b'ri'8~~y, f'OCIU o,n tin e pla.te' tseten ie seUiing,s, oif IT! 8jOi" sedi mentaifY basin s~ and e:xalllfllim'!

~ theilr lyp i'ca~ ~~IU bstcen,oe ~i$torr ~S: and ii"n~c,lhlaJniislm~ ('Fug _ ,eL1) '" Muoh has bee n MiUen abo ut 1:he d r;h/ing mii;'o~an'i ~ms ~,'f ba!~in t'o~mauon iln rnest l~GI1()n,iiC:,se;tH~gs" Ani earily (liIil1~r:",l@w' WM pro,vided by' D'ickifi! son {'1 91Sl" T~le' purpnse (llf tll1ts oh~J)lt,er 'ilS n~'t to :a'tt~~ifIf'!J:)tto 5 jjrrU;fi~lriz;,~ the' stl3l,te' IOf :knowl:edge 0-[ basin e/lio ~lJlti~ n, Instesd, we ,9Trnply d~fli Iili€i' eacn basin type" 1'oIl~f'lirj uu~, basin class ilfic~rU(lin soh€~me' o,t D ICildlf"i n (i 976}" Ing so arl:c 'r'OCL!JlS 0 n a 'few ~e)1 IP-Q~nl'$ Ir~gardiifllg thE!! mecih alf'l!hsms of b~si!1! e;v'o~utiion.. IC)UB' 1'0 space Illimirtati'orrr$ 'W~ ,dlO n(rt ,~it~ all ~f 'lih@ r,~Ie:",ant ~uleraJ,1,u but ,plrovidle jus'~ a 'r'elN ike'y n~fe re'rt~~~" rliBi

Ha~iing I(fiscussed ~he'primaty rnechanlsms lof slubside'l!lce

'We can

!9 elner:i31~'e errors

(Fng. 6.11) o~m~ j:Hlma'~i~y'frc WI'iI tlh'l I=NJbl1'! shad ~ i:h;:~ra'I:lJre! ug rnented lOy aJn,a!lys,e~, cone b,y 0 U t"$~I~!"tj~s r by 3.tl!Jdenn~i ~n our a o ~ed~m~nrtary basilil:$ ~o~r~~ ~t tih* U ni,!j,f~r$Hy of Wyomi!'llg. AU ~he curves h ~ve bee n baekstripped '10 Ilow~ln,g 'the local ~ts orsrtatl!C rr1:ethod d8~cri bed ab@lVe (',S'~'EHjk~er and W,8Jt~s:; '~978), 11M!i"'N~vetr, inCCH:l$,is'b:=!1c;hi3:S~Jri~8 fro m O the usa o~ dii'nel'le['rl'~till'ifU~, ~c~,1 comp~C!~:iorJ,cerreetlcns an d paJ~Qwat'er ~SJ" dep1h estlmates IlFIElJdii;' the v~r~(l'IJ(i;, by atJthol~s, NOfi!leith~r9lS:s" the ll)v;ef,~~11 co F115'5'h3'ncy of U~e $IU bsidenoe i tYlrvl~S. in each of ~hie:v iilJrOIU 8, t:e·cwnic I seUi'ng,~, sugge'r:i5:t~ thart UISJ~ ,of dine'i'l~n1 s.cahi$ by' '~:fiffer'i;l!1!'~ 'Ork9lr~, do net W
,~ulbsidence curves
iarg,e ,ellloug

ihe

n

,to ml8!;s!k, 'the~ oVlerall tffl~nds-

,AUan~~(>·tvpe' mc~ug'iln.~, and Oaok""\B,I'\G bastns ba$j'0'a~lly 'f,orm Iby crustal ~'x~;0;n!S~Oifl aJod IDl"II'nati en o.J an eesanle basin. IF@,llawii1ir&lSalveson {. 97'8).
tjtilll~i 8\i'1oh,Hio!1

of pa~si'!la mar; i ns can he broken iinto fiv,e s:~ge s, (Fi!g~ 16",2)

H~S! Ii11 odoa:ll a!!1iSU mes t5,y mme't,ry 01' tbe rri'ft ab out, ii'~s axls es Js lie e.n iln :510mtH~ AUaniliic marg iins (Ks!8in et ;jjJl. '~9 8~)'; h ~w,ev,er, ~5ym r;rH~~tlllcF~'~tJjg by d 9,,!,(9llo p merit . n oJ a ha~f ,nrl3lbe'll1 rnav also oecur~ lUster et_ at.~• 1"986\, The s U b$'dl~ I.~ ~,c;f ~ ,1 _ ~~ \ _ _. _ _~. . _ ._ I. _. . . I. ~8f11Ce !CI_ Atilaln1ic-type' mar9 ins Inav,~ ~H~~~,n e.!~ stU,,jijlllNJ (.~~,~ ~v'0rvu,~w tril W'au~" w '19~n) and ee nslsts ,~f an ~arl'y' exten Si'-Olfii,aJl stage doring' wlh len Dn iti:al ~lIlb~Jde'WlJce lof wiU ba!~ifi!~ t~k)€is p:lace as, an i~H)s~~Jtic u~lspons~1 crustal ~Q th iinn ingr: 'h:llillowed lor a ~QSil·irifti Iilijl p,hase' of 5 Ulbsliden De th ~1: U5,d~u\!'efl1 by
'I l

that ,ax,plain maJny aspects o~ the preserved sooi me'f"Ijtar:y' ~e~~rd.

~ 4- JiI: 4 :5 'B. ". •.~-""""--"""'- ~QO AG·!! ~Ma.. o 10D AG ~ (Ma'~ +" ~~=t--~==II ~:c 3 ~ .' .. ~ II...: 'C:!j!.rnsr'om f :Sd. ~-: . ...u. et .JOQ ii)1-t...IIil~Pa! (Hl9lh~n aJ.~1 _ ___'~--""'_-----""'_ 100 __ ----iI o II 1600 3100 '~Willl!:ion ~"ri ID ~l= ... ~ IE ..}..Sa'i' Ieil ..rilprerJ.M7!bJtIfi .l~ep_r~~e·~tatiVi~'1edOn~C: ~u~id~'flc~ hi:~<Ni~~o~ba5ii. 1sC1omc .. II . 1 dl~·eren~..m6.: 500 ~Jg.

6) -=.~IN· .. fIil!i.iVE M.:PiR E~R ~Fl' CONIFIGUIBA1nON MOHO~· ~~~~~~~~~~~ se- '100 kmi..N 1100 km . _I .AIRGI.J S'_..llrLtle -50 lid PASS . '" •..~~~~~=-" I RIFT ICIA ID·' {~= 11.

6.UU~lrmaJIre·e~ Uiliibli'..pI.fIiilii€< '9 rapM.oi n'l wt1Je[f~ !Qc~anic '~rIU!. rasu'i'l of two-·Ray. T:aJberJ.e:nce due te COn:d uo1jv.aJfl ITII~og. to ~ha p.s f~ SH1S)[ the s.lII:a!1I" mOide~ tt3~' ba$ i III $1l.ates rapid! l nvtiai s.es.s tlhat.1. at '~hJe' ame s 'Ii'me ani the! basin rs ijiio.mall dfme.y' vl~rti'aa~ ciQlrnduction ~ [p1J 11-.11'S[1 '1~ B~.rI~ 6.so.~ln'~Iaor (s. 6. ~(!! .I¥JlSs:ug:g19stedi by McKei1z~@ (~97'.27).all' heat IOI!ms aJl'ong the' marg.e r ex'L'en'i:5ionl.a.1 'nq~.:i'~~ril'll ~h Amg rlca.d1:S sham' soma charactertstles iin eomm on with pi~ssive m:~U'gii sleq. ~ 1'98S:)" Tbis Ia. 19.!a.eo l1nehy of bounding normal 1'~~llt~: B~~n alJ'id BeaU[ri'Hj[fl1:.~).eoc'li ne ~f w~~.~ heat. WaUs at i3lJ . 'whi~h elfnlPnHil)BS that as.Fig". lar~elr.'1 1~Ii5S than 2iO IMly') th a in rltuaJ :5ll1b~~.] has pmpo:s.i oomITilo nlIY' do not: giG liQ ns . rii rna] or d j'fferen~es are tlh ~t pu 11~a!p~rt b~J:.6) _ I f!l .s orr the riM 1~:Wa.'H'!I~'.. { 'We til a vi disc:IJ.2) ma.IIo~ ill ib@ w C(H!'!'1Ip~etB befa re suosid.due to th'9 g.r. i n part..J bs:fdenoe ~ri! dl~::i~ seUhlQls.. ln th e case o~! '(me eastern U.. IIJlf tne subs ide ncs cu rve mill'll1llc that of the sub\S~dhlg O-oe. 1 h e res.~~oflal!the rmal sub$. i' PuHuapart basins ".l~io'n 8's the' rna.me reoent: te anci.tter IPOlint i~ imp(ut~!ilit. beg iiil1$. Kamer and Dewey. by Ilab~.IS5J8C '8X'ampl as of axle n. lin 'terr:nso" tne.ult ij. 1'980l. ROryd:en and Keen.g.~a. m'~a.~ distri outed [ov~lr a blfij. ~ 9[86.t'~fiI~io ril irs ~nsdarttaneiOl!:S (i" e .e~lIGOO I ' martl'Ue (Fi.3j 'I$!s. 1 er1iary r~fttift!g o.~III(JiW r ns h~~t to be FamO\feJdl.rnsii ems o'ff t~e. Uplijft of Utie· $[tiJ(liu~de.s.i r' sub:s~dence ~istory" As ~o'~nted CH. ~J€' ShrO'W!!1!1 ln FigIU.ent: p~$$'i\!'e' 'I'i!l\a. 11 '91190) indi(. N(l ~tH~ eaJi'I'ij' s.ocia't~d witlh $tJl'ike~slirp ".niUe' lid ceols and ~hre IithoSlP here thl~dkA.aiPiSJwt 'bas.tages.Ilid i'.. ij If!! c:oll"iltras~: to passive marrgi'n $eq]~e.s~ .1' 1982).gB dai~ing .f the 'Gu~f of' Lio n (StfJ'dkler and Wa:tts.t res.ll. 1989.l"{Hn fSettiW'i!gl$. M~Keri~t~ (.irtl.tiv.lS$J and SJub1Sideru~e." WhEH"G' extiIFN3ii'ii:Hl [of tba manille. iaJrttd iso5tatllc· adj~ s'tmeln I .~i1iY caJ$~ the thermal: p~Jts.y' !be ~jrue. II~ng !~s e)..S" A'tfiarrtliC: mar'g'irn iiula 'the' 8aJrly Pal eO.se' ba. ('Aydii Ii1 and u N IlJ rJ l'982.. h)$$.ed the most po. 6.~o~: '~h~ rift (F-i~l.i ns 'ijndetgio f1he rmal hi eat Ii.cornplatic n (L e.eceursa.ue:n ess.id~flCEl' ~lh u'gh OIUit 11h.ned lin~sli' elther b€lca!iJs~ of pear a.st fo'ifml) alr"!d ~haJt I~HJIII·\~~t~iII1: ba~iins are much .bde'f.o~~ ttiJarl 10 se heat p ri mari Iy b.ZO~G C ordiU-er.r. IO~' subs ldenee are IilOt weill' ~on$traiJiH~d (~hOIIW!1 with d.tlown for oomparis Oln on 'the Sa. The.or expOSlJre'H oweve r..rndlor po. 1 '9S[6~: M~nln[at al.n.all conductio il'lJ hn ml th ~ llilPWil9!lIed I' a:snu~!no$p~e re into thi&.ulbsid~Hice ..srnaller and she rte r l'ived 'f.J!t by Pitff! alii and AiI1dr~w.)ad~ r a~e~ U'!~nthe cil'l!ji~:l(Row Iey i!:!Joe Sa haglia 1"1.ta1:icaUy adja'C€'fi'U .

"\" "" " ~1iWil mll..~lJilmi ~ n _ II Ml~ 5·. C_Q. MgU.. Dt!!'itll~I!II''fi'''i''I'I' l\i:iul ii."(I i.n"l: n' ~~mi\l!i!l!Ir~ !'1i'!. 1~~ijllt.· Bit ~ ~ mz iffimili'~ -IS!UllMEnf:ro~ aR~to\1"lIL!{1i' PROFU: EmJt.1 .. .rg6Irn~ 'W(enOn.e!!l. Fmm Hardingl et aL [1918S)t.ilir"i 'iio!~!u!! b!i'~c...~"'tiIJJUlllili r1'IIi.tili til I \II I~'!'1I..~IIC'Q.l!I_NO . iil!l!:!:ll'h •• g rili J lii.. .!II 'rr.mi't[iigi'll IfIQiS. :S. l~g'['I'\i!iiI~"-fI'1!:!i1 lUll iii!! y_~\~ ~'If.-_m ID' I~:I.fEJl~ ii··~~~r -+= ~ r mIlFI1 .! '7 I~Mi.~:IJF-~.i'~'i tijih IIII!! 'GI!i1S.riA!lll'~1fRIliti. ¥.i'!i!l[ ~lIId r'lIl~ i til i(jIC.I'AP I(W~.j!!l I!filifClil'i " "Co.. Assenmblage L')f S4ruo'tlJil"QS assoc.41 i i'i-!!~ r. iI :rD!II~ 'II II.v@. .r~t@d wifil right"'sUp di.!~ .Nii Ek3A.SE FiU..

~ilastic bea m anid fle'xes u nder U~e! w9'ig h~ of U~e! ~Q. Jordan.: IPniCe!.~~synriffi9'tric sh.n.l.'~97~l.1~' S1Dckmai ~.H'rm basins (F.QQnlli n elll~1 flrag rITiiI ent.a.rstent n"H)tiolfii '9xist~ OVB'Ii' aJf'l'y small .mai n~Illg thermaJ n:g aJl.]:5!iiy!occupi~d the ~~mln'a.'C'I: ~hat m~ ny. T~~ . 19'81.hJr~l fo r'e~all1d baslna. fe'w' mi IiToo y@ail'~.r.ubsild€l nee curves hom 'tranSf(.! nloe.)I.s bah iWlld the v@II~Q!rtI ~r'tC: but.m 'fauU (Ma!l'll Fli e1: al.eSelnl tnng c~loli~ o~' .lrthAmerliGa (fT'gl..neW' f~lIJIll trace.s . wh icih acts as .IBiEljllliy'. (Kan1~r a~d 'Wat. tlii rust: belt load.aln basin {IF~g 6.the' ilmalll re." ThEl' f. toad .sii'rtoa it ts replacung water that prev~~II.9 h.·tYlpe sub tllllrc.tjo e h:aJng so 'that: . ~9:83)..noa eu Nes t'9rnld to have . die rived s'edl:m efil1::a~y ~::H~PiOls. R. such as 'fOlrms Idjao~nt '00 tihe rsut~a)l'iideanJ bellt il1l S~n.t beilrt aJS1 en 9 contlnent is partiaJly s.Hlingl'fau~t: iiftU'!.in~ (Diickin. a cOIIIIi~siona.iol1l. 1 u Th 9' subs lden ce hi$to ry ()'f mese basins r~fl~ect:s the [ate 01' 'tnn.i'lJS and the ~mp~a.itlJP~characterlsuo .d lo'a!~i'i1~" $Iuch as th~' P~rsian GIU Ilf (Figl.t:e'.so~" '19178). B"'I} co nl~a].oyde n .la!di '['Q.'renlSiona.5)! 'that rnrm by' 'the ()1~~iU1g' iDf an IOOa:~rlI basl n (Dickli OSo In" 197'6] ~ Un.t~nt" eonststs ~f' 1:he dockJng .t$!~1'9 83. ~ra n'$.l'olng' iaJ.~egme'nt !!l'~ a t~aiilStr\Of.. ve ry r'~!liid. te a largii e !e). The r~$lu. cease's iElill'Tld irela'~i.). intrac()ln'~'i rile'rih~~ . 1981.rJ ba$i~$ 'B~\~u mont.e! itI.celllI'1Ie'nt of possi b~e' subs ulriaoe: i'OM$. '1 9S4) _ In th ~ ease U lPe!r~p. e.5: Stoc~mal ~md Beau mCH't 198.ve JmI'otio 0 beg'l ns .~c~ive' {Fig. EL4.iii'howl tails 0'[ sorn ewhat ~Jo~l~r !jmb~idf.in~a. p mlba.t al.o~~tdlCOns i sts o'f ~he tBctD nle Iload ~. to .ii$. . Anelr a.. 6:-~).f19merllt alild basin e::(~ern:$io.i fa retroarc forrel a ~id bas.1.ex~en5ion..Jisting iin 'thle' adjiacelt1't !O rag.acrtiVlt!i SUIbd uetton zone eV1ollv€j'$ irUD.olrteJ~ ungl inii'tia..cdd·'~l1r'il.Jlbdlu~ted b~liIeaU~ a ~~1:h ~ r (A. as an .siuoolidhlQI due. The s.ubsiide.i.cr.a.]omaly OIf"I'OO '~he' 1Jaull~ {iei3jses to be .11 'f.e. i97'S ~I" I n ~e'riphe r!~dt!:)rei~. lc ablOl~t~ Ibu()Y~J"!lt'c~u~t ~~ forced u nae r..the 1lI1Ppsir plar~e 'Coney r 1'973.of thlQ~9 baslins aJre' short liived! pr~Ib::l!bIJy' ~eiHe~~~ 'the short dyrat~ii)n that ~!Ons.ao~p~'eS:S~()inal fault er move'f'ilillent.of ~oroe I'. n@arlly linl~aJn S·u.mmiilng me .nItaJtrorrn rats iill 'the basm. the ttrt.igl.i3Jnd Kaume1r. These much stud red bas i:tJl~ ~@ rrii'il bY' fI€!xU re 01: Hie' ~ii~hosp.oa~e.. '1~HiB). thie' subs u rface! load..aJ I'.bSiidenc@ Id~. ~If!l as eiiUlIer .f the '~rUJI~.iil"'! Ie ~€i'lrt a FIfe ~ie:d~me'. lhe i i'~h osphers bl~ha¥e:~.'~ shsets.[l. @ithe~' tne fault: co "fig ~.r:ill ~~.11 l5!~glm€w!'t be:collTI~'s n as 'tr.ltifllg s.h ere due '101 th@i' '8!mplac>I3!nr!'8n1:0'1 a.u'~'tal th inniing diurung .bly r'Hpr.

1"'..i!O'..'.~'U' ~.l' 11. Each Ibloc-k ~s .I'-!.4. ~ !\I..cmlfr iJnl~jl 1. 10_4 Iil. Id~aJi~d iSub.th'lc:kn€t~$€$o r.~jd~If!(. 1'985).siiderllo~' hi:stOnJ' Of ni~illrl'1OW rl'~ IbSiS'li~lS (fli\onm Pitman arid anl' Ilmilial cru~tteil !~nd l~ho~pl.H3'ri:c.espeC:tkvely'". .. i"'i "-'..A!f'Idlrlews..01' 301 KM L Z..ii..~ e.'" li!I...aI~~~'iI""~ . .'. ." 'II . SJ.~ lTli~1Qne~.s ! .~K M 1"1 M~.I' CZQ.It !...'fI'''"''~T'~ ~ . ba~ifll~ of t~n~e dilrfer~ll'ilt rniitl~JI fl'or block 'wi'dlihs (Xc). .~ ~If!...: FI\g'U'~ 16i.6. r~t''t.. I.".~ 'iii.i.\""" ~ W'I""""H . Shows $l)jb.S1te:~ched at 3.!. C~ and lLZ'o ~I I.

IJ'C' I~. . Il !'Whi:ll I ~ ": _.'...ni:plha._" m'l i~~i !..A£UAN P'l.'M:..RC FORELAND.11 .S~N - - - LVZ .~.' ~ R.r-1.~O.t.AA. B.Ii"1~ 'II .A.~.a"".'glJ..ETRQ.11 pa.~ ._ [1l3~sed a ls ll..~'m.. W R rlof1n.I:o]. ~1:... Il!Jll"Iii"liiJ:hl WIIIJ _ f-P ~ _ Figu[~' EL5 leotonric settling 0.Tf'O'RM ~1E:RS~AN 'GULf t MOUN''f AJNS (fold-thrust) / ~na Ulli' e t ~eH t.IISiIU ~li ~..A. IIII ~ .. -..ra~nd retroarc 1:'omlaoo D81sin!gi.~ 1.Ll .A.

s. the d i~f~ou in' ~cqJld~~. Seve'ra.ebasin fla·$.idenc. {1] The' de '!. 16.i'n (HeUe~ et all.~ctolf"!IC $reUing'.n acres s th e basirli . Q. SiMlCl!31ocean le Ilitho~pheire i~ d1en. S'UlbsrdeHloe.prodUlciftig: a cOfilvex·'llJp· .'~) li'n :add itii()r1~ !s@dim~Hflfls d1erllved l'r@m 'ij'g ~ tlil rust sneers a.I'den 00 (.a.~nects.s1: belt !::~O$iQn cd time' thru st ~oadolVer iongl p.~u ~'f thlEj' fill ~chanij.as~ng rata o~' ~~lbs:'ldeJ!lilce' CH.S.~h~n(j. in wn'lch i5Q!f!ta:lJic ri8'.ailid thE!: b~~in w:i II start 1Ur "II~'XILI rally lIIpllft In :SVr.S ulbS1~dence. ln 1hts easa.1 l. Howe/v'en-.ialrilcy .lJiOwi!trw tlh~' IrE! nil! (lv.i' h I.~lts ~nl ~n loc~E. li\l~idijs1!!'ib!Ulti sedi rriiiEWIIt.to.t!5 irnto '~hJ.1 mechanisms.~y r~ifl act d~SOOrriltiinUO'UI~ nrll)veme n t lof 1Hi!!Qt~ ru.tmrllg to pog r:i3Jp ic d ep re.ld€J\l'ilce to miglra.e. ~ubs.CUI rve (IFig..iljfVEH~ fro in fCrm!tJlFc. OC~~aJnle prla:l1e I~ OOI1SU msd . [Juri ~gl i. [b~l9JilI re. 6.~):js.ilUIld loe no iitec~.~c :relQ'ion. th~s 'tlllie're' W.~denCB' iincluding .t 5.antit3.~tive'I'y IIuUIIs q !lJ.~liongJ tha convergl~~Nlit maff'g i 1'11.atinQI h~lI"~~U'C: ballii~ ~u[bs.trartig rap hi~ data b) 2'00 !JIJiat:e'~y dele rrnin e ~Uib~id~'nl~E.dand resultan t ~ebQu-m:ll of UUi' I'Orel!tJllnd b~~.(}C ratio n Slry WlOOg@.eJ i r!i '10 rea.8U1bi$'id~i"liDe WQU Id rr9lSIlJlt 'hom sednm~ Joad i3impli~'yilngl th~ p revle usiy nit .sph!efa that i1 replaces.:mt ~~C~Or:l C(HTlpo n e nt to 'the ~l!ib:sidl~ri!ce ic h istolry.! lOT ~he o ~igliln.J5}.Ellph ic h~ghis orf tlhr8i VIO lcanie . huther 0 WI acw.alII gf' ~her .SCU~9..rlo:d:s 0:1' tl [fill ~ ~dlef thnJSlt~ng csases lie ads to fi'mOrvall ~~: ~he thiru st ~o\a.1) 'm.aJrlhie rr' !j'Jllllt across me ibasilrll 1tHCiirlgi ~U!lbs.I. dense s U! bd LJc1l@a pllat:e\ be neath thie.i s feu FUl i nl front C'~ vO~t·inric: arc sys~~ms n (Fig.oss th~ ftH'eland (:see n'g d'[. eUectiv€'lly' de ubi irug 1ihe liitnospne're: thii()kiill~S. Segm~W111ed sUlbsidence CUIFv'91~ (Fi!QI.a11 lo:ad. siign~fuc.'~ive ~.rrea.f't~ r. has. :s1u II 5:hOW' thef1e to. wlill cease .n adl~quat8 ~ty g $.~ms dy O'~ s~lbs. i1n thi s lo~~e. a 'topoglrai:lh n~e' ('2) Subsidlence cue to the' i sostalic response (if emp~~Ghlga.d '(.m~gllriatiOri of ~hr!J$.a.. .sponse due tiO $!e-d~m€:nt loadiil'1Q' has beewn removed I(Fig" 6.s:sio nl. be a. the 'tor.: There lc bas~n Ib9nveeTii the top oglr.~ 1'9SS).file".8.s~:tting:s. may ~Ia:y rO~El:S in g.tuon :zJi)ne.istributes tne' I@.er.~rJd Ulnd ~rl tes the' frQ.ean:~reg von 5 L!lbsid~$.efil. .SEl'r'th~Jfli 1:hle a~.of th~' subd'UJlcted s i EIIb'~h~iilg ~lS~ eHh er !by chalilig~s ln age! of the . c .r o iii 1f1i C'1h1apiteir '7).re IbaJ5. As the buoY. ~rq j:lart th is r.nitiatiQlrll lof a s L!J bdIU(l. .ttn~y _ are emp~a'!i)~d Ir'ad.Tn nBltI)rc Ireg i'OIfi!.i'\elopm ent o'f.@ Iilic" h s jjjibsid~noe.~rc and .rles. iif1 thlis 't.t:e across UI e' basin over ~iime·.

es~donl 'the . SUnda arc (Curry.Wng 'crl .-.a)t" 1[917)" 8.E IflgrliJ1r8 6.t~rtdllgfap and 'fc~lFl'atiC:basins. let ..S:UIBDU CT'I [OIN CO.IR' BULI(.MiPl_ E-:X::' . .6 l@ctOrlUWc: se.eu'C. _ _ _ _ [ J 'OUTE.

."Ii$'hlll'[ili'i! 'f.a.t~d to the' slLIlbdurnied siab ~:$ $IU bstde nee eausee waJrm b!J.paSSU\llQ marg i ~s) ~ but the rate (llf s.ir!.aJU.$..e.~H"e.JC'~li(i.~ I~~in aJ.]) "Iotll~d th..a~lPlr:yto s:illiJat. 1:h n e S:~n Alndrsas Faulltt" developed.e IU n de'~thruS'ti riJ[g alild b u iilJd u~ of the.e.--1. ascribed to ill .~bdu.fde'nGB_ ln_ '~he fOI~Ei~"" 1I'~""i""n ~~ w.l!Jb:sidianc~· h is.f tfh iiclk~MH~d 8t..! (4) A ~lo'l:h IPO:s~ib rnechanlsm f.Uibdluctfo O~3.h'~ AJ€NlJtiali1 are... wiln~ Uti ts modeli is wih. Th !.$.e.u.d~ ef me .'~}.'~:ory of' thl~' Me~!llzo lc Gr'83.id.d~!rease illl a.~ 'Iih at Ih~y.i(Jrl~ wh a.aiuU. Mo.~rg i!i:6 bace nill'e seen 'th. aocre:liioruuywedg..:8JO a eccl i ng p!la1!~ by it sle If . t~ the a!ite~liy.!jjlFdl~di reet-ed.dJiSid\ii'JjnGe' 'curve.onaln'91e::. This rnechanlsm WOild lid on~y .ifilg fleX'Ui'\al $ u bsicj'. a imaj'or tra.gil}n h e)(amtp~e~ (Fig . The' res i!Jilt~ng SL!lbSidleno~ eu rv.downg-oing ocaanic IPlar~eor lbiy' 'the ~.JloY.3) A mechan ism by ra~.ether . ~...~ as we ill' as. c'auiSedi i:Y:..1: Va]ll~ry' Sequ8 noe in es nrhai CIJ~lft~lmira.)(o n1J :i3Jnd Glrailh ifl!m [11'98.aJnt u PP!!3'1I' pilate by oolildUi~ti:Oln to a (XH)I€'r plartH.se i~ost9itic Erffects. .e v'olb~n an~5 are IQiGi3!U'~ lc 'I' '!i.ea$~ thle re is I!ll@ :1(Hlgar a d9nl~el plats :be rne..eUirnglS b eh i n d t. ' -.ebOluftld eeeurree.~~1.Sf.jd iWil Ia.~itelS of fo ~iarc: .hl.. O'~ th@ hJh~d cau$.ngh~! oil s. In would be eXlPofiH. ' -' ..e may s h 0''1'11' ITIHi1Iny' ''!i\erlliica~ .1 as the.t@o~ plac~ wlh'~ n i~()~.5 u bsidellKl13i would be s i Fl'1fHar to (l U1J~ 1lh r @lFmalll'y-a riV~!"I1 basl 1118 (8 ueh as .·I.. 0 r b uO~aJnt.--".of the su bl$ldl~tn(l!e:h iSitory .I. 11:maJy' b~ pos. bae k-are s.y act as a pl8!rt.Igg ~S1~ t~at thi:s n'Ifl Sitha.~-+'''''I r .ad cd 'the yo Ica!1iic or 09 arc and by [h. tne' dowlf"!gl. The!' n~sunilnQ r:~H.Y.)~'rng sllab. OOQ~.or ]'0 r~i3Jrc subsidenee is 'fiIe~:r. (.i lid be' mueh faster ti.o'f' 'fo r'ea~'O s ~ bsvd~inoa is 'thi~t 0 f!l~~ sub d~cti(Hfl c.ta Ce r1@zolie time a$.!"!.sllbl'9 1:hat similar ~oading by the aJ'O m~.~.eaUJS.!1lty in applll'i IiIIg this nnodie.·:':'-' __ _ __ _ _ _ __ " . rella.nl (J.oti'on ~t.UcaJ~y Ir€lb~ILH)d.a!n~(.i of it ng !!Jrrldewll"ittg ~ subduct'ed thls ease ~ub~idsnee l . l(olm~ oceanic crust wtiJ'i(lh aooret~1 a~o~9 corrverg ent li'Ii'j. lSll. $.g atm~iSph:e'ne.!llt:u~:i'deIl'l!Ge.1ll!rnia QUiE!iSwIIDEl .r-earr:c ~gli~ f"il and tlh....re hot. m~g t 'e)(1P1ail1l both 'U!I~' modiem Jap~n and EloCer1l9 O:~e. :Setl S~ ~f'I I!Jjpw.1 ~oadfj'" BOWildl.y lead 10 Suib5."""-_.sl!t. sole or pdnc:ip·lle 'Ga.sl. co llliiaJirled abrupt chal!1!l'e$ iiffl r..llil M lilUliliUlanmi.' th!E). no sl!Jlcn r.l[]bd\.ill r net .nsity co ntrast bellwe~fi1 th~i :$ Ubd u'O'IlOO ~I~jb arid asthenesphere ~lhl!1rJjg!€i~Ie~di ng to i$1o$t~dc n~adjus1meIi11: of the fe n~arc: casu.Ai'e u'liiafti basi'i n a.a!~io n albrea unusua]. the 'r'Q.et ~J_ [1 9SS} havel each s~g:ge'$ted that the velcanie are ma.!tCli. .tl)llC~' in 'thle' Nodh .u er I~ ral lback·ti Irt~n9 0" tbe basin '~10 IU n d e!f the' ~@P raphle 1(..:zII" . such as CtJiU oce~nic p lart. 'w'heu~ such a tHota nic transition .* .llifo rn la. Tlh ils: siitu. The dHficll.~b\~id'e'~c~WOI!. ".nism i n :ib~fi!'I\fd(H:~S explal 11 all .f..~.!!ii1~ian ovelr '~1 and: the mag f1I i'~U.6. U'H~ .Eljbasin she ulJd u plij~'tJl Idl 'and erod i illig the basirn 13)1 sled i UIfI ents _ I fi! n Ointlr:all Ga.

re~ailivli3'l~ n~!r~ on e. 119 75) r.vt~. modelers..:Moll nlaw ali"lJd r~.$'U'nlg that mlihi:p. 1'977) suggle$t~.illtS ha'V9 b~9n ' .n.[j balsr.Jig.of th es. Haxby et .~rp~arlh.1984).~~s'ive toadling olr~g~.' Illong w.~.a:st. ~ 'iJh~' n Arfca and ~ql!!.r..pp.s of 'IiISJfiQ'u -r.!. trans .Jlr.~J.i'den¢~ rneenan h1HiI'ili ('e.iI i.r. -the de'n~I~.. '6".".i' 19815: Kleln aJndi Hsui I' 1'987'..onTer. eulnlE: r b¥' ilh~ vallcanic: are.ret1 .ub5Ii~jlei1lce' las~8.appears..iso sNltiicaUy OQmfHllJlisa.(U iln'~ra. Haxby let al.L_Q" '" '.phen:~ fc rrmling eYi=s'haifjle.ow~VEl'~'" 'i!hJ~' exact natur'9 !Oif the' mechen isms. Ih elr.of IiTi ullliO!l ye.ol the accre:Uonary subd uetlen complex ln 'fron't of ttU~1 lo 1l'e\~fC r'e. k'ile me.1-Wh_ I 'DOtUDnent.of.Iilil -. 1 6.@a~!C S b~sjr1h3seam WI be qu it~ d i'fr€mEmt.a.s may be at wo ~k.i9S te be d hf'fic I!J ~. In the. 1976~ He idI.rfl." ·t-· .l~ h m€Jchanis..li -11--.~rth.two. 0" 1 flex Ulr.se Olf the' esust ca U sing il .to CQr'ilV!ii1nlt ~o a nig hat-density ph ase.'1)" S..fig..8.1 awe.and 6. thenmaJ.~s.g.a]ufet a'i . Olvleil' 'lvme' and Mo bedy. bas i ns stl II pW'!J..j3J1" ('197 6} rilI11i(Jdel(F'igl. a pllogr. ·-1aren easms a:s.ai..FUg~~.Clomp I'ex: or both" sUlgg asts n~a!t subsidence ~Istolrie. N.lliq!l. NlIln n1J and Sleep.aJ I'~' pu I~$ dOrWTi thre~ surroe nd~ln9 Iithlo. '~he ~ooretio l11ary s ulbd uetion .ges.~ower crust aets as .to the S'lJb~.i'dEl-!1Cle(d 'th e' agilflgl eesan tleer I( Ff:g.9.~WiIdupl iln . 8.'11 s~gge. .€'tlJrc reglio n in fl'ex. ~iLllil'ilnc.F:'lI. (.1' off the ~oa$t of ctJm~" pmgllressive (Co!!Jlbourrn back tiiltJ1._C_!. ELli 1). thi!31 MiICh'ig.. 16". . Ortu:.. ev'9int: pie !1C88 thle' mantle IIld I' warms ~p the ba.'~er. '19184.?~ 'the ~ithols\pher@ cools. S:ubsidenoe iin some .maJnr:y' te ns '~o hUiliidr~d~ . S!lJbgk~ ell'1ice of 'tlilese' D'asJrHll.gl.1:ed and. Iload fo r.s af 'te~to n r0< !EHJlb:s~dleIi!C6 over thiiS li me.a_~ll..a1JnIBasin (. is ra~hlir:slOW in compadson to ol~her basi n types and .C::(Nl'tllnen talll bas. a.>-:id:!!''"'''~. H. 'f·orm-re .h.~'OCI.J:e' 'f'or-aar.~'I'<!:id .ort!$the'II~$s. 16.ve-I~ng'th fl-exure o~ the lith OS" here _ 'IIn con'~. most modle~~ basin 'foirmaHon eel I on therrnat sulb$. {IFig. 5.0 ii nt~ ~p. 0 r' bUiDyant:I' lDad 'that may causa Ibalck-tmu ng l[]if the in r.II -'-I>h " ~r.aJ.i' ~ed1imentary u If!id.t '1. of 'f'(')'lIma:ti om 'ror 'In ese.'1)..~'"'' Othe'r .ef@ ~e! do n Clt exert . blllt hla.e 'btllsi'n~. Liim iliad data E:" ~INrTHACONf~NII:: NFF AlBASl1 N S Larg!e cllrcu:IBlr c:n:dOln[o naslns sueti .'12).QJijlljl!1 gilS nerr~tes an !:Jlpw~u(~=d~reeted. (Ii) lcklnse n. N u ~n et all. 1976).n basins (.ngl~'f 1on~'a!ro:sed~merilt"u}f ~aJcka..ar~ wiitn CHilly' !QfiH~i !D r.a~co IIi's'ion and ~~ca!pe (Kluth Bnd C~ ney i '~9181.. sifnike.ail response.ht-U~e '@ye of sub:~~delr'llce.8J bu~II'S msch ~r:I i sms of "orrn atic n 'f.. to b@ :steppedl (lFig.r wh~ch en. and failed rifts..

k~~~~_~------~~==i: m e l.!Ii!l. SOlil~hAn']Ji~'ri~~!filc.. .tudlng p!ot i o~:~W!il-way~MV~~1hTH~! belvviNlHl! Ire:necb~iF..3ersus.! ilii!3-}i1 ~ o !I. :IT!'t1i er LfI1l~t. iiii:ili L' !iP 4~~====~------~--======~ Agure ELi Pmfiih.!.~ 2.and MoberJ'y ('i Si1.. I I 1M".s Of iqU~!JH and Arica BasirtiS. h~IIJerall ~stan()i9. Fmrn!'il v d CaullboUllrlm1 .i I~~ Ii _ .W!. _: 0' KM <i.~Iii!Llii:.

. IMo...... .di11ed fr.... ('~ 984a)". MIC:IHIGIAN BASIN Fllgu{e 81.' 'C . ''i. . Ii) ~ I -. . . O j . ........ ..olitrl Nunn et' lal. .13 $implUi'ed geologtc m~p Of the Mlc:hjgan lBaisi n..

~.~i~.. From Nu rUlI et al . ret 1 cr'O$~l'cS8<cUOll'il O'f Ulla IMi'chr!g~n B~sirtL From TH IICKN ESS OF' S. Figlilft 6.(191t\Wa)..~ .[]!. l' I) IQrdovlici~niso.pac himap c~ lhe Midhigaln Basara.4aJ.9 Or:chlV!cian '~oJurassIc 1~'L!lrn~ at f1 :9'8..~ iill ~00 C.. KI{i ~~'I''''_NIl:!.E'O'IlMENIT' ORt!JOVICIA N' :liDO Km . rnl!i~I!i'~ I . Figure 6.

es(~n km 1[1 'II 2 [] B.km.ra.o'slSt Foster [Figure· 6.' et at (i 97£)).11 Totall su bsi'den:ce.I I···· Depth. . F[um Haxb. 2: I 0' w ~I . l'i'i'skuy [Olf 'tin e M&chigBn lBasi. B Gu~'~/8a~'.z.n dlu'ri'ng midd~el lPahJozoic '~Ime.

m1 of:' the Michigan 1~lirli_ . a!-'<iI~l~ tj' ...-.~. ~ ! :.2 iIIU'l!S~1JU1 d'ensUIC~lion model -(-or·fotmal'io Et FmofJ'ililHa>:!by et at 1(1 916~.i~lU'tt9 ~. .~(i. .~-:~-i-~~ F.!'ii~"'!ljj ~i'I~!I_~ ..~ . ~a I' .'I -~o i!i.-.l.~il.

of da'ta.e.!5~-dii rnentary and te.or hi'~deranc~ '001 a mor.jbside'II1'D~ (ij . Fer the! most part these n '~IPP~ lcatlans are rather b. to rnnst majjow tectenle .ra:M well com~.aJHv'siy .yl~' blut dOl net e\:<~I. data sets.- 'Ce'rtaJ rlJly ttU.d wa~'.518'. become .aiiglilt.~oout: Imtjhos.~.train!8d .~.y.~~timany oase5.v.aJiWll details of the oa~~n hhitory" The maj. 'th~'x~ aflld re' t~e~~1Mt1al) c:aln Of ialP[lI~ed.f"Oiad ~ they describe the' oVEm3J i $lJIo.r:. rnec haff! is m:s.t.wo and 'Ilhr@~.b~e fo r' 9 ~~.~ ~olt1!1pl undl~r. 'cd ~!li. .~ic Si~mng:s. .~lif.aJnally~e5i done' hi~r. ildditio nl~ s.9.llutioll1l is the lack.~Iedimerilta~y Ibets~ln d ev~lolpme!ilft u welill as . and If]ot: just 1ha ona-d imensi:olnal . in a.LJch alli.e.seUfi g:s.~ulbsiide nee Ih lste riles iln several og te'cto.dii meills:iofil S.s -.s~an ete di~gl o~~ basl n IItlvo.stlr.E~UMMARY TIIt1I~ bia5tc. In.5 inJeed te be' dOlne lin 'I.l'~:e'ls much to bEl' 18~med .aI'vai Ia. rHI.p~eric mech ~n I C$ and ..8. local iSiOs:t~5.skAe rtioe .1nn:ic ~nteract~(iiors O'~C€l' morQ ca m[pl:et. '~'OiMal.~.9!iIIHb te" .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful