admittance Y^is). All the properties of R-L admittances are
R-C impedances.
is

the same as the properties of
to specify whether a function

It is therefore

important

to be realized as

an R-C impedance or an

R-L
11.4

admittance.

SYNTHESIS OF R-C IMPEDANCES

OR

R-L

ADMITTANCES

for

postulated in Section 11.3 that the Foster form realization exists an R-C impedance or an R-L admittance. Since Foster networks are synthesized by partial fraction expansions, the synthesis is accomplished with ease. An important point to remember is that we must remote the minimum real part of Z(/a>) in the partial fraction expansion. It can be shown* that min [Re Z(/co)] = Z(oo), so that we have to remove Z(oo) as a resistor in the partial fraction expansion. In cases where the numerator is of lower degree than the denominator, Z(oo) = 0. When the numerator and the denominator are of the same degree, then Z(oo) can be obtained by dividing the denominator into the numerator. The quotient is then Z(oo). Consider the following example.

We

F(s)

=

3(a

+
s(s

2)(s

+ 4)
is

+

(11.48)

3)

The

partial fraction expansion of the

remainder function

obtained as

s

s

+

+
3

3

(11.49)

where F(oo) = 3. If F(s) is an impedance Z(s), it must be an R-C impedance and it is realized in the series Foster form in Fig. 11.16. On the other hand, if F(s) represents an admittance, we realize Y(s) as an R-L network in the parallel Foster form (Fig. 11.17).

-\[

8

f f

AV 30

10
If

Z(s)

FIG. 11.16
4

Van Valkenburg,

loc

cil.

i

330

Network

analysis

and synthesis

30.
*k:

Jo:
Y(s)

lh.

FIG. 11.17

An alternate method of synthesis is based on the following fact. If we remove min Re [Z(yto)] = Z(oo) from Z(y), we create a zero at s = oo for the remainder ZjO). If we invert Z x (j), we then have a pole at $ = oo, which we can remove to give Za(s). Since min Re [ Y^jco)] = Yt(co), if we remove Y2(co), we would have a zero at s = oo again, which we again invert and remove. The process of extracting Z(oo) or r(oo) and
the removal of a pole of the reciprocal of the remainder involve dividing
the numerator by the denominator. Consequently,
synthesis process can be resolved

we see that the whole by a continued fraction expansion.
11.48
is

The quotients represent the elements of a ladder network. For example, the continued fraction expansion of F(s) in Eq.
j2

+

3s)3s*

+

l&y

+

24(3

35*+

9s
9s

+

24>*

+ 3s($s s* + f*
is)9s

+

24(27

9s
24)is(s/72

4*

If F(s) is

11.18. If F(s) is

an impedance Z(j), the resulting network is shown in Fig. an admittance Y(s), we have the R-L network of Fig. 11.19.

30
Z(s)
If:

-Wv
270


±o:
Y(s)_

jinpr^-

1

FIG. 11.18

FIG. 11.19

.

1

Synthesis of one-port networks

33

II

J PROPERTIES OF R-L IMPEDANCES AND R-C ADMITTANCES
The immittance
that represents a series Foster
is

R-L impedance or a

parallel Foster

R-C admittance
F(s)

given as

= KK s + K + -&- + s + a
t

(11.50)

The

significant difference
is

between an

pedance

that the partial fraction expansion term for the

R-C impedance and an R-L imR-C "tank"

circuit is Kj(s + at); whereas, for the R-L impedance, the corresponding term must be multiplied by an s in order to give an R-L tank circuit consisting of a resistor in parallel with an inductor. The properties of R-L impedance or R-C admittance functions can be

derived in
functions.
significant
1

much

the same manner as the properties of R-C impedance Without going into the derivation of the properties, the more

ones are given in the following:

R-L impedance or R-C admittance are located and they alternate. 2. The singularity nearest to (or at) the origin is a zero. The singularity nearest to (or at) s = oo must be a pole. 3. The residues of the poles must be real and negative.
on
the negative real axis,

Poles and zeros of an

Because of the third property, a partial fraction expansion of an R-L impedance function would yield terms as

Ki
s

+

o

(11.51)

t

This does not present any trouble, however, because the term above does not represent an R-L impedance at all. To obtain the Foster form of an R-L impedance, we will resort to the following artifice. Let us first expand
into partial fractions. If Z(s) is an R-L impedance, we will state without proof here that the partial fraction expansion of 7^s)js yields positive residues. 6 Thus, we have
2i_s)js

Z°>=*2 + K +
a>

^-+-s

s

s

+

(11,52)

a{
see

*

Actually,

ZBL{s)js has the properties of an R-C impedance;

Van Valkenburg

he.

cit.

332

Network

analysis

and synthesis

°-VW

ifi
40.

&»={=
to:

Z(s)

T

FIG. 11.20

FIG.

11.21

where *o,
Z(s) in

Ku

.

.

.

,

K„ ^

0.

If

we
2(s
(s

the desired form

for synthesis.

multiply both sides by s, we obtain Consider the following function:
(11.53)

mF(s) represents
satisfies

+ l)(s + 3) + 2)(s + 6)

an R-L impedance or an R-C admittance because it of the first two criteria cited. The partial fraction expansion
F(s)

F{s)

is

=

2

s

i

14
2

(11.54)

+

2

s

+

6

so

we see

that the residues are negative.
is

The

partial fraction expansion of

F(s)js,

on the other hand,
F(s)
s

_ 2(5 + s(s +

- 3) 2)(s + 6)
IX*
s,

t
t

i.

4
s

s

+
Is

+
2
s

4

+

(11.55)

6

If we multiply both sides

by

we
1

obtain
is

+
s

(11.56)

+

6

an impedance Z(s), it is synthesized in series Foster Y(s), form, giving the R-L network in Fig. 11.20. If F(s) is an admittance shown in Fig. 11.21. then the resulting network is the R-C network To synthesize an R-L impedance in ladder form, we make use of the If we remove Z(0) from Z(s), the fact that min Re [Z(Jm)] = Z(0).
If F(s) represents

remainder function

Zx(s) will have

a zero at s

= 0.

After inverting Z^s),

FIG. 11.22

Synthesis of one-port networks

333

YM
FIG. 11.23

we can then remove

the pole at s

=

0.

Since the value Z(0)

is

obtained

by dividing the lowest power of the denominator

into the lowest

power

term of the numerator, the synthesis could be carried out by a continued fraction expansion by arranging the numerator and denominator polynomials in ascending order and then dividing. For example, the following function is either an R-C impedance or an R-C admittance.

= 2(5 + l)(s + 3) = 6 + 8s + 2s* 12 + 8s + s* (s + 2)(s + 6)
The continued
12
fraction expansion of F(s)
is

+

8*

+ s*)6 + is + 2s*(l 6 + 4s + js* 4s + fs )12 + Ss + s\3ls 12 + §J ls + s*)4s + 4s +
2

f**(f

£r»

iV)& +
aS

**(49/5s

S*

OAAA
As*

If F(s) is

shown
Y(s),

an impedance function, the resulting network is the R-L network If, on the other hand, F(s) is an R-C admittance the network is synthesized as in Fig. 11.23.
in Fig. 11.22.

11.6

SYNTHESIS OF CERTAIN
certain conditions,

R-L-C

FUNCTIONS
may be
syn-

Under

R-L-C

driving-point functions

thesized with the use of either partial fractions or continued fractions.

For example, the function

z(')~

s

a

VL it + +
S'
s

4- 2s

+

2
( 1L58)

1

334
is

Network

analysis

and synthesis

neither L-C, R-C, nor R-L. Nevertheless, the function can be synthesized
fractions as shown.

by continued
s*

+ s+

l>*
s*

+ 2s + 2(l«-Z + s+1 s + iy + s + S2 + s

i(s

1>

+ l(s + \*-Z s+l
all

The network derived from

this expansion is given in Fig. 11.24. In another case, the poles and zeros of the following admittance are on the negative real axis, but they do not alternate.

Y(s)

= (s + 2)(s + 3) (s + l)(s + 4)

(11.59)

The

partial fraction expansion for Y(s)

is

FIG. 11.24

Y(s)

=1+

s+1

s

+4

(11.60)

Since one of the residues
synthesis.

is

negative,

we cannot

method would be to expand multiply the whole expansion by s.
alternate

An

use this expansion for Y(s)ls and then

y(a)
s

I
s

S

i
6 1

s

+

s

+4

(11.61)

When we

multiply by

s,

we

obtain,

to-*— i2 +
V

h
s

s

1

+4

(11.62)

Y(s) also has a negative term. If we divide the denominator of this negative term into the numerator, we can rid ourselves of any terms

Note that

with negative signs.

y(j)

=

3_(l__U + J!
2
\3
s

+

1/

s

+

-

h
6
s

(11.63)

+

1

s

+4

Synthesis of one-port networks

335

loY(s)

60-

fa:

in

At 4=

FIG. 11.25

The network
11.25.

that

is

realized

from the expanded function

is

given in Fig.

expand Y(s) by continued fractions, we see that negative However, we can expand Us) = l/l%s) by continued fractions, although the expansion is not as simple or straightforward as in the case of an R-C function, because we sometimes have to reverse the
If

we

try to

quotients result.

order of division to

make
is

the quotients

all positive.

The continued

fraction expansion of Z(s)

6

+

5s

+ s*)4 + 5s + s%i 4 + ¥* + !** |s + is*)6 + 6 +

5s

+ s%n/5s +
i**

is

¥*

Hi
+ Hs
Asy^s

+ **(¥
s*)&s(6I15s

¥*

As we
network

see,

the division process giving the quotient of 1/3 involves a

reversal of the order of the polynomials involved.
is

The

resulting ladder

given in Fig. 11.26.

o

—WV
£h«

AAAr

-K-

Z(t)

:&°

FIG. 11.26

W

J

336

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
it

In the beginning of this section,
conditions can an

was

stated that only

under special

R-L-C

driving-point function be synthesized with the

use of a ladder form or the Foster forms. These conditions are not given here because they are rather involved. Instead, when a positive

and it is found that the function is not synthesizable by using two kinds of elements only, it is suggested that a continued fraction expansion or a partial fraction expansion be tried first.
real function is given,

Problems
11.1
(a)

Which of the following functions are L-C driving point impedances?

Why?

+ 4X* + _,, A " jQ» + 9X*» + 25)
8

16)
'

(**

Z*S)

_„

(j»

+

1X«*

+

8)

*fc»+4)

(6) Synthesize the realizable

impedances in a Foster and a Cauer form.

11.2

Indicate the general /orm of the

two Foster and the two Cauer networks

that could be used to synthesize the following

L-C impedance.

7(

w=
.

fr*

+

1X5*

jCi"

+ 9Xi* + 25) + 4X*« + 16)

There

is

no need to

calculate the element values of the four networks.

113

Synthesize the

L-C driving-point impedance

Z(s)

=
i.e.,

6s*

J+

+ 425* + 48 18j» + 48s

in the

in henrys

form shown in the figure, and farads.

determine the element values of the network

=FC8

PROB.

II

11.4 There exists an L-C network with the same driving-point impedance as the network shown in the figure. This alternate network should contain only two elements. Find this network.

i

Synthesis of one-port networks

337

-nnnp
2h
lh«


4=if

2W
If:

PROB.

11.4

11.5

The input impedance

for the network
2*»

shown

is

Zta=

+2
2

"i»+2s*+25 +

If

is an L-C network: (a) Find the expression for Foster series form.

Z

Z

.

(6) Synthesize

Z

in

a

2b

PROB.

II

&
L-C

11.6 Indicate which of the following functions are either R-C, R-L, or impedance functions.
s*

+2s

(a)

z(,)

" FT4?~+1
~

(b)

ZW

s*

+ 4* + 3
+ 45 + 3 + 5s + 6

(c)

Z(5)=
„,

.

s

2

?T6F+8
5*

W
(e)

.

Z(4)

=

«+,
+ Ss* + 6 ** +3

Z(5)

338
11.7
If

Network

analysis

and synthesis

An impedance function has the pole-zero pattern shown in the figure. Z(— 2) = 3, synthesize the impedance in a Foster form and a Cauer form.
ju

-5

-3

-1
11.7

PROB.

11.8 From the following functions, pick out the ones which are tances and synthesize in one Foster and one Cauer form.

R-C admit-

+ l)Qr + 3) + 2X* + 4) sjs + 4X* + 8) is + lXs + 6)
2js
(s

Y(s)

= 4js +
sis

l)fr

+

3)

+2)

Y(s)

= (s +

l)fr

+ 4)

sis

+2)

11.9 Find the networks for the following functions. Both Foster and ladder forms are required.
(«).

Z(s)

-

is

+ +

1)(*

+

4)

s(s

+2)
1)(*

(b)

Z(s)

3is

+ 4)

s 11.10

+

3

For the network shown,

find
1

Y when

K9
V„

2+Y
=
2s»
sjs* +3) +s* +6s +
1

Synthesize

Y as an L-C admittance.

PROB.
11.11

11.10

Synthesize by continued fractions the function

*w- 5

s

s*

+ 2s» + 3j + 1 + s* +2s + 1

Synthesis of one-port networks

339

11.12 Find the networks for the following functions in one Foster and one Cauer form.

(s

+

2X*

Z(s)
11.13

20 +

0.5)(*

+ 4) + 4)

Synthesize the following functions in Cauer form.

11.14

+s + 1 + J8 +s s* + s*+2s + l Z(s) V+4» + 3*«+a + l 4^ + 3^+4^+2 Z(s) 2s» +5 (s + 2X* + 4) Synthesize Z(s) = i i\/ v ^ mto tne form (s + IX* + 5)
s*

Z(s)

+2s*

.

r—*Tnnp

i

i

shown

in the figure. 6

If

Zfr).

PROB.
11.15
sents

11.14

Of the

three pole-zero diagrams shown, pick the diagram that represeries Foster

an R-L impedance function and synthesize in a
JO)

form.

-4

-3 -2

-l
ju

-4

-3

-2

-1

JO)

-4 -3 -2 -1

10

«•

PROB.

11.15

340

Network

analysis

and synthesis

11.16 Synthesize a driving-point impedance with the pole-zero pattern shown in the figure in any form you choose. (Hint: Use uniform loading concepts.)

JU

+

*i LU
PROB.
11.17 3s
(a)
11.16

Following are four successive approximations of tanh

s.

s*+3
IPs*
s*

(c)

+ 105* + 455* + 105

+ 15s + 15 s s* + 1055 + 945* W) 15** + 4205s + 945
s*

(*)

6s*

Synthesize networks for the functions above whose input impedances approxi-

mate tanh*.

chapter 12

Elements of transfer
function synthesis

12.1

PROPERTIES OF TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

another port. In Chapter ? we at one port to the current or voltage at terms of the opendiscussed various descriptions of two-port networks in parameters y u . Recall that for circuit parameters z„ and the short-circuit open-circuit transfer imthe two-port network given in Fig. 12.1, the pedances «!, and Zu were defined as

A transfer function is a function which relates the current or voltage

h l/i-o
*1 lli-0

(12.1)

voltage-ratio transfer In terms of the open-circuit transfer impedances, the

function

is

given as

T,

Yl

« £«
is

(12.2)

ratio In terms of the short-circuit parameters, the voltage

shown

to be

Yl

= _ 2»
as

(12.3)

When the network is terminated at port two by a resistor R,
Fig. 12.2, the transfer impedance

shown

in

of the overall

network

is

z"

£ = _?S*_
h
341

(12.4)

+*

342

Network
+
Vi

analysis

and synthesis

h
Two-port network

h

+

V2

FIG. 12.2
is


FIG.
12.1

The

transfer admittance of the overall structure in Fig. 12.2

Y„
where

= -' =
Vi
y»2

+G
as

(12.5)

G=

l/R.

When both ports are terminated in resistors,

shown in

Fig. 12.3, the voltage-ratio transfer function
*a

V^Vg is

z ai°2
(z

V.

u

+

RMtn.

+

*«)

- 2gi«i8

(12.6)

Other transfer functions such as current-ratio transfer functions can and short-circuit parameters. In Chapter 10 we discussed the various properties of driving-point impedances such as z u and z 28 This chapter deals with the properties of the transfer immittances z M and y tl for a
also be described in terms of the open.

passive reciprocal network.

First, let

us

discuss

certain

properties

which

apply to all transfer functions of passive linear networks with lumped elements. We denote a transfer function as T(s).
1.

T(s) is real for real s. This property

FIG. 12.3

is

satisfied

when

T(s)

is

a rational

function with real coefficients.
2. T(s)

has no poles in the right-half plane and no multiple poles on

they'to axis.

If T(s) is given as T(s) P(s)lQ(s), the degree of P(s) cannot exceed the degree of Q(s) by more than unity. In addition, Q(s) must be

=

a Hurwitz polynomial.
3.

Suppose P(s) and Q(s) are given in terms of even and odd
is,

parts,

that

ns)
where M£s)
is

=

w,(5) e(S) 8( S ) even and N£s) is odd. Then T(ja>) is

m = MM±IM m +
MiC/oO
MJja>)

(12 7)
.

+ +

A^
NMa>)

The amplitude response of
\T(j<o)\

T(ja>) is

=
UfA/co)

+ Nt*(ja>)]

(12.9)

Elements of transfer function synthesis

343

and

is

an even function in m. The phase response

Arg TQm)
If arg T(jO)

= arctan

0, we see that the phase response is an odd function in <o. us discuss some specific properties of the open-circuit and short-circuit parameters.

=

m—m
Z^s)

is

'«—

Now

let

1. The poles of zgl (,s) are also the poles of z (j) and z {s). However, u it not all the poles of z u (s) and z M (y) are the poles ofzn (s). Recall that in Chapter 9 we defined the z parameters in terms of a set of node equations

as

A
2.o

=

^

— Z«l — ^12
A

is no cancellation between each numerator and denominator of z u, and z lg then the poles are the roots of the determinant A, and all three functions have the same poles. Consider the two-port network described by the black box in Fig. 12.4a. Let z' u z' a2 and z' lt be the z parameters of the network. Let us examine the case when we attach the impedances Zx and Zg to ports one and two, as shown in Fig. 12.46. The z parameters

If there

zlt ,

,

,

,

for the two-port network in Fig. 12.46 are

= z ii + Zj Z 22 — Z 22 + Zj Z 12 = Z 12
z ii

poles of z u include the poles of Z^ the poles of z M include the poles of Zj. However, the poles of z lt include neither the poles of Zi nor Z,. Consequently, we see that all the poles of z„ are also
It is clear that the

poles of z u

and z„. The

reverse

is

not necessarily

true.

h
+
*\l> 2*22
z'tt

l_

h
+

v2

r
Vi

*

£
I,

—<*'ll. *'22

3j

-o

«'l2

v2

(a)

w
FIG. 12.4

344

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

h
*
Vi
*

h

h
o
>

3f

/2

r^
Y!

A-i
y'n, y'22
y'12

"

*
V2
Vi

Y2


FIG. 12.6

*h

V*

-

4"
FIG. 1X5

^T

7

poles of yis(s) are also the poles of y u(s) and y M(s). However, not all of the poles of yu(s) and y M(s) are the poles of yM(s). This property is readily seen when we examine the two-port network in Fig. 12.5.
2.

The

The y parameters are
y**

.

,

v
y%

= y'»* + yit = v'm

Clearly, the poles of

y12(s) do not include the poles of either Consider the network in Fig. 12.6. The y parameters are
2 ViM = - + s
y»(s)
3s

Yt

and

Yt

.

= - + 3s
s

yis(s)

=

-3s

and s = 00, whereas at s = Observe that yu(s) has a pole at s = 00. ylt(s) only Let us 3. Suppose yu (s), y M(s), and y 18(s) all have poles at s = st denote by u the residue of the pole at st of the function y u (s). The residue of the pole s = Sj, of y w(s) will be denoted as km , and the residue of the same pole of yia (s) will be denoted as k lt Without going into the proof, 1 a general property of L-C, R-C, or R-L two-port networks is that and yM(s) have poles
.

Jfc

.

k ak M
This equation
is

- klt ^
*

(12.11)

L-C
s

=

2x4 —

as the residue condition. For example, for the network in Fig. 12.6, the residue condition applied to the pole at 3* 0, we have 0; whereas for the pole at s 00 gives 3 x 3 0* 0. Thus we see that the residue condition is fulfilled 8

known

=

=

= >

for both poles.
l For a general discussion, see M. E. Van Valkenburg, Introduction Network Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1960, pp. 305-313.

to

Modem

Elements of transfer function synthesis

345

C

/2

FIG. 12.7

+
Vi

-T7>
c
FIG. 12.8

h <

o

+
Vj

o

111

ZEROS OF TRANSMISSION
zero of transmission
is is a zero of a transfer function. At a zero of zero output for an input of the same frequency.

A

transmission, there

For the network in Fig. 12.7, the capacitor is an open circuit at s = 0, so there is a zero of transmission at s = 0. For the networks in Figs.
12.8 and 12.9, the zero of transmission occurs at s ±//VZc. For the network in Fig. 12.10, the zero of transmission occurs at s —l/RC. In general, all the transfer functions of a given network have the same

=

=

zeros of transmission, except in certain special cases. For example if ««(*) has a zero of transmission at s su than y«(j), V^lV^s), etc.,

=

o

h
k

+

+

v2

FIG. IX*

FIG. 12.1*

346

Network

analysis and synthesis
*1

+

Zx

z3

-

ZB

-

Vi

y2

Y<1

^6

FIG.

12.11

will also

s^ This fact is clearly seen when we examine have a zero at s the relationships between the transfer functions. For example, we have
Z«i

=


yuVn.

yn

-

(12.12)

Vi^ti
(12.13)

and

Vn-

In addition, the voltage- and current-ratio transfer functions can be expressed in terms of the z and y parameters as

Yl

— 5ll

h — Usk

(12.14)

In Chapter 8 we saw that transfer functions that have zeros of transmission only on the jco axis or in the left-half plane are called minimum phase functions. If the function has one or more zeros in the right-half plane, then the function is nonmimimum phase. It will be shown now that

any transfer function of a passive reciprocal ladder network must be minimum phase. Consider the ladder network in Fig. 12.11. The zeros of transmission of the ladder occur at the poles of the series branch impedances or at the zeros of the shunt branch impedances. Since these branch impedances are themselves positive real, the poles and zeros of these impedances cannot be in the right-half plane. Consequently, the transfer functions of ladder networks must be minimum phase. For the network in Fig. 12.12, a transfer function would have two zeros of

FIG. 12.12

Elements of transfer function synthesis

347

FIG. 12.13

due to the elements Lx and C8 It would also have a = due to Clt a zero at s = —l/Ra Ct due to the parallel R-C branch, and a zero of transmission at s = jULtCtf* due to the L-C tank circuit. It is seen that none of the transmission zeros are in the right-half plane. We also see that a transfer function may
transmission at s
oo
.

=

zero of transmission at s

possess multiple zeros

on

the ja> axis.

In Section 12.4 it may be seen that lattice and bridge circuits can easily be nonminimum phase. It can also be demonstrated that when two ladder networks are connected in parallel, the resulting structure may have
right-half-plane zeros. 2

12.3

SYNTHESIS OF

Y„

AND Zn WITH A

I-S2

TERMINATION

In this section we consider the synthesis of an L-C ladder network with a 1-Q resistive termination to meet a specified transfer impedance Zji or transfer admittance Ytl . In terms of the open- and short-circuit

parameters of the

L-C circuit, Z^C?) can be

expressed as

Zm
and

'21

+
Vn

(12.15)
1

Ytl(s) is
and

I"*-'
12.14.


as depicted in Figs. 12.13

+

(12.16)
i

Before

we proceed with the actual details of the synthesis,

it is

necessary

two important points. The first deals with the ratio of the odd to even or even to odd parts of a Hurwitz polynomial Q(s). Suppose
to discuss

FIG. 12.14
«

Van Valkenburg,

op.

cit.,

Chapter

11.

348
Q(s)
is

Network
given as

analysis and synthesis

Q(s)

=

M{s)

+ N(s)
is

(12.17)

where M(s)

is

the even part of Q(s),

and N{s)

the

odd

part.

We know

that the continued fraction expansion of M(s)lN(s) or N(s)IM(s) should yield all positive quotients. These quotients can, in turn, be associated with reactances. Therefore it is clear that the ratio of the even to odd or

the

odd

to even parts of a Hurwitz polynomial

is

an L-C driving-point

function.

The second point to be discussed is the fact that the open-circuit transfer
impedance ztl or the short-circuit transfer admittance yn of an L-C circuit that in an L-C is an odd function. To show this, we must remember 90° out of phase with the circuit with steady-state input, the currents are
voltages.

Thus the phase

voltages or input voltages

shifts between the input currents and output and output currents must be 90° out of phase,

or

Arctan^=±Jrad
and

(12.18)

Arctan^=±?rad
=

(12.19)

Re j/ 21(;a)) for an L-C network. In order for the so that Re z n (jw) of an L-C two-port real parts to be equal to zero, the functions z« and y ai
network must be odd. Suppose, now, that the transfer admittance of two polynomials*

=

Y21 is given as the quotient
(12.20)

Y11 =
where P(s)
circuit
is

^= ^ +
Q(s)

M{s)

N(s)

either

even or odd.

Now, how do we

determine the shortit

parameters y n and y M from the Eq. 12.20 to get

into the

form

Y" =
The answer
ytl
is

ya

i+y»

(12.21)

We divide both the numerator P(s) and the or N(s), the even or the odd part of Q{s). denominator Q(s) by M(s) must be odd, if P(s) is even, we divide by N(s) so that Since
quite simple.

P(s)/N(s)

In
1

(12>22)

+

[M(s)IN(s)]

Elements of transfer function synthesis

349

From this we

obtain

yn


(12.23)

_M(s)
y"
JV(s)

On the

other hand,

if P(s) is

odd,

we

divide

by M(s) so that

y„
1

Z(!VMW_ + [tf(s)/M(s)]
M(s)

(12 24)
.

(12.25)

yM

M(5)

We assume that P(s), Mis), and N(s) do not possess common roots. For our purposes, we will consider only the synthesis of Yn or Ztl with zeros

transmission at s

oo. In a ladder network, a zero of of transmission either at s = or s = corresponds to a single capacitor in a series branch or a single inductor in a shunt branch. On the other hand, a zero of oo corresponds to an inductor in a series branch or transmission at s a capacitor in a shunt branch. In terms of the transfer impedance

=

=

Zn(s)

= fW =

*('"

+

1

««-i«"-

+

+

"i«

+

«»>

(12 26)
.

implies that the coefficients an_ x , ax , a are all zero. The number of zeros of Z,^) at s = oo is given by the difference between the highest powers of the denominator and the numerator, m — n. We know that n can exceed m by at most unity, while m can be greater than n by more than one. For example, , a lt a„ = 0, we know that the if m — n = 2, and n = 3 with «„_i, and two zeros transfer function has three zeros of transmission at s =

the presence of n zeros of Z, x (.y) at s
a„_,

=

.

.

.

oo. of transmission at s We can now proceed with the matter of synthesis. following example.

=

Consider the

sr

+

3s

+ 4s + 2 =
oo.

We

see that all three zeros of transmission are at j
is

Since the

numerator P(s)

a constant,

it

must be even, so we divide by the odd

350

Network

analysis

and synthesis

part of the denominator s*

+ 4s. We then obtain + 4s g — 3s + 2 s + 4s
s
i

a

(12.28)

z as

We see that both zsl and z2g have the
.

same poles. Our task is thus simpliwhere we must synthesize z22 so that the resulting network fied to the point has the transmission zeros of z 21 This requires that we first examine the possible structures of the networks which have the required zeros of transmission and see if we can synthesize z 22 in one of those forms. For the example that we are considering, a network which gives us three zeros of transmission at s = oo is shown in Fig. 12.15. We can synthesize z22 to give us this structure by the following continued fraction expansion
of
l/z 22 .

3j«

+

2)i»

+

4s(ls+-Y
|s

s»+

^)3j*
3£*

+

2(&s +-Z

2Y£s(is^Y

from the l-£2 termination toward the input end, the final network takes the form shown in Fig. 12.16. Examining the network more closely, we see that it takes the form of a low-pass filter.
Since z 22
is

synthesized

Thus the specification of all zeros at s
filter.

=

oo

is

equivalent to the specification

of a low-pass As a second example, consider the transfer impedance

*«>Since the numerator of

,+

»+

<12S)
4.

+2

Zgl

(,s)

is

an odd function, we have to divide both
-ffflHT1

-nRPP-

<D T
FIG. 12.15

}

FIG. 12.16

Elements of transfer function synthesis

351

FIG. 12.17

numerator and denominator by the even part of the denominator so that

*n

=
3s*

-«*

+2

*« ""

=

s*

3s*

+ 4s T +2

(12.30)

The network that gives three zeros of transmission
structure

which

is realized

at s = is a high-pass by a continued fraction expansion of «M .

The

final realization is

shown

in Fig. 12.17.

Finally, consider the transfer admittance

+ 4s + 2 which has two zeros of transmission at s = 0, and one zero Since the numerator is even, we divide by s* + 4s so that 3s' + 2 y« = -rrr s + 4s
s*

Yn(s)

+

(12.31)

3s*

at s

=

oo.

(12.32)

„~„„x

as to how we synthesize y a to give a zero of transmission at s oo and two zeros at s 0. First, remember that a parallel inductor gives us a zero of transmission at s 0. We can remove this parallel inductor by removing the pole at s of y n to give

The question remains

=

=

=

Vi

=

1

i/— Vu

2s

5s/2 = ~—— s* + 4

(12.33)

If we invert ylt we see that we have a series L-C combination, which gives us another transmission zero at s 0, as represented by the f-farad capacitor, and we have the zero of transmission at s oo also when we remove the inductor of f h. The final realization is shown in Fig. 12.18.

=

=

H()Vt

2h<

FIG. 12.18

352

Network

analysis

and synthesis

1

Zn

Network

1Q<

\)
I

(a)

An important point to note in this synthesis procedure is that we must place the last element in series with a voltage source or in parallel with a current source in order for the element to have any effect upon the transfer
function. If the last element
is

denoted as

Zn

,

then the proper connection

of Z n should be as shown in Fig. 12.19.
12.4

SYNTHESIS OF CONSTANT-RESISTANCE NETWORKS

In this section we will consider the synthesis of constant-resistance twoport networks. They derive their name from the fact that the impedance looking in at either port is a constantresistance R when the other port is terminated in the same resistance R, as depicted Two-port
network

in

Fig.

12.20.

Constant-resistance

net-

works
FIG.
12.20. Constant-resistance

are particularly useful in transfer
synthesis,

because when two networks with the network. same R are connected in tandem, as shown neither network loads down the other. As a result, if the in Fig. 12.21, voltage-ratio transfer function of a is V^V-l and that of b is VJVS the voltage-ratio transfer function of the total network is
function
constant-resistance

N

N

,

Y*Y»

(12.34)

Equation 12.34 implies that, if a voltage-ratio transfer function is to be ratio could realized in terms of constant-resistance networks, the voltage

Elements of transfer function synthesis

353

t.

*.

Na

V2

«+

+
Nb

R<

FIG.

12.21. Constant-resistance

networks in tandem.

could be be decomposed into a product of simpler voltage ratios, which then connected in tandem. realized as constant-resistance networks, and

For example, suppose our

objective is to realize

K_
Va

K(s
(s

- z«)(s - zi)(s - z,) - p )(s - Pi)(« - P«)
We
can
first

(12.35)

in terms of constant-resistance networks. individual voltage ratios
\\

synthesize the

_ K (s - 2 ) s — Po V. = K^s
s

v*

-*i)
Pi

(12.36)

Y*

-zj = Xa(s
s

Vt
as constant-resistance networks

-

p,
in

and then connect the three networks

tandem to
works,

realize

VhjVa

.

Although there are many
structures as

different types of constant-resistance net-

we will restrict ourselves to networks of the bridge- and lattice-type
shown
in Figs. 12.22o
i.e.,

and 12.226. These networks are

balanced structures;

the input and output ports do not possess comterminals. Upon a close examination, we see that the bridge and mon The bridge circuit is lattice circuits in Figs. 12.22 are identical circuits. merely the unfolded version of the lattice. Consider the open-circuit

parameters of the bridge circuit in Fig. 12.23.

First

we determine

the

impedance

z

u

as
«ii

=

(12.37)

Next we determine the

transfer

impedance zn , which can be expressed as

z ai

= V* ~ V h

*'

(12.38)

354

Network

analysis and synthesis

+

'.

(a)

+"

(b)

FIG.

12.22. (a) Bridge circuit,

(6) Constant-resistance lattice.

and

is

obtained as follows.

We first obtain the current /' as

r_
Next we
find that

Vi

_h
2
tt

Za + Z b
-

(12.39)

Vt - Vt =

(Zb

- Z )I'
(12.40)

= (Z -Za)|
6

FIG.

12.23. Analysis

of bridge

circuit.

Elements of transfer function synthesis

355

so that

^ = Z> ~ Z
us consider the

*

(12.41)

From

the lattice equivalent of the bridge circuit
lattice circuit that is

we

note that z M

= zu

.

Now

terminated in a resistance R, as shown in Fig. 12.226. What are the conditions on the open-circuit parameters such that the lattice is a constant-resistance network? In other words, what are the conditions upon z u and z n such that the input impedance of the lattice terminated in the resistor R is also equal to R7
let

In Chapter 9

we found

that the input impedance could be expressed as

Zu
Since z u

= *ii - -SjJ-r Zn + R

(12.42)

= zu for a symmetrical network, we have
Z" "
z 11

+*

(1243)

In order for

Zu

= R, the following condition must hold.
*u*

- z«ia =

*

(12.44)

For the

lattice

network,

we then have

iKZ,
which
simplifies to give

+ Z,)* - (Za - Z»)»] = **
Z^Lb

(12.45)

— R*

(12.46)

Therefore, in order for a lattice to be a constant-resistance network,

Eq. 12.46 must hold. Next, let us examine the voltage ratio VjVg of a constant-resistance lattice whose source and load impedances are equal to R (Fig. 12.24). From Chapter 9 we can write

z^R
(zu

V9

+ K)(zM + R) - ztfr*

(12.47)

FIG. I2J4. Double-terminated

lattice.

356

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
IS-

which

simplifies to

=
(zn

5*&ii

V.

+ Kf - **i

a

= __Zt£__ 2Rz11 + 2R 2
In terms of the element values of the
V,
V„
lattice,

(12.48)

we have
(12.49)

_

- Za)R R(Z b + Za) + 2R*
l(Z b

From

the constant-resistance condition in Eq. 12.46,
V,

we obtain

_

UZ b - (RVZh)]R
R[Z b

Vt

+

(R*/Z»)]

+
h

2R a

- R*) + R8) + 2RZ a a _ j(Zt - R ) (Z + R?
KZ»»
(Z 6a
b

=

* (Z >

~

R)
(12.50)

Zb + R
If

In Eq. 12.50, the constant multiplier J comes about from the fact that
the source resistance

R acts as a voltage divider.
G(s)

we

let

=

^
G as
G(s)]

(12.51)

we can

express

Z6 in Eq.

12.50 in terms of

HP +
"

1-G(5)

In terms of Z„, the voltage ratio can be given as

V2 Va
Example
12.1.

1R-Z

a

2R + Za
let

(12.53)

In the following examples, we will usually

R

be normalized to unity.

The voltage

ratio is given as

2l=l£JlI 2s + 1 V„

(12.54)

Elements of transfer function synthesis
which, as

357

we

recall, is

an

all-pass transfer function.

By

associating Eq. 12.54

with Eq. 12.50,

we have
Z„ =>s,
(12.55)

Since

Z^Za =

1,

we then

obtain

Za -s

(12.56)

We see that Z„ is a 1-h inductor and Za is a 1-farad capacitor.
is

The final network

shown

in Fig. 12.25.

If

FIG. 12.25

Example

12.2.

Let us synthesize the all-pass function

V ~2s +
B

'

1

s*

+ 2s+2
Since the portion
l 1

(12.57)

whose pole-zero diagram

is

shown

in Fig. 12.26.

Yl
V„
has already been synthesized,
let

_

l s

2s

~ +

us concentrate on synthesizing the function
j* s*

V~
a
First,

Vt

-2s +2

+2s+2
into

(12.58)

we

separate the numerator

and denominator function
(f
2

odd and

even parts. Thus

we have
V*

Va
x

=

(5*

+ 2) - Is + 2) + 2s

(12.59)

jut

yi

-<T

-1

+1

«

X

-fl

-

FIG. 123*

358
If

Network

analysis

and synthesis

we

divide both numerator

and denominator by the odd part
[(*» [(5*

2s,

we

obtain

Vt

We then see that

+ 2)/2t] + 2)/2*] + a* + 2
s
1

1

(12.60)
1

=2 +I
which consists of a $-h inductor in pedance Z„ is then
series with

(12.61)

a

1 -farad

capacitor.

The im-

*-JT5
and
is

(1262)

voltage ratio

recognized as a J-farad capacitor in parallel with a 1-h inductor. The VjVa is thus realized as shown in Fig. 12.27. The structure that

FIG. 12.27
realizes the transfer function

VJVg in Eq. 12.S7 is formed by connecting the networks in Figs. 12.25 and 12.27 in tandem, as shown in Fig. 12.28. Finally, it should be pointed out that constant-resistance lattices can be used to realize other than all-pass networks.

FIG. I2JS

Next,
12.29.

let

If the resistances in the

us consider the constant-resistance bridged-T network in Fig. network are all equal to R ohms, the
if

network has constant-resistance

ZA - *

(12.63)

Elements of transfer function synthesis

359

ED—
-vwR
Vi

AMr R
Zb
Vt

.*.

FIG. VIM. Constant-resistance bridged-T

circuit.

Under

the constant-resistance assumption, the voltage-ratio transfer

function can be given as
V*

_

* R + Za

_

z>
Zt + R

Vx
Exanple 123.
V.

(12.64)

Let us synthesize the voltage ratio
s*

+

l

j*+25 +
let

(12.65)
l

as a constant-resistance bridged-T network terminated in a 1-G resistor. First

us write

VJV1 as

V1 Vt
so that

1
1

+

[2*/(*»

+

(12.66)
1)]

Is

and

Zb
recognize

+l ~ s* + l

circuit

(12.67)

(12.68)

We

Za

as a parallel
is

L-C tank
2h

and Z» as a

series

L-C

tank

circuit.

The final network

shown

in Fig. 12.30.

r-CH
-a/v\

10

—i-vwk
10
:2f

10!

FIG. I2J0

360

Network
12.4.

analysis

and synthesis

Example

Let us synthesize the voltage ratio
Vs
(s
(5

Fx "
in terms of

+ 2X* + 4) + 3X3* + 4)
circuits

(12.69)

two constant-resistance bridged-T

connected in tandem.

At

first,

we break up

the voltage ratio in Eq. 12.69 into two separate voltage

ratios

Va

Vi

S+1 5+3
5
~

(12.70)

+4

and

va
ratio

35+4

(12.71)

For the voltage

VJVi, we have
s

+

2

5+3
so that

=

zbl +
1

(12.72)
1

Zn

s

+ 2 and
ratio

zal ~5+2

(12.73)

For the voltage

vjva we have

5+4
35+4
AnH
jr_.
1

1

+zot
25

(12.74)

5+4

(12.75)

FIG.

12.31

I

i

Elements of transfer function synthesis

361

and

Zha

s
'

+4
(12.76)

2*

The final

synthesized network

is

shown

in Fig. 12.31.

Problems
12.1 Give an example of a network where: (a) a transfer function has multiple zeros on they'to axis; (b) the residue of a pole of a transfer function on thsjo> axis is negative.

12.2
figure.

Show

that the residue condition holds for the networks

shown

in the

I

lh 'TflHP
af


-o2

10

3h
-o2

lo-

lo-^VVW:io

Hfiq:
l'o(a)

=fc*f
-o2'
l'o(b)

-o2'

PROB.

12.2

123 For the network shown, and plot on a complex plane.

find

by inspection the zeros of transmission

i

—nnnp—
ff

in.

.20

lf^=

^=2f

S10
£f:

lh

PROB.

12.3

12.4

Z

ln

For the networks in the figure are equal to when Z„Zt R*.

show

that the driving point impedances

R

-

362

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

JC

Vi Zfci-*

s
R
(a)

zb

*£ *

%
Vi

Zta -ii

*^

v2

PROS.
123 For the networks in Prob.

12.4

12.4, find the voltage-ratio transfer functions

yjvv
12.6

For the network shown

in the figure (a)

show

that

Yl. V
(b) Synthesize

1
.

2+Y
+ 2) + 2s + 2

Ywhen
l\
O.S(*»
s*

K ™

10

<

V2

PROB.
12.7
(a)

12.4

For the constant-resistance bridged-T circuit, show that if Z
Vt

tt

Zh — 1,

then

n

i

+za

L_

Elements of transfer function synthesis
(b) Synthesize

363

Za and Zh if

_~ £_ V
l

s* s*

+3s +

2

+45* +5j

+2

12.8

Synthesize the following voltage ratios in one of the forms of the

networks in Prob. 12.4
V,
<«)

s+2
*

Vl
Vt

+

3

2(s*+3)

(e)

Vx " 2** + 2* + 6 3(jr + 0.5) Vt Vx " 4j + 1.5
Synthesize iV with termination resistors /tt

12£

=4fi,i?1

~into

give

Yl
V,

12j*

"

15i»

+ 7* + 2

PROB. IL9
12.10

For the network

in Prob. 12.9, realize network

Na to give

Yl
F„
(a) Synthesize AT. as

X

_L_
+3
(Jt
1

2 2s

(6) Synthesize AT. as
(c) Synthesize A',

lattice. (R =- 1 n.) a constant-resistance ladder as in Prob. 12.4. as a constant-resistance bridged-T circuit. (R -

a constant-resistance

-

1

Q.)

Q.)

12.11

Synthesize the following functions into the form

shown

in the figure

(«)

Z

s*

1

+3s* +3s
s

+2
+ +
2

(*)

Z„- *»
'a
s*

+ +

3s*

+
s*

3s

(c)

3s*

+
s*

3s

2

id)

Y„s*
'

+ 3s* + 3s +2
s*

(e)
(*

+ 2)«

364

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

PROB.I2.II
12.12
Synthesize as a constant-resistance lattice terminated in a 1-Q resistor.

(«)

(b)

-s+1 +s + 1 h ~ s* - 3s + 2 vt s* + 3s +2 via s* - 20s* + 5s Vx(s) ^ s* + 20s* + 5s +
V,
s*
s*

Vx

20 20

12.13
circuits.

Synthesize the functions in Prob. 12.8 as constant-resistance bridged-T

chapter 13

Topics

in filter

design

13.1

THE

FILTER DESIGN

PROBLEM

In the preceding chapters we examined different methods for synthesizing a driving point or transfer function H(s). Most problems have as their initial specification an amplitude or phase characteristic, or an impulse response characteristic instead of the system function H(s). Our problem is to obtain a realizable system function from the given amplitude or phase characteristic. For example, a typical design problem might be to synthesize a network to meet a given low-pass filter characteristic. The specifications might consist of the cutoff frequency m c the maximum allowed deviation from a prescribed amplitude within the pass band, and the rate of fall off in the stop band. We must then construct the system function from the amplitude specification. After we obtain H(s), we proceed with the actual synthesis as described in the Chapter 12. Another problem might consist of designing a low-pass filter with a linear phase characteristic within the pass band. Here, both amplitude and phase are specified. We must construct H(s) to meet both specifications. Problems of this nature fall within the domain of approximation theory. In this chapter we will consider selected topics in approximation theory and then present examples of filter design where both the approximation and the synthesis problems must be solved.
,

13.2

THE APPROXIMATION PROBLEM NETWORK THEORY
essence of the problem

IN

is the approximation of a given funcby another function/^t; «!,..., a„) in an interval xx ^ x ^ xt The parameters ax in the approximating function are fixed , <x„

The

tion/(rr)

.

,

.

.

.

365

366

Network

analysis and s/nthesis

by the
/at*;
1.
<*i»

particular error criterion chosen.
• •

When we

let

e

= f{x) —

»

*n)» the following error criteria are
. . .

most common:

Least squares. The value of /(alf

,

aj is minimized where

and w(x)
intervals.
2.

is

a weighting function which stresses the error in certain subfirst

Maximally flat. The

n


is

\

derivatives of e are

made

to vanish

at

x
3.

= *o.
Chebyshev. The value of p
/*

minimized in the interval *i<,x <,xt

where

=

|«ln«x-

4. Interpolation.

in the interval x^£x

The value of <, xt
.

e is

made

to vanish at a set of n points

is chosen, we must determine the particular approximating function. This depends upon whether we form of the choose to approximate in the time or frequency domain. Suppose /(a;) represents a magnitude function in the frequency domain and the approximating function is to be rational in co*; then

After an error criterion

/„(*;

«!,..•,*»)=

.

(13.1)

where * = to*. In addition, the values of xk must be restricted to insure ^ 0. In the time domain, /(&) might represent an that/ (x; alf , of a system to be synthesized. In the case of an R-C impulse response transfer function, we have
. .
.

O

fa(x; 04,
where x

...

,

oc„)

=

«**'

+

oe,

e"«*

+

(13.2)

=

t.

Since an

negative real axis, the values of

R-C transfer function must have its poles on the <x t , k even, are restricted to negative real
lies in

numbers. The keystone of any approximation problem

the choice of a

suitable error criterion subject to realizability restrictions.

The problem

can be simplified

when some of the

oc's

are assigned before applying the

error criteria. All the error criteria cited, except the Chebyshev, can then be reduced to a set of linear algebraic equations for the unknowns
«ii
• • • >

*»•

Time-domain approximation The principal problem of time-domain approximation

consists of

approximating an impulse response h(0 by an approximating function

Topics
h*(t) such that the squared error

in filter

design

367

e
is

= ["[fc(0-**(')f *

minimum.

A generally effective procedure in time-domain approximation utilizes orthonormal functions ^(r). 1 The approximating function h*{t) takes
the form

**(0-Z«.«0 k=l
so that the error

(13.3)

Jo
is

L

«*&(<)] dt
*-i

minimized when
h(t)<f>k (t)dt

«.=r
as

k

=

l,2,...,n

(13.4)

we saw in Chapter 3. If the orthonormal set is made up of a of exponentials e**', then the approximate impulse response

sum

,»ri

(13.4)

*=1

has a transform

#*(*)=!
*=1 s

(13.5)
sk

Realizability is insured if in the

orthonormal

k

=

set {a te***},

Re ^

^ 0;

1, 2,

.

.

.

,

n.

Synthesis then proceeds

from the system function H*(s)

obtained in Eq. 13.S.

Frequency-domain approximation
In frequency-domain approximation
the
principal
rational function H(s)
|/f(/Yu)|

problem is to find a whose magnitude
-1
+1

approximates the ideal low-pass

characteristic in Fig. 13.1 according to

a predetermined error criterion. In the next few sections we examine several

FIG . I3X
acteristic.

Ideal

,

fihcrchar_

W. H. Kautz, "Transient Synthesis in the Theory, CT-1, No. 3, September 1954, 29-39.
1

Time Domain," IRE

Trans, on Circuit

368

Network

analysis

and synthesis
ideal low-pass:

different

ways to approximate the

the maximally flat or

Butterworth approximation, the equal-ripple or Chebyshev approximation, and the optimal or Legendre approximation. Another major problem is
that of obtaining a transfer function H^s),
linear or whose delay
is

whose phase
:

is

approximately

approximately flat over a given range of frequencies. Here again, there are two different methods the maximally flat or the equal-ripple methods. Our discussion will center around the maximally flat method. The joint problem of approximating both magnitude and

phase over a given frequency range
here.

is

possible, but will not be discussed

13.3

THE MAXIMALLY FLAT LOW-PASS APPROXIMATION
we saw
its

FILTER

In Chapter 10

that the ideal low-pass

filter

in Fig. 13.1

is

not

not zero for t < 0. However, if we use a rational function approximation to this low-pass filter characteristic, the Paley- Wiener criterion will be automatically satisfied. We will therefore restrict ourselves to rational function approxirealizable because

associated impulse response

is

mations.

In low-p.ass filter design, if we assume that all the zeros of the system function are at infinity, the magnitude function takes the general form

where

K

is

the d-c gain constant and/(<u 2)

is

the polynomial to be selected
if

to give the desired amplitude response. /(«)
a )

For example,
a)
2"

=

(13.7)

then the amplitude function can be written as

M(»)

=

,.

(1

\n^ + o>2n)
is is

< 13 - 8 )

We see that M(0) =
eo.

K,,,

and that M(a>)

monotonically decreasing with
at to

In addition, the 0.707 or 3-decibel point

=

1

for

all n,

that

is,

M(l)

= -^

alln

(13.9)

trols the closeness

is thus seen to be <w = 1. The parameter n conof approximation in both the pass band and the stop band. Curves of M(m) for different n are shown in Fig. 13.2. Observe

The

cutoff frequency

Topics
Radian frequency,
0.1

In filter

design

369

a
0.8

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.6

5^ ,v

-2

-4
-6
n=3 •\
n=5
n

-8
-10
-12

\VV
I*

=7

\

\\\

-14 -16
-18 -20
-22

^ \
\\

A
\\
\

\
\
\

-24 -26
FIG.
13.2.

\

\

\

Amplitude response of Butterworth low-pass

filters.

that the higher n is, the better the approximation. The amplitude approximation of the type in Eq. 13.8 is called a Butterworth or maximally flat response. The reason for the term "maximally fiat" is that when we expand M(to) in a power series about <o = 0, we have
Jlf(eo)

- Ao(l «>

l<o

tn

+ |co«» 1

A<o«"

+

i^eo""

+

•)

(13.10)

We
(0

see that the first 2n

derivatives of M{o>) are equal to zero at

= 0.

For

»

1,

the amplitude response of a Butterworth function

can be written as (with Kg normalized to be unity)

M(w) =!


to"

<w»l
wrn
is

(13.11)

We observe that asymptotically,

Af(to) falls off as

for a Butterworth

response. In terms of decibels, the asymptotic slope

obtained as
(13.12)

20 log M(co)

= — 20/i log <w

370

Network

analysis

and synthesis
falls

Consequently, the amplitude response 6m db/octave or 20n db/decade.

asymptotically at a rate of
transfer function H(s)

One

question remains.

How

do we obtain a

from only the amplitude
follows.

characteristics M(co)l

The procedure

is

as

We first note that the amplitude response M{m) and the complex
M\w) =
H(j<o) H(-jco)
(13.13)

system function H(jco) are related by

If

we

define a

new

function A(s 2) such that
A(s 2)

-

H(s)

H(-s)

(13.14) (13.15)

we

see that

M

2

(<o)

=

^(-ot) 2)

From A(— eo 2) all we need do is to substitute s* = —to2 Then we factor A(s2) into the product H(s) H(—s). Since

to give «(s 2).

the poles

and

zeros of H(s) are the mirror images of the poles and zeros of H(—s), we simply choose the Hurwitz factors of A(js) as H(s). An example will serve
to clarify this discussion.

Consider the third-order (n

=

3)

Butterworth

response given by
JW
\OJ)


1

l

+ to
1

6

(13.16)

1

1

(13.17)

"We see that AC?2)
Factoring
«(**),

is

«(s )

a

=
1

--(s8)8
1

(13.18)

we obtain
1
=

«(**)

1

+

2s

+

2s

2

+

s'

»

1

-

2s

+

2s

2

-

s*

= H(s)H(-s)

(13.19)

We then have
if(s)

=
s

1
8

+ +

2s

s

+

2s

+

1
1

l)(s

+ i + A/3/2X* + i - A/3/2)

(13-20)

The poles of #(y) and fT(-*) are shown in Fig. 13.3. Observe that the poles of H(—s) are mirror images of the poles of H(s), as given by the theorem on Hurwitz polynomials in the Chapter 2.

Topics

in filter

design

371

HM^.-

-^ «f-»>

FIG.

13.3.

Poles of H(s)

H(-s)

for

an n

= 3 Butterworth filter.

For a Butterworth response, the poles of H(s) H(—s) are the roots of

(-1)V B = -1

=
The poles

«*«*-"»

k

=

0, 1,

2

In

-

(13.21)
1

s k are then given
sk

by
e*<»-u/ft*
e
i(i/n) '

= =

„ even
(13.22)

n odd
fc

or simply by

sk

=

e

«<»+'-i>/an] I

= o, 1, 2,
n

,2n

(13.23)

Expressing st as s k

=

ak

+ ja> k
2n

,

the real and imaginary parts are given

by
ow

n= cos 2fc + n =
2k
sin

1
ir

=
=

.

/2fc
I

1\tt

sin

\
l
IT

/2
1 1

(13.24)

+ nIn

ct)v

cos

/2fcI

1\tt —

\

n

12

It is seen from Eqs. 13.22 and 13.23 that all the poles of H(s) H(—s) are located on the unit circle in the s plane, and are symmetrical about both the a and the jco axes. To satisfy readability conditions, we associate the poles in the right-half plane with H(—s), and the poles in the left-half

plane with H(s). As an example, consider the construction of an H(s) that gives an n 4 Butterworth response. From Eq. 13.23, it is seen that the poles are given by

=

st

=

^(«fc+*)/8]»

e"

(13.25)

372
H(s)
is

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

then given as
H($)

=
(S

+

««»«.)(,

+

«*««»«Xa

+

e ™')(s

i{

+

(,

(13 26)
"

e>

*>*)

If

we

express sk in complex form

and expand, we obtain

H( s\


(s
2

_
+
1

0.76536s

+

l)(s*

+

1.84776s

+
is

(12 27)
1)

To
13.1

simplify the use of Butterworth functions, H(s)

given in Tables
13.27, or

and

13.2 for n

=

to n

=

8,

in factored

form as in Eq.

multiplied out as

H(s)

=
a ns

-^
n

+

fln-xs"-

1

+

+

a ts

+

(13.28)
1

TABLE
n
1

13.1

Butterworth Polynomials (Factored Form)

s

2
3

5s

4
5

6
7

8

+1 + V2s + 1 (**+* + 1)(* + 1) (s2 + 0.76536* + IX** + 1.84776* + 1) 8 2 (* + 1)(* + 0.6180* + IX* + 1.6180* + 1) 2 (** + 0.5176* + IX* + ^2* + IX*2 + 1.9318* + 1) 2 2 2 (* + IX* + 0.4450* + IX* + 1.2456* + IX* + 1.8022* + 1) (s2 + 0.3986s + IX*2 + 1.1110* + IX*2 + 1.6630* + IX*2 + 1.9622* +
TABLE
13.2

1)

Butterworth Polynomials *

n
1

«i
1

a*

«8

«4

«s

««

«7

«8

2
3

V2
2
2.613

1

2
3.414 5.236 7.464
10.103

1

4
5

2.613

1

3.236 3.864

5.236
9.141

3.236 7.464
14.606
25.691

1

6 7
8

3.864
10.103

1

4.494
5.126

14.606

4.494
13.138

1

13.138

21.848

21.848

5.126

1

a

=

!•

Topics

in filter

design

373

13.4

OTHER LOW-PASS
filter

FILTER

APPROXIMATIONS
flat

In Section 13.3,
low-pass

we examined

the maximally

approximation to a

characteristic.
this section.

We

will consider other low-pass filter

approximants in

equal-ripple approximation have seen that the maximally flat approximation to the ideal lowpass filter is best at co 0, whereas, as we approach the cutoff frequency We now <w = l, the approximation becomes progressively poorer. consider an approximation which "ripples" about unity in the pass band and falls off rapidly beyond the cutoff co = 1. The approximation is

The Chebyshev or

We

=

equally

good

at

co

=

ripple approximation.

and co = 1, and, as a result is called an equalThe equal-ripple property is brought about by the
<, 1

use of Chebyshev cosine polynomials defined as

= cos (n cos-1 co) = cosh (n cosh-1 co) C^co) = 1 For n = we see that and for n = 1, we have Ci(<*>) = <°
C„(a>)

|co|

|co|

>

(13.29)
(13.30) (13.31)

1

Higher order Chebyshev polynomials are obtained through the recursive formula _ (B 32) CJfu) =

^ ^^ ^ ^
1

Thus

for n

= 2, we obtain Cg(co) as Cg(co) = 2<o((o) — = 2eo 8 - 1
TABLE
n
1
1

(13.33)

In Table

13.3,

Chebyshev polynomials of orders up to n
13.3

=

10 are given.

Chebyshev polynomials

Cn(m) = cos (n cos-1 <o)

CO

2
3

2co* 4e»3

4
5

6 7 8

9
10

-1 — 3o> 8a>* - 8a>* + 1 16a> 6 - 20a>8 + 5o> 32o>* - 48<o« + 18a>* - 1 64o> 7 - 112a>« + 56eo8 - lea 128a>8 - 256w« + 160w4 - 32o>* + 1 256o>» - 576o»7 + 432o)« - 120a.8 + 9a> 512a» 10 - 1280w8 + 1120a>* - 400eo* + 50«* -

1

374

Network

analysis

and synthesis

FIG.

13.4. C,(co)

and

C,(u>)

Chebyshev polynomials.

The

pertinent properties of Chebyshev polynomials used in the low-pass

filter

approximation are:

1.

The

zeros of the polynomials are located in the interval

|eo|

<, 1,

as seen by the plots of
2.

C3(o))

and

CJio)) in Fig. 13.4.

Within the interval
is,

\w\ <, 1,
1

the absolute value of
for
\co\

CB (co)

never

exceeds unity; that
3.

|C„(eo)| <,
\a>\

<, 1.

Beyond
\a>\.

the interval

<

1,

|C„(w)| increases rapidly for increasing

values of

filter

the Chebyshev polynomials to the low-pass approximation? Consider the function e 2 C„%w), where e is real and and e2 small compared to 1. It is clear that e 2 Cn 2 ((o) will vary between
\u>\

Now, how do we apply

in the interval
e2

^

1.

Now we
|<w|

add
<,
1.

1

to this function
1

making
e2,

it 1

+

C„ 2(g>). This new function
than unity, for

varies between

and

1

+

a quantity

slightly greater

Inverting this function,

we obtain

the function which

we

will associate

with \H(jco)\ 2 ; thus

IHO"))!*

=
1

+ *C n\a>)
is 1/(1

(13.34)

about unity such that the Outside this interval, Cn2(w) becomes very large so that, as to increases, a point will be reached 2 approaches zero very rapidly with where e2 CB2(e>) 1 and \H(jcu)\ further increase in <o. Thus, we see that \H(jw)\ 2 in Eq. 13.34 is indeed a
Within the interval
1
|eo|

<

1,

\H(ja>)\ 2 oscillates

maximum value is

and the minimum

+

e 2).

»

approximant for the ideal low-pass filter characteristic. Figure 13.5 shows a Chebyshev approximation to the ideal low-pass <u <, 1, \H{jw)\ ripples filter. We see that within the pass band
suitable

^

between the value

1

and (1

+

e 2 )- -*.

1

The ripple height or distance between

Topics

in filter

design

375

(l

+ e2) *

-^—^-—

l

«
filter.

FIG.

1

3.5. Chebyshev approximation to low-pass

maximum and minimum

in the pass

band

is

given as
1

Ripple

=1— =

(!+«>"

(13.35)

At

<o

=

1, |H(;«>)| is

\H(jl)\

+ ^a
1,

(13.36)

because
io k ,

Cn\\) =
e*

1.
is,

In the stop band, that

for

\<o\

^

as a> increases,

we

reach a point

where

Cn*{(o) »

1

so that

]ff(Mlas-

O)

>

eC n(a>)

0) k

(13.37)

The

loss in decibels is given as

Loss

= -20 log10 H(jm ^ 20 log e + 20 log CB(o)
\

)\

(13.38)

But for large
so that

<w,

CB(co)
Loss

can be approximated by
1

its

_1 leading term 2" <w",

= 20 log e + 20 log 2*- g>" 5 6 = 20 log e + 6(n - 1) + 20/t log a>

(13.39)

376

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

Chebyshev response also falls off at the rate of 20/i initial drop of 20 log e + 6(n — 1) decibels. However, in most applications, e is a very small number so that the 20 log e term is
see that the

We

db/decade after an

actually negative. It is necessary, therefore,

to compensate for this decrease in loss in the stop
cosh 0k

band by choosing a

sufficiently

large n.

From
that

the preceding discussion,

we

see

sinh

0*

a Chebyshev approximation depends upon two variables, e and n, which can be determined from the specifications directly. The maximum permissible ripple puts a bound on e. Once e is determined, any
desired value of attenuation in the stop

band fixes n. The derivation of the system function H(s) from a Chebyshev amplitude approximation \H(jco)\ is somewhat involved and
not be given here. 2 Instead, we will simply give the results of such a derivation.
will

First

we

introduce a design parameter.

FIG. 13.6. Locus of poles of Chebshev filter.
fih

- sinh
n

*

e

(13.40)

where n

is

the degree of the Chebyshev polynomial

controlling ripple width.

approximant H(s) are

and e is the factor The poles, sk = ak + jcok of the equal-ripple located on an ellipse in the s plane, given by
,

sinh

a
/S fc

+

cok

=
/?*

1

(13.41)

cosh*

The major semiaxis of the ellipse is on the jco axis and has a value co = ±cosh pk The minor semiaxis has a value a = ±sirih(ik and the foci are at co = ±1 (Fig. 13.6). The half-power point of the equal-ripple
. ,

amplitude response occurs at the point where the ellipse intersects the^eo cosh fik . Recall that for the Butterworth response, the axis, i.e., at co half-power point occurs at co = 1. Let us normalize the Chebyshev poles 1 instead of at co sk such that the half-power point also falls at co cosh fi k ; i.e., let us choose a normalizing factor, cosh P k , such that the

=

=

=

*

Interested parties are referred to
Synthesis,

M.

E.

Van Valkenburg,

Introduction to
13.

Modern

Network

John Wiley and Sons,

New

York, 1960, Chapter

Topics

in filter

design

377

normalized pole locations

s' t

are given by

cosh

(th

cosh

/?*

cosh

t

= <**+./«>*
The normalized pole
locations can be derived as
/2fc

<r't

u „ = tanh & sin

- lW
^j
(13.43)

^

a>t

= cos ^__j_

/2fc-lW

Comparing the normalized Chebyshev pole locations with the Butterworth

we see that the imaginary parts are the same, while the real part a' k of the Chebyshev pole location is equal to the real part of the Butterworth poles times the factor tanh /3». For example, with 0.444, the Butterworth poles are n 3 and tanh /?,.
pole locations in Eq. 13.24,

=

=

*i- -1 +J0
j23

=

_0.5 ±/0.866

so that the normalized Chebyshev poles are given by

4 --1(0.444)+ JO

=
szs

-0.444

+;0

=
=

-0.5(0.444) ±;0.866

-0.222 ±y0.866
Chebyshev
poles,

Finally, to obtain the denormalized
s' k

we simply

multiply

by cosh

/3 t that
,

is,

Sk

=

(a\

+ /»',) cosh &

(1 3.44)

There is an easier geometrical method to obtain the Chebyshev poles, given only the semiaxis information and the degree n. First we draw two circles, the smaller of radius sinh /?* and the larger of radius cosh /?„ as

378

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

Butterworth pole locus

Chebyshev
pole locus

FIG.

13.7.

»

=

3

Chebyshev

filter

poles.

shown in

Fig. 13.7. Next,

we draw

radial lines according to the angles of
Finally,

the Butterworth poles (Eq. 13.22) as shown.

we draw

vertical

dashed lines from the intersections of the smaller circle and the radial lines, and horizontal dashed lines from the intersections of the large circle and the radial lines. The Chebyshev poles are located at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal dashed lines, as shown in Fig. 13.7. Consider the following example. We would like to obtain a system function H(s) that exhibits a Chebyshev characteristic with not more than
1 -decibel

ripple in the pass

band and is down

at least

20 decibels at
to

w=

2.

When we design for
down
1

1-decibel ripple,

we know

that at

=

1,

\H(j\)\ is

decibel so that

20 log

\H(jl)\

=
1

20 log —-t-zu

'(!+€»)*
0.891

= -1

(

134 5)

We then obtain
(1

+

* ) e

a

1A

=

(13.46)

and

=

0.509

(13.47)
specification.

Our next

task

is

to find n

From

Eq. 13.39 the loss

from the 20 decibels at m = 2 can be given as approximately
1)

20
Solving for «,
fied.

^ 20 log 0.509 + 6(n =
2.65. Since

+

20« log 2

(13.48)

we obtain «

With the specification of n and e, Our next task is to determine

n must be an integer, we let n = 3. the pole locations are completely specithese pole locations.
First

we must

Topics
find

in filter

design

379

Pk

.

From

Eq. 13.40

we have

n

e
1

(13.49)

= I sinh"

1.965

=

0.476

In order to find the normalized Chebyshev poles from the Butterworth poles, we must first determine tanh fik Here we have
.

tanh

pk

=

tanh 0.476

= 0.443

(13.50)

From Table

13.1, the
*!

n

=

3 Butterworth poles are
s 23

=

-1.0,

=

-0.5 ±y0.866

(13.51)

Multiplying the real parts of these poles by 0.443, we obtain the normalized

Chebyshev

poles.

s\

=

-0.443,

s' 2S

=

-0.222 ±/0.866

Finally, the denormalized Chebyshev poles are obtained by multiplying the normalized ones by cosh (ik 1.1155 so that the denormalized poles are sx -0.494 and $2S -0.249 ±/0.972.

=

=

=

H(s)

is

then

H(s)

=
(s

°^02

+ 0.494)(s + 0.249 - ;0.972)(s + 0.249 +
0.502

/0.972)

(13.52) v '

=
s*

+

0.992s*

+

1.255s

+

0.502

In Fig. 13.8, the amplitude responses of the Chebyshev and an n Butterworth filter are shown.

=

3

cutoff with Chebyshev niters, the following can be said. The Butterworth response is a maximally flat, monotonic response, whereas the Chebyshev response is equal ripple in the pass band. In the stop band, the Chebyshev response falls off more rapidly than the Butterworth (except when e is very, very small). In this respect, the Chebyshev filter is a better filter than the Butterworth. However, as we shall see in Section 13.5, the transient response of the Chebyshev filter is very poor. If we require sharp cutoff characteristics for a given degree n, however, the Butterworth filter is quite unsatisfactory. In 1958, Papoulis 8 proposed

Monotonic

filters

with

optimum
filters

In comparing Butterworth

*

A. Papoulis, "Optimum
1958, pp. 606-409.

Filters with

Monotonic Response," Proc. IRE, 46, No.

3,

March

380

Network
0.1

analysis

and synthesis
Radian frequency,
o>

02

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

iI

3

-1

'-;>< \
i
\

—2

—4
—5 —6 =

-\\
\\

I

Amplitude response of n

3

\ \

-/

Chebyshev

filter

with

-8 —9
-10

1.0-db ripple

in

pass band

Buttterworth respons>e (n

=

3)
\\

\\

\\

— 11
\\

— 12 — 13
-14
FIG.
13.8.

I

\

\

\

Amplitude response of n
(n

band and Butterworth response

= 3 Chebyshev filter with 1.0-decibel ripple in pass = 3).
"L"
filters,

a class of filters called Optimum or
properties:
1.

which have the following

2.

The amplitude response is monotonic. The fall-off rate at m cutoff is the greatest possible,

if monotonicity is

assumed.
3.

The

zeros of the system function of the

L filter

are all at infinity.

Recall that the magnitude response of a low-pass infinity can be expressed as

filter

with

all

zeros at

M(o>)

=
[1

*•

(13.53)

+JV)l*
L filter by
(13.54)
L„(ft> 8)

Let us denote the polynomial generating the
/(>*)

=

Topics

in filter

design

381

The polynomial
(a)

Ln(mx) has the following properties:
LJO)

(b)

= L„(l) =

1

(0

^^0
dco
2 >

dL

«0
Properties a, b

>

=M

(M maximum)

dco

and c are the same as for the Butterworth generating polynomial/^*) = to2 ". Property c insures that the response M(a>) is monotonic and property d requires that the slope of L n(caP) at tu = 1 be the
steepest to insure sharpest cutoff.

Papoulis originally derived the generating equation for the polynomials

Ln (for n

odd) to be

Ln((ot)=

L

a<p<(a;)

dx

(13,55)

Llo

J

where n = 2k 4 first kind

+

1

and the PJx) are the Legendre polynomials of the

=1 P^x) = x P2(x) = K3* - 1) P9(x) = i(5x* - 3x)
/>,>(*)
2

(1356)

and the constants

a, are given

by

=—=—=
3 5

=
2k

+

= —1=
1

V2(fc

+

(13.57)
1)

Later Papoulis 6 and, independently, Fukada,' showed that the evenordered L n polynomials can be given by

W

rim*-!

r
(*

*

-|

8

(a>8)

-J

+

1)[2>«

*>«(*)]

dx

(13.58)

n

=

2k

+

2

E. Jahnke and F. Emde, Tables of Functions, Dover Publications, New York, 1945. A. Papoulis, "On Monotonic Response Filters," Proc. IRE, 47, February 1959,

332-333.

M. Fukada, "Optimum
IRE, CT-6, No.
3,

Trans.

Filters of Even Orders with Monotonic Response," September 1959, 277-281.

:

382

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

where the constants at are given by: Case 1 (k even)
a

=

7
«»

2fc

a*

1
1

+

V(fc

+

l)(fc

+

(13.59)
2)

«i

=

=

a

M=
a*
V(fc

Case 2 (k odd):

3
flo

+l =•=«.* = ° = «2
7
2fc

+

l)(k

+ =

2)

(13.60)

Fukada tabulated the
dLjai^ldco evaluated at
the cutoff. This
is

LB(w 2)
to

polynomials up to n

7 together with

=

1

to give an indication of the steepness of

shown

in Table 13.4.

To

obtain the system function H(s) for the

L filter, we must

factor the

equation for his2) and choose the Hurwitz factors as H(s).
(13.61)

For example, for n

=

3,

the magnitude response squared

is

M\a>)

=
1

1

+ +

L^co*)
(13.62)
1

1

a>*

-

3«>

4

+

3eo

6

Substituting

— <w = s we obtain 2 = ) = H(s) H(-s)
2 2
,

1
1

fc(s

-

s*

-

3s

4

-

(13.63)
35*

TABLE
L„(a> 2
)

13.4

Polynomials

Ln(a>2)
CO*

dLn(l) dm
4
8 12
18

- 3o>4 + <u2 4 6eo 8 - 6o>* + 3to 10 - 40a>8 20o + 28a>8 - 8a>4 + to2 12 - 120a> 10 + 105e»8 - 40w* + 6o>4 50to 10 - 355o>8 + 105a>« 175*o M - 525a>» + 615«>
3o>8

24

-15eo4

+

a)

2

32

Topics
Frequency, rad/sec
0.1

in filter

design

383

02

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

-2

^

-4

Amplitude i esponsecrf OpB mum vers Butbsrworth fit ers

-6 -8
tf-10
Frequency 0.6 0.8

\\

\\

\\

\\
i

\

|-12
-14 -16
»

0.4

0.5

1.0

1.2

\ \


y
\

\\

-1.0

\\ \\
\
\ \

-18 -20 -22
Explanded
ft-

\ \
\

y

\

-24 -26
FIG.
13.9.

scale

\ A
\\
filters

Amplitude response of Optimum versus Butterworth

After

we

factor A(s*),

we

obtain
0.577
s*

if(s)

=

+

1.31s

2

+

1.359s

+ 0.577

(13.64)

where the numerator factor, 0.577, is chosen to let the d-c gain be unity. poles of H(s) are sx = -0.62; s2>3 = -0.345 ±;0.901. The amplitude response of third-order Optimum (L) and Butterworth niters are compared in Fig. 13.9 Note that the amplitude response of the Optimum filter is not maximally flat, although still monotonic. However, the cutoff characteristic of the Optimum filter is sharper than the cutoff of the

The

Butterworth

filter.

Linear phase filters Suppose a system function

is

given by

H(s)

= Ke~'T
Then

(13.65)

where

K is a positive real constant.
H{jm)

the frequency response of the

system can be expressed as

=

Ke-"" T

(13.66)

384

Network

analysis and synthesis

so that the amplitude response M(<co) is a constant K,

and the phase

re-

sponse

#w)
is linear

= -mT
to

(13.67)

in

co.

The response of such a system
{e(t),

an excitation denoted by

the transform pair

E(s)} is

R(s)

= K E(s)e-' T
can be written as

(13.68)

so that the inverse transform

r(t)

KO-c-W)]
= Ke(t T)u(t

-

(1369)

T)
T,

We see that the response r(t) is simply the excitation delayed by a time
and multiplied by a constant. Thus no
signal distortion results

from

transmission through a system described by H(s) in Eq. 13.65. We note further that the delay T can be obtained by differentiating the phase

response

<f>((o),

by

<u;

that

is,

Delay

_ - f^2> - r
dco

(13.70)

Consequently, in a system with linear phase, the delay of the system is obtained by differentiating the phase response #co). system with linear phase and constant amplitude is obviously desirable from a pulse transmission viewpoint. However, the system function H(s)

A

in Eq. 13.65

is

a delay

line.

only realizable in terms of a lossless transmission line called If we require that the transmission network be made up of

lumped elements, then we must approximate H(s) function in s. The approximation method we
due to Thomson. 7

= Ke~ ,T by

a rational

shall describe here is

We can write H(s) as

(13.71)

£o
sinh

sT + cosh sT

Let the delay T be normalized to where K is chosen such that H(0) and denominator of H(s) by sinh s unity and let us divide both numerator

=1.

to obtain

Kjsmhs
coth
'

s

+

(13?2)

1

W.

E.

Thomson, "Network with Maximally

Flat Delay," Wireless Engrg., 29, Oct.

1952, 256-263.

Topics
If sinh s

in filter

design

385

and cosh * are expanded
coshs

in

power

series,

we have
---

s* s* s* = l+- + - + - +
.' 6

s s sinh5- S + - + - + - +
s

»

,'

(1373)
'--

From these series expansions, we
sion of coth s as

then obtain a continued fraction expan-

coth

s

=-+
S

3
s

+
5
~*

1

(13.74)

z+...
5

If the continued fraction is terminated in

n terms, then H(s) can be

written as

where

Bn(s) are f?es.«>/ polynomials defined by the formulas
2*0=1

Bt = s+1
2?„

(13.76)

- (2/i - 1)3^ + s*Bn_t
obtain

From these

formulas,

we
if,

= s* + 3s + 3 2?, = j» + 6s* + 15s +

(13.77)

15

Higher order Bessel polynomials are given in Table 13.5, and the roots of Bessel polynomials are given in Table 13.6. Note that the roots are all in the left-half plane. A more extensive table of roots of Bessel polynomi8 als is given by Orchard. The amplitude and phase response of a system function employing an unnormalized third-order Bessel polynomial

Ms)

W=

s*

+

6s*

^ +

15s

+

(13.78)

15

• H. J. Orchard, "The Roots of Maximally Flat Delay Polynomials" on Circuit Theory, CT-12 No. 3, September 1965, 452-454.

IEEE Trans,

386

Network

analysis

and synthesis

TABLE

13.5

Coefficients of Bessel Polynomials

n

bo

h
1 1 1

b*

bt

h

h

b7

1

2
3

3

3

1

15

15

4
5

105

105

945
10,395

945
10,395

6 45 420
4,725

1

10
105
1,260

1

15

1

6 7

210
3,150

21

1

135,135

135,135

62,370

17,325

378

28

1

are given by the solid lines in Figs. 13.10 and 13.11. These are compared with the amplitude and phase of an unnormalized third-order Butterworth function given by the dotted lines. Note that the phase response of the constant-delay function is more linear than the phase of the Butterworth function. Also, the amplitude cutoff of the constant-delay curve is more

gradual than that of the Butterworth.

TABLE

13.6

Roots of Bessel Polynomials

Roots of Bessel Polynomials
1

2
3

4

-1.0 +y0 -1.5 ±y0.866025 [-2.32219 +y0 — 1.83891 ±yl.75438 i / -2.89621 ±y0.86723 \ -2.10379 ±y2.65742
-3.64674 +j0 -3.35196 ±yl.74266 [-2.32467 ±/3.57102
C

C

[

-4.24836 ±y0.86751 -3.73571 ±/2.62627 -2.51593 ±y4.49267

-4.97179 +j0 -4.75829 ±yl .73929 -4.07014 ±y3.51717 1-2.68568 ±y5.42069
r
i

A

Topics
Frequency, rad/sec 0.6 0.8 1

in filter

design

387

0.1

0.2

0.4

3

4

5

6 7

-2 -4 -6 -8
,-10

\
V

>^
\
\
\
\

-Bessel

\

B it* srv fO rth

h
!

\ \

2

-14

\
\

-16 -18

\ \
<

V
\

-20
-22

\
\
\

\
\

\

-24

-26
FIG. 13.10. Amplitude response of n

\ \

= 3 Bessel and Butterworth filters.

Frequency, rad/sec
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

FIG.

13.1 1.

Phase responses of low-pass

filters.

388

Network

analysis

and synthesis

13.5

TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LOW-PASS FILTERS
we
will

In this section

compare the

transient response of the filters

discussed in Section 13.4. In particular,

we will compare the step response
defined here as
to

of the niters according to the following figures of merit:
1.

Rise time

t

R

.

The

rise

time of the step response

is

the time required for the step response to rise
final value as depicted in Fig. 13.12.
2. Ringing.

from 10%

90%

of

its

Ringing is an oscillatory transient occurring in the response of a filter as a result of a sudden change in input (such as a step). quantitative measure of the ringing in a step response is given by its

A

settling time.
3. Settling time.

The

settling

time

is

that time

t,

step response does not differ

from the

final

value by

beyond which the more than ±2%,

as depicted in Fig. 13.12.

Delay time is the time which the step response of its final value as shown in Fig. 13.12. 5. Overshoot. The overshoot of the step response is defined as the difference between the peak value and the final value of the step response
4.

Delay time,

t

D

.

requires to reach

50%

(see Fig. 13.12) expressed as

a percentage of the

final value.

8

10

12
sec
ta

Time

t,

FIC.
tB

13.12. Figures of merit for step response.

= rise

time;

/.

=

setting time;

=

delay time.

Topics

in filter

design

389

Most of the foregoing figures of merit are related to frequency response, particularly bandwidth and phase linearity. Some of the quantities, such
related to each other but have Let us examine qualitatively the relationships between the transient response criteria just cited and

as rise time

and delay time are intimately

rather tenuous ties with overshoot.

frequency response. Rise time and bandwidth have an inverse relationship in a filter. The wider the bandwidth, the smaller the rise time; the narrower the bandwidth, the longer the rise time. Physically, the inverse relationship could
frequencies slows

be explained by noting that the limited performance of the filter at high down the abrupt rise in voltage of the step and prolongs the rise time. Thus we have

TB X

BW = Constant

(13.79)

Rise time is a particularly important criterion in pulse transmission. In an article on data transmission,* it was shown that in transmitting a pulse

of width 7\ through a system with adjustable bandwidths, the following results were obtained:
Bandwidth
(/.

Rise Time
(milliseconds)

- UTJ
f.
2/«
3/c

0.5

0.25

0.16 0.12 0.10

4/«

y.

The

table

shows a

definite inverse relationship

between

rise

time and
or

bandwidth.

A

definition of time delay

is

given by Elmore as the

first

moment

centroid of the impulse response
Jo -r
t

h{t) dt

(13.80)

provided the step response has little or no overshoot. Elmore's definitio of rise time is given as the second moment

TB

= \2nj\t - TDf h(t) a]

(13.81)

•R. T. James, "Data Transmission—The Art of Moving Information," Spectrum, January 1965, 65-83.

IEEE

390

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

These definitions are useful because we can obtain rise time and delay time directly

from the coefficients of the system function H(s). Without going into the proof, which is in Elmore and Sands, 10 if H(s) is given as
His)
FIG.
13.13.

=
bl

1 1

R-C network.

+ ° lS + a *s2 + + b s + 6js +
2 x

'

+ a*s n + b ns m
(13.82)
(13.83)

the time delay

TD i%
is

TD =
{2tt[V

— +

ax

and the

rise

time

TR =
For the R-C network

-

af

2(a 2
is

- b )]}*
2

(13.84)

in Fig. 13.13, H(s)

H(s)
so that

=

V(s)
I(s)
1

R

+

sRC

(13.85)

TD = RC_ TB = yJlnRC

(13.86)

It

should be emphasized that Elmore's definitions are restricted to step

responses without overshoot because of the moment definition. The more general definition of rise time is the 10-90% one cited earlier, which has

no formal mathematical
Overshoot
excess gain
is

definition.

generally caused

by "excess" gain

at high frequencies.

By

we normally mean a magnitude

characteristic with a

peak

such as the shunt peaked response shown by the dashed curve in Fig. 13.14. A magnitude characteristic with no overshoot is the magnitude
characteristic of

an R-C interstage shown by the

solid curve in Fig. 13.14.

Log frequency

FIG.
10

13.14.

Comparison of shunt-peaked and simple R-C magnitudes.
Series,

V,

1,

W. C. Elmore and M. Sands, Electronics, National Nuclear Energy McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1949, pp. 137-138.

Div.

Topics
1.2 1.1

in filter design

391

1.0

0.9

?0.8
N E
=5 0.7

5 c

0.6
0.5

I

In
0.3
0.2
0.1

f 6.4
I

J 3 ~A> = 7/il=lo"

2

4

6

8

10

12
sec

14

16

18

20

Time

t,

FIG.

13.15.

Step response of normalized Butterworth low-pass

filters.

The step responses of the n = 3, n = 7, and n = 10 Butterworth filters are shown in Fig. 13.15. Note that as n increases, the overshoot increases.
This
characteristics

because the higher order Butterworth niters have flatter magnitude (i.e., there is more gain at frequencies just below the cutoff). Ringing is due to sharp cutoff in the filter magnitude response, and is accentuated by a rising gain characteristic preceding the discontinuity.
is

an n = 3 Bessel (linear phase) filter is compared an n = 3 Chebyshev filter with 1-decibel ripple in Fig. 13.16. We cannot compare their rise times since the bandwidths of the two filters have not been adjusted to be equal. However, we can compare their ringing and settling times. The Chebyshev filter has a sharper cutoff, and therefore has more ringing and longer settling time than the Bessel filter. Note also the negligible overshoot of the Bessel

The

step response of

to the response of

filter

that

is characteristic

of the entire class of Bessel
filter is

filters.

The
phase

decision as to which

best depends

upon

the particular

situation.
is

In certain applications, such as for transmission of music, not important. In these cases, the sharpness of cutoff may be the

dominant factor so that the Chebyshev or the Optimum filter is better than the others. Suppose we were dealing with a pulse transmission
system with the requirement that the output sequence have approximately the same shape as the input sequence, except for a time delay of T Tt Tx , as shown in Fig. 13.17a. It is clear that a filter with a long rise

=

time

is

not suitable, because the pulses would "smear" over each other

392
1.1

Network

analysis

and synthesis

1.0

/
t t
1
1

'

i

N

0.9
0.8 0.7
•S 0.6

/
!

^ —^ s

/

1

0.5 a nr.

a

3 Bessel fitter -Step response of n -Step response of n « 3 Chebyshev filter with 1-db ripple

<0.4
0.3 0.2
0.1
/

i

1
|

~r
1

ly

2

4

6

8

10
Time, sec

12

14

16

18

20

FIG. 13.16. Comparison of filter transient responses.

System
with short
rise

and

settling

Ti
Input pulse train

ALA
T2
Output pulse
train

times
(a)

System
with long
rise

and
Output pulse train

settling

Ti
Input pulse train

times
(b)

FIG. 13.17. Smearing of pulses in systems with long

rise

and

setting times.

as seen in Fig. 13.176. The same can be said for long settling times. Since a pulse transmission system must have linear phase to insure undistorted harmonic reconstruction at the receiver, the best filter for the

system
13.6

is

a linear phase

filter

with small

rise

and

settling times.

A METHOD TO REDUCE OVERSHOOT
present here a

IN FILTERS

method to reduce the overshoot and ringing of a filter filter step response. The step response of a tenth-order Butterworth seen that the overshoot is about 18%. We is shown in Fig. 13.18. It is

We

J

Topics

in filter design

393

\2

1.0

0.8

J

tep re sponsc

I I

0.6

0.4

/
/
1

02
«.'

J

Second

derivative

\
\
\

r /
10 12 Time t, sec
14

"^ ^>
16

-1.2

8

18

20

FIG. 13.18

note that after the

first

peak, the ringing of the step response has an

approximate sinusoidal waveshape. Let us now consider the second derivative of the step response shown by the dashed curve in Fig. 13.18. Beyond the first peak of the step response, the second derivative is also
(approximately) sinusoidal, and
greater than unity,
is

negative

when

the step response
is less

is

than unity. If we add the second derivative to the step response, we reduce the overshoot and ringing. 11 Suppose a(0 is the step response and H(s) is the system function of the

and

positive

when

the step response

filter.

The

corrected step response can be written as

a1(0

= «(0 +

«^
Xs

L>

(13.87)

where K is a real, positive constant. Taking the Laplace transform of Eq. 13.87, we have

tW*)]

-

L—
(13.88)
s

H(s)

11

F. F.

Theory, CI-9,

Kuo, "A Method to Reduce Overshoot No. 4, December 1962, 413-414.

in Filters," Trans.

IRE on

Circuit

394
1.2

Network

analysis and synthesis

1.0

/%
k i.

'

^

--».

^-.^
»

0.8

lo.6
E <
0.4

—-

Tenth order Butterworth
Zeros at Zeros at
a)

= i

1.0
1.5

a>= *

7
0.2

y/f
Jl

Jtt

8

12 10 Time t, sec

14

16

18

20

FIG. 13.19

From
s

Eq. 13.88

we

see that

by adding a pair of zeros on the jm

axis at

=

±//v K, the overshoot and ringing are reduced.
niters, the factor

the bandwidth of the system.

l/\K must in general be greater than For normalized Butterworth filters the bandwidth is co = 1 so that K <, 1. The factor AT also controls the amount of overshoot reduction. If K is too small, adding the zeros on they'co axis
For low-pass
-o -2 -4

-6 -8
-10
.o -o

-12
"

c -14
<3

—«
.—

_i 6
-18

—— —

-20
-22

Tenth order Butterworth Zeros at co = t 1.0 Zeros at w = * 1.5 Zeros at co = ± 1.8: with original bandwidth also equal to 1.8

-24

-26 -28
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.8 1.0

I

1.5

2.0

3.0

Radian frequency,

u

FIG. 13.20

Topics

in filter

design

395

will have negligible effect. Therefore the zeros should be added somewhere near the band edge. Figure 13.19 shows the effects of adding zeros at <w = ±1 (i.e., right at the band edge), and at m = 1.5. We see that the further away the zeros are placed from the band edge, the less

they will have. The addition of the zeros will decrease the 3-decibel bandwidth of the filter, however, as seen in Fig. 13.20. Therefore, a
effect

compromise must be reached between reduction
reduction in overshoot.

in

bandwidth and

An effective way to overcome this difficulty is to scale up the bandwidth by a factor of, for example, 1.8. Then the zeros are placed at co = ±1.8, which will reduce the 3-decibel bandwidth to approximately its original figure <w = 1.0, as shown in Fig. 13.20. The overshoot, however, will be reduced as though the zeros were at the band edge.
13.7

A MAXIMALLY FLAT DELAY AND CONTROLLABLE MAGNITUDE APPROXIMATION
we
will

examine an interesting result, which is due to phase approximation with controllable magnitude. In Section 13.4 we discussed approximation of a flat delay using Bessel polynomials. The resulting rational approximant was an all-pole function (all transmission zeros at s = oo), whose denominator was a Bessel polynomial. There was no control of the magnitude using the all-pole approximant. In Budak' s method the magnitude is controllable, while the phase is as linear as the standard Bessel approxiIn this section

Budak. 1 * The

result deals with linear

mation.
split e~~* into

Budak's approximation is obtained by introducing the parameter k to two parts such that

*-

= pSr.

<

k

<. 1

(13.89)

and then approximate independently c-** and e~lk~lU with all-pole Bessel polynomial approximations. Thus the resulting approximation for e~* will have Bessel polynomials for both numerator and denominator. The poles of the e~ * -1) ' approximant will be the zeros in the final approximant,
(

while the poles of the e~** approximant remain as poles in the final

approximant. For realizability, the degree of the c- <t-1) * approximant should be less than the degree of the e ** approximant.

11

A. Budak,

"A Maximally Flat Phase and Controllable Magnitude Approximation,"
Circuit Theory,

Trans,

of IEEE on

CT-12, No.

2,

June 1965, 279.

396
M(o>)
1.0

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

A0
«£T* -0.6
1.0

0.8

0.8

0.7^
ft

0.6

-1.0

0.6

(Bessel)"^

A=1.0_
0.4 0.4

k-

=

0,8-

02

0.2

km 0.7-j^ *-0.6tC
3
(b)

2

3
(a)

4

FIG.

13.21

As an example,
poles.

consider the approximation with three zeros and four

105
(ks)*

+

10(fcs)

8

+ 45(fcs)* +
15

105(jfcs)

+

(13.90)

105

g-tt-i).^
[(fe

-

l)sf

+

6[(fc

-

l)s]

a

+

15[(ik

-

l)s]

+

(13.91)

15

We

then perform the operations as indicated by Eq. 13.89 to obtain

6

-._ 7{[(fc -

1)5]'

+

6[(k
3

(ks)*

+

10(fcs)

- l)s]« + 15[(fe - l)s] + 15} + 45(fcs)» + 105(Jb) + 105

£

as a parameter.

In Fig. 13.21a the magnitude characteristic of Eq. 13.92 is plotted with The phase characteristic is given in terms of deviation

of phase from linearity A<f> = eo — <£(co) and is shown in Fig. 13.216. The improvement in phase linearity over the all-pole Bessel approximation k = 1 is shown by these curves. Note as the bandwidth is increased
(A:

decreasing), phase linearity is improved.
A:

Figure 13.22 shows the step
Since the effect of

response of Eq. 13.92 also with
decreasing

as a parameter.

k

increases bandwidth, the corresponding effect in the time

domain is to decrease rise time. Budak also observes that as k decreases from unity, the poles and zeros migrate to keep the phase linear. The zeros move inward from infinity
along radial
lines,

while the poles

move outward along

radial lines.

Topics
l.l

in filter

design

397

1.0

k> 0.6-

0.9

0.8

*>«0.7-

-km
0.7

).8

0.6

_*-1.0
(Bessel)

0.5

%
0.4
0.3

02
0.1

0.0

§

-0.1

-0,2

02

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2
t

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

FIG. 13.22

13.8

SYNTHESIS OF LOW-PASS FILTERS

Given the system function of the low-pass filter as derived by the methods described in Section 13.4, we can proceed with the synthesis of the filter network. If we consider the class of filters terminated in a 1-Q load, and if we let the system function be a transfer impedance,
Z«(s)

= -^a1

(13.93)

or a transfer admittance

Yn(s) =

+

(13.94)

we can synthesize the low-pass filter according to methods given in Chapter 12. For example, consider the n = 3 Optimum (L) filter function

398

Network

analysis

and synthesis

given as a transfer impedance

Z21W

=
s

0.577
8

+
s3

1.31s

a

+

1.359s

+

(13.95)

0.577

We see that the zeros of transmission are all at infinity.
ator of

Z21

is

even,

we

divide both numerator

Since the numerand denominator by the

odd part of the denominator
Za

+
s
8

1.359*.

Thus we have

0.577

+
s

1.359s
8

Z S2

1.31s
s

+

0.577

(13.96)

+

1.359s

The

structure of the low-pass

filter

with three zeros of transmission at

infinity is given in

Chapter

12.

We

must synthesize

z

M

to give the

it

reactance structure. This

we
:

accomplish through the following continued

fraction expansion of l/« 22
1.31s 2

+ 0.577 )ss + 1.359s (0.763s s8 + 0.440s
0.919s ) 1.31s8
1.31s
8

+ 0.577 ( 1.415s
0.577) 0.919s ( 1 .593s
0.919s

The optimum filter is shown in Fig.
given by the transfer impedance

13.23.

For the n

= 3 Butterworth filter

Z2l(s)

~ss +
+
2s

2s

8

+ 2s-rl
-t» 7T7s
,.

(13.97)
8

we have

z n (s)

=
s

2s

+

1

(13.98)

s

We

then synthesize « M (s) by a continued fraction expansion to give the

filter

shown

in Fig. 13.23.

(a)

Optimum

filter

(b) Butterworth

filter

FIG. 13.23

Topics in

filter

design

399

c7 :i

>ia v2

FIG. 13.24. Canonical form for

niters described in

Tables 13.7, 13.8, and 13.9.

In Tables 13.7, 13.8, 13.9 are listed element values (up to n
single-terminated Butterworth, Chebyshev (1-decibel ripple),
filters,

=

7) for

and Bessel

respectively. 13

These apply to the canonical realization for a

transfer
desired,

impedance

Z21(s)

shown
all

in Fig. 13.24.

If a

Y21(s)

realization is

we

simply replace

shunt capacitors by
all

series inductors

and

vice versa.

The element values
filters.

carry over.

In Chapter 14,
terminated
voltage-ratio

we will consider some examples of synthesis of double To stimulate the curiosity of the reader, note that the transfer function V2 jV of the network in Fig. 13.25 is

precisely the n

=

3 Butterworth function.

Recall that in Chapter 12,
dividual system functions

when we cascaded two

constant-resistance
in-

networks, the overall system function

H

(s)

was the product of the

can apply this property to networks which are not constant-resistance if we place an isolation amplifier between the networks, as shown in Fig. 13.26. Since pentodes provide the necessary isolation, our task is simplified to the design of the individual structures H^s), 2 (s), n (s), which we call interstage networks.
t (s)
2 (s).

H

H

We

H

.

.

.

,

H

shown in Fig. 13.27. In Fig. a structure known as the shunt-peaked network is shown. The transfer impedance of the shunt-peaked network is
interstage structures are
1 3.27a

Some common

Za(s)

1 =-

s

+

RjL
(13.99)

Cs 2 + sR/L+(llLC)

FIG. 13.25. n

=

3 double-terminated Butterworth

filter.

u More extensive tables are given in L.
and Synthesis, Chapter
13,

Weinberg's excellent book, Network Analysis

McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1962.

400

Network

analysis

and synthesis

TABLE

13.7

Normalized Element Values for a Single Terminated Butterworth Filter

n
1

Cx
1.000

Lt

c,

L*

Q

Lt

C7

2
3

0.707

1.414
1.333

0.500
0.383

1.500
1.577
1.531

4
5

1.082

0.309 0.259 0.222

0.894
0.758

1.382
1.202 1.055

1.694
1.553

1.545 1.759
1.553

6
7

0.656

1.397

1.659

1.799

1.558

TABLE

13.8

Normalized Element Values for a Single Terminated Chebyshev Filter with l-db Ripple

Cx
1

L,

C,

L4

Cs

4

C

0.509
0.911 1.012

2
3

0.996
1.333
1.413

1.509 1.909 1.994 1.282
1.591 1.651

4
5

1.050
1.067 1.077
1.083

1.444

1.665

6
7

1.460
1.496

2.027

2.049
2.119

1.346
1.649 1.712

2.044

1.674

TABLE

13.9

Normalized Element Values for a Single Terminated
Bessel Filter

n
1

Q
1.000

Lt

c,

Z*

c.

A.

Q

2
3

0.333
0.167

1.000

0.480
0.290
0.195

0.833
0.463

4
5

0.100
0.067
0.048

0.710 0.422
0.301

0.310
0.225

0.623

6 7

0.036

0.140 0.106

0.382
0.283

0.170

0.229

0.560 0.349

0.511

1

Topics

in filter design

401

Pentode
Interstage Interstage
Interstage

network

network
13.26.

network

FIG.

Pentodes used as isolation amplifiers.

We sec that Ztl(s) has a real zero and a pair of poles which may be complex depending

upon

the values of R, L,
transfer
1

R-C interstage is shown, whose

and C. In Fig. 13.27A, a simple impedance is
(13.100)

Zn(s) Observe that
are
It
all

Cs +

1/RC

the

filter

transfer functions considered

up

to this point

made up of pairs of conjugate poles and simple poles on the —a axis. is clear that if we cascade shunt-peaked stages and R-C stages, we can

and C elements to give the desired response characteristic. The only problem is to cancel the finite zero of the shunt-peaked stage. For example, if we wish to design an amplifier with an n = 3 low-pass Butterworth characteristic, we first break up the system function into
adjust the R, L,

complex pole pairs and

real pole terms, as given

by

Z«(s)

=

1

+ s + l)(s + 1) 1 s+ 1 s* + s+ls + ls +
(s*

(13.101)
l

then associate the individual factors with shunt-peaked or simple stages and solve for the element values. The n *= 3 Butterworth amplifier is given in Fig. 13.28.

We

R-C

ci
.R
(o>

ci ^*
(b)
(f>)

FIG.

13.27. (a)

Shunt-peaked interstage.

R-C interstage.

402

Network

analysis

and synthesis

FIG.

13.28.

Butterworth amplifier.

13.9

MAGNITUDE AND FREQUENCY NORMALIZATION
we
1

In Section 13.8,
cutoff frequency of

discussed the synthesis of low-pass niters with a

1 Q. Filters designed with these restrictions are considered to be normalized in both cutoff frequency and impedance level. We will now discuss methods whereby

rad/sec and a load impedance of

the normalized

which meet arbitrary Let us denote by a subscript n the normalized frequency variable s n and the normalized element values L„, jR„, and C„. The normalized frequency variable s n is related to the actual frequency s by the relation
filters

can be converted into

filters

cutoff frequency

and impedance

level specifications.

s„

=

(13.102)

where <u the normalizing constant, is dimensionless and is often taken to be the actual cutoff frequency. Since the impedance of an element remains invariant under frequency normalization, we obtain the actual element values from the normalized values by setting the impedances in the two cases equal to each other. For example, for an inductor, we have
,

s„L„

= sL =

a>o5 n

L

(13.103)

From
as

this

equation

we then

obtain the denormalized value of inductance

L-^
Similarly,

(13.104)

C„,

from the impedance l/sn C„ of a frequency normalized capacitor we obtain the denormalized value of capacitance through the equation
1 sn

_

1

Cn

(13.105)

sC

"

Topics

in filter

design

403

so that the actual value of the capacitance

is

C=


«>o

(13.106)

Since resistances, ideally, are independent of frequency, they are unaffected by frequency normalization.

Consider,

next,

impedance denormalization.

Suppose the actual

impedance impedance

level

Z is

should be Rq ohms instead of 1 Q. Then a denormalized related to a normalized impedance Z n by

Z
where R
is

=

2?oZ„

(13.107)

taken to be dimensionless here. Thus, for a normalized resistor
is

Rn

,

the denormalized (actual) resistance

R=
sL

RoR„
relationship
is

(13.108)

For an inductance, the corresponding

= R^sL n)
is

(13.109)

so that the actual inductance value

L = R Ln
Similarly, for a capacitor

(13.110)

we have
_L

= Jk
sC„

(13.111)

sC
so that the actual capacitance
is

C=

^
R

(13.112)

For combined frequency and magnitude denormalization, we simply combine the two sets of equations to give

R = RoR n
C=

R^o
L = ^O^n
co a

(13.113)

Let us consider an actual example in design. In Section 13.8, we Zn with an n 3 Butterworth amplitude characteristic with a cutoff frequency of 1 rad/sec and a load impedance of 1 ii. Let us redesign this filter for a cutoff frequency of 10* rad/sec to work
synthesized a transfer impedance

=

404

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

66.7

mh
=4=0.1 nf

Q>

^=0.3 nf

500 a

V2

FIG. 13.29. Denormalized low-pass

filter.

into a load of 500 Q.

From the

original

network in Fig. 13.23, we take the
<o

element values and denormalize with the normalizing factors,

=

10*

and Rt

=

500.

Then

the denormalized element values are

R=

500*£
i

- 500
=
0.1 /*f

C,=

500004)

(13.114)

L = 1(500) = 0.0067 h
10,000

C,

=

I
500(10
ST 4
)

=

0.3^f

The

final design is

shown

in Fig. 13.29.

13.10

FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATIONS

Up to this point, we have discussed only the design of low-pass filters, while neglecting the equally important designs of high-pass, band-pass,
not by as a introducing new design procedures but through a technique normalized low-pass frequency transformation, whereby, beginning from a Using frequency transfilter, we can generate any other form of filter.

and band-elimination

filters.

We

will

remedy

this situation here,

known

formations, the elements of the normalized low-pass filter are changed into elements of a high-pass, band-pass, or band-elimination filter.
Analytically,

driving-point function into another

a frequency transformation simply changes one L-C I^C driving-point function. Therefore,

the transformation equations
since

must be LrC functions themselves. Also,

low-pass filters, the transformation equations include built-in frequency denormalization factors so that the the resulting networks need only be scaled for impedance level. Consider

we proceed from normalized

Topics

in filter design

405
is

simplest transformation equation, that of low-pass to high-pass, which

s

= a>

(13.115)

where sn represents the normalized low-pass frequency variable, s is the regular frequency variable, and to is the cutoff frequency of the high-pass filter. In terms of real and imaginary parts, we have

a

+ jm =

«>o
ff» +./'«>«

(13.116)

Since
axis,

we are interested principally we let <r„ = so that

in

how
co

the j<o n axis

maps

into theycu

(13.117)
a>.

which is the equation that transforms normalized low-pass filters to denormalized high-pass filters. From Eq. 13.117 we see that the point wn = ±1 corresponds to the point m = ±a> It is also clear that the transformation maps the segment \a>„\ ^ 1 on to the segments denned by
.

mo ^ ^ °°> as shown in Fig. 13.30. Now let us see how the frequency transformations change the network
For convenience, let us denote the normalized low-pass network elements with a subscript n, the high-pass elements with a subscript h, the band-pass elements with a subscript b, and the band-elimination elements with a subscript e. For the low-pass to high-pass case, let us first consider the changes for the capacitor C„. The transformation is given by the
elements.
JVn

M

ju

+j

„ plane
<r*

/<*>

* plane

-J

-Jox>

FIG.

13.30.

Low-pass to high-pass transformation.

406

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

equation

C„s n

= LhS
fo

(13.118)

C,

For the inductor

L n we
,

have

s

Chs

(13.119)

We

observe that a capacitor changes into an inductor and an inductor changes into a capacitor in a low-pass to high-pass transformation (Fig.
13.3 1).

The element values of the high-pass filter
filter

are given in terms of the

normalized low-pass

elements as

Lh
and

=
<o

1

(13.120)

Cn
(13.121)

Ch =
(o

Ln
the normalized third-order us design a corresponding high-

Consider the following example.
Butterworth
pass
level
filter
filter

From
let
cu

given in Fig. 13.23,
cutoff frequency

with

its

=

of 500 Q.

From

the low-pass

filter,

and the impedance we can draw by inspection the
10« rad/sec

Low-pass

High-pass

Band-elimination

Band-pass

1*1

Cbl

o-^fiflp-o

o

1{—
=
1_ «<>£»

o

Ca

Cd = LnBW

npnr- -H(BW BW 2L»
<">0

r„. BW
Lh woC n o-'lHRP-o
-

La o-j^nnp-

Cc2

CnBW
Cb2=
-gyp

FIG.

13.31.

Element changes resulting from frequency transformations.

Topics

in filter

design

407

Ch =
Hf-

1.5

x 10~ 9

f

FIG.

13.32. Transformation of low-pass filter in Fig. 13.23 into high-pass

filter,

high-pass-filter circuit

shown

in Fig. 13.32.

Its

element values are:

^

10 (i)
1 .

6

(13.122)

son
10 (f)
Next, let us examine the low-pass to band-pass transformation (also an L-C function):
S
4

-

= BW \a> + -°) S(- s I

<

13123 >

where,

if

band-pass

m ct and wp, denote the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of the filter, BWis the bandwidth

BW^cocz-cOd
and
<o is

(13.124)

the geometric

mean of <o C2 and

co cl

m =
The low-pass
the segments

Vo)c2«>ci

(13.125)

to band-pass transformation

maps

the segment

m^ ^

\a> n \

<,

1

to

|a»|

^ eu^,
**.

shown

in Fig. 13.33.

The normalized

low-pass elements are then modified according to the following equations

-

bs BW + BWs

°^
(13.126)

408

Network

anal/sis and synthesis
\jo>

«0

+j
«» Plane

«C1
s plane

<Tn

-J
-<oo

FIG.

13.33.

Low-pass to band-pass transformation.

We

note that the inductor L„ is transformed into a series-tuned tank, shown in Fig. 13.31, whose elements are given as

BW BW CM =
«>0

LM

=

(13.127)

Ln

The capacitor C„ is transformed whose elements are
LfiS

into a parallel-tuned tank (Fig. 13.31),

— BW
(13.128)

C/h9

Let us transform the third-order Butterworth low-pass
into a band-pass
filter

filter

in Fig. 13.23

BW =6x10*
rad/sec.

with a 1-ii impedance level, whose bandwidth is 4 x 10* rad/sec, and its band-pass is "centered" at w

=

We

draw the band-pass
Li

filter

shown

in Fig. 13.34

by the

rules

nroip

Ct
1(-

(T\ isg

d=c3

"=r-Ci

yCi

Sjij

i*

v2

FIG.

13.34.

Band-pass

filter

transformed from low-pass

filter

in Fig. 13.23.

Topics
given above.

in filter
filter

design

409

The element

values of the band-pass

are given in the

following equations:

10 U « 6xio*m) = 0.75 x
*

**

x KT'h

(4

Ci-

—X
6

10-*f

X

10*

12
4

-^— = ^xl(T
6

h
(13.129)

x
6

10*

9

X

10*

32

x

10-*f

(4

X 10»At)

^

=
(4

6X104
X lO^f)

= o.25

x l(T*h

Q = 6x
mation

= 0.25
10*

X KT*f
through the transfor-

Finally, the band-elimination filter is obtained

s.

=

BW
Is
\O)
eu

(13.130)

\

S I

where

manner similar to that for the band-pass maps the segment of the _/«>,, axis in Fig. 13.35a filter. The transformation onto the segments shown on the ja> axis in Fig. 13.356. For the low-pass
a>

BW and

are defined in a

je>

Jf>n

wo

-J

-«o
-Wei

(a)

(b)

FIG. 13.35. Low-pass to band-elimination transformation.

410

Network

analysis

and synthesis

to band-elimination transformation we, therefore, have the following

element changes:

Ls " n
A

1

(s/L n BW)
1

+

ML BWs)
n

Ctls +
1

(1/L a s)

(13.131)

Cn s n

C nBW\a>

= Lsis
°

-\

C<gS

Observe that the normalized low-pass inductor goes into a paralleltuned circuit and the capacitor C„ goes into a series-tuned circuit, as shown in Fig. 13.31. In Table 13.10, we have a composite summary of the
various transformations.

TABLE
Transformation

13.10

Table of Various Frequency Transformations

Low-Pass to

Equation

High-pass

Band-pass

Band-elimination

sn

=

BW

fe + ?)
Problems
13.1
figure.

Find the transfer impedance

What should L be

VJIX for the filter shown in the n in order for \Z21 (ja>)\ to be maximally flat?

Z =

PROB.

13.1

;

1

Topics
13.2 Find the poles of system functions with n Butterworth characteristics. (Do not use the tables.)
13.3

in filter

design

41

=

3,

»

= 4,

and n

=

5

Show
is

that the half-power point of a

Chebyshev low-pass amplitude
filter specifications:

response
13.4
(a)

at

m =

cosh

/?*

for e

«

1.

Determine the system function for the following Ripple of \ db in band |o>| <> 1 (b) at co = 3, amplitude is down 30 db.
13.5
(a)
(6)
(c)

Compare the slopes
/(a>*)

at

to

=

1

of the following polynomials (for n

3):

/(a,*)
/(«>»)

= a>*» - iC„(2a»* = Ln(«»8).

1)

+J =

Q«(«.)

13.6

Determine the polynomials

L4(co 2) and

!»(«>*).

13.7 Expand cosh j and sinh s into power series and find the first four terms of the continued fraction expansion of cosh */sinh s. Truncate the expansion at « = 4 and show that H(s) KjB^s). 13.8 Synthesize the n ated in a l-O load. 13.9
will

= = 3 linear phase filter as a transfer impedance terminfilter,

Synthesize the low-pass

which,

when terminated

in

a

1-il resistor,

have a transfer admittance whose poles are shown in the

figure.

PROB.
13.10

13.9.

Determine the asymptotic rate of falloff in the stop band of: (a) filters; (b) linear phase filters. 13.11 Synthesize the n = 3 and n = 4 Butterworth responses as transfer impedances terminated in a load of 600 SI with a cutoff frequency of 10* rad/sec. 13.12 Synthesize a Chebyshev low-pass filter to meet the following speci-

optimum

fications:

(a)
(b)

load

resistor,

RL =

600

Q
rad/sec

&-db ripple within pass band
frequency

(c) cutoff

=

5

x 105

(d) at 1.5

x

10* rad/sec, the magnitude

must be down 30 db.

412
13.13

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Synthesize n

= 3 Optimum and linear phase filters to meet the following

specifications:
(a) load resistor
(b) cutoff

=

10*

Q
10* rad/sec.

frequency

-

13.14
cations:
(a)
(ft)

Design an n
level

=4

Butterworth amplifier with the following

specifi-

impedance

cutoff frequency

= 500 ft = 10* rad/sec.
filter

13.15

Synthesize a high-pass
a>

in a 10*-O load,

whose amplitude

characteristic is

for a given transfer admittance terminated Optimum (L), with a cutoff

frequency of
13.16

=

10* rad/sec.

Synthesize: (a) a band-pass filter; (b) a band-elimination filter, with 8 x 10* and o>ci maximally flat (n 4) amplitude response with ce

=

w-

=

2 x

10*.

chapter 14

The

scattering matrix

14.1

INCIDENT

AND

REFLECTED

POWER FLOW

we will devote our attention to certain power relationand two-port networks. The characterization of a network in terms of power instead of the conventional voltage-current description is a helpful analytical tool used by transmission engineers. It is especially important in microwave transmission problems where circuits can no longer be given in terms of lumped R, L, and C elements. In the powerflow description, we are concerned with the power into the network, which we call the incident power and the power reflected back from the load, which is the reflected power. A convenient description of the network in terms of incident and reflected power is given by the scattering matrix, which is the main topic of discussion in this chapter. It is convenient to think of incident and reflected power when dealing with transmission lines. Therefore, we will briefly review some concepts in transmission line theory. For a more comprehensive treatment of transmission lines, the reader is referred to any standard text on wave propagation. 1 Consider the transmission line shown in Fig. 14.1. The voltage at any point down the line is a function of x, the distance from the source. The parameters which describe the transmission line are given in the
In this chapter,
ships in one-

following:

R= G=
L=

C=
1

resistance per unit length conductance per unit length inductance per unit length capacitance per unit length

See, for example, E. C. Jordan, Electromagnetic

Waves and Radiating Systems,

Prentice-Hall,

EngUwood Cliffs, New

Jersey, 1950.

413

414

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
l-

i

h:

FIG.

14.1.

Transmission

line.

Given these parameters, we can now define the impedance per unit
length as

Z = R+joL

(14.1)

and the admittance per unit length as

Y=G+jcoC
The
characteristic

(14.2)

impedance

Z

of the line

is

given in terms of

Z and

Fas

z = Vz/r
and the propagation constant
is

(14.3)

y

=

sfZY

(14.4)

equations for these definitions in mind, let us turn to the general any point x down the line the current and voltage at

With

V{x)

. Vfi->* + Vsyx I(x) = !£*" - iy
Z
Z

(14.5)

The terms with the

the / refer to the incident wave at point * and to the reflected wave at x. Solving Eqs. 14.5 terms with subscript r refer and reflected simultaneously, we obtain explicit expressions for the incident
subscript

waves

^«*[K(*) + Z,/(*)]
Vre*x = h[V(x)-Z
l(x)]

(146)

Consider the case when a transmission line of length its characteristic impedance, that is,

L

is

terminated in

V(L)

_

ZtfQ

(14.7)

The

scattering matrix

415

Then we

see that the reflected

wave

is zero.

f>»L
Since e
yL

=

(14.8)

cannot be zero, we see that the coefficient VT is identically zero As a result, the reflected wave at any point x is zero. Also, the impedance at any point x down the line is equal to Z as seen from Eq. 14.5 with Vr = 0. With these brief thoughts of transmission lines in mind, let us turn our attention to the main topic of this chapter, namely,
for this case.

the scattering parameters.

I4J

THE SCATTERING PARAMETERS FOR A
ONE-PORT NETWORK

definitions.

For the one-port network shown in Fig. 14.2a, consider the following The incident parameter a is defined as
(14.9)

and the

reflected parameter b, is defined as

(14.10)

where R^

is

an

arbitrary, positive,

dimensionless constant called the

reference impedance factor.

For the transmission line described in Section 14.1, if the characteristic impedance Z = /{<,, then we can describe

the incident parameter in terms of the incident voltage as

a
Similarly,

Ve~T" - ^=reflected

(14.11)

b can be expressed in terms of the
b

wave as
(14.12)

= ^=r
VZ„

/

+

V

One-port network

a *
,

b

One-port network

(a)

m

FIG. 142. Scattering parameters of a one-port network.

416

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Thus we
reflected

see that the parameters

a and b do indeed describe an incidentb,

wave

relationship in a one-port network, as depicted in Fig. 14.26.

To

give further

meaning to a and

consider the power dissipated by the

one-port network

P = iRe

VI*

(14.13)

where /* denotes the complex conjugate of /. From Eqs. 14.9 and 14.10 we solve for V and / in terms of the incident and reflected parameters to
give

K=(a + b)V«
a

_
(1414)

-

b

Then the power

dissipated

by the one-port network

is

P = Haa* -

bb*)
(14.15)

-KM* -1*1*)
where, again, the asterisk denotes complex conjugate. The term Jaa* can be interpreted as the power incident, while $bb* can be regarded as the

power reflected. The difference yields the power dissipated by the one-port
network.

The incident parameter a and the reflected parameter b are related by the
equation

b

= Sa

(14.16)

where

S is

called the scattering element or,

coefficient.

From

the definitions of a

more commonly, the reflection and b we can make the following

substitution:

Solving for S,

we obtain

S

= Z ~ **° Z+R
one-port network

(14.18)

where

Z is the impedance of the

Z=

|
set

(14.19)

A further useful result is that when the impedance R<, is impedance Z, the reflected parameter b — 0.
For the one-port network
excited

equal to the

by a voltage source

V9 with a source

The
resistor R,, as depicted in Fig. 14.3,
will

scattering matrix

417

show

reference

we when we choose the impedance Rq to be equal to
that

AAA +

i
One-port network

"VW V

-&
The proof
follows.

!>
(,4 20>
-

By
is

definition, the

FIG. 14.3

incident parameter a

given as

^) -K£+^)
From
and
Fig. 14.3,

(14.21)

we have

V,

-IRB

=V

(14.22)

1

=
Ra

(14.23)

+Z

Substituting these equations for
14.21,

V and / into the expression for a in Eq.

we

obtain

_ _

l

17.,

VBR,

\
,

RqV,_~\

2V^
2VV

r r,+z
R' + zJ

}

^+ zJ
(14.24)

in a oneConsider once more the expression for the power dissipated network: port V (14.25) P = l(aa* - bb*)

Factoring the term aa*

=

\a\*

from within the parentheses,

P

becomes

2 \
a

|a|V
(14.26)

=
When we
ance,
i.e.,

l^- (i-isi»)
resist-

choose the reference impedance to be equal to the source and R„, then S = when R*

=

P eA. ~

n _ nil! ~Z~ ~ on
2

(14.27)

iR„

418

Network
**
A ~»vV

analysis

and synthesis

where
°
I

PA

represents the available gain or

available

Av
^*^
FIG. 14.4
Fig. 14.4, the

power of a voltage source Va with a source resistance R„. For the case of a

*"

> ^

one-port network, the available gain is defined as the power dissipated in the oneport network when the impedance of the

network

Z is

equal to the resistance of the

source/?,.

As a result of this definition, we
network shown in

see that for the one-port

power

dissipated in

Z

with

Z = Rt

is

Pa
The

= ^maximum
available

(14.28)

available gain thus represents the terminals of the voltage source.

power

at the

From this discussion, it is apparent that the value of the reference impedance Rq should be chosen equal to the source impedance R„. A standard procedure is to assume a 1-Q source impedance and denormalize
when
necessary, that
is, let

S

- 2^-i z + 1
z

(14.29)

where
Next,

=

(14.30)

let

us

briefly consider

scattering parameter
1.

S for

some of the important properties of the a one-port network.
axis
is

The magnitude of S along theyco
is,

always

less

or equal to unity

for a passive network, that

|S(/«>)| <. 1

(14.31)

This property follows from the fact that the power dissipated in a passive network is always greater or equal to zero. Since the power can be expressed as

P-^fl-ISft^O
we
see that
\S(ja>)\*

(14.32)

^

1

(14.33)

2.

For a

reactive

fact that the

network |S(jo>)| = 1. This property follows from the power dissipated in a purely reactive network is zero.

The
3. For an open circuit 5=1, and for a short shown to be true from the equation

scattering matrix
circuit

419
This
is

S=

1.

S
For an open
therefore
circuit z

= ^| z + 1
5=1.
For a short

(14.34)

=

oo,

so that

circuit z

5=

= 0;

—1.
to the next property, let us consider the following

Before

we proceed

definition.

DEFINITION.
ditions
(«)

A
for

bounded real function P(s)

is

defined by the con-

|^)|

^ AT

Rea^O
s is real.

(6) F(s)

is real

when
is

In

(a),

K denotes any positive real constant.
— Z/Rq
a positive
real function, then

4. If z

5

is

a bounded

real

function.

The proof follows from

the equation,

S
From
that

= (z-

l)/(z

+

1).

the positive real condition (a)

Re z(s)

^ 0, when Re s ^ 0,

we

see

s
so that

Im z(s)-[l- Re z(s)] jlmz(s)+ [I + Rez(s)]
j

(14.35)

|S(s)|

= ( Im'^ + llm , z(s) +
S = (z-

U-Re^ *
[l

+

Re2(S)]«/

y

'

3° f

when Re j

;> 0. (b)

Where s is real, z(s) is real. Then
l)/(2

+

1)

must be real. Thus the bounded real function.
14.3

scattering parameter for a passive

network

is

a

THE SCATTERING MATRIX FOR A TWO-PORT NETWORK

In this section we will extend the concepts developed for one-port networks discussed in Section 14.2 to two-port networks. In the two-port network shown in Fig. 14.5, we are concerned with two sets of incident and reflected parameters {at , *x } at the 1-1' port, and {a,, b } at the 2-2' port. t These parameters are defined in similar manner as for the one-port

420

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

-o

lo—>Ol

-*—o2
02

o-

*i«
-o
l'o-

Vi

Two-port network

v2
62
D2'

o-

FIG.

14.5. Scattering

parameters for a two-port network,

network, that

is,

(14.37)

"•

=
l(vfe

+vr "'')
and output

where

R01

and

i?

w

are the reference impedances at the input

ports respectively.

The

scattering parameters

Stj for

the two-port network are given by the

equations
(14.38)
iSjitfi

bt

= =

+

Si2a2

In matrix form the set of equations of Eqs. 14.38 becomes

r

6i

Si1

i

\

^im

(14.39)

where the matrix
called the scattering matrix of the two-port network.

(14.40)

is

From

Eqs. 14.38,

we see that the scattering parameters of the two-port network can be expressed in terms of the incident and reflected parameters as

Sn S«

= =

Si.

=h
a* 01—0
(14.41)

SM

=
a* ai—0

The

scattering matrix

421

I

I

In Eqs. 14.41, the parameter

Su

is

called the input reflection coefficient;

5M

is

the forward transmission coefficient;

Slt

is

the reverse transmission

coefficient;

and SM

is

the output reflection coefficient.

Observe that

all

four scattering parameters are expressed as ratios of reflected to incident
parameters.

Now let us examine the physical meaning of these scattering parameters.
First, consider the implications

of setting the incident parameters at and a t

to zero in the defining relations in Eqs. 14.41. Let us see what the conimplies in the definition for the forward reflection coefficient dition a4

=

«i

tlt^O

Figure 14.6 shows the terminating section of the two-port network of Fig. 14.5 with the parameters a, and b a of the 2-2' port shown. If we treat
the load resistor

Rt as a one-port network with scattering parameter
S8

=

(14.42)

+

Ro»

where Rgx
by*

is

the reference impedance of port 2, then oi

and b% are

related

aa

= SA
is set

(14.43)

then

When the reference impedance R^ St becomes

equal to the load impedance Rt,

S,=

Rot Rat

— Ri*8 = + Rto*

(14.44)

under this condition. Similarly, we can show that, when so that at ax 0, the reference impedance of port 1 is equal to the terminating

«

*

From

reflected

the viewpoint of the load resistor /?„ the incident parameter parameter is a x .

is

b, and the

422

Network
(i.e.,

anal/sis

and synthesis

impedance

conditions a x

R01 and /?M
respectively.

as a result of this discussion that the merely imply that the reference impedances are chosen to be equal to the terminating resistors Rt and R t ,
/?i).

R01 =

We see

=

and aa

=

Next,

let

us consider the relationship between the driving-point imped1

ances at ports

and 2 and the

reflection coefficients
1

5U and Su

.

Let us

denote the driving-point impedances at ports

and 2 as
(14.45)

h
From
the equation

h
l lai-0

S

-M a
2q
x

(14.46)

We can write
which reduces

S„

=
*K W*oi)

+

(14.47)

Rnli)
(14.48)

easily to

Sn

=

Similarly,

we have
tell

— Rqi Z + Rqx z» — Rq» Z + R oi
t

Rt-Rot
(14.49)

h,_h„

These expressions
coefficient

us

if

we choose

the reference impedance at a given

port to equal the driving-point impedance at that port, the reflection

of that port will be zero, provided the other port

is

terminated

in its reference impedance.

Next, let us derive some physically meaningful expressions for the forward and reverse transmission coefficients Sn and Slt Consider the
.

definition for <S81

S As we have just

•321

-*l ——
a«—

(14.50)

implies that the reference imseen, the condition a, = pedance Roi is set equal to the load impedance Rt , as seen in Fig. 14.7. If we connect a voltage source Vgl with source impedance Rn = Rlt

JtogaJfa

FIG. 14.7

)

The
then

scattering matrix

423

we can

express

ax as

""vfe
Since a,

< 14- 5I >

= 0, we have the equation

from which we obtain

y —^ =
bt

—>/*»'»

(14.53)

Consequently,

= "(-/= - V*»z«
(14.54)

v*«
Finally,

we can

express the forward transmission coefficient as

s

_

vjj**_

(14.55)

Krl^ ^* Ri-fi.i,Ri-Boi
In similar fashion, we find that when port 1 is terminated in Rqi = R t and when a voltage source V,t with source impedance Rt is connected to port 2,

then

S

"-

?MF
.

(1456)

We see that both Slt and SM have the dimensions of a voltage-ratio transfer
function. Indeed, if
It is

R^ =

R^, then

seen that for a passive reciprocal network,

Slt and Stl are simple voltage ratios. Sn = Slt
ratio

Now let us consider as an example the scattering matrix of the n: 1
ideal transformer in Fig. 14.8a.

Recall that for an ideal transformer

'Vi-jtV*

A---/, n

(14.57)

Assuming first that Jin'— Rn 1, let us find 5U by terminating the 2-2' port in a l-Cl resistor, as shown in Fig. 14.86. Then

»

-^-

-

1

(14.58)

424

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

1

h
1»:1|

_Jf_

—2 o
+

+

V2
Ideal transformer

(a)

FIG.

14.8.

Determination of scattering parameters for an ideal transformer,

so that

Z1 =
14.48,

^ = n*

(14.59)

From Eq.

we have

Sn

= n*-l n* + l
a 1-G
resistor (Fi£. 14.8c).

(14.60)

Next we terminate the
as

1-1' port in

We obtain,
(14.61)

we

did for

Su

,

SM

= (1/w*)
(!/«*)

-1_1+1 1+

n*

n

1

The

scattering matrix

425

We obtain Sn by connecting a voltage source Vgl with a source impedance
jRo!
1

= Q at the 1-1' port and terminating the 2-2' port with a resistance - «*» the equivalent circuit jRo, = 1 ii, as seen in Fig. 14.8rf. Since V^h
of the ideal transformer as seen from the voltage source as a 1-Ii impedance in series with an «*-ohm resistance (Fig. 14.8c). Then Vx can be expressed in terms of Vtl , as

K,=
Since

n8

+ +

(14.62)
l

Va =

Vjn, we have

Kin
n*
l

(14.63)

Since

R^ = R^ =

1

Q,

SM is
2F,
r »i

2it

n*

+

(14.64)
l

We can show in similar fashion that
2n
n

+

(14.65)
1
is

Therefore the scattering matrix for the ideal transformer

given as

v-1
n*

In
n*

+
In

l

+

l

l-n»
l
fl*

(14.66)

M*

+

+l = Z* then the reflection
(14.67)

As a second example,
shown in
Fig. 14.9. If we

let

transmission line of length
coefficients are

L

terminated in

us find the scattering matrix for a lossless its characteristic impedance, as

assume that

R^ =

!*«

c

= ?oZlZo _ Q z, + z

x^-°
Zo

1'

FIG,

14.9. Lossless

transmission line.

426

Network
is

anal/sis and synthesis

not implausible, because a transmission line terminated in impedance has zero reflected energy. To determine Su , we terminate the line in Z at both ends and connect at the 1-1' port a voltage source Vtl , as depicted in Fig. 14.9. Since the transmission line has zero reflected energy, that is,
its

This result

characteristic

Z> x

=

a2

=
(14.68)

then

v,

= *>- ri

From

the equation

Stl

we obtain
In similar fashion,

~ 2 \*J vgl Sn - 2e-*
Sit

(14.69)

(14.70)

we

find that

o

2e- rL
is

(14.71)

Therefore the scattering matrix for the lossless transmission line
r
~~

2«-" z, i
(14.72)

VW-

J

14.4

PROPERTIES OF THE SCATTERING MATRIX
scattering

Having defined the
Section 14.3,
matrix.
let

matrix of a two-port network

in

us consider some important properties of the scattering
all

From

the general restriction for a passive network that the net

power delivered to

ports must be positive,

P=
port
is

H«i«i*

+ -

a*fh*

-

W
is

we

obtain the condition
(14.73)

-

W) £

Equation 14.73 follows from the fact that the power delivered to the 1-1'

Pi

KW i(^»*

bib,*)

(14.74)

and the power delivered to the 2-2' port
P,

-

W)
is

(14.75)

The

total

power

delivered to the network

then
(14.76)

P = P1 + Pt
which is exactly the expression in Eq. delivered to the network is
14.73. In matrix notation, the

power

P - Hla'fW ~

lb*flb]}

£

(14.77)

The
where

scattering matrix

427

T denotes the transpose operation,
[a]

and

lb]

Since [b]

=

[S][a],

then
[b*]

-a -a
=
[a*]

(14.78)

T

T [S*] T

(14.79)

Equation 14.77 can

now

be rewritten as
{[a*]

IP

= -

T [a]

la*] llu]

T

- [a*] T [S*] T [S][a]} - [S*] T [Smal >
[[«]

(14.80)

This then implies that the determinant of the matrix must be greater or equal to zero, that is,

[5*] T [S]]

Dct

[[«]

-

[S*] [S]]

T

£

(14.81)

network. In this case

Consider the special but, nevertheless, important case of a lossless P 0, so that

=

[S*] T [S]

=

[u]

(14.82)

A matrix satisfying the condition in Eq. (14.82) is unitary.
two-port network

For a

lossless

From
matrix

this equation,

we have

the following conditions for the scattering

Su*S11
Sj»*Su

+ Stl *Stl = + Sn'Su =

1

(14.84)
(14.85)

Sn *Si,
Su*Su
Note that Eqs.
network
14.85

+ Sn *S„ =
+
S„*S„

(14.86)
1

-

(14.87)
If the

and
then

14.86 are conjugates of each other.

is reciprocal,

Stl = Slt and
|S„(/«>)|»

+ IVHI +
|Sii(/«>)|»
1

= |5„(/«))|« -

1

(14.88)
1

428

Network

analysis and synthesis

Two-port network

A

<*2

FIG. 14.10

from which
\SJ(ja>)\ <. 1
(i.e.,

it

and \Su(ja>)\

follows that for a lossless reciprocal network |Su (ya>)| 1. Also it is clear that when \Sjj<o)\

^

= =

when

condition states that

there is a zero of transmission), then \Su (ja>)\ all the power that has been delivered to the
is

=

1.

This

network

from port

back to port 1-1'. At this point, it might be profitable to discuss why we use scattering matrices. What are the advantages of the scattering description over conventional descriptions? Let us discuss three major reasons for the
1-1'
reflected

scattering formalism.

networks do not possess an impedance or admittance matrix. ideal transformer has no Z or Y matrix because its elements are not finite. However, as we have seen, the ideal transformer 8 can be described by a scattering matrix. Carlin states that all passive
1.

Many

For example, an

networks possess scattering matrices. 2. At high frequencies, incident and reflected parameters play dominant roles in problems of transmission, while voltage-current descriptions are relegated to the background. Then the scattering matrix is necessarily the more powerful description of the system. Note that the voltage standingwave ratio (VSWR) is given in terms of a reflection coefficient S as

VSWR =
3.

i±M

(14.89)

In networks where power flow is a prime consideration (e.g., filters), the scattering matrix is very useful. For example, in the network given in Fig. 14.10, ifPA represents the available power from the generator and Pt is the power dissipated in the load R t , then we can.show that the magnitude-

squared forward transmission coefficient

is

is«o)i*-£* pA

< 14 - 90>

We will discuss this point in more detail in

Section 14.5.

* H. J. Carlin, "The Scattering Matrix in Network Theory," Trans. IRE, CT-3, No. 2, June 1956, 88-96; see his extensive bibliography.

The
14.5

scattering matrix

429

INSERTION LOSS
we described the forward and reverse transmission terms of voltage ratios. Perhaps a more appropriate

In Section 14.4,
coefficients in

is in terms of a power ratio rather than a voltage ratio. In this section we will show that |SM(/«o)|* and ]SU (J(o)\* can be expressed in terms of power ratios. We will then introduce the very important concept of insertion loss and finally relate |£ti(/<»)l* to

description of a transmission coefficient

the insertion power ratio.

Consider the equation for
14.5,

Stl

in the two-port

network shown in Fig.

From
we

the equation

l-S^OOl*

= Sn(/w)Sa *(/a>) =

(14.92)

obtain

|M-)|-

l^>»
I^iO«»)IV8*x
(14.93)

Pal
where Pt is the power dissipated by the load Rt, and gain of the generator Vgl Similarly, we have
.

PAl is

the available

|Si.O)l*

- £power power

(14.94)

We

see that both \Su (j(o)\*

and

ISutyco)!* are

transfer ratios

which
in the

relate the

power dissipated

at a given port to the available

other port.
loss. Consider the network Between the terminals 1-1' and 2-2' we will insert a two-port network, as shown in Fig. 14.116. Let us denote by VM the voltage across the load resistor R, before inserting the two-port network, and by Vt the voltage across Rt after inserting the two-port network. A measure of the effect of inserting the two-port network is given by the insertion voltage ratio IVR, which is denned as

Now

let

us examine the idea of insertion

shown in

Fig. 14.1 la.

IVR

4

^ V
t

(14.95)

is

to measure the

Another method of gaging the effect of inserting the two-port network power dissipated at the load before and after inserting the

430

Network

analysis

and synthesis

vW^-

-J

t

r
(a)

Hi

-i_
r
Inserted

2

+
two-port network

)y»i

*2* >V2

$

r
lb)

?
FIG. 14.11

two-port network. If PM is the power dissipated at the load before the two-port network is inserted, and if Pt is the power dissipated after insertion, then the insertion power ratio of the two-port network is denned as
e

u

_ Ew
we
obtain

(14.96)

If

we

take the logarithm of both sides,

a
where a
is

=10 log

^
R>

(14.97)

circuit given in Fig. 14.11,

the insertion loss of the two-port network. In terms of the we can calculate Px from the relation

V„
Then

=


8

(14.98)

Pm is

=

|K„|

2R t
*. 2(R t
ir.il'

+

(14.99)

RJ*
network
is

The power
given by

dissipated

by the load

after inserting the two-port

P.= Hi!!
2R t

(14.100)

The

scattering matrix

431

The

insertion

power

ratio

can then be expressed as
£_80

2a

_

_ w„r

v

P.-VXOk +
In the special case
is,

V

<14101)

when

the source and load impedances are equal, that
(14.102)

Rx = R2 = Rn = R^

the reciprocal of the squared magnitude of the forward transmission coefficient in Eq. 14.93 is equal to the insertion power ratio Pgo

When Rt

j&

Rt

|S*iO)|
,

a

(14.103)

then
PjQ

4R1 R 2
(*i

1
2 a

+

(14.104)

R*) |s*iO)l

In any event,
i\Sa (jai)\ t

we

see that the magnitude-squared transmission coefficients

and {S^jai)]* can be regarded physically as equivalent

insertion

power

In Section 14.6, we will use this relationship in the synthesis of double-terminated filter networks.
ratios.

14.6

DARLINGTON'S INSERTION LOSS FILTER SYNTHESIS
we will consider a filter synthesis procedure first proposed

In this section,

classic paper in 1939. 4 We will use scattering matrix notation to describe the essence of Darlington's original work. Our coverage will be restricted to the class of low-pass filters which are termi-

by Darlington in a

Fig. 14.12.

nated in equal source and load impedances, Rn Roi R , as shown in For normalizing purposes we will let /^ be equal to 1 12.

=

=

FIG. 14.12

4

S. Darlington, "Synthesis
/.

Loss Characteristics,"

of Reactance 4-Poles which Produce Prescribed Insertion Math. Phys., 18, 1939, 257-353.

-

432

Network

analysis and synthesis

Recall that when the source and load impedances are equal, then the insertion power ratio is equal to the reciprocal of
|SM (yG>)| 2 , that
20
is,

1

P*

|S21 (>>)| a

(14.105)

Expressed as a loss function, the insertion

power

ratio is

A =10 log %*
P

=

-101og|S 21(»| a

db

(14.106)

insertion loss

In circuit design, the specification of an A (Fig. 14.13a) is equivalent
to the specification

of the

amplitude-

squared transmission coefficient shown in Fig.

14.13ft.

One of the most

ingenious techniques given in Darlington's synthesis procedure is the reduction of insertion loss synthesis to an equivalent L-C driving-point
synthesis problem. This technique can be developed in terms of scattering parameters. Our initial specification is in terms of |Su (/<u)|. For an L-C

two-port network

\Sn(jcoW
Next,

=1-

|S*iO)l

8

(14.107)

Sn(s)

is

obtained from the magnitude-squared function

Su (s)Sii(- s)
Then from
the equation

l

=1^i

\S ia (Jo>)\

2
\

im ^,

(14.108)

Su

= ————
+
«o

(14.109)

we

obtain the driving-point impedance

Z^s)

=R

1

1

+ Su(s) - Su (s)

(14.110)

We then synthesize the network from Z^s). our discussion here to low-pass filters given by the We lossless ladder structure terminated at both ports by 1-Q resistors in Butterworth or Fig. 14.14. These low-pass filters can take the form of a
shown
in Fig. 14.12.
will restrict

Chebyshev

specification for |Ssl (/a))|
2

2
,

that

is,

|S21

= 0)f _ 1 +

(14.111)
CO
,2n

-


433

The
10
Li
/-

scattering matrix

~*np

T-nnnp
C-1-—
10.

|

+

c2 z

T-

Zi(s)

v2

FIG.

14.14.

Canonical form for double-terminated low-pass

niters.

1

+

c

C B8(<u)

(14.112)

where

Cn(co) represents an nth-order Chebyshev polynomial.
14.1.

Example

Let us synthesize a low-pass

filter

for the specification

._. "*W-TT^

1

(14.113)

which represents a third-order Butterworth amplitude characteristic. The load and source impedances are R^ = R^ = 1 Q. First we find |5u(y'o>)| s as

IWI* = !-—-*
1

+0)6
*•
1

(14.114)

Lettingy'eo

= s in

|Su

(/a>)| a

,

we

obtain

<Sii(»>S_(-*)

= -

-s*

(14.115)

which factors into

Sn(s) Sil(- S) sothat5u(5)is
Next,

g +2> +

^ + ^ 1^ +2j2 _ ^
a*

A-*8) "

(14.116)

sll(f) =

_______
1

(14 117)
.

Zx(j) is obtained from the equation
Zfy)

=

1

+ Su(s) - SuM
+2s* +25
2s?

2s*

+
1

1

+

2s

+

(14.118)

434

Network

analysis and synthesis

FIG. 14.15

We next perform a Cauer ladder expansion for Z^s).
2s*

+ 2* + l)^ + 2s» + 2s +
2s*+2s*+s
s

l(s

+

1)2**
2s*

+2s +

l{2s

+

Zs
1)5

+

1(5

The low-pass

filter is

thus synthesized in the structure shown in Fig. 14.15.

An equivalent
we

realization for the double-terminated filter is obtained if

use the equation

Su(5)
Then, assuming

= YM - G
Yt(s) + G
1 1

(14.119)

G = 1 mho
Y1(s) =

+ Sn (s) - Su(s)
shown
in Fig. 14.16.

(14.120)

The canonical
14.2,

realization for Yx(s) is
list

Tables 14.1,

and

14.3

element values (up to n

=

7) for double-terminated

Butterworth, Chebyshev (1-db ripple) and Bessel filters, respectively. These apply to the canonical realization for Yt(s) given in Fig. 14.16. If a ZjCs) realization in Fig. 14.14 is desired, we simply replace all shunt
capacitors by series inductors

and

vice versa.

FIG. 14.16.

Canonical form for

filters

in Tables 14.1, 14.2,

and

14.3.

The

scattering matrix

435

TABLE

14.1

Normalized Element Values for a Double-Terminated Butterworth Filter (Equal Terminations) n
1

Ci
2.000
1.414

Lf

C3

Lt

Cj

Lg

C?

2
3

1.414

1.000

2.000
1.848 1.618 1.414
1.248

1.000
1.848

4
5

0.765 0.618 0.S18
0.44S

0.765
1.618

2.000
1.932 1.802

0.618
1.414

6
7

1.932

0.518
1.248

2.000
14.2

1.802

0.445

TABLE
I

Normalized Element Values for a Double-Terminated Cheb/shev Filter with -decibel Ripple (Equal Terminations)
71

Cx
1.018

L*

C8
2.024
3.001

L*

c5

J-6

c7

1

3 5

2.024
2.135 2.167

0.994
1.091

1.091

2.135

7

1.112

3.094

1.174

3.094

1.112

2.167

TABLE

14.3

Normalized Element Values for a Double-Terminated
Bessel Filter (Equal Terminations)

Cj
1

La
0.423 0.553 0.512 0.458

C3

Lt

C3

Le

Cj

2.000
1.577
1.255

2
3

0.192
0.318
0.331

4
5

1.060

0.110 0.209 0.236
0.238

0.930
0.838
0.768

0.072
0.148 0.178
0.051

6 7

0.412 0.374

0.316 0.294

0.110

0.038

Note that the even orders
are not given. This
is

for the double-terminated

because the even-ordered Chebyshev

Chebyshev niters filters do not

meet realizability conditions for minimum insertion loss at s = 0. 5 We have only given tables for equal source and load terminations. For other
possible realizations, the reader should consult L. Weinberg's excellent

book. 8
£

L. Weinberg, Network Analysis 1962, p. 589.
13.

and

Synthesis,

McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York,
'Ibid.,

Chapter

436

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

Problems
14.1 Determine the reflection coefficient in the figure.

S for

the one-port networks

shown

°-VW—r—vW—
4=tt'

?o

w
For the one-port_network in Fig. 14.3, let iJ, . R If the incident B is a = VJl^R^ find the reflected parameter A. 14.3 For the network in Prob. 14.1, determine \S(jio)\. Show that the scattering elements S for the networks in Prob. 14.1 are bounded real functions. 14.4 For each of the networks shown, find the scattering matrix for ik, =
14.2
.

parameter

-o2

(a)

(b)

+
Vi

X
Gyrator

/2 —-*-

^-J-?/i
*!,

A
V
Negative

\

+

L

impedance
converter

^ W*
*1
2

r

Vi

1. z

+

w
PROB.
14.4

o—

T
w

v2

The

scattering matrix

437

14J5 Find the insertion voltage ratio and insertion power ratios for each of the networks shown. These networks are to be inserted between a source impedance R„ = 2 ft and a load impedance RL = 1 ft. From the insertion

power

ratio, find |S»i(j«>)|*.

2h_
i

2_h

o-'TRRTH-^WnP-02
Jsjf

io

_lh_
.

nptpP 1

=f=if
l'o-

=r=i'

(6)

2h

40
:*f

PROB.
14.6
(a)

14.5

Synthesize low-pass niters for the specifications
|SaQ'«>)l*
2
1

=
1

+0)*
1


14.7
at

l-W)!

+afl

Synthesize an equal-ripple low-pass filter such that 20 log |5n(/a>)| has most i-db ripple in the pass band and an asymptotic falloff of 12 db/octave in

the stop band.

chapter 15

Computer techniques

in

circuit analysis

15.1

THE USES OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

IN

routine many of the computational aspects of circuit theory. Digital computers have become widely used in circuit analysis, time and frequency-domain analysis, circuit (filter) design, and optimization or

The advent of the high-speed computer has made
difficult

formerly tedious and

iterative design.

We

will discuss these aspects in general in this section.

In succeeding sections,

we

will

discuss

some

specific

circuit-analysis

computer programs.
Circuit analysis The primary objective of a linear circuit-analysis program is to obtain responses to prescribed excitation signals. These programs are based on many different methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis, topological formulas, and state variables. Most of them can handle active elements such as transistors and diodes by means of equivalent circuit models.

The

state-variable

programs based upon Bashkow's

A

matrix formulavia numerical

tion 1 perform their calculations directly in the time
integration

domain

and matrix inversion. The outputs of these programs provide impulse and step response in tabular form. If the excitation signal were given in data form, the state-variable programs would calculate the response directly in the time domain.
1

T. R. Bashkow,

"The A Matrix—New Network Description," IRE Trans, on Circuit
September 1957, 117-119.
438

Theory, CT-4, No.

3,

Computer techniques

in circuit anal/sis

439

The majority of

circuit-analysis

programs, however, perform their

calculations in the frequency domain. The program user is only required to specify the topology of the network, the element values, and what
transfer functions he wishes to obtain. The computer does the rest. It calculates the specified transfer functions in polynomial form, calculates

the poles and zeros of these functions, and can also provide transient response and steady-state response, if desired. With versatile inputoutput equipment, the output can also provide a schematic of the original

network, as well as plots of time- and frequency-response characteristics.

Time- and frequency-domain analysis The time- and frequency-domain analysis programs can be used in conjunction with the circuit-analysis programs or independently. The time-domain programs depend upon solving the convolution integral

FIG. 15.1. Frequency response of fifth-order Butterworth filter. FIG. 15.2. Phase response of fifth-order Butterworth filter.

440

Network

analysis

and synthesis

FIG.

15.3.

Impulse response of fifth-order Butterworth

filter

evaluation by Laplace

transform.

This approach obviates the necessity of finding roots of It has the advantage that the excitation signal need not be specified analytically, but merely in numerical form. The frequency-domain programs usually consist of finding transient and steady-state responses, given the transfer function in factored or
numerically.

high-order polynomials.

The program user must specify the numerator and denominator polynomials of the transfer functions, the types of transient response he wishes (i.e., impulse or step response), and the types of steady-state responses he wishes (amplitude, amplitude in decibels, phase, delay, etc.). In addition, he must specify the frequency and time data points at which the calculations are to be performed. This may be done in two ways. If he requires evenly spaced data, he need only specify the minimum point, the increment, and the number of points. If he wishes
unfactored form.
to obtain data at certain points, he

must supply the

list

of data points at

the input.

Examples of outputs of a steady-state and transient analysis computer program are shown in Figs. 15.1, 15.2, and 15.3. In Fig. 15.1, the magnitude of a fifth-order Butterworth filter is plotted via a microfilm plotting subroutine. Figure 15.2 shows the phase of the filter, while Fig. 15.3 shows its impulse response.

Computer techniques
In Section 15.2
analysis program.

in circuit analysis

441

we

will

examine further

details

of a typical steady-state

Circuit

(filter)

design

The

filter

design programs are probably the most convincing argument

for the use of computers in circuit design. Designing insertion loss filters" to meet certain amplitude requirements requires considerable numerical
calculation even in the simplest cases.
insertion loss
filter

The use of

digital

computers in

design

is clearly

a

logical alternative.

The amount of

programming time for a general filter synthesis program is considerable. However, the ends certainly justify the means when large numbers of filters must be designed to meet different specifications. An outstanding example of a digital computer program for filter design The is the one written by Dr. George Szentirmai and his associates.*
complete in that it handles the approximation as well as the synthesis problem. It is capable of dealing with low-, high-, and band-pass poles filters with prescribed zeros of transmission (also called attenuation for either equal-ripple or maximally or loss peaks). There are provisions flat-type pass-band behavior, for arbitrary ratios of load to source im-

program

is

pedances, and for predistortion and incidental dissipation. In addition, Dr. Szentirmai has a modified program that synthesizes low- and band-pass filters with maximally flat or equal-ripple-type delay in their pass band, and monotonic or equal-ripple-type loss in the stop

bands.
In the specifications, the designer could specify both the zeros of 4 If transmission (loss peaks) and the network configuration desired. his specifications include neither, the computer is free to pick both configuration and zeros of transmission. The computer's choice is one in

which the inductance values are kept at a minimum. The program was written so that the same network could be synthesized from both ends. Finally, the computer prints out the network configuration, its dual, the normalized element values, and the denormalized ones. It also provides information such as amplitude and phase response, as well as plots of these responses obtained from a microfilm printer. Figures 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, and 15.9 show the results of a
band-pass
filter

synthesis using Dr. Szentirmai's program.

Figure 15.4

»

R. Saal and E. Ulbrkh,

"On

the Design of Filters

by

Synthesis," Trans.

IRE on

Circuit Theory, CT-5,

December

1958, 287-327.

Filter Synthesis," Proceedings
4

Digital Computer Program Package for of the First Allerton Conference on Circuit and System Theory, November 1963, University of Illinois.

G. Szentirmai, "Theoretical Basis of a

Saal and Ulbrich, op.

cit.

442

Network

analysis

and synthesis

BAND PASS FILTER SYNTHESIS

CASE NUMBER

3.1
13 3 2
1

OEGREE OF FILTER MULTIPLICITY OF PEAK AT ZERO MULTIPLICITY 0F PEAK AT INFINITY NUMBER OF FINITE PEAKS BELBM THE BANO NUMBER #F FINITE PEAKS ABBVE THE BANO
EQUAL RIPPLE PASS BANO REQUESTED PASS BANO RIPPLE MAGNITUDE L0HER PASS BANO E06E FREQUENCY MID-BAND FREQUENCY UPPER PASS BANO EDGE FREQUENCY

3

0.09000 DB. 1.0000000E+04 CPS. 1.3416408E*04 CPS. i.80oooooe*04 cps.

"ARBITRARY" STOP BANO REQUESTED

NUMBER 0F SPECIAL POLES «
TERMINATIONS INPUT TERMINATION OUTPUT TERMINATION

1

MA

l.OOOOOOOE+00

6.0000000E«02 OHMS 0. OHMS
VALUE OF M 0.6229266 VALUE OF H 2.3788111 1.9296560 1.4968796

LOWER FINITE STOP BANO PEAKS FREQUENCY CPS NORMALIZED 6.2000000E+03 4.621 2071E-01 UPPER FINITE STOP BANO PEAKS FREQUENCY CPS NORMALIZED 2.0700000E+O4 1.5428869E+00 2.31000006*04 l.7217723E*00 3.5200000E+04 2.6236531E+00

COMPUTER HILL SPECIFY CONFIGURATION LAST INDUCTOR IS A SERIES BRANCH
FIG. 15.4

gives the specification of the problem.

The pass-band magnitude

is

to be
filter

equal ripple with ripple magnitude of 0.05 db, and the degree of the
is

to be 13.

As we

indicated in Chapter 14, odd-degree, equal-ripple

filters

are nonrealizable. In this example the designer utilized an ingenious

an extra pole to accomplish the synthesis. The program logic then provided two extra zeros: one to cancel the extra pole and the other to provide the odd degree. The extra pole is called a special pole in Fig. —1.0. 15.4, and is located at s Further specifications call for the lower band-edge frequency to be 10*
device

=

cycles;

the upper, 1.8
10*

X

10* cycles;

and the midband frequency to be
In the stop band, there are to be

Vl.8 X

=

1.3416408

X

10* cycles.
(three),

zeros of transmission

at/=

/=

oo (two),

and four

finite

zeros

of transmission: one below the pass band and three above the pass band. The positions of these finite zeros of transmission are chosen by the
designer as indicated by the notation "arbitrary" stop band requested.

Computer techniques
CASE NUMBER
1.1

in circuit analysis

443

FMUtD

REALIZATION FROM A SDMI CIRCUIT ADMITTANCE
• 13
1 2

OtMEE OF FILTER

• MULTIPLICITY OF PEAK AT MULTIPLICITY OF MAX AT INFINITY -

MM

EQUAL RIPPLE PASS SAND LONER -PASS-OAM EOSE FREQUENCY UPPER PASS-BANO EOCE FREQUENCY MID-BAND FREQUENCY

0.0500
• i.aooooooE»04

DB

•ARBITRARY' STEP

(AND)

- i.ooooooos»o* cps

cps • 1.3416408E*04 CPS
100 300

CONFIGURATION SPECIFIED QV COMPUTER •03 901 *01 100 002 *00 200
NORMAL IZEO

UNNORHALIZEO
6.0000000E*02
6.0706102E-09
L*"e
C ..L.e..:

1.0000000E*00
3.0T04337E-01 T.8921337E-01 1.8499769E-0I 2.9723019E»00
1.0083380E»00 4.44298O6E»00 1.364T491E«00
9.3749272E-01 7.S1321S3E-01 7.9423894E-01
•••• L C
C

TERMINATION
803

S.9892B16E-03 3.85TA228E-09
9. 089744 OE-08

PEAK FREQUENCY 3.5200000E+04
901

7.1783955E-03 9.1797212E-08 2.6982703E-08

PEAK FREQUENCY 4.2000000E»03
801

3.S2A810TE-03 1.9447656E-0B
1.4931737E-08

PEAK FREQUENCY 2.0700000E»04
100

1.44M444E*00
2.T112T46E-01 t.2441S6*E»00

2.8S46S14E-08
i""c

802
PEAK FREQUENCY 2. 310000 0E»04 400 200
100 300

1.429T93TE-03 2.499S449E-08 2.0022669E-07

1.0127M7E»01

9.97702ME-02
l.A3787S9E»Q0
4.2943194E-01
SNORT

•.0165648E-04
c
L

3.2382 800E-08

4.4B148I6E-03
SHORT

TERMINATION

FIG. 15.5

The terminations
filter
is

are:

input

=

60 Q, output

= 0Q

which means the
filter

terminates in a short circuit. In this example, the

configuration

chosen by the computer, and is a minimum In Fig. 15.4 there are, in addition, listings of the finite zeros of transmission (loss peaks), which the designer specified. Figure 15.5 is a printout of the configuration of the filter as shown by the dotted lines flanked by the associated element values, both normalized Since there are four (left column) and unnormalized (right column). finite zeros of transmission, there must be associated four L-C tank circuits.
S

inductance configuration. 8

W.

Saraga,

"Minimum

Inductance or Capacitance Filters," Wireless Engineer,

30, July 1953, 163-175.

444

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

FREQUENCY IN CVCt.ES
16000 16250 16300 16730 17000 17250 17500 17750 10000 10250 16500 16750 19000 19250 19500 19750 20000 20250 20500 20750 21000 21250 21500 21750 22000 22250 22500 22750 25000 25250

VOLTAGE RA TIO IN 08
5.716532 5.704379 5.707644 5.729113 5.750516 5.743140 5.708979 5.720983 5.702947 4.131556 -1.119811 -7.753694 -14.148566 -20.210264 -26.118735 -32.100833 -38.473164 -45.657895 -56.325030 -71.701988 -59.444189 -57.483949 -57.567501 -58.703992 -60.546362 -63.101161 -66.602572 -71.867460 -63.403713 -80.597817

PHASE
IN OEGREES

REAL I IN IN 8HNS
134.691 130.664 125.883 119.931 112.687 104.489 95.717
65. 165

NAG

2 IN IN 8HNS

REAL V IN
IN

NILNMS
6.2973 6.2766 6.2814 6.3129 6.3445 6.3337 6.2835 6.3011 6.2748 4.3533 1.2913
-2797 .0641 .0158 .0040 .0010 .0002 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000

INA6 V IN IN NILNHOS

145.549717 128.958686 111.534102 92.934806 72.763652 50.659800 26.219204 356.194819 322.320795 272.913465 225.689589 195.922988 177.085862 163.748654 153.507803 145.227029 138.296917 132.354567 127.166241 302.572268 298.458582 294.740796 291.334706 288.250341 285.388013 282.735723 280.267304 277.961066 275.798866 93.765362

67.626 40.032 16.386 3.462 1.725
.541 .167 .049 .013 .002 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

56.981 61.193 64.762 67.928 71.154 74.696 77.919 79.138 78.767 87.140 111.450 139.624 164.004 184.583 202.605 218.952 234.147 248.501 262.211 275.407 286.178 300.592 312.696 324.536 336.138 347.527 358.726 369.753 380.621 391.345

-2.6641 -2.9395 -3.2315 -3.5756 -4.0061 -4.5277 -5.1151 -5.8552 -7.3083 -9.4759 -6.7826 -7.1517 -6.0967 -5.4176 -4.9357 -4.5672 -4.2708 -4.0241 -3.8137 -3.6310 -3.4701 -3.3268 -3.1980 -3.0813 -2.9750 -2.8775 -2.7876 -2.7045 -2.6273 -2.5553

FIG. 15.6

20

(
1

-20

-40

/

1

I

-60

f\
/ /
'

J
1

1

-80

-100 -120
0.000 0.400 0.800
1.200
1.600

2.000

2.400

2.800

3.200

3.600

4.000

Add 1.00000£

+

03 to abscissa
Frequency, cycles

x

10*

FIG. 15.7

Computer techniques

in circuit analysis

445

7

6

--

5

7

4

X

J E
; J

3

2

1

I

-1
0.000 0.400

0.800

1.200

1.600

2.000

Add 1.00000S

+

03 to abscissa
Fl6queflcy

^

2.400

2.800

3.200

3.600

4.000

x „,

FIG. 15.8

0.800

0.600

0.400

r

s

0.200

J
(*"

0.000

-0.200

|
i

-0.400
i

/
f
1,

/

'*

--

-0.600

\
\

-0.800 -1.000
0.000
0.400

u ¥
0.800
1.200 1.600

2.000

Add 1.00000E

+ 03 to abscissa

}nmm

^

2.400

2.800

3.200

3.600

4.000

x

10

4

FIG. 15.9

446

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

The peak
the
left.

frequencies are listed under the
circuits are

and the associated L-C tank
Figure 15.6

column entitled "termination," on the same line two columns to

is a listing of a small portion of the frequency response, which was calculated after the filter had been synthesized. Figure 15.7

Note that 1000 must be added to every frequency value in the abscissa. This merely reflects an idiosyncrasy of the plot routine. Figures 15.8 and 15.9 show the real and imaginary parts of the input admittance of the filter. Note particularly the shapes of these characteristics. If a number of these band-pass filters were connected in parallel and if the pass bands of the filters were adjacent but nonoverlapping, then the input conductance of the filter system would be essentially constant over the entire pass band, while the input susceptance would cancel out, as shown in Figs. 15.10a and b. This then means that the input admittance of the filter system would be real and could then be driven by any arbitrary source impedance without fear of reflections. Filters obtained using computer programs of the type we have just described are rapidly supplanting conventional hand- and handbookdesigned filters. The filter synthesis programs provide filters that are orders of magnitude more sophisticated than niters designed by the
is

a plot of voltage ratio in decibels versus frequency.

cycles

Frequency
(a)

FIG. 15.10. Effects of paralleling several band-pass

filters

with adjacent pass bands.

Computer techniques
conventional manner.
rather than days

in circuit anal/sis

447

Moreover, the designs are completed in minutes a typical cost of twenty dollars rather than two thousand (not including initial programming costs, of course).

and

at

Optimization Network design cannot always be accomplished by way of
means.

analytical

Quite often networks are designed through a trial-and-error process. The network designer begins with a set of specifications. He then selects a network configuration, and makes an initial guess about the element values. Next he calculates or measures the desired responses and compares them with the specifications. If the measured responses differ by a wide margin from the specified responses, the designer changes the values of the elements and compares again. He does this a number of times until (hopefully) the measured responses agree with the specified
responses to within a preset tolerance.

made to converge, sometimes quite one uses a method of steepest descent.* To get a rough idea of the steepest descent method, suppose there are n parameters in the network. Let us regard each parameter x{ as a dimension in an n,xn) dimensional euclidean space. We define a function f(x u xa xs that assigns a functional value to each point of the euclidean space. We then ask, at point p t what direction of motion decreases the value of f(xlt xit *»,...,*„) most rapidly? The function f(xt) may be defined as a least squared error, or as an absolute error between calculated response and specified response. The direction of steepest descent is the direction denned by the gradient
This process of cut and try can be
rapidly, if
,
,

.

.

.

,

mdf=T-*i + T-*» + OX OXi
2

---

+ ^*n OX
n
is

(15.D

Therefore, incremental value of change for each parameter

6xt
where

=-C—
OXi

(15.2)

C

is

a constant. After

all

incremental value in Eq. 15.2, a
are obtained.

new

parameters have been changed by the gradient and new incremental values
the

An

excellent paper

The process continues until by C. L. Semmelman7

optimum

is

obtained.

describes a steepest descent

* Charles B. Tompkins, "Methods of Steep Descent," in Modern Mathematics for the Engineer (Edwin F. Beckenbach, ed.), Chapter 18, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York, 1956. 7 C. L. Semmelman, "Experience with a Steepest Descent Computer Program for Designing Delay Networks," IRE International Convention Hec, Part 2, 1962, 206-210.

448

Network

analysis

and synthesis

are the delay values

Fortran program used for designing delay networks. The specifications Rt given at the frequency data points/,. The program
successively changes the parameters

xi so

that the squared error
a

<*,)=i[K,-n*<,/,)]
i-X
is

(i5.3)

minimized. In Eq. 15.3, T{x it f ) represents the delay, at frequency f t f of the network with parameters xt In order to use the program, the network designer must first select the initial values for the parameters x ( He must also provide the specified delays R, and the frequency data points/^. The program provides for 128 match points and 64 parameter values. It is capable of meeting requirements simultaneously in the time and frequency domains. The designer is not restricted to equal-ripple approximations or infinite Q requirements. He is free to impose requirements such as nonuniform dissipation and range of available element values on the design. For related methods of optimization, the reader should refer to a tutorial paper by M. R. Aaron. 8
,
. .

man and computer holds network design. Multiple-access computing systems, such as the project of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, make cut and try design procedures practicable. The initials could describe either the term multiple-access computer or the term machine-aided cognition. In an article describing the computer system, 9 Professor R. M. Fano states "The notion of machine-aided cognition implies an intimate collaboration between a human user and a computer in a real-time dialogue on the solution of a problem, in which the two parties contribute their best capabilities." A simple multiple-access computer system is shown in Fig. 15.11. There are n data links and n terminals connected to the central processor. Located at each terminal is input-output equipment, such as teletypewriters, teletypes, and oscillographic displays. The sequence in which the central processor accepts programs from the terminals is controlled by a built-in queueing logic. The main reason a multiple-access computer is effective is that the central processor computes thousands of times faster than the user's reaction time. When a user feeds in a program, it seems only a "moment"
interaction between

Machine-aided design The concept of real-time

much promise

in the field of

MAC

MAC

MAC

8

M. R. Aaron, "The Use of Least Squares in System Design," IRE Trans, on
Utility

Circuit

December 1956, 224-231. •R. M. Fano, "The MAC System: The Computer Spectrum, 2, No. 1, January 1965, 56-64.
Theory, CT-3, No. 4,

Approach,"

IEEE

Computer techniques

in circuit analysis

449

Memory
bank

Data
link
.

Remote
terminal
1

Buffer

Data
link

Remote
terminal

memory
Memory
bank
Central

2

processor

Queueing
logic

Data
link

Remote
terminal

3

Memory
bank

1

Memory
bank
Data
link

Remote
terminal

n

FIG.

15.1 1.

Block diagram showing typical multiple-access computing system.

before he gets the results through the teletypewriter or oscilloscope display. He examines the results, changes some parameters, and feeds the

program into the central processor again. The queueing time and processing time on the multiple-access computer may amount to only a
minute or two, which, for the user, is probably not significantly long. Dr. H. C. So has written a paper on a hybrid description of a linear 10 in which he has shown that the hybrid matrix is ideally ii-port network suited for such problems such as multielement variation studies and iterative design. Suppose there are n variable elements in the network. These can be "extracted" and the rest the bulk of the network can be

described by the n-port hybrid matrix.
10 H. C. So, "On the Hybrid Description of a Linear i»-Port Resulting from the Extraction of Arbitrarily Specified Elements," Trans. IRE on Circuit Theory, CT-12, No. 3, September 1965, pp. 381-387.

'

450

Network

analysis

and synthesis

Command

Initialize

,

i
1

i

Frequency range
Engineer
,

Control
*j

Computer

i

Parameter
adjust

'

p

Display

Output

FIG. 15.12. Iterative design of network using machine-aided cognition.

Dr. So has written a computer program to formulate the hybrid matrix
for the H-port network automatically. 11
(1) the

The inputs to this program are node connections specifying the network topology; (2) the impedance functions of the elements; and (3) the specifications of the special elements to be extracted. This program was written with manmachine interaction in mind. The process is described in Fig. 15.12. First the computer reads in the n-port program with initial specifications. It performs the calculations and feeds information, such as transient or steady-state responses, back to the engineer via a visual display console. The engineer assesses the data and then changes the parameter values of
the extracted elements, and, in

some

instances, the frequency range over
is

which the calculations are made. The process

repeated a

number of
if

times until the engineer has obtained the desired results. Such a program

could also be controlled by a steepest descent steering program
engineer wished to obtain his results with less "eyeballing."

the

Now let us examine some details of specific network analysis programs.
15.2

AMPLITUDE AND PHASE SUBROUTINE
is

Purpose

Our purpose
function

to

compute the amplitude and phase of a

rational

"(s) - ?Hr?
1

(154)

H. C. So, unpublished memorandum.

Computer techniques

in circuit anal/sis

451

over a set of frequencies (o^ In Eq. 15.4, C„ and C are real constants, d and E(s) and F(s) are polynomials in s = a +ja>. The program described here computes the amplitudes M(co,) and phase #a> ) over a set of t frequencies cok where
,

«W =
and
<f>((ok)

JU

\CnE(jlOh)\

(15.5)

\Ca FOcok)\
Fj(ja> k)

= arctan

ft

arctan

(15.6)

where in Eq. 15.6 the
indicate
real

r

and

i

subscripts
parts,
15.6,
it

respectively.
<Ko>k)
<f>

and imaginary Note that in Eq.
range

*s

limited to the

<>

<,it radians.

In order to circumvent

this restriction on the phase, we use the following method to compute amplitude

-JW
FIG. 15.13. Calculation of magnitude and phase at a> ( due to zero z.

and phase.

Method used
Let H(s) be factored into poles and zeros such that

H(s)

= C n (s - z )(s - zt) Cd(s ~ Pi)(s - P»)
t

(S-PJ

(15.7)

Consider the amplitude and phase due to any pole or zero, for example, « * +jP, shown in Fig. 15.13. The magnitude is

=—

M
and the phase
is

s

{a>,)

= =

[««

+

(<»<

- ft*}*
'~
"
l

(15.8)

ft,

4>.{a>d

arctan

|

(15.9)

The amplitude and phase of the

overall function

is

M(wJ =

(15.10)

QIT^M)
and
<K°>i)

= 2 tJfOi) - j £,,(«>,)

(15.11)

452

Network

analysis and synthesis
z indicate the contribution

where the subscripts p and
zero, respectively.

due to a pole and

Input
1. The numerator E(s) and denominator F(s) can be read in either as polynomials (high degree to low) or in terms of their roots. If numerator and/or denominator are read in as polynomials, their roots will be printed.

If they are given in

terms of their roots, the program could generate
if equally
in.

polynomials from these roots.
2.

The data points can be read in if unequally spaced;

spaced,

only the

minimum

point and the spacing need be read

Read Nl, ND,

NN

KK, LI, L2, L3

Read CN,

CD

KK =
Test

KK

KK=1

Read

W

(I)

Read WMIN,

DW

L1

=
Test LI

Ll

=

l

Read A (I), B (I)

Read E(l)

J
L2

=
TestL2

L2=l

Read C (I), D (I)

Read

F(l)

*~r*
To main program

FIG.

15.14.

Flow chart of input

instructions for magnitude

and phase program.

Computer techniques

in circuit analysis

453

A flow chart listing the input instructions is given in
initions

Fig. 15.14.

Def-

of the symbols in the flow chart follow.

Nl

= number of frequency points ND = degree of denominator NN = degree of numerator KK = indicates equally spaced data points. We =
LI
1

then read in only then read in
all

Wjqn, Aa>, and number of points. indicates unequally spaced data points.
to,.

We

=0
= =
1

Read
read

in zeros (if

complex conjugate, both zeros must be

in).

L2

Read Read
read

in numerator polynomial, high degree to low.
in poles (if

complex conjugate, both poles must be

in).

= Read in denominator polynomial, high degree to low. CN = numerator multiplier CD = denominator multiplier
1

Output
the program is the frequency response consisting of the following columns: frequency in radians W(I); amplitude, M(W(I)); magnitude in decibels, 20 log10 Af; and phase in degrees, ^(W(I)). typical printout of an amplitude and phase program is given in Fig. 1S.6, which shows the magnitude and phase of the band-pass filter

The main output of

A

designed using Szentirmai's program.

15.3

A FORTRAN PROGRAM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LADDER NETWORKS

In this section we will discuss the methods and organization for a Fortran computer program for the analysis of linear ladder networks. The analysis proceeds by computing the voltage and current at the input of successive
bining R, L,

L

sections, beginning

with the terminating section.

branch impedances of the ladder by comimpedance arms according to the instructions of the C individual programmer. The poles and zeros and the frequency responses of the input impedance and voltage transfer ratio at the input of each L section are found. In addition, the program provides for the analysis of short- and open-circuited networks as well as for those with normal terminations. Separate problems may be run consecutively if so desired.

The program

calculates the

series


454

Network
vm

analysis and synthesis

Zm

° la"
1
1

Zn

v„ -l
l 1

Vl Zi

Vo

Zn-l
|

|
1 1

Ym

Y„
l

r»-i
1

Yi

o

FIG. 15.15

The network
Fig. 15.15.

These

L

section to

initially decomposed into separate L sections as in L sections are then added successively to the terminating form the complete network. With the addition of an L
is

and current computed by the equations
section, the voltage

at the input of the resulting

network are

^n =

(15.12)

^n^n

+ Vn-1

which were originally discussed in Chapter 9 of this book. Thus the program proceeds toward the front of the ladder requiring only the branch immittances of the present L section and the voltage and current of the
previous

L

section to

make

its

calculations.

Suitable assumptions for the initial voltage

and current

V and

/ allow

for analysis of short- and open-circuited networks as well as for those with normal terminations. These initial values of voltage and current are determined by control instructions. For the calculation of the voltage and current at an L section, the

branch impedances of the section are required. To simplify the preparation of the input data specifying these impedances, the following procedure is used. Each branch impedance is formed by the addition in series or parallel of basic R, L, C impedance arms. A basic R, L, C impedance arm is a series combination of a resistance, an inductance, and a capacany or all of which may be absent. The impedance arms are speciitor fied by the element values R, L, C and an instruction indicating how the arm is to be combined. The elements of the impedance arms are frequency and impedance normalized to aid computation, and then the arms are combined as specified to form the appropriate branch impedance. The roots of the voltage and .current polynomials for each L section

are

computed by a root-finding

routine.

;

Computer techniques

in circuit analysis

455

For the normal load and open circuit termination, the frequency responses of the input impedance, and voltage-transfer ratio are computed for short-circuit termination, the input impedance and current gain are computed. Provision is made for either a linear or logarithmic increment

The frequency boundaries and increments are read by the program along with the input data. According to instructions given by the programmer, the various calin frequency.

culations are printed for each

L section or only for the network as a whole.

Program operation
The ladder network-analysis program requires two sets of input data. The first set consists of the control instructions. These tell the computer
which of the various options, such as information concerning polynomial roots or frequency responses, are to be exercised. In addition, the control instructions provide the computer with necessary parameters such as normalizing factors, and the number of L sections in the ladder. The second set of data determines the branch impedances of the network by specifying the R, L, C impedance arms and their combining
instructions.

Impedance data The data specifying
bining instruction.

the branch impedances consist of an ordered series

of instruction cards, each determining

The

first

an impedance arm and/or a comarm of any branch impedance requires no

combining instruction. The branch impedance is set equal to the impedance of this arm. Subsequent impedance arms are added in parallel or series with the existing branch impedance, according to the combining instructions of the arms. A blank card tells the computer that a complete branch impedance has been formed and that the next arm begins a new branch impedance. If blank cards are not properly inserted, the computer
will calculate

The order of
^a»
1/

a single giant branch impedance. the data determining the branch impedances isZx ljYlt
,

Jg,

The values of R, L, C and the combining instruction XIN are written on one card in the order XIN, R, L, C. The values of XIN and the associated operation are shown in the table at the bottom of page 456.
struction of

Although the instructions XIN = 1.0, 2.0 will suffice for the conmany branch impedances, they are inadequate for other

impedances. For example, suppose the series combination of two tank circuits (Fig. 15.16) is desired as a branch impedance, this impedance may only be

456

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
50m*f
lMf

2mh
Tank
circuit

.05 h

-^OOOyA
Tank
circuit

1

B

XIN
1.0

5.00000£

-

11

2.0 3.0

2.00000E
.05

- 03
.000001

2.0 4.0

Blank

Card

FIG. 15.16. Construction of branch impedances using instructions for XIN.

constructed with use of three

more

instructions

(XIN

=

3.0, 4.0,

and

5.0)

and an additional

set

Tank

circuit

A is

of computer storage locations. formed in the usual manner, but must then be tem-

porarily stored during the calculation of tank circuit B.
circuits are

The two tank

then added to form the final branch impedance. Examples of impedances that cannot be formed are shown in Fig. 15.17. Observe that

a series branch impedance of zero ohms often simplifies the formation of branch impedances. Two blank cards will indicate a short-circuited impedance.

XIN
Blank card

Operation

A complete
the next

arm

branch impedance has been calculated, and begins a new branch impedance.

1.0

This arm is added in series with the existing branch impedance. This

2.0
3.0

arm is paralleled with the existing branch impedance.

This arm begins a new internal branch impedance. Subsequent XIN = 1.0 and 2.0 refer to this new internal branch.

4.0

Add

the two internal branches in series to form the final

branch impedance.
5.0
Parallel the internal branches.

Computer techniques

in circuit analysis

457

HWV-i

r-VW-i

-Wrr-VArn
L-vs/Sr-l
[-VS/Sr-j

FIG.

15.17.

Branch impedances that cannot be formed by program.

Output
coefficients of the voltage and current polynomials are printed in frequency normalized form. To calculate the denormalized coefficients, divide by the normalizing frequency raised to the power of the corre-

The

sponding exponent.

and zeros of the voltage and current polynomials are in frequency normalized form to facilitate zero-pole plots.

The

poles

Frequency responses appear in denormalized form. The frequency variable is in radians per second. The impedance level is in decibels, the phase in degrees. The gain and phase of the transfer ratios are
expressed similarly.

15.4

PROGRAMS THAT AID IN DARLINGTON
FILTER SYNTHESIS

Two double precision Fortran programs have been written that help in the synthesis of double-terminated filters using the Darlington procedure. The mathematics of the programs is described here.
Given a forward transmission
coefficient

S8i(s)

-

KN(s)
D(s)

(15.13)

458

Network

analysis

and synthesis

we

generate an input reflection coefficient

Su(s) from

the equation

Su(s) Sn(-s)

=

1

-

S»(s) S gl (-5)

D(s)

D(-s)

-

K* N(s) N(-s)

(15.14)

D(s)

D(-s)

The denominator of Su(j) is D(s) because all the poles of Su(s) must be in the left-half plane. The zeros of Sn(s) are not so restricted. If Sn(s) Su(—s) has zeros &t—a±jb and a ± jb, the zeros of Sn(s) can be chosen as either — a ±jb or a ±jb. The only difference is that certain choices lead to niters with unity-coupled coils and others without. 12 Once the zeros of Sn(s) are chosen, the input impedance of the filter
is

then
Zi(s)

=

1 1

~ +

Sii(*)

(15.15)

Su(s)

ReadCN

Numerator

multiplier

I
Read

CD

Denominator

multiplier

Number

of zeros

ReadLN

(complex conjugate zeros count as one zero)

I
Read

Read

real

and imaginary

A (I),

parts of zeros and
multiplicity,

B(I),N(I)

N (I)

Read LD

Number of poles (conjugate poles
count as one pole)

Read
H(I),G(I), M(l)

Read

real

and imaginary

parts of poles and
multiplicity, P(l)

To program

FIG.

15.18. Input to

Sn(5)

5u (—j) program.
Low Pass on Circuit Theory, CT-2, December

11

T. Fujisawa, "Realizability

Theorem

for Mid-Series or Mid-Shunt

Ladders without Mutual Induction," Trans.
1955, 320-325.

IRE

Computer techniques

in circuit anal/sis

459

Program descriptions
next proceed with brief descriptions of the two programs. The program finds the roots of Su (s) S^—s) given the roots of N(s), N(—s), D(s), and D(— s). A flow chart for the input of the program is given in Fig. 15.18. Note that we must read in both the zeros of N(s) and N(—s), although only half of a complex conjugate pair need be read in. The same applies for the roots of Z>($) and /)(—$). The constant CN is
first

We

the computations in Eq. 15.15 for combinations of zeros of Sxl(s), given the fact that the zeros of Su(s) need not be in the left-hand plane. The previous program finds all the zeros of Sn (s) Su (— s). We must choose only half the number of zero pairs for 5u(s). Certain combinations of zeros of Sn (s) Su (—s) lead to filters with coupled coils; others do not. If one wishes to try a number of combinations of zeros for 5u(f), the program has the facility to enable him to do so. He need only supply those zeros of Sn(s) Su (— s) in the right-hand plane, C(I) +y'B(I), and a list of constants S(I), which
different

K* in Eq. 15.14. The second program performs

are either 1.0 or
S(I)

—1.0 so

that the zeros of

Sxl(s) may

be represented as

C(I) +y'B(I)

— A(I) +y'B(I).
Su(s)
Su (s)

The

routine forms numerator

and

denominator polynomials of

= E(s)
F(s)

(15.16)

ReadLD

Number

of pole pairs of

Su

(real poles

count as one pair)

Read
H(I).G(I),M(I)

Real and imaginary parts of poles
of

Sn

and

multiplicity,

M (I)

ReadLN

Number
zeros of

of right-hand plane

Sn (a) Sn(-s)

Read

Real and imaginary parts of right-hand

r

C(l), G(l), N(l)

plane zeros and multiplicity,

N 0)

I
Read SO)
Multiplicative constants

c

(i 1.0) (each combination of zeros has LN cards)

To program

FIG.

15.19.

Input to

Zta(j) program.

460

Network

analysis

and synthesis

and then computes the numerator and denominator of Z^s) as

ZM= i^ = m^m
The input
instructions are

(15 17)
.

summarized on the flow chart

in Fig. 15.19.

Problems
15.1 Organize a flow-chart for computing magnitude and phase given only the unfactored numerator and denominator polynomials. Do not use a rootfinding subroutine.

15.2

Write a program to calculate the delay of

_,.

3(5

+

1)

at the points o>

= 0,

1, 2,

.

.

.

,

10.

Repeat Prob. 15.2 for a general transfer function given in terms of its unfactored numerator and denominator polynomials. The frequency points co t are to be read in by the computer. 15.4 Suppose you have calculated the phase of a transfer function at points m = 0, 1, 2, .... 50. Devise an algorithm to test for phase linearity. The deviation from phase linearity is to be called phase runoff. 15.5 Write a program to analyze a two-mesh network made up of only
15.3

R, L, and
15.6

C elements.

Repeat Prob. 15.5 for nodal analysis.

15.7 Write a program to calculate the step and impulse response of a linear system whose system function contains only simple, real poles and zeros.

Repeat Prob. 15.7 if simple complex poles and zeros are allowed. 15.9 Write a program to calculate the residues of a transfer function with multiple as well as simple poles. The poles and zeros are to be real.
15.8

appendix

A

Introduction to matrix algebra

A.I

FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS
is

Matrix notation

merely a shorthand method of algebraic symbolism

that enables one to carry out the algebraic operations

more

quickly.

The theory of

matrices originated primarily from the need (1) to solve simultaneous linear equations and (2) to have a compact notation for

linear transformations

from one

set

of variables to another.

As an example of (2),
«u*i ^l^X
ami^i

consider the set of simultaneous linear equations

+ +

«i**a

aM";3 amixa

+ + +

+ +

alnxn " a* »*»

= yx — y* =
**

(A.1)

+

+ amnxn = ym
.

These may express a general linear transformation from the xt to the yt In general, mj&n. An example where the numbers of variables in the two sets are unequal is that of representing a three-dimensional object in two dimensions (in a perspective drawing). Here, m = 2 and n = 3.
Definition
coefficients

an ordered rectangular array of numbers, generally the The matrix is denned by giving all its elements, and the location of each. The matrix of the equations in Eq. A.1 written as
matrix
is

A

of a linear transformation.

Oil
fl gl

«12

«ln

att

is

of order

mx

n.

(The

first

number here
461

is

the

number of rows; the

462
second

Network
is

analysis

and synthesis

the

single capital letter

number of columns.) The matrix may be denoted by a A or by [aw ].
a single complete
entity, like

A

matrix

is

a position in chess.

Two

and B are equal only if all corresponding elements are the same: atj = btj for all i andy. A matrix may consist of a single row or single column. The complete matrix notation applied to Eq. A.1 is
matrices
<hi

A

olt on
'mi

Oi„

r*r
xa
Xn i

"yr

On.

oin

=
.

Vt

(A.2)

'ml

.

Vm .

says, if put crudely, that A operates on x t to yield y,. This emphasizes the similarity between a matrix and a transformation. The

which
x-

and y-matrices are column matrices. and column matrices are called vectors (specifically, row vectors and column vectors) and their similarity to the more usual type of vector

Row

is

discussed later.

Here, vectors will be written as small

letters,

such as

x

or y. Note elements of matrices need two.

that the elements of vectors need only one subscript, while

A.2

ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS

Square matrix
square matrix has the same number of rows as columns (i.e., a matrix of order rat). The Y matrix is an example of a square matrix
(A.3)

A

Diagonal matrix

A

diagonal matrix
diagonal.

is

diagonal are zero

(i.e.,

a square matrix whose elements off the main for 1 ?*/)• The following one in which <xw =
'1

matrix

is

01
(A.4) 3
for

0-2
_0

Unit matrix
a diagonal matrix for which a u is denoted as U. For example,
is

A unit matrix

1

1

=j, and

is

U

"1

0"

U=
,0

1

(A.5)
1_

Appendix
Equality

A

463

Two matrices are equivalent if they
columns and Suppose yx =
if

have the same number of rows and
If we write this set
2"

the elements of corresponding orientation are equal

2,

yt

=

—3, and ya
~Vi

=

—6.
"

of equations

in matrix form,

we have

y*

= -3

(A.6)

-6. .y*. Transpose The transpose of a matrix A denoted as A r is the matrix formed by interchanging the rows and columns of A. Thus, if we have
,

1

A=

-6
3

(A.7)

then

A*

-CIS
l 4j

(A.8)

is defined only for square matrices and is formed by taking the determinant of the elements of the matrix. For example, we have 1 2

Determinant of a matrix The determinant of a matrix

12

det

f

L-5

5

=

14

(A.9)

4
value, whereas the

matrix

Note that the determinant of a matrix has a particular itself is merely an array of quantities.
Cofactor

The

cofactor

A i}

of a square matrix

is

the determinant formed by
.

deleting the fth

row andy'th column, and multiplying by (—l)i+i

For

example, the cofactor

A tl

of the matrix

-n
IS

(A.10)

An =
Adjoint matrix

(-iy*+i

x

6= -6

(A.11)

The

adjoint matrix of a square matrix

element of

A

by

its

cofactor

A is formed by replacing each and transposing. For example, for the

464

Network

analysis

and synthesis

matrix in Eq. A.10,

we have
adjA

=

l:

-l;

h i
A=
0.

(A.12)

Singular and nonsingular matrices A singular matrix is a square matrix A for which det singular matrix is one for which det A ?* 0.

A

non-

A.3

OPERATIONS
matrices

ON

MATRICES
if

Addition
both matrices are of the same order. added to the element of the second Each element of the first and column orientation is the same. An example of matrix, whose row matrix addition is shown in Eq. A. 13.

Two

may be added

matrix

is

[-in-'-H-<-2
Thus
if

(A.13)

matrices A, B,

C

• •

K are all

of the same order, then

A+B+
The
associative

+K=

[a u

+b +
it

+k
B)

tj ]

(A.14)

and commutative laws apply.

Associative:

Commutative:

A + (B + C) = (A + A+B=B+A

+C
(A.15)

Multiplication by a scalar

We define multiplication by a scalar as
XA

=

A[a w ]

=

[AaJ
each of
its

(A.16)

Thus to multiply a matrix by a
the scalar.

scalar, multiply

elements by

Example

Al
"

2

0"
1

"

6

0"

-1

-

-3

3

(A.17)

-3 2

-9

6

Appendix

A

465

Linear combination of matrices of addition and multiplication by a scalar are combined, for two matrices of the same order we have
If the rules

oA
where « and
/9

+

/SB

=

[*ait

+ pb

it ]

(A.18)

are scalars.

Multiplication In order for matrix multiplication AB to be possible, the number of columns of the first matrix A must equal the number of rows of the second matrix B. The product C will have the number of rows of the first and A has the number of columns of the second matrix. In other words, if columns, then the product rows and n columns, and B has n rows and/>

m
C

will

have

m

rows and

p

columns.

The

individual elements of

C

are

given by

(A.19)

Example A.2 4
2 [-:-:;]-[-,:;] -3
(A.20)

Example A3.

The system of equations
«u/i

ZtJi

+ Ws = Vx + z«/s = Vt

(A.21)

can be written in matrix notation as
(A.22)

caca-ra
We
see that systems of equations

can be very conveniently written in
is,

matrix notation.

Matrix multiplication

is

not generally commutative, that

AmnBB „ * B^A,™ Observe that the product BA is not defined unless p =
of square matrices
following example.
is

(A.23)

m. Even a product

generally not commutative, as

may be

seen in the

r

i

onr-i
2JL
o

<n

_ r-i
i

oi
(A.24)

L-i

2j~L

f]

466
If

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

we

interchange the order of multiplication,

we

obtain

-1
2

1

-1

-1

-2

3

(A.25)

Because of the noncommutative nature of matrix multiplication, we must distinguish between premultiplication and postmultiplication. In BA, A is premultiplied by B; B is postmultiplied by A. For matrix multiplication, the associative and distributive laws apply.
Associative:
Distributive:

A(BC)

A(B

= ABC + C) = AB + AC
(AB)C

=

(A.26)

Transpose of a product The transpose of a product AB is equal to the product, in reverse of the transpose of the individual matrices A and B, that is,
(AB)

order,

- B rA T
"

(A.27)

and

(ABC)r

= C T(AB) T = C^B^A 2

(A.28)

The product x Tx, if x is a column vector, is a scalar number equal to the sum of the squares of the elements of x. Thus we have

xT x

=
=

[ Xl

xt

x„]

(A.29)

The product xx r

+ x* T is a square matrix C such that C = C
*i

2

+

*,*

+

•••

.

Common
(a)

expressions in simple notation

The sum of products

aA + ajb +
t

+ anb„,
is

typical element of a product matrix,

may be

written as

which are the a^b or b ra where

a and b are column vectors. (b) The sum of squares x^
vector).
(c)
It is also

xx r
is

+ xt* +

+

x n*

thus

x Tx

(x,

column
column

if

x

is

a row vector.

• •

The

expression auxf

+ atixta +

+

a nnxn *

is

x rAx
.

(x,

a diagonal matrix with elements ait Similarly, the T T expression aaxjfx a^e^yt H h a nnx„yn is x Ay or y Ax. (d) An expression such as
vector),

where

A

+

2 Z aux x
i

t>

=

a,

Appendix
is

A

467

a quadratic form. This
«ii*i*

is

+ + +

1a x%xx xt
««*!*
• • •

+
2a u xt xa H
2

+ 2a ln x1 x„
h 2a, B a;2 x B

+

(A.30)

+

<J»»*«

=

x TAx
is

Inverse
Division
is

not defined in matrix algebra. The analogous operation

that of obtaining the inverse of a square matrix.

The

inverse

A-1

of a

matrix

A is defined by the relation
A-*A

= AA- = U
1

(A.31)

To

obtain

A-1 we first obtain the adjoint
,

the determinant of A.
that
is,

The

inverse

A-1

is

of A, adj A. Then we obtain equal to adj A divided by |A|,

A" 1
Example A.4.
Let

=


|A|

adj

A

(A.32)

A be given as
(A.33)

Its

determinant

is

|A|

=3
Au = An =

(A.34)

and the cofactors are

An = 1 Afn = —1
The
adjoint matrix
is

1

(A.35)

2

adJA =

[-l

2j
(A.36)

-C
so that

A-1 is

-»C 1

(A.37)

-EH

46.8

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

As a check we

see that

p
}
'

-r
i

"

2

r
i

K
2

-l

(A.38)

V
1

-1
If the determinant

P
*

_i
l §
In

of the matrix is zero, then the inverse is not defined. other words, only nonsingular square matrices have inverses.

A.4

SOLUTIONS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS
set

Consider a

of linear algebraic equations, to be solved simultaneously.
011*1 asi^i

H + + a^xt + •• +
<*iss*»
r-

= hx aSnx„ = hs
alnxn

(A.39)

«m*i

+ a n **i +
Ax

•••

+ a nnxn = h n
.

The h t are we have

constants.

It is

desired to solve for the xf

In matrix notation

=

h
x

(A.40)
(A.41)

Premultiplying by

A

-1

gives
is

x

=A

h

In expanded form, this
x.

^si

J_
|A|

™ia

-"m

^32

(A.42)

Thus
|A|

*1

Oia

*is

ht ha


a S2
|A|

On a»

and

similarly for

xt and *3

.

This

is

the familiar Cramer's rule for solving

such equations.

Example A.5.

Solve for x, y,

z.

x


2x
3y

+2 =2 +y =
1

(A.43)

-* +

+ « = -1

Appendix
In matrix form, these equations are written as
1

A

469

Ax = h where

-1
1

r
»

~x~

r
,

2

X

=

y
z

h

=

i

(A.44)

-1
Also, |A| =» 10. Thus,

3

1

-l

we have x =
r
i

*1
y
z

4
2

A_1h -r
2
3

r

r
i

r
=
X io

-&
x

-2

-4
9

(A.45)

7-2
= 0.7, y =
-0.4, z

-i

Therefore

= 0.9

A.5

REFERENCES
is

ON MATRIX ALGEBRA
list

The following

a short

of books on matrices that the reader might wish to

examine. A. C. Aitken, Determinants and Matrices, 9th Ed., Interscience Publishers,
1956.

New

York,

R. Bellman, Introduction to Matrix Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1960. York, R. L. Eisenman, Matrix Vector Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

D. K. Faddeev and V. N. Faddeeva, Computational Methods of Linear Algebra, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1963. Publishers, F. R. Gantmacher, Applications of the Theory of Matrices, Interscience
F. E.

1963.

Hohn, Elementary Matrix Algebra, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1964. McGraw-Hill Book L. P. Huelsman, Circuits, Matrices, and Linear Vector Spaces, Company, New York, 1963. and Sons, New York, P. LeCorbeiller, Matrix Analysis of Electric Networks, John Wiley
1950.

New

York, 1959.

Survey of Matrix Theory and Matrix Inequalities, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1964. Sons, New York, E. D. Nering, Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory, John Wiley and

M. Marcus and H. Mine,

1964.
S. Perlis, Theory

1952. of Matrices, Addison-Westey, Reading, Massachusetts, Englewood Cliffs, NJ., L. A. Pipes, Matrix Methods for Engineering, Prentice-Hall, 1963.

A. M. Trapper, Matrix Theory for
1962.

Electrical Engineering Students, Harrop,
Electrical Engineers,

London,

A. von Weiss, Matrix Analysis for NJ., 1964.

D. Van Nostrand, Princeton,

i

appendix

B

Generalized functions and

the unit impulse

B.I

GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS
unit impulse, or delta function,
is

The

a mathematical anomaly. P. A.

M. Dirac, the physicist, first used it in his writings on quantum mechanics. 1

He denned

the delta function d(x)

by the equations

£
d(x)
Its

d(x)

dx

=
x

1

(B.I)

=

for

jt

most important property

is

f
V—

f(x)6(z)dx=f(0)

(B.2)

where f(x)

is continuous at x 0. Dirac called the delta function an improper function, because there existed no rigorous mathematical justi-

entitled

it at the time. In 1950 Laurent Schwartz* published a treatise The Theory oj Distributions, which provided, among other things, a fully rigorous and satisfactory basis for the delta function. Distribution theory, however, proved too abstract for applied mathematics and

fication for

1

P.

A. M. Dirac, The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Oxford University Press,
I

1930.
1

L. Schwartz, Theorie des Distributions, Vols.
1951.

and

II,

Hermann

et Cie, Paris, 1950

and

470

Appendix B
physicists.
It

471

was not

until 1953,

when George Temple produced a more
theory through the use of generalanalysis received the attention
it

elementary (although no
ized functions,* that this

less rigorous)

new branch of

deserved.

Our treatment of
The treatment of

generalized functions will be limited to the

definition of the generalized step function

and

its

derivative, the unit

work of Temple4 and Lighthill. 8 To get an idea of what a generalized function is, it is convenient to use as an analogy the notion of an irrational number a beng a sequence {oc„} of rational numbers <x n such that
impulse.
these functions follows closely the

a
where the
irrational

= lim a„
n-»ao
<x„

limit indicates that the points

on

the real line converge to

on the on the sequence {a„} defining a.' We can also think of a generalized function as being a sequence of functions, which when multiplied by a test function and integrated over
All arithmetic operations performed

the point representing a.

number a

are actually performed

(—00,

oo) yields
it is

function,

a finite limit. Before we formally define a generalized important to consider the definition of (1) a testing function
B.I

and

(2)

a regular sequence.

DEFINITION
is differentiable

A function #f) of class
t

C[#f) G C]

is

one that

(1)

everywhere, any

number of times and
raised to

that (2)

when

it

or

any of its derivatives are multiplied by
lim
*->±oo
[t

any power, the

limit is

m
<f>

M(t)]-*0

for all

m&fe^O

(B.3)

Any

testing function is

a function of class C.

The Gaussian function e-*'ln% is a function of class C. It is obvious that if a function is of class C then all of its derivatives belong to class C.
Example B.l.
*G. Temple, "Theories and Applications of Generalized Functions," J. London Math. Soc., 28, 1953, 134-148. 4 G. Temple, "The Theory of Generalized Functions," Proc. Royal Society, A, 228,
1955, 175-190.
6

M.

Press, 1935.
true,
it

and Generalized Functions, Cambridge University book to "Paul Dirac, who saw it must be Laurent Schwartz, who proved it, and George Temple, who showed how simple
J. Lighthill,

Fourier Analysis

Lighthill dedicated his excellent

number according to the Cantor definition. For a more on real variables such as E. W. Hobson, The Theory of Functions of a Real Variable, Vol. I, third edition, Chapter 1, Cambridge University
detailed account see

could be made." * This defines an irrational

any

text

Press,

Cambridge, England, 1927.

472

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis
of functions of class

DEFINITION

B.2

A sequence {/„(*)}
<f>(t)

C

is

said

to be regular if for any function

belonging to C, the limit

W

lim(/„,#=lim
n-*ao n-*oo

(

J— oo

fn(t)<Kt)dt

(B.4)

exists.

Note that it is not necessary that the sequence converge pointwise. For example, the sequence {e~ nt\nlir)^} approaches infinity as n -» oo at the point t = 0. However, the limit lim (/"„, <f>) exists.
n-»oo

DEFINITION
alent if for all

B.3

Two

regular sequences {/„} and {g„} are equiv(B.5)
{<r' ,/aB*(l/V2^i)} are


The

C

lim(/B ,#=lim(g B ,#
n-*oo
n-*ao

Example B.2.
equivalent.

regular sequences {e-n**(«/f) w }

and

DEFINITION B.4 generalized Junction g is denned as a total, or complete, class of equivalent regular sequences. The term total implies
here that there exists
to this class.
represent

A

no other equivalent
of the
total class

regular sequence not belonging

Any member both g and the

class, for

example, {g n },

is sufficient

to

of equivalent regular sequences

denning g.

We denote this
[{*-'*/»•},

symbolically by the form

g

~ {gn

}.

Example B.3.

All of the equivalent, regular sequences

Or*

1 '"4

},

{e-"'-}

{«--«»/»•*}]
lnt
}.

represent the

same generalized function g
B.5
<f>(t)

~ {e~**
(g,

DEFINITION
g and a
function

The inner product

<f>)

of a generalized function,

C is defined
n-*oo

as

(g,#=lim f"gn(t)<Kt)dt
J— co

(B.6)

The inner product

is

often given the following symbolic representation.
°

(g,

+)

=

f

g(t)<Kt)dt

(B.7)

Note that the

integral here is used symbolically

and does not imply

actual integration.

DEFINITION
defined by the

resented by the sequences

g and h are two g {g n } and h representation g + h {g „ +
B.6
If

~

~

~ {h
A»}.

generalized functions repn },

the

sum g

+h

is

Note
and

that the set of sequences {g n

+ h n}

represents a total class of
defining

equivalent regular sequences
h; therefore

made up of the sum of sequences

g

g

+ h is a properly defined generalized function.

D

Appendix B

473

DEFINITION
and a constant a

B.7
is

The product a.g of a

generalized function;

~ {#„}
g~
is

defined by the representation ag <~ {«gn }.

DEFINITION
{#„}
is

B.8 The derivative g' of a generalized function {g' n }. defined by the representation g'

~

represented

Example B.4. For the generalized function by

gx ~ {*-*

1/b *}

the derivative

and

(g\, *)

= lim

f

"
(

- ^ e"**'"1

*(/)

«//

(B.8)

J

we have defined the operations of addition, and differentiation. It must be pointed out that the operation of multiplication between two generalized functions is not
In Definitions B.6, B.7, and B.8
multiplication

by a

scalar

defined in general.

We

next consider an important theorem, whose proof

is

given in

Lighthill, 7

which

will enable us to represent

any ordinary function, such
equivalent.
satisfying the condition

as a step function

by a generalized function

Theorem B.l.

Given any ordinary function /(f)

1'
for

1/(01
r

dt

<

co

(B.9)

some

N ^ 0, there exists a generalized function8 / ~ {/,(/)} such that

for all

^

€ C.

lent in terms

write

/ =/.

In other words, an ordinary function satisfying Eq. B.9 is equivaof inner products to a generalized function. Symbolically, we If, in addition, / is continuous in an interval, then lim f n
""*"
it

=/

pointwise in that interval.

Furthermore,
multiplication,
results, that is,

and

can be shown that all the operations of addition, scalar differentiation performed on both /and /yield equivalent

(«a

+

m'

= («/i +

6ti'
function.

<M

when
'

differentiation is permitted

on the ordinary

Lighthill, op. cit., Section 2.3.

*

Note that when we represent an ordinary function by generalized function equivalent,
italic letter

we use a bold face

to denote the generalized function.

474

Network

analysis

and synthesis
generalized step function u
{«„(*)}
is

DEFINITION
total class

B.9

The

defined as the

of equivalent regular sequences

such that

(«,#

= lim
n-*oo

f°uJit)4(t)dt J— ao
(B.12)

-f"ii(t)#0A
J— 00

where

u(i) is the unit step defined in

Chapter

2.

That

{«„(/)} exists is

guaranteed by the previous theorem allowing representations of ordinary u. functions by generalized functions. Hence, we write u

=

Example B.5.

The sequence

/>o t£0
which
is

(B.13)

plotted in Fig. B.l,

is

one member of the

class

of equivalent regular

sequences which represents the generalized step function.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

t

FIG. B.l. The generalized step sequence,

«,(/)•

DEFINITION
is

B.I0 The unit impulse, or Dirac delta function <$(r), {«'„(*)}. denned as the derivative of the generalized step function d(t)

~

Appendix B
It

475

total class

should be stressed that <J(f) is merely the symbolic representation for a of equivalent regular sequences represented by {u' (t)}. Thus n
write the integral

when we

we

actually

mean
f " <5(0 <Kt) dt

£ mmdt
= (d,
<j>)

J— oo
Example B.6.

= lim
n-»oo

J— oo

f " u' n(0 #t) dt

(B.14)

The sequence

^-(5-2r)«p[-i(J
=
in Fig. B.2
is

+ |.)]

,>o
(B.15)
t

£0

represents the unit impulse.

one member of the class of equivalent regular sequences which Other members of the class are the sequences

{e-»«*(«MK} and {^1*^(1/ VJ^n)}.

1.0

1.2
I

1.4

1.6

_1_

_L_

FIG. B.2. The generalized sequence,

«'„(/).

476

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

B.2

PROPERTIES OF THE UNIT IMPULSE
unit impulse

Sifting

The most important property of the
represented symbolically by

is

the sifting property

J«<o

W(0*-/(0);

(M,lj8|<«>)
/J].

(B.16)

where /is any function
Eq. B.16
is

differentiable over [a,

The

left

hand

side of

defined formally by

f> \ \t)f(t)dt Js<0

slim
n-»ao is

\"*u'JLt)f{t)dt Ja<0

(B.17)

The proof of

the sifting property

obtained by simply integrating by

parts, as follows.

lim
n—<x>

r u'„(0/(0 dt = lim u n(t)f(t)\- lim J«<0
n-»oo

>O

f'ii,(0/'(0 dt
J*

n-»oo

-/tf)-f'limu.(0/'(OA

_,„

= /C8)-[/(/5)-/(0)]=/(0)
Pictorially

we

represent <$(0
t

by a spike as shown in

Fig. B.3.

If the

impulse
as

is

centered at

= a, then the sifting property is given symbolically
fl

r

d(.t

-

)/(f) dt

- /(a)

(|a|,

HI

<

ao)

(B.19)

KO

FIG. B.3. The unit impulse.

Appendix B
where/'(0 most exist over
are
infinite, [a,
/?].

477

Note that when the limits of integration

we

actually

mean
(B.20)

(°°S(t)f(t)dts lira \\t)f{t)dt J— oo a-*— oo Ja
In the
sifting property, if

both

a,

(I

>
dt

or a,

/?

< 0, then
(B.21)

<K0/(0
/:

=

The proof of this property is similar to the original proof of property, and will be left as an exercise for the reader.
Integration

the sifting

The

defining equations of the delta function according to Dirac are

f>0
d(x)
/. «<o

dx

=
x

1

(B.22)
i*

d(x) = 0;

These are actually properties of the delta function as viewed from the generalized function standpoint. The proof can be obtained directly from the sifting property. Suppose we have the integral
f>

1
and we
let f{t)

\t)f(t)dt=f(0)

(B.23)

=

1.

Then we have
d(t)dt=f(p)

I a<0
If both a,
/?

=

l

(B.24)

are greater than zero or both are less than zero, then

1
This property
is

d(t) dt

=
d(t)

(B.25)

stated symbolically

by the conditions

=

for

/

ft 0.

Differentiation across a discontinuity Consider the function /(0 in Fig. B.4. We see that /(f) has a discontinuity of A at t T. If we let/i(0 =f(f) for t T, and/i(f) =/(*) A for t T, then we have

=

<

-

^

At)=MQ + Au(t-T)

(B.26)

478

Network

analysis

and synthesis

*M
•h(t)

FIG. B.4. Function with discontinuity.

Since /(0,/i(0» and u(t) satisfy the condition
lg(OI

&\N I « (1 + O dt <
for

co

some N; we can

represent these ordinary functions by generalized

functions
(ft)

=Mt) +

n(0

(B.27)

Taking derivatives on both

sides of Eq. B.27 yields

fV)=f\(.t)
which symbolically can be written as

+

Au'(.t)

(B.28)

no =A(o + A m
We
thus see that whenever

(B.29)

we

differentiate across

a discontinuity, we

obtain a delta function times the height of the discontinuity.

Example B.7.

The

step response of

an R-C network

is

given as
(B.30)

Hf)

= Ae-" T u(t)
is

shown

in Fig. B.Sa.

The impulse response

h'(t)=Ad(t)-j,e- l T u(t)
l

(B.31)

and

is

shown

in Fig. B.Sb.

Appendix B

479

FIC. B.5. Differentiation across a discontinuity.

Differentiation

The

derivative of

a delta function, which we

symbolically as d\t)
f"(i) exists over [a,

~

call

a doublet,

is

defined

{u" n(t)}.

It

has the following property, where

fit].

/V>o <J'(0/(0 dt J J«<0 '

=
>0

-/'(0);

(|«|,

\fi\

<
by

oo)

(B.32)

The proof is obtained through

successive integration

parts.

lim T" V(0/(0 dt = n-»oo Ja<0 «"B(0/(0 dt f Ja<0
fi>0

(B.33)

- Km
We see that since

«

'.(0/(0

-lim
«<0
n-»oo

Ct>9 u'n (t)f'(t)dt J«<0

lim u'Jfi)

lim

u' n (a)

= 0,

>0

limH' B (0/0)'
n-*oo

=0

(B.34)

«<p

480

Network

analysis and synthesis
f(t)

FIG. B.6. The doublet

<$'(')

We then integrate by parts again so that
>0

-lim

f

u' B

(0/'(0^=-lim« n/'| +lim
-/'(/?)+

['u n (t)f\t)dt
(B.35)

u{t)f{t)dt \y
-/'(0)

=

-fW +fW -/'(0) =
A -(-DT"'(«)

In general, the derivative-sifting property can be stated symbolically as
* «-(*-«)/(»)

(B.36)

J J«<0

where/ <B+1) (0 exists over [a, The generalized function

/3].»

d'(t)

is

sometimes called a doublet.
is

The

pictorial representation of a doublet

given in Fig. B.6.

unit impulse Dirac and others have obtained a host of identities concerning the unit impulse. We will merely give these here without proof.

Other properties of the

- ,5(0 d'(-t) - -<5'(0 t <3(0 = o td'(t) = -d{t)
<5(-o
diat)
d(t*

(1) (2)
(3) (4)

-a*) = i \a\-1 {d(t f(t)6(t-a)=f(a)d(t-a)
The proofs of
with a testing function

<f>(t)

m

(5)

a)

+

d(t

+

a)}

(6)

(7)

these properties are obtained through the inner product

€ C.
but not necessary.

The condition on/'" +1

'

is sufficient,

appendix

C

Elements of complex variables

CI ELEMENTARY DEFINITIONS

AND OPERATIONS

A complex variable z is a pair of real variables (x, y) written as z = x+jy

(CI)

where j can be thought of as v — 1. The variable x is called the real part of z, and y is the imaginary part of z. Written in simpler notation, we have

z

=

Re(z),

y

= Im(z)

(C.2)

The

variable z can be plotted

on a pair of rectangular coordinates. The

abscissa represents the x or real axis, and the ordinate represents the y or imaginary axis. The plane upon which x and y are plotted is called the

complex plane. Any point on the complex plane, such as z = 3 +j2, can be represented in terms of its real and imaginary parts, as shown in Fig. C. 1 From the origin of the complex plane, let us draw a vector to any point z. The distance from the origin to z is given by
|x|

=

(x*

+

y»)*
z.

(C.3)

and

is

known

as the modulus of
is

The

angle which the vector subtends as the argument of z or

known
3 *

arg z

=

tan

-i *

V x

(C.4)

\z\, we can arg z and r Letting 6 represent z in polar coordinates as

=

=

z

=

re»

(C.5)
481

FIG.

CI

482

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

Expanding

this last

equation by Euler's formula,
z == r cos 6

we

obtain
(C.6)

+jr sin 6,

so that

= r cos 8 y = r sin
x

(C.7)

The

rule for addition for
(a

two complex numbers
(c

is

given as

+jb)

+

+jd)

=

(a

+

c)

+j(b

+ d)

(C.8)

When two complex numbers
(a

are multiplied,

we have
(C.9)

+ jb)(c +jd) = (ac - bd) + j(ad + be)
If

where j* = — 1.
obtain

we

express the complex numbers in polar form,

we

(a

and

m (c+jd) = r^ m
+ jb) =
ri e

(CIO)
(C.ll)

When we

multiply the two numbers in polar form, then

r^rtf"*
If

=

jv^**-

1

-*'

(C.12)

we

divide these

two numbers

in polar form, then

7^ = 7^'^
a+jb _ (a+ jb)(c - jd) c+jd (c+jd)(c-jd) ac + bd .be — ad J c + d* c* + d*
In connection with the modulus of a complex number,
the following rules:
l«i«2l
it is

(C13)

In rectangular coordinates, the operation of division can be expressed as

(C.14)

useful to note

1*1*1*1

z-z*
where z*
is

= Uil = = |z|»
|«il

tal
l*i*l

=

2
l*il

(CIS)

the complex conjugate of z and

is

defined as

z*

= x +jy = x —jy

(C.16)

Appendix

C

483

The following rules deal with operations involving the conjugate definition
Zi

+ zt = zx * + z,*

^=
Finally, if z has

*!*•*.*

(C.17)

a modulus of unity, then
z

-1
z*

(C.18)

The operations of raising a complex number to the nth power, or taking the nth root of a complex number, can be dealt with most readily by using n the polar form of the number. Thus, we have z B (re1")" r eSnB ,

=

=

and
C.2

z

1/n

= jMne sn»+tk,)M

k0l

n

_

l

(C

19)

ANALYSIS

If to each z
is

= x +jy, we assign a complex number w = u +jv, then w
w =/(*)
(C.20)
functions,
i.e.,

a function of z or

The following are examples of complex
complex variable:

functions of a

= 2z w = log, z w = 1/z w = za + 4 w=
w
|z|

(C.21)

We

see that

w may

be complex, pure

real,

or pure imaginary, depending

upon the particular relationship with z. In general, the real and imaginary parts of w are both functions of x and y. That is, if we let w = j + jv,
then

u-A*,V)
As an example,
let

and

v=f(x,y)

(C.22)

us find u and v for the function

w

= z* + 4.
(C.23)

w=
Simplifying,

z*

+4=

(x

+jy)*

+4

we

obtain

w

= (*« - y* +/'2ry) + 4

(C^4)

484

Network
jy

analysis

and synthesis
jy

J&
z

+ Az

Ax

«

+ A?

Pathl

Path 2

-jy

-jy

FIG. C.2

FIG. C.3
a:*

so that

u

=

— yl +

4

and

i>

= 2«y
defined as

(C.25)

The

derivative of a

complex function /(z)

is

(C.26)
If

one

restricts the direction
is

or path along which

Az approaches

zero, then

we have what
function
at
is

known

as a directional derivative. However, if a
all,

complex

to possess a derivative at

the derivative must be the

same

any point regardless of the direction in which Az approaches zero. In other words, in order for/(z) to be differentiable at z = z we must have
,

= constant
dz
for all directions of approach of Az.

(C.27)

Consider the two directions and C.3. For path 1, we have
/'(z)
If

in

which Az approaches zero in

Figs.

C.2

=lim
Az

,/(z lim'

+ Az)-/(z)
Az

(C.28)

A*->0 Av->0

we

substitute

= Ax + j Ay

(C.29)

into Eq. C.28,
f'(z)

we

obtain

= lim

Aac-»0 Aff-*0

Since

and

+ A* +j(y + Ay)] -f(x+jy) As + j Ay /(z) = u +jv f(z + Az) = u + Aw +j(v + A»)
lim

f[x

(C.30)
(C.31) (C.32)

Appendix

C

485

we

finally arrive at

/'(«)

= lim
,.

Am +jAi>
lim

a»-.o Av->o Aa;

+ j'Ay
(C.33)
.

-* = hm Au + /Ao Ax a*-»o
For path
2,

—=—+
9u
,

j

9» —

dx

dx

we have
/'(z)=lim
a»-»oa«s-oAx

Au + Ad Km " T J A
/

+ J Ay
(C.34)

==lim

AiL±M£
/'Ay
.

a»-o
dt>

du

dy
Since

dy
derivatives

we assume that the function /(z) is differentiable, the must be independent of path. Thus, we have

— _•— = —
dy
dy

4-

/


9x

(C 35)

dx

From this
are

last equation,

we

obtain the Cauchy-Riemann equations, which

dv

_

du

dy

dx

du__dv
dy

dx

We have just seen that in order for a function to have a derivative, the Cauchy-Riemann equations must hold. A function which is single valued and possesses a unique derivative is called an analytic function. A set of
sufficient conditions for analyticity is that the

are obeyed.

Cauchy-Riemann equations For example, consider the function
/(z)

= z* + 4
dx

(C.37)

/(z)

is

analytic because

^ = 2x = ^
dy 9
(C.38)

— = —2
dy

= ——
dx

.

486

Network

anal/sis and synthesis

On the

other hand,/(z)

= z* is not analytic because

u

=

x
j.,

and
a and

v

= —y
(C39)
1

— = +1
du

ox
C.3

— = -1 ay
*>

SINGULARITIES

AND

RESIDUES

at a point z

complex plane except then/(z) has an isolated singularity at z Suppose /(z) has a singularity at z , then we can expand /(z) about z in a Laurent series
, .

If/(z) is analytic within a region or domain in the

(z

- z )B

z

-z
+
Om(2

- So)"* +
m.
1

* • *

(C.40)

In the expansion,

if

m is finite,

then z

is

called a pole of order

The

term a_i

is

called the residue of the singularity.

Example C.l.

the pole at the origin.

Consider the Laurent series for the function /(z) We can expand e* in a power series to give

= e*\z

about


z

*=

I/i z\

+* +

!«•
2!

+ -*»+
3!

)
/
(C.41)

= l+l + Lz+l.z* + -z

2!

3!

According to the

definition, the residue

of the pole at z

=

is

equal to

1.

Example C.2. Expand the function /(z) and find the residue of the pole at z = 1
1 1 1

=

l/z(z

l)2

about the pole at

z

=

1,

z(z-l)«

- i)M + (z 1

1)

(z

1

[1

- (z 1

1)

+ (z - (z -

1)»

- (z +
(z

I)*

+

•]

(C.42)

1)»

, (z

„, 1)*

z

,

+

1

1)

-

1)»

+
is

1

for
1

<
Note
is

|z

1|

<

1.

Here, the residue of the pole at z
infinite

=

1

equal to —1.

that if

we have an

number of nonzero terms with

negative exponents,

then *o

an

essential singularity.

Appendix
Example C3.
function
s

C
-1

487
of the

Find the residues of the poles at s

=

and s

=

+2
partial fraction
1

(C.43)

To find

the residues,

we simply perform a

expansion
(C.44)

«x

2

3

3

Thus the residue of the pole at s = -lis +3.
C.4

s =»

is

—3, and the residue of the pole at

CONTOUR INTEGRATION

In complex integration the integral is taken over a piecewise smooth path

C and is defined as the limit of an infinite summation

IC
the integral.

f(z) dz

= lim 2 f(z n-»oo j— 1

i)

A*/

(C.45)

where zt lies on C. Unlike the process of differentiation, the path along which we take the integral makes a difference as to the ultimate value of

Thus the

integral

r f(z)dz
in general, has different values depending

(C.46)

grate along path

or path C8 as a closed path, say from a to b and then to a again, we are integrating along a closed contour. The path shown in Fig. C.5 is an example of a closed contour. The following theorem, known as Couch/ s residue theorem gives
,

Q

upon whether we choose to inteshown in Fig. C.4. If we integrate along

a method for rapid evaluation of integrals on closed paths.

Jy

^
£.

jy
Closed

I
X
FIG. C.4

'contour

FIG. C.5

Theorem C.l.

If

C is a simple closed curve in a domain
z^, z,,

analytic except for isolated singularities at

...

,

z„,

D, within which /(z) is then the integral along

488

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

the closed path

C is

I
where

f(z)dz

= 2n/(JKi +K. + ---+KJ

(C.47)

K

t

represents the residue of the singularity z ( .

Example C.4.

Consider the integral

s+2 ds § sH.s + 1?
along the
within the
circle
\s\

(C.48)

circle, at s

= 2, as given in Fig. C.6. Since there are two singularities = and at s = —1, whose residues are respectively —3
is

and +3, then the integral along the circle
S

i

s\s

+ 2 ds - 2*j(-3 + + iy

3)

=

(C.49)

C=|.|-2

Example C.5.
C.7.

Find the

integral of f(s) along the closed contour

shown

in Fig.

The

function /(«)

is

given as

'*"-(* +

35+5 IX* +
Jy

(C.50)
2)

'

' L

-2 -1

X

-Jy

FIG .

C7

Appendix

C

489

A partial fraction expansion of f(s) shows that

m —ri + Txi + +
s 1 s

(C51)
integral along the closed

2

so that the residues are

1

and 2. The value of the
singularities lie is

path within which both the

then

j> /(s) ds
If f(z) is analytic in

=

iTTJil

+

2)

= 6tt/

(C.52)

a domain with no
is

singularities,

then the integral

along any closed path

zero, that

is,

if
This result
is

f(z)dz

=

(C.53)

known

as Cauchy's integral theorem.

D Proofs of some theorems on
appendix

positive real functions

Theorem D.l.
positive real.

If Z(s)

and W(s) are both

positive real, then Z(fV(s))

is

also

Proof.
also.

When Re s £ 0, both Re Z(s) and Re W(s) ^ 0, then Re Z( W(s)) £ 0, When s is real, both Z(s) and ff%s) are real, hence Z(W(s)) is real. Since
satisfies

Z(W(s))

both conditions of positive realness,

it is

positive real.

Theorem D.2.
Proof.

If Z{s) is positive real,

W(s)

=
=

1/* is positive real,

then Z(\/s) is positive real. hence Z(tV(s)} = Z(l/s) is positive

real.

Theorem D.3.
Proof.

If lV(s) is positive real, then l/fV(s) is also positive real.
l/s is positive real,

Z(s)

hence Z(W(s))

=

l/fV(s) is positive real

by

Theorem D.l.
Theorem D.4. The sum of positive real functions is positive real. Proof. Suppose Zx(s) and Z2(s) are both positive real. When Re s

^ 0,

then

ReZx k
so that

and

ReZ2 ^
0.

ReZj + ReZa = ReZ ^

is

Also, when s is real, both Zx and Z2 are real. The sum of two real numbers a real number. Therefore, Zx + Zt is positive real.

Theorem D.5.
(i.e., lie

The

poles

and zeros of Z(s) cannot have

positive real parts

in the right half of the s plane).

Proof
Laurent

Suppose there
series

the right-half plane. is a pole s expansion about s so that

m

Let us

make a

(*

- 5o)n

(S

- * )"

*

490

Appendix
ReZ<»)

D

491

FIG. D.I

where n is real and approximated by

finite.

In the neighborhood of the pole S& Z(s) can be

Z(s)

»,-^V(s - s n
)

i.e., let

We can represent Z(s) in polar form by substituting each term by its polar form; (j - «o)+" = rV»» and k_n = Kt** so that

z<*) = ^ **~**.
.

Re Z{s) =

* cos (* -

nfl)

which is represented in Fig. D. 1 When 9 varies from to lit, the sign of Re Z(j) change 2n times. Since ReZ(s) t. when Re s 2. 0, it is seen that any change of sign of Re Z(s) in the right-half plane will show that the function is not positive real. Therefore, we cannot have a pole in the right-half plane. Since the
will

function 1/Z(s)

is

positive real if Z(s) is positive real,

it is

obvious that there

cannot be any zeros in the right-half plane also.

Theorem D.6.
ya> axis.

Only simple poles with

positive real residues

can

exist

on the

Proof.

poles

As a consequence of the may exist on they'd) axis if n =
is

derivation of
1,

Theorem D.5,

it is

seen that
1

and ^
<j>

= 0. The condition n —

implies

that the pole

simple and the condition
seen that zeros

=

implies that the residue is positive

and real.

It is readily

on

they' to axis

must also be simple.

Theorem D.7.
Proof.
real

The poles and

zeros of Z(s) are real or occur in conjugate pairs.
exists without its conjugate, Z(s)

If

a complex pole or zero

cannot be
seen that

when

s

is real.

As a result of this theorem and Theorem D.S,

it is

both the numerator and denominator polynomials of Z(s) must be Hurwitz.

The highest powers of the numerator polynomial and the denominator polynomial of Z(s) may differ by at most unity. Proof. Let Z(s) be written as
Theorem D.8.
Z{s)

+ fln-iJ"-1 + m + bn.lS" *>m*
««?"

+ OyS + a. + +b

Pis)

V

Q(s)

492

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

FIG. D.2

m — n ^ 2, when s = », Z(«) will have a zero of order 2 or greater at s = oo, which is on the/w axis. Similarly, if n - m £ 2, then, at s = », Z(s) will have a pole of order 2 or more at * = oo. Since Z(s) cannot have multiple poles or zeros on the/a> axis, these situations cannot exist; therefore \n — m\ <.\.
If

Theorem D.9. The lowest powers of P(s) and Q(s) may differ by at most unity, Proof. The proof is obtained as in Theorem D.8 by simply substituting 1/s for s and proceeding as described.
Theorem D.10.
(b) If F(s)

A rational function F(s) with real coefficients is positive real if:
they'a> axis,

(a) F(s) is analytic in the right-half plane.

has poles on

they must be simple and have

real, positive

residues.
(c)

Re F(ja>) ^

for all

o>.

We need only show that these three conditions fulfill the same requirements as Re Z(s) ^ for Re s ^ 0. We will make use of the minimum modulus
Proof.
states that if a function is analytic within a given region, the min imum value of the real part of the function lies on the boundary of that region. The region with which we are concerned is the right-half plane which is bounded by a semicircle of infinite radius and the imaginary axis with small indentations for theyVu axis poles. If the minimum value on theya) axis is greater than zero, then Re Z(s) must be positive over the entire right-half plane (Fig. D.2).

theorem which

appendix

E

An

aid to

the improvement

of

filter

approximation

E.I

INTRODUCTION

The introduction of an additional pole and zero in the second quadrant of the complex frequency plane, and at their conjugate locations, can give amplitude or phase corrections to a filter approximant over some desired band of frequencies without significantly changing the approximant at other frequencies. However, a cut-and-try procedure for finding the best positions for such a pole-zero pair can be tedious. visual aid is presented herein which reduces the amount of labor required to make modest corrections of this type. Constant phase and constant logarithmic gain contours for the correction by a pole-zero pair1 are plotted on transparent overlays. One of these may be placed over a suitably scaled sheet of graph paper representing the complex frequency plane. Then the pair-shaped phase and gain corrections along the jm axis are indicated by the intersections of the overlay

A

contours with this axis. Corrections which best reduce the errors in the original approximant are then sought by variation of the overlay position and orientation. Either phase or amplitude may be corrected. However, it is not always possible to simultaneously improve both the phase and the amplitude characteristics of an approximant by a single pair-shaped
correction.

F. F.

Kuo and M.
4,

Karnaugh, reprinted from the
1962, pp. 400-404.

IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory,

CT-9, No.
1

December

This will be called, hereafter, a pair-shaped correction.
•493

494

Network

analysis

and synthesis

E.2

CONSTANT LOGARITHMIC GAIN CONTOURS

in

Suppose we begin with a transfer function G(s) with certain deficiencies its amplitude or phase response. Let us consider the transfer function of a corrective network G^s) such that the product

GAs)-GM<K»)
will

CE.1)
this

paper,

have better gain or phase characteristics. For the purposes of we will restrict G^s) to have the form

O^-C <'-«)<'-«> (s

(E.2)

p)(s

p)

where C is a constant, and q and p are a zero and a pole, respectively, in the second quadrant of the complex frequency plane. If the correction —p is to be applied at sufficiently high frequencies such that s — qo*s
then

GMcsZtzA
s-p

(E.3)

Let us consider the effect when the pole-zero pair in Eq. E.3 is used to augment any given rational function in the complex frequency plane.

The added

gain, in decibels,

due to

this pole-zero pair is

D=
where we have neglected the

20 log10

-q s- p
s

(E.4)

effect

of the constant
(lO)*'
20

C in Eq.

E.3. If

we let
(E.5)

fc

= =

then

k

(E.6)

s-p
a
circle

For

fixed k, this is the equation of
is

with inverse points* at q and

p. Its radius

kjp^q\
P
II

- *"l

(E7)

and

its

center

is

at

Press, Oxford, * E. C. Titchmarsh, The Theory of Functions, Oxford University England, second edition 1939, pp. 191-192.

Appendix E
Let

495

(E.9)

Then

P


II

— £5©
k*\

-

(E.10)

(E.ll)

Here, s
is e. It is

is the midpoint between the pole and zero, and their separation easy to see from Eq. E.l 1 that the center of each circle of constant

is externally collinear with the pole and zero. For the purpose of drawing the family of constant gain contours, we may let s be the origin of coordinates and the scale factor e may be set equal to unity. Furthermore, only half the pattern need be drawn because the function D has negative symmetry with respect to a reflection about the perpendicular bisector of the pole-zero pair.

gain

E.3

CONSTANT PHASE CONTOURS

Figure E.la represents a pole at/>, a zero at q and an arbitrary point complex frequency plane. When the pole and zero are used to correct a given phase characteristic, the added phase at s is
s in the
4>

-

a

-

9,

(E.12)

where BQ and 6 9 are measured with respect to a single arbitrary reference. In Fig. E.l A, a circle has been drawn through p, q, and s. Angle ^ is

FIG. E.l. Derivation of constant phase contours.

496

Network

analysis

and synthesis

equal to one half the subtended arc ps'q. Therefore, the arc qsp is a constant phase contour. The angle at the center of the circle between cp and the perpendicular bisector of chord pq is also equal to All of the <f>. circular contours of constant phase have their centers on this perpendicular
bisector.

Note that minor arc ps'q
phase angle

is

also a contour of constant phase, but the

«
is

=

<f>

-

*

(E.13)

negative, as indicated

convention for positive rotation

by the clockwise rotation from s'p to s'q. The is herein taken to be counterclockwise.

E.4

CONTOUR DRAWINGS
in Figs. E.2

Sets of constant phase

drawn

and

E.3.

and constant logarithmic gain contours are The curves are symmetric about the zeroTherefore,

decibel line, except that the gain curves are of opposite sign.

only one half of each figure has been drawn.
7.5*
«=^5*
1

V
/i?\
I

~~yf

-K s
v>

9'
10*

^.s\

lb"

30°
i

\
1

Ills

2\

1.71 1

5|

]l

4

|] .2

°-

••

0.7

0.6

db

0.5

,

1

'

TO*

/
'

/

J

20°
lb"

/
^v
v^jy
-J'l

/

/

10"

9*

*Sf
rV.

7.5"

FIG. E.2. Constant amplitude and phase contours.

Appendix E

497

FIG. E.3. Constant amplitude and phase contours.

The

zero-decibel line

is

joining the pole and zero.

the perpendicular bisector of the line segment It is a gain contour of infinite radius.

these perpendicular axes

through the pole and zero is a zero phase contour. Together, form a useful reference system. The signs of the phase and gain in the four quadrants formed by these axes are shown in

The

line

Fig. E.4.

The corrections in

Figs. E.2

and E.3 do not carry algebraic signs because

498

Network

analysis

and synthesis
Zero gain
.1

G<t>-

G+

-x^-*-Zero phase

P

G<t>+

G+

FIG. E.4. Signs of the gain

G and phase

<f>

corrections.

only half of the symmetrical pattern has been drawn. The signs may be obtained from Fig. E.4, and are important in selecting the orientation of
the pole-zero pair.

E.5

CORRECTION PROCEDURE

In correcting a given approximant, it is first necessary to plot the desired magnitude and/or phase corrections versus frequency. When the contours of Fig. E.2 or E.3 are overlaid on a second sheet representing the complex frequency plane, the contour intersections with the ja> axis indicate the
corrections that will actually be realized.

There are several variables at the designer's disposal. The first is the distance between the correcting pole and zero. Since the scale of the contours in Figs. E.2 and E.3 is not specified, the frequency scale of
the underlying complex plane determines the distance between the pole and zero. The second design variable is the location of the center of the pole-zero pair. The distance of the center from a given band on theyeo
axis determines the

magnitude of the correction. is the orientation of the pole-zero pair. Figure E.4 shows how the orientation affects the gain and phase corrections. As a simple example, suppose one wishes to have zero phase correction at co = 1.0, negative phase correction above and positive correction below that frequency. The attack would be to point the zero phase axis at co = 1.0 with the pole nearest to they'to axis. If it is desired to have equal phase correction above and below co = 1.0, the zero phase axis should be oriented parallel to the real axis of the complex frequency plane. If one wishes to have more phase correction above co = 1.0 and less below, the

The

third variable

Appendix E

499

zero phase axis should be rotated clockwise with respect to the a (real)
axis.

We thus see that by varying the frequency scale of the complex frequency
plane, the position of the center of the pole-zero pair,

and the orientation

of the pole-zero pair, the pair-shaped correction can be made to approxi-

mate the desired correction. It must be emphasized that the method suggested herein is an aid to cut-and-try correction. As such, it is easier to use the method than to precisely set down rules for applying it. However, a few rather general

may be helpful. Unless the pole and zero both lie on the real axis, one must remember that another pole and zero are located at conjugate positions. The contributions from both pole-zero pairs may be added algebraically. In most practical cases, the desired correction will have a band-pass character.
statements
Therefore, only one pole-zero pair will normally contribute significantly
at

any frequency.

The shape and magnitude of the
in

desired correction will dictate the

which the/co axis must of the desired correction will dictate the proper scaling of the jco axis. Usually, only a few trials are needed to fix the pole and zero locations for
the best
It will
fit.

intersect the correction contours.

way The broadness

be found that a worthwhile correction can be made in either the phase or the gain characteristic. Only fortuitously can they be improved simultaneously by a single pair-shaped correction. Example E.1. The amplitude response of a third-order Butterworth filter is given by the solid curve in Fig. E.5. It is desired to steepen the gain roll-off near the cutoff frequency «o c = 1 This is done by increasing the gain just below o) = m e and decreasing it above that frequency. Figure E.6 illustrates the type of correction desired. Figure E.7 shows a pole-zero pair that achieves this type of correction. The gain at to = 1 remains unchanged by this particular choice. Other pole-zero pairs that "aim" the zero-decibel line at to = 1 but give asymmetrical corrections about that point might also be used. The dashed curve in Fig. E.S shows the corrected gain.
.

different pole-zero pair, also shown in Fig. E.7, has been chosen to minimize the deviation of the slope of the phase response from its slope at to = 0. This pair-shaped correction decreases the phase for m < 0.7 and increases it for
co

A

> 0.7.

Figure E.8 shows the deviation of the phase responses from linear phase. It is clear from Figs. E.5 and E.8 that the gain corrected approximant has a poorer phase response than the original, while the phase corrected approximant

has a gentler gain roll-off than the original.

500

Network
2

anal/sis

and synthesis

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.5

2.0

Frequency,

u
filters.

FIG. E.5. Amplitude response of corrected and uncorrected Butterworth

This will not surprise the experienced
to achieve moderate corrections in

filter

designer.

It is possible,

however,

both gain and phase by using two pairshaped corrections. A useful approach to this objective lies in localizing the gain correction further out of band, and the phase correction further in-band than in the separate corrections just discussed. This can be done by shifting the pole-zero centers to higher or lower frequencies and also by experimenting with nonsymmetrical corrections.

FIG. E.6. Amplitude correction to steepen

fall-off

of third-degree Butterworth

filter.

Appendix E

501

Loss
correction


1

1.2

o
1.0

Butterworth
poles

_

0.8

X o
Phase
correction

0.6

0.4

0.2

J_
\

_L


-0.2

-1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2
\

\

\ \

-0.4

\

\

\ \ \

-0.6

x o
-0.8

o X

-1.0 -1.2

FIG. E.7. Poles and zeros of the original

filter

and correction equalizers.

20
>

/

10
With >hase :orrect on

s -10

^
0.2

^'

/

/
/ /

/ /

/ / /

^^v

Tl ird-orc er

\\ 1
\

Biitterwo rvn'/

zL

-20 -30
-40
0.4 0.6

>
\

\

/w th amp litude
correct on

\

\
0.8
1.0

/

/

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Frequency, rad/sec

FIG. E.8. Phase deviation from slope at zero frequency.

502

Network

anal/sis

and synthesis

E.6

CORRECTION NETWORK DESIGN

few words are in order concerning the synthesis of the equalizer from the pole-zero pair obtained by the method described. In order to provide optimum power transfer and to facilitate cascading
the correction network with the original should be of the constant-resistance type.
filter,

A

the correction network

We will restrict

our discussion
is

to the bridged-T network in Fig. E.9, given as G(s)

whose voltage

transfer function

(E.14)

provided the network equation

is

of the constant resistance type as given by the

Z (j)Z2(i) =
1

J

R

»

(E.15)
1

For normalization purposes, we

will let

R =
t

Q.

Let the pole-zero correction be written in general as
G(s)
Since the correction has

=

+as+a fc(s* + b lS + b
s

2

(E.16)
)

minimum

phase,

we know
kb

that {a ( , b t

^ 0}.

In

addition, since the d-c gain cannot exceed unity,

We

^a

.

can express the impedance Z^s) in terms of G(s) in Eq. E.14 as
Zl(s)

=

_L_ 1= (±
G(s)

l)s*

+ (kb, - ajs + (fcb„ ~, T~, s + a ts + a
all
1

a„)

(Ai')

Since Z^s) must be positive real, the coefficients must

be nonnegative

so that

k- ^0
kbi kb

— —

<*i

a

^ ^

(E.18)

Zi

So

So

Vi

So

Z2

So

v2

FIG. E.9. Bridged-T network.

Appendix E

503

-ju
FIG. E.I0. Poles and zeros of Zt(s).

Moreover, in order for a biquadratic driving-point immittance to be
positive real, the following condition

must apply. 8

Details concerning the synthesis of

Z^j) are

also given in Seshu's paper.
<£„ and 0, Rack* has shown that in

Let us plot the pole-zero pair of

Zt{s) as in Fig. E.10. We can represent
n p and n t
.

the locations of the poles and zeros in terms of the polar angles

and

their distances

from the

origin,
finite

order for in-band loss to be

^<2

(E.20)

In addition he has shown that for an unbalanced bridged-T circuit, if a = max [0M , <f>9] then the larger the angle a, the larger the in-band loss. In particular, « should be less than 70° to restrict the in-band loss to
reasonable proportions.
If

one considers other network configurations

Trans, on Circuit Theory, CT-6,
4

*S. Seshu, Minimal Realizations of the Biquadratic December 1959, 345-350.

Minimum

Function,

IRE

A.

J.

Rack, private communication.

504

Network

analysis and synthesis

such as lattice networks, it is conceivable that Rack's restrictions might 5 be relaxed. For lattice network design, Weinberg's method is applicable, although here again, the in-band loss restrictions are severe.

E.7

CONCLUSION

have presented here a simple visual aid to the correction of the amplitude or phase response of filters. The method has the advantage of facilitating the commonly used cut-and-try approach to this problem. It has the disadvantage, in many cases, of failing to provide simultaneous amplitude and phase corrections in a single step.
1

We

L. Weinberg,

"RLC lattice

networks," Proc. IRE, 41, September 1953, 1139-1144.

Bibliography

SIGNAL ANALYSIS
Goldman,
S.,

McGraw-Hill, Frequency Analysis, Modulation and Noise,
'

New
Javid,

York, 1948.
E. Brenner,

M. and

^w/y^w, Transmission and Filtering of Signals,
1963.

.

McGraw-Hill,

New York,

Lathi, B. P., Signals, Systems

and Communications, John Wiley and

5>ons,

New

York, 1965.

Lighthill,

M. J., Introduction to Fourier Analysis and Generalized
Press, New

Functions,

Cambridge University Circuits, Signals and Mason, S. J. and H. J. Zimmerman, Electronic 1960. Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York, New Integral and Its Applications, McGraw-Hill, Papoulis, A., The Fourier
York, 1962.

York, 1958.

Rowe, H.

E., Signals

and Noise

in

Communications Systems, D. van

Nostrand, Princeton, N.J. 1965. Modulation and Noise, Schwartz, M., Information Transmission, Hill, New York, 1959.

McGraw-

NETWORK ANALYSIS
Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Balabanian, N., Fundamentals of Circuit Theory,
Systems, Addison-Wesley, Bohn, E. V., The Transform Analysis of Linear

Reading, Massachusetts, 1963.
Brenner, E. and

M. Javid, Analysis of Electric Circuits, McGraw-Hill,
505

New

York, 1959.

506

Network

analysis and synthesis

Brown, R. G. and J. W. Nilsson, Introduction to Linear Systems Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1962. Brown, W. M., Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963. Carlin, H. J. and A. Giordano, Network Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., 1964.

Cassell,

W.

L.,

Linear Electric Circuits, John Wiley and Sons,

New York, New
York,

1964.

Chen,

W.

H., The Analysis of Linear Systems, McGraw-Hill,

1963.

dePian, L., Linear Active Network Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1962.
Friedland, B., O. Wing,

and R. B. Ash, Principles of Linear Networks, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961. Gardner, M. and J. L. Barnes, Transients in Linear Systems, Vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1942.
Guillemin, E. A., Introductory Circuit Theory, John Wiley and Sons,

New

York, 1953.
Guillemin, E. A., Theory ofLinear Physical Systems, John Wiley and Sons,

New York,

1963.
Lytle, Electrical

Harman, W. W. and D. W.
McGraw-Hill,
Hayt,

and Mechanical Networks,

New York,

1962.

W. H., Jr. and J. E. Kemmerly, Engineering Circuit Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962. Huelsman, L. P., Circuits, Matrices and Linear Vector Spaces, McGrawHill, New York, 1963. Kim, W, H. and R. T. Chien, Topological Analysis and Synthesis of Communication Networks, Columbia University Press, New York, 1962. Ku, Y. H., Transient Circuit Analysis, D. Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J.,
1961.

Legros, R. and A. V.

J.

Martin, Transform Calculusfor Electrical Engineers,

Prentice-Hall, Inc.,

Englewood

Cliffs, N.J., 1961.

LePage,

New
Hill,

R. and York, 1952.

W.

S. Seely,

General Network Analysis, McGraw-Hill,

Ley, B. J., S.G. Lutz, and C. F. Rehberg, Linear Circuit Analysis,

McGraw-

New York,
W. A. and

1959.
J.

Lynch,
Hill,

G. Truxal, Introductory System Analysis, McGraw-

New York,

1961.

Paskusz, G. F. and B. Bussell, Linear Circuit Analysis, Prenctice-Hall, Inc.

Englewood
Pearson, S.
I.

Cliffs, N.J., 1964.

and G.

J.

Maler, Introductory Circuit Analysis, John Wiley
1965.

and Sons,

New York,

Bibliography
Pfeiffer, P. E.,

507

Linear System Analysis, McGraw-Hill,
S. Seely,

Reza, F.

M. and
S.,

Modem Network Analysis,

New York, 1961. McGraw-Hill, New
Cliffs, N.J.,

York, 1959.
Sanford, R.
1965.

Physical Networks, Prentice-Hall, Englewood

Schwarz, R. J. and B. Friedland, Linear Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York,
1965.
Scott,

R.

E., Elements

of Linear

Circuits,

Addison-Wesley, Reading,

Massachusetts, 1965.
Seely, S.,

Seshu, S.

Dynamic Systems Analysis, Reinhold, New York, 1964. and N. Balabanian, Linear Network Analysis, John Wiley and
1959.

Sons,
Skilling,

New York,

H. H., Electrical Engineering Circuits, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965. Van Valkenburg, M. E., Network Analysis, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1964. Weber, E., Linear Transient Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1954.

Zadeh, L. A. and C. A. Desoer, Linear Systems Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963.

NETWORK SYNTHESIS
Balabanian, N., Network Synthesis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
1958.
Cliffs, N.J.,

Bode, H. W., Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier Design, D. Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1945. Calahan, D. A., Modern Network Synthesis, Hayden, New York, 1964. Chen, W. H., Linear Network Design and Synthesis, McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1964.
Geffe, P. R., Simplified

Modern

Filter Design,

John F. Rider,

New York,

1963.

Guillemin, E. A., Synthesis of Passive Networks, John Wiley and Sons,

New York,

1957.

Guillemin, E. A., The Mathematics of Circuit Analysis, John Wiley and

Sons, New York, 1949. Hazony, D., Elements of Network Synthesis, Reinhold, New York, 1963. Kuh, E. S. and D. O. Pederson, Principles of Circuit Synthesis, McGrawHill, New York, 1959. Matthaei, G. L., L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks and Coupling Structures, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964.

508

Network

analysis

and synthesis
Filtern mit Hilfe des Kataloges Normierter

Saal, R.,

Der Entwurf von
J.

Tiefpdsse, Telefunken

GMBH,

1961.

Skwirzynski,

K., Design Theory

and Data for

Electrical Filters,

D. Van

Nostrand, Princeton, 1965.
Storer, J. E., Passive

Network Synthesis, McGraw-Hill,

Truxal,
Tuttle,

J.

G., Control System Synthesis, McGraw-Hill,
F.,

D.

Network Synthesis, Vol.

New York, 1957. New York, 1955. 1, John Wiley and Sons, New York,

1958.
E., Introduction to Modern Network Syntheses, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1960. Weinberg, L., Network Analysis and Synthesis, McGraw-Hill, New York,

Van Valkenburg, M.

1962.

Yengst,

W. C, Procedures of Modern Network Synthesis, Macmillan, New

York, 1964.

Name
Aaron, M. R., 448 Aitken, A. C, 469 Angelo, E. J., 268 Ash, R. B., S06
Balabanian, N., 505, 507
J. L., 506 Bashkow, T. R., 283, 438 Bellman, R., 469 Bode, H. W., 221, 507 Bohn, E. V., 505 Brenner, E., 505 Brown, R. G., 506 Brown, W. M., 506 Bubnicki, Z., 283 Budak, A., 395 Bussell, B., 506

Index

Eisenman, R. L., 469 Elmore, W. C, 390 Ende, F., 381
Faddeeva, V. N., 469 Faddev, D. K., 469 Fano, R. M., 448 Feshbach, H., 86 Foster, R. M., 321 Franklin, P., 198 Friedland, B. O., 506 Fujisawa, T., 458 Fukada, M., 381

Barnes,

Calahan, D. A., 507

Gantmacher, F. R., 469 W. H., Jr., 506 Geffe, P. R., 507 Giordano, A., 506 Goldman, S., 137, 505
Hayt,
Goldstone, L. O., 153 Guillemin, E. A., 296, 299, 506, 507.

428 Cassell, W. L., 506 Cauer, W., 324 Chen, W. H., 506 Chien, R. T., 506
Carlin,

H.

I.,

Harman, W. W., 506

Darlington,

S.,

431, 457

Davis, H. F., 51

W. H., Jr., 506 Hazony, D., 507 Hobson, E. W., 471 Hohn, F. E., 469 Huelsman, L. P., 261, 469, 506
Hayt,
Jahnke, E., 381 James, R. T., 389 Javid, M., 505

de Pian,

L.,

506

Desoer, C. A., 507
Dirac, P. A. M., 33, 470, 471

Dutta Roy,

S.

C, 283
509

510

Name

Index
Reza, F. M., 507

Jones, E.

Jordan, E.

M. T., 507 C, 413
27

Rowe, H.

E.,

505

Justice, G.,

Saal, R., 441

Karnaugh, M., 493
Kautz,

Sands, M., 390

W.

H., 47, 367

Sanford, R.

S.,

507

Kemmerly, J. E., 506 Kim, W. H., 506 Ku, Y. H., 506 Kuh, E. S., 507 Kuo, F. F., 279, 393, 493
Larky, A.
I.,

Saraga, W., 443 Schwartz, L., 470, 471

Schwartz, M., 505 Schwarz, R. J., 507 Scott, R. E., 507 Seely, S., 506, 507

262
469

Semmelman, C.
Seshu,
S.,

L.,

447

Lathi, B. P., 505

503, 507

Le

Corbeiller, P.,

Legros, R., 506
Leichner, G. H., 279

Le Page, W.
Ley, B.
J.,

R.,

506 505

506
.,

H. H., 100, 104, 106, 181, 507 J. K., 508 So, H. C, 449, 450 Storer, J. E., 508 Szentirmai, G., 441, 453
Skilling,

Skwirzynski,

Lighthill,

M.

65, 136, 471, 473,

Lutz, S. G., 506

Tellegen, B. D. H., 272

Lynch,
Lytle,

W.

A., 506

D. W., 506

Maler, G. J., 506 Marcus, M., 469 Martin, A. V. J., 506 Mason, S. J., 505 Matthaei, G. L., 507 Mine, H., 469 Morse, P. M., 86
Nering, E. D., 469 Nilsson, J. W., 506

Temple, G., 34, 471 Terman, F. E., 236 Thomson, W. E., 384 Titchmarsh, E. C, 494 Tompkins, C. B., 447 Tropper, A. M., 469 Truxal, J. G., 506, 508 Tuttle, D. F., 508
Ulbrich, E., 441
Valley, G. E.,
Jr., 293 Valkenburg, M. E., 135, 263, 296,

Van

297, 325, 329, 331, 344, 347, 376,

O'Meara, T. R., 283 Orchard, H. J., 385
Paley, R. E.

507, 508

Von

Weiss, H., 469

A. C, 291

Papoulis, A., 379, 381, 505

Walker, F., 283 Wallman, H., 293

Paskusz, G. F., 506

Weber,

Pearson, S.

506 Pederson, D. O., 507 Perlis, S., 469 Pfeiffer, P. E., 507 Pipes, L. A., 469
I.

E., 507 Weinberg, L., 400, 435, 504 Widder, D. V., 136 Wiener, N., 291

Yengst,

W. C, 508
L.,

Young,
Rack, A.
J.,

507

503
Zadeh, L. A., 507 Zimmerman, H., 505

Raisbeck, G., 8, 294

Rehberg, C. F., 506

Subject Index

ABCD

parameters, 262
15,

Admittance, driving-point, All-pass network, 221, 357
Amplifier, 11

187

Cauchy-Riemann equations, 485 Cauer ladder expansion, 324 Causality, 9, 290
Characteristic equation, 77
Characteristic impedance, Characteristic value, 78

impulse response of, 201 Amplitude response, 212, 342

414

computer program for, 450 evaluation by vector method, 215 Amplitude spectrum, 3 Analytic function, 485 Approximation problem, 17, 365 Available gain, 418 Available power, 418
Band-elimination
filter

Cbebyshev

filter,

373

approximation, 366 locus of poles, 376, 378 tables of, 373, 400, 435
transient response, 392 Chebyshev polynomial, 373
Circuit, bridged-T 258, 275,

502

double-tuned, 238
transformation,
reciprocal, 8,

409
Band-pass filter transformation, 407 Bandwidth, half-power, 235 spectral, 67, 389
Bessel
filter,

single-tuned,

255 229 symmetrical, 259

Coefficient of coupling, 122

383, 435

Compensation theorem, 181 Complementary function, 82

phase response of, 387
tables of,

Complex

variables, 481

400, 435

analysis,

483 484 487
18,

392 Bessel polynomial, 386, 395
transient response of,

differentiation,

integration,

Biquadratic immittance, 305, 503

Computer

programs,

438,

439,

Black box, 15

Bode plots, 221 Bounded real function, 419
Break frequency, 225 Bridge circuit, 285, 354
Butterworth
filter,

441, 447 448, 450 453, 457 Constant-resistance network, 352, 502

Contour

integration,

487

368, 434, 500

Controlled source, 268 Convergence in the mean, 49, 51 Convolution integral, 197
Crest factoT, 27 Critical coupling, 242 Current source, 12
Cutoff frequency, 17, 225

amplitude response of, 369, 387, 394,

500
pole locus of, 371 step response of, 391, 394
tables of, 372, 400,

435

Damping
Canonical form, 325, 400, 433 Capacitor, 13, 103, 176 Cauchy integral theorem, 489 Cauchy residue theorem, 487

factor,

225

d-c value, 25

Delay, 32, 212, 245, 384
distortion,

245

time, 388

511

512

Subject Index

Delta function, see Unit impulse Delta-wye transformation, 257 Differential equation, 75, 145
forcing function of, 75 homogeneous, 75, 76
integrodifferential equation, 91,
linear,

Fourier transform, phase spectrum, 64,

65
properties of, 67

145

76 nonhomogeneous, 75 ordinary, 76
simultaneous, 93, 146
11,

Differentiator,

18,

193

Digital computer, 18,

438

symmetry conditions, 68 Free response, 106 Frequency, angular, 2 complex, 4 domain, 14, 134, 367 forced, 192 natural, 192 Frequency normalization, 18, 402 Frequency transformation, 18, 404
Gain contours, logarithmic, 494, 496
Gaussian filter, 291 Generalized functions, 34, 64, 470 g parameters, 286 Green's function, 86 Gyrator, 272, 287
Hall effect, 273 High-pass filter transformation, 405 Hurwitz polynomial, 294, 316 347

Distributions, theory of,

470
123

Dot reference

for transformer,

Doublet, 40, 479 Duhamel superposition integral, 201

Duty

cycle,

26

Energy density, 71 Energy spectrum, 71 Equal ripple approximation, see Chebyshev approximation Essential singularity, 486
Excitation, 1

Hybrid (h) parameters, 260 Hybrid matrix, 261, 449
379,
Ideal low-pass
filter,

Faraday's law of induction, 122 Filter approximation, 368, 373,
383, 493
Filter design, 17, 365, 397, 433,

292, 367

Ideal transformer, 263, 273, 275,

424

computer programs

for,

457 441, 457

Immittance, 15, 315 Impedance, 15, 176
driving-point,
15, 253,

Final conditions, 106, 109 Final value theorem, 165

315

matrix, 254
transfer,

Flux linkage, 122 Forced response, 106
Foster network, 321, 325

188

transformer, 263

Fourier series,

1,

46,

50

amplitude spectrum, 57 complex form, 55 cosine series, 53 evaluation of coefficients, 52, 58
orthogonality conditions, 49

Impulse function, see Unit impulse Impulse response, 44, 85, 111, 194 Incident power, 416
Incidental dissipation,
Initial conditions, Initial

276
86 107, 176

Inductor, 13, 104, 176
13, 77,

value theorem, 165

phase spectrum, 57

Insertion loss, 429
filter synthesis,

symmetry

conditions, 53

431

Fourier transform, 1, 63 amplitude spectrum, 64, 65
discrete, 56,

Insertion

power

ratio,

430

voltage ratio, 429
Integrator, 11, 18, 193
Integrodifferential equation, 91, 145

63

inverse,

64

of unit impulse, 65 of unity, 68

Kirchhoffs laws, 100, 104

Subject Index

513

Ladder network, 279, 346, 347, 453 Laguerre polynomial, 48 Laplace transform, 1, 134
definition of, 135
inverse,

Node equations, Norm, 47

106,

255

136

Normalization, frequency, 402 magnitude, 402 Norton's theorem, 180, 185
Open-circuit

properties of, 137
table of, 168

impedance

parameters,

uses of, 144 Lattice network, 285, 354, 503

254, 343

Optimization techniques, 447

Laurent

486 L-C immittance, 315 properties of, 315 synthesis of, 319
series,

Optimum (L)

filter,

379

amplitude response of, 380 polynomials, 382

Least squares, principle of, 49, 366 Legendre polynomial, 381

Orthogonal set, 47 Orthonormal set, 47
Overcoupling, 242 Overshoot, 388, 392

Linear phase filter, see Bessel Linear system, 8
derivative property,
ideal elements, 12 ideal models, 10

filter

9

Paley-Wiener criterion, 291
Parseval's equality,

50

theorem, 71
Partial fraction expansion, 148

MAC,

Project,

448

Machine-aided design, 448

conjugate poles, 150 multiple poles, 151
real poles, 149 Particular integral, 82

Magnitude normalization, 18, 402 Matrix algebra, 461 definitions, 462 operations, 464 references, 469 Maximally flat response, see Butterworth filter Mean squared error, 48

Passive network, 8

Peaking

circle,

233, 241

Peak-to-valley ratio, 251 Phase contours, logarithmic, 495

Minimum
443

inductance

transformation,

Phase response, 212, 343 computer program for, 450 evaluation by vector method, 215 linearity of, 213, 383
Phase
shift, 1

Minimum modulus theorem, 492 Modulation, amplitude, 70
Monotonic
filter,

distortion,

213
3,

see

Optimum

filter

minimum, 220, 346
spectrum,
Phasor, 5
Plancheral's theorem, 71
Pole, definition of, 155

Multiple-access computer, 448

57

Mutual inductance, 122
Negative impedance converter (NIC), 261 Network, analysis, 7, 100, 175, 253
linear, 8,

Pole-zero diagram, 156
Port, 12, 253
Positive real
(p.r.)

100

function,

16, 299,

n-port,

449
100

passive, 8,

reciprocal, 8, 100,

255

symmetrical, 259
synthesis, 290, 315, 341, 397, 431

490 Power, average, 301, 315 available, 418 Propagation constant, 414
Proportionality, principle of, 8

time-invariant, 9,

100

Pulse transmission, 389, 392

514
Q,

Subject Index
236
Spectra, continuous, 3, 63
line (discrete), 3,

circuit, 233,

57

Ramp

function, 31

Stability,

116,

290

R-C admittance, R-C impedance,

properties of, 331

marginal, 293
Steady-state solution, 106, 109

properties of, 325
16, 290,

synthesis of, 329
Realizability conditions,

Steepest descent method, 447

301,

Step function, see Unit step
Step response, 44, 45, 85, 111, 194
Synthesis procedures elementary, 308
filter

342,

490

for driving-point functions, 301 for transfer functions, 342

synthesis,

397

Reciprocal network,

8,

255

Rect function, 65 Reference impedance factor, 415 Reflected parameter, 415 Reflected power, 416 Reflection coefficient, 416, 421, 458 Remainder function, 308 Residue, definition of, 162 evaluation by vector method, 162 Residue condition for two-ports, 344 Resistor, 13, 103, 175 Response, critically damped, 118 overdamped, 118 underdamped, 119 Ringing, 388 Rise time, 388 R-L admittance, properties of, 325 synthesis of, 329 R-L impedance, properties of, 331 synthesis of, 331
Sampled-data system, 142 Sampler, 18, 142
Scattering parameters, 415, 419

L-C R-C R-L

functions, 315, 319

functions, 325, 329, 331
functions, 325, 329, 331 functions, 333

R-L-C

transfer functions, 347, 352

System function,
Terminals, 12

14, 187,

194

Thevenin's theorem, 180

Time constant, 24 Time delay, 32, 212, 245, 384, 388 Time delayer, 11 Time domain, 14, 134, 366
Time-invariant system, 8

Transfer function,
341, 352

14,

16,

188,

266,

admittance, 188, 347

impedance,

16,

188, 347

Transformed

175 Transformer. 122. 177 ideal, 263
circuit,

unity coupled, 125

Transient response of low-pass

filters,

388
Transient solution, 106
Transistor,

element, 416
matrix, 420
Settling time, 388

common
line,

emitter,

Short-circuit

admittance
circuit,

parameters,

Transmission

coefficient, 421,

286 457

257, 344

Transmission

413, 425

Shunt peaked

248, 400

Signal, continuous,

23

decomposition parts, 21
deterministic,

into

even

and odd

Transmission matrix, 262 Transmittance, 16 Two-port, 12, 16, 254, 264
cascade connection, 271 equivalent circuits of, 268, 271 matrix representation, 264
parallel connection of,
series

periodic, 20,

20 46

symmetrical, 21, 54

273

Signum (sgn) function, 30
Sine function, 65
Singularity,

connection of, 275

486

Undercoupling, 241

Subject Index
Voltage ratio, 16, 188 Voltage source, 12 Voltage standing wave
y-parameters, 257, 344

515

Undetermined coefficients, method g2 Uniform loading, 278 Unit coupled transformer, 121
47(j
derivative of,

of,

ratio,

428

Unit impulse (delta) functions, 33, 43,

see also Short-circuit parameters
z -parameters, 254 343 see also Open-circuit parameters

40
480

properties of, 34, 36, 476,

Unit ramp Unit step function, 28, 474 derivative of, 34, 37, 475

function, 31

z-transform, 142

Zero, definition of , 155 Zero of transmission, 345

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