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Chess Variants Collection

Chess Variants Collection

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Chess variants

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Contents
Articles
Introduction
Chess variant 1 1 16 16 17 29 31 31 46 48 48 53 54 56 59 63 70 77 81 87 88 94 94 96 99 100 101 102 104 105

Different starting position
Displacement chess Chess960 Transcendental chess

Different forces
Chess handicap Dunsany's chess

Different board
Minichess Los Alamos chess Grid chess Cylinder chess Circular chess Alice chess Hexagonal chess Three-dimensional chess Cubic chess Flying chess Dragonchess

Unusual rules
Antichess Atomic chess Three checks chess Extinction chess Crazyhouse Knight relay chess Andernach chess Checkless chess

Circe chess Legan chess Madrasi chess Monochromatic chess Patrol chess PlunderChess

106 108 110 111 113 114 115 115 118 120 121 123 126 126 127 128 129 130 133 133 141 144 146 148 150 151 153 153 164 165 166 167 168 169 175

Incomplete information and elements of chance
Kriegspiel Dark chess Penultima Dice chess Knightmare Chess

Multimove variants
Marseillais chess Progressive chess Avalanche chess Monster chess Kung-fu chess

Multiplayer variants
Bughouse chess Three-handed chess Four-handed chess Forchess Djambi Bosworth Enochian chess

Unusual pieces
Fairy chess piece Hippogonal Grasshopper Grasshopper chess Berolina chess Maharajah and the Sepoys Omega Chess Stealth Chess

Pocket mutation chess Baroque chess Chess with different armies Duell Gess

182 184 192 197 198 200 200 201 202 206 208 209 210 211 214 214 222 224 227 227 242 243 253 257 258 261 267 269 271 272 273 278 278 298 299

Variants with bishop+knight and rook+knight compounds
Seirawan chess Janus chess Capablanca chess Capablanca random chess Gothic Chess Embassy Chess Modern chess Grand chess

Games inspired by chess
Arimaa Icehouse pieces Martian chess

Historical variants
History of chess Cox-Forbes theory Liubo Chaturanga Sessa Chaturaji Shatranj Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli Tamerlane chess Hiashatar Senterej Lewis chessmen

Xiangqi and variants
Xiangqi Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings Banqi

Giog

303 306 306 320 324 330 333 335 341 344 346 348 350 357 364 370 377 382 389 399 401 407 408 409 418 434 441 441 453 478 507 521 551 571 609 621 624

Shogi and variants
Shogi Shogi strategy and tactics History of shogi Meijin Ryu-oh Computer shogi Shogi variant Micro shogi Minishogi Kyoto shogi Judkins shogi Whale shogi Tori shogi Yari shogi Heian shogi Sho shogi Cannon shogi Hasami shogi Hand shogi Annan shogi Unashogi Wa shogi Chu shogi Heian dai shogi Akuro Dai shogi Tenjiku shogi Dai dai shogi Maka dai dai shogi Ko shogi Tai shogi Taikyoku shogi Sannin shogi Yonin shogi Edo-era shogi sources

Other national variants
Janggi Makruk Sittuyin

625 625 630 633 636 636 638

Chess variants software
ChessV SMIRF

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 640 646

Article Licenses
License 654

1

Introduction
Chess variant
A chess variant is a game related to, derived from or inspired by chess.[1] The difference from chess might include one or more of the following: • different board (larger or smaller, non-square board shape overall or different intra-board cell shapes such as triangles or hexagons) • addition, substitution or removal of pieces in standard chess (non-standard pieces are known as fairy pieces) • different rules for capture, move order, game objective, etc. Regional chess games, some of which are older than Western chess, such as Chaturanga, Shatranj, Xiangqi and Shogi, are typically called chess variants in the Western world. They have some similarities to chess and share a common game ancestor. The number of possible chess variants is Gliński's hexagonal chess – one of many chess variants virtually unlimited. Confining the number to published variants, D.B. Pritchard, author of The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, estimates there are well over 2000.[2] [3] In the context of chess problems, chess variants are called fantasy chess, heterodox chess or fairy chess. Some chess variants are used only in problem composition and not in actual play.

Chess-derived games
These chess variants are derived from chess by changing the board, pieces or rules.

Chess with different starting positions
In these variants, the starting position is different, but otherwise the board, pieces and rules are the same. In most of such variants the pawns are placed on their usual place, but position of other pieces is either randomly determined or selected by the players. The motivation for these chess variants is to nullify established opening knowledge. The downside of these variants is that the initial position has usually less harmony and balance than standard chess position.[4]

Chess variant

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Chess960 – one of the 960 possible starting positions
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Upside-down chess starting position (White sits at bottom) • Chess960 (or Fischer Random Chess): The placement of the pieces on the first rank is randomized, and the pieces on the eighth rank mirror it. • Displacement chess: Some pieces in the initial position are exchanged but the rules remain exactly the same. Some examples of this may be that the king and queen are flipped, or the knight on the b-file is traded with the bishop on the f-file. • Pre-Chess: Proposed by Pal Benko in 1978.[5] The game starts with white and black pawns set as usual, but the initial position of other pieces is selected by the players in the following way: First, White places one of his pieces on his first rank, and then Black does the same. Players continue to alternate in this manner until all pieces have been placed. (The only restriction being, bishops must be placed on opposite-color squares.) Then the game proceeds in the usual way. Castling is permitted only if the king and a rook were placed on their usual squares. • Transcendental chess: Similar to Chess960, but the opening white and black positions do not mirror each other. • Upside-down chess: The black and white pieces are switched so that all the pawns are one step away from getting promoted.[6] The game can start, for example: 1. Nc6 Nf3 2. b8Q g1Q etc.

Chess variant

3

Chess with different forces
Some chess variants use different number of pieces for White and Black. All pieces in these games are standard chess pieces, there are no fairy chess pieces. • Dunsany's chess (or Horde chess): One side has standard chess pieces, and the other side has 32 pawns. • Handicap chess (or Chess with odds): Variations to equal chances of players with different strength. • Pawns game: In the starting position White does not have a queen, but has eight additional pawns (see diagram below). The game was played by such old masters as Labourdonnais, Deschappelles and Kieseritsky.[7] • Peasant's revolt: By R.L. Frey (1947). White has a king and eight pawns (the peasants) against king, pawn and four knights by Black (the nobles).[8] • Weak!: White has usual pieces, Black has one king, seven knights and sixteen pawns. This game was played at Columbia University chess club in the 1960s.[9]
a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Pawns game
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Peasant's revolt

Chess variant

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Weak!

Chess with different boards

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Raumschach starting position (inverted knights represent unicorns) In these chess variants the same pieces and rules as in chess are used, but the board is different. It can be smaller or larger, non-square overall or based upon triangle or hexagon spaces (instead of square spaces). The movement of pieces in some variants is modified to account for the unusual property of the playing board. • Active Chess: Played on a 9×8 board, an extra queen is placed with an extra pawn in front. Invented by G. Kuzmichov in 1989, his students play-tested the game, deciding the best opening array was to place the second queen on either the eighth or ninth file.[10] • Alice Chess: Played with two boards. A piece moved on one board passes "through the looking glass" onto the other board. • Circular chess: Played on a circular board consisting of four rings, each of sixteen squares.

Chess variant • Cubic Chess: A 3D variant similar to Raumschach but played on a 6×6×6 board. Each player has six pieces and 12 pawns. • Cylinder chess: Played on a cylinder board with a- and h-files "connected". Thus a player can use them as if the a-file were next to the h-file (and vice versa). • Chess Attack: Played on a six row, five columns board, Chess Attack follows standard chess rules, and can be regarded as an endgame variant. • Doublewide chess: Two or four regular chess boards are connected (for a 16×8 or 16×16 play surface) and each player plays with two complete sets of chess pieces. Because each player has two kings, the first king can be captured without ending the game.[11] • Flying chess: This is played on a board of 8×8×2, giving a total of 128 cells. Only certain pieces can move to and from the additional level. • Gravity chess: Rules are the same as in regular chess, except that all pieces are gravitationally "attracted" to the h-file (or a-file, depending on variants). This means that whenever there is free space between a piece and the h-file, the piece moves as far as it can to the h-file until the free space runs out. • Grid chess: The board is overlaid with a grid of lines. For a move to be legal, it must cross at least one of these lines. • Hexagonal chess: A family of chess variants played on a hexgrid with three colours and three bishops. • Infinite chess: Has a board shaped like the infinity symbol. It is connected at the center, and all pieces of the traditional chess are used.[12] • Lord Loss chess: Played on five different boards with two players. One person moves a piece on any board and his/her opponent can choose to move on a different or the same board. The game is featured in the book Lord Loss by Darren Shan. • Los Alamos chess (or Anti-Clerical chess): Played on a 6×6 board without bishops. This was the first chess-like game played by a computer program. • Millennium chess: Similar to Doublewide chess. Two boards are connected side by side; however, in this variant the middle files are merged, making a 15×8 board. • Millennium 3D Chess: An easy-to-learn 3D variant played on a 8×8×3 board. • Minichess: A family of chess variants played with regular chess pieces and standard rules, but on a smaller board. • Polgar Superstar Chess: Hexagonal chess variant played on a special, star-shaped board.[13] It was invented by László Polgár in 2002.[14] • Raumschach: Called "the classic 3D game" (Pritchard); played on a 5×5×5 board, including a new piece (unicorn) to move through cube vertices. • Singularity chess: Played on a board distorted in the center. Due to the distortion, some pieces can make U-turns, attack the same square multiple ways, and bishops can possibly change square colors (e.g., starting on a black square and ending on a white square).[15] • Tri-D Chess (or Star Trek chess): The 3D version of chess depicted in the television series Star Trek; rulesets created by fans.

5

Chess with unusual rules
• Absorption Chess: A capturing piece gains the movement abilities of the piece it is capturing. Therefore if a rook captured a bishop, the rook would then be able to move like a queen as it can move like the rook and now the bishop. This rule does not apply to kings and pawns. • Absorption Chess II (or Seizer's Chess): Similar to the original Absorption Chess. A capturing piece gains the movement abilities of the piece it is capturing. This rule does apply to kings and pawns. • Accelerated Chess: Each player makes two non-capturing moves or one capturing move in each turn. • Andernach chess: A piece making a capture changes colour.

Chess variant • Antichess (or Giveaway chess, Take Me chess, Loser's chess, Suicide chess, Must Kill, Reverse Chess): Capturing moves are mandatory and the object is to lose all pieces. There is no check – the king is captured like an ordinary piece. • Arimaa: A piece may push or pull opponents weaker piece. • Atomic chess: Any capture on a square results in an "atomic explosion" which kills (i.e. removes from the game) all pieces in any of the eight surrounding squares, except for pawns. • Benedict chess: Pieces are not allowed to be "captured". If a piece when moved could capture an opposing piece in its next move, that opposing piece changes sides.[16] • Checkers chess: Normal rules of chess are followed. However, pieces can only move forwards until they have reached the far rank.[17] • Checkless chess: Players are forbidden from giving check except to checkmate. • Chicken Chess: A combination of Benedict Chess and Suicide Chess. As in Suicide, the object is to lose all of your pieces and captures are mandatory. As in Benedict, if you threaten a piece it changes to your color. • Circe chess: Captured pieces are reborn on their starting squares. • Crazyhouse: Captured pieces change the colour and can be dropped on any unoccupied location. There are two variations of this variant, known as Loop chess and Chessgi. • Einstein chess: Pieces transform into more or less powerful pieces when they move.[18] • Extinction chess: A player must capture all of any one type of pieces his/her opponent controls to win (for example, all the knights an opponent has, or all their pawns, etc.) • Genesis Chess: The game begins with a blank board and opponents take turns placing down or moving pieces.[19] • Guard chess (or Icelandic chess): Allows captures only when a piece is completely unprotected by friendly pieces. Checkmate occurs when the piece forcing the mate is protected and therefore cannot be captured.[20] • Hierarchical chess: Pieces must be moved in the following order: pawn, knight, bishop, rook, queen, king. A player who has the corresponding piece but cannot move it loses the game.[21] • Jedi Knight chess: Knights may move three spaces diagonally or horizontally or both, depending on the rules accepted.[22] • Kamikaze chess: When capturing, the capturing piece is removed from the board also. So, a king cannot defend itself by capturing an attacker. A capture is not allowed if it would expose the king to discovered check.[23] • Knight relay chess: Pieces defended by a friendly knight can move as a knight.
a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Knightmate starting position • Knightmate (or Mate The Knight): A a game invented by Bruce Zimov in 1972. The goal of the game is to checkmate the opponents's knight (which is placed on e-file). The kings on b- and g-files can be captured as other

Chess variant pieces. Pawns can additionally promote to kings but not to knights.[24] Legan chess: Played as if the board would be rotated 45°, initial position and pawn movements are adjusted accordingly. Madrasi chess: A piece which is attacked by the same type of piece of the opposite colour is paralysed. Monochromatic chess: All pieces must stay on the same colour square as they initially begin. Patrol chess: Captures and checks are only possible if the capturing or checking piece is guarded by a friendly piece. PlunderChess: The capturing piece is allowed to temporarily take the moving abilities of the piece taken. Reincarnation Chess: A captured piece can turn into a zombie, then reincarnate back into the game as a normal piece if captured again. Refusal chess (or Outlaw chess, Rejection chess): When a player makes a move the opponent can refuse to accept it, forcing the first player to change to another move, which must be accepted. The only exception is when only one legal move is possible.[25] Replacement chess: Captured pieces are not removed from the board but moved by the capturer anywhere else on the board.[26] Rifle chess (or Shooting chess, Sniper chess): When one piece captures another, it remains unmoved in its original square, instead of occupying the square of the piece it has captured.[27]

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• Stationary King: Both players' kings are not allowed to move. • Take-all: The first player to capture all opposing pieces wins. The king is allowed to move into check and pawns can be promoted to kings. • Three-check chess: A player wins if he checks the opponent three times.

Chess with incomplete information or elements of chance
In these chess variants, luck or randomness sometimes plays a role. Still, like in poker or backgammon, good luck and bad luck even out over the long-term with clever strategy and consideration of probabilities being decisively important. • • • • • • • ChessHeads: Played with cards that change the game rules.[28] [29] Dark chess: You see only squares of the board that are attacked by your pieces. Dice chess: The pieces a player is able to move are determined by rolling a pair of dice. Fantasy Chess: Traditional chess with a layer of wargaming added. Players fight for the square (which can be co-occupied) using dice. Can be expanded to 4 player game and piece capability can improve each game.[30] Knightmare Chess: Played with cards that change the game rules. Kriegspiel: Neither player knows where the opponent's pieces are but can deduce them with information from a referee. No Stress Chess: Marketed for teaching beginners, the piece or pieces a player is able to move are determined by drawing from a deck of cards, with each card providing the rules for how the piece may move.[31] Castling and en passant are not allowed. Play It By Trust: Devised by Yoko Ono. Both players' pieces are white, which means after a few moves, players must learn to trust each other as to whose pieces are whose. Penultima: An inductive chess variant where the players must deduce hidden rules invented by "Spectators". Schrödinger's chess: Each player's minor pieces are concealed in such a way that the opponent does not know what they are until they are revealed. When covered, pieces move in a restricted way.[32]

• • •

• Synchronous chess: Players try to outguess each other, moving simultaneously after privately recording intended moves and anticipated results. Incompatible moves, for instance to the same square with no anticipated capture, are replayed. Alternatively, two pieces moving to the same square are both captured, unless one is the king, in which case it captures the other. Play ends with capture of king.[33]

• Marseillais chess (or Two-move chess): After the first turn of the game by White being a single move. Siamese chess. The board and the pieces in these variants are the same as in standard chess. Multiplayer variants These variants arose out of the desire to play chess with more than just one other person. Swap chess. Exchange chess. • Progressive chess (or Scottish chess): The White player moves once. Transfer Chess. Allies use opposite colours and give captured pieces to their partner. • Bosworth: A four player chess variant played on 6×6 board. for example. check or checkmate. Matrix chess. Advanced Teamwork Chess): Two teams of two players face each other on two boards. The team may discuss and play alternative moves freely. It uses a special card system with the pieces for spawning. the object is to capture the king. Any player can move any of his pieces at any given moment. Captured pieces are not removed from the board. • Doublemove chess:[34] Similar to Marseillais chess. There are variants for three players or five players (Pentachiavel). but turned upside down. etc. played with only one board. Tandem chess. It is possible (using the queen and rook) to cross the board from one zone to another. • Bughouse chess (or Double chess. is Crazyhouse.Chess variant 8 Multimove variants In these variants one or both players can move more than once per turn. • Djambi: Can be played by four people with a 9×9 board and four sets of special pieces. the White player moves three times. • Avalanche chess: Each move consists of a standard chess move followed by a move of one of the opponent's pawns. • Zonal chess:[35] Board has triangular wings or "zones" on either side of the main 8×8 board. The Bughouse chess. could zig around an obstruction and attack a piece in the opposite zone. but any piece entering a zone cannot make use of the extended move. each player moves twice per turn. • Business chess: Played with two teams using normal chess playing rules but allowing up to five variations of the game. The two-player version of the game. the game in progress pieces can capture or move the pieces of an adversary. • Kung-Fu chess: A chess variant without turns. but with no en passant. . A queen. the Black player moves twice. • Monster chess (or Super King): White has the king and four pawns against the entire black army but may make two successive moves per turn. Queens. Note that the power to change direction only applies when a piece's move starts from a zonal area. bishops and rooks that start from one of the squares in either zone may change direction and keep going on the same move.

Each player has two enemy kings to attack. • Fortress chess: A four-player variant played in Russia in 18th and 19th centuries. The same idea is found in the game Hippodrome. which was invented by Andy Lewicki in 2003. Then one of the pieces (except knights) is removed and the game is started. A player can move white and black pieces in any order. All pieces are placed randomly. • Forchess: A four-person version using the standard board and two sets of standard pieces. Then one of the queens is removed and the game is started. . except the knights. In difference to chess puzzles. Pieces move as usual. The game goal and rules are also very similar to those in chess. All pieces are placed randomly.[36] All chess pieces (except pawns) are randomly placed on a 4×4 board. • Three player chess: Family of chess variants specially designed for three players. However. these variants have a random starting position. • Four-handed chess (or Chess 4. The goal is to move all knights to the opposite rank. or visit all squares on the board only once. The goal is to move the queen to one of the corners. Similar to card solitaires. 9 Single player variants Queen's Quadrille.Chess variant • Enochian chess: A four-player variant with magical symbolism. there are a few chess variants for a single player. these chess variants include one or more fairy pieces which move differently than chess pieces. without regard for color. which was invented by Karen Robinson in 1998. • Mad Threeparty Chess: For three players on a 10×10 board. Hippodrome. for example the game Queen's Quadrille. Chess with unusual pieces Most of the pieces in these chess variants are borrowed from chess. however capturing is not allowed. and two of his own to defend.[37] The initial position is obtained by placing four knights on the first row and all other pieces from a chess set (except pawns) on the remaining fields. Some of these variants are similar to permutation chess problems. associated with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. 4-Way chess): Can be played by four people and uses a special board and four sets of differently coloured pieces.

The anti-king is shown as an inverted king. • Grasshopper chess: A a chess variant in which the pawns can promote to grasshopper. the Champion and the Wizard. • Pole chess: Each player has an uncapturable piece known as a Pole. may be moved to any empty space on the board as a legal move. optionally mutating it into another piece. played on a go-board. Mentioned in the novel Robot Adept by Piers Anthony. The anti-king cannot capture opponent's pieces. For example. From the inventor of Dungeons & Dragons.Chess variant 10 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Anti-king chess. The anti-king does not check its own king. destroying any pieces in the blast range. • Anti-King chess: Uses an anti-king. The Bomb piece can be exploded on its turn in vertical and horizontal directions (similar to the movement of a rook). The Pole. • Gess: Chess with variable pieces. They are named after their unusual capturing methods. • Duell: Dice are used instead of pieces. which does not begin play on the board. making it much harder to achieve mate. Leaper. The game was invented by Peter Aronson in 2002. and pieces on the second row move like rooks. all other things being equal. with new types of chess pieces. Also. Immobilizer and Coordinator. . and bishop with BG – all with complete movement. and the Defuser piece can capture a bomb piece. • Maharajah and the Sepoys: Black has a complete army.[38] • Baroque (or Ultima): Pieces on the first row move like queens. one per corner. Played on an 10×8 board with special Bomb and Defuser pieces. Both can jump other pieces like the knight. but it can capture friendly pieces. The king does not attack the anti-king of the opponent. • Dragonchess: Uses three 8×12 boards atop one another. two fairy chess pieces are used. Thus.[40] • Chess with different armies: Two sides use different sets of fairy pieces.[39] • ButterflyChess: Butterflies are the hybrids of the queen with a grasshopper. including check and checkmate to usual king. • Berolina chess: Which uses the Berolina pawn instead of the normal pawn. All other rules are the same as in standard chess. rook with RG. This piece is in check when not attacked. the Pole can be used to block check. There are several armies of approximately equal strength to choose from including the standard FIDE chess army. • Bomberman chess: Inspired by the Bomberman video game series. or in which grasshoppers are on the board in the opening position. the player loses (checkmate). White only one piece – Maharajah (queen+knight). If the player has an anti-king in check and unable to move it to the position attacked by the opponent. • Omega chess: Played on a 10×10 board with four extra squares. • Pocket mutation chess: Player can put a piece temporarily into the pocket.

Unicorn. • Embassy Chess: By Kevin Hill (2005). with an extra pawn and a Prime Minister (bishop + knight). Played on a regular chess board but with the inclusion of checkers pieces integrated into the mechanics of an otherwise standard chess game. Played on a regular chess board using 8+8 dice with a different chess piece on each side. • 2000 A. The game goal and rules are either the same or very similar to those in chess.D. • Capablanca chess: A chess variant by the former world chess champion. • Playing cards on a chess board [45]: The card game allows to play openly on a board with rectangular sectors when the chances to win are equal for players. two. Queens can be captured from both the square they're occupying and the square directly behind them. • Proteus: By Steve Jackson Games. José Raúl Capablanca. played on an 8×10 board. just as play a chess or checkers but with application of traditional rules of playing cards. Pyramid. Fury. • Grand chess: nvented by Christian Freeling (1984). these chess variants include one or more fairy pieces which move differently than chess pieces.: Played on a 10×10 board. Played on a 10×8 board with chancellor (R+N) and archbishop (B+N). capture or be captured. Dragon. • Janus chess: By Werner Schöndorf (1978). New pieces are the Cannon from Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) and an Elephant moving as Fers+Alfil of old Shatranj (ancestors of queen and bishop). Played on a 10×8 board with marshall (R+N) and cardinal (B+N). Played on a 10×8 board with chancellor (R+N) and archbishop (B+N). • Wildebeest Chess: An 11×10 variant by R.Chess variant • Shako: Played on a 10×10 board.[41] • Stealth chess: Played in the fictional Ankh-Morpork Assassins' Guild from the Discworld series of books. Played on 10×8 board with two januses (B+N). The fairy piece is the Assassin. Played on standard 8×8 board with elephant (R+N) and hawk (B+N). janus. However. Bishop+knight and rook+knight compounds There are a numbers of chess variants which use bishop+knight and rook+knight compound pieces. or three squares on their first move. • Modern chess: Played on a 9×9 board. • Gothic chess: A commercial chess variant. Pawns move one. the dice have a new piece. and a wildebeest (combined camel+knight). which cannot move. • Seirawan chess: Invented by grandmaster Yasser Seirawan in 2007. cardinal. Gorgon. Prime Minister etc. Chimaera. Each turn a player must rotate one die and move another like the corresponding piece moves. The starting position is taken from Grand chess. It was created by Puerto Rico's Gabriel Vicente Maura in 1968. empress etc. . featuring two camels per player. princess. • Chessers [44]: By Christopher Schwartz and Sander Beckers. so diagonally one or two squares with jumps allowed. A generalization of all possible variants of Capablanca chess with random starting positions following a method similar to that used in Chess960. Several different names have been given to these pieces. Instead of a king. featuring pieces Empress.[42] Bishop and knight compound piece (B+N) is called archbishop. Rook and knight compound (R+N) is named chancellor. Capricorn. • Capablanca random chess: By Reinhard Scharnagl (2004). Played on a 10×10 board with marshall (R+N) and cardinal (B+N). Winner is determined with a scoring system based on the value of captured pieces. 11 Chess hybrids The pieces in these chess variants are borrowed from both chess and another game.[43] To adapt two new pieces the board is usually extended to 10×8 or 10×10 with two additional pawns added. marshall. paladin. Mimotaur. Wayne Schmittberger.

Chess-related historic and regional games Some of these games have developed independently while others are ancestors or relatives of modern chess. miniature wargame. derived from Chaturanga. • DracoKrak Chess: Fully customizable fantasy board game with elements of Chess. Regional chess-related games • • • • • • • • Banqi (or Chinese Half chess) (China) Chandraki (Tibet) Hiashatar (Mongolia) Janggi (Korea) Jungle game (or Animal chess. Probably was one step in evolving modern chess out of Shatranj. These games have their own institutions and traditions.[46] • Connect Score [47]: Mixes chess with Dots and Boxes. Tamerlane chess: A significantly expanded variation of Shatranj. presumed to be the common ancestor of chess and other national chess-related games.Chess variant 12 Games inspired by chess These chess variants are very different from chess and may be classified as abstract board games instead of chess variants (by restrictive.[48] The popularity of these chess variants may be limited to their respective places of origin (as is largely the case for Shogi). Courier chess: Played in Europe from 15th to 19th century. or worldwide. 12th century • Chaturanga: An ancient East Indian game. Philippines) Makruk (Thailand) Ouk Chatrang (Cambodia) • Rek Chess (Cambodia) • Samantsy (Madagascar) • Senterej (Ethiopia) . • Shuuro: A cross between chess and miniature wargaming. • ChessWar: Complex strategy game played with chess pieces and board. proper definition). Historic chess-related games Shatranj set. Indonesia. played with a die. role-playing game. • Chaturaji: Four-handed version of Chaturanga. as is the case for Xiangqi which is played by overseas Chinese everywhere. • Arimaa: A game inspired by Garry Kasparov's defeat by chess computer Deep Blue. Short assize: Played in England and Paris in the second half of the 12th century. Children's chess. • • • • Shatranj: An ancient Persian game. This game is easy for people to understand but difficult for computers to play well. • Navia Dratp: A cross between Shogi and miniature wargaming. • Martian chess: Played with Icehouse pieces. Dou Shou Qi) (China) Main Chator (Malaysia.

ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. p. vol 8. [13] Variant Chess. • Sunsetter [49]: Normal chess. ISSN 0958-8248. org/ diffsetup. dir/ upside. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. [22] Jedi Knight chess (http:/ / gotjustice. wordpress. com/ ChessHeads. boardgamegeek. [17] Pritchard 2007. p. 51. org/ columns. • ChessV: Supports around 50 chess variants. • Zillions of Games: Supports an unlimited number (but not types) of chess variants. [21] Pritchard (2007). org/ diffobjective. html) chessmate. 76 [9] Weak! (http:/ / www. including such popular variants as Grand chess. 2007. dir/ weak. chessvariants. Crazyhouse and Bughouse chess engine (opensource). (1994). chessmate. . html) by Hans Bodlaender Unbalanced games (http:/ / www. mayhematics. com) [31] "No Stress Chess" (http:/ / www. [26] "Replacement chess" (http:/ / www. . 18 Pritchard (2007). 77 Upside-down chess (http:/ / www. chessvariants. . p. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Pritchard. Variant Chess. 44 [24] Knightmate (http:/ / www. Popular Chess Variants. org/ difftaking. D. dir/ knightmate. chessvariants. shadowhex. p. pdf) [14] Polgar Superstar Chess Patent (http:/ / polgarstarchess. ." D. Pritchard (2000). . forgettable. • Parmen site [52]: Supports Tri-D chess Standard and Tournament rulesets according to posted sample games. html). blogspot. at/ Retros/ Glossary/ Einstein. com/ difftaking. dir/ guardchess. com/ 2009/ 08/ ever-want-to-play-chess-in-curved-space. D. vii. boardgamegeek. . • SMIRF: Supports all FRC variants upon the 8×8 board and all CRC variants upon the 10×8 board. . html) [16] "Benedict chess" (http:/ / www. ingols chess variants and various alternative starting positions. Ultima. • Sjeng [50]: Besides Crazyhouse and Bughouse chess. plus normal chess.com [29] ChessHeads (http:/ / www. 48. com/ search/ label/ Patent) [15] michaeljzachary. html#unbalanced) by John Beasley. Pritchard (2000). many or an unlimited number of variants. org/ difftaking. [18] Einstein chess (http:/ / www. dir/ doublewide-chess. chessvariants. [32] "Schrödinger's chess" (http:/ / elvis. Issue 37. . dir/ rifle. supports other chess variants. html). dir/ benedict. Issue 61 (http:/ / www. blogspot. Three Checks chess. [23] Pritchard. p. are. com/ 2007/ 10/ 19/ jedi-knight-chess-variant/ ). p. dir/ replacement.B. com/ ). [10] Pritchard (2007). [20] "Guard chess" (http:/ / www.com (http:/ / michaeljzachary. com/ v/ vol8/ vc61. [25] Pritchard (2007). com/ game/ 32793). [27] "Rifle chess" (http:/ / www. . p. Volume 5. . html).61. Games & Puzzles Publications. One can write one's own rule files to create and play almost all chess variants. [12] "Infinite chess" (http:/ / www. org/ unequal. chessvariants. chessvariants. coin.blogspot. "Most published ones (but none described here). p. Popular Chess Variants. htm) [19] "Genesis chess" (http:/ / genesischess. edu/ ~kilroy/ other/ ?chess). 8. Shatranj. com/ boardgame/ 12932) BoardGameGeek [30] Fantasy Chess (http:/ / www. Pritchard (2000). p. html) by Hans Bodlaender. p. rowan. dir/ vc-2001-spring. 8. org/ difftaking.B. chessvariants. janko. [8] Pritchard (2007). 114 [11] "Doublewide chess" (http:/ / www. in truth. chessvariants. html). org/ large.Chess variant • • • • Shatar (Mongolia) Shogi (Japan) see also Shogi variants Sittuyin (Burma) Xiangqi (China) 13 Chess variants software Some program authors have created stand-alone applications that are capable of playing a few. html). as well as almost any abstract strategy board game. • DoubleChessBoard [51]: Supports bughouse. chessvariants. html) by Hans Bodlaender. com/ game/ 19918). [28] ChessHeads (http:/ / www. p. boardgamegeek.

org/ solitaire. John Beasley. Batsford Chess Books.cisana. html) [37] Hippodrome (http:/ / www. com/ multimove. wz. org/ solitaire. chessvariants. org/ piececlopedia. com 14 References • Pritchard. D.org) .org) The Chess Variants wiki (http://chessvariants.free. [35] By Larry Smith.chess. 64g. html) [40] [www. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. chessvariants. [42] The Piececlopedia: The Rook-Knight Compound (http:/ / www. B. (http:/ / www.History and Useful Information (http://www.R. chessvariants. [44] http:/ / schwartztronica. [47] http:/ / connectcapture. com/ large.wikidot. org/ indexold.com/) British Chess Variant Society (http://www.com] [41] Shako (http:/ / www.fr/) The Chess Family . A History of Chess. html). • Pritchard. . chessvariants. dir/ hippodrome. losers chess and "wild" variants. dir/ bishop-knight.php) . which is very close to standard chess gained popularity. (2007). htm [52] http:/ / www. kapsi. External links General • • • • • • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www. html [51] http:/ / bughousechess.org. org/ large. html) [38] Anti-King chess (http:/ / www. ru/ en. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1. chessvariants.net/index. H. wordpress. chessvariants.htm) Variety and history of Chess in ancient world (http://history. fi/ games/ misc/ chesswar. . ISBN 0-7134-8578-7.htm) • Applet that can play wild chess variants with 4 levels of difficulty (http://bremboce. blogspot. chessvariants. html) by Fergus Duniho and David Howe. dir/ rook-knight. [49] http:/ / sunsetter. org/ diffobjective. org/ piececlopedia. (1913). html) [36] Queen's Quadrille (http:/ / www. Popular Chess Variants. parmen.tradgames.cubiccheckers. p. Two setups were suggested by the inventor initially. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). cz/ DoubleChessBoard/ index.Chess variant [33] Pritchard (2007). dir/ doublemove. html). suicide chess. but only the second one (Anti-King II). cardgameopen. D. com [48] Murray.com/ play-chess-online-against-computer.uk/games/Chess. dir/ zonal/ zonal. html) by Peter Aronson. [43] The Piececlopedia: Bishop-Knight Compound (http:/ / www.J. chessvariants. (2000). ISBN 0-936-317-01-9.com/chess/ChessVar. net [50] http:/ / sjeng.htm) Variant chess database (http://wildchess. org/ shape. B. dir/ anti-king-chess. sourceforge.pathguy. chessvariants.bcvs. com/ 2010/ 05/ 09/ checkmate-by-checkers/ [45] http:/ / www. dir/ quadrille. html) by Hans Bodlaender. dir/ contest/ bomberman.chessvariants. dir/ shako.contains games for atomic chess.ukf.100 [34] "Doublemove chess" (http:/ / www. • Chess Variant Applets that can play each variant (http://www. [39] Bomberman chess (http:/ / www. html) by Fergus Duniho and David Howe. htm [46] "ChessWar" (http:/ / rpr.

Winther (http://hem.Chess variant 15 Collections In addition to individual chess variants with popularity.passagen.com/fergus/games/) Board Game Page Peter Aronson (http://home.nz/swindex3.se/melki9/chessvar.fr/cvindex.kiwi.htm) Chess Variants (Zillions) M.att.free.html) Games Gallery Fergus Duniho (http://www.gen. collections (generally acknowledged to be of respectable quality) have been created by several inventors: • • • • • • Zillions Chess Variants Karl Scherer (http://karl.ul.fc.pt/~jpn/cv/index.di.duniho.net/~pbaronson/) Chess Variants João Pedro Neto (http://www.chess.htm) Chess Variants Jean-Louis Cazaux (http://history.htm) .

Proposed in computer chess playing client Chess4Net by Pavel Perminov. so that both bishops are on the queen side and both knights are on the king's side. but did not become popular.16 Different starting position Displacement chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Displacement chess. This variant is also called Fianchetto chess. This array was suggested by Capablanca after his match with Lasker. The main goal of these variants is to negate players' knowledge of standard chess openings. as shown in the diagram at right.[3] • PP Random Chess: king remains on e1(e8) one of the rooks must remain on a or h file. including Blackburne. this is one of the most popular forms of displacement chess. One of several variations. • The knights and bishops are transposed. a chess grandmaster. Displacement chess is a family of chess variants. This variant is sometimes called Mongredien chess. • Queen's knight is transposed with king's bishop.[2] According to Pritchard. in which a few pieces are transposed in the initial standard chess position. in which several strong British chess players took part. This arrangement was tried in a correspondence tournament in 1935 with the participation of Keres. . after Augustus Mongredien the sponsor of a tournament held in London during 1868 under the auspices of the British Chess Association. the bishops are placed on opposite-colored squares. Variations The following variations were tried in master or grandmaster tournaments:[1] • White's king and queen are transposed. • The rooks and bishops are transposed.

org/ diffsetup. a player's bishops must start on opposite-color squares. html) External links • D-chess.com/) – D-chess (Displacement Chess) • Blackburne . Games & Puzzles Publications. 1996 in Buenos Aires.chesscentral. resulting in 960 possible (non-mirrored) positions. and the king must start on a square between the rooks. The Transactions of the British Chess Association 1868 and 1869 . J. The random setup forces players to resort to talent and creativity rather than the possibility of obtaining an advantage through the memorization of opening moves. dir/ fianchetto. Argentina.com/game-chess/fischer-random.d-chess. (1994). . Chess960 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 One of 960 possible starting positions Chess960 (or Fischer Random Chess) is a chess variant invented and advocated by former World Chess Champion Bobby Fischer. D. originally announced on June 19.htm) – displacement chess game (knights and bishops are transposed) with comments by Wilhelm Steinitz. [2] Lowenthal. It employs the same board and pieces as standard chess.com (http://www. but the starting position of the pieces is randomized along the players' home ranks. 1869 [3] Fianchetto chess (http:/ / www. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.Potter (http://www. To maintain the character of standard chess.Displacement chess 17 References [1] Pritchard. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. chessvariants. Randomizing the main pieces has long been known as Shuffle Chess. but Chess960 introduces new rules so that full castling options are retained in all starting positions.

then the black king is placed on f8. with the following restrictions: • the king must be placed somewhere between the rooks • the bishops must be placed on opposite-color squares Black's pieces are placed equal-and-opposite to White's pieces. and place a white bishop on the black square indicated by the die. the game is played in the same way as standard chess (except that castling can occur from the different possible starting positions for king and rooks). since this would leave no room for a rook.) The starting position can be generated before the game by computer program. Note that the king never starts on the a. and the objective is to checkmate the opposing king. if the white king is placed on f1. a starting position is randomly determined and set up.Chess960 18 Rules Before the game. or chosen by the players by a variety of methods using dice. counting from the left. cards. Determining a starting position a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess960 starting position generated by die rolls: • • • • • • • 3 (bishop on e1) 5 (skip) 1 (bishop on b1) 4 (queen on f1) 6 (skip) 2 (knight on c1) 1 (knight on a1) There are many procedures for creating a starting position. subject to certain requirements. After setup. coin. (For example. Starting position requirements White pawns are placed on the second rank as in standard chess. which requires only one six-sided die: 1. Roll the die. pieces and pawns have their normal moves. Thus. In particular.or h-files. 2 indicates the second black square from . 1 indicates the first black square from the left (a1 in algebraic notation). etc. All remaining white pieces are placed randomly on the first rank. A common one is that proposed by Ingo Althoefer in 1998.

a 1 places the queen on the first (leftmost) empty position. It is also possible to use this procedure to understand why there are exactly 960 possible initial positions. and place a knight on the empty position indicated. So the number of distinguishable possible positions is half of 1920. and the rooks on the remaining two squares. and so on). except that bishops would be on opposite-color squares). Roll the die.) Rules for castling a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 An initial position of kings and rooks . 4. and place a knight on the empty position indicated. Black should have on a8 exactly the same type of piece White has on a1. This means there are 4×4×6×5×4 = 1920 possible starting positions if the two knights were different in some way. Note that one of these initial positions (rolled by 2-3-3-2-3 or 2-3-3-4-2) is the standard chess position. 5. 19 2. Thus. Each bishop can take one of four positions. 3. at which point a standard chess game ensues. Roll the die. Roll the die. while a 6 places the queen on the sixth (rightmost) empty position. the queen one of six. respectively. and place Black's pieces to exactly mirror White's (so. Re-roll a 5 or 6. 2 indicates d1. (Half of the 960 are left-right mirror images of the other half. Re-roll a 5 or 6. without choice. 3 indicates the third (e1). or 1920/2 = 960. Since there are no fifth or sixth positions. This leaves three empty squares. there would be no difference). and place the queen on the first empty position indicated (always skipping filled positions). Roll the die. This leaves three open squares which the king and rooks must occupy according to setup stipulations. and 4 indicates the fourth (g1). This procedure generates any of the 960 possible initial positions with equal chance. However. the two knights are indistinguishable during play (if swapped. Place all white and black pawns on their usual squares. Re-roll a 6. and place a white bishop on the white square indicated (1 indicates b1. re-roll a 5 or 6 until another number shows.7 die rolls. This particular procedure uses an average of 6. and the two knights can assume five or four possible positions. Place the king on the middle empty square.Chess960 the left (c1). however Chess960 castling rules preserve left-right asymmetry in play.

Chess960 20 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Black has castled h-side (0-0) and White has castled a-side (0-0-0) Chess960 allows each player to castle once per game. some squares can stay filled during castling that would have to be vacant in standard chess. and after h-side castling (0-0). 2. 3. b. Unmoved: The king and the castling rook must not have moved before in the game. For example. However. which requires only that the squares between the king and castling rook must be vacant. after a-side castling (0-0-0). the king is on the g-file and the h-side rook is on the f-file. Unattacked: No square between the king's initial and final squares (including the initial and final squares) may be under attack by any opposing piece. and their destination squares contains no pieces other than the king and castling rook. It is recommended that a player state "I am about to castle" before castling. In some starting positions. it's possible to have e and/or h filled. 1. the rook and king's final positions are exactly the same as they would be in standard chess. Unimpeded: All the squares between the king's initial and final squares (including the final square). castling may only occur under the following conditions. However. This move is notated as 0-0 and is known as kingside castling in orthodox chess. because the standard rules presume initial locations of the rook and king that often do not apply in Chess960 games. The third is an extension of the standard chess rule. Thus. and all of the squares between the rook's initial and final squares (including the final square). the king or rook (but not both) do not move during castling. after a-side castling (also called sometimes c-castling). to eliminate potential misunderstanding. In some starting positions. After h-side castling (also called sometimes g-castling). it's possible to have a. must be vacant except for the king and castling rook. including castling. The first two are identical to the standard chess castling rules. If the initial position happens to be the standard chess initial position. a few reinterpretations of standard chess rules are needed for castling. moving both the king and a rook in a single move. and/or e still filled. the king is on the c-file (c1 for White and c8 for Black) and the a-side rook is on the d-file (d1 for White and d8 for Black). An equivalent way of stating this is that the smallest back rank interval containing the king. After castling. This move is notated as 0-0-0 and is known as queenside castling in orthodox chess. the castling rook. these castling rules have exactly the same effect as the standard chess castling rules. .

and then place the king on its new position. to castle one should remove the king. but users should not count on this.g. • If only the king needs to move (jumping over the castling rook). it is recommended that the king be moved outside the playing surface next to his final position. only the rook needs to be moved. When castling using a computer interface. place the castling rook on its new position. as a button or menu item). Obviously. the rook then be moved from its starting to ending position. the player needs to move the rook first. Ideally. programs should also be able to detect a king or rook move that cannot be anything other than a castling move and consider that a castling move. This will create an unambiguous move for electronic boards. Eric van Reem suggests other ways to castle: • If only the rook needs to move (jumping over the king). which often only have sensors that can detect the presence or absence of an object on each square (and cannot tell what object is on the square). This is always unambiguous. When castling those pieces are the king and rook. When a chess clock will be used. if the rook is on the square the king will occupy. only the king needs to be moved.. electronic boards should detect a king or rook move that can only be a castling move as well. • One can move the king to its final square and move the rook to its final square as two separate moves in either order (this is called "double-move" castling). Ideally. Gameplay a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . and then the king be placed on his final square. to avoid by this a possible confusion with normal king's moves. pressing the button could be taken as a sign that a castling move has been completed. • One can pick up both the king and rook (in either order). Especially with players new to Chess960 it might make sense also to announce a castling to avoid misunderstandings. In the meantime there has been an adjustment setting of the WNCA that when performing a castling move it is irrelevant in which sequence involved pieces were touched. and if the king is on the square the rook will occupy.Chess960 21 How to castle When castling on a physical board with a human player. When using an electronic board. Recommended gestures are: the king is moving to his at least two steps distant castling target square or else upon the involved rook. and is a simple rule to follow. and in capturing moves they are the capturing and the captured piece. All pieces involved in a move may be touched arbitrarily. remove the castling rook. programs should have separate a-side (0-0-0) and h-side (0-0) castling actions (e. then place them on their final squares (this is called "transpositioni" castling). the player needs to move the king first.

Note that not all chess programs can handle castling correctly in Chess960 games (except if the initial position is the standard chess initial position). However. FEN is capable of expressing all possible starting positions of Chess960.or g-pawns are moved. In a game. the castling markings "KQkq" have their expected meanings: "Q" and "q" mean a-side castling is still legal (for White and Black respectively). yet there is more than one rook on that side.Chess960 In this start position. The study of openings in Chess960 is in its infancy. "Q". It has been argued that two games should be played from each starting position. the a. For example. (See first-move advantage in chess. . the rule named "Fischerandom" is accepted by many chess programs as identifying Chess960. a program supporting X-FEN will automatically use the normal FEN codes for a traditional chess starting position without requiring any special programming. one of the PGN tags (after the initial seven tags) would look like this: [Variant "Fischerandom"]. The maximum length of the castling value is still four characters. has been devised by Reinhard Scharnagl to remove this ambiguity. including: protect the king. control the central squares (directly or indirectly). and "K" and "k" mean h-side castling is still legal (for White and Black respectively). A modification of FEN. as the value of the "FEN" tag. This is because FEN records that castling is possible on that side. though "Chess960" should be accepted as well. since some initial positions may offer White a bigger advantage than in standard chess. To correctly record a Chess960 game in PGN. For the traditional setup. an additional "Variant" tag must be used to identify the rules. Some starting positions have unprotected pawns that may need to be dealt with quickly. Shredder-FEN would use HAha instead of KQkq. "k". castling potentials belong to the outermost rooks by default. Games recorded using the Portable Game Notation (PGN) can record the initial position using Forsyth–Edwards Notation (FEN). or "q". This scheme is sometimes called Shredder-FEN. or pawn(s) may be underpromoted into rook(s) and moved into the back row. but fundamental opening principles still apply. Castling is marked as O-O or O-O-O as in standard chess (except PGN requires letter O not number 0). and the rook that can castle is not the outermost rook on that side. whereas in standard chess it takes two turns for White to attack and there are no unprotected pawns. but not which rook is still allowed to castle. X-FEN is upwardly compatible with FEN.) 22 Recording games and positions Since the initial position is usually not the orthodox chess initial position. If a rook is unmoved and can still castle. if there is more than one rook on the baseline on the same side of the king. As a benefit all 18 pseudo FRC positions (positions with traditional placements of rooks and king) still remain uniquely encoded. FEN notation as traditionally interpreted is ambiguous. X-FEN. recorded games must also record the initial position. Be careful to use "Variant" and not "Variation".and b-pawns are unguarded and subject to immediate attack if either side's f. in X-FEN notation. The solution implemented by chess engines like Shredder and Fritz is to use the letters of the columns on which the rooks began the game. and develop rapidly starting with the less valuable pieces. unmodified FEN cannot express all possible positions of a Chess960 game. This means that in a PGN-recorded game. which has a different meaning. In X-FEN. However. that is. with players alternating as White and Black. a rook may move into the back row on the same side of the king as the other rook. then the file letter (uppercase for White) of the rook that can castle is used instead of "K". in some Chess960 starting positions White can attack an unprotected black pawn after the first move.

both players have to come up with original strategies and cannot use well-known thinking patterns.[3] [4] The WNCA maintains an own dedicated Chess960 rating list. as well as his previous tournament win. It was the first ever man against machine match in Chess960. played in this tournament.3. developed by Richard Pijl. In 2001.5. including the powerful Shredder. The match was won by a narrow margin.5. The Baron played two Chess960 games against Chess960 World Champion Peter Svidler. in addition. losing 4. Fischer believed that eliminating memorized book moves would level the playing field. but both players were in the top five in the January 2001 world rankings for orthodox chess. At the same tournament in 2004. defeating GM Michael Adams in an eight game match played as part of the Mainz Chess Classic. Since the opening book for each possible opening position would be too difficult to devote to memory (960 "book opening" systems). Mayor of Mainz as the President and Hans-Walter Schmitt. Lékó was chosen because of the many novelties he has introduced to known chess theories. Shredder won 2–0. and to replace it with creativity and talent. This time. Aronian won the match 5–3 to become the third ever Fischer Random Chess World Champion.[1] Fischer's goal was to eliminate what he considered the complete dominance of openings preparation in chess today.org selected Fischer Random chess as its "Recognized Variant of the Month" for April 2002. Shuffle Chess had been played for quite some time before this. Svidler won 1.5–3. Both games ended in a draw. In 2006 Shredder won the . The 2006 Mainz Chess Classic saw Svidler defending his championship in a rematch against Levon Aronian.5 . Zoltán Almási won the Chess960 open tournament in 2004. Svidler beat Lékó in an eight game match for the World Championship title by a score of 4. each player must create every move originally. Svidler is the official first World New Chess Association (WNCA) world champion inaugurated on August 14. Germany. initiated by Mark Vogelgesang and Eric van Reem. played two games against Zoltán Almási from Hungary. 1996. Once again. earning him a title match against Aronian in 2007.Chess960 23 History Fischer Random Chess is a variant of Shuffle chess defined by former World Champion Bobby Fischer and introduced formally to the chess public on June 19. At the 2003 Mainz Chess Classic. Other interesting events happened in 2002. His belief about Russians fixing all international games also provided motivation. and was won by Grandmaster Péter Lékó. Adams was chosen because he was the world number one in blitz (rapid) chess and is regarded as an extremely strong player in unfamiliar positions.[6] Nineteen programs. The chess program Shredder. In a situation where the starting position was random it would be impossible to fix every move of the game. As a result of this tournament. 2003 with Jens Beutel. The website ChessVariants. The Chess960 open tournament attracted 179 players.[2] In 2002 at Mainz. Svidler defended his title. Yugoslavian Grandmaster Svetozar Gligorić published in 2002 the book Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess?. Argentina. popularizing this variant further. From the first move. Lékó has supposedly played Fischer Random Chess games with Fischer himself. including 50 GMs. 4½ to 3½. in Buenos Aires. as early as 1842. Étienne Bacrot won the Chess960 open tournament. Spike became the first Chess960 computer world champion. Peter Svidler won the event. During the Chess Classic 2005 in Mainz.[5] Aronian played Svidler for the title at the 2004 Mainz Chess Classic. There were no qualifying matches (also true of the first orthodox world chess champion titleholders). It was won by Levon Aronian. Chess Classic organiser as Secretary. In 2005. The first Fischer Random Chess tournament was held in Yugoslavia in the spring of 1996. the 2002 World Junior Champion. Levon Aronian won the Chess960 open tournament in 2005. Almási and Svidler played an eight-game match at the 2005 Mainz Chess Classic. the first-ever Chess960 computer chess world championship was played.5. an open tournament was held which attracted 131 players. developed by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen from Düsseldorf. winning 5–3. Lékó became the first Fischer Random Chess world champion.5–0. Aronian played two Chess960 games against the Dutch computer chess program The Baron.

5 vs Elisabeth Pähtz) Spike Shredder Computer Championship 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Péter Lékó (4. directed by Damian Nash.5–0.5 vs Viswanathan Victor Bologan Anand) - Rybka 2008 Hikaru Nakamura Alexandra Kosteniuk (2. Alexandra Kosteniuk by beating Elisabeth Paehtz 5.5 vs Levon Aronian) Peter Svidler (5–3 vs Zoltán Almási) Levon Aronian (5–3 vs Peter Svidler) Peter Svidler Levon Aronian Zoltán Almási Levon Aronian Étienne Bacrot 2007 Levon Aronian (2–2. 1.5–0. Rybka won the 2007 computer championship. The 2006 Senior the 2006 Junior Chess960 World Champion was Pentala 24 In 2007 Mainz Chess Classic Aronian successfully defended his title of Chess960 World Champion over Viswanathan Anand.5–3. saw a first place tie between GM Larry Kaufmann and FM Mark Duckworth.[7] Summary table Year World Chess960 Championship Mainz Open World Chess960 Women's Championship Alexandra Kosteniuk (5. junior and senior became the first Chess960 Women World Champion Chess960 World Champion was Vlastimil Hort.5–1.5. Three new Chess960 world championship categories.5 to 2.Chess960 computer championship. while Victor Bologan won the Chess960 open tournament.5 vs Michael Adams) Peter Svidler (4.5 vs Péter Lékó) Peter Svidler (4.5 vs Levon Aronian) Alexander Grischuk Rybka . In the women category. in the women. at the Jerry Hanken Memorial US Open tournament in Irvine.5–2. California. This one-day event.5–3. making it Chess960 computer matches were held. In 2010 the US Chess Federation sponsored its first Chess960 tournament.5 vs Kateryna Lahno) - Rybka 2009 Hikaru Nakamura (3.5–3. and Harikrishna. world champion.

If the bishops end up on same color squares. the variant in which White and Black. It was initially known as "Fischerandom Chess" after Fischer formalized his variation of Shuffle Chess. chairman of the Frankfurt Chess Tigers e.N If the players want to work with all eight pieces. Starting with Black. in turn. Chess960. Tournament Directors prefer that all boards in a single round play the same random position. advocated the term "FullChess" instead. knights. The players or a tournament setting may decide on a specific position in advance. such as moving the a-side bishop one square toward the h-file. Scharnagl. Frankfurt 2011 R. Later name forms included "Fischer Random Chess". another proponent of the variant. Pre-Chess could be played with the additional requirement of ending up with a legal Chess960 opening position. He currently recommends the name Chess960 in preference to Fischer Random Chess for the variant. Rooks go on the other two.V. should be universally understood The effort culminated in the name choice Chess960 – derived from the number of different possible starting positions. should not include negatively biased or "spongy" elements (such as "random" or "freestyle") 3. The only restriction is that the bishops must go on opposite colored squares. the king must be placed on the middle of the three vacant back rank squares that remain. for example. place one of these pieces on White's back rank. This approach to the opening setup has much in common with Pre-Chess. Without some limitation on which pieces go on the board first. where it must stay. which cannot be completed to legal Chess960 starting positions. Hans-Walter Schmitt. and an advocate of this variant. Some variety could be introduced into this process by allowing each player to exercise a one time option of moving a piece already on the board instead of putting a new piece on the board. which had to meet requirements of leading grandmasters. might . as to maintain order and abbreviate the setup time for each round. a simple action. started a brainstorming process for selecting a new name. alternately and independently. no matter where the previous pieces have been placed. it is possible to reach impasse positions. But today he uses FullChess to refer to variants which consistently embed traditional chess (e. Hans-Walter Schmitt. the new name and its parts: 1. fill in their respective back ranks. the back ranks are cleared of pieces. and "FRC".Chess960 25 Naming This chess variant has held a number of different names. After all five pieces have been put on the board. There will be a vacant square of the required color for the second bishop. "FR Chess". Similar chess variants Non-random setups The initial setup need not necessarily be random. and queen are gathered together. A chess clock could even be used during this phase as well as during normal play.g. specifically. should not contain part of the name of any Grandmaster 2. they must have a prior agreement about how to correct illegal opening positions that may arise. Example: Q. and the white bishops. and some new variants based on the extended 10×8 piece set in Capablanca chess).RB. Bobby Fischer never publicly stated his feeling about the name 'Chess960'. the players. Edward Northam suggests the following approach for allowing players to jointly create a position without randomizing tools: First.N.

" Note that these rules are different from the Chess960 rules. respectively. In Chess960 the king ends up on either g1 (h-side castling) or c1 (a-side castling). then that rook is transferred to the square the king has just crossed (if it is not already there). this variation follows the rules of Chess960 with the exception of the castling rules which Lewis has named "Orthodoxed Castling". then the king and rook exchange squares. 26 Chess480 Castling in Chess480 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chess480 castling rule. Another way of defining Chess480 is that the white king must always be located . since the final position after castling will usually not be the same as the final position of a castling move in traditional chess. the right to castle is lost: • if the king has already moved. since there is no question of preserving randomness. the preconditions for castling are the same. if the king is not between the rooks. is attacked by one or more of the opponent's pieces. the king ends up on h1 (h-side castling) or d1 (a-side castling). Reinhard Scharnagl defines it as the white queen is always to the left of the white king. In Chess480. Lewis has named this chess variation "Chess480". half of these are actually mirror positions that theoretically don't change the games' tactics. And castling is prevented temporarily: • if the square on which the king stands. it should trade places with the nearest rook. while the rook ends up on g1 or e1. or the square which it must cross. Naturally.Chess960 be agreeable. Note: There are other claims to the nomenclature 'Chess480'. In this variation. Lewis argues that this alternative better conforms to how the castling move was historically developed. but when castling "the king is transferred from its original square two squares towards (or over) the rook. Note also that although the game can start with any of 960 starting positions. or • with a rook that has already moved. but proposes an alternative set of castling rules. If the king and rook are adjacent in a corner and the king cannot move two spaces over the rook. Once the bishops are on opposite colored squares. or the square which it is to occupy. John Kipling Lewis's "Castling in Chess960: An appeal for simplicity"[8] proposes the same rules for the initial position as Chess960. or on the final square the king is going to occupy. • if there is any piece between the king and the rook with which castling is to be effected.

• Corner chess: Like Chess960. php?lang=1 http:/ / www. John K. These "problem positions" play well with Chess960 castling rules. net/ castling-in-chess480. except that the set-up phase is part of the game. f-. David. It is really up to the individual to decide how to filter the 480 positions. asp?newsid=1130 http:/ / ratings. com/ chess/ 10/ usopen/ ?page=STANDINGS& xsection=fischer Lewis. xs4all. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. net/ ips/ wnca/ topranking. • Double Fischer Random Chess: Similar to Chess960. chesstigers. as the kings scope for movement is very restricted (it can only move to the h. Black's starting position is obtained by rotating White's position 180 degrees around the board's center. No additional rules on the back rank shuffles. To quote from the wiki Chess page "Castling is an important goal in the early part of a game. htm http:/ / www. These include: • Chess256 (or Random pawns chess): Only the pawns are randomized. alchess. nl/ ~timkr/ chess2/ diary_7. net/ Peter-Leko-Biography. Black's position mirrors White's. org/ diffsetup. players have the options of castling deeper into the wing the king started on. dir/ castling_960. htm) http:/ / www. html). schach-chroniken. html http:/ / www. com/ newsdetail. c-. chessbase. . on the 2nd and 3rd rank. The point is that half the positions are mirror image reversals of the other half.Chess960 on a dark square. "Castling in Chess480: An appeal for sanity" (http:/ / chess960. htm Tim Krabbe's Diary 123 Peter Leko Biography (http:/ / www. using the same initial positions as Transcendental Chess and Double Fischer Random. • Shuffle chess: The parent variant of Chess960. bobby-fischer. David O'Shaughnessy argues in "Castling in Chess480: An appeal for sanity"[9] that the Chess480 rules are often not useful from a gameplay perspective. but with the king in the right hand corner. the placement of the pieces on the 1st and 8th row are randomized. Players take turns placing back-rank pieces on their side or their opponent's. • Moab Random Chess: A variant of shuffle chess. but there is no castling and concept of auction (offering extra moves for the right of picking the side) is added. 27 Other related chess variants There are other chess variants with rules similar to Chess960. castling only possible when king and rook are on their traditional starting squares. • Transcendental chess: Like above. tssonnet. "Castling in Chess960: An appeal for simplicity" (http:/ / www. com/ tss2636/ stories/ 20030906005106900. because it serves two valuable purposes: it moves the king into a safer position away from the center of the board. 2008-11-22. chessvariants. html). but the opening White and Black positions do not mirror each other. In about 66% of starting positions. There will be no possibility of "opposite-side castling" where each player's pawns are free to be used as attacking weapons (as in many Sicilian variations).or e-file). Complex castling rules are replaced with the simple "evacuation" of the king to any empty first-rank square. or g-files). 2005-09-18. de/ ccm5_index. The definition could also be that the white king must always be on a light square. [9] O'Shaughnessy. or castling into the center of the board (when the king starts on the b-. and it moves the rook to a more active position in the center of the board". An example of poor castling options is a position where the kings start on g1 and g8 respectively.

with software download interface.bobby-fischer. drag and drop the king on the destination square unless there is ambiguity with a normal one-square king-move. browser-based.com/diffsetup.html) capable of reviewing Chess and Chess960 games. (Broken? Nov 21-10) • Free web-based player (http://www. registration required.html) • Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess? (http://www.info/) for Chess960 • Arena interface (http://www.Play Chess960 free.com (http://www. • Audio clip of Bobby Fischer (http://www.de/java/chess960/index.uk/ccrl/404FRC/) Computer Chess Engines FRC Ratings List Chess960.net/bobby_fischer_sound_12.com/app/chess960-calculator/id337551742?mt=8) Chess960 Calculator • brettspielnetz. • Scid Vs PC (http://scidvspc. • Free Internet Chess Server (http://www.geocities.sf.Chess960 information: What.de/) .apple. . in which case drop the king on to the rook you want to castle with.Play Chess960 with a friend or an AI.Chess960 28 External links Descriptions and commentary • The Birth of Fischer Random Chess (http://www.chessville.de) .book by Gene Milener • Reinhard Scharnagl's (English/German) book Fischer-Random-Schach (FRC/Chess960) ISBN 3-8334-1322-0 (German server) • CCRL (http://www.Play free online chess.computerchess.Play Chess960 against other people over the Internet.Internet Chess Server (http://www. where. no registration required. including tournamnets. • Free web based PGN Player (http://www.de (http://www.chessvariants.html) • Chess960.online tool to create a random Chess960 position.castlelong. • Meingames. Chess960.org/) .chessfordollars. Integrated chat and analyse mode.com/book/pscbyec960/welcome. and many more.de .freechess.com) capable of large-scale Chess960 tournaments (scaled for 50.dir/fischer.playchess960. • iTunes (http://itunes. no flash. Opensource website.chess960. servers tools and software • Lichess (http://lichess.org/web/20080314230420/http:// www.Play Chess960 with players from all over the world.org.com/reviews/reviews_Fischerandom. browser based or with mobile device.html) at ChessVariants.htm) book by Svetozar Gligorić • Play Stronger Chess by Examining Chess960 (http://www. • Chess.net (http://www.net/) .dir/fischerh.com/perl/fischerandom) .php) Chess960 against Java Applet • ChessManiac.mychess. • The Email/Correspondence Chess Club (http://frcec. • Chess Hotel (http://www.php) .archive.chesshotel.org • "Leko. live chess.de (http://www.com/) play against an engine or against other people over the Internet • Fischer random chess generator (http://www.com/play-random-chess.chessmaniac.mychess.com (http://www.shtml) .com) . To castle.Play Chess960 free in correspondence time.Play Chess960 free in real-time.000 players per tournament).meingames.htm) describing his Fischer Random Chess • Fischer Random Chess Description (http://www. No registration.playwitharena.brettspielnetz. no download. blitz.chess960. the first ever kingpin of Fischer Random Chess" (http://web.com?ref_id=650541) .chess. why and how.org/) .com/chess960player/pgn.chessgames.chessvariants. not browser based.net) free chess program with the ability to play Chess960 against a computer opponent. • www.com/MIGHTORS1/Leko/Fischerandom6.org/diffsetup.

On the first turn a player. the "auction" concept of Transcendental Chess is not necessary. Variations • D-chess: Similar to Transcendental Chess. There is no castling. in which each player bids to give his or her opponent extra opening moves in order to play the side of the board he or she wants. To win the couplet. innovations in opening play are increasingly hard to come by. Moab . Because the piece set-up phase is part of the overall game strategy. In transcendental chess the beginning positions of the pieces on the back row are randomly determined. In transcendental chess there is no such rule so the position of one side can be any of 42 x 6! / 22 = 2880. but in transcendental chess the setup of black and white is different 2879 out of every 2880 times (there being a 1-in-2880 chance that both sides will draw the same setup). In addition. This can create inequalities in the position. Players take turns placing pieces on their back rank or their opponent's back rank until a Transcendental Chess starting position is reached.400 such positions in total. Transcendental chess offers opening complexity and novelty immediately because every game starts in a dense and unfamiliar position. a player must win at least one game and draw the other. in 1997. instead of making a move. One of the possible starting positions. One way to equalize these inequalities is to play a couplet: the players play two games. not fate.[2] • Moab Random Chess: A variant of shuffle chess similar to Transcendental Chess. with the one restriction that the bishops be on opposite-colored squares. with most good players having processed an extensive catalogue of opening moves—novelties tend to occur later in the game. In Chess960 the back rows are mirror images. In Chess960 there are 960 possible starting positions. is responsible for any inequalities in the initial position. but that is because the king must be located between the rooks and both sides must have the same starting position. Transcendental chess is a chess variant invented in 1978 by Maxwell Lawrence. one each as white and as black.[1] It inspired Chess960 (Fischer Random Chess) which is similar but has fewer starting positions. In orthodox chess. but only one game is needed to be played against each opponent as the unequal starting positions are equalized with the weaker side having the option to transpose two pieces and then gets to move first. Moab Random Chess uses the same initial positions as Transcendental Chess. There are 8. The other way to equalize the opening positions is auction transcendental chess. except that the set-up phase is part of the game. Strategic skill. can transpose any of two pieces on the back row.294.Transcendental chess 29 Transcendental chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Transcendental chess. invented by philosopher and game theorist Eulalio Paul Cane in Moab. Utah.

ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. Yet. Games & Puzzles Publications. like Transcendental Chess. com) . The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. the "evacuation" concept avoids the complex and awkward piece placement rules of castling in Fischer Random Chess (Chess960). (1994).Transcendental chess Random has an "evacuation" rule similar that is a simplified form of castling: The king can move to any unoccupied first-rank square just once in the game. so long as it has not moved and is not in check. 30 References [1] Pritchard. [2] D-Chess (http:/ / www. d-chess. D. The concept of "evacuation" keeps the feeling of castling from Classical Chess because the king can suddenly relocate to another region of the board.

• Pawn and move: Weaker player plays White.[7] [8] [9] Harry Golombek gives the following list of material odds (in increasing handicap level):[10] Note that the odds-giver plays White unless otherwise indicated. However.e. or odds. such as "Pawn and two moves". extra time on the chess clock. is to compensate for the difference in skill between two chess players. in order to induce weaker players to play for wagers. when chess was often played for money stakes. extra moves (i. A handicap (or "odds") in chess is a way to enable a weaker player to have a chance of winning against a stronger one.31 Different forces Chess handicap a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White to move. Today. special restrictions (such as pion coiffé). Handicaps were quite popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. time odds. the pawn initially located on the f2-square for White.[11] [12] • Odds of the move: Weaker player plays White. • Two moves: Weaker player plays White and starts the game by making two moves. . the very strong chess engine Rybka has recently played a series of odds matches against strong human players. There are many kinds of such handicaps. extra moves. differential stakes. Various permutations of these.counting a draw as a loss for the odds-giver). a player gives up a piece. are also possible. a material handicap plus time odds) are also possible. and on the f7-square for Black). and "pawn odds" normally refers to the f-pawn (i. Black has given odds of Pawn and move.e. weighting of results (such as "draw odds" . such as material odds.[5] [6] as are countervailing handicaps (for example.[1] [2] [3] There are many kinds of handicaps: material odds. handicaps are rarely seen. such as blindfold chess. and special conditions (such as requiring the odds-giver to deliver checkmate with a specified chess piece or pawn). but receives one of the opponent's pieces or pawns and/or extra moves. the weaker player can play the first x number of moves at the beginning of the game). and physical restrictions. a black pawn (typically that on f7) is removed from the board. in return). except for time odds.[1] [4] Many different permutations of handicaps (for example. Purpose and types of handicaps The purpose of a handicap.

usually the queen's rook on a1. • Queen odds: The stronger player's queen is removed. the odds-giver's queen. Horowitz adds to the above list the following:[15] • Draw odds: The smallest of these handicaps.[13] In odds games with extra moves (Pawn and two moves.Qh5+ g6 4.Chess handicap • Pawn and two moves: Weaker player plays the first two moves.[16] I. and draws are counted as wins for Black.Ned6+ cxd6 2. • Rook and pawn: Stronger player's queen rook and f-pawn are removed.[13] [14] Even with the "no moves beyond the fourth rank" proviso. and Black's pawn on f7 is removed from the board.A. . Black cannot give White an unlimited number of moves.Nxd6# are immediately decisive.[14] [15] Otherwise.Bxg6#.Bd3 3. are removed. Pawn and three moves). • Knight odds: One of the stronger player's knights is removed. when White's dual threats of 1. • Two rooks: Both of White's rooks are removed. the odds-receiver cannot move beyond the fourth rank with those moves. the stronger player plays White. the handicap below knight odds was: • Pawn and three moves: White plays the first three moves. the odds-giver's queen. • Queen for a Knight: A handicap slightly greater than Rook odds. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 32 White mates in two moves no matter what Black plays Larry Kaufman writes that under the chess tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries. and the odds-receiver's queen rook. usually the queen's knight on b1. • Strong king: The king can move up to two squares in any direction. are removed. • Queen for a Rook: A handicap between Knight odds and Rook odds.e3 2. and the odds-receiver's queen knight. White could win immediately with 1. • Rook and knight: White's queen rook and queen knight are removed.Qxg6+ hxg6 5.Qxf7# and 1. Doing so would allow White to set up the position at right. and Black plays without the f7 pawn. • Two minor pieces: The odds-giver chooses which two of White's knights and/or bishops to remove. • Rook odds: One of the stronger player's rooks is removed.

[20] [21] [22] (See illustrative games. the odds-giver plays two moves on each turn. rook .[17] [18] In the 16th-19th centuries sometimes the pion coiffé (or capped pawn) handicap was used. are very difficult for the odds-giver. Money odds are another way of compensating for a difference in strength. not a specified pawn. Carrera wrote that while some considered this an even game. is able to move like a knight..Qe4+ followed by a sacrifice if it is the c-pawn. the ringed piece. draw odds. five. queen and another piece. Giving checkmate with any other pawn or piece loses the game. which is usually marked at the start of play. for instance by giving up two pawns for one. or a minor piece for two pawns. All the better player has to do is reduce the game to a favorable ending. if no legal response is possible. Carrera considered this form of odds improper because it allows the odds-receiver to use his king to checkmate the enemy king from a knight's move away (for example. "This sounds like a formidable proposition. Carrera considered this roughly equivalent to knight odds. Thereafter.. The player with the pieces should try to eliminate the pawns. This makes the queen very powerful. the odds-receiver's queen (rather than king) has the additional ability to move like a knight. money odds. The stronger player may be given one or two minutes to play the whole game. Carrera considered this form of odds equivalent to giving odds of two pawns. where a ring or band is placed around a particular piece. king on h8 or a8.. usually for players of much different playing strengths. with the odds-receiver's king at g6 and the odds-giver's king at h8. queen and pawn versus king (pion coiffé).[30] Carrera considered this form of odds equivalent to giving rook and pawn odds.. Pietro Carrera proved that in the endgame king..e4 d5 2. after 1. since she has the ability to administer mate without the assistance of any other pieces (for instance. In exchange for this. The stronger player must checkmate with a particular pawn. an enhanced queen on h6 mates a king on h8. is checkmated). and the following other "eccentric and peculiar Odds":[25] • Checkmate on a particular square: This may mean either that the odds-receiver's king must be mated while on the specified square.[28] • Giving all the pieces for two moves each time: The odds-giver begins the game with only the king and pawns. ten. while the odds-receiver has a full complement of pieces and pawns.[23] [24] For instance. as in pion coiffé. etc. Carrera considered the first of these roughly equivalent to knight odds. the stronger player puts up some multiple (three. and pion coiffé. the odds-giver requires more material than usual in order to checkmate a bare king (for example. games have occasionally been played with a ringed piece. or to play 3. although it varied depending on the players' strengths. the latter is in check and. or g-pawn. or that the odds-giver's piece must administer mate from that square. and the displaced rook on the king's square). Staunton relied on a 1617 work by Carrera in discussing pion coiffé.[30] • Giving the queen the knight's move: Similarly to the above. having promoted a pawn or two.) This form of odds. while the weaker player receives five minutes or more. Black already threatens to sacrifice the queen for the capped pawn if it is the a. a win can be forced unless the pawn lies on a central file.) of the amount of money put up by the weaker player.[29] • Giving the king the knight's move: The odds-receiver's king. d. in addition to being able to move in the usual manner.Qe5+ followed by such a sacrifice if it is the b or h-pawn. or two rooks). to play 3. and the player giving odds must checkmate with that piece. The pawn cannot be promoted.[30] • Odds of the castled king The odds-receiver begins the game with the positions of his king and one of his rooks interchanged (e. he thought that it favored the pieces. Because of the king's unusual power. while the odds-receiver can only play one.g. the second a bit less.exd5 Qxd5. although the side with the pieces must play cautiously."[27] • Checkmate with a pawn: The mating pawn may be any pawn.[26] Assiac observed of the first. he will find the rest easy. but it really isn't. who cannot allow the odds-receiver to sacrifice for the capped or ringed piece or pawn.Chess handicap 33 Other forms of handicap Time handicaps are most often practiced in blitz games. in pion coiffé. The first way (king on h8. since Kg8 would still leave the king in check). Carrera considered pion coiffé to be about equivalent to giving odds of a queen.[19] Similarly.

[33] Unless specially agreed. and were referred to as a "Rook player" or "Pawn and Move player" as we would today speak of players by their Elo ratings.[38] In 1849. Third. or pawn and move. eight extra pawns).[34] • Odds of queen rook in exchange for the opponent's queen knight.) • Additional pawns: The odds-giver permits the odds-receiver to begin the game with a specified number of extra pawns (for example. neglectful habit of play". the side with the extra pawns moves first. or pawn and two moves.[43] and chess tournaments remained a rarity for several decades after that.[46] The playing of games at odds gradually grew rarer as the nineteenth century proceeded.. odds games. the introduction of chess clocks gave rise to a new way to give odds.[10] About fifteen percent of the known games of Paul Morphy (1837–84) are games in which he gave odds.[32] (See Paris-Marseilles. and (3) philosophical reasons. and either knight. so the amount of money obtained in this way was not sufficient to enable professional chess players to support themselves financially. odds-giving became a way for masters to entice amateurs into playing for wagers. . the available sums were generally relatively meager. warning that doing so is apt to induce "an indolent. have all but disappeared. (2) political. Pawn and two moves. chess began to be treated in a scientific."[42] Moreover.[40] The late-19th century chess opening treatise Chess Openings Ancient and Modern. Individual matches for stakes were the focus of organized play. or a little less than a knight if the a8-rook and king are the ones interchanged. "Odds-giving reached its heyday in the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century. Staunton published The Chess-Player's Companion. or in exchange for the first two moves.[35] • Odds of queen knight in exchange for pawn and move.[1] [42] [45] The odds system even became the earliest rating system: amateurs were graded according to what handicap they needed to compete against a master.Chess handicap on e8) is used unless otherwise specified before the game. and most of Book V (specifically pages 380-496) discussed various types of odds. Staunton noted that Carrera's description and examples of these odds "are not adapted to our mode of castling" since the king and rook do not end up on the same squares they would normally occupy after castling.. but expected chess masters "to be cultural icons. and travel was arduous.g.[36] 34 History According to Harry Golombek.[31] Staunton also mentioned the following unusual forms of odds not discussed by Carrera: • Odds of the losing game: The odds-giver undertakes to force the odds-receiver to checkmate him. upon improving to the point that they can themselves give odds to some players. given below. From this perspective. to avoid playing such players on even terms. not hustlers". included fourteen pages of analysis of best play in games played at odds of Pawn and move. the first major chess tournament was not organized until 1851.[37] Howard Staunton in The Chess-Player's Handbook (1847) advised inexperienced players to accept odds offered by superior players and. a 510-page work "chiefly directed to the exposition of openings where one party gives odds". Carrera thought this form of odds equivalent to the player with normally placed pieces giving a little less than two pawns. correspondence 1878. including exotic and unusual ones. Matches between leading players attracted a wide following so masters often succeeded in finding sponsors to back their personal wagers.[39] Just over 300 pages were devoted to odds games: Book I (pages 1 to 185) contained games played at various odds.[44] With tournaments not a reliable means of making a living. the Soviet Union supported chess masters and sponsored chess education. since the odds gave the amateur a fighting chance.[10] Today."[10] Indeed. "with an assumption of idealized 'best play' [coming] to underpin all analysis". e. a game ."[42] However. it was so prevalent in the 18th century that Philidor (1726–95) played the vast majority of his games at odds. Second.[47] Shibut posits that games played at material odds became unpopular for (1) technological.[41] Macon Shibut writes that in the mid-19th century "chess was a gambling game . first. "1200 player" and "1800 player". except for those at time odds. one that has today supplanted material odds as the preferred mode of odds-giving. by Edward Freeborough and Charles Ranken. logical way. Taking these in turn.

[53] There is no doubt that Fischer would have failed at such an endeavor.[60] [61] On July 6.[54] World Champion Emanuel Lasker had failed at such an endeavor in 1894. They're like beginners. maybe 50 points or so. he scored two wins and five losses. 2008.[58] On March 7. winning 3-1. and James Mason (1849–1905) are consistent with the last point. all women. with Benjamin having White in all games. knight odds is just a slight edge. Fischer later claimed that Ginzburg had distorted what he had said. Rybka gave knight odds to FIDE Master John Meyer. with one draw. Rybka won six games and drew two. 2008. There isn't a woman player in the world I can't give knight-odds to and still beat.[4] Writings by Wilhelm Steinitz (1836–1900). the more likely the weaker one is to blunder a piece or more. and I would put the break-even point (for untimed but reasonably quick games) with me at around 1800. Rybka gave Grandmaster (GM) Jaan Ehlvest pawn odds (removing a different pawn each time). I'm about 2400 and I've played tons of knight odds games with students. Rybka gave Meyer odds of pawn and three moves. Rybka gave pawn and move (removing a different pawn each time) to GM Roman Dzindzichashvili. 2008. Kasparov won the match by two games to one. A knight seems to be worth around a thousand points when the "weak" player is around IM level. They're stupid compared to men. so maybe a 600 value at this level. An 1800 can probably give knight odds to a 1400.[57] On January 8. For example. They shouldn't play chess. with Rybka having White in every game. future World Champion Bobby Fischer was quoted as saying that he could successfully give knight odds to any woman in the world:[50] [51] [52] They're all weak. but it drops as you go down. etc. played a match against former world champion Garry Kasparov with Kasparov giving odds of two pawns in each game (the pawns to be removed being different each time). a 1400 to an 1100.[55] In 2001. On March 6–8. drawing the match 4-4.5.Chess handicap beginning from a "lost" position becomes less interesting.5-2. This is pretty obviously the way it must work. They lose every single game against a man.[48] [49] In an interview with Ralph Ginzburg published in the January 1962 issue of Harper's Magazine. because the weaker the players are. the first World Champion.[62] [63] 35 Rating equivalent Grandmaster Larry Kaufman wrote the following about the Elo rating equivalence of giving knight odds:[64] [T]he Elo equivalent of a given handicap degrades as you go down the scale. and would have even chances at knight odds against a player with a FIDE rating of 2115. 2007. losing 4-0. Rybka won 5. you know. a master-level player. losing a match at knight odds to Jackson Showalter's wife. even distasteful.[65] Illustrative games . an 1100 to a 900.[56] The very strong chess engine Rybka has recently played a series of odds matches against strong human players. thus winning the match 6-2.[59] On June 8. When you get down to the level of the average 8 year old player. Rybka gave GM Joel Benjamin draw odds. Kaufman has written that Kasparov could give pawn and move odds to a low grandmaster (2500 FIDE rating) and be slightly favored. London businessman Terence Chapman. 2008.

Nuremberg Chess Club Championship 1887-88 (remove Black's f-pawn) 1.Nf3 exf4 4.d4 Nxd4?! 6.exd5 Bg4 9.Bc4 Bc5 Planning the following unsound but tricky sacrifice.Bf3 Rd1+! 17.Qb7+ Kd6 16. Qf2+! 17.Bxd1 Qf2#) Bxf3+ 18. Rxd4 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Eckart-Tarrasch.Qd3.[27] [66] K.Kxf2 Rd1+ (discovered check) 18.[67] .Nc3 Pawn and move This game was won by Siegbert Tarrasch. Correct was 9. contrary to appearances.Nxd4 Qh4+ 7.cxb7+ Kxb7 12. position after 13.e4 Nc6 2. ...Qb5+ Kc7 15. but 16. position after 16. Eckart-Tarrasch. with a satisfactory defense. whom Assiac described as "one of the greatest experts of 'Pawn and move' theory". 5.f4 e5 3. 14.Nc3 Allowing a pretty finish.Qd3 Rxd4 Black has regained the sacrificed piece and.Bc6+ Kb6 13.Be3 Bxe3# 0-1 Notes based on those by Fred Reinfeld.Bb5+? Evidently overlooking Black's next move. his king is quite safe. c6! 10.dxc6 0-0-0! 11.Chess handicap 36 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Eckart-Tarrasch. 8.Qxf3 Rxh1 also wins for Black.Ke2 (17.Kf1 d5 Sacrificing another pawn for rapid development.

10.Rdg1 Rg8 15. is defenseless.Qh4 (stopping the threatened 24.g4 Nxg4? Imprudently allowing White to attack Black's king along the g-file.e3 Nc6 6. Black.Qg2 Nf6 11.Bxg8 Kxg8 17. ahead a queen.gxf6!! Nxg6 21. final position.Kxh7 16... and Napier.hxg6+ Kh8 18.hxg6+ Kg8 22.a3 a6 7.fxe8(Q)+ Bf8 25. bishop.f7 1-0 There is no defense against mate.Chess handicap 37 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Zukertort-Epureanu.Rh1+).Qg6+!! fxg6 17. Berlin 1872 (remove White's queen knight) 1. Irving Chernev and Fred Reinfeld call the conclusion "the finest finish in this type of contest.fxg5 Ne7 20.Ng5! hxg5 19. If 23.Nf3 Nf6 3.Bd3 Bd6 8. 24.f4 e6 2.Bb2 c5 5.. position after Black's 19th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Zukertort-Epureanu.Qe2 0-0 9.Qxf8#.h4 h6 12. Wellmuth.Qg6 Kh8 18.. Knight odds Johannes Zukertort-Epureanu.b3 d5 4.[68] [69] [70] [71] . Wellmuth calls this "the finest odds-game ever played".Rxh6#) 16.Rh8+! Kxh8 23. Francis J.h5 Kh8 13.0-0-0 Ne8 14.Bh7!! f6 (15." Notes by Chernev and Reinfeld. and knight.

e6! fxg5 15. position after Black's 13th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Kashdan-Horneman.Nf3 Nh6 6.Bg5 f6? 14.Qg4 cxd4 5.Qh3 Be7 7.e4 e6 2. position after 16.Ng7# Rook odds Isaac Kashdan-Buster Horneman.Bd3 b6 8.Bxf5 exf5 10.Nxd4 Ba6? 12.Qxg7 Rf8 11.Ng7# 1-0[15] [72] [73] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .Qg3 Nf5 9.Chess handicap 38 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Kashdan-Horneman.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4. Manhattan Chess Club 1930 (remove White's queen rook) 1.Qg6+!! hxg6 16.Nxf5 Nd7 13.

Even the strongest players sometimes meet with disaster: Paul Morphy-Charles Maurian. position after White's 9th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 39 Morphy-Maurian.d4 Nf6 8.Kf2 Ng4# 0-1[74] [75] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Apscheneek-Amateur.f4 exf4 3. Springhill 1855 (remove White’s queen rook) 1.Nf3 Qh5 7.Kf1 b5 5.Bc4 Qh4+ 4.Qxa6?? Qd1+ 12.e4 e5 2.Chess handicap Morphy-Maurian. final position It would be a mistake to suppose that the odds-giver always wins.Qe2 Nxd4! 10.Bb3 Ba6 9.Nxd4 b4! 11.Bd5 Nc6 6. position after Black's 21st move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .

position after 25.Be3 d6 12.hxg5 Bxg5 13.Qxg5 would checkmate Black.Kxg2 Be6 14.h3+ Kh4 20. final position: the ringed knight mates Ringed piece Max Lange.f4 exf4 4.Bxf7+ Kxf7 9.Rxg7+! Kxg7 23.d4 fxg2 8.Nge2 Be6 9. Halle 1856 (White's queen knight is the ringed piece with which he must checkmate) 1.Nxd4 Qxd7 21.Bb2 d6 3.Raf1 Bf7? Black could have won with 14. Riga 1934 (remove White's queen) 1.Ne2 Qe7 20.Qh5+ Kg7 10.[77] 15.e4 e5 2.Nh6#[76] a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Lange-von Schierstedt.Bc4 g4 6.Rxf4 Nh6 11.Nf5#[20] [21] [22] .e3 c6 7..b3 e5 2.Rg4+ Kh5 17.Nf5 Bxf5 16.Qg5+!!.Nc3 Nc6 3. position after White's 14th move a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Lange-von Schierstedt.Rxh6 Rad8 22.g4 h6 8.exd4 exd4 19.g5 hxg5 12.Chess handicap 40 a b c d e f g h Apscheneek-Amateur.Nh6# Queen odds Apscheneek-Amateur. when 15..0-0-0 Nf6 5.Nf3 g5 5.Qxh6+!! Kxh6 16.Nf5+ (double check) Kg8 24.Nc3 Be7 4.h4 Nh7 11.Ng3+ Kxg4 18.Rh5+ Bxh5 21.Jenny von Schierstedt.Rf5 h6 19.Bxf5 Qf6 17.0-0 gxf3 7.Ne2 Qe7 13.Bxd7 d4 18.f3 0-0 6.Rg6+! fxg6 25.Rdg1 d5 15.Bd3 Bh6 14. but violate the stipulation that the queen knight must checkmate.Ng3 Nbd7 10.

f5 4.Ng3 f4 8.Bxh5 Nf6 15.Ne2 Rg8 23.g4 Kc6 39.Bd8+ Kg7 68.Bf4 Nxb2 51.Kf4 d4 42. 62.Rxa7 Nc6 29.Nc3 e5 2.. position after White's 3rd move.g6 Kh8 73.Ke3 Nc2+ 36. the capped pawn gives mate Pion coiffé Howard Staunton-Taverner?.Ke4 Kc8 64. 11.e3 Bd6 5.Nxh5 Qg5 7.Qe6 Kf8 69.h6 Na4 52.Bxg4 Bxg4 19.Bg6+ Ke7 14.Ne4 Na6 55.d4 Qg6 10.Ke5 Kg8 74.h8(Q) Ka5 56.Bd3 Qh6 Now Black threatens 11.Bh3! would win the g-pawn and the game.Qb3+ Ka5 58.Nxh5 Rxh5 13.exf4 Not 8..Nf6+ Kh8 75.Qxc5+ Ka6 Deliberately allowing checkmate..Qh5+ Qxh5 12.cxd6+ cxd6 18.Rxh5 Rxh5 33.Ng3 Covering the pawn to make it less assailable by Black's pieces..Bf3 g5 16.Nf4+ Ke7 34. with which he must give checkmate)[78] 1.Rc1 Bf5 24.Qa5+ Kb7 63.Nf3??.Ke4 d2 45.. of which this was "perhaps the weakest.Bxf4 Nh5 20.f4 Nc2 40.h4 Na5 49.Rc3 Be4 25..Rxe4+ dxe4 32.Ne4 d5 3.Rh8 would win the capped pawn.Bxd2 Nb3 46.Chess handicap 41 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Staunton-Taverner.Re3 Nb4 26.Kxe4 Ne1 Attacking the "game pawn".Ne2 Rg8 23..Qe7+ Kg8 70. exf4 9.c4 h5 6.Qb7 Ke7 66. but .Qa7 Kd7 65.Be3 Kd6 47. Be6 22.Nc3 Nc5 59.Kf2 Bh3! 24.Ke3 Kb5 54.[79] [80] .Kd2 Nxa2 27.Rxb7+ Ke6 30.. who wrote that he and his opponent played many games at these odds.h3 21.c5 g4 17. final position. when 8.Nf6 Kc6 48.Be3 Nd4 44.Nd5 Kh8 71.g7# Notes by Staunton. also the shortest".Nxh5 Nxd4 35.Qh3! and wins.Qc3+ Kb5 57.f3? Be6 22.f5 d5+ 41.gxh3 Nxg3 followed by 25.Qb5+ Ka7 61.Bc7+ Ka6 60.Qc8 Kf6 67.Bh4+ Kd7 38.Bf2 d3 43. date unknown (White's pawn on g2 is the capped pawn.Ra1 Nb4 28.h5 Nc4 50. 37.Bg3 Nc6 21.g5 Kg8 72.Rh7 Rg5 31. White guards the capped pawn against frontal attack a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Staunton-Taverner.h7 Nc5+ 53.

fxg3 Qxg3 33.Ka1 Qxa3+ 55. final position. 0-1 Black. position after 67.Rb4 Rc4 29.Ka1 b4 59.Ka1 Qf1+ 50.Ka1 Ne7! 63.Bd2 Bxc3 7.Bf2 h3 41.Bh2 e1(Q) 47.e4 e6 5.Nxf7 Kxf7 15.bxc3 a5 24.Kb1 b3 60.Bxc3# The only legal move.Ka1 Nb6 67. wins.h4 h5 9.Chess handicap 42 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Paris-Marseilles.g3 Nh6 12.Kb1 h2 52.0-0-0 a6 10. Black.Kb1 Qa6! 66.Ka1 Qxc3+! 69.Bg3 Qdxc2+ 49.Kb1 Ka5 62.Bf4 e2 45.Bg3 e3 44.Rg1 Qg4 27.Kc1 fxg3 32.Kb1 Nc8 64.Kc1 Qe1+ 35.Bf4 Qee2 48.Bc5 h4 38.Bg3 e4 42.a3 f4 31.Rc3 Rc8 21.Kb1 Kc7 58. 51.Bf4 Ke6 43.Ba7 Nxe5 37.Kb1 Qad6 56.e5 Bb4 6.d4 d5 2.Ka1 Qf6 57.Rb1 Rc8 28.Ka1 Kb6 61. having forced White to checkmate.Bg5 Qg8 19.Bxf5? gxf5 14. in response for receiving the queen.Be3 e5 40.Nc3 c6 3.Bg3 Kd7 46.Kb1 Qf8 54.Bd4 Nc6 39.Nf3 g6 4.Kd2 a4 25.Kb2 Qd1 36.Bxc3 b5 8.Rhe1 c5 17. wins Odds of queen in return for requiring Black to force White to checkmate Paris-Marseilles.Kb2 Qxh4 34.Rb1 Ba6 26.Be3 Nd7 22.Ka1 h1(Q) 53.Rxc4 dxc4 30. Black undertakes to force White to checkmate Black) 1.Ng5 f5 11. correspondence 1878 (Remove White's queen.Kb1 Qh7+ 68.Ka1 Bb5 65.Re3 Bb7 20. having forced White to give checkmate.dxc5 Nxc5 18.Be1 Qd2 Now White is reduced to shuffling the king back and forth while Black sets up self-mate.Bd4 Rxc3 23.Bd2 Nd7 16.Bd3 Nf7 13.[81] [82] .Kbl a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Paris-Marseilles.

1849. playing five-minute chess. Henry G. 1960. 391. 1849. 395-400. pp. in 1747 Philidor won a match against Philipp Stamma in which Philidor gave move odds and draw odds in every game. [13] 2008-06-30 comment by Kaufman (http:/ / rybkaforum. p. A History of Chess. in return for which it undertook to force Paris to checkmate it. [22] Chess Notes No. Commoners and Knaves. 1849. R. The Principles of Chess in Theory and Practice.h3 Nd7 8. chesshistory. [3] Assiac. 56-57. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. The Pleasures of Chess. pp. ISBN 1-888690-04-6. Bohn. pp. 384. ISBN 978-0486435749. Dover Publications. 2004. Bohn. Collier Books. Staunton. Oxford University Press. pp. 2004. for example betting two pounds on each game to the opponent's one. Chess to Enjoy.Bg5! Ngf6 14. ISBN 0-19-827403-3. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. [7] Staunton gives the score of games where Kieseritzky gave odds of his queen rook in exchange for the opponent's queen knight. Bohn. where White gave queen odds in return for the right to make the first six moves: 1. 390. John Donaldson and Eric Tangborn. Dover Publications. The Chess-Player's Companion. 303. [32] Howard Staunton. Harry Golombek. [2] Pritchard. Conversely. 380-81. p. 1913. pl?tid=4658) [14] Howard Staunton. Dover Publications. Henry G. 92-93. [37] Macon Shibut. He also mentions odds of queen rook in exchange for pawn and two moves. pp. The Chess Player's Companion. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld. pp. [17] Staunton discusses 2-1 money odds. The Chess-Player's Companion. Bohn. 1849. p. [24] "[O]bviously. pp. pp. pp. Games & Puzzles Publications. pp.Chess handicap 43 References [1] David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld. 31. 1971. 1973. 395.Kf2 e5 15. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. [8] Irving Chernev cites a game Andreaschek-Dr. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0486435749. c. 1974. Bohn. 381.. [18] In 1963 Bobby Fischer. Wonders and Curiosities of Chess. 71. Crown Publishers. pp. 124. Kings. 1992). 114-15. The Unknown Bobby Fischer. 389. 1849. 1847. Simon and Schuster. [26] Howard Staunton. 1849. 147. [27] Assiac. Andrew Soltis. 1849. pp.A.Nf3 6. J. The Pleasures of Chess. Henry G. 153. Golombek’s Encyclopedia of Chess. The Chess-Player's Companion. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 440. The Chess Player's Handbook. According to a third account. pp.Bc4 d6 7. p.Nd5+ Kg6 11. [12] James Mason. Murray. and 5-4 money odds. p. The Oxford Companion to Chess. _Capablanca_origins) [23] Howard Staunton. Bohn. Dover Publications.Ne3 any 16. 1992. Bohn. Crown Publishers. 36. Bohn. this means that the odds-giver must guard that particular piece no less jealously than his King--a condition liable to cramp the style and tax the ingenuity of the best player. The Chess Player's Companion. ISBN 1-879479-85-0. pp.Ng5+ Kf6? 10. Henry G. 1849. The Chess-Player's Companion. p. 1849. Henry G. The Chess-Player's Companion. 1849. Henry G. Henry G. H. [6] In 1914. Prokofiev won handily in 31 moves.d4 3.g4+ (13. [4] Macon Shibut. Henry G. All About Chess. 166 ("handicap" entry). Bohn. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. [5] For example. 2nd ed. p. [16] Andy Soltis. [31] Howard Staunton. The Chess-Player's Companion. 1977. pp. The Chess-Player's Companion. 388-89. p. pp. Horowitz. The Chess-Player's Companion. Henry G. The Chess-Player's Companion. 150. 435-40. 1999. Howard Staunton. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory.e4 2. 121. (1994). D. Irving Chernev. Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess. 1849. [19] Howard Staunton. [11] Howard Staunton. Russell Enterprises. ISBN 0-8128-6059-4. Fourth Edition.Nf7+ Kh5 13.) [10] Harry Golombek. Chess to Enjoy.f4 5. Id. Stein and Day. p. Philidor gave draw odds and 5:4 money odds. 387. 1960. 1978. The Chess-Player's Companion. 1849. [29] Howard Staunton. Bohn. [36] Howard Staunton. 3502 (http:/ / www. Dover Publications. pp. p. p. Staunton also cites games where Philidor gave odds of queen knight in exchange for pawn and move. 1978. (See game at the end of this article.Nf4#) Kh4 14. com/ winter/ winter03. Henry G. 104-05. 409-12. Henry G. Henry G.M. 1849. 409-12. [25] Howard Staunton. David McKay.. Bohn. pp. Oxford University Press. Henry G. ISBN 0-486-23007-4. Henry G. Henry G. 1849.Bxf7+ Kxf7 9. [21] Edward Winter. Marseilles received queen odds. The Chess Player's Companion. Bohn. 1849. and in exchange for the first two moves. [34] Howard Staunton. he gave all of these: move odds. [30] Howard Staunton. 304-05. draw odds. 862. Bohn. [9] A bizarre example of countervailing odds was Paris-Marseilles. [35] Staunton. ISBN 0-8128-6059-4. The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed. Bohn. pp. Henry G. The Chess-Player's Companion. 1999. 383 (quoting Carrera). Bohn. Bohn. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. pp. The Chess-Player's Companion. p. p. p. [38] Staunton began his "MAXIMS AND ADVICE FOR AN INEXPERIENCED PLAYER" as follows: . International Chess Enterprises. p.Ng2#. By another account. p. 1960. R. 317-18. and Philidor gave odds of his queen rook in return for pawn and move. correspondence 1878. 435-40. future World Champion Alexander Alekhine played the famous composer Sergei Prokofiev blindfold and at knight odds. [28] Howard Staunton. The Pleasures of Chess. 215. The Chess-Player's Companion. Dover Publications. Stein and Day. 218. [15] I. Olmütz 1901.Nc3 4. the odds-receiver can go to any limit of material sacrifice in order to get rid of that one 'fatal' piece." Assiac.f5+ Kh6 12. [20] Irving Chernev. gave 10-1 money odds to Stewart Reuben and 20-1 money odds to National Master Asa Hoffman. [33] Howard Staunton. 1910. The Chess-Player's Companion. html#3500. 1849. ISBN 0-517-53146-1. 398.

[44] Reuben Fine writes that for Adolf Anderssen (1818-79). Wilhelm Steinitz. which it will be very difficult to throw off. and as you are sure to derive both amusement and instruction from him. p. the openings in games at odds are quite different from those adopted in even games and. 1983. The Chess-Player's Handbook. that tournament play entered the chess scene. p. However. 1990 (reprint of 1889 work). not coincidentally. Henry G. It was only during Emanuel Lasker's 1894-1921 reign as World Champion that "the institution of the chess tournament was really developed". and they will soon be glad to take all the advantages you can offer. Chess Openings Ancient and Modern." Robert Byrne "Chess" (http:/ / query. at 31. [43] "Indeed. Bohn. html?res=9907E1DD1338F937A25752C0A961958260). Putnam's Sons. [40] Books II and III were devoted to games not at odds.. 1896. Bohn. Book IV analyzed the games of Staunton's 1843 match against Saint Amant. 46-47. for the stronger party. Howard Staunton.P.Chess handicap There is nothing that will improve you so much as playing with good players . Edition Olms Zürich. p. C. neglectful habit of play. we can still find oddsgiving in blitz. This would be so for the weaker party. Freeborough and Rev. Accessed July 21. Henry G. after discussing general principles applicable to odds games. [46] Macon Shibut. less conducive to improvement of the player—giver or receiver—than serious conduct of the game on proper even terms. [42] Macon Shibut. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. when this is the case. Id. it was not until the International Tournament of 1851. 122. the game's gambling heritage is best preserved in the arena of blitz chess and." Id. relying on the inability of the weaker player to perceive the correct reply. The World's Great Chess Games. The Chess-Player's Companion. [49] Mason wrote: Strictly speaking.. pp. It will soon happen that you yourself will be able to give odds to many amateurs whom you meet . Steinitz could hardly find one every three or four years". no doubt as an inducement for them to play for wagers. time odds have replaced material as the preferred form of handicapping. [48] Steinitz wrote: 44 [A] learner should seek as much as possible to play on even terms with superior players. Chess: A History. Trench. the whole theory of the opening being distorted and disturbed. ISBN 0-486-24512-8. the first World Champion. held at the Crystal Palace of the London Exhibition. The authors. 120.. "Today. London. at 49. 122. and. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. if only because of the habit of speculative and unsound combination odds play so . The latter method of practice engenders the habit on the part of the odds-receiver of exchanging pieces without any motive other than to reduce the forces. winner of the 1851 tournament. p. Dover Publications. 16. ISBN 3-283-00111-1. Third Edition. and page 283 to the unusual odds of king knight. Similarly. classified by opening. never refuse. Moreover. if only because correctness of development must needs be missing. it is but fair that he should name the conditions. Dover Publications. Dover. 2004. 1847. and the object of the student ought to be not so much to win games as to train himself to play correctly. to accept them : you cannot expect a proficient to feel much interest in playing with you upon even terms. From experience and observation we feel sure that he will learn much faster in this manner than by taking odds. Reuben Fine. for Wilhelm Steinitz (1836-1900). pages 277-79 to Pawn and two moves games. at 124. pp. nytimes. 1976. devoted pages 274-76 to analyzing games played at Pawn and move. Ranken. He may also with comparative impunity commit many mistakes anyone of which would surely cost him the game if he started on even terms. Trübner and Co. or you are likely to acquire an indolent. Dover Publications. therefore. January 14. ISBN 978-0486435749. avoid. "There were few tournaments (none at all from 1851 to 1857)". 2008. propose to play for a small stake . G. com/ gst/ fullpage. [47] Shibut addresses the question "why has odds chess all but disappeared today?" Macon Shibut.E. The Modern Chess Instructor. 122-23. 1997. 2004. "active tournaments were few and far between . By taking odds a players loses the opportunity to observe the finer points of play of his adversary who on account of his inferiority in force cannot always afford to adopt the best strategy and is more apt to resort to lines of play which he knows to be unsound. pp. ISBN 978-0486435749. Id. the odds-receiver is not advancing in one important branch of Chess knowledge. therefore." Harry Golombek. 271-84. ISBN 978-0486435749. 2004. v. Kegan Paul. [41] E. [45] "It was the pernicious practice at the time [of Philidor] for the best players to give odds to weaker ones. Part I. pages 281-82 to games played at queen knight odds. playing them even. when any one offers you odds. When you cannot induce such players to accept odds. He notes that. [39] Howard Staunton. with "half a dozen international tournaments a year and innumerable local ones". xxix-xxx. pp. if possible. pp. 1849. and it would be so. therefore. The New York Times. odds play is somewhat foreign to the general principles of Chess. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. The last chapter of Book V was devoted to chess problems.

D. 53-54. 383.Chess handicap naturally induces—a habit which if once acquired is so difficult of rejection. 4 months. Geneva. 1971. Stein and Day. The Complete Book of Chess. James Mason. p. [80] D. 47. and 28 days. Bohn. 25. ISBN 1-886040-18-4. 1987. p. by just over a month. Wellmuth. [71] As to the spelling of Zukertort's opponent's name and the year in which the game was played. htm). but a knight is a knight!" Cathy Forbes. [53] Fischer biographer Frank Brady wrote of the Ginzburg interview (not specifically addressing the part about women chessplayers) that Fischer "claimed emphatically that much in it had been twisted. pp. Chess Notes 5564. Chess Review. The Chess-Player's Compansion. 137-38. bobby-fischer. Dover Publications. January 1962. _Who_C. 1955. p. ISBN 0-8050-2426-3.L. David McKay. Tarrasch's Best Games of Chess. [51] Bobby Fischer quotes (http:/ / www. Simon and Schuster. The Chess Companion. A. [50] Ralph Ginzburg. p. pl?tid=2937) [59] Rybka-Dzindzichashvili match (http:/ / rybkaforum. Bohn. ISBN 0-486-20644-0. beating Fischer’s own record. Profile of a Prodigy. Rothenberg. ISBN 978-0671538019. Id. The Fireside Book of Chess. The Polgar Sisters: Training or Genius?. 250. H. Rei Sub edition. net/ bobby_fischer_quotes_96. ISBN 978-0486435749. php?key=pgn/ 2008/ rvsmeyer/ KnightOdds. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show.Telegraph (http:/ / www. 287-88. uk/ news/ uknews/ 1317037/ Kasparov-makes-it-a-knight-to-remember. p. and taken out of context". pl?tid=4658) [63] Rybka-Meyer II games (http:/ / chessok. pp. pp. 2004. The Chess-Player's Companion. [77] Staunton quotes Carrera: "The player who gives the odds. pp. William Ewart Napier. 384. L. see Edward Winter. The Chess Player.N. pp. Chess Characters: Reminiscences of a Badmaster. co. Ironically. pgn& game=0) [62] Rybka-Meyer II match conditions (http:/ / rybkaforum. 1960. 212. 317-18. loses the game if he checkmate with any other Piece than the one named. Collier Books. "Fischer is Fischer. php?key=KnightOdds. distorted. pl?tid=3363) [60] Rybka-Meyer match conditions (http:/ / rybkaforum. Chess to Enjoy. 1973. comcast. Volume II. Fireside. Levy. when confronted by a foeman entirely worthy of his steel. 5.N. [56] Kasparov makes it a knight to remember . 1976. pp. 1975. at 171. 112-13. Chess Review. telegraph. David McKay. Horowitz and P. com/ winter/ winter46. Henry Holt and Company. [69] William Ewart Napier. p. in 1991 Judit Polgár. 1973. Bohn.L. 216-17. The Chess-Player's Companion. set in 1958. Henry G. 1955. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. and whose effects cannot fail to prove inconvenient to its subject. html) [57] Rybka-Ehlvest I (http:/ / rybkaforum. The Golden Treasury of Chess. Mr. Dover. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. 49-55. pl?tid=4249) [61] Rybka-Meyer games (http:/ / chessok. [70] Francis J. pl?tid=519) [58] Rybka-Benjamin match (http:/ / rybkaforum. com/ broadcast/ live. [82] Irving Chernev. [73] Arnold Denker and Larry Parr. and calling for the full exercise of all his powers. 1972. ISBN 0-671-21221-4. 1849. Diggle. 1849. p. became the (then) youngest grandmaster ever. [54] Former World Champion Mikhail Tal responded. [55] G. Levy. c. 137-38. [79] Howard Staunton. and 5580 (http:/ / www. html#5563. 1849. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. com/ broadcast/ live." Howard Staunton. 1992. chesshistory. Harper's Magazine. The Evaluation of Material Imbalances (http:/ / home. 45 . 1943. pgn& game=0) [64] 2008-06-02 comment on Rybka Community Forum (http:/ / rybkaforum. 139-40. pp. March 1999. p. ISBN 978-0486435749. Fireside. David McKay. ISBN 978-0671538019. originally published in Chess Life. 5568. 22. 1910. 433. [76] Irving Chernev. "Portrait of a Genius as a Young Chess Master". N. Howard Staunton. [74] Irving Chernev. com/ perl/ chessgame?gid=1341035) [67] Fred Reinfeld. 56-57. Henry G. *. [68] Irving Chernev and Fred Reinfeld. htm) [52] I. pl?tid=4249) [65] Larry Kaufman. pp. pp. p. [81] Andy Soltis. 218. 1978. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. [75] Macon Shibut. [78] Staunton wrote in 1849 that the game was played "some years ago" and referred to his opponent as the "Hon. 1000 Best Short Games of Chess. _5555). net/ ~danheisman/ Articles/ evaluation_of_material_imbalance. p. Howard Staunton. Second Edition. The Principles of Chess in Theory and Practice. The Chess Player." Howard Staunton. The Golden Treasury of Chess. p. Henry G. pp. 1943. a girl aged 15 years. T. 1000 Best Short Games of Chess. ISBN 0-8128-6059-4. 387 n. Frank Brady. 1995. David Levy writes. Hypermodern Press. [66] Eckart-Tarrasch (http:/ / www. 1975. at 50. Paul Morphy and the Golden Age of Chess. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. Chess Notes. The Bobby Fischer I Knew and Other Stories. net/ cgi-bin/ rybkaforum/ topic_show. Simon and Schuster. "probably Taverner". Wellmuth. ISBN 978-0486435749. Rei Sub edition. chessgames. 10-11. p. Fourth Edition. [72] Francis J.

[1] is an asymmetric chess variant in which one side has standard chess pieces. also known as Dunsany's game. A similar game is called 'horde chess'. and a .. by running out of legal moves. this one does not feature any fairy pieces. the starting position.A Perspective on the Art of Odds-giving (http://sbchess. which are pieces not found in conventional chess.dir/oddschess. Dunsany's chess.google. Piece movement is the same as in regular chess. • Video of Fischer making the claim about giving knight odds to women (http://www. This is far easier if they first get at least one pawn promoted to queen. (dead link) • Odds chess (http://www. Unlike many chess variants.html) by Roger Cooper. This game was invented by Lord Dunsany in 1942. html) from Sarah's Chess Journal.sinfree. and the other side has 32 pawns.youtube.. • The pawns win by checkmating the king. 1849.chessvariants. (http://books.net/odds-giving. except that only the eight pawns from the standard side (second row) have the option to move forward two spaces on their first move. .Chess handicap 46 Further reading • The Chess-player's Companion: Comprising a New Treatise on Odds. External links • The Romance of Chess .com/ books?id=iO0IAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage) by Howard Staunton.com/ watch?v=jdA7I9nPhSU&feature=player_embedded) Dunsany's chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dunsany's chess. which for them is almost as good as a win.org/other. Rules Object of the game: • The standard pieces win by capturing all 32 pawns before the pawns run out of legal moves. • The pawns can also accomplish a draw.

the colors of pieces are exchanged. There exists an almost identical game called Horde chess.pathguy. References [1] Pritchard. D. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.com (http://www. (1994).htm) . and the middle two columns of pawns are shifted forward one space. External links • Lord Dunsany's chess java applet at www. Games & Puzzles Publications.pathguy. In difference to Dunsany's chess. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1.Dunsany's chess 47 Variations a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Horde chess.com/chess/Dunsany.

The game was solved independently by Aloril in 2001 and by Kirill Kryukov in 2004. Magnus Carlsen promoting 5x6 chess variant Chess Attack 3x3 and 3x4 boards Chess on a 3x3 board does not have any clearly defined starting position. it is a solved game: the outcome of every possible position is known. The number of legal positions is 304. The solution by Kryukov is more complete. However.552.246. The low memory capacity of the early days computer required reduced board size and smaller number of pieces to make the game implementable on a computer. 4x4 and 4x5 chess Silverman 4x4 Silverman 4x5 Microchess . Martin Gardner recommended 5x5 chess variant to fill short breaks during the work. since it allows pawns to be placed everywhere. The best move for each side is known as well.303.545. The longest checkmate on 3x3 board takes 16 moves. The first chess-like game implemented on a computer was a 6x6 chess variant Los Alamos chess.916 legal positions and the longest checkmate takes 43 moves.[2] In 2009 Kryukov reported solving 3x4 chess.[1] The motivation for these variants is to make the game simpler and shorter than the standard chess. but on a smaller board.48 Different board Minichess Minichess is a family of chess variants played with regular chess pieces and standard rules.[3] On this board there are 167. not only on second row as by Aloril.

suggested setup in which white has two knights against two black bishops. in this case Black wins even more easily (select pawn b2.. axb3+ Qxb3 2. In difference from Gardner minichess. which could play this game. In this variant pawns can do double-move if target square is free.[7] . To make the variant more playable.. Silverman finally proposed to insert a row between pawns and use the board 4x5. Qxb2 Qxb2 checkmate). which he called Baby chess. However. 49 5x5 chess Gardner Baby chess Jacobs-Meirovitz Mallett A 5x5 board is the smallest which can contain all kinds of chess pieces. Martin Gardner suggested a chess variant on 5x5 board in which all chess moves.bxa3 (or 1.Kb4 3. kings are placed into opposite corners here. • 32% were draws.[4] Castling is allowed in this variant. In 1980 HP shipped HP-41C programmable calculator. • Black won 28%. Paul Jacobs and Marco Meirovitz suggested another starting position for 5x5 chess shown at the right.Minichess In 1981 Silverman suggested 4x4 chess variant shown on the diagram. Microchess was invented by Glimne in 1997. In 1989. bxa3+ Kc4 4. In 1969. 1. bxc3 checkmate) 3. en-passant capture as well as castling can be made. Gardner minichess was also played by AISE with suicide chess and progressive chess rules.[4] The first player wins easily in this game (1.[5] Later AISE (Associazione Italiana Scacchi Eterodossi) abandoned pawn double-move and castling. and White must make a first move with this pawn. cxb3+ Kxb3 (or 2. Martin Gardner proposed another setup. Qa2 checkmate) . Jeff Mallett (main developer of Zillions of Games). Another chess variant on 4x5 board. so Silverman proposed a variant: Black can select a pawn. The statistics of the finished games is the following:[4] • White won 40% of games.[6] The calculator was able to play on quite a decent level. The game was largely played in Italy (including by correspondence) and opening theory was developed.bxc3) b2+ 2. including pawn double-move.

which has the same setup as Gardner minichess (but played on a bigger board) is sold by Norway company Yes Games AS since 2008. Laszlo Polgar published a book in 1994 Minichess 777+1 Positions (Quickchess teaches chess quick)[11] . combinations and games for 5x6 chess. Speed chess was invented by Mr.[10] Besides two variants similar to Speed chess and Elena Chess (same position of white pieces. Miccio advocated these games as educational tools for chidren to learn chess rules. The earliest published one is Petty chess. den Oude in 1988. Besides initial setup as in QuickChess. The piece setup like in Speed chess was intended to teach short side castling and setup as in Chess Attack . the patent claimed one further variant. which have been named later Chess Attack.Minichess 50 5x6 chess Petty chess Speed chess QuickChess Elena chess Chess Attack There are several chess variants on 5x6 board. The game was sold by Amerigames International and received National Parenting Publications Award in 1993. In this variant.[9] Pawn double-move and castling are not allowed in this variant.long side castling. position of black pieces is symmetrical). Polgar proposed to use any other possible setup of pieces. Miccio obtained an USA patent in 1993. which was invented by Walker Watson in 1930. Polgar recommended to use is as a first book to teach children to play chess. QuickChess was invented by Joseph Miccio in 1991. Chess Attack. The smaller board and less pieces would reduce the complexity of the game and allow for more quicker games. even asymmetrical one. which described 3 further chess variant on 5x6 board. pawns can make double-moves and en-passant capture is allowed. The book contained problems. The game was endorsed by Magnus Carlsen and Alexandra Kosteniuk. completely devoted to chess on 5x6 board. .[8] Elena chess was invented by Sergei Sirotkin in 1999. pawns can only promote to captured pieces.

Wardley proposed in 1977 a Simpler chess. knights cannot move within the first three moves. bishops are considered slightly more valuable than knights (especially two bishops). two knights are presumably equal to two bishops.Minichess 51 6x6 chess a 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 Diana chess L'Hermitte chess Los Alamos chess Besides Los Alamos chess. The initial position is shown above. and the king can move to the knight position without losing the right to castle. without rooks Simpler chess. There are no queens on the board and pawns can't promote to queens either. . because of the smaller size of the board. bishop or even king and queen. Additionally. Removing bishops results in Los Alamos chess. The game Diana chess (or Ladies chess) was suggested by Hopwood in 1870. the result of removing rooks or knights is shown on the diagrams above. there are other chess variants played on a 6x6 board. Jeff Mallett proposed the setup knights versus bishops also on 6x6 board. knights. The same condition as in chess apply for castling (e.) Serge L'Hermitte suggested in 1969 a game with nearly the same setup as Diana chess. On a normal 8x8 board. However. the king should not be under check. except that the positions of the black king and knight are exchanged from their positions in Diana chess. a 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f a b c d e f a b c d e f Simpler chess. on 6x6 boards. without knights Mallett 6x6 chess A. neither rook nor king should have moved before etc. in which a pair of pieces is removed from the both sides: rooks. a family of 6x6 chess variants. Pawns cannot move forward two squares on their initial move.g. Castling is done by switching the positions of the king and rook.

External links • • • • Knight court (http://www. 3x3 Chess (http:/ / kirr. chessvariants. html) by Hans Bodlaender. [6] HP-minichess (http:/ / www.org/small. .php?itemid=MS6ranks. p. John Beasley. freepatentsonline. org/ chess/ 3x3-chess/ ) by Kirill Kryukov. Wittman Quick Chess (http://www. org/ small.Minichess 52 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Pritchard.chessvariants.edu/cgboer/minichessvariants. (1994). chessvariants. The history section says: A little experiment by Jeff Mallett. The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions (Reprint ed.chessvariants. Games & Puzzles Publications.chessvariants. html) [11] Polgar (1994) References • Pritchard. D. (2007). remaining variants (http://www. • Laszlo Polgar (1994). [8] Chess . homeunix. ISBN 978-0955516801.html) 6 Ranks. 3x4 Chess (http:/ / kirr. Minichess 777+1 Positions (Quickchess teaches chess quick). ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. ISBN 0-2262-8256-2. Laszlo Polgar.org/small. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.remaini) by Charles Gilman. html) by Hans Bodlaender [9] Polgar (1994). org/ small.html) by Jason D. p.org/index/msdisplay. based on an email from Ross Crawford.ship. dir/ hpmini. Pritchard (2007). dir/ chessspeed.Speed Game (http:/ / www. org/ chess/ 3x4-chess/ ) by Kirill Kryukov.html) by Hans Bodlaender Mini-chess variants (http://webspace. D. homeunix.dir/knightcourt. University Of Chicago Press. com/ 5257787.3 [10] USA patent 5257787 Chess-like game (http:/ / www. ISBN 963-4508057. 113 Martin Gardner (1991). [7] This game can be found in set of games shipped together with Zillions of Games.). The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.dir/quick.

Metropolis. • There is no castling. The computer won. . N 14. • Pawns may not promote to bishops. and the MANIAC [1] (from Los Alamos Science [2]. This was the first chess-like game played by a computer program. Fall 1986). The reduction of the board size and the number of pieces from standard chess was due to the very limited capacity of computers at the time.Los Alamos chess 53 Los Alamos chess a 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f b c d e f 6 5 4 3 2 1 Los Alamos chess Los Alamos chess (or anti-clerical chess) is a chess variant played on a 6×6 board without bishops. nor is there en passant capture.B. The first it played against itself. Pritchard (1994). All rules are as in chess except: • There is no pawn double-move. • H. L. who played without a queen. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. pp 104-105. MANIAC I played against a novice chess player who had been taught the rules just before the game. In the third game. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. The second one was against a strong human player. Monte Carlo. Rules The starting position is shown on the right. marking the first time that a computer had beaten a human player in a chess-like game. Anderson (1986). The human player won. References • D. The computer played three games. This program was written in Los Alamos laboratory by Paul Stein and Mark Wells for the MANIAC I computer in 1956.

com/ columns/ column. but he can play Kd7 and also Kd8. the piece moved must cross at least one of these lines. is in check from the rook on c8. html http:/ / www. Rules Various arrangements of the grid have been tried. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. but if the queen were to take a step back with Qe3. Unless otherwise stipulated. A sample position. This is a normal 64-square board with a grid of lines further dividing the board into larger squares. The white king is not in check from the queen. as he could in normal chess. chessbase. The black king. asp?pid=102 http:/ / BrainKing. gov/ cgi-bin/ getfile?number14. as these moves do not cross a grid-line. it will take two moves (for example.internet server to play Los Alamos chess. htm http:/ / www. Black cannot play Bd5 but can play any other bishop move — if he wants to put his bishop on d5. Bodlaender. • A short history of computer chess [4] by Frederic Friedel • BrainKing. on the other hand. The white king cannot take the queen. which divides the board into 16 2×2 squares. but cannot move his b-pawn. com Grid chess Grid chess is a chess variant invented by Walter Stead in 1953. For a move to be legal in grid chess. Grid chess is also used in chess problems. first Ba8. pdf http:/ / library. and then Bd5). fas. with Ke7 or Kf7. dir/ losalamos. and by far the most popular. lanl. bringing the king into the same large square as the rook. is that shown to the right. it would be. Black cannot escape check.Los Alamos chess 54 External links • Los Alamos Chess [3] by Hans L. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00326886. white can play either a3 or a4 (see algebraic notation). but the original. . the term grid board can be assumed to refer to this arrangement. and grid chess to chess played on this board. chessvariants. In the position shown. It is played on a grid board. although the white knight can. org/ small.com [5] .

This problem displays attractive correspondence between the paths Helpmate in 4.. It is a helpmate in 4 (black moves first and cooperates with white to checkmate him within 4 moves). Ternblad and was published in the Fairy Chess Review.Kd5 (note that two kings can co-exist next to each other so long as they are in the same large square) 4.Bxb7#. 1954.Grid chess 55 Example problem It is possible to play entire games under grid chess conditions. and d1-e2-e3-d4-d5 is not possible because on d4 the king is checked by white's king.. taken by the king and bishop. It is by H.Ke4 Bc6+ 4. The solution is 1.Ke2 Bc4+ 2. and so escapes the check) 2. htm#gridc . tripod.Kd3 (note that this brings the king into the same large square as the bishop. External links • Grid Chess Problems [1] References [1] http:/ / members... and a number of chess problems using grid chess rules have also been composed. The one to the right won first prize in the first grid chess problem tournament. com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_g. It is worth noting the zig-zagging path the black king must take to reach d5 — the straightfoward route Kd1-d2-d3-d4-d5 is not possible because two of the moves do not cross grid-lines.Bxb5+ (withdrawing the bishop over a grid-line gives check again) 3.

The game is played as if the board were a cylinder. Rules and gameplay .[1] Cylindrical board is also used in chess problems. According to Bill Wall. including astrological chess. in 947 in a history of chess in India and Persia. with the left side of the board joined to the right side. the Arabic historian Ali al-Masudi described six different variants of chess. Note that the bishop can't move through the upper and lower sides of the board. circular chess and cylinder chess.Cylinder chess 56 Cylinder chess Cylindrical chessboard a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Cylinder chess The diagram shows possible moves of the bishop on c1 and the knight on h2 on a cylindrical board. Cylinder chess (or cylindrical chess) is a chess variant with an unusual board.

and then going up and left from a3 to h4. king moves to c1. when a piece goes off the left edge. • Additionally to normal castling. Now..[2] It is legal to move a rook from a3 to h3. it reappears on the left edge.Rh4-h4 .Cylinder chess 57 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Mate in 2 Cylinder chess with the null-move. white can capture it: a5xh6.Rg4 doesn't work because of 1. For example. This castling on the queen-side has the rook on h1 moving to d1. like rook a3-a3 (assuming 3rd rank is empty). by moving from c1 to a3. since the rook can move left from a3. The game is played as if there is no edge on the side of the board. are usually not allowed. By such castling on the king side the king e1 moves to g1 and rook a1 moves to f1. The game is sometimes played with changed rules for castling: • Castling is not allowed. Some cylinder chess problems allow moves that don't change the position (null moves). castling with the wrong rook (over the board edge) is also allowed. It is allowed to capture en passant over the board edge. Proponents of this convention argue that the purpose of castling is nullified by all files being equivalent. Moves that do not change the position. Bishops are more valuable in this variant. And.[3] At the right an example of such a problem is shown. as they are on the cylinder. but sometimes they are in some problems. black on h7 and black plays h7-h5. it reappears on the right edge. king and rook cannot enforce checkmate against the lone king on the cylindrical board. When a piece goes off the right edge of the board in cylinder chess. after any move by black white has a mate..Ka5 threatening to capture the rook.. A bishop on c1 can go to h4. . The solution is to put black in a zugzwang by playing 1. even if there is a piece on b3. unlike in standard chess. The move 1. if white has a pawn on a5.

Cylinder chess

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Horizontal cylinder chess and toroidal chess

Toroidal chessboard

a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

Initial position Torus chess on a standard board In horizontal cylinder chess, first and last rank are connected. In toroidal chess the board has the form of a torus. One can get a toroidal board by connecting first and last ranks of the cylindrical board. On the toroidal board, even king and queen can't checkmate the lone king.[4] See the Torus Chess link below for a toroidal variant that can be played, with an explanation of moves and strategy. The diagram on the right shows the starting position for play on a standard board, using toroidal geometry.

Cylinder chess

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References
[1] Earliest chess books and references (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091028082822/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ SiliconValley/ Lab/ 7378/ oldtexts. htm) by Bill Wall. [2] D.B. Pritchard (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (p. 79). ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. [3] From A. W. Mongredien, Bulletin de la FFE, No. 19, 1926 (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ problems. dir/ prcylin2. html) [4] Е.Я. Гик, Шахматы и математика, Наука, Москва, 1983 (in Russian)

External links
• Cylinder chess (http://www.bcvs.ukf.net/cylin.htm) by George Jelliss, Variant Chess, Volume 3, Issue 22, Winter 1996-7, pages 32–33. • Cylindrical chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/boardrules.dir/cylindrical.html) by Ron Porter and Cliff Lundberg. • BrainKing.com (http://BrainKing.com) - internet server to play Cylinder chess and many other chess variants • Torus Chess (http://www.chessvariants.org/shape.dir/torus_standard_board.html) by Karl Fischer, Torus Chess on a standard board - playable, if bloody.

Circular chess
Circular chess is a chess variant played using the standard set of pieces on a circular board consisting of four rings, each of sixteen squares. This is topologically equivalent to playing on the surface of a cylinder.

History
Documents in the British Library and elsewhere suggest that circular Circular chess chess was played in Persia as early as the 10th century AD, and further references are found in India, Persia, and, later, Europe. Historical rules are in sources that are little-known in the West, such as Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli's 'Treasury of the Sciences', so when, in 1983, Lincoln historian David Reynolds came across a reference to the game being played in the Middle Ages and set about attempting to revive interest in it, he chose to draw up a new set of rules, based around those of orthodox chess. Since that time, the older rules of circular chess have become far better known.

Historical Circular Chess
Rules
One set of rules for medieval circular chess is from the Persian author Amuli (1325). In this version, called shatranj al-muddawara (circular chess) or shatranj al-Rûmîya (Roman or Byzantine chess), the game uses a board with four concentric rings, each split into 16 spaces, for a total of 64 spaces. The game uses the same pieces as shatranj. The king and the counselor on the inner ring, next to each other. The next ring has the elephants, the next ring has the knights, and the last ring has the rooks. A single row of 4 pawns flanks each side of the central pieces. The king of one side "faces" the counselor of the other (a shorter

Starting position for historical circular chess.

Circular chess path is between the king of one side and the counselor of the other than between the kings of the two sides). Movement is the same as shatranj, except that, if two pawns from the same side, going in opposite directions, end up being blocked by each other, the opponent may remove both pieces, which does not use the opponent's turn. As there is no back row, there is no promotion. A stalemate is a victory for the stalemating player. A bare king is a loss for the player who only has the king left unless, in the next turn, the player can also impose a bare king, at which point the game is a draw. Citadel Chess A variant of this game attested by Amuli has two "citadel" spaces in the center of the board and a different starting setup. In the citadel game, if a king reaches the citadel, a draw is forced.

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Modern Circular Chess
Starting position for citadal chess.

Rules
The starting position is essentially obtained from that of orthodox chess by cutting the board in half and bending the two halves to join at the ends. Two lines are marked on opposite sides of the board, and each set of pieces is positioned so as to straddle this line. The king and queen start on the innermost ring, with, as is the case in square chess, the queen on a square of the same colour; the bishops start in the second ring from the centre, the knights on the third and the rooks on the outermost ring. The pawns are positioned in front of the pieces.

The moves of the pieces are identical to those in orthodox chess; a queen or rook may, if it is not obstructed, move any distance round a ring, except that the "null move" of moving a piece all the way round the board and back to its original square is not permitted. A pawn is promoted after moving six squares from its initial position, to the square immediately before the opponent's starting line. Castling and en passant captures are not permitted. Announcing a check is not obligatory, and "snaffling" (winning the game immediately by capturing the opponent's king after he either moved into or failed to move out of check) is allowed and has on more than one occasion decided a world championship game.

Starting position for modern circular chess.

Theory
Most textbooks on orthodox chess assign the pieces relative values of 9 points for a queen, 5 for a rook, 3 for a bishop or knight, and 1 for a pawn; although no attempt has been made to assign specific values for circular chess, it is certain that the same values do not hold. The values of the queen and rook are considerably augmented by their greater range - with two rooks or a queen and rook unobstructed on the same ring being especially powerful - while those of the bishop and knight are diminished; for example, on an 8 x 8 board two minor pieces are held to be stronger than a rook, but on a circular board the rook is considerably stronger. The minor pieces do, however, pose a significant danger value, as their moves are more difficult to visualise on the circular board and even strong players often fail to notice a threat. One of the major differences between orthodox and circular chess in practice is in the opening. In the former, opening theory has developed over several centuries, and the use of computer analysis has resulted in top level

Circular chess games frequently not deviating from known theory until the 20th move or beyond; in the latter, there is virtually no opening theory, and consequently players are "on their own" from the first move. In orthodox chess, advancing the king's or queen's pawn are generally considered the best opening moves, as doing so attacks two key central squares, opens a diagonal to enable the development of a bishop, and, in the case of the king's pawn, the queen also. On a circular board these advantages are negated, as a king's or queen's pawn only attacks one square, and its advance only opens one square for the bishop. Some players advance the central pawns first anyway, while others prefer to advance the rooks' pawns in order to open lines of attack for the more powerful pieces; it is not known which move, if any, is objectively best. The different geometry of the square and circular boards creates considerable differences in endgame theory: three of the four "basic checkmates" on a square board (those with king and rook, king and two bishops or king, bishop and knight against a lone king) rely on forcing the defending king into the corner of the board, and thus are impossible on a circular board since it doesn't have corners. The "basic mates" in circular chess are thus those with king and queen, king, rook and minor piece or king and three minor pieces against a lone king. The greater tendency towards drawn endgames often results in the defender playing on in a position which would be considered cause for resignation on a square board. In one particular endgame, however, the circular board favours the attacker: with king and pawn against king, there is no stalemate defence and thus, unless the defending king can capture the pawn before it can be either promoted or defended, this endgame is always a win. So most rules are as in orthodox chess.

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The World Championship
Chess championship year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Location Winner

The Tap and Spile public house, Lincoln Rob Stevens, Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Bishop Edward King House, Lincoln Bishop Edward King House, Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Cathedral Lincoln Castle The Tap & Spile public house, Lincoln Francis Bowers, Peterborough Francis Bowers, Peterborough Francis Bowers, Peterborough Herman Kok Francis Bowers, Peterborough David Howell Francis Bowers, Peterborough Francis Bowers, Peterborough Michael Jones, Lincoln Herman Kok Kevin McCarthy

After experimenting with various possible layouts for the game, Reynolds decided on that pictured above, constructed a board and introduced the game to other players in Lincoln; it caught on, and in 1996 the Circular Chess Society was formed, with the aim of popularising circular chess, primarily by organising a tournament. Since it was not known to be played competitively anywhere else, its claim to the status of world championship was not contested, and thus it became. The inaugural tournament was held in the Tap and Spile public house in Lincoln in 1996; it was played as a knockout, with Lincoln player Rob Stevens beating Nottinghamshire's Mark Spink in the final. Subsequently the tournament has been held at different venues in Lincoln, usually under the Swiss system, and has been dominated by two players: Peterborough engineer Francis Bowers and Dutch businessman Herman Kok, who between them won eight of the following ten tournaments. Bowers took the title from 1997 to 1999, and remains not just the only player to have won the tournament three years in succession, but the only one to win on more than two occasions; Kok broke the sequence with victory in the 2000 tournament, before Bowers won again in

Circular chess 2001. The 2002 World Championship, staged in Bishop Edward King House in Lincoln and sponsored by the Duke William Hotel, saw the only instance to date of the participation in the tournament of a player widely known outside the world of circular chess: David Howell, then aged 11 and having recently gained national publicity by becoming the youngest player to avoid defeat (at standard chess) against a reigning world champion, with a draw in the final game of his match against Vladimir Kramnik (having lost the other three games). Howell won the tournament, scoring a maximum 5 points after beating Bowers in the final round, although he commented afterwards "This is the first time I have played in a circular chess contest and it was difficult. Circular chess is a lot harder to play than square chess. Every time you or your opponent makes a move, you have to think about what is happening on the other side of the board.". Kok finished runner-up with 4½ points. The 2003 tournament was again held in Bishop Edward King House; sponsorship for it and the four subsequent tournaments came from Lindum Group. Howell did not return to defend his title (and has not played in the tournament since); Bowers gained his fifth title with victory over Kok in the last round to complete a 5/5 score, and Lincolnshire player David Carew, with 4½, finished second. Bowers repeated the feat the following year, again finishing with a win against Kok; Nottinghamshire's Mike Clark was the runner-up, with Stevens third and Kok and Carew among a group of six players in joint fourth place. In 2005 the Society gained extra publicity for the tournament by securing the chapter house of Lincoln Cathedral as the venue, only the day after the filming of The Da Vinci Code there had been completed (the cathedral was used to film scenes which, in the book, take place in Westminster Abbey, since the abbey had refused Columbia Pictures permission to film there); much of the film set was (and is) still in place. The draw for the first round of the tournament was conducted by Councillor Steve Allnutt, the Deputy Mayor of Lincoln, and Mrs Chris Noble, the City Sheriff; the two guests accepted an invitation to try the game for themselves, with the Sheriff emerging as the winner. In contrast to previous tournaments, the 2005 championship was held over four rounds rather than five; in the first Stevens drew with Bowers, to end the latter's run of ten consecutive wins in the tournament and leave Kok the favourite to take the title again. At the halfway point there were four players with maximum points - Kok, Hertfordshire's John Beasley, and tournament newcomers David Stamp and Michael Jones, both of Lincolnshire with Bowers on 1½ after surviving a scare to "snaffle" Carew in the second round. Kok beat Beasley in the third round, while Stamp and Jones remained in contention after both winning; Bowers also won, although, since the top four players would be drawn against each other in the final round, his chances of retaining his title were remote, relying on him winning his own game and the other being drawn to force a three-way playoff. The draw for the final round pitted Kok against Jones and Bowers against Stamp - in each case an experienced player against a tournament newcomer. The former game looked to be heading in Kok's favour before he blundered in time trouble and eventually lost on time, leaving Jones on 4/4 and Stamp needing to beat Bowers to force a tiebreak; he could only draw, so Jones finished the outright champion and Stamp runner-up with 3½. Bowers, Herman Kok, his son Robbie, Beasley and Clark tied for third place with 3 points each. The 2006 World Championship was held at Lincoln Castle, and was dedicated to regular competitor Charles Vermes of Derbyshire, who had died shortly before. The first round brought no surprise results - the only two of the main contenders to be drawn together were Clark and Stevens, with Clark emerging the winner; Jones, Herman Kok and Bowers all won. Clark beat Jones in the second round, at which point there remained five players on maximum points: Clark, Kok, Bowers, Lincolnshire's Richard Kidals and Ian Lewis of Cardiff. Lewis lost his third round game to tournament founder Reynolds, but the other four leaders all won, ensuring the need for a tiebreak unless one of the last round games was drawn; Kok beat Clark and Bowers beat Kidals to give them both the maximum 4 points, so the expected tiebreak game ensued. The game was close throughout, with Bowers eventually losing on time to give Kok the title - only the second player, after Bowers himself, to claim it more than once. The 2007 World Championship was held at The Tap & Spile in Lincoln, with Kevin McCarthy lifting the title after remaining unbeaten in his first ever tournament under Circular Rules, including a win against the legendary Herman

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Circular chess Kok, who had taught him the rules only a fortnight previously.

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External links
• Circular Chess Software (Windows 95 - Windows 7) [1] • Circular Chess Software (Windows 3.x) [2] • An Open Source Online Circular Chess [3]

References
• The Circular Chess Society [4] • Historical roots [5]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. circularchess. com http:/ / www. ochess. com/ software. html http:/ / www. codeproject. com/ KB/ aspnet/ circular_chess. aspx http:/ / www. circularchess. co. uk/ http:/ / history. chess. free. fr/ byzantine. htm

Alice chess
Alice Chess is a chess variant invented in 1953 by V. R. Parton which employs two chessboards rather than one,[1] and a slight (but significant) alteration to the standard rules of chess. The game is named after the main character "Alice" in Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking-Glass, where travel through the looking-glass is portrayed by the after-move transfer of chess pieces between boards A and B.
Alice steps through the looking-glass; illustration by Sir John Tenniel The simple transfer rule is well known for causing disorientation and confusion in players new to the game, and often leads to surprises and amusing mistakes as pieces "disappear" and "reappear" between boards. This "nothing is as it seems" experience probably accounts for Alice Chess remaining Parton's most popular and successful invention among the numerous other chess variants he created in his lifetime.

Alice chess

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A

B

Move Rules
In Alice Chess, pieces move the same as they do in standard chess, but a piece transfers at the completion of its move to the opposite board. This simple change causes a dramatic impact on gameplay. At the beginning of the game, pieces start in their normal positions on board A, while board B starts empty. After each move is made on a given board, the moved piece is transferred (goes "through the looking-glass") to the corresponding square on the opposite board. (So, if a piece is moved on board A, it is transferred to board B at the completion of its move; if the piece started on board B, it ends up on board A.)

A

Alice chess

65

B Position after 1. Nf3 e6 2. Ne5 Bc5

A

B Position after 3. Nxf7 Bg1 For example, after the opening moves 1. Nf3 e6, the white knight and black pawn transfer after moving on board A to their corresponding squares on board B. If the game continued 2. Ne5 Bc5, the knight returns to board A and the bishop finishes on board B. (See diagram.) A move in Alice Chess has some stipulations: the move must be legal on the board on which it is played, and the square transferred to on the opposite board must be vacant. (As a result, capture is possible only on the board a piece sits on – pieces on board A can capture only pieces on board A; pieces on board B can capture only pieces on board

Alice chess B. After a capture, the capturing piece transfers to the opposite board the same as a non-capturing move.) To demonstrate, if the above game continued 3. Nxf7, the knight transfers to board B. Then with Black to move, both 3... Kxf7 and 3... Bxf2+ are not possible. Black cannot play 3... Qd4 either, since the queen may not hop over the black pawn on d7. But the move 3... Bg1 is possible (see diagram), despite the fact a white pawn sits on f2 on board A. (The bishop move on board B is legal, and the square transferred to, g1 on board A, is vacant.) A final stipulation is that a king may not put itself into check upon transfer. (In other words, a king may not transfer to a vacant square on the opposite board, if this would result in check to the king.) Castling is largely regarded as permitted in Alice Chess. The en passant rule is normally not used, but can be.[2]

66

Early mates
Alice Fool's Mate

A

B Alice Chess Fool's Mate Several exist, one is: 1. e4 d5 2. Be2 dxe4? 3. Bb5# (diagram). At first glance, it might seem that Black can simply interpose a piece between White's bishop and his king to block the check (for example, 3... Bd7 or 3... Nc6 or 3... c6). But any piece so interposed immediately "disappears" when it transfers to board B. And Black cannot escape check by fleeing to the opposite board via 3... Kd7, because the move is not a legal move on board A. Therefore it is checkmate. Another form of Fool's Mate: 1. e4 d6 2. Bc4 Qxd2? 3. Bb5# And another: 1. e4 e5 2. Qh5 Nf6? 3. Qxe5#

Alice chess

67

Alice Scholar's Mate

A

B Alice Chess Scholar's Mate 1. e4 h5 2. Be2 Rh4 3. Bxh5 Rxe4+ 4. Kf1 d5 5. Qe2? (threatening 6. Qb5#) 5... Bh3# (diagram). 1. d4 e6 2. Qd6 Be7? 3. Qe5+ Kf8 4. Bh6# (Seitz–Nadvorney, 1973).

Sample game
Yearout vs Jelliss, 1996

A

Alice chess

68

B Position after 11. 0-0-0 (Annotations by George Jelliss; moves returning to board A are notated "/A".) Paul Yearout vs George Jelliss, 1996 AISE Grand Prix: 1. d3 Nf6 2. Nc3 c5 3. Qd2 Nc6 (To give a direct check to the king the checking piece must come from the other board, so it is necessary first to transfer forces to the other board.) 4. d4/A Rb8 (This way of developing rooks is common in Alice Chess.) 5. e3 g5 (This prevents the Bc1 coming to g5 or f4.) 6. f4 Rbg8/A (Guarding Pg5 on the other board.) 7. Nd5/A h6 8. Nf3 gxf4/A (Inconsistent play on my part. Ne4/A now looks better to me.) 9. Bxf4 Rg4 10. Be5/A Rh5 11. 0-0-0 [diagram] (Perhaps judging that the activated black force now being on the second board the king might be safer there. The black queen is now effectively 'pinned': 11... Q-c7/b6?? 12. Qd8#.) 11... Ne4/A 12. Bc7 Ra4/A 13. Ba6 Bg7 (The idea is 14... Rc4+ 15. c3/Nc3 Bxc3+/A.) 14. Bb5/A Rc4+ 15. Kb1/A Rf5/A 16. Ba5/A (Desperate measures now needed to save the 'pinned' queen.) 16... Rxd5 17. Qxd5/A Qxa5 (Threatening 18... Qa1#.) 18. a3 Qd2/A 19. Qxd7+ Kf8 (I put these two moves in as an 'if...then' clause, but it seems Paul may not have noticed the discovered check, so perhaps I should have kept quiet!) 20. Qxg7/A Qc3 (Stops Qh8#.) 21. Rd8/A Black resigns (1–0) (If 21... Bd7/Be6/Nf6 22. Qg8/Re8/Qh8#.)

Variations
a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

8×4 version of Alice Chess Minor (and not-so-minor) rule modification has sprouted a number of different variations on Alice Chess. • Alice Chess 2 (SchemingMind.com [3]): the Black army starts out on the opposite board (board B).

Alice chess • Ms. Alice Chess (John Ishkan, 1973): null or zero moves are permitted. (A move consisting of piece transfer only – from the current square a piece sits on, to the corresponding square, if vacant, on the opposite board.) • O'Donohue Chess (Michael O'Donohue, 2003): piece transfer to the opposite board isn't required, if the square normally transferred to is occupied. • Duo Chess (Jed Stone, 1981): Black starts out on board B; transfers are optional; non-pawn pieces may make zero moves (and may capture in so doing); a king is checked when an opposing piece sits on its zero square; mate must cover the king's ability to flee via a zero move. • Looking-Glass Chess (V. R. Parton, 1970): using two complete sets instead of one, and no transfers. (Thus two separate games on two boards.) A move on a given board forces a mirror-image move on the opposite board. (So, 1. Nf3 on board A forces White to play 1. Nc3 on board B.) • Parton also introduced a smaller, 8x4 version of Alice Chess. (See diagram.) • Parton observed that Alice Chess could be played using three boards instead of two. (Players then having a choice between two boards when transferring a piece.) • Alice Chess rules can really be adopted by practically any other chess variant too, by simply doubling the number of gameboards in the variant and applying the Alice piece transfer policy. (For example, Raumschach using two 5×5×5 boards.)

69

Notes
[1] Since the rules disallow a given square to be occupied on both boards simultaneously, it is possible to play Alice Chess using one board only, placing checkers under pieces to indicate they are on board B. A similar technique can be used in computer displays or with pocket–magnetic sets, by turning pieces upside-down instead of using checkers. [2] Unlike standard chess, capturing en passant may not always be possible in Alice, for example, when the normal capture-square is already occupied by another piece. [3] http:/ / www. SchemingMind. com

References
• Pritchard, D. B. (2007), The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, John Beasley, ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1

External links
• The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.chessvariants.org/other.dir/alice.html) Alice Chess article by Edward Jackman and Fergus Duniho • BCVS Variant Chess website (http://www.bcvs.ukf.net/alice.htm) Alice Chess article by George Jelliss • SchemingMind.com (http://www.schemingmind.com/journalarticle.aspx?article_id=9&page=1) Alice Chess article by Michael J. Farris • SchemingMind.com (http://www.schemingmind.com) Alice Chess online correspondence play • ChessVariants.org (http://play.chessvariants.org/pbm/presets/alice_chess.html) Alice Chess PBM Game Courier • pathguy.com (http://www.pathguy.com/chess/AliceChs.htm) a simple Alice Chess program by Ed Friedlander

Hexagonal chess

70

Hexagonal chess
The term hexagonal chess designates a group of chess variants played on hexagonal boards. The most popular one is Gliński's hexagonal chess which was invented in 1936 by Władysław Gliński of Poland.

Gliński's hexagonal chess
Gliński's hexagonal chess is the most popular hexagonal chess variant. At one point in time, there were more than half-a-million players, and over 130,000 board sets have been sold.[1] The game was very popular in Eastern Europe, especially in Poland, Gliński's native country. The game is played on a hexagonal board having three colors (light, dark, and medium), with the middle cell (or hex) usually medium.[2] The usual set of chess pieces is increased by one bishop and one pawn. The board has 11 files, marked by letters a –l (letter j is not used), and 11 ranks (which bend 120° at file f). Ranks 1–6 each contain 11 cells, rank 7 (filled with black pawns in the initial setup) has 9 cells, rank 8 has 7, and so on. Rank 11 contains only one cell: f11. The diagrams below show how the pieces Starting position for Gliński's hexagonal chess move. As in chess, the knight can jump over other pieces. Three bishops on different colors can never meet. The queen moves as rook plus bishop. There is no castling in Gliński's hexagonal chess.

King

Knight

If a pawn captures from its starting hex in such a way that it now occupies a starting hex of another pawn. the hexes where white pawns promote are marked with stars. but the double step move could be done later.75 points. if the black pawn on c7 on the diagram above moves to c5. the pawn's capturing move direction does not correspond to the bishop's move. as long as the hex is empty. the white pawn on b5 can capture it: bxc6. as is the case in square chess. if the pawn on e4 would capture a black piece on f5. it can still make a double move. The Pawn in the middle file (hex f5 for White) cannot make a double step on initial setup as the hex is occupied (a black Pawn is placed on f7). All pawns can make a double step from their starting hexes. En passant captures are also possible: for example. A numeric (or international) notation exists. .25 points and the player who delivers stalemate 0. except that there is no castling. Stalemate is not a draw in this chess variant. Every other detail is exactly as in ICCF numeric notation. it still has the option to move to f7. . In tournament games. the stalemated player (the one who cannot make any legal moves) earns 0. Pawns promote on the last hex of a file.Hexagonal chess 71 Bishop Rook Queen Pawn Pawns move straight forward and capture orthogonally to an adjacent square (shown as red circles on the diagram above). but is still counted less than checkmate. For example.

V. including picture in "The Times". First place and the "Moscow Trophy" were taken by F. when Simon Triggs retained his title. July: An open Hexagonal Chess Tournament was held on 10th and llth July in the famous Sokolniki Park in Moscow. and sponsored by the Zsolnay . nearly 16 years old. Hexagonal Chess clubs formed in Poland.B. Wide publicity in Eastern Europe. which included: Inauguration of Internatienal Hexagonal Chess Federation First European Championship Team Match: Poland v G. October: Playoff held in association with the North London (square-board) Congress. in Warsaw. reported in press at home and abroad – including Japan. 1980 August: International Congress at Polish Cultural Institute. Event shown on BBC and Australian TV. G. 1978 January: Inventor visited Poland. Title taken by Laszlo Sziraki. December: Second British Championship held at Clifton-Ford Hotel.000 circulation). this tournament has considerably accelerated the development and popularity of Hex Chess in the USSR. Sponsored by magazine "Horyzonty Technikili" (which includes a regular column on Hexagonal Chess). Second was S. which included the inauguration of the British Hexagonal Chess Federation and the first British Hexagonal Chess Championship. at Central Hall. London. Mihaly Gelencser. Local and National press coverage. Goltyapin.B. Austria and Hungary. Simon Triggs played the first mixed (6 square and 6 hexagonal boards) simultaneous display. Judging from the reports received.B. Westminster. including international team matches (over-the-board and correspondence) are being organized. Four players tied for first place. Whilst in Poland. `Wspolna Sprawa' produced and distributed over 90. Great Britain. 1977 Hexagonal Chess was topic for many newspapers and magazines in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Hungary and Poland. London.500. This tournament was organized by the President of the Hungarian Hexagonal Chess Association. Players from Moscow and elsewhere in t in the USSR took part in the competition. Laszlo Rudolf became the Hungarian Champion for 1982. Brian Rippon took the title. First four places: 1: Marek Mackowiak (Poland). Event covered by BBC TV and newspapers at home and abroad. 24 – 31 July.Hexagonal chess 72 Dateline in Glinski's hexagonal chess 1976 June: First Hexagonal Chess Congress at Bloomsbury Centre Hotel. Essex. Further tournaments. September: First International Team Match – Poland vs. August: Return International Team Match – Poland vs. Fourth British Championship held at Woodford Bridge. London. including USSR ("Komsomolskaya Pravda" – 10. Czechoslovakia and USSR. December: First issue of "Hex Press" (Hexagonal Chess News) published. London. 1981 September: First Hungarian Hexagonal Chess Championship in Szekszard. 3: Jan Borawski (Poland). 2: Laszlo Rudolf (Hungary). Title taken by Simon Triggs. Seryubin and Third V. June: Final agreement and arrangements completed with "Bohemia" in West Germany regarding production of a new complete Hexagonal Chess boxed game with roll-up double-sided board (hexagonal/square) and wooden pieces to be distributed in the West European market.000 inexpensive sets in 18 months. Goncharov. 1979 July: Third British Championship held at Polish Cultural Institute. Countries taking part: Austria.). 1982 April: Second Hungarian Championship held in Miscolc. Hungary. Open International Tournament held in Pecs. Successful Hexagonal Chess event staged. Also radio in USA. 4: Piers Shepperson (G. G. Final playoff arranged for October. David Springgay took the title. London.

• King & two bishops cannot checkmate a lone king. • King & rook beats king & knight (no fortress draws and a negligible number (0. Second place was taken by Simon Triggs (Great Britain). except for some very rare positions (0.[3] It is very similar to Glinski's version. McCooey's and Mathewson's games:[4] • King & two knights can checkmate a lone king. The winner of the Tournament was Laszlo Rudolf (Hungary). But this rarely occurs in practical play. 73 McCooey's hexagonal chess Dave McCooey and Richard Honeycutt developed another variation of hexagonal chess. the Pawns on f-file cannot make a double step.17%). Note that the capturing move corresponds to the bishop's move. These endgame studies apply to Glinski's. • King. the pawn's capturing moves. and is not defended in the opening array. which also donated the "Zsolnay Cup" as well as other prizes of porcelain figures. September: Fifth British Championship held in London. Simon Triggs (19) of Garston. See the diagram on the left for the pawn's move in McCooey's variant. The white pawn on d5 can capture the black pawn on e8 en passant in case the black pawn advances to e6. • King & rook beats king & bishop (no fortress draws and no perpetual check draws). starting position . McCooey's hexagonal chess. The pawn on the f-file is not allowed to advance two steps. and that stalemate is a draw. Press Association attended and wrote lengthy background. but there are four differences: the starting array. Hertfordshire. won the title of British Hexagaonal Chess Champion for the third time in succession. which in fact allows a smothered mate when captured by a knight. except for some very rare position (0.0019%) of perpetual check draws). knight & bishop cannot checkmate a lone king.Hexagonal chess porcelain factory in Pecs.5%). each player gets half a point. All the "quality newspapers" took photographs. LBC Radio and BBC Radio London broadcast interviews.

as opposed to 91 in Glinski's and McCooey's versions. The board is shaped like an irregular hexagon with nine files and ten ranks. White's rooks start on a1 and i5. the straight lines running from 10 to 4 o'clock are numbered 1 to 10.and i-pawns advance only one step. Each player calls the left-hand side of the board his queen's flank and the right-hand side his bishops' flank. Black's rooks start on a6 and i10. e-. This means that the a. The files are labelled a to i. 74 The pawn's move Shafran's hexagonal chess Invented by Soviet geologist Isaak Grigorevich Shafran in 1939 and registered in 1956. However. the two kings start on e1 and e10. If they do they are subject to be captured en passant. The hex i1 does not exist. • King & rook can checkmate a lone king. starting position first move can take him to the middle of his file. a pawn's Shafran's hexagonal chess. and f-pawns may make a triple move. There are 70 hexes in the board. The pieces and pawns move and capture exactly like McCooey's. and the d-. In the diagram. .Hexagonal chess • King & queen does not beat king & rook: 4. note that they do not match (White's queen's flank is Black's bishops').3% of the positions are perpetual check draws.2% are fortress draws. It was demonstrated at the Worldwide Chess Exhibition in Leipzig in 1960. and 37.

. Castling and en passant Finally. All pieces except pawn move in the same way as in Glinski hexagonal chess. after 1. d7 it can be captured 2... In 1984. Pawn's moves are increased to allow forward 60° moves. The original 1984 name of this game was Kingmaster. each side had the king. The scornful pawn capture additional rule counterbalances the excessive pawn mobility.[1] It was invented in 1864 by John Jaques & Son. as chaturaji was a four-player version of chaturanga. the black pawn d8 has three possible moves. placing each player's pieces to opposite sides. for completeness. Ronald Planesi invented the ImmortalStarMasters game. exd7. Pieces are arranged essentially along traditional lines (bishops and knights exchange places to account for the hexagon variation) and one extra bishop is added so all spaces on the board are covered by bishops (a ninth pawn is also added to "seal" the third bishop within the initial structure). It is a chess or checkers variant for two to six players played on a hexagonal board. Castling is possible in Shafran's chess. Multiplayer chess introduces a diplomacy factor. Precisely this was the motivation for this design.[6] .or B. the name was changed. The usual restrictions apply. but none is safe. however. In 1998 Derick Peterson invented the Grand Hexachess. exd7e. but it is present in the game nonetheless. after 1.(indicating whether the queen's or the bishops' rook is used) followed by 0-0-0 (long castling: the king moves next to the rook and the rook jumps over him) or 0-0 (short castling.[5] It introduces a dragon (chancellor). Multiplayer hexagonal chess variants Multiplayer chess variants have existed since the beginning of the game. the black king on h10 has castled long queenside (1.. turning the game into a quite a different one from two-player chess. Castling does not really increase the king's safety or make the rook more active. Q-0-0-0) and the one on c8 has castled short bishopside (1. due . considering the fact that usually hexagonal chess pawn is the only piece that does not increase their mobility. 4 knights and 8 pawns. the opposite procedure). Other hexagonal chess variants The first published hexagonal chess variant was the commercial game Hexagonia. The pawn moves and captures similar to McCooey's chess.. or 2. It can be long or short in either direction.. Copyright Office's lack of support for title copyright protection. B-0-0). due to the U. d5 it can be captured en passant by either pawn.S.. but within an individual territory a pawn can move in two forward directions and capture in three directions (one directly forward direction and two diagonally-forward directions). and captures are the same way McCooey's chess. In the diagram. The board in this game is significantly larger than in Glinski hexagonal chess in order to accommodate six players and placed in a such a way that each side of a large hexagon may be occupied by one of six players. and asserted infringement. Pawns then have two forward possible moves (forward left and forward right) and three diagonal capturing movements possible (one directly in front). 2 cannons. archbishop) and two almogavars to the Glinski's set.. C'escacs 2007 is a Grand Glinski chess of 169 hexes.Hexagonal chess 75 On the diagram of the left.. after 1. two pegasi (cardinal. The board had 125 cells.. d6 it can be captured 2. The notation consists of Q. stalemate is a draw. In this variant the board is placed horizontally.p. cxd7.

ISBN 0-904195-00-7.dir/hexagonal. A two-player version uses essentially the same rules and can use the same board. dir/ hexchess2.com) • Gliński's Hexagonal Chess (http://www. Endgame analysis for Hexagonal Chess (http:/ / www. orgfree. immortalstarmasters. Batsford Chess Books. McCooey's Hexagonal Chess (http:/ / www. which is an extreme violation of basic chess structure logic.org/hexagonal. Bodlaender • Hexagonal Chess by I G Shafran (http://www.chessvariants. chessvariants.math.altavista. The primary structural difference between ImmortalStarMasters and the listed hexagonal variants. com) by Ronald D.com/) a free GUI and engine for Mac OS which plays Glinski's Hexagonal Chess • e2–e4 (http://lutecium.Hexagonal chess to the particular orientations of a hexagon. Wladyslow Gliński. Napoleonesque methods of play include two players each using three sets of pieces or three players each using two sets of pieces. com/ ). html) by Dave McCooey. ImmortalStarMasters (http:/ / www. 76 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Pritchard.hexagonalchess. D.html) a bilingual comment on having three kinds of bishops .glaurungchess.html) by Ivan A Derzhanski • Rules (http://world. org/ hexagonal. chessvariants. other than the critical size of the board.php) Russian page translated to English via Alta Vista • Scatha (http://www.html) by Hans L. Planesi External links • Hexagonal chess computer software (http://www.com/babelfish/trurl_pagecontent?lp=ru_en&trurl=http://www. org/ hexagonal. Popular Chess Variants. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7.bas. . (2000).bg/~iad/tyalie/shegra/shegrax.org/stp/cochonfucius/e2e4.h1. dir/ hexendgame. is that the listed variants all allow a bishop to exit the initial structure as its first move without movement by any pawns whatsoever (concurrently meaning that a bishop is unprotected by any pawns and subject to immediate attack without the prior movement of a protecting pawn). but a smaller board is available and recommended for closer adherence to "number of pieces versus available space" (powers of force) considerations to match the "difficulty of play" as related to standard square-based chess. Rules of Hexagonal Chess.ru/ hexachess/rules. In the central area pawns can move and capture in any direction. html) by Dave McCooey "C'escacs" (http:/ / cescacs.loktev.

which remained active until World War II.[1] Maack founded a Raumschach club in Hamburg in 1919. And chapter 11 covers variants using multiple boards normally set side by side ("such games can also be considered as examples of three-dimensional chess" — Beasley).[2] Raumschach Raumschach starting position . Ferdinand Maack and considered the classic 3D game. Further information: Chess (disambiguation) E D C B A White to move and mate in 4 by Udo Marks Three-dimensional chess (or 3D chess) is any of various chess variants played on three-dimensional boards. Three-dimensional variants have existed since the late 19th century.Three-dimensional chess 77 Three-dimensional chess Not to be confused with chess software with a 3D rendering. one of the oldest being Raumschach (German for "Space chess"). invented in 1907 by Dr. Chapter 25 of Pritchard's The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants discusses games using boards with three or more dimensions and contains some 50 such variations.

and unicorn.) The queen combines the moves of a rook. White starts on the A and B levels and Black starts on E and D. each player's pair. (Thus each unicorn can reach only 30 cubes. Maack's original formulation was for an 8×8×8 board.) Other obvious physical differences from chess include two additional pawns per player.1. Rooks. Move Rules Rooks. Pawns move forward as in chess. or one step directly upward (for White) or downward (for Black). .Three-dimensional chess 78 E D C B A An inverted knight is used to represent the unicorn. Ranks and files of a level are denoted using algebraic notation. and knights make a (0. for example. Pawns capture diagonally as in chess. including one step upward (White) or downward (Black) through a front or side cube edge. attack should be possible not only from a two-dimensional plane but also from above (air) and below (underwater). The horizontal levels are denoted by capital letters A through E. (So. This sectioning yields a 5×5×5 (125-cell) playing volume. file or column. namely the rank E5 (for White's pawns) and rank A1 (Black's pawns).2) leaping move (the same effect as one step as a rook and one as a bishop). and a special piece (two per player) named unicorn. but after experimenting with smaller boards eventually settled on 5×5×5 as best. The pawn on Bd2 can move to squares marked "●" and capture on squares marked "x". move through the walls of the cubes in any Raumschach board rank. 60. The inventor contended that for chess to be more like modern warfare. bishop. Promotion occurs where pawns cannot move further. The king moves the same as a queen but one step at a time. Unicorns move in a manner special to a 3D space (called triagonal movement) through the corners of the cubes. and knights move as they do in chess in any given plane. Bishops move through the edges of the cubes. the kings begin on squares Ac1 and Ec5. bishops. The Raumschach 3D board can be thought of as a cube sliced into five equal spaces across each of its three major coordinal planes.

Spock.[4] [5] The game even assumed a fairly significant role in the TOS episode "Court Martial". and no castling. who had programmed the Enterprise's computer to be unbeatable at the game. 79 Star Trek Tri-Dimensional Chess 3D chess on Star Trek The Tri-D chessboard Playing Parmen Probably the most familiar 3D[3] chess variant to the general public in the middle 20th and early 21st centuries is the game of Tri-Dimensional Chess (or Tri-D Chess). starting with the original series (TOS) and proceeding in updated forms throughout the subsequent movies and spinoff series. plays five matches with the computer and easily wins each one. (Captain Kirk is put on trial for negligence in the death of a crew member. which can be seen in many Star Trek TV episodes and movies. no en passant capture.) . White moves first. and the object is still to checkmate the opposing king. thereby destroying its credibility in its account of the incident.Three-dimensional chess There is no pawn initial two-square advance. proving the machine—the source of seemingly irrefutable evidence confirming Kirk's guilt—had been tampered with.

Three-dimensional chess 80 Notes [1] Pritchard (2007).org (http://www.3dschach. T0:03:98:3x) or "Three-Dimensional Chess" as in The Star Trek Encyclopedia (Okuda 1994.com) free Tri-D Chess for Windows.de/jens. p. Pocket Books.html) Raumschach article by Bruce Balden and Hans Bodlaender • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.html) 3D Chess FAQ by David Moeser Star Trek Tri-Dimensional Chess • Tri-D Chess Rules site of Andrew Bartmess (http://www. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 • Franz Joseph Schnaubelt (1975). history of Standard Rules • Star Trek 3D Chess Rules site of Charles Roth (http://www.org/wiki/Memoryalpha:three-dimensional_chess) at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek wiki) • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.org/3d. B. p. & Mirek.wikipedia.chessvariants. collection of Tournament Rules games. Debbie (1997). Michael.html) free summary of Standard Rules • 3D Chess site of Jens Meder (http://home.htm) commercial site. [4] Pritchard (2007). Carpe Diem Publishing. p. (2007).html) in English.chessvariants. 226 [5] There is some discussion whether this game should be called "Tri-Dimensional Chess" as in the Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual (Franz Joseph 1975. ISBN 0-345-34074-4 • Okuda.net/~roth/TECHBLOG/chess. and more • 3D Chess site of Michael Klein (http://www.dir/555.fzort.dir/startrek.arcor.org/mpr/projects/vulcan/) Vulcan open source Tri-D Chess program ("inspired by Star Trek") • Three-dimensional chess (http://en. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. it is known by many as "3D Chess". p.de/start_. 342) and as on Memory Alpha. boards. supports Standard and Tournament rulesets according to posted sample games • fzort.org/3d. p. Denise.org/index/mainquery. 229 [2] Pritchard (2007). Tri-D Chess Tournament Rules.parmen.net/tactical. Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual. as its structure is something in between 2D and 3D. Okuda.html) 3D Chess from Star Trek by article Hans Bodlaender .dir/3d5. 93 [3] An ongoing discussion is whether Star Trek Chess is really three-dimensional or not. References • Pritchard.meder/3dschach/indexe. and more • Parmen site of Doug Keenan (http://www. The Star Trek Encyclopedia.chessvariants.php?type=Any&category=3d& orderby=LinkText&displayauthor=1&displayinventor=1&usethisheading=Three+Dimensional) Three Dimensional (index) Raumschach • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www. ISSN 1492-0492 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www.yestercade. D. ISBN 0-671-53607-9 • Abstract Games (Issue 14 Summer 2003). John Beasley.asp) in English.chessvariants.thedance. But since a third coordinate is needed to describe the position of the pieces.org/3d.

was in mathematics.[3] Game rules Pieces move the same as in Raumschach. but not directly upward or downward. or triagonally). except that pawns move and capture one step forward (either orthogonally. knight (N). his most renowned variant being Alice Chess. unicorn (U). and rook (R). boards are denoted A (bottom level) through F (top level). BAd6. As in chess and Raumschach. the objective is checkmate. pawns on Aa5–f5 and Ba6–f6 Cubic Chess gameboard . NAe1. UAd1. bishop (B). variant inventor Philip M. but asked only for a contribution to charities for the blind. The same year. Vern never wanted to benefit financially from his work. pawns on Aa2–f2 and Ba1–f1 • Black's starting position: KAf6. Parton's formal education background. He had a favorite uncle. queen (Q). 1957 Cubic Chess In this 6×6×6 3D variant by Parton. UAc6. • White's starting position: KAa1. BAc1. R. Parton died at age 77 on 31 December 1974. Parton demonstrating 3D chess to a reporter for The Birmingham Post. QAb1. like Lewis Carroll's. V. — Peter Parton[2] Parton wrote a series of nine monographs published from 1961 to 1974 detailing his inventions. Each side has six pieces: king (K). RAa6. and Vern was content to escort him around.Cubic chess 81 Cubic chess Vernon Rylands Parton (1897–1974) was an English chess enthusiast and prolific chess variant inventor. who was blind. and not a book in sight.[1] Many of Parton's variants were inspired by the fictional characters and stories in the works of Lewis Carroll. NAb6. QAe6. and twelve pawns. diagonally. Cohen created the variant Parton Chess in his honor.[2] I have distinct memories of sitting on his knee and listening to these [Lewis Carroll] stories. RAf1.

It is not permitted to check the opponents' other kings. Each player has a standard set of pieces in his own color. but must not be placed in check. one might be marked with a star. Chess variants by V. Kings are placed last. placing one of their pieces on any vacant square. in clockwise rotation around the board. and the unmarked king of the opponent to his right.[5] but no pawns. Players take turns. (For example. Rules The board starts empty. The Mad Hatter's tea party. of a player's two kings.Cubic chess 82 Variation Parton made a variation of Cubic Chess for the same gameboard: In Compulsion Cubic Chess. including an extra king. Parton • Checkers Chess (1950s) • Decimal Four-Handed Chess (1950s) • Idle Kings' Chess (1950s) . R. there are no checks. capture is compulsory.) Each player attacks the marked king of the opponent to his left. The two kings of each player are marked differently. Mad Threeparty Chess a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mad Threeparty Chess starts on an empty board This variant is for three[4] players on a 10×10 board. and the object is capture of the opposing king. illustration by Sir John Tenniel The first player to checkmate a king wins the game.

co-inventor J. Boyer Black & White Chess (1955) Degraded Chess (1958) Contramatic Chess (1961) Complete Contramatic Chess (1961) Damate (1961) Dunce's Chess (1961) Gryphon Chess (or Complicacious Chess) (1961) Jabberwocky (1961) Knightmare Chess (1961) Linear Chess (1961) Racing Kings (1961) Scacia (1961) Royal Scaci Partonici (1961) Simpleton Chess (1961) Twin Chess (1961) Unirexal Chess (1961) Chimaera Chess (1969) Mock Chess (1969) Ambi-Chess (1970) Butters (1970) Best Decimal Butter (1970) Blot-Straight Chess (1970) Capricorn Chess (1970) Centaur Royal (1970) Cheshire Cat Chess (1970) Co-Regal Chess (1970) Cubic Chess (1970) Demigorgon Chess (1970) Dodo Chess (1970) Ecila (1970) Gorgona Chess (1970) Identific (1970) Looking-Glass Chess (1970) Mad Threeparty Chess (1970) Meddlers' Chess (1970) 83 • Semi-Queen Chess (1970) • Sphinx Chess (1970) .Cubic chess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nightrider Chess (1950s) Scaci Partonici (1950s) Rettah Chess (1952) Decimal Rettah Chess (1952) Double Rettah Chess (1952) Tweedle Chess (or Twin Orthodox Chess) (1952) Alice Chess (1953) Kinglet Chess (or Imperial Fiddlesticks) (1953) Neutral King Chess (1953) No-Retreat Chess (1954).

R.C.D. 27 pp. • The Queen of Hearts' Chess . R. (1970). Simple Kinger.Cubic chess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Timur's Cubic Chess (1970) Wyvern Chess (1970) Circean (1971) Dabbabante Chess (1971) Decimal Oriental Chess (1971) Imitante Queen Chess (1971) Synchronistic Chess (1971) Royal Fury (1972) 2000 A.C. (1970). (1961). Parton • Good-for-Nothings • Dragon • Kinger. 14 pp. (1972) Gorgon Chess (1973) Megasaur Chess (1973) Mimotaur Chess (1973) Rangers Chess (1973) Triscacia (1974) 84 Checkers variants by V. Challenge and Delight of Chessical and Decimal. and Grand Kinger Monographs by V. Parton (with section headings) Curiouser and Curiouser. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Scacetic The First Lesson in Chess Dunce's Chess in Three Grades Imperial Fiddlesticks The Queen's Relations The Dodo's Chess Rettah Simpletonry Alician The Black King's Complaint Tweedledee and Tweedledum Mock Turtle's Pseudomprphy Damification A New Pudding Podospherism Contramatic The Rules According to the March Hare Knightmares Gryphon's Fancy and Fun The Realm of Circum Morus The Caterpillar's Idea of C. 31 pp. Chesshire-Cat-Playeth Looking-Glass Chessys.

16 pp. 12 pp. 23 pp. (1971). • Dasapada Idea for a Personal Game.D. Enduring Spirit of Dasapada. (1974). • Cubic Chess • Tamerlane Variation of Cubic Chess • Sphinxian Chess • The Compulsion Sphinx Chess Variations • Ecila Chess 100 Squares for Chess + Damante. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Capablancan Chess Decimal Falcon-Hunter (Schulz Chess) Half-Queen's Chess Decimal Oriental CHess Decimal Imitante Q Chess Centaur Royal Damate Game Damatic Chess Decimal Duffer's Chess Wyvern Chess Dabbabante Chess Decimal Butter Decimal Obstacles Chess Chimaera Gorgona Circean Ambi-Chess Decimal Scaci Partonici My Game for 2000 A.Cubic chess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Capricorn Chess The Black King's Complaint The Rules According to the March Hare Identific Synchronistic Chess Jabberwocky Chess Dodo Chess The Chesshire Cat's Grin Scaci Partonici A Chess Reflection Demigorgons The Mad Tea Party Knightmares Scaci Partonici 85 Chessical Cubism or Chess in Space. (1973). 19 pp. and After. 12 pp. . (1972). (1973). (1972). • The Basis of Pawn Partonici • The Idea of Scaci Partonici Chessery for Duffer and Master. 16 pp.

com/en/GameRules?tp=125) play Racing Kings online .com (http://brainking. 6 [5] "Each player has two Kings!" replied the Hatter very crossly at Alice's ignorance in this matter. you can't" said the March Hare rather impolitely. Carpe Diem Publishing. Alice thought he must have meant "tea party". ISSN 1492-0492 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1 • Peter Parton. "It is home-made plain cake commonsense. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.html) Vernon Rylands Parton (1897–1974) • BrainKing. "If you join. p. "If they had only one teapot they would have to halve it. p. "We're going to have a Mad Three party" explained the Mad Hatter. "No. (1994). 77 "What are you threee doing?" asked Alice. Abstract Games (Issue 8 Winter 2001). Parton (1970). p. 7 References • Pritchard." He added with a glare of annoyance at Alice's obvious doubt about that point. If you had only a single king it would get too complicated when both of your opponents attacked the same king.chessvariants. That is quite easy to understand.org/parton/parton. "Reflections on Vernon Rylands Parton"." Chesshire-Cat-Playeth Looking-Glass Chessys. D. One of your opponents attacks one of your kings and the other attacks the other. B. Games & Puzzles Publications.Cubic chess • • • • • • • • Chessery for Duffer and Master The Game of Rettah Chess Semi-Queen Chess The Diversion of Zerta Meddlers Chess Game The Alice Chess Game The Idea of Gryphon Chess Royal Fury 86 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Pritchard (1994). then it would be a Four party instead. and with much curiousity over this painting with jam. p. "Can I join you please in this party?" she asked politely. 9 Pritchard (1994). Parton (1970). p. and what use is half a teapot? You seem as stupid as the Dormouse!" Chesshire-Cat-Playeth Looking-Glass Chessys. 3 AG8 (2001).

adjacent chess boards are used. It can make a normal move on the higher level and then descend diagonally in the direction of movement. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. and Pawns may not go to the higher level. or go up from a ground square to the upper level square directly above it. D. The only way a rook can go down from the upper to the lower level is to directly move one square down. Knights are the third type of 'flying' piece. and the other. based around a three dimensional board. when he is in a square on the lower level and a piece of the opponent is in the same square in the upper level. he can take that piece without moving. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • Flying chess [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Queens. p. org/ 3d. html . one representing the Top tier. (2007). but can also capture an enemy piece that is flying on the square directly above them. giving a 128 cell board. A bishop can make a standard move on any of the two levels. There can either be markers on 'flying' pieces or a second board can be used for the upper level. Rules The board used for Flying chess is 8 * 8 * 2. Moves Kings. A rook can make a normal move on any of the two levels: note that the squares it passes over must be empty on the level he moves in. chessvariants. or a knight can move in the upper level combined with a direct descend. A knight can either make a normal move in any level. They also can go up directly one level. dir/ flying. Taking All pieces take in the same way as they move. and from the higher level. They can move on. They move as in standard chess. It was invented by Dr David Eltis (a noted historian of the Military Revolution) in 1984. two.Flying chess 87 Flying chess Flying chess is a chess variant. Rooks are among the three pieces that can 'fly'. Additionally. or go down from an upper level square to the ground square immediately below it. Bishops are also among the three pieces that can 'fly'. References • Pritchard. the bottom tier. each piece can headbutt. Most commonly. Additionally. a rook can go up when moving on the ground level by making a normal move and then moving diagonally up in the direction the rook moves. All pieces start the game as per a standard chess game. 226. B. to.

As in chess. the game is won by delivering checkmate to the enemy king.and intra-level game piece capabilities are defined. and the lower level (red and brown) is the subterranean world (Gygax 1985:34). co-creator of the famed role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons. The upper level (blue and white) represents the air.[1] Dragonchess was first presented in 1985 in issue No. The Dragonchess gameboard consists of three vertically-stacked 12×8 levels. Intricate inter. the middle level (green and amber) represents the land. The Dragonchess game pieces (42 per player) are an ensemble of characters and monsters inspired or derived from fantasy settings in Dungeons & Dragons. 100 of Dragon Magazine. Gary Gygax The Dragonchess 3D gameboard .Dragonchess 88 Dragonchess Dragonchess is a three-dimensional fantasy chess variant created by Gary Gygax.

On level 2: can move to the square directly above on level 3.[5] On level 2: • can move and capture one step diagonally.[2] • can capture on the square directly below on level 2.Dragonchess 89 Upper board The Sylph (S) On level 3: • can move one step diagonally forward.[6] . or to one of the player's six Sylph starting squares. or capture one step straight forward.[4] • can move and capture one step triagonally to level 2. • can move and capture one step triagonally to level 3. The Griffon (G) Upper board starting position On level 3: • can move and capture by jumping[3] in the following pattern: two steps diagonally followed by one step orthogonally outward.

[6] [5] On levels 1 and 3: can move and capture one step triagonally to the same square on level 2 the Hero previously left. • can move and capture one step triagonally to levels 1 or 3.Dragonchess 90 The Dragon (R) Bound to level 3: • can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps diagonally.[7] • can capture remotely (without leaving level 3) on the square directly below on level 2.[8] • promotes to Hero when reaching the 8th rank. The Oliphant (O) Bound to level 2: can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps orthogonally. or on any square orthogonally adjacent to that square.[9] Middle board starting position The Unicorn (U) Bound to level 2: can move and capture the same as a chess knight. . Middle board The Warrior (W) Bound to level 2: • can move one step straight forward. The Hero (H) On level 2: • can move and capture one or two unblockable steps diagonally. or one step orthogonally. or capture one step diagonally foward.

On levels 1 and 3: • can move and capture one step in any direction. On levels 1 and 3: • can move one step orthogonally.Dragonchess 91 The Thief (T) Bound to level 2: can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps diagonally.[12] • can move and capture to the square directly below on level 1 or directly above on level 3. or two levels up or down followed by one step orthogonally.[10] The Cleric (C) On level 2: • can move and capture one step in any direction. • can move to levels 1 or 3 using an (unblockable) knight-like move: one level up or down followed by two steps orthogonally.[13] The Paladin (P) On level 2: • can move and capture as a chess king+knight.[13] • can move and capture one or two steps directly above or directly below to one of the other levels.[14] The King (K) On level 2: • can move and capture one step in any direction.[11] • can move and capture to the square directly above or directly below on an adjacent level. The Mage (M) On level 2: • can move and capture any number of unobstructed steps diagonally or orthogonally. On levels 1 and 3: the same powers as when on level 2.[11] • can move and capture to the square directly below on level 1 or directly above on level 3. On levels 1 and 3: can move to (only) the same square on level 2 the King previously left.[11] • can move to the other levels using an (unblockable) knight-like move: one level up or down followed by two steps orthogonally. .

.[14] On level 2: • can move and capture in the following pattern: the square directly below on level 1 followed by one step orthogonally.[14] • can move one step diagonally. Lower board starting position The Basilisk (B) Bound to level 1: • can move one step diagonally forward or straight backward. The Elemental (E) On level 1: • can move and capture one or two steps orthogonally. or capture one step straight forward. • can capture on the square directly above on level 2. • can move to the square directly below on level 1. On level 2: • can move one step straight forward or sideways. • always freezes (immobilizes) an enemy piece on the square directly above on level 2. • can capture in the following pattern: one step orthogonally followed by the square directly above on level 2. or capture one step diagonally foward. or capture one step diagonally foward.Dragonchess 92 Lower board The Dwarf (D) On level 1: • can move one step straight forward or sideways.

Rx3a7 Rx3a2 2. "Dragonchess".html) Dragonchess article by Edward Jackman • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www. Inc. (1994).. [14] Gygax does not mention whether the move is unblockable or not. [11] The same as a chess king. [9] The same as a chess rook.com/chess/DragonCh. [15] Gygax initially describes levels beginning with "1" for upper board in the first page of his article (Gygax 1985:34). but consistently uses "3" for upper board and "1" for lower board in the subsequent six pages (Gygax 1985:35–40) for all examples.) Sample game 1.dir/dragonchess. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1 External links • The Chess Variant Pages (http://www. [13] Gygax does not mention whether for moves only. ISSN 0279-6848.Dragonchess 93 Notation Recording moves is done the same as in algebraic notation for chess. or 3) in front of each square coordinate to idenfity the level. The same as a chess king+bishop. p.html) Dragonchess software for local and network play • Pathguy. D. 95 The same as a Berolina pawn (without promotion or an initial two-step option).net/) Dragonchess online play • sourceforge.net (http://dragonchess. [12] The same as a chess queen.dir/dragonchess2.[15] (So for example. Black's king starts on 2g8. or an elephant in janggi. and sample moves. That is. to a square diagonally below. or for moves and captures. 100 (TSR. The same as a chess pawn (without an initial two-step option). Or (the same result): one step orthogonally followed by two steps diagonally outward.. or a dragon horse in shogi.com (http://www. 2. Gary (August 1985). move definitions.org/3d.chessvariants.pathguy. • Pritchard.html) more on Dragonchess • Strategy Game Server (http://3moves. Rx2a8 . Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Pritchard (1994). References • Gygax.org/3d. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.) X (3): 34–40. The move or capture is unblockable.net/index.chessvariants. Dragon Magazine No. B. to a square diagonally above. Games & Puzzles Publications. [10] The same as a chess bishop.htm) a simple Dragonchess program by Ed Friedlander . with the addition of a numeric prefix (1. extended to a 12×8 board. The same as a Zebra fairy chess piece.sourceforge. That is.

B. • It is a win for the player with the fewer number of pieces. • There is no check or checkmate. or being stalemated (as detailed.94 Unusual rules Antichess Antichess. Rules The rules of the game are the same as those of chess except for the following additional rules: • Capturing is compulsory. also called losing chess. • When more than one capture is available. P. the game is also drawn when a win is impossible. loser's chess. The type of the piece makes no difference (FICS rules). the player may exercise choice. suicide chess. take-me chess or reverse chess is a chess variant in which the objective of the participants is to get all of their pieces captured. forcing the opponent to checkmate the king is another option to win.H. giveaway chess. • The king has no special prerogative and accordingly: • It may be captured like any other piece. there are different rules: • It is a win for the stalemated player (international rules). • In the case of stalemate. mutual accord and the fifty-move rule. is described below.) Apart from move repetition. as described in the book Popular Chess Variants by D. zero chess. such as if a dark-squared bishop and a light-squared bishop are the only pieces remaining. and if both have the same number it is a draw. • Pawns may also promote to King. Törngren Tidskrift för Schack 1929 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . A player wins by losing all his pieces. • It is a draw. • There is no castling. Pritchard. In another little-played version. The most widely played variation.

d4. 1. they lose.com/nilatac/book.h3.com/) (Suicide and Losers variants) . players must lose their king last.h6 a2 5.matf.org/) • SuicideChess (http://suicidechess. they can just make a move which still leaves them in check. This means that a minor mistake can ruin the game.bg.com/projects/kpanta/) at Freecode – AntiChess Game for Linux Play Antichess online (http://grandgames.e4 consist of a single series of forced captures and can be played from memory by most experienced players.h7 a1R! 6. com/ archives/ 14-ANTI-CHESS. Losing openings include 1.h8B!! Ranywhere (Black is in zugzwang) 7.Nc3. pioneer of suicide chess (http://www. Solution goes: 1.php) The complete review of suicide chess by Fabrice Liardet (http://www.e4.ac. Players must not move into check until they only have the King left. their opponent must take the king and then the player who has lost the king is the winner.h5 a3 4.rs/~andrew/suicide/StanGold/ Index.Nf3. 1.rs/~andrew/suicide) • Web site of Stan Goldovski. antichess games often involve long sequences of forced captures by one player.f4.ac.wildchess. but the wins against 1.ch/Losing/index.gambiter. 1. Ba1 Rxa1 1-0 Because of the forced capture rule.pion. white to play and win. If they only have the king left.bg.[1] Some of these openings took months of computer time to solve.d3. but with one main difference. As with Antichess.d3. If they are checkmated before all the other pieces are gone. 1.matf. Kamikaze chess variation Kamikaze chess is similar to Antichess. they must get out of it.b4. as per standard chess. 1.htm) • Suicide and Losers Chess database (http://www. Pawns may only be promoted to a Queen.h4 a4 3.d4. html External links • • • • • KPanta (http://freecode.francu.ca/) • Play Antichess online (http://online. References [1] http:/ / brainrook.html) An interesting look on suicide chess by Vladica Andrejić (http://www. and 1. 1.net/en/) Nilatac's Suicide Opening Book (http://catalin. 1. 1. players must take at every opportunity and make a choice if more than one piece can be taken.h4. 1.Antichess 95 a b c d e f g h Suicide chess.h3! a5 2. If an opponent's move puts them in check.

a stalemate can only occur in extremely rare situations. the captured piece is removed from the board and the capturing piece takes its place. ground zero of the explosion is the square on the sixth rank upon which the capturing pawn lands. Without check. In game tactics The first-move advantage enjoyed by White is much greater in this game than in standard chess. the game continues until all the pieces of one player are removed from the board. This means that the surrounding pieces — not including pawns — will be taken off the board as well. . Also as the king cannot take another piece. Any pieces caught in the surrounding squares are also captured with the exception of pawns. Stalemate If the check rule is enforced then a stalemate is possible in similar way to that of standard chess. Some players consider atomic chess to be a forced win for white. If the check rule is not enforced.e. However. in which checkmate will only mean a capture of the king in the next move. Hence. even one leaving the king to be captured in the next move. "killed"). Moves that result in the explosion of your own king are illegal. In this case check does not apply. but so far all attempts to refute the game have been unsuccessful. and not a win by itself. This requires more awareness from the players with regards to direct threats against their kings. meaning that victory can only be attained via the explosion of an enemy king.even if the other king would be exploded as well. This means that any move. and high-rated players tend to disagree. Pawns are captured only when they are involved in the actual capture event in the central square.Atomic chess 96 Atomic chess Atomic chess is a chess variant. The game frequently ends with one king being caught in the explosion of a surrounding piece. If all the remaining pieces are removed in the last explosion (i. In atomic chess. However if a player's king is in check he has nevertheless the ability to win by exploding his opponents king. this atomic explosion extends to all eight surrounding squares. In a further variant of atomic chess. check is not enforced at all. and for example if a player's only legal move is to move into check then he or she must do so. such as the Internet Chess Club. Furthermore. the board is empty). While the other rules of chess apply fully. This is not possible on most online servers. this game is imbalanced against Black. below are ideas and theory about the game that most players will agree with or change emphasis. use slightly different rules which completely ignore check. The transition from opening to mid-game and from mid-game to end-game is as ambiguous and subjective as in standard chess. Death match If both kings die simultaneously in an atomic explosion. Check As in normal chess check still fully applies. as it is an illegal move to explode your own king in any circumstances . Some chess servers. all captures result in an atomic explosion. then it's a draw.e. There is also a variant without check. it is possible to move the kings next to each other. both pieces are removed from the board (i. In en passant. is possible and can be forced by zugzwang. The rules The rules of atomic chess are the same as standard chess with the following differences: Capturing In standard chess.

It is extremely common to make sacrifices of material. or when all but a few pawns are left. Though there are some openings where one side can successfully exchange the queen (for example. For example if he is "a piece up" (i. getting a rook.Kb5+ Kc5 3. A strong White opening will dictate Black's moves for the start of the game and Black has a small number of choices at each move compared with standard chess. This can occur with both players having all their material. which would seem to a chess player to be nonsensical in order to gain a positional advantage in the opening. by taking the pawn on b7. However. Or he may try to continue making move sets to gain material advantage or threaten the opponent's king. Ignoring an attack set and making benign moves will cause a loss of the game far earlier than in standard chess. which are fastest to develop. then capturing the pawn. making the queen more powerful than almost all defensive alignments of the other pieces. but the queen and bishops are also dangerous. In atomic chess a sacrifice of knights. knight.e. Losing the queen without having a trap or very accurate play is a huge disadvantage. 1.Ka7+ Ka6 5. Mid-game Generally speaking once a player's knowledge of opening theory is expended in the direction a game has gone. e7 and f7. A weak white opening can result in black taking the initiative and forcing white's moves. has a material advantage) a strategy is to play purely defensive moves and try to make all subsequent exchange of material equal or better. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Black has connected kings and became immune to check. The survival of the queens in non-defensive positions tend to lead to shorter games. or the queen will chase the king and mate him. or when neither player has an opportunity to attack their opponent for several moves the game can be said to have moved into the mid-game. knowing it can be taken by a pawn. An endgame position in Atomic chess. Black is often preoccupied initially to fending off attempts to kill its king via atomic explosions directed at the pawns adjacent at d7.Atomic chess 97 Opening Because White has the initiative. Depending on the style of play of a player in his mid-games he may wish to risk material or losing by attacking or may play defensively. By far the most common sacrifice in atomic chess openings is to advance either knight from the third rank to the fifth. and then use that advantage at the end. digging in until the end game comes where he may feel more confident. bishop and a pawn for it). These attacks usually involve the knights. bishops and sometimes even queens are acceptable.Kc4 Kd4 2.Ka6+ Kb5 4. The moves a player makes in his mid-game will be dictated by the position he is left with after the opening. . if the opponent is familiar with the opening.Qxa5 Note that black is forced to retain the connection. white can win by forcing the black king to be adjacent to the black pawn.

or just a queen and there are still blocked pawns on the board. Since it is impossible to determine for sure whether or not your opponent's bomb is still active (unless he has detonated it). Blowing up the opponent's king in this fashion results in a win. itsyourturn. Yet another variant has surfaced. This is not a rare occurrence and a player can in some positions force a draw with it. such as through ItsYourTurn. killing your own king in a loss and killing both kings in a draw. trying to catch each other out. and setting off the bomb counts as a turn. each side secretly identifies one of their pieces as the "bomb". For example a win is always possible if one side is up a queen or rook and a second piece. though there are many ways to disconnect or win by blowing up a piece next to the opponents king. bluff is part of a good strategy in this variant. Variants and other games called atomic chess Another variant of this game is that the pawns will be killed by an explosion. Strong attacking ideas come for white and then are refuted again. All other standard chess rules apply. The bomb can only be detonated willfully by the player when his turn comes. particularly in online play. Creative use of Zugzwang is a common tactic to force a win. com . References [1] http:/ / www. so that there is no known line that will result in a win for white. will not set off a detonation. In this variant. New theory and game culture New opening theory is still being developed and played by different players on different servers. which drastically decreases the potency of pawn killers. including the bomb. A notable and amusing feature of atomic chess which can first attract chess players to the game is that kings can be in adjacent squares. Capture of any piece. Killing the opponent's bomb in this fashion does not initiate a chain reaction. Setting off the bomb is a valid move when in check only if the explosion removes the check status and does not cause your king to be in check again by the removal of the destroyed pieces. As more games are played and more players play across different servers using what they believe is a new opening line or an unusual defensive line which an opponent has not seen. The explosion kills the bomb and all pieces surrounding it. but will not set off one. A player who knows many variations will often be able to gain significant advantage when playing with white.Atomic chess 98 Endgame Endgame theory is now as detailed as opening theory and it is possible to say whether a forced win or draw is possible.com [1].

White resigned here.Qh4. there is no way to prevent a third check by Qxf2+ or Qxe4+. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 . 1.e4 e6 2. The game rarely reaches endgame – usually it is decided before queens are traded. D.. Example game a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A game of three-check chess in progress. 4. in which a player wins if he checks his opponent three times.Three checks chess 99 Three checks chess Three-check chess is a variation of chess. References • Pritchard.. 2.Nxc3 Qh4! (see diagram). The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.c3 Bxc3+! Second check.. This chess variant is much more tactical than standard chess. (2007).Bb4+ First check. d4?? This typical opening in standard chess immediately loses in three-check chess.. John Beasley. Anatoly Karpov is said to excel in this chess variant (Pritchard 2007:83). sacrifices are very common. B. 0-1. there are a lot of traps in the opening. 3.. Position after 4. Two checks is already a big advantage and may be worth more than one piece..

com [1] . Wayne Schmittberger.Extinction chess tournaments online References [1] http:/ / www. dir/ extinction. External links • Extinction Chess [1] • Extinction Chess on Game Courier [2] .Extinction chess 100 Extinction chess Extinction chess is a variant of western Chess where the objective of the game has changed. If your opponent promotes their last pawn. the object of the game is to capture all of a particular kind of piece the opponent has. chessvariants. you will also win the game. it is legal to castle when in check. or to castle through check. org/ pbm/ presets/ extinction_chess. This game was invented by R. org/ winning. chessvariants. html [2] http:/ / play.Play Extinction Chess against others online • ItsYourTurn. Instead of the winning condition of the game being the checkmate of the opponent's king. html . Since the king is not a special piece in this game. In other words. the objective is to achieve any of the following: • • • • • • Capture the opponent's king Capture the opponent's queen Capture both of the opponent's knights Capture both of the opponent's bishops Capture both of the opponent's rooks Capture all of the opponent's pawns. Promotion to king is also allowed.

an extension of the usual algebraic notation for chess is used. "P@d5" means "pawn is dropped on d5 from reserve". Bxg7# Notation When recording games. queens. Pawns and knights increase in relative importance in crazyhouse.[1] • Pawns must not be dropped on the first or eighth ranks. cannot be blocked by anything and its offensive value is more manifest. dropping a pawn next to the king becomes defensively useful.[2] 1. Pawns could be dropped deep in the enemy position where. which has been analysed much less than regular chess. from two or more squares away. At any time. Unlike in shogi. or 'pocket'. particularly if she can be harassed by dropped minor pieces. If a king is put in check by any of the latter three pieces.[1] • Drops which cause immediate checkmate are allowed. After an early exchange of queens. then the target square. requires different strategies. it is usually unwise to reintroduce the queen too soon.[2] Strategy Crazyhouse. for example. • Promoted but captured pawns are dropped as pawns. can be answered if the defender can make a legal drop which blocks the check. in order to reintroduce the queen to maximum effect. Rule differences from normal chess • A captured piece reverses colour and goes to the capturing player's 'reserve'. instead of making a move with a piece on a board. followed by an @ symbol. onto an empty square on the board. they can fork pieces or give an uncomfortable check. in regular chess. while rooks. on the other hand. It effectively incorporates a rule in shogi (Japanese chess). so that drops can be specified.[1] • A check that would cause checkmate. A knight. this includes pawn drops. That piece can be used effectively to maintain a strategic influence over a region. Drops first give the piece type. a player can 'drop' a piece. For example. in his reserve. and bishops decrease in relative importance. N@e7+ Kh8 2. in which a player can introduce a captured piece back to the board as his own.Crazyhouse 101 Crazyhouse Crazyhouse is a chess variant similar to bughouse chess. . but with only two players. Careful preparation is needed.

Neo Chess . dir/ chessgi.org/other.Crazyhouse 102 Variations Minor variations of the rules are possible. org/ Help/ HelpFiles/ crazyhouse. org/ other.html) by Fergus Duniho • Database of Crazyhouse games (http://wildchess. chessclub.chessvariants.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.promoted pawns keep their rank when captured.promoted pawns keep their rank when captured. . freechess.[3] • Chessgi. html http:/ / brainking. White knight on d4 "relays" knight power to this pawn.org/index. com/ game/ GameRules?tp=6 http:/ / www. com/ help/ crazyhouse http:/ / www. chessvariants.php?variant=Crazyhouse) Knight relay chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Knight relay chess The diagram shows possible moves of white pawn on e6. Knight relay chess (also called N-relay chess) is a chess variant invented by Mannis Charosh in 1972. pawns may be dropped on the first rank. In this game knights "relay" their power to friendly pieces. html External links • Crazyhouse (http://www. such as: • Loop Chess .dir/crazyhouse.

If the pawn moved to the second rank by a knighted move. In this case black king can't escape on c8 or e8. However since it is defended by a friendly knight on d4. References • D. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. • BrainKing. Pawns can promote to knights and promoted knights also have relay power. These fields become attacked by the queen on d6. dir/ nrelay. It can move on e7 and capture on d7 and f7 as a usual pawn. c5. Pritchard (2000). Popular Chess Variants. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=71 . Pawns can't move to the first and the last rank by a relayed knight move. White queen can't capture black knight on c3. it can move like a knight to c7. In this game there is no en passant capture.B. org/ diffmove. because the queen gets knight power by the knight on b7. The diagram on the right shows possible moves of the pawn e6. References [1] http:/ / www. White can deliver checkmate in this position by moving Qd6. f4. chessvariants.Knight relay chess 103 Rules Any piece defended by a friendly knight can move as a knight. White knight on b7 doesn't check black king as well and can't capture black pawn on a5. External links • N-Relay Chess [1] by Alessandro Castelli.com [2] . it can move two steps again on one of the next moves. It can't move on last rank to f8 with a knight move and the black king is not under check.allows to play knight relay chess online. g5 and g7. Knights can't be captured and they can't capture enemy pieces. html [2] http:/ / brainking.

it is promoted first and then changes color.[2] A variant on Andernach chess is anti-Andernach. If a pawn captures on 8th rank. in which a black unit (called lama) changes colour when it captures a white piece of a different type. White can now move this knight.Andernach chess 104 Andernach chess Michel Caillaud Comm. the king is not affected by capture. it becomes white pawn and can be moved by white on the next move.Nxd7 (=bN) (This time white knight turns into black knight. whether a capture or not. It has since become a popular variant in problem composition. the end result would be a black bishop on g8.Nf3 Nc6 2. 1993 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Shortest proof game in 3. This game has nothing to do with Chandraki. which would last 3 moves and lead to the shown position. .[1] For instance. which is the site of annual meetings of fairy chess enthusiasts. The game was named after the German town of Andernach. The solution is: 1. Variations Predecessor of Andernach chess was Tibetan chess. a chess variant played in Tibet. if a white bishop on a2 were to capture a black knight on g8. though it has not yet become popular as a game-playing variant. The task is to find a proof game. Non-capturing moves are played as in orthodox chess. For example.Ne5 Nxe5 (=wN) (Black knight turns to white knight after capture on e5.) Nb8. There is also super-Andernach in which all pieces except kings change colour after every move. As in Andernach chess. Andernach TT.0 (Andernach chess). in which pieces except kings change colour after non-captures. It was during the 1993 meeting there that Andernach chess was introduced with a chess problem composing tournament for Andernach problems.) 3. but stay the same colour after a capture. Super-Andernach was introduced by John Rice in The Problemist Supplement in March 2006. This leads to the position shown on the diagram. Andernach chess is a chess variant in which a piece making a capture (except kings) changes colour. if black pawn on d7 captures white queen on c6. Example problem At the right an example Andernach chess problem is shown.

chessvariants. Whyld. ISBN 0-19-217540-8. References • Entry on "Checkless chess" in Hooper. htm) by Jean-Louis Cazaux. immune from attack. org/ usualeq. the king is immune from most attacks. The king can advance into the enemy position.com/~JurajLorinc/chess/fi_a. chess. janko. References [1] http:/ / www. the Tibetan Chess (http:/ / history. is now itself a powerful force. In order to achieve checkmate the king must be encircled without checks. Ken (1984). Oxford Companion to Chess. creating havoc in the enemy camp as they need to avoid squares where they would put the king under check. The king can defend pieces by placing itself so that capturing the piece would place the king in check. and checks can be used to gain time or chase the king to an unsafe position. since attacks on it need to be parried. at/ Retros/ Glossary/ Andernach. External links • A selection of Andernach problems (http://members. the king needs to be kept safe. Another impact of this rule is that the king. as long as checkmates are avoided. dir/ checklss. All other rules are as in regular chess.htm#ander) Checkless chess Checkless Chess (or prohibition chess) is a chess variant where neither player is allowed to give a check. David. since getting the king trapped in the enemy camp may subject it to an untimely checkmate. html . Such a plan may be risky however.Andernach chess 105 References [1] Andernach Chess (http:/ / www. free. This change has a profound impact on the way the game is played. External links • Checkless chess [1] by Hans Bodlaender.tripod. with the exception of checkmate. In checkless chess however. fr/ chandraki. In regular chess. htm) by Joost de Heer and Otto Janko [2] Chandraki.

Circe is rarely played as a variant game (when it is. and the black king is free to move to e2 or capture at d2. but this is of no consequence as after Kxe1 it will be white's move. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Black to move. Kxe1 is possible because the rook is not reborn because its rebirth square is occupied. this would be notated Rxe8(Ng8). the captured unit is not reborn—it is instead removed from the board and takes no further part in the game (like a capture in orthodox chess). it is conventional to place details of where a captured piece has been reborn in brackets following the move.Ba1! .Ba1! When notating a circe game in algebraic notation. but very often employed in composed fairy chess problems. White is threatening a mate with 2.. It might appear that there is nothing black can do to prevent this threat. Castling with a reborn rook is permitted. These are the most usual rules employed in circe . For example. either by a friendly or enemy piece..Kxe1 after this move.there are numerous other forms of the game in which the rules of rebirth may vary. a black knight captured on f6 is reborn on b8. if in the diagram to the right.Re1# but Black can defend with 1. For instance. 2. but in fact he has 1. a white pawn captured on b4 is reborn on b2. because the rook is instantly reborn on a1 from where it gives check (black's bishop does defend a1.. based on the following rules: 1. 1968.. Pawns return to the start position on the same file they are captured on. It is black to move.).if now 2. Monréal and J. a black rook captured on the same square is reborn on h8. Rooks. white were to take black's knight.Re1#. If the square that the rebirth should take place on is occupied.Circe chess 106 Circe chess Circe chess (or just circe) is a chess variant in which captured pieces are reborn on their starting positions as soon as they are captured.-P. Boyer in an article in Problème. White is threatening checkmate with 1. The rules of circe chess were first detailed by P. Black would not be able to defend with 1. knights and bishops return to the starting square which is the same color as the square they are captured on. . it is usually combined with progressive chess)..Re1+.. The position to the right demonstrates a couple of unusual effects which can occur in circe.

Captured pieces disappear from the board. • CouCou circe: as circe but the rebirth square is that of the capturing piece. The promotion is chosen by the capturing side. the capturing piece disappears. a white rook can't capture on a1). white king on f1. The reborn piece is placed according to the circe rule for the new piece.g. the promotion type is chosen by the side whose pawn promotes. bishop becomes rook. the hidden piece is revealed. but for captures resulting in promotion. especially in chess problems. A mate requires that the initial square of the king is occupied. • Assassin circe: The rebirth occurs. If the following move is castling. but if the rebirth square is occupied. • Kamikaze circe: the captured piece is reborn on its initial square. • Diagram circe: a captured piece is reborn on the position it had on the diagram. then the sum of the king-move and rook-move vectors is used (for a king-side castle. • Circe Rex inclusive: as circe but also the kings may be captured. . The capturing piece disappears. There are two types: Type Cheylan: captures on the rebirth square are illegal (i. • Equipollents circe: As Circe Parrain. black king on b6: Black captures Kb6xa6(+wBf1(hidden)) Kf1-e1 (+wBf1). and promote. • Platzwechsel circe (PWC): a captured piece is reborn on the square where the capturer was placed before the capture. Platzwechsel means "position exchange" in German. even if the rebirth square is occupied.e. When that piece moves. • CousCous circe: as CouCou circe. When a piece is captured on its rebirth square. • Martian circe: pieces move in the ordinary manner but capture only from their initial position (if it is unoccupied). The rebirth square must be empty or the capture is illegal. rebirth can occur only if the piece is a pawn captured en passant). Pawns captured by a piece are reborn on the promotion rank. The occupying piece is removed from the board. Type Calvet: captures on the rebirth square are legal. • Strict circe: as ordinary circe but the rebirth square must be free for the capture to be legal. but the rebirth occurs immediately on a vector equal to the capturing move. E.Circe chess 107 Circe variants There are many variants of circe. rook becomes queen and queen becomes knight. • Mirror circe: a captured piece is reborn on a square where a piece of the opposite color would be reborn in ordinary circe. • Circe Parrain: a captured piece is reborn on the square displaced from the capture square by a vector equal to that of the move following the capture. • Volcanic circe: as circe. the captured piece is 'hidden' under that piece. The captured piece disappears from the board. • Symmetrical circe: as circe but the rebirth square is the capture square mirrored across the center of the board. • Chamaeleon circe: a captured piece (other than a pawn) is reborn as a different piece: knight becomes bishop. Instead of being reborn on their starting positions the pieces may be reborn on other locations: • Anticirce: the capturing piece is reborn on its initial square. white bishop on a6. • Clone circe: a captured piece is reborn on its initial square but reappears as the piece by which it is captured (not a king).

janko. D. at/ Retros/ Glossary/ Circe. It differs from standard chess by starting position as well as by pawn movements. the rules of chess apply. com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_c. pp. tripod.Circe chess 108 References • Pritchard. Pawn movement . The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. There are no castling and no en passant moves. The game can be also played with the board rotated by 45° clock-wise to make pawn movements easier to understand. htm Legan chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Legan chess Legan chess is a chess variant invented by L. B. htm#circe [2] http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • Circe Problems [1] • Circe Chess [2] at Retro Corner References [1] http:/ / members. Legan in 1913. 55–56. Otherwise. John Beasley. Rules The initial starting position is shown at the right. (2007).

bishops. h5. a4 and e8 cannot promote without moving toward the center of the board via capturing. Note that the pawns that start on d1. black pawns on e1-h1-h4 (marked with black circles). Pawn promotion a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Pawn promotion in Legan chess Pawns promote on squares occupied in initial position by opponent's king. Black pawn on b6 can move to c5 and capture on b5 and c6. The white pawn on f3 can move to e4 and capture on e3 and f4. and rooks. .Legan chess 109 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Pawn movements in Legan chess Pawns moves one space diagonally forward: white from right to left. black left to right. They capture orthogonally in direction of movements (see the example in the diagram at right). knights. For example. white pawns promote on squares a5-a8-d8 (marked with white circles).

also attacked by the g5 rook. (The status of an en passant capture is open to debate. however. com Madrasi chess Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (p. In its turn. The knights on d8 and f7 also attack each other. since the attack is not mutual. the white rook on g2. is paralysed. because it (the rook) is attacked by the black rook on g5. Pritchard (1994). so these pieces are also paralysed. when it is extended to kings. References [1] http:/ / brainking.Legan chess 110 References • D.com [1] . The black king is not in check from the rook on c5 (see algebraic chess notation). External links • BrainKing. meaning it is paralysed. thus unparalysing his . There are two ways in which a paralysis may be released.B. is not paralysed. the two kings cannot move to adjacent squares. Most of the time.units have to be of a similar type (both knights. and is free to move.) This paralysis rule is not usually extended to the kings. capture or give check. the c5 rook attacks the g5 rook. meaning that as in orthodox chess. but he can play Nxd3. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The position to the right demonstrates some of the peculiarities of Madrasi. white cannot play cxd3 because his pawn is paralysed. the variant is called Madrasi rex inclusive (sometimes shortened to Madrasi RI). a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move. Although it is possible to play complete games of both Madrasi chess and Madrasi RI. according to Pritchard. Note that the bishop on d1 is not paralysed by knight on f2 attacking it . paralysing it. The first is for a non-paralysed pieces to make a capture. Likewise. The black rook on h4. meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this.internet server to play Legan chess and many other chess variants. two like pieces attack each other mutually. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. In the example. they have mainly been used as a condition in chess problems. both bishops and so on) for paralysis to happen. as do the pawns on c2 and d3. 172).

which can be done by 1.). pp. Whyld.. "Madrasi". htm#madra Monochromatic chess Raymond Smullyan a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Monochromatic chess: What color is pawn g3? Monochromatic chess is a chess variant created by Raymond Smullyan. B..Rxe5 paralysing the c5 rook is not possible. The second way to unparalyse a piece is to cut off the line of attack from the paralysing unit by interposing a third piece. tripod. because the g5 rook is paralysed by its counterpart on g2). com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_m. in which the initial board position and all rules are the same as in regular chess. the white rook on c5 is now giving check. John Beasley. David.). he cannot interpose a piece between the checking unit and the king. The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.. For example. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (2nd ed. Oxford University Press. As a result.. The only way for black to escape the check in this instance is to re-paralyse the checking rook. Kenneth (1992). ISBN 0-19-280049-3 References [1] http:/ / members. he cannot capture the checking unit. White then has the reply 2. ISBN 0-95551-680-3 • Hooper. (2007). 111 External links • Madrasi Problems [1] References • Pritchard. 1. 44–45.Be5 in the diagram cuts the line of attack from the g5 rook to the c5 rook and so unparalyses it.bxc4 which is checkmate: black has no safe squares for his king. except that pieces which begin on a black square must always stay on a black square and pieces which begin on a white square must always stay on a white square.Rc4. Isardam ("Madrasi" spelled backwards) is a variant of Madrasi in which only moves that do not lead to a Madrasi paralysis are legal. and he cannot paralyse the checking unit (note that . D.Madrasi chess c2 pawn. This would mean that knights .

For example. A piece on a white square must move to a black square and vice versa. Hence pawns cannot capture (or advance two squares) and bishops cannot move. clearing the way). but only on the kingside. the opposite restrictions apply. 112 Bichromatic chess In bichromatic chess. castling may become possible. Also castling and en passant are impossible. Similarly. so the pawn on g3 cannot be white. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • http://www. References • Pritchard.janko. each player has one bishop for which it is possible to obtain checkmate with just this bishop and a king..at/Retros/Glossary/Monochromatic.Monochromatic chess can never move. Under the rules.1)-leaper. (2007). a checkmate occurs if the king is placed in check and the king has no legal moves under the rules of the game.white or black? Answer is black – with white pawns on d2 and f2.htm . A stalemate occurs if a player's king is not in check but the player nevertheless has no legal moves under the rules of the game. they are allowed to be located next to each other. John Beasley. pawns can only move by capturing or by advancing two squares for their first move. since only one bishop is capable of threatening the king of the opposing side. D. If knights are allowed to move (or are captured. Smullyan's example asks: What color is pawn g3 .. B. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Because the two kings must occupy squares of different colours. This means that certain board positions in regular chess which would not result in the end of the game can be checkmates or stalemates in monochromatic chess. while it is impossible with the other bishop along with the king. This variant is used mostly in chess problems. but The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants says that knights make a double jump. and queens behave like rooks. the white king can move from e1 only with castling and then g1-h2-g3-. It has been suggested that a knight be replaced with a (3.

com/ ~JurajLorinc/ chess/ fi_p. and Kxb4 is not possible because the white king is not patrolled and so cannot capture. the rook on a2 is patrolled by the knight on b4 and so controls the squares b2. htm#patro . Similarly. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The diagram position shows some of the peculiarities of patrol chess. however. It is also possible to play complete games under patrol chess rules. The variant was invented by Frederik Hendrik von Meyenfeldt who published a chess problem using the rules in The Problemist (the magazine of the British Chess Problem Society) in 1975. as the knights would patrol one another. c2 and d2. The white king cannot take the black knight because it is not guarded by a friendly piece. Black could reply Ke4. If white were to play Nbd8 (see algebraic notation). this would be check. the black rook is not giving check. patrolled by the e3 rook.Patrol chess 113 Patrol chess Patrol chess is a chess variant in which captures can be made and checks given only if the capturing or checking piece is guarded (or patrolled) by a friendly unit. External links • Patrol Chess Problems [1] References [1] http:/ / members. tripod. controls that square. Non-capturing moves are played as normal. and neither is the white knight on f7. Patrol chess has often been used as a condition in chess problems. Kd4 is not possible because the black king. with checkmate: the king patrols the rook on e3 giving check and guarding b3 and d3.

When plundering is elected. No more than one plundered vest is allowed on any one piece at a time. it must be returned to the stand out of play.. • PlunderChess: Pictures and a review [2] by Hans L. External links • PlunderChess [1] . If a chess piece with a plundered vest makes another capture. Bodlaender. the capturing piece "couples" or "attaches" to itself a vest that corresponds to the moving capabilities it is acquiring from the captured piece. The pawn with the vest can use it to reach the last rank. However. Rules The so-called plundering occurs when a chess piece captures an opposing chess piece and "plunders" or "acquires" additional moving capabilities directly from the piece it just captured. If a player captures a piece with a vest. org/ d. Plundering is optional and may be declined by the player making the capture. The plundered vest must give added moving capabilities to the piece that wears it or it will not be allowed to plunder. The added moving capability provided by a plundered vest may be used one time only on any future move: i. chessvariants. com [2] http:/ / www.PlunderChess 114 PlunderChess PlunderChess is a chess variant in which the capturing piece is allowed to temporarily take the moving abilities of the piece taken. html . But it has double-move capability only when moving from 2nd to 4th rank. that player may take the vest it wears or a vest that represents the captured piece. A piece with a vest can give a check (or eventually checkmate) to the opponent's king using vest-move power. it may upgrade to a stronger vest. the pieces with pawn vest can't promote. This means that a queen can never wear a rook vest because a queen can already make the moves of a rook and a rook vest provides no additional benefit to the queen. References [1] http:/ / plunderchess. The pawn can also move to the first rank by a vest move. the plundered vest may be used on its very next move or carried around and used later in the game. After a vest is used to move a chess piece on the board.official website. In this case the pawn gets immediately promoted.e. photo/ plunderchess/ plunderchess.

This is possible at . The rules are as follows. They may also ask the referee if there are any legal captures with a pawn. Each opponent knows the exact position only of his own pieces and doesn't know where the opponent's pieces are (but can keep track of how many there are). when it is possible for one's pawn to capture an opponent's pawn or piece. Rules There are several different rule sets for Kriegspiel. one for each player and one for the umpire (and spectators). The game proceeds in the following way. but saves both players the bother of beginning every turn by trying all possible pawn captures. which the referee will declare to be 'legal' or 'illegal'. the player tries again. The most widespread rules are those used on the Internet Chess Club. Position as seen by White player. if it is legal. In this game each player can see their own pieces. the game in progress. When it is a player's turn he will attempt a move. If the move is illegal. that move stands.[2] The game is played with three boards. The umpire announces: • White (or black) to move. Chess Kriegspiel derives from a war game which was used in 19th century Germany to train military officers. where Kriegspiel is called Wild 16.115 Incomplete information and elements of chance Kriegspiel a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Kriegspiel. with full information about the progress of the game. • Pawn tries. The umpire also indicates the square on which the capture is possible to the player who can make the capture. Only the umpire knows the exact current position of the game. For this reason. This gives extra information. Kriegspiel (German for war game) is a chess variant invented by Henry Michael Temple in 1899[1] and based upon the original Kriegsspiel developed by Georg von Rassewitz in 1812. Each player is given information about checks and captures. Kriegspiel is not a game with perfect information. but not those of their opponent. it is necessary to have a third person (or computer) act as a referee. Since the position of the opponent's pieces is unknown.

white should not move either the knight or the bishop. stalemate. White must checkmate Black in 8 moves. • No. Kriegspiel is sometimes used in chess problems. • Piece gone. Ra1?? is a draw by stalemate if the black bishop was initially on a1. • Checkmate. bishop. • Check on the vertical. An example of a Kriegspiel problem is shown at the right. • Pawn gone. no matter where the black bishop initially is (it is somewhere on dark squares) and no matter what black plays. 116 Kriegspiel problems Jacques Rotenberg The Problemist 1976 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Kriegspiel.) For example. A pawn try is not announced if the pawn is pinned. because either might capture the black bishop by accident.Kriegspiel no risk because pawns don't move the same way they capture. but for a problem in which white is to force a win. when a piece is captured. For example: moving the king into check. one must assume the worst-case scenario in which black guesses correctly on each move. of course. black would not see white's moves. In these. moving a bishop a knight's move. when the attempted move is illegal. completing the capture would expose the king to check. or pawn through squares occupied by the opponent's pieces. 50-move draw. the . En-passant pawn tries are announced. draw by repetition. • Check on the horizontal. • Check by a knight. draw by insufficient force. rook. given the opponent's position. 1. then the move is illegal and there is no penalty for attempting illegal moves. Kxf2 (or Rxf2) is stalemate as well. advancing a pawn into a square occupied by the opponent's pieces. Pawn promotions are not announced. For example. So. • Check on the long diagonal (the longer of the two diagonals. but not the fact that they are en-passant captures. if no capture is possible. • Check on the short diagonal. 1. Nf2 Bxf2 2. not exactly known where. when the attempted move is always illegal regardless of the opponent's position.e. i. Hence. Black has a bishop somewhere on dark squares.. For the same reason. (Note that in a real game. mate in 8. usual variations introduced by different black moves are replaced by variations introduced by different announcements. • Hell no (or Impossible). moving a queen. from the king's point of view). when a pawn is captured.

cs. Kriegspiel in Artificial intelligence research.the black bishop can't be on h8 to be captured. Nf2+ Bxf2 4.umd. Be5. after each move the player calls 7 squares.chessvariants.Nf2#. White tries to play 1.cs. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. unimaas. • Bologna Kriegspiel Home (http://www. In Modern kriegspiel by Bruce Trone (1986).com) Internet server to play Kriegspiel. nl/ olympiad2006/ rules. which bishop remains (on c or f-file).html) by Hans L. Otherwise (any move by black) 3. but only with two rooks and bishop.html) A page on Kriegspiel research • U. dir/ crazyhousekriegspiel. The Semi-kriegspiel.edu/~jawolfe/kriegspiel/). Kxf2#.Kriegspiel white rook should move only to light squares -. Rb5 (if not possible. which must be opened by umpire. Rb1 7. • SchemingMind.cs. Otherwise the rules are as in usual kriegspiel. it should be announced. .the player who sees the board plays only with queen and bishop (as well as with king and 8 pawns in usual starting position). The solution is the following. Combining Crazyhouse with Kriegspiel yields Crazyhouse Kriegspiel[3] (or CrazyKrieg for short). Rh8. Rg2. • Berkeley Kriegspiel Home (http://www. In this game the sighted side has only king and queen.unibo.Bxe5. Games & Puzzles Publications. then black bishop is on g3. org/ incinf. White still doesn't know where the bishop is. chessvariants.but only half of the light squares are reachable without visiting a dark square along the way. Rg8.htm). If black now plays 2. d2 or f2. Bodlaender. the first player has to play with fewer pieces. 3. (This is safe -. g5 or g7. • One-eye . White plays 2. it is made and then black moves the bishop. • If not possible..schemingmind. Nf2+ Bxf2 8. White continues with 2. cs. suggested by David Silverman in 1971 is similar to variations above.it/~cianca/wwwpages/chesssite/kriegspiel/kriegspiel. To make the game fair. 5. [2] Kriegspiel tournament rules of the computer Olympiad (http:/ / www. Frankenstein proposed two variants: • Pickle pot .com/incinf. N(x)f2# (checkmate). In this case white can instead play 1. 6. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. because it wasn't on g7 on the previous turn.edu/kriegspiel/) A page on Kriegspiel research • Freeware Windows Kriegspiel game (called SearchAndDestroyChess) (http://richelbilderbeek. which he/she can place on any legal square before the beginning of the game. Rxh2#. Rh3 and 6..same as above. • If this move is not possible (umpire says No).nl/ GameSearchAndDestroyChess. html#Kriegspiel) [3] Crazyhouse Kriegspiel (http:/ / www.dir/kriegspiel. D. (1994). Maryland Kriegspiel Home (http://chess.) 4. then the black bishop must be on b2. • If possible. • If the move is possible.Be5). white continues 3. References [1] Pritchard. 117 Rule variations Frankenstein suggested in 1903 a variation of the game where one player sees the board and another plays Kriegspiel. html) External links • Kriegspiel (http://www. Rh5 5. In both versions.berkeley.com (http://www.

or moving into check. There are some minor differences in the rules on different servers: • • • • BrainKing [1]: pawn promotions remain unknown for the opponent. are both legal. . A player isn't told if their king is in check. into check and through the positions attacked by opponent pieces. ItsYourTurn [1]: the opponent knows that a pawn was promoted. squares indicated by "×" can not be seen by the white player. similar to Kriegspiel. pawn promotions remain unknown for the opponent. En passant capture is allowed. but know if the position is occupied or not. only their own pieces (including pawns). Unlike standard chess. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A game of Dark chess in progress. even if you do not see that it is possible. and can obviously result in a capture and loss of the game. but does not know where.Com [3]: En passant capture is not allowed. three chess sets and a referee are needed. castling is allowed even out of check. just as in Kriegspiel. but to capture it. For playing over-the-board. Rules The goal of this chess variant is not to checkmate the king. A player does not see the entire board. and squares where these pieces could move. It was invented by Jens Bæk Nielsen and Torben Osted in 1989. AjaxPlay. Failing to move out of check. SchemingMind [2]: you do not see what is in front of your pawns. This chess variant is best played on one of the online chess servers.Dark chess 118 Dark chess Dark chess is a chess variant with incomplete information.

• Dark suicide .cgi/62549?do=show.com (http:/ / gamesbyemail. com Dark Omega Chess at GamesByEmail. Also invented in 2005 by John Kipling Lewis. The goal in this variation is the same as in standard chess . crazyhouse and dark chess. but you can only drop pieces on square you can see.like Sun Tzu.com (http://www. This chess variant was invented in 2005 by John Kipling Lewis. • www.nl/ GameSearchAndDestroyChess. com/ Games/ OmegaChess) External links • • • • Dark Chess Strategy guide (http://docs.google.itsyourturn.to checkmate the king.combination of Double Fischer Random Chess (like Chess960.html#helpitem1504) Dark Chess (http://www. You can drop pieces you have in any possible square on the board (like crazyhouse).richelbilderbeek.you are notified that your king is in check and you can't move your king into check. as well as some psychological reasoning. In this chess variant a king should be carefully protected from very dangerous checks by invisible pieces.html) by Jens Bæk Nielsen Online turn-based dark chess (http://www. tactics and move searching are not.htm).com) Dark Chess Helper application . com http:/ / www.zillions-of-games.com/cgi-bin/zilligames/submissions. which can attack it without becoming visible. • Dark crazyhouse .chessvariants.id=201) implementation for Zillions of games. • KIKAItachi chess (http://kikaitachi. com http:/ / ajaxplay.com/t_helptopic2020.darkchess. for example . References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. brainking. • Sun Tzu chess .dir/darkness.Dark chess 119 Variations SchemingMind also provides some more variations of dark chess: • Dark chess (checkmate) . are very important.org/chess) supports playing Dark chess variant among others. • Lao Tzu chess . but with different positions for white and black). any other 2-player chess variant like Omega Chess.com/View?docid=df72cxcs_20gj8jfvdm) Darkness chess (http://www. • Freeware Windows Dark Chess game called SearchAndDestroyChess (http://www.combination of suicide and dark chess. • Generally.darkchess.combination of crazyhouse and dark chess.[4] Gameplay Dark chess has a strong strategic flavor. Seirawan chess or others may be played “in dark”. schemingmind. because basic Dark chess rules are universal with respect to its “parent” classical variant.Dark Omega Chess. For a queen the most dangerous pieces are knights. Planning and strategy.com/incinf.

the piece is returned to its position at the start of the turn. These names (and the existence of any invoke commands) are announced to the players at the start of the game. If it is legal. and may cause it to affect other pieces on the board. the Spectators decide between themselves which pieces they will write rules for. ukf. On his or her turn. a Player attempts to move or invoke one of their pieces. In the original game. When he or she has written the secret rule for a piece. A piece may be given an invoke command which causes it to affect other pieces on the board without moving. and the Spectator for that piece declares whether the action is legal or illegal. Zendo and Mao. and are initially kept secret from the players. in other variants the original Player continues making attempts until he or she succeeds in making a legal move or invoke. External links • “Penultima” [1] by Michael Fryers. htm#penul . In a manner similar to the game Mao (also popular in Cambridge at that time). The name of the game is a pun on "penultimate". played on a chess board. At the end of the game. that Player's turn ends and play passes to the other Player. The secret rule for a piece may for example control the way that piece moves. Penultima is similar in style to Eleusis. or is captured. such as coins or Icehouse pieces. Issue 28. bcvs. It was invented by Michael Greene and Adam Chalcraft in Cambridge in 1994. As in standard chess. the Spectators reveal their rules. Volume 3. Rules Several Spectators create secret rules which govern how the pieces move and two Players attempt to discover these rules. Before the game starts. the Spectator also gives it a new name for the duration of the game. pages 164-166 References [1] http:/ / www. play then passes to the other Player. The game is derived from the chess variant Ultima (otherwise known as Baroque chess).Penultima 120 Penultima Penultima is a game of inductive logic. Summer 1998. each piece having different movement and capture rules from standard chess. and "Ultima" (the name of the chess variant). the rules for each piece vary from game to game. The game is traditionally played with chess pieces but may be played any sufficiently distinct components. net/ eureka. the winning player is the one who forces his or her opponent's king (or equivalent piece) into checkmate. and played with a standard chess board and pieces. captures. from Variant Chess. If it is illegal.

For example. specifically that the moves available to each player are determined by rolling a pair of ordinary six-sided dice. or doubles. would have allowed him to move. the one represents a pawn. White rolls a three and a six. he must play the only legal rook move. • if castling is otherwise legal.. moving the king. no bishop move being possible. if possible. with these exceptions: • a player who has no legal move with either of the pieces indicated by the dice loses that turn (passed turn). immediately once the opportunity for the en passant capture arises. There are many different variations of this form of dice chess. allowing her to play any move. White rolls a three and a four.Dice chess 121 Dice chess Dice chess can refer to a number of chess variants in which dice are used to alter gameplay. and plays 2.[1] One of them is described here. • except in the unlikely event that the game ends in a draw pursuant to the standard rules of chess. Rules The players alternate rolling the dice and. • a player who is in check can only play a legal response to that check (capturing the checking piece. a player may castle upon rolling a four.Bxf7+. a player rolling a one and a two may move either a pawn or a knight. he must pass. A player who rolls doubles (the same number on both dice) may play any legal move. Black rolls a two and a three.) White rolls a two . Black rolls a two and a four. • an en passant capture of a pawn is possible only if the player rolls a one. and six a king.Nc6. moving.Bc4. standard chess rules apply. and selects 1. the game ends when one player either checkmates the opponent or captures the opponent's king.. but does not automatically lose the game.. (Only a six. Otherwise. since no knight or rook move is a legal response to the check. he plays 1. The player may move either of the pieces indicated on the two dice. two a knight. four a rook. Black rolls a four and a five.Rb8. three a bishop. • a player who is in check but does not make a roll allowing a legal response to the check loses that turn. or interposing a piece). or doubles. since no queen move is possible. five a queen. six.e4. 2. White rolls doubles. or doubles. and plays 3. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Black is checkmated Sample game Here is a sample game of dice chess. On each of the dice..

and plays 5. The most common is similar to that described in the preceding sections. again. and so games called 'Dice Chess' may have different rules to the ones given here. • There is no check or checkmate. whose rules are described here [4]. The intention of adding two more kings is to reduce the elements of chance in the game. White rolls a two and a four. 4. A second way to use dice is to have each player roll one die on each turn." John Gollon. Black rolls a one and a three. Rather.[3] To win you need to capture all enemy kings. in his book Chess Variations: Ancient. the goal is to actually capture the king.Bxe8.Qf3# or 4. A third form of the game uses two dice of contrasting colors. (A three or five would have enabled an immediate win with 4.Dice chess and a four. with the number rolled indicating the number of moves to be played.Nh3.[1] . a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dice chess on 10x10 board. and the other the number of moves that the piece makes. but may promote only to the piece shown on the die (a one allows a pawn to promote to any piece). and chooses 4. notes three ways in which dice may be used in connection with a game of chess. BrainKing also provides a variant on 10x10 board with three kings on each side. Another form of dice chess is "Vegas Fun Chess". five. or six allows the player to make four moves. so a roll of a four. in the version of 'dice chess' given on the BrainKing site:[2] • The players roll only one die. Regional.Ng5#. and Modern. this does not allow a legal response to the check.Qh5#). with one determining the piece that can move. The maximum number of moves that can be played is usually four. For example. so he must pass. That site also indicates that "Pritchard's Encyclopedia of Chess Variants contains descriptions of seven versions of what he calls 'Dice Chess'. • Pawns may move from the seventh to the eighth rank on any roll.) 122 Variants on these rules There is no standard set of rules for Dice Chess. All other rules are the same as for 8x8 version. (See final position at right.

three dice were thrown and each player made three moves at a time. the same numbering system as set forth above was used (1=pawn. designed by Pierre Cléquin and Bruno Faidutti. chessvariants. instead of making a regular move. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=95) BrainKing Dice Chess 10x10 rules (http:/ / brainking. dir/ vegasfunchess.Dice chess 123 History Anne Sunnucks writes that there is evidence from the literature of the period that dice were used to play chess in Europe between the 11th and 14th centuries. The cards might change how a piece moves. SJG also sells blank cards. Knightmare Chess 2 cover art. 2=knight. It is a translation of a French game Tempête sur l'échiquier (Storm on the Chessboard).[3] The graphics in the English version of the Knightmare Chess cards are dark fantasy style. Regional.[6] Vladimir Pribylinec writes that the cubes in the Cubic chess are moving as in orthochess by a symbol uppermost it is described in both editions of Pritchard´ Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. move opponent's pieces. BrainKing Dice Chess rules (http:/ / brainking. The Encyclopaedia of Chess. nightmarish (hence the pun Knightmare) color paintings by Brazilian artist Rogerio Vilela. pp. Sunnucks does not make clear if only one die or both dice were thrown. whether the player could choose which of the specified pieces to move. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=127& fwa=ShowGame!g=4962555$i=1) http:/ / www. Charles E. org/ dice. Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] John Gollon. [6] Sunnucks. each consisting of 80 cards.[5] In the Burmese form of the game. Play this card on your turn. 1970. and even earlier in Burma and India. html Anne Sunnucks. if the latter. Chess Variations: Ancient. Another innovation of the American version is to include rules for "dueling deck" play. The French original version had a cartoonish tone. to be customized as the player wishes. Overview Knightmare Chess is played with cards that change the default rules of chess. possibly built from multiple copies of . pp. and. first time published in 1977-th. ISBN 0-8048-1122-9. The sets are known as Knightmare Chess 1 [1] and Knightmare Chess 2 [2] but there's nothing at all to stop one from just shuffling both decks into one 160 card deck. create special squares on the board or otherwise alter the game. Knightmare Chess Knightmare Chess is a fantasy chess variant published by Steve Jackson Games (SJG) in 1996. unlike the English version. For example. 1974. where each player has his own customized deck. The dice were thrown before each turn to determine the piece to be moved. p. 97-98.). and Modern. 98. etc. and the cards in the French original version are also different from the English version. There are two sets of cards sold separately. St. Martin's Press. In the variant Protheus cubes are turned on the adjacent squares. a card called Demotion says: Replace one of your opponent's pieces (except a King or Queen) with one of his captured Pawns. 231-32. in packs of 20. Tuttle Company.

Issue 4. while finding the artwork "absolutely gorgeous" and that "in terms of sheer presentation . gamecabinet. RPGnet. The Game Cabinet [6] Knightmare Chess Review (http:/ / www. For a balanced game each player uses the same point total. In SJG's version." He said "the dark design only conflicts with the abstract nature of the game. com/ knightmare/ ). Sarrett's only complaints concerned the printing of the cards themselves.2. The total chaotic power of one's personal deck can be measured in the sum of the points of all cards in the deck. it's not something you'll be playing an awful lot. Knightmare Chess Review (http:/ / www.. remarking that it "result[s] [in] an unpredictable game which removes the tedium of standard chess while preserving plenty of scope for strategic play. which makes it difficult for players with poorer eyesight to play the game". The Game Report. Retrieved 2007-03-31. February 13. at the end of the day it is a good game and one well worth checking out. He concluded. Even so. Cards which are too powerful to appear more than once per side are marked with an asterisk. The card called Demotion. "If I had to find a fault with the game it is that there is no attempt to reconcile the strategic game with the chaotic game and the contrast is a bit jarring. as he found the wording occasionally confusing and the text "rather small. com/ reviews/ KnightmareChess.[4] Ken Tidwell of The Game Cabinet praised the game for including "elements from both the strategic/predictable side of gaming and the wild/disorderly side" and found the artwork "striking" and "succeed[ing] in creating an air of comic horror". com/ tgr14/ knightmarechess. Critical reaction Peter Sarrett of The Game Report called the game "outstanding".[6] Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] ISBN 1-55634-332-9 ISBN 1-55634-348-5 "Knightmare Chess!" (http:/ / www. or a stronger player can use a lower point total as a handicap. sjgames. rpg. . html) Ken Tidwell. indicating that a player can only put one copy of that specific card in his deck. 1999 ."[5] Conversely. Steve Darlington of RPGnet." and praising the "gorgeous" paintings by Rogerio Vilela.Knightmare Chess 124 the set if desired. each card is marked with a point cost. html) Peter Sarrett. felt that while the game itself "might make for an interesting game or two. Winter 1996 [5] Knightmare Chess Review (http:/ / www.. and ends up being more humorous than dramatic" and that it "ultimately doesn't hold your attention for too long". gamereport. [Knightmare Chess] is streets ahead of anything I've seen in years". net/ news+ reviews/ reviews/ rev_1358. html) Steve Darlington.

com/knightmarechess/) Knightmare Chess (http://www.Knightmare Chess 125 External links • • • • Designer's website (http://www.tripod.php?Module=mesjeux&id=338) English publisher's website (http://www. boardgamegeek.com/knightmare/) Knightmare Chess Resource Page (http://members.com/index.com/game/227) and Knightmare Chess 2 (http://www.com/game/1677) at BoardGameGeek .boardgamegeek.faidutti.sjgames.

To avoid too much advantage for white. dir/ marseill. Bodlaender and Antoine Fourrière . html) by Hans L. André Chéron playing it. However.126 Multimove variants Marseillais chess Marseillais chess is a chess variant in which each player moves twice per turn. etc. usually a balanced version of the game is played. he loses the right for the second move on this turn. both of them can be captured. Eugene Znosko-Borovsky. en-passant capture must be made on the first move of the turn. It is not allowed to move the king into the check on the first move of the turn and then move out of the check on the second one. white makes only one move on the first turn. black.[1] Rules A player can either move one piece twice or move two different pieces on his turn. The rules of the game were first published in Marseillais local newspaper Le Soleil in 1925. This chess variant became quite popular in the late 1930s with such chess grandmasters as Alexander Alekhine. References [1] Marseillais chess (http:/ / www. org/ multimove. black. Richard Réti. white. En passant capture is allowed even if the opponent moved the corresponding pawn on the first move of the previous turn. black. he must move out of check on the first move of the turn. The moves are made in the following order: white. If a player is in check. In the balanced version. black. chessvariants. When two pawns can be captured en passant after opponents move. When a player gives a check on the first move. This rule was introduced in 1963 by Robert Bruce and since then gained a wide acceptance. white. Castling is considered as a single move.

e6 f6 3.e4 2. Progressive chess.e6 f6 3. but the capture must be made on the first move of a series.e4 2. because of the relatively small number of moves in a typical game. for example. but a check ends the series--all further moves that would otherwise be allowed are forfeited. • If at any stage a player has no legal moves but is not in check.Progressive chess 127 Progressive chess Progressive chess is a chess variant in which players. Progressive chess is considered particularly apt for playing correspondence chess using mail or some other slow medium. Rules There are two main varieties of progressive chess: Italian progressive chess and Scottish progressive chess (otherwise known as Scotch chess). a check can only be given on the sixth move)--giving a check at any other point in a series is illegal. is notated with algebraic notation. if the only way to escape a check is to give check on the first move of the series. the numbering of moves is handled slightly differently.Bb5 a6). These restrictions do not carry over from one turn to the next--so the opening 1.e4 e5 2. Italian and Scottish progressive chess are distinguished by rules on when a player is allowed to give check: • Scottish progressive chess: check may be given on any move of a series. but involves capturing all pieces of your opponent's instead of checkmate. black makes four and so on. English progressive chess. Other variations There is another form of progressive chess. There is no en passant capture under English rules. Progressive Take-All uses the same rules as Progressive chess. In this way. but the sequence 1. . which makes quite a significant change to the rules: within each turn. but there are many other white pieces which have not moved on that turn). • If ten consecutive turns are played with no captures and no pawn moves. no piece may be moved twice until every other piece which has a legal move has moved once. play progressively longer series of moves.Bc4 Qh5 Qxf7#). and rules on checks follow the Scottish rules. on move six. when circe is played as a game. rather than just making one move per turn. then black makes two consecutive moves. no piece may move three times until every other piece which can have moved twice. This has no effect on the other player's next series--he will receive as many moves as he would have had the other player played his full series. like orthodox chess. but no further. each turn by each player is given its own move number (leading to notation in progressive chess like 1. it is usually progressively. at some point during the last turn.e5 Nf6 3. the move number is equal to the number of moves in a series available to a player on that turn. Rather than one white and one black move being given under each move number (leading to notation in orthodox chess like 1. • Italian progressive chess: a check may only be given on the last move of a full series (for example.e5 Ba6 Bxb7 is not (the bishop has made two moves. • En passant captures of pawns are allowed if the pawn in question moved two squares in one move.e5 Nf3 Bc4 is legal (white's e-pawn may move again because its moves are on different turns). the game is a draw by progressive stalemate.e4 2. The two have the following rules in common: • A check must be escaped from on the first move of a series--if this cannot be done. Progressive chess can be combined with other variants. However. and so on. it is checkmate and the game is lost. The game starts with white making one move. then the game is declared a draw unless one of the players can force a checkmate (this is the progressive chess equivalent of the fifty-move rule in orthodox chess). Pawns can also be promoted to Kings. In particular. then the game is lost by the player in check by "progressive checkmate". white replies with three.Nf3 Nc6 3.

D. Further reading • Pritchard. After moving one of your own pieces. Ch. (1994). then your opponent chooses to what piece it promotes. cis. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. 13-15. then your opponent wins the game immediately. 128 External links • Progressive Chess [1] by Timo Honkela References [1] http:/ / www. If you must move your opponent's pawn to promotion. com/ mvopponent. • Pritchard. you must move one of your opponent's pawns one space forward toward you. You cannot use your opponent's pawn to capture and you cannot move your opponent's pawn two spaces forward. html . dir/ avalanche. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. you must move one of your opponent's pawns forward one space. p. Variant Chess 18. Avalanche chess. External links • Avalanche chess | ChessVariants [1] References [1] http:/ / www. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Rules Rules are as normal chess except for the following. After you move one of your own pieces. Popular Chess Variants. Bastford Chess Books. automne 1995) there's no castling or pawn two advance (hence no en-passant capture) since these rules were added to speed up the game. chessvariants. html Avalanche chess Avalanche chess is a chess variant designed by Ralph Betza in 1977.Progressive chess In Logical progressive chess (by Paul Byway. (2000). Games & Puzzles Publications. p. fi/ ~tho/ chess. If none of opponent's pawns can be moved. If moving an opponent's pawn gives check to you. hut. which is not relevant in progressive form. 78-82. then that part of the turn is skipped. 12 Avalanche chess. D.

Otherwise. Sometimes White's moves can be executed with humour.Monster chess 129 Monster chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Monster chess. Queening a white pawn generally allows White to declare a checkmate on one of the next moves. The white king can move into check on the first move of the turn. both hands can be used to move two pawns simultaneously. Also. or with only two. with only the two kings on the board. and a description of a strategy for Black. If a king is in check. except that White makes two successive moves per turn. Monster chess is also played with White starting with all eight pawns. or a black piece one square away from the white king can simply be removed from the board. White can move twice per turn. it must be placed out of check. Monster chess . The white king may move into check and then out of check.or Super King chess . For example.is a chess variant in which the White has only a king and four pawns to fight against all the pieces of the Black side. The goal is to capture the opponent's king. All the rules of chess apply. . Rules • • • • White must execute two moves in his/her turn. White can easily force a Monster chess checkmate. External links • Monster chess [1] by David Regis • Variants of Monster chess [2]. He can do this by moving a piece twice or two pieces once. provided that White can execute two moves. standard chess rules apply.

Victory is achieved when the enemy king is captured. with up to 80 players online during busy hours. Standard . i. with average speed of the pieces' movements ("speed") and the time they are delayed until they can be moved again ("delay"). After a piece was moved it must "rest" a while before it is allowed to move again. "FFW") is a match between four players on a four-way board similar to the Four-Handed chess board. Nevertheless this game style had never become official. Although the official game styles have their constant settings for Speed and Delay. html [2] http:/ / www. It is a pairs match and the first player to eliminate his opponent's king wins for himself and his partner. The principle is the same as the original chess variant. This option created another popular style entitled "Fast 2 Ways" .Competes the Standard style for "the most popular Kung-Fu Chess game style". nor as popular as the Standard and the F4W were. This game was created by Shizmoo Games. Match is over when one of the players gets to capture his opponent's king. Game Styles There are several game styles of Kung-Fu Chess. when the goal is again the eliminate your opponents' kings. org/ d. however the captured pieces move slower than the original pieces in the match. dir/ monster. It could be played online at Shizmoo. It is a real-time strategy game.Monster chess 130 References [1] http:/ / www. betza/ chessvar/ muenster. but a bit quicker than the Standard style. and therefore F4W games are characterized with more action and speed rather than strategy in the Standard style. chessvariants.a. If two pieces of opposite color (for example. The major difference in this game style in addition to being 4 players match. as it goes by the principle of "last man standing". chessvariants.0 in an official standard match. Crazyhouse . "F4W".A Crazyhouse for four players playing simultaneously. html Kung-fu chess Kung-Fu Chess is a chess variant without turns. . Bughouse . both players playing simultaneously and can move several pieces in the same time. Any player can move any of his pieces at any given moment.for players who loved the extreme speed of the F4W but did not want to play with 3 opponents. Awards Kung-fu Chess was Game of the Year 2003 from Arcade Pod [1] and Game of the Month February 2002 from Game Spot [2]. and can have a different rank at Standard than at Fast Four Way. The speed is average. it means a player is being rated by playing this game style.Crazyhouse is an official game style available only for subscribed players at Shizmoo. these parameters can be changed in friendly matches. By official. org/ unequal. in the neighbor board.1). all based on the same principle of a real-time gameplay. probably with success. they will trade places. Fast Four Way (a.The standard Kung-Fu Chess is one-on-one match. Standard and Fast Four Way are the two only official styles that were available at Shizmoo for the nonsubscribers players (free users). These two parameters are always set to 1. as there are two matches of one-on-one being played the same time. and each captured piece is moved to the hands of the teammate of the capturing player. is that the speed of both pieces movement and delay is ten times quicker than the Standard game style (set to 0.k. Bughouse is the second subscribers-only game style. but alongside the real-time feature of the Kung-Fu Chess of course.com [3]. Hence reflexes and timing are key.e. captured pieces can be used in the board again by the player who captures them. Fast Four Way . the white queen and the black queen) try to capture each other exactly simultaneously.

set new rules and principles. 2008 the Shizmoo website [3] was no longer accessible. Its current state is already playable. . Tempest uses a software that needs to be downloaded in order to play. As for now it seems that Shizmoo was shut down for good. and not only change the speed parameters of the official forms. and a few attempts to revive the community of the Kung-Fu Chess players and create a new home were made. and looked more serious attempt than anything made so far. hopefully to become their new home and a worthy successor for Shizmoo. Tempest is still under constant development. 131 Rankings Kung-Fu Chess assigns each player a numerical rating based on the player's win/loss record. Additionally. and already gathered and still is gathering former fans. using the same system as ICC. The new project called "Tempest" looks promising. Ninja Chess In 2010 a game similar to Kung Fu Chess dubbed "Ninja Chess" has been developed for iPhone and iPad. A download is available for free from the official site.Real Time Chess In June 2009 a new project of reviving Shizmoo's Kung Fu Chess was published.Kung-fu chess Subscribed members could build new game styles. This was absent in Kung Fu Chess which offered only online play. This project brings the concept of Real-Time Chess to touch interfaces and includes the ability to play Head-to-Head (each player facing his own board). It is published on the App Store by Nordlysa Entertainment. Shizmoo gathered many Kung-Fu Chess fans from all over the world. Unlike Shizmoo. but only these four official game style mentioned above were rated. The Apparent End of Shizmoo On December 16. and brought it to new levels of excitement. These sorrowful tidings caused many disappointed fascinated fans to look for clues about the fate of Shizmoo. Tempest . the Internet Chess Club. and many talent players that mastered the new tactics and strategies of the unique game that did not exist in the original Chess game. However this project does not supports the many variants developed by Shizmoo. and thus other chess vaiants were created in a Kung-Fu Chess style. each rating range corresponds to a Kung-Fu belt color as follows: • • • • • • • • Green Belt: 20 games or fewer played Purple Belt: 800-999 White Belt: 1000-1199 Yellow Belt: 1200-1399 Orange Belt: 1400-1599 Red Belt: 1600-1799 Brown Belt: 1800-1999 Black Belt: 2000+ Additional rankings such as black O and black X are awarded for 2200 rating and 2400 respectively.

Kung-fu chess 132 External links • • • • • • • • • • Official site (currently unavailable) [4] Devilant's Strategy guide [5] Newgen's Strategy guide [6] GameSpy article [7] GameDev. com http:/ / www. kungfuchess. shtm [8] http:/ / www. gamespot. de/ en/ devilantguide/ [6] http:/ / kfc. asp [9] http:/ / www. kunuk. com/ [5] http:/ / www. kunuk. zenchess. com http:/ / www. dk/ rules. shizmoo. com/ articles/ january02/ igfchess/ bio. dk/ notation. arcadepod. nordlysa. dk/ newgenstrategy/ [7] http:/ / archive. tempestchess. htm . gamespy.net article [8] Post-Shizmoo meeting place [9] Tempest [10] Ninja Chess [11] Rules definition [12] Notation FENr [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. com/ [11] http:/ / www. net/ columns/ interviews/ shizmoo2004. gamedev. com/ forum [10] http:/ / www. tubo-world. htm [13] http:/ / kfc. com/ ninjaches/ [12] http:/ / kfc. kunuk.

133 Multiplayer variants Bughouse chess Bughouse chess Players Setup time Playing time 4 1 minute Usually 5 to 10 minutes Random chance None Skill(s) required Chess strategy. this. The game is traditionally played as a diversion from regular chess both over the board and online. which is slang for mental hospital. Siamese chess. The game is usually played at a fast time control.[1] Normal chess rules apply. Transfer chess. Rules . several dedicated bughouse tournaments are organised on a national and an international level. Tandem chess. or simply Bughouse or Bug) is a popular chess variant played on two chessboards by four players in teams of two. can make the game look chaotic and random to the casual onlooker. except that captured pieces on one board are passed on to the players of the other board. together with the passing and dropping of pieces. who then have the option of putting these pieces on their board. Yearly. Blitz chess Bughouse chess (also called Exchange chess. hence the name bughouse.

Each team member faces one opponent of the other team. Each player plays the opponent as in a standard chess game. while the other has white. Board A Team 1. a promoted pawn can be put on its side to indicate promotion. Bughouse is usually played using clock move.[2] Captured pieces A player capturing a piece immediately passes that piece to the partner. they are considered dropped after contact has been made with an empty . A move is completed only when the clock is pressed. Touch move is practiced to a lesser extent. instead of playing a regular move. Each player must keep the reserve or stock pieces on the table in front of the board.[3] A pawn placed on the second rank may move two squares on its first move. with the exception of the rules specified below. always visible to all players of the game. Clocks are placed on the outside so that each player can see both clocks.Bughouse chess 134 Team 1. The partner keeps these pieces in reserve and may. the players with the black pieces start the clocks simultaneously. it applies to pieces in reserve as well. Board B Bughouse setup and start position Bughouse is a chess variant played on two chessboards by four players in teams of two. In play over the board. At the start of the game. including squares where the piece delivers check or checkmate. Dropped pawns may promote. but all promoted pawns convert back to pawns when captured. Pieces in reserve or on deck may be placed on any vacant square. place one of these pieces on the board (as in shogi and crazyhouse). However pawns may not be dropped on the first and last rank. Partners sit next to each other and one player has black. which allows touching of pieces. Clock and completion of a move Bughouse chess is usually played with chess clocks to prevent players from waiting indefinitely for a piece.[4] When used.

Depending on (local) rules threefold repetition applies. especially in the way drops are handled. for more trades. Examples include:[8] • Pieces cannot be dropped with check and/or checkmate. BlackB. In this case. the player has to decide which player of the team will get that piece. resigns. but then there is usually a rule preventing a player waiting for pieces (stalling or sitting) indefinitely. In three board bughouse chess the middle player is the key since he gets material from two boards. The outcome of the match is then decided by adding the score of the two boards. • Pawns never promote. It is possible to play the game with just two players (one per team) by having each player move on two boards. On capturing a piece however.[9] [10] • Pieces can only be placed on the player's half of the board.[6] Alternatively. This variation is suitable for play by mail.[5] Communication Partners are normally allowed to talk to each other during the game. The game is played in exactly the same way as normal bughouse with boards placed with alternating colours and two players and one clock per board. suggest moves or ask their partner to stall. ask to hold a piece. • Pieces may only be placed on the third. A game is won when one player gets checkmated. • Pawns cannot be dropped on seventh (and sometimes sixth) rank. when one board finishes. This variation is common in Europe and is sometimes referred to as tandem chess. forfeits on time or when an illegal move is made in which the offending side is caught. fourth. Partners are not allowed to physically act on the other board. They can for instance ask for a specific piece.[12] The middle board also commonly becomes very cramped due to having twice the number of pieces available. Analogous to simultaneous chess. but no new pieces are coming in. fifth and sixth rank (the four middle ranks). This was a common variation in Australia in the 1980s which saves having to find extra pieces. • Kings are not subject to check. The match can be drawn by agreement or when two players run out of time or are checkmated simultaneously. • Promoted pawns carry their promotion over after a capture. pieces in reserve can still be dropped. • Play continues until both games are complete. One rule states that players may not delay their move beyond the time that it takes for their partner to make three moves. • Pawns may be dropped on the first rank. • Kings can be captured and the game continues until one team has all kings on the board. Shouts like "Knight mates!" or "Give me pieces!" are common. even though there might have been an escape. WhiteB. in which case the reserve of pieces is not taken into account. but has to decide how to divide the captured pieces.[7] Variations Bughouse comes in many variants. when they reach the eighth rank they remain pawns. . It can also be played with just one clock by playing the boards in a specific order (WhiteA.[5] 135 End of the game The match ends when either of the games on the two boards ends. the game ends when one player's king is captured.[11] Bughouse can be played with three or more boards. Bughouse can be played without a clock. and can lead to seemingly absurd sacrificial captures on the other board. BlackA) and pressing the clock after each move. play can continue on the other board.Bughouse chess square. this way of playing the game is referred to as simultaneous bughouse.

sitting is the only strategy. It is common to sacrifice material to build up. which again adds to their importance.g. the defender needs to be more precise. • The attacking player has the initiative. It would of course be perfectly logical for the attacker to sit as well. also called sitting or stalling.g. its very limited mobility does not handicap reserve pawns.[14] A valuation system often applied to bughouse is pawn=1. • It is easier to attack than to defend. From a player's perspective. attacks in bughouse can quickly lead to checkmate. where a player drops piece after piece with check. Pawns can be dropped onto the seventh rank. It is an essential part of bughouse gameplay. Characteristic for attacks is the so-called "piece storm". which force the king to .[16] Another common situation in the interplay between the two boards is a player not moving. which in turn can lead to a time advantage for the attacker. Long range pieces like the queen or the rook lose relative value. where diagonal opponents sit at the same time is known as a "sitzkrieg" (literally "sitting war" in German. In chess. a rook five and a queen nine. Contact checks or knight checks. Equally a player can request a piece e. one step away from promotion. Thus. or as much as playing an opening adapted to the other board. A common request of an attacking player would be "trades are good". They are also more likely to be cornered in. This can mean as little as glancing at the other board before trading queens. or sustain an attack. Suppose a player is under heavy attack. while players in trouble would ask their partner to hold trades with "trades are bad". due to the constantly changing pawn structure.[17] Apart from this active communication. a bishop or knight is worth three. The situation.[13] The pawn relatively gains importance in bughouse chess. These values are a consequence of the difference in mobility of the pieces. and a pun on "blitzkrieg"). This can happen in anticipation of a certain piece or at the request of the partner. It is therefore natural for team members to communicate during game play. This diagonal time advantage is more important than the difference on the clock between opponents on the same board.[18] Attack and defense Attacking the king can mean checking the opponent but also controlling vital squares around the king. a good bughouse player tries to coordinate silently by keeping an eye on the other board and adapting moves accordingly. while the opponent is left to react. Because new pieces come in. It is common to sacrifice pieces in bughouse while attacking. "rook mates me".Bughouse chess 136 Strategy Material In chess a minor material advantage is important as when material gets exchanged. attacking the king has important advantages as opposed to defending or attempting to win material:[19] • Because of the possibility of dropping pieces. when a pawn equals one unit.[12] A scoring system to evaluate material is to add up the piece values of the material on the board. and an additional pawn would mate him. A defending mistake can have bigger consequences than an attacking mistake. They can for instance be dropped to block non-contact checks. "knight wins a queen" or ask to hold a piece e. When the partner cannot prevent giving up a pawn on the next move. he is the one who controls the board. bishop=knight=rook=2 and queen=4. there is no endgame play in bughouse and material is therefore less important. the relative advantage becomes larger. This has also important consequences for the other board.[15] Coordination Captured pieces are passed on and thus what happens on one board influences what happens on the other board. waiting for a pawn to come. The difference in time between the diagonal opponents will eventually force one party to move. In bughouse piece values differ because pieces in reserve essentially have the same mobility as they can be dropped on any vacant square. defending or hunting down a certain piece which the partner requires.

They can be used to drive the king into the open. On the other hand. Kxd8 {175} 5B. Bg5 {174} 5A. With the arrival of online chess it has become possible to systematically record games. Nxd4 {170} 7B. Nf6 {178} 2a. d5 {178} 3A. bughouse games are rarely recorded in games played over the board. d4 {177} 2b. Nc3 {172} 6a. Captured pieces become available after the first few moves and it is important to develop at this stage as there is often not enough time to do so later. Different notations for piece drops are possible. d4 {179} 2A. Sitting strategies might be necessary. Bxh3 {171} 6b. such as BPGN viewer can be used to replay and analyse bughouse games.[24] The internet chess servers FICS and Internet Chess Club use the at-sign @.Bughouse chess move as opposed to dropping pieces.[25] Example bughouse game. Many chess openings create weaknesses which can be easily exploited in bughouse. e4 {180} 1a. P@e6 {168} 7b. it results in the attacker having a piece less to play with. Bxf6 {166} .[23] Notation and sample game The algebraic chess notation for chess can be used to record moves in bughouse games. as in N@f1 (knight drop at f1).[20] Partner communication is essential in a good defense. Be7 {173} 6A. Development also helps to defend against early piece drop attacks. N@d4 {171} 7A. Nc6 {180} 1B. dxe6 {176} 4A. and it is therefore important to play the defense fast. Nc3 {179} 1b. Accepting a sacrifice can be lethal.[21] 137 Opening There are significantly fewer bughouse openings than there are chess openings. Sacrifices therefore give the partner of the defender an opportunity to take initiative. gxh3 {171} 7a. dxe6 {176} 4B. dxe4 {173} 5b. When one partner is under attack. an extension of the Portable Game Notation for chess. while they prevent the opponent from putting new material on the board. e5 {176} 3b. are especially important. the other partner should be aware of which pieces hurt most.04.[27] Below is an example bughouse game in the BPGN format. Qxd8+ {175} 4a. Ne4 {175} 4b. Nxe4 {174} 5a. Nbc6 {168} 8B. d5 {177} 3B. The format in which this is done is the bughouse portable game notation (BPGN). It is for instance not recommended to move pawns other than the d and e pawn. [Event "rated bughouse match"] [Site "chess server X"] [Date "2004.[26] Software. e6 {177} 3a.[22] Bughouse openings are generally geared towards dominating vital squares and fast development. Nf6 {178} 2B. O-O-O {169} 8A. Because of the fast pace at which the game is played. with the defender's partner having a piece more. Q@e6+ (queen drop with check at e6) or P@h7 (pawn drop at h7). away from its defenders.12"] [WhiteA "WA"][WhiteAElo "1970"] [BlackA "BA"][BlackAElo "2368"] [WhiteB "WB"][WhiteBElo "1962"] [BlackB "BB"][BlackBElo "2008"] [TimeControl "180+0"] [Result "0-1"] 1A. Nh3 {173} 6B.

an essential skill in this team game.[44] ICS compatible interfaces particularly suitable for bughouse include Thief and BabasChess. Ke2 {164} 9B. e3 {164} 10a. Michael Adams. They have the ability to display both boards at the same time and store played or observed games. Grandmaster Levon Aronian took part in the 2005 edition of the tournament and took the second place with his teammate Vasiliy Shakov.[28] It is now quite popular as a diversion of regular chess in local chess clubs throughout Europe and the US. Emil Sutovsky and Michael Rohde have been known to play the game. A few countries do organize bughouse tournaments within the national chess federation. while in online bughouse it is usually done via private messages between two partners.[28] [29] Grandmasters such as Levon Aronian. attracting the best European players. Sergey Karjakin.[42] The game is played online in the same way as over the board. Qxd2+ {164} {WA checkmated} 0-1 138 Where to play Over the board Little is known on the history of bughouse. communication is heard by all players. Special Xboard compatible engines have been written that support bughouse. Jon Speelman.[39] • Since 2000 there has been an annual bughouse tournament in Geneva.[35] • Yearly. It is also easier to coordinate as the second board is more visible on the screen than over the board. Bxd2 {164} 11a.[38] Going into its sixth edition. N@f3+ {165} 9A. The latter can influence the diagonal time difference significantly. Bxf6 {164} 9a.[45] [46] [47] Although much faster than humans. Yasser Seirawan. Q@d2+ {164} 11A.[28] [40] Online Bughouse can be played online at chess servers such as FICS and ICC since 1995. John Nunn. attracting the world's best players like Levon Aronian. examples are Sunsetter. they lack in positional understanding and especially in coordination and communication. Sjeng and TJchess. In games over the board.Bughouse chess 8a. it is popular among top players from FICS.[28] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] With the absence of an International Federation. competitive over the board bughouse is very much in its infancy. but it seems to have developed in the early 1960s.[36] [37] Other tournaments are organized privately: • One of the largest international bughouse tournaments is the yearly tournament in Berlin.[48] . USCF organizes bughouse tournaments as part of the National Junior High (K-9) Championship and the National High School (K-12) Championship.[41] FICS is currently the most active server for bughouse. There is also no world championship. Andy Soltis. and it is good sportsmanship to restart the game when this difference gets too large. but some aspects are unique to online bughouse. Joel Benjamin. This makes communication a more powerful weapon.[43] The time aspect is altered due to existence of premove and lag. they also have partner communication buttons and a lag indicator. Qxf3 {165} 8b. Examples include: • The yearly international chess festival Czech Open in July features the Czech republic bughouse championship. Nxf3+ {164} 10A.

Penn and Dizon (1998) use the "I" (for insert) in front as in INf1. The rules below are in accordance with the US chess federation (http:/ / www. 32–33 [15] von Zimmerman (2006). chessvariants. p. p. [7] See Article nr. front. uschess. [25] Two large bughouse databases are Jamesbaud's database (http:/ / www. 186 and Bughouse on Chessvariants (http:/ / www. 2007. Double chess. Accessed July 29. htm#doorgeefschaak). be/ database. the rules as applied on the chess servers Free Internet Chess Server and Internet Chess Club and the Berlin bughouse tournament (http:/ / bughouse. 17. 327 . Accessed August 27. 2007. Double Speed. com/ multiplayer. 2007. while the engine Sjeng (http:/ / www. Accessed July 29. p. html). Pass-On chess. In fact. bellsouth.. to develop new ideas.be (http:/ / www. html).[49] In the words of Susan Polgar: "If your children want to play bughouse for fun. [5] Bughouse on ChessVariants. be/ bughouse translations. Double Bug or Double Bughouse (von Zimmerman (2006). sjeng. info). p. 12.79–94 [19] von Zimmerman (2006). ."[52] Notes [1] Other less common names for bughouse include Team chess. archive.113 [22] von Zimmerman (2006). p. Archived (http:/ / web. New England Double Bughouse. Accessed July 29. rook=200 and queen=390. p. In the words of Levon Aronian: "Bughouse is good for players who know chess well already. [26] Specification of the BPGN format from bughouse. p. 2007. com/ multiplayer. Accessed July 29. 34–37 [13] von Zimmerman (2006). p. But just remember that it is not chess and it has no positive value for chess. Accessed July 29. [14] Manson and Hoover (1992). html). Tandem Put-back. chessvariants. org) and Lieven's database (http:/ / www. org/ index/ listcomments. Accessed July 29. bughouse. dir/ tandem. Accessed July 29. sourceforge. 2007. [16] von Zimmerman (2006). nl/ spelregels. Accessed July 29."[50] One argument supporting this view is that bughouse distorts the typical pattern recognition used in chess. php?itemid=TandemChess).com (http:/ / www. Double Five. html). there is no evidence that bughouse would hurt experienced chess players.Accessed July 31. it is OK.Bughouse chess 139 Controversy Bughouse chess is controversial among scholastic chess teachers. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ 2006bughouse. dir/ tandem. [3] von Zimmerman (2006).109 [20] von Zimmerman (2006). bughouse. Accessed July 29. [you] see. 2007. txt). Accessed July 29. Manson and Hoover (1992). The bughouse playing program Sunsetter (http:/ / sunsetter. [11] von Zimmerman (2006).68 [24] Manson and Hoover (1992) use an "x" (as used in captures) in front to indicate a piece drop.. Swedish chess. 15 [4] See for example the rules of the Geneva bughouse tournament (http:/ / pion. I absolutely recommend no bughouse during a tournament. rook=250 and queen=450. bughouse. p. org/ indexold. 2007 at the Wayback Machine [27] BPGN viewer can be obtained from bughouse. pdf). bughouse. p. [2] It should be noted though that bughouse has many variations and that there is no international standard.[52] On the other hand. schaakmeester-p. be/ BPGN_Standard. uschess. bishop=230.20 [21] von Zimmerman (2006). dir/ tandem. [28] Pritchard (2007). 2007. htm). US chess federation Bughouse rules (http:/ / www. html). 17. html)). p. and I think bughouse is good for the imagination. [8] Comments on tandem chess rules from chessvariants. as in xNf1. net/ f/ e/ ferrantc/ chess/ bughouse. chessvariants. knight=210. Hungarian chess. ch/ Bug/ ruleseng. 2007. html) and the official bughouse rules in the Netherlands (http:/ / www. ch/ Bug/ rules. alternatives are listed. bughouse. reproduced in von Zimmerman (2006). p. net/ ) uses the values pawn=100. html) uses pawn=100. I started to play bug when I was already at master level. Simultaneous chess. pion.[51] Another argument is that bughouse neglects positional values due to its highly tactical game play. atl. net/ ).108 [12] Manson and Hoover (1992).com (http:/ / www. p. p. bishop=195. p. [6] For instance. [10] Tandem chess rules from chessvariants. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ 2006bughouse.21–24 [23] von Zimmerman (2006). p. be/ BPGN_Standard. chessvariants. 2007. Von Zimmerman (2006) uses the @-notation. bughouse-db. In the case rules contradict. org/ 20070927030540/ http:/ / www. The majority view is that it does not have a positive effect on novice chess players. knight=192.net (http:/ / www. 243–244 [17] Manson and Hoover (1992).org (http:/ / www. txt) September 27. the threefold repetition applies on FICS but not on Internet Chess Club. pdf). [9] See for example the bughouse rules from the Geneva gathering page (http:/ / www. 2007. 75–89 [18] See Chris Ferrante (2000) (http:/ / personal. 2007. See Bughouse in other languages (http:/ / www. com/ multiplayer. 2007.

Archived (http:/ / web. 2007. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. ISBN 978-0812936353. Books on Demand GmbH. org/ content/ view/ 7794/ 302/ ). (2007). 2008 at the Wayback Machine [34] Emil Sutovsky playing bughouse at the 8th Montreal International (http:/ / chesspro. 25. Accessed July 29. ed. 16. [39] Report of the 2005 edition (http:/ / www. Comprehensive Bughouse Chess (http://www.. Accessed July 29. ISBN 3-833-46811-4 . Accessed July 29. Berliner Schachverband. [47] Homepage of TJchess (http:/ / www. David A. Accessed July 29. 2007.. org/ tournaments/ 2007/ jhs/ ) editions. 2007. May 2005 (http:/ / www. asp?newsid=1919). org/ scholastic/ sc-guide2. 2007. Accessed July 29. bughouse. html) Accessed July 31. org/ indexold.. Robert M. Accessed August 29. Accessed July 29. Random House Puzzles & Games. com/ chess/ ). 22 September 2004 (http:/ / www. berlinerschachverband. com/ Paris/ metro/ 1324/ ).Bughouse chess [29] von Zimmerman (2006). Vol I 1992 edited by Jeremy Graham [33] The Independent (London). How To Play. [37] The official announcements for the 2006 (http:/ / www. net/ ). ISBN 0-95551-680-3 • von Zimmerman. [36] The official announcements for the 2006 (http:/ / www. Figuren recycling. (2004). chessbase. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ jhs/ ) and 2007 (http:/ / www. sjeng. 27 140 References • Manson Jr. 2007. Farnsworth Enterprises. 10.bughousechess.. [48] Georg von Zimmerman (2000). Chessbase news 31. uschess. org/ tournaments/ 2007/ hs/ ) editions. uschess. D. [52] von Zimmerman (2006). 2007. uschess.com/). html). Winning Chess Tournaments for Juniors. Chessbase news. 2007 at the Wayback Machine [50] Scholastic Chess: Polgar Girls' World Open and Boys' Chess Challenge (http:/ / main. p. B. Graham Cracker Studios. Accessed July 29. Accessed October 3. uschess. de/ archiv/ chronik/ 2005/ tandem/ ). Rommel (1998). p. 2007. John Beasley. p. 2007. pion.239 [42] von Zimmerman (2006). Archived (http:/ / web.162–173 [30] John Nunn playing bughouse at the 2004 World Chess Solving Championship.. [38] Official website of the Berlin bughouse tournament (http:/ / www. uschess.bughouse-book. tonyjh. Accessed July 29. [32] Bughouse Newsletter. ASIN B0006PFGZS • Penn. [41] von Zimmerman (2006).. 2007. Todd (1992). html). com/ newsdetail. John F. Accessed July 29. 95 and 240 [43] von Zimmerman (2006). USCF Chess Live Magazine. 2007. 2007. com/ newsdetail. Bughouse Chess (http://www. (2006). p.net/).How to Win!. Georg. 12 July 1999 (http:/ / findarticles. Accessed July 29. czechopen. Accessed October 3. p. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_19990712/ ai_n14255436) March 8. html) October 11. net/ ). Accessed July 29. p. uschess. Siamese Chess.5–9. info).240 [44] Anders Ebenfelt's Bughouse page (http:/ / reocities. org/ scholastic/ sc-guide2. United States Chess Federation. [49] A guide to scholastic chess (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-966-98060-3 • Pritchard. 2007. sourceforge. org/ tournaments/ 2006/ hs/ ) and 2007 (http:/ / www. (second edition). org/ 20080308153016/ http:/ / findarticles. chessbase. html). 2007. [45] Homepage of Sunsetter (http:/ / sunsetter. ch/ Bug/ gath. archive. Computerschach und Spiele 5/00 p44–46 (in German). [46] Homepage of Sjeng (http:/ / www. Hoover. uschess. archive. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_19990712/ ai_n14255436). [51] Snyder. 2007. [31] Sergey Karjakin playing bughouse at the 2005 Young Stars tournament. [40] Official site of the bughouse tournament in Geneva (http:/ / www. [35] Chess festival Czech Open (http:/ / www. asp?newsid=2423). org/ 20071011044350/ http:/ / www. ru/ _events/ 2007/ monreal13. Accessed July 29. Dizon. 2007.

thebugboard.be/) • Bughouse live on XBOX (http://www. It is available multiplayer and free to play online at www.org/) • bughousedb. Some versions avoid this problem by deciding victory such that the third player loses as well as the checkmated player.onlinechesslessons.[1] There are many variations of three-handed chess.dir/tandem.atl.net/f/e/ferrantc/chess/index.com/) • bughouse.bellsouth.[8] .ThreeChess.net) • Explanation of BugHouse Chess by FM Gulamali and NM Stewart (http://www.xblaratings. leaving the player who delivers checkmate first to be the victor.org/multiplayer. • Chexs [4] by Stephen P.bughouse. hexagonal or three-sided board connected in the middle in a special way. • Three-way chess was invented by Richard Harshman.com/component/content/article/2358-team-chess) Three-handed chess Three player chess is a family of chess variants specially designed to be played by three people.bughouse-db.html) • Errant Fischer's Bughouse Page (http://personal. They usually use some non-standard board.html) • The Bug Board . • HEXChess [6]: commercial chess variant by HEXchess Inc. Three-player chess (and other games) variants are the hardest to design fairly. Chessboard for three-handed chess Hexagonal board Many three-player chess variants use a hexagonal board.net/) • bughouse-db.bughousedb.net/2011/ 06/11/what-is-bughouse-chess/) • Bughouse on the ChessVariants pages (http://www. • Chesh [3] by Gianluca Moro.Forum and software (http://www.be .bughouse.Another bughouse database (http://www.com . for example.chessvariants. Kennedy.[7] It is played by three players on a six-sided board with hexagonal cells. Pieces move usually as in one of versions of hexagonal chess: • ThreeChess: Three-player chess online played on hexagonal board with classical chess rules.org .Database and links (http://www. adapted for three players.Bughouse chess 141 External links • Bughouse Chess (http://www.com [2]. because the imbalance created when two gang up on one is usually too great for the player to withstand.FICS bughouse database (http://www. • Echexs [5] by Jean-Louis Cazaux.

now armed with the third player's pieces. a piece can move quite safely into a square where it is attacked by both opponents. Self (1894). The patent for this game describes a variant in which whoever is first to checkmate one of the other two players gains control of that player's forces. white would lose since black delivers the final checkmating move. Other boards Besides hexagonal and three-sided boards some other board forms were tried: • 3-color chess [15]: uses a special three-dimensional board or can be used with three-colored boards. In this situation. but also on preventing the two opponents from checkmating each other. Many chess openings are useless due to the extended board and third player. with the added complexity that the next player may move to attack either of his opponents.Three-handed chess 142 Three-sided board Often a special three-sided board is used (like shown in the picture above): • Self's variant [9]: by Hency J. since red would then capture the black piece next turn. . • Waider's game [14]: by Waider (1837). this applies to whoever makes the final move that causes a checkmate. This strategy also applies to games which give the checkmating player command of the checkmated opponent's pieces. Each player must think twice as far ahead — anticipating the moves of both opponents. • Triochess [13] (1975). • Megachess [18]: uses a triangular board. players must concentrate not only on their own attack and defense. In games where the third player loses as well as the checkmated one. since neither opponent would take the piece and risk capture by the third player. White could checkmate red. similar to cylinder chess. Thus the black and red pieces are both simultaneously attacking the white piece and defending it from attack by the other player. In similar situations. for example if a white piece is undefended and simultaneously attacked by both black and red pieces. The introduction of the 'extra' move by the third player can introduce situations of deadlock. which checkmates red. Black cannot take the white piece. • Three player chess [10]: by Robert Zubrin (1972). even if standard pieces are used. Strategy The introduction of a third player drastically changes the style of play.[11] • Triple chess [12]: chess board is extended with 8x3 rectangles on 3 sides. • Orwell chess [17]: cylindrical board is used. • 3 Man Chess [16]: uses round board.a player who allows the second player to checkmate the third would surely go on to lose due to the increased power of his remaining opponent. only to have his piece captured by a black piece. This game is invented by Philip Marinelli in 1722. but must be careful that the third player does not checkmate first. If more than one player's pieces contribute to a checkmate. A player can take advantage of one opponents position to checkmate the other.

chessvariants. html [5] http:/ / www. org/ hexagonal. org/ historic. org/ historic. html [6] http:/ / www. chessvariants.time. org/ historic.652. com/ page6.091 (http:/ / www. "In memory of Richard Harshman". chessvariants. 3manchess. photo/ triochess. doi:10.910529-1.1002/cem.html). google. html [16] http:/ / www. geocities.1247. html [13] http:/ / www. dir/ contest84/ orwellchess. chessvariants. Journal of Chemometrics 23: 315. 3schach. (2000). chessvariants. dir/ echexs.00. com/ Athens/ Olympus/ 5867/ chesh. html [14] http:/ / www. org/ large. [2] http:/ / www. dir/ chexs. org/ hexagonal. html& date=2009-10-25+ 06:08:39 [4] http:/ / www. html [10] http:/ / www. chessvariants. html [18] http:/ / boardgamegeek. html [7] Nikos Sidiropoulos and Rasmus Bro (2009).Three-handed chess 143 References [1] Pritchard. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. dir/ waider. Popular Chess Variants. chessvariants. threewaychess. html [15] http:/ / www. D. dir/ 3pl2. chessvariants. org/ multiplayer. dir/ hexreview. com [3] http:/ / www. . org/ d. html [11] US3. org/ hexagonal. org/ [9] http:/ / www. dir/ marinelli. webcitation.com/time/magazine/article/0. com/ boardgame/ 4572/ megachess External links • Chess for three (http://www. dir/ self. de/ german/ device. com/ patents?vid=3652091) – Three-player chess board – Robert Zubrin [12] http:/ / www. Bastford Chess Books. [8] http:/ / www. ThreeChess. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7.9171. chessvariants. html [17] http:/ / www.

In this method. share the same board and similar piece setup. two in which allied pieces cannot eliminate each other. which is typically played with four people. • If a player is placed in check. It is played on a special board. that player must wait until their designated turn before that player can respond to the threat.Four-handed chess 144 Four-handed chess Four-handed chess A common four-way chess board Genre(s) Players Random chance Skill(s) required Chess variant 4 None Strategy. If only one can be checkmated. • In the event a pawn reaches the King's row to the left. right or directly across. Game rules • Players can only move their chess pieces on their turn. the checkmated player can either remove their pieces from the board. The game is over when both opposing kings are checkmated. Logic Four-handed chess (also known as Chess 4 and 4-way chess) is a chess variant. Once a player is checkmated. Team The most common form of play is two vs. or the person that checkmated can use the remaining pieces during his/her turn. a bishop. each player can attack any of the other three players and vice versa. Singles Singles is substantially harder than team play. Play continues until only one player is left. Most variants. Four way chess follows the same basic rules as regular two way chess. The allied players sit across from each other and help checkmate the people to the left and right of them. which is made of standard 8x8 board with an additional 3 rows of 8 cells extending from each side. that pawn shall receive all the privileges of a pawn reaching King's row during a traditional chess game (i. a rook. or a knight). but help the others in defense and offense.e. bringing back a queen (most commonly). • Pawns move forward only. the game is a draw. however. There are many different rule variations of this game. unless attacking in a diagonal forward manner. . Four sets of different colored pieces are needed to play this game.

II [3] and III [4] from chessvariants. dir/ 4players. dir/ fourhanded2. org/ books. dir/ 4handed/ index. org/ multiplayer. chessvariants. chessvariants. George Hope Verney Free online version (Chesapeake Four-handed Chess) [6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. html http:/ / www.org Four-handed Chess [5] by Capt. htm . com/ chess/ Chesapea. chessvariants.Four-handed chess 145 External links • • • • Four-player Chess [1] at BoardGameGeek Four Handed Chess I [2]. pathguy. html http:/ / www. org/ multiplayer. com/ game/ 2173 http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ multiplayer. html http:/ / www. boardgamegeek. html http:/ / www. dir/ fourhanded3.

designed to fit in a shirt pocket. Its inventor T. Partners occupy quadrants diagonally across from each other. K. He called it influence indicator. K.Forchess 146 Forchess Forchess Players Age range Setup time Playing time 4 any 2 minutes 30-90 minutes Random chance None Skill(s) required Chess strategy Forchess is a four-person chess variant developed by an American engineer named T. History and motivation Forchess was developed around the year 1975. Rogers wanted the game to use only standard pieces and a standard board so that everything necessary to play would be readily available. Rogers believed in the educational merits of chess and felt that making the game a more popular social activity would benefit society. In 1996. . The booklet also contained strategies for playing the game and a new technique invented by Rogers for analyzing both chess and Forchess games. each player controls an entire quadrant of the board with a full set of chess pieces (minus one pawn). Rogers. Rogers wanted to create a pure strategy game with the social dynamic of card games like Bridge. At the outset. Overview of the game Initial Forchess Board Layout a b c d e f g h 8 K R N P P B R K 8 7 R Q B P P N Q R 7 6 B N P P B N 6 5 P P P P P P P P 5 4 P P P P P P P P 4 3 N B P P N B 3 2 R Q N P P B Q R 2 1 K R B P P N R K 1 a b c d e f g h The game is played by four people in teams of two. Rogers published the instruction set as a 64-page booklet Forchess: The Ultimate Social Game. It uses one standard chess board and two sets of standard pieces. He simultaneously began distributing thousands of free instruction brochures to schools and colleges. Rogers posted a free instruction set on the then newly-founded Intuitor website. He also did not want to severely limit the number of pieces each player had. In 1992.

The game ends when one team has lost both kings or chooses to concede. his remaining pieces subsequently become the captor's. When a player is in check and has no legal moves to escape check. This rule lends Forchess much of its social character. communication of that strategy becomes a requirement of the game. All the pieces move and capture in the same manner as conventional chess. Note that only 4 squares are initially unoccupied. except the pawn. There are no checkmates and no stalemates: kings are captured like all other pieces. Clandestine forms of communication such as code words. furtive gestures. in which there are no partners and only one player wins by defeating all three opponents. intuitor. In this respect. R=Rook. B=Bishop. Partners typically coordinate their moves as part of a single strategy. All strategizing between partners must be done openly in front of their opponents. 147 Cutthroat Forchess Forchess has a variant called Cutthroat. Thus. com/ forchess/ [2] http:/ / games. Successful strategy in Cutthroat Forchess can differ greatly from "regular" Forchess. groups. as fluid alliances may spark a game of psychological manipulation. and there is no en passant capture. A pawn may not move two squares at a time.Forchess The diagram at right shows the initial layout of the Forchess board (K=King. and P=Pawn). com/ group/ forchessonline/ . When a player loses his king. N=Knight. yahoo. External links • The official Forchess homepage [1] • Forchess discussion forum [2] References [1] http:/ / www. which moves diagonally and captures laterally. Cutthroat shares strategy elements with the board game Risk. or secret notes are not allowed. he may make a "token move" every turn until his king is actually captured. Q=Queen.

at his/her turn. but their "corpses" stay on the board (the pieces are turned upside down to show that they are "dead"). Each player has 9 pieces: • • • • 1 Chief 1 Assassin 1 Reporter 1 Troublemaker (also called Provocateur. the other pieces can move through any number of squares in the eight directions. Captures The pieces are "killed" as soon as they are captured. moves one of his/her pieces. invented by Jean Anesto in 1975. Rules Material The game is played on a 9×9 board whose central square (called "the maze") is marked with a different color or a sign. A piece cannot jump above another piece. The militant kills by occupying the square of a piece (capture by replacement). and can possibly capture a piece in this way. Each piece is identified by the first letter of its name as well as a symbol. • the chief kills and places the corpse in the same way as the militant. A militant cannot kill a chief in power (see below). there is no team: each player plays against the other players. with the pieces in their start position. Movements Each player. The militants move of one or two squares in the eight directions. except on the central square (the "maze"). or Diplomat) • 1 Necromobile • 4 Militants. but places the corpse in the square he comes from. Board of Djambi. . Objective The objective of the game is to capture the chiefs of the other players before they capture yours. • the assassin kills in the same way as the militant.Djambi 148 Djambi Djambi (also described as "Machiavelli's chessboard") is a board game and a chess variant for four players. He places the corpse on an unoccupied square of his choice. Although informal alliances can be temporarily agreed upon. Start position The pieces are placed in each corner of the board as shown in the picture above.

then the pieces cannot be moved or killed. he plays three times in a turn (if there are two players. if there are four players. When the chief is captured. he/she takes control of the living pieces of this one. The surrounding has no effect on him. When a player has no necromobile and his chief is surrounded by corpses. At his/her turn. but the chief is the only piece that can stop on it. He plays one time after each player. until the moment when a chief takes the power. or using one of the captured pieces. . • the troublemaker can move another living piece by occupying its square (of course. The reporter can only kill at the end of his move. he is eliminated (except if he is in power. the assailant must make an additional move immediately. Each piece can go through this square. A chief in power cannot be killed by a militant. he loses this power. in order to leave the maze. but it has no influence on the game. These pieces can be killed or moved by the pieces of the players. and captures them in that way (he keeps control on these pieces even if he leaves the maze). but there is no rule to prevent any betrayal. 149 Death and surrounding of a chief When a player kills the chief of another player. The corpses cannot be placed in the maze. When an assassin. The troublemaker and the necromobile cannot kill the other pieces but can move them. he can only move the pieces of the other players). and keeps them after losing the power. • the necromobile acts like a troublemaker but only with the dead pieces (whatever the origin of the dead piece is). a troublemaker or a necromobile goes in the maze to kill or move a chief. A chief in power takes control of the pieces of the surrounded chiefs. His/her pieces now belong to the chief in power. The hostage chief can be placed in the maze. For instance. When he leaves the maze. in the maze). If there is no chief in power. Variants Three-player variant The pieces of the missing fourth player are "hostages". The maze The central square of the board is called the maze. Alliances and betrayals There can be informal agreements or alliances between the players. the normal rules to take control of them apply. End of the game The game ends when a player has captured the chiefs of all of the other players. The corpse stays in his square.Djambi • the reporter kills by occupying one of the four squares next to the square of the piece he wants to kill (he cannot kill diagonally). he/she will have the choice between using one of his/her own pieces. he plays twice consecutively). The piece is placed on any unoccupied square (except the maze if this piece is not a chief). A chief who is in the maze is a chief "in power".

free. It is played on 6x6 board and uses 4 sets of standard chess pieces. The player must then draw enough pieces from the deck to get four in his/her hand. green. The goal of the game is to be the last player who still has a king. there is no checkmate and kings can be captured. . yellow. chessvariants. called pentachiavel. Bosworth has certain rules for game set-up and placing new pieces on the board. htm [2] http:/ / www. dir/ djambi. (each player has his own color: red. or blue). External links • Board and pieces to download [1] • Links and comments [2] References [1] http:/ / jeuxsoc. accompanied by a humorous picture of a Dork Tower character. in a 6x6 pattern. org/ link2. From there the player draws four tokens from the top of the deck. fr/ d/ djamb. with minor exceptions. but the four corner squares are marked by trees. which designate the squares as impassable. and chooses from these tokens to replace empty spots in his/her spawn camp. html Bosworth Bosworth is a four-handed chess variant manufactured by Out of the Box Publishing company since 1998. and the remaining four squares between the trees on each side are marked by tents and are the "camps" of the pieces.[2] pieces act like their normal chess counterparts (i.e. and shuffles the remaining tokens face down into a deck. rooks move vertically and horizontally).Djambi 150 Five-player variant There is a five-player variant of djambi. Instead of traditional chess pieces.[1] Rules The game can be played by two to four players.[1] Due to the multi-player nature of the game. puts four pawns in his spawn camp. The game board has 36 squares. the "kingdoms" are represented by pictures of the pieces on large colored tokens. At the start of the game each player takes his tokens.

rpg. and Nephthys. claimed.Bosworth 151 References [1] Lidberg. the queen is played like a fers. Aroueris. the knight. Donald Tyson has observed that the game has "numerous weird little quirks" that "make it impossible to actually play in any satisfactory manner".phtml) by Tom Vasel Enochian chess Enochian chess is a four-player chess variant. which was later adapted by Victorian members of the Golden Dawn into "a complete system of training and initiation.[7] On the other hand. the rook or castle. The four sets of pieces were variously colored. and divided into four sub-boards in which each of one of the four elemental colors predominated. html).otb-games. L. Pyramid (online) (Steve Jackson Games). one of the three founders of the Golden Dawn. associated with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.net/reviews/archive/11/11858.[6] Her husband took part in some of these games. The game was finished by S. the full set of the rules is not well presented in the Golden Dawn material handed down. similar to Chaturaji.[4] The four players would form pairs of two.[2] The chess board itself was also varicolored. who finalised the game's rules. John Dee (magus and astrologer to Queen Elizabeth I). Isis. was known to play with an invisible partner he claimed was as spirit.[8] . the queen. . Georgie Yeats. represented by the king. wife of poet William Butler Yeats. relates actually playing the game as a part of her occult training in Golden Dawn circles.[3] The rules of the game were partially derived from shatranj and other historical forms of chess.[1] The game was four-handed because each set of pieces corresponded to one of the four classical elements and their several watchtowers. and the game was used for divination as well as competition. the bishop. External links • Bosworth overview (http://www. com/ bosworth/ rules. as did MacGregor Mathers." Enochian Chess was created by William Wynn Westcott.boardgamegeek. but the rules of the game were probably never completed by him. The name comes from the Enochian system of magic of Dr. "Mathers would shade his eyes with his hands and gaze at the empty chair at the opposite corner of the board before moving his partner's piece. with a two square diagonal leaping move. Paul Arden (1998-07-31). otb-games. while complex. and identified with Egyptian deities or "god-forms". biographer of William Butler Yeats. who put its rules into final form. MacGregor Mathers. Joseph Hone."[5] The game. with each player having a partner. MacGregor Mathers. Horus. The main identifications of the pieces were: • • • • • Osiris. [2] "Bosworth official rules" (http:/ / www.com/game/645) at BoardGameGeek • RPGnet: Review of Bosworth (http://www. "Pyramid Pick: Bosworth".com/bosworth/) by the publisher • Bosworth (http://www. was in actual use.

ISBN 0875426638) [3] Regardie et. Cris Monnastre. al. 1997. al.html) • Enochian Chess on the Chess Variant Pages (http://www.B.org/historic. 2004. Yeats.dir/enochian. p. W. W. Israel Regardie..html) . 1994. Becoming George: The Life of Mrs.B. Llewellyn's Golden Dawn. 106 [6] Ann Saddlemyer. p. 684. Yeats. The magicians of the Golden Dawn: a documentary history of a magical order (Taylor & Francis. 691 [5] Joseph Hone. 686 (Llewellyn. p. [4] Regardie et. and ceremonies of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Further reading • Chris Zalewski: Enochian Chess of the Golden Dawn: A Four-Handed Chess Game. W. ISBN 0199269211). Enochian magic for beginners: the original system of angel magic. eds. Carl Llewellyn Weschcke. Yeats. [7] Joseph Hone. ISBN 0710073399) [2] The Golden Dawn: a complete course in practical ceremonial magic : the original account of the teachings. p. ISBN 1567187471). p. 308 (Llewellyn. External links • Enochian Chess publications (http://steve-nichols.Enochian chess 152 Notes [1] Ellic Howe.. p. 1972. 71 (Oxford University Press. p.chessvariants. B. 106 [8] Donald Tyson.. rites. 1865-1939. 1989.com/page3. ISBN 978-0875428956. 1865-1939.

A specialized solving program. various chess variants). These pieces vary in the way they move and possibly in additional properties. the pieces later replaced by the bishop and queen were also leapers: the alfil was a (2. it "leaps" over any intervening pieces.e.1)-leaper (moving exactly one square diagonally in any direction). The king in orthodox chess (ignoring check restrictions) is an example of a combination of a (1. Because of the distributed and uncoordinated nature of unorthodox chess development. although some are hybrid pieces.153 Unusual pieces Fairy chess piece Some fairy pieces Archbishop (knight + bishop compound) Chancellor (knight + rook compound) Grasshopper (shown as an upside-down queen) Nightrider (Knightmare) or unicorn (shown as an upside-down knight) A fairy chess piece or unorthodox chess piece is a piece analogous to a chess piece. but is used in certain chess variants and some chess problems.2)-leaper. Movement type Leapers An (m. the knight is the (1.0)-leaper. a forerunner to chess.arrival square' must have an absolute value equal to m and the other one an absolute value equal to n. like the knight in standard chess. WinChloe.1)-leaper and a (1.[2] Some pieces can be described as combined leapers. For instance. and the fers a (1. the taken unit being on the arrival square.2)-leaper (moving exactly two squares diagonally in any direction). as pieces having the movement capabilities of multiple leapers. often the same piece is referred to by different names or the same name is used for different pieces in various contexts (chess problems. recognizes more than 1200 different fairy pieces.[1] The leaper's move cannot be blocked. .n)-leaper is a piece that moves by a fixed type of vector between its start square and its arrival square. i. In shatranj. One of the coordinates of the vector 'start square . Classification Fairy chess pieces usually fall into one of three classes. A leaper moves in the same way whether or not it captures. Some types of pieces are created by combining the movement powers of two or more different pieces. It is not used in conventional chess.

a (2.0) cells and is therefore a (1. . which moves along the same lines as an orthodox queen. (2. The 'level-3' leapers are the Threeleaper. which can make an unlimited number of knight moves (that is. Riders can create both pins and skewers.1). The hurdle can usually be any piece of any color.Fairy chess piece Leapers are not able to create pins. although the Rook does 'hop' when it castles. The Arabic word dabbāba formerly meant a type of medieval siege engine. and the queen is a (1. Riders A rider is a piece that can move an unlimited distance in one direction. a (1. and the zebrarider is a (3. and the Zebra. a (3. the bishop is a (1.1)-rider. a (3. the cannon captures as a hopper (when not capturing. The King of standard chess combines the two. the Tripper. Hoppers A hopper is a piece which moves by jumping over another piece (called a hurdle).or (1. The most popular hopper in fairy chess is the grasshopper.0)-leaper.1)-(0. The Wazir is a (1. the Camel. although in xiangqi. the Knight is a (1. For example. 0 0 1 2 3 Zero Wazir Dabbaba 1 Wazir Fers Knight 2 3 154 Dabbaba Threeleaper Knight Alfil Zebra Camel Zebra Tripper Threeleaper Camel An amphibian is a combined leaper with a larger range on the board than its components.0)-leaper. The Alibaba combines the Dabbaba and Alfil. a hopper cannot move.0)-rider.3)-leaper. All orthodox chessmen except the pawn are either leapers or riders. All of the riders in orthodox chess are examples of sliders. the Alfil is a (2. not by taking the hurdle (as is the case in checkers).1)-leaper (a "diagonal" one-square leaper). One additional property is that the check of a leaper cannot be parried by interposing.3)-leaper.2)-leaper. There are three riders in orthodox chess: the rook can move an unlimited number of (1. Sliders are a noteworthy special case of riders which can only move between geometrically contiguous cells. it is a rider which can not capture). although they are often effective forking pieces. and nowadays means "army tank". The exceptions are called locusts. a (1.2)-leaper. One of the most popular fairy chess riders is the nightrider.0)-rider. except that it must hop over some other piece and land on the square immediately beyond it. while the Squirrel can move to any square 2 units away. the Fers is a (1. The simplest amphibian is the Frog.0)-leaper (an "orthogonal" one-square leaper).2)-leaper. provided there are no pieces in the way. Both are used in Muslim versions of chess. The names of riders are often obtained by taking the name of a leaper which moves a similar cell-size and adding the suffix "rider". There are no hoppers in Western chess.3)-leaper. Unless it can jump over a piece. it cannot change direction half-way through its move). The Dabbaba is a (2.3)-leaper. Note that hoppers generally capture by taking the piece on the destination square. like other riders. the zebra is a (3.2)-rider.1) cells) in any direction (though.

In fairy chess any other orthodox piece or fairy piece may instead be designated royal. Marine pieces have names alluding to the sea and its myths. Less frequently encountered Chinese pieces include the moa. X) • * . or there may be no royal pieces at all (in which case the aim of the game must be something other than to deliver checkmate.any distance in the given direction • Direction (punctuation..a distance of two • n . each side has one royal piece. Knighted piece Any piece which. such as capturing all of the opponent's pieces). in addition to its normal powers. mermaid (marine queen). or poseidon (marine king). can move like a knight. e. 155 Games Some classes of pieces come from a certain game.e.a distance of one (i. nereïde (marine bishop). the Chinese form of chess. It is sometimes considered a type of hopper. and the expression is composed from the following elements: • Distance (numbers. In orthodox chess. there may be more than one royal piece. Notations Parlett's movement notation In his book The Oxford History of Board Games[3] David Parlett used a notation to describe fairy piece movements.orthogonally or diagonally (all eight possible directions) . The most common Chinese pieces are the leo. Special attributes Royal pieces A royal piece is one which must not be allowed to be captured. Marine Piece A marine piece is a combination piece consisting of a rider (for ordinary moves) and a locust (for captures) in the same directions. an amazon is a knighted queen.Fairy chess piece Locusts A locust is any piece which captures by hopping over its victim (as in checkers). Those derived from the cannon are distinguished by moving as a leaper when capturing. the king.g. can move like a King. to adjacent square) • 2 . but otherwise moving as a rider. in addition to its normal powers. nao and rao. triton (marine rook). often these have a common set of characteristics. The move is specified by an expression of the form m={expression}. where m stands for "move". Chinese pieces Chinese pieces are pieces derived from those found in xiangqi. pao and vao (each of which are derived from the Chinese cannon) and the mao (derived from the horse). Xed pieces Name Notes Crowned pieces Any piece which. then the game is lost (this is "checkmate"). For example. If a royal piece is threatened with capture and cannot avoid capture next move. n) • 1 .

e. oi2> Knight: ~1/2 156 .May not be used for a capture (e.orthogonally forwards and backwards • = .orthogonally sideways (used here instead of Parlett's divide symbol.Leaper (leaps) • ^ .g.two orthogonal moves separated by a slash denote a hippogonal move (i. jumping like knights).grouping operator.range operator The format (not including grouping) is: <conditions> <move type> <distance> <direction> <other> On this basis. only one of the comma-delimited options may be chosen per move • () . pawn's forward move) • Move type • (default) .May occur at any point in the game • i . except n) • (default) . such as for hippogonal riders (i. blocked by intermediate pieces • ~ .diagonally (four possible directions) • X> .separates move options.orthogonally backwards or sideways • X . c1X>. pawn's diagonal capture) • o .Locust (captures by leaping.May only be made on a capture (e.. the nightrider) Additions to Parlett's The following can be added to Parlett's to make it more complete: • Conditions under which the move may occur (lowercase alphanumeric.repeated movement in the same direction.orthogonally (four possible directions) • > .May only be made on the initial move (e. implies leaper) • Grouping (punctuation) • / . the traditional chess moves are: • • • • • • King: 1* Queen: n* Bishop: nX Rook: n+ Pawn: o1>.orthogonally forwards • < . pawn's 2 moves forward) • c .g.Fairy chess piece • + .g.Captures by landing on the piece. (comma) .e.orthogonally forwards or sideways • <= . see nightrider • . but is repeated here for completeness • .orthogonally backwards • <> . jumping like knights) • & .) • >= . this is in Parlett's.two orthogonal moves separated by a slash denote a hippogonal move (i.diagonally backwards • Grouping • / .diagonally forwards • X< .e.

Addition to Betza's Betza does not use the small letter i. Q. it changes all coordinates simultaneously while moving. Long Leaper (CameL). io2X> mfFcfWimfF2 Berolina chess . Example: The standard chess pawn can be described in Ralph Betza's funny notation as mfWcfF (ignoring the initial double move). f2. Riders are denoted by duplication of the letter. it must jump.g. ~1/2 BN Capablanca chess Four Dimensional Chess on* (Immo~1/2) mQ (Immo-N) Nova Chess Notes A (2. ~1/2 QN Combines the powers of the Queen and the Knight..2)-leaper. H (0. and q circular movement (like the Rose). non-jumping like the Chinese Elefant. Compare with Pawn. backward. R4 is a rook restricted to at most 4 steps. B.3)-leaper. J (2.[4] Capital letters stand for basic pieces and components. besides the standard abbreviation for the chess pieces (R. N.g.. effectively passing a turn. Notable examples Name Alfil Alibaba Parlett ~2X ~2* A AD Betza Found in Shatranj Fairy Chess Problems Knightmare Chess Andernach chess nX. may continue to immobilize others. It is used here for initial in the description of the different types of pawns. which can move from e4 to f5 then g5. pao (like the Chinese Cannon captures). capture only. e. Often used modifiers are: forward. In addition. when it may move two). Betza often plays with the order to create somehow pronouncable piece names and artistic word play. g2. Also called a Princess.. Combines the powers of Bishop and Knight. Also known as a Chopper. for example. and K) the following letters are used: Wazir.e. left. Cardinal. In fact. including the other Basilisk. h3. Betza has also suggested adding brackets to his notation: q[WF]q[FW] would be a circular king.e. Balloon Basilisk A piece that moves as a Queen but immobilizes any piece within a knight's move of itself.Fairy chess piece 157 Ralph Betza's "funny notation" Ralph Betza created a classification scheme for fairy chess pieces (including standard chess pieces) in terms of the moves of basic pieces with modifiers. vertical. and back to e4. z crooked (moving in a zigzag line like the Boyscout). Compare to Elephant. Moves one square diagonally forward (except on its first move. There is no standard order of the components and modifiers. h4. If it is a fairy piece with additional powers it may or may not perform these other tasks depending on the case in question. A Bishop-like piece used in four-dimensional chess. it prevents it from moving or taking. restricted range is denoted by a digit after the letter. and G (3. Alternate notation: ~2/2 Combines the powers of Alfil and Dabbaba Amazon n*. o cylindrical. Janus or Paladin. jumping (i. Alfil. NN is the funny notation for the nightrider piece. Berolina pawn o1X>. that is. but captures by moving one square straight forward. Also called Superqueen. A Basilisk that is caught by another Basilisk in this fashion. cannot move without a hurdle).3)-leaper (Giraffe). right. Ferz.3)-leaper. c1>. move only. e. Small letters in front of the capital letters denote modifications of the component. grasshopper. Dabbaba. i. sideward. e3. Andernach grasshopper Archbishop A Grasshopper that changes the colour of the hurdle it leaps over.

but it cannot jump over an intervening piece. See also Zurafa. Invented by J. or without capturing can move forward one diagonal space. the forwards moves of a Knight. Giraffe ~1/4 Gold General Grasshopper 1+. the Grasshopper is usually represented by an inverted Queen. Draughts. Can jump to any square which would not be reachable by any orthodox chess piece. Invented by John Driver in 1966.2) leaper. o1X Chopper Colonel n>. Represented in diagrams by a Queen rotated 90° counterclockwise. Moves and captures like a Pawn in all 4 directions. Variant: when it moves from an edge. ~1/2 WAD RN Omega Chess Capablanca chess Checkers Combines the powers of the Wazir and the Alibaba. Checkers) Checker cn(^2X>). but cannot move backward until after it has finished a turn on the far rank of the board. Almay in the first half of the 20th century. It may be captured. o1X> King: cn(^2X). In Chinese Chess. it may not move to an edge. n=. Also called Empress or Marshal. Old historic piece. 1X> WfF gQ Shōgi Fairy Chess Problems Moves in all 4 orthogonal directions or diagonally forward. One of the most popular fairy pieces. A (2. Different from Zero. 2/1> 1* KfsRfN Chess with different armies Tamerlane Chess See "Andernach grasshopper" Moves as forwards and sideways Rook. Dayrider Dummy n(~2*) AADD Edgehog n* Q Edgehog [5] Chess Xiangqi (Chinese) A Queen that can move only to or from the edge of the board. See "Chancellor" Elephant 2X nA Empress Fers Fusilier 1X o1+. Invented by F. like the Ma. Marinelli in 1770. Combines the powers of the Rook and Knight. Since the Amazon is the sum of all orthodox chess pieces. (cf. gain temporarily moving ability by relay. or pushed or pulled around by other pieces if there are pushing or pulling pieces on the board. A hopper which moves along the same lines as a queen and lands on the square immediately beyond that of the hurdle. but takes 90 degree turns after each step. or a King. the Bug-Eyed Monster is the complement of the Amazon. In diagrams. A piece with no moves at all. also known as War machine or Machine. ~2* n+. de A. Also known as Steward or Quadrapawn. See "Pao" and "Korean Cannon" See "Archbishop" Bug-Eyed Monster Fairy Chess Problems Camel ~1/3 L Tamerlane Chess Cannon Cardinal Champion Chancellor 1+. Rediscovered as Crooked Bishop by Ralph Betza. Jumps 2 squares orthogonally followed by one square diagonally outwards. . Old historic piece. Alternate notation: ~0/2 Combination of Alfilrider and Dabbabarider. the Elephant is restricted to its half of the board. Dabbaba ~2+ D Old historic piece. Bishop Boyscout zB Moves like a bishop.Fairy chess piece 158 nX B Orthodox Chess Fairy Chess Problems Moves any number of free squares diagonally. Multiple captures in one turn. Also known as Alibabarider. c1X F mWcF Shatranj Centennial Chess Move one square in any direction diagonally. Jumps one square diagonally followed by three squares orthogonally.

A non-royal piece which moves in this way is sometimes called a Commoner or Man. and then continues in the same general direction one square diagonally. not diagonal). the Mao cannot move to a4 or c4. Kraken ~n/m Leeloo Quintessential Chess on*. a (1. The Immobilizer.. o1=. however. if the pawn is on c3. For example. If two Immobilizers move next to each other. c^& mQcpQ Chinese Combines the powers of Quintessence and Rook Leo Combines the powers of the Pao and Vao. G. The square it is on after its orthogonal move must be vacant. 1> FfW Knight ~1/2 N Orthodox Chess Korean Chess (Janggi) Korean Cannon pR Moves and captures along orthogonal lines by jumping exactly one piece. called the hurdle. Compare with Universal leaper..1) rider). There can be any number of free squares before and after the hurdle. but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Leo's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of squares beyond the hurdle). in Tenjiku shogi.g. moves as a chess Queen. Proposed in the 1920s by A. io2> mfsWcfFimfW2 Lias' proposal Lion pQ Fairy Chess Problems Maharajah and the Sepoys Chinese Maharaja n*. An extended Pawn which can also step one square sidewards. any enemy piece that is on a square adjacent to the Immobilizer is frozen in place.0) or (1. This action counts as a move. Leap to any square on the board. the only piece for white. It jumps one square orthogonally followed by another square diagonally. Also known as the Sergeant. Lias to improve standard chess A hopper which moves along the same lines as a Queen and which can land on a square any distance beyond the hurdle. to open a line of attack. it can move to both those squares (because the first part of the move is orthogonal. this piece was used as early as 1943 in Arno von Wilpert's Wolf Chess. Graz Pawn Immobilizer on* (Immo1*) mQ (Immo-K) Ultima Janus King 1* K Janus chess Orthodox Chess Makruk Khohn 1X. they are both frozen until the end of the game or until one is captured. At the end of its move. io2*> fWfFifmW2ifmF2 Fairy Chess Problems Combines the powers of the Berolina Pawn and the standard Pawn.Fairy chess piece 159 1*> . Unlike the Pao it moves the same way for capturing and non-capturing moves. The Immobilizer can never move to an occupied square and can not capture pieces.g. and can not move away until the Immobilizer moves away or is captured. it moves like a Queen when not capturing (that is. It occurs (without the initial double move) as Iron General in large Shogi variants from 15th century. if a white mao is on b2 and there is a white pawn on b3. but the first step is diagonal and the second orthogonal. Move one square in any direction diagonally or one square straight forward. including the one it is currently on (leaping to the current square has the effect of passing a move). In chess problems it is sometimes called Rook Lion or Rion. . ~1/2 QN Mao Moves like a Knight except that it does not leap. Royal in orthodox chess. e. See "Archbishop" Move one square in any direction. See "Chancellor" Marshal Moa Chinese as the Mao. A royal Amazon. An immobilised piece may commit suicide. c1X>. It has the same moves as the Silver General in Shogi. It first moves one square orthogonally in any direction. e. invented by Robert Abbott. not the other way round. Lias' Pawn o1>.

can move to a4. io2> mfWcfFimfW2 Orthodox Chess Pentere Quinquereme Chess Princess Pterodactyl ~3/3. a (1. Moves one square straight forward (except on its first move. A pawn on b3. c4. Moves like a Rook when not capturing (that is. c1* ADcK Can move and capture as an Alfil or Dabbaba. as a Knight on files b and g.0) rider). See diagram below. ~0/15 Chess mathematics Quang Trung Chess n* Q Orthodox Chess Quintessential Chess See "Archbishop" The simplest triple range amphibian. Compare with Berolina pawn. This piece stems from a misinterpretation of the Lion of Chu Shogi but has become popular in fairy chess problems and chess variants.e. Rao mqNcpqN Chinese Reflecting Bishop . and capture only as a King. George Jelliss demonstrated a [6] pterodactyl's knight's tour on a 16×16 board in 1985 Moves as Rook but when capturing must move on square away from captured piece in the same direction. Chinese A Chinese Nightrider —moves as a normal Nightrider (that is. The Odysseus' move depends on the file where it is located: It moves as a Rook on files a and h. as a Queen on file d and as a King on file e. would have no effect. c1X>. First described in 2002 by Jörg Knappen and found in several chess variants since then. Its path continues down the diagonal to any legitimate square after the [7] "bounce". e8. but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Rao's destination square. h5 and d1. A Nightrider on b2 on an empty board. similar to a hockey puck or billiard ball. f4. but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Pao's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of squares beyond the hurdle). for example. Compare with Korean Cannon. knight moves) in the same direction. but captures one square forward diagonally. On diagrams. Combines the powers of the Bishop and Rook. the nightrider is usually represented by an inverted Knight. One of the most popular fairy pieces. when it may move two squares).. ~5/5. It is named after the chess historian Harold James Ruthven Murray who brought it up. as a Bishop on files c and f.. A rider which moves any number of 2. therefore.1 cells (i.Fairy chess piece 160 ~2*. d6. The captured piece can be any distance beyond the hurdle.1) rider) when not capturing. A Pawn of the opposing colour on d6 could be captured. d3. but the Nightrider could not move any further in that direction (i. Murray Lion Nao mNNcpNN Nightrider n(1/2) (in same direction) NN Fairy Chess Problems Odysseus Fairy Chess Problems Pao mRcpR Chinese Pawn o1>. A Chinese Rose —moves as a normal Rose when not capturing. Quang trung rook Queen Quintessence A Nightrider who takes 90-degree turns in a zig-zag manner on each step. Moves like a bishop. a (2. it couldn't move on to e8). Found in xiangqi (in which context it is normally known in English as a Cannon). but which captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Nao's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of knight-moves beyond the hurdle). Combines the powers of Queen and Quintessence.e. but additionally is allowed to "bounce" off the edge of the board when making a move. Also known as Querquisite.

Fairy chess piece 161 Renniassance Chess Moves in the same move one square diagonally and any number of squares othogonally or any number of squares orthogonally and one diagonally. or f3. g6. Called Cavalier in RennChess. 2=. Cannot capture en passant nor be captured en passant. It was discovered independently several times and is also known as Centurion or Castle. (1/1)> fsDfF Chess Empire Squirrel ~0/2. or d3. for the Archbishop or for the combination of Bishop and Nightrider also known as Banshee. As with the nightrider. cnX> DAN Fairy Chess Problems Fairy Chess Problems Superpawn mfRcfB Superqueen Taxi Fairy Chess Problems Moves without capture one step forward or backwards. The Spy can move two spaces forwards or sideways. but prevents the rose from progressing any further along that line. c6. The name Unicorn is also used for several pieces in 2 dimensions. Can promote on the 8th rank or continue to be a Taxi.g. captures one square diagonally forwards like a Pawn. moves through the vertices of the cubes. Moves in the same move one square orthogonally and then any number of squares diagonally or any number of squares diagonally and then one straight. Jumps one square orthogonally followed by two squares diagonally outwards. May be placed in the first or eight ranks. two or three steps forward or one backwards. Can capture en passant other Pawns or Taxis. as well as c2 and a1. Greenwood. b4. It can leap over pieces and can only move two spaces. ~2/2 on>.. e7. See diagram below. it moves along pseudo-circular ones. Moves without capture any number of fields forward. but captures by leaping over an intervening piece and taking the piece on the Vao's destination square (the captured piece can be any number of squares beyond the hurdle). A rose standing on e1 on an empty board. RennCavalier RennDuke Renniassance Chess Rook n+ R Orthodox Chess Fairy Chess Problems Rose qN Moves as a Nightrider. but the name Cavalier is used for other pieces as well. Universal leaper Unicorn Raumschach In Raumschach it is a triagonal rider. It has two paths to the same target square and must make at least a blockable knight's move. ~1/2. c6 and a5. for instance. Promotes on the 8th rank. except that rather than moving in a straight line. captures diagonally forwards like a Bishop. h4 and g2. a (1. e5. or d3 and b4. it is "trapped" on its own color like a Bishop. Invented by [8] Werner Speckmann in 1967. but the name Duke is used for other pieces as well. or f3 and h4. See "Amazon" Spy 2>. or can move like a knight one forward and then one horizontally or vice versa. e5 and g6. Moves like a Bishop when not capturing (that is. Old historic piece. Vao mBcpB Chinese Wazir 1+ W Tamerlane Chess Omega Chess Wizard Zebra 1X. can move to any of the squares on the large circle c2. It has two paths to the same target square and must make at least a blockable knight's move. Moves one square orthogonally in any direction. Compare with Kraken. thus. Called Duke in RennChess. . an opposite-coloured piece on any one of these squares can be captured. See diagram below. Jumps to any field in a distance of 2. ~1/3 ~2/3 FL J Combines the movement of Fers and Camel. When in the second rank can move one.1) rider). Renniassance Chess was invented by 1980 by Eric V. May be placed in the first rank. e. Leap to any square on the board apart from the one it is on. Moves any number of free squares orthogonally.

(two possible paths depicted..4) leap (like the modern Giraffe) and may continue moving outwards as a Rook. a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Rose. e. jump and land on its starting square without any side effects.Fairy chess piece 162 ~0/0 A piece which can make a zero move. i. but along pseudo-circular lines. This gives the player the option to pass a move.) Of course it may move clockwise or counter-clockwise. Sometimes used as a component to more complex pieces. Zero Zurafa a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Nightrider makes any number of knight moves in the same direction. . It is different from the piece with no move at all called Dummy Tamerlane Chess Starts with a (1. Moves as Nightrider.

n)Leaper". • Ralph Betza's funny notation (http://www. Jelliss.n) . com/ piececlopedia.htm).org/d. Retrieved 2010-07-20. The Oxford History of Board Games.fr/problemesis/pieces. Fers Parlett. ISBN 0-19-212998-8. "Pièces – Pieces" (http://christian. Theory of Moves (Retrieved on 2009-07-18) (http:/ / www. Catégories de pièces . black's with an X. dir/ reflecting-bishop.Types of pieces.betza/chessvar/pieces/notation. pdf) References • David Parlett (1999).fr/problemesis/ categories. . html) by Peter Aronson.free.Types of pieces" (http://christian. problemschachbuch. "All the King's Men" (http://www. dir/ edgehog-chess. ktn. 1999 http:/ / www. html Betza Notation by Glen Overby II http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ piececlopedia. org/ dpieces.(m. sections Alfil. Retrieved 2008-04-18. represented here by an upside-down knight. Retrieved 2008-04-18. chessvariants.com/v/gm. Poisson.html). com/ 9a. section "Bondisseur(m. in german) (http:/ / www.poisson. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Poisson. htm) The Piececlopedia: Reflecting Bishop (http:/ / www. Oxford: Oxford University Press.chessvariants. A unicorn from its starting position can reach only 30 cubes. with board E on top. The white unicorn's destination squares are marked with a circle. moves through the vertices of cubes (triagonally).Fairy chess piece 163 E D C B A The unicorn.free. "Edgehog Chess" G. Pièces – Pieces. de/ Materialien/ Maerchenschach. dir/ betzanot.mayhematics. Märchenfiguren und ihre Grundtypen (pdf.html). "Catégories de pièces . html Peter Aronson.poisson. The boards are stacked. • Christian Poisson. • Christian Poisson. chessvariants.html) • George Jelliss. freeuk.

html) • Fairy chess pieces and fairy problem conditions (german) (http://www. usually with the smaller number first.free.3) hippogonal mover.html) Compiled by Ivan A Derzhanski. For example.hilmar-ebert.org/piececlopedia. dir/ knight.chessvariants. It is a (1.htm) • Märchenschachlexikon (http://www. A specific type of hippogonal move can be written (m.de/lexikon.php?type=Piececlopedia& orderby=LinkText&displayauthor=1&displayinventor=1&usethisheading=Piececlopedia) .htm) (Die Schwalbe. com/ piececlopedia. German) Hippogonal A hippogonal chess move is one similar to a knight's move. a leap m squares in one of the orthogonal directions. which moves three squares in one direction and one in the other. for integer values of m and n.Fairy chess piece 164 External links • Piececlopedia (http://www.chessvariants. External links • Piececlopedia: knight [1] References [1] http:/ / www. chessvariants. and thus is a (1. It need not be a 2:1 ratio for m and n.2) hippogonal mover.n).dieschwalbe. the knight itself moves two squares in one orthogonal direction and one in the other—it moves hippogonally. html . That is. a fairy chess piece. their history and movement diagrams • Who is Who on Eight by Eight (http://www.an extensive list of fairy chess pieces. Other hippogonally moving pieces include the camel.fr/pieces/indexa.org/index/mainquery.de/VV1000. shows also piece values • Jerome Grimbert's List of Fairy Chess Pieces (french) (http://jgrimbert.2) leaper.dir/whos-who-on-8x8. sometimes referred to as a (1. and n squares in the other.

M. it cannot move. d7 and h8). Dawson & C.Grasshopper 165 Grasshopper a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Grasshopper (shown as an inverted white queen with notation G) must hop over other pieces in order to move or capture. as well as capture the black pawn on a7. it can capture the pawn in a7. T. It cannot move on g4. Dawson in 1913 in problems published in the Cheltenham Examiner newspaper. Nowadays it is one of the most popular fairy pieces used in chess problems. The white grasshopper on d4 can move to the squares marked by cross (b2. Fox (1930) a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mate in 8 (with grasshoppers Ga8. Here. Grasshopper was introduced by T. files. R. If there is no piece to hop over. If the square beyond a piece is occupied by a piece of the opposite color. because there are two pieces to hop over. For an example of grasshopper movement see the first diagram. h2 and h1) . Petrović. the grasshopper can capture that piece. the piece being jumped over is unaffected. f7. R. On the diagram it is shown as an inverted queen with notation G. The Grasshopper is a fairy chess piece that moves along ranks. V. d1. Onitiu. The grasshopper may jump over pieces of either color. N. and diagonals (as ordinary queen) but only by hopping over another piece at any distance to the square immediately closest.

Ga7+ Ga6 7. 166 Grasshopper chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Grasshopper chess.Gh3! Gh4 2.dir/grashopper. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1.Ge7 Gd7 5. Second and seventh ranks are occupied with grasshoppers. Grasshopper (shown as an inverted queen) must hop over other pieces in order to move or capture.Ga5+ Ga4 8. Grasshopper chess is a chess variant.[2] References [1] J.Ga3#. Les Jeux D'Echecs Non Orthodoxes. pawns can be moved forward and grasshoppers put along the second and seventh ranks[1] as shown on the diagram at right. Games & Puzzles Publications.Gh5 Gh6 3. Boyer (1951). . [2] Pritchard.Grasshopper Solution of the problem on the second diagram is: 1. Another possibility is to replace queens with grasshoppers in initial position. (1994). In some variations grasshoppers may also be present on the board in the opening position. in addition to the usual pieces.html) by Hans Bodlaender. External links • Grasshopper chess (http://www. in which the pawns are allowed to promote to a fairy piece grasshopper. For example. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. D.chessvariants.org/dpieces.Gc7 Gb7 6.Gh7 Gh8 4.

except that all the pawns are replaced by Berolina pawns. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. It may not change direction during its move. but in addition may capture one square sideways. Related pawns Two famous pawns used in problem compositions are the Berolina Plus and the Sergeant. Berolina Chess is a chess variant using a popular fairy chess piece called the Berolina pawn (also called Berlin pawn or Anti-pawn). the Berolina pawn promotes when reaching the last rank. two squares diagonally forward). (So. • The Berolina Plus moves and captures like the Berolina pawn.Berolina chess 167 Berolina chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 On its first move.) Like a normal chess pawn. including castling. it is the converse of a normal chess pawn. The rules of Berolina Chess are the same as in standard chess. the Berolina has the option to move two squares forward on its first move (so for the Berolina. it can move to or capture on any of the three squares immediately in front. The black e4-pawn may capture the white f2-pawn en passant if the white pawn advances to d4 in one move. without capturing. a Berolina pawn may move two steps forward. En passant capturing is possible as well (see diagram). (1994). The Berolina pawn was invented by Edmund Hebermann in 1926. • The Sergeant combines the normal chess pawn and the Berolina pawn. . It captures one square straight forward. D. Games & Puzzles Publications. Berolina Chess. Berolina pawn specifics The Berolina pawn moves. As in normal chess. 21–22. that is. p. one square diagonally forward. Further reading • Pritchard. which moves straight forward and captures diagonally forward.

chessvariants. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=59 [2] http:/ / www. black can finally create a situation where every empty square of the board is attacked.org) References [1] http:/ / brainking. standard chess army ("sepoys") in the usual position. the maharajah. By perfect play black always wins in this game.com [1] turn-based server for playing Berolina Chess • The Chess Variant Pages [2] article on Berolina Chess (specially "Recognized" by Chessvariants. . html Maharajah and the Sepoys Maharajah and the Sepoys a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Starting position. the following algorithm can help the black to win: • Step 1: The Maharaja can only check the black King from squares that are attacked by black. which can move as either a queen or as a knight on White's turn. is a popular chess variant with different armies for white and black. this is not always easy. dir/ berlin. com/ dpieces. Black's goal is to checkmate the maharajah. There is no pawn promotion. White is limited to a single piece. • Step 3: All black moves are done only to squares that were attacked by black before that moves. Maharaja can only attack them from squares attacked by black. The asymmetry of the game pits movement flexibility and agility against greater force in numbers. Maharajah and the Sepoys. However. "A carefully playing black player should be able to win.Berolina chess 168 External links • BrainKing. White queen is a maharajah. It was first played in the 19th century in India. According to Hans Bodlaender [1]. Using such a sequece of moves. when the white 'Maharaja' breaks through the lines of black." However. while white's is to checkmate black's king. it can move as queen or knight. and in many cases. at least on an 8x8 board. originally called Shatranj Diwana Shah. Black has a full. he has good chances to win. • Step 2: All black pieces other than King are at protected by at least one other pieces. or if there are any unprotected black pieces.

Because of the symmetry and four additional corners. chessvariants. The game is played on a 10x10 board with an extra square in each of the extreme corners where the wizards are placed at the start of the game. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=21 Omega Chess Omega Chess is a commercial chess variant designed by Daniel MacDonald in Toronto. org/ unequal. W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Omega Chess .[1] The game is laid out like regular chess with the addition of a "champion" in each corner and a "wizard" diagonally behind each champion (see diagram on the right). Omega Chess creates new tactical possibilities. Bodlaender. including the possibility of checkmate with two knights. a parallel to the bishop. • Brainking Rules page [2] References [1] http:/ / www. . The wizard was created specially to be a color-bound piece. Omega Chess has garnered endorsements by grandmasters Michael Rohde[2] and Alex Sherzer. dir/ maharaja.Maharajah and the Sepoys 169 External links • The Maharaja and the Sepoys [1] by Hans L. html [2] http:/ / brainking.start position Part of the reason for adding the new pieces was to equalize the number of jumping pieces with sliding pieces.

The d pawn may be captured en passant by either black pawn. This is shown on files (a). or slides 1 square diagonally. jumps {1. White's King Champion can start the game by Ch2 or Cj2.(b) and (d) respectively. In the position shown at the left. the black Wizard's movement is indicated by a black dot. • Capture.1} squares in any direction.3} or {3. Pawn's first move. • The en passant rule also applies. • Champion: jumps 2 squares in any direction or slides 1 square orthogonally. on its first move only. the black Champion's movement is indicated by an X. and it can capture the white Knight. En passant and Castling. promotion and movement (following the first move) are otherwise identical to the pawn in standard chess. two or three squares in the forward direction.Omega Chess 170 Differences from standard chess The new pieces W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Wizard. and it can't capture the white Knight. Pawns • The Pawn may slide one. The b pawn may be captured normally by the pawn at c4. • Wizard: a colorbound piece. White's King Wizard can start the game by Wj2. In the position shown at the left. Champion. and en passant by the pawn at c3 .

Qi3 Qg7 42. j0.Wi5 O-O 11. (See the problem at the end of the page.Ra3 Ch7 47.Ne4 Bb4+ 8.Cc2 Wj7 15.Qh3 Wh4 25. it is done exactly as in Chess.Wh4 Ch7 27.j4 b4! (see diagram) Black seizes the initiative. It should be noted that these squares are part of the board. the ranks are numbered from 0-9..i4 Wg4 20. Perhaps White should follow suit and play this knight to g5 instead of c5.Wj2 Wa7 6. 25. Bh4 26.Re8 Rh8 40..) GM Alex Sherzer v.. 22.Bd3 b5 13. recapturing with the Champion looks more promising. (See diagram.Wf5 ef5 39..Re0 Qf6 36.Nh4 Wh5 17.Wg7 hg7 32..Omega Chess 171 Castling The normal rules of castling apply.Rje3 g6 41.Ce4 We4 29. b4! Sample games As seen in the diagrams.Kh1 Rb1 46.Rc3 Bh1 45.c3 Be7 10.Wd1 We3 18.d4 Cc6 12.Kg0 c7 19.Qj3 Qh2+ 0-1[3] . GM Judit Polgár 1.Be1 Nd7 9. Also.Bh4 Either on this move or the next. with the king moving two squares to either side: to h0 for white or h9 for black to castle king-side.Wg2 Ce4 28.bc5 Qd8 24.Ra8 Ch5 48.Bb1 Wf5 38.Ri3 Ki8 33.Nd2 Ng7 3.f4 d5 2. w3 and w4 respectively.Be2 Wd5 21.Wa2 Cc7 4. and to d0 or d9 to castle queen-side.i5 i6 31.Nc5 23..Qj3 j7 30. j9 and a9 are notated w1.e4 de4 7.Bc0 e6 37.b4 Wd6 14.) W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Position before 42. w2. The solution of which starts with 1.Rj3 Ci7 35.Ww3+ . and all pieces (except rooks and pawns) can enter them.Rc0 Bb7 22. and the corner squares behind a0.Ree9?? Cj3! 50.Qj4 Rh9 34.R8e5 bc3 44.Nc5 Black is aiming a lot of artillery at the White king.Ra9 Qh7 49. 43.Ng2 f7 5.Ch2 Wi4 16.

Qj5 Ng7?? (defending the pawn on f5) 4.Wa2 Ng7. In the position on the left. As well. it could now move to the e-file.[4] . if you have two Rooks. followed by Re8 ..Bc4 Bc5. since Black isn't going to go there voluntarily. 2.Rd8+ Ke9 2. This leads to the inevitable question of what combinations of reduced material can deliver mate. White is obliged to check the enemy King back to the edge of the board. you cannot win if the Bishop and Wizard attack one color.f4 f5. as can two Knights.. although in the latter case the task of herding the enemy king into a corner requires a lot of patience. Or if it was on any other rank.. a lone Queen (without the King's assistance) can force mate. controlling i8 so the rook can check on d9. 2. 3. Rj8#) 3.Rd6 Kf8 5. King Endgames The four corner squares in Omega Chess offer many endgame possibilities and peculiarities.Omega Chess 172 The Scholar's mate and the Fool's mate 1.Wb5 Ni5?? 3 We6# W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 King & Rook vs.Kf7 (The White King must pursue the enemy King because when Black gets to i9. a Bishop and a Wizard against a lone King. For example. forcing the King to j8.Ke7 Kf9 3. the White King wants to be on h7.Kg9 (Not 3. Unlike in chess. but as it is the Rook would be vulnerable to capture.Rd8#) 4.Kg7 Kf9 it is safe for the Black King to double back. then it could just retreat along the file and deliver mate next move. If the Rook was on e8. Two Bishops can deliver mate fairly easily..Ke8 because of 4.Qxg8# 1. 1. with the enemy King being on a corner square of the other color.Kj7. two Rooks find it easy to mate provided the enemy King is not in a Wizard or Champion starting square.

Having met this requirement. provided the enemy King is not on the wrong coloured Wizard's square. A Rook in combination with either a Knight or a Champion can force mate easily and.[5] However two Wizards can't force mate. (or corresponding Champion's square) then both Rook and Bishop. while the technique for Bishop and Knight is somewhat trickier. and Wizard and Champion are fairly straightforward. but there doesn't seem to be a way of forcing these positions.[6] As for Knight and Wizard. the requirement for winning is that the enemy King should be kept out of the wrong coloured corner since the Knight alone. In the remaining combinations of material. Bishop and Knight. Bishop and Champion. leading to checkmate. or the Champion alone cannot oust the king. A Bishop with a Wizard on the opposite colour squares can also force mate although technique is involved since the enemy King has to be driven into the same coloured corner as the Bishop. the mating technique for Bishop and Champion.Omega Chess 173 W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J A B C D E F G H I J W2 W2 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W4 Puzzle by Benjamin Good: White to move and mate in three Two Champions mate easily and so do a Champion and a Knight. Omega Chess Advanced W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 W2 W2 . and Rook and Wizard are also easy wins. and Knight and Wizard. Champion and Wizard. it is possible to set up positions in which the enemy King is corralled.

the white Fool has immobilized the black Queen. animated example. html?http:/ / www. The Templar Knight moves like an ordinary Knight. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1) with the option to view the moves in a JavaScript viewer. omegachess. omegachess.White Rook. called the Templar Knight. Moves of White Templar Knight In 2008. an immobilized piece can move if it is also orthogonally adjacent to a friendly Fool. For Guarding to be legal. omegachess. • The Fool moves and captures like the piece or pawn that the opponent last used. [4] Checkmate with two knights in Omega chess (http:/ / www. In the figure to the right. com/ scripts/ King_+ _2_Knights_vs_King. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. thus preventing it from moving. com/ scripts/ Alex_Sherzer_vs_Judit_Polgar. and there may not be any pieces between them. both the Queen and Rook must never have made any previous moves. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1). com/ home. nytimes. omegachess. com/ home. when a piece makes its first move in the game. and may make the additional step to any of the squares marked with a circle. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1). com/ 2007/ 08/ 19/ crosswords/ chess/ 19chess. • The Fool has no starting position on the board. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. New York Times. com/ scripts/ ltpgnviewer. When Castling or Guarding. html?action=advanced#guarding) [9] Description of the Fool piece (http:/ / www. animated example.Omega Chess 174 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 2 1 0 W4 Omega Chess Advanced: The White Fool immobilizes Black Queen. [6] Checkmate with Knight and Bishop in Omega chess (http:/ / www.[10] • A new piece can replace the ordinary Knight. but after it has made its move or capture.[9] Each player owns exactly one. then Black's Fool may move or capture as a Queen. . the white Templar Knight may move or capture to any of the squares marked with an X. html?action=advanced) [8] Definition of Guarding in Omega Chess Advanced (http:/ / www. Instead. com/ scripts/ King_+ _Knight_+ _Bishop_vs_King. References [1] Dylan Loeb McClain (2007-08-19). com/ home. • The following two rules are optional parts of Omega Chess Advanced: • • The Fool may immobilize an opponent's piece on an orthogonally adjacent square. omegachess.[11] • Optional rules extensions were also introduced in Omega Chess Advanced.[8] A new piece is introduced called the Fool. html?action=grandmaster-reviews). omegachess. animated example. This move is equal to Castling but it is executed by Queen and Rook. [2] Grandmaster reviews (http:/ / www. its owner may choose to place the Fool at that piece's starting location. and the black Fool has immobilized the white Rook. html?http:/ / www. it may make an additional diagonal step in the same direction onto an empty square. html& SetBGColor=EEEEEE& SetBorder=1). omegachess. the Fool can be place on either of the two available squares. html?action=advanced#fool) . if White moves a Queen. Retrieved 2009-10-12. Solution to the Puzzle here [12]. An immobilized piece can move again if the Fool moves away or is captured. omegachess. omegachess. html?http:/ / www. In addition. Viziers and Wizards: Variations on the Old Game" (http:/ / www.[7] • A special move was introduced called Guarding. [7] Omega Chess Advanced official web site (http:/ / www. In the diagram to the right. [5] Checkmate with Bishop and Wizard in Omega chess (http:/ / www. omegachess. html). [3] Omega Chess sample game (http:/ / www. omegachess. Black dots show squares where the White fool may move to for freeing own Queen from immobilizing. The Black Fool . html?http:/ / www. the authors of Omega Chess developed an extension to the game called Omega Chess Advanced. com/ scripts/ King_+ _Bishop_+ _Wizard_vs_King. "Giraffes. com/ home. omegachess. For example.

however. and two to capture. in essence.html?action=comparisons) Game Openings (http://www.com/home.com/home. Stealth Chess Stealth Chess is a chess variant.html?action=board-setup) How pieces move (http://www. it could reappear anywhere on the board. omegachess.html?action=openings) Game Endings (http://www. according to The Discworld Companion. Chess (http://www.html?action=how-pieces-move) Piece values (http://www. html?action=advanced#immobilization) [11] Templar Knight description (http:/ / www. The Slurks are. The Assassin may take pieces of its own colour.omegachess. the assassin may make as many moves as it has taken within the slurks and.omegachess.dir/zillions/omega.omegachess.zip) Stealth Chess The fictional universe of the Discworld novels by Terry Pratchett features a number of invented games. it may then appear in any square that is five moves from its original entry point into the Slurk. played in the Ankh-Morpork Assassins' Guild. a capture move. The extra piece is the Assassin (appearing on either side of the Rooks in the beginning of the game). It is similar to normal chess. should this give the player an advantage. including back and forth).com/home.Official web site (http://www. but may not take opposing Assassins (professional courtesy). a second. If an Assassin were to make fifteen moves (the minimum necessary to go from one corner of the normal board to the opposite corner). some of which have gone on to spawn real-world variants. "invisible" board.omegachess. html?action=puzzle6 175 External links • • • • • • • • • Omega Chess .com/home. The Assassin moves one square in any direction. with the exception of an extra piece and the widening of the board by two specially-colored fields (red and white are described. on exiting the Slurks. Stealth chess .omegachess.omegachess. omegachess. com/ home.org/programs.com/home.com/home. Many players consider the assassin to be moving "underneath" the actual board. html?action=advanced#templar) [12] http:/ / www.opening position An example may clarify: If an Assassin enters the Slurks and takes five moves within them (in any direction. omegachess.html?action=strategy) Zillions of Games file. It is then still able to make a one-square move to capture. the only piece to be able to move in the Slurk.Omega Chess [10] Immobilization (http:/ / www. com/ home.com/) Rules of Omega Chess (http://www. optionally.omegachess. and from which it may reemerge on the "visible" board at any time.omegachess.chessvariants.html?action=piece-values) Omega Chess vs. ready to pop out when they have reached their intended destination. The mechanism of moving the assassin up and down the Slurks is used in order to a) use up a move by the player and b) to keep count of how many spaces the assassin has moved.html?action=game-endings) Game Strategy (http://www. .com/home. known as the Slurks. as opposed to the normal black and white) on either side. com/ home. (http://www. through which only the Assassin may travel.

Number cards are worth their face value. as two. • Broken Royal. The complete rules and design of this game were posted on USENET around 1993 and were approved by Pratchett himself. the combination 777 of any suit. • Broken Flush. The next player must then create a more valuable grouping or fold. most frequently a traditional "French" deck and an identically-backed Latin-suited deck. and with all but one in the same suit-pair. who then wins the hand. • Bagel. The Discworld Companion notes. cups. and the player may then discard up to four of them. and can quickly win the game if one manages to take control of the Slurks and access the King directly. was named after the game. roses and doves as suits to be paired. each of the real-world suits is paired with one of the four discworld suits (a commercially available deck marketed for use in the game includes axes. and aces are worth one or eleven at the player's choice (a la Blackjack). however. terrapins and crowns. Terry Tao as the basis for an actual card game. According to the Companion. • Three-card Onion. originally from Christchurch. respectively. picture cards are worth ten. or "Caroc" deck: the staves. with the more traditional clubs. two distinctive but identically-backed "normal" decks are generally used. This was used by Dr Andrew Millard and Prof. A game called "Shibo Yancong-San" ("Cripple Mr Onion" in Japanese) appears in Interesting Times as a tile game played in the Agatean Empire. hearts and diamonds). Witches Abroad and Lords and Ladies. • Six-card Onion. • Two-card Onion. The band "Cripple Mr Onion". spades. or fold. If the player is successful in creating a more valuable grouping. . a Progressive metal band. are as follows. 176 Cripple Mr Onion Cripple Mr Onion was originally a fictional card game played by characters in the novels Wyrd Sisters. two cards with values totalling 21. For the purposes of flushes. • Five-card Onion. Then a further five cards are dealt face-up to each player except the dealer. It contains elements of blackjack and poker. Each player receives a hand of ten cards: five cards are dealt face-down to each player. the original first player may try again to create an even more valuable grouping for himself. of a preserved corpse with an 8×10 board embedded in its skull and a pawn hammered up each nostril. elephants. The categories of winning group.Stealth Chess This makes it a highly powerful piece and a very effective counter to certain strategies depending on specific pieces. • Four-card Onion. that players should also take care that they don't focus on the opponent's Assassin exclusively to the point that they lose track of what the opponent's other pieces are doing. • Flush. and displaying them. the combination 678 of any suit. New Zealand. Provost of Assassins and Patrician of Ankh-Morpork. this belief is corroborated by the in-world discovery. with suits representing the eight Minor Arcana suits of a Discworld Tarot. in a tomb in Muntab. Reaper Man. receiving new cards to replace them. The acknowledged master of the game in the books is Lord Havelock Vetinari. two cards with values totalling 20. For real-world play. The most notable aspect of the game is that it requires an eight-suited card deck. and coins of real-world Tarot plus four additional suits named for octograms. as a broken flush but with all the cards being in the same suit-pair. in ascending order of value.and three-card Onion above. This process passes left around the table until only one player remains. three cards with values totalling 21. who receives his face-down. • Royal. some Discworld scholars believe that Stealth Chess is the original form of chess in their world. a set of three or more cards totalling between 16 and 21 inclusive. swords. The first player begins by assembling his or her cards into one of the winning groupings described below. tridents.

any other Double Onion beats this one. you cannot Cripple Mr Onion if your running flush contains more wild eights than the Lesser or Great Onion you are trying to cripple. Further. two picture cards and two aces. When eights are wild. may shift points of value between their cards to create a Double Onion. but if played this way. five picture cards and five aces. and if eights are wild may not participate in a Triple Onion either. but beats any other Lesser Onion and is considered a Great Onion for the purpose of being crippled. However. then choose one of these cards to replace the queen in their hand. Whenever this is done. displaying a Jack of Diamonds makes all aces unplayable and bans wild eights from taking value 1 or 11. 177 "Modifiers" may also be played to increase the value of a hand. also rendering all Aces held by the player who played the Lady unplayable. After one hand with eights as wild cards. any player who plays a Jack of Staves must play all their eights as null eights. A "killed" picture card may not participate in a Double Onion. However. Thus they can be included in an existing Onion in order to improve its size by one card. the Jack of Staves is wild in all hands. the King of Cups may be played to immediately cause them to cease being wild. Card values must still range from 1 to 11. • Octavo: when eights are wild. the player can force every opponent to devalue one ace in their hand to value 1 (rather than 11). Seven-card Onion. any other (not the same!) player who holds the Queen of Spades may reveal it to cause their eights to remain wild. • The Sender of Eights: displaying a Jack of Diamonds when eights are not wild causes the aces of any other player who has used a Null Eight to become unplayable. three picture cards and three aces. Apart from the crippling rule. eights may be played as if their value were zero (but can be still be played with value eight if the player wishes). Triple Onion. the combination 888 in a hand when eights are wild (see below).) • Null Eights: in a normal hand. • Fate: if the Lady has been played and replaced with another card from the deck as above. (This is the only non-optional modifier. plus the Queen of Coins. they revert to normal. which may or may not be included in a game. The available modifiers (many of which are named after Discworld characters or concepts) are as follows: • Crippling Mr Onion: if a player displays a Great Onion. • Wild Crippling: when eights are wild. the King of Cups may be revealed and replaced in the same way. Great Onion. • Death: displaying a King of Swords "kills" one picture card in the hand of every player who has more than one in their hand. eights become wild cards in the following hand. • The Elephants: a player who reveals a set of four cards. the player may draw two cards from the deck. • The Archchancellor: When played. an opponent may display a ten-card running flush and instantly win the hand. If eights are wild. but may still participate in other groupings. any opponent may reveal a King of Swords after the Jack of Staves is revealed to cause the Jack of Staves to cease being wild and also cause all other players to reveal . the grouping 88888888 is considered a Lesser Onion. each either a nine or ten (or a wild eight). a player with a ten-card running flush can also use it to steal the win from someone who has previously crippled Mr Onion with a nine-card running flush. • The Lady: a player may reveal the Queen of Spades for one of two effects: if eights are not wild in the hand. and this modifier cannot be used in that hand.Stealth Chess • • • • • • Wild Royal. and may consider any other nines or tens in their hands as ones (not aces) and twos respectively. and this modifier becomes available again. If eights are wild. • Great A'Tuin: a player who reveals the Queen of Coins may subtract eight from the value of one of their cards and add it to the value of another. Lesser Onion. modifiers are optional rules. an opponent may display a nine-card running flush and instantly win the hand. Double Onion. four picture cards and four aces. If a player displays a Great or Lesser Onion. The opponent chooses which ace is devalued.

inspired by the Discworld novels rather than originating in them. with the exception that a Great Onion will still beat a Great Bagel. being played by Vetinari. Visual-Spatial reasoning Thud is a board game devised by Trevor Truran and first published in 2002. while there are a large number of dwarfs. The . The release of Thud! led to a special Koom Valley edition of the game. The game was first directly referenced in Going Postal. Triple Bagels. supposedly called in Dwarfish "Hnaflbaflwhiflsnifltafl". Two players early in a game of Thud Fictional origins The game. • The Fool: If the Jack of Clubs is declared by any player before the first player has played their first group of cards.Stealth Chess a card they have not yet revealed. 178 Thud Stealth Chess Players Setup time Playing time 2 under one minute About two hours Random chance None Skill(s) required Tactics. with only thirteen pieces allowed to occupy each square. the objective is to eliminate as many of the opposition's pieces as possible. It also. The two sides are dwarfs and trolls. Double Bagels. becomes possible for a player to Cripple Mr Bagel. In the game. represents the famous Battle of Koom Valley between dwarfs and trolls. Thus. etc. the trolls being few in number (but individually very powerful). Thud uses an unconventional. As in fox games. Terry Pratchett has devised a fictional history of how Thud was invented similar to the Shahnama theory of the origins of chess. The pieces of the Koom Valley version are similar to the cover of the novel Thud! drawn by Paul Kidby. and became a central concept in the immediate sequel Thud!. the clever dwarf who invented the game was asked by his king to name his reward. The two antagonists are the trolls and the dwarfs. It bears a strong resemblance to the ancient Norse games of Hnefatafl and Tablut but has been changed to be less one-sided. Bagels and Onions switch places in score value. In short. octagonal board divided into smaller squares. but each individual dwarf is very weak and requires support from nearby dwarfs to be of use against the trolls. Strategy. become the most valuable hands. the two sides have different pieces with different movement and attacking styles. of course.

up to as many spaces as there are trolls in the line. this is more than all the gold of the Disc combined. the other controls the trolls. they may either move or shove one troll: • Move: one troll is moved like a chess king. and "X" represents the Thudstone. the troll may not land on an occupied square. The eight trolls are placed onto the eight squares adjacent to the Thudstone and the thirty-two dwarfs are placed so as to occupy all the perimeter spaces except for the four in the same horizontal or vertical line as the Thudstone. one square in any orthogonal or diagonal direction onto an empty square. Trolls may only make a shove if by doing so they capture at least one dwarf. in which case the troll is removed from the board and the dwarf takes his place. 179 Gameplay The octagonal playing area consists of a 15 by 15 square board from which a triangle of 15 squares in each corner has been removed. The inventor then hastily changed his reward to 'as much gold as he could carry'. they may either move or hurl one dwarf: • Move: any one dwarf is moved like a chess queen. and any dwarfs in the eight squares adjacent to its final position may immediately be captured. The dwarfs move first. they may shove the endmost troll in the direction continuing the line. or • Shove: anywhere there is a straight (orthogonal or diagonal) line of adjacent trolls on the board. This is different from a normal move in that the dwarf is permitted to land on a square containing a troll. or A Thud game's initial positions. they may hurl the front dwarf in the direction continuing the line. The king then got angry and threatened to kill the dwarf who was 'too drhg'hgin clever by half'. Needless to say. . four pieces on the third. or troll. "T" represents the trolls. "d" represents the dwarfs. two pieces on the second.[1] On the dwarfs' turn. etc. As in a normal move. any number of squares in any orthogonal or diagonal direction. Since a single dwarf is a line of one in any direction. whether Thudstone. any dwarfs on the eight squares adjacent to the moved troll may optionally [2] be immediately captured and removed from the board. as long as the space between the lead dwarf and the troll is less than the number of dwarfs in the line. • Hurl: anywhere there is a straight (orthogonal or diagonal) line of adjacent dwarfs on the board. dwarf. This may only be done if the endmost dwarf can land on a troll by moving in the direction of the line at most as many spaces as there are dwarfs in the line. a dwarf may always move one space to capture a troll on an immediately adjacent square. On the trolls' turn. where it remains for the entire game and may not be moved onto or through. The Thudstone is placed on the centre square of the board. After the troll has been moved. at the troll player's discretion. whereupon the king agreed and simply broke one of his arms. but not onto or through any other piece. One player takes control of the dwarfs.Stealth Chess answer was that he wanted his board filled with gold: One small gold piece on the first square.

vertical or diagonal).far side of the valley. It may move only one square in any direction. Captures A troll captures a dwarf by trampling over it. 180 Tactics The basic overall strategy for the dwarfs to form a large group and for the trolls to try and stop them.Stealth Chess The battle is over when both players agree that no more captures can be made by continuing to play. Dwarfs may move the Rock instead of moving a dwarf piece. The players should then swap sides to play another round. A good tactic therefore is to be prepared to sacrifice a few dwarfs to get in the way and slow down any trolls that are advancing into dangerous positions. X for Thudstone.[3] A troll's strategy can also vary but at the start of a match getting into shoving lines is regarded as the best tactic. with the difference being the 'final' score. in which the publishers attempted to keep the game rules secret so that anyone wishing to play would have to buy the official set.onto any of the five squares on the opposite side of the board against which the dwarf commander is sitting. The board and initial positions for Thud: The Koom Valley. The trampled dwarf is removed from the board. A dwarf's strategy does widely depend on how the trolls are advancing on the dwarf block. To be moved it must be next to a dwarf and it must also be next to a dwarf at the end of its move. It moves in a straight line from a square next to the dwarf. D for Dwarves. dark gray . and the sum of their final scores for the two battles determines the overall victor. For the trolls to win they must capture the rock by placing three trolls adjacent to it (in any direction including diagonally). Truran devised a substantially different game that could be played with the same board and pieces. through the square the dwarf is on and lands on the empty square immediately beyond. the rules for Koom Valley Thud were posted on the official website [4] so that owners of the original edition would have access to the new rules. Unlike the original release. known as Koom Valley Thud. Koom Valley Thud For the 2005 rerelease of Thud. Objective For the dwarfs to win they must move the rock to the far side of the valley . .[3] It is normally better for the trolls to be widely spaced. If neither side can achieve their objective the game is drawn. At this point the players count score: the dwarfs score 1 point for each surviving dwarf. and the trolls score 4 for each remaining troll. T for Trolls. Movement Movement is the same as Classic Thud except that Trolls may now move up to 3 spaces in any direction (horizontal. or when one player has no more valid moves to make.

thudgame. info/ [7] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2006-12-15.uk/cmo/index. It can only be captured when a troll is moved. Retrieved 2006-12-15. com/ rules).html (Note from program author: 1. [3] Pratchett. References [1] Pratchett. million. com/ node/ 137). must all be in line. thudgame. This illustrates both what the official game set looks like. Bernard Pearson (2006-09-29). Trevor Truran. "Masked Thudplayer challenge!" (http:/ / www. . thudgame. including Pratchett's Story of Thud • Photograph of an official board [8] at BoardGameGeek. that troll is also captured Captures are only made when the capturing side moves a piece. com/ game/ 4532 [10] http:/ / www. "Rules for Classic Thud and Koom Valley Thud" (http:/ / www. 181 External links • The Fat Pack Playing Card Company [5] An eight suit pack of cards suitable for playing Cripple Mr Onion • The full rules. fatpackcards. I've lost the source. The program is embarrassingly poor. thudgame. The rock may be moved and come to rest next to three trolls. Terry. [4] http:/ / www. thudgame. nl/ thudboard . Dwarfs capture a troll by moving a dwarf so that the troll is trapped between two dwarfs in any straight line (including diagonally). boardgamegeek. The three pieces. two dwarfs and a troll. [2] Dewi Morgan (2006-08-08). "Rules for Classic Thud and Koom Valley Thud ("rules3")" (http:/ / www. so don't ask!) • Official site [7].org. and 2. Terry. com [6] http:/ / cripplemronion.Stealth Chess Several captures may be made in one move and a change of direction is allowed between captures. and the initial positions. If the dwarf that has been moved also traps another troll between itself and another dwarf. com/ kvt [5] http:/ / www. Trevor Truran. com/ rules). . com [8] http:/ / www. . com/ image/ 64064 [9] http:/ / www. Bernard Pearson (2006-09-29). [6] • A play-against-your-computer version is available at http://www. boardgamegeek.davebudd. Retrieved 2006-12-15. • Thud [9] at BoardGameGeek • ThudBoard [10] by Marc Boeren is software for playing Thud.

i. Pawns that reach the last rank do not get promoted immediately. they can be placed into the pocket and promoted to a piece of higher class. a piece in the pocket can be dropped on any empty position on the board. provided that the pocket is empty. The piece in the pocket can be put back on the board later. Instead of moving. Instead. There is no castling in this chess variant.Pocket mutation chess 182 Pocket mutation chess Pocket mutation chess is a chess variant invented by Mike Nelson in 2003. As a players move. except the last rank. it gets promoted to a piece of higher class. change it to the different piece. When placing the piece into the pocket the player can mutate the piece. The King cannot be placed into the pocket. a player can take one of their own pieces from the board and put it into the pocket. Class Usual pieces pawn bishop rook cardinal (bishop+knight) queen chancellor (rook+knight) cardinal rider (bishop+nightrider) chancellor rider (rook+nightrider) amazon (queen+knight) knight nightrider super bishop (bishop+king) super rook (rook+king) Combined with knight Combined with nightrider Combined with king Combined with nightrider and king 1 2 3 4 5 super cardinal (bishop+knight+king) super chancellor (rook+knight+king) super cardinal rider (bishop+nightrider+king) super chancellor rider (rook+nightrider+king) 6 7 8 amazon rider (queen+nightrider) . Classes of the pieces Besides usual pieces there are several fairy chess pieces in this game. White cannot use the pocket on the first move. The en passant rule applies as in standard chess. All pieces from the same class are of presumably the same (or close) value.e. Players make moves as in standard chess. but can do a double step from the second one. even if dropped there or moved from the first rank. The game is declared a draw if no capture or promotion was made for 50 consecutive moves.[1] In this game a player can take a piece from the board and put it into a pocket. If the piece is placed into the pocket from the last rank. All pieces are divided into the following classes.[2] Rules The starting position in this game is the same as in standard chess. Otherwise the player has an option to mutate the piece into a different piece of the same class. A pawn can make only a single step from the first rank. The game is one of Recognized Chess Variants at Chess Variant Pages. The choice of mutating (or not) must be made at the time the piece is removed.

D. (2007).dir/pocketmutation. ISBN 978-0955516801. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.Pocket mutation chess 183 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Nightrider makes any number of knight moves in the same direction.org/large. John Beasley. . [2] The Chess Variant Pages: Recognized Chess Variants (http:/ / www..html) by Mike Nelson. com/ rindex. p. 164. References [1] Pritchard. html) External links • Pocket mutation chess (http://www. chessvariants.chessvariants.

a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The opening setup Description Baroque chess is usually played on a standard 8×8 chessboard with the standard Staunton design of chess pieces. The rules that follow are widely found on the internet. he changed the name to Ultima. The initial setup of the pieces is the same as in standard Chess. Since the rules for Baroque were first laid down in 1962. Ih8 & Ca8 (corner counter symmetry). then one may readily see how similar they are to the castling maneuvers in Chess.center counter symmetry. They have the practical function of multiplying the number of games that are possible from the initial starting position. White moves first. Ia1 & Ch1. and he has suggested amendments to the rules. Kd1 & We1. to play by the 1962 rules. at the suggestion of his publisher. Abbott considers his invention flawed. except for two things that the players must first decide on . Ke8 & Wd8 (center counter symmetry). as in Chess. which continues.like the new name he attempted to give it .have been substantially ignored by the gaming community. and corner counter symmetry. it is sufficient to employ an algebraic form of notation. . and then corner counter symmetry requires each player to decide which of his "Rooks" will be turned upside down. For instance. In 1963. for the most part. but these suggestions . If the symmetry resolution phases that are usually found at the start of the game could somehow be put off for later. some regional variation has arisen. but other variants exist. and write the names of the pieces and the squares they are to be placed in. causing the game to diverge from Ultima. and 2. and the one that is turned upside down is the Immobilizer. (The one that remains upright is the Coordinator. Establishing the degree of symmetry Center counter symmetry allows either player to decide whether to switch his King and Withdrawer ("Queen") around. A variant popular among students at Cambridge University in 1974 is described on this webpage [1]. 1.Baroque chess 184 Baroque chess Baroque chess is a chess variant invented in 1962 by Robert Abbott.) After these two kinds of symmetries are determined. For purposes of recording the moves that are played in the game. by which name it is also known.

pawns are never promoted to another kind of piece. as chess pieces do. • The long-leapers. A pawn captures any opposing piece horizontally or vertically between the square to which the pawn moved and a friendly piece (i. represented by the inverted Rook. as it were . capture by jumping over an opposing piece in a straight line. Unlike Chess.e. All the other pieces capture enemy pieces in more complex ways. that is. represented by the unmarked Rook. it moves and takes just like the King in Chess. Also Imitators or Chameleons immobilize enemy Immobilizers to which they are adjacent. Pawns never capture diagonally. but immobilizes all adjacent enemy pieces. it must . and all but the King have different names. and allowing pieces to spread across the board more. • The Coordinator. This is considered a custodial form of capture because it has been likened to two men coming up on the sides of the person to be seized. The objective of the game is to capture the opposing king. and b) the intersection of the King's file and its own rank. pawns are the peasants of this game. the King is the one piece alone that is limited to moving exactly one square at a time. provided the next space is empty or open. This is a kind of privilege that attaches to them at birth. but have unique methods of capture. and taking hold of his arms to carry him off. by moving into a square that is occupied by an enemy piece. Fast play with a chess clock usually makes declaration of checkmate a very rare thing to achieve in actual face to face play.) Capturing All the pieces except for the King capture differently from their counterparts in chess. The remaining pieces all move like standard chess queens. unable to move diagonally. only horizontally or vertically.or pincers. Imitators cannot capture Imitators. they retain this privilege no matter where they go. In order for an Imitator to capture an enemy King. represented by the Knights. (There is no magic square to which pawns can be moved and then promoted. at the outset of the game. represented by the Bishops. move just like the Rook moves in Chess. captures by moving directly away from an adjacent piece. and restrict it to capturing the first enemy piece it encounters. The King is the only piece that captures. It appears that the choice between a Long-Leaper and a Single-Leaper tends to affect game play by encouraging "hunkering down" and overdefending pieces. They have this power as a matter of privilege. A long-leaper may make multiple captures in the same line as long as each piece is jumped independently. does not capture anything. on the other hand. Just as in Chess. • The Withdrawer (or Retreater). except when they find themselves next to an Immobilizer (see below). • The Imitators (or Chameleons). there may be no gaps between any of the three pieces). these are found after the Coordinator has moved. Those variants of Baroque prohibiting multiple leaps call this piece the Leaper. • The pawns . in all directions. Pieces The names of the pieces and rules for movement are as follows: • The King moves and captures like a standard chess King. Friendly pieces are never allowed to capture other friendly pieces.move like standard chess Rooks. capture any piece by moving as a piece of the type captured would have moved to capture. All of the remaining pieces on the first rank may move like the Queen. represented by the Queen. • The Immobilizer. and is never diminished. captures any opposing piece that is on either of the two squares found at a) the intersection of its own file and the King's rank.Baroque chess 185 Moving In Baroque. with less attention to bulky blockades. The pawns. as they are all considered to be Noble pieces.

. and captures by 'occupation' and 'replacement' .stepping into the enemy's square to capture it. Diagrammed examples are indispensable to understanding the rules. thus the d5 square is not under attack by black. as that would place his own King in check from the black Withdrawer. King The white King moves c4-d5 delivering checkmate. Normally it would not be possible for the two kings to be adjacent. Capturing the Withdrawer with c4-d3 would result in stalemate. Note that white could not play c4-d4. but here the black king is unable to move due to the white immobilizer on f4. as black would then have no legal moves. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 186 The King's movement.Baroque chess begin its turn adjacent to it. and step into its square. This is because the King is the only piece on the board that steps one square at a time. and the white king is not moving into check. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Pincer's movement.

Withdrawer The White Withdrawer moves g6-d3. Note that the Withdrawer also gives check to the Black King by threatening to move away on the d-file. . a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Long-Leaper's movement. capturing the black pawn on h7. the Black Long-leaper on g3 was safe because it moved between the two white pawns.Baroque chess 187 Pawn/Pincer The white pawn (or Pincer) moves g4-d4. not diagonally. The Black Imitator (Chameleon) on d3 is not captured. because there is no white piece on d2. Finally. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Withdrawer's movement. rather than a white pawn moving to complete the custodial capture. capturing the Black Immobilizer and black pawn. The pawn on g7 and the Imitator (Chameleon) on h6 are unaffected because the Withdrawer did not move in their respective lines. The Black Withdrawer on e5 is not captured because pawns capture only vertically and horizontally. but the Withdrawer could have captured either by a move in the g-file or sixth rank respectively.

This kind of capture can be visualized by imagining an invisible cross emanating from the square the King is sitting on. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . If White had played d4-d6 instead. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Coordinator's movement. capturing three black pieces. By requiring the Leaper to stop its movement immediately after capturing the first piece. because there is no space in between the two pawns which would allow the Long Leaper to make two separate jumps. Some variations of Baroque forbid multi-leaping. The Coordinator threatens only pieces on the same rank or file as the friendly King. the black pawn on b2 and the Black Chameleon on d1 are safe from the Long Leaper because there is no square on the opposite side on which the Long Leaper could land.Baroque chess 188 Long-Leaper The white Long-Leaper moves d2-d4-d6-d8. It might instead have captured the Black Withdrawer with either d2-g5 or d2-h6. he would have captured black's Leaper and pawn. The points where these two crosses intersect are the places where captures are possible. if only because it is felt that the game is more playable if the Leaper is less powerful. and another invisible cross emanating from the square the Coordinator arrives at. Also the black pawns on f2 and g2 cannot be captured by d2-h2. On the other hand. capturing black's Leaper on c6 and Immobilizer on f2. that objective is met. Coordinator The White Coordinator moves d4-f6. A move of d2-b4 would be illegal because long leapers may not jump over friendly pieces.

in which case the Immobilizer itself must first be immobilized. not on a diagonal move. effectively cancelling out each other's power to arrest movement. which had been immobilized. the Black Leaper on c5 may wish to commit suicide. White cannot hinder this plan. the power of an enemy Immobilizer to arrest a friendly piece's movement is defeated when another friendly Immobilizer or Chameleon is brought up to it. the white chameleon moves g6-e6-c6. Some versions of Baroque allow an immobilized piece to commit suicide. • It captures the black long-leapers by jumping over them. When an Immobilizer comes into contact with an Enemy Chameleon or Immobilizer.Baroque chess The Immobilizer's movement. i. be removed from the board. The black Leaper on g4. the two pieces freeze each other. • It captures the black withdrawer by moving away from it. In the absence of the two black leapers. but it captures only the two leapers. There may be strategic reasons to open a line. because the Immobilizer is itself immobilized by the Black chameleon. • It captures three black pawns by surrounding them. For example. • It delivers check by moving adjacent to the black king. Chameleon/Imitator On the diagram on the right. . astoundingly capturing all seven black pieces except the king in one move and delivering check. The move is legal. or Imitator (Chameleon). An Immobilizer can never be captured by an Immobilizer. In the Cambridge rules. (A chameleon can only capture pawns on a horizontal move or vertical move. immobilizing 5 black pieces. this capture is not possible. In the version played at Cambridge. is now free to move again. 189 Immobilizer The White Immobilizer moves f3-d5. because the move is not a legal move for any of the other target pieces. so that the other Leaper can capture the White Immobilizer by jumping over it on the fifth rank. after which neither can move unless the other is captured. the same move would capture the other five pieces.e. in lieu of the regular move of that player. An Immobilizer can never be captured by a King or Withdrawer unless the variation popular in Cambridge is being played. after the above diagrammed move.) • It captures the black coordinator by rank/file coordination with the white king. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Chameleon's movement.

Instead of moving. A matching pair of squares are also on the other side of the board. never capturing it. with the effect of taking one enemy piece alongside it.Baroque chess 190 Variants Maxima Baroque played on a somewhat larger board that is mostly rectangular but for a couple extra squares that are outside the board. Although one objective of the game is to capture the King. As is usual for most pieces of the Baroque family. but captures the enemy piece it has run up next to. Rococo Rococo is a species of Baroque that is played on a 10x10 board for the purposes of captures. The only way that they can effect capture is by leaping. and suiciding in the process. Rococo has a similarly named Swapper piece that moves like a Queen. Renaissance to Baroque—Pieces may be revived and reborn. or leap over any adjacent piece (friend or foe). Consistent with the concept of the Swapper (or Resurrector) being a piece wholly incapable of killing. To put it another way. it can also step into any adjacent empty square. . In addition to the traditional Baroque pieces. in lieu of moving. they can push or pull it by 1 square. it merely runs up to it. stepping 1 square in all directions. stopping just short of the piece taken. the empty square on the other side must be open (except for the unusual circumstance of driving a King into an enemy piece. regardless of the captured one being a friendly or enemy piece. an alternative objective allows depositing a piece in the pair of squares on the other side of the board. Optima Baroque that is similar to Maxima with additional pieces and rules. They can move like Queens for ordinary purposes. Renaissance As Shogi is to Chess. a Bomb need merely explode to effect the destruction of both friendly pieces and enemy pieces adjacent to itself. and stops short by 1 square. or an Imitator into a King. but on the inner 8x8 square just inside it for the purpose of movement. are not capable of unassisted capture: the Pusher and the Puller. the cannonball pawns can be promoted into other pieces when they reach the other side of the board. but for the purpose of exercising their special powers. If they begin adjacent to a piece (regardless if friendly or foe). Although. a full Queen's move away. just beyond the Black King and Queen (D9 and E9). but for swapping actions must move like a King. their pushing and pulling maneuvers can result in other pieces being forced to make captures. and leave behind a previously captured piece resurrected by placing it in the square just vacated. For a Pusher. Rococo has an Advancer piece that moves like a Queen. though the Swapper is like a piece of life. the outer perimeter of squares can only be entered as a result of a capturing maneuver. seen in that light.) Although the Pushers and Pullers are not capable of capture. What sets Rococo apart from Baroque the most is the way the pawns work. Apparently as compensation for their limited mobility. they must be adjacent to the affected piece at the start of the turn. it can be transformed into a 1 square Bomb when captured and readmitted to the board . There are also two more pieces that. making for a game with much more fluid movement of pieces. located at D0 and E0 just behind the King and Queen's squares. provided it is not at the same time immobilized. like the Coordinator. Unlike Baroque. The Rococo Swapper has the unusual property of self-destructing at will. Unlike the game of Renaissance described above. the King in Maxima moves like the Knight in Chess. trading places with any adjacent piece (both friend or foe). but trades places with the enemy it runs up to. they are called cannonball pawns and move like a King. Renaissance is played on a 9x9 board with a Swapper (or Resurrector or Ankh) that moves like a Queen for all ordinary purposes.but capable only of death. The destruction of pieces in this way causes all effected to be unrevivable. the Advancer will not enter into the space vacated by the captured piece. and landing on the enemy piece. They cannot capture like a King does.

D. p. Games & Puzzles Publications. inference. • Pritchard. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. made concrete by the establishment of well-defined pawn structures. html http:/ / www. html . Instead. html http:/ / www. org/ pbm/ presets/ ultima. 104-107. fine nuances in maneuvering are made possible by locking positions together. chessvariants. html http:/ / www. already significantly different from traditional chess. uk/ mackay/ ultima/ ultima. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. dir/ rococo. 329-330.Play Ultima against others online References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. chessvariants. Baroque. Popular Chess Variants.Animated GIFs show how the pieces capture. ac. • Ultima on Game Courier [6] . org/ other. org/ other. com/ games/ ultima. cam. logicmazes. Ch. (2000). rarely coming into contact with each other without advance preparation. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. chessvariants. Ultima. (1994).Baroque chess The pawn formations unique to the parent game. html http:/ / www. Rococo's cannonball pawns seem to hang away from enemy pieces by two or three squares. are not seen in Rococo. org/ other. phy. html http:/ / play. however. 191 Further reading • Pritchard. This sort of thing is lacking in Rococo. dir/ ultimapieces. D. External links • Ultima [2] by Robert Abbott • Ultima [3] from the Chess Variant Pages • Rococo [4] from the Chess Variant Pages • An Illustrated Guide to Ultima Pieces [5] . p. 18 Ultima. dir/ ultima. Bastford Chess Books. chessvariants. In both Chess and Baroque.

Dabbaba. including standard FIDE army. can jump. Can jump for knight moves. There are several armies of equal strength to choose from. In the latter case the king when castling long moves to b1 and rook replacement to c1. Fers. Nutty Knights or Remarkable Rookies army. The game can be played with standard chess pieces and the following move diagrams use standard pieces as well (except queens). wazir and dabbaba (see their movement diagrams above). All armies are designed to be equal in strength. . Moves as bishop or knight. Alfil. like in colorbound clobberers army. Colorbound Clobberers a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cardinal. This is so colorbound pieces don't change square color. In all armies kings and pawns are the same as in FIDE chess. The castling is done as in standard chess with exception of the case when rook replacement is a colorbound. can jump. kings and pawns move the same as in chess for all armies. alfil. Pawns can only promote to pieces available in either player's army at the start. but have significantly different properties. Many pieces in the following armies are combination of standard chess pieces and 4 fairy pieces: fers. but other pieces are different. predefined by tournament rules. Each player has a choice of 4 armies[2] : the Fabulous FIDEs. This can be done either randomly or secretly by both players. where all pieces move as in standard chess.Chess with different armies 192 Chess with different armies Chess with different armies (or Betza chess[1] ) is a chess variant in which two sides use different sets of fairy pieces. Colorbound Clobberers. Wazir. Rules Before the game players choose their armies in a certain way.

a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Waffle.Chess with different armies 193 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h FAD. Moves as fers. Can jump by orthogonal moves. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bede. Can jump by diagonal moves. Moves as bishop or dabbaba. . Moves as wazir or alfil.) Can jump for all moves. alfil or dabbaba (hence the name.

. Moves as king or as rook forward and sideways or as knight forward. Moves as king backward and sideways and as knight forward. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Charging knight.Chess with different armies 194 Nutty Knights a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Colonel. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Charging rook. Moves as king backwards or as rook forward and sideways.

a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Half duck. Moves as fers or dabbaba or jump 3 squares in orthogonal directions. .Chess with different armies 195 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Fibnif. Moves as fers or as a knight for its two longest forwards and backwards moves. Moves as rook or knight. Remarkable Rookies a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chancellor.

Chess with different armies 196 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Short rook. In initial version of the game there were 8 armies[1] and in these armies the king moved differently than the king in the standard chess. invented by Betza and other people: • • • • • • • Amazon Army[3] (Ralph Betza). Pizza Kings[7] (John Lawson). a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Woody rook. for example berolina pawns. Fighting Fizzies[5] (Peter Aronson). Forward FIDEs[6] (Ralph Betza). . However. fairy pawns could be selected. Seeping Switchers[9] (Jörg Knappen). Moves as rook. Cylindrical Cinders[4] (Ralph Betza). Meticulous Mashers[8] (Ralph Betza). Instead of normal pawns. Other armies The four armies described above were play tested by Ralph Betza and selected as most balanced ones. Moves as dabbaba or as wazir. There are other armies. later Betza abandoned the idea of using fairy pieces for king and pawn[10] and reduced the number of armies to four. but not more than 4 spaces. Can jump for all moves.

A move may optionally include a single 90-degree change in direction. chessvariants. dir/ seeping-switchers. org/ d. html) by John Lawson. com/ dpieces. The game finishes when one of the players captures their opponent's key piece. [2] Chess with different armies (http:/ / www. dir/ fighting-fizzies. chessvariants. [8] The Meticulous Mashers (http:/ / www. betza/ chessvar/ cvda/ cylind01. chessvariants. chessvariants. org/ d. html) by Ralph Betza. (1994). dir/ pizza-kings. chessvariants. html) by Peter Aronson [6] The Forward FIDEs (http:/ / www. To ensure true fairness. org/ unequal. html) by Jörg Knappen. [3] The Amazon Army (http:/ / www. html) by Ralph Betza. with the ultimate aim of capturing the opponent's king to win the game. the capturing player wins. html) by Ralph Betza Duell Duell is a two-player chess variant played with dice on a board of 9x8 squares. org/ d. with the "key piece" (equivalent to the king in chess. betza/ chessvar/ cvda/ amazon. or when a players' key piece lands in the opponents "key space" (the square initially occupied by the key piece at the start of the game. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. . Players take turns moving one of their dice in order to capture their opponent's pieces. html) by Ralph Betza. [10] Different Kings and Pawns? (http:/ / www. org/ d. betza/ chessvar/ dan/ danx-70. chessvariants. and there is no penalty for not doing so when possible. Gameplay Players take it in turn to move one piece the number of squares shown on the outermost face (at the start of that move) by rolling it along the direction of travel such that the uppermost number changes with each square moved. The pieces are placed so that from left to right the following numbers appear face up: 5 1 2 6 1 6 2 1 5. html) by Ralph Betza. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. chessvariants. chessvariants. org/ d. in the center of the home row). which has a "1" on each face) appearing in the middle and the 3s facing towards the controlling player. org/ unequal. Setup The board is placed between the two players such that the eight rows of nine squares run left to right. each die should be of the same chirality. betza/ chessvar/ cda/ meticulous. D. Captures are not compulsory. betza/ chessvar/ dan/ forfid. dir/ cwda. [7] The Pizza Kings (http:/ / www. org/ unequal. [9] The Seeping Switchers (http:/ / www. Opposing pieces are captured by landing on the occupied square with the final move. chessvariants. it was previously published in the UK as "Conquest" and "The George v Mildred Dice Game" and in Germany as "Tactix". Designed by Geoffrey Hayes. [4] The Cylindrical Cinders (http:/ / www. Moves may not pass though existing pieces of either color. [5] The Fighting Fizzies (http:/ / www. html) by Ralph Betza. Games & Puzzles Publications.Chess with different armies 197 References [1] Pritchard.

the piece can move in the direction indicated by the square's location relative to the central square. Gess was created by the Puzzles and Games Ring of The Archimedeans. "Black" and "White". it may move up to three spaces. • A piece consists of a 3 × 3 grid of squares. Each piece can move as determined by the stones in its footprint: • The central square determines the extent of the piece's movement. A move must always change the stone configuration on the board. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. There must be at least one stone on the eight squares around the central square. The starting position of Gess.Duell 198 References • Pritchard. There is no passing. B. If a square has a stone. all of the stones in its footprint move in unison. Only stones of one colour may be in the grid. • Two players. htm Gess Gess is a strategic board game for two players. D. It was popularized by Ian Stewart's Mathematical Recreations column in the November 1994 issue of Scientific American. The name was chosen as a conflation of "chess" and "go". the piece cannot move in that direction. . involving a grid board and mutating pieces. If the square is unoccupied. • When the footprint of a piece coincides with any other stones on the board. each have 43 stones of their colour on the board in the starting configuration. and first published in 1994 in the society's magazine Eureka. it may move any number of spaces. if a square is unoccupied. and is thus homophonous with "guess". ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1 External links • Duell rules [1] References [1] http:/ / aboardgamesdatabase. It is pronounced with a hard "g" as in "go". • A piece can only be moved by the player whose stones are inside the grid. players take turns moving a piece on the board. if it is occupied by a stone. (2007). Rules • Gess is played on a grid of 18 × 18 squares. at least one of which must exist on the board. • Starting with Black. those stones are removed from the board and the move ends. • The 3 × 3 grid is termed the footprint of the piece. John Beasley. • As a piece moves. com/ rules/ duell/ duell. • Each of the eight surrounding squares determines the directions the piece can move.

original article at the online Eureka archive • GESS -. rook and pawn in this order R . queen. The game objective. In total there are 510 possible sets of a footprint. • A move also may end before any stone is removed. External links • Gess the Game [1]. and the starting position needs only 43 each of the black and white stones. Gess @ chessvariants. Notation The rows are named 2 to 19 (1 and 20 being outside the grid). the starting position uses these rules to emulate chess pieces: king. the player who has just moved loses. that player loses the game.B .Q . A move is notated by noting the place of the centre of the footprint at the beginning of a move and its place at the end of the move. • A ring is any piece consisting of eight stones around an empty central square. bishop. • The game object is to be the only player with a ring piece on the board: when.Gess • If the footprint moves partially out of the board. to remove the opponent's "ring" (described as a piece that moves like a chess king) also mimics that of chess.K . html . however. If neither player has a ring piece. html [2] http:/ / www. the move ends. The 19 × 19 line grid is simultaneously an 18 × 18 grid of squares. 199 Equipment A go set is one easy way to assemble the equipment needed for gess. uk/ eureka/ 53/ gess. Influences The rules describe a highly variable set of pieces.a New chess/go variant [2].R in the last row (black's view) and 6 pawns in the next row. archim. dir/ gess. at the end of any turn. The stones of the piece which are on a square that has moved out of the board are removed. org. com/ crossover. which will often change every turn. chessvariants. a player has no ring pieces on the board. and the files are named b to s (a and t again being outside the grid).B .com with links to a java applet to play Gess References [1] http:/ / www.

position after 1. The elephant and the hawk are introduced to the game in the following way: whenever the player moves a piece (king. one of the pieces in hand may be placed immediately on the square just vacated. moves as a rook or a knight. Yasser Seirawan has given simultaneous exhibitions for the game. For example. The first ever event was a 12 board simultaneous exhibition held March 31. queen. he forfeits the right to do so. . Nc3/Eb1 means that the player moved his knight from b1 to c3 and placed the elephant on b1 (see diagram). the letter E is used for the Elephant and H for the Hawk. One cannot use the placing of an elephant or hawk to block check. 1. 2007 in Vancouver.[2] Rules The initial position is that of standard chess. When notating games in algebraic notation. After castling. White moved his Queen Knight from b1 to c3 and placed the Elephant on b1.200 Variants with bishop+knight and rook+knight compounds Seirawan chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Seirawan chess. and • The Hawk. Nc3/Eb1. bishop or rook) from its starting position (that hasn't already been moved).[1] It is played on the standard 8x8 board and uses two new pieces. knight. Seirawan chess is a chess variant invented by grandmaster Yasser Seirawan in 2007. Each side has additionally two pieces in hand (a hawk and an elephant): • The Elephant. the hawk (which moves like a knight or a bishop) and the elephant (which moves like a knight or a rook). but he may not place both pieces in hand in the same turn. If the player places one of the two pieces on the board. it's written after a slash. the player may put one of the pieces in hand on either the king's or the rook's square. Pawns may promote to a hawk or an elephant in this game (in addition to the normal chess pieces). moves as a bishop or a knight. If the player moves all his pieces from the first rank without placing one or both in hand pieces. Canada.

References [1] Seirawan chess (http:/ / www.[3] The name SHARPER Chess (a combination of the names Seirawan and Harper) has been suggested.yahoo. The Janus (knight + bishop compound) is placed on the b-file and i-file. beside the rooks. photos and videos. Each Janus is placed between a rook and a knight. Note that the Janus is the only piece in this game which is able to checkmate the opponent's king without the assistance of any other piece. • Seirawan chess videos (http://video.se/melki9/seirawanchess. Janus Chess is a chess variant played on a 10×8 board.com/?t=t&p=seirawan+chess) • Chessvariants. This piece is named after the Roman god Janus because this god was usually depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions. a conservative drop chess (http://hem. [3] Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan explains Seirawan (http:/ / video. com/ seirawan-chess.htm) by M. . It features a new piece. com/ seirawan-simul.org entry on game (http://www. if the king is in a corner. html) [2] Seirawan chess simultaneous (http:/ / www.passagen. Janus Chess was invented in 1978 by Werner Schöndorf from Bildstock. with the combined moves of a bishop and a knight.org/index/msdisplay. php?itemid=MLseirawanchess) Janus chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Janus Chess. The relative position of the king and queen is reversed compared to chess. yahoo. Germany. html). chessmastery.Seirawan chess 201 Name GM Seirawan has expressed dissatisfaction with the name Seirawan chess. chessmastery. depending upon which side to castle is chosen. The usual set of chess pieces is extended with two pawns and two Januses per player. After castling the king is placed on either the b-file or i-file and a rook is placed on either the c-file or h-file. noting that the variant was a joint development with friend Bruce Harper. com/ watch/ 1947363) External links • Seirawan chess.chessvariants. the Janus (also known as archbishop or cardinal). Winther.

[1] He believed that chess would be played out in a few decades and games between grandmasters would always end in draws. BrainKing. Capablanca chess (or Capablanca's chess) is a chess variant invented in the 1920s by former World Chess Champion José Raúl Capablanca. chessvariants. archbishop placed diagonally with one square in between). Bodlaender. The threat of "draw death" for chess was his main motivation for creating a more complex and richer version of the game.com [1] . Péter Lékó and Artur Yusupov. the archbishop by itself can checkmate a lone king (king in a corner. dir/ janus. • The archbishop combines powers of a bishop and a knight.a program which plays Janus Chess. and not as a "sour grapes" rationalization after losing his title as some critics have asserted. html [2] http:/ / www. Capablanca proposed the variant while World Champion. Several chess grandmasters play this game including Viktor Korchnoi. • The chancellor combines powers of a rook and a knight. For example. The new pieces have properties that enrich the game. Janusschach [2] . . Archbishop is placed between knight and bishop on the queen's side. 202 External links • • • • Janus Chess [1] by Hans L. org/ large.Janus chess This chess variant is quite popular in Europe. ChessV [3] . de/ [3] http:/ / www. It incorporates two new pieces and is played on a 10×8 board. References [1] http:/ / www. chessv. janusschach.a server which plays Janus Chess over the internet. chancellor on the king's side. com Capablanca chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Capablanca chess.Janus Chess (in German).

I played many test games with Capablanca. Archbishop and Chancellor. Henry Bird proposed a chess variant similar to Carrera's variant. Bird used names guard instead of chancellor and equerry instead of archbishop. The Adventure of Chess.. Lasker was one of the few supporters. Other attempts mostly differ only by the arrangement of pieces and the castling rules. though he is the most famous. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Carrera Chess. The game was largely forgotten after the death of the inventor. he proposed that the archbishop be placed between the bishop and the queen and that the chancellor be placed between the king and the king's bishop. and they rarely lasted more than twenty or twenty-five moves. Chancellor was on the king's side and archbishop on the queen's side. He also experimented with 10×10 board sizes. Carrera used names champion instead of chancellor and centaur instead of archbishop. Variants that predate Capablanca Chess Capablanca was not the first person to add the Chancellor and the Archbishop to the normal Chess set. He placed new pieces between a rook and a knight. In 1874. and the chancellor was between the king's knight and bishop. In his book. making the minor pieces less relevant. thought that there were too many strong pieces. The chancellor was placed between the queen's bishop and queen and the archbishop was placed between the king's bishop and king. We tried boards of 10×10 squares and 10×8 squares. . Hungarian grandmaster Géza Maróczy also played some games with Capablanca (who got the better of him). Edward Lasker writes (p. The names for new pieces. and we concluded that the latter was preferable because hand-to-hand fights start earlier on it. were introduced by Capablanca himself. These names are still used in most modern variants of Capablanca Chess. 39): . Earliest chess variant on 8×10 board with archbishop and chancellor. where the pawns could move up to three squares on the initial move. which contained a description of a chess variant played on 8×10 board.Capablanca chess 203 Setup of the pieces Capablanca proposed two opening setups for Capablanca Chess.. In 1617. British champion William Winter. Pietro Carrera published a book Il Gioco degli Scacchi. He subsequently revised the opening setup so that the archbishop was between the queen's knight and bishop. One of the few rational critics. The only significant difference was the opening setup. allowing white to threaten mate on the first move. This setup has the flaw that it leaves the pawn in front of the king's bishop undefended. In one opening setup.

Another predecessor of Capablanca chess. In 2007 Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan devised a variant (called Seirawan chess). This game combines ideas of Fischer Random Chess and Capablanca Chess. Variants that postdate Capablanca Chess Capablanca Chess has inspired a number of chess variants. may immediately place either of the two pieces on the bishop's square. 10×10 board. . Grotesque Chess [3] (2004) by Fergus Duniho. It uses Capablanca Chess pieces upon a larger. The player. It also applies the sound principle which demands that in the starting position. Ladorean Chess [5] (2005) by Bernhard U. Paulovich's variation [7] (2004) by David Paulovich. Embassy Chess (2005) by Kevin Hill. Hermes.Capablanca chess 204 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h i j Bird's chess. Schoolbook Chess [6] (2006) by Sam Trenholme. all pawns are protected by at least one piece. Modern Capablanca Random Chess [8] (2008) by José Carrillo. If the player moves all his eight officers without placing the Hawk or the Elephant (Seirawan's names for the Archbishop and the Chancellor. Grand Chess (1984) by Christian Freeling. • • • • • • • • • • Aberg's variation [2] (2003) by Hans Aberg. Variants which use a different board There are also variants of Capablanca Chess that do not use the standard 10×8 board. a bishop) from the first rank. Grand chess is a popular chess variant invented by Dutch game designer Christian Freeling in 1984. Univers Chess [4] (2006) by Fergus Duniho. respectively). invented in 2004 by Reinhard Scharnagl. after moving a piece (for example. Another interesting recent development is Capablanca Random Chess. which adds the two pieces to the standard game in a different manner. he forfeits his right to do so. It is noteworthy that Embassy Chess uses a starting position identical to Grand Chess adapted to a 10×8 board. Gothic Chess (2002) by Ed Trice.

start position Capablanca chess has inspired many chess variants.Capablanca chess 205 a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h i j Grand Chess. The chancellor and archbishop are at right of the king. . W1 W1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W3 W3 A B C D E F G H I J W4 A B C D E F G H I J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 W4 W2 W2 Omega Chess . including grand chess and omega chess.

http:/ / www.Capablanca chess 206 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] "In Moscow" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-486-20510-X. html http:/ / www. dir/ grotesque. html). time.pdf) Capablanca random chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Capablanca Random Chess. org/ large.chessvariants. chessvariants.B. org/ index/ displaycomment.00.com/shots/texts/values-capa. dir/ capablancavariation. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. org/ index/ msdisplay. org/ large. Pritchard (1994). The Adventure of Chess. .[1] . One of the 12118 possible starting positions. org/ large. • Edward Lasker (1959). chessvariants. dir/ ladorean_chess. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. chessvariants. org/ large. dir/ univers. Time. Bodlaender • Capablanca Chess | material values of pieces (http://www.html) by Hans L.symmetryperfect. php?commentid=7258 http:/ / www.org/large. 1925-12-07. chessvariants. html http:/ / www.9171. It combines the piece set and 10x8 board from Capablanca Chess with the permutation idea of Fischer Random Chess. Capablanca Random Chess (CRC) is a chess variant invented by Reinhard Scharnagl in 2004. External links • Capablanca Chess (http://www. chessvariants. chessvariants. html http:/ / www. chessvariants.721501.dir/capablanca. org/ index/ msdisplay. php?itemid=MPmoderncapablan • D. php?itemid=MSschoolbook http:/ / www. This game won a contest in 2005 held at The Chess Variant Pages to design a chess variant based upon the theme of the number 10. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. html http:/ / www.

• The king must be between the rooks. • The queen and the archbishop (which are composite pieces possessing. . The fifth restriction is to avoid possible legal issues in America with Gothic Chess. html). Extended FEN Encoding Within Capablanca Random Chess. • The starting position must be different from that of Gothic Chess.com/shots/texts/ values-capa. The first restriction is taken from Fischer Random Chess for the purpose of balancing the power of colorbound bishops. in part. which was formerly protected by a US patent. The fourth restriction helps to minimize the advantage held by white in having the first move of the game. the movement powers of bishops) must also be on opposite colored spaces. Together. The pieces on the first rank are placed in a random way with the following restrictions: • Bishops must be on opposite colored spaces.pdf) . The sixth restriction was introduced later upon discovery by Reinhard Scharnagl that such positions might increase the first move of the game advantage for white.symmetryperfect. chessvariants. The third restriction is taken from Fischer Random Chess to preserve castling ability.118 starting positions. Retrieved 2007-08-19. • All pawns must be protected in initial setup. these six rules restrict the opening setup to 12. The Chess Variant Pages. External links • Capablanca Random Chess | material values of pieces (http://www. References [1] "Contest to design a 10-chess variant" (http:/ / www. The second restriction is based upon the first restriction but extrapolated to the unique piece set used within CRC. 2005-12-25. X-FEN is used (to represent positions). White and black pieces are set up in symmetrical position. • Starting positions with neighbouring bishops must be avoided. org/ contests/ 10/ index.Capablanca random chess 207 Rules The rules are the same as in Capablanca chess but initial setup is randomized.

htm) Patent 6. gov/ web/ offices/ com/ sol/ og/ 2007/ week03/ patexpi. php?itemid=GothicChess) retrieved August 11.716 expired on November 19. External links • Play Gothic Chess online (http://grandgames.716 (http:/ / patft. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ srchnum.com/shots/texts/values-capa. which is shown right.481. PN. org/ index/ displayitem.[4] References [1] Chessvariants. It was patented in 2002. which was won by his own Gothic Vortex computer program. starting position Gothic Chess is a chess variant derived from Capablanca Chess by Ed Trice.symmetryperfect.pdf) .gothicchess.net/) • The Gothic Chess Federation (http://www. 2009 [2] United States Patent 6. ICGA Journal 27 (4): 249–254.org page on Gothic Chess (http:/ / www. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=6481716.Gothic Chess 208 Gothic Chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Gothic Chess. "The 2004 Gothic Chess Computer World Championship". Tournaments In 2004. & OS=PN/ 6481716& RS=PN/ 6481716) Method of playing a variant of chess [3] Notice of Expiration of Patents Due to Failure to Pay Maintenance Fee (http:/ / www. uspto.[1] [2] [3] It is played on the same 10×8 board and additional pieces as in Capablanca Chess. 2006 [4] Trice E (Dec 2004). but the patent expired in 2006. chessvariants. Trice organized the Gothic Chess Computer World Championship.com) • CRC | material values of pieces (http://www.481. The only difference is the starting position.

White castled king-side. All other rules.Embassy Chess 209 Embassy Chess a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Embassy chess. Embassy chess is a free. like en passant are the same as in chess. a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Castling in Embassy chess. • The cardinal moves as both a bishop and a knight. The castling in this chess variant is done by king moving 3 spaces in rook direction. black queen-side. . non-commercial Capablanca random chess variant that is played on a 10x8 board with two additional pawns per side and two fairy chess pieces: the marshall and the cardinal. see diagram at right. starting position Embassy chess is a chess variant created in 2005 by Kevin Hill.[1] • The marshall moves as both a rook and a knight. It borrows the opening setup from Grand chess by Christian Freeling and adapts it to the 10x8 board.

The game was invented by Gabriel Vicente Maura in 1968.brainking. .symmetryperfect. org/ index/ zillions. such as this one [2]. It was selected as one out of eleven 8x10 board games featured in ChessV (developed by Gregory Strong). Modern chess is a chess variant played on a 9x9 board. automatically be loaded for play against a computer opponent. Besides the usual set of chess pieces.org/chessv/) • BrainKing (http://www. If escape is not possible. with the objective being to checkmate the opponent's king. References [1] Embassy chess rules (http:/ / brainking. php?itemid=zLargeChess External links • Game Courier | Embassy Chess (http://play.com/shots/texts/values-capa. the standard rules of chess still apply. A player still may resign at any point in the game.Embassy Chess 210 Computer implementations Embassy chess is supported by at least three multi-variant programs available in the chess variant world. • CRC | material values of pieces (http://www. its opening setup can conveniently. In both programs.pdf) Modern chess a 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i b c d e f g h i 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Modern chess. Otherwise. and en passant is legal. each player has an additional piece with a corresponding pawn: • a Prime Minister that moves as both a bishop and a knight.com) .chessvariants. Prime Minister is placed to the left of the King. the game is lost.php?game=Embassy+Chess& settings=default) • ChessV (http://samiam.org/pbm/play. chessvariants. [2] http:/ / www. The king piece must be moved out of check when it is placed in check. com/ en/ GameRules?tp=41) by Filip Rachunek.a server where you can play Embassy Chess. It is also possible to play Embassy chess in Zillions of Games using a third-party rules file. It was selected as one out of seven 10x8 board games featured in SMIRF (developed by Reinhard Scharnagl).

• The cardinal combines powers of a bishop and a knight. 1999) and John Vehre (2001). A series of Grand chess Cyber World Championship matches was sponsored by the Dutch game site Mindsports. Past title holders included R. rules governing pawn moves and promotion.Modern chess 211 External links • Modern chess [1] by Hans Bodlaender References [1] http:/ / www.[3] . • The marshall combines powers of a rook and a knight. Wayne Schmittberger (1998. But differences in initial start position. chessvariants. dir/ modern. Grand chess is a popular[1] large-board chess variant invented by Dutch games designer Christian Freeling in 1984. html Grand chess a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Grand chess initial position. and castling make them significantly different games. com/ large. The marshall and cardinal are at the right of the king.[2] It is played on a 10×10 board. A superficial similarity exists between Grand chess and an early version of the historic chess variant Capablanca chess because the same pieces and game board are used. with each side having two additional pawns and two new pieces: the marshall and the cardinal. Grand chess tournaments were held annually beginning in 1998 by the (now defunct) correspondence game club kNights Of the Square Table (NOST).

com/ 2007/ 08/ 19/ crosswords/ chess/ 19chess. chessvariants. nytimes." (Freeling) . NOST held an annual convention and enjoyed several hundred active members (Pritchard 1994:210). As in chess. implemented specifically to solve a problem. dir/ freeling. for the same advantage. . org/ large. The white rooks alone are positioned on the first rank. even if it can't yet legally move to the first rank. or three rooks. pawns retain their usual distance and rooks are free from the onset. etc. The Chess Variants server. Unlike standard chess. html). but it needed an ad hoc fix to do so. Chess turned out a great game despite its problem. "Christian Freeling's Grand Chess" (http:/ / www. [4] "We're so used to castling that we tend to forget that it is the weirdest move in Chess. In Grand Chess. and they may also capture en passant. The black rooks are placed the same. "Giraffes. It can still give check from the second rank to a white king on the first rank. but must promote upon reaching the tenth rank. As in standard chess. which makes it easier for them to activate earlier in the game since they are not blocked by the other pieces as they are in standard chess. But there is no castling in Grand chess. pawns can move one or two squares on their first move. a pawn may be promoted only to a previously captured piece of the same color.[4] Notes [1] Hans Bodlaender and John William Brown. Retrieved 2008-12-07.) If no captured piece is available for promoting a white pawn about to reach the tenth rank. and Black's pawns are set up on the eighth rank. [2] Dylan Loeb McClain (2007-08-19). checkmate is a win and stalemate is a draw. Retrieved 2008-12-13.Grand chess 212 Rules a 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i j b c d e f g h i j 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White's major pieces are set up on the first and second ranks as shown in the diagram. A white pawn may elect to either promote or remain a pawn upon reaching the eighth and ninth ranks. Similarly. [3] Formed in 1960 by Bob Lauzon and Jim France. html). but must promote in order to move to the first rank. White's pawns are set up on the third rank. it is illegal for either side to have two queens. the pawn must stay on the ninth rank. Viziers and Wizards: Variations on the Old Game" (http:/ / www. . Black's major pieces are set up on the ninth and tenth ranks. but it can still give check. a black pawn promotes optionally upon reaching the third and second ranks. New York Times. so the problem doesn't exist in the first place. or two marshalls. (So.

org/grandchess/2001-VS.dir/freeling. Bodlaender • Grand chess introduction (http://www. "Don't be Scared. Wiley.net/grand.mindsports. The Yerevan Games (http://www. • Hochberg. David (1994). External links • Christian Freeling's Grand chess (http://www. ISBN 978-0471536215. pages 71–72) . Issue 24. example games • 2001 Cyber World Championship game (http://www.Grand chess 213 References • R. Wayne Schmittberger (1992).bcvs.samiam.html) by Hans L. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. It's Still Chess".html) annotated by John Vehre—2001 Grand chess World Champion • Grand chess. New Rules for Classic Games. ISBN 0-9524-1420-1. Summer 1997. problems. Volume 3.org/large. Chess Life.htm) by Malcolm Horne (Variant Chess.chessvariants. Burt (August 1997).nl/Arena/GrandChess/) official Mindsports website contains rules. • Pritchard. Games & Puzzles Publications.ukf.

[1] Rules Arimaa is played on a chessboard with four squares distinguished as trap squares. one camel ( ). These may be represented by the king. Strategy Arimaa is a two-player abstract strategy board game that can be played using the same equipment as chess. an Indian American computer engineer trained in artificial intelligence. Syed was inspired by Garry Kasparov's defeat at the hands of the chess computer Deep Blue to design a new game which could be played with a standard chess set. knights. The two players. and eight rabbits ( ). two dogs ( ). two cats ( ). but would have rules simple enough for his then four-year-old son Aamir to understand. These are.214 Games inspired by chess Arimaa Arimaa An Arimaa Elephant Designer(s) Publisher(s) Players Setup time Playing time Omar Syed and Aamir Syed Z-Man Games 2 < 1 minute 15 minutes . namely c3. off-the-shelf hardware) able to defeat each of three top-ranked human players in a three game series.2 hours Random chance None Skill(s) required Tactics. would be difficult for computers to play well. History Arimaa was invented by Omar Syed. c6. bishops. available annually until 2020. ("Arimaa" is "Aamir" spelled backwards plus an initial "a"). . Gold and Silver. queen.000 prize. rooks. each control sixteen pieces. for the first computer program (running on standard. and f6 in algebraic chess notation. f3. Arimaa was devised to be more difficult for artificial intelligences to play than chess. one elephant ( ). and pawns respectively when one plays on a chess board. in order from strongest to weakest. two horses ( ). In 2002 Syed published the rules to Arimaa and announced a $10.

Arimaa 215 The players begin by setting up their pieces however they choose on their home rows. Thus Gold wins by moving a gold rabbit to the eighth rank. . and Silver wins by moving a silver rabbit to the first rank. Silver then places the sixteen silver pieces in any configuration on seventh and eighth ranks. because it is difficult to usher a rabbit to the goal line while the board is full of pieces. The game begins with an empty board. an intermediate objective is to capture opposing pieces by pushing or pulling them into the trap squares. The objective of the game is to move a rabbit of one's own color onto the home rank of the opponent. Gold places the sixteen gold pieces in any configuration on the first and second ranks. However. The diagram at right shows one possible initial placement.

but an elephant can be blockaded. [2] as the initial position above. When pushing. the players alternate turns. . Furthermore. This rule is similar to the situational super ko rule in the game of Go. Frozen pieces may not be moved by the owner. but not a dog. for example. since there is nothing stronger. Similarly the gold rabbit on b7 is frozen. voluntarily or by being dislodged. camel. An elephant cannot be frozen. Thus one may not. from the same game movement. A piece which enters a trap square is captured and removed from the game unless there is a friendly piece adjacent. Also a piece on a trap square is captured if all adjacent friendly pieces move away.Arimaa 216 After the pieces are placed on the board. right. one's turn may not create the same position with the same player to move as has been created twice before. forward. Friendly pieces may not be dislodged. The dogs on a6 and b6 do not freeze each other because they are of equal strength. c2. or elephant. unless it is also adjacent to a friendly piece. a friendly dog may dislodge an opposing rabbit or cat. Also. A piece which is adjacent (in any cardinal direction) to a stronger opposing piece is frozen. A frozen piece can freeze another still weaker piece. The gold elephant on d3 could push the silver rabbit on d2 to e2 and then occupy d2. but may be dislodged by the opponent. and the square it came from is occupied by the weaker piece. A turn must make a net change to the position. which prevents endless loops. Silver could move to capture the gold horse on d6 by pushing it to c6 with the elephant on d5. Note that the rabbit on d2 can't be pushed to d1. or d3. helps illustrate the remaining rules of A player may use two consecutive steps of a turn to dislodge an opposing piece with a stronger friendly piece which is adjacent (in one of the four cardinal directions). because those squares are not empty. With each step a friendly piece may move into an unoccupied square one space left. An elephant can never be dislodged. the stronger piece steps into an empty square. The prohibitions on passing and repetition make Arimaa a drawless game. The silver elephant on d5 could step to d4 (or c5 or e5) and pull the gold horse from d6 to d5. A turn consists of making one to four steps. effectively passing the turn. For example the gold elephant on d3 could not simultaneously push the silver rabbit on d2 to e2 and pull the silver rabbit from c3 to d3. the weaker piece is moved to an adjacent empty square. but the gold cat on c1 is not. the silver rabbit on c3 will be captured. Thus if the silver rabbit on c4 and the silver horse on c2 move away. The steps of a turn may be made by a single piece or distributed between several pieces in any order. For example. and is in contrast to chess where endless loops are considered draws. The stronger piece may pull or push the adjacent weaker piece. and the square it came from is occupied by the stronger piece. since there is nothing stronger. or backward. take one step forward and one step back with the same piece. The silver rabbit on a7 is frozen. except that rabbits may not step backward. but the one on d2 is able to move because it is adjacent to a silver piece. horse. When pulling. a piece may not push and pull simultaneously. The second diagram. starting with Gold.

it unfreezes the rabbit on b7. 217 Strategy and tactics For beginning insights into good play.Arimaa Note that a piece may voluntarily step into a trap square. Chess programs examine many. and still pull the gold rabbit from f1 to f2 as part of the horse's move. the player whose turn it is loses. The same is true for Arimaa programs. step the silver horse from f2 to f3. many possible moves. Gold could win in three steps: The dog on a6 can push the rabbit on a7 to a8. which captures the horse. the number of options a player has available to them governs the number of different paths play can go down.[4] whereas in Arimaa it is about 17. if it were Gold's turn to move. 2008. which can step to b8 for the victory. even if the piece doing the pulling is captured on the first step. Furthermore. because they are often much better than other moves. but their results are not as good in practice. because captures are rarer. if an opposing rabbit is dislodged onto its goal line and dislodged off within the same turn. Because so much effort has gone into the development of strong chess-playing software. Although almost all games end with a rabbit reaching goal. Good moves must be considered before bad ones in order for the bad ones to be neglected. For example. the usefulness of alpha-beta pruning is heavily dependent on the order in which moves are considered.281. which allows the software to conclude that one move is better than another without examining every possible continuation of the weaker move. • If a player has no legal move. In rated games played on arimaa. the second step of a pulling maneuver may be completed. When brute-force searching is applied to Arimaa. the depth of the search is limited by the huge number of options each player has on each turn. it is particularly relevant to understand why techniques applicable to chess are less effective for Arimaa. can only search about three turns deep for each player in Arimaa: Brute force search depth. but they are not good (compared to humans) at determining who is winning at the end of a series of moves unless one side has more pieces than the other.[3] there are two other ways for the game to end. is nearly doubled by alpha-beta pruning. Also. for chess software. Top chess programs use brute-force searching coupled with static position evaluation dominated by material considerations. or because the only moves by mobile pieces are illegal due to repetition of position. the side to move switches only every four steps. In Arimaa. Computer performance Several aspects of Arimaa make it difficult for computer programs to beat good human players. (Originally Arimaa was drawn if all sixteen rabbits were captured. however. and when the dog is on a7. In the diagrammed position. This change was essentially cosmetic. Syed changed the rules of Arimaa to eliminate the possibility of draws. which reduces the number of available cutoffs in a step-based search.com. checking and capturing moves are key for pruning.[5] These differing branching factors imply that a computer which can search to a depth of eight turns for each player in chess. In particular. . which dramatically increases search speed. but on July 1. This is known as the branching factor. the game continues. Silver to move could step the silver rabbit from f4 to g4. If the opponent can crush a certain move with one reply. see the Arimaa Wikibook articles on tactics and strategy. either because all friendly pieces are frozen or blockaded.) Finally. The average branching factor in a game of Chess is about 35. as there had never been a draw in thousands of human games anyway. • A player wins by capturing all eight opposing rabbits. even if it is captured thereby. Computationally. In Arimaa software the speedup provided by alpha-beta pruning is less. it isn't necessary to examine other replies. even if he sacrifices his last rabbit in the same turn in which he captures the last opposing rabbit.

An average game of Arimaa has only eight captures (compared to seventeen for chess). Programs have only to consult a pre-generated table in such positions. Compared to chess. because they see tactical shots which humans overlook. It is possible to build. This prevents programs from having any meaningful opening book. This magnifies the importance of correctly judging who is gaining ground in non-material ways. Humans do the same. The weakness of Arimaa programs in the opening phases is further magnified by the setup phase. In most Arimaa positions. and eventually personal computers will too. Arimaa allows either player to delay captures for longer. which gives them a relative advantage over humans. particularly toward the beginning of the game when the board is still crowded. and revolves around making captures unavoidable at some point in the future. the techniques of chess playing programs have been excluded from some definitions of artificial intelligence. exchanges and the advancement of rabbits tend to make the position more open and tactical. The successful quest to build a world-championship-caliber chess program has produced many techniques to successfully play games. in fact. even though it was the success of this hardware-intensive approach which inspired Arimaa's invention. Omar Syed hopes that. Syed believes that even the computer used in the 2004 challenge match (a Pentium 4 2. The structure of Syed's man-against-machine challenge is focused on rewarding advances in AI software and not advances in hardware. programs are run on machines chosen and provided by Syed himself. Arimaa. a goal for Arimaa is that the techniques involved in playing it will help the larger goals of artificial intelligence. has millions of possible ways to set up the pieces even before the first piece moves. long-term advantages. As the game progresses. in contrast. for example the second game of the 2011 challenge match [6]. under the criterion that it be a typical. which puts humans at a relative disadvantage in chess. One must beat defensive play by the accumulation of small. By compiling before the game a list of stock replies to all standard opening moves. In the 2007 Postal Championship. an exhaustive table of the correct move in all such positions. Arimaa programs typically play better in this sort of position. the game between the top two [7] finishers featured only one capture. The struggle is initially more positional in Arimaa. compared to about 19% of chess moves that result in capture. The challenge would not be open to anyone requiring expensive multi-processor machines such as those used to challenge top-level chess players. Thus the strength of computer programs (examining millions of positions) is not as significant as their weakness (judging the position apart from who has more pieces). much less something like the custom-built supercomputer Deep Blue. and to angle for strategic positions in which computers fare worse. but have a smaller and less reliable memory of openings. programmers will be forced to use artificial intelligence techniques to create a strong Arimaa-playing program. king and rook. whereas in chess it is merely difficult. by retrograde analysis. in contrast. which programs do not do very well. a goal-forcing sacrifice. In the annual challenge. rather than "thinking" afresh. if hardware continues to advance at the current rate. In chess every game starts from the same position. chess programs may often make a dozen or more excellent moves before starting to "think". However. Equal exchanges of pieces are less common than in chess. a competent player can avoid losing any pieces within the next two turns. Master-level chess games sometimes trade down into unclear endgames with only a few pieces. because traditional computer game-playing techniques are only moderately effective for Arimaa. so it is rare for a game of Arimaa to "trade down" and still be unclear. and top humans can often defeat top programs in Arimaa without losing a single piece. Against a conservative opponent it is almost impossible to bust open the position in Arimaa. Arimaa. 218 . Indeed. Supercomputers might already have the power to conquer Arimaa by brute force using conventional AI software. the median move number of the first capture in chess is turn 6. off-the-shelf home computer. for example king and knight vs. it is usually possible for humans to avoid wide-open positions by conservative play.4 GHz system with 512 MB of RAM) had sufficient hardware to win the challenge prize if only it was running the proper software. but has contributed essentially nothing to more general reasoning. inexpensive. seldom comes to an endgame. whereas in Arimaa it is turn 12. One additional technique from computer chess which does not apply to Arimaa is endgame tablebases. This is why the Arimaa challenge prize is offered only until the year 2020.Arimaa only 3% of steps result in capture.

to reduce the psychological pressure on individual volunteer defenders. and rook respectively. Siddiqui substituted for Brendan's second game.000 Bomb / David Fotland 2006 $17. and a camel respectively. In the Challenge match Marwin became the first bot to win two out of three games against a single human defender. 2010 $16. Marwin won only one of the nine games. Arimaa handicaps of rabbit. and that having received a material handicap. horse. Daligault gave a horse handicap in his last game and won. but the 2009 Arimaa Challenge was more competitive. David Fotland. and won all three. Syed changed the format to require the software to win two out of three games against each of three players. In 2010. Syed substituted for Mistretta's final two games. Frank Heinemann (5) 1–7 No handicap games Karl Juhnke (1) Greg Magne (2) Paul Mertens (5) Karl Juhnke (1) Omar Syed (9) Brendan M (12) N Siddiqui (23) Jean Daligault (2) Greg Magne (3) Mark Mistretta (20) Omar Syed (24) Jean Daligault (1) Karl Juhnke (2) Jan Macura (14) Omar Syed (18) 0–3 0–3 1–2 0–3 0–3 0–2 1–0 0–3 0–3 0–1 0–2 0–2 1–2 1–2 0–1 Mertens gave a camel handicap in his last game and lost. In the first five challenge cycles. . and also the first bot to win three of the nine games overall.100 Bomb / David Fotland Juhnke gave handicaps of a dog. a horse. Syed substituted for Daligault's first game.000 Bomb / David Fotland No handicap games. won the Arimaa Computer Championship [12] and the right to play for the prize money.250 Marwin / Mattias Hultgren 2011 $11. In 2009 Fotland's program was surpassed by several new programs in the same year. 2009 $16. only to see his program beaten decisively each year.Arimaa 219 Challenge history Year Prize[8] Challenger / Developer Result Human Defender [9] [10] (Human Rank) Omar Syed (1) 0–8 Notes 2004 $10. however.500 Bomb / David Fotland Syed gave a rabbit handicap in the last game and won. renowned for his program Many Faces of Go [11]. knight. Clueless became the first bot to win two games of a Challenge match. In 2011. Juhnke gave a cat handicap in his last game and lost The Arimaa Challenge has been held eight times so far. dog. Also Syed called for outside sponsorship of the Arimaa Challenge to build a bigger prize fund. the strongest of which was Clueless by Jeff Bacher. Humanity's margin of dominance over computers appeared to widen each year from 2004 to 2008 as the best human players improved.000 Marwin / Mattias Hultgren Greg Magne (3) 0–3 Louis-Daniel Scott (10) 1–2 Patrick Dudek (23) 2–1 Karl Juhnke (3) Gregory Clark (7) Toby Hudson (14) 1–2 0–3 0–3 Scott gave a dog handicap in his second game and lost.000 Bomb / David Fotland 2005 $10. The material handicaps given in the Challenge games can be roughly equated to chess handicaps as a proportion of the total material on the board in each game. Syed gave a cat handicap in his last game and won. 2007 $17. Mattias Hultgren's bot Marwin edged out Clueless in the computer championship. two pawns. and camel are roughly equivalent to chess handicaps of pawn.500 Clueless / Jeff Bacher Juhnke gave a dog handicap in his second game and lost. Prior to the third match. 2008 $17.

000. In chess matches. For example. the computer needs to score 2/3 of the total points to win. In the Arimaa challenge. which compensates developers for having studied the problem for a shorter time. 3. In chess. the computer needs to score more than 1/2 of the total points to win. 4. there was no qualification match. and the machine hardware used was not a supercomputer. The later and smaller effort resulted in less and slower progress in computer Arimaa.Arimaa 220 Comparing Arimaa challenge to chess challenges It has been argued that a computer has beaten the world chess champion but not beaten the human in the Arimaa challenge because of six reasons: 1. Man-vs. the 2006 Deep Fritz vs. Thus the human players in the Arimaa challenge are much weaker than the human players in the chess challenge. Jaan Ehlvest matches gave additional advantages to the human player. In the Arimaa challenge. In the Arimaa challenge. the computers won 2/3 of the total points. In the Arimaa challenge. the rules reject powerful or custom made computers priced over $1. the computer was improved between games. To the first point. The tournament is played over the Internet and is open to everyone. World Championship Each year since 2004 the Arimaa community has held a World Championship [13] tournament. Therefore. but rather comparable to hardware used in the Arimaa Challenge. Arimaa is a new game. The chess match which can most closely be compared to the Arimaa challenge match is the Man vs Machine World Team Championship. In 2005 all three humans lost. Deep Blue. The rules for the Arimaa challenge required the computer to show a higher playing ability than the rules for the chess matches. 6.-machine chess matches since 2005 have shown increasing computer dominance. Vladimir Kramnik and 2007 Rybka vs. the computer cannot be improved between games. the Arimaa community disputes this argument point by point. Past world champion title holders are: • • • • • • • 2011 – Jean Daligault of France 2010 – Jean Daligault of France 2009 – Jean Daligault of France 2008 – Karl Juhnke of USA 2007 – Jean Daligault of France 2006 – Till Wiechers of Germany 2005 – Karl Juhnke of USA • 2004 – Frank Heinemann of Germany . However. In chess. Then the human studied the computer games to find the computer’s weakness. the chess engines were commercially available for the humans to study. ignoring all other man vs. In both years the computers won by wide margin. the computer must beat three human players in three matches. The weakness of humans players should make the Arimaa Challenge easier to conquer than chess. In the Arimaa challenge. Arimaa is a new game. the number of programmers and amount of time devoted to computer Arimaa is much less than for computer chess. The remaining five points compare the Arimaa Challenge only to Kasparov vs. the computer must win one match against one human player. but the computers (running on commodity hardware) prevailed anyway. However. Computer chess had thousands more programmers and 40 more years than computer Arimaa. In 2004 and 2005 a team of humans played against a team of computer opponents. so the playing community is still small and even the best players are not professional players and have only been playing the game for a few years. 2. a powerful custom made computer beat the world chess champion. the computer needs to win a qualification match. machine chess matches in which computers have prevailed. 5. In the chess matches.

google. "A Look at the Arimaa Branching Factor" (http:/ / arimaa. cgi?gid=179122& s=w [7] http:/ / arimaa. com/ patents?vid=6981700 [15] http:/ / arimaa. Prior to 2006 Paul Mertens pledged $2.500 for 2007. Prior to 2010 Karl Juhnke pledged $1. $1. janzert. the 2010 ranks were Magne(3). and the 2011 ranks were Juhnke(3). com/ bf_study/ ). [6] http:/ / arimaa. Retrieved 2009-11-25. $1. Prior to 2008 Karl Juhnke pledged $1. Footnotes [1] Syed. and 0 ending in a draw. . $500 for 2009. and $250 for 2010. [11] http:/ / www. Clark(5). [2] http:/ / arimaa. and granted on 3 January 2006. com/ manyfaces. Past computer world champion title holders are: • • • • • • • • 2011 – bot_sharp developed by David Wu of USA 2010 – bot_marwin developed by Mattias Hultgren of Sweden 2009 – bot_clueless developed by Jeff Bacher of Canada 2008 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2007 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2006 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2005 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA 2004 – bot_Bomb developed by David Fotland of USA Patent and trademark US PAT No. com/ arimaa/ games/ jsShowGame. GameDev. Omar. arimaa. International Computer Games Association Journal 26: 138–139. asp).700 [14] was filed on 3 October 2003. html [12] http:/ / www.action=display. Prior to 2006 Karl Juhnke pledged $500 for 2006. com/ arimaa/ wc/ [13] http:/ / arimaa. com/ arimaa/ wc/ [14] http:/ / www. The tournament is played over the Internet and is open to everyone. com/ arimaa/ download/ gameData/ ) as of December 2006 showed the following number of rated human versus human games: 1653 ending in goal.000 until 2020. Dudek(16). cgi?gid=57508& s=w [8] The history of prize fund pledges is as follows: In 2002 Omar Syed pledged $10. "Chess Programming Part IV: Basic Search" (http:/ / www. Prior to 2007 Karl Juhnke pledged $600 for 2007.000 for 2006. com/ arimaa/ gameroom/ replayFlash.000 until 2010. 4 ending by repetition of position.000 for 2008. Aamir (2003).000 for 2011 [9] The Arimaa Forum (http:/ / arimaa. net/ reference/ articles/ article1171. Scott(9). 38 ending in immobilization. cgi?board=talk. com/ arimaa/ games/ jsShowGame. com/ . Items covered by the license are the patent and the trademark. cgi?gid=5641& s=w [3] The Arimaa server game archive (http:/ / arimaa.Arimaa 221 Computer World Championship Each year since 2004 the Arimaa community has held a Computer World Championship [13] tournament. and does not necessarily reflect anti-computer expertise or lack thereof. Prior to 2006 Omar Syed pledged an additional $5.net. Hudson(10).num=1207699394. [4] François Dominic Laramée. Among active players only. "Arimaa – a New Game Designed to be Difficult for Computers". gamedev. [5] Brian "Janzert" Haskin. smart-games. Prior to 2011 Karl Juhnke pledged $1. Omar Syed also holds a trademark on the name "Arimaa". . com/ arimaa/ forum/ cgi/ YaBB. Retrieved 2007-05-01. [10] The listed ranks include inactive players.start=45#45) The rank of human players was calculated from human games only. Syed has stated that he does not intend to restrict noncommercial use and has released a license called "The Arimaa Public License" [15] with the declared intent to "make Arimaa as much of a public domain game as possible while still protecting its commercial usage". com/ arimaa/ license/ . 6.000 for 2010.000 for 2008. http:/ / janzert. Prior to 2009 Karl Juhnke pledged $1.981. Syed.000 for 2009.

php?option=com_content& view=category&layout=blog&id=24&Itemid=115&lang=en/) • Academic Papers and Presentations (http://arimaa. pyramids. for many years. five medium 2-point pyramids (sometimes called drones).com/arimaa/papers/) • David Fotland's Arimaa Program (http://www.com/category/arimaa/) Icehouse pieces Icehouse pieces are pyramid-shaped gaming pieces invented by Andrew Looney and John Cooper in 1987. the Zendo boxed set won Best Abstract Board Game of 2003. Icehouse: The Martian Chess Set won the Origins Award for Best Abstract Board Game of 2000. International Computer Games Association Journal 26: 138–139 • Juhnke. There was also a less expensive starter set called Origami Icehouse (later called Paper Icehouse). Looney Labs began selling Icehouse pieces as Treehouse sets.org/index.net (http://boardspace. Flying Camel Publications. The commercially produced plastic sets are hollow and can be stacked and nested.com/arimaa/license/current. Syed.com/) • Play Arimaa game online at [[boardspace. In 2001. Fritz (2009). this feature isn't used in the original Icehouse game. queens in some games).iggamecenter. or minions) of the same color in three different point (or pip) values: five large 3-point pyramids (called Various Icehouse pieces. originally for use in the game of Icehouse. which one punched out and folded into the pyramid shapes. and five small 1-point pyramids (or pawns). In 2006. Icehouse pieces were. but is taken advantage of in some of the other Icehouse-based games listed below.com/arimaa.com/arimaa/) • First Official Hand-Crafted Arimaa Set (http://www.smart-games. Looney Labs has also sold boxed sets for Zendo and IceTowers. Aamir (2003).com (http://www. .com/arimaa2) • Play Arimaa game on the iGoogle homepage (http://www. In 2004. each color having one each of the three sizes. the latter contained cyan pieces. made of cardstock in four colors. Treehouse won the Origins Award for Best Board Game of 2006. Omar. The Icehouse website also has instructions for making your own pieces. ISBN 0-9824-2740-9 External links • Official Arimaa Website (http://arimaa.newforestearth.html) • The Arimaa Public License (http://www.Arimaa 222 References • Syed. sold as tubes containing one stash of durable crystal-look plastic pieces in one of ten available colors (though cyan was only available through their promotional program or as part of the Ice Towers set). Arimaa – a New Game Designed to be Difficult for Computers. Beginning Arimaa: Chess Reborn Beyond Computer Comprehension. In 2006.arimaa.rajmahendra. Description Each stash or set of Icehouse pieces consists of fifteen pyramids (variously called pieces. which are multicolored sets of 15 pyramids: five colors.txt) • Arimaa Strategy (wikibook) • Arimaa Videos (http://youtube. Looney Labs has licenced Crystal Caste LLC to make regulation-sized Icehouse pieces out of semiprecious stone[1].net/)] • Arimaa articles @ Rajmahendra.

and some require other readily-available equipment such as glass stones or a checkerboard. Most games need at least two colors. published by Looney Labs. Games that use Icehouse pieces include: • Alien City • Armada • Blam! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Branches & Twigs & Thorns(a Go inspired game) CrackeD Ice DNA Focus Gnostica Gridlock Hailstorm Hextrix Homeworlds Icehouse IceSickle IceTowers IceTraders Igloo Martian Backgammon Martian Chess Martian Coasters Martian Mud Wrestling Martian Shogi Pantopia Pikemen RAMbots Rotationary Sprawl Thin Ice Torpedo Tic Tac Doh! Treehouse Trice Undercut Volcano World War 5 Zagami (game) Zarcana Zark City Icehouse pieces in paper and plastic . Some are also available in Playing with Pyramids.Icehouse pieces 223 Games Icehouse pieces can be used to play many different abstract strategy games. Rules for these games can be found on the Icehouse website.

mvc?Screen=CTGY& Store_Code=CC& Category_Code=PY [2] http:/ / www. It is played with Icehouse pieces on a chessboard or checkerboard. icehousegames.Icehouse pieces • Zendo 224 Score-keeping Icehouse pieces can also be used as a score-keeping device or counter for non-icehouse games. for example). the denominations would be determined by size rather than color (smalls are worth one. the goal being to collect five of the large pieces (for the 500 point standard game). allowing up to six players. com/ game/ 225 Martian chess See Jetan for a discussion of Edgar Rice Burroughs' Martian chess. icehousegames. For example. Non-Euclidean board is available [1] which can be tiled to produce a board of the required size. boardgamegeek. to play with a number of players other than two or four. com [3] http:/ / www. a medium pyramid worth twenty-five points. a small. a small pyramid would be worth five points. org [4] http:/ / www. and a large pyramid one-hundred. com/ mm5/ merchant. when scoring a Cosmic Wimpout game. mediums worth five. Martian Chess is an abstract strategy game for two to six players invented by Andrew Looney. . External links • Icehouse official website [2] • Fan-run community website and comprehensive wiki [3] • Icehouse pieces [4] at BoardGameGeek References [1] http:/ / www. crystalcaste. and larges valued at twenty-five. They could be use instead of poker chips.

Martian chess 225 Rules Initial setup Each player starts with nine pieces: three small. you may not immediately reverse your opponent's last move. Since a piece is always owned according to the territory it is in. vertically or diagonally. The No Rejections rule: in the two-player game. Pieces may not jump over other pieces. It is easy to forget this if each player's starting pieces are all the same color. a player whose piece is captured immediately gains control of the capturing piece. they may move backwards) • medium pieces (drones) move one or two spaces horizontally or vertically • large pieces (queens) move any distance horizontally. a mix of colors should be used. . At any given time a player controls only those pieces that are in his or her territory. and three large. as if that determined whose it was. so it is better to start with a mix of colors instead (unless you have enough pieces that everyone can use the same color). nor may they end a move on an occupied square except to capture. The color of the pieces is irrelevant. only half the board is used. for reasons given below. Play passes to the left after each move. just like a chess queen A piece is captured when an enemy piece lands on the square it occupies. three medium. In a two-player game. The person who moved takes the piece and puts it aside for later scoring. The pieces are placed in the corners of the board as shown: The players decide who moves first by a random method or by agreement. a folding checkerboard is useful. Movement and capturing The red lines in the diagrams indicate notional canals that divide the board into territories. The pieces may be moved as follows: • small pieces (pawns) move one space diagonally (unlike chess pawns.

In a variation of the four-player game. Strategy Capturing with a queen often allows the opponent to immediately recapture. any piece used to capture becomes the opponent's. their territory becomes empty). Moving a pawn or drone into enemy territory can be a good move for several reasons: • it can prevent an opponent from capturing the piece from you • it can ensure that you capture that piece or another piece from an opponent • it can block an attack from an opposing queen or drone External links • Rules of Martian Chess [2] by Looney Labs References [1] http:/ / ee0r. the players form two teams who play for a combined score. but can give the players involved a significant lead over the others in a four-player game.e. since other players may interfere in the four-player version. com/ icehouse/ MartianChess. Aside from strategic differences. html . This is more common in two-player games. Players then compute their scores by adding up the pips on their captured pieces: 3 per queen. More generally. wunderland. The player or players with the highest total win. 2 per drone. The net point difference is usually minor with two players. play is unaffected. leading to a back-and-forth battle until one player runs out of pieces in the line(s) of capture. com/ tri-chess/ [2] http:/ / www. and 1 per pawn.. it is legal (and sometimes good strategy) to capture your teammate's pieces.Martian chess 226 End of game and scoring The game ends when one player runs out of pieces (i. Teammates sit at opposite corners.

[1] Note that the Ràjas do not face each other. The bottom row shows knight. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). queen. Photographs of real-size resin reproductions of the 12th century Lewis chessmen. and pawn. which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chess games on the market. The history of chess spans some 1500 years. and the first world Chess Championship was held in 1886. rook. When the Arabs conquered Persia. R. chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe. chess evolved into its current form in the 15th century. J. and bishop. Developments in the 21st century include use of computers for analysis. . Origin a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chaturanga: The position of the pieces at the start of a game. before the 6th century AD. the white Ràja starts on e1 and the black Ràja on d8. see A History of Chess. Online gaming appeared in the mid 1990's. the game spread to Persia. The top row shows king. The earliest predecessors of the game originated in India. Murray. In the second half of the 19th century. From India.227 Historical variants History of chess For the book by H. modern chess tournament play began.

Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape. échecs in French (Old French eschecs).[14] further bolstered by reliable timing mechanisms (first introduced in 1861). and the rules were developed further.[12] Modern history saw reliable reference works. elephantry. Sicily. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe. respectively. where chess became known as шахматы (shakhmaty. bishop. in Portuguese it became xadrez.[15] 228 . both evidently derived from shatranj. and in Greek zatrikion. the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire. The Mongols call the game shatar. The Moors of North Africa rendered Persian "shatranj" as shaṭerej. szachy in Polish. scacchi in Italian. effective rules[14] and charismatic players. cavalry. it had survived a series of prohibitions and Christian Church sanctions to almost take the shape of the modern game. The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes. and chariotry.[13] competitive chess tournaments[14] and exciting new variants which added to the game's popularity. schaken in Dutch. there are two theories about why this change happened: 1. the earliest being in the 9th century. with the pieces largely keeping their Persian names.[2] [3] [4] [5] where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaṅga. escacs in Catalan. Chess spread directly from the Middle East to Russia. which subsequently evolved to shatranj. šakki in Finnish. but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh ("king"). šahs in Latvian. the game came to be called ludus scacchorum or scacc(h)i in Latin. Players started calling "Shāh!" (Persian for "King!") when attacking the opponent's king. sakk in Hungarian and şah in Romanian. Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares. Schach in German. From the first chessmen known of in Western Europe (except Iberia and Greece) being ornamental chess kings brought in as curios by Muslim traders. šah in Slovene.[7] In Sassanid Persia around 600 the name became chatrang. and in Ethiopia it is called senterej.History of chess The precursors of chess probably originated in India during the Gupta empire.[9] [10] Chaturanga reached Europe through Persia. treated as a plural). These exclamations persisted in chess as it traveled to other lands. axedrez and ajedrez. and "Shāh Māt!" (Persian for "the king is helpless" – see checkmate) when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack. and by the late 15th century. it was described in a famous 13th century manuscript covering shatranj and backgammon and dice named the Libro de los juegos.[9] The game was developed extensively in Europe. Thus.[8] Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century. which translates as "four divisions (of the military)": infantry.[11] Muslims carried chess to North Africa. schack in Swedish.[9] Buddhist pilgrims. which gave rise to the Spanish acedrex.[6] Chess was introduced to Persia from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility. represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn. and rook. 2. The game was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia. and Iberia by the 10th century. skak in Danish. sjakk in Norwegian. knight. From the exclamation "check" or "checkmate" as it was pronounced in various languages.

[9] The game Chaturanga was a battle simulation game[7] which rendered Indian military strategy of the time. detailed the Indian use of chess as a tool for military strategy. but could jump over a piece between . There was an unproven theory that chess started as this dice-chess and that the gambling and dice aspects of the game were removed because of Hindu religious objections.[9] Other game pieces (speculatively called "chess pieces") uncovered in archaeological findings are considered as coming from other. and asserts that the game was introduced to Persia from India. the uncheckered 8×8 board served as the main board for playing Chaturanga. during the reign of emperor Nushirwan. Elephant. horsemen. only.[20] In Sanskrit. Horse. or by stalemate. the king of modern chess. which flourished in India by the 6th century. Horse.[23] In some variants. • Queen: one square diagonally. gambling and even its vague association with astronomy.[22] Scholars in areas to which the game subsequently spread. Camel.[17] Ashtāpada. but keeping the same moves. distantly related.[23] Mas'ūdī notes that ivory in India was chiefly used for the production of chess and backgammon pieces. Chess was designed for an ashtāpada (Sanskrit for "having eight feet". board games.[21] Some people formerly played chess using a die to decide which piece to move. foot soldiers).[18] Other Indian boards included the 10×10 Dasapada and the 9×9 Saturankam.[7] The name came from a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[9] Findings in the Mohenjo-daro and Harappa (2600–1500 BCE) sites of the Indus Valley Civilization show a prevalence of a board game that resembles chess. started in the late 19th century. mathematics. chariots.[17] The Cox-Forbes theory. or by "bare king" (taking all of an opponent's pieces except the king). along with the book Kelileh va Demneh. which may have had boards of 100 squares or more.e. and is the earliest known game to have two essential features found in all later chess variations — different pieces having different powers (which was not the case with checkers and go).[16] Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. an 8x8 squared board). which may have been used earlier for a backgammon-type race game (perhaps related to a dice-driven race game still played in south India where the track starts at the middle of a side and spirals in to the center).[19] Other scholars dispute this and say that the two-handed form was the first. "chaturanga" (चतुरङ्ग) literally means "having four limbs (or parts)" and in epic poetry often means "army" (the four parts are elephants.History of chess 229 India The earliest precursor of modern chess is a game called chaturanga.[17] In early chess the moves of the pieces were: • King: as now. i. or Elephant. and victory depending on the fate of one piece. mainly from the works of Captain Hiram Cox and Duncan Forbes. for example the Arab Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī.[18] Traditional Indian chessboards often have X markings on some or all of squares a1 a4 a5 a8 d1 d4 d5 d8 e1 e4 e5 e8 h1 h4 h5 h8: these may have been "safe squares" where capturing was not allowed in a dice-driven backgammon-type race game played on the ashtāpada before chess was invented. a win was by checkmate. In some parts of India the pieces in the places of the Rook and Knight and Bishop were renamed by words meaning (in this order) Boat. • Bishop: • In the version that went into Persia: two squares diagonally (no more or less). proposed that the four-handed game chaturaji was the original form of chaturanga.

[11] A manuscript explaining the rules of the game called "Matikan-i-chatrang" (the book of chess) in Middle Persian or Pahlavi still exists. Shams-e-Tabrīzī as portrayed in a 1500 painting in a page of a copy of Rumi's poem dedicated to Shams. or one square forwards. He then issued a challenge: "Oh great king. and after a day and a night in deep thought one of them. Persian manuscript from the 14th century describing how an ambassador from India brought chess to the Persian court.History of chess • In a version sometimes found in India in former times: two squares sideways or front-and-back (no more or less). but if they fail it will be proof that the Persians are of lower intellect and we shall demand tribute from Iran. New York Metropolitan [25] Museum of Art. Gav tells his mother that Talhand did not die by the hands of him or his men. 12th century. So the sages . Ferdowsi describes a Raja visiting from India who re-enacts the past battles on the chessboard. • A stalemated king can take one of the enemy pieces that would check the king if the king moves. and after an oriental exchange of courtesies. Two Arab travelers each recorded a severe Indian chess rule against stalemate[24] : • A stalemated player thereby at once wins. The Karnamak-i Ardeshir-i Papakan." The courtiers were shown the board. the ambassador produced rich presents from his sovereign and amongst them was an elaborate board with curiously carved pieces of ebony and ivory. Believing that Gav had killed Talhand. • Rook: as now. two half-brothers who vie for the throne of Hind (India). solved the mystery and was richly rewarded by his delighted sovereign.[23] A translation in English. Bozorgmehr. is given below:[26] One day an ambassador from the king of Hind arrived at the Persian court of Chosroes. They meet in battle and Talhand dies on his elephant without a wound. mentions the game of chatrang as one of the accomplishments of the legendary hero. 230 Iran (Persia) Iranian shatranj set. a Pahlavi epical treatise about the founder of the Sassanid Persian Empire.[26] The oldest recorded game in chess history is a 10th century game played between a historian from Baghdad and a pupil. but could jump over a piece between. founder of the Empire.) The Shahnameh goes on to offer an apocryphal account of the origins of the game of chess in the story of Talhand and Gav. but she does not understand how this could be. If they succeed my master the king of Hind will pay tribute as an overlord. capturing one square diagonally forward. fetch your wise men and let them solve the mysteries of this game. promoted to queen only. (Edward Lasker suggested that Bozorgmehr likely found the rules by bribing the Indian envoys. glazed fritware. Ardashir I. based on the manuscripts in the British Museum. their mother is distraught. • In versions found in Southeast Asia: one square diagonally. • Knight: as now. In the 11th century Shahnameh. • Pawn: one square forwards (not two).

i. a retired accountant. ot (horse).[9] The object of the Chinese variation is similar to Chaturanga.[30] Owing to the influence of Go. Chinese chess is played on the intersections of the lines on the board.[28] The appearance of the chess pieces had altered greatly since the times of chaturanga.dog (to guard the livestock) Bishop: .Хүү . to render helpless the opponent's king. sometimes known as general. and 2) Pawns capture as they move. which was played in China since at least the 6th century BC. bar or bars = "tiger".cart Pawn . rather than in the squares. hypothesizes that general Han Xin drew on the earlier game of Liubo to develop an early form of Chinese chess in the winter of 204–203 BC. täbä (camel). He notes that the "Xuanguai lu.[17] among the Soyot people (who at the time spoke the Soyot Turkic language) include: merzé (dog).[30] Chinese chess also borrows elements from the game of Go. Li.[33] Mongolia Chess is recorded from Mongolian-inhabited areas.[30] Chaturanga was transformed and assimilated into the game xiangqi where the pieces are placed on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares. .Тэрэг .Noyon .[31] The German chess historian Peter Banaschak. points out that Li's main hypothesis "is based on virtually nothing". quoted in Murray. chess is believed to have been derived from the Indian Chaturanga.Ноён .[32] Japan A prominent variant of chess in East Asia is the game of Shogi. The change with the Queen is likely due to the Arabic word firzān or Persian word farzīn (= "vizier") being confused with Turkic or Mongolian native words (merzé = "mastiff". ōl (child) and Mongolian names for the other pieces.[33] The two distinguishing features of Shogi are: 1) The captured pieces may be reused by the captor and played as a part of the captor's forces.Hū . professor of accounting and translator of ancient Chinese texts.e.[29] These pieces were usually made of simple clay and carved stone.Temē .camel Knight. remains the first real source on the Chinese chess variant xiangqi.boy (the piece often showed a puppy) Names recorded from the 1880s by Russian sources. however.Bers / Nohoi .[29] The Islamic sets of later centuries followed a pattern which assigned names and abstract shapes to the chess pieces. transmitted from India to China and Korea before finally reaching Japan. to show the mother of the princes how the battle unfolded and how Talhand died of fatigue when surrounded by his enemies.Tereg .[27] The poem uses the Persian term "Shāh māt" (check mate) to describe the fate of Talhand.Морь . with pieces differentiated by writing their names on the flat surface.lord Queen .[17] Chess in Mongolia is now played following the usual international rules.[29] 231 East Asia China As a strategy board game played in China.[30] An alternative origin theory contends that chess arose from Xiangqi or a predecessor thereof.[31] David H. existing in China since the 2nd century BC.Morĭ . arslan = "lion"). where the pieces are now called: • • • • • • King: .[30] Chinese chess pieces are usually flat and resemble those used in checkers. as Islam forbids depiction of animals and human beings in art.Бэрс / Нохой . with ornate pieces and chess pieces depicting animals giving way to abstract shapes.Тэмээ . one square straight ahead. detailing the pieces and how they move.horse Rook .History of chess of the court invent the game of chess." authored by the Tang Dynasty minister Niu Sengru (779–847).

[12] Two separate incidents in 13th century London involving men of Essex resorting to violence resulting in death as an outcome of playing chess . features of European chess (e. Henry II and Richard I of England were chess patrons. with caskets and pendants decorated in various chess forms.[35] Harold James Ruthven Murray divides the works into three distinct parts: the didactic works e. written by Jacobus de Cessolis. In such layouts. but only as a children's game among the Chukchi. probably via Spain.[34] The popularity of chess in the Western courtly society peaked between the 12th and the 15th centuries.g. and castling) found their way via trade into Islamic areas. works of morality like Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum (Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess). each piece was represented by its name. the modern moves of Queen and Bishop. Murray's[17] sources found the old moves of Queen and Bishop still current in Ethiopia. and the works related to various chess problems. "ch'r" for French "chevalier" = "knight").g. Europe Early history Shatranj made its way via the expanding Islamic Arabian empire to Europe and the Byzantine empire. in his work Disciplina Clericalis. Over the centuries. where its name changed to Arabic shatranj. like check. Alexander of Neckham's De scaccis (approx.[9] Other monarchs who gained similar status were Alfonso X of Castile and Ivan IV of Russia.[37] Chess also became a subject of art during this period. in earlier Knights Templar playing chess.[12] The sides are conventionally called White and Black. and thus likely part of a chess tradition coming from Siberia. Chessmen have been collected from the Yakutat people in Alaska.[38] Queen Margaret of England's green and red chess sets – made of jasper and crystal – symbolized chess's position in royal art treasures. often abbreviated (e. such as the Norman Conquest of England. written largely after 1205. But. and Yukaghirs. having no resemblance to European chessmen.[35] Chess terms.[12] The bishop of Florence defended himself by declaring that chess involved skill and was therefore "unlike other games.[12] Chess remained largely unpopular in Northern Europe but started gaining popularity as soon as figure pieces were introduced. Tunguses. listed chess among the seven skills that a good knight must acquire.[36] Kings Henry I. From there it passed to Western Europe. and many works were written on or about chess between the 12th and the 15th centuries. The social value attached to the game – seen as a prestigious pastime associated with nobility and high culture – is clear from the expensive and exquisitely made chessboards of the medieval era.[36] Chess was soon incorporated into the knightly style of life in Europe. Libro de los European chess writings.[17] Arab world Chess passed from Persia to the Arab world.[37] Peter Alfonsi." and similar arguments followed in the coming centuries.g.[9] Saint Peter Damian denounced the bishop of Florence in 1061 for playing chess even when aware of its evil effects on the society. were used by authors as a metaphor for various situations. often introduced to new lands by conquering armies. 1283 because those were the commonly available colors of ink when handwriting drawing a chess game layout. the sides were often called Red and Black juegos.History of chess 232 East Siberia Chess was also recorded from the Yakuts.[35] The game found mention in the vernacular and Latin language literature throughout Europe.[11] Chess appeared in Southern Europe during the end of the first millennium. 1180).

but initially unpopular. as played during the early Middle Ages.[43] A notable. Its Latin name alfinus was reinterpreted many ways.[39] The following table provides a glimpse of the changes in names and character of chess pieces as they transitioned from India through Persia to Europe:[41] [42] 233 A comparison of the terms for chessmen in Sanskrit.History of chess further caused sensation and alarm.[40] The initially nondescript pawn had now found association with the pedes. the pieces of the chess set were depicted as kings. Italian. In French fou. queens. knights and men at arms. English.[34] This ordinance turned out to be unenforceable and was largely neglected by the common public. pedinus. Persian. which symbolized both infantry and loyal domestic service.[12] Some variations in rules began to change the shape of the game by 1300 AD. . was slow.[43] In Europe some of the pieces gradually got new names: • Fers: "queen". • Aufin: "bishop". French.[12] The practice of playing chess for money became so widespread during the 13th century that Louis IX of France issued an ordinance against gambling in 1254. and others. and ornate pieces of traditional knight warriors were used as early as the mid 13th century. which continued to enjoy the now prohibited chess tournaments uninterrupted. Spanish.[12] The growing popularity of the game – now associated with revelry and violence – alarmed the Church. and Catalan Sanskrit Persian Arabic Latin English Spanish Portuguese Italian French Catalan Raja (King) Mantri (Minister) Shah Vazīr (Vizir) Pil Malik Wazīr/Firz Rex Regina King Queen Rey Dama Rei Rainha Re Regina Roi Reine Rei Dama/Reina Gajah (war elephant) Ashva (horse) Ratha (chariot) Al-Fīl Episcopus/Comes/Calvus Bishop/Count/Councillor Alfil/Obispo Bispo Alfiere Fou Alfil Asp Rokh Fars/Hisan Miles/Eques Knight Rook/Margrave Pawn Caballo Cavalo Cavallo Torre/Rocco Chevalier Cavall Tour Torre Peó Qal`a/Rukhkh Rochus/Marchio Baidaq/Jondi Pedes/Pedinus Torre/Roque Torre Peón Peão Padati Piadeh (footman/footsoldier) Pedone/Pedina Pion The game. Portuguese.[39] Chessmen made of ivory began to appear in North-West Europe. Arabic. change was the ability of the pawn to move two places in the first move instead of one. because it starts beside the King. or the footman.[34] By the mid-12th century. Latin. because its two points looked like a bishop's mitre. and even the courtly society. with many games lasting for days. bishops.

[17] Attempts to make the start of the game run faster to get the opposing pieces in contact sooner included: • Pawn moving two squares in its first move. Gioacchino Greco.[43] [46] These new rules quickly spread throughout Western Europe and in Spain.[49] In some areas (e.[13] . • The short assize. It was sometimes not allowed to do this to cover check. A poem Caïssa published in 1527 led to the chess rook being often renamed as "castle". B x K would allow R x K in reply. the queen's and bishop's modern moves started and spread. (This eventually led to castling. and the modern shape of the Rook chess piece.[17] Origins of the modern game The queen and bishop remained relatively weak until[12] between 1475 AD and 1500 AD. regarded as one of the first true professionals of the game. Russia). see Vida's poem for more information.[13] This influential work went to some extent in popularizing chess and demonstrated the many theories regarding game play and tactics. in either Spain. France or Italy.History of chess 234 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Check by pinned piece • Queen once moving two squares with jump.g. diagonally or straight.[17] Checkmate became easier and games could now be won in fewer moves. This idea did not endure.[44] • King jumping once.) Other sporadic variations in the rules of chess included: • Ignoring check from a piece which was covering check. This form of chess got such names as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess" (Italian alla rabiosa = "with the madwoman").[45] This led to much more value being attached to the previously minor tactic of pawn promotion. as some said that in theory (in the diagram on the right). An Italian player. the queen could also move like a knight. This led to the en passant rule: a pawn placed so that it could have captured the enemy pawn if it had moved one square forward was allowed to capture it on the passed square. the queens started on d3 and d6 along with the queens' pawns. the players arranged their other pieces as they wished behind their pawns at the start of the game. This right was sometimes extended to a new queen made by promoting a pawn.[47] [48] with the exception of the rules about stalemate. to make it quicker to put the king safe in a corner. ("assize" = "sitting".) Here the pawns started on the third rank. In Italy. making chess close to its modern form. authored an analysis of a number of composed games that illustrated two differing approaches to chess. the contrary rule (passar battaglia = "to pass battle") applied: a pawn that moved two squares forward had passed the danger of attack on the intermediate square. Portugal. which were finalized in the early 19th century.

who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy. Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497. second edition.[50] Centers of chess life in this period were coffee houses in big European cities like Café de la Régence in Paris[51] and Simpson's Divan in London. Italians Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona. the first comprehensive manual of chess theory. chess organization developed quickly.History of chess The first full work dealing with the various winning combinations was written by François-André Danican Philidor of France. There were correspondence matches between cities. Many chess clubs. and later Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais who won a famous series of matches with the Irish master Alexander McDonnell in 1834. In the 18th century the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. Josef Kling and Samuel Loyd composed some of the most influential problems. and published in the 18th century. an influential work which appeared in more than 100 editions. The two most important French masters were François-André Danican Philidor.[13] He wrote and published L'Analyse des échecs (The Analysis of Chess). a musician by profession. 1777 Original Staunton chess pieces by Nathaniel Cook from 1849 Writings about the theory of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century.[52] As the 19th century progressed.[47] Lucena and later masters like Portuguese Pedro Damiano. Giulio Cesare Polerio and Gioachino Greco or Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura developed elements of openings and started to analyze simple endgames. The oldest surviving printed chess book. regarded as the best chess player in the world for nearly 50 years.[53] Chess problems became a regular part of 19th century newspapers.[13] 235 A woodcut drawn from Caxton's chess book printed in England in 1474 A tactical puzzle from Lucena's 1497 book "Marguerite d'Alençon et son frère François d'Angoulême jouant aux échecs" from the book Échecs amoureux. for example the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in 1824. chess books and chess journals appeared. 16th century Portrait of François-André Danican Philidor from L’analyse des échecs. Bernhard Horwitz. . von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess). In 1843. London.

surprisingly.[57] Prague-born Wilhelm Steinitz later described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position. the referee makes the sealed move and the players resume. consisting of two parallel timers with a small button for a player to press after completing a move. relatively unknown at the time. won against all important competitors. this added "lost on time" to the traditional means of losing such as checkmate and resigning. during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863.[14] Another problem that arose in competitive chess was when adjourning a game for a meal break or overnight. and the 1851 London Chess tournament raised concerns about the time taken by the players to deliberate their moves. On recording time it was found that players often took hours to analyze moves. e.[58] In addition to his theoretical achievements.[56] Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with two younger players. using sandglasses. Steinitz lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger German mathematician Emanuel Lasker. and one player took as much as two hours and 20 minutes to think over a single move at the London tournament. by German Adolf Anderssen. two hours for 30 moves. Birth of a sport (1850–1945) The first modern chess tournament was held in London in 1851 and won.[14] A Russian composer.[54] [55] Sparkling games like Anderssen's Immortal game and Evergreen Game or Morphy's Opera game were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art. including Anderssen. forfeiture became the only effective penalty. American Paul Morphy. In the final variant. including Max Euwe. The following years saw the development of speed chess. were later employed to aid the players. a version allowing a bank of time to each player in which to play a previously agreed number of moves. were employed in a tournament match at Bristol. The player who moved last before adjournment would be at a disadvantage. Anderssen was hailed as the leading chess master and his brilliant. who maintained this title for 27 years.[15] Digital clocks appeared in the 1980s. the player who made the predetermined number of moves in the agreed time received additional time budget for his next moves. Mikhail Botvinnik. Penalties for exceeding a time limit came in form of fines and forfeiture. When the game is continued after adjournment. The sandglasses were later replaced by pendulums. Preventing access to a chess set to work out moves during the adjournment would not stop him from analyzing the position in his head. as the other player would have a long period to analyze before having to make a reply when the game was resumed. 1991. Steinitz founded an important tradition: his triumph over the leading Polish-German master Johannes Zukertort in 1886 is regarded as the first official World Chess Championship. Various strange ideas were attempted. Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy. Vasily Smyslov and Jan Timman. Modern clocks. England. Since fines were easy to bear for professional players. [15] consecutive captures by a pawn. energetic attacking style became typical for the time. The final move before adjournment is not made on the board but instead is written on a piece of paper which the referee seals in an envelope and keeps safe. the longest tenure of . five-minute chess and the most popular variant.g. he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.[14] In 1861 the first time limits. Vladimir Korolkov. A tiny latch called a flag further helped settle arguments over players exceeding time limit at the turn of the 19th century. Position analysis became particularly popular in the 19th century. authored a work entitled Stamp of the USSR devoted to the accomplished "Excelsior" in 1958 in which the White side wins only by making six Estonian player and analyst Paul Keres. but the eventual solution was the "sealed move".[15] Many leading players were also accomplished analysts. although it was later regarded as strategically shallow. an extraordinary chess prodigy.History of chess 236 Modern competition-style chess Competitive chess became visible in 1834.

which was initially a tournament. the number of annually held master tournaments and matches quickly grew. a strong attacking player.[65] FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. This system worked on a three-year cycle. he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years until 1924. He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954. was a player able to win in both positional and sharp tactical style. the first to hold it was Czech-English master Vera Menchik. The winner of the 1948 tournament. Boris Spassky from Russia (1969–1972). and the next champion. His successor.[60] Between the world wars. where they were joined by players who had qualified from "Zonal tournaments". Alekhine. who have controlled the title since then. the World Champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match.[62] The tradition of awarding such titles was continued by the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Tarrasch and Marshall. Until the end of the Soviet Union. Some sources state that in 1914 the title of chess grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker. The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "Candidates" stage. 1963–1969. a new World Champion was sought in a tournament of elite players ruled by FIDE. In 1927. Capablanca. In 1960. a genius of defense and strong positional player.[61] 237 Since the end of 19th century. His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine. American Bobby Fischer (champion 1972–1975).[64] In the previous informal system. he lost to Vasily Smyslov. They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later. later a series of knock-out matches.[63] Wilhelm Steinitz. Armenian Tigran Petrosian. he lost the title to the Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal.[65] World Champions José Raúl Capablanca (left) and Emanuel Lasker in 1925 Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. to end the German-speaking dominance in chess.History of chess all World Champions.[59] It took a prodigy from Cuba.[66] . In 1957. founded in 1924 in Paris. was able to hold the title for two cycles. who loved simple positions and endgames. there was only one non-Soviet champion. Russian Mikhail Botvinnik. who died as the World champion in 1946. The world's strongest players were seeded into "Interzonal tournaments". started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. the first World Chess Champion Post-war era (1945 and later) After the death of Alekhine. José Raúl Capablanca (World champion 1921–27). Following the 1961 event. with one interruption. chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called hypermodernists like Aron Nimzowitsch and Richard Réti. Women's World Chess Championship was established. FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch. inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns which become objects of attack. an accomplished tactician and attacking player. but this is a disputed claim. but regained the title in a rematch in 1958. having briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in 1935 and regaining it two years later. Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961.

. page 92 Forbes (1860) Robinson & Estes (1996). publ. [11] Chess: Introduction to Europe (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007) [12] Riddler 1998 [13] Chess: Development of Theory (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [14] Chess: The time element and competition (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [15] Chess: Chess composition (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [16] Gupta. [6] Davidson. bottom of p. who defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match. google. In 1975. Gupta. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. Kasparov as the reigning world champion played a game online against the world team composed of more than 50. and Golombek all give this correspondence. by H. the complexity. when Kramnik beat the FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov and became the undisputed World Chess Champion. saw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II. thechesszone. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Garry Kasparov. . A History of Chess.J.1(1). Kasparov lost his Classical title in 2000 to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.[72] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "The History Of Chess" (http:/ / www.R. and the contribution it has made to chess theory make it one of the most important chess games ever played. The Silkroad Foundation. and Karpov obtained the title by default. 144-45 (first edition) [9] Chess: Ancient precursors and related games (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [10] Remus. Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet Anatoly Karpov when FIDE refused to meet his demands. Bird (pp 4. Concise Encyclopaedia of India. 2003.R. Horst. American Bobby Fischer. pp. 46) exchanges the bishop and rook.Murray.[68] Current World Champion Viswanathan Anand In 1993. The number of ideas. Anand retained his title. com/ books?id=Efgu1BwmeCQC). Earlier in 1999.R. Volume 3 (http:/ / books.311.[67] Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands of another Russian player. however. Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes. Leibs (2004). the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion. [7] Meri 2005: 148 [8] Hooper and Whyld.J. ISBN 0-936317-01-9. [17] A History of Chess. January 15. page34 Murray.(2006). Amita. html).000 participants from more than 75 countries. Garry Kasparov and Nigel Short broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing Professional Chess Association (PCA). com/ newsletter/ volumeonenumberone/ origin. v.[69] The FIDE World Chess Championship 2006 reunified the titles.History of chess 238 The next championship. (1913).[71] In October 2008. silk-road. . ChessZone. Viswanathan Anand from India became the next champion by winning a championship tournament. com/ history_of_chess). "The Origin of Chess and the Silk Road" (http:/ / www. the so-called Match of the Century.[70] In September 2007. Hooper & Whyld. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990. Retrieved 29 March 2011. The Silk Road journal. Karpov never won his title back. K. and after 62 moves played over four months Kasparov won the game. From then until 2006. there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games. The moves of the world team were decided by plurality vote. OCLC 13472872. H. decisively winning the rematch against Kramnik. 964.

[45] Murray (1913) p. 5.History of chess [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] Wilkins 2002: 46 Encyclopedia Britannica (Ninth Edition) Hooper 1992: 74 Kulke 2004: 9 Wilkins 2002: 48 Wilkinson 1943 A History of Chess See the chess set's page (http:/ / www. Chess: Set design (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007) Chinese chess (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007) Li 1998 Banaschak: A story well told is not necessarily true . Chess History and Reminiscences (http:/ / www. R. [54] World Title Matches and Tournaments . [58] Steinitz. OCLC 55639730.. but this is also disputed by Edward Winter (chess historian) in his Chess Notes 5144 and 5152 (http:/ / 72. chessgames. [50] Louis Charles Mahe De La Bourdonnai. p. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-520-20684-3. Bell 1979: 57 Warner & Warner 2008. H. chessgames. Carroll & Graf Publishers. com/ winter/ winter38. ISBN 0-7867-0587-6. php) worldchessnetwork. Retrieved 11 December 2006 [64] Kasparov 2003b. ISBN 0-7864-1193-7. Nunn. John (1998). (2004).223) by Anne Sunnucks. 104/ search?q=cache:Uv0K9qUrveUJ:www. . University of Minnesota Press. Macon (2004). p. Hacker Art Books. ISBN 0-87817-211-4. Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle. Courier Dover Publications.com. html+ site:chesshistory. ISBN 0-06-015358-X. The Kings of Chess. P. p. 152ff [49] See History of the stalemate rule. (1985). thechessplace. Li's "The Genealogy of Chess" Shogi (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) Vale 2001: 172 Gamer 1954 Vale 2001: 177 Vale 2001: 171 Vale 2001: 152 Vale 2001: 173 239 [40] Vale 2001: 151 [41] Vale 2001: 174 [42] Murray. archive. Skill. goddesschess. J. OCLC 48550929. 14. com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=80740) Chessgames. 205. OCLC 217447754. Henry Edward. Online version (http:/ / ark. ISBN 0-8166-4164-1. Pavilion Books Limited.: 1913 [43] Chess (History): Standardization of rules (Encyclopedia Britannica 2002) [44] Murray. [63] Menchik at ChessGames. [56] Burgess. 2006 [65] "Chess History" (http:/ / www. com/ page/ 976499). John and Emms. Retrieved 2008-01-07. (http:/ / web. Retrieved 30 November 2006. (http:/ / www. p. Retrieved 10 December 2006 [53] London Chess Club. Retrieved 10 December 2006 [48] An analysis from the feminist perspective: Weissberger. p. chessgames. The Mammoth Book of the World's Greatest Chess Games. William and Landsberger. Retrieved 30 November 2006. metmuseum. cdlib. OCLC 40209258. 193a-ff. wielding power. org/ toah/ hd/ nish/ ho_1971. org/ web/ 2006/ worldchessnetwork. Barbara F. chesshistory. Berkeley: University of California Press. Isabel Rules: constructing queenship. org/ ark:/ 13030/ ft438nb2b6/ ) [52] Bird. W. ISBN 0-486-43574-1. (http:/ / www. OCLC 185289629.com [55] Hartston. [57] Shibut. Harold James Ruthven (1952).being a critical assessment of David H.com. com/ English/ chessHistory/ salute/ matchesTournaments/ london1851. Ricardo. Paul (1998). 2004b. Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory.Chess history. org/ etext/ 4902). Yalom 2004. "6: Race-Games".com (http:/ / www. 13–17 [47] Calvo. Graham. A History of Board-Games Other than Chess. 394-402. [51] Metzner. Valencia Spain: The Cradle of European Chess (http:/ / www. 36. and Self-Promotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution. The Steinitz Papers: Letters and Documents of the First World Chess Champion.777 [46] Davidson (1981). . gutenberg. com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=31596) Chessgames. 14. [59] Kasparov (1983a) [60] Kasparov 1983b [61] Fine (1952) [62] This is stated for example in The Encyclopaedia of Chess (1970. 2004a. Kurt (2002). com/ winter+ Grandmaster+ Tsar& hl=en& ct=clnk& cd=1& gl=us). com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=13277). com/ chessays/ ricardovalencia. html). htm) on the Museum's website. p.

• Forbes.com/ books?id=Oa4UAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover). html?from=rssfeed). Henry A. 2002. Encyclopædia Britannica. Books • Bell. ISBN 0-7134-7296-0. McKay. My Great Predecessors." (http://www. Better Chess for Average Players. ISBN 0-486-29029-8. OCLC 223602528. 2004a [67] Kasparov 2003a. • Bird. ISBN 1-85744-330-6. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-679-14550-8. • Hooper. London. Robert Charles (1979). Li's The Genealogy of Chess " (http://www. IBN Live.britannica. The History of Chess: From the Time of the Early Invention of the Game in India Till the Period of Its Establishment in Western and Central Europe (http://books. Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess.". Second edition. Courier Dover Publications. 2002. 2007-09-30. • "Chess: Set design. Encyclopædia Britannica. WWW • Banaschak. Encyclopedia Britannica. H. Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. Gary Kasparov's Best Games. [69] Harding.com/eb/article-80432/chess). wins world chess title" (http:/ / ibnlive. 2002. Henry Edward (1893). Kenneth (1992). Harry (1977).com/eb/article-9024151). 64 Great Chess Games. Encyclopedia Britannica. • Hooper. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. David and Whyld. Encyclopedia Britannica. T. Reuters. B. Everyman Chess. Crown Publishing. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002. October 29.britannica. Dublin: Chess Mail. 2007. The Oxford Companion to Chess. ISBN 0-517-53146-1 • Harding. • "Chess: Introduction to Europe" (http://www. (Republished version by Forgotten Books). 2007. Duncan (1860). . "A story well told is not necessarily true : a critical assessment of David H. 2007. "Chess: Chess composition". 16. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-12-13. • "Shogi". Retrieved 2007-10-28. T.britannica. Retrieved 2008-12-17.banaschak. Kenneth (1992). ISBN 0486238555. 2002.History of chess [66] Kasparov 2003b. Retrieved 2007-10-28. in. Raymond (1993).com/eb/article-80430/chess). (1949. Peter. p. Reprint: (1996) ISBN 0-19-280049-3 • Kasparov. London: W. . 1981). com/ news/ anand-draws-11th-game-wins-world-chess-title/ 77005-5. Encyclopedia Britannica. reuters. Courier Dover Publications. Chess History and Reminiscences. David Vincent. part I.net/schach/ligenealogyofchess. Encyclopedia Britannica. Allen & Co. OCLC 25508610. Encyclopædia Britannica.htm). "Chess: The time element and competition". [70] Kramnik at ChessGames. "Chess (History): Standardization of rules". 240 References Encyclopedia Britannica • • • • • "Chess: Ancient precursors and related games. • Davidson. ISBN 0198661649.google. Retrieved 2007-10-28. [72] "Anand draws 11th game. • Golombek. ISBN 0-9538536-4-0. 2002. Tim (2003). com/ perl/ chessplayer?pid=12295). "Chess: Development of Theory".com (http:/ / www. The Oxford Companion to Chess. chessgames. 2006 [68] Keene. Oxford University Press. Whyld. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 December 2006 [71] "Viswanathan Anand regains world chess title" (http:/ / in. • "Chinese chess" (http://www. ISBN 1-60620-897-7. com/ article/ sportsNews/ idINIndia-29785520070930). A Short History of Chess. Encyclopædia Britannica. Batsford Ltd. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. . Encyclopædia Britannica. Garry (2003a). OCLC 29386838. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2002). OCLC 17340178.. OCLC 33166445..

ISBN 9780521315364. Rebecca (1996). ISBN 0415329205. • Gordon. • Kasparov. part II. A. An article on the history of chess by the 2007-10 chess world champion. TIME.History of chess • Kasparov. Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (http://etd. Ian.time. • Kasparov. doi:10. Garry (2006).edu/etd/GetFileServlet?file=file:/// data1/pdf/etd/azu_etd_2444_1_m. (October 1954). G.arizona. ISBN 1-56308-271-3 • Vale. Stewart (July/August 2009). World Cultures Through Art Activities. Everyman Chess. • Kasparov. The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe. (2005). OCLC 52949851.html).html). My Great Predecessors.com/pdf/2000/200904. (June 1985). part IV.. ISBN 0313317119. Simon (February 1998).archive. • Murray. David H. Garry (2004a). • Needham. "Chessmen and Chess" (http://www. Co. My Great Predecessors.pdf)) • Riddler.com/time/specials/2007/article/ 0.com/chessays/ needham1.ac. Colin A. "Los Libros de acedrex dados e tablas: Historical. ISSN 1357-4442 • Wilkinson. 19. Cambridge University Press. • Meri. "When there is no end to a good game" (http://www. My Great Predecessors. ISBN 0415966906. ISBN 0-19-827403-3. My Great Predecessors. (July 1986). • Kulke. (1913). M. Joseph (1962). A History of Chess. University of Arizona. OCLC 223906486. Trübner & Co. ( PDF version (http://www. Sports and Games of Medieval Cultures.1815747_1815707_1815674. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Premier Pub. ISBN 1-85744-371-3. Andrew (2004). • Musser Golladay. Sports and Games of the Renaissance. Ronan. The Sháhnámá of Firdausí (http://www. • Robinson.goddesschess. Trench. J. The Genealogy of Chess. Sally (2002).britarch. "Thoughts on The Origin of Chess" (http://www. • Yalom. uk/ba/ba31/ba31feat. R. VII. Saudi Aramco World (Houston: Aramco Services Company) 60 (4): 18–23. JSTOR 2847098. Everyman Chess. OCLC 52949851. Garry (2004b).of. ISBN 0521315603.htm).com/issue/ 200904/the. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2. Marilyn (2004). ISBN 1-85744-404-3. ISBN 0415245451. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 2. Speculum (Medieval Academy of America) 29 (4): 734–750.2307/2847098. ISBN 0060090642. (2001). Cambridge University Press. Edmond.. Arthur George & Warner. Dindy & Estes. ISBN 0199269939.goddesschess. 2007) • Needham. Thursday. Joseph.library. Garry (2003b). Oxford University Press. Joseph. Everyman Chess.org/stream/shahnama07firduoft#page/n7/ mode/2up). Josef W. 2008. Dietmar Rothermund (2004). • Firdausí (1915). 241 Journals • Anand.saudiaramcoworld. ISBN 1-85744-342-X.html). Denison. OCLC 52949851. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. Charles K (May 1943). ISBN 0-313-32772-6 • Li. Warner. Sonja. Birth of the Chess Queen: a History (Illustrated ed. Routledge. Oxford University Press. • Needham. "The Indian Defense" (http://www. • Gamer. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) New . British Archaeology (United Kingdom: Council for British Archaeology) (31). 1270-1380. Colin A. Ronan. HarperCollins.com/chessays/ chessmenandchess. H. Greenwood Press.28804. • Leibs. London: Kegan Paul. New Hampshire: Libraries Unlimited. Hermann.game. Routledge.html).kings. Helena M. part III. "The Earliest Evidence of Chess in Western Literature: The Einsiedeln Verses". ISBN 1-85744-395-0.saudiaramcoworld. Everyman Chess.). Trans. part V.pdf&type=application/pdf) (PhD diss. "The Game of Kings" (http://www. (1998). Jun. A History of India.00. • Wilkins. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 3. Viswanathan.

John Griswold White wrote in 1898. and that arising from the results of certain rules. 242 External links • Origin and history of Chess.de/~nc-jostenge/) • Goddess Chess Chessays (http://www. rather than 3000 BC as claimed by Forbes. doi:10.goddesschess. from Encyclopedia Britannica Online (http:/ /www.html#s18) ( Archived (http://www. (May 1943). He further asserts that this name later became "Shatranj" after the Arabic pronunciation.2307/3257111. the game evolved into a two-handed game (Chaturanga).com/encyclopedia_761565896_3/ Chess. Charles K.free. Xiangqi. The theory was allegedly based on evidence in the Indian text Bhavishya Purana. The earliest Puranas are now assigned a more conservative date of 500 BC. JSTOR 3257111. Vol. he calls the four-handed dice version Chaturanga and insists that Chaturaji is a misnomer that actually refers to a victory condition in the game akin to checkmate. While working on Geschichte und Litteratur des Schachspiels (Berlin. pp.com/chessays/chessaystoc. or the difficulty in getting enough players. 1874. • Wilkinson. "Chessmen and Chess". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) New Series.)." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 (http://encarta. "He did not even make good use of the material known to him.Alfonso X and Chess (http://knol. two vols. On account of religious and legal objections in Hinduism to gambling. In Forbes' explanation. JSTOR 3257111. doi:10. 226–7) .com/ebc/article-80429) • "Chess.msn. As a result. 143. Retrieved July 30.History of chess Series 1 (9): 271–279.com/k/braulio-vázquez-campos/ alfonso-x-y-el-ajedrez/1nt2tw69bo2xt/13?hl=en#/) Cox-Forbes theory The Cox-Forbes theory is a long-debunked theory on the evolution of chess put forward by Captain Hiram Cox and extended by Professor Duncan Forbes (1798–1868). but more recent study of the work has shown the evidence to be weaker than previously thought.fr/) • Chess. Shogi and more (http://history. Van der Linde thought that Forbes deliberately lied. the theory is now rejected by all serious chess historians. 9 (9): 271–279. 2007.google. (2007).htm) • Alfonso X y el ajedrez . In his 1860 account.webcitation. rather than 3000 BC.mark-weeks.html) • Chess for all ages (http://www. The theory states that a four-handed dice-chess game (Chaturaji) was originated in India in approximately 3000 BC.com/aboutcom/caa-hist.2307/3257111." (Hooper & Whyld 1992.britannica.org/5kwqozOV2) 2009-10-31) • Initiative group Koenigstein (http://www. 1. He represents this "Chaturanga" as gradually developing into the two-player diceless form by the time it was adopted by the Persians as "Chatrang". Albrecht Weber (1825–1901) and Dutch chess historian Antonius van der Linde (1833–1897) found that the Purana quoted by Forbes did not even contain the references he claimed. the dice were dropped from the game. No. Van der Linde also found that the actual text around which Forbes had built his entire theory (Tithitattva of Raghunandana) was actually from around AD 1500. the players in opposite corners are allies against the other team of two players. In Encyclopedia Britannica. making it a game purely of skill.mynetcologne. and was furious.chess.

Cox-Forbes theory 243 References • Hooper. as well as discoveries of Han Dynasty picture stones and picture bricks depicting Liubo players. The Oxford Companion to Chess (2 ed. David. For the rules. ISBN 0-19-280049-3 • The History of Chess. possibly due to the rise in popularity of the game of Go. .). The game was invented no later than the A pair of Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) ceramic tomb figurines of two middle of the 1st millennium BCE. htm Liubo Liubo (Chinese: 六博. chess. Whyld. However. pp. it is believed that each player had six game pieces that were moved around the points of a square game board that had a distinctive. com/ books?id=Oa4UAAAAYAAJ& client=firefox-a [2] http:/ / history. Kenneth (1992).website debunking Cox-Forbes References [1] http:/ / books. symmetrical pattern. Moves were determined by the throw of six sticks. 226–7. pinyin: liù bó. fr/ chaturanga. after the Han Dynasty it rapidly declined in popularity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. google. Knowledge of the game has increased in recent years with archeological discoveries of Liubo game boards and game equipment in ancient tombs. by Duncan Forbes [1] . literally "six sticks") is an ancient Chinese board game played by two players. Wade–Giles: liu po. and it eventually became almost totally forgotten. 1860. which performed the same function as dice in other race games. and was gentlemen playing liubo immensely popular during the Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE). 143. free.complete original text • Chaturanga [2] .

the Records of the Grand Historian records a speech made during the reign of King Xuan of Qi (reigned 319 BCE – 301 BCE) that claims that the capital city of Linzi was so wealthy that its citizens were all able to indulge in activities such as playing musical instruments. For example. cock fighting. a minister to King Jie. sometimes as a small part of a complex Eastern Han glazed pottery tomb figurines playing Liubo. dog racing. Songs of Chu: Then with bamboo dice and ivory pieces the game of Liu Bo is begun. the player on the right with his right hand raised up as if about to throw down the six throwing sticks. early Chinese records do indicate that Liubo was already a popular game by the Warring States Period (476 BCE – 221 BCE).Liubo 244 History It is not known when the game of Liubo originated. the last king of the Xia Dynasty. show two winged immortals playing Liubo on a mountain. Sides are taken. playing Liubo and playing kick ball.[5] [6] Engraved picture stones (畫像石) and moulded picture bricks (畫像磚) that were widely used to decorate tombs and temples during the Eastern Han period (25–220 CE) also frequently depict people playing Liubo. although according to legend it was invented by Wu Cao (烏曹. Some picture stones and engravings on stone coffins. usually as part of a larger scene depicting the Queen Mother of the West and various mythical animals. Henan showing a pair of Liubo players in the foreground. as is evidenced by the discovery of many examples of Liubo boards or sets of Liubo game pieces as grave goods in high status tombs dating to the Han Dynasty. especially those from the area of modern Sichuan and Yunnan provinces.[2] The game of Liubo is also described in the mid 3rd century BCE poem Summons of the Soul (Zhao Hun 招魂) in the Mural from an Easter Han Dynasty tomb at Luoyang. who according to traditional chronology reigned 1728 BCE – 1675 BCE.[4] The game reached its greatest popularity during the Han Dynasty. Pottery or wooden figurines of players with model Liubo boards have also been discovered in some Han tombs. keenly they threaten each other. scene depicting many different activities. Although the game is still occasionally referred to in some historical sources and in poetry as late as the Tang Dynasty (618–907). After the end of the Han Dynasty the game seems to have lost its poularity. called Wu Zhou 烏胄 in the early 2nd century CE Shuowen Jiezi dictionary). it seems that Liubo had been largely displaced by the game of Go. By the time of the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) all knowledge . but sometimes as the with six sticks laid out to the side of the game board focal point of the scene.[1] Although there is no archeological or reliable documentary evidence to support the view that Liubo dates back to the Shang Dynasty (1600 BCE–1046 BCE). with the players attended by servants and playing in the cool of a pavilion. they advance together. and there are no known examples of Liubo funerary ware or depictions of Liubo playing later than the Jin Dynasty (265–420). Shouts of ‘five white!’ arise. Pieces are kinged and the scoring doubled.[3] The earliest Liubo boards to have been discovered are a pair of ornately decorated stone boards from a 4th century BCE tomb in the royal tomb complex of the State of Zhongshan at Pingshan in Hebei.

[8] The Chinese version of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra also mentions the playing of several games. Regardless of their size or shape. the common feature of all Liubo boards is the distinctive pattern that is carved or painted on their surface: All excavated boards have the angular V-shaped marks at the corners and L-shaped marks at the center of the edges. and some are built as tables with long legs. The Old Book of Tang mentions that Tibetans enjoyed playing both the game of Go and Liubo. but others are supported by knobs at the four corners. Various types and sizes of Liubo board have been unearthed. including wood. to date no examples of Liubo boards have been found outside of China. There is some evidence that the game of Liubo spread to beyond the confines of China. on some boards each circular mark is replaced by a straight line joining the corner mark to the corner of the inner square. including Liubo. Some of the boards are simple square slabs of stone or wood. . and it is only with the archeological discoveries of recent years that the game has become better known. However.Liubo of the game of Liubo had been lost. stone and bronze. lacquered wood. and in a few cases there is no mark between the corner and the square at all. and most boards also have four marks (usually circular but sometimes a decorative pattern) between the corner mark and the central square. 245 Equipment Liubo boards and game equipment are often found as grave goods in tombs from the Han Dynasty.[7] but although ancient Tibetan Go boards have been discovered. which some have taken as evidence that Liubo was transmitted to India. However. made from a variety of materials. as well as the central square and T-shaped protrusions. no examples of Tibetan Liubo boards are known. pottery.

2 × 2. In at least one case the game pieces are not distinguished by colour. but were equipment for a different game.0 × 1. whereas in other cases the game pieces (which are often made of ivory) have survived but the Liubo board (which is often made of wood or lacquer) has rotted away.[11] Sets of thirty rod-shaped counting chips have also been found in association with Liubo sets from other tombs. This Liubo set comprises the following items (the Chinese description of the items in the inventory of grave goods that was found in the tomb are given in brackets):[9] • 1 lacquered wooden game box (45.) [象直食其廿] • 30 rod-shaped ivory counting chips (16.7 cm. No Liubo board or Liubo game pieces were found in the tomb. and which the game is named after (Liubo="six sticks").Liubo 246 In many tombs only the Liubo board has survived (especially if made of stone or bronze).0 × 45.0 × 17. and it is possible that they were not used for playing Liubo. jadeite or rock crystal have been found in several other tombs.2 × 2. but by having an engraving of a tiger on the pieces of one set and an engraving of a dragon on the pieces of the other set.2 cm. six black and six white [象其十二] • 20 ivory game pieces (2.) [博局一] A lacquered Chinese liubo board game set excavated from Tomb No. However.0 cm. and similar sets of cubic or cuboid game pieces made from ivory. in 1973 a unique. Changsha. the die and sets of tokens are supposed to have been used for a drinking game. • 12 cuboid ivory game pieces (4. and the other set inscribed with three-character lines of poetry) in a Han tomb at Mancheng County in Hebei.[13] . China.).7 × 1.9 × 1. and because of the inscription "take a drink" (酒來) on one face of the die.3 cm. Hunan province.[10] The twelve long rods are two sets of the six throwing sticks that the players use to determine their moves. long) [象筭三十枚] • 12 ivory throwing rods (22.4 cm. long) [象□□□□ (last four characters obliterated)] • 1 ivory knife (22. long) [象削一] • 1 eighteen-sided die with the numbers "1" through "16" and characters meaning "win" and "lose" [not listed in the inventory] The six black and six white game pieces are the main game pieces to be moved around the board.0 cm. and ceramic model Liubo sets such as the one excavated in 1972 from Lingbao in Henan province show six sticks lined up neatly between the two players.2 cm. coin-shaped tokens (one set inscribed "Number 1" through "Number 20". the twenty ivory game pieces and the eighteen-sided die in the Mawangdui set are not typically associated with Liubo boards in other tombs. complete set of Liubo equipment in a lacquer box was discovered in a 2nd century BCE tomb at Mawangdui (believed to be that of the son of the Marquis of Dai).[12] However. Most Han stone pictures of Six jadeite Liubo game pieces from the tomb of King Zhao Mo of Nanyue (reigned 137 BC – 122 BC) Liubo show the players throwing sticks onto a mat between themselves (with the Liubo board to the side of the mat). long) [象割刀一] • 1 ivory scraper (17.) [博一具] • 1 lacquered wooden game board (45.0 × 45. A similar eighteen-sided die with numbers "1" through "16". dated to the 2nd century BCE during the Western Han Dynasty. 3 of Mawangdui. "win" and "take a drink" was found in association with two sets of twenty copper. and it can be assumed that any associated game pieces have decayed.0 cm.

and some of the surviving descriptions of the game are conflicting. and if he pulls two fish in a row he gets three tokens [for the second fish]. Another. Thereupon it can enter the water and eat a fish. and would gain three points for doing this. then the opponent would gain six points and win the game. which according to the ancient rules are six white and six black. However. For each block one would gain two points. and that players moved their six games pieces around the marks on the board. The two players take turns to throw the dice and move their pieces. A close-up view of the board game with game pieces from the Eastern Han tomb model set with two ends. Most game historians think that Liubo was a race game. which suggests that the game may have been played according to different rules at different times or in different places. Twelve game pieces are used. somewhat later source. who discusses the game as it was possibly played on TLV mirrors.[15] Yang theorizes that a player’s piece would start on an L-shaped mark and try to move to a V-shaped corner mark depending on the throw of the sticks. When one player wins six tokens the game is won. If a player has already pulled two fish but does not win it is called double-pulling a pair of fish. and the board is divided into twelve paths. Jean-Louis Cazaux has also reconstructed similar rules for playing Liubo. The throwing of the dice is done with a jade. It had very little skill. Every time a player pulls a fish he gets two tokens. The Family Instructions of Master Yan by Yan Zhitui (531–591) states that there were two variants of Liubo. and was not worth playing. If one failed to win after having blocked two men. There have been several attempts to reconstruct the rules of the game. "Greater Bo" (大博) which was played with six throwing sticks. Nowadays there is no-one who knows how to play. most notably by Lien-sheng Yang. which is also called "pulling a fish".[16] An implementation of these reconstructed rules as a playable computer game has also been attempted.[17] . which are placed in the water. and called an "owl (梟or驍) ".Liubo 247 Rules The exact rules of the game of Liubo are not known. others consider Liubo to have been a battle game played with dice or throwing sticks. There are also two "fish" pieces. When a piece has been moved to a certain place it is stood up on end. Once in the center. and an area called the "water" in the middle. but in those days when it was played it used one die and twelve game pieces. The most complete description of the rules of Liubo occurs in a quotation from the lost Book of Ancient Bo (古博經) in a commentary by Zhang Zhan (張湛) to the Book of Liezi that was written during the Jin Dynasty (265–420): Method of play: Two people sit facing each other over a board. a piece could begin to block the enemy’s pieces from taking a square. and "Lesser Bo" (小博) which was played with two dice:[14] The ancient Greater Bo used six sticks. One could also attempt to recover one’s pieces after they are blocked. whereas Lesser Bo used two dice. Certain throws would allow a player's piece to move into the center and ‘kill’ the opponent’s piece if it was already there. The first player to six points would win the game.

whereas others have suggested that Liubo was transmitted from China to India during the Eastern Jin (317–420).[23] Liubo patterns on other objects Liubo mirrors The pattern found on the surface of Liubo boards is also found on the most common type of Han Dynasty bronze mirror. and it could then have become Chinese chess. There is some debate over whether the Liubo pattern on these mirrors was simply decorative. on a board that is similar to a Liubo board. known from their distinctive markings as TLV mirrors.[18] In Korea the traditional game of jeopo 저포 (hanja: 樗蒲 ) is still played. or whether it had a ritual significance.Liubo 248 Chupu A variant of Liubo in which dice were used to make the moves was called Chupu (樗蒲) or Wumu (五木).[20] Some Chinese game historians believe that Xiangqi is not related to Western chess.[21] Although many western game historians reject the claim that Xiangqi or other chess variants derive from Liubo. where it developed into Chaturanga.[22] Jean-Louis Cazaux argues that Liubo could have been transformed from a race game to a battle game. or whether perhaps the mirrors doubled as portable Liubo game boards. and that the pattern had a special significance beyond game-playing. and in particular some Chinese scholars believe that Xiangqi (Chinese chess) was based on Liubo. which was the ancestor to both Western chess and Chinese chess.[24] Han dynasty bronze mirror with TLV pattern . but was based on Liubo. Zhou Zheng has pointed out that one TLV mirror dating to the reign of Wang Mang (9–23) has an inscription that includes the words "Carved with a Liubo board pattern to dispel misfortune" (刻具博局去[祛]不羊[祥]). which suggests that the main purpose of the Liubo pattern on mirrors was ritual.[19] Relationship to other games There have been attempts to relate Liubo to other board games.

Divination boards In 1993 a wooden board with turtle divinition diagrams and prognostications on one side and a Liubo diagram and forty-five prognostications on five topics on the other side was excavated from a late Western Han tomb at Yinwan in Donghai County.[26] The only other complete Han dynasty sundial. in a similar way that the turtle diagram on the other side of the board is filled with the sixty terms. the outside edge of the central square. Jiangsu.[27] The Liubo diagram is too small to have been used for playing Liubo. Lillian Tseng (Zeng Lanying) argues that these are the names for particular points on the board (the two lines of the "V" mark.Liubo 249 Liubo coins The Liubo pattern is also sometimes found on the reverse of Wu Zhu coins. also has a Liubo pattern carved on it. Such coins were not used as currency but were probably lucky charms. and is covered with the sixty terms of the sexagenary cycle which are written all along the lines of the Liubo diagram. the circle or line between the corner and the central square.[25] Sundials In 1897 a stone sundial was discovered in Inner Mongolia which had been overcarved with a Liubo board pattern. The prognostications under the Liubo diagram are headed with one of nine terms that correspond to the words of an enigmatic.[28] Stone sundial from Inner Mongolia overcarved with a Liubo board pattern . mnemonic rhyme about Liubo written by Xu Bochang (許博昌) during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (141 BCE – 87 BCE). in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. It may be that the sundials were repurposed as Liubo boards by carving the Liubo pattern over the original sundial markings. and the inside of the central square). the two lines of the "T" mark. or it may be that the Liubo markings were added for some unknown ritual purpose. the two lines of the "L" mark.

D=dào 道 "path". C=jié 楬 (jiē 揭) "lift". showing the positions of the sixty terms of the sexagenary cycle (following the corrections of Zeng Lanying) and examples of the nine board positions: A=fāng 方 "square". E=zhāng 張 "stretch".Liubo 250 Schematic diagram of the Yinwan Han dynasty Liubo divination diagram. It has been theorized that the placement of the sixty sexagenary terms on the points of the Liubo divination diagram indicate the possible positions for placing pieces when playing Liubo. Li Xueqin has suggested that the board was used for divination by matching the day to be divined to the corresponding sexagenary term on the Liubo diagram. H=cháng 長 (xuán 玄) "long". and that the sequence of the terms across the divination diagram reflects the path to be followed around the board when playing the game (starting at the north-east corner and ending at the north side of the central square). F=qū 曲 (jiǔ 究) "bend". and then all the days on the Liubo board that were written on the position corresponding to the term heading the prognostication would match the desired prognostication. I=gāo 高 "tall" (terms used in Xu Bochang's rhyme given in brackets if different). by looking for the desired prognostication (for example an auspicious marriage day). B=lián 廉 (pàn 畔) "edge".[29] However. and then reading off the corresponding prognostication according to the position of the sexagenary term on the Liubo diagram. G=qū 詘 (qū 屈) "curve".[30] . Lillian Tseng points out that the divination could also be done the other way round.

King Anxi wanted to stop the game and discuss the situation with his ministers.[31] • Duke Min of Song (宋湣公). The Songs of the South: An Anthology of Ancient Chinese Poems by Qu Yuan and Other Poets.[32] • King Anxi of Wei 魏安釐王 (reigned Liubo players inside an Eastern Han model pottery tower 277 BCE – 243 BCE) and his half-brother Lord Xinling of Wei 信陵君 (died 243 BCE).[38] and according to the apocryphal Family Sayings of Confucius he stated that he would not play the game as it promoted bad habits. but after the game was over news came that it was indeed the king of Zhao out hunting. and threw the Liubo board at the prince. "灵宝张湾汉墓 [The Han tomb at Zhangwan in Lingbao]" (in Chinese). Mysteries of Ancient China. "說文解字/06 [[[Shuowen Jiezi (http:/ / zh. and so they continued playing. a Uyghur general who was presented with a girl who was trained in the arts of "song. In the Analects he grudgingly allows that playing Liubo and Go is better than being idle. Qian. 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1975 (11): 80–81. 7]"] (in Chinese). ISBN 0-7141-1472-3. p. • Li Guangyan (761–826). who when he was crown prince became angry during a game of Liubo with the Prince of Wu. liked to play Liubo and gambling games when he was young. and had to flee for his life. "臨菑甚富而實,其民無不吹竽鼓瑟,彈琴擊築,鬥雞走狗,六博蹋鞠者。" [3] Hawkes. London: British Museum Press. wikisource. "武威磨咀子三座汉墓发掘简报 [Brief report of the excavation of three Han tombs at Mozuizi in Wuwei]" (in Chinese). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.[35] • Liang Ji (died 159). Jessica (1996). the failed assassin of Qin Shi Huang. . org/ wiki/ 說文解å—/ 06)] vol. 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1972 (12): 9–16. Liu. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource).[39] References [1] Xu. Once when the two of them were playing Liubo a message came that the beacons on the northern border had been lit.69]" (http:/ / zh. The king was worried and could not concentrate on the game. "舊唐書/卷196上 [Old Book of Tang vol. 159–161. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource).Liubo 251 Famous Liubo players The following is a list of famous people who are recorded to have played Liubo: • King Mu of Zhou (reigned 977 BCE – 922 BCE). . "簙:局戲也。六箸十二棊也。从竹博聲。古者烏胄作簙。" [2] Sima. . dance. wikisource. [6] 河南省博物馆 (Henan Provincial Museum).[34] • Emperor Jing of Han (reigned 156 BCE – 141 BCE). but his brother told him not to worry as it was only the king of Zhao on a hunting trip. [5] 甘肃省博物馆 (Gansu Provincial Museum). and was killed by Nangong Wan when he hit the duke with the Liubo board. who according to the apocryphal Travels of King Mu once played a game of Liubo with a hermit that lasted three days. David (1985). [4] Rawson. ISBN 0-14-044375-4. [7] Xu. music and Liubo".[36] • Liu Min (895-954). pp. wikisource. who in 682 BCE got into an argument with Nangong Wan 南宮萬 whilst playing Liubo with him. killing him. who according to his biography was fond of playing Liubo. once had an argument with Lu Goujian (魯句踐) over a game of Liubo. Retrieved 2009-06-26. Shen. Retrieved 2009-06-26. a Shatuo Turk and founder of the Northern Han kingdom. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). 229. org/ wiki/ 史記/ 卷069) (in Chinese). "圍棋陸博,吹蠡鳴鼓為戲,弓劍不離身。" . org/ wiki/ 舊唐書/ 卷196上) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2009-06-26.196A]" (http:/ / zh.[33] • Jing Ke (died 227 BCE). "史記/卷069 [Records of the Grand Historian vol.[37] Confucius famously did not approve of Liubo.

"An Additional Note on the Ancient Game Liu-po". Retrieved 2009-06-26. [23] Cazaux. htm). html).38]" (http:/ / zh. Zeno Oriental Coins Database. "Reconstructed rules of Liubo" (http:/ / history. chess. Also. com/ newsdetail. to divide the two sides on a battlefield. "十一年秋,湣公與南宮萬獵,因博爭行,湣公怒,辱之,曰:「始吾敬若;今若,魯虜也。」萬有力,病此言,遂以局殺湣公于蒙澤。" [33] Sima. [14] Yan. René Gralla and Prof. Retrieved 2009-06-26." [21] "Liubo – the Ancestor of Board Games" (http:/ / kaleidoscope. org/ wiki/ 顏氏家訓/ 卷第7) (in Chinese). free. Li's "The Genealogy of Chess"" (http:/ / www. com). google. 7]" (http:/ / zh. Retrieved 2009-06-26. "托克托日晷 [The Togtoh sundial]" (in Chinese). it seems to be that historians from China endorse your thesis – that the origins of chess can be found in China. Jean-Louis. Retrieved 2011-09-30. [28] 曾蓝莹 (Lillian Tseng). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1997 (1): 49–51. [30] Cazaux. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. Retrieved 2009-06-26. "史記/卷077 [Records of the Grand Historian vol. fr/ liubo-rules. but not necessarily to the game of chess or XiangQi. ISBN 9004127755. com/ viewthread. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). org/ wiki/ 穆天åå‚³/ 卷五) (in Chinese). Zhitui. "A story well told is not necessarily true – being a critical assessment of David H. Jean-Louis (2001). banaschak. Jean-Louis (2008-01-20). chess. [13] 中国社会科学院考古研究所 (Archeology Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) (1980) (in Chinese). php?tid=2648) [19] "[[Traditional Games (http:/ / gomalee. and 10 fishes as Officers. is that someone could have turned this race game into a confrontation game opposing in each side the 6 stones as Soldiers. . the latter has turned into Proto-XiangQi. "My idea. htm). doi:10. . [11] "The green-glazed liubo-playing pottery figurines" (http:/ / www. Cultural China. pdf) (PDF). . 满城汉墓发掘报告 [Excavation report for the Han tomb at Mancheng]. chess etc. pp. Leiden: Brill. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). p. JSTOR 2718275. "Is Chess a Hybrid Game ?" (http:/ / www. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2009-06-26. Retrieved 2009-06-26. "史記/卷038 [Records of the Grand Historian vol. 271–274.5]" (http:/ / zh. [9] 熊传新 (Xiong Chuanxin). tistory. "公子與魏王博,而北境傳舉烽,言「趙寇至,且入界」。魏王釋博,欲召大臣謀。公子止王曰:「趙王田獵耳,非為寇也。」複博如故。王恐,心不 . Liubo turned into GeWu. "谈马王堆3号西汉墓出土的陆博 [Discussion of the Liubo set unearthed from the No. "山東萊西縣岱墅西漢木槨墓 [The Western Han timber-chambered tomb at Daishu in Laixi county in Shandong]" (in Chinese). 252 [31] "穆天子傳/卷五 [Account of King Mu of Zhou vol. . wikisource. . ISBN 7-5010-0238-X. Retrieved 2009-06-26. Tibet. . [20] "Give up Western Chess – play Chinese Chess instead! (interview between Dr. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). Qian. [29] 李学勤 (Li Xueqin). html). de/ ~nc-jostenge/ cazaux. . Peter Banaschak analysed the sources that the representatives of the Chinese school cite. Cultural China. . . com/ en/ 140K2115K5502. cultural-china. Retrieved 2009-06-26. Peter. 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1979 (4): 35–39. "顏氏家訓/卷第7 [The Family Instructions of Master Yan vol." [24] 周铮 (Zhou Zheng). Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe. "尹湾汉墓"博局占"木牍试解 [Attempt to explain the "Liubo divination" wooden slip from the Han tomb at Yinwan]" (in Chinese). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1994 (8): 62–65. 中国历史博物馆馆刊 (Journal of the Museum of Chinese History) 1971 (3): 74–81. 2011-04-11. [27] "尹湾汉墓简牍初探 [Preliminary investigation about the wooden slips from the Han tomb at Yinwan]" (in Chinese). [25] "#54832: China. pp. Retrieved 2009-06-26.2307/2718275. chessbase. [26] 孙机 (Sun Ji). Li)" (http:/ / www. com/ chinaWH/ html/ en/ History2041bye5118. free. Lien-sheng (June 1952). "The Royal Residence Pho brang byams pa mi 'gyur gling and the Story of Srong btsan sgam po's Birth in Rgya ma" (http:/ / books. These games all evolve from liubo. com/ books?id=UsC1sEKQNeYC). with a notion of promotion during the course of the game. cultural-china. [12] 莱西县文化馆 (Laixi County Culture Hall). Retrieved 2011-04-19. wikisource. ru/ showphoto. "According to the research of modern board game historians." [22] Banaschak. ""博局占"与规矩纹 ["Liubo board divination" and geometric patterns]" (in Chinese). ""规矩镜"应改称"博局镜" ["Geometric mirrors" should be called "Liubo pattern mirrors"]" (in Chinese).. 5–8. . such as Chinese chess. 53. net/ schach/ ligenealogyofchess. com/ 155) Play Jeopo]"]. 考古 (Archeology) 1987 (12): 1116–1118.. [16] Cazaux. Retrieved 2009-06-26. [10] 大葆台汉墓发掘组 (Dabaotai Han Tomb Excavation Group) (1989) (in Chinese). and he thinks that all those quotations from the past can be references to some game. very speculative I must confess. 2000. 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1980 (12): 15. "Liubo" (http:/ / history. . org/ wiki/ 史記/ 卷077) (in Chinese). "古为大博则六箸,小博则二茕,今无晓者。比世所行,一茕十二棋,数术浅短,不足可翫。" [15] Yang. charm – Wu Zhu coin" (http:/ / www. . Guntram (2002). 27–48. php?photo=54832). Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 15 (1): 124–139.Liubo [8] Hazod. org/ wiki/ 史記/ 卷038) (in Chinese). [17] "The Ancient Game of Liubo" (http:/ / liubo-game. David H. wikisource. Qian. "Professor Li. the best was probably to convert the central water into a river in the middle. wikisource. . 北京大葆台汉墓 [The Han tomb at Dabaotai in Beijing].77]" (http:/ / zh. . past and Present: Tibetan Studies I. [18] 色子的五木、投瓊和彩戰等 (http:/ / pjlog. appspot. 2005-06-15. mynetcologne. zeno. Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the IATS. asp?newsid=2455). 文物 (Cultural Relics) 1996 (10): 68–71. pp. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe. Retrieved 2009-06-26. htm). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). liubo is actually the ancestor of all battle board games of the world today. In summary: XiangQi originates from the mysterious game Liubo. fr/ liubo. "是日也,天子北入于邴,与井公博,三日而决。" [32] Sima. . ChessBase. 3 Western Han tomb at Mawangdui]" (in Chinese).

org/ wiki/ 史記/ 卷106) (in Chinese). wikisource. "荊軻遊於邯鄲,魯句踐與荊軻博,爭道,魯句踐怒而叱之,荊軻嘿而逃去,遂不復會。" [35] Sima. Rook) Gaja (Elephant.co. my285.html) Chaturanga Further information: Chess (disambiguation) This article is about the two-player ancient game Chaturanga.html) • Andrew West.cultural-china. Retrieved 2009-06-26. .86]" (http:/ / zh. . Qian. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). Retrieved 2009-06-26. Liu. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 梦远书城 (my285. "舊五代史/卷135 [Old History of the FIve Dynasties vol. Retrieved 2009-06-26.htm) • Pictures of Liubo artefacts on the Cultural China website (http://www.fr/liubo. Qian. .free. wikisource.chess. Juzheng. org/ wiki/ 史記/ 卷086) (in Chinese).uk/Blog/2009/05/ lost-game-of-liubo-part-1-funerary. [37] Xue.com/chinaWH/html/en/ 11Kaleidoscope2115. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). "史記/卷106 [Records of the Grand Historian vol. 1]" (http:/ / zh. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. org/ wiki/ 論語/ 陽貨第十七) (in Chinese). played with dice. "史記/卷86 [Records of the Grand Historian vol. Qiu. Bishop) Asva (Horse. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). htm) (in Chinese). org/ wiki/ 舊五代史/ 卷135) (in Chinese). org/ wiki/ å”åå®¶èªž/ 卷一) (in Chinese).Liubo 253 [34] Sima. wikisource. "列传第一百一十一 [Biographies chapter 111]" (http:/ / www. wikisource.com). see Chaturaji. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). "子曰:「飽食終日,無所用心,難矣哉!不有博弈者乎?為之,猶賢乎已!」" [39] "孔子家語/卷一 [Family Sayings of Confucius vol. wikisource. For the four-player version. 135]" (http:/ / zh. 17]" (http:/ / zh. Queen) Ratha (Chariot. [38] Kong. 旧唐书 (Old Book of Tang). "孝文時,吳太子入見,得侍皇太子飲博。吳太子師傅皆楚人,輕悍,又素驕,博,爭道,不恭,皇太子引博局提吳太子,殺之。" [36] Xu. . com/ shishu/ jts/ 165. Pictures of funerary statuettes of Liubo Players (http://babelstone.106]" (http:/ / zh. "論語/陽貨第十七 [Analects ch. Pawn) . Knight) Padàti or Bhata (Foot-soldier. "哀公問於孔子曰:“吾聞君子不博,有之乎?”孔子曰:“有之。”公曰:“何為?”對曰:“為其二乘。”公曰:“有二乘,則何為不博?”子曰:“為其兼行惡道 External links • Illustrated article on Liubo by Jean-Louis Cazaux (http://history. Chaturanga pieces Raja (King) Mantri or Senapati (Counselor or General. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource).

Chaturanga (Sanskrit caturaṅga चतुरङ्ग) is an ancient Indian game that is presumed to be the common ancestor of the games of chess.) The exact rules of Chaturanga are not known. which in turn was the form that brought chess to late-medieval Europe (see Origins of chess for more information on the ancestry of chess. sometimes with special marks. it was adopted as Shatranj in Sassanid Persia. and makruk. Chaturanga developed in Gupta India around the 6th century. In particular. In the 7th century. and related to xiangqi and janggi. on which Chaturanga was played. shogi.[1] Note that the Ràjas do not face each other. there is uncertainty as to the moves of the Gaja (elephant). a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ashtāpada. Chess historians suppose that the game had similar rules to those of its successor Shatranj. . the uncheckered 8x8 board. the white Ràja starts on e1 and the black Ràja on d8. the precursor of the Bishop in modern chess.Chaturanga 254 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Chaturanga: The position of the pieces at the start of a game.

meaning "having four limbs or parts" and in epic poetry often means "army". and infantry. An early reference to an ancient Indian board game is sometimes attributed to Subandhu in his Vasavadatta (c. also spelled Śakata . 3.Chaturanga 255 History Sanskrit caturaṅga is a bahuvrihi compound. referring to four divisions of an army. viz. Two squares in any diagonal direction. but without jumping. (In modern chess. • In Makruk (Thai chess) and Sittuyin (Burmese chess) the elephant moves in the same way. (The Arabic word dabbābah in former times meant a covered siege engine for attacking walled fortifications.Moves one square diagonally.[2] The name itself comes from a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata.) • A piece with such a move is called a Dabbābah [5] in some chess variants. One square forward or one square in any diagonal direction • This is the same move as the Silver General in Shogi. also known as Senapati (General) .Moves like the Rook in chess. called Ashtāpada [3]. the double meaning of Chaturanga. Banabhatta's Harsha Charitha (c. Pieces • Raja (King) . the meaning of which is unknown today. jumping over one square.Moves like the King in chess.. leapt up on the black field squares. • Mantri (Minister). but one that cannot jump over an intervening piece. in which these marks had a meaning. as in Shatranj. the only feet cut off were those of measurements. . 2) leaper. This move was described by the Arabic chess master al-Adli [6] ca. and only from Ashtâpada one could learn how to draw up a Chaturanga. perhaps similar to Chowka bhara. 1030 by Biruni in his India book. • Gaja (Elephant) .[4] • The Elephant in Xiangqi (Chinese chess) has the same move. Two squares in any orthogonal direction. cavalry. yellow and green. but mean that the frogs have a two-tone dress. elephants..Three different moves are described in ancient literature: 1. the rook moves orthogonally. The board had some special marks. there was no cutting-off of the four limbs of condemned criminals. • This move was described ca. While there is little doubt that Ashtâpada is the gaming board of 8x8 squares. Chaturanga was played on an 8x8 uncheckered board.. as if mottled by lac. jumping over one square. as the four folded army. chariots. and nowadays means "army Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. • Ratha (Chariot). There is a probability that the ancestor of Chess was mentioned there.) 2. but were drawn on the board only by tradition. may be controversial. 840 in his (partly lost) chess work. (The name Elephant is used for a fairy chess piece with this move: a (2. These marks were not related to chaturanga. as in Shatranj. Chaturaji. The great chess historian Murray has conjectured that the Ashtāpada was also used for some old race type dice game. like the Fers in Shatranj. as the Alfil in Shatranj. only the bees quarreled to collect the dew. • The same move is used for the Boat in a four-handed version of Chaturangam. AD 450): The time of the rains played its game with frogs for pieces [nayadyutair] yellow and green in color. The colors are not those of the two camps. 625) contains the earliest reference to the name Chaturanga: Under this monarch.

com/ history_of_chess). com/ chessays/ calvognosis2. from Chess Variants (http://www. ISBN 0-679-14550-8 (1981 paperback) External links • Chaturanga. Borsodi.J. David. google. archive. geocities. org/ web/ 20091028083454/ http:/ / www.). Kenneth (1992). D. ISBN 0-936317-01-9. Edward Falkener (1892.html) • Software including the different historical rules variants (http://www. Oxford University Press. American Chess Magazine (http:/ / books.dir/chaturanga. Henry (1949).chaturanga. as in Shatranj. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. there was no stalemate.chessvariants. Original from Harvard University. free. org/ piececlopedia. Whyld.B. [5] http:/ / www. 262.org/historic. Asva . but only if the opponent cannot bare the player's king on the next move in return.R. A Short History of Chess. 1600.) • Padàti/Bhata (Foot-soldier). pp. (1898). David Parlett (1999) ISBN 0-19-212998-8. rather. html [6] http:/ / web.M1).Chaturanga tank"). McKay. [7] • Ashva (Horse). The Oxford History of Board Games. (This is the distinctive move that marks a game as a likely descendant of Chaturanga.org/) . re-issued 1961) ISBN 0-486-20739-0 • Hooper. . chessvariants. Al-Adli also mentions two further differences from Shatranj: • Stalemate was a win for a stalemated player. chess. Retrieved 29 March 2011. ISBN 0-19-280049-3 • Davidson. also known as Sainik (Warrior)—Moves like the Pawn in chess. In Shatranj this is also a win. • The player that is first to bare the opponent's king (capture all the pieces except the king) wins. fr/ ashtapada. Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them. dir/ dabbabah. 256 References [1] "The History Of Chess" (http:/ / www. This rule appeared again in some medieval chess variations in England ca. • The German historian Johannes Kohtz (1843–1918) suggests. etc. goddesschess. H. htm [4] W. ChessZone. also spelled Pedati. According to some sources.Moves like the Knight in chess. though this is improbable. as in Shatranj. htm [7] http:/ / www. . com/ SiliconValley/ Lab/ 7378/ aladli. com/ books?id=I_4LAAAAYAAJ& pg=RA1-PA262& dq="Horse+ ship"#PRA1-PA262. Bhata. html Further reading • • • • A History of Chess. The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed. [2] Meri 2005: 148 [3] http:/ / history. that this was the earliest move of the Ratha. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Murray (1913). thechesszone. also spelled Ashwa. Pritchard (1994).

Sessa 257 Sessa Sessa (or Sissa) was a legendary vellalar and creatorlaskerbook of the game of chess ancestor. References 1. Edward Lasker (1959). Dover. chaturanga. . The vellalar Sessa creating Chaturanga (by Brazilian artist Thiago Cruz. 2007). Adventure of Chess.

or a race game like Pachisi. Chaturaji (means "four kings". Stewart Culin. Kanka by name. An even stronger version of this theory was put forward by Prof. However. I shall entertain the king with his courtiers and friends. by throws of black and red dice. skilled in dice and fond of play. History The ancient Indian epic Mahabharata contains a reference to a game. of blue and yellow and red and white hue. that Chaturaji is a predecessor of Chaturanga and hence the ancestor of modern chess. Rules Piece moves . It was first described in detail circa 1030 by Biruni in his India book. this was a game of chance: the pieces to be moved were decided by rolling two dice. Pieces with different colors were used for each of four players. Captain Cox and professor Forbes put forth a theory (the Cox-Forbes theory). IAST Caupāṭ. And moving upon chess-boards beautiful pawns made of ivory. there is no certainty whether the mentioned game is really a chess-like game like Chaturaji.[3] However.[1] Originally.[1] modern scholars siding with Murray. A diceless variant of the game was still played in India at the close of the 19th century. IPA: [tʃɔːˈpaːʈ]) is a four player chess-like game. starting position. this theory was rejected by Murray. I shall become a courtier of that high-souled king.Chaturaji 258 Chaturaji a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Chaturaji. which could be Chaturaji:[2] Presenting myself as a Brahmana. also known as "Choupat".

elephant. horse and boat (or ship in some sources). as one would expect from the initial player's setup. The boat moves two squares diagonally in any direction as shown in the diagram. Boat triumph a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . The game is played with pieces of four different colors as shown in the diagram. the elephant like the chess rook and the horse like the chess knight. the red pawns which start on the g-file above move left across the board. Also. jumping over the intervening square. For example. one must promote to the piece that starts on the same file (or rank) of the promotion square (king included) and one can promote only after one's piece of that type has been captured. The pawn also moves as in chess. The boat corresponds to the chess bishop but has a more restricted range. Each of the four players' pawns moves and captures in a different direction along the board. Each player has four pieces on the back rank with four pawns in front of them on the second rank. The four pieces are king.Chaturaji 259 a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 b c d e f g h Boat move. The boat at f6 can move to any of the four squares marked with a cross. the pawn's promotion rules are different. like the alfil in Shatranj. The king moves like the chess king. but does not have the option of an initial double-square move. Note that this differs from most ancient chess-like games where it is the elephant which normally corresponds to the chess bishop. promoting on the a-file.

 48-49). The same or two different pieces may be moved. free. Usually oblong (four sided) stick dice were used. 260 Dice throws On each turn two dice are thrown. Pieces to be moved are determined by dice numbers (note that the stick dice didn't have 1 and 6): • • • • 1 or 5 . The goal of the game is to collect as many points as possible. . one for each die. exercising some control over the outcome. chess. However. The king can be captured like any other piece. Book 4. Players were allowed to throw the dice in the air and catch them. External links • Chaturanga for four players (http://www. This value is a sum of points of all pieces in three armies. Scoring There is no check or checkmate. sacred-texts. according to this scale: • • • • • pawn .4 king .R. it captures all three boats of other players (see diagram). including multi-media encyclopedia with Cox-Forbes theory. fr/ chaturanga. Pritchard (1994).se/melki9/4chaturanga. com/ hin/ m04/ m04001.1 boat .B. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1.2 knight .pawn or king 2 . (1913). A score of 54 points is awarded to a player who manages to capture all three opponents' kings while his own king remains on the board. When a boat moves in such a way that a 2x2 square filled with boats is formed.boat 3 .Chaturaji Boat triumph rule.3 elephant . A History of Chess.J. Green boat c3 can capture all other boats by moving to e5. htm) by Jean-Louis Cazaux.passagen. htm) [3] Four-Handed Chaturanga (http:/ / history.net).5. References [1] Murray.chessvariants. playing with cubic dice is also possible. Section 1 (http:/ / www. and the player may skip one or both of his moves if desired. All boats shown belong to different players.org/historic.html) by Hans Bodlaender. Further reading • D. [2] Mahabharata. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (p.dir/chaturang4. This rule is called boat triumph.htm) implementation for Zillions of Games. • 4-handed Chaturanga with dice (http://hem. H. ISBN 0-936-317-01-9.elephant On each turn two moves may be made.knight 4 or 6 . Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). • Chaturaji software (http://Chaturanga. Points are scored by capturing opponents' pieces.

anga="arm"). which came to the Western world from India. the word is sometimes re-bracketed as sad ("hundred") + ranj ("worries"). In Persian folk etymology. e. and Greek ζατρίκιον. and then into the Portuguese xadrez. with the 'u' lost due to syncope and the 'a' lost to apocope.Shatranj 261 Shatranj Further information: Chess (disambiguation) Shatranj (Devanagari: शतरंज. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. . Note that the Shahs face each other. glazed fritware. Etymology and origins a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Shatranj: The position of the pieces at the start of a game..g. Spanish ajedrez. either in the d-file (as shown) or the e-file. The word was adapted into Arabic as shatranj. in the title of the text Mâdayân î chatrang ("Book of Chess") from the 7th century AD. but English chess and check come via French échecs (Old French eschecs) from Persian ‫( ﺷَﺎﻩ‬shāh = "king"). Persian: ‫ )ﺷَﻄْﺮَﻧْﺞ‬is an old form of chess. Modern chess has gradually developed from this game. In Middle Persian the word appears as chatrang. The word shatranj is derived from the Sanskrit chaturanga (catuḥ="four". 12th century. Iranian shatranj set. which might appear quite meaningful to players. Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada.

glazed fritware. chess diffused into the Maghreb and then to Andalusian Spain. is also mentioned in Firdausi's Shahnama (c. as evidenced in the N.Shatranj The game came to Persia from India in the early centuries of the Christian Era (Common Era). With the spread of Islam. originally referred to in the Mâdayân î chatrang (c. at Chatrang and Vine-Artakhshir. Persian manuscript from the 14th century describing how an ambassador from India brought chess to the Persian court. Indian term māt (mate. During the Islamic conquest of India (c. During the reign of the later Sassanid king Khosrau I (531–579). on the polo and the riding-ground. 620 AD). who ruled from 224–241. as a master of the game:[1] By the help of Providence Ardeshir became more victorious and warlike than all. Shams-e-Tabrīzī as portrayed in a 1500 painting in a page of a copy of Rumi's poem dedicated to Shams. derivaative from Persian māt) or the Bengali borey (pawn. and also the basic 16 piece structure. chess became popular in Europe eventually giving rise to modern chess. onwards. Karnamak contains many fables and legends. This incident. but all involve four branches (angas) of the army: the horse. played on a 8x8 board.[4] Over the following centuries.). and in several other arts.12th c. the chariot (rook) and the foot-soldier (pawn). In some later variants the darker squares were engraved. This ancient Persian text refers to Shah Ardashir I. 1010 AD). some forms came back to India as well. which was written between the 3rd and 7th centuries AD (Common Era). Shatranj adapted much of the same rules as Chaturanga.[2] 262 Iranian shatranj set. and this only establishes the popularity of chatrang at the time of its composition. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. the elephant (bishop). a gift from an Indian king (possibly a Maukhari Dynasty king of Kannauj)[3] included a chess game with sixteen pieces of emerald and sixteen of ruby (green vs. The rules of Chaturanga seen in India today have enormous variation. presumed der. 12th century. Arabic baidaq). The game spread Westwards after the Islamic conquest of Persia and achieved great popularity and a considerable body of literature on game tactics and strategy was produced from the 8th c.[2] The game came with a challenge which was successfully resolved by Khosrau's courtiers. red). However. The earliest Persian reference to shatranj is found in the Middle Persian book Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan. Rules .

Alfil. however. the white and black shāh would be on the same file (but not always in modern India).Shatranj 263 Shatranj pieces Shah (King) Fers or Wazīr (Counsellor) Rukh (Chariot or Rook) "Pīl" in Persian and "al-Fīl" in Arabic (Elephant) Asb (Horse in Persian) or Knight Sarbaz (piyadeh) (Pawn) Fers. from Persian ‫ ﭘﻴﻞ‬pīl. and because their circuits were disjoint. The Pīl was replaced by the bishop in modern chess. where the piece is also called "elephant". Alfil. It was renamed "queen" in Europe. also spelled ferz. This piece might have had a different move sometimes in chaturanga. The game was played with these pieces: • Shāh (king) moves like the king in chess. and similar. jumping over the square between. The initial setup in shatranj was essentially the same as in modern chess. the word for the queen piece is ферзь (ferz) in Russian. from Persian ‫ ﻓﺮﺯﻳﻦ‬farzīn . • Rukh (chariot. A move diagram for a Pīl. Pīl. they could never capture one another. on the right or left side was not fixed. Arabic firz. A move diagram for the fers. the word for the bishop piece is alfil in Spanish. Aufin.is the Arabic for "the") moves exactly two squares diagonally. Either the arrangement as in modern chess or as shown on the diagram above were possible. This piece can jump over other pieces. It has analogues to the guards in xiangqi and Gold Generals in shogi. which makes it a rather weak piece. • Fers (counsellor. alfiere in Italian. In either case. "fīl" in Persian and слон (which means elephant) in Russian. Even today. • Pīl. However the position of the white shah (king). and similar (elephant. al. also called Wazīr) moves exactly one square diagonally. from Persian ‫ ﺭﺥ‬rokh) moves like the rook in chess. vezér in Hungarian and "vazīr" in Persian. The elephant piece survives in xiangqi with the limitations that the elephant in xiangqi cannot jump over an intervening piece and is restricted to the owner's half of the . Aufin. Each Pīl could reach only one-eighth of the squares on the board. Even today.

In janggi. but in Medina it was a win. but their content is known due to compilation work done by the later authors. Both of them specify 5 classes of players: • Aliyat (or aliya). a player would play a series or match with a player of a known class without odds. the names king. faras. There were also other differences compared to modern chess: Castling was not allowed (it was invented much later). • Faras (horse. then in most parts of the Islamic world it was a draw. but only to fers. as in the table above. weaker ones d. and baidaq. which was treated as a broken plural from which was extracted an apparent singular baidaq) moves and captures like the pawns in chess.or e-pawn). • Baidaq (from Arabic ‫ ﺑﻴﺪﻕ‬from Persian ‫ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ‬piyāda. If he won 7 or more games out of 10. To determine his or her class. from Arabic.received odds of a rook. Capturing all one's opponent's pieces apart from the king (baring the king) was a win. Many of these manuscripts are missing. • Fourth class . Persian ‫ ﺍﺳﭗ‬asp) moves like the knight in chess. When they reach the eighth rank. • Third class . Player classification Al-Adli as well as as-Suli introduced classifications of players by their playing strength.Shatranj board. proximes . They received odds of a pawn from grandee (better players g-. a. Pieces are shown on the diagrams and recorded in the notation using the equivalent modern symbols. chess problems. baidaqs are promoted. a general bibliography produced in 377 AH (988 CE) by Ibn al-Nadim. Aliqlidisi's Kitab majmu'fi mansubat ash-shatranj ('Collection of chess problems') There is a passage referring to chess in a work said to be by Hasan.[2] 264 History Early Arabic shatranj literature During the Golden Age of Arabic. he belonged to a higher class. • Fifth class . knight and pawn are commonly used for shah. grandees • Mutaqaribat. Stalemating the opposing king resulted in a win for the player delivering stalemate. but not moving two squares on the first move. recording for the first time the analysis of opening games. listing: • • • • • Al-Adli's Kitab ash-shatranj ('Book of chess') Ar-Razi's Latif fi'sh-shatranj ('Elegance in chess') As-Suli's Kitab ash-shatranj (two volumes) Al-Lajlaj's Kitab mansubat ash-shatranj ('Book of chess-positions or problems') B. its movement was changed to become a slightly further-reaching version of the horse. foot-soldier. unless your opponent could capture your last piece on his or her next move. and many more subjects common in modern chess books. by adapting the Persian word as Arabic bayādiq.players who could win 2-4 games out of 10 in the match against grandee. many works on shatranj were written. . a philosopher from Basra who died in 728 CE.players who received odds of a fers from grandee. rook. In modern descriptions of shatranj. the knight's tour.or h-pawn.[2] The earliest listing of works on chess is in the Fihrist. rukh.received odds of a knight. However the attribution of authorship is dubious. It includes an entire section on the topic of chess.

He started his analysis from some given opening. tabiya. Tabiyat were usually given as position on a half-board with some comments about them. Game play Openings a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mujannah . and then continued up to move 40. for example "Double Mujannah" or "Mujannah . • Al-Lajlaj was a pupil of as-Suli and also a great shatranj master of his time. tabbiyyaat).‫ ﺗَﺒِﻴّﺎﺕ‬which can be translated as battle array. • As-Suli was the strongest player during the reign of caliph al-Muktafi. tabiya. . At this time he was the only player in aliyat category. Due to slow piece development in shatranj. As-Suli considered Rabrab and ar-Razi as the greatest of his predecessors. the exact sequence of moves was relatively unimportant.Mashaikhi". The concrete sequence of moves to reach them was not specified. mostly ignoring the play of their opponent. The most well known of them were: • Jabir al-Kufi.Mashaikhi opening. In opening shatranj players usually tried to reach a specific position. Ar-Razi was already dead and there were no players of comparable strength before as-Suli appeared on the scene. shatranj players of highest class were called aliyat or grandees. Rabrab and Abun-Naam were three aliyat players during the rule of caliph al-Ma'mun. Instead players aimed to reach a specific position.[2] There were only a very few players in this category. giving numerous variations. • Al-Adli was the strongest player during the rule of caliph al-Wathiq. In the presence of al-Muktafi he easily won a match against a certain al-Mawardi and thus proved that he was the best player of that time. Openings in shatranj were usually called tabbiyya‫( ﺗَﺒِّﻴّﺔ‬pl. The works of al-Adli and as-Suli contain collections of tabiyat.Shatranj 265 Famous players During the reign of the Arab caliphs. In his book Al-Lajlaj analyzed some tabiya in detail.. • Ar-Razi in 847 won a match against an already old al-Adli in the presence of caliph al-Mutawakkil and so become a player of aliyat category.

or h-pawn) As-Suli also believed that the b-pawn was better than the f-pawn and King's side Alfil (on the c-file) was better than Queen's side one (on the f-file). Persian chess masters composed many shatranj problems. However. ca. f-. the currency in use in his time:[2] Piece Value 1 dirhem Rook 2/3 dirhem Knight 1/3 .. as-Suli gives piece values in dirhem. position or situation. or g-pawn) 1/8 dirhem Rook's pawn (a. 10th century a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White to move and win. This word can be translated from Arabic as arrangement.1/5 dirhem Knight's or Alfil's pawn (b-. Mansubat Dilaram Problem. Black threatens immediate checkmate by 1.3/8 dirhem Fers 1/4 dirhem Alfil 1/4 dirhem Central pawn (d-.. They used a monetary system to specify piece values. Furthemore.Shatranj 266 Piece values Both al-Adli and as-Suli provided estimation of piece values in their books on shatranj. mansūbāt). an Alfil on the c-file was better than the d-pawn and the Alfil on the f-file was better than an e-pawn. Such shatranj problems were called mansūba (pl.Ra2 or Ra8. Mansuba. For example. One of the most famous Mansuba is the Dilaram Problem shown at the right. c-. One's own king was usually threatened by immediate checkmate. Mansubat were typically composed in such a way that a win could be achieved as a sequence of checks. white can win with a two-rook sacrifice: . or e-pawn) 1/6 . This is a typical example of a shatranj problem.

fr/ india. and this position arose. Akhbar al-Radi wa'l-Muttaqi Al-Suli's chronicle has long been in the shadow of more famous chronicles such as those of al-Mas'udi and Miskawayh. 4. Nh6#. Note that the Alfil (bishop) moves two squares diagonally. g7+ Kg8. Nh6#. "The Enigma of Chess birth: The Old Texts: 6th. publ. 5. 3. detailing the reigns of the caliphs al-Radi and al-Muttaqi.dir/shatranj. bottom of p.aspx?article_id=3& page=1) by Miguel Villa. free. perhaps because al-Suli was seen as a nadim and not a serious scholar.Bf5+. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). H.R. [4] Jean-Louis Cazaux (16 June 2006). 5. htm). the medieval Arabian Chess (http://history. Al-Suli's great-grandfather was the Turkish prince Sul-takin and his uncle the poet Ibrahim ibn al-'Abbas as-Suli. 4. chess. Rh8+ Kxh8. edu/ halsall/ ancient/ ardashir. the Abbasids never regained their full power. chess.schemingmind. Rh8+ Kxh8. . He was noted for his poetry and scholarship and wrote a chronicle called Akhbar al-Radi wa'l-Muttaqi. [3] Jean-Louis Cazaux (12 March 2004). [5] A History of Chess. External links • Shatranj. The Karnamik-I-Ardashir. a position that the Buyids later used to establish a new dynasty alongside the Abbasids. free. After this point.chessvariants. al-Suli fell into disfavour with the new ruler due to his sympathies towards Shi'a Islam and as a result had to go into exile at Basra. [2] Murray. Bf5+ Kg8.311.Murray. or 1. Bf5+ Rh2. However. 3. but not the end of the Abbasid caliphate.html) by Hans L. Rxh2+ Kg8. 6. 7th and 8th centuries" (http:/ / history.chess.Shatranj 1. 2. g7+ Kg8. However. Rh8+ Kxh8. the account in significant for offering an eyewitness account of the transition to Buyid rule. al-Suli's account makes it clear that not all power was transferred to the amirs. A History of Chess. Oxford at the Clarendon Press.free. fr/ sources. jumping over intermediate pieces. Note: Vine-Artakhsir is a reference to the game later known as Nard. Upon the death of al-Radi in 940. by H. It was during al-Radi's caliphate in 936 that the position of "amir al-umara" was created. 880 – 946) was a nadim (boon companion) of successive Abbasid caliphs. fordham. • ICC Shatranj rules (http://www. or The Records of Ardashir.com/help/shatranj) Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Yahya al-Suli (c. htm).com/historic. a predecessor of Backgammon.chessclub."[5] 267 References [1] Unknown court historian of the Sassanid Empire (before 628AD).com/journalarticle. . still remembered to this day. Retrieved 14 July 2007.R. Bodlaender • The Time of Shatranj and the Aliyat (http://www. • Shatranj (http://www. and she appealed "Sacrifice your two Rooks. html. which allowed for the transfer of executive power from the caliph to an "amir". It was said that a nobleman wagered (playing white) his wife Dilārām on a chess game. (1913).J. He was a legendary shatranj (an ancestor of chess) player. . "Indian Chess Sets" (http:/ / history. and not me.J.fr/shatranj. Retrieved 14 July 2007. Rh8+ Kxh8. this allows it to jump over the white knight to deliver the discovered check from the second rook with 2. http:/ / www. where he spent the rest of his life in poverty.htm) by Jean-Louis Cazaux. He treats the period as a time of crisis. 2. ISBN 0-936-317-01-9.

Al-Mawardi was so thoroughly beaten he fell from favour. Documentary evidence from his lifetime is limited. I doubt whether anyone did this before me. His skill in blindfold chess was also mentioned by contemporaries. His most well known pupil is al-Lajlaj ("the stammerer"). the court shatranj champion of al-Muktafi. It was finally solved by Russian Grandmaster Yuri Averbakh. This was said by al-Suli. standard problems in middle game. but the endgames of some of the matches he played are still in existence.[1] [3] As this is a shatranj. White wins “ This ancient position is so difficult that there is no one in the world who would be able to solve it. al-Suli remained in the favour of the succeeding ruler.Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli 268 Chess Al-Suli came to prominence as a shatranj player sometime in between 902 and 908 when he beat al-Mawardi. Al-Suli also taught shatranj. except those I have taught to do so. Al-Suli's Diamond a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h b c d e f g h 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 White to move. Apart from his chess book he also wrote several historical books. and was replaced by al-Suli. The solution given is 1. who died in 1282. . the "queen" (counsellor) is a very weak piece. al-Muqtadir and in turn ar-Radi. Kitab Ash-Shatranj (Book of Chess). and annotated end games. It contained information on common chess openings. able to move only a single square diagonally. It also contains the first known description of the knight's tour problem. Many later European writers based their work on modern chess on al-Suli's work.[2] David Hooper and Ken Whyld studied this problem in the mid-1980s but were unable to crack it. It is also possible to win in shatranj by capturing all pieces except the king. ” [1] —12th century manuscript from the library of Sultan Abdul Hamid al-Suli created a shatranj problem called "al-Suli's Diamond" that went unsolved for over a thousand years. His biographer ben Khalliken. said that even in his lifetime great shatranj players were said to play like al-Suli. the Caliph of Baghdad. After al-Muktafi's death. Kb4 in Hans Ree's "The Human Comedy of Chess". Al-Suli's shatranj-playing ability became legendary and he is still considered one of the best Arab players of all time. which was the first scientific book ever written on chess strategy. One of his most prominent achievements is his book.

it is also called Shatranj Kamil (perfect chess) or Shatranj Al-Kabir (large chess). also called Tamerlane (1336–1405). Additional squares protrude from the left side on the ninth row and from the right side on the second row. each of which promotes in its own way. knight. When the opposing king occupies a player's citadel. pawn of knights.P.rook. A History of Chess. Space. The Book of Chess Records. The board Tamerlane chess starting board A Tamerlane chess board is made up of 110 uncheckered squares arranged in a 10x11 pattern. pawn of camels. pp. van Donzel and W. Yakov (2005). Elephant. ISBN 0-7134-8946-4 [2] Shenk.E." Encyclopaedia of Islam. the game is declared a draw. picket. No piece other than a king may occupy a citadel. rook. Space. Edited by: P. Bearman . 2008. pawn of giraffes. Black's side mirrors white's. Space. pawn of vizirs. pawn of elephants. knight. pawn of kings. . pawn of war engines. picket. but this is by no means certain. Second Edition. Bianquis . vizir.J. • H. king. A common one is as follows: White's side. It was developed in Persia during the reign of Timur. C. War Machine. Batsford. Brill Online. general. pawn of pickets.pawn of pawns. Tamerlane chess Tamerlane chess is a strategic board game related to chess and derived from shatranj. Hans (2000). 166–167. E. bottom row. Some sources attribute the game's invention to Timur. Camel. Bosworth . The Human Comedy of Chess. "al-Suli. Space. from the left. pawn of rooks. Space. • Leder.Elephant. S. giraffe. Abu Bakr Muhammad. pawn of generals. Murray (1913).Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli 269 Notes [1] Damsky. ISBN 0-486-23855-5. The Immortal Game: A History of Chess [3] Ree. Third row from the left. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Brill. These extra squares are called citadels. Because Tamerlane Chess is a larger variant of shatranj. giraffe. David.R. Second Row from the left. ISBN 0-936317-01-9. Camel. There are several ways for an opening setup to be arranged. Access Publishers Network References • Robert Charles Bell (1980). War Machine. It is distinctive in that there are multiple varieties of pawn. Heinrichs. Th.

It moves as a king. When only one king remains it must be checkmated. • • • • • • • • • • • King . which acts as a prince. which must be mated or taken before the opponent can win.Moves two horizontally or vertically.Move as pawns in traditional chess.Moves one square horizontally or vertically Giraffe . they may be captured as normal pieces.Moves one square diagonally and then a minimum of three squares horizontally or vertically Picket .Moves one square diagonally Vizir .Moves as a Bishop in traditional chess. Upon the second promotion of this pawn. unobstructed by pieces in between War Engine . When the Pawn of Pawns reaches the last rank. Hence. etc.Moves two squares diagonally and is unobstructed by pieces in between Camel .Moves two diagonally and two straight. A Pawn of Kings becomes a Prince.Moves as a knight in traditional chess Rook . it stays there and cannot be taken.Moves as a rook in traditional chess Elephant . External links • • • • Tamerlane chess [1] Play Tamerlane Chess [2] Timur's Chess [3] more details and history on Tamerlane Chess [4] . Pawn of Vizirs. Pawn of Giraffes becomes a Giraffe. but with no initial double move or en passant capture. This is often done to prevent the opponent from entering. Pawn of Kings. but must move a minimum of two squares Knight . A player may move into check if he holds multiple kings. Upon the third promotion it becomes an adventitious king.Moves as a traditional King General . Other rules When multiple kings are held. Thus.Tamerlane chess 270 Pieces Anglicised versions of piece names are used here. Pawn of Giraffes. Exceptions to this are the Pawn of Kings and Pawn of Pawns. or where a pawn may attack two opposing units at the same time. it moves to the starting point of the Pawn of Kings. unobstructed by pieces in between Pawns . As soon as a situation develops where the opponent cannot escape losing a piece to a pawn. The adventitious king is the only piece that may move into a player's own citadel. a pawn is promoted to its corresponding piece. Every piece (including the pawn) has a corresponding pawn. the player must move his/her pawn to that location. etc. Once during the game a player may exchange a checked king for another non-royal piece. Promotion rules Upon reaching the last rank on the board.

edu/ org/ cwrums/ games/ tamerlane. com/ kisslook/ eng/ mongeng. Other Rules • There is no castling • Pawns promote only to queen References • N. geocities. chessvariants. case. free. [1] http:/ / web. The only piece immune to this power of the Bodyguard is the Knight. com/ historic. Okano. The Bodyguard has a special power. pathguy. Pieces • King (noyon) . The pieces are the same as in chess with the exception that there is an additional piece which is called the "bodyguard". but can only move one or two squares. com/ chess/ Tamerlan. html http:/ / history.Tamerlane chess 271 References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. html [2] http:/ / www.moves like the Bishop in chess • Pawn (fu) .moves like the Queen in chess • Bodyguard (hia) . any piece sliding must stop its move if it moves through any square a king's move away from the bodyguard.moves like the Knight in chess • Bishop (teme) . chess.moves like a Queen. The game is played on a 10 x 10 board.moves like the rook in chess • Knight (mori) . htm http:/ / filer. 1999. chessvariants. archive. chapter V.40-46. Sekai-no meina shogi (World's chess games). html http:/ / www. htm Hiashatar Hiashatar is a medieval chess variant played in Mongolia.[1] [2] The game is not as popular as western chess or Shatar. org/ index/ msdisplay.moves like the King in chess • Queen (bers) . fr/ tamerlane. • Rook (tereg) . dir/ tamerlane. php?itemid=MLhiashatar . org/ web/ 20080703142230/ http:/ / www. p.moves like the pawn in chess except that it can make an initial triple step. Any piece a king's move away from the bodyguard can only move one square.

247 [2] This account of the rules is taken from Murray.. During this phase the players watch each other's moves. In Senterej both sides start playing at the same time without waiting for turns. slaves) calling out their notions of useful plays and moving the pieces about to demonstrate. References [1] Pritchard. Oxford University Press. There may have been regional variations.[2] Advantages Senterej creates randomized initial chess positions. in the old days. J. A king with only a single piece supporting him (pawns do not count. the form of chess traditionally played in Ethiopia. or werera. In the corners stand the rooks. A pawn reaching the farthest rank is promoted to ferz (one source says. Both players may move their pieces as many times as they like without concern for the number of moves the opponent makes. A History of Chess. (2007). The rules and customs surrounding checkmate are numerous. but may only capture diagonally. René Gralla • A Note on Ethiopian Chess (http://tezeta. it is usually a red cloth. and therefore no capture en passant. even more praiseworthy. the Ethiopian Chess (http://history. ISBN 978-0955516801. pages 362–364. John Beasley. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.. Dealing the fatal blow with a rook or knight was considered inartistic. leaping diagonally to the second square distant. merely marked into squares.net/25/a-note-on-ethiopian-chess) by Dr.de/artikel/143861. with all the bystanders (even. It is the last popular survival of shatranj. There is no double first move. At its left stands the ferz. in this case or the previous one) can only be mated before that piece has moved seven times. 1913. They only start to take turns after the First Capture. Beside these stand the horses. External links • Senterej.) On their flanks stands a piece called the fil. It moves one step in any direction. Oxford. The second rank is filled with pawns. and retract their own and substitute others as they think best. to the rank of any piece already lost). Each king stands just to the right of the centerline from its player's point of view. Delivering the fatal stroke with a ferz or fil is more respectable.htm) • Senterej – Ethiopian Chess with a flying start (http://www. which move one step forward and capture one square diagonally forward.html) (German) .com/newsdetail. moving one square diagonally. Richard Pankhurst • Kaiserin setzte ein Korps matt (Neues Deutschland) (http://www. which make the memorizing chess opening sequences far less helpful.[1] Rules The board is not checkered.chessbase.fr/senterej. D. kaiserin-setzte-ein-korps-matt. The play was much more sociable than Europe is used to.chess. R. marked by strips of black.asp?newsid=5321) by Dr. with a combination of pawns. (One source says it moves one step in any direction. A king denuded of all pieces cannot be mated.neues-deutschland. The phase before first capture is called the Mobilization Phase. moving as knights.free. H. p. This is the alfil.Senterej 272 Senterej Senterej (or Ethiopian chess) is a chess variant.

Lewis in 1831 British Museum · Museum of Scotland The Lewis Chessmen (or Uig Chessmen. . Discovered in 1831 on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides. and the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. They are owned and exhibited by the British Museum in London. Scotland. surviving medieval chess sets. although it is not clear if a set as originally made can be assembled from the pieces. which has 67 of the original pieces.Lewis chessmen 273 Lewis chessmen Lewis Chessmen Lewis chessmen in the British Museum Material Created Discovered Present location Walrus Ivory 12th century Uig. which has the remaining 11 pieces.[1] they may constitute some of the few complete. most of which are carved in walrus ivory. named after the bay where they were found) are a group of 78 12th-century chess pieces.

Woolf has said that the armour worn by the chess figures includes "perfect" reproductions of armour worn at the time in Norway.[2] although some scholars have suggested other sources in the Nordic countries. Andrews. director of the Institute for Medieval Studies of the University of St. Thorarinsson and Einar S.[6] The pair claim that the most important indicator of Icelandic origins is the presence of bishops among the Lewis Chessmen – such pieces first being used in Iceland. put forward by Icelanders Gudmundur G.8 cm while the major pieces are between 7 and 10.[7] Morten Lilleøren. like Dublin. at the British Museum in towns on the east coast of Ireland. The 78 pieces consist of 8 kings.Lewis chessmen 274 Origin The chessmen were probably made in Norway. near the mouth of Trondheim Fjord.[9] All the pieces are sculptures of human figures. 16 bishops. who stated that the use of bishops originated in England. there are a number of reasons for believing the chess pieces probably came from Trondheim: a broken queen piece in a similar style found in an excavation of the archbishop's palace (it appeared the piece was broken as it was being made). were ruled by Norway. However this is disputed by Woolf. The knights are mounted on rather diminutive horses and are shown holding spears and shields. there were 14 plain round tablemen for the game of tables and one belt buckle. they have the greatest range of sizes of all the pieces.[4] . making a total of 93 artifacts. Alex Woolf. which are smaller. four of the rooks are shown as wild-eyed berserkers biting their shields with battle fury. which has suggested that the 78 pieces might belong to at least 5 sets. rather than the black and white used in modern chess. the presence of wealthy people in Trondheim able to pay craftsmen for the high-quality pieces. along with other major groups of Scottish islands. similar carving in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim.5 to 5. the excavation in Trondheim of a kite-shaped shield similar to shields on some of the pieces and a king piece of similar design found on Hitra Island.[5] Another possibility. Although there are 19 pawns (a complete set requires 16). in the 12th century. The large number of pieces London and their lack of wear may suggest they were the stock of a trader or dealer in such pieces. The heights of the pawns range from 3. is that the chessmen originated in Iceland. The rooks are standing soldiers or warders holding a shield and sword. Einarsson.[2] Along with the chess pieces. 15 knights.[4] Some historians believe that the Lewis chessmen were hidden (or lost) after some mishap occurred during their carriage from Norway to wealthy Norse "Beserker" rook. indicating that red and white were used to distinguish the two sides. with the exception of the pawns. who has written an article entitled "The Lewis Chessmen Were Never Anywhere Near Iceland!"[8] Description Almost all of the pieces in the collection are carved from walrus ivory.[4] The Icelandic hypothesis has been strongly challenged by chess historian and member of the Ken Whyld Association.[2] According to Dr.[10] Some pieces bore traces of red stain when found. perhaps by craftsmen in Trondheim. geometric shapes.[3] During that period the Outer Hebrides. 8 queens.2 cm. 12 rooks and 19 pawns. all made of ivory. with a few made instead from whale teeth.

on April 11.[15] . opening there on 15 April 2011. that the comic or sad expressions were not intended or perceived as such by the makers to whom these images instead displayed strength. Shetland and the Museum nan Eilean in Stornoway. repose and possibly wisdom. queen. but this time the purchaser was the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. They feature in the 2010 BBC Radio 4 series A History of the World in 100 Objects as number 61. the figural pieces. along with other relevant objects. The chessmen were number 5 in the list of British archaeological finds selected by experts at the British Museum for the 2003 BBC Television documentary Our Top Ten Treasures presented by Adam Hart-Davis.78–159."[11] Modern discovery The chessmen were discovered in early 1831 in a sand bank at the head of Camas Uig on the west coast of the Isle of Lewis. The Lewis chessmen top: king. all of which were later sold to Lord Londesborough. is touring Scotland in 2010/11. Malcolm Macleod's family were evicted from Pennydonald several years later when the area was cleared to make the farm at Ardroil. In 1888 they were again sold. ferocity or. in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Others have been lent to Scottish museums and temporary exhibitions. 11–1. Malcolm "Sprot" Macleod from the nearby township of Pennydonald discovered the trove in a small stone kist in a dune."[13] It is believed. with 10 being purchased by Kirkpatrick Sharpe and the others (67 chessmen and 14 tablemen) were purchased on behalf of the British Museum in London. bishop middle: knight. and most can be found in Room 42 with the registration numbers M&ME 1831.[2] A range of resin or plastic replicas are popular items in the Museum shops.[14] One reported detail. 1831. with their bulging eyes and glum expressions.Lewis chessmen 275 Scholars have observed that. The chessmen were soon after split up. have a distinct comical character.[11] [12] This is especially true of the single rook with a worried. who donated the pieces to the Royal Museum in Edinburgh. in the case of the queens who hold their heads with a hand. The eleven are now on display in the Museum of Scotland. There are various local stories concerning their arrival and modern discovery on Lewis. exhibited them briefly in his byre and sold them on to Captain Roderick Ryrie. sideways glance (front left of first image below) and the beserkers biting their shields which have been called "irresistibly comic to a modern audience. The exhibition opened in Edinburgh on 21 May 2010 and proceeded to Aberdeen. "contemplation. rook. Kirkpatrick Sharpe later found another bishop to take his collection up to eleven. The pieces given to the British Museum are still located there. however. pawn bottom: closeup of queen (resin replicas) Exhibition and ownership They were exhibited by Ryrie at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. is generally discounted in Uig as fabrication. that it was a cow that actually unearthed the stash. to the modern eye. A new exhibition entitled "The Lewis Chessmen: Unmasked" that includes chesspieces from both the Museum of Scotland and the British Museum collections. in the "Status Symbols" section.

com/ text/ skittles399. MSP Alasdair Allan and MP Angus MacNeil) for the return of the pieces to the place they were found. The Lewis Chessmen Were Never Anywhere Near Iceland! (http:/ / www. . Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Chessbase: The enigma of the Lewis chessmen (http:/ / www.[17] A selection of some of the other chess pieces. 48. Linda Fabiani the Scottish Minister for Europe. which operates a registered museum near the find site featuring detailed information about the chessmen and Norse occupation in Lewis. 14. In the films. (http:/ / www. chesscafe. pdf) (ChessCafe. the museum's deputy chairman said that she "absolutely" believed the main collection should remain in London. 37-41. Bonnie Greer.[16] In October 2009 twenty-four of the pieces from the London collection and six from Edinburgh began a 16-month tour of diverse locations in Scotland.Lewis chessmen 276 Controversy In 2007–08 a dispute arose regarding the most appropriate place to display the pieces. New York Times. with a row of bishops at the back. 2011) [9] Robinson. 54–55) Are the Isle of Lewis chessmen Icelandic? (http:/ / www. . isn't it?"[14] The local historical society in Uig. page C2. Reopening History of Storied Norse Chessmen (http:/ / www. com/ newsdetail. the pieces of the standard tabletop game are depicted using Lewis Chessmen. Dylan Loeb (8 September 2010). britishmuseum. org/ the_museum/ news_and_press_releases/ statements/ the_lewis_chessmen. then a row of knights. retrieved 14 September 2010 Ken Whyld Association (http:/ / www. [10] Robinson. p. chessbase. is/ lewis/ ). the Minister for Culture and External Affairs stated that the Government and the British Museum had "agreed to disagree" on their eventual fate. 5. 36. . nytimes. Comann Eachdraidh Uig. com/ 2010/ 09/ 09/ arts/ 09lewis. The issue first arose late in 2007 with calls from Scottish National Party (SNP) politicians in the Western Isles (notably Councillor Annie Macdonald. 2010 in the newspaper. The tour was part-funded by the Scottish Government and Mike Russell. but would welcome short-term loans. pp. html). McClain. Both points of view have been dismissed by Margaret Hodge the UK Minister of State in the Department for Culture. Stratford. 30. pp. htm) Lilleøren. 28-29. Richard Oram. org/ Homepage-UK/ home-english. aspx) Robinson. writing "It's a lot of nonsense.com. p. New York Times) (Robinson 2004. Professor of Medieval and Environmental History at the University of Stirling. [12] N. 1997). The Lewis chessmen and the enigma of the hoard (The British Museum Press. [11] Robinson. Media and Sport. retrieved 14 September 2010 (appeared September 9. A resin replica of one of the kings Lewis chessmen in the Museum of Scotland The Lewis chessmen in the British Museum Knight in London Popular culture The Harry Potter series depicts a game known as Wizard's Chess where magically animated pieces move and kill on vocal command of the players. has indicated publicly that it has no intention of pursuing any claim to the ownership of the pieces and does not support demands for them to be sent to Edinburgh. agreed arguing that there was no reason for there to be more than "a sample" of the collection in London. kwabc. External Affairs and Culture stated that "it is unacceptable that only 11 Lewis Chessmen rest at the National Museum of Scotland while the other 82 remain in the British Museum in London". Morten. p. pp. asp?newsid=6665) British Museum Website. leit.

The Lewis Chessmen.uk/) .bbc. February 2008 [17] Cornwell.org/the_museum/news_and_press_releases/statements/ the_lewis_chessmen. N. co. 37. 2008) "Stalemate".co. Retrieved 15 April 2011. H. Oxford University Press. BBC.Lewis chessmen [13] Robinson. bbc. Michael (1978). The British Museum Press. Edinburgh. 277 References • British Museum Website.net/writers/features-a-g/chandlerg05.uk/ programmes/b00stb51) • Not Chess pieces. James (2004). [14] Burnett. British Museum Publications Limited. Allan (February 3. Not from Lewis (http://textualities.aspx) • National Museums Scotland's pages on the chessmen (http://www.php) • The Isle Of Lewis Chessmen Website (http://www. [16] Uig News. (1997). British Museum Press. The Scotsman. • Stratford. Glasgow.co. R. (http://www.org/explore/highlights/ highlight_objects/pe_mla/t/the_lewis_chessmen. The Lewis Chessmen. Tim (2 October 2009) "Chessmen 'will never come home'. • Robinson.britishmuseum. The Lewis chessmen and the enigma of the hoard. External links • The British Museum's page on the chessmen (http://www. Number 61: The Lewis Chessmen (http://www. A History of Chess. • Taylor. J. p.britishmuseum.aspx) • Murray.uk/our_museums/ national_museum/special_exhibitions/lewis_chessmen_tour.aspx) • A History of the World in 100 Objects. [15] "Lewis Chessman exhibition opens in Stornoway museum" (http:/ / www. The Sunday Herald.isleoflewischessset.ac.nms. uk/ news/ uk-scotland-highlands-islands-13085170). (1985).

278 Xiangqi and variants Xiangqi Xiangqi Xiangqi board with pieces in their starting positions Genre(s) Players Setup time Playing time Board game 2 Under one minute Informal games: may vary from 20 minutes to several hours Blitz games: up to 10 minutes Random chance None Skill(s) required Tactics. strategy Xiangqi Chinese 象棋 Transcriptions Mandarin .Hokkien POJ chhiūⁿ-kî Cantonese .Hanyu Pinyin xiàngqí .Wade–Giles hsiang4-ch'i2 [listen] Min .Jyutping zeong6 kei2 .

shogi. the palace. Its Chinese name can be treated as meaning "Image Game" or "Elephant Game": 象 originally. pinyin: Xiàngqí) is a two-player Chinese board game in the same family as Western chess. with the object of capturing the enemy's "general" piece. there were early Chinese theorizings (which Harold James Ruthven Murray followed and believed) that the older Xiangqi simulated the movements of stars and other celestial objects in the sky. it was later used to mean "image". 棋 means "board game". and the river and palace board features.Xiangqi 279 Xiangqi (Chinese: 象棋. The game represents a battle between two armies. which restrict the movement of some pieces. Xiangqi is also a popular pastime in Vietnam (Cờ tướng).. rather than within the squares. also. Xiangqi is one of the most popular board games in China. and primarily. These features may have come from an earlier Chinese board game (perhaps a war-type game) which was also called 象棋 (Xiangqi). in both cases. a rule prohibiting the generals (similar to chess kings) from facing each other directly. . As in an astronomical context 象 sometimes means "constellation" or "asterism" (i.e. Distinctive features of Xiangqi include the unique A Xiangqi board movement of the pao ("cannon") piece. chaturanga. means "elephant" and is derived from a stylized drawing of an elephant. The present-day form of Xiangqi originated in China and is therefore commonly called Chinese chess in English. Indian chess and janggi. and the placing of the pieces on the intersections of the lines. as a jiajie (re-use for another word which was pronounced the same). Besides China and areas with significant ethnic Chinese communities. a figure made of stars). Xiangqi contains features which are not in Indian chess: the river. elephant ivory was commonly used as a material for carving models.

Generally. The starting points of the soldiers and cannons are typically marked with small crosses. some books may refer to the two sides as north and south. The three point by three point zone is demarcated by two diagonal lines connecting opposite corners and intersecting at the center point. while the horizontal lines are known as ranks. Some Xiangqi books state that the black side moves first. although the pawn/soldier is able to move sideways after it crosses the river. Centered at the first through third ranks of the board is a square zone also mirrored in the opponent's territory. and also varies from one part of China to another.[1] Each player in turn moves one piece from the point it occupies to another point. Although the river provides a visual division between the two sides. The vertical lines are known as files. meaning "Han border". which are known as points. . red goes first in most modern formal tournaments. This area is known as 宮 gōng. others state that the red side moves first. as described below. the river. the palace or fortress. and 漢界 (in Traditional Chinese). The river is often marked with the phrases 楚河 chǔ hé. hàn jiè. In a manner similar to the game Go (Wéiqí 圍棋). the pieces are played on the intersections. One piece has a special capture move. while "elephant" pieces cannot cross. only a few pieces are affected by its presence: "soldier" pieces have an enhanced move after crossing the river. Also. Dividing the two opposing sides (between the fifth and sixth ranks) is 河 hé.Xiangqi 280 Rules of the game Board Xiangqi is played on a board that is 9 lines wide by 10 lines long. meaning "Chu River". A piece can be moved onto a point occupied by an enemy piece. in which case the enemy piece is "captured" and removed from the board. but not all boards have these marks. which direction corresponds to which color also varies from source to source. Which player moves first has varied throughout history. Generally all pieces capture using their normal moves. Generally pieces are not permitted to move through a point occupied by another piece. Pieces are never "promoted" (converted into other pieces). Play The pieces start in the position shown in the diagram above. a reference to the Chu-Han War. Xiangqi is a common pastime in Chinese cities. A player cannot capture one of his own pieces.

In Xiangqi. but they are by no means the only rules. There are a large number of confusing end game situations. a player with no legal moves left loses. "Checkmate!" (assuming the cannon is safe) Note that the horse is not actually needed for this to be checkmate. traditional Chinese: 將. in which a stalemate is a draw. in Xiangqi. this practice Western version of pieces may have originated in situations where there was only one material available to make the pieces from and no coloring material available to distinguish the opposing armies. • When both sides violate the same rule at the same time and both persist in not making an alternate move. pinyin: jiāngjiāng)) and the general is said to be "in check". the game can be ruled as a draw. the enemy player is said to have "delivered a check" (simplified Chinese: 照将/将军. and eighteen times using three pieces before considering the check/chase a perpetual check/chase. the situation is called "checkmate" (simplified Chinese: 将死. the game can be ruled as a draw. When the general is in danger of being captured by the enemy player on his next move. Chases by generals and soldiers are allowed however. each with a Chinese character on. • When neither side violates the rules and both persist in not making an alternate move. sometimes engraved into the surface. forcing the opponent to draw the game. For example. traditional Chinese: 照將/將軍.Xiangqi 281 The game ends when one player captures the other's general. • The side that perpetually chases any one unprotected piece with one or more pieces will be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual chasing. a player (often with material or positional disadvantage) may attempt to check or chase pieces in a way that the moves fall in a cycle.[2] The above rules to prevent perpetual checking and chasing are popular. The black pieces are marked with somewhat different characters from the corresponding red pieces. abbreviated (simplified Chinese: 将. Unlike Chess.[2] • If one side perpetually checks and the other side perpetually chases. twelve times using two pieces. Different sets of rules set different limits on what is considered "perpetual". the perpetually checking side has to stop or be ruled to lose. traditional Chinese: 將死). .[3] Pieces The pieces are flat circular disks. A check should be announced. If the general's player can make no move to prevent the general's capture. Club Xiangqi rules allow a player to check/chase six consecutive times using one piece. The following special rules are used to make it harder to draw the game by endless checking and chasing (regardless of whether the positions of the pieces are repeated or not): • The side that perpetually checks with one piece or several pieces will be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual checking.

it can be easily trapped or threatened. The general starts the game at the midpoint of the back edge (within the palace). they serve as defensive pieces. and less commonly as assistants. like the queen in Western chess. In practice this rule is only used to enforce checkmate. which confines them to five points on the board.Xiangqi General The generals are labelled with the Chinese character 將 (trad. both are referred to as elephants in the game.[4] 282 General and advisors Advisor The advisors (also known as guards or ministers. it is known as "blocking the elephant's eye" (塞象眼). "officer") for black and 仕 shì ("scholar". sets use the character 士 for both colours. The general may not leave the palace except when executing the "flying general" move. The two generals may not face each other in the same file with no intervening pieces. They may not cross the river. Rarely. in which one general may "fly" across the board to capture the enemy general. but not diagonally. They serve to protect the general. They move and capture one point diagonally and may not leave the palace. . The advisor is probably derived from the mantri in Chaturanga. Because an elephant's movement is thus restricted to just seven board positions. "official") for red. If that happens. Elephant The elephants are labeled 象 xiàng (elephant) for black and 相 xiàng (minister) for red. or warriors) are labelled 士 shì ("scholar". thus. The general may move and capture one point either vertically or horizontally.) jiàng (general) on the black side and 帥 (trad. If an elephant is blocked by an intervening piece. The advisors start to the sides of the general.) shuài (marshal) on the red side. These pieces move and capture exactly two points diagonally and may not jump over intervening pieces (the move is described as being like the character 田 Tián [field]).) / 帅 (simp. They are located next to the advisors.) / 将 (simp. Typically the two elephants will be used to defend each other. "gentleman". The Indian name "king" for this piece was changed to "general" because China's rulers objected to their royal title "king" or "emperor" being given to a game-piece. mandarins. However. the "flying general" (飛將) move may be executed. The Chinese characters for "minister" and "elephant" are homophones (Listen) and both have alternative meanings as "appearance" or "image".

as seen in the diagram on the right. a move which is traditionally described as being like the character 日 Rì. It is possible for one player's horse to attack the opponent's horse while the opponent's horse is blocked from attacking. They begin the game next to the elephants. but the black horse cannot take the red horse because its movement is obstructed by another piece Green moves are legal. The horse does not jump as the knight does in Western chess. A horse moves and captures one point vertically or horizontally and then one point diagonally away from its former position.Xiangqi Horse 283 The horses are labelled 馬 mǎ for black and 傌 mà for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and 马 mǎ for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. Since horses can be blocked. Note. however. The diagram on the left illustrates the horse's movement. that a piece two points away horizontally or vertically or a piece a single point away diagonally would not impede the movement of the horse. The red horse may take the black horse. Blocking a horse is also known as "hobbling the horse's leg" (蹩馬腿). red ones are illegal because another piece is obstructing the movement of the horse . Thus. Some traditional sets use 馬 for both colours. if there were a piece lying on a point one point away horizontally or vertically from the horse. it is sometimes possible to trap the opponent's horse. then the horse's path of movement is blocked and it is unable to move in that direction.

In Xiangqi. prohibits blocking for the opposing side.) pào tái ("cannon platform"). The chariot is considered to be the strongest piece in the game. The chariots begin the game on the points at the corners of the board. or between the cannon platform and the piece to be captured. or block between the two cannons. the back cannon checks the general while the front cannon. Although cannons can be exchanged for a horse immediately from their starting positions. The cannons start on the row behind the soldiers. this is usually not favorable. The piece which the cannon jumps over is called the 炮臺 (trad. Cannons are powerful pieces at the beginning of the game when platforms are plentiful. Sometimes 炮 is used for both red and black. However. The opposing side can only move the general. and may not jump over intervening pieces. The cannon may not jump over intervening pieces if not capturing another piece. Some traditional sets use 車 for both colors. Cannons move like the chariots. The chariot is sometimes known as the "rook" by English speaking players. The two cannons. when used together. Chinese players (and others) often call this piece a "car". Cannon The cannons are labelled 砲 pào for black and 炮 pào for red. and are used frequently in combination with chariots to achieve checkmate. When capturing. The 石 shì radical of 砲 means 'stone'. As they line up in the attack against the opposing general. two points in front of the horses. All of these characters are pronounced as jū. nor may it capture without jumping. the cannon is moved to the point of the captured piece. can form a check that cannot be The long-range threat of the cannon stopped easily.Xiangqi Chariot The chariots are labelled 車 for black and 俥 for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and 车 for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. They are homophones. since that is one modern meaning of the character 車. serving as the platform. 284 . but capture by jumping exactly one piece (whether it is friendly or enemy) over to its target. including no spaces (the pieces being adjacent) in both cases. and the 火 huǒ radical of 炮 means 'fire'. 炮 pào means "cannon". in part due to the superiority of cannons over horses at the beginning of the game. The chariot moves and captures vertically and horizontally any distance. each player has two cannons. horizontally and vertically. since it is like the rook in Western chess. capture the back cannon. 砲 pào means a "catapult" for hurling boulders. both are normally referred to as cannons in English. Any number of unoccupied spaces may exist between the cannon and the cannon platform.) / 炮台 (simp.

that advisor is very valuable for black because it is very easy for red to checkmate with two chariots if black does not have an advisor. less commonly. Also. they may also move (and capture) one point horizontally. if red still has two chariots and black has one advisor left. the value of a cannon drops as the game goes on due to having fewer platforms for use in capturing.Xiangqi Soldier Each side has five soldiers. many sets were simple unpainted woodcarvings. the chariot at the corner in the beginning of the game is not very useful. though some sets use pieces made of wood. Soldiers cannot move backward. Once they have crossed the river. players will often in certain game scenarios value a cannon or horse at or more than the level of a chariot due to the cannon's unique attack style. most sets still use traditional Chinese characters (as opposed to simplified Chinese characters) for the pieces. they may still move sideways at the enemy's edge. and the other player's pieces are usually painted black (or. labelled 卒 zú (pawn/private) for black and 兵 bīng (soldier) for red. blue or green). less commonly. most corresponding pieces use characters that are similar but vary slightly between the two sides.5 Horse 5 Cannon 9–10 Chariot 285 These approximate values do not take into account positional advantages. Soldiers are placed on alternating points. In mainland China. for example near the center of the board or the opponent's palace. Approximate relative values of the pieces Piece Point(s) 1 Soldier before crossing the river 2–3 Soldier after crossing the river 2 Advisor 2 Elephant 4. Equipment One player's pieces are usually painted red (or. one row back from the edge of the river. Although the chariot has the highest value of 9–10 points. For example. For example. white). What is left on the board is also important to the value of a piece. while the value of the horse increases slightly due to fewer obstructions. Modern pieces are usually made of plastic. . and therefore cannot retreat. in a mid or late game. since it is similar to that piece in Western chess. Xiangqi pieces are represented by disks marked with a Chinese character identifying the piece and painted in a colour identifying which player the piece belongs. thus. In more ancient times. They move and capture by advancing one point. and more expensive sets may use pieces made of jade. The soldier is sometimes known as the "pawn" by English speaking players. however. but it can be moved to points where it affects the game much more. to distinguish between the pieces of the two sides.

馬 (18)–37 Notational system 2 A notational system partially described in A Manual of Chinese Chess[6] and used by several computer software implementations describes moves in relative terms as follows: [single-letter piece abbreviation][former file][operator indicating direction of movement][new file. 286 Notation There are several types of notation used to record Xiangqi games. Moves are then indicated as follows: [piece name] ([former rank][former file])-[new rank][new file] Thus. Thus. symbols + (front) and – (rear) are used instead of former file number. or in the case of purely vertical movement. the most common opening in the game would be written as: 1. followed by a digit 1 to 9 for files from right to left. 1. It is kept in the Henan Provincial Museum. the most common opening in the game would be written as: 1. C2. Both values are relative to the moving player.5 H8+7 The single letter piece abbreviations are Piece Advisor Cannon Chariot Initial(s) A C R* Elephant E General Horse Soldier *for Rook. 炮 (32)–35. In case there are two identical pieces in one file. Direction of movement is indicated via an operator symbol. then the plus or minus sign is used rather than the period. In each case the moves are numbered and written with the same general pattern. number of ranks traversed] The file numbers are counted from each player's right to each player's left. (first move) (first response) 2.Xiangqi The oldest Xiangqi piece found to date is a 俥 (chariot) piece. A dot or period or equal sign is used to indicate horizontal or lateral movement. A minus sign or hyphen is used to indicate backwards movement. (second move) (second response) It is clearer but not required to write each move pair on a separate line. A plus sign is used to indicate forward movement. because using C would conflict with the letter for Cannon G H S . Notational system 1 The book The Chess of China[5] describes a move notation in which the ranks of the board are numbered 1 to 10 from closest to farthest away. If a piece (such as the horse or elephant) simultaneously moves both vertically and horizontally.

2. Che3 Hg8 An example of a brief game ("the early checkmate") is: 1. indicate which rank moves. If they share neither rank or file then the file is indicated. if they share the same rank. for both sides "a1" is the lowest left point from Red's side. [single-letter piece abbreviation][former position][check indication][analysis] position][capture indication][new Pieces are abbreviated as for system 2.Xiangqi 287 Notational system 3 (unofficial. for players of Western chess) Letters are used for files and numbers for ranks. Capture is indicated by "x". No letter is used to indicate a non-capturing move. Checkmate is indicated by "#". and quadruple check by "++++". Check is indicated by "+". Notice how Red's doubled cannons can't be blocked. 3. "?!" is probably bad) or repeated for emphasis ("??" is a disaster). Former position is only indicated if necessary to distinguish between two identical pieces that could have made the move. If they share the same file. the most common opening in the game would be written as: 1. . bad moves are indicated by "?" and good moves by "!". indicate which file moves. double check by "++". except that no letter is used for the soldier. and that the general can't move off the file either. For analysis purposes. File "a" is on Red's left and rank "1" is nearest to Red. triple check by "+++". These can be combined if the analysis is uncertain ("!?" might be either but is probably good. Cbe3 Che8 Ch6 Cb4? Cxe7+! Cexe4?? Ce6# 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i Black is mated and therefore loses the game. 4. Thus. A point's designation does not depend on which player moves.

they are forked. because the horse can be blocked it can pin pieces as well. A cannon can pin two pieces at once on one file or rank. including Xiangqi. Tactics There are several tactics common to games in the chess family. and unlike in Western chess. Skewer . • Skewer: A piece is skewered when it is attacked and. Pin 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The cannon is pinned by the chariot. Fork 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The horse forks the soldier and the chariot. Some common ones are briefly discussed here. exposes a less important piece to be captured. on moving. • Pin: A piece is pinned when it cannot be moved without exposing a more important piece to be captured. there is a tendency for the battle to focus on a particular area of the board.Xiangqi 288 Gameplay Because of the size of the board and the low number of long-range pieces. see Chess tactics for more details. • Fork: When one enemy piece can attack more than one piece.

and a cannon. arising with 2 horses. This check can't be blocked and capturing a checking piece doesn't work either. and a horse or a chariot and two horses. case of double check is when a cannon or chariot uncovers two checks at once from two horses. and less often. An example of a double check that can be blocked is a chariot checking the general and acting as a platform for a cannon situated behind. which uses the chariot as a platform. to check the enemy general. When the general moves. Quadruple check is also possible. as that would leave the general still in check from two enemy pieces. • Particular to Xiangqi is triple check. The piece uncovering the check can safely move anywhere within its powers regardless of whether the opponent has those squares under protection. the chariot can be taken. No piece can block because there is an attack from two directions. and both can't be blocked at once. blockable. capturing one of the checking pieces doesn't get the general out of check either. a chariot. blocking the cannon's fire and that of the chariot as well. the horse. Another. An example of a double check that can not be blocked is a horse between the enemy general and a chariot. which arises with a cannon. Sometimes a double check results in mate. • Double check: A double check occurs when two pieces simultaneously threaten the enemy general. In either case. In the second case the chariot moves to give check uncovering a double check from the two horses. cannon. Triple check 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . This can be blocked by moving a piece between the general and the chariot. the latter being comparatively rare. It may or may not be possible to block. • Discovered check: A discovered check occurs when an attacking piece moves so that it unblocks a line for a chariot. but it is rare. a chariot. In the first case the horse moves to give check uncovering a double check from the chariot and the cannon.Xiangqi 289 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The chariot is skewering the general and chariot. The horse can move to check the general and uncover a check from the chariot.

where it is very difficult to dislodge. This is because from the initial position. alternate position 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i Red's chariot discovers two checks from the horses and gives check itself. Depending on the situation. it takes a minimum of 5 moves of a soldier to allow twin soldiers to protect each other. the soldiers do not support each other unless the player has no better move.Xiangqi 290 a b c d e f g h i Red's horse has moved from e5 to d7. Using a cannon to control the middle file is often considered vital strategy. giving check and exposing a double check from chariot and cannon. giving check and exposing a triple check from cannon and both horses. a player risks losing one chariot to an inferior piece of the enemy. it may be advantageous to position a chariot at one of the corners of the enemy's side of the board. Triple check. The two chariots are not normally lined up together as they are the most powerful pieces and in doing so. and threatens the enemy general. Quadruple check 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i Red's chariot has moved from f9 to e9. The two files adjacent to the middle file are also considered . because it helps to lock certain pieces such as the advisors and elephants in certain positions to prevent a check. Use of pieces Usually. It is common to use the cannons independently to control particular ranks and files.

) / 出车 (simp.) dāng tóu pào. and to leave the other advisor and the other elephant in their starting positions. the general becomes vulnerable to cannons. the paired-up advisors and elephants support each other. it is customary to always make the first move from the right flank. Moving a piece in front of the cannons to block the attack does not work. 上士 shàng shì.) / 当头炮 (simp. an opening known as 當頭炮 (trad. This is usually followed by the most common second move. A common defensive configuration is to leave the general at its starting position. because then the front cannon will attack the general. This is to prevent a series of events that leads to the first player quickly checkmating the second. The most common reply is to move the right advisor diagonally. to ward off attack by a cannon. 炮 (32)–35. to the side of the general.) dāng tóu pào = "appropriate start cannon".5 H8+7". Less common first moves include: • moving an elephant to the central column . For example. The most common reply is to advance the horse on the same flank. the cannon can simply take the nearest advisor resulting in a net gain of an advisor in material for the other side and the maneuver to trap the cannon loses time allowing the opponent to bring out other pieces). See also the diagrams to the right. However. this move-and-response is known by the rhyme 當頭炮,馬來跳 (trad. or even sacrifice them intentionally. 出車 (trad. and even if the defender manages to trap the cannon with his/her chariots. The notation for this is "1.) chū jū—"chariot sortie"—in which the first player moves a chariot forward one space (usually the right one – moving the left one loses the horse. The defender may move advisors or elephants away from the general. 馬 (18)–37" or "1. The two cannons on the same file is also a powerful formation. with the loss of a single advisor or elephant. C2. and the general is immune from attacks by cannons. mǎ lái tiào. 291 Openings 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h i The most common opening pair of moves Since the left and right flank of the starting setup are symmetrical and therefore equivalent.) / 当头炮,马来跳 (simp. Together. and this setup may need to be abandoned. The most common opening is to move the cannon to the central column. the rear cannon threatens the general. deploy one advisor and one elephant on the two points directly in front of the general.Xiangqi important and horses and chariots can be used to push for checkmate here. Starting on the left flank is considered to be needlessly confusing. In this setup.

according to the first century BC text.[8] Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou once wrote a book Xiang Jing in AD 569. Li. Harold James Ruthven Murray. at least one horse should be moved to the middle. David H. Murray quoted an old Chinese source that says that in that older Xiangqi (which modern Xiangqi may have taken some of its rules from) the game-pieces could be shuffled. and that the earliest Chinese references to 象棋 meant the Astronomical Game and not Chinese chess".Xiangqi • advancing the soldier on the third or seventh file • moving a horse forward • moving either cannon behind the 2nd soldier from the left or right General advice for the opening includes rapid development of at least one chariot. for example. which may mean the Milky Way. previous games called xiàngqí may have been based on the movements of sky objects. and arose from constellations being called merely "figures" in astronomical contexts where other meanings of "figure" were less likely. argues that the game was developed by Han Xin in the winter of 204 BC-203 BC to prepare for an upcoming battle. because the Chinese character 象 means "elephant" and "figure". to avoid being blocked by one of one's own soldiers that cannot advance. However. To support his argument.[12] The earliest description of the game's rules appears in the story "Cen Shun" (岑順) in the collection Xuanguai lu (玄怪錄). and sometimes the xiàngqí board's "river" is called the "heavenly river". Its ancestor is believed to be the Indian chess game of Chaturanga. It is believed to have described the rules of an astronomically themed game called Xiangqi or Xiangxi (象戲). it originated as a stylized drawing of an elephant. For these reasons.[7] though its precise origins have not yet been definitely confirmed. But the name can also be treated as meaning "constellation game". . it was one of Lord Mengchang of Qi's interests. there are some indications that the game may have been played as early as the third century BC.) Judging by its rules. and was used also to write a word meaning "figure". for example. which does not happen in chess-type Xiangqi as known now. Usually.[9] Murray also wrote that in ancient China there was more than one game called Xiangqi. (See chess in early literature and timeline of chess. this usage may have led some ancient Chinese authors to theorize that the game 象棋 started as a simulation of astronomy. author of A History of Chess. which represented the apparent movements of naked-eye-visible astronomical objects in the night sky. written in the middle part of the Tang dynasty. during the Warring States Period. Shuo yuan (說宛). The ancient Chinese game of Liubo may have had an influence as well. The word Xiàngqí 象棋 is usually translated as "elephant game" or "figure game".[10] An alternative hypothesis to Murray's is that Xiangqi was patterned after the array of troops in the Warring States era. Xiangqi was apparently closely related to military strategy in ancient China. 292 History Xiangqi has a long history. It may not be a bad move to develop one horse to the edge of the board. the connection between 象 and astronomy is marginal.[11] His theories have been questioned by other chess researchers. because it is the most powerful piece and the only long-range piece besides the cannon. References to a game called Xiangqi date back to the Warring States Period. theorized that "in China it [Chess] took over the board and name of a game called 象棋 in the sense of "Constellation Game" (rendered by Murray as "Astronomical Game"). likely because the two words were pronounced the same. however. There is a saying that only a poor player does not move a chariot in the first three moves.

[18] And in the Computer-Human Xiangqi Dual Meet in 2006. such as the Malaysia Chinese Chess Association in Malaysia. Many different schools of circles and players came into prominence. and the GUI can also be used for automated play of different engines against each other.5 Xiangqi is one of the more popular competitions at the annual Computer Olympiad. including the Yin Li and Ram Cup Tournaments.Xiangqi 293 With the economic and cultural development during the Qing Dynasty. Through such standardization. A Western-style Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings was not written until 2004. Xiangqi entered a new stage.[17] Computers The game-tree complexity of Xiangqi is approximately 10150.[13] Other organizations include the Asian Xiangqi Federation[14] and a World Xiangqi Federation. including some commercial engines. For displaying the board graphically. for example. they then rely on a separate Graphical User Interface. according to the 2006 Chinese National Ratings. The best player in China. many different engines can be used through the same GUI. Xiangqi game pieces dated to the Song Dynasty (960–1279) Modern play Tournaments and leagues Although Xiangqi has its origin in Asia. there are Xiangqi leagues and clubs all over the world. in Britain. Popular protocols are UCI (Universal Chess Interface). In addition. and WinBoard/XBoard (WB) protocol (the latter two named after the GUIs that implemented them). so in 2004 it was projected that a human top player will be defeated before 2010. UCCI (Universal Chinese Chess Interface). there are also several international federations and tournaments. Xiangqi is regulated by the United Kingdom Chinese Chess Association. With the popularization of Xiangqi. For example. Each European nation generally has its own governing league. the Chinese Xiangqi Association hosts several tournaments every year. Though there are no specific criteria for becoming a grandmaster. the final score was Computer 5. The Asian Xiangqi Federation also bestows the title of grandmaster to select individuals around the world who have excelled at Xiangqi or have made special contributions to the game. Rankings The Asian Xiangqi Federation and its corresponding member associations also rank players in a number format similar to the rankings of chess.[16] Other strong players include Lu Qin and Hu Ronghua. Computer Xiangqi Programs Chinese Chess Soul [19] . There now exist many dozens of Xiangqi engines supporting one or more of these protocols. many books and manuals on the techniques of playing the game were published. though most are limited to players from member nations. the list of grandmasters is limited to fewer than a hundred people. Asian countries also have nationwide leagues. was Xu Yinchuan with a rating of 2628. Computer programs for playing Xiangqi show the same development trend as has occurred for international Chess: they are usually console applications (called engines) which communicate their moves in text form through some standard protocol.[15] which hosts tournaments and competitions bi-annually.5 – Human 4. They played an important role in popularizing Xiangqi and improving the techniques of play in modern times. Qianhong (QH) protocol.

Players flip their pieces so that the characters are concealed from their opponent. These pieces can be deployed by the teammate to give him an advantage over the other player. All other rules are the same as in Xiangqi. One teammate plays black and other plays red. similar to a rule in Shogi. Blind Chess More well known in Hong Kong than in mainland China. The other player's pieces are set up to mirror the first's. but worth the effort of translation!) Computer Xiangqi Servers Vietson [29] ThaiGB [30] Ajax Chinese Chess [31] Club Xiangqi [32] PlayXiangqi [33] 294 Variations Using a standard Xiangqi board and pieces Blitz Chess Each player only has around 5–10 minutes each (depending on rules). turned sideways to allow nine rows and five columns. and elephants must start at two of the seven points that they could reach from their usual positions. leading to a fast-paced game with little or no room for thought. except for the generals and advisors which must be at their usual positions in normal Xiangqi. UCCI through adapters) XQ Wizzard [27] (UCCI. but does not follow any of its rules. move one of their own pieces to an empty square (pieces can only move to an . Formation One player's pieces are jumbled up. then placed randomly on one side of the river. Four players play two games side-by-side with a team of two playing against another team. and then arrange them on their respective ends of the board. so long as the piece starts on the player's own side of the board and does not cause the opponent to be in check. Any piece obtained by capturing the opponent's piece is given to the teammate for use in the other game. this game uses Xiangqi's pieces and board. UCI. and QH. Supply Chess Similar to the Western chess variant. At each turn. The game is played on only half the Xianqi board.Xiangqi NEU Chess [20] XieXie [21] XQ Master [22] Hidden Lynx [23] HOXChess [24] Xiangqi Graphical User Interfaces Qianhong Xiangqi [25] (QH. and UCCI through adapter) WinBoard / XBoard [26] (WB. a player can do one of three things: They may choose to uncover a concealed piece. this variant features the ability to re-deploy captured pieces. Bughouse Chess. and QH through adapter) Computer Xiangqi Website With many engine downloads [28] (Chinese site. bearing more of a resemblance to the western game Stratego as well as the Chinese gameLuzhanqi. and moves have to be made by instinct.

and then one diagonally. 6. but also important as it is the only piece that can capture the enemy General. which move two spaces forward inside their own camp. 4. On the front corners of the palace are positioned two "Flag" pieces. 5. In the center of the board sits a triangular zone with certain features (ocean. for red.[35] San You Qi "Three Friends Chess" was invented by Zheng Jinde from Shexian in Anhui province during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty (1661–1722). and they move two spaces orthogonally. In either version the Soldier is the lowest rank." but these pieces do not move and do not belong to any of the three players until a certain point in the game when two player team up against the third player. Wu for green—from China's Three Kingdoms Period. Chariot. blue and green) of Xiangqi pieces vying for dominance. it cannot capture a soldier even when the soldier is placed directly next to it. mountain. and one General named "Emperor Xian of Han. Wind (Feng) for green. 5. Chariot. 7. Two of an army's five Soldiers are replaced by new pieces called "Fires". The game continues until one of the players has lost all of his pieces. or "San Xiangqui" (Three Elephants Game). Cannon. Advisor. General.[35] Si Guo Qi "Four Kingdoms Chess" is also played on a riverless. T Using a special board and/or pieces There are many versions of three-player Xiangqi. cross-shaped board. Flag (Qi) for blue. In the Taiwanese version. and then one space in any direction inside an enemy camp.[35] 295 . neutral country called Han. although by rank the cannon is higher than soldier. including a fourth. Because there are no rivers. elephants may move about the board freely. 3. Elephant. Cannon. A Y-shaped river trisects the board into three gem-shaped territories. he can only increase his chances by moving pieces and uncovering appropriately. superior or inferior. or they may choose to capture one of their opponents pieces.[34] It is likely that San Guo Qi first appeared under the Southern Song Dynasty (960–1279). Horse. 6. Soldier. who also gets to control Han (similar to player playing their own hand.[35] 'Sanrenqi:"Three Men Chess" is a riverless commercial variant played on a cross-shaped board with some special rules. Han has three Chariots. Horse. 4. 2. all played on special boards: San Guo Qi "The Game of Three Kingdoms" is played on a special hexagonal board with three armies (red. Wei for blue. the rank of pieces (from highest to lowest) is: 1. city walls) each of which are impassible by certain pieces. 7. the rank is: 1. Elephant. calculating the odds that the uncovered piece next to them can be friend or foe. The Generals each bear the name of the historical Chinese kingdoms—Shu for red. one Cannon. Advisor. each containing the grid found on one side of a Xiangqi board. 3.Xiangqi adjacent square and not diagonally regardless of its movement style in original Xiangqi). In Hong Kong. It is played on a Y-shaped board with a full army of Ziangqi pieces set up at the end of each of the board's three wide radii. which move one diagonal space forward. 2. Each player has 18 pieces: the classical 16 of regular Xiangqi and 2 new ones which stand on the same file as the Cannons. Because of this rule. plus that of a dummy in Bridge. but with four players. Blind chess is mostly a game of luck as the player cannot choose where his pieces are set up. The new pieces have different names depending on their side: Fire (Huo). There are limitations for the last option however: Each piece has a "rank" that enables it to capture pieces beneath its rank when an enemy piece is directly next to it. A special rule enables the cannon to capture the same way as it does in Xiangqi by jumping over exactly one piece (whether friend or foe) landing on its target. General. Soldier. but distorted to make the game playable by three people.

and then Lü-Ts'ai. Charles Fred. dir/ chin3pl. com/ )." [10] A History of Chess. com/ xiangqivariants. Li's "The Genealogy of Chess". Retrieved on 2011-10-01. Chen. Computer Chinese Chess (http:/ / www.122. banaschak.com A History of Chess. chessvariants. html). chess. [15] World Xiangqi Federation (http:/ / www.com Asian Chinese Chess Rules (http:/ / www. com/ rules/ ) at clubxiangqi.pragmaticlogic. rules. The latter. Clubxiangqi. [13] From FAQ #21: “What are some of the top tournaments in the world?” (http:/ / www. htm). Retrieved on 2011-10-01. banaschak.org.com. [11] This theory is propounded in The Genealogy of Chess [12] "A story well told is not necessarily true – being a critical assessment of David H. The Game of the Three Kingdoms. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. 2004. com/ ). . [26] WinBoard Xiangqi (http:/ / home. A Manual of Chinese Chess. net/ schach/ ligenealogyofchess. csie. in anger at this misuse of his title he had everybody at the inn put to death. Dennis A. html#question20). cc-xiexie. [21] XieXie (http:/ / www. chessvariants. A Short History of Chess. [34] "The Chess Variants Pages" (http:/ / www. open source Xiangqi program (http:/ / hoxchess. [30] ThaiGB – An Internet Chinese Chess server in Thai (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. com/ ) [23] Hidden Lynx – A free Chinese Chess program for Windows (http:/ / mayoneez. Another view on Chess: Odyssey of Chess.com. 6 [8] "Facts on the Origin of Chinese Chess" (http:/ / www. fr/ sanguoqi.com. Vietson. g. [25] Qianhong Xiangqi (http:/ / www. NEU Chess. clubxiangqi. com/ ). neuchess. asianxiangqi. [27] Xiangqi Wizard.com [14] Asian Xiangqi Federation (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. after a night's consideration.games. ma or 'horse' is used for the pieces in a game. htm) at clubxiangqi. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. com/ rules/ asiarule. . ourgame. [31] Ajax Chinese Chess – Play Chinese Chess online! (http:/ / ajaxchess. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. html) at chessvariants. htm). etc. jcraner. [5] Leventhal. Taiwan: Mei Ya. com). Cc-xiexie. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. googlecode. [33] PlayXiangqi – A Xiangqi server with Open Source client and Open Server API (http:/ / www. nl/ h. tw/ ~sjyen/ Papers/ 2004CCC.com. 1952. com/ ). pdf).net. html). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.net. by Peter Banaschak (http:/ / www.com.games. Taipei. asp) [17] rec.org listing (http:/ / www.120. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. com/ chinfaq. and recovered the method of play of the astronomical game and the actual position. Thaibg.nl.122: The 32nd book of the history of the T'ang dynasty (618–907) said that Wu-Ti wrote and expounded a book named San-kü-siang-king (Manual of the three xiangqi's). edu. He consulted Yün-Kung.com (2010-03-25). Sourceforge. who had known the phrase as a young man but had forgotten it. Hsu. com/ ). The phrase probably meant 'the crown-prince shuffles the men'). Wxf. fi/ hiddenlynx/ ) [24] HOXChess – A cross platform. hccnet. p. [19] Chinese Chess Soul (http:/ / www. 1g. wxf. [29] Vietson Online Chinese Chess (http:/ / www. com/ ). chessvariants. org/ pub/ 101996662)) [6] Wilkes. xqbase. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. com/ xiangqi. free. Jcraner.com (2007-12-22). com/ ). ndhu. chesssoul. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [35] "Sanguo Qi (Three Kingdoms Chess) & Sanyou Qi (Three Friends Chess)" (http:/ / history. vietson.com Chinese Chess Rules (http:/ / www. footnote 3 says that Ssŭ-ma Kuang wrote in T'ung-kien nun in AD 1084 that Emperor Wen of Sui (541–604) found at an inn some foreigners playing a board game whose pieces included a piece called "I pai ti" = "white emperor". muller/ XQ. p. rec. [18] Yen. com/ chinfaq. ( getCITED. thaibg.googlecode. The Chess of China. [16] 职业棋手等级分-象棋资料-象棋网 (http:/ / chess. xqmaster. Home. com/ info/ info. Retrieved 31 August 2011. . Yang. [28] 象棋巫师 – 最受欢迎的中国象棋单机版游戏 – 象棋百科全书 (http:/ / www. explained the point. clubxiangqi. 1978. Retrieved 31 August 2011. p. com/ qianhong/ ). Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [32] Club Xiangqi – A Chinese Chess server with English/Vietnamese/Chinese interface (http:/ / www. Playxiangqi.hccnet.chinese-chess FAQ lists the International Grandmasters by country (http:/ / www. footnote 12: "In the biography of Lü-Ts'ai. Retrieved on 2011-10-01. [7] Henry Davidson. chessvariants. chessvariants. com) Chinese Chess Computer Software [20] NEU Chess (http:/ / www. clubxiangqi. [9] A History of Chess. html). Ajaxchess.Xiangqi 296 References [1] [2] [3] [4] Xiangqi: Chinese Chess (http:/ / www. org/ ). Banaschak. Hoxchess. net/ schach/ origins.chinese-chess. p. Banaschak. playxiangqi. Xqbase.net. htm). com/ CCOnline/ ).com (2009-04-01). The Emperor T'ai-Tsung (627–650) was puzzled by the phrase 太子洗馬 t'ai-tze-si-ma ('the crown-prince washes the horses') in the 周武帝三局象經 Zhou Wudi sanju xiangjing ('Zhou Wudi's three games in the Xiangjing'): 'to wash the dominoes' means 'to shuffle them' in modern Chinese. pragmaticlogic. getcited.com. [22] XQ Master (http:/ / www. org/ ) homepage includes English translations of Asian tournament results.

"'The Earthworms Tame the Dragon': The Game of Xiangqi" in Asian Games. 1985. Tokyo. Xiangqi Syllabus on Elephant: Chinese Chess 3. San Rafael. edited by Asia Society. • Li. A Manual of Chinese Chess. Andrew. • Sloan. 1952. Maryland. David H. David H. Chinese Chess for Beginners. Ishi Press International.google. rules. Premier Publishing. Premier Publishing.chessfreaks.fr/xiangqi.html) at the Chess Variant Pages Apertures and strategy (https://sites. • Li. Maryland. Bethesda. Dennis A. strategy. ISBN 0-9711690-1-2.chess.vietson. David H. • Wilkes. (a serious and updated reading about Xiangqi history) External links Learn • • • • • Rules. Chinese Chess. First Syllabus on Xiangqi: Chinese Chess 1. H.banaschak. • Lo. Maryland.com/en/xiangqi/) XiangQi on ChessFreaks. openings. • Leventhal.html) Presentation. • Li.com/) • PlayXiangqi – A free online service with Open Source client and Open Server API (http://www. Maryland. Premier Publishing. 2004.Xiangqi 297 Further reading • Lau. Bethesda. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2. • Li. Boston. 1998. David H. Premier Publishing. Premier Publishing. ISBN 0-9711690-2-0. (out-of-print but can be partly downloaded) • Li. David H. Tuttle Publishing. 2004.com/site/xiangqiesp/) In Spanish Play • • • • PlayOK -Play Xiangqi online. 1989. free! (http://www. ISBN 0-8048-3508-X. Sam.google.com/iphone/) . Bethesda.net/english/ about_xiangqi. T.crockford. free! (http://www.com/) An Introduction to Xiangqi for Chess Players (http://www. Bethesda.free.htm) Xiangqi: Chinese Chess (http://www. • Li. com) Software • Plays Xiangqi on your computer (http://www.xqinenglish. ISBN 0-9637852-0-6. 2000.boardspace. Xiangqi Syllabus on Pawn: Chinese Chess 4. Xiangqi Syllabus on Horse: Chinese Chess 5. Bethesda. The Art of Contest.chessvariants. Tzi-Cheng. history and variants of xiangqi (http://history.com/chess/xiangqi.com/qianhong/) • Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) on Apple iPhone / iPod Touch (http://sites.playxiangqi.html). Taipei. ISBN 0-923891-11-0. 2002. The Genealogy of Chess.com/) Play Xiangqi online against human or robot opponents. Taiwan: Mei Ya. David H.playok. ISBN 0-9637852-5-7. Premier Publishing. 1996.jcraner. Xiangqi Syllabus on Cannon: Chinese Chess 2.com/xiangqi. Wang. 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-7-3.net/index. Charles Fred.com/a/clomputing. 1978. Maryland. Bethesda. The Chess of China (http://www.clubxiangqi. play online or on your mobile (http://www.html) • Club Xiangqi – Play Chinese Chess online with or without a user fee (http://www. ancient manuals (http://www. Maryland.com/en) Vietson Online Chinese Chess / Xiangqi – Play with friends from all over the world (http://www.

elephantbase.Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings 298 Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings The Encyclopedia of Chinese Chess Openings (Chinese: 中国象棋开局编号) is a classification of all possible openings of Chinese chess (Xianqi). including rarely used openings. due to the development of the game ECCO reference to the cut-off in 2004.htm . The editor of Encyclopedia of Chess Network included the first game of the 8197 Board as the basis. ECCO characteristics of the times has numbers. to draw up the ECCO code.net/ecco/ecco_intro. External links • http://www. the number of the system to be known as ECCO 2004.

or half of the Xiangqi (Chinese Chess) board. Banqi is a social game. is a two-player Chinese board game played on a 4x8 grid. and the other player’s pieces are black. 暗棋 or 盲棋. The backs of the pieces must be indistinguishable from each other so the pieces cannot be Basic 4x8 Banqi board identified when face down. usually played for fun rather than serious competition. Pinyin: bànqí. and two each of the five other piece types. Each player controls five Soldiers. see the Xiangqi article. one player’s pieces are red. Most games last between ten and twenty minutes. Pieces Banqi uses Xiangqi pieces. Strategy Banqi (Chinese: 半棋. for a total of 16 pieces. A more formal version of the game may have evolved into modern Luzhanqi. or Half Chess. For more detailed descriptions of the pieces used in this game. . it is common to play on one half of the Xiangqi board (using only one side of the River).Banqi 299 Banqi Banqi Players Age range Setup time Playing time Random chance Skill(s) required 2 Any < 1 minute 5-15 minutes High Tactics. Equipment Board Although boards made specifically for Banqi exist. Pieces with international symbols printed on their backs are unsuitable. ). The characters may also differ. but advanced games can go on for an hour or more. In a typical set. ànqí or mángqí. one General.

down.  × 2  × 2 Second-highest rank in Hong Kong version. catapult 炮 pào. the game is lost because all of a player’s pieces have been captured and so he has no pieces to move. warrior 仕 shi. 卒 zú Lowest rank. are placed inside the squares. and the two alternate until the game is finished. it is possible for one player to surround all of the other player’s remaining pieces in a manner that makes it impossible for them to move. 車 jū Second-highest rank in Taiwanese version. minister*. 砲 pào Abilities differ in Taiwanese variations. 馬 mǎ  × 2 Soldier. capture. or capture an enemy piece. The first player turns up a piece to begin the game. Turning over a piece Turning a piece face-up is a legal move if there are any face-down pieces on the board. Rules for moves There are three kinds of moves. "king" 帥 shuai. 象 xiàng Chariot. 士 shì Elephant. 將 jiàng Number per side Notes Highest rank. rather than on the intersections as in Chinese Chess. war elephant. The game ends when a player cannot move. Once revealed. A player may turn a piece face-up. a piece may be moved. marshal. The second player then makes a move. rook. The color of that first uncovered piece is the color he or she will play in the game. cavalry 傌 mà. A piece may never move onto a square that is already occupied unless such a move is a legal capture. pawn 兵 bīng. move a piece. multiple captures may be made in one turn. except able to capture the general. assistant. and that player is the loser.  × 1 Advisor.Banqi 300 Name of piece General. minister* 相 xiàng. The pieces. In some game variants. .  × 2 Horse. face-down pieces may also be captured. Most often. Unlike Xiangqi.  × 5 Cannon. Moving a piece A player may only move face-up pieces of their own color. or right. In some variants of Banqi. left. all pieces move identically: a piece may move only one square up. guard. as in Western Chess. mandarin. or be captured. private. cart 俥 jū. Captures everything except soldiers.  × 2 Playing the game The 32 pieces are shuffled and randomly allocated face-down to squares on the board. However.

and soldiers can capture the general. While a cannon may capture any piece. Any other squares between the cannon and its target must be empty. or even face down. horse. 301 Capturing an opposing piece A player may only capture with a face-up piece of their own color. which require the instigator to cease the continual attack. left. with one exception. it may be friend or foe. and the general may capture either. advisor. jumping over exactly one intermediate piece (called a screen). In the Hong Kong version. For instance. then it is left face-up. Except for the cannon. an enemy piece. and yet is vulnerable to capture by any piece except the soldier. In a typical stalemate. This reversal is reminiscent of Stratego. even without that piece. • Another popular variation allows the attempted capture of a face-down piece. Handling a stalemate situation requires skill for the winning player. • A variation that may change the strategy is that the cannon can not use a face down piece for a screen but can capture multiple pieces in a single turn. it must jump a screen to do so. horse. This ranking reflects the approximate value of the corresponding pieces in Xiangqi (though the relative rank of horse and cannon is arguable). The legality of stalemating varies by culture: • Some players consider stalemate illegal. without jumping over a screen. a chariot may capture a horse. pieces capture with the same motion as for movement: one square up. In other words. but a horse cannot capture a chariot. • A popular variation with children. but cannot capture. The cannon can not capture face down pieces in this variant. Since a cannon must jump to capture. left. or right. requires great expertise. elephant. This is consistent with the rules of Chinese Chess. soldier. else the victim wins. Only pieces of equal or lower rank may be captured. And deciding whether you can still win.Banqi Note that all pieces capture the same way that they move. forming a hierarchy with the general at the top and soldiers at the bottom. In the Taiwanese version. . since the victim must accept either a drawn game or the loss of a piece. and neither can capture the general. and may only capture a face-up piece of the opposing color. advisor. The ability to instigate a stalemate in an otherwise losing game is one of the ways that skill can overcome luck. The color of the screening piece does not matter. it can capture a piece of any rank. as well — the necessity of heading off a potential stalemate adds spice to an otherwise overwhelming victory. If the piece cannot be captured due to its rank or color. ranking between horse and soldier. it cannot capture a piece in an adjacent square. All pieces capture exactly as they move: one square up. Stalemate A stalemate threat occurs when one player forces an endless cycle of moves. except the cannon in Taiwanese rules. the instigator repeatedly attacks. chariot. the pieces are ranked in this order: general. A cannon captures as in Xiangqi: it moves any distance along a single row or column of the board. the captured piece is removed from the board and its square is occupied by the capturing piece. The cannon is not included in the ranking because it is exceptional: it captures in an unusual way. chariot. the cannon acts like the other pieces. soldier. elephant. and no movement takes place. down. cannon. This ranking is based on the initial board positions of the corresponding pieces in Xiangqi. The one exception concerns generals and soldiers: the general cannot capture soldiers. • Some players consider stalemate a legal strategy. the ranking goes as follows: general. The pieces are ranked. though the horse and chariot are inexplicably swapped. down. which if it can be captured is done so. In all captures. but with the added ability of capturing any piece by catapulting. There are many other variations on the cannon capture rule that may add variety if desired: • One variation gives cannons the ability to capture soldiers and other cannons directly. allows multiple captures on the same turn for already exposed pieces as well as face-down pieces as long as they are successful. or right.

On the other hand. the opponent can turn up next to it with a high likelihood of capturing the cannon and no risk of losing his piece to the cannon. the move that will win most quickly (or break an impending stalemate) gives away the most valuable piece. The game ends only when one player has no legal move. the new challenger plays first to give the previous game’s loser a slight advantage. • If there is enough space between you and the attacker. since all pieces are hidden. . By convention. both generals usually die long before the end of the game. in which there is no escape from a pursuing enemy piece. • It is often advantageous to search out and destroy the enemy soldiers. Usually this is done by checking both the “graveyard” for dead pieces and the playing field for live pieces. the most powerful pieces in many games. especially if the opposing general and/or advisors have limited lateral mobility—that is. the cannon has devastating potential if it is well placed behind a shield of strong allied pieces. the mighty general is perversely vulnerable. the general can roam free across the field in relative safety. or you might be able to punch through a wall of the tunnel to reach an open area on the other side. even disadvantageous trades can accelerate victory if chosen carefully.Play is often directed by the face-down pieces. When winning by a sufficient margin. • Chance . you will have time to turn up some face-down pieces before the attacker closes on you. your piece can't immediately take his. chariot.It is difficult to form strategy early on. Once the enemy soldiers are eliminated.Some players derive pleasure from making it as difficult as possible for the opponent to actually coerce the win. and frequently the general turns out to be worthless in the face of a soldier front. or elephant to capture a cannon. • Soldiers . Given such position. In fact. • Evasion . • Resignation . Such moves are often overlooked.Often. This vulnerability makes the second-highest rank.Banqi Games in which stalemate is allowed tend to produce much more even games — many a lopsided game is turned into an interesting match by the surrender of a piece to avoid a stalemate. if they can’t sidestep a cannon attack. If you turn up anything else. by the process of elimination you can figure out what must still remain. playing first is a slight disadvantage.Incidentally. Others make a game of seeing how many opposing pieces they can capture before their demise.A player may simply resign if the game seems lopsided. If you turn up a cannon. • Attrition . the game does not end because of the general’s death.Since there are five opposing soldiers. so a poorly placed Cannon is usually short-lived. • Cannons . who cannot follow a formulaic win strategy. Banqi is often a game of attrition. which the opponent may overlook as less valuable pieces. it can take your piece. the life of the general is not the point of this game. Some just resign when defeat becomes evident. This is a disadvantage to experienced players. • Royalty . but no matter what it is. • It is often important to keep track of what pieces are still face-down.Under Taiwanese rules. 302 Strategy • Early Action . • Hidden Pieces . If he finds a cannon. • Objective . the opponent can turn over a piece one hop away. you can use that “rotation space” to dodge a single enemy piece by sidestepping.Exchanging equal pieces is usually to the advantage of the player who is ahead. If you get to an open area at least 2 x 2 in size. surrounded by face-down pieces). Pieces are vulnerable in a dead-end “tunnel” (a sequence of empty squares one square wide. the opponent has plenty of pieces that can capture the cannon if only they can get next to it. a cannon can be stronger than either general or advisor. vulnerable only to attacks by cannons and the opposing general. You can sometimes create a rotation space by turning up a smaller enemy piece on the inside corner of a bend in the tunnel.Under Taiwanese rules. chariots in Hong Kong or advisors in Taiwan. and start a new game. Most players will readily sacrifice a horse.

In situations where only an opposing King and pawn are left with one space between. while the King's move will result in his inevitable capture. Let's say the colors are Red and Black. Giog uses Xiangqi Pieces. xidea. • Pinning . The pawn's move will produce a stalemate. banqiblue2011 [3] https:/ / market. com/ details?id=com. Generals (or Kings). There are altogether 32 pieces and 2 colors. android. Advisors (or Elephants). turn order invariably determines the winner. being pinned or not is the difference between defeat and stalemate. . 303 External links • Introduction to one variant of Banqi [1] Software • Banqi Blue for Android [2] • Chinese Dark Chess for Android [3] References [1] http:/ / woodpress.It is fairly easy to pin a piece against the edge of the board. ChineseDarkChess& hl=en Giog Giog is a game played by two to four players. Giog Players Age range Setup time Playing time 2 to 4 Any < 1 minute 5-10 minutes Random chance Medium Skill(s) required Tactics. Horses (or Knights).Banqi • Parity . Chariots (or Rooks). com/ details?id=com. android.Parity is important. Cannons. It contains a considerable amount of luck. Psychology Equipment Like Banqi. especially in the end game. For Giog. respectively shown in the figure below. Guards. mct. It can either be played for fun or as a serious competition. org/ banqi/ [2] https:/ / market. Frequently. it is important that the backs as well as the rims of the pieces be indistinguishable from each other so the pieces cannot be identified when face down. There are seven piece types in the game: Pawns. strategic and psychological elements.

Playing the game The first player plays his pieces first. • Black < Red. The ranking of "Liab" is as before. Pawns are inferior than Generals. Red Horse wins Black Horse. Kate who reveals a Red Guard collects the no. For example. If the number of players is three. Each of the other players must play the same number of pieces. third and fourth players consecutively collect their pieces. 2 pieces (3-player game). having revealed a Black general starts to collect his first two pieces from no. The Ranking of Pieces The ranking of pieces in Giog is identical to Banqi's ranking. He/she or any player who starts a new round may play the following 6 valid combinations of a same color: • "Liab": Single.Giog 304 Set Up All players help to scramble the 32 pieces face down and distribute the pieces evenly to themselves. Bear in mind that . Following the first player. 7. These pieces are kept face down at a side and do not enter the game. He/she therefore has as many choices as twice the number of players. Like a Mahjong game. He/she may only choose his pieces starting from a left or right head duo in any player's profile. a black piece is always inferior than a red piece of the type. Any 2 identical pieces. 2 duo. The ranking of the 4 revealed pieces determines the order of the players who revealed them. the second. That is. A player may play any pieces regardless of color or rank if he/she does not have the above valid combinations. The exceptions are: firstly. Figure below shows John. Should there be a tie among some players. • "Giog": A triple of a certain combination: • 1 Chariot + 1 Horse + 1 Cannon • 1 Cannon + 1 Advisor + 1 Guard • 1 General + 1 Guard + 1 Advisor • "Sam Mui": 3 identical pieces. • "Wu Mui": 5 identical pieces. 1 position. Figure below shows how 3 players arrange their pieces. Choosing and collecting pieces The first player (who revealed or subsequently revealed the strongest piece in the previous process) starts to choose his pieces. John misses the Black General but is consoled by the Red Guard at no. each player arranges his/her pieces into one line with half of the pieces on top of the other half. The process is repeated until no piece (4-player game). And also. • "Dui": Double. Any piece. He/she then places the revealed piece face up on top of the other face down piece. the winner of the previous game or a volunteer receives 12 pieces and the other two players receive 10 pieces each. in ascending order: • Pawns < Cannons < Horses < Chariots < Advisors < Guards < Generals. 8 pieces (2-player game) are remained. they apply the same procedures again by revealing more lower pieces until the order is finally determined. • "Si Mui": 4 identical pieces. two at one time. Determining the Order of players Each of the players now reveals (turns up) any one lower piece not in his/her own profile.

305 Beheading the Cock It is forbidden to play a General in the first or last round. Horse. first player wins unless fourth player is the round-starter. Advisor. The ranking of "Dui" is same as the ranking of "Liab". The ranking of "Giog" is as follows: • Chariot. since only pawns are possible to form them. . Guard. If there is a tie. The game is played until all pieces are exhausted. The player who played the strongest combinations of a same type (as what the round-starter played) wins that round. and that player is considered the ultimate loser of the game even if he wins most pieces. either as a single piece or as part of a valid or non-valid combination. or the order of players determines the winner. The winner of a round collects the won pieces and starts a new round. the round-starter always wins. if the first and fourth player play the same combinations. Guard < General. Advisor.Giog Black < Red. Cannon < Cannon. If a player is forced or tricked to play a general in the first or last round. then it is said that a cock is beheaded. The ranking of "Sam Mui". The winner will go to the player who wins most pieces. For example. "Si Mui" and "Wu Mui" are according to color.

and is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan. "Perhaps the enduring popularity of Shogi can be attributed to its 'drop rule'. while a direct ancestor without the "drop rule" was recorded from 1210 in a historical document Nichūreki. According to ChessVariants. originated in India in the 6th century. Strategy Shogi (将棋 shōgi. chaturanga. Captured pieces in the tray (bottom-center) can be dropped on the board by the capturing player. generals' chess) (  /ˈʃoʊɡiː/). 1120). which is an edited copy of Shōchūreki and Kaichūreki from the late Heian period (ca. and Chinese Xiangqi. Shogi in its present form was played as early as the 16th century. it was the first chess variant wherein captured pieces could be returned to the board to be used as one's own. is a two-player board game in the same family as Western chess. chaturanga. to 2 hours (typically) None Tactics. Shōgi means general's (shō 将) boardgame (gi 棋).com. where it spawned a number of variants. also known as Japanese chess. Genre(s) Players Age range Setup time Playing time Random chance Skill(s) required Board game 2 5+ < 2 minutes 30 mins. David Pritchard credits the drop rule to the practice of 16th century mercenaries who switched loyalties when captured—no doubt as an alternative to execution. The earliest predecessor of the game.306 Shogi and variants Shogi Further information: Chess (disambiguation) Shogi A shogi game being played with a magnetic traveling set."[1] . and was brought to Japan sometime in the 10th to 12th centuries.

This shows who controls the piece during play. partially because the traditional pieces are already iconic by size. which replace the characters with iconic symbols. with more powerful pieces being larger. are one or two other characters. On the reverse side of each piece. The abbreviations are used for game notation and often to refer to the pieces in speech in Japanese. Except for the kings. opposing pieces are differentiated only by orientation. .Shogi 307 Game equipment Two players. and is hollowed underneath to produce a pleasing sound when the pieces are moved. It has been claimed that the Japanese characters have deterred people from learning shogi. and not as literal translations of the Japanese names. the pieces are: • 1 king • 1 rook • 1 bishop • 2 gold generals • 2 silver generals • 2 knights • 2 lances • 9 pawns Several of these names were chosen to correspond to their rough equivalents in international chess. However. square boards are very uncommon. The pieces of the two players do not differ in colour. Sente 先手 (Black) and Gote 後手 (White). The pieces on the far side are turned to show their promoted values. play on a board composed of rectangles in a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns). Each piece has its name written on its surface in the form of two kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese). The board is almost always made of rectangles. The rectangles are undifferentiated by marking or color. A traditional shōgi-ban (shogi board) displaying a set of koma (pieces). in amateur sets often in a different colour (usually red). Each player has a set of 20 wedge-shaped pieces of slightly different sizes. Following is a table of the pieces with their Japanese representations and English equivalents. but instead each faces forward. not by marking or color. This has led to "Westernized" or "international" pieces. The board itself is raised for the comfort of players seated on tatami mats (background). From largest to smallest (most to least powerful). and Westernized pieces have never become popular. most Western players soon learn to recognize them. this side is turned face up during play to indicate that the piece has been promoted. usually in black ink. toward the opposing side. other than the king and gold general. The stands on either side are komadai used to hold captured pieces.

+S. K (reigning). Bottom: +L.Shogi 308 Closeup of shogi pieces. +p. English name King (reigning) King (challenging) Rook Image Kanji 王將 Rōmaji ōshō Meaning king general K Abbreviations 王 ō 玉將 gyokushō jeweled general K 玉 gyoku 飛車 hisha flying chariot R 飛 hi Promoted rook ("Dragon") Bishop 龍王 ryūō dragon king +R 龍 or 竜* ryū 角行 kakugyō angle mover B 角 kaku Promoted bishop ("Horse") Gold general ("Gold") Silver general ("Silver") Promoted silver 龍馬 ryūma or ryūme dragon horse +B 馬 uma 金将 kinshō gold general G 金 kin 銀将 ginshō silver general S 銀 gin 成銀 narigin promoted silver +S (全) — Knight 桂馬 keima cassia horse N 桂 kei Promoted knight 成桂 narikei promoted cassia +N (圭 or 今) — Lance 香車 kyōsha incense chariot L 香 kyō Promoted lance 成香 narikyō promoted incense +L (杏 or 仝) — Pawn 歩兵 fuhyō foot soldier p 歩 fu Promoted pawn ("tokin") と金 tokin reaches gold +p と (or 个) to . K (challenging). L. B. G. Top: +R. R. +N. +B. S. N. p.

• In the rank nearest the player he places: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file. knights. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. the first rank is The starting setup of a game of shogi. Another typographic convention has abbreviated versions of the unpromoted ranks. and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin). The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive variants of 金 'gold'. pawns) from left to right in all cases. the nine pawns are placed one to each file. but と for tokin. adjacent to each knight. 今 for promoted knight. Traditionally. each player places: • The bishop in the same file as the left knight. • In the third rank. L N S G K G S N L or 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 • In the second rank. and generally use the Japanese term tokin for promoted pawns. That is.Shogi 309 * The kanji 竜 is a simplified form of 龍. ohashi and ito. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king.[2] Placement sets pieces with multiples (generals. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general. and are usually cursive. The two lances are placed in the corners. lances. The characters inscribed on the reverse sides of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink. 仝 for promoted lance. • The rook in the same file as the right knight. and follows the order: • • • • King Gold generals Silver generals Knights . after their Japanese names. even the order of placing the pieces on the board is determined. Setup and gameplay Each player sets up his pieces facing his opponent. and the 全 as above for a promoted silver. English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons. 杏 for a promoted lance (香). There are two recognized orders. becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for a promoted knight (桂). Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. These cursive forms have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver.

These options are detailed below. with one player taking Black and playing first. whether friend or foe. The final ten seconds are counted down. vertically. or both) or else "drop" a piece that has already been captured onto an empty square of the board. For each turn a player may either move a piece which is already on the board (and potentially promote it. . These directions cannot be combined into a single move. A few may move across the board. Every piece blocks the movement of all other non-jumping pieces through the square it occupies. The knight jumps. bishop. Instead a timekeeper is assigned. and rook are ranging pieces: They can move any number of squares along a straight line limited only by intervening pieces and the edge of the board. typically upwards of one minute. the moving piece must stop short of that square. This is because captured pieces. If a friendly piece intervenes. the moving piece may not move in that direction at all. it passes over any intervening piece. bringing the opponent to the attention of the piece. On a traditional shogi ban. It is not permissible to hide pieces from full view. and one jumps over intervening pieces. he/she snaps it to the board with the ends of the fingers of the same hand. have a crucial impact on the course of the game. This is also true for capturing and dropping pieces. capture an opposing piece. but professionals are never expected to keep time in their games. It is the only piece to do this. with a prolonged beep for the last five. Amateurs often play with electronic clocks that beep out the final ten seconds of a byōyomi period.Shogi • In Ito. It is not possible for the capturing piece to continue beyond that square on that turn. one direction must be chosen. it may be captured by removing it from the board and replacing it with the opposing piece. However. and if the time expires the player to move loses the game immediately. Professional games are timed as in International Chess. This means that when the ordinary time has run out. the pitch of the snap is deeper. All pieces but the knight move either horizontally. This makes a sudden sound effect. typically an apprentice professional. Normally when a player moves a piece. The terms "Black" and "White" are used to differentiate the two sides. the player will from that point on have a certain amount of time to complete every move (a byōyomi period). which are said to be in hand. without an effect on either. the player now places pawns The players alternate taking turns. it may be captured by removing it from the board and replacing it with the moving piece. if a piece occupies a legal destination for an opposing piece. delivering a more subtle effect. that is. if the friendly piece is adjacent. If an opposing piece intervenes. The lance. the player now places pawns • Lances • Bishop • Rook • In Ohashi. Time limits are much longer than in International Chess (9 hours a side plus extra time in the prestigious Meijin title match). and in addition byōyomi (literally "second counting") is employed. It is common to keep captured pieces on a wooden stand (or komadai) which is traditionally placed so that its bottom left corner aligns with the bottom right corner of the board from the perspective of each player. 310 Movement and capture Most shogi pieces can only move to an adjacent square. or diagonally. but there is no actual difference in the color of the pieces.

│ │ ─ ─ 飛 | | The rook ─ ─ Bishop A bishop can move any number of free squares along any one of the four diagonal directions.Shogi 311 King A King can move one square in any direction. unless they are captured and then dropped by the opposing player. the opposing unpromoted bishops can only reach half the squares of the board. \ \ 角 / / The bishop / / \ \ Because they cannot move orthogonally. . ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ The king Rook A rook can move any number of free squares along any one of the four orthogonal directions. orthogonal or diagonal.

or one square diagonally forward. it has a choice of two forward destinations. amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. . giving it six possible destinations. That is. It is not blocked from moving if the square in front of it is occupied. Knight A knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. It cannot move to the sides or backwards. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ The gold general Silver general A silver general can move one square diagonally or one square directly forward. but neither can it capture a piece on that square. it is very common to leave a silver unpromoted at the far side of the board. in a single motion. It cannot move diagonally backward. ☆ 桂 ☆ The knight The knight is the only piece that ignores intervening pieces on the way to its destination. giving it five possibilities. ○ ○ 銀 ○ ○ ○ The silver general Because an unpromoted silver can retreat more easily than a promoted one (see below).Shogi 312 Gold general A gold general can move one square orthogonally.

Pawn A pawn can move one square directly forward. A silver general never needs to promote. and it is often advantageous to keep a silver general unpromoted. However. in practice. the three ranks occupied by the opposing pieces at setup. 313 Lance A lance can move any number of free squares directly forward. directly forward. for example. then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. shogi pawns capture the same way they otherwise move.) Promotion A player's promotion zone is the far third of the board. if it moves into. as it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. it must promote (see below) if it arrives at the far rank. out of. it must promote. (See below. There are two restrictive rules for where a pawn may be dropped. but not if it is dropped(see below). It cannot move backward or to the sides. it is easier. However.Shogi It is often useful to leave a knight unpromoted (see below) at the far side of the board. it must promote when it lands on one of the two far ranks and would otherwise be unable to move further. Unlike the pawns of international chess. If a piece moves across the board and part of that path lies within the promotion zone. that is. However. If a pawn or lance reaches the far rank or a knight reaches either of the two farthest ranks. to extract an unpromoted silver from . or wholly within the zone. Promotion is indicated by turning the piece over after it moves. it must promote if it arrives at the far rank. It cannot retreat. since a knight cannot move backward or to the sides. │ │ 香 The lance It is often useful to leave a lance unpromoted (see below) at the far side of the board. ○ 歩 The pawn Since a pawn cannot move backward or to the sides. a pawn is promoted whenever possible. since a lance cannot move backward or to the sides. for the most part. revealing the character for the promoted rank.

lance. knight. • A king or a gold general cannot promote. 314 A player's promotion zone (green) 歩 歩 角 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 飛 歩 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 When captured. or pawn replaces its normal power of movement with the power of a gold general. nor can pieces which are already promoted. pieces lose their promoted status. given enough moves. │ ○ ─ ─ ○ │ 龍 │ │ The dragon king ○ ─ ○ ─ Promoted bishop A promoted bishop ("dragon horse Ryuuma") may move as a bishop or as a king. with only one line of retreat. Otherwise promotion is permanent.Shogi behind enemy lines. • A rook or bishop keeps its original power of movement and gains the power to move one square in any direction. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves. but not as both on the same turn. \ \ ○ / ○ / ○ 馬 / / The dragon horse ○ \ \ . like a king. Each piece promotes as follows: • A silver general. whereas a promoted silver. This means that a promoted bishop is able to reach any square on the board. Promoted rook A promoted rook (dragon king. can be easily blocked. Ryuou) may move as a rook or as a king. but not as both on the same turn.

on the grounds that he/she could gain further material or position before an outcome has to be decided. the winner is decided as follows: Each rook or bishop scores 5 points for the owning player. However. ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). If this happens. The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. and a pawn may be dropped so that either it or another piece can give checkmate on a subsequent turn. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check (which is necessary whenever possible[3] ). other pieces may be dropped to give immediate checkmate. (Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. one player may force jishōgi upon getting his king and all his pieces protected in the promotion zone. However. the move is said to give check to the king. instead of moving a piece on the board. A pawn. It is common for players to swap bishops. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. The losing player should resign out of courtesy at this point. However. and all other pieces except kings score 1 point each. this is an influence of international chess and is not required. which oppose each other across the board. A pawn cannot be dropped onto the same file (column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player (promoted pawns do not count). They are retained "in hand". There are two other restrictions when dropping pawns: 1. As this impasse generally needs to be agreed on for the rule to be invoked. For this reason it is common to sacrifice a pawn in order to gain flexibility for drops.[5] . Similarly. This is termed dropping the piece. although in practice this rarely happens. a player may refuse to do so. On any turn. Checkmate and winning the game When a player makes a move such that the opposing king could be captured on the following turn. If the same game position occurs four times with the same player to play. the game is no contest—a draw. either capture or promotion may occur normally on subsequent moves by the piece. or lance may not be dropped on the far rank. nor does dropping within the promotion zone result in immediate promotion.) Jishōgi is considered an outcome in its own right rather than no contest. a knight may not be dropped on the penultimate rank. but there is no practical difference. a player who makes an illegal move loses immediately.Shogi 315 Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in shogi. a pawn that is already on the board may be advanced to give checkmate.)[4] For two positions to be considered the same. facing the opposing side. a player may take a piece that had been previously captured and place it. the pieces in hand must be the same as well as the positions on the board. 2. the game is considered a draw. even as a courtesy. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. as a player will concede defeat as soon as loss is inevitable. unpromoted side up. A player who has an unpromoted pawn on every file is therefore unable to drop a pawn anywhere. since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. the king is said to be in check. knight. (This used to be that it happened if a sequence caused repetition thrice. In professional and serious amateur games. and gives an advantage to the player with the stronger defensive position. A pawn cannot be dropped to give an immediate checkmate. then that player loses. A drop cannot capture a piece. if uncommon. However. if this occurs with one player giving perpetual check. This leaves each player with a bishop "in hand" to be dropped later. If that happens. on any empty square. or just a drop. the checking move is also checkmate (tsumi 詰み) and effectively wins the game. (If neither player has fewer than 24.) A player scoring fewer than 24 points loses. To give the warning "check!" in Japanese. one says "ōte!" (王手). There are two other possible.

Next is the square on which the piece lands.[7] Games between players of disparate strengths are often played with handicaps. as it is no more concise than kanji. (There is also L lance. Professional players operate with their own scale. Following the abbreviation for the piece is a symbol for the type of move: – for a simple move. . and both lances Six pieces: Rook. both lances and both knights Other handicaps are also occasionally used. G gold. and sennichite in the sixth and eighth games. or * for a drop. then a + is added to the end if the promotion was taken. Nx7c= indicates a knight capturing on 7c without promoting. which. square 2c is "2三" in Japanese. with jishōgi in the first game (only the fifth draw in the then 40-year history of the tournament). It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. Black did not lose a single game and the eventual victor was Katō at 4-3. as above. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in international chess because material advantage is not as powerful in shogi. This is rare compared to chess and xiangqi.[8] Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. with an astounding 114 minutes spent pondering a single move. Thus this best-of-seven match lasted ten games and took over three months to finish. however. or an = if it was declined. from professional 4 dan and upwards to 9 dan for elite players.) Promoted pieces are indicated by a + in front of the letter: +P is a tokin (promoted pawn). in increasing order of severity. For example. This is indicated by a numeral for the file and a lowercase letter for the rank. The first letter represents the piece moved: P for Pawn. N knight. one or more of White's pieces are removed from the setup. this is the same terminology as many other arts in Japan. In a handicap game. It is not used in Japanese-language texts.Shogi In professional tournaments the rules typically require drawn games to be replayed with colours (sides) reversed. with several systems in use. K king. 316 Player ranking and handicaps Amateur players are ranked from 15 kyū to 1 kyū and then from 1 dan and upwards. and in exchange White plays first. For example. If a jishōgi occurs in a handicap game. Common handicaps. The 1982 Meijin title match between Nakahara Makoto and Kato Hifumi was unusual in this regard. bishop. Note that the missing pieces are not available for drops and play no further part in the game. bishop. include: • • • • • • • Left lance Bishop Rook Rook and left lance Two pieces: Rook and bishop Four pieces: Rook. R rook. If a move entitles the player to promote. S silver. B bishop. the removed pieces are counted as if White had them in play. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen by Black) and 9i being the bottom left corner. x for a capture. or available for drops. but differs in several respects. occurring at a rate of 1-2% even in amateur games. This is based on Japanese convention. a game which lasted for an unusual 223 moves (not counting in pairs of moves). possibly with reduced time limits.[6] Amateur and professional ranks are offset (with amateur 4 dan being equivalent to professional 6 kyu). uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. A typical move might be notated P-8f.

at setup Black has two golds which can move to square 5h (in front of the king). 7. For example. describes two forms of shogi. large (dai) shogi and small (shō) shogi. Nara Prefecture. 1210–1221). middle game and endgame. The opening consists of arranging one's defenses and positioning for attack. which added the rook. Nichūreki (二中歴) (ca. indicating that drops had not yet been introduced. These are distinguished as G6i-5h (from the left) and G4i-5h (from the right). 'chess' crossed the channel to Japan where it spawned a number of interesting variants. It is thought that the rules of standard shogi were fixed in the 16th century. 8."[1] "It is certain that Shogi in its present form was played in Japan as early as the 16th century. unlike chess which counts each pair of moves as one move. The oldest archaeological evidence is a group of 16 shogi pieces excavated from the grounds of Kōfuku-ji in Nara Prefecture. the start of a game might look like this: 1. For example. The dictionary of common folk culture. the rules of dai shogi were simplified. The northern branch became Xiangqi in China and Changgi in Korea. Moves are numbered per player's move. mutating along the way. chariot and soldier). P-7f P-2f P-2e Sx8h 2. and add to them the five treasures of Buddhism (jade. silver."[1] "The western branch became Shatranj in Arabia and Orthodox Chess in Europe. The earliest generally accepted mention of shogi is Shin Saru Gakuki (新猿楽記) (1058–1064) by Fujiwara Akihira. horse. the game can be divided into the opening. the pieces are thought to date from that period. when the drunken elephant was . and the end game starts when one side's defenses have been compromised. the names of the Heian shogi pieces keep those of chaturanga (general. 6. Around the 13th century the game of dai shogi developed. As it was physically associated with a wooden tablet written on in the sixth year of Tenki (1058). as was sho shogi. like chess. 4. the mid game consists of attempting to break through the opposing defenses while maintaining one's own. From there it migrated both westward and northward. chief researcher at the Archaeological Institute of Kashihara. creating the game of chu shogi in a form close to the modern game. with the names of the pieces written on them. the starting square is added to the letter for the piece. bishop."[1] "One of these was called 'Small Shogi'. Heian small shogi is the version on which modern shogi is based."[1] "Sometime in the 10th to 12th centuries. but the Nichūreki states that one wins if one's opponent is reduced to a single king. Around the 15th century. gold. These are now called Heian shogi (or Heian small shogi) and Heian dai shogi. katsura tree. so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. History "The world's first chess variant Chaturanga arose in India in approximately the seventh century AD. Strategy and tactics Shogi is similar to chess but has a much larger game tree complexity because of the use of drops. each requiring a different strategy. created by increasing the number of pieces in Heian shogi. According to Kōji Shimizu. 5. elephant. These simple pieces were cut from a writing plaque in the same five-sided shape as modern pieces. Small Shogi (though it went through many forms) won out over the larger variants and is now referred to simply as 'Shogi'."[1] It is not clear when chess was brought to Japan. and drunken elephant from dai shogi to Heian shogi. and incense).[9] However. a collection based on the two works Shōchūreki (掌中歴) and Kaichūreki (懐中歴). P-3d G-3b Bx8h+ S-2b 317 In handicap games White plays first. 3."[1] "Eventually.Shogi In cases where the piece is ambiguous.

In 2007. which is Shogi Day on the modern calendar.[10] Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Ponanza. In 1935. and in 1924. Today the title is used for the winner of the Meijin-sen competition. This was an early incarnation of the modern Japan Shogi Association (日本将棋連盟). The January 2006 edition of Kindai Shogi (近代将棋) states that there are 120. Chinese chess and its East Asian variants are far remoter relatives than Makruk. the first modern title match. In 1909. This was the start of the shogi title matches (see titleholder system). In fact. the title holder defends the title against a challenger chosen from knockout or round matches. The game has been relatively slow to spread to countries where Chinese characters are not in common use. the Shogi Association admitted women to the ranks of professionals (正棋士). Tokugawa Yoshimune. Tools used by shogi programmers are the GUI Shogidokoro. computer Shogi programs . Yoshiharu Habu won all seven titles. it is thought that these were only played to a very limited extent.000 shogi players in Shanghai. dai dai shogi. However. Each year. During the reign of the eighth shogun. there is no clear record of when drops were introduced. From around 1899. when the top ranked female champion Ichiyo Shimizu was beaten by the Akara2010 system in a game lasting just over 6 hours. and taikyoku shogi were all invented. shogi variants were greatly expanded: tenjiku shogi. when it came to be passed by recommendation. The closest cousin of Shogi in the Chaturanga family is Makruk of Thailand. Computers have steadily improved in playing shogi since the 1970s. Not only the similarity in distribution and movements of the pieces but also the names of Shogi pieces suggest intimacy between Shogi and Makruk by its Buddhist symbolism (Gold. In 1612. In 2006. After the war other tournaments were promoted to title matches. corresponding to November 17. Since the 1990s. tai shogi. Though some early variants of Chaturanga more similar to Shogi and Makruk are known to have been played in Tang Dynasty China. shogi server Floodgate and the annual computer tournaments. meijin Sekine Kinjirō stepped down. Therefore.Shogi removed from the set of pieces. Silver. The Japan Shogi Association prohibits professionals from playing computers in public without prior permission. 2010.[11] On July 24 2011. Yoshio Kimura (木村義雄) became the first Meijin under this system in 1937. they are thought to have been extinguished in Song Dynasty China and in East Asia except in Japan probably owing to the popularity of Chinese chess. and the rank of meijin came to be awarded to the winner of a Meijin title match (名人戦 meijin-sen). and high-ranking players formed alliances with the aim of having their games published. rated 3211. 318 Tournament Play In 1996. in 2008 he held four. Shogi is the hardest of the popular chess variants in terms of programming the computer to beat the highest rated player. Cassia and Incense). culminating with the Ryūō title match (竜王戦 ryūō-sen) in 1988 for the modern line-up of seven. The title of meijin became hereditary in the Ōhashi and Itō families until the fall of the shogunate. founded in 1997. and especially Shanghai. castle shogi tournaments were held once a year on the 17th day of Kannazuki. shogi has grown in popularity outside Japan. newspapers began to publish records of shogi matches. the Tokyo Shogi Association (東京将棋同盟社) was formed. champion Yoshiharu Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza at the level of 2-dan shoreikai. Computer shogi Shogi has the highest game complexity of all popular chess variants. which isn't recognised in Chinese chess at all. In the Edo period. However. Both standard shogi and go were promoted by the Tokugawa shogunate. a computer finally beat a professional player on October 12. the Shogi Association (将棋同盟社) was formed. After some 35 years of development. the shogunate passed a law giving endowments to top shogi players (Meijin (名人)). particularly in the People's Republic of China. About 200 professional shogi players compete. maka dai dai shogi.

chessvariants. References Bibliography • SHOGI Magazine (70 issues. Proceedings: Board Games in Academia. translated by John Fairbairn • Better Moves for Better Shogi (1983) by Aono Teruichi. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20101012x3. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1 . org/ kidsweb/ archives/ news/ 04-12/ image/ kyudan. par. January 1976 . luckydog. shogidojo.Repetition("Sen-nichi-te") (http:/ / www. co. html) (in Japanese). The Asahi Shimbun. [10] http:/ / search. The allotted time for the computer was 25 minutes and then 10 seconds per move. uk/ games/ shogi/ index. html) [2] The Japanese-language page Shogi Pineapple (http:/ / shogi-pineapple. com) (in Japanese). com/ shougi/ topics/ TKY201108020334.com (http:/ / www. 2 August 2011. htm) [3] http:/ / lists. co. gif) . com/ shogi/ handicap/ handicap-intro. "Differences between Shogi and western Chess from a computational point of view". txt Title offset illustration (http:/ / web-japan. youtube. ohashi is depicted on the left and ito on the right. blueyonder. translated by Takahashi Yamato and Tony Hosking • Classic Shogi (2006) by Tony Hosking • The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants (1994) by David Pritchard. asahi. html) [9] Hitoshi Matsubara. Reijer Grimbergen. Shogi Club 24. com/ bbs/ mibbs. translated by John Fairbairn ISBN 4-87187-999-2 • The Art of Shogi (1997) by Tony Hosking • Habu's Words (2000) by Habu Yoshiharu. html?sort=a& mid=812767402 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] YouTube . 2 (http:/ / eric. . net/ arc/ shogi-l/ shogi_rules.How to play Shogi(将棋) -Lesson#15. pwp. topica. . The allotted time for the amateurs was 1 hour and then 3 minutes per move. shogi. net/ arc/ shogi-l/ shogi_ranking. com/ watch?v=7SZpI_a4aC0) http:/ / www. See also the page from Lucky Dogs Games (http:/ / www. [12] "Shogi computer programs crush Amateurs" (http:/ / www.The Basic Rules. html [11] "Computer program Ponanza highest rated player on Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www.Shogi Bonanza and Akara crushed the amateur team of Kosaku and Shinoda in 2 games. cgi?mo=p& fo=beginner& tn=0006) indicates the two orders. japantimes. shogi. macshogi. txt http:/ / www. com/ shogi. Notes [1] ChessVariants.November 1987) by The Shogi Association (edited by George Hodges) • Shogi for Beginners (1984) by John Fairbairn • Guide to Shogi openings: Shogi problems in Japanese and English (1983) by Aono Teruichi.[12] 319 Shogi video games Hundreds of video games were released exclusively in Japan for several consoles.

where the offense is supported by the rook in its original position. or. all of which are considered very strong when used effectively. with almost all Shogi variants available for online play (http://shogitter.kolumbus.html) • Ricoh Shogi Page (http://www. The opening consists of arranging one's defenses and positioning for attack.html) • An Introduction to Shogi for Chess Players (http://www.free.com/files/06htzgcug) • Turn Based Shogi on GoldToken (http://goldtoken. involving forks.html) • Reijer Grimbergen's Shogi Page (http://www.[3] Both players can move the rook pawn forward. advance the pawn above and to the right of the bishop.[2] Leaving a king on its original square (居玉 igyoku or "sitting king") is a particularly dangerous position. or Japanese Chess.htm) • Micro-Shogi (http://www. Opening The starting setup of a game of shogi The opening of shogi is generally slower than that of chess. it is not advantageous to exchange bishops if your opponent has a better defensive setup. or more lines of attack. However.html) • Photos from international shogi tournament Tendo. typically by moving the king to the side in a castle with three generals. each requiring a different strategy. the mid game consists of attempting to break through the opposing defenses while maintaining one's own. rules. Japan 2008 (http://depositfiles. and the end game starts when one side's defenses have been compromised.org/) Flash file with an AI to play against.com/) • Japanese Chess (http://www.81squareuniverse.shogi. and ranging rook (振り飛車 furibisha) openings.crockford. more commonly.teu. The basic tactics of Shogi are similar to those of chess. is similar to chess but has a much larger game tree complexity because of the use of drops. With a bishop opening. This allows each player to put their newly captured bishop into play anywhere on the board.fr/shogi. Shogi strategy and tactics Shogi. The former is known as a rook opening and the latter a bishop opening. the game can be divided into the opening.com/chess/shogi.htm) • Shogi.Shogi 320 External links • Shogi (http://www.ac. removing the defender and other techniques.net/shogi. like chess. history of shogi (http://history. typically with the idea of allowing the opponent to attack while arranging a better defense and aiming for a counterattack. Openings are also classified as static rook (居飛車 ibisha) openings.[1] However. due to the larger board and less mobile pieces.chess. the aim of the opening is to build up defenses for the king. the rook invites . as the most powerful piece on the board. where the rook moves to the center or left of the board to support an attack there.ricoh.co. middle game and endgame.com/) • Presentation.com/games/play?rules=Shogi) • Shogipedia (http://wiki.fi/geodun/shogi.jp/SHOGI/index_e. However.japanesechess.jp/gamelab/SHOGI/shogipage.dmoz.Net (http://www.org/Games/Board_Games/Abstract/Battle_Games/Shogi/) at the Open Directory Project • Shogi play site. But since a quick offense will leave a player's home territory open to drop attacks as soon as pieces are exchanged. pins. it's common to exchange bishops by having one capture the other.

[3] However. There are many variations and types of castles which can be used. It is common practice to defend the king with three generals. Another common preparation is to advance the adjacent silver's pawn square. while golds better defend their sides.[3] Because silvers have more possibilities for retreat. silvers are generally considered superior as attacking pieces. defended by the rook and with a pawn in hand. and a pawn all support a later attack by the rook's silver or knight. the opening game tends to be much longer in shogi than in International Chess. a pawn may be dropped where the edge pawn had been. and the possibilities will not be listed here. one's opponent may just as easily adopt this defense.[3] Many common opening attacks involve advancing a silver. rook. the rook's pawn is often advanced two squares in preparation for a climbing rook assault on the opposing king. Because defense is so important. However.[3] It has the three pawns on the left side advanced to their final Yagura positions. to attack the fortifications on either side of the castled king. along a file protected by the rook. These offensive moves are not properly part of the castle. a pawn may be dropped there. which is still in its starting position: |B|G|S|G|S| bishop-gold-silver-gold-silver. and the bishop. and so it is often done while still castling. If the defending silver has moved or is not yet in position. especially for weaker players. but it is essential to understand which ones are useful in the current situation and how to compensate for its weak points.[3] If the defender has answered a lance's pawn advance on that side. allowing passage for both the rook's silver and knight. While forming the castle. It is notoriously difficult to break down with a frontal assault. .[3] commonly with a dozen or more moves to shore up defenses before the initial attack is made. and in most cases. There is a good deal of flexibility in the order of moves when building the Yagura defense. and on the second rank all four generals are lined up next to the bishop. it is a good idea to keep the king well away from the rook. There are several strong defensive fortifications known as castles. giving neither side an advantage. The The Yagura castle (defensive position) only point to keep in mind is that the generals should move diagonally. and ideally a pawn.[3] It has a strongly protected king.[3] A common attack against the Yagura defense is to advance the rook's knight directly forward. behind the middle silver. It is typically used against static rook openings that involve advancing the rook's pawn. and golds superior as defensive pieces. and because shogi pieces are relatively slow movers. This is the climbing silver attack.Shogi strategy and tactics attack. though it is weaker from the side. there is a strong intermediate position called the kani ("crab"). not directly forward. but the two-square pawn advance must be carried out early if there is to be room for it. The king is moved one square to the left. a well fortified line of pawns. two golds and a silver. 321 The Yagura castle The Yagura castle (矢倉囲い Yagura gakoi) is considered by many to be the strongest defensive position in shogi.

The Anaguma or "bear in the hole" castle (defensive position) 3. The King is placed in a safe position. Move the king to the rook's starting square. 3. commonly called the "bear in the hole" castle in English (穴熊囲い Anaguma gakoi). Japanese for "badger"). Move the lance up one square. they tend to be lost early in the game. 2. Move the rook to the sixth or seventh file. The Anaguma castle A third defense often used in professional Shogi is the Anaguma (アナグマ. Move the left-side gold general diagonally up and right so that it is protected by the other gold general. (Optional) Move the edge pawn one square forward. and cannot defend each other. but still popular with professionals. This is sometimes used when a player chooses a bishop opening rather than the rook-pawn opening. it threatens the opponent's entire defense. either by a player utilizing the ranging rook strategy or by a player employing the static rook strategy. Dropping a pawn behind enemy lines. 4. not necessarily in this order: The Mino castle (defensive position) 1. i. while the three generals work well to back each other up. promoting it to a "tokin" (gold general). This gives king an escape route at the end game. defended by two gold generals and one silver. and dropping a second pawn immediately behind the "tokin" so that they protect each other makes a strong attack. then move the king to the lance's starting square.[4] Because pawns attack head on. 5. that is. Move the king to where the rook started. the sequence of moves leading to the current position and its likely development. Move the right-side silver general up one space.Shogi strategy and tactics 322 The Mino castle A defensive position that is considered easier for beginners. This castle can be executed on either side of the board. Move the rook to the left side of the board. preferably to the sixth file. 5. Move the silver general up and right. two is even better. The end-result will place the king in the corner square where the lance started. is the Mino castle (美濃囲い Minō gakoi). One suggested strategy for a rook-side castle is: 1. 3 moves. This move must be first. The Mino castle takes six moves to complete. Middle game Professional shogi players tend to evaluate the 'flow' of the game. so it is now adjacent to the king. but provides little value to the opponent if the attack fails and the pieces are captured. which has not yet moved. much more than chess players. (Optional) Move the fourth file pawn one square forward. 6. providing ammunition for such attacks. 4. . 2.e. Move both gold generals to the castle for additional defense. This makes it harder for the most direct threat-mate on the castle to be made.

there are many other delicate factors to look out for within the endgame.yamagata-u. it is common. especially if the opponent does not have many ranged pieces in play. Therefore. shogi players are more likely to sacrifice pieces. 2002: revised papers. as the opponent can often drop a pawn on a protected square to cut off the line of retreat. Matsubara Hitoshi. when a player first advances a lance pawn. Among this. Reijer Grimbergen. though not obligatory. [4] Ito Takeshi. For this reason. However. translated by John Fairbairn ISBN 4-87187-999-2 • The Art of Shogi (1997) by Tony Hosking • Habu's Words (2000) by Habu Yoshiharu. once the game has opened up. By counting the number of moves until checkmate (assuming the opponent doesn't get to move) for both Black and White. it is wise to keep a pawn in hand. Grimbergen (2004). R. A simple mistake can change the flow of the game drastically. John Fairbairn. including sacrificial attacks and traps. Martin Müller. July 25-27.jp/SHOGI/TANIGAWABOOK/ tanigawabookmain. in order to avoid complications later in the game. the opponent's king can be easily trapped by its own pieces. translated by Takahashi Yamato and Tony Hosking • Classic Shogi (2006) by Tony Hosking • Lightning Speed Endgame Technique (http://gamelab. An introduction. for the opponent to answer by advancing the opposing pawn. Compared with International Chess players. 175. Edmonton. it is likely that dropping attacks are being overlooked. pp. even powerful ones.html) (1988) by Koji Tanigawa. "A Cognitive Science Approach to Shogi Playing Processes (2)-Some Results on Next Move Test Experiments". [2] Jonathan Schaeffer. Springer. rooks. Attacking pieces can easily become trapped behind enemy lines. [3] Shogi for Beginners. Yngvi Björnsson (2003). CG 2002. A tactic known as speed counting plays an important role in the endgame. Bibliography • Shogi for Beginners (1984) by John Fairbairn. January 1976 . However. "Differences between Shogi and western Chess from a computational point of view". and often to exchange pieces if necessary to get one.[3] but dropping is half the game. Advanced strategy. which can retreat in only one direction. are commonly kept at a safe distance in the early parts of the game.ac. A common last-ditch defensive tactic is to open the pawn line to allow the king to escape. If a player has more than a couple of captured pieces in hand. 323 End game The collapse of one side's defense marks the beginning of the end game. Proceedings: Board Games in Academia. Computers and games: third international conference. 1984. In the endgame. References [1] Hitoshi Matsubara. Once a player has broken through the enemy lines. Canada. • Guide to Shogi openings: Shogi problems in Japanese and English (1983) by Aono Teruichi. and used to support attacks by weaker pieces.yz. a promoted rook is an especially deadly piece behind enemy lines. if the resulting capture can be dropped back into play for a specific purpose. • SHOGI Magazine (70 issues. it comes down to a race over who can checkmate the opponent first.November 1987) by The Shogi Association (edited by George Hodges) .Shogi strategy and tactics Players raised on International Chess often make poor use of drops. Advancing a lance pawn can open up the side of the board for attack. Transactions of Information Processing Society of Japan 45 (5): 1481–1492. Kings are more difficult to checkmate in the open. It also allows the king to escape if attacked from the side. translated by John Fairbairn • Better Moves for Better Shogi (1983) by Aono Teruichi. this will help to influence decisions on whether to attack or defend.

since a go board is stored in the treasury of Shōsōin (正倉院). China sent great trade convoys through the southern islands and all around the Indian Ocean and also traded with Japan. thought to have been written by Miyoshi Tameyasu (三善為康). but both these tales are likely to have been invented at the start of the Edo period by those keen to make a name for themselves as authorities on shogi. a seven-volume work which contains a description of how to write the characters used for shogi pieces. This is in contrast to the game of go. a large problem with this theory is that as pieces in this form have never been found. which was almost certainly brought to Japan in or around the Nara period. Sittuyin also has the practice of dropping pieces. Shin Saru Gakuki (新猿楽記) (1058 . describes two forms of shogi. However. So as not to confuse these with later types of shogi. this find is backed up by documentary evidence. but it is written that one wins if . The oldest archaeological evidence is a group of 16 shogi pieces excavated from the grounds of Kōfuku-ji in Nara Prefecture. stating that shogi was brought to Japan after the start of the Nara period. there is little physical evidence supporting it. The dictionary of common folk culture. The pieces of the time appear to have been simple ones made by cutting a writing plaque and writing directly on the surface. as were used in Chaturanga. and as a wooden writing plaque written on in the sixth year of Tenki (1058) was found at the same time. Heian shogi is the version on which modern shogi is based. This parallels the changes in chess pieces. written by Fujiwara Akihira also has passages relating to shogi. Another theory gives a later date. Shogi in the Heian period One of the oldest documents indicating the existence of shogi is Kirinshō (麒麟抄). written by Fujiwara Yukinari (藤原行成) (972 . for example in that pieces are placed on the intersections of lines. See also the history of chess. but they have the same five-sided shape as modern pieces. and is regarded as the earliest document on the subject. From the Song Dynasty through the Ming Dynasty. which are more representational and less abstract than those made earlier. and that Kibi Makibi (吉備真備) brought it back after visiting the country of Tang.ricoh. which it is estimated was created between 1210 and 1221. There are tales that relate that it was invented by Yuwen Yong of Northern Zhou. It is thought that the pieces used in the shogi of the time were not the current five-sided pieces.html) History of shogi Arrival in Japan It is not clear when the ancestral chess-type game that later developed into shogi was brought to Japan. There are several theories about when shogi spread to Japan. is of the same period.co. but the most generally accepted opinion is that this section was added by a writer from a later generation. so elements of South Asian chess could have reached Japan. serious doubts about this theory remain. in modern times these are called Heian shogi (or Heian small shogi) and Heian dai shogi. The games of makruk from Thailand and Cambodia and sittuyin from Myanmar have an elephant which moves in the same way as the silver general. As "Shin Saru Gakuki". a collection based on the two works Shōchūreki (掌中歴) and Kaichūreki (懐中歴). let alone stored in the treasury of Shōsōin.1027). Nichūreki (二中歴).jp/SHOGI/index_e. mentioned above. but the earliest plausible date is around the 6th century.1064). the pieces are thought to be of the same period. but three-dimensional figures.Shogi strategy and tactics 324 External links • Ricoh Shogi Club (http://www. but as these games are different from shogi. large (dai) shogi and small (shō) shogi.

According to Kōji Shimizu. and incense). it is thought that these forms of shogi were only played to a very limited extent. a set of shogi rules published in 1696. apparently indicating that at the time there was no concept of pieces in the hand. which adds the rook. but there is also one drunken elephant. The first O-hashi Shu-kei received fifty koku of rice and five men. places of go) and shogi-dokoro (将棋所). It is thought that the rule of pieces in the hand was proposed around the 16th century.1555). Most of these pieces are pawns. where games were played before a shogun. During the time of the eighth shogun. 325 The development of medieval shogi In games around the world related to shogi. Around the 13th century. Around the 15th century. and the game of sho shogi. katsura tree. It is thought that the rules of modern shogi were fixed in the 16th century. November 17. Nara Prefecture. but there is also a theory that this rule existed from the time of Heian sho shogi. In the Edo period. was officially approved by the Tokugawa shogunate. and pawn. lance. free chariot and go between. the shogunate passed a law giving endowments to shogi players including Kanō Sansa (加納算砂) (Hon'inbō Sansa (本因坊算砂)) and Shūkei (宗桂) (who was given the name Ōhashi Shūkei (大橋宗桂) after his death). knight. side mover. silver. bishop and drunken elephant from dai shogi to Heian shogi. elephant. chariot and soldier). . but whether or not this is true is not clear. As many as 174 shogi pieces have been excavated from the Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins. tiger. created by increasing the number of pieces in Heian shogi. a system was established where the castle shogi tournament was held once a year on the 17th day on Kannazuki. has been designated Shogi Day. Tokugawa Yoshimune. places of shogi. more types of shogi with yet more pieces were proposed: tenjiku shogi. tai shogi (also called "dai shogi". horse. the names of the Heian shogi pieces keep those of chaturanga (general. There is also a theory by Yoshinori Kimura that while chaturanga was from the start a game simulating war. leading to the hypothesis that in this period variations of shogi with and without the drunken elephant existed side by side. but termed "tai shogi" to avoid confusing the two) and taikyoku shogi. during the Ganroku period. there have been changes in the rules with the passage of time. maka dai dai shogi. and today the corresponding day in the modern calendar. gold general. which is close to the modern game. was held. and the Japanese game of shogi is no exception to this. According to Shoshōgi Zushiki (諸象戯図式). like go. the game of dai shogi. iron general. they were simplified. chief researcher at the Archaeological Institute of Kashihara. These iemotos (families upholding the tradition of go or shogi) gave themselves the title of go-dokoro (碁所) (literally. the "castle shogi" (御城将棋) tournament. as the rules of dai shogi had become too complicated. which are thought to be from the latter half of the 16th century. creating the game of chu shogi. gold. and add to them the five treasures of Buddhism (jewel. flying dragon. dai dai shogi. However. as winning strategies have been discovered. and thus pieces were discarded once captured. was played. it states that the drunken elephant piece was removed from the game of sho shogi by Emperor Go-Nara during the Tenmon period (1532 . In the Kan'ei period (around 1630). The pieces used in these variants of shogi consist of those used in Heian shogi: the king. One point of note in the history of this family of games is that it was during this period that the unique rule in Japanese shogi was developed whereby captured pieces (pieces in the hand) could be returned to the board. In 1612. such as increasing the abilities of the pieces or their numbers. when the drunken elephant was removed from the set of pieces. silver general. Heian shogi involved pieces kept in the hand.History of shogi one's opponent is reduced to a single king. and those used only in Heian great shogi: the copper general. Modern shogi Modern shogi (hon shogi).

founded in 1997. it was impossible to make a living as a professional shogi player during this period. to become a quintuple champion (五冠王) . in bath houses or barber's shops. In 1960 the Ōi title match (王位戦 ōi-sen) was founded. In 1909. It became a tradition for shogi players inheriting the title of meijin to present a collection of shogi puzzles to the shogunate government. However. and "front-porch shogi" (縁台将棋). the three shogi families were no longer paid endowments. played wherever people gathered. and was later termed a kisei (棋聖) (literally. Later. and the Itō family. Kanju was a skilled composer of shogi puzzles. for the winner of the Meijin-sen competition. at its head. In the late Edo period. and the Kiō-sen (棋王戦 kiō-sen) in 1974. the Tokyo Shogi Association (東京将棋同盟社) was formed. As he was one of the "Arino group" of amateur shogi players. . but he was feared for his skill. and high-ranking players formed alliances with the aim of having their games published. The meijin system and title matches In 1935. the title of meijin became a hereditary title of the Ōhashi family and one of its branches. were paid endowments. the Kudan title match (九段戦 kudan-sen) (9-dan title match) (renamed the Jūdan title match (十段戦 jūdan-sen) (10-dan title match) in 1962) and the Ōshō title match (王将戦 ōshō-sen) (King title match) were founded. This was the start of the shogi title matches (see titleholder system). with Yoshio Kimura (木村義雄) becoming the first Meijin in 1937. Over the reign of the shogunate. which then came to be conferred based on ability in the short term. and in 1924.stepped down from the rank of meijin. an unprecedented achievement at the time. and even today his collection of puzzles "Shogi Zukō" (将棋図巧) is well known as one of the greatest works of its kind. with shogi tournaments and events held all over Japan. A number of genius shogi players emerged who were not hereditary meijin. The ages of Ōyama and Habu It was considered to be nearly impossible to hold all the titles at once. rather than recommendation as before. with the exception of a handful of high-ranking players at the end of the 19th century. with Sekine Kinjirō (関根金次郎). The first Meijin title match (名人戦 meijin-sen) (known officially at the time as the Meijin Kettei Kisen (名人決定大棋戦)) was held over two years.History of shogi The Meijin (名人). Ōyama reached a total of 80 title holding periods. The Jūdan-sen was changed to become the Ryūō title match (竜王戦 ryūō-sen) in 1988. The popularity of amateur shogi continued in the Meiji period. Sekine Kinjiro. another player later took these three titles from Masuda. Today the title of meijin is still used. but died young and never inherited the title (which was bestowed on him posthumously). a golden age which became known as the "Ōyama age". wise man or master of shogi). newspapers began to publish records of shogi matches. in 1950. and later the Kisei-sen (棋聖戦) in 1962. to become a triple champion (三冠王). Itō Kanju (伊藤看寿) was born in the mid-Edo period. Ōyama went on to defend these titles for six years. when there were fewer titles than at present. and showed promise as a potential meijin. a thirteenth-generation meijin.Yasuharu Ōyama (大山康晴). and the rank of meijin came to be bestowed by recommendation. This was an early incarnation of the modern Japan Shogi Association (日本将棋連盟). The Ōza-sen (王座戦) tournament was started in 1953 and became a title match in 1983. 326 Newspaper shogi and the formation of shogi associations After the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate. and went on in 1959 to take the newly founded titles of Ōi and Kisei. being said to have "the ability of a 13-dan player". From around 1899. The lines of the three families ended. the Shogi Association (将棋同盟社) was formed. More than a few count Sōho as one of the greatest shogi players in history. but in 1957. completing the modern line-up of seven title matches. However. the rank of meijin was out of his reach. who were the iemotos of shogi. Kudan and Ōshō). and the iemoto system in shogi lost its power. Kōzō Masuda took all three of the titles which existed at the time (Meijin. Amano Sōho (天野宗歩) came to prominence. it is thought that.

the first women's contest. and there are even official professional tournaments in which those with the best results in amateur shogi contests (将棋のアマチュア棋戦) can take part. However. the gap in ability between strong amateurs and professionals continues to diminish. He later challenged Yasuharu Ōyama in the meijin-sen. a total of six competitions. becoming the first woman meijin. at the time women's contests were not held. Motoji Hanamura (花村元司) made enough to live on as a shinken-shi. In recent times. and indeed the Ladies Shogi Professional Organization (女流棋士会 joryū kishi kai) celebrates "anniversary parties" counting from this year. after his death. there is also the Women's Ōshō Title Match (女流王将戦). Since then. or instructional games at events or shogi courses. but in 1996. including Tsuneyoshi Kobayashi (小林庸俊). the Ladies' Open Tournament (レディースオープントーナメント). in which the top women in each tournament compete. Akiko Takojima (蛸島彰子) left the pro-qualifier leagues at the 1-dan level and became the first professional woman shogi player. television programmes and books telling his story were produced. no woman player has yet won through the pro qualifier leagues (新進棋士奨励会 shinshin kishi shōreikai) to become an officially certified professional player (棋士 kishi). . there were games between amateurs and professionals. the then chairman of the general assembly of the Japanese Shogi Association (棋士総会). beginning an age known as the "Habu age". with the highest ranks at amateur level. and so her only work as a professional was giving shogi lessons. which Takojima won.History of shogi After the number of titles increased to seven in 1983. Takashi Amano (天野高志). it was believed to be impossible to hold all of them at once. Although he never became a professional. Kiriyama (桐山隆). Hirukawa (蛭川敦). Two different rating systems based dan and kyu ranks are used. Some amateurs. putting him ahead of the crowd in the amateur world. Yoshiharu Habu became the first septuple champion (七冠王). In the past. Masakazu Hayasaki (早咲誠和) and Atsumoto Yamada (山田敦幹) have been called "pro killers". each of the standard professional tournaments has a women's section. one for amateurs and one for professionals. being equivalent to 6-kyu at the professional level. and he now has more fans all over Japan than when he was alive. and the vote went against him. the Women's Ōi Title Match (女流王位戦). and the Kajima Cup. 4-dan or 5-dan. However. there has never been a time when he was without a title. Masaki Endō (遠藤正樹). before taking the entrance exam and turning professional in 1944. 327 The birth of the women's game While there are both men and women among the ranks of professional shogi players. In 1974. and he has amassed a total of over 70 title holding periods (71 at October 2008). Trends in the world of amateur shogi Shogi is also well-known among the general public (amateurs). 1974 is often considered to be the year in which women's shogi began. At present there are more than 50 professional women players. but did not manage to take the title of meijin from him. and as well as the Women's Meijin title match. the Ōyama Meijin Cup Kurashiki–Tōka Title Match (大山名人杯倉敷藤花戦). who beat one professional after another in special matches. Yukio Katō (加藤幸男) and Tōru Shimizukami (清水上徹) have been making waves in the amateur world. due in part to the instigation of Ōyama. a vote was held on whether to accept Koike among their ranks. In addition. sometimes there are amateurs with an ability to rival professionals. but there were concerns about his behaviour. Jūmei Koike (小池重明) was another shinken-shi. gamblers playing for stakes. and to overcome the problem. but these were generally special match-ups organised by newspapers or magazines. Later. the Women's Meijin Title Match (女流名人位戦 joryū meijin-sen). This served to slow the spread of the game among women. some of whom earn a living as shinken-shi (真剣師). the system of professional woman shogi players (女流棋士 joryū kishi) was introduced. In 1966. was held. and won the title of amateur meijin twice in a row. and recently two young players.

The January 2006 edition of Kindai Shogi (近代将棋) states that Shanghai has a shogi population of 120. At present. the reporting of the affair between Makoto Nakahara (中原誠) and Naoko Hayashiba (林葉直子). and in some cases unfavourable media reports accelerated the decline in the number of shogi fans. although attempts have been made to aid adoption by replacing the names of pieces with symbols indicating how they move. Kindai Shogi Dojo (近代将棋道場) and Yahoo! Japan Games. . and the debate about the management of the meijin-sen being passed to a different body (2006). and 8. the 2006 Leisure White Paper reports that go is most popular among those in their 60's. and is continuing to fall gradually. and its pieces are differentiated by Japanese characters written on them. its rules are (more or less) unified at an international level. and announced details of an entrance exam for the 4-dan level (entering the "free class" (フリークラス) level of the professional ranking league (順位戦)) and the third-level pro qualifier league (奨励会三段リーグ). for example Yoshiharu Habu's achievement of taking all seven titles in one year (1996). which is one of many games resembling chess). and at one point he won over 70% of his matches with professionals. Shōji Segawa taking the professional entrance exam (2005). In 2006. It has grown to be particularly popular in the People's Republic of China. factors which have impeded the spread of the game outside Japan. the game of go has spread internationally for a combination of many reasons. Sekawa submitted a petition requesting entry to the professional ranks to the Japan Shogi Association.) However. which allow users to play games over the internet without the need for an actual shogi set. and cannot become professionals if they have retired from the leagues. the "shogi population" (the number of people of 15 years or over who play at least one game of shogi a year) fell from 16. none of these led to the birth of a "shogi boom". in the 1990s. ginga-sen) was particularly notable. but went on to compete as an amateur in professional matches.History of shogi The number of players who have left the pro qualifier leagues and gone on to have success as amateurs has increased. and that it does not resemble games unique to another country (as is the case with shogi. efforts to make shogi popular outside Japan began in earnest. internet shogi programs such as Java Shogi (Java将棋) and The Great Shogi (ザ・グレート将棋). while shogi is most popular between those aged 10 to 19. However. However. Unless exceptional permission is granted. 328 The spread of shogi outside Japan The game of shogi has developed independently inside Japan.4 million in 2006. The game has been relatively slow to spread to countries where Chinese characters are not in common use. applicant normally need to have experience in the pro qualifier leagues.8 million in 1985 to 9 million in 2004. He is the first person to become a professional after retiring from the pro qualifier leagues. it would be by no means unlikely if another Shōji Segawa were to appear. it is played using black and white stones. Changes in the shogi population According to the "Leisure White Paper" (レジャー白書) by the Japanese Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development (財団法人社会経済生産性本部). and especially Shanghai. the airing of the NHK TV novel Futarikko (ふたりっ子) (1996). serialised in Weekly Shōnen Jump. in which the shogi population fell by a half. including the facts that it originated in China. Shōji Segawa (瀬川晶司) retired from the qualifier leagues due to age restrictions. and was granted exceptional permission to take the entrance exam. By way of comparison.000 people. His performance in the Ginga title match (銀河戦. many games are played using services such as Shogi Club 24 (将棋倶楽部24). During the above period. The number of 10 to 19 year olds playing go is said in the "Leisure White Paper" above to have increased due to the story "Hikaru no Go". but given the reforms taking place in the Association. the Shogi Association officially admitted the entrance of amateurs and women professionals to the ranks of professionals (正棋士). From around 1996. (The overall go population is decreasing. shogi has often appeared in the general media. grew to be widely used.

compete in seven title tournaments. some 200 professional shogi players. . annual computer tournaments and the Floodgate shogi server. retrieved on September 17. all members of Japan Shogi Association. 2006. Current title holders 2010 67th Meijin Yoshiharu Habu won over Hiroyuki Miura 4-0 2009 22nd RyūŌ Akira Watanabe won over Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-0 2009 80th Kisei 2010 50th Ōi 2009 57th Ōza 2010 58th Ōshō 2009 34th Kiō Yoshiharu Habu won over Kazuki Kimura 3-2 Akihito Hirose won over Kōichi Fukaura 4-2 Yoshiharu Habu won over Takayuki Yamasaki 3-0 Toshiaki Kubo Toshiaki Kubo won over Yoshiharu Habu 4-2 won over Yasumitsu Satō 3-2 References • This article was translated from the history section of the Japanese Wikipedia shogi article. Current title holders In Japan. The Japan Shogi Association restricts professionals from playing computers. Tools to help shogi programmers are Shogidokoro. Champion Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza at the level of 2 dan shoreikai.History of shogi 329 Computer shogi Computers have steadily improved in playing shogi since the 1980s. The winner of the previous year defends the title against a challenger chosen from knockout or round matches.

The preliminary round of the Meijin tournament is called "Rank Tournament" (Jun-i Sen 順位戦) and involves five league classes (A. and A leagues. B2. B1. Kinjiro Sekine (13th Meijin) made a courageous decision. and is the most prestigious title. The player that wins four games out of seven first in the championship will become the new Meijin title holder. Only the winner of the A-Class league can challenge the Meijin title holder. but the person who assumed the Meijin position was selected by succession. B1. Honorary Meijin Honorary Meijin (Permanent Meijin. The top three players of the C2 league are promoted to next year's C1 league. artful) ("jin"(人) = person) The Meijin institution started in the 17th century (Edo period). The top two of the C1.Meijin 330 Meijin Meijin (名人) is one of the seven titles in Japanese professional shogi. He abandoned his Meijin position and proposed the institution of a tournament. Eiseimeijin 永世名人) title is given to a person who won Meijin Championship five times. B1 leagues are promoted to next year's B2. the Meijin title has been given to the person who wins the Meijin Championship each year. In the 1930s. • • • • • • • (1st . C2). The word "meijin" means "an excellent person" in a certain field. at least five years experience of Rank-Tournament-league is needed for challenging for the title of Meijin after one's professional debut. Therefore. B2. ("mei"(名) = excellent. along with Ryu-oh. respectively. C1.13th : in succession) 14th Honorary Meijin : Yoshio Kimura 15th Honorary Meijin : Yasuharu Oyama 16th Honorary Meijin : Makoto Nakahara 17th Honorary Meijin : Koji Tanigawa 18th Honorary Meijin : Toshiyuki Moriuchi 19th Honorary Meijin : Yoshiharu Habu Winners Year Winner Score Opponent 1935 Yoshio Kimura -1937 1940 1942 Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 Masao Tsukada Masao Tsukada Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yoshio Kimura Yasuharu Oyama 4-1 4-0 no match no match 4-2 4-2 3-2 4-2 4-2 4-1 Yoshio Kimura Yasuharu Oyama Masao Tsukada Yasuharu Oyama Kozoh Masuda Yoshio Kimura Doi Ichitaroh Kanda Tatsunosuke . Since 1937.

Meijin 331 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Hifumi Katoh Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Kozoh Masuda Kozoh Masuda Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara Makoto Nakahara 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-0 4-2 4-2 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-0 4-1 4-2 4-1 4-2 4-1 4-0 4-3 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-0 4-3 4-3 4-3 blank 4-2 4-2 4-1 4-1 4-3 4-2 4-1 4-2 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-0 4-2 4-1 Keiji Mori Kunio Yonenaga Kunio Yonenaga Kiyozumi Kiriyama Makoto Nakahara Hifumi Katoh Hidemitsu Moriyasu Koji Tanigawa Yasuharu Oyama Kunio Yonenaga Makoto Nakahara Kunio Yonenaga Koji Tanigawa Kunio Yonenaga Kozoh Masuda Kozoh Masuda Takashima Kazukiyo Hanamura Motoji Yasuharu Oyama Yasuharu Oyama Kozoh Masuda Hifumi Katoh Maruta Yuzoh Tatsuya Futakami Kozoh Masuda Tatsuya Futakami Michiyoshi Yamada Kozoh Masuda Tatsuya Futakami Kozoh Masuda Michio Ariyoshi Rensho Nada Kozoh Masuda Yasuharu Oyama Hifumi Katoh Yasuharu Oyama Nobuyuki Ouchi Kunio Yonenaga .

html . shogi.Meijin 332 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Makoto Nakahara Kunio Yonenaga Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Yasumitsu Satoh Yasumitsu Satoh 4-3 4-0 4-2 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-3 Michio Takahashi Makoto Nakahara Kunio Yonenaga Taku Morishita Toshiyuki Moriuchi Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Yasumitsu Satoh Koji Tanigawa Tadahisa Maruyama Toshiyuki Moriuchi Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Masataka Goda Toshiyuki Moriuchi Masataka Goda Hiroyuki Miura Tadahisa Maruyama 4-3 Tadahisa Maruyama 4-3 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-0 Yoshiharu Habu 4-0 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-2 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-3 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-2 Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-3 Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu 4-2 4-3 4-0 References • Japan Shogi Association : Meijin Tournament [1] [1] http:/ / www. jp/ kisenhyo/ meizin. or.

500. lit. which makes him the first honorary Ryu-oh. and the top four from 3rd. The basic meaning of "Ryu-oh" is a "promoted rook".[1] Akira Watanabe won the championship five times in a row from 2004 to 2008.000). It comprises preliminary The dragon king tournaments in six classes and one final. It can move as either a rook (hisha 飛車. was first held in 1988.000. and ¥8.000 for the winner of championship and new Ryu-oh titleholder. The Ryu-oh Tournament. Ryu-oh and Meijin are the most prestigious designations. 4th.Ryu-oh 333 Ryu-oh Ryu-oh or Ryūō (竜王. which is one of seven Japanese shogi title matches. Additional compensation includes ¥14.000 respectively).000. flying chariot") or a king (gyokushō 玉将. top two from 2nd class. Winners Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Winner Akira Shima Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Yoshiharu Habu Yasumitsu Sato Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu Koji Tanigawa Koji Tanigawa Score 4-0 4-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-1 4-0 Opponent Kunio Yonenaga Akira Shima Yoshiharu Habu Taku Morishita Koji Tanigawa Yoshiharu Habu Yasumitsu Sato Yasumitsu Sato Yoshiharu Habu Keiichi Sanada . lit.000 for the previous titleholder and ¥7. and the title of its winner. "Dragon King") is the name of a promoted piece in shogi.000 for the challenger (approximately US$145. which determines the challenger. Cash prizes are ¥32. Honorary Ryu-oh Honorary Ryu-oh ("Eisei Ryu-oh" = Permanent Ryu-oh) is the title given to a player who won the championship five times in a row or seven times. 5th and 6th classes).000.000 and $70. The final tournament. "Ryu-oh" also refers to the annual Ryu-oh Tournament (Ryūō-sen 竜王戦) organized by Yomiuri Shimbun as well as the title awarded to its winner.000 for the loser (approximately US$320. and is one of the most powerful pieces in shogi. involves competitions among eleven players (the top five players from 1st class. a Japanese professional shogi tournament.000 and $80. lit. "jade general") during a turn. The first player to win four out of seven championship games becomes the new titleholder. Among the seven rankings in the professional shogi titleholder system.

jp/ osirase/ qa.shogi. html#kisen) External links • 竜王戦:日本将棋連盟 (http://www. 21st Ryūō Tournament website (Japanese) . or.jp/ryuou/).jp/kisenhyo/ryuuou.or. Ryūō Tournament: Japan Shogi Association (Japanese) • 第21期竜王戦中継 (http://live.Ryu-oh 334 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Takeshi Fujii Takeshi Fujii Takeshi Fujii Yoshiharu Habu Yoshiharu Habu 4-0 4-1 4-3 4-1 4-3 Koji Tanigawa Daisuke Suzuki Yoshiharu Habu Takeshi Fujii Takashi Abe Yoshiharu Habu Toshiyuki Moriuchi Kazuki Kimura Yasumitsu Sato Yasumitsu Sato Yoshiharu Habu Toshiyuki Moriuchi Toshiyuki Moriuchi 4-0 Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe Akira Watanabe 4-3 4-0 4-3 4-2 4-3 4-0 References [1] プロ棋戦の規定に関するご質問(日本将棋連盟) (http:/ / www.html).or.shogi. shogi.

Therefore shogi has a higher branching factor than other chess variants.Computer shogi 335 Computer shogi Computer shogi is a field of artificial intelligence concerned with the creation of computer programs which can play shogi. and often made moves for which there was no apparent justification.[2] Bonanza Vs Watanabe The Japan Shogi Association (JSA) started restricting professionals from playing computers in 2005. one of the strongest western shogi players said in 2008. Longer playing time also means human players can make long-term plans beyond the computer’s calculating horizon.[1] . The number of legal positions and the number of possible games are 2 measures of shogi’s Game complexity.[1] In particular. computer shogi has taken large steps forward in software and hardware technology. The higher numbers for shogi mean it is harder to reach the highest levels of play. “In 10 years I predict a computer will be able to give lance handicap (kyo-ochi) to the Meijin”. The Japan Shogi Association gave reigning Ryuo Champion Watanabe permission to compete in a showdown against the reigning World Computer Shogi Champion Bonanza on 21 March 2007. He wrote in the Nikkei Newspaper evening edition on March 26. due to the immaturity of the technology in such fields as programming. In the first decade of the new millennium. The 2 players were not at the same playing level. Watanabe was 2006 Ryuo Champion and Bonanza was at the level of 2 dan shoreikai. With the past steady progress of shogi computers as a guide of the future. Daiwa Securities sponsored the match. These programs had the level of an amateur of kyu rank. In games with time limits of 10 seconds from the first move. computers are becoming a tough challenge for even professional shogi players. Yoshiharu Habu rated Bonanza’s game at the level of 2 dan shoreikai. In 2007. Game complexity Shogi has the distinctive feature of reusing captured pieces. the prediction is even computers with a large handicap will be unbeatable in the future. 2007 about the match between Bonanza and the 2006 Ryuo Champion Watanabe. Game Chess Board Size 64 Legal Positions 1047 1048 1071 Possible Games 10123 10150 10226 Average Game Length 80 95 110 Xiangqi 90 Shogi 81 Computers versus humans In the 1980s. The computer has more positions to examine because each piece in hand can be dropped on many squares. This gives shogi the highest number of legal positions and the highest number of possible games of all the popular chess variants. which involves many fewer possibilities. In 2007 champion Yoshiharu Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza. Those conditions favor Watanabe because longer time limits mean there are fewer mistakes from time pressure. computers are most suited to brute-force calculation. Larry Kaufman. The game was played with 2 hours each and 1 minute byo-yomi per move after that. the JSA granted permission to one professional to play one game against a computer. CPUs and memory. university research groups and private companies. Hoki Kunihito wrote Bonanza. The computer was an Intel Xeon 2.66 GHz 8 core with 8 gigabytes of memory and 160-gigabyte hard drive. and far outperform humans at the task of finding ways of checkmating from a given position. computer shogi programs took a long time to think. The research and development of shogi software has been carried out mainly by freelance programmers.

[5] Akara aggressively pursued Shimizu from the start of the game. Hidetchi reviews this game. Then YSS lost to amateur Kato Yukio in a 15-minute game. 750 fans attended the event.[7] Annual CSA tournament exhibition games The winners of CSA tournaments played exhibition games with strong players. GPS Shogi. criticized Shimizu’s game.Computer shogi Bonanza was a little stronger than before due to program improvements and a faster computer. Shimizu moved first and resigned in 86 moves after 6 hours and 3 minutes. She played at the University of Tokyo on 11 October 2010. Bonanza lost to the 2007 World Computer Shogi Champion YSS.[8] . Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper quoted Akira Watanabe on June 27. Watanabe prepared for a weaker Bonanza as Watanabe studied old Bonanza game records. "Ms. But the computer choose to attack immediately instead of taking its time (and using its impressive endgame strategies) which cost it the match. but now we have to recognize that they’ve reached the point where they are getting to be a match for professionals. Hidetchi reviews this game. Akira Watanabe. 2008. and the first victory against a female professional. the Daily Yomiuri quoted Watanabe. Gekisashi.[6] Ryuo champion. However.” Ryuo champion Akira Watanabe clarifies his position on computers playing shogi. Watanabe deeply analyzed these moves thinking that maybe the computer saw something that Watanabe did not see. Watanabe said "I think I'll be able to defeat shogi software for the next 10 years". Akara played with a ranging rook strategy and offered an exchange of bishops. The 4 engines voted on the best moves. Researchers at the University of Tokyo and the University of Electro-Communications developed Akara. The allotted thinking time per player is 3 hours and 60 seconds byoyomi. Watanabe said. a computer has never defeated a male professional under standard time controls. Akara selects the move with the most votes. Bonanza resigned after move 112. Akara contained 4 computer engines. Watanabe thought some of Bonanza’s moves were inferior. Bonanza and YSS. 336 Akara vs Shimizu The Computer program Akara defeated the women’s Osho champion Shimizu Ichiyo. These exhibition games started in 2003. Another indication Bonanza was far below the level of professional Watanabe came 2 months after the match at the May 2007 World Computer Shogi Championship. Shimizu had plenty of chances to win". “I thought they still had quite a way to go. Akara ran on a network of 169 computers. and Akara went on to win. Bonanza moved first and played fourth file rook anaguma as Watanabe expected.[4] After Bonanza’s loss Watanabe commented on computers in his blog.[3] Watanabe commented after the game that he could have lost if Bonanza had played defensive moves before entering the endgame. However. Shimizu said she was trying to play her best as if she was facing a human player. On 19 November 2010. This is the second time since 2005 that the Japan Shogi Association granted permission to a professional to play a computer. If there is a tie vote then Akara selects Gekisashi’s move. Shimizu made a questionable move partway though the game.

Two computer Shogi programs beat a team of two amateurs. Bonanza can also run with an adapter (u2b). WinBoard is open source. The allotted time for the amateurs was main time 1 hour and then 3 minutes per move. This support was added to WinBoard in 2007 by H. 300 Bonanza GB Intel Xeon W3680 with 6 cores Akara 2 Akara Kosaku & Shinoda 150 25 min 54 sec 1 hour 42 min Programmer tools • Shogidokoro[12] is a graphical user interface (GUI) that calls a program to play shogi and displays the moves on a board. Some engines that will run under shogidokoro are Blunder. • WinBoard/XBoard and BCMShogi are other GUIs that support Shogi. but can connect to USI engines through the UCI2WB adapter. GNU Shogi and Bonanza. Ssp and TJshogi. Shogidokoro can automatically run a tournament between 2 programs. Shogidokoro was created in 2007. Mr. Lightning. Tord Romstad based USI on Universal Chess Interface (UCI). was the 1999 Amateur Ryuo. UCI was designed by computer chess programmer Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 2000. USI was designed by Norwegian computer chess programmer Tord Romstad in 2007. Muller. Kato Yukio was the Asahi Amateur Meijin champion. Shinoda. The other amateur. Spear. Shogidokoro uses the Universal Shogi Interface (USI). Shimizugami Toru was the Amateur Meijin champion. BCMShogi[14] is a graphical user interface for the USI .[13] Unlike Shogidokoro.G. One amateur. This helps programmers to write shogi programs faster because they can skip writing the user interface part. ponanza. Therefore. Mr. Shogidokoro can be used to play Shogi by adding a Shogi engine to shogidokoro. TJshogi. Kosaku.[9] [10] [11] Game Computer Sente (first) Gote (second) Moves Computer Time 24 min 41 sec Amateur Time 2 hours 2 min Hardware Winner 1 Bonanza Kosaku & Shinoda Akara Bonanza 93 17 processors. its strength relative to humans is unknown. GPS Shogi. and also available under Linux as XBoard. 132 cores. Computers Bonanza and Akara beat Amateurs Kosaku and Shinoda On July 24 2011. WinBoard uses its own protocol (Chess Engine Communication Protocol) to communicate with engines. Laramie. It is also useful for testing changes to a program.Computer shogi 337 Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 Program IS Shogi YSS Gekisashi Bonanza YSS Human Handicap Time Byoyomi Winner Computer Computer Computer Human Human Computer Computer Canceled Pro 5 Dan Katsumata 2 Piece Handicap 25 Min None Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Rook Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Bishop Yukio Kato Yukio Kato None None None None None 25 Min None 25 Min None 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 1 hour 1 min Tanase Shogi Yukio Kato Gekisashi GPS Shogi Shimizugami Toru Amateur champion In each succeeding year. The USI is an open communication protocol that Shogi programs use to communicate with a user interface. there was a two game amateur versus computer match. the human competition was stronger to match the stronger programs. The current winning program does not play humans in public tournaments or on a game server such as the Shogi Club 24. Engines that can natively support WinBoard protocol are Shokidoki. was a Shoreikai three Dan player. The allotted time for the computer was main time 25 minutes and then 10 seconds per move.

2011 Bonanza_expt • The annual computer vs computer world shogi championship[16] is organized by the Computer Shogi Association (CSA) of Japan. 2004 and 2007. A Tsumeshogi solver is used to quickly find mating moves. • Tanase shogi won 2nd place in 2007 and 2008 also written by Yasushi Tanase. . GPS Shogi won 6th place on a computer with 263 processors containing 832 cores and 1486 gigabytes of memory. From 2008 to 2010.Computer shogi protocol and the WinBoard shogi protocol. The GPS team created Floodgate. In 2001. Programmer Kunihito Hoki was living in Canada. The search is harder in shogi than in chess because of the larger number of possible moves. Programs running under Shogidokoro can connect to Floodgate. At the 19th annual CSA tournament. won fourth place. Ponanza won fifth place. 2000. Bonanza won second place on a computer with 17 processors containing 132 cores and 300 gigabytes of memory. • Endgame : The endgame starts when the king is attacked and ends when the game is won. 2005. • Floodgate[15] is a computer shogi server for computers to compete and receive ratings. Monju and KCC Shogi) that had never won a CSA tournament defeated 3 of the previous year’s strongest programs (Bonanza. it grew to 55 programs. • IS Shogi won in 1998. 167 players played 28. Bonkras won the CSA tournament with 5 wins out of 7 games. A program will stop searching when it reaches a stable position. 2001 and 2003. Gekisashi. 2003.[17] The top three winners of the 2010 CSA tournament are Gekisashi.[19] [20] Computer shogi programs Components of computer shogi programs: • Opening book : An opening book of moves puts the program in a good position and saves time. 2008 and 2010. Otsuki Shogi. Shueso and GPS Shogi. YSS entered the first time in the 1991 tournament. • YSS won in 1997. Each program has 25 minutes to complete a game. In shogi pieces can be dropped so there are no endgame databases. The problem is many positions are unstable because of the drop move. 338 Floodgate Annual Highest Rating Date Program Rating 3054 May 23. 2006 and 3rd place in 1994. Bonkras ran on a computer with 3 processors containing 16 cores and 6 gigabytes of memory. The most active players have played 4. The 2010 CSA winner. • Gekisashi won 2002. Gekisashi and YSS). Programmer is Hiroshi Yamashita. The Gekisashi team is led by Yoshimasa Tsuruoka. YSS won 2nd place in 1999. The computers play automated games through a server. Yasushi Tanase was part of the Tokyo University team that wrote IS Shogi. Computer shogi programs that have played at the annual World Computer Shogi Championships: • Bonanza won first place the first time it was entered in the championships in 2006.000 games. 4 programs (GPS Shogi. • KCC Shogi came in second place in 2005 and is from North Korea. Shueso won third place. In chess there are fewer pieces which leads to perfect play by endgame databases. The championship is broadcast on the Internet. 2000.[18] In 2011. The problem is professionals do not always follow an opening sequence as in chess but make different moves to create good formation of pieces.000 games on Floodgate. • Search algorithm : The Search algorithm that looks ahead more deeply in a sequence of moves allows the program to better evaluate a move. Floodgate started operating continuously in 2008. The first championship was in 1990 with 6 programs. Humans are welcome to play on Floodgate.

At the Amateur Ryo tournament. • 2011 May. Program Gekisashi defeated amateur 6-dan Shinoda Masato in a 40 minute exhibition game. Since 2005. However. 100 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. 1993 and 1994 and written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. Milestones • 2005.[22] The Japan Shogi Association said the rule is to preserve the dignity of its professionals. Highest rating for a computer on Shogi Club 24 is 2744 for YSS. • 2007. Clubhouse Games includes Shogi plays on the Nintendo DS. Akara beat the women’s Osho champion Shimizu in 6 hours and 3 minutes. Japan. • 2005. The game was played at the 29th Hokkoku Osho-Cup Shogi Tournament in Komatsu. Morita Shogi won in 1991 and written by Kazurou Morita.[24] • 2008 November. 339 Computer Shogi programs that play in video game systems: • • • • Habu Meijin no Omoshiro Shōgi plays on the Super Famicom. 1992. Restrictions On 18 September 2005 a Japan Shogi Association professional 5 dan played shogi against a computer. List of shogi video games. 75 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. Tacos lost. Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Ponanza. The Matsue National College of technology developed the computer program Tacos. and to make the most of computer shogi as a potential business opportunity. • 2008 May. Kiwame won in 1992. 1999 and written by British programmer Jeff Rollason. Shogi Kanazawa won in 1996 and in 1999 also written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. Many amateur players expected Tacos to win. Shotest won 3rd place in 1998. Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami in a 1 hour game with 1 minute byoyomi. GNU Shogi is a free software program by the Free Software Foundation that plays Shogi. professional Hashimoto defended and Tacos played strange moves. computer program Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami Toru. the Japan Shogi Association has permitted one game between a male professional and a computer.[23] • 2008 May. 1993 and 1996 and written by Yoshikazu Kakinoki.[21] On 14 October 2005. Tacos played first and chose the static rook line in the opening. first time a computer beat a Shogi champion. Professional Hashimoto followed the opening line while changing his bishop with the bishop of Tacos. Shotest Shogi plays on the Xbox. Tacos had a good development with some advantages in the opening and middle game even until move 80.[26] . Spear a free program written by Reijer Grimbergen has won 9th place of 24 in the 2009 upper division contest.[25] • 2010 October. the Japan Shogi Association banned professional shogi players from competing against a computer. GPS Shogi is free software written by students of the University of Tokyo and won in 2009. computer program Tanase Shogi beat Asahi Amateur Meijin title holder Kato Yukio.Computer shogi • • • • • • • Shogi Kakinoki won 2nd place in 1990. program Gekisashi defeated Eiji Ogawa in a 40 minute game of the first knock out round. rated 3211. The ban prevents the rating of computers relative to professional players.

html). [16] "Computer Shogi Association" (http:/ / www. ac. "Famous Shogi Games: Shimizu Vs Akara (Oct. youtube. ne. ac. 21st. [6] "Shogi computer beats female champ Shimizu" (http:/ / blog. [4] Hidetchi. Shogi-L mailing list. muller/ shokidoki. . "Exhibition Games at the 18th CSA Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. org/ index_e. 3 August 2011. [12] "Shogidokoro Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / www. [20] "Teams in 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. 2 August 2011. "Famous Shogi Games: Bonanza Vs Watanabe (Mar. . html). sjis. co. . . [25] "Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Champion in a 1 hour game" (http:/ / www. [19] "Winners of 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. chess. . topica. html) (in Japanese). . . arcor. The Daily Yomiuri. nl/ h. . jp/ rccg/ menu/ topic. . ac. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. html) (in Japanese). japantimes. ac. "Upset at the 19th CSA Computer Shogi Championship" (http:/ / www.Computer shogi 340 Notes [1] Yoshiharu. [26] "Computer program Ponanza highest rated player on Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www. computer-shogi. The Mainichi Newspapers. [10] "Shogi programs crush Amateurs" (http:/ / www.html) in Japanese . 12 October 2010. co. . . computer-shogi. org/ wcsc20/ index_e. html?sort=d& mid=813103510& start=2563). [11] "Museum of Abstract Strategy Games" (http:/ / www. jp/ shogidokoro/ index. [17] Reijer Grimbergen. html). . . [8] Reijer Grimbergen. Retrieved 2008-11-13. html) (in Japanese). [18] "Winners of 2010 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. The Asahi Shimbun. jp/ dy/ national/ T101118005564. topica. yomiuri. . computer-shogi. . . html) (in Japanese). . geocities. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2008/ 18csa. . youtube. teu. [24] Reijer Grimbergen. nakajim. "Report on the Annual Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. [5] Hidetchi. htm).jp/computer_shogi/comvshuman. . . csa). html). [9] "The University of Electro-Communications" (http:/ / entcog. [2] Kaufman. com) (in Japanese). org/ wcsc21/ index_e. html). [23] Hiroshi Yamashita. jp/ shogi/ logs/ LATEST/ players-floodgate. html) (in Japanese). g. "Computer with a lance handicap will beat a Meijin" (http:/ / lists. html?mid=812678696& sort=d& start=1965). org/ wcsc21/ team. [3] "Watanabe comments on his game with Bonanza" (http:/ / lists. c. jp/ member/ member. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2009/ 19csa. Shogi-L mailing list. [15] "Floodgate is a computer shogi server for computers" (http:/ / wdoor. html?nn20051016a4. . net/ index. hccnet. teu. 2007)" (http:/ / www. u-tokyo. Retrieved 2008-08-12. . [7] "Will shogi software beat male pros?" (http:/ / www. External links • Computer versus Human Shogi Events (http://www. [13] "WinBoard for Shogi" (http:/ / home. asahi. c. de/ Bernhard. jaist. computer-shogi. org/ kifu/ gpw2008/ vs_shimizugami.junichi-takada. topica. php?将棋-戦略的なアマトップ合è°ã¯ã‚³ãƒ³ãƒ”ュータに勝てるか) (in Japanese). 2010)" (http:/ / www. htm). 11th. Maerz/ BCMShogi/ ). [14] "BCMShogi Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / home. html). 3 August 2011. ocn. com/ watch?v=H1YrSkDxXYQ) (video). com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. [22] "Shogi pros warned not to play computers" (http:/ / search. com/ view/ shogi-computer-beats-female-champ-shimizu). Habu (2007-03-27). com/ shougi/ topics/ TKY201108020334. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. com/ watch?v=lUnbzhnDIvA) (video). html). . "Yoshiharu Habu rates computer at the level of 2 dan shoreikai" (http:/ / lists. htm). teu. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ articlesmain. html) (in Japanese). shogidojo. . . "Computer Shogi Program YSS On Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www32. [21] "Hashimoto vs Tacos in 2005" (http:/ / www. jp/ entcog/ event/ event2011_comvshum. html?sort=d& mid=812686165& start=1928). ooco. . ac. jp/ ~yss/ 24rating. 19 November 2010. Larry (2008-05-07). computer-shogi.

this description does not give enough information to play the game. taikyoku shogi (大局将棋. It is thought that the really huge games (dai shogi and up) were never really played to any significant extent and were devised merely so that the creators could have the fun of inventing enormous games. It can safely be assumed that the game was played without drops. This form of the game is known as sho shogi (小将棋).[1] The same 12th century document which describes the Heian form of shogi also describes a variant played on a 13×13 board. but probably meant in the sense of "exotic shogi". gained some adherents in the West. 15×15). It has. "great great shogi". giving rise to shogi as we know it today. but recently records of an even larger variant. assuming one has the time. ranging from some of the largest chess-type games ever played to some of the smallest. dai shogi (大将棋. but can reasonably be assumed to have been the same as in modern shogi (minus the rook and bishop. The main reference work in English is the Middle Shogi Manual by George Hodges. . literally "Indian shogi". Large-board variants There are a number of shogi variants played on boards larger than 9×9. possibly played with drops). was discovered.) The drunken elephant was eliminated by the Emperor Go-Nara (reign 1526-1557). 25×25). which is usually referred to as Heian shogi (平安将棋). but there was no rook or bishop. which therefore play more like other forms of chess. and it is assumed that the drop rule was introduced at about the same time. and were probably all played without drops. tenjiku shogi (天竺将棋. Chu shogi is best known for a very powerful piece called the lion. Predecessors of modern shogi Some form of chess had almost certainly reached Japan by the 9th century. but this has not stopped people from trying to reconstruct this early form of shogi. "ultimate shogi". As with the smaller Heian shogi. The most popular large-board variant is chu shogi (中将棋). A few of these variants are still regularly played. the rules for this game have not been completely preserved. however. maka dai-dai shōgi (摩訶大大将棋. which is now called Heian dai shogi (平安大将棋). the games up to Tenjiku shogi at least appear to be quite playable. Unfortunately. "grand shogi". The game was still commonly played in Japan in the early 20th century. with the board becoming less crowded as pieces are exchanged. However. Chu shogi has existed since at least the 14th century. "ultra great great shogi". 17×17). which means "little shogi". (While 9×9 may not seem 'little'. during the Heian period. if not earlier. Tai shogi was thought to be the world's largest chess variant. The drop rule. often considered the most notable feature of shogi. 36×36). though none are nearly as popular as shogi itself. By the 16th century the game had taken a form closer to the modern game: it was played on a 9×9 board with the same setup as in modern shogi except that an extra piece (a drunken elephant) stood in front of the king. These variants date back at least to the 17th century. The setup is unknown. 16×16). is absent from most shogi variants. 19×19) and tai shogi (泰将棋. it was smaller than the other shogi variants prevalent at the time.Shogi variant 341 Shogi variant Many variants of shogi have been developed over the centuries. These variants are all quite old. but possibly the pawns started on the second rank rather than the third. The name means middle shogi. amazing their friends and confounding their enemies. "great shogi". and minus a gold general in the 8×8 case). dai-dai shōgi (大大将棋. and the game is sometimes so called in English. which moves like a king but twice per turn. The board appears to have been 9×8 or 8×8. but the earliest surviving Japanese description of the rules of chess dates from the early 12th century. but has now largely died out. there are earlier references. played on a 12×12 board. but it's not clear that they refer to the game as we now know it. Piece movements were as in modern shogi. Other large medieval shogi variants were wa shogi (11×11.

Uses the drop rule. Small variants name board size 1×2 1 pieces each when invented invented by notes Bushi Shogi[2] Gufuu Shogi[3] Nana shogi[4] Dōbutsu shōgi Micro shogi 2000? Georg Dunkel The pieces are cubes. One of the more popular shogi variants Yari shogi 7×9 14 Christian Freeling. Ko shogi is unusual for the interdependence of its pieces and the complex rules of promotion. Dōbutsu shōgi (official site. rules. Netherlands early form of shogi Heian shogi 8×8 or 9×8 16 or 18 c. in Japanese) [5] . 1120 or before Standard-size variants . Also sold as "Let's Catch the Lion!" 3×4 4 recently Madoka Kitao 4×5 5 modern. 6×6 12 Tori shogi 7×7 16 late 18th century 1981 All pieces named after birds. which is played on a Go board and incorporates elements of Chinese chess. The players have a king each. and stay in use. Kyoto shogi Judkins shogi Whale shogi 5×5 6×6 5 7 c. England R. 19×19). 1970 Oyama Yasuharu? Minishogi 5×5 6 Shigenobu Kusumoto He actually may have rediscovered it instead of inventing it. Children's game. before 1982 c. 342 Modern variants These are some of the new and old shogi variants which have been invented. 2×3 2 2000? Georg Dunkel 3×3 3 1998/2001 Georg Dunkel The pieces are cubes. Comparatively popular. Time will show which if any of the many recently-invented variants stand the test of usage and competition from other games. and move only by being rotated and set another face up. & 2 shared pieces. 1976 before April 1998 1981 Tamiya Katsuya Paul Judkins of Norwich. Wayne Schmittberger of USA Ōhashi Sōei All pieces named after cetaceans. and each piece's power and moves varies according to which of its 6 sides is up.Shogi variant The most recent large board variant is kō shōgi (廣将棋 or 廣象棋 "wide (elephant) chess".

Peter Michaelsen Shogi plus xiangqi-type cannons. Lewisville. 1994 Edward Jackman Starts with all pieces in hand. Hand shogi 9×9 19 pieces early 1997 John William Brown. 9×9 9 or 18 Like ludus latrunculorum. Not much like shogi. Popular in Japan. Arizona Starts with 10 pieces each side in hand. maka-dai-dai shogi with fewer pieces & different start [6] setup Tai shogi Taikyoku shogi 25×25 36×36 177 209 15th century around the mid 16th century .Shogi variant 343 name board size 9×9 9×9 pieces each 21 20 when invented 16th century February 1998 invented by notes Sho shogi Cannon shogi Hasami shogi Ancestor of modern shogi. 9×9 20 Large variants name board size 10×10 pieces each 22 when invented invented by notes Okisaki shogi c. 1996 Masayuki Nakayachi All pieces are named after animals. Wa shogi Chu shogi Heian dai shogi Dai shogi Tenjiku shogi Dai-dai shōgi Maka-dai-dai shōgi Kō shōgi Hishigata shogi 11×11 12×12 13×13 15×15 16×16 17×17 19×19 27 46 34 65 76 96 96 early 14th century? early 14th century about AD 1230 15th or 16th century 15th or 16th century 15th century 19×19 19×19 90 39 turn of the 18th century 2005 or a bit before Sean Humby Based partly on xiangqi & projectile weapons. Annan shogi Unashogi 9×9 20 A Korean variation of standard shogi where pieces gain the powers of the pieces behind them.

free. Kerry Handscomb of NOST (knights Of the Square Table) gave it this English name. kolumbus. From largest to smallest (or most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • 1 king 1 bishop 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 pawn . Although not confirmed.supports many shogi variants and chess variants.net/chu-ladder/) • Richard's Play-By-EMail Server (http://www. dir/ hishigata. fi/ geodun/ nana/ nana3.net/pbmserv/) . cs. Each player has a set of 5 wedge-shaped pieces.netspace.shogi. and depromotion.gamerz. htm http:/ / www. fi/ geodun/ gufuu/ gufuu. edu/ ~mvanier/ hacking/ gnushogi/ gnushogi_17. with very different rules for promotion. The game was invented before 1982.chess. html http:/ / www. Game equipment Two players play on a board ruled into a grid of 5 ranks (rows) by 4 files (columns). The pieces are of slightly different sizes. jp http:/ / www.au/~trout/) • International Chu Shogi Ladder (http://www. htm http:/ / doubutsushogi. fi/ geodun/ bushi/ bushi.and four-player variants name board size pieces each when invented circa 1930 1993 invented by notes Sannin shogi 7×7×7 hexagonal 18 Yonin shogi 9×9 9 Tanigasaki Jisuke three-person shogi Ota Mitsuyasu four-person shogi References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] See http:/ / www. kolumbus. html Hishigata shogi External links • Shogi Variants Program (http://www.net. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. org/ shogivariants.Shogi variant 344 Three. kolumbus.htm) (French) Micro shogi Microshogi (五分摩訶将棋 gofun maka shōgi "5-minute (scarlet) poppy chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). chessvariants. he credits its invention to the late Oyama Yasuharu. a top level shogi player.fr/shogivar. Rules of the game The game is identical to standard shogi with the following exceptions. caltech. • Shogi variants (http://history. htm http:/ / www.

pointing toward the opponent. as is a pawn which captures and thus promotes there. and promotion is mandatory. each player places the pawn in the same file as the king. a pawn that reaches the far rank is trapped. it reverts back to its former state. a piece promotes when it captures.Micro shogi 345 Setup 4 3 2 1 4 K P 3 B 2 G 1 S a b c P d S G B K e 王 角 金 銀 一 将 行 将 将 歩 兵 二 三 歩 四 兵 銀 金 角 玉 五 将 将 行 将 Each side places his pieces in the following positions. Promotion values are entirely different from standard shogi: • • • • • A king does not promote: K A silver general becomes a lance and vice versa: S ↔ L A bishop becomes a tokin (T) and vice versa: B ↔ T A gold general becomes a rook and vice versa: G ↔ R A pawn becomes a knight and vice versa: P ↔ N Thus when a lance. • In the second rank. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • The king is placed in the right corner The bishop is placed in the adjacent file to the king. That is. the first rank is |S|G|B|K|. it is flipped back over to show its original unpromoted value. or knight makes a capture. A tokin moves the same way as a golden general. microshogi has no promotion zone. . tokin. Any trapped piece may be captured and returned to play as part of the opposing army. The silver general is placed adjacent to the gold general in the left corner. rook. A knight which reaches one of the two far ranks is trapped. it demotes—that is. as is a knight which captures there. A silver which captures in the far rank and therefore promotes to a lance is trapped. The gold general is placed adjacent to the bishop. Promotion Unlike standard shogi. but can escape if it captures there and thus demotes to a silver. When a promoted piece captures. For more information click here [1] . Likewise. Instead. A lance is also trapped at the far rank.

Each player has a set of 6 wedge-shaped pieces. com/ shogivariants. net/ shogi.com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. invented or rediscovered the game c. Japan. org/ shogi. a player may have two unpromoted pawns on the same file. 1970. The pieces are of slightly different sizes. shogi. there are no other restrictions when dropping pawns. • Except for dropping in the far rank. dir/ poppysh.Micro shogi 346 Drops Drops are similar to standard shogi. and a pawn can be dropped to give immediate checkmate. html [3] http:/ / www. except that it is played with a reduced number of pieces on a 5x5 board. html Minishogi Minishogi (5五将棋 gogo shōgi "5V chess" or "5×5 chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). chessvariants. Shigenobu Kusumoto of Osaka. External links • Shogi Net [2] • Shogi: Japanese Chess [3] • Chessvariants. html [2] http:/ / www. From largest to smallest (or most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 king 1 rook 1 bishop 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 pawn These are identical to the standard pieces of the same names. chessvariants. and each player's promotion zone consists only of the rank farthest from the player. That is. Rules of the game Minishogi is identical to standard shogi with the following exceptions: Game equipment Two players play on a board ruled into a grid of 5 ranks (rows) by 5 files (columns). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. . The rules are identical to those of standard shogi. except that: • A player may drop a piece with either side facing up.

html [2] http:/ / www. but contains game records which can be understood without knowing Japanese) • Mini Shogi [3] 6x5 Mini Shogi iPhone software References [1] http:/ / www. That is. chessvariants. com/ shogivariants. com/ game_minishogi. The gold general is placed in the adjacent file to the king. External links • Minishogi [1] at chessvariants. co. • In the second rank. except that the promotion zone is the farthest rank away from you. adjacent to the bishop. dir/ minishog. the first rank is |K|G|S|B|R|. The silver general is placed adjacent to the gold general. Promotion and drops These are as in standard shogi. pointing toward the opponent.Minishogi 347 Setup Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. cascadiagames. from the perspective of Black. In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the left corner file. geocities. The rook is placed in the right corner. jp/ Playtown-Spade/ 8662/ [3] http:/ / www. You can drop like you do in shogi as well.com • Website of the Japanese Minishogi Association [2] (in Japanese. Pieces promote as they do in shogi. each player places the pawn in the same file as the king. The bishop is placed adjacent to the silver general. html .

and are puns in Japanese for words with the same pronunciations but different kanji. and the promotion values are entirely different from standard shogi. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • 1 king • • • • 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 tokin 1 pawn Piece White king Black king Rook/pawn Kanji 王将 玉将 飛歩 Rōmaji ōshō gyokushō hifu ginkaku kinkei kyōto Silver-general/bishop 銀角 Gold-general/knight Lance/tokin 金桂 香と The names of the pieces combine their promoted and unpromoted values. of slightly different sizes. 1976. the pieces alternately promote and demote with every move. However. and provides the name of the game.Kyoto shogi 348 Kyoto shogi Kyoto shogi (京都将棋 kyōto shōgi "Kyoto chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). It was invented by Tamiya Katsuya c. but with a reduced number of pieces on a 5×5 board. Each player has a set of 5 wedge-shaped pieces. For example. Kyoto shogi is played like standard shogi. Setup Setup . the lance/tokin is homonymous with the name of the city 京都 Kyoto. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Rules of the game Game equipment Two players play on a board ruled into a grid of 5 ranks (rows) by 5 files (columns).

capture or be dropped in a manner that will prevent it from moving on a subsequent turn. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. The silver general (S) is placed in the adjacent files to the left of the king. Every time a piece makes a move it alternately promotes and reverts to its unpromoted state. The pawn (P) is placed in the right corner. demotion is effected by turning the piece back. Promotion There is no promotion zone in Kyoto shogi. That is. pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king (K) is placed in the center file. which is illegal in standard shogi. Such pieces may be captured as any other. Drops A captured piece may be dropped with either side facing up. a rook can move onto the farthest rank. revealing the name of its promoted rank. The gold general (G) is placed in the adjacent files to the right of the king. The promotion rules and values are reminiscent of microshogi and entirely different from standard shogi: • • • • • A king cannot promote: K A tokin (T) promotes to a lance and vice versa: T ↔ L A silver general promotes to a bishop and vice versa: S ↔ B A gold general promotes to a knight and vice versa: G ↔ N A pawn promotes to a rook and vice versa: P ↔ R Movement and capture A piece is allowed to move. becoming a pawn and unable to move further. the first rank is |T|S|K|G|P|. For example. External links • Shogi Net [2] • Benri Shogi (in Chinese) [1] • Shogi: Japanese Chess [3] . The tokin (T) is placed in the left corner.Kyoto shogi 349 5 歩 4 金 3 王 2 銀 1 と 一 二 三 四 5 P 4 G 3 K 2 S 1 T a b c d と 銀 玉 金 歩 五 T S K G P e Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below.

This shows who controls the piece during play. however it is not Japanese. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. prior to April 1998. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. play on a board ruled into a grid of 6 ranks (rows) by 6 files (columns). UK. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. hk/ Judkins shogi Judkins shogi (ジャドケンス将棋 Jadokensu shōgi "Judkins chess") is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). On the reverse side of some pieces are one or two other characters. Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation: . this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 king 1 rook 1 bishop 1 gold general 1 silver general 1 knight Setup • 1 pawn Most of the English-language names are chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess. and faces forward. rather than as translations of the Japanese names. Each player has a set of 7 wedge-shaped pieces. Credit for its invention has been given to Paul Judkins of Norwich. of slightly different sizes. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black).Kyoto shogi 350 References [1] http:/ / shogi. toward the opposing side. Game equipment Two players. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote).

pointing toward the opponent. and generally use the Japanese name tokin for promoted pawns. Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive versions of 金 'gold'. and と for tokin. 仝 for promoted lance. and are usually cursive. These abbreviated characters have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver. becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink. Another convention has abbreviated versions of the original characters. 杏 for promoted lance. after their Japanese names. 今 for promoted knight. Setup 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 R 5 B 4 N 3 S 2 G 1 K a P b c d P K G S N B R e f 飛 角 桂 銀 金 王 一 車 行 馬 将 将 将 歩 二 兵 三 四 歩 兵 五 玉 金 銀 桂 角 飛 六 将 将 将 馬 行 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. • In the rank nearest the player: . with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for promoted knight. with promoted silver the same 全 as above.Judkins shogi 351 Piece King (reigning) Kanji Rōmaji Unicode Hiragana Meaning king jade general flying chariot dragon king angle mover 王[将] ō[shō] 738b [5c06] おう[しょう] 7389 [5c06] ぎょく[しょう] 98db [8eca] ひ[しゃ] 7adc [738b] りゅう[おう] 89d2 [884c] かく[ぎょう] King (challenging) 玉[将] gyoku[shō] Rook Promoted rook Bishop Promoted bishop Gold general Silver general Promoted silver Knight Promoted knight Pawn Promoted pawn 飛[車] hi[sha] 竜[王] ryū[ō] 角[行] kaku[gyō] [竜]馬 uma (ryūma) [7adc] 99ac うま (りゅうま) dragon horse 金[将] kin[shō] 銀[将] gin[shō] 成銀 narigin 91d1 [5c06] きん[しょう] 9280 [5c06] ぎん[しょう] 6210 9280 なりぎん gold general silver general promoted silver laurelled horse promoted laurel foot soldier reaches gold 桂[馬] kei[ma] 成桂 歩[兵] narikei fu[hyō] 6842 [99ac] けい[ま] 6210 6842 なりけい 6b69 [5175] ふ[ひょう] 3068 [91d1] と[きん] と[金] to[kin] English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons. and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin).

Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the two farthest ranks. and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. but not including drops (see below). revealing the name of its promoted rank. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. The bishop is placed adjacent to the knight. Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). gold general. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. out of. 352 That is. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. if an opposing piece is there. Each of these options is detailed below. with no effect on either. the opponent's territory at setup). if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece. Jumping piece The knight can jump. the moving piece may not move in that direction.Judkins shogi • • • • • • The king is placed in the left corner file. left. forward. Game play The players alternate making a move. it may be displaced and captured. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. The gold general is placed in the adjacent file to the king. limited only by the edge of the board.) The step movers are the king. then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. or right. ×). The knight is placed adjacent to the silver general. it can pass over any intervening piece. it cannot move in that direction at all. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. if the friendly piece is adjacent. but are not literally descriptive. . in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. backward. with Black moving first. silver general and pawn. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. The silver general is placed adjacent to the gold general. or wholly within the zone. that is. displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes. +). each player places the pawn in the same file as the king on the far left side.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. The rook is placed adjacent to the bishop in the right corner. whether friend or foe. If a friendly piece intervenes. The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. including moves into. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. • In the second rank. the first rank is |K|G|S|N|B|R|. Ranging pieces The bishop and rook can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. at the original line of the opponent's pawn and beyond (that is.

bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line. a knight reaching the penultimate rank must be promoted. ○ ○ 銀 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 全 ○ ○ ○ Knight Promoted Knight . For the same reason. • A bishop or rook. crossing any number of empty squares King (reigning) Step: The king can step one square in any direction. given enough moves. This means the bishop is now able to reach any square on the board. The jeweled general goes to the inferior player. Notation ○ ☆ │ ─ \ / Steps to an adjacent square Jumps to a non-adjacent square. When captured. loses its normal movement and gains the movement of a gold general. since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. giving it six possibilities. giving it six possibilities. If a pawn or knight reaches the furthest rank. one square diagonally forward. it must be promoted. when promoted. • A silver general. Promoted Silver Step: The promoted silver can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. orthogonal or diagonal. orthogonal or diagonal. or. or. Pieces are pared with their promotion and those with a grey heading start out in the game. one square diagonally forward. The king general goes to the superior player. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ Silver General Step: The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. one square straight forward. keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square in any direction (like a king). knight or pawn.Judkins shogi Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. or. King (challenging) Step: The king can step one square in any direction. pieces lose their promoted status. promoted pieces have a blue heading. nor can pieces which are already promoted. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 王 ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ Gold General Step: The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. when promoted. 353 Individual pieces Following are diagrams that indicate the movement of each piece. The gold general does not promote. giving it five possibilities. Each piece promotes as follows: • A king or gold general cannot promote.

Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn. Step: It can step one square in any of the four diagonal directions. They are retained "in hand". that requires an additional move. Step: It can step one square in any of the four orthogonal directions. giving it six possibilities. one square diagonally forward. \ / \ / \ / \ ○ / 角 ○ 馬 ○ / ○ \ / \ / / \ \ Rook Range: The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. one square diagonally forward. in a single motion. A knight that reaches one of the two furthest ranks must promote. A pawn or knight may not be dropped on the furthest rank. an unpromoted bishop can only reach half the squares on the board. A pawn that reaches the furthest rank must promote. giving it six possibilities. Bishop Range: The bishop can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. or. they are unpromoted when dropped back on the board. Dragon King Range: The dragon king can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. Because it cannot move orthogonally. Jump: The knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. Tokin Step: The token can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. This is termed dropping the piece. since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. Similarly. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. ○ 歩 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ と ○ Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in Judkins shogi. a knight may not be dropped on the penultimate rank. Pieces that are promoted when captured lose that promotion. There are restrictive rules for where a pawn may be dropped (see below). ☆ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 圭 ○ Dragon Horse Range: The dragon horse can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. as detailed under "Promotion". facing the opponent. That is. On any turn. │ │ ─ ─ 飛 ─ ─ │ ○ │ ─ ─ 竜 ○ ─ ─ │ │ ○ │ │ ○ Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square. or just a drop. above. it has a choice of two forward destinations.Judkins shogi 354 Step: The promoted knight can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. . or. ignoring any intervening piece. A drop cannot capture a piece. instead of moving a piece across the board.

If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each rook or bishop scores 5 points for the owning player. and White plays the first move of the game. such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. the checking move is also mate. however. the pieces in hand must be the same. if the opponent would have no way to prevent his king being captured on the next move. Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. does not count as a pawn when considering this drop restriction. Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments. For two positions to be considered the same.) A pawn cannot be dropped directly in front of the opponent's king. as a player will resign when checkmated. one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play. then the game is no contest. A player scoring less than 12 points loses. . Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game . If both players have at least 12 points. Recall. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. In practice this rarely happens. as well as the position on the board. the move is said to give check to the king. the king is said to be in check. In other words. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king wins the game. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play. (A tokin.they are not available for drops. Common handicaps. or promoted pawn. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. the prohibition against perpetual check. 355 Check and mate When a player makes a move. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). then the game is no contest. In a handicap game. in increasing order of size. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess. as otherwise when loss is inevitable. and all other pieces (except kings) score 1 point each.Judkins shogi There are two restrictions when dropping pawns: A pawn cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player. a pawn cannot be dropped to give immediate mate. because material advantage is not as powerful in Judkins shogi as in chess. but in professional style tournaments the rules may require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). are as follows: • Remove White's bishop • Remove White's rook • Two pieces: remove White's rook and bishop Other handicaps are also occasionally used. and effectively wins the game. The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get it out of check.

Minor variations are made for Judkins shogi. For example. so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. K = king. For example. or * for a drop. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. html . +P for a tokin (promoted pawn). This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank. For example. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 6f being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. External links • Chessvariants. but differs in several respects. N = knight. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.g. x for a capture. e. Nx5c= indicates a knight capturing on 5c without promoting. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. and these are distinguished as C6e-5d (moving the left one) and C4e-5d (moving the right one).com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. the start of a game might look like this: 1. then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: .Judkins shogi 356 Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece. R = rook. S = silver. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn. chessvariants. or an = to indicate that it was declined. if Black has two golds (one was captured and dropped) which can be moved to the square 5e in front of the king. For example. com/ shogivariants. A typical example is P-6d.. dir/ judkin. P-1c 2. P-1d P-6d P-6c In handicap games White plays first. however. B = bishop. which. G = gold.for an ordinary move. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess.

from the perspective of Black. Because this is a Western shogi variant. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • 1 white whale (W) 1 porpoise (P) 1 humpback (H) 1 grey whale (G) 1 narwhal (N) 1 blue whale (B) 6 dolphins (D) Each piece has its initial written on its face. Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. Setup 1 B D 2 N D 3 P D 4 5 6 H a D b c d D H D D D P D N D e B f W G D D G W This is the starting setup of a game of whale shogi. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. but with more pieces. toward the opposing side. and kanji for the whales are difficult even for the Japanese. the pieces use Latin letters rather than kanji. Each player has a set of 12 wedge-shaped pieces. and faces forward. This shows who controls the piece during play. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black). On the reverse side of the porpoise is another letter (K for 'killer whale'). The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. of slightly different sizes. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. • In the rank nearest the player: • The white whale is placed just left of center. Japanese: it was invented by R. play on a board ruled into a grid of 6 ranks (rows) by 6 files (columns). Game equipment Two players. however. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). It is not. pointing toward the opponent. Wayne Schmittberger of the United States in 1981.Whale shogi 357 Whale shogi Whale Shogi (鯨将棋 kujira shōgi) is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). The game is similar to Judkins shogi. . and all the pieces are named after a type of whale. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's white whale.

whether friend or foe. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. left. but only on the back rank.Whale shogi • • • • • The porpoise is placed in the adjacent file to the right of the white whale. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. if an opposing piece is there. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece. it cannot move in that direction at all. porpoise. forward. or right. If a friendly piece intervenes. Game play The players alternate making a move. the moving piece may not move in that direction. The blue whale is placed adjacent to the narwhal in the right corner. narwhal. limited only by the edge of the board.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. +). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. too. blue whale and killer whale. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. that is. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. Ranging pieces The grey whale and killer whale can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. it can pass over any intervening piece. . If an opposing piece intervenes. with no effect on either. it may be displaced and captured. the first rank is: H G W P N B • In the second rank. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. Jumping piece The narwhal can jump. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). with Black moving first. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. ×). but are not literally descriptive. but only directly forward. Some pieces are capable of more than one kind of movement. The narwhal is placed adjacent to the porpoise.) The step movers are the white whale. 358 That is. if the friendly piece is adjacent. humpback. The humpback is placed in the left corner. The grey whale is placed between the white whale and the humpback. The dolphin can. backward. and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. Each of these options is detailed below. the six dolphins are placed one in each file.

Step: It can move one square directly backward or sideways. bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line. Notation ○ ☆ │ ─ \ / Steps to an adjacent square Jumps to a non-adjacent square. or. orthogonal or diagonal. The porpoise promotes to a killer whale upon capture. crossing any number of empty squares 359 White Whale (白鯨 hakugei) ○ ○ ○ ○ W ○ ○ ○ ○ • Step: The white whale can step one square in any direction. Blue Whale (シロナガスクジラ shironagase kujira) . Porpoise (ネズミイルカ nezumi iruka) ○ P ○ • Step: The porpoise can move one square orthogonally sideways. those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. Narwhal (イッカク ikkaku) ☆ ○ N ○ ○ • • Jump: The narwhal can jump to the second square directly forward. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game.Whale shogi Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement.

Humpback Whale (ザトウクジラ zatō kujira) ○ H ○ ○ ○ ○ • Step: The humpback can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. or directly backward.Whale shogi 360 ○ ○ B ○ ○ • Step: The blue whale can step one square directly forward or backward. Killer Whale (シャチ shachi) │ ○ │ ─ ─ ○ ─ K ─ ○ ○ │ │ • • Range: The killer whale can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. or one square diagonally forward. Grey Whale (コククジラ koku kujira) | | G / / \ \ • Range: The grey whale can move any number of free squares directly forward or diagonally backward. Dolphin (イルカ iruka) ○ D . giving it four possibilities. Step: It can move one square in any diagonal direction.

Recall. and effectively wins the game. If a player's white whale is in check and no legal move by that player will get the white whale out of check. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each grey whale scores 5 points for the owning player. but only if it is in the farthest rank. the white whale is said to be in check. the pieces in hand must be the same. as well as the position on the board. There are three restrictions when dropping dolphins: • A dolphin may not be dropped on the furthest rank. instead of moving a piece across the board. however. When captured. or just a drop.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). as otherwise when loss is inevitable. the checking move is also mate. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's white whale could be captured on the following move. In practice this rarely happens. as a player will resign when checkmated. a dolphin cannot be dropped to give immediate mate. Promotions are ignored for the purpose of scoring. A porpoise cannot be dropped as such. In other words. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in whale shogi. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. the move is said to give check to the white whale. one may sacrifice a dolphin in order to gain flexibility for drops. the prohibition against perpetual check. • A dolphin cannot be dropped if the opponent would have no way to prevent his white whale being captured on the next move.Whale shogi 361 D / / \ \ • • Step: The dolphin can step one square forward. a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square. Game end A player who captures the opponent's white whale wins the game. or. then the game is no contest. If both players have at least 14 points. For this reason. even though it has a legal move on subsequent turns. then the game is no contest. and all other pieces (except white whales) score 1 point each. the porpoise promotes to a killer whale and can only be dropped as a killer whale. This is termed dropping the piece. The game reaches an impasse if both white whales have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. facing the opponent. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. A drop cannot capture a piece. A player scoring less than 14 points loses. • A dolphin cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as two other dolphins controlled by the same player. . A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Range: It can move any number of free squares diagonally backward. They are retained "in hand". On any turn. For two positions to be considered the same. that requires an additional move. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play.

This consists of a lowercase letter representing the file and a number representing the rank. 362 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. because material advantage is not as powerful in whale shogi as in chess. For example. are as follows: • • • • • Remove White's grey whale Remove White's humpback Remove White's porpoise Remove White's porpoise and grey whale Two pieces: remove White's porpoise and humpback • Three pieces: remove White's porpoise.for an ordinary move. In a handicap game. D-e4 2.) In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. This notation is modified for use in whale shogi in the letters used to name the pieces. B = blue whale. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game—they are not available for drops. in increasing order of size. one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play. For example. H = humpback. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess. if Black has two humpbacks (one was captured and dropped) which can be moved to the square h5 in front of the White whale. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. N = narwhal. and White plays the first move of the game. Common handicaps. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. (This method of designating squares is the reverse of Japanese convention. G = grey whale. D-d4 3. The promoted porpoise is simply K = killer whale. but differs in several respects. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. with a1 being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and f6 being the bottom left corner. P = porpoise. but if a professional-style tournament is to be played the rules may require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). humpback and grey whale Other handicaps are also occasionally used. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. x for a capture. and these are distinguished as Hi6-h5 (moving the left one) and Gi4-h5 (moving the right one). or * for a drop. so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. . the start of a game might look like this: 1. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . D-d3 D-c3 N-b3 Dxd3 In handicap games White plays first. A typical example is P-f6. W = white whale.Whale shogi Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments. The first letter represents the piece moved: D = dolphin.

just like a dog in tenjiku shogi. It can be captured and dropped and all other Whale Shogi rules are the same. com [2] http:/ / www. the Pacific Northern Right Whale (A). com/ shogivariants. chessvariants. html . it moves only one square. chessvariants.com [1] • Whale Shogi [2] References [1] http:/ / www. dir/ whale. Setup 1 B D 2 N D 3 P D 4 5 6 G D 7 H a D b c d e D H D G D D D P D N D f W A D D A W B g External links • Shogi Net [2] • chessvariants. but also directly forwards or diagonally backwards—in other words. It moves as a minor Gray Whale in that instead of sliding.Whale shogi 363 Paulowich Whale Shogi This variant invented by David Paulowich in 2005 uses a 7x7 board and includes a new extra piece.

Each player has a set of 16 wedge-shaped pieces. hō taka. On the reverse side of some pieces is another character. gan Cr Pt Q (RQ & LQ) Sw +Sw . jun tsubame. some people will play with the "left"/"right" side up instead of the "quail" side up. en kari. Each piece has its name in the form of a kanji written on its face. toward the opposing side. From largest to smallest (or most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 phoenix 1 falcon 2 cranes 2 pheasants 2 quails (a left and a right) 8 swallows In line with the bird theme. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black) and are usually cursive. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. it's the only Japanese variant to do so. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. This is one of the more popular shogi variants. kaku kiji. of slightly different sizes.) The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. ō Abbreviation Ph Fa *Mountain Hawk Eagle 鵰 Crane Pheasant Quail (right and left) Swallow *Wild goose 鶴 雉 鶉 燕 鴈 kumataka. This shows who controls the piece during play. 'bird chess') is a variant of shogi (Japanese chess) attributed to Ōhashi Sōei in the late 18th century. Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game in English and Japanese: Piece Phoenix Falcon Kanji 鵬 鷹 Romaji ootori. chi uzura. Game equipment Two players. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's phoenix. play on a board ruled into a grid of 7 ranks (rows) by 7 files (columns). (The quail are different: on one side is the character for "quail". and faces forward. while on the other is the character for left or right. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. shū +Fa tsuru.Tori shogi 364 Tori shogi Tori shōgi (禽将棋 or 鳥将棋. The game is played on a 7×7 board and uses the drop rule. each piece is named after a different kind of bird. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote).

The movement categories are: . (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. The promoted pieces (*) are usually called eagle and goose in English. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. and move first: RQ Pt Cr Ph Fa Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Cr Pt LQ Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Fa LQ Pt Cr Ph Cr Pt RQ 7 鶉 6 雉 5 鶴 4 鵬 鷹 3 鶴 2 雉 1 鶉 一 二 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 三 四 五 六 七 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 燕 鷹 鶉 雉 鶴 鵬 鶴 雉 鶉 Game play The players alternate making a move. displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). left. backward.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece. forward. while the second is the Sino-Japanese pronunciation. with Black moving first. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. Each of these options is detailed below. ×).Tori shogi The first pronunciation of each piece is the Japanese pronunciation. 365 Setup Below is a diagram showing the setup of the pieces. but are no longer literally descriptive. or right. Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. and bigger in the second. +). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. Black pieces are in bold face in the first diagram. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece.

but not including drops (see below). if the friendly piece is adjacent. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game. and the 8 swallows on each side. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board (see above). pieces lose their promoted status. Limited ranging piece The eagle can move along a limited number (2) of free (empty) squares along a straight line in certain directions. If an opposing piece intervenes.) The step movers are the phoenix.Tori shogi Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. as follows: • A falcon promotes to an eagle. it moves like ranging pieces (see below). If a friendly piece intervenes. then that player must promote the piece at the end of the turn. revealing the name of its promoted rank. 366 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the two farthest ranks. including moves into. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line. those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. Ranging pieces The quail and eagle can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. falcon. crossing any number of empty squares . the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. it cannot move in that direction at all. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. or wholly within the zone. that is. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. When captured. if an opposing piece is there. out of. it may be displaced and captured. • A swallow promotes to a goose. Only two pieces promote. they can pass over any intervening piece. with no effect on either. the moving piece may not move in that direction. Other than the limited distance. Notation ○ ☆ │ \ / Steps to an adjacent square or has a limited range Jumps to a non-adjacent square. whether friend or foe. limited only by the edge of the board. at the original line of the opponent's falcon and beyond. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. Jumping pieces The pheasant and goose can jump. crane.

but not directly to the side. or. or. Pheasant Jump: The pheasant can jump to the second square directly forward. Step: It can step one square directly forward or sideways. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ \ / ○ 鷹 ○ \ ○ / ○ 鵰 ○ │ ○ ○ ○ │ ○ Crane Step: The crane can move one square in the four diagonal directions. ☆ 鴈 ☆ ☆ . Limited range: It can move one or two squares diagonally backward. Step: It can move one square diagonally backward to the left. orthogonal or diagonal. a pheasant can only reach half the squares on the board. Step: It can move one square diagonally backward to the right. ○ 燕 Goose Jump: The goose can jump to the second square directly backward or diagonally forward.Tori shogi 367 Phoenix Step: The phoenix can step one square in any direction. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 鵬 ○ ○ Falcon Step: The falcon can step one square in any direction. Step: It can move one square diagonally backward. The phoenix is the "royal" or "objective" piece. That is. it can move to any of the six adjacent squares ahead or behind it. │ │ │ 鶉 / / ○ │ 鶉 ○ \ \ Swallow Step: The swallow can step one square forward. Because of its unusual movement. ○ ○ 鶴 ○ ☆ 雉 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Left Quail Range: The left quail can move any number of free squares directly forward or diagonally backward to the right. or. orthogonal or diagonal except directly backwards. or. or. It can move one square orthogonally forward or backward. or. Right Quail Range: The right quail can move any number of free squares directly forward or diagonally backward to the left. Eagle Range: The eagle can move any number of free squares diagonally forward or directly backward.

as well as the position on the board. a swallow cannot be dropped to give immediate mate. This is not a rule in itself. Pieces that are promoted when captured lose that promotion. A drop cannot capture a piece. instead of moving a piece across the board.) Another possible (but fairly uncommon) way for a game to end is impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). but arises from the repetition rule. Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn.) A swallow cannot be dropped where the opponent would have no way to prevent his phoenix being captured on the next move. On any turn. as a player will resign when checkmated. facing the opponent. If a player's phoenix is in check and no legal move by that player will get the phoenix out of check. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. This is termed dropping the piece. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. the move is said to give check to the phoenix. and effectively wins the game. They are retained "in hand". The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square. as otherwise when loss is inevitable. Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments. as detailed under "Promotion". There are three restrictions when dropping swallows: A swallow may not be dropped on the furthest rank. In other words. that requires an additional move.Tori shogi 368 Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in tori shogi.[1] Game end A player who captures the opponent's phoenix wins the game. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. the phoenix is said to be in check. then the game is no contest. and all other pieces (except phoenixes) score 1 point each. For two positions to be considered the same. In practice this rarely happens. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. the pieces in hand must be the same. or just a drop. The game reaches an impasse if both phoenixes have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. does not count as a swallow when considering this drop restriction. . (A goose. but in professional style tournaments the rules may require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. The rules for impasse and tournaments are of modern origin and may be ignored for traditional game play. If both players have at least 17 points. A swallow cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as two other unpromoted swallows controlled by the same player. the player starting the sequence must vary the move. or promoted swallow. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's phoenix could be captured on the following move. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each falcon scores 5 points for the owning player. they are unpromoted when dropped back on the board. above. since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. the checking move is also mate. A player scoring less than 17 points loses. Repetition The rule for repetition (千日手 sennichite) in tori shogi is that if the same position occurs three times with the same player to play by repetition of moves.

if Black has a crane at both 3c and 5c. and White plays the first move of the game. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. which can be moved to the square 4b in front of the phoenix. so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. are as follows: • • • • Remove White's left quail Remove White's falcon Two pieces: remove White's falcon and left quail Three pieces: remove White's falcon and both quails Other handicaps are also occasionally used.Tori shogi 369 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. a prefix may be added to the quail to distinguish the left quail from the right quail. LQ and RQ. Modifications have been made for tori shogi. Common handicaps. A typical example is Sw-6d. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant.for an ordinary move. For example. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. Swx3c 2. In a handicap game. however. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. when the left quail appears to the right of the right quail. SWx4a+ indicates a swallow capturing on 4a and promoting. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. . in increasing order of size. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game—they are not available for drops. Q = quail. The first letter represents the piece moved: Sw = swallow. For example. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. which. or * for a drop. but differs in several respects. the start of a game might look like this: 1. Cr-5f Swx5e Fax3c Q-1b In handicap games White plays first. Ph = phoenix. then these are distinguished as Cr5c-4b (moving the left one) and Cr3c-4b (moving the right one). For example. For example. Cr = crane. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 7g being the bottom left corner. because material advantage is not as powerful in tori shogi as in chess.) If a move requires the player to promote the piece. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. as +Sw for a goose (promoted swallow). Optionally. one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play. Pt = pheasant. Fa = falcon. x for a capture. Fax5e 3. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters.

html) • Online play on Little Golem (http://www. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black).net/tori shogi (http://www. however it is not Japanese. spear chess. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. Each player has a set of 14 wedge-shaped pieces. This game accentuates shogi’s intrinsically forward range of direction by giving most of the pieces the ability to move any number of free squares orthogonally forward like a shogi lance. . toward the opposing side. shogi. Setup Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. rather than as translations of the Japanese names.Tori shogi 370 References [1] Rules for Tori Shogi (http:/ / www. Game equipment Two players.shogi. net/ rjhare/ tori-shogi/ tori-intro. It was invented in 1981 by Christian Freeling of the Netherlands. The squares are undifferentiated by markings or color. where 'spear' is another name for the lance piece) is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge.html) • Shogi.littlegolem. play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 7 files (columns). The opposite is true of promoted pieces which can move backward with the same power. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • 1 general 2 yari rooks 2 yari bishops 2 yari knights 7 pawns Most of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess. html#rules) by Roger Hare External links • Shogi Net (http://www. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's general.net) Yari shogi Yari shogi (槍将棋 yari shōgi.net/shogi. of slightly different sizes.shogi. This shows who controls the piece during play. and faces forward.net/rjhare/tori-shogi/tori-intro. On the reverse side of some pieces are one or two other characters.

The two yari bishops are placed in the adjacent two files to left of the general. The two yari knights are placed in the two adjacent files to the right of the general. . the seven pawns are placed one in each file. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • The general is placed in the center file. pointing toward the opponent. That is.Yari shogi Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation: Piece General Yari rook Rook 将 香飛[車] 飛[車] Kanji shō kyō hi[sha] hi[sha] kyō kaku[gyō] Rōmaji しょう きょうひ[しゃ] ひ[しゃ] きょうかく[ぎょう] Hiragana general incense flying chariot flying chariot incense angle mover Meaning 371 Yari bishop 香角[行] Yari gold 成香角[行] narikyō kaku[gyō] なりきょうかく[ぎょう] promoted incense angle mover kyō kei[ma] narikyō kei fu[hyō] kyō gin[shō] きょうけい[ま] なりきょうけい ふ[ひょう] きょうきん[しょう] incense laurelled horse promoted incense laurel foot soldier incense silver general Yari knight 香桂[馬] Yari gold Pawn Yari silver 成香桂 歩[兵] 香銀[将] Setup 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 飛 桂 桂 将 車 馬 馬 角 角 飛 一 行 行 車 二 YR YN YN G YB YB YR a b P P P P P P P c d e f P P P P P P P g h YR YB YB G YN YN YR i 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 歩 兵 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 四 五 六 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 歩 兵 歩 歩 歩 七 兵 兵 兵 八 飛 角 角 将 車 行 行 桂 桂 飛 九 馬 馬 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown. the first rank is: YR YB YB G YN YN YR • In the third rank. The two yari rooks are placed in the far corners.

This applies to the pawn. Each piece promotes as follows: • A general cannot promote. or right. left. If a friendly piece intervenes.) Jumping piece The yari knight can jump.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks. in that it is not required to move in a straight line. yari bishop and yari knight. or wholly within the zone. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. the opponent's territory at setup). The knight is an exception. forward. If a piece that cannot retreat or move aside advances across the board until it can no longer move. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. out of. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement. whether friend or foe. with Black moving first. The movement categories are: Step movers The king and pawn move only one square at a time. it must promote. +). yari knight. revealing the name of its promoted rank. the moving piece may not move in that direction. it cannot move in that direction at all. Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. that is. with no effect on either. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. If an opposing piece intervenes. if an opposing piece is there. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. including moves into. . nor can pieces which are already promoted. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. if the friendly piece is adjacent. it can pass over any intervening piece. then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. Each of these options is detailed below. it may be displaced and captured. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece. Ranging pieces Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. yari bishop and yari rook upon reaching the farthest rank. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign.Yari shogi 372 Gameplay The players alternate making a move. but not including drops (see below). and to the yari knight upon reaching either of the two farthest ranks. at the original line of the opponent's pawns and beyond (that is. with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. ×). A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). but are not literally descriptive. limited only by the edge of the board. backward. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. The ranging pieces are the yari rook.

since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. diagonally forward and any number of free squares orthogonally backward. Range: It can move any number of free squares straight forward. 373 Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. Pieces are paired with their promotion. in a single motion. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game. Step: It can step one square directly forward or sideways. one square diagonally forward. Rook Range: The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. it must be promoted. • A pawn. • A yari rook. keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move any number of free squares backward. Yari Gold Range: The yari gold can move any number of free squares directly backward. orthogonal or diagonal.Yari shogi • A yari bishop or yari knight loses its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square orthogonally forward or sideways. When captured. or. or. yari knight or pawn reaches the farthest rank. │ │ │ ─ ─ 成飛 ─ ─ │ ─ ─ 飛 ─ ─ │ │ Yari Bishop Yari Gold . keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square diagonally forward or any number of free squares backward. ☆ │ │ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ ○ ○ 成桂 ○ │ │ Yari Rook Range: The yari rook can move any number of free squares orthogonally forward or sideways. If a yari bishop. when promoted. those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. bypassing any intervening piece │ ─ Ranges along a straight line. ignoring any intervening piece. pieces lose their promoted status. Notation ○ Steps to an adjacent square ☆ Jumps to a non-adjacent square. A yari knight that reaches the farthest rank must promote. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 将 ○ ○ Yari Knight Jump: The yari knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. crossing any number of empty squares General Step: The general can step one square in any direction. amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. The general is the "royal" or "objective" piece. when promoted.

A drop cannot capture a piece. a pawn can be dropped when the opponent would have no way to prevent his general being captured on the next move. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's general could be captured on the following move. Unlike shogi. A pawn that reaches the farthest rank must promote. as a player will resign when checkmated. This is termed dropping the piece. that requires an additional move. Step: It can move one square forward. a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square. a pawn can be dropped to give immediate mate. and effectively wins the game. the general is said to be in check. or. │ ○ │ 角 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 成角 ○ │ │ Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. or. or yari bishop may not be dropped on the farthest rank. (A yari silver. On any turn. In other words. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. Step: It can step one square directly forward or sideways. They are retained "in hand". as detailed under "Promotion". Game end A player who captures the opponent's general wins the game. as otherwise when loss is inevitable. one square diagonally forward. If a player's general is in check and no legal move by that player will get the general out of check. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. A yari bishop that reaches the farthest rank must promote.) . A pawn cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player. since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. There are restrictive rules for where a pawn may be dropped (see below). Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn. For this reason. they are unpromoted when dropped back on the board. above.) A player who has an unpromoted pawn on every file is therefore unable to drop a pawn anywhere. does not count as a pawn when considering this drop restriction. or. or just a drop. In practice this rarely happens. facing the opponent. instead of moving a piece across the board. Pieces that are promoted when captured lose that promotion. the move is said to give check to the general.Yari shogi 374 Range: The yari gold can move any number of free squares directly backward. A pawn. or promoted pawn. it is common to sacrifice a pawn in order to gain flexibility for drops. orthogonally or diagonally. Range: The yari bishop can move any number of free squares directly forward. the checking move is also a mate. Yari Silver Range: The yari silver can move any number of free squares directly backward. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Step: It can move one square diagonally forward. ○ 歩 ○ ○ 銀 │ │ ○ Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in yari shogi. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. yari knight.

x for a capture. In a handicap game. yari bishops and yari knights Other handicaps are also occasionally used. then the game is no contest. then the game is no contest. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. which. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece.they are not available for drops. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess..for an ordinary move. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . are as follows: • • • • • Remove White's left yari bishop Remove White's left yari rook Two pieces: remove White's left yari rook and left yari bishop Four pieces: remove White's yari rooks and yari bishops Six pieces: remove White's yari rooks.g. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. in the initial position Black has . It has been modified for use in yari shogi. YNx7c= indicates a yari knight capturing on 7c without promoting. or * for a drop. A player scoring less than 26 points loses. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each yari rook or yari bishop scores 5 points for the owning player. however. in increasing order of size. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. +P for a yari silver (promoted pawn). then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. but differs in several respects. the pieces in hand must be the same. one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play. the prohibition against perpetual check. Common handicaps. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. and all other pieces (except generals) score 1 point each. A typical example is P-7f. If both players have at least 26 points. G = general. because material advantage is not as powerful in yari shogi as in chess. e. The game reaches an impasse if both generals have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. For example.) For two positions to be considered the same. If the same position occurs three times with the same player to play. The relationship between handicaps and differences in rank is not universally agreed upon. Games which are no contest are counted as draws in tournament style games. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 7i being the bottom left corner. For example. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game . 375 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. as well as the position on the board. YN = yari knight. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. YR = yari rook. YB = yari bishop. and White plays the first move of the game.Yari shogi There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). For example. (Recall. however. or an = to indicate that it was declined.

as the opponent can often drop a pawn in a protected square to cut off a line of retreat. However. but provides little of value if the attack fails and the pieces are captured. External links • Chessvariants. providing ammunition for such attacks. chessvariants. Strategy and tactics Drops are the most serious departure from Western chess. Advancing a yari rook pawn can open up the side of the board for attack. and cannot defend each other.com / yari shogi [1] • MindSports / yari shogi [2] References [1] http:/ / www. php/ side-dishes/ more-games-by-cf?start=5 . with a strong defensive position being much more important. as the most powerful piece on the board it invites attack. when a player first advances a yari rook pawn. and these are distinguished as YB6i-5h (moving the left one) and YB5i-5h (moving the right one). and it is a good idea to keep your general well away from your yari rook. the start of a game might look like this: 1. promoting. For this reason. it is wise to keep a pawn in hand. There are various ranging yari rook openings. nl/ index. P-2f P-3d YB-3b 376 In handicap games White plays first. where the yari rook moves to the center or left of the board to support an attack. However. They entail a different strategy. Therefore. For example. dir/ yarishogi. Because pawns attack head on. Players raised on Western chess often make poor use of drops. so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. they tend to be lost early in the game. P-7f 2. it is usual for the opponent to answer by advancing the opposing pawn. and dropping is half the game. Dropping a pawn behind enemy lines. and dropping a second pawn behind it so they protect each other is a strong attack. A quick offense will leave a player's home territory open to drop attacks as soon as pieces are exchanged. yari rooks are commonly kept at a safe distance in the early parts of the game. com/ ms. and often to exchange pieces if necessary to get one. in order to avoid complications later in the game. and are used to support attacks by weaker pieces. it is likely that dropping attacks are being overlooked. Attacking pieces can easily become trapped behind enemy lines. html [2] http:/ / mindsports. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. If a player has more than a couple captured pieces in hand. it threatens the opponent's entire defense.Yari shogi two yari bishops which can be moved to the square 5h.

during the Heian period). if not earlier. but this has not stopped people attempting to reconstruct this early form of shogi. Black and White (先手 sente and 後手 gote). It can safely be assumed that the game was played without drops. but there was no rook or bishop. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • 1 king 1 or 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 2 knights 2 lances 8 or 9 pawns Most of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess. On the reverse side of some pieces are two other characters. Unfortunately. Rules of the game Piece movements were as in modern shogi. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Some form of chess almost certainly reached Japan by the 9th century. . Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation. rather than as translations of the Japanese names. this description does not give enough information to actually play the game. The setup is unknown. play on a board ruled into a grid of 8 or 9 ranks (rows) by 8 or 9 files (columns).Heian shogi 377 Heian shogi Heian shōgi (平安将棋 "Heian era chess") is a predecessor of modern shogi (Japanese chess). often in a different color (commonly red instead of black). of slightly different sizes. This article outlines a fairly complete set of rules that can make the game playable in modern times. Objective The objective of the game is to either capture your opponent's king or all the other pieces. Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. but can reasonably be assumed to have been the same as in modern shogi (minus the rook and bishop. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. Each player has a set of 16 or 18 wedge-shaped pieces. and faces forward. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. although it's possible that the pawns started on the second rank rather than the third. toward the opposing side. Game equipment Two players. This shows who controls the piece during play. but the earliest surviving Japanese description of the rules dates from the early 12th century (c. 1120. The board appears to have been 9×8 or 8×8. and minus a gold general in the 8×8 case).

• In the third rank. of size 9x8. The two lances are placed in the corners. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general or gold general and king. the sixth column. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file or left of center. pointing toward the opponent. the eight or nine pawns are placed one in each file. 8x9. can be obtained from this size board by removing the e-row (五-row). Smaller boards. All pieces except the king and gold general promote to gold. .Heian shogi 378 Piece King Gold general Kanji 玉将 金将 Rōmaji Unicode Abbreviation Meaning jade general gold general silver general laureled horse incense chariot foot soldier gyokushō 7389 5c06 玉 kinshō ginshō keima kyōsha fuhyō 91d1 5c06 金 9280 5c06 銀 6842 99ac 桂 9999 8eca 香 6b69 5175 歩 Silver general 銀将 Knight Lance Pawn 桂馬 香車 歩兵 Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 L 8 N 7 S 6 G 5 K 4 G 3 S 2 N 1 L a b 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 一 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 二 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 四 五 六 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 七 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 八 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 九 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 P P P P P P P P P c d e f P P P P P P P P P g h L N S G K G S N L i Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. That is. or 8x8. Setup Below is the board setup for a 9x9 board. or both. adjacent to each knight. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king or one to its right. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink. the first rank is |L|N|S|G|K|G|S|N|L| or |L|N|S|K|G|S|N|L|. parallel to their abbreviations in Japanese.

or right. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. If an opposing piece intervenes. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time.Heian shogi 379 Game play The players alternate making a move. if the friendly piece is adjacent. whether friend or foe. If a friendly piece intervenes. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. limited only by the edge of the board.Ranging movement (may cross any number of empty squares). with Black moving first. │ . ○ .Leaps to a square (jumping over any intervening piece). which cannot retreat or move aside. The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. if an opposing piece is there. it must be promoted upon reaching the farthest rank. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. +). forward. the moving piece may not move in that direction. gold general. If a lance or pawn. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. silver general and pawn. ☆ . that is. and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. ×). Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board.Steps to a square. it can pass over any intervening piece. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). A ranging piece must stop where it captures. backward. Jumping piece The knight can jump. This also applies to the knight upon reaching either of the two farthest ranks. it cannot move in that direction at all. with no effect on either. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square.) The step movers are the king. but are no longer literally descriptive. it may be displaced and captured. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece. . advances across the board until it can no longer move.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece or displacing (capturing) an opposing piece. Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. Ranging piece The lance can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. left.

giving it six possibilities. it has a choice of two forward destinations. or. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. revealing the name of its promoted rank. lance or pawn. For the same reason. If a pawn. . or wholly within the zone then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. A knight that reaches one of the two farthest ranks must promote. Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. in a single motion. ○ ○ ○ 銀 ☆ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ Lance Range: The lance can move any number of free squares straight forward. Knight Jump: The knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. │ │ 香 ○ 歩 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks. a knight reaching the penultimate rank must be promoted. • A silver general. it must be promoted. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. out of. giving it five possibilities. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. the opponent's territory at setup). including moves into. since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns. one square diagonally forward.Heian shogi 380 King Step: The king can step one square in any direction. amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. at the original line of the opponent's pawns and beyond (that is. or. ignoring any intervening piece. That is. A pawn that reaches the farthest rank must promote. A lance that reaches the farthest rank must promote. nor can pieces which are already promoted. one square straight forward. orthogonal or diagonal. loses its normal movement and gains the movement of a gold general. Gold General Step: The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. Each piece promotes as follows: • A king or a gold general cannot promote. knight. knight or lance reaches the farthest rank. ○ ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Silver General Step: The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. when promoted.

in the initial position Black may have two golds which can be moved to the square 5g in front of the king. N = knight. as otherwise when loss is inevitable. For example. then the game is no contest. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. +P for a tokin (promoted pawn). or an = to indicate that it was declined. then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. P-2e P-3d G-3b . uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. and effectively wins the game. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. however. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check. P-7e 2.for an ordinary move or x for a capture. but differs in several respects. G = gold. Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece. however.Heian shogi 381 Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move. Nx7c= indicates a knight capturing on 7c without promoting.. e. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank.g. the start of a game might look like this: 1. In practice this rarely happens. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play. For example. L = lance. For example.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). the checking move is also mate. as a player will resign when checkmated. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . S = silver. A typical example is P-8f. which. K = king. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. the move is said to give check to the king. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 8h or 9h being the bottom left corner. the prohibition against perpetual check. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. the king is said to be in check. (Recall. and these are distinguished as G6h-5g (moving the left one) and G4h-5g (moving the right one).) The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. For example. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king or all of the other pieces (bare king) wins the game.

On the reverse side of some pieces are two other characters. It was played on a 9x9 board with the same setup as in modern shogi. rather than as translations of the Japanese names. except that an extra piece stood in front of the king: A 'drunk elephant' that promoted into what was effectively a second king.Heian shogi 382 External links • Shogi Net [2] • Chessvariants. Game equipment Two players. chessvariants.) The drunk elephant was eliminated by the Emperor Go-Nara (reigned 1526-1557). (While 9x9 may not seem 'small'. it was smaller than the other shogi variants prevalent at the time. toward the opposing side. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote).com/heian shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / www. giving rise to shogi as we know it today. and the immediate predecessor of the modern game. play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns). Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king and crown prince (if present) or all other pieces. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 21 wedge-shaped pieces. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. . and faces forward. This shows who controls the piece during play. dir/ heian. com/ shogivariants. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • • • 1 king 1 drunken elephant 1 rook 1 bishop 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 2 knights 2 lances 9 pawns Most of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess. of slightly different sizes. html Sho shogi Shō Shōgi (小将棋 'small chess') is a 16th century form of shogi (Japanese chess). Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black). and it is assumed that the drop rule was introduced at about the same time.

after their Japanese names. with promoted silver the same 全 as above. 王 Meaning royal general jade general drunken elephant crown prince flying chariot dragon king angle mover dragon horse gold general silver general promoted silver laureled horse promoted laurel incense chariot promoted incense foot soldier reaches gold 383 King (challenging) 玉将 Drunken Elephant Crown prince Rook Promoted rook Bishop Promoted bishop Gold general Silver general Promoted silver Knight Promoted knight Lance Promoted lance Pawn Promoted pawn 酔象 太子 飛車 竜王 角行 竜馬 金将 銀将 成銀 桂馬 成桂 香車 成香 歩兵 と金 gyokushō 玉 suizō taishi hisha ryūō kakugyō ryūma kinshō ginshō narigin keima narikei kyōsha narikyō fuhyō tokin 酔 太 飛 竜 角 馬 金 銀 全 桂 圭 香 杏 歩 と English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons. and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin). Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. and are usually cursive.Sho shogi Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game with their Japanese representation: Piece King (reigning) Kanji 王将 Rōmaji ōshō Abr. . 杏 for promoted lance. 仝 for promoted lance. Another convention has abbreviated versions of the original characters. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pieces to indicate promoted rank may be in red ink. These abbreviated characters have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver. 今 for promoted knight. with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for promoted knight. and と for tokin. and generally use the Japanese name tokin for promoted pawns. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive versions of 金 'gold'.

• The drunken elephant in the same file as the king. • In the third rank. Game play The players alternate making a move. but are no longer literally descriptive. That is. • The rook in the same file as the knight on the player's right.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece or displacing (capturing) an opposing piece. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. with Black moving first. • In the second rank. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. The two lances are placed in the corners. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general. Each of these options is detailed below. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. pointing toward the opponent. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king. . adjacent to each knight. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). the first rank is |L|N|S|G|K|G|S|N|L|.Sho shogi 384 Setup 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 L 8 N R P P P P 7 S 6 G 5 K DE P P P 4 G 3 S 2 N B P P 1 L a b c d e f P P B L N S G P P P DE K G S P P P R N L P g h i 香 桂 銀 金 王 金 銀 桂 香 一 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 飛 車 酔 象 角 行 二 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 四 五 六 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 七 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 角 行 酔 象 飛 車 八 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 九 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. each player places: • The bishop in the same file as the knight on the player's left. the nine pawns are placed one in each file.

keeps its normal movement and gains the ability to move one square in any direction (like a king). that is. If a lance or pawn. . revealing the name of its promoted rank. knight or lance reaches the farthest rank. at the original line of the opponent's pawns and beyond (that is. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. with no effect on either. left. pieces that cannot retreat or move aside. If a pawn. the moving piece may not move in that direction. when promoted. it can pass over any intervening piece. limited only by the edge of the board. it cannot move in that direction at all. gold general. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. forward. Each piece promotes as follows: • A king or a gold general cannot promote. out of. loses its normal movement and gains the movement of a gold general. If a friendly piece intervenes. • A drunken elephant. silver general and the 9 pawns on each side. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. when promoted. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. backward. it must promote. Jumping piece The knight can jump. drunken elephant. Some pieces are capable of several kinds of movement. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. 385 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks. bishop or rook. • A silver general. if an opposing piece is there. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. the opponent's territory at setup). and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If an opposing piece intervenes. lance or pawn. The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. or wholly within the zone. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. +). Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. advances across the board until it can no longer move. it may be displaced and captured. given enough moves. if the friendly piece is adjacent. nor can pieces which are already promoted. since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns.) The step movers are the king. or right. ×). it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. Ranging piece The bishop and rook can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. This means the bishop is now able to reach any square on the board.Sho shogi Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. knight. whether friend or foe. including moves into. it must be promoted.

one square diagonally forward. King Step: The king can step one square in any direction.Leaps to a square (jumping over any intervening piece). ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ . ○ 王 ○ Drunken Elephant Step: The drunken elephant can step one square in any direction. ○ .Steps to a square. except directly backward. an unpromoted bishop can only reach half the squares on the board. ☆ . Dragon Range: The dragon can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. Because it cannot move orthogonally. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 酔 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 太 ○ ○ Rook Range: The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. The gold general does not promote. Horse Range: The horse can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. The crown prince effectively doubles as a second king. Step: It can move one square in any diagonal direction. orthogonal or diagonal. Step: It can move one square in any orthogonal direction. │ │ ─ ─ 飛 ─ ─ │ │ │ ○ ─ ─ ○ │ 龍 │ │ ○ ─ ○ ─ Bishop Range: The bishop can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. orthogonal or diagonal. │─\/ . those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Crown Prince Step: The crown prince can step one square in any direction. The challenger moves first. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game. \ \ 角 / / \ / / \ \ ○ / ○ / ○ 馬 / / \ ○ \ \ Gold General Step: The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. and must also be captured to win if present. orthogonal or diagonal. giving it six possibilities. The king does not promote.Ranging movement (may cross any number of empty squares). or. Pieces are paired with their promotion.Sho shogi 386 Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement.

○ 歩 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ と ○ Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's king or crown prince could be captured on the following move. it has a choice of two forward destinations. then the game is no contest.one square diagonally forward. one square straight forward. (Recall. one square diagonally forward. Tokin Step: The tokin can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. If a player's king or crown prince (sole one in play) is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king or crown prince out of check. in which case it's a draw). Step: The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. ○ ○ 銀 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 全 ○ ○ Knight Jump: The knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. the prohibition against perpetual check. the checking move is also mate. as a player will resign when checkmated. giving it six possibilities. That is. or. A lance that reaches the farthest rank must promote. giving it five possibilities.Sho shogi 387 Silver General Promoted Silver General Step: The promoted silver general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. ☆ 桂 ☆ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 圭 ○ Promoted Lance Step: The promoted Lance can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play. giving it six possibilities. Lance Range: The lance can move any number of free squares straight forward.) . in a single motion. or. one square diagonally forward. amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. or. ○ Promoted Knight Step: The promoted knight can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). as otherwise when loss is inevitable. or. and can effectively win the game. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king and crown prince (if present) or all other pieces (bare king or bare crown prince) wins the game (unless the bared player immediately follows this baring by baring his own opponent. or. the move is said to give check to the king or crown prince. A knight that reaches the farthest rank must promote. │ │ 香 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 杏 ○ Pawn Step: The pawn can step one square forward. A pawn that reaches the farthest rank must promote. giving it six possibilities. In practice this rarely happens. giving it six possibilities. one square diagonally forward. the king or crown prince is said to be in check. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. however. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. ignoring any intervening piece.

R = rook. html . It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. Nx7c= indicates a knight capturing on 7c without promoting. or an = to indicate that it was declined. P-7f P-2f P-2e Sx8h P-3d G-3b Bx8h+ S-2b External links • Shogi Net [2] • Chessvariants.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. A typical example is P-8f. then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. L = lance.com/Sho shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. com/ shogivariants. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn. S = silver. 388 Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous.g. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . chessvariants.. but differs in several respects. K = king. B = bishop. +P for a tokin (promoted pawn). e. 4. 2. which. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. dir/ shoshogi. For example. DE = drunken elephant. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 9i being the bottom left corner. G = gold. however.Sho shogi The game reaches an impasse if either kings or crown princes have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. 3. N = knight. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank. For example.for an ordinary move and x for a capture. For example. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. the start of a game might look like this: 1.

The game is often played with "Westernized" (or "international") pieces. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black). Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). Each player has a set of 20 wedge-shaped pieces. which replace the kanji with more intuitive symbols. toward the opposing side. Game equipment Two players. play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns). this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king. This shows who controls the piece during play.Cannon shogi 389 Cannon shogi Cannon shogi is a modern variant of shogi (Japanese chess). . From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 King 1 Rook 1 Bishop 1 Gold cannon 1 Silver cannon 1 Copper cannon 1 Iron cannon 2 Gold generals 2 Silver generals 2 Knights 2 Lances 5 Pawns Cannon shogi setup Most of the English names correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. On the reverse side of some pieces are two or three other characters. which pieces they promote to. rather than as translations of the Japanese names. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. and faces forward. It was invented by Peter Michaelsen in February 1998. of slightly different sizes. if they promote. Table of pieces Listed here are the pieces of the game and. such as pictorial icons.

Promoted laurel 成香 narikyō. 仝 for promoted lance. Flying copper cannon 成鉄砲 naritetsuhō. 今 for promoted knight. dragon king 竜馬 ryūma. Promoted incense と金 tokin. and と for tokin. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive versions of 金 'gold'. Flying iron cannon — 成銀 narigin. 杏 for promoted lance.Cannon shogi 390 Piece White king (king) Kanji 王将 Rōmaji ōshō — Promotes to Black king (jade general) 玉将 Rook (flying chariot) Bishop (angle mover) Gold cannon Silver cannon Copper cannon Iron cannon Gold general Silver general Knight (laurelled horse) Lance (incense chariot) Pawn (foot soldier) 飛車 角行 金砲 銀砲 銅砲 鉄砲 金将 銀将 桂馬 香車 歩兵 gyokushō — hisha kakugyō kinhō ginhō dōhō tetsuhō kinshō ginshō keima kyōsha fuhyō 竜王 ryūō. with promoted silver the same 全 as above. after their Japanese names. Flying silver cannon 成銅砲 naridōhō. and 个 for promoted pawn (tokin). These abbreviated characters have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver. with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for promoted knight. Equivalent to gold English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops in shogi and its variants as horses and promoted rooks as dragons. and generally use the Japanese name tokin for promoted pawns. Setup . Flying gold cannon 成銀砲 nariginhō. Dragon horse 成金砲 narikinhō. Another convention has abbreviated versions of the original characters. Silver generals and gold generals are commonly referred to simply as silvers and golds. becoming more cursive (more abbreviated) as the value of the original piece decreases. Promoted silver 成桂 narikei.

the first rank is |L|N|S|G|K|G|S|N|L|. silver generals and king. • The silver cannon in the same file as the silver general on the player’s left. pointing towards the opponent. • The bishop in the same file as the knight on the player's left. . • The copper cannon in the same file as the silver general on the player’s right. • The rook in the same file as the knight on the player's right. • The iron cannon in the same file as the gold general on the player’s right. • In the third rank. The two lances are placed in the corners.Cannon shogi 391 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 L 8 N 7 S 6 G 5 K 4 G 3 S 2 N 1 L a b P c d e f 香 桂 銀 銀 王 銀 銀 桂 香 一 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 飛 銅 鉄 車 砲 砲 歩 兵 歩 兵 歩 兵 金 銀 角 砲 砲 行 歩 兵 二 R CC IC P P P GC SC B P 歩 三 兵 四 五 六 P P B SC GC L N S G K P P IC CC R G S N L P g h i 歩 兵 歩 兵 角 銀 金 行 砲 砲 歩 兵 歩 兵 鉄 銅 飛 砲 砲 車 歩 七 兵 八 香 桂 銀 銀 玉 銀 銀 桂 香 九 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. the five pawns are placed in the same files as the lances. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The king is placed in the center file. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general. The two knights are placed adjacent to each silver general. • In the second rank. each player places: • The gold cannon in the same file as the gold general on the player’s left. That is. adjacent to each knight.

It moves and captures a single square forwards or diagonally in any direction. It moves and captures a single square diagonally forwards or orthogonally in any direction.: in the same file). like the soldier of Korean chess (janggi). the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. It promotes (optionally) to a gold general when making a move that begins or ends in the last 3 ranks of the board. but are not literally descriptive. Silver General The silver general is the same as in shogi. If landing on a square occupied by an opposing piece that piece is captured. capturing the first opposing piece it encounters. The knight promotes (optionally) to a gold general when ending a move in the third last rank of the board. or right. The bishop may optionally promote to a dragon horse when beginning or ending a move in one of the final 3 ranks on the board. As a dragon horse it may either move as a bishop or move one square orthogonally. . It may move any number of empty squares in any diagonal direction. backward. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. (The traditional terms 'Black' and 'White' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. If ending its move on either of the final two ranks it must promote. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. Each of these options is detailed below.Cannon shogi 392 Game play The players alternate making a move. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece. +). Each piece in the game moves in a characteristic pattern. It does not promote. jumping over any intervening piece of either side in the first square. Bishop The bishop is identical to that in shogi. The lance promotes (optionally) to a gold general when ending a move in the second or third last ranks of the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). Knight The knight has the same move as its equivalent in shogi. left. Lance The lance has the same move as in shogi. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign.e. The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. forward. Gold General The gold general is the same as in shogi. Pawn The pawn moves and captures a single square forwards or sideways. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board. ×). capturing the first opposing piece it encounters. It may move one square forward followed by one square diagonally forward to a square that is either empty or occupied by an opposing piece. It promotes (optionally) to a tokin (gold general) when making a move that begins or ends in the last 3 ranks of the board. If ending its move in the final rank it must promote. It may move any number of empty squares forwards (i. with Black moving first.

393 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks. Gold Cannon The gold cannon moves as a rook. the opponent's territory at setup). by leaping an adjacent piece. by leaping an adjacent piece. but can capture an enemy only if there is another piece (of either side) in between. or move or capture two squares diagonally. As a flying copper cannon it gains the power to move diagonally over whole rows to leap one piece while moving. but not including drops (see below). It can also move one square orthogonally. like a cannonball. revealing the . or move or capture two squares orthogonally. called a screen. but can capture an enemy only if there is another piece (of either side) in between. The silver cannon may promote (optionally) if it begins or ends its move in one of the last 3 ranks of the board. Additionally. This is the same move and capture as the cannon (Pao) of Chinese chess (xiangqi). Copper Cannon The copper cannon moves as a bishop. The gold cannon may promote (optionally) if it begins or ends its move in one of the last 3 ranks of the board. or wholly within the zone. It may therefore move orthogonally over whole rows and is able to leap one piece while moving. As a flying iron cannon it has the same powers as the flying copper cannon. by leaping an adjacent piece. The iron cannon may promote (optionally) to a flying iron cannon if it begins or ends its move in one of the last 3 ranks of the board. It can also move one square diagonally. by sliding any number of empty squares along a row or column. Additionally. it can move one square diagonally. As a flying silver cannon it has the same powers as the flying gold cannon. by leaping an adjacent piece. It may move one square in any direction. King The king has the same move as in shogi. called a screen. The copper cannon may promote (optionally) to a flying copper cannon if it begins or ends its move in one of the last 3 ranks of the board. then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. it can move one square orthogonally. at the original line of the opponent's pawns and beyond (that is. Thus to capture the gold cannon leaps over the intervening piece and lands on the enemy piece.Cannon shogi Rook The rook is the same as in shogi. Thus to capture the copper cannon leaps over the intervening piece and lands on the enemy piece. Silver Cannon The silver cannon captures in the same way as the gold cannon. but can only move by leaping over an intervening piece. The rook may optionally promote to a dragon king when beginning or ending a move in one of the final 3 ranks on the board. Iron Cannon The iron cannon captures in the same way as the copper cannon. As a flying gold cannon it may move orthogonally over whole rows and is able to leap one piece while moving. This is the move and capture of the cannon of Korean chess (janggi). or move or capture two squares diagonally. out of. like a cannonball. but in a diagonal rather than orthogonal direction. by sliding any number of empty squares in a diagonal direction. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. On promotion it becomes a flying silver cannon. It may therefore move diagonally over whole rows and is able to leap one piece while moving. including moving into. It may move any number of empty squares in any orthogonal direction. but can only move by leaping over an intervening piece. As a dragon king it may move either as a rook or one square diagonally. On promotion it becomes a flying gold cannon. This is the same move and capture as the gold cannon. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. or move or capture two squares orthogonally. capturing the first opposing piece it encounters.

King (challenging) The king can move one square in any direction. bypassing an intervening piece Must jump an intervening piece in order to capture Ranges along a straight line. This applies to the lance. bypassing an intervening piece Jumps to a distant square. When captured. pieces lose their promoted status. upon reaching the farthest rank. 394 Movement diagrams Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is captured and removed from the board. and to the knight upon reaching either of the two farthest ranks. those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. crossing any number of empty squares King (reigning) The king can move one square in any direction. It can move one square in any diagonal direction. Pieces with a gray heading start out in the game. ─ ─ Dragon The dragon can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. it must be promoted. ─ ─ ─ │ │ 飛 │ ○ │ ─ 竜 ○ ─ ─ │ │ ○ │ │ ○ Bishop Horse . Notation ○ ♦ ☆ ● │ ─ \ / │ ─ \ / Must jump an intervening piece in order to move or capture Steps to an adjacent square Jumps over an adjacent square. If a piece that cannot retreat or move aside advances across the board until it can no longer move. Pieces are paired with their promotion. The player with the black king makes the first move unless White accepts a handicap. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 王 ○ ○ ○ 玉 ○ ○ Rook The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions.Cannon shogi name of its promoted rank.

\ / \ / \ / \ ○ / 角 ○ 馬 ○ / ○ \ / \ / / \ \ Gold Cannon The gold cannon can move any number of squares along any of the four orthogonal directions but must jump at least one piece to capture. It can also move one square in any orthogonal direction. jumping the adjacent square to reach the second. jumping the adjacent square to reach the second.Cannon shogi 395 The horse can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. ● \ / ● ☆ \ ♦ ○ / ☆ 銅 ♦ ○ 銅 / ○ ○ ♦ \ / \ ☆ ♦ ☆ ● ● Iron Cannon Flying Iron Cannon . ─ ─ Flying Silver Cannon The flying silver cannon has the same powers of movement as the flying gold cannon. │ │ 砲 ─ ─ ♦ ○ ☆ ─ ☆ │ 砲 ○ ─ ♦ ☆ │ │ ♦ ○ │ ☆ ○ ♦ Copper Cannon The copper cannon can move any number of squares along the four diagonal directions but must jump at least one piece to capture. Flying Copper Cannon The flying copper cannon can move any number of squares along the four diagonal directions but must jump at least one piece to capture. It may also jump one piece while moving on any row and may move one or two squares orthogonally. ● ─ Flying Gold Cannon The flying gold cannon can move any number of squares along any of the four orthogonal directions but must jump at least one piece to capture. Because it cannot move orthogonally. It may also jump one piece while moving on any row and may move one or two squares diagonally. an unpromoted bishop can only reach half the squares on the board. The bishop can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. ● │ 炮 ─ ● ♦ ○ ☆ ─ ☆ │ 炮 ○ ─ ♦ ☆ │ ● ♦ ○ │ ☆ ○ ♦ Silver Cannon The silver cannon can move any number of squares along any of the four orthogonal directions but must jump at least one piece to move or capture.

one square diagonally forward. giving it six possibilities. one square diagonally forward. Promoted Knight The promoted knight can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. or. or.Cannon shogi 396 The flying iron cannon has the same powers of movement as the flying copper cannon. A knight that reaches one of the two farthest ranks must promote. or. one square straight forward. giving it three possibilities. The gold general does not promote. ○ ○ 銀 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 全 ○ ○ ○ Knight The knight jumps one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. or. giving it six possibilities. A lance that reaches the farthest rank must promote. That is. giving it six possibilities. The iron cannon can move any number of squares along the four diagonal directions but must jump at least one piece to move or capture. ○ ○ ○ 歩 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ と ○ . or. Promoted Silver General The promoted silver general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. ignoring any intervening piece. giving it six possibilities. Lance The lance can move any number of free squares straight forward. Tokin The tokin can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. giving it five possibilities. │ │ 香 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 杏 ○ Pawn The pawn can step one square forward or sideways. \ / ☆ \ ♦ ○ / ☆ \ / ♦ ○ 鉄 鉄 / \ ○ ○ ♦ \ / ☆ \ ♦ ☆ / Gold General The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. one square diagonally forward. one square diagonally forward. one square diagonally forward. giving it six possibilities. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ Silver General The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. or. ♦ 桂 ♦ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 圭 ○ Promoted Lance The promoted lance can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. it has a choice of two forward destinations.

and effectively wins the game. facing the opponent. and all other pieces (except kings) score 1 point each.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). as a player will resign when checkmated. In practice this rarely happens. the prohibition against perpetual check. A knight. A player scoring less than 38 points loses. instead of moving a piece on the board. Also a pawn can be dropped to check the opponent's king. or lance may not be dropped on the farthest rank. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. Pieces that are dropped in the promotion zone do not promote as a result: Promotion requires that piece make a normal movement on a subsequent turn. Promotions are ignored for the purposes of scoring. . Similarly. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. the move is said to give check to the king. They are retained "in hand". bishop and cannon scores 5 points for the owning player. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. but in professional style tournaments the rules typically require the game to be replayed with colors reversed (possibly with reduced time limits). then the game is no contest. Unlike in shogi. however. above. On any turn. the checking move is also mate. as otherwise when loss is inevitable. a player can take a piece he has previously captured and place it on any empty square. The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. the pieces in hand must be the same. since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns. In other words.) For two positions to be considered the same. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move. there are no restrictions when dropping pawns: a pawn can be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as another unpromoted pawn controlled by the same player. Games which are no contest are usually counted as draws in amateur tournaments. A drop cannot capture a piece. then the game is no contest. This is termed dropping the piece. a knight may not be dropped on the penultimate rank. If this happens then the winner is decided as follows: each rook. as detailed under "Promotion". (Recall.Cannon shogi 397 Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in cannon shogi. if the opponent would have no way to prevent his king being captured on the next move. If both players have at least 38 points. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king wins the game. a pawn can be dropped to give immediate mate. that requires an additional move. the king is said to be in check. as well as the position on the board. or just a drop.

because the inventor thought that they needed some compensation. so Black's move 1 is replaced by an ellipsis. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. . but may still be very useful when dropped on the board again. because material advantage is not as powerful in shogi as in chess. the inventor wanted to add a new dimension to the classical game of shogi. but differs in several respects.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece. In handicap games White plays first. as more and more pieces are captured and kept in hand. Nx7c= indicates a knight capturing on 7c without promoting. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. Note that the pieces removed at the beginning play no further part in the game . Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976.. L = lance. one or more of White's pieces is removed before the start of play. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. or an = to indicate that it was declined. For example. or * for a drop. Because of the drops. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 9i being the bottom left corner. as well as their diagonal counterparts. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. In a handicap game. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. They may be weakened a little on board. they are more mobile and dangerous in all phases of the game. x for a capture. IC = iron cannon. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. R = rook. which. the cannons dominate play more than in xiangqi and janggi. Not only because of their high number. then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. The first letter represents the piece moved: P = pawn. The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in chess. and White plays the first move of the game. SC = silver cannon. GC = gold cannon. For example. The Pawns move and capture sideways as well as forwards. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank.for an ordinary move. or when other pieces are dropped in front of them. B = bishop. G = gold. the opening game tends to be much more tactical and explosive than in ordinary shogi. CC = copper cannon.g. however. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. With a pawn array similar to the one used in Chinese and Korean chess. A typical example is P-8f. K = king. S = silver.they are not available for drops.Cannon shogi 398 Handicaps Games between players of disparate strength are often played with handicaps. +P for a tokin (promoted pawn). e. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . N = knight. Nature of the Game With the introduction of the cannons of Chinese and Korean chess. being only 2x5 against 2x15 officers.

Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns).g. dir/ cannonshogi. sandwiching chess) is a variant of shogi (Japanese chess). On the reverse side of each pawn is the abbreviated character for tokin (と). chessvariants..Cannon shogi 399 External links • Shogi: Cannon Shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Setup 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 と と と と と と と と と 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 九 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 Each side places his or her pieces in the nearest rank. Game equipment Two players. html Hasami shogi Hasami shogi (はさみ将棋 hasami shōgi. . The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. red instead of black). often in a different color (e. Each pawn has its name in the form of two Japanese characters marked on its face (歩兵). Each player has a set of 9 wedge-shaped pieces or pawns (foot soldiers). Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture five or eight (as agreed upon before the game) of your opponent’s pieces. Black plays with pawns and White plays with tokins. org/ shogivariants. one piece per file.

Dai hasami shogi Dai hasami shogi is a variant of hasami shogi. but are no longer literally descriptive. A portion of a Go board is used in this illustration. there is an old Roman game. Intervention capture is the opposite of custodian. it is not captured. that is. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. but the 16 stones of each player are placed on the first and third row. Because most shogi sets only have 18 pawns total. on an 8x8 board. The moves are the same. If a piece is moved between two of the opponent's pieces. Movement and capture Each piece moves as a rook in chess. A similar game is Mak-yek played in Siam (and Malaysia under the name Apit-sodok) with the same goal. This is how the setup will appear. it captures both stones. Multiple pieces may be captured if all of the squares between the attacking player's pieces are occupied by the opponent's pieces. this game is usually played with black and white Go stones. it cannot move in that direction at all. If one of the opponent’s pieces lie between a pair of the player’s pieces (horizontally or vertically). Curiously. This is called a custodian capture. called Take invented in 1984 by Mike Woods. . called Latrunculi seemly very similar to Hasami Shogi. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. if the friendly piece is adjacent. with Black moving first. If a stone moves between two enemy stones. but the exact rules are not known.) A move consists of moving a piece onto an empty square of the board. It is the same as hasami shogi except that each player starts the game with 18 pieces occupying the two nearest ranks. then the opponent’s piece is captured and removed from the board. but the capture is custodian and also by intervention.Hasami shogi 400 Game play The players alternate making a move. limited only by the edge of the board. There is a hexagonal variant for Hasami Shogi. any number of empty squares along a straight line in any orthogonal direction. If a friendly piece intervenes.

Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). htm Hand shogi Hand shogi (手将棋 te shōgi. AR. play on a board ruled into a grid of 9 ranks (rows) by 9 files (columns). hand chess) is a variant of shogi (Japanese chess). but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge.com / hasami shogi [1] Dai hasami shogi [2] References [1] http:/ / www. USA. and faces forward. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to win two consecutive hands. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. chessvariants. html [2] http:/ / www. dir/ hasami. toward the opposing side. however it is not Japanese. On the reverse side of each knight two other characters. com/ shogivariants. of slightly different sizes. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. Each player has a set of 19 wedge-shaped pieces. This shows who controls the piece during play. The game is often played with "Westernized" (or "international") pieces. fc. It was invented in early 1997 by John William Brown of Lewisville.Hasami shogi 401 External links • • • • Shogi Net [2] Shogi: Japanese Chess [3] chessvariants. pt/ ~jpn/ gv/ hasami. di. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • • • • • 1 king 1 tycoon 1 shogun 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 1 pard 1 onager 1 hasty 2 knights 2 lances 5 soldiers Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. The objective of each hand is to capture your opponent's king. which replace the kanji with more intuitive . ul. often in a different color (commonly red instead of black). Game equipment Two players. The name “hand” comes from the fact that each player starts the game with most of their pieces in hand and that each round of a match plays like the hand of a card game. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play.

the first rank is |  |  |G|   |K|   |G|   |   |. each player places: • The pard in the same file as the king. which cannot retreat or move aside. That is. 402 Setup 9 8 7 G SO 6 5 K PD SO SO SO 4 3 G SO 2 1 a b c d e f SO SO SO SO G PD K SO G g h i Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. +). ×). with Black moving first. but are not literally descriptive. • A soldier in the same files as the golden generals. displacing (capturing) an opposing piece or dropping a captured piece onto an empty square of the board.Hand shogi symbols. or right. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. If a lance. the three remaining soldiers are placed in the three center files. backward. The movement categories are: . if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece. • The two gold generals are placed two files from the king. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. forward. Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Game play The players alternate making a move. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game. left. • In the rank nearest the player: • The king is placed in the center file. • All remaining pieces are held in hand. advances across the board until it can no longer move. Each of these options is detailed below. pointing toward the opponent. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. • In the third rank. such as pictorial icons. it must remain there until captured. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. • In the second rank. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player).

they move like ranging pieces (see below). (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. if an opposing piece is there. The knight. they can pass over any intervening piece. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. knights lose their promoted status. bypassing any intervening piece │ Ranges along a straight line. the opponent's territory at setup). When captured. If an opposing piece intervenes. crossing any number of empty squares . with no effect on either. If a knight crosses the board and into the promotion zone then that player must promote the piece at the end of the turn. Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. it cannot move in that direction at all. gold general. Notation ○ Steps to an adjacent square or has limited range ☆ Jumps to a non-adjacent square. whether friend or foe. Ranging piece The lance can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. at the original line of the opponent's soldiers and beyond (that is. These are the knight. the moving piece may not move in that direction. and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. Promoting a knight has the effect of changing how that piece moves until it is removed from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. silver general and the 5 soldiers on each side. onager and hasty.) The step movers are the king. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. revealing the name of its promoted rank. Jumping pieces Several pieces can jump. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game. that is. 403 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks. Limited ranging pieces The tycoon and shogun can move along a limited number (3) of free (empty) squares along a straight line in certain directions. limited only by the edge of the board. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. when promoted. loses its normal movement and gains the movement of a gold general.Hand shogi Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. it may be displaced and captured. Other than the limited distance. if the friendly piece is adjacent. If a friendly piece intervenes.

or. ☆ N ☆ ○ ○ ○ ○ +N ○ ○ Tycoon Limited range: The tycoon can move one to three squares along one of the four diagonal directions. Silver General Step: The silver general can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. Promoted Knight Step: The promoted knight can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. one square straight forward. giving it six possibilities. That is. orthogonal or diagonal. Onager Jump: The onager can jump to the second square in one of the four orthogonal directions. ○ ○ ○ ○ G ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ S ○ ○ Knight Jump: The knight jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. │ │ L ○ ○ ○ T ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Shogun Limited range: The shogun can move one to three squares along one of the four orthogonal directions. Pard Jump: The pard jumps to the second square in any direction. or. A knight that reaches one of the two furthest ranks must promote. giving it five possibilities. orthogonal or diagonal. in a single motion. one square diagonally forward. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Sh ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ☆ ☆ O ☆ ☆ Hasty Soldier . amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. ignoring any intervening piece. or.Hand shogi 404 King Step: The king can step one square in any direction. ○ ○ ○ ○ K ○ ○ ○ ○ ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ Pd ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ Gold General Step: The gold general can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. giving it six possibilities. Lance Range: The lance can move any number of free squares straight forward. one square diagonally forward. A lance that reaches the furthest rank is stuck there until captured. it has a choice of two forward destinations.

) For two positions to be considered the same. the move is said to give check to the king. A hasty or onager must be dropped so that it gives check (see below). In practice this rarely happens. instead of moving a piece across the board. then the hand is a draw. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.Hand shogi 405 Step: The soldier can step one square forward or sideways. as a player will resign when checkmated. however. and effectively wins the hand. since it would have no legal move on subsequent turns.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a hand to end: repetition and impasse. This is termed dropping the piece. A knight cannot be dropped into the promotion zone. A lance may not be dropped on the furthest rank. the king is said to be in check. The hand reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. the prohibition against perpetual check. as otherwise when loss is inevitable. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check. a player can take a piece he has previously captured or has in hand and place it on any empty square. The piece is now part of the forces controlled by that player. that requires an additional move. the checking move is also mate. A drop cannot capture a piece. If this happens then the hand is a draw. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move. A soldier cannot be dropped into the same file (vertical column) as another soldier controlled by the same player. . On any turn. Jump: The hasty can jump to the second square in one of the four diagonal directions. Game end A player who captures the opponent's king wins the hand. (Recall. A player who has an soldier on every file is therefore unable to drop a soldier anywhere. ☆ H ☆ ☆ ○ ○ So ○ ☆ Drops Captured pieces are truly captured in hand shogi. They are retained "in hand". or just a drop. and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. facing the opponent. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. Add to this the fact that each player starts the game with ten pieces in hand. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play. the pieces in hand must be the same. as well as the position on the board. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately.

then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. L = lance. O = onager. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank. e. Nx7c+ indicates a knight capturing on 7c and promoting. but differs in several respects.for an ordinary move. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 9i being the bottom left corner. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. External links • Chessvariants.com/hand shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / www. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. +N for a promoted knight.. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. x for a capture. chessvariants. however. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . SH = shogun. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. G = gold. A typical example is S-8f. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. K = king. H = hasty. com/ shogivariants. dir/ handshogi.g. which. The first letter represents the piece moved: SO = soldier. S = silver. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. T = tycoon.) If a move forces the player to promote the piece.Hand shogi 406 Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. For example. N = knight. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. For example. or * for a drop. html . It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. PD = pard.

jp/ rule/ index. is a variant of shogi (Japanese chess). it has the movement of that piece instead of its own. The setup is somewhat different from standard shogi. ezdns.Annan shogi 407 Annan shogi Annan shogi (Japanese: 安南将棋 annan shōgi) also called Korean shogi. The game should not be confused with Korean chess. except that. Annan shogi is a popular shogi variant in Japan. A variant rule is that a piece may move like any friendly piece that protects it. Setup 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 L 8 N R P P P P P P P P 7 S 6 G 5 K 4 G 3 S 2 N B P 1 L a b c d e P P 五 歩 兵 歩 兵 角 行 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 飛 車 歩 兵 六 L B N S G K G S P P P P P R N L P P f g h i 香 桂 銀 金 王 金 銀 桂 香 一 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 飛 車 歩 兵 歩 兵 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 歩 兵 角 行 二 歩 三 兵 四 歩 七 兵 八 香 桂 銀 金 玉 金 銀 桂 香 九 車 馬 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 External links • The rules of Annan Shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / piccoro. a variant of chess that is played in Korea. but which resembles xiangqi (Chinese chess) rather than shogi. html . Gameplay The game is played as standard shogi. when a piece has a friendly piece on the square directly behind it.

If a piece is checking the opposing king. During a turn. org/ diffsetup. This is strongly recommended.Unashogi 408 Unashogi Unashogi is a variant of shogi (Japanese chess). There is no additional rule governing when you must enter your king. The board is initially empty and each player has the normal complement of 20 pieces in reserve.chessvariants. Your pieces have no real power of check on the opposing king until your own king is placed. A player may not make a capture until her/his own king is on the board. Rules Same as standard Shogi except: 1. • Pieces do not promote unless the enemy king has been placed. Sources • Unashogi on www. a player must do one of three things: • place a piece from the reserve on an empty square on the board • move a previously placed piece to an empty square • move a piece to a square occupied by an opposing piece. but the friendly king has not been placed. 3. invented in late 1994 by Edward Jackman and based on Unachess by Jeff Miller. A player is under no compulsion to move out of quasi-check. dir/ unachess. Your opponent can legally place his or her king right next to your promoted Rook if your king is still in hand. html#unashogi .org [1] References [1] http:/ / www. 2. chessvariants. that is called quasi-check. Variations • Pieces do not promote unless their king has been placed. capturing it.

often in a different color (e. Game equipment Two players.. and faces forward. wa shōgi. Each player has a set of 27 wedge-shaped pieces. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). of slightly different sizes. this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color. but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge. toward the opposing side. It is played either with or without drops. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's crane king. This shows who controls the piece during play. cloud eagles and treacherous foxes) are two other characters. On the reverse side of each piece (other than crane kings. play on a board ruled into a grid of 11 ranks (rows) by 11 files (columns).g. Setup .Wa shogi 409 Wa shogi Wa shogi (和将棋. red instead of black). peaceful chess) is a large board variant of shogi (Japanese chess) in which all of the pieces are named for animals. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • 1 crane king • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 cloud eagle 1 flying falcon 1 swallow’s wings 1 treacherous fox 1 running rabbit 1 violent wolf 1 violent stag 1 flying goose 1 flying cock 1 strutting crow 1 swooping owl 1 blind dog 1 climbing monkey 1 liberated horse 1 oxcart 11 sparrow pawns Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji marked on its face. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color.

The flying goose is placed in the file to the left of the violent wolf. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • The crane king is placed in the center file. • The swooping owl is placed in the file to the right of the flying cock. The violent wolf is placed in the adjacent file to the left of the crane king. pointing toward the opponent. The flying cock is placed in the file to the right of the violent stag. . • The blind dog is placed in the file to the left of the strutting crow. The violent stag is placed in the file to the right of the crane king.Wa shogi 410 11 風 馬 10 登 猿 雲 鷲 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 鴟 鶏 猛 靏 猛 鳫 烏 盲 牛 一 行 飛 鹿 玉 狼 飛 行 犬 車 燕 羽 飛 鷹 二 萑 歩 萑 歩 萑 走 萑 萑 萑 隠 萑 萑 萑 三 歩 兎 歩 歩 歩 狐 歩 歩 歩 萑 歩 萑 歩 四 五 六 七 萑 歩 萑 歩 萑 歩 飛 鷹 牛 車 盲 犬 萑 歩 八 萑 隠 萑 萑 萑 走 萑 萑 萑 九 歩 狐 歩 歩 歩 兎 歩 歩 歩 燕 羽 雲 鷲 十 烏 鳫 猛 靏 猛 鶏 鴟 登 風 行 飛 狼 玉 鹿 飛 行 猿 馬 十 一 11 10 9 8 7 VS 6 5 4 3 2 1 LH CM SO FC CE SP SP SP RR SP CK VW FG SC BD OC a SW FF SP TF SP SP SP b SP c d e f g SP SP SP SP SP FF SP TF SP SP SW VS SP SP RR SP SP CE SP h i j OC BD SC FG VW CK FC SO CM LH k Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below. • The strutting crow is placed in the file to the left of the flying goose.

) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece or displacing (capturing) an opposing piece. each player places: • The treacherous fox in the same file as the flying goose. blind dog. if an opposing piece is there. forward. the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. • The cloud eagle in the same file as the climbing monkey. • In the third rank. • The liberated horse is placed in the corner file to the right of the climbing monkey.) The step movers are the crane king. left. each player places: • A sparrow pawn in the same file as the treacherous fox. . The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. the moving piece may not move in that direction. in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign. That is. • The running rabbit in the same file as the flying cock. • In the second rank. but are no longer literally descriptive.Wa shogi • The climbing monkey is placed in the file to the right of the swooping owl. they move like ranging pieces (see below). each player places: • The swallow’s wings in the same file as the crane king. with Black moving first. Movement and capture An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is. which cannot retreat or move aside. it may be displaced and captured. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square. swooping owl and the 9 sparrow pawns on each side. flying cock. or right. Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement. violent wolf. violent stag. • The oxcart is placed in the corner file to the left of the blind dog. Each of these options is detailed below. advances across the board until it can no longer move. climbing monkey. if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece. • The flying falcon in the same file as the blind dog. the first rank is |OC|BD|SC|FG|VW|CK|VS|FC|SO|CM|LH|. or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player). 411 Game play The players alternate making a move. flying goose. • Nine sparrow pawns are placed in the remaining files. it must promote. strutting crow. • A sparrow pawn in the same file as the running rabbit. ×). Pieces move either orthogonally (that is. Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. If an oxcart or sparrow pawn. Limited ranging piece The liberated horse and cloud eagle can move along a limited number (2 or 3) of free (empty) squares along a straight line in a certain directions. +). with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. Other than the limited distance. backward. • In the fourth rank. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game.

and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. crossing any number of empty squares Crane King 靏玉 kakugyoku Cloud Eagle 雲鷲 unjū .Wa shogi Jumping piece The treacherous fox can jump. flying falcon. running rabbit and beyond. Ranging pieces Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight line. If an opposing piece intervenes. running rabbit. it cannot move in that direction at all. A ranging piece must stop where it captures. If a piece crosses the board within the promotion zone. with no effect on either. liberated horse and oxcart. Individual pieces Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. 412 Promotion A player's promotion zone consists of the three farthest ranks. bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line. revealing the name of its promoted rank. Pieces with an asterisk ("*") only appear as promoted pieces. swallow’s wings. including moves into. Pieces are paired with their promotion. if the friendly piece is adjacent. Notation ○ ☆ │ ─ \ / Steps a limited number of squares Jumps to a non-adjacent square. limited only by the edge of the board. If a friendly piece intervenes. the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece. whether friend or foe. out of. or wholly within the zone then that player may choose to promote the piece at the end of the turn. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game. those with a blue heading only appear on the board after promotion. that is. at the original line of the opponent's treacherous fox. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves. The ranging pieces are the cloud eagle. it can pass over any intervening piece. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves.

Wa shogi 413 Step: The crane king can step one square in any direction. it can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward. onko Step: The treacherous fox can move one square in the four diagonal directions. \ │ / \ ○ / \ │ / 鷹 ○ 鶏 ○ 鷹 \ / │ \ / / \ / │ \ Running Rabbit 走兎 sōto Range: The running rabbit can move any number of free squares straight forward. Step: It can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. it can move one square orthogonally forward or backward. Jump: It can jump to the second square in those directions. The treacherous fox does not promote. or. ○ │ ○ ○ │ ○ ○ │ ○ ○ 鷲 ○ ○ │ ○ │ Treacherous Fox 隠狐 inko. or. \ / *Tenacious Falcon 鶏鷹 keiyō Range: The tenacious falcon can move any number of free squares in the two forward diagonal directions. Step: It can move one square orthogonally sideways. Limited range: It can move one. onko Step: The treacherous fox can move one square in the four diagonal directions. Step: It can step one square forward. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 靏 ○ ○ Ranging: The cloud eagle can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward. ☆ ○ ☆ ○ 狐 ○ ☆ ○ ☆ ○ ☆ ○ ☆ Flying Falcon 飛鷹 hiyō Range: The flying falcon can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways or diagonally backward. two or three squares diagonally forward. ☆ ○ ☆ ○ 狐 ○ ☆ ○ ☆ ○ ☆ ○ ☆ Violent Wolf 猛狼 mōrō *Bear's Eyes 熊眼 yūgan . Jump: It can jump to the second square in those directions. one square straight backward. or. orthogonal or diagonal. or. it can move one square orthogonally forward or backward. │ ○ │ 兎 ○ ○ ○ ○ Treacherous fox 隠狐 inko.

except directly backward. or diagonally forward. Step: It can move one square orthogonally forward or backward. giving it five possibilities. directly backward. *Raiding Falcon 延鷹 en’yō Range: The raiding falcon can move any number of free squares orthogonally forward. ○ ○ 鹿 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 猪 ○ ○ ○ Blind Dog 盲犬 mōken Step: The blind dog can step one square orthogonally sideways. Step: The violent wolf can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways. or. one square straight forward. or. backward or diagonally forward. giving it four possibilities. one square straight forward. │ ○ │ ○ 延 │ │ ○ ○ ○ ○ 鶏 ○ ○ Swallow's Wings 燕羽 en’u *Gliding Swallow 燕行 engyō . or one square diagonally forward. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 狼 ○ ○ 熊 ○ ○ Violent Stag 猛鹿 mōroku Step: The violent stag can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. one square diagonally forward. *Roaming Boar 行猪 gyōcho Step: The roaming boar can step one square in any direction. giving it six possibilities. one square diagonally forward. orthogonal or diagonal. Swallow's Wings 燕羽 en’u Range: The swallow's wings can move any number of free squares orthogonally sideways. or one square diagonally forward. ─ ○ ○ ○ 鳫 ○ ○ ─ 燕 ─ ─ ○ Flying Cock 鶏飛 keihi Step: The flying cock can step one square orthogonally sideways or diagonally forward.Wa shogi 414 Step: The bear’s eyes can step one square in any direction. ○ ○ 猿 ○ ○ ○ ○ 鹿 ○ ○ ○ Flying Goose 鳫飛 ganhi Step: The flying goose can step one square directly forward or backward. giving it four possibilities. ○ ○ 犬 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 狼 ○ Climbing Monkey 登猿 tōen Step: The climbing monkey can step one square directly forward or backward. giving it five possibilities. or. Violent Stag 猛鹿 mōroku Step: The violent stag can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions. Violent Wolf 猛狼 mōrō Step: The violent wolf can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. or. giving it six possibilities. orthogonal or diagonal.

─ ─ ─ ○ │ │ Range: The swallow's wings can move any number of free squares orthogonally sideways. one square backward plus one square diagonally backward in a single motion. ○ 鴟 ○ ○ ○ │ ○ ○ │ ○ ○ │ ○ ○ 鷲 ○ ○ │ ○ │ Liberated Horse 風馬 fūma Range: The liberated horse can move any number of free squares along the forward orthogonal. Flying Falcon 飛鷹 hiyō Range: The flying falcon can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. giving it three possibilities.Wa shogi 415 Range: The gliding swallow can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. Limited range: It can step one or two squares directly backward. amounting to one square forward plus one square diagonally forward. │ │ 風 ○ ○ *Heavenly Horse 天馬 temma Jump: The heavenly horse jumps at an angle intermediate between orthogonal and diagonal. ☆ 天 ☆ ☆ ☆ Oxcart 牛車 gissha *Plodding Ox 歬牛 sengyū . ○ ─ ─ 燕 │ │ ─ 行 ─ ─ Strutting Crow 烏行 ukō Step: The strutting crow can step one square directly forward or diagonally backward. giving it three possibilities. two or three squares diagonally forward. Cloud Eagle 雲鷲 unjū Ranging: The cloud eagle can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward. Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways or diagonally backward. Step: It can move one square orthogonally forward or backward. Step: It can step one square forward. or. Limited range: It can move one. ignoring any intervening piece. \ / ○ 烏 ○ ○ \ ○ / 鷹 / \ / \ Swooping Owl 鴟行 shigyō Step: The swooping owl can step one square directly forward or diagonally backward.

then the game is no contest. The rules pertaining to drops are usually based on modern shogi. and effectively wins the game. as a player will resign when checkmated. If the same position occurs four times with the same player to play. Drops Descriptions of wa shogi from historical texts make no mention that drops were ever used. however. giving it six possibilities. A sparrow pawn that reaches the furthest rank must promote. Check and mate When a player makes a move such that the opponent's crane king could be captured on the following move. (Recall. An oxcart that reaches the furthest rank must promote. The game reaches an impasse if both crane kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. ○ 歩 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 金 ○ Drops Main article: Shogi. │ │ 車 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 牛 ○ ○ Sparrow Pawn 萑歩 jakufu Step: The sparrow pawn can step one square forward. orthogonal or diagonal. as well as the position on the board. If a player's crane king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the crane king out of check.) For two positions to be considered the same. or. the pieces in hand must be the same. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games. Range: The oxcart can move any number of free squares straight forward. the crane king is said to be in check. the move is said to give check to the crane king. . the checking move is also mate. however. Game end A player who captures the opponent's crane king wins the game. the prohibition against perpetual check. *Golden Bird 金鳥 kinchō Step: The golden bird can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. In practice this rarely happens. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. as otherwise when loss is inevitable.) There are two other possible (but fairly uncommon) ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi). many people in modern times enjoy playing this game with drops. one square diagonally forward.Wa shogi 416 Step: The plodding ox can step one square in any direction.

(This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention. Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter e. shogi.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece. This can only apply to golden birds. VS = violent stag.net / Wa shogi [1] References [1] http:/ / www. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank. The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: . For example.for an ordinary move or x for a capture. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess. CE = cloud eagle and . RR = running rabbit. Wa Shogi is played with drops. or an = to indicate that it was declined. uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. +SP for a golden bird (promoted sparrow pawn). Modern rules In modern rules. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess. the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. TF = treacherous fox. FG = flying goose. The first letter represents the piece moved: SP = sparrow pawn.Wa shogi 417 Game notation The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. BD = blind dog. Modifications have been made for wa shogi. FC = flying cock. External links • Shogi Net [2] • Shogi. html . but differs in several respects. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. SW = swallow’s wings. with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 11k being the bottom left corner. however. All other rules as the same as original rules. net/ rjhare/ wa-shogi/ wa-intro. SO = swooping owl. which. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous. FFx7c= indicates a flying falcon capturing on 7c without promoting. FF = flying falcon. SC = strutting crow. CM = climbing monkey.. VW = violent wolf. the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese. For example. LH = liberated horse. OC = oxcart. then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. CK = crane king.g. A typical example is SP-8f.

Alternatively. however. from largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: . Game equipment Two players.Chu shogi 418 Chu shogi Chū shōgi (中将棋 'mid (sized) chess') is a board game native to Japan. The main reference work in English is the Middle Shogi Manual by George Hodges. Each player has a set of 46 pieces of 21 different types. if all or part of its move lies in the promotion zone. as they point toward the opposing side. but it is not clear that they refer to the game as we now know it. Chu shogi seems to have been developed in the early 14th century as a derivative of dai shogi ("large shogi"). It has. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. gained some adherents in the West. Rules of the game Objective The objective of the game is to capture the opponent's king and. Unlike standard shogi. the crown prince. and each piece has its name written on it in Japanese kanji. especially in Kyoto. play on a board ruled into a grid of 12 ranks (rows) and 12 files (columns). leaving a bare king or a bare crown prince. and optionally of promoting the moving piece. Its name means "mid-sized shogi". pieces may not be dropped back into play after capture.) A move consists of moving a piece either to an empty square on the board or to a square occupied by an opposing piece. and to differentiate the sides during discussions of the game. With fewer pieces than dai shogi. unlike a Western chess board. thus capturing that piece. from a time when there were three sizes of shogi variants in regular use. Game play Two players alternate making a move. The writing is typically in black. whereupon the player wins and the game ends early. together with an unpromoted gold general. (The pieces are not differentiated by color. which counts as a second king. but now has largely died out. It was still commonly played in Japan in the early 20th century. The pieces are wedge-shaped and their orientation indicates which player they belong to. it suffices to capture all the other pieces. typically written in red. if the player has only the king or crown prince. if present. The pieces are of slightly different sizes. On the reverse side of most pieces there are characters to indicate the piece's promoted rank. with Black moving first. the traditional chess terms "Black" and "White" are only used to indicate who plays first. Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote). the game was considered more exciting. It is similar to modern shogi (sometimes called Japanese chess) in its rules and game play. There are earlier references.

角 虎 銅 太 馬 龍 象 豹 牛 鹿 猪 Promotion dragon horse flying stag side mover (promoted drunk elephant) horned falcon soaring eagle crown prince bishop (promoted vertical mover) (promoted blind tiger) (promoted side mover) . The king. that is. Pieces Piece name bishop blind tiger copper general *crown prince dragon horse dragon king drunk elephant ferocious leopard *flying ox *flying stag *free boar Kanji 角行 盲虎 銅将 太子 龍馬 龍王 酔象 猛豹 飛牛 飛鹿 奔猪 Romaji kakugyō mōko dōshō taishi ryūma1 ryūō suizō mōhyō higyū hiroku honcho Abbrev. The promotions apply only to pieces which start out with the ranks in the left-most column. Initial setup with the full name in kanji on each piece. pieces with these ranks written in black.Chu shogi 419 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 King 1 Free king 1 Lion 2 Dragon kings 2 Dragon horses 2 Rooks 2 Bishops 1 Kirin 1 Phoenix 1 Drunk elephant 2 Blind tigers 2 Ferocious leopards 2 Gold generals 2 Silver generals 2 Copper generals 2 Vertical movers 2 Side movers 2 Reverse Chariots 2 Lances 2 Go-betweens 12 Pawns Listed below are the pieces of the game and. and lion do not promote. free king. that is. Names are rough translations that have become somewhat standardized in English. Pieces which only appear upon promotion. the pieces they promote to. Pieces are listed alphabetically by their English name. are marked with an asterisk. names which only occur written in red. if they promote. promoted pieces with those same ranks written in red may not promote further.

and 白駒 are irregular. hon’ō. The regular forms ryūme. 反車. a pawn is described as promoting to gold. Below is a diagram showing the setup of the players’ pieces. 奔王. Setup 12 L RC SM VM p p 11 FL 10 C B R p 9 S 8 G 7 DE 6 K 5 G 4 S 3 C B 2 FL 1 L a BT Ph Kr BT RC b DH DK FK Ln DK DH R VM SM c p GB p p p p p GB p p p d e f g GB GB p p p p p p p p h i p p p p . and hakuku are also seen. The board setup is symmetrical: the way one player sees their own pieces is the same way that the opposing player sees their pieces. hansha.Chu shogi 420 free king go-between gold general *horned falcon 奔王 仲人 金将 角鷹 奔 仲 金 鷹 drunk elephant rook (promoted dragon horse) honnō1 chūnin kinshō kakuō king (challenging) 玉将 king (reigning) kirin lance lion pawn phoenix reverse chariot rook side mover silver general *soaring eagle *tokin2 vertical mover *whale *white horse 1 王将 麒麟 香車 獅子 歩兵 鳳凰 反車 飛車 横行 銀将 飛鷲 と金 竪行 鯨鯢 白駒 gyokushō 玉 ōshō kirin kyōsha shishi fuhyō hōō hensha1 hisha ōgyō ginshō hijū tokin shugyō keigei hakku1 王 麒 香 獅 歩 鳳 反 飛 横 銀 鷲 と 竪 鯨 駒 tokin (gold general2) free king whale dragon king free boar vertical mover (promoted dragon king) (promoted pawn) flying ox (promoted reverse chariot) (promoted lance) lion white horse The names of 龍馬. the special name tokin for a promoted pawn is in these descriptions restricted to standard shogi. Note that this is simply a naming convention and makes no difference in the movement of the piece. 2 In many accounts of chu shogi.

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SM VM RC L FL R B C S DH DK Ln FK DK DH R VM SM j BT Kr G K Ph BT DE G S B C FL RC k L l

Setup legend
Abbreviation B BT C DE DH DK FK Name bishop blind tiger copper general drunk elephant dragon horse dragon king free king Abbreviation FL G GB K Kr L Ln Name ferocious leopard gold general go-between king kirin lance lion Abbreviation p Ph R RC S SM VM Name pawn phoenix rook reverse chariot silver general side mover vertical mover

Promotion
The promotion zone is the 'enemy camp', the farthest four ranks of the board, which are mostly occupied by the opposing player's pieces when the board is first set up. When a promotable piece makes a move within the promotion zone—including entering, leaving, or moving entirely within the zone,—it has the option of "promoting" to a more powerful rank. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. Promotion is not mandatory if the unpromoted piece could move further on a later turn, and in some cases it may be beneficial to leave the piece unpromoted. Promotion is permanent and promoted pieces may not revert to their original rank. If a piece is not promoted upon entering the promotion zone, then it may not promote on the next turn unless it makes a capture, with the exception of pawns: If a pawn does not promote once entering the promotion zone, then it may not promote until it reaches the farthest rank. Many promoting pieces promote to a piece that exists in the initial setup of the board. However, such a promoted piece cannot then promote a second time as its namesake does. For example, a drunk elephant promotes to a crown prince. However, while a go-between can promote to a drunk elephant, it does not further promote to a crown prince later. Rather, it remains a drunk elephant for the rest of the game. This should be obvious from the game pieces, which only have two sides. Promoting a piece has the effect of changing how that piece moves. See below. If a pawn or lance reaches the furthest rank, it must promote, since it would otherwise have no legal move on subsequent turns.

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Piece movement
An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece, that is, by another piece controlled by the moving player. Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The lion is the sole exception, in that it is not required to move in a straight line. As stated earlier, this game is based on dai shogi and all of the pieces of this game can be found in dai shogi. The eight types of pieces that were removed all promoted to gold generals, which made for comparatively dull game play. If a pawn or lance, which cannot retreat or move aside, advances across the board until it reaches the other side, it must promote. Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured. The step movers are the king, drunk elephant, blind tigers, ferocious leopards, the generals, go-betweens, and the 12 pawns of each side. Only the king and crown prince can potentially move in all eight directions. Jumping pieces Several pieces can jump, that is, they can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. These are the lion, the kirin, the phoenix, the horned falcon and the soaring eagle. Only the lion can jump in all directions. Ranging pieces Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight orthogonal or diagonal line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. The ranging pieces are the free king, dragon king, dragon horse, rook, bishop, vertical mover, side mover, reverse chariot, lance, and all those pieces which do not appear in the initial setup. Only the free king can range along all eight directions. Lion move (multiple capture) The lion has a double-capture ability, called a 'lion move', as to a lesser extent do the soaring eagle and horned falcon (promoted dragon king and dragon horse). The details of these powerful moves are described for the lion below. Individual pieces Following are diagrams that indicate the movement of each piece. Pieces are listed roughly in order, from front to back rows, with pieces making similar moves paired. Pieces with a grey heading start out in the game; those with a blue heading only appear on the board as a promoted piece.

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Notation ○ ☆ │ ─ \ / ! igui (capture without moving) Steps to an adjacent square Jumps to a non-adjacent square, bypassing any intervening piece Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares

Go-Between 仲人 chūnin (promotes to drunk elephant)
○ 仲 ○

• Step The go-between steps one square directly forward or backward. Side Mover 横行 ōgyō (promotes to free boar)
○ ─ ─ 横 ─ ─ ○

• Range The side mover can move any number of free squares orthogonally sideways; or, • Step It can step one square directly forward or backward. Bishop 角行 kakugyō (promotes to dragon horse)
\ \ 角 / / \ \ / /

• Range The bishop can move any number of free squares along any one of the four diagonals. Because it cannot move orthogonally, an unpromoted bishop can only reach half the squares on the board. Dragon Horse 龍馬 ryūma (promotes to horned falcon)

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\ \ ○ / ○

○ 馬 / /

○ \ \

• Range The dragon horse can move any number of free squares along any one of the four diagonals; or, • Step It can take one step in any direction. Lance 香車 kyōsha (promotes to white horse)
│ │ 香

• Range The lance can move any number of free squares directly forward. It cannot return and must promote upon reaching the farthest row. Blind Tiger 盲虎 mōko (promotes to flying stag)
○ ○ 虎 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

• Step The blind tiger can take one step in any direction except directly forward. Copper General 銅将 dōshō (promotes to side mover)
○ ○ 銅 ○ ○

• Step The copper general can take one step to any of the three squares ahead of it, or else directly backward, giving it four possibilities. Gold General 金将 kinshō (promotes to rook) Promoted Pawn と金 tokin

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○ ○

○ 金 ○

• Step The gold general can take one step orthogonally, one else step diagonally forward, giving it six possibilities. The promoted pawn has a different symbol in some game sets, but moves identically. Kirin 麒麟 kirin (promotes to lion)
☆ ○ ☆ ○ ☆ 麒 ○ ○ ☆

• Jump The kirin can jump to the second square in one of the four orthogonal directions. Or, • Step It can take one step diagonally. Because of its unusual movement, an unpromoted kirin can only reach half the squares on the board. Free King 奔王 honnō
\ \ ─ ─ / / │ │ 奔 │ │ / ─ \ \ ─ /

• Range The free king can move any number of free squares along any one of the eight orthogonal or diagonal directions. Flying Ox 飛牛 higyū (promoted vertical mover)
\ \ │ │ 牛 / / │ │ \ \ / /

• Range The flying ox can move any number of free squares forwards, backwards, or diagonally, but not directly to the side. Whale 鯨鯢 keigei (promoted reverse chariot)

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│ │ 鯨 / / │ │ \ \

• Range The whale can move any number of free squares directly forwards, backwards, or along either rear diagonal. King 玉将 gyokushō, 王将 ōshō
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ 王 ○ ○

• Step The king can take one step in any direction. Pawn 歩兵 fuhyō (promotes to tokin)
○ 歩

• Step The pawn can only step one square directly forward. It must promote upon reaching the farthest rank of the board. Vertical Mover 竪行 shugyō (promotes to flying ox)
│ │ ○ 竪 │ │ ○

• Range The vertical mover can move any number of free squares orthogonally, either forward or backward; or, • Step It can take one step directly sideways. Rook 飛車 hisha (promotes to dragon king)

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│ │ ─ ─ 飛 ─ ─ │ │

• Range The rook can move any number of free squares along any one of the four orthogonals. Dragon King 龍王 ryūō (promotes to soaring eagle)
│ ○ ─ ─ ○ │ 龍 │ │ ○ ─ ○ ─

• Range The dragon king can move any number of free squares along any one of the four orthogonals; or, • Step It can take one step in any direction. Reverse Chariot 反車 hensha (promotes to whale)
│ │ 反 │ │

• Ranging The reverse chariot can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward. Ferocious Leopard 猛豹 mōhyō (promotes to bishop)
○ ○ 豹 ○ ○ ○ ○

• Step The ferocious leopard can take one step to any of the three squares ahead or three squares behind it, but not directly to either side. Silver General 銀将 ginshō (promotes to vertical mover)

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○ 銀

• Step The silver general can take one step diagonally, or else directly forward, giving it five possibilities. Drunk Elephant 酔象suizō (promotes to crown prince)
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ 象 ○

• The drunk elephant can take one step in any direction except directly backward. Phoenix 鳳凰 hōō (promotes to free king)
☆ ○ ○ 鳳 ○ ☆ ☆ ○ ☆

• Jump The phoenix can jump to the second square in one of the four diagonal directions. Or, • Step It can take one step orthogonally. Flying Stag 飛鹿 hiroku (promoted blind tiger)
│ ○ │ ○ ○ ○

○ 鹿 ○ │ │

• Range The flying stag can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward; or, • Step It can take one step in any direction. Free Boar 奔猪 honcho (promoted side mover)

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\ \ ─ ─ / / 猪 / ─ \

• Range The free boar can move any number of free squares diagonally or to the side, but not directly forward or backward. White Horse 白駒 hakku (promoted lance)
\ \ │ │ 駒 │ │ / /

• Range The white horse can move any number of free squares directly backwards, forwards, or along either forward diagonal. Crown Prince 太子 taishi (promoted drunk elephant)
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ 太 ○ ○

• Step The crown prince can take one step in any direction, like a king. If a crown prince is in play, it must be captured along with the king. The next three pieces have special movements that involve the ability to move and even capture twice per turn.
Horned Falcon 角鷹 kakuō (promoted dragon horse) Soaring Eagle 飛鷲 hijū (promoted dragon king)

\ \ ─ ─ / /

☆ ! 鷹 │ │ / ─ \

☆ !

│ │ 鷲 │ │ ! ─ \

─ /

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• Range The soaring eagle can move any number of free squares along a straight line in any direction except the forward diagonals. • Lion move It can step or jump up to two squares along either forward diagonal, potentially capturing two pieces. This power includes igui and skipping a turn (see "Lion"), but not moving off the diagonal.

Range The horned falcon can move any number of free squares along a straight line in any direction except directly forwards.

Lion move It can step or jump up to two squares along a line directly forward, potentially capturing two pieces. This power includes igui and skipping a turn (see "Lion"), but not moving off the orthogonal.

Lion 獅子 shishi

○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○

○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ 獅 ○ ○ ☆ ○ ○

☆ ☆ ! ☆ ! 獅 ☆ ! ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ ! !

☆ ☆ ! ☆ ! ☆ ! ☆

☆ ☆

Area move/double capture The lion can take a step in any direction up to twice per turn. It can continue after a capture on the first step, potentially capturing two pieces per turn. It can change directions after the first step, so that it can reach the squares that a knight jumps to in Western chess.

By returning to its starting square with the second step, it can effectively capture a piece on an adjacent square without moving. This is called 居喰い igui "stationary feeding". It can step to an adjacent empty square and back without capturing anything; this leaves the board unchanged, effectively passing a turn (jitto). Jitto may prove useful in endgame situations; it is traditionally indicated by tapping the lion and leaving it in place. • Jump The lion can jump anywhere that it could step to on an empty board; that is, anywhere within a distance of two squares. This is equivalent to jumping in any of the eight diagonal or orthogonal directions, or making any of the jumps of a knight in Western chess. • Lion vs. lion Some game rules state that a lion cannot capture another lion unless certain criteria are met. These rules are designed to keep the lions in play: 1. A lion can always capture an adjacent lion. 2. It can always capture a non-adjacent lion (on a "☆" square) that is unprotected.(1) 3. It may only capture a non-adjacent protected lion if it first captures another piece so that it is then adjacent (double capture), and then only if the other piece is something other than a pawn or go-between. 4. Finally, if one player captures a lion with a non-lion, the opponent cannot then capture a lion on the next move with anything but another lion (as a player may have such a second lion by promoting a kirin), and this may only be done if the rules listed above are met.

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(1) Lion, note on protection: This may involve so-called "hidden protectors". The attacking lion is ignored when determining whether the defending lion is protected. That is, it doesn't matter if the attacking lion blocks the line of protection: if the attacking lion could be captured upon taking the defending lion, then the defending lion is considered to be protected.[1] For example, in the diagram below, the black lion is directly protected by the black pawn, so, since the two lions are not adjacent, red cannot capture black. Similarly, even though the black lion occupies the line of protection between the red bishop and the red lion, it could be captured by the red bishop if it were to take the red lion, so it is not allowed to do so. (This is the case even if the red bishop is tied down protecting the red king, and would not actually be used to capture the black lion.)
獅 獅 歩 角

Check and mate
When a player makes a move such that the opponent's only remaining royal (king or crown prince) could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check; the king or crown prince is said to be in check. If a player's king or crown prince is in check and no legal move by that player will get it out of check, the checking move is also mate, and effectively wins the game. Unlike Western chess, a player need not move out of check in chu shogi, and indeed may even move into check. Although obviously not often a good idea, a player with more than one royal may occasionally sacrifice one of these pieces as part of a gambit. A player is not allowed to give perpetual check. This is not a rule in itself, but arises from the repetition rule.

Repetition
A player may not make a move if the resulting position is one that has previously occurred in the game with the same player to move. Note that certain pieces have the ability to pass in certain situations (a Lion, when at least one square immediately adjacent to it is unoccupied, a Horned Falcon, when the square immediately in front of it is unoccupied, and a Soaring Eagle, when one or both of the two squares immediately diagonally in front of it are unoccupied). Such a pass move leaves the position unchanged, but it does not violate the repetition rule, as it will now be the turn of the other player to move. Of course, two consecutive passes are not possible, as the first player will see the same position as before.

Game end
A player who captures the opponent's sole remaining king or crown prince wins the game. A player who has only one piece left (a bare king or bare crown prince) loses automatically if his opponent has a gold in play which is neither promoted to rook, nor promoted from a pawn—that is, unless he can bare his opponent in the next move (in which case the result is a draw).[2] In practice these winning conditions are rarely fulfilled, as a player will resign when checkmated, as otherwise when loss is inevitable. A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.)

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Handicaps
Games between players of disparate strengths are often played with handicaps. In a handicap game, one or more of White's pieces are removed from the setup—in exchange, a few of White's pieces may be moved up to fill in the gaps and protect the weaker pieces, and White plays first.[3] [4] Lions can also be handicapped by having Black's kirin promoted for a second lion, and, for a third, swapping Black's phoenix for White's kirin and promoting the latter.[5] The imbalance created by this method of handicapping is not as strong as it is in international chess because material advantage is not as powerful in chu shogi as it is in chess. The handicaps detailed in the Middle Shogi Manual, in increasing order of size, are as follows:
• • • • • • • • Copper General • Silver General Blind Tiger Ferocious Leopard Gold General Side Mover Vertical Mover Rook • • • • • • Two Lions Two Lions and a Copper General Two Lions and a Silver General Two Lions and a Ferocious Leopard Two Lions and a Gold General • • • • • Three Lions Three Lions and One Piece: Three Lions and a Free King Three Lions and Two Pieces: Three Lions, a Free King and a Dragon King Three Lions and Three Pieces: Three Lions, a Free King, a Dragon King and a Rook Three Lions and Four Pieces: Three Lions, a Free King, a Dragon King, a Rook and a Vertical Mover Three Lions and Five Pieces: Three Lions, a Free King, a Dragon King, a Rook, a Vertical Mover and a Side Mover

Two Lions and a Side Mover • Two Lions and a Vertical Mover

Other handicaps may be used, such as Free King, or Free King and Dragon King.

Game notation
The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but modifications have been made for chu shogi. A typical example is p-8f. The first letter represents the piece moved (see setup above). Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter, for example +p for a tokin (promoted pawn). The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move or x for a capture. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 12l being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.) If a move entitles the player to promote the piece, then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken, or an = to indicate that it was declined. For example, px7d= indicates a pawn capturing on 7d without promoting. In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant. When a 'Lion', 'Horned Falcon' or 'Soaring Eagle' captures by 'igui' (that is, without moving), the square of the piece being captured is used instead of the destination square, and this is preceded by the symbol '!'. For example, a Lion on 8c capturing a piece on 9d would be shown as Lnx!9d. When a piece makes a double capture with 'Lion' powers both captures are shown in the order that they were made. For example, a Lion on 3g, capturing a piece on 3h and then capturing another on 2i, would be represented by

Chu shogi Lnx3hx2i. Moves are commonly numbered as in chess.

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Variations
Heisei Chu Shogi setup
12 11 FL B R p p p 10 9 8 G BT 7 DE 6 K 5 G BT B 4 3 2 FL 1 a b c p p d e f g GB p p p R B FL p p p p p GB p p p p h i j k FL l

DH DK FK Ln DK DH R p GB p p p p p GB p

DH DK Ln FK DK DH R BT G K DE BT G B

One modern variant of Chu Shogi, called Heisei Chu Shogi (平成中将棋),[6] is played on a more open board. Forty percent of the pieces are set aside at setup and held in reserve, and once during the game a player may drop one of these on an empty square adjacent to a friendly piece. Captured pieces do not come back into play, and the rest of the game is played as in regular Chu. The set-aside pieces are the Lances, Coppers, Silvers, Side Movers, Vertical Movers, Reverse Chariots, Kyrin, and Phoenix. As with dropped pieces in standard shogi, the piece may not be dropped on a square from where it cannot move (e.g. a Lance in the far rank). If dropped into the promotion zone, the piece may promote immediately or on any subsequent move in the promotion zone.

References
[1] If your attacking Lion is positioned directly between the opposing Lion, and another opposing piece, such that if your Lion were to be removed from the board, then the opposing Lion would be protected, then the opposing Lion is considered to be protected, and so may not be captured under the conditions of this rule (the "Hidden Protector"). The rules of the European Chu Shogi tournament (http:/ / www. colina. demon. co. uk/ chulib/ rules. en. html#double-capture) [2] The Bare King rule. If there are only three pieces left on the board, and one of the pieces is a Gold General (not a Tokin and not a Rook that has been promoted from a Gold General), then the player with the Gold General has won the game. The rules of the European Chu Shogi tournament (http:/ / www. colina. demon. co. uk/ chulib/ rules. en. html#AEN14) (3). [3] Chu Shogi Handicaps and Grades (http:/ / www. colina. demon. co. uk/ chuhand. html) [4] German Chu Shogi Association (http:/ / www. chushogi. de/ strategy/ chu_strategy_handicap. htm) [5] Richard's Play-by-eMail rules for ChuShogi (http:/ / www. gamerz. net/ pbmserv/ chushogi. html) [6] Heisei Chu Shogi (http:/ / www. chessvariants. org/ index/ external. php?itemid=ChuShogi)

Chu shogi

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External links
• Chu Shogi page (http://www.shogi.net/rjhare/chu-shogi/chu-intro.html) • Chu Shogi strategy etc. (http://www.luckydog.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/games/shogi/chu.htm) • German Chu Shogi Association (GCSA) (http://www.chushogi.de) with many reports and games to replay online • Presentation of Chu Shogi (http://history.chess.free.fr/chushogi.htm) • SDIN Chu Shogi (http://sdin.jp/en/browser/board/chushogi/) - Play Chu Shogi in real time vs human players or AI • Chess Variants Game Courier (http://play.chessvariants.org/pbm/index.html) - Play Chu Shogi via web page, with email notifications when it's your move. • Richard's Play-by-eMail Server (http://www.gamerz.net/pbmserv/) - Play Chu Shogi via web page or email your commands to the server, with email notifications when moves have been made in the game you're playing

Heian dai shogi
Heian dai shogi (Japanese: 平安大将棋 'Heian (Era) large chess') is an early large board variant of shogi (Japanese chess) as it was played in the Heian period. The same 12th century document which describes the Heian form of shogi also describes this variant. Unfortunately, this description does not give enough information to actually play the game, but this has not stopped people from attempting to reconstruct this early form of shogi. A fairly complete and playable reconstruction is outlined here.

Rules of the game
Objective
The objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king or to capture all the other pieces, leaving a bare king. Unlike standard shogi, pieces may not be dropped back into play after capture.

Game equipment
Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 13 ranks (rows) by 13 files (columns) for a total of 169 squares. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color. Each player has a set of 34 wedge-shaped pieces of 13 different types. In all, the players must remember 13 different moves. The pieces are of slightly different sizes. From largest to smallest (most to least powerful) they are: • • • • • • • • • • 1 king 2 flying dragons 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 1 side mover 2 copper generals 2 iron generals 2 fierce tigers 2 free chariots 1 go between

• 2 knights • 2 lances • 13 pawns

Heian dai shogi Many of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess, rather than as translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name in the form of two kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of each piece (other than kings and gold generals) are one or two other characters, often in a different color (e.g., red instead of black); this reverse side is turned up to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play.

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Setup
13 香 車 奔 車 歩 兵 12 桂 馬 飛 龍 歩 兵 歩 兵 歩 兵 11 鉄 将 10 銅 将 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

銀 金 玉 金 銀 銅 鉄 桂 香 一 将 将 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車 猛 虎 横 行 猛 虎 飛 奔 二 龍 車

歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 三 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 注 人 四

五 六 七 八 九 注 人 歩 兵 奔 車 香 車 歩 兵 飛 龍 桂 馬 鉄 将 銅 将 歩 兵 歩 兵 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 歩 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 兵 猛 虎 横 行 猛 虎 飛 奔 龍 車 十

十 一 十 二 十 三

銀 金 玉 金 銀 銅 鉄 桂 香 将 将 将 将 将 将 将 馬 車

13 L FC P

12 N FD P

11 I

10 C

9 S FT

8 G

7 K SM

6 G

5 S FT

4 C

3 I

2 N

1 L a

FD FC b P P P P c d e f g h i

P

P

P

P

P GB

P

P

GB

j

Heian dai shogi

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P FC L P FD N I C P P P FT S G P P SM K G P P FT S C I P P P P k l m

FD FC N L

Each side places his pieces in the positions shown below, pointing toward the opponent. • In the rank nearest the player: • • • • • • • The king is placed in the center file. The two gold generals are placed in the adjacent files to the king. The two silver generals are placed adjacent to each gold general. The two copper generals are placed adjacent to each silver general. The two iron generals are placed adjacent to each copper general. The two knights are placed adjacent to each iron general. The two lances are placed in the corners, adjacent to each knight.

That is, the first rank is
L N I C S G K G S C I N L

or
香 桂 鉄 銅 銀 金 玉 金 銀 銅 鉄 桂 香

• In the second rank, each player places: • The side mover in the same file as the king. • The fierce tigers in the same files as the silver generals. • The flying dragons in the same files as the knights • The free chariots in the same files as the lances. • In the third rank, the thirteen pawns are placed one in each file. • In the fourth rank, the go between is placed in the same file as the side mover.

Game play
Two players alternate in making a move, with Black moving first. (The pieces are not differentiated by color; the traditional chess terms "Black" and "White" are only used to indicate who plays first, and to differentiate the sides during discussions of the game.) A move consists of moving a piece either to an empty square on the board or to a square occupied by an opposing piece, thus displacing (capturing) that piece; and optionally of promoting the moving piece, if all or part of its move lies in the promotion zone.

Movement and capture
An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece, that is, by another piece controlled by the moving player. Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The knight is an exception in that it does not move in a straight line. If a piece that cannot retreat or move aside advances across the board until it can no longer move, it must promote. This applies to the pawn, lance and knight upon reaching the furthest rank.

Heian dai shogi Some pieces are capable of several kinds of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are: Step movers Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.) The step movers are the king, generals, fierce tiger, go between and the 13 pawns on each side. Jumping piece The knight can jump, that is, it can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. Ranging pieces Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight orthogonal or diagonal line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all. The ranging pieces are the flying dragon, side mover, free chariot and lance.

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Promotion
The promotion zone is the 'enemy camp', the farthest three ranks of the board, which are mostly occupied by the opposing player's pieces when the board is first set up. When a promotable piece makes a move within the promotion zone—including entering, leaving, or moving entirely within the zone,—it has the option of "promoting" to a more powerful rank. Promotion is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. The characters inscribed on the backs of the pi