‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ‬

‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻧﭙﻮﺭ‪ ، ۱‬ﻓﺎﻃﻤﻪ ﻳﺰﺩﻳﺎﻥ *‪ ، ۲‬ﻣﺮﻳﻢ ﻣﻠﮑﺸﺎﻫﯽ‬

‫‪۱‬‬

‫‪iranpour 110@yahoo.com‬‬

‫‪ (۱‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮑﺪﻩ ﻓﻨﯽ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺎﺩﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﯽ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﯽ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﯽ‬
‫‪ (۲‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮑﺪﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﺷﻴﻤﯽ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﻴﻮﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﭼﮑﻴﺪﻩ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﯽ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﯽ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺁﺑﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯽ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﺤﻮﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﯼ ‪ :‬ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ‬

Biosensor Application in environmental monitoring linear
Alkylbenzene sulfonate (LABS)
Saeed Iranpour1, Fatemeh Yazdian*2, Maryam Malekshahi1
1- Chemical design group, Fanni callege, Tehran university .
2- Biotechnology group, Chemical engineering college, Tarbiat modares university.

Abstract :
Today some of research center study on the effect of surfactant on environment. LABS is
one of the most surfactant with high application, hence the effect of this surfactant on
environment is very important. There fore monitoring LABS in environment is necessary.
Some analytical method are used to detect LABS. One of them for monitoring LABS in
water is biosensors. In this study, the biosensors and general applications are explained,
then we describe the application of biosensors for detection of LABS in aquous
environment.
Key words : Biosensor, Linear Alkylbenzene, environment.

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﯽ )‪ (LABS‬ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﻴﻮﻧﻴﮏ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻳﯽ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﻳﯽ ﭘﺎﮎ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺒﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽ ﺭﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﻴﻮﻧﯽ‬
‫)ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﯼ ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﯽ( ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ‬
‫ﮐﻪ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ‪ ۱۰‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ۱۳‬ﮐﺮﺑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﻳﯽ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﯽ ﻫﺎﻳﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻧﺎﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﯽ ﻣﻬﺮﯼ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻫﻮﺍﺯﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺯﻳﺴﺘﯽ‬
‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻢ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽ ﺭﻭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﻮﺍﺯﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻴﮑﺮﻭﺍﺭﮔﺎﻧﻴﺴﻢ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﺮﻧﻮﺷﺖ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ﻭ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ LABS‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺁﺑﯽ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ BOD‬ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺗﺎ ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎﯼ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬
‫ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ‪ [۱].‬ﻭ] ‪.[۲‬‬

‫‪ -۱‬ﺍﺛﺮ ‪ LABS‬ﺑﺮ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺁﺑﯽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ،۱۹۶۷‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺩﺗﺮﺟﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺟﻨﺠﺎﻝ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﯼ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻗﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺿﻼﺏ ﺷﻬﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺯﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻟﻬﺎﯼ ﻓﺎﺿﻼﺏ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺮﯼ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﯼ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﮏ ﺟﻠﺐ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻭ ﮐﻮﺷﺶ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻮﻉ "ﻧﺮﻡ" ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫"ﺳﺨﺖ" ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺍﯼ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮ ﮐﻨﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺟﺎﯼ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺍﯼ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﺮﺑﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﮏ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺿﻼﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﮐﻒ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻭ ﭘﺎﮎ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ – ( ۱‬ﻫﻤﻮﻟﻮﮔﻬﺎیﺂﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﯽ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪LAS HOMOLOGUES AND SALTS‬‬
‫‪SALTS‬‬
‫‪CAS RN‬‬
‫)‪1322-98-1 (Sodium‬‬
‫)‪27636-75-5 (Sodium‬‬
‫)‪61931-75-7 (Ammonium‬‬
‫)‪25155-30-0 (Sodium‬‬
‫)‪29756-98-7 (Aluminium‬‬
‫)‪1331-61-9 (Ammonium‬‬
‫)‪26264-06-2 (Calcium‬‬
‫)‪27177-77-1 (Potassium‬‬
‫)‪26248-24-8 (Sodium‬‬
‫)‪28348-61-0 (Sodium‬‬
‫)‪64716-02-5 (Potassium‬‬
‫)‪64716-00-3 (Potassium‬‬

‫‪LAS HOMOLOGUES AND SALTS‬‬
‫‪PARENT SULFONIC ACID‬‬
‫‪CHAIN LENGTH‬‬
‫‪CAS RN‬‬
‫‪Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬
‫‪1322-98-1‬‬
‫‪Undecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬
‫‪50854-94-9‬‬
‫‪27176-87-0‬‬

‫‪Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬

‫‪25496-01-9‬‬
‫‪30776-59-1‬‬
‫‪61215-89-2‬‬
‫‪16722-32-0‬‬
‫‪39735-13-2‬‬

‫‪Tridecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬
‫‪Tetradecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬
‫‪Pentadecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬
‫‪Hexadecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬
‫‪Heptadecylbenzene sulfonic acid‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ – ( ۱‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﻤﻮﻟﻮﮔﻬﺎﯼ ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺧﻄﯽ‬

‫‪-۲‬ﻣﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﯼ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ‪:LABS‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ‪LABS‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -۱ -۲‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﻴﻠﻦ ﺑﻠﻮ )‪ (MBAS‬ﻭ )‪(Abbot, 1962‬‬
‫‪ -۱-۲‬ﮐﺮﻭﻣﺎﺗﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﯽ ﮔﺎﺯﯼ )‪(Swisher, 1987‬‬
‫‪ -۳-۲‬ﮐﺮﻭﻣﺎﺗﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﯽ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﻳﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ )‪(HPLC‬‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﯼ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻟﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -۳‬ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﮕﺮﯼ‪ ١‬ﺑﮑﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ]‪ .[۳‬ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻳﮏ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻴﺘﻴﮏ ﻣﺘﺸﮑﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻮﮐﺎﺗﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ )ﺁﻧﺰﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ(‬
‫ﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻟﻬﺎﯼ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﮑﯽ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﻮﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﯽ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﮐﻤﯽ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻮﮐﺎﺗﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻏﺸﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﮊﻝ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﺑﻴﻮﮐﺎﺗﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺗﻨﮕﺎﺗﻨﮓ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ]‪ ۵‬ﻭ ‪.[۴‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -۱-۳‬ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ‪: 2‬ﺁﻧﺰﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﺘﯽ ﺑﺎﺩﯼ ‪ ،‬ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﻟﻴﭙﻴﺪﯼ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎﯼ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -۲-۳‬ﺁﺷﮑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯﯼ‪ : 3‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩ ‪ ،pH‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﮋﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮐﺴﻴﺪ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﮊﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﻭ ‪...‬‬
‫ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﮕﺮﯼ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﻟﯽ ﺁﺷﮑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﺳﺖ]‪.[۳‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮﻃﺮﺡ ﺷﻤﺎﺗﻴﮏ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪– (۱‬ﻃﺮﺡ ﺷﻤﺎﺗﻴﮏ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ]‪[۳‬‬
‫‪1- Sensing function‬‬
‫‪2- Receptor‬‬
‫‪3- Detector‬‬

‫‪-۴‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﮐﻠﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ]‪ ۵‬ﻭ ‪:[۳‬‬
‫‪-۱-۴‬ﺗﮏ ﻣﻮﻟﮑﻮﻟﯽ ﻭﮐﻤﭙﻠﮑﺴﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﻟﮑﻮﻟﯽ )ﭘﺮﻭﺗﺌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﺰﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﺩﯼ‪ RNA ،DNA ،‬ﻭ ‪( ...‬‬
‫‪-۲-۴‬ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻟﯽ ‪) ١‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺳﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺭﮔﺎﻧﻴﺴﻢ ﻫﺎ(‬
‫ﺑﺮﻣﻨﺒﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻭ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﮑﯽ ﺑﻴﻮﮐﺎﺗﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﻧﺴﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ]‪: [۴‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻒ ‪-‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﻞ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ ﺟﺰﺀ )ﺑﻴﻮﮐﺎﺗﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ( ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻔﮑﻴﮏ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﯼ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﻞ ﺩﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﯼ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﮕﺎﺗﻨﮓ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﮐﻨﺶ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﯼ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﻞ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﻴﻮﺷﻴﻤﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺷﻴﻤﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺷﻴﻤﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﻫﺎﺩﯼ ﺭﺥ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﭼﻴﭗ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪-۵‬ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ‪LABS‬‬
‫ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﯽ ‪ LABS‬ﺑﮑﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ]‪: [۶‬‬
‫‪- ۱ -۵‬ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ‪Effect – type‬‬
‫‪- ۲ -۵‬ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ‪Enalyte – based‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺳﻤﯽ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻨﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻒ ﮐﺸﻬﺎ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ BOD‬ﻭ ‪ COD‬ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪1 -Cell based biosensor‬‬
‫‪2-Biochip‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﻴﻮﻧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ‬

‫‪ Whole cell‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫)‪ .(Nomura, 1994‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ reactor – type‬ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ‬
‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ LAS‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﮋﻥ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﺁﻟﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺵ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻋﮑﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ۶ mg/l‬ﺧﻄﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺁﻧﻴﻮﻧﯽ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻭﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪۱۹۹۶‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ" ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﮑﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﮕﺮﯼ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬
‫ﻣﻴﮑﺮﻭﺑﯽ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ‪ Trichosporon cutaneum‬ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺨﻤﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﺓ ‪)LABS‬ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ‪ (A‬ﻭ ‪ T.cutaneum‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮊﻝ‬
‫‪ Calcium alginate‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﺓ ‪ LAS‬ﺍﺯ ﻟﺠﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﺸﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺪﺍﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ‪ %۰/۱ ،‬ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺨﻤﺮ ﻭ ‪ %۰/۰۱‬ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺩﻭﺩﺳﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ T.cutaneum .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪) YM‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ %۰/۳‬ﻣﺨﻤﺮ‪ %۰/۳ ،‬ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﺖ‪ %۰/۵ ،‬ﭘﭙﺘﻮﻥ‪%۱ ،‬‬
‫ﺩﮐﺴﺘﺮﻭﺯ‪ YM broth ،‬ﮐﺸﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺨﻤﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ‪ ۱۰cc‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ‪ %۰/۹‬ﮐﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺑﺎ ‪ ۱۲/۵ cc‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺁﻟﮕﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺯ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﮐﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﮐﻠﺴﻴﻢ ﺭﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ (۱-۲) mm‬ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﺴﻴﻢ ﺁﻟﮕﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺖ ﺁﻧﻴﻮﻧﯽ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ]‪.[۵‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ – (۲‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻓﮑﺘﺎﻧﺖ ﺁﻧﻴﻮﻧﯽ‬

‫ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﻤﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﮊﻝ ﮐﻠﺴﻴﻢ ﺁﻟﮋﻳﻨﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﯼ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،LABS‬ﺑﺎﻓﺮ ‪ Tris _ HCl‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ‪ Cach‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﭘﻤﭗ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻳﻮﻥ ‪ Ca2+‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﮊﻝ ﮐﻠﺴﻴﻢ ﺁﻟﮕﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻦ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻓﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﻫﻤﺰﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ‪۳۰ °C‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﮑﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ‪ ، LAS‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ ۰/۵ ml/min‬ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺩﺭ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﮋﻥ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻴﺰ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺎﻓﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ۲ ml/min‬ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ‬
‫‪ LAS‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ‪ A‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻴﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﻫﻮﺍﺯﯼ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﯽ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺖ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﮐﺴﻴﮋﻥ ﺣﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﮋﻥ ﺣﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﮋﻥ‬
‫‪ Clark – type‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ‪ flowcell‬ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ – ﻏﻠﻈﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﯼ ﺍﺯ ‪LABS LAS‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺪﺕ ‪ ۱۵m‬ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪-۶‬ﺑﺤﺚ ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ‪:‬‬
‫ﺁﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﯽ )‪ ١ (LABS‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ‪، LAS‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺁﺑﯽ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ..‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺷﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫ﮐﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﺍﻟﮑﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﯼ ﺯﻳﺴﺘﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﯽ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﯼ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﯼ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ LABS .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﺳﻤﯽ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺁﺑﯽ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﭘﻼﻧﮑﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎﮐﻤﮏ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻭﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺭﺳﺪ] ‪.[۶‬‬
‫ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﮕﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ‪ LAS‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﯽ ﻭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪1 -Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate‬‬

: ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬
1-Tharwat F.Tadros,Applied Surfactants,Wiley-VCH,2003
2 - W.Gopel,J.HESSE,J.N.Zemel,Sensors, A Comprehensive Survey,VCH,1996
3- Biosensor , liban Jenelten , 1995.
.۱۶ ‫ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﭘﺰﺷﮑﯽ– ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ‬،‫ ﺷﻬﺮﻩ ﺷﺮﻕ‬،‫ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﻳﺴﺘﯽ ﺣﺲ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬-۲
4- Biosensor for Industrial Applications, Bio – Wise, programme with the
assistance of David Stafford of Enviro – control Ltd.
5- Biosensors for evaluation of the performance of WWTW, Bacelona, April
2000.
6- Application of Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonate Biosensor to river water
monitoring, Yoki nomara – et al . 1997.

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