WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
(4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION)

i. WCDMA/OFDM/WLAN 3-in-1 product. HSDPA. This paper proposes a solution to reduce Peak to Average Ratio by clipping method. mobile communications play a central role in the voice/data network arena. will definitely drive this growth. new directions are already being researched. ATLAB as used to generate the OFDM signal to prove that clipping does reduce Peak to Average Ratio. The 4G mobile technology -convergence of wireless mobile and wireless access. etc. The Fourth Generation (4G) Mobile Communications should not focus only on the datarate increase and new air interface.cdma2000/WLAN/GPRS 3in-1 product. Based on this OWA model. WiMax. and will be replaced by open wireless architecture system very soon where various different wireless standards can be integrated and converged on this open platform. Any single-architecture wireless system. including 3G. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is proving to be a possible multiple access technology to be used in 4G.ABSTRACT: Today. . spectral efficiency. The expectations from 4G are high in terms of data rates. But OFDM comes with its own challenges like high Peak to Average Ratio..e.4G Mobile should instead con-verge the advanced wireless mobile communications and high-speed wireless access systems into an Open Wireless Architecture (OWA) platform which becomes the core of this emerging next generation mobile technology. Asia-Pacific is the most dynamic market of new generation mobile communications with over $100 Billion businesses in the next decade. With the deployment of mass scale 3G just around the corner. In this paper we address about the 4TH G mobile communications. linearity concerns and phase noise. is a transitional solution only. etc. The advent of 4G wireless systems has created many research opportunities. 4G mobile will deliver the best business cases to the wireless and mobile industries. mobility and integration.

The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. When it became clear that the real killer application was the Internet. The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling.INTRODUCTION: The first operational cellular communication system was deployed in the Norway in 1981 and was followed by similar systems in the US and UK. Planning for 3G started in the 1980s. it is clear that personal wireless Internet access will follow and users will want broadband Internet access wherever they go. These first generation systems provided voice transmissions by using frequencies around 900 MHz and analogue modulation. As personal wireless handsets become more common than fixed telephones. 3G thinking had to evolve. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). 2G 3G 4G . Initial plans focused on multimedia applications such as videoconferencing for mobile phones.

GSM . the new 4G framework to be established will try to accomplish new levels of user experience and multi-service capacity by also integrating all the mobile technologies that exist (e. • Multi-service platform. In contrast. each resulting from different visions of the future platform currently under investigation. from 50-100 Mbps for high mobility users. Bluetooth). This network must provide high bandwidth.The objective of the 3G was to develop a new protocol and new technologies to further enhance the\mobile experience.International Mobile Communications. to 1Gbps for low mobility users. must be created.g. the main objectives of 4G networks can be stated in the following properties: • Ubiquity.Wireless Fidelity.Global System for Mobile Communications. .In spite of different approaches. an efficient delivery. IMT-2000 . GPRS . technologies that permit fast handoffs. Wi-Fi .General Packet Radio Service. • Low bit cost To achieve the proposed goals. a very flexible network that aggregates various radio access technologies.

Handoff management primary objective is to maintain the communications while the terminal crosses wireless network boundaries. In addition. must deal with vertical and horizontal handoffs. Terminal mobility will be a key factor to the success of 4G networks. Moreover terminals must be able to choose from all the available wireless networks the one to use with a specific service. Location management deals with tracking user mobility. Terminals must be able to provide wireless services anytime. Another major problem relates to security. 4G networks. so as to avoid broadcasting at the same time to all adjacent antennas what would waste unnecessary resources. To avoid these problems new algorithms must be researched and a prevision of user mobility will be necessary. QoS supported. enabling its simultaneous use and interconnection poses many questions not yet answered. location management and handoff management [7]. GSM and Wi-Fi) and between cells of the same wireless network (e.Migrating to 4G: The fact that 4G mobile networks intend to integrate almost every wireless standard already In use. [7] To be able to use 4G mobile networks a new type of mobile terminals must be conceived. a 4G mobile client may move between different types of wireless networks (e.e. everywhere. since 4G . in opposition to the other mobile generations. The terminals to be adopted must adapt seamless to multiple wireless networks. many of the Services available in this new mobile generation like videoconference have restrict time constraints and QoS needs that must not be perceptible affected by handoffs. To do this it must be aware of specifications of all the networks in terms of bandwidth. System and Service. Furthermore.. each with different protocols and technologies. current and (if possible) future cells. i. There are two major issues in terminal mobility. Auto reconfiguration will also be needed so that terminals can adapt to the different services available. moving between adjacent GSM cells). and handling information about original. This implies that roaming between different networks must be automatic and transparent to the user.g.g. costs and respect to user preferences. This adaptation may imply that it must download automatically configuration software from networks in range. Moreover it must deal with authentication issues and QoS assurances. The research areas that present key challenges to migrate current systems to 4G are many but can be summarized in the following: Mobile Station.

A user must be able to be reached wherever he is. Another challenge is to know. This is very important to mobility management. time or cost per bit fares. At the same time it is necessary that the bill is well understood by operator and client. Services also pose many questions as 4G users may have different operators to different services and. Actual billing using flat rates. As each standard has its own security scheme. even if they have the same operator. each user has a unique identifier served by personal mobile agents that make the link from users to Internet. A broker system would be advisable to facilitate the interaction between the user and the different service providers. the key to 4G systems is to be highly flexible. they can access data using different network technologies. This can be achieved in various ways one of the most popular being the use of a mobile-agent infrastructure. where the user is and how he can be contacted. . may not be suitable to the new range of services. In this framework. no matter the kind of terminal that is being used.pretends to join many different types of mobile technologies. at each time.

Multiple .Multi-technology Approach: • • • • • • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Open wire less Architecture(OWA) Multiple-input multiple-output ( MIMO ) GENERIC MIMO AND OFDM: Increasing demand for high performance 4G broadband wireless mobile calls for use of multiple antennas at both base station and subscriber ends.

With MIMO.antenna technologies enable high capacities suited for Internet and multimedia services and also dramatically increase range and reliability. By employing multiple antennas. The target frequency band for this system is 2 to 5 GHz due to favorable propagation characteristics and low radio-frequency (RF) equipment cost. The broadband channel is typically non LOS channel and includes impairments such as time selective fading and frequency-selective fading. With proper coding and interleaving across frequencies. the complexity of space time equalizers is avoided. multipath turns into an OFDM system advantage by yielding frequency diversity. Multipath remains an advantage for a MIMO-OFDM system since frequency selectivity caused by multipath improves the rank distribution of the channel matrices across frequency tones. The challenge for wireless broadband access lies in providing a comparable quality of service for similar cost as competing wire line technologies. thereby increasing capacity . A broadband signal is broken down into multiple narrowband carriers (tones). This design is motivated by the growing demand for broadband wireless Internet access. a cyclic prefix is added which has length greater than the expected delay spread. FFT reduces the channel response into a multiplicative constant on a tone-by-tone basis . where each carrier is more robust to multipath. OFDM is chosen over a single carrier solution due to lower complexity of equalizers for high delay spread channels or high data rates. the channel response becomes a matrix.At the receiver. Since each tone can be equalized independently. multiple spatial channels are created and it is unlikely all the channels will fade simultaneously. OFDM can be implemented efficiently by using FFT's at the transmitter and receiver . In order to maintain orthogonality amongst tones. Multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver provide diversity in a fading environment.

where 3G. homes. etc. Wireless Local Loop. airports or shopping centers where the wireless access networks (i. _ Greatly increase the spectrum efficiency Mostly ensure the highest data-rate to the wireless terminal Best share the network resources and channel utilization Optimally manage the service quality and multimedia applications Figure 1 shows the wireless evolution to 4G mo bile communications based on OWA platform. Beach.cdma2000. for example.the same terminal can automatically switch to the wireless mobile networks (i. HomeRF.e. Broadband Wireless Access.).e. the W-CDMA/W-LAN/Bluetooth 3-in-1 terminal is . Remote area. Wireless ATM. Wireless LAN.e.This converged wireless communications can provide the following advantages. Highway.GPRS. When the users move to the mobile zone (i. TD-SCDMA.). etc. etc) are available.Wireless LAN and other wireless access technologies will be converged into 4G mobile platform to deliver the best infrastructure of mobile communications with optimal spectrum efficiency and resource management. In fact.OPENWIRELESSARCHITECTURE The 4G Mobile communications will be based on the Open Wireless Architecture (OWA)to ensure the single terminal can seamlessly and automatically connect to the local high-speed wireless access systems when the users are in the offices.W-CDMA. this OWA model had already been accepted by most wireless industries.

The global 4G Mobile R&D focuses on the following Open Wireless Architecture: .being designed in many companies.

2006. The newcomer fourth-generation tries to address this problem by integrating all different wireless technologies. lnter media applications and mobility in a never experienced manner. but various precursor technologies and services have been appearing as of late. From the initial speech vocation to an IP-based data network. is of vital importance at this time for all those interested in this business field. From the analog voice centric first generation to the digital second generation. However.GOAL: The goal of 4th Generation (4G) mobile communications technologies is to realize wireless communications at the same high data rate as is made possible through use of the fiber-optic transmission systems that are available today. and give added value over existing offers. With the third generation the goal changed from voice-centric to data-centric. . Realization of 4G mobile communications is foreseen in the early 2010s. These new applications must meet user expectations. Moreover total obility became an objective to pursuit. which improved data communications by supporting IP in the GSM infrastructure. In spite of all the evolving technologies the final success of new mobile generations will be dictated by the new services and contents made available to users. In this generation it is possible to combine voice. A scrutiny on the market trends. several steps were made. 5. At the same time new applications demand more bandwidth and lower costs. At the same time the enhanced mobility provided by seamless handover and the additional data communications capacity (although very small) advanced and opened the doors to future developments Some of the developments was brought by generation 2. the global mobility.5 namely by GPRS. Conclusion: In this paper we present the evolution of mobile communications through all its generations. by improving the quality of the communication while using more efficiently the installed capacity. while an important objective. along with a close watch on carrier reaction as to the introduction of the Mobile Number Portability (MNP) system planned for October 24. the goal was to enhance the voice experience of a user. was never really reached.

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