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Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Second edition 2002
The information provided in this handbook is given in good faith, but Alfa Laval is not able to accept any responsibility for the accuracy of its content, or any consequences that may arise from the use of the information supplied or materials described.

Inside view
This pump handbook has been produced to support pump users at all levels, providing an invaluable reference tool. The handbook includes all the necessary information for the correct selection and successful application of the Alfa Laval ranges of Centrifugal, Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. The handbook is divided into fifteen main sections, which are as follows:

1 Introduction 2 Terminology and Theory 3 Pump Selection 4 Pump Description

9 10 11 12

Motors Cleaning Guidelines Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Installation Guide Troubleshooting Technical Data Glossary of Terms

5 Pump Materials of Construction 13 6 Pump Sealing 14 7 Pump Sizing 15 8 Pump Specification Options

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 1

Contents
Section 1: Introduction
Introduction of the Pump Handbook. 1.1 What is a Pump? 5 5

Section 5: Pump Materials of Construction
Description of the materials, both metallic and elastomeric, that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges. 5.1 5.2 5.3 7 Main Components Steel Surfaces Elastomers

61 61 63 65

Section 2: Terminology and Theory
Explanation of the terminology and theory of pumping applications, including rheology, flow characteristics, pressure and NPSH. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 Product/Fluid Data Rheology Viscosity Density Specific Weight Specific Gravity Temperature Flow Characteristics Vapour Pressure Fluids Containing Solids Performance Data Capacity (Flow Rate) Pressure Cavitation Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer)

Section 6: Pump Sealing
8 8 8 12 12 13 13 13 17 17 18 18 18 30 31 35 Explanation of pump sealing principles with illustrations of the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. A general seal selection guide is included, together with various operating parameters. 67 6.1 6.2 6.3 Mechanical Seals - General 70 Mechanical Seal Types in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges 80 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) 82

Section 7: Pump Sizing
How to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/fluid and performance data given, supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach. 85 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.6.4 7.6.5 7.6.6 7.6.7 7.6.8 7.6.9 7.7 7.8 General Information Required 85 Power 86 Hydraulic Power 86 Required Power 87 Torque 88 Efficiency 88 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps 92 Flow Curve 92 Flow Control 96 Alternative Pump Installations 100 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric Units) 102 Example 1 102 Example 2 106 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US Units) 109 Example 1 109 Example 2 113 Rotary Lobe Pumps 116 Slip 116 Initial Suction Line Sizing 118 Performance Curve 119 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel) 124 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy) 125 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors 125 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish 126 Guidelines for Solids Handling 127 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media 128 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric Units) 129 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US Units) 143

Section 3: Pump Selection
Overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas. 3.1 3.2 3.3 General Applications Guide Pumps for Sanitary Applications PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool

39 40 41 43

Section 4: Pump Description
Description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design, principle of operation and pump model types. 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 Centrifugal Pumps General Principle of Operation Design Pump Range Liquid Ring Pumps General Principle of Operation Design Pump Range Rotary Lobe Pumps General Principle of Operation Pump Range 45 45 45 46 46 48 52 52 52 53 55 56 56 56 57

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 2

Section 8: Pump Specifications Options
Description of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges, such as port connections, heating/cooling jackets, pressure relief valves and other ancillaries. 157 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.2.7 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Port Connections Heating/Cooling Jackets Pump Casing with Drain Increased Impeller Gap Pump Inlet Inducer Rotary Lobe Pumps Rotor Form Clearances Port Connections Rectangular Inlets Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles Pump Overload Protection Ancillaries 157 157 158 159 159 159 160 160 162 164 165 166 167 169

12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.5.1

Flow Direction Centrifugal Pumps Rotary Lobe Pumps Baseplates Foundation (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps Pipework

201 201 202 203 204 204 204

Section 13: Troubleshooting
Advises possible causes and solutions to most common problems found in pump installation and operation. 205 13.1 13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 13.2.7 13.3 General Common Problems Loss of Flow Loss of Suction Low Discharge Pressure Excessive Noise or Vibration Excessive Power Rapid Pump Wear Seal Leakage Problem Solving Table 205 206 206 206 207 207 208 208 208 209

Section 9: Motors
Description of electric motors, including information on motor protection, methods of starting, motors for hazardous environments and speed control. 173 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 Output Power Rated Speed Voltage Cooling Insulation and Thermal Rating Protection Methods of Starting Motors for Hazardous Environments Energy Efficient Motors Speed Control Changing Motor Nameplates - Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only 175 175 176 176 176 177 179 180 182 184 186

Section 14: Technical Data
Summary of the nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook. Various conversion tables and charts are also shown. 213 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.3.5 14.3.6 14.3.7 14.3.8 14.3.9 14.3.10 14.3.11 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.7.1 14.7.2 14.7.3 14.7.4 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 Nomenclature Formulas Conversion Tables Length Volume Volumetric Capacity Mass Capacity Pressure/Head Force Torque Power Density Viscosity Conversion Table Temperature Conversion Table Water Vapour Pressure Table Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities Equivalent Tube Length Table ISO Tube Metric ISO Tube Feet DIN Tube Metric DIN Tube Feet Moody Diagram Initial Suction Line Sizing Elastomer Compatibility Guide Changing Motor Name Plates 213 214 219 219 219 219 220 220 220 220 221 221 222 224 225 226 227 228 228 230 232 234 236 237 238 243

Section 10: Cleaning Guidelines
Advises cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle. 189

Section 11: Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
Description of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges. 193

Section 12: Installation Guide
Advises guidelines relating to pump installation, system design and pipework layout. 12.1 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 General System Design Pipework Weight Electrical Supply 199 199 199 200 200 200

Section 15: Glossary of Terms
Explains the various terms found in this handbook. 249

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 3

..if pumps are the question Alfa Laval is an acknowledged market leader in pumping technology. supplying Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps world-wide to various key application areas such as food.. . brewery and pharmaceutical.

Fig. Introduction This section gives a short introduction of the Pump Handbook. 1. of which there are many forms as shown in Fig. The Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps are types of rotodynamic pump. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 5 . 1.Rotodynamic and Positive Displacement. which utilise centrifugal force to transfer the fluid being pumped. The Rotary Lobe pump is a type of positive displacement pump. The Rotodynamic pump transfers rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. This is illustrated below transferring fluid from tank A to spray nozzles B.1b.Introduction 1.1a Typical pump installation Pump types generally fall into two main categories . from one place to another’.1 What is a Pump? There are many different definitions of this but at Alfa Laval we believe this is best described as: ‘A machine used for the purpose of transferring quantities of fluids and/or gases. which directly displaces the pumped fluid from pump inlet to outlet in discrete volumes. 1.

1b Pump classifications 6 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Introduction Pumps Positive Displacement Rotodynamic Rotor Reciprocating Multi-Stage Single Stage Multi-Rotor Single Rotor Diaphragm Plunger End Suction Double Entry Screw Circumferential Piston Gear Internal External Piston Archimedian Screw Flexible Member Peristaltic Vane Simplex Multiplex Process Rubber Lined Submersible General Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe Progressing Cavity Fig. 1.

temperature. flow characteristics.Terminology and Theory 2. density/specific gravity. In order to select a pump two types of data are required: • Product/Fluid data which includes viscosity. pressure and NPSH. including explanations of rheology. flow characteristics. vapour pressure and solids content. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 7 . It is therefore very important to know all relevant product and performance data before selecting a pump. • Different fluids have varying characteristics and are usually pumped under different conditions. Terminology and Theory This section explains the terminology and theory of pumping applications. and inlet/discharge pressure/head. Performance data which includes capacity or flow rate.

s) in the so-called MKS (metre. 8 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . grams. The SI unit of absolute viscosity is (mPa. Water at 1 atmosphere and 20°C (68oF) has the value of 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt.s = 1 cP. This retarding force transforms the kinetic energy of the fluid into thermal energy. For example. kilogram. seconds) system this is expressed as 1 centipoise (cP) where 1 mPa. while timing its flow. kilogram. Two basic viscosity parameters are commonly used. absolute (or dynamic) viscosity and kinematic viscosity.Terminology and Theory 2. while in the cgs (centimetres.1 Rheology The science of fluid flow is termed ‘Rheology’ and one of its most important aspects is viscosity which is defined below.1. Kinematic viscosity is usually designated by the symbol ν. The ease with which a fluid pours is an indication of its viscosity. where 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt.2 Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid can be regarded as a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow. It follows therefore that viscosity affects the magnitude of energy loss in a flowing fluid. 2. it is comparable to the friction of solid bodies and causes a retarding force.s or 1 cP. while in the cgs (centimetres. cold oil has a high viscosity and pours very slowly. Kinematic viscometers usually use the force of gravity to cause the fluid to flow through a calibrated orifice. Absolute (or Dynamic) Viscosity This is a measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is between two layers of fluid in motion. Absolute viscosity is usually designated by the symbol µ. whereas water has a relatively low viscosity and pours quite readily. Water at 1 atmosphere and 20°C (68oF) has the value of 1 mPa. A value can be obtained directly from a rotational viscometer which measures the force needed to rotate a spindle in the fluid. seconds) system this is expressed as 1 centistoke (cSt). second) system.1. grams. second) system. High viscosity fluids require greater shearing forces than low viscosity fluids at a given shear rate. The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is (mm2/s) in the so-called MKS (metre.1 Product/Fluid Data 2. Kinematic Viscosity This is a measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is under the influence of gravity.

Viscosity Variation with Temperature Temperature can have a significant effect on viscosity and a viscosity figure given for pump selection purposes without fluid temperature is often meaningless .viscosity should always be quoted at the pumping temperature.10. Typical fluids are: • Water • Beer • Hydrocarbons • Milk • Mineral Oils • Resins • Syrups Shear rate Fig. = Absolute Viscosity (cP) Specific Gravity Viscosity Temperature Fig.3). it increases with falling temperature.1. Generally viscosity falls with increasing temperature and more significantly.1.3. In the cgs system this translates to: Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) or Absolute Viscosity (cP) = Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) x SG A viscosity conversion table is included in 14. In a pumping system it can be advantageous to increase the temperature of a highly viscous fluid to ease flow. These fluids are named Newtonian fluids. 2.2a Viscosity variation with temperature Viscosity Newtonian Fluids In some fluids the viscosity is constant regardless of the shear forces applied to the layers of fluid.Terminology and Theory Relationship Between Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity Absolute and Kinematic viscosity are related by: ν=µ ρ where ρ is the fluid density (see 2.1. At a constant temperature the viscosity is constant with change in shear rate or agitation. 2.2b Newtonian Fluids Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 9 .

It is not unusual to find the effective viscosity as little as 1% of the value measured by standard instruments.Terminology and Theory It is not always obvious which type of viscous behaviour a fluid will exhibit and consideration must be given to the shear rate that will exist in the pump under pumping conditions. However. 2. there are many fluids which do not follow this linear law.2d Viscosity against shear rate Types of Non-Newtonian Fluids There are a number of different type of non-newtonian fluids each with different characteristics. Effective viscosity at set conditions will be different depending on the fluid being pumped. 2.1. charts.2f Dilatant Fluids 10 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Blood • Emulsions • Gums • Lotions • Soap • Toothpaste • Yeast Shear rate Fig. temperature). 2.1. these fluids are named Non-Newtonian fluids. Non-Newtonian Fluids Most empirical and test data for pumps and piping systems has been developed using Newtonian fluids across a wide range of viscosities.1. 2.1.2c Viscosity against shear rate Fig. ? Viscosity Viscosity ? ? Shear rate Normal Viscometer Reading Typical Shear Rate in Pumping System Shear Rate Fig. but initial viscosity may be so high as to prevent start of flow in a normal pumping system. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Clay Slurries • Paper Coatings Shear rate Fig. Pseudoplastic Fluids Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases.2e Pseudoplastic Fluids Dilatant Fluids Viscosity increases as shear rate increases. graphs and ‘handbook’ information. This can be better understood by looking at the behaviour of viscous fluids with changes in shear rate as follows. When working with Non-Newtonian fluids we use Effective Viscosity to represent the viscous characteristics of the fluid as though it was newtonian at that given set of conditions (shear rate. This effective viscosity is then used in calculations.

the time for recovery will vary with different fluids.Terminology and Theory Viscosity Thixotropic Fluids Viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions. As the name suggests anti-thixotropic fluids have opposite rheological characteristics to thixotropic fluids. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 11 .1. Stress Y Where Y = Yield Stress Typical fluids are: • Barium X-ray Meal • Chocolate • Tomato Ketchup Shear rate Fig. 2. 2. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Natural Rubber Latex • Natural Yoghurt Time Fig.1.1. before flowing like a fluid. Typical fluids are: • Cosmetic Creams • Dairy Creams • Greases • Stabilised Yoghurt Time Fig. Fluid structure is irreversibly destroyed. After shear ceases the viscosity will return to its original value .the time for recovery will vary with different fluids.2h Anti-thixotropic Fluids Typical fluids are: • Vanadium Pentoxide Solution Rheomalactic Fluids Viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions but does not recover.2j Plastic Fluids It should be noted that some fluids would have both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. After shear ceases the viscosity will return to its original value .1.2i Rheomalactic Fluids Plastic Fluids Need a certain applied force (or yield stress) to overcome ‘solid-like structure’. 2. 2.2g Thixotropic Fluids Anti-thixotropic Fluids Viscosity increases with time under shear conditions. Time Viscosity Fig.

It is related to density as follows: γ =ρxg where g is gravity.4 Specific Weight The specific weight of a fluid is its weight per unit volume and is usually designated by the symbol γ.3a Density 2.4 lbf/ft3 Note! .2lb 1 m Fig.1. Density is usually designated by the symbol ρ. 12 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 1 ft .174 ft/s2 The specific weight of water at 20oC (68oF) and 1 atmosphere is as follows: γ =9790 N/m3 = 62. Standard gravity is as follows: g = 9.Mass should not be confused with weight.1. 2. 1 ft³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 49. Density = 49. Weight is the force produced from gravity acting on the mass. i. i.2 lb.789 kg/m3.Terminology and Theory Density in gases varies considerably with pressure and temperature but can be regarded as constant in fluids. 1 m³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 789 kg. 1 m 1 1 m ft 1 ft Mass of ethyl alcohol 789 kg Mass of ethyl alcohol 49. The units of weight per unit volume are N/m3 or lbf/ft3. 2. usually expressed as kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3) or pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3).3 Density The density of a fluid is its mass per unit of volume.e.807 m/s2 g = 32.2 lb/ft3.e. Density = 0.1.

2 lb . This can be illustrated by opening a water tap slowly until the flow is smooth and steady. A temperature conversion table is given in section 14. allowing the velocity of flow to increase. Specific Gravity of ethyl alcohol is: 49. usually expressed in units of degrees Centigrade (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F).1.789 This resultant figure is dimensionless so the Specific Gravity (or SG) is 0. Thus a cooling of the product in the discharge line could have a significant effect on the pumping of a fluid. Mass of ethyl alcohol 789 kg Mass of water 1000 kg 1 m Fig. 1 m³ of water has a mass of 1000 kg . a point will be reached whereby the Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 13 . Under some conditions the fluid will appear to flow as layers in a smooth and regular manner.1.8). Temperature is a measure of the internal energy level in a fluid.6. The connection between the velocity and the capacity of a fluid (similar to water) in different tube sizes is shown in table 14.4 lb .2 lb/ft³ 62. it does not have any units of measure.789 or 1 ft³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 49.5a Specific gravity 1 m Specific Gravity of ethyl alcohol is: 789 kg/m³ 1000 kg/m³ = 0.3.1.its density is 1000 kg/m³. As this is a ratio.its density is 789 kg/m³.2 lb/ft³. If the water tap is opened wider. 1 m³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 789 kg .7 Flow Characteristics When considering a fluid flowing in a pipework system it is important to be able to determine the type of flow. This type of flow is called laminar flow.its density is 49. Other fluid properties such as viscosity and density can also be affected by temperature changes.4 lb/ft³. 2.4 lb/ft³ = 0.1. 2. 1 ft³ of water has a mass of 62.1.789.6 Temperature The temperature of the fluid at the pump inlet is usually of most concern as vapour pressure can have a significant effect on pump performance (see 2.5 Specific Gravity 1 m 1 m 1 m 1 m The specific gravity of a fluid is the ratio of its density to the density of water. 2.11. The temperature of a fluid can also have a significant affect on the selection of any elastomeric materials used.its density is 62.Terminology and Theory 2.

which could impact on pump performance. a certain velocity may be required to prevent solids from settling in the pipework.Terminology and Theory stream of water is no longer smooth and regular. The type of flow is indicated by the Reynolds number.489 D² where V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) Fluid velocity can be of great importance especially when pumping slurries and fluids containing solids. 14 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . but appears to be moving in a chaotic manner. Velocity Velocity is the distance a fluid moves per unit of time and is given by equation as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Velocity V =Q A where V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m³/s) A = tube cross sectional area (m²) Other convenient forms of this equation are: Velocity V = Q x 353.6 D² where V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m³/h) D = tube diameter (mm) or Velocity V = Q x 0. This type of flow is called turbulent flow.409 D² where V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (US gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) or Velocity V = Q x 0. which could result in blockages and changes in system pressure as the actual internal diameter of the pipe is effectively decreased. In these instances.

a useful value for determining whether flow will be laminar or turbulent. This is a ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces.Terminology and Theory V = velocity u max = maximum velocity Fig.s) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 15 . Reynolds Number (Re) Reynolds number for pipe flow is given by equation as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Re = DxVxρ µ where D = tube diameter (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) ρ = density (kg/m³) µ = absolute viscosity (Pa. Turbulent Flow This is sometimes known as unsteady flow with considerable mixing taking place across the pipe cross section.1.7b. the gradient of which depends upon the viscosity of the fluid for a set flow-rate. 2. V = velocity u max = maximum velocity Fig. Turbulent flow generally appears at relatively high velocities and/or relatively low viscosities.1. 2. viscous or steady flow.7a Laminar flow Laminar Flow This is sometimes known as streamline. and as such. The fluid moves through the pipe in concentric layers with the maximum velocity in the centre of the pipe. The velocity profile is more flattened than in laminar flow but remains fairly constant across the section as shown in fig. decreasing to zero at the pipe wall. 2.7b Turbulent flow Transitional Flow Between laminar and turbulent flow there is an area referred to as transitional flow where conditions are unstable and have a blend of each characteristic.1. The velocity profile is parabolic.

it has no units. Re less than 2300 Laminar Flow (Viscous force dominates .high system losses) Transitional Flow (Critically balanced forces) Turbulent Flow (Inertia force dominates . 16 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .low system losses) Re in range 2300 to 4000 Re greater than 4000 - Where transitional flow occurs. when calculating Reynolds numbers. such as above. frictional loss calculations should be carried out for both laminar and turbulent conditions. For a given set of flow conditions.Terminology and Theory Other convenient forms of this equation are: Re = DxVxρ µ where D = tube diameter (mm) V = fluid velocity (m/s) ρ = density (kg/m³) µ = absolute viscosity (cP) or Re = 21230 x Q Dxµ where D = tube diameter (mm) Q = capacity (l/min) µ = absolute viscosity (cP) or Re = 3162 x Q Dxν where D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (US gall/min) ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) or Re = 3800 x Q Dxν where D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) Since Reynolds number is a ratio of two forces. the Reynolds number will not vary when using different units. and the highest resulting loss used in subsequent system calculations. It is important to use the same set of units.

334 psia) 1. The vapour pressure of a fluid is the pressure (at a given temperature) at which a fluid will change to a vapour and is expressed as absolute pressure (bar a or psia) .006 bar a (0.013 bar a (14. Each fluid has its own vapour pressure/temperature relationship. Temperature 0 C (32 F) 20o C (68o F) 100o C (212o F) o Vapour pressure (bar) 0.7 psia) (atmospheric conditions at sea level).8a Vapour pressure Fluids will evaporate unless prevented from doing so by external pressure. vapour pressure can be a key factor in checking the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available from the system (see 2. operating speed and shaft seals.087 psia). 2.Terminology and Theory 2.8 Vapour Pressure Fluid (liquid form) Pvp = Vapour pressure (external pressure required to maintain as a fluid) Fig. Concentration is normally expressed as a percentage by weight (W/W) or volume (V/V) or a combination of both weight and volume (W/V).1.2. 100° C (212o F) if Pvp = 1.2. Is of great importance to pump inlet conditions. Also the pump should be sized so the cavity created in the pump chamber by the pump elements is of sufficient size to allow satisfactory pump operation. 2.1. The Pvp for water at various temperatures is shown in section 14.9 Fluids Containing Solids It is important to know if a fluid contains any particulate matter and if so. Increases at higher temperature.334 psia). Special attention should be given regarding any abrasive solids with respect to pump type and construction. Size of solids is also important. Should be determined from relevant tables.087 psia) 0.see 2.1.006 bar a (0. the size and concentration.023 bar a (0. 20° C (68o F) if Pvp = 0. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 17 .013 bar a (14. In pump sizing.7 psia) o Water will boil (vaporise) at a temperature of: 0° C (32o F) if Pvp = 0.2. In general terms Pvp: Is dependent upon the type of fluid.4. as when pumping large particles the pump inlet should be large enough for solids to enter the pump without ‘bridging’ the pump inlet.023 bar a (0.4).

43 psi gauge (psig). and kilogram per square centimetre (kg/cm²). Pressure is expressed in units of Newtons per square metre (N/m²). Normally the reference is that of the atmosphere and the resulting measured pressure is called gauge pressure.5.05 bar absolute (bar a) or 13. Atmospheric Pressure The actual magnitude of the atmospheric pressure varies with location and with climatic conditions. 2. At sea level the standard atmospheric pressure is 1.Terminology and Theory 2.2a Pressure 1 In the SI system the standard unit of force is the Newton (N) and area is given in square metres (m²).2 Performance Data 2.2 Pressure F = Force Pressure is defined as force per unit area: P= F A where F is the force perpendicular to a surface and A is the area of the surface.2. For fluids the most common units of capacity are litres per hour (l/h). the measurements must be relative to some reference pressure.1 Capacity (Flow Rate) The capacity (or flow rate) is the volume of fluid or mass that passes a certain area per time unit.3. pounds per square inch (lb/in²) or psi.013 bar a or 14. 18 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . This derived unit is called the Pascal (Pa). The range of normal variation of atmospheric pressure near the earth’s surface is approximately 0. For mass the most common units of capacity are kilogram per hour (kg/h). cubic metres per hour (m³/h) and UK or US gallons per minute (gall/min). Different Types of Pressure For calculations involving fluid pressures. Pressure measured relative to a perfect vacuum is called ‘absolute pressure’. In practice Pascals are rarely used and the most common units of force are bar.95 to 1.96 to 15. This is usually a known value dependent on the actual process.7 psi absolute (bar a or psia). tonne per hour (t/h) and pounds per hour (lb/h).2.2. 2. A 1 Fig. Conversion factors between units of pressure are given in section 14.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 19 . This is a measure of the difference between the measured pressure and atmospheric pressure expressed in units of mercury (Hg) or units of psia. Absolute Pressure Is the total pressure exerted by a fluid.Terminology and Theory Gauge Pressure Using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference. Outlet (Discharge) Pressure This is the pressure at which the fluid leaves the pump. Inlet (Suction) Pressure This is the pressure at which the fluid is entering the pump. gauge pressure is the pressure within the gauge that exceeds the surrounding atmospheric pressure.9 in Hg). Again this reading should be taken whilst the pump is running and as close to the pump outlet as possible. For inlet pressures below atmospheric pressure the differential pressure is obtained by adding the inlet pressure to the outlet pressure. commonly indicated in units of barg (bar gauge) or psig (psi gauge). Power requirements are to be calculated on the basis of differential pressure. This is expressed in units of absolute bar a (psia) or gauge bar g (psig) depending upon the inlet conditions.7 psia = 0 mm Hg (0 in Hg). 0 psia = 760 mm Hg (29. It is a measure of the force per unit area exerted by a fluid. 14. The reading is expressed in units of gauge bar (psig). The reading should be taken whilst the pump is running and as close to the pump inlet as possible. It equals atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum This is a commonly used term to describe pressure in a pumping system below normal atmospheric pressure. indicated in units of bar a (bar absolute) or psia (psi absolute). It is therefore the total pressure reading and is the pressure against which the pump will have to operate. For inlet pressures above atmospheric pressure the differential pressure is obtained by subtracting the inlet pressure from the outlet pressure. Differential Pressure This is the difference between the inlet and outlet pressures.

2.7 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.Terminology and Theory Example: Inlet Pressure above Atmospheric Pressure Outlet Inlet Differential 4 bar g (58 psi g) 5.25 psi Example: Inlet Pressure below Atmospheric Pressure Outlet Inlet Differential 4 bar g (58 psi g) 5.0.013 .25 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) Differential + = = 4 + (1.5) = 4.013 bar a (72.75 psi g) 1.013 bar a 0 bar g (14.45 psi Fig. 2.7 psi a) - = Differential = 4 .75 = 36.2b Differential pressure 20 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1.013 bar a (14.7 psi a) 0.013 bar a (14.7 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.013 bar a (72.5 bar a (7.5 = 2.513 bar or = 58 + (14.7 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.5 bar or = 58 .5 bar g (21.25) = 65.013 bar a (14.7 -7.7 psi a) (0 psi g) 0 bar a (0 psi a) 1.21.

2c Relationship of pressure to elevation The Relationship Between Pressure and Elevation In a static fluid (a body of fluid at rest) the pressure difference between any two points is in direct proportion only to the vertical distance between the points. This pressure difference is due to the weight of a ‘column’ of fluid and can be calculated as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Static Pressure (P) = ρ x g x h where P = Pressure/head (Pa) ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3) g = gravity (m/s2) h = height of fluid (m) Other convenient forms of this equation are: Static Pressure (P) = h (m) x SG 10 (bar) or Static Pressure (P) = h (ft) x SG 2.Terminology and Theory The relationship of elevation equivalent to pressure is commonly referred to as ‘head’. 2.31 (psi) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 21 . The same vertical height will give the same pressure regardless of the pipe configuration in between. Fig.2.

Flooded Suction This term is generally used to describe a positive inlet pressure/head. 22 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Terminology and Theory A pump capable of delivering 35 m (115 ft) head will produce different pressures for fluids of differing specific gravities.7 3. 3. Water Slurry Solvent 35 m (115 ft).9 bar (70 psi) 35 m (115ft) 2. Static Discharge Head This is the difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the discharge side of the pump. 2. Static Head The static head is a difference in fluid levels.5 bar (50 psi) pressure will develop different amounts of head for fluids of differing specific gravities. SG 1.5 bar (50 psi) 25 m (82 ft). Static Suction Head This is the difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the inlet side of the pump. whereby fluid will readily flow into the pump inlet at sufficient pressure to avoid cavitation (see 2. 2.2d Relationship of elevation to pressure A pump capable of delivering 3. Water Slurry Solvent 35 m (115ft).7 Fig.3). SG 0.4 SG 0.2.2.0 3.5 bar (50 psi) 35 m (115ft) 4.5 bar (50 psi) 50 m (165 ft).5 bar (50 psi) Fig. SG 1.2.0 SG 1.5 bar (35 psi) SG 1.4 3.2e Relationship of elevation to pressure Below are terms commonly used to express different conditions in a pumping system which can be expressed as pressure units (bar or psi) or head units (m or ft).

= Vacuum or pressure in a tank on suction side. Total head H Total discharge head Ht Total suction head Hs Where: H Hs Ht hs ht hfs hft Ps Pt = = = Ht − (± Hs) ht + hft + pt hs − hfs + (± ps) = Total head. Total Head Total head is the total pressure difference between the total discharge head and the total suction head of the pump. = Total suction head. Total Suction Head The total suction head is the static suction head less the dynamic head. or where the dynamic head is greater than the static head. = Static suction head. this implies the fluid level will be below the centre line of the pump inlet (ie suction lift). Total Discharge Head The total discharge head is the sum of the static discharge and dynamic heads. = Pressure in a tank on discharge side. = Total discharge head. = Pressure drop in suction line. Friction Head This is the pressure drop on both inlet and discharge sides of the pump due to frictional losses in fluid flow.Terminology and Theory Total Static Head The total static head of a system is the difference in height between the static discharge head and the static suction head. Dynamic Head This is the energy required to set the fluid in motion and to overcome any resistance to that motion. = Static discharge head. = Pressure drop in discharge line.The head is often a known value. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 23 . Where the static head is negative. It can be calculated by means of different formulas if the installation conditions are specified.

2.0 101 . 2. For higher viscosity fluids. if necessary. Table 2.2.25 24 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.100 1.2.2h Suction lift and open discharge tanks Fig.5 0. static mixers etc. viscosity.2. heat exchangers. p = 0 for open tank. hs > 0 for flooded suction.2.see Example 2. the pressure drop can be determined referring to the Pressure Drop Curve (see 14.2f Flooded suction and open discharge tanks Fig.2a Viscosity .Terminology and Theory In general terms: p > 0 for pressure. internal surface finish of tube and tube length.5) as shown in Example 1.2g Flooded suction and closed discharge tanks Fig. a viscosity correction factor is applied to the tube fittings by multiplying the resultant equivalent tube length by the figures shown below . These losses are affected by fluid velocity.75 2001 .2i Suction lift and closed discharge tanks Pressure drop is the result of frictional losses in pipework.100000 0. The different losses and consequently the total pressure drop in the process are. 2. usually have data available for pressure drop. p < 0 for vacuum.2000 0. fittings and other process equipment etc. tube diameter. Fig. For calculations on water like viscosity fluids. Pressure Drop Manufacturers of processing equipment.20000 20001 . hs < 0 for suction lift. determined in practice by converting the losses into equivalent straight length of tube which can then be used in subsequent system calculations. 2.cP Correction Factor 1 .

51 mm (2 in).2b Equipment Equivalent ISO Tube Length (m) 38 mm 51 mm 63.2j Example Table 2. dia. so that the total pressure drop can be calculated. A-B: 1 off bend 90 deg.5 in). 51 mm (2 in).Terminology and Theory Example 1: Process: Pumping milk from tank A to tank G.2. E-F: 4 off bend 90 deg. E-F: 46 m (151 ft) tube dia. A-B: 4 m (13 ft) tube dia. Tubes.5 mm 1 (estimated) 4 1x1 20 15 10 3x1 12 14 46 4x1 4 54 74 6 A Tank outlet A-B Tube A-B Bend 90 deg. seat valve.5 mm (2. The conversion into equivalent tube length is carried out by reference to section 14. B-C Tube C-E C-E B-E D E E-F E-F F Total Tube SRC seat valve. 51 mm (2 in). dia.5 in). F: Seat valve type SRC-W-38-21-100.5 in). SRC seat valve.5 mm (2. valves and fittings is determined as equivalent tube length. 51 mm (2 in). 63. C: Seat valve type SRC-W-51-21-100.5 mm (2. 38 mm (1.2. C-E: 15 m (49 ft) tube dia.5 in). D: Non-return valve type LKC-2. Q = 8 m3/h (35 US gall/min). pos 3 Bend 90 deg. pos. This results in the following equivalent tube length for the different equipment as shown in the following tables: C Fig. 63. dia. LKC-2 non-return valve SRC. 38 mm (1. E: Seat valve type SRC-W-51-21-100. 2.5 Tube Bend 90 deg. The pressure drop through the tubes. B-E: 3 off bend 90 deg. pos. valves and fittings: A: Tank outlet dia.7. B-C: 20 m (66 ft) tube dia. 63.3 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 25 .5 in).

Tube Tube SRC seat valve.2 ~ 3. SRC seat valve. Length = 74 m (242 ft). pos. 38 mm (1.5 in 3 (estimated) 13 1x3 66 49 33 3x3 39 46 151 4x3 13 176 242 19 A A-B A-B B-C C-E C-E B-E D E E-F E-F F Total Tank outlet Tube Bend 90 deg. 2.1 Q = 8 m3/h Fig.Terminology and Theory Table 2.2c Equipment Equivalent ISO Tube Length (ft) 1.5.2. 51 mm and 63.2. The pressure drop through 100 m of tube for sizes 38 mm.5 in 2 in 2.5 in) tube: Length = 54 m (176 ft).5 Tube Bend 90 deg. LKC-2 non-return valve SRC seat valve.5 in) tube: 51 mm (2 in) tube: 63. pos.3 Bend 90 deg.0 ~ 1. also shown in 14. Length = 6 m (19 ft).2k Pressure drop curve 26 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . pos.3 As viewed from the tables above the pressure drop through the different equipment corresponds to the following equivalent tube length.5 mm (2.5 mm is determined by means of the following curve. ~ 13.

2 off Non-return valves 51 mm (2 in). dia.7 ft ≈ 31 ft (≈ 14 psi) Example 2: Process: Pumping glucose with a viscosity of 5000 cP from a flooded suction through discharge pipeline as follows. dia.4 m (≈ 1 bar) or 1.1 + 7. 6 off Bend 90 deg.5 in: ∆H = 23. 3 off Tee (out through side port) 51 mm (2 in).2 ft 328 2 in: 2.Terminology and Theory The total pressure drop ∆H in the process is consequently calculated as follows: 38 mm: ∆H = 54 x 13.1 = 0.4 + 0. 20 m (66 ft) tube dia.5 mm: ∆H = 7.22 m 100 ∆H = 6 x 1.0 = 2.2 = 30. valves and fittings is determined as equivalent tube length so that the total pressure drop can be calculated. 51 mm (2 in).07 = 9. 51 mm (2 in). 4 off Bend 90 deg.13 + 2.5 in: ∆H = 176 x 43 = 23. 76 mm (3 in).1 ft 328 ∆H = 242 x 10 = 7. valves and fittings: 30 m (98 ft) tube dia. The pressure drop through the tubes. 76 mm (3 in). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 27 .42 m ≈ 9.22 + 0. Tubes.07 m 100 51 mm: 63.13 m 100 ∆H = 74 x 3.2 = 7.4 ft 328 ∆H = 19 x 4 = 0.

This results in the following equivalent tube length for the different fittings as shown below: Table 2.7.Terminology and Theory For the pipe fittings the conversion into equivalent tube length is carried out by reference to tables 14. 76 mm (3 in): Length = 4 m (12 ft).5 m (63 ft) Tube dia. 51 mm (2 in): 30 m (98 ft) + 19. Tee Total As viewed from the tables above the pressure drop through the different fittings corresponds to the following equivalent tube length.5 m (161 ft) + Tube dia. Tee Total Table 2.2.5 = 19. Applying the viscosity correction factor for 5000 cP the equivalent tube length is now: Tube dia. and subsequently used in calculating the discharge pressure at the flow rate required. Bend 90 deg. 76 mm (3 in): 20 m (66 ft) + 2 m (6 ft) = 22 m (72 ft) 28 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Tube dia.2e Fittings Equivalent ISO Tube Length (ft) 2 in 3 in 2 x 39 6x3 4x3 3 x 10 126 12 Non-return valve Bend 90 deg.5 m (63 ft) and 2 m (6 ft) would be added to the straight tube lengths given as shown below. 51 mm (2 in): Length = 39 m (126 ft).2.5 = 2 m (6 ft) These figures of 19.2d Fittings Equivalent ISO Tube Length (m) 51 mm 76 mm 2 x 12 6x1 4x1 3x3 39 4 Non-return valve Bend 90 deg. Tube dia. Bend 90 deg. Tube dia. 51 mm (2 in): Length = 39 m (126 ft) x 0.5 m (63 ft) = 49. 76 mm (3 in): Length = 4 m (12 ft) x 0.

Terminology and Theory The friction losses in a pipework system are dependent upon the type of flow characteristic that is taking place. This co-efficient is known as the Darcy friction factor (fD). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 29 . but these are multiplied by a co-efficient that is normally determined by experimental methods. = Darcy friction factor. The Reynolds number (Re) is used to determine the flow characteristic. = tube length (m). = tube diameter (in).7. In the case of turbulent flow.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf fD L D V SG = pressure loss due to friction (psi). = Darcy friction factor. = fluid velocity (m/s).1. = fluid velocity (m/s). see 2. Friction Loss Calculations Since laminar flow is uniform and predictable it is the only flow regime in which the friction losses can be calculated using purely mathematical equations. = tube diameter (mm). mathematical equations are used. = Darcy friction factor. = density of fluid (kg/m3). = specific gravity. = fluid velocity (ft/s). The Miller equation given below can be used to determine the friction losses for both laminar and turbulent flow in a given length of pipe (L). Other convenient forms of this equation are: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf fD L D V SG or = pressure loss due to friction (bar). = tube length (ft). Pf = 0. = specific gravity. In dimensionally consistent SI units: Pf = fD x L x ρ x V2 Dx2 Where: Pf fD L D V ρ = pressure loss due to friction (Pa). = tube diameter (m). = tube length (m).

8). which is the absolute roughness of clean commercial steel or wrought iron pipes as given by Moody. It is first necessary to calculate the relative roughness designated by the symbol ∈. For all pump application problems.045 mm.Terminology and Theory For laminar flow. 30 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 2. the Darcy friction factor (fD) can be calculated directly from the equation: fD = 64 Re The relative roughness of pipes varies with diameter.due to local pressure reduction part of the fluid may evaporate generating small vapour bubbles. = internal pipe diameter (mm). increased corrosion and erosion when cavitation is present. It occurs with all types of pumps. meaning a hollow space.3 Cavitation Cavitation is an undesirable vacuous space in the inlet port of the pump normally occupied by fluid. When found. k D The term cavitation is derived from the word cavity. When sizing pumps on highly viscous fluids care must be taken not to select too high a pump speed so as to allow sufficient fluid to enter the pump and ensure satisfactory operation. It is usual to simplify this by using an relative roughness (k) of 0. the Darcy friction factor (fD) has to be determined by reference to the Moody diagram (see section 14. The lowest pressure point in a pump occurs at the pump inlet . rotary or reciprocating. excessive pump speed and/or adverse suction conditions will probably be the cause and reducing pump speed and/or rectifying the suction condition will usually eliminate this problem. cavitation is the most commonly encountered. Cavitation should be avoided at all costs. For turbulent flow. The life of a pump can be shortened through mechanical damage. These bubbles are carried along by the fluid and implode instantly when they get into areas of higher pressure. If cavitation occurs this will result in loss of pump efficiency and noisy operation. centrifugal. type of material used and age of the pipe.2. Where: ∈ =k D = relative roughness which is the average heights of the pipe internal surface peaks (mm).

P. > N.A. is to imagine a balance of factors working for (static pressure and positive head) and against (friction loss and vapour pressure) the pump. This is called the Net Positive Suction Head.R.P. 2. For satisfactory pump operation: NPSHa > NPSHr N. power and efficiency requirements.2.Terminology and Theory 2. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 31 . The system on the inlet side of the pump must allow a smooth flow of fluid to enter the pump at a sufficiently high pressure to avoid cavitation.I.4a NPSH balance For + Providing the factors acting for the pump outweigh those factors acting against.A.R. capacity.P.2.A.I. NPSHa is also referred to as N. Against Fig. When selecting a pump it is critical the net positive suction head available (NPSHa) in the system is greater than the net positive suction head required by the pump. the condition at the inlet of a pump is critical.I.I. (Net Inlet Pressure Required).4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) In addition to the total head. Pump manufacturers supply data about the net positive suction head required by their pumps (NPSHr) for satisfactory operation. there will be a positive suction pressure. A simplified way to look at NPSHa or N.P. (Net Inlet Pressure Available) and NPSHr is also referred to as N.I. generally abbreviated NPSH.P.

2. = Pa ± hs . Where: Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (psi).I. the location of the suction vessel.Pvp Where: Pa hs hfs Pvp or = Pressure absolute above fluid level (bar). = Static suction head (m).hfs .I.A.P.I.A. 2. inlet piping.e. It is calculated as follows: NPSHa = Pressure acting on or surface of liquid (Pa) N. in the system is dependent upon the characteristic of the fluid being pumped. = Pressure drop in suction line (m).P. It is important to note. = Pressure drop in suction line (ft).A.I. It is important the units used for calculating NPSHa or N. For low temperature applications the vapour pressure is generally not critical and can be assumed to be negligible. it is the inlet system that sets the inlet condition and not the pump. 32 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . the total figures should be in m or ft.P. = Vapour pressure (psia). = Static suction head (ft). This is the actual pressure seen at the pump inlet.4b NPSH calculation NPSHa or N.P.Terminology and Theory The value of NPSHa or N. are consistent i. and the pressure applied to the fluid in the suction vessel. = Vapour pressure (bar a). +ve -ve +ve -ve + Static suction head (hs) Pressure drop (hfs) Vapour pressure (Pvp) hs Fig.A.

Pvp = Pa .7 psi = 33.11.5 ft).5 .12 bar a = 1.5 bar Process: Water at 75 °C (167o F). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 33 .8 psia = 4 ft).5 . NPSHa = Pa .5 m Fig. = Pressure drop in suction line (1.8 m = 13.hfs .9 m) (5.hs . 1.5 m) (5 ft).4 (ft) = 3.1. 1.hfs .0 m) (3 ft).3.3.hfs .7 psia = 13 ft). no cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.2.0 m (10 ft).4d Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.5 bar = 5 m) (7 psi = 16 ft).5 .2 m) (1.0 .1. NPSHa = Pa + hs .hs .9 .Pvp = 5 + 1. 2.Terminology and Theory Example 1: Process: Water at 50 °C (122o F). = Static suction head (1.Pvp or = 16 + 5 . = Vapour pressure (0.5 m hs hfs Pvp Fig.6 m = Pa + hs . Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level (0. 2.5 .3 .1.9 (m) = 1.5 m) (5 ft).2.4 ft As NPSHa is greater than NPSHr.5 .5 m Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (1 bar = 10 m) (14.39 bar a = 3.Pvp = 10 . = Static suction head (3.2 (m) or = 33.4c Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3. cavitation will occur under the conditions stated. Example 2: 0. 3.13 (ft) = 5 ft As NPSHa is less than NPSHr. = Vapour pressure (0.5 m) (11.hfs .0 m (10 ft).9 ft). = Pressure drop in suction line (1.

2.9.9 + 5 . Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (1 bar = 10 m) (14. From the NPSHa formula it is possible to check and optimise the conditions which affect NPSHa. The effects are shown as follows: Fig. 2. cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.0 (m) = 2.5 .4g Positive effect Fig.2. 2.0 .0 m (10 ft).4i Negative effect Fig.Pvp or = 33. 2.5 m = Pa + hs . = Vapour pressure (assumed negligible = 0 m) (0 ft).Terminology and Theory Example 3: Process: Glucose at 50 °C (122o F). = Pressure drop in suction line (9.0 m) (30 ft). 2.hfs .0 (ft) = 8.7 psi = 33.4f Positive effect Fig.9 ft).4k Negative effect 34 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 2.4e Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.hfs .2. 2. Fig.2.2. = Static suction head (1.4j Negative effect Fig.2.2. NPSHa = Pa + hs .9 ft As NPSHa is less than NPSHr. 2.30 .4h Negative effect Vapour pressure (Temperature dependent) Fig.Pvp = 10 + 1.5 m) (5 ft).

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 35 . and minimal use of pipe fittings such as tees. • Changes in tube dimensions. • Reduce fluid temperature. Effects of pressure waves: • Noise in the tube. • Resistance in process equipment such as valves. valves and other equipment. length of line as short as possible. often up to 1400 m/s for steel tubes.2.Terminology and Theory Suggestions for avoiding cavitation: • Keep pressure drop in the inlet line to a minimum i. Pumps. The major pressure wave problems in process plants are usually due to rapidly closed or opened valves. which are rapidly/ frequently started or stopped. • Cavitation. Velocity of propagation The velocity of propagation of the pressure wave depends on: • Elasticity of the tubes. • Changes in flow direction. The following causes changes in fluid velocity: • Valves are closed or opened. Pressure waves are the result of rapid changes in the velocity of the fluid in especially long runs of piping. valves etc. 2. can also cause some problems. etc. • Damaged pump. diameter as large as possible. • Pumps are started or stopped.e. filters.5 Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer) The term ‘shock’ is not strictly correct as shock waves only exist in gases. • Elasticity of the fluid. When designing pipework systems it is important to keep the natural frequency of the system as high as possible by using rigid pipework and as many pipework supports as possible. thereby increasing pressure drop. although caution is needed as this may have an effect of increasing fluid viscosity. meters. • The tubes support. thereby avoiding the excitation frequency of the pump. The pressure shock is really a pressure wave with a velocity of propagation much higher than the velocity of the flow. • Maintain a static head as high as possible. • Damaged tube.

2. Correct flow direction Incorrect flow direction through valves can induce pressure waves particularly as the valve functions. There are different ways to avoid or reduce pressure waves which are briefly described below. 2. it is important to reduce the speed of these changes. Rapid changes in the operating conditions of valves and pump are the major reasons to the pressure waves and therefore. a valve is closed. A pressure wave induced as a result of a pump stopping can result in negative pressure values in long tubes.5a and 2.2.5b specify the correct and incorrect flow direction for this type of valve. Figs 2. With air-operated seat valves incorrect direction of flow can cause the valve plug to close rapidly against the valve seat inducing pressure waves.5a Correct flow direction through seat valve Fig. i. values close to the absolute zero point which can result in cavitation if the absolute pressure drops to the vapour pressure of the fluid. This is due to the low fluid velocity which results in a relatively small damping of the pressure waves. Correct flow directions in the process plant can reduce or even prevent pressure wave problems.e.5b Incorrect flow direction through seat valve 36 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The wave is then reflected back to the valve. the pressure wave travels from the valve to the end of the tube. Correct Incorrect Fig. A pressure wave as a result of a pump stopping is more damaging than for a pump starting due to the large change in pressure which will continue much longer after a pump is stopped compared to a pump starting. These reflections are in theory continuing but in practice the wave gradually attenuates cancelled by friction in the tube.2. Precautions Pressure waves are caused by changes in the velocity of the liquid in especially long runs of tube.2. 2.Terminology and Theory When for example.

may not be suitable for hygienic processes and further advice may be required before they are recommended or used in such installations. The motor is controlled by means of a soft starter or a frequency converter so that the pump is: • • Started at a low speed which is slowly increased to duty speed. Fig. These however. Stopped by slowly decreasing from duty speed down to a lower speed or zero. The damping is carried out by means of a special damper (see fig.2. Damped or undamped non-return valves. Equipment for industrial processes There is various equipment available to reduce pressure waves such as: • • • Pressure storage tanks.5c).Terminology and Theory Damping of valves The pressure wave induced by a seat valve can be avoided or minimised by damping the movement of the valve plug.2. 2. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 37 . 2.5c Oil damper for seat valve Speed control of pumps Speed control of a pump is a very efficient way to minimise or prevent pressure waves. The risk of power failure should be taken into consideration when using speed control against pressure waves. Pressure towers.

Terminology and Theory 38 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

• The correct design of pump. In view of this. Some of these are as follows: • Transfer various types of fluids/products. • Provide hygienic. As demands on processes increase. • The correct selection of pump with regard to inlet and outlet conditions. operating conditions etc. Some pump problems can be: • The correct type of pump for the right application. • Gentle treatment of the fluids/products. • Correct selection of drive units. economical and long lasting operation. Pump Selection This section gives an overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas. • Correct selection of shaft seals. operation and maintenance. major factors evolve such as the quality of products and process profitability. • Ensure easy and safe installation. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 39 . As pumps are used in different locations and stages of a process the need for the correct pump in the right place has become increasingly important.Pump Selection 3. • Overcome different losses and pressure drops in the system. It is therefore necessary to be aware of the various problems that might be encountered when selecting a pump. the correct selection of a pump is of great importance. product data. The pump must be able to carry out various duties under differing conditions.

m³/hr Max.10°C (14oF) Not recommended Not recommended Fair Fair Recommended Recommended Recommended o Centrifugal Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe 200 cP 140°C (284 F) .1a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Possible No No No Yes Possible No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 440 1936 20 290 Fair Recommended Not recommended 80 352 5. General Requirements Product/Fluid Requirements Max.1 General Applications Guide The table shown below gives a general guide as to the various types of Alfa Laval pump that may be required to suit the application.dry) Drive Availability Air motor Diesel engine Electric motor Hydraulic motor Petrol engine Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 3-A FDA EHEDG Table 3.Pump Selection 3.bar Max. Pumping Temperature Ability to pump abrasive products Ability to pump fluids containing air or gases Ability to pump shear sensitive media Ability to pump solids in suspension CIP capability (sanitary) Dry running capability (when fitted with flushed/quench mechanical seals) Self Draining capability Performance Requirements Max. Viscosity Max. Capacity . Discharge Pressure . Capacity .20°C (-4oF) Fair Fair Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended 40 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Pumping Temperature Min. Discharge Pressure .10°C (14oF) Not recommended Recommended Not recommended Not recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended o 1000000 cP 200°C (392oF) .psig Ability to vary flow rate Suction Lift capability (primed wet) Suction Lift capability (unprimed .US gall/min Max.5 80 Not recommended Recommended Not recommended 115 506 20 290 Recommended Recommended Fair 1000 cP 140°C (284 F) .

rotary lobe pumps best perform high fluid viscosity applications. 3.2a Pump ranges The following table illustrates which Alfa Laval pump ranges can be used in various sanitary application areas. Generally. whereas low fluid viscosity applications.2a The Liquid Ring pump is used in most of these sanitary application areas dedicated for CIP and tank emptying duties. such as beer and water chilling. are mostly carried out using centrifugal pumps. A detailed description of these pump ranges is given in section 4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 41 Water Dairy . rotary lobe pumps with their gentle pumping action are ideally used handling yeast containing delicate cells. Brewery Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps are used in most process stages of brewing from wort handling to beer pasteurisation and filling. Pump Type Pump Range Application Area Soap and Detergent Pharmaceutical Confectionery Other Food Soft Drink Brewery Sugar Centrifugal LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP-High Pressure LKHSP LKHI LKH-Ultra Pure SRU SX ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Rotary Lobe Table 3.2 Pumps for Sanitary Applications Alfa Laval Pump Ranges Pump Ranges from Alfa Laval Centrifugal Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe LKH LKHP High Pressure LKHI LKH Multistage LKHSP LKH Ultra Pure MR SRU SX Fig.Pump Selection 3. such as liquid sugar tanker offloading and malt syrups. During the fermentation process.

are used extensively throughout the dairy industry on milk processing. providing pumps to all the major confectionery companies. with their ability to handle highly viscosity abrasive products. dishwash liquid. lauryl ether sulphate. Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pumps are mainly used on applications handling high viscosity fruit juice concentrates. such as high boiled sugars. cream and cultured products such as yoghurt. such as fruit pie fillings. Dairy and Sugar generally Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on general transfer duties handling products such as petfood. 42 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Rotary lobe pumps being used on high viscosity products such as chocolate. Confectionery products that contain particulate matter. biscuit cream and fondant. Dairy Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps. with their hygienic construction and conforming to 3-A standards (see section 11). can be found within many areas of sugar refined products requiring hygienic handling. Soap and Detergent Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on many applications within this industry. Pharmaceutical Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on many applications within this industry where hygiene and corrosion resistance is paramount. brewing and carbonated soft drinks. perfume. water and flavourings. handling products such as neat soap. fabric conditioner. sulphonic acid. sauces and flavourings. Soft Drink Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps are mainly used on applications handling thin liquid sugar solutions. liquid detergent and surfactants. fatty acid. glucose solutions and sugar syrups used in confectionery. shampoo and blood products. Other Food ‘Other Food’ means other than Confectionery. bakery.Pump Selection Confectionery Alfa Laval is a major supplier of pumping equipment to this industry. can be handled with the rotary lobe pump. toothpaste. glucose. Centrifugal pumps can be commonly found on fat and vegetable oil applications. Sugar Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pumps. protein solutions. such as cosmetic creams.

This will include additional options such as pressure relief valves. The program selects both centrifugal and rotary lobe pumps and provides the user with a comparison of features enabling the most appropriate technology to be chosen. along with direct access to this Alfa Laval Pump Handbook for any additional supporting information that may be required. and recommend an alternative solution. for which the price of the pump and its configuration code (item number) will be automatically generated aiding the quotation and/or ordering process. PumpCAS also extracts data from a comprehensive liquids database enabling it to suggest viscosity. A link to all technical information that may be required to accompany the quotation such as Operating manuals. PumpCAS will also provide detailed parts list for the pump with item numbers with all recommended spare parts identified and priced. After the pump has been selected. elastomer compatibility and primary seal configuration. connection specifications etc. As well as performing the pump selection. SG. and technical data sheets will also be provided. In addition.Pump Selection Water Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps provide a low cost effective solution for high purity water and water like applications. generic or specific performance curves.3 PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool Pump selection for both Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe Pumps can be made by the use of Alfa Laval’s PumpCAS selection program. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 43 . If you would like a copy of the Alfa Laval PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool please contact your local Alfa Laval sales company. maximum speed. If one or other technology is not suited to a specific application (this could be due to physical limitations and or fluid characteristics) the program will advise the user. heating or cooling devices. 3. Dimensional details in the form of general arrangement drawings can also be generated. the user will be assisted to complete a detailed pump unit specification. This program prompts the user to enter pump duty information and selects the pump from the product range most suited to their specific application.

For example. 44 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Selection Flexibility has been built in to the software to enable specific enquiries to be answered without the need to complete a full pump selection. All information is offered for guidance purposes only. recommended spares lists can be extracted based on an existing configuration code or direct access to technical information relating to a specific pump technology is possible. and will be continually added to as additional products are tested. The liquids database contained within PumpCAS is based on rheological tests performed over many years on end users liquids at Alfa Laval’s chemical laboratory.

Pump Description This section gives a description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design. principle of operation and pump model types. • Low noise level. Attributes include: • High efficiency. • Easy maintenance.1. beverage. dairy. • Low NPSH requirement. can handle most low viscosity applications. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 45 .Pump Description 4. • Low power consumption. Centrifugal pumps including multi-stage designs and those for high inlet pressure. 4.1 Centrifugal Pumps 4.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Centrifugal Pumps has been designed specially for use in the food. pharmaceutical and light chemical industries. Centrifugal pumps can provide the most cost effective solution.

1.2b Multistage centrifugal pump 4. with the pumphead being connected to a standard electric motor. The impeller is fixed onto the pump shaft which is housed in a pump casing and back plate – these components are described below: Impeller The impeller is of cast manufacture and open type.2a Principle of operation Fig.e.3a Semi-open impeller The impeller has two or multiple vanes depending on the type of centrifugal pump. This type allows visual inspection of the vanes and the area between them. Fig. Fig. however. The velocity of the fluid is also partly converted into pressure by the pump casing before it leaves the pump through the outlet. As a result of this rotation. The multi-stage centrifugal pump operates as if several conventional centrifugal pumps are connected in series. The fluid is then pressed out of the impeller by means of centrifugal force and finally leaves the impeller channel with increased pressure and velocity. 46 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1. The pump consists.3 Design In general the Alfa Laval centrifugal pump does not contain many parts. The impeller diameter and width will vary dependent upon the duty requirements. 4. 4.2 Principle of Operation Fluid is directed to the impeller eye and is forced into a circular movement by the rotation of the impeller vanes. A semi-open impeller is also available which is easy to clean and suitable for polishing. of several impellers (several stages) which increase the pressure from one stage to another but flow rate is unchanged. which is formed by the impeller vanes.1. 4.1. the impeller vanes transfer mechanical work to the fluid in the impeller channel.Pump Description 4. the impeller vanes are open in front. i. The principle of the multi-stage centrifugal pump is the same as the conventional centrifugal pump.1.

1.3d Back plate Mechanical Seal The connection between the motor shaft/pump shaft and the pump casing is sealed by means of a mechanical seal.1. which together with the pump casing form the actual fluid chamber in which the fluid is transferred by means of the impeller. 4. 4.3b Pump casing Fig. Shroud and Legs Most pump types are fitted with shrouds and adjustable legs.1. which is described in section 6. complete with male screwed connections and can be supplied with fittings or clamp liners.1. The shroud is insulated to keep noise to a minimum and protect the motor against damage.Pump Description Pump Casing The pump casing is of pressed steel manufacture. 4. Fig.3c 360o flexibility Back Plate The back plate is of pressed steel manufacture. Please note Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps for the USA market are supplied without shrouds. 4. Fig. Fig.3e Pump with shroud and legs Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 47 . The pump casing is designed for multi position outlet. with 360° flexibility.

48 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . yet secure method of drive that reduces vibration and noise. Pumps supplied with direct coupled motors have no adaptors.4a LKH Fig. On the multistage centrifugal pump the length of the pump shaft will differ depending upon the number of impellers fitted.1. -50. Fig.1. -70 and -80. which can be attached to any standard IEC or C-frame electric motor. -35. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 440 m³/h (1936 US gall/min) and differential pressures up to 11.1. eliminating the use of keyways.3f Compression coupling Adaptor Most pumps are fitted with a standard IEC electric motor. -60. -15. -40. Fig.Pump Description Pump Shaft/Connections Most pumps have stub shafts that are fixed to the motor shafts by means of compression couplings. meeting sanitary requirements with gentle product treatment and chemical resistance.4b LKH (USA version) The LKH range is available in twelve sizes: LKH-5.1. Fig. 4.4 Pump Range The Alfa Laval Centrifugal Pump portfolio comprises different ranges as follows: LKH Range The LKH pump is a highly efficient and economical centrifugal pump. 4.5 bar (165 psig) and for 60 Hz up to 440 m3/h (1936 US gall/min) and differential pressure up to 16 bar (230 psig).1. -20. 4. The stub shaft assembly design provides a simple. 4. The connection between the motor and back plate is made by means of an adaptor.3g Adapter 4. -25. -45. -10.

4c LKH-Multistage Fig. Fig. LKHP-High Pressure Range These pumps are designed to handle high inlet pressures built with reinforced pump casing and back plate. The pumps are available as two. 4. reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration. 4.4d LKH-Multistage (USA version) The LKH-Multistage range is available in six sizes. Fig. three or four impellers respectively). three or four stage models (i.1.1.Pump Description LKH-Multistage Range These pumps are primarily used in applications with high outlet pressure and low capacity requirements such as breweries.1.e. pumps fitted with two. Application areas include reverse osmosis mono-filtration and ultra-filtration. 4. For inlet pressures greater than 10 bar (145 psig) a ‘special’ motor is used incorporating fixed angular contact bearings due to axial thrust.4e LKHP-High Pressure Fig. Pump Size LKH-112 LKH-113 LKH-114 LKH-122 LKH-123 LKH-124 Number of Stages 2 3 4 2 3 4 Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 75 m³/h (330 US gall/min) and discharge pressures up to 40 bar (580 psig) with boost pressures up to 19 bar (275 psig) and for 60 Hz up to 80 m3/h (352 US gall/min) and boost pressures up to 26 bar (375 psig).4f LKHP-High Pressure (USA version) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 49 . 4.1.

-25. LKHI-10. Fig. a non-return valve (normally closed) on the inlet side.-25. depending upon pump size. flow rates up to 275 m3/h (1210 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 11 bar (160 psig). The LKHI range is available in nine sizes. The pump is for use in food. The pump is capable of creating a vacuum of 0. -15. LKHI Range This pump range is similar to the LKH range but is suitable for inlet pressures up to 16 bar (230 psig). Flow rates up to 90 m³/h (396 US gall/min) and differential pressures for 50 Hz up to 8 bar (115 psig) and for 60 Hz. The LKHSP range is available in five sizes.Pump Description The LKHP-High Pressure range is available in nine sizes. For 60 Hz. LKHP-10. LKHSP-10. -40. The pump can withstand this high inlet pressure due to being fitted with an internal shaft seal. -35. -20. chemical. These pumps can be used for tank emptying or as a CIP return pump where there is a risk of air or gas mixing with the fluid in the suction line. -45. For these high inlet pressures a ‘special’ motor with fixed angular contact bearings is used due to axial thrust. LKHSP Range The LKHSP self-priming pump is specially designed for pumping fluids containing air or gas without loosing its pumping ability.4g LKHSP 50 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . -40. -50 and -60. 4. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 240 m³/h (1056 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 8 bar (115 psig). The pump range is designed for inlet pressures up to 40 bar (580 psig). flow rates up to 275 m3/h (1210 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 11 bar (160 psig). -20 . 11 bar (160 psig). -20. -35.6 bar. -50 and -60. a tee and a non-return valve (normally open) on the bypass line. pharmaceutical and other similar industries. -35 and -40. For 60 Hz. -15. The pump is supplied complete with a tank.1. -25. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 240 m³/h (1056 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 8 bar (115 psig).

Another feature of this pump is self-venting. C114. 4. LKH-UltraPure-10.1.4i LKH-UltraPure (USA version) The LKH-UltraPure range is available in five sizes. Flow rates for 60 Hz up to 227 m3/h (1000 US gall/min) and differential pressures up to 10 bar (145 psig). The pump is fully drainable supplied with associated pipework. Fig.4j C-Series Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 51 . fittings and valves.1. 4. due to the pump casing outlet being turned 45°. Flow rates up to 90 m³/h (396 US gall/min) and differential pressures for 50 Hz up to 8 bar (115 psig) and for 60 Hz.1. all-purpose Alfa Laval centrifugal pump for less demanding applications. -20. 4. C – Series range The C-Series is the original. C218. -35 and -40.4h LKH-UltraPure Fig. The C-series is produced mainly for the USA and is available in five sizes. LKH-UltraPure Range These pumps are designed for high purity applications such as water-for-injection (WFI). The range is designed for meeting sanitary requirements and can be Cleaned-In-Place. C328 and C4410. Fig. -25. 11 bar (160 psig). C216.Pump Description For inlet pressures greater than 10 bar (145 psig) a ‘special’ motor is used incorporating fixed angular contact bearings due to axial thrust.

52 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The centrifugal force pushes the fluid outwards and consequently forms a vacuum at the centre of the impeller. • Suitable for aerated fluids. which gradually becomes deeper. As these pumps are self-priming. As the liquid ring pump is self-priming when half filled with fluid. and due to a side channel made in the pump casing and/or the front cover.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Liquid Ring Pumps are specially designed for use in food. • High efficiency.2.2 Liquid Ring Pumps 4. however. Fig.2. small tolerances between the impeller and the pump casing. they are ideally used as return pumps in CIP systems.5.2a Principle of operation The sequence of a section between two impeller vanes during one revolution is described in the following: a) There is a certain fluid volume in the gap between the vanes which is not in contact with the channel.2 Principle of Operation The liquid-ring pump is in principle a centrifugal pump. The pump is. 4. chemical and pharmaceutical industries where pumping liquids containing air or gases. a) to b) The gap is in contact with the channel.Pump Description 4. self-priming when half filled with fluid.1). it is capable of pumping from a suction line partly filled with air or gases. Part of the fluid between the vanes fills the channel. Attributes include: • Self-priming (when pump casing is half filled with fluid). The self-priming capability is a result of the impeller design.2. • Minimal maintenance. 4. The discharge line should be routed 1 to 2 metres vertically upwards from the pump outlet connections to maintain the liquid ring in the side channels (see 12.

3a Impeller Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 53 . 4.Pump Description b) to c) The depth of the channel is still increased. The pump now operates as a fluid pump.2. When all the air is removed from the suction line the described cycle is repeated for the fluid. The impeller is fixed onto the pump shaft housed in a pump casing and casing cover. The cycle described above is continuously repeated as the impeller has several sections and rotates at approx. Fig. (60Hz).2. (50 Hz) or 1800 rev/min. The same volume of air that was induced through the inlet is now expelled through the outlet at “e” due to the pressure increase at the centre of the impeller. e) The fluid is still forced outwards and the air remains at the centre of the impeller. e) to a) The section between the vanes will be refilled with fluid when it has passed the channel as only air and no fluid has yet been pumped. The volume between the vanes is gradually reduced as the depth of the channel is reduced and consequently pressure is built up at the centre of the impeller. d) The vacuum created induces air from the suction line through the inlet at “d”. 1500 rev/min. Impeller The impeller is of cast manufacture with straight radial impeller vanes. The fluid volume is still forced outwards and consequently the fluid-free volume between the vanes is increased until it reaches a maximum where the channel has maximum depth. 4. There is only one impeller size for each type of liquid ring pump. d) to e) Air and fluid are circulated with the impeller until the depth of the channel begins to decrease. the liquid ring pump does not contain many parts – the pumphead being connected to a standard electric motor.3 Design As for centrifugal pumps.

Fig. (Adapter not used on MR-300 model).2.3d Pump with IEC standard motor Pump Shaft/Connections Most pumps have stub shafts that are fixed to the motor shafts by means of compression couplings.2.Pump Description Pump Casing and Casing Cover The pump casing is of cast manufacture complete with male screwed connections and fittings or clamp liners. 4. 4. similar to that used on Centrifugal pumps.3b Pump with one channel Fig. with or without a channel depending upon pump type/size. the connection between the motor and pump casing is made by means of an adaptor. Adaptor For pumps fitted with a standard IEC electric motor. 54 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . as used on Centrifugal pumps. The pump casing cover is also of cast manufacture. 4. The pump casing and casing cover form the actual fluid chamber in which the fluid is transferred by means of the impeller.3c Pump with two channels Mechanical Seal The connection between the motor shaft/pump shaft and the pump casing is sealed by means of a mechanical seal.2. Fig. Shroud and Legs Pumps fitted with standard IEC motors utilise the shrouds and legs used on the LKH centrifugal pump range. Please note Alfa Laval Liquid Ring pumps for the USA market are supplied without shrouds. which is described in section 6.

Fig. 4.2. MR-185S and MR-200S Fig. MR-166S. 4.2.2. Flow rates up to 80 m³/h (350 US gall/min) and differential pressures of 5 bar (73 psig) for 50 Hz and 6 bar (87 psig) for 60 Hz.Pump Description 4.2.4a MR-166S. MR Range The MR range is available in four sizes. 4.4c MR pump (USA version) The pump range is designed for inlet pressures up to 4 bar (60 psig).4b MR-300 Fig. MR-185S.4 Pump Range The Alfa Laval Liquid Ring Pump range is designated the MR range. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 55 . MR-200S and MR-300.

The pumping principle is explained with reference to the following diagram. • Ability to pump shear sensitive media.3. The rotors contra-rotate within the pump head carrying fluid through the pump.Pump Description 4.3. As the rotors separate. dairy and pharmaceutical industries. Attributes include: • Gentle transfer of delicate suspended solids. In hydraulic terms. each dwell forms a cavity. in the cavities formed between the dwell of the rotor and the interior of the rotorcase. 56 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1 General The Alfa Laval range of Rotary Lobe Pumps with its non-contact pump element design has the ability to cover a wide range of applications in industry. beverage. The meshing of the rotor causes a diminishing cavity with the fluid being displaced into the outlet port. • Easy maintenance.3 Rotary Lobe Pumps 4. anti-corrosive stainless steel construction and smooth pumping action have long established these pumps in the food. The hygienic design.2 Principle of Operation Alfa Laval ranges of Rotary Lobe pumps are of conventional design operating with no internal contacting parts in the pump head. the motion of the counter rotating rotors creates a partial vacuum that allows atmospheric pressure or other external pressures to force fluid into the pump chamber. The rotors are driven by a gear train in the pump gear gearbox providing accurate synchronisation or timing of the rotors. • Compact size with high performance and low energy input. 4. • Bi-directional operation. which shows the displacement of fluid from pump inlet to outlet. As the rotors rotate an expanding cavity is formed which is filled with fluid.

• Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 57 .3.2a Principle of operation 4.7). and diesel or petrol engine (see 8. Ranges primarily as follows: SRU Range The SRU pump range has been designed for use on general transfer duties throughout the brewing.Pump Description Horizontally ported pump (top shaft drive) 1 2 3 4 Vertically ported pump (left hand shaft drive) 1 2 3 4 Fig. The SRU range is available in six series each having two pumphead displacements and two different shaft materials.3. 4. Fig. 4.3a SRU • Displacement is the theoretical amount of fluid the pump will transfer per revolution.3.2. dairy. air motor. Duplex stainless steel material used for higher pressures.3 Pump Range Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe Pumps can be supplied bare shaft (without drive) or complete with drive such as electric motor. food and chemical manufacturing processes.

266 0.16 1.39 68.20 77.20 57.52 36.15 14.78 4.053 0.64 14.38 4.53 3.53 UK gall/ 100 rev 1.26 93.Stainless Steel . either horizontal or vertical plane inlet and outlet porting is achieved by using dedicated gearbox castings.78 7.16 1.65 77.Vertical Porting . This pump range also incorporates full bore through porting complying with international standards BS4825/ISO2037.19 17.95 36.70 68.98 5.384 0.82 3.25 3.26 bar 8 5 10 15 7 10 10 15 7 10 10 20 7 15 10 20 7 15 10 20 7 15 psig 115 75 145 215 100 145 145 215 100 145 145 290 100 215 145 290 100 215 145 290 100 215 rev/min 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 600 600 600 600 500 500 500 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 L H S D 005 008 013 013 018 018 027 027 038 038 055 055 079 079 116 116 168 168 260 260 353 353 L or H L or H L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H D D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D .64 20. Speed Pump head code Gearbox Shaft Litres/ rev SRU1/005/LD or HD SRU1/008/LD or HD SRU2/013/LS SRU2/013/LD SRU2/018/LS SRU2/018/LD SRU3/027/LS SRU3/027/LD SRU3/038/LS SRU3/038/LD SRU4/055/LS SRU4/055/LD SRU4/079/LS SRU4/079/LD SRU5/116/LS SRU5/116/LD SRU5/168/LS SRU5/168/LD SRU6/260/LS SRU6/260/LD SRU6/353/LS SRU6/353/LD or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD 0.52 25.70 93.19 12.45 8.85 5.68 2. The SRU range conforms to USA 3A requirements.128 0.98 3.Pump Description The SRU pump range incorporates a universally mounted gearbox on series 1 . This gives the flexibility of mounting pumps with the inlet and outlet ports in either a vertical or horizontal plane by changing the foot and foot position. Pump Nomenclature SRU Series Build Selection SRU Model Displacement Differential Pressure Max.39 44.384 0. Flow rates up to 106 m³/h (466 US gall/min) and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig).554 0.65 US gall/ 100 rev 1.45 12.554 0.87 20.Duplex Stainless Steel Table 4.128 0.4.87 2.181 0.60 2.82 2.60 3.65 44.Horizontal Porting .79 0. maximising inlet and outlet port efficiency and NPSH characteristics.79 1.38 17. For the larger series 5 and 6.65 30.95 57.03 7.85 8.266 0.68 1.085 0.87 30.38 25.181 0.3.3a 58 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .03 10.4 2.38 3.17 1.15 10.

This pump range like the SRU range incorporates a universally mounted gearbox on series 1 . The SX range has been certified by EHEDG (European Hygienic Equipment Design Group) as fully CIP cleanable to their protocol. maximising the inlet and outlet efficiency of the pump and the NPSH characteristics. fine chemical and speciality food industries. Speed Pump head code Litres/ rev SX1/005/H or U SX1/007/H or U SX2/013/H or U SX2/018/H or U SX3/027/H or U SX3/035/H or U SX4/046/H or U SX4/063/H or U SX5/082/H SX5/115/H SX6/140/H SX6/190/H SX7/250/H SX7/380/H 0.07 0.40 1.38 36.80 41. 6 and 7. In addition to being EHEDG compliant.99 50.85 3.25 12.128 0. 4. biotechnology.05 0.40 bar 12 7 15 7 15 7 15 10 15 10 15 10 15 10 psig 175 100 215 100 215 100 215 145 215 145 215 145 215 145 rev/min 1400 1400 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 600 600 500 500 500 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H U 005 007 013 018 027 035 046 063 082 115 140 190 250 380 H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H H H H H H .Vertical Port (EHEDG approved) .46 0.12 13.35 0. suited to applications in the pharmaceutical.Pump Description Fig.70 10. Pump Nomenclature SX Series Build Selection Gearbox SX Model Displacement Differential Pressure Max.266 0.54 2.85 7.15 1.Universal mounting (not EHEDG approved) Table 4.90 2.78 7. The SX range is available in seven series each having two pumphead displacements.3.38 4.20 66.32 1.80 UK gall/ 100 rev 1.65 21.98 5.4. only vertical plane inlet and outlet porting is available by using a dedicated gearbox casting.60 US gall/ 100 rev 1. This gives the flexibility of mounting pumps with the inlet and outlet ports in either a vertical or horizontal plane by changing the foot and foot position.00 83.3. All media contacting elastomers are controlled compression joints to prevent pumped media leaking to atmosphere (see section 6. Flow rates up to 115 m³/h (506 US gall/min) and pressures up to 15 bar (215 psig).82 3.3b Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 59 .30 30.15 16. This pump range also incorporates full bore through porting complying with international standards BS4825/ISO2037.63 0.3b SX SX Range The SX pump range is designed to be used where ultra-clean operation is critical.80 55.03 9.181 0.82 1.04 25.67 30.50 3.2).11 1.86 18.05 100. For the larger series 5. the SX pump also conforms to the USA 3A standard and all media contacting components are FDA compliant.

Pump Description 60 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Metallic and elastomeric parts not in contact with the fluid being pumped). Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Main Pump Component Adaptor Backplate Impeller Pump Casing Pump Shaft Shroud and Legs Casing AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1.4404 AISI 304 or Werkstoff 1.Pump Materials of Construction 5. Metallic and elastomeric parts in contact with the fluid being pumped). • Non-product Wetted Parts (i.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1.e.1 Main Components Pumps today can be manufactured from a number of different materials dependent upon the product being pumped and its environment. Pump Materials of Construction This section describes the materials.4301 Table 5.1a Product Wetted Parts Non-product Wetted Parts AISI 304 or Werkstoff 1. 5. For Alfa Laval pump ranges this is generally stainless steel and can be split into two main categories: • Product Wetted Parts (i.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1. 5.1a Centrifugal pump Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 61 .e. both metallic and elastomeric.4301 Shroud Adaptor Fig. that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges.

4404 BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.Pump Materials of Construction Rotary lobe pumps Main Pump Component Metallic Product Wetted Parts SRU Models Metallic Non-product Wetted Parts BS EN 1561:1977 grade 250 cast iron Werkstoff 1.1.4404 Duplex stainless steel (AISI 329 or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1. Non-galling alloy or rubber covered BS 3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L BS EN 10088-3:1995 grade 1.4462) Metallic Product Wetted Parts SX Models Metallic Non-product Wetted Parts BS EN 1561:1977 grade 250 cast iron Gearcase Rotor Rotorcase Rotorcase Cover BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.1b Product seal area Rotorcase Drive shaft Gearbox Rotorcase cover Fig.4404 or 316L or duplex stainless steel (AISI 329 or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.4404 BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.4462) Shaft Table 5.1b Rotary lobe pump Ports For description of elastomers used see 5.4404 or 316L. 62 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4404 or 316L BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.3. For mechanical seal components see 6. 5.

a ‘Mirror finish’. Polishing using mops and compound to obtain a mirror polished effect. 5. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 63 . Rumbling This is achieved by vibrating the pump components with abrasive particulate such as stones and steel balls. Shot blasting. Shotblasting This method involves blasting finished components with small metallic particles at great force to achieve the surface finish required. Mechanical (Hand) polishing This is required when it is necessary to improve the surface finish beyond that achieved by electropolishing only i. Electropolishing This is an electro-chemical process in which the stainless steel component is immersed into a chemical bath and subjected to an electrical current. It typically involves: • • Fine grinding using felt and compound. A controlled amount of metal is removed from all surfaces evenly. Brushing using bristle brushes and compound to remove any cutting marks left from fine grinding. pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries where hygiene and cleanability are of paramount importance.Pump Materials of Construction Surface finish of product wetted steel components has become a major factor in the food. The appearance is ‘Semi bright’. Mechanical (Hand) polishing.e. and to reach any awkward areas. fine particles of stainless steel are used in this process to avoid contamination. For Alfa Laval centrifugal stainless steel pump components.2 Steel Surfaces The ‘standard’ machined surface finish on pumps can be enhanced by the following methods: • • • • Rumbling. Electropolishing.

6 (64 Ra) < 1.3 (250 Ra) Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps supplied in the USA have all product wetted surfaces and external exposed surfaces to 0.6 µm (64 Ra) ≈ 100 Grit.2a Surface roughness For Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps see table below: Pump surfaces Standard surface roughness Ra (mm) by Rumbling method Optional surface roughness (3A finish) Ra (mm) by Mechanical (Hand) method Optional surface roughness (3A finish) Ra (mm) by shot blasting (Hand or Electropolished) < 0.6 (64 Ra) < 3.3 (250 Ra) < 0.2 (125 Ra) ≤ 6.8 (32 Ra) < 1.6 (64 Ra) ≤ 3.3 (250 Ra) Product wetted surfaces External exposed surfaces Cast surfaces Other surfaces Table 5. Fig. Ra is measured in micron (µm). 5. rotorcase.2 (125 Ra) ≤ 6. For Alfa Laval Stainless Steel Rotary Lobe Pumps the surface roughness on product wetted parts such as rotors.2a < 1. The Grit value specifies the grain size of the coating of the grinding tool used.5 (20 Ra) < 1.8 Ra.8 Ra Mechanical (Hand) 0.8 µm (32 Ra) ≈ 150 Grit (3A standard). rotor nuts and rotorcase covers is as follows: ‘Standard’ 0.Pump Materials of Construction Surface Roughness The most commonly used surface roughness measurement is Ra and is defined as ‘the arithmetic mean of the absolute value of the deviation of the profile from the mean line’. The surface roughness can alternatively be specified by a Grit value. Ra = 1. The approximate connection between the Ra value and the Grit value is as follows: Ra = 0.5 Ra 64 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 (125 Ra) ≤ 6.8 Ra Electropolishing 0.6 (64 Ra) ≤ 3.

• Resistant to ozone and radiation. • Is attacked by ozone. The temperature range limitations given below are dependent upon the fluid being pumped.10. It is difficult to predict the lifetime of elastomers as they will be affected by many factors.alternatively known as Viton • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type). (minus 40oF to 212oF max. • Used as static or dynamic seals. NBR (Nitrile) • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type).). • Not resistant to organic and non-organic oils and fats. steam. • Resistant to most products used within the food industry. (minus 40oF to 302oF max.g. • Often used when other rubber qualities are unsuitable.minus 20°C min to 200°C max. • Temperature range . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 65 .). To verify satisfactory operation at these limits please consult Alfa Laval. Various elastomer types are specified below.g. • Not suitable for fluids such as water. • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Resistant to most hydrocarbons. • Sufficiently resistant to diluted lye and diluted nitric acid. • Temperature range . FPM (Fluorinated rubber) . acid and alcohol’s being pumped hot. • Resistant to most chemicals and ozone. • Temperature range . oil and grease. (minus 4oF to 392oF max. mechanical wear etc. e.minus 40°C min to 150°C max. • Used as static or dynamic seals.Pump Materials of Construction 5. lye. chemical attack.minus 40°C min to 100°C max.).3 Elastomers Alfa Laval pump ranges incorporate elastomers of different material and characteristics dependent upon application within the pump and the fluid being pumped. A selection guide is shown in section 14. temperature. EPDM (Ethylene Propylene) • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type). e.

• Elastic. (minus 58oF to 446oF max. encapsulated). Kalrez® (Perfluoroelastomer) • Used as static or dynamic seals. • More elastic than PTFE covered EPDM. glycols and most products used within food industry. (minus 4°F to 482°F max.Pump Materials of Construction PTFE (Polytetrafluoro Ethylene) • Can be used as “cover” for O-ring seals of EPDM (i. • Resistant to ozone. • Temperature range . • Temperature range . • Resistant to almost all products. • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Resistant to ozone. alcohols. • Resistant to almost all products.). • Elastic.). • Resistant to almost all products. • Temperature range – minus 30°C min to 250°C max. 200°C (392oF). • Not resistant to steam. • Not elastic. inorganic acids. • Resistant to ozone. • Resistant to ozone. MVQ (Silicone) • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Temperature range – minus 20°C min to 250°C max.minus 50°C min to 230°C max. 66 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . tendency to compression set. FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) • FEP covered (vulcanised) FPM or MVQ O-rings. • Used as static or dynamic seals. (minus 22oF to 392oF max.minus 30°C min to 200°C max. • Suitable for temperatures up to approx.). • Resistant to ozone. Chemraz® (Perfluroelastomer) • Used as static or dynamic seals. mineral oils.). (minus 22°F to 482°F max. • Resistant to almost all products. or most organic solvents.e.

Single externally mounted. “A Pump is only as good as it’s shaft seal” A successful pump application largely depends upon the selection and application of suitable fluid sealing devices. Both with and without lantern rings for flush. Shaft sealing devices used in Alfa Laval Centrifugal. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 67 . Single internally mounted for product recirculation or external flush. This section covers the shaft sealing devices used on Alfa Laval Centrifugal. such as o-rings and lip seals can be found on the pumphead and gearcase. Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. A general seal selection guide is included. together with various operating parameters. Single externally mounted for external flush.2). that are available to the pump manufacturer. Pump Sealing This section describes the principle of pump sealing and illustrates the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. Just as we know that there is no single pump that can embrace the diverse range of fluids and applications whilst meeting individual market requirements and legislations.3). the same can be said of fluid sealing devices. Packed Glands (see 6. Double ‘back to back’ with the inboard seal externally mounted for flush. In addition to shaft seals.Pump sealing 6. Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe pumps include: • Mechanical Seals (see 6. both mechanical and packed gland. Single internally mounted. other proprietary seals not detailed in this section. This is clearly illustrated by the large range of shaft seal arrangements.

These pump types do not impose any radial or axial constraints on seal design. Most designs therefore can only accommodate ‘bespoke’ or ‘customised’ seal design. such as Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps. However on Rotary Lobe type pumps the need to minimise the shaft extension beyond the front bearing places significant axial constraints.Pump sealing Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps only have one shaft seal whereas Rotary Lobe pumps employ a minimum of two shaft seals (one per shaft). The majority of proprietary mechanical seals available from seal manufacturers have been designed for single shaft pump concepts. Generally all shaft seals are under pressure with the pressure gradient across the seal being from pumped fluid to atmosphere. the shaft diameter would increase introducing a radial constraint . 68 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The application of double mechanical seals is increasing to meet both process demands for higher sanitary standards and legislation requirements. single and single flushed seals are most frequently specified.because shafts on a rotary lobe pump are in the same plane. The exceptions will be single internally mounted or double seals where the product recirculation (single internally mounted only) or flush pressure is greater than the pump pressure. If this were extended. This is not done to take any commercial advantage but it is as a consequence of the rotary lobe pump design concept. resulting in the pressure gradient being reversed. particularly those related to emissions. the maximum diameter of the seal must be less than the shaft centres. Mechanical seals meet the majority of application demands and of these.

Selection of shaft seals is influenced by many variables: • • Shaft diameter and speed Fluid to be pumped Temperature Viscosity - Fluid behaviour Solids - Thermal stability Air reacting • Pressure effect on materials? can interface film be maintained? drag on seal faces? clogging of seal restricting movement? can interface film be established and maintained? stiction at seal faces? does product shear. if any change? what.Pump sealing There is often more than one solution and sometimes no ideal solution. if any change? within seal limits? fluctuations? peaks/spikes? cavitation? flush? pressure? temperature? continuity? toxic? flammable? explosive? corrosive? irritant? carcinogenic? • Services • Health and Safety Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 69 .balling/carbonise? can interface film be established and maintained? size? abrasiveness? density? clogging of seal restricting movement? can interface film be established and maintained? what. thin. therefore a compromise may have to be considered. thicken or ‘work’ .

e. one rotating and one stationary. The geometry within which it is to be mounted. particularly the sealing faces and elastomers. Commonly used material combinations are: Carbon Carbon Carbon Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide 70 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe pump sealing arrangements.Pump sealing 6. when pump is stopped. • The Primary Seal Comprises two flat faces. Two secondary seals. comprising stationary and rotary seal rings. one for each of the stationary and rotary seal rings. which support a fluid film. thus minimising heat generation and subsequent mechanical damage.General Mechanical seals are designed for minimal leakage and represent the majority of Centrifugal.1 Mechanical Seals . A mechanical seal typically comprises: • • • • A primary seal. A method of preventing the stationary seal ring from rotating. A method of keeping the stationary and rotary seal rings together when they are not hydraulically loaded i. A method of fixing and maintaining the working length. Mechanical seal selection must consider: • • • The materials of seal construction. The mounting attitude to provide the most favourable environment for the seal.

3. shock loads. Mechanical Seal Face/’O’ Ring Material Availability Rotary Seal Face Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide Stationary Seal Face Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide Seal ‘O’Ring Pump Type Pump Range Carbon Carbon EPDM PTFE MVQ FPM NBR Centrifugal/ Liquid ring LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP-High Pressure LKHSP LKHI LKH-Ultra Pure MR SRU SX (see note) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Rotary Lobe Note: SX1 pump has tungsten carbide seal faces.Pump sealing The Secondary Seal This is required to provide a seal between the primary seal rings and the components with which they interface. • Spring • Bellows • Physical positioning • Elastomer resilience Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 71 FEP . Table 6. • Flats • Pins • Elastomer resilience • Press fit • Clamps Rotary Seal Ring Drive Ideally the selected device listed below will allow for a degree of axial movement. Types of secondary seal are: • O-rings • Cups • Gaskets • Wedges For Alfa Laval pump ranges the o-ring is the most common type of secondary seal used.1a Stationary Seal Ring Anti-Rotation Ideally the selected device listed below will also allow for axial resilience. Its simple and versatile concept is enhanced with the following comprehensive material options: • NBR • EPDM • FPM • PTFE • MVQ • FEP • Kalrez® • Chemraz® These are fully described in section 5. Also it can provide a cushion mounting for the seat ring to reduce any effects of mechanical stress i. not silicon carbide seal faces.e.

Pump sealing One of the main causes of seal failure is for the seal working length not being correctly maintained. Fig. hydraulic fluid forces combine with seal design features i.1c Principle of mechanical seal operation Principle of Mechanical Seal Operation The function of the assembly is a combination of the extreme primary seal face flatness and applied spring force.1b Typical single mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Drive ring 2 3 Impeller 4 Item 1 2 3 4 5 Pump shaft 5 1 Description Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Spring Stationary seal ring O-ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Interface film Aprox. 6.e. This reduces the fluid interface thickness to a minimum whilst increasing pressure drop. which push the seal faces together. 1 µm Fig. 72 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 6. therefore minimising pumped fluid leakage. step on shaft • Grub screws 7 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Working length Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Grub screw Fig. Once the pump is operational. balance.e. 6.1a Typical single mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps Working Length The ideal design should eliminate/minimise possibilities for error by incorporating: • Physical position i.

meaning that all the rotating parts of the mechanical seal (i. The R00 type mechanical seals used on the SX rotary lobe pump range. Mechanical Seal Mounting Most mechanical seals can be mounted externally or internally.e. Fig. as only the inside of the stationary and rotary seal rings and their associated o-rings are in contact with the fluid being pumped. part of the rotary seal ring. described in 6.2. 6. are an exception to this. as it is the outside and not the inside of the seal components that is in contact with the fluid being pumped. The externally mounted mechanical seal is considered easy to clean. Externally mounted seals have a lower pressure rating than the equivalent seal mounted internally. 6. External Mechanical Seals The majority of mechanical seals used on Alfa Laval pump ranges are mounted externally. drive ring etc) are not in contact with the fluid to be pumped.1e Typical external shaft seal Rotating parts Fluid Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 73 .1d Principle of mechanical seal operation Spring force Fluid pressure Stationary seal ring Rotating seal ring The gap between the seal ring surfaces is enlarged to clarify the principle of mechanical sealing. spring.Pump sealing Fig.

both the externally and internally mounted types of mechanical seal are available as single and single flushed versions. • Alcohol • Animal Fat • Aviation Fuel • Beer • Dairy Creams • Fish Oil • Fruit Juice • Liquid Egg • Milk • Shampoo • Solvents • Vegetable Oil • Water • Yoghurt 74 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . thus avoiding damage to the seal faces. single flushed and double flushed mechanical seal arrangements are described as follows: Single Mechanical Seal This is the simplest shaft seal version. This seal arrangement is generally used for fluids that do not solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere and other non-hazardous duties. Typical applications are listed below. The internal mechanical seal is designed with sufficient clearance around the rotating parts so that it can be cleaned as efficiently as possible and can withstand relatively high fluid pressures. The typical single.Pump sealing Internal Mechanical Seals Some mechanical seals are mounted internally. 6. which may cause excessive seal leakage. Fig. meaning that most of the rotating parts are in contact with the fluid being pumped.1f Typical internal shaft seal Rotating parts Fluid For the Alfa Laval pump ranges. The externally mounted mechanical seal on Alfa Laval pump ranges is also available as a double flushed mechanical seal for some pump models. For satisfactory operation it is imperative the seal is not subjected to pressures exceeding the maximum rated pressure of the pump. which has already been described previously in this section. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. Also the pump must not be allowed to run ‘dry’.

The characteristics of the fluid being pumped and the duty conditions will normally determine if a flush is necessary. This seal arrangement is generally used for any of the following conditions: • where the fluid being pumped can coagulate. When selecting a flushing liquid you must ensure that it is chemically compatible with the relevant materials of pump/seal construction and fully compatible with the fluid being pumped. provides liquid to the atmosphere side of the mechanical seal thereby flushing away any product leakage. fire. 6. Consideration should be given to any temperature limitations that may apply to the flushing liquid to ensure that hazards are not created (i.5 bar max (7 psi max) to act as a barrier. sometimes referred to as quench. Fig. when cooling of the seals is necessary dependent upon the fluid pumping temperature. solidify or crystallise when in contact with the atmosphere. The flushing liquid is allowed to enter the seal housing at low pressure i. 0.e. This most basic flush system. etc). explosion. • This seal arrangement used on externally mounted seals requires the supply of liquid to the atmospheric side of the mechanical seal to flush the seal area.Pump sealing Single Flushed Mechanical Seal The definition of ‘flush’ is to provide a liquid barrier or support to the selected seal arrangement. with the addition of a seal housing having a flushing connection and/or flushing tubes and a lip seal.e. For the majority of pump models the flushed seal comprises the same stationary and rotating parts as the single seal.1g Typical externally mounted single flushed mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Spacer O-ring Spacer Gasket Seal housing Lip seal Grub screw 12 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 75 .

fluid is hazardous or toxic. This results in the interface film being the flushing liquid and not the pumped liquid. Special attention is required in selecting seal faces and elastomers. and the seal employed for the flushing liquid is referred to as the ‘outboard seal’. A compatible flushing liquid is pressurised into the seal housing at a pressure of 1 bar (14 psi) minimum above the discharge pressure of the pump.1i Typical double flushed mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps 14 Rotorcase Gearcase Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Wave spring Rotary seal ring O-ring Rotary seal ring Stationary seal ring Gasket Stationary seal ring O-ring Seal housing Grub screw 76 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .e. This seal generally comprises the same stationary and rotating parts as the single seal for the majority of pump models. The double flushed seal used on Alfa Laval pump ranges is basically two single mechanical seals mounted ‘back to back’. • Adhesive • Caramel • Detergent • Fruit Juice Concentrate • Gelatine • Jam • Latex • Paint • Sugar Syrup • Toothpaste • Yeast Double Flushed Mechanical Seal This seal arrangement is generally used with hostile media conditions i. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. Fig. with the addition of a seal housing having a flushing connection and/or flushing tubes (dependent upon pump type). 6.Pump sealing Fig.1h Typical externally mounted single flushed mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Item 1 2 3 Description Seal housing Lip seal Flushing tubes Typical applications are listed below. The arrangement in contact with the pumped fluid is referred to as the ‘inboard seal’. 6. For Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps the design of the outboard seal differs to the inboard seal. high viscosity.

Table 6.1c Temperature up to 150°C (302 F) o Seal Face Combination Inserted Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide v Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide v Tungsten Carbide Solid Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide up to 200°C (392oF) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 77 .1j Typical double flushed mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Item 1 2 3 4 Description Seal housing Flushing tubes Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Typical applications are listed below.1b Viscosity up to 4999 cP Seal Face Combination Solid Carbon v Stainless Steel Solid Carbon v Silicon Carbide Solid Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Inserted Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide v Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide v Tungsten Carbide Consider Double Seals up to 24999 cP up to 149999 cP above 150000 cP Table 6. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. which should be noted when selecting a mechanical seal.Pump sealing Fig. • Abrasive Slurries • Chocolate • Glucose • Hazardous Chemicals • PVC Paste • Photographic Emulsion • Resin General Seal Face Operating Parameters Tables below show general parameters regarding viscosity and temperature. 6.

Usually water is used for cooling and any water soluble products. Fig. 6.Pump sealing Flushing Pipework Layout The suggested arrangement below is for single mechanical seals only.e. 6. The choice of flushing liquid is dependent upon compatibility with the pumping media and overall duty conditions i.1k Typical flushing pipework layout for a rotary lobe pump *Pressure gauge *Control valve Pressure gauge Control valve Suggested visible indication of flow * Double mechanical seal only Flush inlet Check valve Isolation valve Flush outlet to waste Fig. If the pump is fitted with double mechanical seals or packed glands the pressure gauges and control valves should be fitted on the outlet side of the system. pressure and temperature.1l Typical flushing pipework layout for a centrifugal pump Free outlet Inlet 78 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Check temperature limitations.Is fluid abrasive? . as actual seal selections should be verified by the seal suppliers.1c). 6.Check elastomer compatibility (see guide in section 14. Select Seal Type - Does fluid crystallise? Is cooling required? Will pump run dry? Is aseptic barrier required? Yes Use Single Flushed Seal No - Is fluid hazardous? Is fluid abrasive? Is fluid viscosity high? Is temperature high? Is aseptic barrier required? Yes Use Double Flushed Seal No Use Single Seal Select Seal Materials Select Seal Faces Select Elastomers .1b).1m Seal selection process Obtain all Product/Fluid and Performance data This should be used for guidance purposes only.Pump sealing Mechanical Seal Selection Process The illustration below describes the mechanical seal selection process with relevant questions to be answered. . . . Fig.Check chemical compatibility.10).Check temperature limitations (see table 6. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 79 . .Check viscosity limitations (see table 6.

Hyclean Type Mechanical Seals This seal arrangement is generally used for food and other hygienic applications.1. -200S MR-300 Table 6.2b Mechanical Seal Type Seal Name Pump Range SRU SX ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Single externally mounted R90 R00 Hyclean R90 R00 Hyclean R90 R90 R00 Single flushed externally mounted Single flushed internally mounted Double flushed R90 Type Mechanical Seals The basic working principles of the R90 type mechanical seals have previously been referred to in 6.2a ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! External Mounting Single Flushed ! Double Flushed ! ! ! ! ! Internal Mounting Single Single Flushed Seal Option Availability for Rotary Lobe Pumps Table 6.Pump sealing 6.2 Mechanical Seal Types in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges Seal Option Availability for Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Pump Range Single LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP LKHSP LKHI LKH-UltraPure MR-166S. The design of this seal incorporates a self-cleaning feature. 80 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

6. 1 2 3 4 5 Item 1 2 3 4 5 Description Wave Spring Squad Ring Rotary Seal Ring Cup Seal Stationary Seal Ring Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 81 . Seal faces positioned in the fluid area minimise shear forces. All seals have controlled compression joint elastomers at fluid/atmosphere interfaces. 6. 6. Specialised seal setting of the mechanical seal is not required as the seal is dimensionally set on assembly.2a Hyclean single mechanical seal 7 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description Rotorcase O-ring Wave Spring Shaft O-ring Stationary Seal Ring Rotary Seal Ring Washer Clip Front cover compression joint Cup seal Spline sealing cup seal Squad ring Fig.2c R00 single mechanical seal R00 Type Mechanical Seals The R00 type mechanical seals specifically designed for the SX rotary lobe pump range are fully front loading seals and fully interchangeable without the need for additional housings or pump component changes.2b SX pumphead sealing Fig.Pump sealing Fig.

solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere. Packed Gland with Lantern Ring With fluids containing very abrasive particles or fluids that will coagulate. but when possible. or at least inhibit. the pumps should be fitted with hard coated shaft sleeves. The slingers will reduce the possibility of the product contacting the gearcase lip seals. Provided the liquid being sealed contains no abrasive particles or does not crystallise. gland packings will function satisfactorily on plain stainless steel shafts or renewable stainless steel shaft sleeves. In instances of moderately abrasive fluids. solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere the flushing liquid acts as a dilutant and barrier in the gland area preventing the pumped fluid from coming in contact with the atmosphere. the entry of abrasives into the very small clearances between the shaft and packing. 82 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . When packed glands are specified. should always be avoided for sanitary duties.Pump sealing 6. which may be easily replaced when worn. 6. The function of this liquid is to prevent.3 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) This is a simple. low cost. as they are less hygienic than mechanical seals. When correctly assembled and adjusted. Pumps provided with a packed gland seal are normally fitted with rubber slingers mounted between the gland followers and the gearcase front lip seals. if fitted. In such circumstances a compatible liquid is supplied to the chamber formed by the lantern ring at a pressure of at least 1 bar (14 psi) above the pump pressure. thereby overcoming any undesirable operating conditions that could arise in this area. Packed Gland The grade of packing used depends on the product being handled and operating conditions. such as brine solutions being handled. using polyamide or PTFE packings will satisfy the majority of duties. and easy to maintain controlled leakage sealing arrangement. a slight loss of product should occur so as to lubricate the packing and shaft or sleeve. These are specified for many ‘dirty’ applications.3a Packed gland Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Description Shaft sleeve O-ring Shaft sleeve Spacer Packing rings Gasket Gland housing Gland follower Ring slinger Grub screw This seal arrangement is available on all SRU pump models. 9 Fig. In the case of liquids which coagulate. a packed gland with lantern ring may be used.

6. which cannot always be accepted.Pump sealing A disadvantage with this seal arrangement is that the flushing liquid will pass into the product causing a relatively small degree of dilution/ contamination. Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 83 . In common with all packed gland assemblies slight leakage must occur but in this instance it will basically be a loss of flushing liquid as opposed to product being pumped.3b Packed gland with lantern ring 10 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description Shaft sleeve O-ring Shaft sleeve Spacer Packing rings Lantern ring Gasket Gland housing Gland follower Ring slinger Grub screw This seal arrangement is available on all SRU pump models.

Pump sealing 84 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

• Solids content (max. Site Services Data • Power source (electric.e. • Is product hazardous or toxic? • Does fluid crystallise in contact with atmosphere? • Is CIP required? Performance Data • Capacity (Flow rate).). • Suction condition (flooded or suction lift). diesel. as they could be critical to satisfactory installation and operation. air. 7. supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach. • SG/Density. Pump Sizing This section shows how to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/ fluid and performance data given. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 85 . In such cases to complete the sizing process. In an ideal situation all the above criteria should be known before sizing a pump . Newtonian or Pseudoplastic etc. petrol or hydraulic). • Vapour pressure. some assumptions may need to be made based upon application knowledge. • Pumping temperature. Product/Fluid Data • Fluid to be pumped. If electric . experience etc. • Fluid behaviour (i. These should be subsequently confirmed. • Seal flushing fluid.1 General Information Required In order to correctly size any type of pump some essential information is required as follows: See section 2 for detailed descriptions of Product/Fluid data and Performance data.however. size and concentration).Pump Sizing 7. • Discharge head/pressure. • Viscosity. in many instances not all of this information is known and made available.motor enclosure and electrical supply.

The rate of energy input needed is defined as power and is expressed in watts (W) . 7. i. hydraulic horse power or water horse power. watts x 10³.1 Hydraulic Power The theoretical energy required to pump a given quantity of fluid against a given total head is known as hydraulic power.2 Power All of the system energy requirements and the energy losses in the pump must be supplied by a prime mover in the form of mechanical energy.Pump Sizing 7. This can be calculated as follows: Hydraulic Power (W) = Q x H x ρ x g where: Q H ρ g = = = = capacity (m3/s) total head/pressure (m) fluid density (kg/m³) acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Other forms of this equation can be as follows: Hydraulic Power (kW) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity H = total head/pressure k = constant (dependent upon units used) Therefore Hydraulic Power (kW) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (l/min) H = total head/pressure (bar) k = 600 86 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .e. power within this handbook is expressed in kilowatts (kW).2.for practical purposes.

7.Pump Sizing or Hydraulic Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) H = total head/pressure (psi) k = 1715 or Hydraulic Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (UK gall/min) H = total head/pressure (psi) k = 1428 7. This is always higher than the hydraulic power due to energy losses in the pump mechanism (friction loss.2 Required Power r = radius The required power or brake horsepower is the power needed at the pump shaft. seals etc) and is derived from: Required Power = ωxT where: ω = shaft angular velocity T = Shaft Torque Shaft angular velocity ω = V x r And is related to Hydraulic power by: Required Power = Hydraulic Power Efficiency (100% = 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 87 .2.2. pressure loss. Generally this will be the nearest prime mover rated output power above the required power.2a Shaft angular viscosity The appropriate prime mover power must be selected.0) V= velocity Fig.

2. friction loss in the impeller blade and circulation loss at the outlet side of the impeller blades.Pump Sizing The power requirements for mechanical devices such as pumps and pump drives are best expressed in terms of torque and speed. Kgfm (Kilogram metres) or ftlb (foot pounds). 7. The term ‘mechanical efficiency’ can also be used to describe this ratio. Total efficiency.3 Torque Torque is defined as the moment of force required to produce rotation and is usually expressed in units of Nm (Newton metres). Hydraulic Efficiency (ηh). designated by symbol η. Torque can be calculated as follows: Torque (Nm) = Required power (kW) x 9550 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (Kgfm) = Required power (kW) x 974 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (ftlb) = Required power (hp) x 5250 Pump speed (rev/min) It should be noted that rotary lobe pumps are basically constant torque machines and therefore it is important that the transmission chosen is capable of transmitting the torque required by the pump.4 Efficiency Total Efficiency Total efficiency is typically used on centrifugal and liquid ring pumps to describe the relationship between input power at the pump shaft and output power in the form of water horsepower. This is particularly important for variable speed drives which should be selected initially on torque rather than power. 7. comprises of three elements.2. 88 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . where Hydraulic Efficiency (ηh)= Pump head loss (m) x 100% Total head (m) The pump head losses comprise of the shock loss at the eye of the impeller. Mechanical Efficiency (ηm ) and Volumetric Efficiency (ηv ) which are described below: Hydraulic Efficiency The term hydraulic efficiency is used on centrifugal and liquid ring type pumps to describe one of the three elements of centrifugal and liquid ring pump total efficiency as described above.

Pump Sizing

Mechanical Efficiency This term is used on all centrifugal, liquid ring and rotary lobe pump types, and is typically used to describe the losses associated with the transfer of energy from the prime mover through a mechanical system to the pumped liquid. where Mechanical Efficiency (ηm ) = 1 – Pump mechanical losses x 100% Required power Pump mechanical losses refers to the friction losses associated with bearings, seals and other contacting areas within the pump. Volumetric Efficiency This term is used on all centrifugal, liquid ring and rotary lobe pump types. It is most commonly used to compare the performance of a number of pump types, where accurate geometric data is available. For centrifugal and liquid ring pumps, Volumetric Efficiency (ηv) = Q x 100% Q + QL

where:

Q = Pump capacity. Q L = Fluid losses due to leakage through the impeller casing clearances.

For rotary lobe pumps the term volumetric efficiency (ηv) is used to compare the displacement of the pump against the capacity of the pump. The displacement calculation (q) per revolution for rotary lobe pumps involves calculating the volume of the void formed between the rotating element and the fixed element of the pump. This is then multiplied by the number of voids formed by a rotating element per revolution of the pump’s drive shaft and by the number of rotors in the pump. For rotary lobe pumps, Volumetric Efficiency (ηv) = Q x 100% q where: Q = Pump capacity. q = Pump displacement.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 89

Pump Sizing

Rotary lobe pumps are generally highly efficient and even at viscosity of 100 cP the volumetric efficiency of most pumps is approximately 90% for low pressure duties. At lower viscosities and/or higher pressures the volumetric efficiency will decrease due to slip as described in 8.6.1. Above 1000 cP, volumetric efficiency can be as high as 95 - 99%. For these high viscosity duties, to select a pump speed the following formulas can be used as a general guide. n = Q x 100 q x ηv x 60 where n Q q ηv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (m³/h) = pump displacement (m³/100 rev) = vol. efficiency (100% = 1.0)

or

n = Q x 100 q x ηv

where n Q q ηv

= pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (US gall/min) = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) = vol. efficiency (100% = 1.0)

or

n = Q x 100 q x ηv

where n Q q ηv

= pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (UK gall/min) = pump displacement (UK gall/100 rev) = vol. efficiency (100% = 1.0)

Pump Efficiency The term pump efficiency is used on all types of pumps to describe the ratio of power supply to the drive shaft against water horsepower. Pump Efficiency ηp

= Water horse power x 100% Required power

or Pump Efficiency ηp

= QxHxρxg ωxT

where:

Q H ρ g ω T

= capacity (m³/s) = total head/pressure (m) = fluid density (kg/m³) = acceleration due to gravity (m/s²) = shaft angular velocity (rad/s) = shaft torque (Nm)

90 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Sizing

Overall Efficiency Overall efficiency is a term used to describe and compare the performance of all types of pump. Overall efficiency considers the efficiency of both the prime mover and the pump, and is sometimes known as the wire to water/liquid efficiency where the prime mover is an electric motor. Overall Efficiency ηoa = Water horse power x 100% Drive power

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 91

Pump Sizing

7.3 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps
In general the theory regarding sizing of centrifugal and liquid ring pumps is similar.

7.3.1 Flow Curve
A centrifugal or liquid ring pump should always be sized from a pump flow curve or a pump selection program. Most pump flow curves are based on tests with water. It is difficult to determine general curves for fluids with viscosities different from water and therefore in these instances it is recommended to use a pump selection program. A pump flow curve specifies the connection between capacity Q , head H , required power P , required NPSH and efficiency η. Hydraulic Losses The connection between the capacity and the theoretical head of the pump is shown by means of a straight line, which decreases at a higher capacity (see fig. 7.3.1a). The actual head of a pump is, however, lower than the theoretical head due to hydraulic losses in the pump, which are friction loss, pressure loss and slip.

Fig. 7.3.1a Hydraulic losses

The connection between the capacity and actual head is consequently specified by means of a curve which varies depending on the design of the impeller. Different Pump Characteristics The capacity Q and head H curve of a centrifugal pump will vary depending upon the impeller vane design (see fig. 7.3.1.b). These fulfil different requirements and are well suited for flow control where only one parameter is to be changed (see 7.3.2). Curve 1 covers a wide range of heads without large changes to capacity. Curve 3 covers a wide range of capacities without large changes to head.

Fig. 7.3.1b Curves for Q and H

92 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Sizing

Curves for Capacity Q, Head H, Power P and Efficiency η In principle the duty point of a pump can be situated at any point on the Q-H curve. The efficiency of the pump will vary depending on where the duty point is situated on the Q-H curve. The efficiency is usually highest near the centre of the curve.
Fig. 7.3.1c Curves for Q, H, P and η

The power curve of the centrifugal pump increases at a higher capacity. The power curve of the liquid ring pump decreases at a higher capacity. NPSHr Curve The NPSHr curve increases at higher capacity (see fig. 7.3.1d). This should be used to assertain the NPSHr of the pump. It is important that NPSHa of the system exceeds the NPSHr of the pump.

Fig. 7.3.1d NPSHr curve

Viscosity Effect Fluid viscosity will affect capacity, head, efficiency and power (see fig. 7.3.1e). • Capacity, head and efficiency will decrease at higher viscosities. • Required power will increase at higher viscosities.

Fig. 7.3.1e Effects on Q, H and η

Density Effect Fluid density will affect the head and required power which both increase proportionally at higher density (see fig. 7.3.1f).

Fig. 7.3.1f Effects on Q, H and η

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 93

25 m). • Required power as a function of capacity (Q . 1 cP. 220/380v.0 20°C. Example: Product/Fluid Data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance Data: Capacity Total head Electrical supply - Water. The Q .2 when the duty point is known. This is not applicable to the Liquid Ring pumps as the impeller diameters cannot be reduced. • Required NPSH as a function of capacity (Q .P curves are specified for different standard impeller diameters so that a correct duty point can be determined.P curve). 94 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The curves on the flow curve are based on tests with water at 20°C (68oF) with tolerances of + 5%.H and Q . 50Hz.H curve).NPSHr curve). 25 m. Although illustrated here the efficiency is not shown on the published flow curves but can be determined from the required power on the flow curve and formula in 7. 15 m³/h. 1. It is recommended to select the pump by means of a pump selection program if the fluid to be pumped has other physical properties. The optimum is to select the smallest pump possible which is suitable for the required duty point (15 m³/h.Pump Sizing How to use the Flow Curve The flow curve consists of three different curves: • Head as a function of capacity (Q .

• The head will then be 28 m. • The head will then be a minimum of 26.H curve • Locate the capacity (15 m³/h) on the Q-scale.6 m greater than 25 m. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 95 .1g Example 28 Step 2 . • In this case the head should be reduced by 5% being the curve tolerance. For this particular example a flow curve of a centrifugal pump type LKH-10 with 3000 rev/min synchronous speed at 50Hz is selected.Look at Q .Pump Sizing Step 1 . Therefore. thus satisfactory. Fig. 7.3.Find Appropriate Curve Locate a flow curve for the required pump type that covers the duty point. in this case 150 mm. • This duty point does not contact any curve corresponding to a certain impeller diameter. • The selected head (28 m) should be checked regarding the lower tolerance of the curve to ensure that it is at least the required 25 m. • Start from this point and follow the vertical line upwards until it intersects with the horizontal line indicating the required head (25 m) on the H-scale. the nearest larger size impeller diameter should be selected.

• Consequently a 2.1 kW. The pump will automatically regulate the capacity to meet the new conditions (see fig.0 kW. The process curve is determined by varying the capacity so that different pressure drop (∆H) values are obtained.2b and 7.2 kW motor can be used. layout. Capacity: Pressure drop: Q1 DH1 Q2 DH2 Q3 DH3 Q4 DH4 Q5 DH5 Q6 DH6 The duty point of a pump can change due to changes in the conditions of the process plant (changes in head. • The intersection corresponding to the 150 mm impeller is located.8 m. • For a LKH centrifugal pump a safety factor of 5% for motor losses must be added.3. The shape of the process curve will depend on the process design (i. ∆ Q 7. pressure drops etc.this specifies the connection between head H and capacity Q (see 7.2a Process curve 96 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .3.2a). 7. 0.NPSHr curve • Finally the vertical capacity line (15 m³/h) is followed up to the NPSHr curve. filters etc.3.3. Fig. • A horizontal line to the right of the intersection indicates that NPSHr is approx.2 Flow Control Duty Point The duty point of a pump is the intersection point between the pump curve and the process curve.2c).Pump Sizing Step 3 .). Process curve . 7. Pump curve .e.1).3. resulting in a total required power of 2. 7.this specifies the connection between the total pressure drop (∆H ) in the process plant and the capacity (Q) (see fig.Look at Q .).Look at Q . Step 4 .P curve • The next step in selecting the pump is to follow the vertical capacity line (15 m³/h) downwards until it intersects with the power curve for the 150 mm impeller. valves. • A horizontal line to the left of the intersection indicates a required power of 2.3.

2d Reducing impeller diameter 1.3.the duty point moves towards point 2 when reducing the impeller diameter.3. Reducing Impeller Diameter Reducing the impeller diameter can only be carried out for centrifugal pumps and multi-stage centrifugal pumps. 7. 7.2c Changes in required head It is possible to compensate for the change of duty point by means of flow control that can be achieved as follows: • Reducing the impeller diameter (not for liquid ring pumps).3. • Controlling the pump speed. Due to flow control it is possible to achieve optimum pump efficiency at the required capacity resulting in the most economical pump installation. 7. 2. 7.2d: H Fig. Before reducing. capacity (Q) and head D Q (H) is shown in fig. • Throttling the discharge line.3. This will reduce the capacity and the head. After reducing . Centrifugal Pump The connection between impeller diameter (D).2b Changes in pressure drop Fig.Pump Sizing Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 97 .

Pump Sizing If the impeller speed remains unchanged. which is situated at the pump outlet (nearest to the back plate).3.2e. head (H) and required power (P) is D Q H P shown by the following formulas: Diameter/capacity: Q1 Q2 = D13 D 3 2 ⇒ D2 = D1 x √ Q [mm] 3 Q2 1 Diameter/head: H1 H2 = D12 D 2 2 ⇒ D2 = D1 x √H 5 H2 1 [mm] Diameter/power: P1 P2 = D15 D25 ⇒ D2 = D1 x √ H [mm] H2 1 Most pump flow curves show characteristics for different impeller diameters to enable the correct impeller diameter to be selected. capacity (Q).2e Reducing impeller diameter 98 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . c b Fig. the pump efficiency will decrease. Consequently the exact duty point will be between the curves of two pump sizes. Multi-stage Centrifugal Pump This pump has several impellers depending upon pump type. head (H) D Q H and type of pump is shown in fig. The connection between impeller diameter (D). capacity (Q).3. 7. 7. The total head can be adjusted by reducing the diameter of the back impeller. the connection between impeller diameter (D). If the reduction in impeller diameter exceeds 20%. Reducing the impeller diameter by up to 20% will not affect the efficiency of the pump.

Controlling Pump Speed Changing the impeller speed will change the centrifugal force created by the impeller. which will increase the head and reduce the capacity. 1. Fig. therefore. It is.2f. 7.2g Controlling pump speed Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 99 .3. the duty point moves towards point 2. b = Min. The connection between capacity (Q) and head (H) when changing Q H the impeller speed is shown in fig. 2. Before throttling.2g. Fig. The working point moves towards point 2 when reducing the impeller speed. Also throttling will reduce the efficiency of the process plant ∆H shows the ‘waste’ of pressure at point 2.Pump Sizing The formula is for guidance purposes only. The impeller diameter is reduced to D2 by means of the following formula: D2 = D1 x √ a-b [mm] c-b Where: D1 = Standard diameter before reducing. duty point. duty point. 7.3. recommended to add a safety factor of 10-15% to the new diameter. Throttling Discharge Line Throttling the discharge line will increase the resistance in the process plant. 7. After reducing impeller speed. After throttling. The connection between capacity (Q) and head (H) when throttling is Q H shown in fig.3.2f Throttling discharge line Throttling should not be carried out in the suction line as cavitation can occur. c = Required duty point. 1. Therefore. 7. the capacity and the head will also change.3. Before reducing impeller speed. 2. a = Max.

Q The head can vary depending on the pump sizes. Pump 2 must be able to withstand the outlet head from pump 1. 7. head (H) and required power (P) is n Q H P shown by the following formulas: Speed/capacity: Q1 Q2 = n1 n2 ⇒ n2 = n1 x Q2 Q1 [rev/min] Speed/head: H1 H2 = n12 n 2 2 ⇒ n2 = n1 x √H √P 3 H2 1 [rev/min] Speed/power: P1 P2 = n13 n 3 2 ⇒ n2 = n1 x P2 1 [rev/min] As shown from the above formulas the impeller speed affects capacity.3a Principle of connection The outlet of pump 1 is connected to the inlet of pump 2.10). Speed control will not affect the efficiency providing changes do not exceed 20%.3 Alternative Pump Installations Pumps Coupled in Series It is possible to increase the head in a pump installation by two or more pumps being coupled in series. Fig. capacity (Q). If the impeller dimensions remain unchanged.3.125. • Half speed results in required power x 0. 100 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5. • Half speed results in head x 0. 7. head and required power as follows: • Half speed results in capacity x 0.Pump Sizing The most common form of speed control is by means of a frequency converter (see 9. The capacity (Q) will always be constant throughout the pump series.3.25. the connection between impeller speed (n).

3.3d Connection of two similar pumps Fig. 7. The capacity can vary depending on the pump sizes. Adjustment of head by reducing the impeller diameter must always be on the second pump.Pump Sizing If two different pumps are connected in series. causing unstable operation and cavitation. Fig.3. The pumps receive the fluid from the same source and have a common discharge line.3. Otherwise the second pump will overrule the first pump.3.3b Head of pumps in series Fig.3c Principle of connection Fig. It is important that pumps installed in series are connected with the largest pump before the smallest. 7. 7. 7. Pumps Coupled in Parallel It is possible to increase the capacity in a pump installation by two or more pumps coupled in parallel. If the capacity Q1 is smaller than the capacity Q2.3f Connection of two different pump sizes Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 101 . Fig.3e Connection of two different pumps The head (H) will always be constant in the pump installation.3. it is possible to install a non-return valve in the discharge line of pump 1 to avoid pump 2 pumping fluid back through pump 1. When the capacity is increased by means of pumps coupled in parallel. the pump with the lowest NPSH value should be installed as the first pump (for critical suction conditions). For two different pumps. A multi-stage centrifugal pump is in principle several pumps that are coupled in series but built together as one pump unit. the equipment and pressure drop in the installation must be determined according to the total capacity of the pumps. 7.

Pump Sizing 7. 102 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Yeast CIP CO2 CO2 Fermentation CIP CO2 CO2 0. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.4 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric units) 7.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump.1a Example 1 As described in 7.1 Example 1 The following example shows a pump to be sized for a typical brewery process.4.6 bar (pressure vessel) Cooling 21 m O2 Wort pump Yeast pitching Whirlpool 80 m Fig. The pump is required to handle Wort from the Whirlpool to the Fermentation vessel.4. Performance data and Site Services data. 7.

2 and 2.4 m head. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. tube.6 bar = 16 m.1b ht = 21 m.6 bar. Suction - 40 m³/h. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 103 . Pressure in Fermenting vessel = 0. valves and a plate heat exchanger with ∆pPHE 1. plus a given number of bends and valves. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 21 + 23 + 6 m = 50 m (5 bar).6 bar = 6 m.Pump Sizing All the data have been given by the customer.5 = 2 m. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in Fermentation vessel. 50 Hz. 1 cP. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger ∆pPHE ∆ptube from curve shown in 14. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Wort. hft = 2 + 5 + 16 m. ∆pPHE is given as 1. ∆p is calculated to be 5 m.2. pt = 0. via 80 m of 101. Static head in Fermenting vessel = 21 m. Before sizing a pump. pt = Pressure in Fermentation vessel. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. Therefore Fig. plus a given number of bends. 0.6 bar. 90°C.4. The theory.2. 7. = 23 m. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.4.6 mm dia.

viscosity) different from water.6 m (– 0.15 bar). pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-25. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 50 – (– 0.4 m.e.Pump Sizing Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool. hfs = calculated to be 1 m. 11 kW. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. 51. For this particular example. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.4 m. ps = Pressure in Whirlpool (open tank). 2930 rev/min. Calculated to be 1 m. NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Whirlpool tank. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. In this particular example both the pump performance curves and pump selection program can be used. hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool tank.1%.6) = 50. 0. The performance curves are. 0. not suitable if the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i. however. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. ps = 0 (open tank).3. NPSHa = 10 + 0.70 bar a (from table 14. Therefore hs = 0.5 m (5.4 m.06 bar). Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. 63.4a) = 7 m.6 m ≈ 51 m (5.4 – 1 + 0 m = – 0.1 bar).4 – 1 – 7 (m) = 2. 1. 202 mm. 104 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 m.1. 40 m³/h. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program.

If the required head is the exact value of the process. Adjustment In this example the pump is sized by the pump selection program which results in exact impeller diameter of 202 mm. In this case it may be necessary to adjust the selected duty point by means of flow control. there is a risk that the pump will generate head which will differ from the selected head.3. The flow control method is more specifically described in 7. i. Cavitation can be avoided by reducing the pump speed (reducing NPSHr).e.1c Special Note The discharge head (ht2) is lower when the pump starts filling the fermenting vessel compared to the discharge head (ht1) when the vessel is full. Flow control method is more specifically described in 7. Consequently.2.e. The pump is sized with a standard impeller diameter if using the performance curve.e.3. so that the selected duty point is as close to the required duty point as possible. i. It is important to note that the selected head has a tolerance of ± 5% due to the tolerance of the pump curve. by means of a frequency converter.4 m > 1. it is recommended to select the pump with a larger impeller diameter to ensure the required head is obtained. or by throttling the discharge line (increasing head).4 m.4. It may also be necessary to adjust to the required duty point by means of flow control due to the tolerance. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a double mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. no cavitation will occur. 2.Pump Sizing Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.2. 1: Full vessel 2: Empty vessel ht1 1 2 ht2 Q2 Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 105 . The reduction of the discharge head can result in cavitation and overloading of the motor due to a capacity increase. 7.

Suction - 30 m³/h. Inlet pressure for the separator = 1. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data. 5 cP. Pump ‘A’ is a Raw Milk pump in connection with a pasteuriser. CIP Milk out PHE Pump ‘A’ Balance Tank Standardised Milk P = 1.5 bar Fig. Performance data and Site Services data. 7.2a Example 2 Separator As described in 7. All the data has been given by the customer. 5°C. tube. The raw milk is pumped from a Balance tank to a Separator via the preheating stage in the plate heat exchanger.5 bar.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. plus a given number of bends. via 5 m of horizontal 76 mm dia. 0.4.Pump Sizing 7.1 m head. 106 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 Example 2 The following example shows a centrifugal pump to be sized for a typical dairy process. valves and a plate heat exchanger with ∆pPHE 1 bar.4. plus a given number of bends and valves. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Raw Milk.

Before sizing a pump. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head to Separator.5 bar = 15 m. = 12 m.0 bar = 10 m. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.3 m ≈ 27 m (2.3) = 27.5 = 2 m. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. ps = Pressure in Balance tank (open tank).7 bar).4.2b ht = 0 m (no static head .4 m.1 – 0. Therefore Fig.4 + 0 m = – 0.only horizontal tube).03 bar). ∆pPHE is given as 1.1 m. 50 Hz.2.4. hfs = calculated to be 0. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.2. ∆p is calculated to be 0 m. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. pt = Pressure in Separator. ps = 0 (open tank). Total head H = Ht – Hs = 27 – (– 0. pt = 1. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 0 + 12 + 15 m = 27 m (2.Pump Sizing Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. The theory. Therefore hs = 0.2 and 2. hft = 2 + 0 + 10 m. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 107 .3 m (– 0.7 bar). hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger ∆pPHE ∆ptube from curve shown in 14. 7.

1.e.71 bar). Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.e. 30 m³/h. 4 kW. 65. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.e. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. at temperature of 5oC this is taken as being negligible i. no cavitation will occur.7 m. For this particular example. i.1 – 0.7 m > 1. 27. 0 bar a = 0 m. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-20. As the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i.e.4 m. 9.1 m (2. Calculated to be 0. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.4 m. viscosity) different from water. 108 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 2840 rev/min.4 m. NPSHa = 10 + 0.9%. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.1 m.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. the pump performance curves should not be used. and actual pump sizing should be made using the pump selection program. 149 mm. 0. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Balance tank. hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.4 – 0 (m) = 9.

The pump is required to handle Wort from the Whirlpool to the Fermentation vessel.Pump Sizing 7.1 Example 1 The following example shows a pump to be sized for a typical brewery process. 7.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump.1a Example 1 As described in 7.5. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.5. Yeast CIP CO2 CO2 Fermentation CIP CO2 CO2 9 psi (pressure vessel) Cooling 69 ft O2 Wort pump Yeast pitching Whirlpool 262 ft Fig.5 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US units) 7. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 109 . Performance data and Site Services data.

plus a given number of bends. tube. plus a given number of bends and valves. = 75 ft. The theory. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in Fermentation vessel. 60 Hz. 1. valves and a plate heat exchanger with ∆pPHE 23 psi. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.Pump Sizing All the above data have been given by the customer.4.1b ht = 69 ft.5 = 6 ft. 7. hft = 6 + 16 + 53 ft.2. 1 cP. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. 194°F. Before sizing a pump. ∆p is calculated to be 16 ft. pt = 9 psi = 20 ft. Suction - Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v.2. Static head in Fermenting vessel = 69 ft. hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger ∆pPHE ∆ptube from curve shown in 14. pt = Pressure in Fermentation vessel. ∆pPHE is given as 23 psi = 53 ft.5.5 ft head. Pressure in Fermenting vessel = 9 psi. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 69 + 75 + 20 ft = 164 ft (71 psi). 110 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 and 2. Therefore Fig. 176 US gall/min. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Wort. via 262 ft of 4 in dia. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.

15 hp. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14. 3500 rev/min.5) = 165.2 ft (72 psi). The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. 6.Pump Sizing Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool. In this particular example both the pump performance curves and pump selection program can be used.4a) = 23 ft. not suitable if the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i. 176 US gall/min. 1. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 164 – (– 1. Calculated to be 3 ft.5 ft (– 0. 166. For this particular example. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. The performance curves are. hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool tank. however.5 ft.6 psi). hfs = calculated to be 3 ft.4 ft. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. NPSHa = 33.50 in. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Whirlpool tank. ps = 0 (open tank). ps = Pressure in Whirlpool (open tank). NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. viscosity) different from water.5 ft. 67. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 111 . Therefore hs = 1. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.3.7 psi (open tank) = 33.2%. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-20.5 ft ≈ 166 ft (72 psi).9 ft.5 – 3 + 0 m = – 1.5 ft.e. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 1.5 – 3 – 23 (ft) = 9.1. 10 psia (from table 14.9 + 1. 7.

9. In this case it may be necessary to adjust the selected duty point by means of flow control.1c Special Note The discharge head (ht2) is lower when the pump starts filling the fermenting vessel compared to the discharge head (ht1) when the vessel is full.5 ft.4 ft > 7. it is recommended to select the pump with a larger impeller diameter to ensure the required head is obtained. i. Adjustment In this example the pump is sized by the pump selection program which results in exact impeller diameter of 6.e.5. Consequently. It is important to note that the selected head has a tolerance of ± 5% due to the tolerance of the pump curve.3. no cavitation will occur.50 in. or by throttling the discharge line (increasing head).Pump Sizing Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. If the required head is the exact value of the process. 112 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . i. The reduction of the discharge head can result in cavitation and overloading of the motor due to a capacity increase. there is a risk that the pump will generate head which will differ from the selected head.2. 1: Full vessel 2: Empty vessel ht1 1 2 ht2 Q2 Fig. by means of a frequency converter.e. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a double mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. It may also be necessary to adjust to the required duty point by means of flow control due to the tolerance. Flow control method is more specifically described in 7. 7.3.2. The pump is sized with a standard impeller diameter if using the performance curve. The flow control method is more specifically described in 7.e. Cavitation can be avoided by reducing the pump speed (reducing NPSHr). so that the selected duty point is as close to the required duty point as possible.

0. All the data has been given by the customer. valves and a plate heat exchanger with ∆pPHE 15 psi. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Raw Milk. Inlet pressure for the separator = 22 psi.2 Example 2 The following example shows a centrifugal pump to be sized for a typical dairy process. Pump ‘A’ is a Raw Milk pump in connection with a pasteuriser.2a Example 2 Separator As described in 7. The raw milk is pumped from a Balance tank to a Separator via the preheating stage in the plate heat exchanger. via 16 ft of horizontal 3 in dia. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.5. plus a given number of bends and valves. 7. 5 cP. 41°F.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. tube. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 113 .3 ft head. plus a given number of bends. CIP Milk out PHE Pump ‘A’ Balance Tank Standardised Milk P = 22 psi Fig.5. Suction - 132 US gall/min. Performance data and Site Services data.Pump Sizing 7.

Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.only horizontal tube).2 and 2.2. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.5 = 6 ft. hft = 6 + 0 + 34 ft. ∆p is calculated to be 0 ft. 60 Hz. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. ps = 0 (open tank). hfs = calculated to be 1.4. Before sizing a pump. hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger ∆pPHE ∆ptube from curve shown in 14. pt = 22 psi = 50 ft.3 ft. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 0 + 40 + 50 ft = 90 ft (39 psi).2.5. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 90 – (– 1) = 91 ft (39 psi). Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0.3 ft. Therefore hs = 0. The theory. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. ps = Pressure in Balance tank (open tank). Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head to Separator. Therefore Fig. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.3 + 0 m = – 1 ft (– 0. ∆pPHE is given as 15 psi = 34 ft.Pump Sizing Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v.4 psi). 114 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 7.2b ht = 0 ft (no static head .3 – 1. pt = Pressure in Separator. = 40 ft.

e. no cavitation will occur.e.0 hp.3 ft.7 ft. hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Balance tank. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 115 .9 ft > 4. 32.3 – 1. 132 US gall/min.e. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Calculated to be 1.9 ft. For this particular example. the pump performance curves should not be used.7 psi (open tank) = 33. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-10.59 in. 92 ft (40 psi).3 ft. 4. and actual pump sizing should be made using the pump selection program. As the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i. at temperature of 41o F this is taken as being negligible i.9 ft. viscosity) different from water. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14. 0 psia = 0 ft. 64. 0.7 ft.7%.e. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. 5. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. 3500 rev/min. 5. i.9 + 0.3 – 0 (ft) = 32. NPSHa = 33.

6. 7.6. In Fig 7. Capacity ‘0’ bar ‘0’ bar Required capacity Capacity at ‘0’ bar Capacity ‘X’ bar Slip ‘X’ bar Actual capacity at ‘X’ bar Speed rev/min Speed increase to maintain capacity Speed rev/min Fig.1c Pressure effect 116 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1b for a given pump speed the amount of slip can be seen as the capacity at ‘zero’ bar less the capacity at ‘X’ bar.6. Pressure effect The amount of slip will increase as pressure increases which is shown below.Pump Sizing 7. from pump outlet to pump inlet.1a Slip Slip Inlet Slip Slip Outlet Low pressure High Pressure Clearance effect Increased clearances will result in greater slip.6.6. The amount of slip is dependent upon several factors. Fig.e. The direction of slip will be from the high pressure to the low pressure side of the pump i. 7. 7. To overcome this amount of slip it will be necessary to increase the pump speed to maintain the capacity required as shown in Fig 7.6.1 Slip Slip is the fluid lost by leakage through the pump clearances.1c.1b Pressure effect Fig. The size and shape of the rotor will be a factor in determining the amount of slip.6 Rotary Lobe Pumps 7.

This factor must be taken into consideration when operating pumps at low speeds with low viscosity fluids.rev/min Speed . It is important to note that flow will be positive after overcoming the dead head speed.6. ‘0’ bar Viscosity = 1 cP Required capacity ‘X’ bar Viscosity = 10 cP Required capacity ‘0’ bar ‘X’ bar Viscosity = 50 cP Required capacity ‘0’ bar ‘X’ bar Capacity Capacity Speed .6.1f below.6. 7. 0 bar 7 bar Capacity Dead head Speed rev/min speed Fig.6.6. The pressure lines will continue to move towards the ‘zero’ pressure line as the viscosity increases. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 117 .1d.6.Pump Sizing Viscosity effect The amount of slip will decrease as fluid viscosity increases.rev/min Fig. 7. 7. the amount of slip at 400 rev/min pump speed will be the same as the amount of slip at 200 rev/min pump speed providing pressure is constant.1d Viscosity effect Fig.1e and 7. The effect of viscosity on slip is shown in Figs 7. For example.1g Dead head speed The pump speed required to overcome slip is known as the ‘dead head speed’.1e Viscosity effect Fig.rev/min Capacity Speed .1f Viscosity effect Pump Speed effect Slip is independent of pump speed.6. 7. 7.

a pump with 40 mm (1½ in) diameter suction line would be initially selected.6. for a flow rate of 10 m³/h on a fluid with viscosity 900 cSt. 7.1h Slip increases with clearances Slip Clearances Fig.9) where the relationship between viscosity and flow rate provides an indication of pipe sizing. For example.6. It is important to note this is only an approximate guide and care should be taken not to exceed the pump’s viscosity/speed limit. 118 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Sizing A summary of effects of different parameters on slip is shown below: Slip increases with pressure Slip Pressure Fig.2 Initial Suction Line Sizing For guidance purposes only on high viscosity duties.6.1i SRU pump Slip decreases with viscosity Slip SX pump Viscosity Fig.6. 7.1j In general terms it is common to find the recommendation for the inlet pipe size to be the same diameter as the pump inlet connection. the suction line can be initially sized using the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. 7. 7.

• Speed as a function of viscosity. Due to pumphead clearances described in 8.2. Example shown refers to the SRU pump range but the same sizing procedure is also used for the SX pump range. related to pressure and viscosity of 1 cSt. 130°C (266oF) and 200°C (392oF). How to use the Performance Curve The performance curve consists of four different curves: • Capacity as a function of speed.3 Performance Curve Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps can be sized from published performance curves or a pump selection program. For convenience viscosity units are stated as cSt. 70°C (158oF). • Power as a function of speed. • Power as a function of viscosity greater than 1 cSt. The curves are based on water at 20°C (68oF) but are shown with calculated viscosity correction data. related to pressure and viscosity.6. The SX pump range has only 150°C (302oF) rotor temperature rating.Pump Sizing 7.e. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 119 . different performance curves are used for the various temperature ratings for rotors i.2.

However. Curves can be obtained from the pump supplier.6 m³/h (15. However other factors such as fluid behaviour.95 30°C. Step 1 – Find Appropriate Curve Locate a curve for the required pump model that covers the performance data. the sizing process would be as follows: From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14.Pump Sizing Example: Product/Fluid Data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance Data: Capacity Total Pressure - Vegetable Oil. as shown in Fig.6. For this particular example. 100 cSt. should be considered. a pump with a size 25 mm (1 in) inlet connection would be required.8 US gall/min). Although the smallest pump models SRU1/005 and SRU1/008 have 25 mm (1 in) pump inlet connections. The optimum is to size the smallest pump possible as hydraulic conditions dictate. 0. solids etc. 8 bar (116 psig).3a. 120 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .9). we therefore need to select a performance curve for the pump model SRU2/013/LS with 70°C (158oF) rotor clearances. being the next appropriate pump size. 7. Due to the large number of curves available it is not practical to include all performance curves in this handbook. 3. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve.

6.3a SRU2/013/LS curves Typical Performance Curve SRU2/013/LS or HS US GPM m 3/h Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 121 Pump Sizing 25 mm (1 in) Port 350 172 110 78 58 43 32 23 16 9 X 100 .Fig. 7.

Viscosity has a marked effect on pump energy losses. • At viscosity 100 cSt the Pv factor is 1. Step 6 . The losses being due to the energy required in effecting viscous shear in the pump clearances. From example . Step 5 .Find Speed Move vertically downward to determine necessary pump speed.3 10000 = 1.8 US gall/min). From example – 3.3 kW. Step 3 .0 x 600 + 1. From example .0 Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Hydraulic power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 1.100 cSt and 8 bar (115 psig).maximum viscosity rating 4300 cSt.Find Flow Rate Move diagonally downward and find intersection with required flow rate.Find Power The power required by a pump is the summation of the hydraulic power and various losses that occur in the pump and pumping system.600 rev/min.36 kW 122 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Step 4 . From example . Viscous power is the power loss due to viscous fluid friction within the pump (Pv factor).Pump Sizing Step 2 .Viscosity/Port Size Check Move vertically downward and check that maximum viscosity rating has not been exceeded against relevant inlet size.6 m³/h (15. Typically curves are used in conjuction with equation as follows: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Hydraulic power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor From example: • At speed 600 rev/min the hydraulic power at 1 cSt is 1.Find Viscosity and Pressure Begin with viscosity and find the intersection point with duty pressure.

at speed 600 rev/min the NPSHr is 4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 123 .5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power.3b SRU2 typical NPSHr curve based on water From example .4 15 4.Find NPSHr NPSHr can be found by looking at the appropriate NPSH pump curve.4 mwc (14. 50 100000 cSt 60000 cSt 45 30000 cSt 20000 cSt 40 10000 cSt 35 5000 cSt 30 25 2500 cSt 20 14. which in this instance would be 1. which is a function of speed and expressed in metres water column (mwc) or feet (ft). 7.4 ft). this is the power needed at the pump shaft and the appropriate motor power must be selected.4 1000 cSt 10 1 cSt 5 0 Feet Water Metres Water Speed rev/min Fig. Step 7 .6.Pump Sizing It should be noted.

6.Pump Sizing 7. Table 7.1. For sizing purposes a percentage increase on the ‘dead head speed’ (see table below) should be applied to the performance curve for stainless steel tri-lobe rotors and interpolated accordingly.4 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel) These rotors. described in 8.2. When pumping such products optimum performance is obtained by using large slow running pumps. are mainly used on high viscosity products containing solids where the pumps’ volumetric efficiency is high.4a SRU Pump Model %age Increase Required on Tri-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 25 25 10 10 10 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 124 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6. Applications on water like viscosity fluids would result in decreased efficiency over stainless steel tri-lobe rotors.

3. have very small clearances resulting in increased volumetric efficiency over stainless steel rotors when used on fluids with viscosities up to 50 cP. 7.Pump Sizing Example of How to Interpolate Performance Curve ‘X’ rev/min represents the ‘dead head speed’ for tri-lobe rotors to which a percentage increase is applied from the table shown.4a Performance curve interpolation Capacity 0 bar 7 bar 7 bar Required capacity Speed rev/min ‘X’ rev/min Dead head speed ‘X’ rev/min + % inc.e. The use of performance curves is as described in 7.2.2. Due to pumphead clearances described in 8. Pump speed for bi-lobe rotors is found accordingly. 130°C (266°F) and 200°C (392°F). described in 8.1.e.6. Fig.5 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy) These rotors.6 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors These rotors. Speed required for tri-lobe rotors Speed required for bi-lobe rotors 7. Due to the minimal pumphead clearances described in 8.6.6.6.2. The use of performance curves is as described in 7.2. described in 8. 70°C (158°F). Pump sizing is achieved by referring to published performance curves or a pump selection program.1. 7. there is only one temperature rating of rotors i. Pump sizing is achieved by referring to published performance curves or a pump selection program. different performance curves are used for the various temperature ratings of rotors i. 95%.2. have minimal clearance and will therefore significantly improve the pumps volumetric efficiency to approx. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 125 .6. 70°C (158°F).2.3.

8 19.0 15.9 2.8 38.9 6.0 32.9 38.6.Pump Sizing 7. For sizing purposes a percentage increase on the ‘dead head speed’ (see tables below) should be applied to the performance curve for stainless steel tri-lobe rotors and interpolated accordingly.3 60.0 18.5 2.0 3.6 3.7 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish Pump performance will be affected by electropolish surface finish to the pump head internals.5 4.8 21.3 28.1 10.9 2.5 12.3 7.6 5.6 40.5 4.0 15.3 6.7 6.7a Pump Model SRU range %age Increase Required on Stainless Steel Tri-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed Electropolishing Mechanical and only Electropolishing 17.7 28.8 11.0 31.0 47.3 8.0 9.6.2 5.8 2.3 17.8 8.0 14.7b Pump Model SX range %age Increase Required on Multi-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed Electropolishing Mechanical and only Electropolishing 12.5 24.7 60.0 1.0 55.0 45.8 1/005 1/007 2/013 2/018 3/027 3/035 4/046 4/063 5/082 5/116 6/140 6/190 7/250 7/380 126 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 2.0 4.2 1.6 25.4 1/005 1/008 2/013 2/018 3/027 3/038 4/055 4/079 5/116 5/168 6/260 6/353 Table 7. Table 7.6.0 11.4 34.5 6.5 22.7 5.

6.63 0.24 0.24 0.31 0.06 1.59 0.72 0. providing the optimum conditions are met.34 0. Table 7.44 0.63 0.88 0.51 0.Pump Sizing 7.44 0.72 0.8a SRU Model Maximum Spherical Solids Size Bi-lobe Rotors Tri-lobe Rotors mm in mm in 8 8 8 13 13 16 16 22 22 27 27 37 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 0.6.51 0. yet possess resilience and shear strength Solids form - Solids physical properties i.94 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 127 .34 0.24 0.31 0.31 0. hardness.59 0.e. For non-optimum conditions these should be referred to Alfa Laval. resilience. shear strength Solids surface finish Fluid/solids proportion - Smooth Proportion of solids to fluid is small Equal Maintained such that solids in suspension are not damaged Bi-lobe Large as possible Relationship of fluid/solid SG Flow velocity (pump speed) - Rotor form Port size - Tables below show the maximum spherical solids size that can be satisfactorily handled without product degradation.88 1.8 Guidelines for Solids Handling The following criteria should be considered when deciding the pumps ability to handle large solids in suspension. Optimum Conditions Spherical Soft.06 1.47 6 6 6 9 9 11 11 15 15 18 18 24 0.

10 1. pump size/model and rotor form.9 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media Special attention needs to be made to pumping shear sensitive media such as yeast and yoghurt where the cell structure needs to remain intact.28 0.75 0.51 0. 128 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .39 0.10 7. Excess pump speed can irreversibly damage the cell structure.98 0.51 0.63 0.98 1. Therefore pump speeds need to be kept relatively low.8b SX Model Maximum Spherical Solids Size Multi-lobe Rotors in mm 7 7 10 10 13 13 16 16 19 19 25 25 28 28 SX1/005 SX1/007 SX2/013 SX2/018 SX3/027 SX3/035 SX4/046 SX4/063 SX5/082 SX5/116 SX6/140 SX6/190 SX7/250 SX7/380 0. 39 0.6. in the range of 100 to 400 rev/min dependent upon the fluid being pumped.28 0.Pump Sizing Table 7.75 0.6.63 0. For these types of applications refer to Alfa Laval.

7 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric units) The following examples show two different rotary lobe pumps to be sized for a typical sugar process. via 3 m of 51 mm dia. 80 cP. plus 1 bend 90 deg. Pressure in vessel = 1 bar. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in vessel = 8 m.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. 95°C. Performance data and Site Services data. Pump 1 – Thin Sugar Syrup pump Fig. 1. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v.example 1 bar 1m Feed tank 8m 1m 1m 1m 2m 6m 3m All the data have been given by the customer. Static head in tank = 2 m. 15°C. Pump 1 is a low viscosity example handling sugar syrup. plus 2 bends 90 deg. 7. via 10 m of 51 mm dia. tube. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 129 . tube.7a Pump 1 .29. Pump 2 is a high viscosity example handling massecuite. As described in 7. Suction - 9 m³/h.Pump Sizing 7. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature CIP temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Sugar syrup. 50 Hz. information is required such as Product/Fluid data. and 1 non-return valve.

Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. density (kg/m³). pt = Pressure in vessel. Therefore Fig. 7.4.22 x 1290 80 = 1003 As Re is less than 2300. The theory.29 (see 2. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.2. pt = 1 bar = 10 m. velocity V = Q x 353. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.Pump Sizing Before sizing a pump.7b ht = 8 m x (SG = 1.5). hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p (calculated below).3 m. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2.29) = 10.2. fluid velocity (m/s).2 and 2. Therefore Re = D x V x ρ µ = 51 x 1.6 51² = 1.22 m/s density ρ = 1290 derived from SG value 1.6 where D² = 9 x 353.1. 130 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . D = tube diameter (mm). flow will be laminar. absolute viscosity (cP). To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x ρ µ where D V ρ µ = = = = tube diameter (mm). Q = capacity (m³/h).

ps = 0 (open tank). factor) = 1 x 1 x 1.4 m Ht = ht +hft +pt = 10.7.0 (corr.14 bar = 1. the viscosity correction factor is 1.4 + 10 m = 21. (bar) (bar) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1.29 x 0.2.7 m (2. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 131 Therefore . 1 butterfly valve =3+6+1 = 1 x 1 x 1. hfs = Calculated below. hs = 2 m x (SG = 1. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank).29) = 2.064 x 12 x 1. specific gravity. factor) Total equivalent length = 10 m =1m =1m = 12 m = 64 Re = 64 1003 = 0.0 (corr. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs + ps Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.064 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. tube length (m).6 m.22² 51 = 0. Since flow is laminar. fluid velocity (m/s).Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.0 (see 2.3 + 1. Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.17 bar). tube diameter (mm).2). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.1.

22² 51 = 0.29 x 0. factor) Total equivalent length =3m =2m = 12 m = 17 m = 64 Re = 64 1003 = 0.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.1 m ≈ 21 m (2.1 bar) 132 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 1 non-return valve =1+1+1 = 2 x 1 x 1 (corr.06 bar).1. fluid velocity (m/s). the viscosity correction factor is 1.6 = 21. specific gravity. (bar) (bar) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1. tube diameter (mm).6 – 2 + 0 m = 0.064 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor.2 bar = 2 m Hs = hs – hfs + ps = 2.7 x 1. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 21.6 m (0.1 – 0. factor) = 1 x 12 x 1 (corr.7. tube length (m).0 (see 2. Since flow is laminar.064 x 1.2). Straight tube length 2 bend 90 deg.2.

10. We have therefore selected a performance curve for the pump model SRU3/027/LS with 130°C rotor clearances due to the CIP requirement.6 m.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. hs = Static suction head in Tank. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 10 + 2. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.e. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve.e. 606 rev/min. at temperature of 15o C this is taken as being negligible i. 40 mm.6. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 133 . 2.6 m > 3.9). SRU2/013 (with enlarged port) and SRU2/018 (with sanitary port) have 40 mm pump inlet connections.6 m. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. Although the smallest pump models SR1/008 (with enlarged port).6 – 2 – 0 m = 10. From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. 0 bar a = 0 m. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. a pump with a size 40 mm inlet connection would be required. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. being the next appropriate pump size. calculated to be 2 m. Pump sized as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU3/027/LS. 3.3.6 m.6 m. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 80 cP at speed 606 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures.

1 bar. From example • At speed 606 rev/min and total head 2. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 3 x 606 + 0.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power. • Hard tungsten carbide seal faces due to the abrasive nature of sugar syrup. the power at 1 cSt is 0.9 kW.Pump Sizing Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. • At viscosity 80 cP (62 cSt) the Pv factor is 3.9 10000 = 1. • EPDM elastomers for compatibility of both sugar syrup and CIP media. • Flushed version to prevent the sugar syrup from crystallising within the seal area. and the appropriate motor power must be selected.1 kW It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft. which in this instance would be 1. 134 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The recommended type of shaft seal based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single flushed mechanical seal with tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.

plus 1 bend 90 deg. 7.2.example 20 m 2m 1m 40 m All the data have been given by the customer.4.35 65°C. The theory. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in tank = 20 m. tube. via 40 m of 76 mm dia. and 1 butterfly valve. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.6 mm dia. tube. 50 Hz. 1. via 1 m of 101. 25000 cP. Before sizing a pump. Suction - 10 m³/h.Pump Sizing Pump 2 – Massecuite pump Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 135 .7c Pump 2 . including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. Static head in tank = 2 m. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. plus 2 bends 45 deg.2. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Massecuite.2 and 2.

7. Therefore Re = D x V x ρ µ = 76 x 0.7d ht = 20 m x (SG = 1.35 (see 2. flow will be laminar. D = tube diameter (mm).35) = 27 m.5).6 76² = 0. Q = capacity (m³/h). hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. velocity V = Q x 353.5 As Re is less than 2300.61 m/s density ρ = 1350 derived from SG value 1. fluid velocity (m/s).6 where D² = 10 x 353. pt = Pressure in vessel. hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p (calculated below). Therefore Fig. pt = 0 bar (open tank) = 0 m.1. absolute viscosity (cP).61 x 1350 25000 = 2. density (kg/m³).Pump Sizing Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x ρ µ where D V ρ µ = = = = tube diameter (mm). 136 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

5 m = 41 m = 64 Re = 64 2.1. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1.4 bar). specific gravity.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.7 bar = 347 m Ht = ht +hft +pt = 27 + 347 + 0 m = 374 m (37.2). tube length (m). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 137 Therefore . fluid velocity (m/s).5 = 25.35) = 2. (bar) (bar) = 2 x 1 x 0. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.6 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. hs = 2 m x (SG = 1.7 m.61² 76 = 34.5 m = 0. Straight tube length 2 bend 45 deg.25 (corr. 1 butterfly valve = 40 m = 0. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. tube diameter (mm). the viscosity correction factor is 0.7. factor) = 1 x 2 x 0.6 x 41 x 0.25 (corr. ps = 0 (open tank). hfs = Calculated below.2.25 (see 2. Since flow is laminar.35 x 25.

Pump Sizing

To ascertain hfs the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x ρ µ where D V ρ µ = = = = tube diameter (mm). fluid velocity (m/s). density (kg/m³). absolute viscosity (cP). Q = capacity (m³/h). D = tube diameter (mm).

velocity V

= Q x 353.6 where D² = 9 x 353.6 101.6² = 0.34 m/s

density ρ Therefore Re

= 1350 derived from SG value 1.35 (see 2.1.5). = DxVxρ µ = 101.6 x 0.34 x 1350 25000 = 1.9

As Re is less than 2300, flow will be laminar. Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.7.1. Since flow is laminar, the viscosity correction factor is 0.25 (see 2.2.2).

138 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Sizing

Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg. 1 butterfly valve

= 1 x 2 x 0.25 (corr. factor) = 1 x 2 x 0.25 (corr. factor) Total equivalent length

=1m = 0.5 m = 0.5 m =2m = 64 Re = 64 1.9 = 33.68

Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD

The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows:

Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG =

(bar)

pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. tube length (m). tube diameter (mm). fluid velocity (m/s). specific gravity. (bar)

= 5 x 1.35 x 33.68 x 2 x 0.34² 101.6 = 0.52 bar = 5.2 m Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 2.7 – 5.2 + 0 m = – 2.5 m.

Total head H = Ht – Hs = 374 – (–2.5) = 376.5 m ≈ 377 m (37.7 bar) In this example the total head required is in excess of the 20 bar maximum working pressure of the pump. To reduce this head so as a pump can be suitably sized, consideration could be given to any or a combination of the following parameters: 1. 2. 3. 4. Reduce capacity. Increase tube diameter. Increase pumping temperature to reduce viscosity. Consider two or more pumps in series.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 139

Pump Sizing

Assuming the capacity is a definite requirement and the pumping temperature cannot be increased the customer should be advised to increase the discharge tube diameter i.e. from 76 mm to 101.6 mm. The total head calculations are reworked, and for this particular example the fluid velocity (V) and friction factor (fD) have already been established for 101.6 mm diameter tube. Also note, by referring to the equivalent tube length table 14.7.1 the values for bends 45 deg. and butterfly valves remain unchanged. Using the Miller equation to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. tube length (m). tube diameter (mm). fluid velocity (m/s). specific gravity. (bar) (bar)

= 5 x 1.35 x 33.68 x 41 x 0.34² 101.6 = 10.6 bar = 106 m

Now Ht = ht + hft +pt = 27 + 106 + 0 m = 133 m (13.3 bar). Now Total head H = Ht – Hs = 133 – (–2.5) = 135.5 m ≈ 136 m (13.6 bar)

NPSHa
NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. Where Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. Static suction head in Tank. Total pressure drop in suction line. Vapour pressure of fluid. 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. 2.7 m. calculated to be 5.2 m. at temperature of 65 oC this is taken as being negligible i.e. 0 bar a = 0 m.

Therefore

140 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Sizing

NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 10 + 2.7 – 5.2 – 0 m = 7.5 m. Due to the high viscosity it is not practical to use pump performance curves for sizing purposes. The actual pump sizing can be made using a pump selection program. An approximate guide to pump sizing can be made by calculation using volumetric efficiency. For this particular example a pump sized from the pump selection program using stainless steel tri-lobe rotors with 130°C rotor clearances would be as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU5/168/LD. 100 mm (enlarged port). 100 rev/min. 2.1 m.

Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.e. 7.5 m > 2.1 m. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 25000 cP at speed 100 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. From example • At speed 100 rev/min and total head 13.6 bar, the power at 1 cSt is 4.1 kW, • at viscosity 25000 cP (18519 cSt) the Pv factor is 110. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 110 x 100 + 4.1 10000 = 5.2 kW

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 141

Pump Sizing

It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft, and for a fixed speed drive the appropriate motor power must be selected, which in this instance would be 5.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a packed gland arrangement with polyamide gland packing on hard coated shaft sleeves with EPDM elastomers. Alternative shaft sealing could be a flushed packed gland or double flushed mechnical seal. Alternative Pump Sizing Guide Using Volumetric Efficiency Calculation. Referring to the initial suction line sizing curve shown in 14.9, for the flow rate required of 10 m3/h with viscosity 25000 cP (18519 cSt), a pump having a 100 mm dia. inlet port would be selected. For this example a Model SRU5/168 pump will be selected having 100 mm dia. enlarged ports. If a sanitary port is a definite requirement the Model SRU6/260 pump would be selected. To calculate pump speed for the SRU5/168 pump selected the following formula is used as a general guide with volumetric efficiency of 99% (see 7.2.4). Pump speed (rev/min) n = Q x 100 q x ηv x 60 where: Q = capacity (m3/h) q = pump displacement (m3/100 rev) ηv = vol. efficiency (99% = 0.99) = 10 x 100 0.168 x 0.99 x 60 = 100 rev/min

142 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

plus 2 bends 90 deg. tube. via 9 ft of 2 in dia. and 1 butterfly valve. Suction - 40 US gall/min. 7. Static head in tank = 6 ft. 1. 203°F. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 143 . via 33 ft of 2 in dia.example 15 psi Feed tank 3 ft 26 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 6 ft 10 ft 20 ft All the data have been given by the customer. As described in 7.8a Pump 1 . and 1 non-return valve.29.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v. information is required such as Product/Fluid data. plus 1 bend 90 deg. 60 Hz. 59°F. Pump 1 is a low viscosity example handling sugar syrup. Pump 2 is a high viscosity example handling massecuite.Pump Sizing 7.8 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US units) The following examples show two different rotary lobe pumps to be sized for a typical sugar process. tube. Pump 1 – Thin Sugar Syrup pump Fig. Performance data and Site Services data. Static head in vessel = 26 ft. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature CIP temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Sugar syrup. Pressure in vessel = 15 psi. 62 cSt.

Q = capacity (US gall/min). pt = Pressure in vessel. The theory. flow will be laminar. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p (calculated below). = 3162 x 40 2 x 62 = 1020 As Re is less than 2300. 7.5 ft. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel.29) = 33.8b ht = 26 ft x (SG = 1. 144 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Therefore Fig.4.2.Pump Sizing Before sizing a pump. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxν where D = tube diameter (in). ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt).2. pt = 15 psi = 35 ft.2 and 2.

5 ft ≈ 74 ft (32 psi). Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg. factor) Total equivalent length = 33 ft = 3 ft = 3 ft = 39 ft = 64 Re = 64 1020 = 0.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. the viscosity correction factor is 1.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. tube diameter (in).1² 2 = 2.2. (psi) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0.2 psi = 5 ft (psi) Ht = ht +hft +pt = 33. specific gravity. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 145 .409 22 = 4.063 x 39 x 4.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min) D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0.5 + 5 + 35 ft = 73. tube length (ft).0 (see 2.0 (corr.29 x 0. 1 butterfly valve = 10 + 20 + 3 = 1 x 3 x 1. factor) = 1 x 3 x 1.2.1 ft/s Pf = 0. Since flow is laminar. fluid velocity (ft/s).0823 x 1.0 (corr.2).063 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.7.

tube diameter (in).1 ft/s 146 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .0 (see 2.7 ft.409 22 = 4.2.2).063 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.7. specific gravity. Since flow is laminar. the viscosity correction factor is 1.2. tube length (ft). hs = 6 ft x (SG = 1.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min) D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0. fluid velocity (ft/s). hfs = Calculated below.29) = 7.Pump Sizing Where hs = Static suction head in Tank. ps = 0 (open tank). Straight tube length = 3 + 3 + 3 2 bend 90 deg. factor) 1 non-return valve = 1 x 39 x 1 (corr. Therefore Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. = 2 x 3 x 1 (corr. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). (psi) Velocity V = Q x 0. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 9 ft = 6 ft = 39 ft = 54 ft = 64 Re = 64 1020 = 0.

hs = Static suction head in Tank.9 ft. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 33. From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14.7 ft (0. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Total head H = Ht – Hs =74 – 0.3 psi).29 x 0.7 ft.9).9 ft.3. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve.e.7 – 7 – 0 ft = 34.7 psi (open tank) = 33.6. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. Although the smallest pump models SR1/008 (with enlarged port). NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp.e. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7.5 in inlet connection would be required.6 ft > 11.9 ft.1² 2 = 3 psi = 7 ft (psi) Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 7.063 x 54 x 4. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.9 + 7.0823 x 1.3 ft ≈ 73 ft (32 psi).Pump Sizing Pf = 0. SRU2/013 (with enlarged port) and SRU2/018 (with sanitary port) have 1.7 – 7 + 0 ft = 0.5 in pump inlet connections. 1.7 = 73. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 147 . 613 rev/min. calculated to be 7 ft. We have therefore selected a performance curve for the pump model SRU3/027/LS with 266°F rotor clearances due to the CIP requirement. 0 psia = 0 ft. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. at temperature of 59o F this is taken as being negligible i.5 in. being the next appropriate pump size. 11. Pump sized as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU3/027/LS. 34. a pump with a size 1.6 ft. 7.

148 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • At viscosity 62 cSt the Pv factor is 3. From example • At speed 613 rev/min and total head 32 psi. • Hard tungsten carbide seal faces due to the abrasive nature of sugar syrup. The recommended type of shaft seal based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single flushed mechanical seal with tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. which in this instance would be 2 hp being the nearest motor output power above the required power. and the appropriate motor power must be selected. Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor.2 10000 = 1. • Flushed version to prevent the sugar syrup from crystallising within the seal area.4 hp It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft.2 hp. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 3 x 613 + 1. the power at 1 cSt is 1.Pump Sizing Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 62 cSt at speed 613 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. • EPDM elastomers for compatibility of both sugar syrup and CIP media.

2. plus 1 bend 90 deg.2 and 2. plus 2 bends 45 deg. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Massecuite. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. 60 Hz. via 3 ft of 4 in dia. Static head in tank = 6 ft. tube.35 149°F.Pump Sizing Pump 2 – Massecuite pump Fig. 7. Before sizing a pump.4. 1. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v. The theory. Suction - 44 US gall/min. via 130 ft of 3 in dia.example 65 ft 6 ft 3 ft 130 ft All the data have been given by the customer. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in tank = 65 ft. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 149 . tube.8c Pump 2 .2. 18519 cSt. and 1 butterfly valve.

Q = capacity (US gall/min). To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxν where D = tube diameter (in). pt = 0 psi (open tank) = 0 ft. 150 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . ν = kinematic visosity (cSt).8d ht = 65 ft x (SG = 1. Therefore Fig. hft = Pressure drop in tube ∆ptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves ∆p (calculated below). = 3162 x 44 3 x 18519 = 2. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. 7. flow will be laminar.35) = 88 ft.5 As Re is less than 2300.Pump Sizing Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. pt = Pressure in vessel.

6 x 133 x 2² 3 = 504 psi = 1163 ft (psi) Ht = ht +hft +pt = 88 + 1163 + 0 ft = 1251 ft (542 psi).2.75 ft = 133 ft = 64 Re = 64 2.7.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min) D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.2. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 151 . Straight tube length 2 bend 45 deg. 1 butterfly valve = 130 ft = 1. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0.0823 x 1.25 (see 2. (psi) = 2 x 3 x 0. factor) = 1 x 7 x 0. Since flow is laminar. the viscosity correction factor is 0. tube length (ft). fluid velocity (ft/s).6 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.2).25 (corr.25 (corr. tube diameter (in).5 = 25. specific gravity.5 ft = 1.409 32 = 2 ft/s Pf = 0.35 x 25.

1 butterfly valve = 3 ft = 1.25 (see 2.25 (corr.75 ft = 6.75 ft = 1. flow will be laminar.35) = 8 ft. factor) = 1 x 7 x 0.9 = 33.Pump Sizing Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.2.2.68 = 1 x 7 x 0. = 3162 x 44 4 x 18519 = 1. Therefore To ascertain hfs the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxν where D = tube diameter (in). hs = 6 ft x (SG = 1. Q = capacity (US gall/min). ν = kinematic visosity (cSt).5 ft = 64 Re = 64 1. Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. the viscosity correction factor is 0. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD 152 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . ps = 0 (open tank).2). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. hfs = Calculated below.25 (corr. Since flow is laminar.7. Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.9 As Re is less than 2300.

fluid velocity (ft/s).1 ft/s Pf = 0. 3. specific gravity.Pump Sizing The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0. Assuming the capacity is a definite requirement and the pumping temperature cannot be increased the customer should be advised to increase the discharge tube diameter i.409 42 = 1. Increase tube diameter.68 x 6.0823 x 1. Increase pumping temperature to reduce viscosity.5 x 1. To reduce this head so as a pump can be suitably sized.e. Consider two or more pumps in series. consideration could be given to any or a combination of the following parameters: 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 153 . Total head H = Ht – Hs = 1251 – (–9) = 1260 ft (546 psi) In this example the total head required is in excess of the 290 psi maximum working pressure of the pump. from 3 in to 4 in.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. tube length (ft). Reduce capacity.1² 4 = 7. (psi) Velocity V = Q x 0.35 x 33. tube diameter (in). 2.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min) D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 44 x 0.4 psi = 17 ft (psi) Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 8 – 17 + 0 ft = –9 ft. 4.

Pump Sizing

The total head calculations are reworked, and for this particular example the fluid velocity (V) and friction factor (fD) have already been established for 4 in diameter tube. Also note, by referring to the equivalent tube length table 14.7.2 the values for bends 45 deg. and butterfly valves remain unchanged. Using the Miller equation to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. tube length (ft). tube diameter (in). fluid velocity (ft/s). specific gravity. (psi) (psi)

= 0.0823 x 1.35 x 33.68 x 133 x 1.1² 4 = 150 psi = 346 ft

Now Ht = ht + hft +pt = 88 + 346 + 0 ft = 434 ft (188 psi). Now Total head H = Ht – Hs = 434 – (–9) = 443 ft (192 psi).

NPSHa
NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp . Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. hs = Static suction head in Tank. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.7 psi (open tank) = 33.9 ft. 8 ft. calculated to be 17 ft. at temperature of 149o F this is taken as being negligible i.e. 0 psia = 0 ft.

NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 33.9 + 8 – 17 – 0 m = 24.9 ft.

154 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Sizing

Due to the high viscosity it is not practical to use pump performance curves for sizing purposes. The actual pump sizing can be made using a pump selection program. An approximate guide to pump sizing can be made by calculation using volumetric efficiency. For this particular example a pump sized from the pump selection program using stainless steel tri-lobe rotors with 266° F rotor clearances would be as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU5/168/LD. 4 in (enlarged port). 100 rev/min. 6.9 ft.

Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.e. 24.9 ft > 6.9 ft. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 18519 cSt at speed 100 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. Power calculation: Total Required Power (hp) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (hp) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. From example • At speed 100 rev/min and total head 192 psi, the power at 1 cSt is 5.5 hp, • At viscosity 18519 cSt the Pv factor is 110. Total Required Power (hp) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (hp) 10000 = 110 x 100 + 5.5 10000 = 6.6 hp It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft, and for a fixed speed drive the appropriate motor power must be selected, which in this instance would be 7.5 hp being the nearest motor output power above the required power.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 155

Pump Sizing

The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a packed gland arrangement with polyamide gland packing on hard coated shaft sleeves with EPDM elastomers. Alternative shaft sealing could be a flushed packed gland or double flushed mechnical seal. Alternative Pump Sizing Guide Using Volumetric Efficiency Calculation. Referring to the initial suction line sizing curve shown in 14.9, for the flow rate required of 44 US gall/min with viscosity 18519 cSt, a pump having a 4 in dia. inlet port would be selected. For this example a Model SRU5/168 pump will be selected having 4 in dia. enlarged ports. If a sanitary port is a definite requierement the Model SRU6/260 would be selected. To calculate pump speed for the SRU5/168 pump selected the following formula is used as a general guide with volumetric efficiency of 99% (see 7.2.4). Pump speed (rev/min) n = Q x 100 q x ηv where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) q = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) ηv = vol. efficiency (99% = 0.99) = 44 x 100 44.39 x 0.99 = 100 rev/min

156 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Specification Options

8. Pump Specification Options
This section gives detailed descriptions of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges, such as port connections, heating/cooling jackets, pressure relief valves and other ancillaries.

8.1 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps
8.1.1 Port Connections
Pumps are supplied with screwed male connections of all major standards, i.e.: SMS, DIN, ISO, BS, DS, GC-clamp, bevel seat, DC and H-line.
Pump Range Pump Model Inlet mm LKH LKH-5 LKH-10 LKH-15 LKH-20 LKH-25 LKH-35 LKH-40 LKH-45 LKH-50 LKH-60 LKH-70 LKH-80 LKH-112 LKH-113 LKH-114 LKH-122 LKH-123 LKH-124 LKHP-10 LKHP-15 LKHP-20 LKHP-25 LKHP-35 LKHP-40 LKHP-45 LKHP-50 LKHP-60 50 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 100 150 50 50 50 80 80 80 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 Nominal Connection Size Inlet Outlet mm in 40 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 80 100 40 40 40 65 65 65 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100

Outlet in 1.5 2 3 2 2.5 2 2.5 3 3 4 3 4 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2 3 2 2.5 2 2.5 3 3 4

2 2.5 4 2.5 3 2.5 3 4 4 4 4 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 2.5 4 2.5 3 2.5 3 4 4 4

LKH-Multistage

LKHP

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 157

Pump Specification Options

Pump Range

Pump Model Inlet mm

Nominal Connection Size Outlet Inlet mm in 50 50 65 50 65 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 50 50 65 50 50 50 80 80 80

Outlet in 2 2 2.5 2 2.5 2 3 2 2.5 2 2.5 3 3 4 2 2 2.5 2 2
2 3 3 3

LKHSP

LKHSP-10 LKHSP-20 LKHSP-25 LKHSP-35 LKHSP-40 LKHI-10 LKHI-15 LKHI-20 LKHI-25 LKHI-35 LKHI-40 LKHI-45 LKHI-50 LKHI-60 LKH-10 LKH-20 LKH-25 LKH-35 LKH-40 MR-166S MR-185S MR-200S MR-300

65 65 80 65 80 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 65 65 80 65 80 50 80 80 80

2.5 2.5 3 2.5 3 2.5 4 2.5 3 2.5 3 4 4 4 2.5 2.5 3 2.5 3
2 3 3 3

LKHI

LKH-UltraPure

MR

Table 8.1.1a

8.1.2 Heating/Cooling Jackets
In some applications heating of the fluid being pumped may be required to reduce the fluid viscosity so that satisfactory operation is achieved. Alternatively it may be necessary to cool the fluid being pumped where heat is generated by means of the fluid repeatedly being passed through the pump. On such occasions some pump models can be fitted with heating/cooling jackets.

Pump casing

Jacket

Fig. 8.1.2a Heating/Cooling jacket

158 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

8. The operating time of the pump can be increased by increasing the standard gap width between the back of the impeller and the back plate.1. This can be achieved by either: . The gap is achieved by machining the back of the impeller. from 0. 5%.5 mm.Turning the pump outlet downwards . 8. 8.3 Pump Casing with Drain In some applications it is a requirement that no fluid should be left in the pump casing. when using a LKH centrifugal pump as a booster pump in a cream pasteurisation unit.1.5 mm to 2.4 Increased Impeller Gap Impeller In some applications.Pump Specification Options 8.1. there is a risk that a hard layer of proteins will slowly build up between the backside of the impeller and the back plate. Impeller Inlet Fig.1. This has the effect of improving NPSH requirements for difficult applications and/or assisting the flow of a viscous fluid into the pump casing. 8. Fig.5 Pump Inlet Inducer Inducer In some applications it may be necessary to improve the suction conditions by means of fitting the pump inlet with an inducer. e.4a Increased gap 8.1.1. For this type of application it is recommended to select a motor size with an output power one step higher than the standard selection so as to avoid the motor thermal relay being constantly activated.1. This will activate the thermal relay of the motor after a few hours of operation so that the pump stops.3b Pump casing with drain Back plate Gap: 2 mm 8. This increased gap reduces the head by approx.Fitting a drain connection to the bottom of the pump casing or Pump casing Fig.g.5a Inducer in pump inlet Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 159 .3a Turned pump casing Drain Fig.

high performance pumping action.2. 8.1 Rotor Form Table 8.1a Rotor Form Material Pump Range SRU SX ! ! ! ! ! Tri-lobe Tri-lobe Bi-lobe Bi-lobe Multi-lobe Stainless steel Rubber covered Stainless steel Non galling alloy Stainless steel Fig.2. • up to 130°C (266oF).2. 8.1a Bi-lobe Fig.Pump Specification Options 8.1b Tri-lobe Fig. 8.1c Multi-lobe Tri-lobe Rotors (Stainless steel) Most duties can be accomplished by pumps fitted with stainless steel tri-lobe rotors.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps 8. These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). 160 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.2. and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig). The tri-lobe rotor with its mathematically correct profile and precision manufacture ensure interchangeability as well as smooth. • up to 200°C (392oF).

8. Gentle pumping action Fig. • up to 200°C (392oF). These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). leading to increased efficiencies. • up to 200°C (392oF). reduce shear and provide a smooth pumping action.Pump Specification Options Large fluid chamber Bilobe rotors Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless steel) These are generally used for handling delicate suspended solids where minimum product damage is required. This results in improved pump performance and suction lift capability over stainless steel tri-lobe rotors. Typical applications are jam containing fruit pieces. and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig). and pressures up to 7 bar (100 psig). and due to the resilience of the rubber coating these rotors have a slight interference fit with the pump rotorcase when initially fitted.2) can be used. Bi-lobe Rotors (Non galling alloy) Manufactured from non-galling alloy these rotors have an advantage over stainless steel. sausage meat filling.1d Bi-lobe rotors for solids handling Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 161 . and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig). Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors This rotor has a stainless steel insert covered in NBR rubber. Rotors are suitable for continuous operation up to 70°C (158oF) and intermittent operation up to 100°C (212oF). Multi-lobe Rotors This rotor is manufactured from stainless steel and as the name suggests has many lobes. soups and sauces containing solid matter.2. • up to 130°C (266oF). For the SX pump range these rotors have 4 lobes and are designed to maximise efficiency.2. These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). Rotors are suitable for temperatures up to 150°C (302oF) and pressures up to 15 bar (215 psig). as smaller clearances (see 8. petfood. • up to 130°C (266oF).

• Back clearance (between back of rotor and back face of rotorcase). As product wetted parts of the SRU and SX pump ranges are predominantly manufactured from stainless steel. rotorcase and rotorcase cover. • Mesh clearance (between rotors). The key clearances are as follows: • Radial clearance (between rotor tip and rotorcase).2b). 8. This requires having the shaft support bearings to be mounted outside of the pumphead. For the SRU and SX pump ranges there is only one pressure rating. clearances are built into the pumphead between surfaces that may contact.2a Clearances 8.2. 162 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . any contact between rotating and stationary parts would cause ‘galling’ and possible pump seizure. The effect of pressure on the rotors will cause shaft deflection. which is the maximum differential pressure of the particular pump model. caused by the rotors fitted to the shafts (see Fig. Fig. To allow for this pressure effect. Radial Back Mesh Front Pressure effect The design concept of the rotary lobe pump is to have no contacting parts in the pumphead. which are the spaces between rotating components and between rotating and stationary components. • Front clearance (between front of rotor and rotorcase cover). 8. rotor to rotorcase and rotor to rotorcase cover contact.2. which results in an overhung load. The size of these clearances is related to the pressure and temperature of pump operation and rotor material.Pump Specification Options Clearances are necessary to avoid rotor to rotor. The pressure effect is less significant on pumps fitted with rubber covered or non-galling alloy rotors.2.2 Clearances Within the pump head are clearances. which could result in contact between rotors.

2c Increased clearance Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 163 . 8. This results in the shaft not being subjected to the full temperature variation and therefore only one temperature rating of 150°C (302°F) is necessary.2.2. On the SX pump range the design of the mechanical seal eliminates contact between the fluid being pumped and the shaft. Any CIP operation required should also be taken into consideration (see section 10 for detailed explanation of CIP). SRU pumps are designed for various temperature ratings for rotors i. Changes in temperature will cause expansion upon heating or contraction upon cooling. 8. 130°C (266°F) or 200°C (392°F).2b Pressure effect Force due to pressure Support bearings Shaft Rotor Overhang length Outlet Inlet Rotorcase Rotor Shaft Standard clearance Standard rotor width Temperature effect Temperature change can be caused by the fluid being pumped. thereby reducing the front clearance. The most significant result is movement between shaft and gearcase/rotorcase causing the rotors to move forward/backward in the rotorcase. the SRU pump range has increased clearances as shown below.e. To compensate for this. pump mechanism. 70°C (158°F). to the rotorcase and gearcase components.Pump Specification Options Fig. drive unit and/or the environment. Thermal expansion Increased clearance Decreased rotor width The clearance is exaggerated to show the temperature effect Fig.

ASA/ANSI150.3a Sanitary port design Fig. The option of the enlarged port on the SRU pump range can be chosen for high viscosity applications.3 Port Connections Pumps are supplied with screwed male connections to all major standards as follows: Table 8.2. Flanges for vertically ported pumps are not fitted directly to the discharge port.2. Fig.3b Enlarged port design The SRU pump range when having enlarged ports can also be supplied with flanged connections of all major standards i. 164 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . conforming to International Sanitary Standards BS4825 / ISO2037. 8.Pump Specification Options 8. ASA/ANSI300. This provides effective CIP cleaning and maximises inlet and outlet port efficiency and NPSHr characteristics. ASA/ANSI125. BS10 table F. BS10 table E.2.e. In this instance an elbow bend is included to which the flange is fitted. 8.2. BS4504/DIN2533 and JIS10K.3a Standard Screwed Connection Type 3A/Asme BSP BSPT DIN11851/405 ISS/IDF NPT RDG RJT SMS Tri-Clamp (BS4825) Pump Range SRU SX ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! All models in the SRU and SX pump ranges are supplied with full bore through porting.

As can be seen from the table below there is a significant percentage area increase when using a rectangular inlet compared to a sanitary port connection. This increases the pumps ability to handle highly viscous products.5 3 3 4 4 6 SRU SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 SX1/005 SX1/007 SX2/013 SX2/018 SX3/027 SX3/035 SX4/046 SX4/063 SX5/082 SX5/115 SX6/140 SX6/190 SX7/250 SX7/380 25 25 25 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 100 100 25 40 40 50 50 65 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 150 1 1 1 1. these are only available as DIN11851/405.3b 8.5 3 3 4 4 6 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 150 SX For size 150 mm (6 in) screwed male connections. Fig.5 2 2 2. Usually the pump will be in vertical port orientation to allow the product to flow into the pumping chamber under gravity from a hopper mounted directly above or mounted with an adaptor to facilitate connection to large diameter pipework. 8.5 2 2 2. SRJT or Tri-Clamp (BS4825).5 2.5 2 2.5 2.2.2.Pump Specification Options Pump Range Pump Model Sanitary mm Nominal Connection Size Enlarged in mm in 1. SRU rotary lobe pumps can be supplied with a rectangular inlet.5 1. Table 8.4 Rectangular Inlets Hopper Rectangular inlet Outlet For handling extremely viscous products and/or large solids that would naturally bridge a smaller port.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.4a Rectangular inlets Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 165 .5 3 4 4 1 1.5 1.2.

Jacket Fig. The maximum pressure and temperature of heating/cooling fluid is 3.2. 8.Pump Specification Options Table 8. These are primarily used for warming the pumphead so as to prevent the fluid pumped being cooled and become viscous or allowed to solidify/crystallise. Typical applications include: • Adhesive • Chocolate • Gelatine • Jam • Resin Jackets are available on both the SRU and SX pump ranges.2. Heating/cooling jackets and saddles should be in operation approximately 15 minutes prior to pump start up and remain in operation 15 minutes after pump shut down. hot/cold fluid Saddle 8. These can also be used for cooling purposes.5 bar (50 psig) and 150°C (302oF) respectively.4a Pump Model Sanitary port area (mm2) Rectangular inlet area (mm2) % area increase above sanitary port diameter 171 326 314 206 221 189 151 151 176 195 186 244 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 387 387 387 957 957 1780 1780 2856 2856 4185 7482 7482 660 1260 1216 1976 2112 3360 2688 4320 5032 8160 13888 18240 Connections for steam. but saddles are only available on the SRU pump range.5a Heating/Cooling jackets and saddles 166 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.5 Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles Rotary Lobe pumps can be fitted with jackets to the rotorcase cover and saddles to the rotorcase.

8. The assembly replaces the standard rotorcase cover and is intended to protect the pump from over pressurisation. Valve open Rotors Rotor nuts Large slip path across rotorcase cover Pressure relief valve Fig. either partial or total.6 Pump Overload Protection Due to the positive action of the rotary lobe pump any restriction on the outlet side of the pump.2.2. or use of proprietary electronic devices. drive unit and also limit pressure build up within associated process equipment. The valve will provide full pump protection for fluids having viscosities below 500 cP. Other alternatives are to fit the pump with an integral relief valve as described below.2. above this figure Alfa Laval should be consulted with regard to specific flow rates in relation to viscosity and differential pressures. It is therefore essential that some form of overload protection be installed to protect pump. will result in excessive pressure developing in the pumphead. This protection will normally take the form of an external spring-loaded pressure relief valve fitted to the outlet side of the pump which will open under high pressure and allow fluid to return to the inlet side of the pump via a by-pass loop. It is suitable for bi-direction pump operation and can be retrofitted.6a Pressure relief valve Valve closed Small slip path across rotorcase cover Relief valve piston Relief valve piston moves back against the springs Fig. 8. The design is such that the valve mechanism is isolated from the pumped fluid.Pump Specification Options 8. Pressure Relief Valves These can be supplied as an integral part of the pump and do not require external pipework.6b Relief valve operation Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 167 .

viscosity and pump speed.6c Pump protection unit 168 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Fig. The PPU is not a power meter or data-logging device but has the ability to monitor true consumption through continuous power monitoring. and as viscosity increases. The valve will begin to relieve at a pressure less than the fully open pressure. Valve Type Pump Range .2. The valve is set to relieve at the required pressure by the correct choice of springs and can be adjusted on site to suit actual duty requirements. Air supply should be clean and dry at pressures of 4 bar (60 psig) minimum and 8 bar (115 psig) maximum. This ‘accumulation’ will vary depending upon the duty pressure. Pump Protection Unit (PPU) The Pump Protection Unit is a non-intrusive alternative to mechanical relief valves. The PPU is not a pre-set device and requires a simple set-up procedure to be carried out to suit specific duty conditions of the pump to be monitored. conventional electronic shear pin or mechanical over-load protection devices. It is designed to protect Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps and incorporates micro-controller technology.Pump Specification Options As it is a mechanical device the relief valve does not operate instantaneously due to mechanical response time. Automatic with Manual Override This valve has a lever to enable manual override for CIP or certain tank filling applications. The relief valve can be provided with the following options: Automatic with Pneumatic Override These valves may be pneumatically overridden for CIP conditions and they may be remotely controlled if required.Availability Normal Operating Pressure Range bar psig 7-19 7-19 19 7-10 7 Standard Pneumatic override Manual override SRU1-6 SRU1-6 SRU1-3 SRU4-5 SRU6 100-275 100-275 275 100-145 100 Table 8. The accumulation tends to increase as pressure or pump speed decrease. 8.2.6a Pressure relief valves are only available for the SRU range pumps fitted with metal rotors. After initial setting is completed the monitoring process is automatic and the pump is under the protection of the PPU.

Pump Specification Options The PPU will detect over-load and rapidly increasing load. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 169 . An alternative arrangement would be an electric motor with a wedge belt pulley drive reducing the motor speed to the pump output speed required. 8.7a Typical motorised rotary lobe pump unit Fixed Speed Rotary Lobe pumps generally operate at low to medium speeds i. and therefore some form of speed reduction is required from normal AC motor synchronous speeds of 1500. This is generally achieved by using a geared electric motor direct coupled to the pump drive shaft via flexible coupling. This condition would in turn result in a higher discharge pressure. One example of under-load could result from a blocked or closed valve in the inlet pipe. 8. the PPU will also respond to mechanical changes such as bearing or lubrication failure. Fig. air motor. Electric motors being the most commonly used method of drive. will cause an automatic shutdown if desired thereby limiting the degree of damage. As well as responding to system related transients.2. a burst inlet or outlet pipe.e. and diesel or petrol engine dependent upon customer requirements and services available. One example of an over-load condition could result from a gradual increase in viscosity of the pumped media. are described in more detail in section 9. The PPU will detect under-load since this highlights a condition preventing optimum pump operating efficiency. even within the lines of the over-load trip threshold. The resulting rapid power increase from this type of event.2. or even an empty supply vessel. therefore increased power consumption. 1200 and 900 rev/min for 60 Hz).7 Ancillaries Rotary Lobe pumps can be supplied bare shaft (without drive) or mounted on a baseplate with drive such as electric motor. Another example could result from a partially closed valve in the discharge pipe also giving rise to excess pressure and therefore power consumption. 25 to 650 rev/min. both of which could result in pump seizure if not detected and corrected. The PPU will detect a rapidly increasing load such as that caused by a solid object entering the pump and becoming trapped between the rotors. 1000 and 750 rev/min for 50 Hz (1800.

Motor manufacturers give recommendations for their motors relating to the number of hours per day of operation and the frequency of starting and stopping. This is a compact low cost unit. although not commonly used as pump drives. The Alfa Laval mild steel baseplate is supplied painted to suit customer requirements and the stainless steel has a dull polish finish. Variable Speed To handle changing duty conditions or a number of different duties. can provide good low cost drive in certain applications. How a pump operates will determine the choice of geared electric motor. 170 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Specification Options When exact flow is not critical a fixed speed drive is generally used. The integral geared electric motor is the most commonly used type of fixed speed drive.10). There are many types of mechanical and hydraulic variable speed drives available in a wide range of speeds. An alternative is to mount the pump and drive unit on a portable trolley design baseplate complete with control gear and trailing lead as required. which are well suited to rotary lobe pump characteristics by offering the ability to adjust the pump speed to control flow and adjust for system conditions. which can be a fixed or variable height. to raise baseplate above floor level.3). Baseplates can also be designed to meet specific customer standards when required. In addition diesel or petrol engines can be used as pump drivers. thereby changing pump speed and controlling flow (see 9. Some pumps operate continuously for 24 hours per day and others operate intermittently. which is easy to install. Complete ranges of drive speeds are available from the different manufacturers and usually one can be found within a few rev/min of the required speed. Other Drive Types Air motors. In some application areas such as dairy or brewing it is normal practice to hose down pump units and floorings – in these circumstances ball feet can be fitted to baseplates. it may be necessary to use a variable speed drive or frequency converter to obtain correct pump duty speeds. Baseplates The Alfa Laval ‘standard’ is a pressed mild steel or stainless steel design which is required to be bolted to the floor (see 12. The frequency converter allows the operator to change the frequency of the electric motor. as it only requires one coupling and a safety guard.

a guard is fitted over the transmission (flexible coupling or wedge belt) which links the pump drive shaft to the output shaft of the selected driver. For non-hazardous applications mild steel or stainless steel is generally used. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 171 . The selection of guard material is important relative to its working environment.Pump Specification Options Guards All rotating machinery should be adequately guarded and when pumps are supplied complete with a drive. Non-sparking materials such as aluminium or brass are used with flameproof/explosion proof motors in hazardous areas.

Pump Specification Options 172 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

High efficiency due to low losses when transforming from electrical to mechanical power. DIN and BS. CENELEC. due to the following: • • • Electrical power supply is usually readily available and easy to install. Electric motors supplied in the USA are generally to NEMA standard. VDE. frequent starts etc.Motors 9. i. The electric motor is the most commonly used method of pump drive. Single phase electric motors can also be fitted to Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps. inertia in the bearings. 9a Electrical hazard Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 173 . Motors This section describes electric motors. methods of starting.e. including information on motor protection. motors for hazardous environments and speed control. The electric motor can absorb variations in the torque requirement of a pump. • All Alfa Laval pump ranges can be fitted with AC type Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated (TEFV) squirrel cage three phase electric motors complying with various international standards and regulations such as IEC. Fig. Easy speed control. as a result of changes in product/ duty conditions.

Description Stator housing. Motor shaft. When the stator is connected to a three-phase supply voltage the magnetic fields of the individual phase windings form a symmetrically rotating magnetic field which is called the rotational field. The iron core consists of thin iron sheets with a thickness of 0. 2. which cools the motor. 3. 9. 9b Exploded view of a typical AC motor The motor is constructed as follows: • • which • • • • The stator is fixed in the stator housing (1). 8. 5.Motors The standard design of an AC motor includes the following main parts: Item 1. 174 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Rotor.3 0. The ball bearings carry the rotor (9) and the motor shaft (10). close the stator housing. The ball bearings (2) are fixed in the bearing housing (3). 4. Fan. The fan is protected by means of the fan cap (5). Iron core. 10. The fan (4). 7. Fan cap. Ball bearings. The speed of the rotational field is called the synchronous speed. • There is an iron core (7) in the stator housing. Housing for electrical connection. Fig. Three phase windings.5 mm. • The three phase windings (8) are situated in the grooves of the iron core. is fixed to the motor shaft. Bearing housing. The housing for electrical connection (6) is situated on the stator housing. The three phase windings and the stator core are designed to produce a magnetic field in pairs of poles. 6.

5 30 2 40 3 50 5 60 7.5 0.2 2. rated speed. The connection between synchronous speed.rev/min Rated speed at 50 Hz .5 21 Output Power in kW 1.5 15 Table 9.2 Rated Speed The rated speed of the motor is always lower than the synchronous speed due to motor slip.37 0.75 0.86 18.1 1.Motors 9.rev/min Synchronous speed at 60 Hz .7 0.75 30 35 2.rev/min Rated speed at 60 Hz .27 22 25 1.1 Output Power The output power is always lower than the rated electrical power due to various losses in the motor.55 0. Pairs of poles Synchronous speed at 50 Hz .5 1.2a 2 1 3000 2880 3600 3460 4 2 1500 1440 1800 1720 6 3 1000 960 1200 1150 8 4 750 720 900 860 12 6 500 480 720 690 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 175 .3 75 87 7.1b (Nema motors) Output Power in hp 0.5 6.63 15 17.5 45 52 4 4.75 20 1 25 1. The table below shows output power that is specified in standard ratings.1a 0.43 11 12.6 90 105 Frequency 60 Hz 0. The ratio of output power to rated electrical power is known as the motor efficiency. frequency and poles is shown in the table below: No.6 55 64 5. Poles No.rev/min Table 9.5 37 42 3 3. Frequency 50 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz Table 9.5 75 10 100 9.5 8.

Motors 9.TEFV) where an externally mounted fan cools the motor.20°C (-68o F) to + 40°C (104o F) (class B temperature rise) and at altitudes up to 1000 metres above sea level. Methods of cooling are shown below: Code IC411 IC410 IC418 IC416 Table 9. no externally mounted fan Totally Enclosed Air Over Motor (TEAOM) – motor cooled by airstream Totally Enclosed Forced Cooled (TEFC) – motor cooled by an independent fan 9.5 hp) and over 230 to 400 volts. 400 to 690 volts.4 Cooling Motor cooling is specified by means of the letters IC (International Cooling) in accordance with standards. Motors operating in ambient temperatures higher than 55°C (131o F) will have class H insulation.3 Voltage Standard motors for use on 3 phase 50 or 60 Hz can be wound for any single voltage as follows: Up to 3 kW (4 hp) 4 kW (5.4a Arrangement Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated (TEFV) – motor cooled by an externally mounted fan Totally Enclosed Non Ventilated (TENV) – self cooling. Some derating of the motor may be necessary for high ambient temperatures and high altitude. Motors supplied with class F insulation system with only class B temperature rise (80°C) (176o F) ensure an exceptional margin of safety and longer life even in abnormal operating conditions such as withstanding ambient temperatures up to 55°C (131o F) or 10% overload or adverse supply systems. 176 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The most common is IC411 (Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated . 9.5 Insulation and Thermal Rating Standard motors will operate satisfactorily in an ambient temperature range of . Euronorm motors supplied at 400 volts will generally operate satisfactorily with voltage variations of ± 10% from the rated voltage.

IP56 IP65 Table 9. Failure to include this treatment and the resulting corrosion can cause irreparable damage to stator windings and moving parts. humid and wet conditions. wires or other objects of thickness greater than 1 mm. Condensation occurs when the surface temperature of the motor is lower than the dew-point temperature of the ambient air. Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies with a diameter greater than 1 mm. which will produce considerable amounts of condensation on internal surfaces. Motor protected against conditions on a ship’s deck or powerful water jets. IP54 IP55 Water splashed against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. the first of which specifies the protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies and the second digit specifies the protection against water.6a Tropic Proof Treatment Motors operating in tropical climates are invariably subjected to hot. 2nd Digit Protection against water Water splashed against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. These state the method of determining degrees of ingress protection for both dust and water. No ingress of dust. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 177 . Anti-Condensation Heaters Where the motor is to be left standing for long periods of time in damp conditions it is recommended that anti-condensation heaters are fitted and energised to prevent condensation forming in the motor enclosure. The letters IP are followed by two digits. Protection against harmful deposits of dust. The ingress of dust is not totally prevented. Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure. These heaters are normally 110 volts or 220 volts.Motors 9.6 Protection The degree of motor protection is specified by means of the letters IP (International Protection) in accordance with standards. Water projected by a nozzle against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. To overcome this motors can be supplied with special tropic proof treatment. Table showing degrees of protection is shown below: Designation 1st Digit Protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies IP44 Protection against contact with live or moving parts by tools. but dust cannot enter in an amount sufficient to interfere with satisfactory operation of the machine. Water projected by a nozzle against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

Motors Thermistors To protect the motor windings from overload due to high temperature. Where motors can be allowed to operate at slow speed. 178 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . motors can be fitted with thermistors. being used with a frequency converter (see 9. it is normal to fit thermistors to prevent the motor from overloading or to insufficient cooling from the motor fan.9). i. which are temperature-dependent semi-conductor devices embedded in the motor windings.e.

The magnitude of the starting current is directly dependent on the static torque requirement during a start and on the mass of the load that is to be accelerated. This is particularly important when the motor runs with a light load. therefore.starting of the motor. In many cases the soft starter saves energy by automatically adapting the motor voltage continually to the actual requirement. 9.O. Soft starting can also be achieved using a frequency converter. Star/Delta (Y/∆). The current can be restricted by starting the motor in Y-connection and then changing to ∆-connection. as the starting current is limited. be necessary to restrict the starting current by means of Y/∆ . In this case the starting time with high starting current is very low and it can consequently be ignored. Soft. Motors fitted to centrifugal and liquid ring pumps are normally directly started.Motors 9.L. It can. Star/Delta (Y/∆) Starting If pumping viscous fluids the starting time with the high starting current is longer. as the moment of inertia of the motor is low due to pump design and the fluids being pumped having low viscosities. often 5 to 8 times higher than the rated current.). In this case the starting current is high.7a Connection of three-phase single speed motor Soft Starting The soft start provides a smooth start at the same time. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 179 . Direct On Line (D. Fig. 2. The simplest way to start the motor is to connect directly the mains supply to the motor. 3.7 Methods of Starting There are three starting methods: 1. Direct On Line Starting The connection between supply voltage and rated current is very important with regards to motor starting.

Zone 2. its gas group must be known and its temperature class must be compared with the spontaneous ignition temperature of the gas mixtures concerned. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present or present for long periods – No motors may be used in this zone.Motors 9. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs it will only be present for a short time. IIC is the highest rating. Zone 1.8b Equipment for coal mines susceptible to methane gas. Equipment for explosive atmospheres other than mines i. an area that is not classified Zone 0. permitted temperature of electrical equipment 450oC (842oF) 300oC (572oF) 200oC (410oF) 135oC (275oF) 100oC (212oF) 85oC (185oF) Group I Group II IIA IIB IIC Table 9. Zone 0.8a Temperature class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Ignition temperature for gas/vapour up to 450oC (842oF) 300 to 450oC (572 to 842oF) 200 to 300oC (410 to 572oF) 135 to 200oC (275 to 410oF) 100 to 135oC (212 to 275oF) 85 to 100oC (185 to 212oF) Max. Table 9. surface industries. A motor from one of the higher categories can also be used in a lower category. Group II is subdivided according to the severity of the environment. 180 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .e. Hazardous areas are classified into three Zones as follows: By implication.8 Motors for Hazardous Environments Zones The degree of hazard varies from extreme too rare. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation. 1 or 2 is deemed to be a non-hazardous or safe area. To ensure equipment can be safely used in hazardous areas.

potentially explosive atmosphere. The British Standard is the type Ex N version. The enclosure will withstand. Increased Safety Design . The motor construction is similar to standard TEFV motors. arcs or hot spots in service.EEx e The design of this motor type prevents the occurrence of sparks. The motor enclosure is designed in such a way that no internal explosion can be transmitted to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the machine. where EEx n = European standard for Ex product with protection ‘n’. Ex N These motors are designated for operation in Zone 2 hazardous areas. while the terminal box features an EEx e increased safety protection. The temperature of the motor’s external enclosure should not exceed the self-ignition temperature of the explosive atmosphere of the installation area during operation.EEx d and EEx de These motors are designated for operation in Zone 1 hazardous areas. without damage. Ex nA. A = for nonsparking equipment.Motors Flameproof Enclosure . Non-Sparking Design – EEx nA. arcs or dangerous overheating. Such design combines the superior safety degree of the ‘d’ type of protection with the less stringent electrical connection requirements of increased safety motors. arcs or dangerous surface temperatures. Variants combining two types of protection usually combine ‘d’ and ‘e’ types of protection. that could reach the self-ignition temperature of the surrounding. The motor is designed with an EEx d flameproof enclosure. but with special attention to eliminate production of sparks. in all inner and outer parts of the machine. The most commonly used and recognised by the CENELEC European Standards is the EEx de variant. any pressure levels caused by an internal explosion. The marking according to standard EN 50021 is EEx nA. No motor device outside the flameproof area shall be a potential source of sparks. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 181 .

8a Overview of classification parameters Severe environments Reinforced protection Corrosive atmospheres Zone 2 Accidental presence Zone 1 Incidental presence Zone 0 Permanent presence Ex nA Ex N EEx e T6 85° C T5 100° C T4 135° C T3 200° C T2 300° C T1 450° C EEx d/EEx de EEx e EEx p Standards IEC BS EN Environment Mines Explosive atmospheres Other than mines Group I IIA IIB IIC Gas Methane Propane Ethane Hydrogen 9. therefore. 182 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . This. will reduce the amount of electricity that must be generated to meet demand.9 Energy Efficient Motors In October 1998. industrial processes will consume less electricity. the European Union and CEMEP (The European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics) agreed to introduce three efficiency classes for electric motors. and installing energy efficient devices. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. 9.Motors The classification parameters of motors for hazardous areas can be summarised as below: Fig. Industry will. primarily consumed by households and industry. have a major part to play in reducing harmful emissions. is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. in turn. This agreement forms part of the European Commission’s aims to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. For instance by increasing the efficiency of their production processes.

0 88.0 88.2 78.4 89.7 87.2 3 4 5.0 82.1 to 90 kW (1. squirrel cage induction motors in the power range 1. An energy efficient motor produces the same output power (torque) but uses less electrical input power (kW) than a standard electric motor.7 87. Energy saving is dependent upon the kW rating of the motor.8 84. higher efficiency motors can play a significant part in reducing CO2 emissions. 50 Hz.4 92.0 92.8 92.0 93.5 81.0 94.5 11 15 18.2 92.5 7.6 93.1 85.5 2.2 85.9 EFF3 below Table 9.5 91. EFF2 and EFF3.9 93.3 93.Motors Motors account for around 65% of the electric energy consumed in industrial applications.6 88.2 78.0 93.0 90.5 91.0 92.0 90. As such.2 85.5 91.6 84.5 to 125 hp) rated for 400 volts. EFF3 class motors can be used and for continuous usage EFF1 or EFF2 motors should be used.6 86.4 90. 2 and 4 pole. For intermittent usage. The three efficiency classes designated EFF1.6 93.4 90.7 94.6 89.5 90.1 1.5 7. the loading and the hours run.6 95.4 92.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 76.3 91.7 87.9a 1.5 81.5 2 3 4 5. This higher efficiency is achieved by using higher quality and thinner laminations in the stator to reduce core loss and more copper in the slots to reduce current and resistance losses.4 89.9 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 183 . 2 pole Motor Output Power hp kW EFF1 equal to or above 82.0 Efficiency % EFF2 equal to or above 76. apply to TEFV.5 93.6 84.0 82.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 1.5 93.

2 93.4 88.5 7.0 Efficiency % EFF2 equal to or above 76.6 93.4 89.5 2 3 4 5.2 90.6 84.1 1.0 91.9 94.5 91. PAM (Pole Amplitude Modulation) Similar to above except that pole variations can be 4/6 or 6/8. Speed control can be multi-speed.8 85.5 91.0 88.1 91.0 93.0 93. 184 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6 93.8 92.4 92.10 Speed Control The effective speed control of AC electric motors has long been regarded as an adaptable and economical means of reducing costs and saving energy.4 90.0 86.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 76.Motors Table 9.4 89.5 7.7 87.9b Output Power hp kW 4 pole Motor EFF1 equal to or above 83.2 85.0 82.2 94.5 11 15 18.0 88.0 90.9 9.4 90. Multi-Speed Pole Change (Tapped or Dahlander) These have a single winding and two speeds in a ratio of 2:1 and can be supplied for constant torque or variable torque applications.5 81.9 EFF3 below 1.2 78.6 93.5 93.5 2. A combination of dual and pole change windings can give 3 or 4 speeds from one design.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 1.0 92. variable voltage or frequency converter.5 81.5 93.0 92. Dual Wound Motors have two separate windings and can be supplied for any two speed combinations.7 87.0 82.6 84.2 92.2 3 4 5.4 87.7 95.2 78.4 92.2 85.0 90.6 93.3 89.

Frequency Converter The use of a frequency converter will allow speed control of a standard AC motor by adjusting the frequency. For applications using constant torque loads such as rotary lobe pumps.5 kW (10 hp) and have the advantage of not using any shielded motor cables. With increasing sophistication such as ‘vector’ control.Motors Variable Voltage Variable voltage control provides a low capital cost means of varying the motor speed on centrifugal pumps. very little derating will be required. the level of derating will depend on the speed range required. ambient temperature. field oriented control utilising closed loop feedback. For applications using variable torque loads such as centrifugal pumps. e. altitude etc. Also providing room in a switch cabinet will not be necessary.g. Reduced cooling arising from motor speed reduction. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 185 . The power or torque requirements throughout the entire speed range. electric motors can be made available with the frequency converter already fitted to the motor. although some derating may be necessary. This form of speed control requires greater derating than for converter drives and is best suited to 4 pole machines of 2:1 speed reduction with close matching of motor output to absorbed pump load. These motors are of special design – standard motors being unsuitable. The motor ratings must take into account the following: • Increased heating due to the harmonic content of the inverter waveforms. Other limiting factors such as maximum motor speeds. as there are no extra connections between the frequency converter and motor. These arrangements are generally available for motors up to 7. Basic frequency converters will permit operation over a typical speed range of 20:1. • • • As well as motors being remotely controlled by frequency converters. the effective speed range can be increased to 1000:1.

90 0.7 4.90 0.2 2. frequency and required power. the rated speed and output power will vary dependent upon the combination of supply voltage and frequency.2 kW 60 Hz.3 2.2 2. the motor can be used as standard as follows: 50 Hz.86 0. 2. Motor Frame Size 90LB 90LB Frequency Hz Supply Voltage v Output Power kW 2.4 8. the standard motor with a new nameplate or a special motor with an appropriately stamped nameplate can be used.5 2.1. For complete list see section 14. 2. When selecting a motor for a centrifugal or liquid ring pump. It is therefore very important to specify supply voltage. from the table above. frequency and output power If a non-standard combination of supply voltage. As viewed from table below which shows an example for a motor frame size 90LB.1 2. For example. This is shown in section 9.3 7.8 50 60 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 380Y Standard New Standard New New New 0. special attention should be given to the rated speed and output power. 220-240v∆/380-420vY.91 0. frequency and output power The motors can be used in the standard version without any modifications for the standard supply voltage.5 4. frequency and output power is required. Examples of this are as follows using a motor frame size 90LB from the table above. if using a motor frame size 90LB. frequency and output power combinations.7 8.85 0. 186 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 kW Non-standard supply voltage. 440-480vY.11 Changing Motor Nameplates .91 Table 9.8.11a Standard supply voltage.Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only In some instances there are non-standard electrical requirements regarding combinations of supply voltage.3 Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min 2900 2860 3500 3430 3470 3450 Power Factor Rated Current A 8.Motors 9. to correctly size the motor.1/4. frequency and output power.

2 kW is required.e.5 kW is required. 380vY.For 60 Hz. as 2. The motor will give an output power of 2. 3. as 2. Select the nearest larger standard motor i. 2. 2. 380vY.2 kW 1. Alternatively select a specially wound motor to give the required 2. frame size 100LB. This will give 3.5 kW 3. The standard motor frame size 90LB will only give 2. The appropriate electrical data must be changed on the motor nameplate.Motors Example 1 . Use a standard motor frame size 90LB. The appropriate electrical data must be changed on the motor nameplate. 1.3 kW. 2.3 kW. which is not sufficient. Example 2 – For 60 Hz. which is sufficient.5 kW at the non-standard supply voltage and frequency combination. which is sufficient. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 187 .2 kW. 2.

Motors 188 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) Systems This section provides cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. Physical Cleanliness This is the removal of all visible dirt or contamination from a surface. Bacteriological Cleanliness This can only be achieved with the use of a disinfectant that will kill all pathogenic bacteria and the majority of other bacteria. The following recommendations for CIP will address the first three definitions. 2. 4. which are detectable by either taste or smell but not by the naked eye. temperatures and pressures used to clean other types of flow equipment. but have been specifically prepared to maximise the CIP effectiveness of our pumps. The following recommendations offer advice on how to maximise the CIP (Clean In Place) efficiency of the Alfa Laval ranges of centrifugal and rotary lobe pumps. 3. The guidelines incorporate references to internationally recognised cleaning detergents. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle.Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems 10. Chemical Cleanliness This is defined as the removal of all visible dirt or contamination as well as microscopic residues. velocities. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 189 . The perception of the word clean will vary from customer to customer and process to process. The four most common interpretations of ‘Clean’ are given below: 1. Sterility Quite simply this is the destruction of all known micro-organisms. This level of cleanliness is usually verified by a visual test only. such as valves and fittings.

In many cases a valve is employed in the discharge line of the system to create the differential pressure across the pump and a by-pass loop installed around the pump to divert any excess of CIP liquid that the pump is unable to transfer.5 m/sec and 3. This will minimise any product loss. Velocities within this range have proven to provide effective cleaning of Alfa Laval pumps. For the majority of CIP cycles it is recommended that a differential pressure of 2 to 3 bar is created across the pump to promote efficient cleaning. Rotary lobe pumps are rarely used as the supply pump for CIP fluids. Rinsing with an acidic disinfectant. whilst it is rotating at it’s normal operating speed. Where this is a requirement. 4.Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems In most installations it is important to ensure the maximum recovery of pumped product residues from the production line at the end of each production run. 5. Centrifugal pumps are generally used during CIP for each phase of the cleaning cycle. or overpressurised at it’s inlet due to its tendency to act as a restriction if it is unable to transfer the full flow of the fluid being delivered to it. Final rinse with clean cold water. 190 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . although as a general rule the higher the velocity the greater the cleaning effect. cold water. Internationally accepted protocol for CIP suggest that during all phases of the CIP cycle a pipeline velocity of between 1. By maximising the recovery of product from the system both the efficiency of the production and cleaning processes will be increased. Rinsing with an alkaline detergent. During the CIP cycle there must always be sufficient flow of cleaning fluid being delivered by the CIP pump to make sure that the centrifugal or rotary lobe pump is neither starved of liquid at it’s inlet due to its own flow capability. The valve(s) setting may be fluctuated during the CIP cycle to promote pressure/flow variations that may enhance the cleaning process. An initial rinse of clean. 2.0 m/sec is required. 3. ease the cleaning of the system and reduce the requirement to dispose of or recycle the wash from the initial cleaning cycles. consideration should be given to mounting rotary lobe pumps with ports in the vertical plane to maximise drainability. Generally the most effective cleaning processes incorporate five stages: 1. Intermediate rinse with cold water.

temperatures. This phase of the cleaning cycle should remove proteins. 3. typically a 2. Intermediate rinse with clean water at ambient temperature for a period of 5 to 10 minutes. This phase of the cleaning cycle should dissolve and remove organic matter such as fats and proteins. 10 to 15 minutes are usually sufficient for this part of the cycle but this will depend on the condition and volume of the residue to be removed. typically a 2. 2. Specialists suppliers should make the final selection of cleaning detergents/disinfectants. Within these guidelines a typical cleaning cycle would be as follows: 1.5% solution of Caustic Soda (NaOH) at between 70 to 95°C (158 to 203oF) for a period of 20 to 30 minutes would be used. Final rinse with clean water at ambient temperature for a period of 10 to 15 minutes or until all traces of the cleaning fluid have been removed. Rinse with an acidic disinfectant. cleaning mediums and concentrations of the detergents used will all influence the effectiveness of the cleaning cycle and care must be taken when defining these to ensure that they are suitable for use with the particular product being pumped. Of equal importance is the chemical compatibility between the cleaning detergents and the product wetted materials in the pump head and ensuring for rotary lobe pumps the correct temperature clearance rotors are fitted for the CIP cycle. It is also common to add a wetting agent (surfactant) to lower the surface tension of the detergent and hence aid its cleansing ability. Rinse with an alkaline detergent. This phase should remove any residual detergents. 5. mineral salts.Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems The cycle times. Consideration should also be given to the disposal or recycling of used cleaning liquids and the potential requirement for handling concentrated detergents. Rinse with clean water at ambient temperature to remove any remaining residue. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 191 . 4.5% solution of Nitric Acid (HNO3) at ambient temperature for a period of 10 to 15 minutes would be used. lime and other deposits.

as the nature of these will provide an increased cleaning challenge. Always store and dispose of cleaning agents in accordance with site Health and Safety regulations. seeds or soft fleshy matter have to be evaluated carefully and on an individual basis. 192 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . In the dairy industry the sterilisation temperature is approximately 145oC (293oF). hot water or steam. Care should be taken not to subject them to rapid temperature cycling. inactivating any micro-organisms which might be still present in the pump.Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems During the CIP cycles it is important that the required concentration of cleaning detergents is maintained consistently. The sterilisation can be carried out be means of chemicals. 2. A significant increase in concentration could cause damage to pumps and other components in the system. Products containing particulate such as fibre. 3. Always adhere to site Health and Safety regulations. These types of product may typically require increased cleaning cycle times and/or increased velocities and pressures during the cleaning cycle. After CIP cleaning an additional sterilisation in place process (SIP) may be required when highly sensitive products are handled. A facility for monitoring and adjusting the detergent concentration should be considered. CIP detergent liquids and the elevated temperatures typically used for CIP processes can cause a potential health risk. Cautionary Notes: 1. A significant decrease in concentration could effect the detergents cleaning efficiency. 4. Pumps and other equipment installed in CIP systems have components within them that will expand and contract at different rates.

end users and regulatory bodies in the implementation of recommendations. EN 10204 3.1. Alfa Laval pump ranges are available to meet standards and legislation as follows: • • CE Compliance (Safety/Risk Assessment). USDA Regulating Biotechnology. Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines This section describes some of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 11. and the NSF standards are not applicable to the hygienic design of general food processing equipment. EHEDG Cleanability and Installation Guidelines. a number of guidelines in the form of third party approval schemes have been developed for the dairy industry (3-A standards) and food service equipment (NSF – National Sanitation Foundation). • • • • • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 193 . A number of countries have national standards and/or directives applicable to food machinery but there are relatively few international standards. This has led to numerous standards and legislation being written. In recent years there has been increasing concern over safety and hygiene in the bio-pharmaceutical and food industries. EN 10204 2. Those that exist are predominantly dairy based and are too general and developed on ‘experience’ rather than scientific data.B Certified Material Traceability. 3-A Design and Material Specifications (Centrifugal and Positive Rotary Lobe Pumps for Milk and Milk Products). however the 3-A standards have no benchmark of cleanability or test regimes to establish cleanability. FDA Material Requirements. In the USA.2 Certificate of Conformity. The structure of these schemes involves representatives of equipment manufacturers. Unfortunately.

ISO9001: 1994 Quality Management System. conflicting national standards will eventually tend to disappear. heavy snow and extremes of cold and heat. EN294: 1992 Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs. BS5304: 1988 Code of Practice for Safety of Machinery.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Fig. and some parts are prone to earthquakes. • • • • 194 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . as all EU member states will work to the same standard. with a few exceptions. 11a CE CE The introduction of CE marking is to demonstrate to interested parties that goods or equipment with this mark comply with the appropriate directives of the European Community.e. With emerging European standardisation. 93/ 44/EEC and 93/68/EEC and other relevant directives i. The appropriate directives are those that are concerned with the design and manufacture of goods or equipment.specification for general requirements. In Europe many different languages are spoken.Basic concepts. high winds. It is often uneconomic to design equipment that will withstand all these conditions. All Alfa Laval pump ranges are CE marked and conform to the machinery directive 89/392/EEC as amended by 91/368/EEC. Some national differences cannot be harmonised. general principles for design. Other applicable standards/specifications which Alfa Laval pump ranges comply to are as follows: • EN292 Parts 1 and 2: 1991 Safety of Machinery .Electrical equipment of machines . EN60204 Part 1: 1993 Safety of Machinery . Directives are intended to facilitate a Single Market in the European Union. ‘Electrical Equipment Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC’ and ‘Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive 89/336/EEC’.

It is responsible for new material approvals. drug and cosmetic manufacturers to prove that their products are safe. approve materials for use in pharmaceutical systems. • • • • inspect plants at random. Drug and Cosmetic Act’ requires food.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Fig. 11b 3-A 3-A (Centrifugal and Positive Rotary Pumps for Milk and Milk Products) This standard has the purpose of establishing and documenting the material. The FDA cannot: • approve equipment outside of a particular use within a specific system. fabrication. The FDA’s primary purpose is to protect the public by enforcing this Act. The FDA can: • approve plants for manufacturing. In the USA. The 3-A Sanitary Standards and 3-A Accepted Practices are voluntarily applied as suitable sanitary criteria for dairy and food processing equipment. drug and cosmetics manufacturing. All Alfa Laval pump ranges conform to this 3-A standard. and installation (where appropriate) requirements for the engineering design and technical construction files for all products. • • For all Alfa Laval pump ranges the product wetted parts can be made available with FDA compliance. the ‘Food. assemblies. write specific criteria for materials in product contact. and sub-assemblies supplied by the manufacturer. The manufacturer has to be in compliance with the sanitary criteria found in 3-A Sanitary Standards or 3-A Accepted Practices. plant inspections and material recalls. have certain expectations regarding design practices. write specific engineering or design requirements for systems. FDA The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA is the enforcement agency of the United States Government for food. write general guidelines for good manufacturing processes. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 195 .

S. Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques. including genetic engineering. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). with some products being regulated under more than one agency. APHIS also approves and licenses veterinary biological substances.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines All Alfa Laval pump ranges can be supplied into process areas/plants that are controlled by USDA. Products are regulated according to their intended use. primarily responsible for regulating biotechnology in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ensures the safety and safe use of pesticidal and herbicidal substances in the environment and for certain industrial uses of microbes in the environment. animals. The Federal government has a well co-ordinated system to ensure that new agricultural biotechnology products are safe for the environment and to animal and human health. improve. along with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U. they have a close working relationship. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before . excluding meat and poultry. such as selective breeding. While these agencies act independently. including animal vaccines that may be the product of biotechnology. and micro-organisms. USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) ensures the safety of meat and poultry consumed as food. USDA The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is one of three Federal Agencies. or modify plants. The agency regulates the field testing of genetically engineered plants and certain micro-organisms. that are used to create. The Department of Health and Human Service’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) governs the safety and labelling of drugs and the nation’s food and feed supply. • USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for protecting American agriculture against pests and diseases. Using conventional techniques.and with greater ease and precision. scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. • • • 196 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

This takes the form of a certificate of conformity and can be applied to all Alfa Laval pump ranges.B of this standard refers to inspection documents being prepared at each stage of manufacture and supervised tests performed by authorised personnel independent of the manufacturer. The Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pump ranges and the LKH-UltraPure range of Centrifugal pumps can be supplied with material traceability if required. in accordance with the order requirements. While these guidelines are generally voluntary.1. EHEDG aims to promote hygiene during the processing and packaging of food products. for the supply of metallic products such as pumps.B With the stringent demands of hygiene within new food and pharmaceutical plants being built. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 197 . In particular. EN 10204 2. EN 10204 3.2 This standard defines documents supplied to the purchaser. Fig. The Alfa Laval LKH range of centrifugal pumps and the SX range of rotary lobe pumps with its dedicated vertical port orientation meet EHEDG cleanability and comply with EHEDG installation guidelines. they are mandatory for any research conducted under Federal grants and they are widely followed by academic and industrial scientists around the world.1. sterilisability and aseptic capability. The EN 10204 standard defines the different types of inspection documents required for metallic products. With no European Community legislation available the European Hygienic Equipment Design Group (EHEDG) was formed. 3.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines • The Department of Health and Human Service’s National Institutes of Health have developed guidelines for the laboratory use of genetically engineered organisms. 11c EHEDG EHEDG objectives are to produce hygienic design guidelines that can be verified by standard test procedures. material traceability of equipment supplied is increasingly important. EHEDG We are now seeing increased public awareness surrounding food hygiene and food manufacturers desire to improve product safety. pasteurisability. This requires a range of test procedures for a variety of equipment parameters including cleanability.

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 198 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

as this may cause vibration or cavitation (see fig.1 General 12. pressure switches and current limiting devices. Discharge line • Plan view Suction line Fig. Installation Guide This section covers guidelines relating to pump installation.Installation Guide 12. system design and pipework layout.g. Avoid suction lifts and manifold/common suction lines for two rotary lobe pumps running in parallel.1a). 12.1. When designing a pumping system the following should be taken into consideration: • Confirm the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available from the system exceeds the NPSH required by the pump. Also protect the pump from accidental operation against a closed valve by using relief valves.1. as this is crucial for ensuring the smooth operation of the pump and preventing cavitation. nuts.1a Avoid common suction lines • Protect the pump against blockage from hard solid objects e. 12.1 System Design To ensure optimum pump operation it is important that any pump unit is installed correctly. Fit suction and discharge pressure monitor points for diagnostic purposes. Fit valves.1. • • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 199 . if two pumps are to be used on manifold/common discharge lines. 12. bolts etc.

1. • • • 12. The pump must not be allowed to support any of the pipework weight and the following should be taken into consideration. Provide isolating valves on each side of the pump when necessary.3 Weight The weight of the pump and drive unit should be considered for lifting gear requirements.1. • • 12.2 Pipework All pipework must be supported. This should be compatible with the electric motor selected. tees and any restrictions close to either suction or discharge side of pump. 12. • Have short straight inlet pipework to reduce friction losses in the pipework thereby improving the NPSH available.Installation Guide • Make the necessary piping arrangements if flushing is required for the seal or if a media is required for heating/cooling jackets. Include eccentric reducers on suction lines. Keep pipework horizontal where applicable to reduce air locks. Do not subject rotary lobe pumps to rapid temperature changes. Use long radius bends wherever possible. Adhere to installation foundation instructions.4 Electrical Supply Ensure that there is an adequate electrical supply close to the pump drive unit.1. as pump seizure can result from thermal shock. Avoid bends. 200 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Fig. Ensure that the direction of rotation of the stub shaft is anti-clockwise as viewed from the pump inlet.2.1 Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump should never be operated in the wrong direction of rotation with fluid in the pump.2 Flow Direction Outlet 12. 12.2. The pump should never be started if the impeller is fitted and the pump casing has been removed.1b Pump with impeller screw fitted 2. Pump without impeller screw fitted With this method the impeller should always be removed before checking the direction of rotation.1c Pump without impeller screw fitted • • Start and stop the motor momentarily.2. • Ensure that the direction of rotation of the motor fan is clock-wise as viewed from the rear end of the motor.2. It is possible to check this in two ways as follows: Inlet Fig.Installation Guide 12. 12. Fig.2. 12.1a Correct direction of flow 1. 12. Stub shaft Fig. Pump with impeller screw fitted • Start and stop the motor momentarily (without fluid in the pump).1d Pump without impeller Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 201 .

Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Outlet Fig. Reversing the direction of rotation will reverse the flow direction. 12.2a Flow direction Inlet 202 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.Installation Guide 12.2.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps The direction of flow is dictated by the direction of drive shaft rotation.

Installation Guide 12.3b Foundations Baseplate fixing holes Fig. The sleeve allows for ‘slight’ lateral movement of the bolts after the foundation is poured. The Foundation should be approximately 150mm longer and wider than the baseplate. 12. a foundation is required which will also absorb vibration. Alfa Laval standard baseplates have pre-drilled fixing holes to accept base retaining bolts. A minimum of 14 days is normally required to allow the curing of the concrete prior to pump unit installation. To provide a permanent rigid support for securing the pump unit. Rag or waste paper can be used to prevent the concrete from entering the sleeve while the foundation is poured. 12.3a Baseplate fixing Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 203 . For example. a large pump unit foundation depth should be at least 20 times the diameter of the foundation bolts. or by use of epoxy type grouts.3 Baseplate Foundations (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Rotary Lobe pumps when supplied with a drive unit are normally mounted on a baseplate. The drawing below shows two typical methods for foundation bolt retaining. strain or shock on the pumping unit. Alternatively mechanical fixings can be used. D = Diameter of foundation bolts Fig. Methods of anchoring the baseplate to the foundation are varied. The depth of the foundation should be proportional to the size of the complete pump unit. they can be studs embedded in the concrete either at the pouring stage as shown below.

4a Parallel and angular misalignment 12. 1 m (3. 12. This is achieved by checking the maximum angular and parallel allowable misalignments for the couplings as stated by the coupling manufacturers.1b Installation of MR-300 204 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook Min.5. This will cause pump/motor shaft misalignment and pump/motor unit damage. 12. the pump shaft to motor shaft coupling alignment should be checked and adjusted as necessary. Min.4 Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Before rotary lobe pump units are installed it is important to ensure that the mounting surface is flat to avoid distortion of the baseplate. Parallel misalignment Angular misalignment Fig.6 ft) .1a Installation of MR-166S/ -185S/-200S Fig. Once the baseplate has been secured.1 Pipework The pipelines on the discharge side of a liquid ring pump should be routed as shown below to ensure correct pump operation.5 Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps 12.3 ft) Fig. 2 m (6.Installation Guide 12.5.5. 12.

pumps are likely to be the most vulnerable components. The problem is usually caused by inadequate control of the pumped fluid or a change in operating requirements of which the system or pump is not capable of handling or a component malfunction. • Excessive power usage. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 205 . • Low discharge pressure. 13. • Loss of suction. What has changed in the process since operation was last satisfactory? i.Troubleshooting 13.1 General In most pumping systems. Troubleshooting This section offers possible causes and solutions to most common problems found in pump installation and operation. • Rapid pump wear. • Excessive noise or vibration.2: • Loss of flow.e. pressure. Was the system undergoing routine maintenance? Were any new or repaired components omitted to be fitted? When was the pump last serviced? What was the appearance and condition of the pump internal components? How long did the pump operate before the problem? Any changes in pump noise or vibration? The most common problems found are generally as follows and explained in 13. temperature. • Seal leakage. The symptoms frequently show the pump to be at fault regardless of what may be wrong. Diagnosis of problems will be greatly assisted by having pressure gauges fitted to both pump inlet and outlet. fluid viscosity etc. Before starting to correctly identify the problem it is important to gather as much information relating to the process as follows: • • • • • • • • Reconfirm original duty conditions.

This can be caused by an inlet system restriction. If a pump is allowed to cavitate over long periods this will cause damage to the pumphead components.2 Loss of Suction Loss of suction can be minor. which although obvious is often overlooked. Loss of flow can be caused by excessive discharge pressure and/or by a change in fluid viscosity. more so for higher pressure operation. • For a centrifugal pump if the viscosity is increased. causing little short term damage or sufficiently major to cause catastrophic damage. The surface of these components are typically perforated and pitted.Troubleshooting 13. Loss of suction can be interpreted as the inability to prime. 206 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . the pump’s rated flow will be reduced.2 Common Problems 13. Cavitation is frequently accompanied by noise.2. This means that within limits. If the fluid is cooler than design temperature. Filling the inlet system with fluid or at least filling the pump (wetted pumping elements) will make a major improvement in the pump’s priming capability. it is capable of evacuating (pumping) a modest amount of air from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump. debris floating in the fluid supply that covers the inlet piping intake. Loss of suction means fluid is not reaching the pumping elements or not reaching them at a sufficiently high pressure to keep the fluid being pumped in a fluid state. the pump’s rated flow will be decreased. In general terms: • For a rotary lobe pump if the viscosity is significantly reduced. its viscosity may be too high causing excessive friction (pressure loss) in the inlet piping system.2. or rags. vibration and significant increase in discharge pressure pulsation. The rotary lobe pump can be classed as ‘self-priming’. Cavitation is caused by insufficient system inlet pressure to the pump.1 Loss of Flow A simple cause of this could be incorrect direction of shaft rotation. excessive fluid viscosity or excessive pump speed. The liquid ring pump can also be classed as self-priming when the pump casing is half filled with fluid and the LKHSP centrifugal pump range is specially designed to be self-priming. cavitation or a gas content problem. 13. Inlet restrictions can include dirty or clogged inlet strainers.

leaking inlet valve stem. It is possible that flow is being restricted into the pump (cavitation).3 Low Discharge Pressure Pump discharge pressure is caused only by the system’s resistance to the flow provided by the pump. Be sure fluid level at its source is at or above minimum operating levels. located and sized. loose pump and/or driver guards. Mechanical causes of noise and vibration include shaft misalignment. the pump is not producing its rated flow (pump worn or damaged). usually accompanied by noise and vibration. if the tank and return lines are not adequately designed. misalignment of drive or harmonics with other elements of the system. such as a lubrication system where the fluid pumped is continuously returned to a supply source or tank. Resetting or a change in an internal valve component is usually sufficient to solve the problem. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 207 . Valves. defective or otherwise damaged joint gasket in the pipework system. loose couplings. In recirculating systems.2. This can occur under other circumstances such as a pump operating at an inlet pressure below local atmospheric pressure.Troubleshooting Gas in the inlet pipework has the same impact on pump operation and creates the same symptoms as cavitation. flow rate and the valve design. 13. especially on the discharge side of the pump can sometimes go into a hydraulic vibration mode caused by operating pressure. loose pump and/or driver mountings. Cavitation is especially true if the discharge pressure is fluctuating or pulsating.2.4 Excessive Noise or Vibration Excessive noise and/or vibration can be a symptom of cavitation. Lines returning flow to a supply tank should terminate below minimum fluid level. mechanical damage to pump assembly. 13. or the pump flow is bypassing rather than being delivered into the system as intended. air is easily entrained in the oil and immediately picked up by the pump inlet system. In this instance it is quite likely that air is being drawn into the pipework through a loose pipe connection or pump casing joint. Either the pump is not providing the flow expected or the system is not offering the expected resistance to that flow. worn or damaged driver or pump bearings or valve noise that seems to be coming from the pump.

Rapid wear is sometimes not wear in the sense of a non-durable pump.2.Troubleshooting 13. seal leakage can be due to pump cavitation. 208 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Looking at the pump internal parts alone may not provide much help in identifying the cause. being allowed to run dry and unexpected solids in the fluid. rotary lobe and liquid ring pumps can be seen as the weakest point for any pump leakage and special care should be taken to ensure the correct seal for the application is installed i. excessively high pressure or high temperature. Mechanical causes include imminent bearing failure. loss of shaft support (bearing failure).e. thus the importance of knowing what was occurring in the time period immediately preceding detection of the problem.2. cavitation. mounting attitude. or operation at a condition for which the pump is not suitable i. 13. chemical corrosion. strainers or filters should be employed wherever possible and practical. Too high viscosity can result in the motor overloading. To avoid any abrasive foreign material entering the pump. For a centrifugal pump too high capacity (too low discharge pressure) can cause the motor to overload. but really a catastrophic pump failure that occurred very quickly.6 Rapid Pump Wear Rapid wear of pumphead components is either caused by abrasives being present in the fluid.e. • For a rotary lobe pump too high discharge pressure can cause the motor to overload.5 Excessive Power Excessive power consumption can be caused by either mechanical or hydraulic problems. Apart from mis-selection and poor servicing. too high discharge pressure. pumping elements rubbing which can lead to a pump seizure and poor shaft alignments.2.7 Seal Leakage Mechanical seals fitted to centrifugal. • 13. seal face combination and elastomer selection.

i.3 Problem Solving Table The table shown offers probable causes and solutions to the most common problems encountered.e.3a on the following pages: Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 209 . In ( ) next to the particular solution given you will find annotation relating to what pump type the solution is for.Troubleshooting 13. ce liq rlp = Centrifugal Pump = Liquid Ring Pump = Rotary Lobe Pump See table 13.

Clean the system (ce. rlp). rlp). ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Fluid viscosity below rated figure. Increase pump speed (rlp). liq. Service fittings (ce. Unexpected solids in fluid. rlp). Increase suction head (ce. liq. Simplify suction line configuration and reduce length (ce. liq. ! ! Insufficient NPSH available. rlp). liq. rlp). (ce. rlp). Increase fluid temperature (ce. Increase fluid temperature (ce. liq. rlp). Decrease fluid temperature (ce. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Discharge pressure above rated figure. Decrease pump speed (rlp). ! Remake pipework joints (ce. Simplify suction line configuration and reduce length (ce. Reverse motor (ce. Cool the pump casing (ce.liq. Reduce fluid temperature (ce. Reduce pump speed (rlp). Expel gas from suction line and pumping chamber and introduce fluid (ce. increased viscosity? Increase suction line diameter (ce. Service system and change to prevent problem recurring (ce.check effect of ! ! ! ! ! Fluid vaporising in suction line. Fit strainer to suction line (ce. liq. liq. Increase motor speed (ce. rlp). If solids cannot be eliminated.liq) . Increase suction head (ce. above rated figure. liq. rlp).Troubleshooting Problem No flow Under capacity Irregular discharge Low discharge pressure Pump will not prime Prime lost after starting Pump stalls when starting Pump overheats Motor overheats Excessive power absorbed Noise and vibration Pump element wear Syphoning Seizure Mechanical seal leakage Packed gland leakage ce = Centrifugal. liq. rlp). liq. Check seal face viscosity limitations (ce. closed valve (ce. Decrease fluid temperature (ce.check effect of increased viscosity? ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Air entering suction line. Heat the pump casing (ce. liq = Liquid Ring. liq. rlp). rlp). Fluid temp. Strainer or filter blocked. liq. rlp). rlp). ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Fluid temp. liq. liq. Check for obstructions i. rlp). rlp). liq. rlp). Reduce pump speed (rlp). rlp). below rated figure. Simplify discharge line to decrease pressure ! ! ! ! Gland over-tightened. rlp). Increase suction line diameter (ce. liq). Decrease fluid temperature (ce. liq. liq. rlp). liq. Fluid viscosity above rated figure. rlp). Check seal face and elastomer temperature limitations (ce.e. 210 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .rlp). rlp). rlp = Rotary Lobe Probable Causes Solutions ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Incorrect direction of rotation. Slacken and re-adjust gland packing (rlp). Pump not primed. liq. liq) . rlp). consider fitting double mechanical seals (ce.

after service.valve should lift approx. rlp). Fit new components (ce. Fit pumping element (ce. liq. liq. Worn pumping element. rlp). rlp). ! ! ! Shaft bearing wear or failure. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Pump speed above rated figure. liq). ! ! Pump allowed to run dry. Fit larger size impeller . Pumping element missing i. Use optional materials (ce. liq. Re-adjust spring compression (rlp) . rlp). rlp). Increase flush flow rate (ce. Decrease pump speed (rlp). (rlp). ! ! Fluid pumped not compatible with materials used. rlp). Too small impeller diameter. Refer to pump maker (ce. Check alignment and adjust mountings accordingly (rlp). liq = Liquid Ring. Check alignment of pipes (ce. Fit single or double flushed mechanical seals (ce. Refer to pump maker for advice and replacement parts (rlp). liq. 10% above duty pressure. Rotorcase cover relief valve leakage. Check and replace motor bearings (ce. Reduce clearance between impeller and back plate/ casing (ce. liq. Pump casing strained by pipework. Rotorcase cover relief valve incorrectly set. liq. . ! ! Insufficient gearcase lubrication. Fit flexible pipes or expansion fittings (ce. Check rated and duty pressures (ce. Lower pump or raise fluid level (ce.3a Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 211 Faulty motor. liq. ! ! Seal flushing inadequate. Pump speed below rated figure.check motor size (ce). Refer to pump maker’s instructions (rlp). rlp). rlp). rlp). Check pressure setting and re-adjust if necessary (rlp). ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Rotorcase cover relief valve chatter. rlp). ! ! ! ! ! Flexible coupling misaligned. Increase pump speed (rlp). Suction lift too high. Ensure system operation prevents this (ce.e. Examine and clean seating surfaces (rlp). guides etc replace as necessary (rlp). rlp = Rotary Lobe Probable Causes Solutions ! ! ! ! ! Gland under-tightened. Fit lock washers to slack fasteners and re-tighten (rlp). Ensure discharge pipework higher than suction tank ! flow passing back through pump. Fit flushed packed gland (rlp). Adjust gland packing (rlp). liq.Troubleshooting Problem No flow Under capacity Irregular discharge Low discharge pressure Pump will not prime Prime lost after starting Pump stalls when starting Pump overheats Motor overheats Excessive power absorbed Noise and vibration Pump element wear Syphoning Seizure Mechanical seal leakage Packed gland leakage ce = Centrifugal. Replace worn parts (rlp). rlp). liq. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Insecure pump driver mountings.rlp). Check that flush fluid flows freely into seal area (ce. Too large clearance between impeller and back plate/casing. Metal to metal contact of pumping element. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Table 13. Support pipework (ce. rlp). rlp). No barrier in system to prevent Check for wear on sealing surfaces.

Troubleshooting 212 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

1 Nomenclature Symbol A D F fD g H Hs Ht hfs hft hs ht L n Pa Pf Ps Pt Pv Pvp Q Table 14. 14. Various conversion tables and curves are also shown.Technical Data 14. Technical Data This section includes a summary of nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook.1a Description Area Tube diameter Force Darcy friction factor Gravity Total head Total suction head Total discharge head Pressure drop in suction line Pressure drop in discharge line Static suction head Static discharge head Tube length Pump speed Pressure absolute above fluid level Pressure loss due to friction Vacuum or pressure in a tank on suction side Pressure in a tank on discharge side Power/viscosity factor Vapour pressure Capacity Symbol QL q r Ra Re SG T V ∆ (Greek letter ‘delta’) η (Greek letter ‘eta’) ηh ηm ηoa ηv µ (Greek letter ‘mu’) ν (Greek letter ‘nu’) ρ (Greek letter ‘rho’) Description Fluid losses through impeller casing clearances Pump displacement Radius Surface roughness Reynolds number Specific gravity Shaft torque Fluid velocity γ (Greek letter ‘gamma’) Specific weight Total ∈ (Greek letter ‘epsilon’) Relative roughness Total efficiency Hydraulic efficiency Mechanical efficiency Overall efficiency Volumetric efficiency Absolute viscosity Kinematic viscosity Fluid density ω (Greek letter ‘omega’) Shaft angular velocity Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 213 .

489 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) where: D = tube diameter (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) ρ = density (kg/m³) µ = absolute viscosity (Pa.1.s) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) or where: ν = Kinematic viscosity (cSt) µ = Absolute viscosity (cP) SG = specific gravity or 1 Poise = 100 cP 1 Stoke = 100 cSt 2.409 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (US gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) or V = Q x 0.Technical Data 14.s) or where: D = tube diameter (mm) V = fluid velocity (m/s) ρ = density (kg/m³) µ = absolute viscosity (cP) or where: D = tube diameter (mm) Q = capacity (l/min) µ = absolute viscosity (cP) 2.7 Reynolds number (ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces) Re = D x V x ρ µ Re = D x V x ρ µ Re = 21230 x Q Dxµ 214 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1.2 Formulas Designation Formula Comments Where to find Product Viscosity ν=µ ρ where: ν = Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) µ = Absolute viscosity (mPa.2 ν=µ SG µ = ν x SG Flow Velocity V=Q A where: V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m3/s) A = tube area (m2) or V = Q x 353.6 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m3/h) D = tube diameter (mm) or 2.1.7 V = Q x 0.

2 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 215 .2 Friction loss (Miller equation) Pf = fD x L x ρ x V² Dx2 2.2.2 Total suction head Hs = hs .hfs + (± ps) 2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Reynolds number (ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces) or Re = 3162 x Q Dxν where: D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (US gall/min) ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) or Re = 3800 x Q Dxν where: D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) Pressure/Head Pressure (total force per unit area exerted by a fluid) Static Pressure/Head (relationship between pressure and elevation) P=F A P=ρxgxh where: F = Force A = Area where: P = pressure/head (Pa) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) h = height of fluid (m) or P = h x SG 10 or where: P = pressure/head (bar) h = height of fluid (m) 2.2 P = h x SG 2.2.2.31 where: P = pressure/head (psi) h = height of fluid (ft) where: Ht = total discharge head Hs = total suction head where: ht = static discharge head hft = pressure drop in discharge line pt > 0 for pressure pt < 0 for vacuum pt = 0 for open tank where: hs = static suction head > 0 for flooded suction < 0 for suction lift hfs = pressure drop in suction line ps > 0 for pressure ps < 0 for vacuum ps = 0 for open tank where: Pf = friction loss (Pa) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) D = tube diameter (m) 2.2.2.2 2.2 Total head H = Ht – (± Hs) Total discharge head Ht = ht + hft + pt 2.2.

4 Power Hydraulic power (theoretical energy required) Power (W) = Q x H x ρ x g where: Q = capacity (m3/s) H = total head (m) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) where: Q = capacity (l/min) H = total head (bar) k = 600 7.2.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D where: Pf = friction loss (psi) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (ft) V = fluid velocity (ft/s) SG = specific gravity D = tube diameter (in) where: fD = friction factor Re = Reynolds number where: Pa = pressure absolute above fluid level (bar) hs = static suction head (m) hfs = pressure drop in suction line (m) Pvp = vapour pressure (bar a) or where: Pa = pressure absolute above fluid level (psi) hs = static suction head (ft) hfs = pressure drop in suction line (ft) Pvp = vapour pressure (psia) 2.1 or Power (kW) = Q x H k or Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) H = total head (psi) k = 1715 where: Q = capacity (UK gall/min) H = total head (psi) k = 1428 or Power (hp) = Q x H k 216 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.2 Darcy friction factor fD = 64 Re NPSHa (Net Positive Suction Head available) NPSHa = Pa ± hs – hfs – Pvp (+hs for flooded suction) (– hs for suction lift) 2.2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Friction loss (Miller equation) or Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D where: Pf = friction loss (bar) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) SG = specific gravity D = tube diameter (mm) or Pf = 0.

2.3 Efficiency Hydraulic efficiency (ηh) Mechanical efficiency (ηm) Volumetric efficiency (Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps) Pump head loss (m) x 100% Total head (m)3 1 .Pump mech.4 Pump efficiency (ηp) Water horse power x 100% Required power or ηp = Q x H x ρ x g ωxT 7.2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find 7.4 7.4 Overall efficiency (ηoa) Water horse power x 100% Drive power Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 217 .4 7.2. losses x 100% Required power ηv = Q x 100% Q + QL where: ηv = volumetric efficiency Q = pump capacity QL = fluid losses due to leakage through the impeller casing clearances where: ηv = volumetric efficiency Q = pump capacity q = pump displacement 7.4 where: ηp = pump efficiency Q = capacity (m3/s) H = total head/pressure (m) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) ω = shaft angular velocity (rad/s) T = shaft torque (Nm) 7.2.2.2.0) Torque (Nm) = Required power (kW) x 9550 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (Kgfm) = Required power (kW) x 974 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (ftlb) = Required power (hp) x 5250 Pump speed (rev/min) 7.2 Required power (power needed at the pump shaft) Torque Torque Hydraulic power Efficiency (100% = 1.2.4 Volumetric efficiency (Rotary Lobe pumps) ηv = Q x 100% q 7.2.

2a 7.2 7.2 7.3.0) or n = Q x 100 q x ηv where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) q = pump displacement (UK gall/100 rev) ηv = vol.0) Flow Control .2 Connection between impeller speed and capacity Connection between impeller speed and head Connection between impeller speed and power Table 14.3. efficiency (100% = 1.4 n = Q x 100 q x ηv where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (US gall/min) q = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) ηv = vol.3.3.2 n2 = n1 x n2 = n1 x n2 = n1 x √ √ 3 H2 H1 P2 P1 where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) H = head (m) where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) P = power (kW) 7.2 218 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2. working point (m) c = required working point (m) where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (m³/h) 7.3.Rotary Lobe Pump Pump speed n = Q x 100 q x ηv x 60 where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (m³/h) q = pump displacement (m³/100 rev) ηv = vol.2 7.Centrifugal Pump Connection between impeller diameter and capacity Connection between impeller diameter and head Connection between impeller diameter and power Reduction of multi-stage impeller diameter D2 = D1 x D2 = D1 x D2 = D1 x √ √ √ 3 5 Q2 Q1 H2 H1 P2 P1 c-b a-b where: D = impeller diameter (mm) Q = capacity (m³/h) where: D = impeller diameter (mm) H = head (m) where: D = impeller diameter (mm) P = power (kW) where: D1 = standard diameter (mm) a = max.3. efficiency (100% = 1.3. efficiency (100% = 1. working point (m) b = min.2 D2 = D1 x √ Q2 Q1 7.0) or 7.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Pump speed .

Technical Data

14.3 Conversion tables
14.3.1 Length
mm 1.0 1000 10 25.4 304.8 914.4 Table 14.3.1a m 0.001 1.0 0.01 0.0254 0.3048 0.9144 cm 0.10 100 1.0 2.540 30.48 91.441 in 0.0394 39.370 0.3937 1.0 12 36 ft 0.0033 3.2808 0.0328 0.0833 1.0 3.0 yd 0.0011 1.0936 0.1094 0.0278 0.3333 1.0

14.3.2 Volume
m³ 1.0 10 x 107 0.0010 1.64 x 10-5 00283 0.0045 37.88 x 10-4 Table 14.3.2a cm³ 100 x 10 1.0 1000 16.387 28317 4546.1 3785.4
4

l 1000 10 x 10-4 1.0 0.0164 28.317 4.546 3.7853

in³ 61024 0.0610 61.026 1.0 1728 277.42 231.0

ft³ 35.315 3.53 x 10-5 0.0353 58 x 10-5 1.0 0.1605 0.1337

UK gall. 220.0 22 x 10-5 0.22 0.0036 6.2288 1.0 0.8327

US gall. 264,0 26.4 x 10-5 0.2642 0.0043 7.4805 1.201 1.0

14.3.3 Volumetric Capacity
m³/h 1.0 0.060 0.10 0.2727 0.2273 0.0283 101.94 3600 Table 14.3.3a l/min 16.667 1.0 1.6667 4.546 3.785 0.4719 1699 6 x 104 hl/h 10.0 0.60 1.0 2.7270 2.2732 0.2832 1019.4 36000 UK gall/min 3.6667 0.22 0.3667 1.0 0.8326 0.1038 373.73 13200 US gall/min 4.3999 0.2642 0.4399 1.201 1.0 0.1247 448.83 15838 ft³/h 35.315 2.1189 3.5315 9.6326 8.0208 1.0 3600 127208 ft³/s 9.81 x 10 5.88 x 10 9.81 x 10 2.67 x 10
-3 -4 -4 -3

m³/s 2.78 x 10-4 1.67 x 10-5 2.78 x 10-5 7.57 x 10-5 6.31 x 10-5 7.86 x 10-6 0.0283 1.0

2.23 x 10-3 2.78 x 10-4 1.0 35.315

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 219

Technical Data

14.3.4 Mass Capacity
kg/s kg/h lb/h UK ton/h t/d (tonne/day) 86.40 0.024 0.0109 24.385 1.0 24 39.190 t/h (tonne/hour) 3.6 0.001 4.54 x 10-4 1.0160 0.0417 1.0 1.6350 lb/s

1.0 2.78 x 10-4 1.26 x 10-4 0.2822 11.57 x 10-3 0.2778 0.4536 Table 14.3.4a

3600 1.0 0.4536 1016.1 41.667 1000 1632.9

7936.6 2.2046 1.0 2240 91.859 2201.8 3600

3.5431 98.4 x 10-5 44.6 x 10-5 1.0 0.0410 0.9842 1.6071

2.2046 6.12 x 10-4 2.78 x 10-4 0.6222 0.0255 0.6116 1.0

14.3.5 Pressure/Head
bar kg/cm² lb/in² (psi) 14.504 14.223 1.0 14.696 0.4335 1.422 0.0193 0.4912 14.5 x 10-5 atm (water) 0.9869 0.9878 0.0609 1.0 0.0295 0.0968 13.2 x 10-4 0.0334 ft (water) 33.455 32.808 2.3067 33.889 1.0 3.2808 0.0446 1.1329 m mm Hg in Hg kPa

1.0 0.9807 0.0689 1.0133 0.0299 0.0981 13.3 x 10-4 0.0339 1.0 x 10-5 Table 14.3.5a

1.0197 1.0 0.0703 1.0332 0.0305 0.10 0.0014 0.0345 10.2 x 10-6

10.197 10 0.7031 10.332 0.3048 1.0 0.0136 0.3453 10.2 x 10-5

750.06 735.56 51.715 760.0 22.420 73.356 1.0 25.40 75.0 x 10-4

29.530 28.959 2.036 29.921 0.8827 2.896 0.0394 1,0 29.5 x 10-5

100 98.07 6.89 101.3 2.99 9.81 0.133 3.39 1.0

9.87 x 10-6 3.34 x 10-4

14.3.6 Force
Table 14.3.6a kN 1.0 9.81 x 10-3 44.5 x 10-4 kgf 101.97 1.0 0.4536 lbf 224.81 2.2046 1.0

14.3.7 Torque
Table 14.3.7a Nm 1.0 9.8067 1.3558 0.113 kgfm 0.102 1.0 0.1383 0.0115 lbft 0.7376 7.2330 1.0 0.0833 lbin 8.8508 86.796 12.0 1.0

220 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Technical Data

14.3.8 Power
W 1.0 9.8067 1.3558 745.70 0.001 Table 14.3.8a kpm/s 0.102 1.0 0.1383 76.040 10.2 x 10-5 ft lbf/s 0.7376 7.2330 1.0 550.0 73.8 x 10-5 hp 1.34 x 10 0.0132 1.82 x 10-3 1.0 13.4 x 10-7
-3

kW 1000 9806.7 1355.8 74.6 x 10-4 1.0

14.3.9 Density
Table 14.3.9a kg/m3 1 103 27.680 x 10 16.019
3

g/cm3 10-3 1 27.680 16.019 x 10
-3

lb/in3 36.127 x 10-6 36.127 x 10-3 1 0.578 70 x 10
-3

lb/ft3 62.428 x 10-3 62.428 1.728 x 103 1

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 221

Technical Data

14.3.10 Viscosity Conversion Table
When SG = 1.0 Read Directly Across When SG is other than 1.0
Find cSt, then mutiply cSt x SG = cP Find Stoke, then mutiply Stoke x SG = Poise

cP 1 2 4 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000

Poise 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10

cSt 1 2 4 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000

Stoke 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10

Saybolt Redwood Universal Seconds Standard SSU Engler #1 31 34 38 47 60 80 100 130 160 210 260 320 370 430 480 530 580 690 790 900 1000 1100 1200 1280 1380 1475 1530 1630 1730 1850 1950 2050 2160 2270 2380 2480 2660 2900 3380 3880 4300 4600 54 57 61 75 94 125 170 190 210 300 350 450 525 600 875 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 3750 4125 4500 5250 6000 8750 7500 29 32 36 44 52 63 86 112 138 181 225 270 314 364 405 445 492 585 670 762 817 933 1020 1085 1170 1250 1295 1380 1465 1570 1650 1740 1830 1925 2020 2100 2255 2460 2860 3290 3640 3900

Ford #3

Ford #4

Zahn #1

Zahn #2

Zahn #3

Zahn #4

Zahn #5

8 9 10 12 15 19 25 29 33 36 41 45 50 58 66 72 81 90 98 106 115 122 130 136 142 150 160 170 180 188 200 210 218 230 250 295 340 365 390

5 8 10 12 14 18 22 25 28 31 32 34 41 45 50 54 58 62 65 68 70 74 89 95 100 106 112 118 124 130 137 143 153 170 194 223 247 264

30 34 37 41 44 52 60 68 72 81 88

16 17 18 19 20 22 24 27 30 34 37 41 49 58 66 74 82 88

10 12 14 16 18 20 23 25 27 30 32 34 36 39 41 43 46 48 50 52 54 58 64 68 76

10 11 13 14 16 17 18 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 29 30 32 33 34 36 38 40 45 51 57 63 69

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 35 40 45 49

222 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Technical Data

When SG = 1.0 Read Directly Across

When SG is other than 1.0
Find cSt, then mutiply cSt x SG = cP Find Stoke, then mutiply Stoke x SG = Poise

cP 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 125000 150000 175000 200000

Poise 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

cSt 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 125000 150000 175000 200000

Stoke 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

Saybolt Redwood Universal Seconds Standard SSU Engler #1 5200 5620 6100 6480 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9400 9850 10300 10750 11200 11600 14500 16500 18500 21000 23500 26000 28000 30000 32500 35000 37000 39500 41080 43000 46500 69400 92500 138500 185000 231000 277500 323500 370000 415500 462000 578000 694000 810000 925000 8250 9000 9750 10350 11100 11850 12600 13300 13900 14600 15300 16100 16800 17500 18250 21800 25200 28800 32400 36000 39600 43100 46000 49600 53200 56800 60300 63900 67400 71000 106000 140000 210000 276000 345000 414000 484000 550000 620000 689000 850000 4410 4680 5160 5490 5940 6350 6780 7200 7620 7950 8350 8730 9110 9500 9830 12300 14000 15650 17800 19900

Ford #3 445 480 520 550 595 635 680 720 760 800 835 875 910 950 985 1230 1400 1570

Ford #4 299 323 350 372 400 430 460 490 520 540 565 592 617 645 676 833 950 1060 1175 1350 1495 1605 1720 1870 2010 2120 2270 2350 2470 2670

Zahn #1

Zahn #2

Zahn #3

Zahn #4 77

Zahn #5 55 59 64 70 75 80 85 91 96

Table 14.3.10a

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 223

2 °C 10.1 26.2 59.1000 to °F 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 932 950 968 986 1004 1022 1040 1058 1076 1094 1112 1130 1148 1166 1184 1202 1220 1238 1256 1274 1292 1310 1328 1346 1364 1382 1400 1418 1436 1454 1472 1490 1508 1526 1544 1562 1580 1598 1616 1634 1652 1670 1688 1706 1724 1742 1760 1778 1796 1814 1832 -459.4 20.6 -10.4 57.0 141.4 30.8 3.2 27.0 96.8 188.4 129.9 14. °C = ( °F .4 201.4 15.8 ) + 32 minus 459.0 -9.2 50.8 62.8 -17.8 116.0 195.4 25.2 41.7 32.7 37.2 2.8 161.4 66.0 -14.6 127.1 6.1 21. If in °C read the °F equivalent in the right hand column.2 113.4 75.1 36.9 29.2 194.3 18.0 35.8 170.4 -8.9 24.100 to 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 °F 122.6 -15.3.4 192.6 100.8 28.2 77.6 145.2 -16.3 33.1 -10.6 154.3 23.11 Temperature Conversion Table Locate temperature in middle column.6 190.0 168.7 -1.3 28.3 3.4 111.0 87.6 6.8 125.4 5.0 123.1 -0.0 25.2 212.6 55.2 22.1 11.6 1.6 -5.4 0 .0 -4.8 89.6 181.8 107.8 197.4 84.0 159.8 80.6 73.49 to 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 °F 32 33.6 11.4 35.4 93.3 -2.6 46.8 -12.4 48.0 °C 38 43 49 54 60 66 71 77 82 88 93 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 132 138 143 149 154 160 166 171 177 182 188 193 199 204 210 216 221 227 232 238 243 249 254 100 .6 118.4 102.2 -6.3.0 10.2 17.4 183.0 0.0 5.6 136.4 -454 -436 -418 -400 -382 -364 -346 -328 -310 -292 -274 -256 -238 -220 -202 -184 -166 -148 -130 -112 -94 -76 -58 -40 -22 -4 14 32 Table 14.6 26.8 18.9 19.8 179.8 -459 -450 -440 -430 -420 -410 -400 -390 -380 -370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 °C -17.7 22.0 78.6 208.1 -15.0 69.8 50 .7 12.2 158.8 53.1 16.2 185.2 95.4 156.2 32.0 105.6 21.8 44.0 15.9 9.7 2.8 35.4 .8 206.6 16.7 7.4 -13.8 152.2 7.490 to 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 °F 212 230 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 414 428 446 464 482 500 518 536 554 572 590 608 626 644 662 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896 914 °C 260 266 271 277 282 288 293 299 304 310 316 321 327 332 338 343 349 354 360 366 371 377 382 388 393 399 404 410 416 421 427 432 438 443 449 454 460 466 471 477 482 488 493 499 504 510 516 521 527 532 538 500 .8 8.8 33.5556 °F = ( °C x 1.8 143.11a 224 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 210.2 167.8 23.0 42.7 -16.4 165.0 30.0 177.6 37.6 82.4 138.1 31.4 174.4 120.7 -6.6 109.6 199.7 27.2 203.6 64.8 13.2 104.2 176.6 36. If in °F read °C equivalent in the left hand column.6 0.Technical Data 14.9 -8.9 34.3 -12.6 91.0 114.8 -7.32 ) x 0.2 149.9 -13.7 -11.8 98.4 39.2 68.9 -3.8 134.6 172.0 150.0 20.4 147.2 140.1 -5.8 -2.9 4.7 17.0 60.6 31.3 -7.3 8.3 13.2 -1.2 12.1 1.0 204.8 71.4 -3.2 86.2 131.0 186.2 37.0 51.6 163.0 °C to °F -273 -268 -262 -257 -251 -246 -240 -234 -229 -223 -218 -212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 -96 -90 -84 -79 -73 -68 -62 -57 -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.2 -11.0 132.

6 47.9 70. (°C) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Density (ρ) (kg/m3) 999.3 15.9 971.2 988.2 997.1 992.4a Temp.0 999.71 2.7 19.7 983.2 38.0 985.1 998.25 5.6 965.Technical Data 14.9 958.5 57.6 977.3 Vapour pressure: 1 bar = 100 kPa = 105 N/m2 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 225 .62 7.8 1000.2 990.7 101.23 1.9 25.60 12.40 4.3 961.1 995.61 0.4 Water Vapour Pressure Table Table 14.38 9.1 84.87 1.7 994.1 31.7 999.8 968.8 974.33 3.2 980.4 Vapour pressure (Pvp) (kPa) 0.

5 Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube 1 bar ≈ 10 m (metre liquid column) Fig. 14.Technical Data 14.5a Pressure Drop Curve 226 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

6a Connection between velocity and capacity at different tube dimensions Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 227 .6 Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities m/s l/h 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 1 m3/h = 1000 l/h Fig. 14.Technical Data 14.

4. 3. 3. 4. 5.5 mm 76 mm 101. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. AMO 2.7. ARC. 4. ARC-SB 2. Koltek MH 2. 5. Aseptic seat valves 1.7 Equivalent Tube Length Table 14. 6. 4. 5. SRC. 1. SRC-LS 2. 3. 1. 7 1 1 1 10 1 2 2 12 1 3 4 21 1 5 6 20 2 6 9 26 2 7 10 7 5 4 4 6 5 8 8 6 8 13 9 10 8 18 15 15 15 10 17 28 21 20 15 37 28 20 20 18 44 43 27 32 29 61 50 55 36 55 39 88 75 7 5 4 3 5 5 6 4 10 4 14 10 7 3 7 5 8 7 12 6 12 7 27 21 12 8 8 4 13 10 21 14 15 12 32 22 11 7 9 6 13 11 30 19 29 26 50 39 8 6 14 11 19 17 25 mm Equivalent tube length in metres per unit 38 mm 51 mm 63.1 ISO Tube Metric Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 2 m/s) Seat valves 1. 3.Technical Data 14. 6.6 mm 228 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 6. SMO 2.

4. SMP-SC. 3. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool.6 mm 14 14 5 6 14 14 4 5 14 14 4 4 8 8 27 27 6 7 17 16 4 5 14 16 4 11 7 13 13 34 34 4 18 16 30 20 41 34 5 8 5 25 25 5 7 32 25 5 5 27 29 3 8 7 15 14 25 23 3 29 29 41 27 41 38 26 26 4 5 55 41 5 14 45 52 6 18 11 32 31 101 101 6 84 81 104 75 152 146 6 23 24 3 3 3 7 6 9 6 2 5 3 6 5 5 6 3 6 5 11 10 12 12 3 10 9 18 12 14 14 0.7. 6. 3. 5.Technical Data Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 2 m/s) Mixproof valves 1. 3. 4. 7. Bend 45 deg. 1. SMP-SC 2. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 25 mm Equivalent tube length in metres per unit 38 mm 51 mm 63.4 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 2 1 7 5 Table 14. 3. 7. 5.5 mm 76 mm 101. 1. 4. Unique * 2. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. SMP-TO 2. 4. SMP-BCA 2.3 0. 1. 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 229 .2 1 1 1 0. 3. SMP-BC 2.1a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 1. 3-body 2. 6.

ARC. SRC.2 ISO Tube Feet Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Seat valves 1. 6. 6. 3. 3. 4. 5. 4.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. AMO 2. 4. 1. SMO 2. 1. 23 3 3 3 33 3 7 7 39 3 10 13 69 3 16 20 66 7 20 30 85 7 23 33 23 16 13 13 20 16 26 26 20 26 43 30 33 26 59 49 49 49 33 56 92 69 66 49 121 92 66 66 59 144 141 89 105 95 200 164 180 118 180 128 289 246 23 16 13 10 16 16 20 13 33 13 46 33 23 10 23 16 26 23 39 20 39 23 89 69 39 26 26 13 43 33 69 46 49 39 105 72 36 23 30 20 43 36 98 62 95 85 164 128 26 20 46 36 62 56 1 in 1. 3.Technical Data 14. 5. SRC-LS 2. 4. 6. 5. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. ARC-SB 2. Koltek MH 2.5 in 3 in 4 in 230 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .7. Seat valves 1. 3.

4. 5. 3. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. 7. 5. SMP-BCA 2.Technical Data Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Mixproof valves 1. 3. 1.7.5 in 3 in 4 in 46 46 16 20 46 46 13 16 46 46 13 13 26 26 89 89 20 23 56 52 13 16 46 52 13 36 23 43 43 112 112 13 59 52 98 66 135 112 16 26 16 82 82 16 23 105 82 16 16 89 95 10 26 23 49 46 82 75 10 95 95 135 89 135 125 85 85 13 16 180 135 16 46 148 171 20 59 36 105 102 331 331 20 276 266 341 246 499 479 20 75 79 10 10 10 23 20 30 20 7 16 10 20 16 16 20 10 20 16 36 33 39 39 10 33 30 59 39 46 46 1 1 3 3 3 1 7 7 3 3 10 7 3 3 13 10 3 3 16 13 7 3 23 16 Table 14.2a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 6. 3. SMP-SC 2. 3-body 2. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 1 in 1. Bend 45 deg. 1. 7. 4. SMP-TO 2. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 231 . SMP-SC. 3. 4. Unique * 2. 1. 1. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 4. 3. 1. 6. SMP-BC 2.

6. 3.3 DIN Tube Metric Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 2 m/s) Seat valves 1. 5. 4. 3. SRC. 3. 14 2 2 2 14 1 2 2 15 1 5 5 32 2 9 9 36 2 10 14 30 2 8 13 2 1 8 6 5 5 7 6 10 10 6 9 15 11 13 9 20 17 21 21 11 21 42 28 26 22 54 40 34 34 24 64 64 44 46 44 98 77 64 40 57 43 94 84 8 6 4 4 6 6 7 6 11 6 18 15 9 4 9 8 11 10 15 9 18 12 44 34 19 10 13 7 19 16 28 21 27 23 54 36 21 14 18 12 24 22 33 23 33 28 57 43 9 7 17 13 22 18 18 22 29 27 49 38 44 72 72 69 150 89 DN25 DN40 Equivalent tube length in metres per unit DN50 DN65 DN80 DN100 DN125 DN150 232 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Aseptic seat valves 1. 3. SMO 2. ARC-SB 2. 5.Technical Data 14. 6. 4. 1. SRC-LS 2. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. ARC.7. 1. AMO 2. 4. 5. Koltek MH 2. 6. 4.

3a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 1. SMP-SC. 4. 5.4 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 2 1 7 5 Table 14. 3-body 2. Unique * 2. SMP-SC 2. 4. 6. Bend 45 deg.7. 4. 1.2 1 1 1 0. 3. 7. 1. 4. SMP-BC 2. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 233 . Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) DN25 DN40 Equivalent tube length in metres per unit DN50 DN65 DN80 DN100 DN125 DN150 14 14 5 6 14 14 4 5 15 14 4 4 9 9 27 27 6 7 24 22 6 6 22 25 5 13 11 22 22 52 52 5 32 25 46 30 62 54 7 11 8 25 25 5 7 54 41 6 6 44 54 5 15 12 24 23 44 44 5 51 49 72 46 67 64 26 26 4 5 64 50 6 15 54 64 7 21 20 40 37 114 114 6 97 94 124 84 174 167 8 28 30 4 38 31 8 78 61 49 53 7 7 89 133 22 22 3 4 4 9 7 10 9 3 6 3 9 6 8 9 4 7 6 17 13 15 15 4 13 12 24 15 20 21 0.Technical Data Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 2 m/s) Mixproof valves 1. SMP-TO 2. 3. 1.3 0. 3. SMP-BCA 2. 7. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. 6. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 3. 5. 3. 1.

SMO 2. SRC-LS 2. 3. 4. ARC-SB 2. 4. 6. SRC. 6. ARC. 3.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 1.5 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 234 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . AMO 2. 4. Koltek MH 2. Aseptic seat valves 1. 4. 1. 5. 46 7 7 7 46 3 7 7 49 3 16 16 105 7 30 30 118 7 33 46 98 7 26 43 7 3 26 20 16 16 30 20 33 33 20 30 49 36 43 30 66 56 69 69 36 69 138 92 85 72 177 131 112 112 79 210 210 144 151 144 322 253 210 131 187 141 308 276 26 20 13 13 20 20 23 20 36 20 59 49 30 13 30 26 36 33 49 30 59 39 144 112 62 33 43 23 62 52 92 69 89 75 177 118 69 46 59 39 79 72 108 75 108 92 187 141 30 23 56 43 72 59 59 72 95 89 161 125 144 236 236 226 492 292 1 in 1. 3.7. 5. 3. 5. 6. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1.4 DIN Tube Feet Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Seat valves 1.Technical Data 14.

SMP-BC 2. 4.5 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 46 46 16 20 46 46 13 16 49 46 13 13 30 30 89 89 20 23 79 72 20 20 72 82 16 43 36 72 72 171 171 16 105 82 151 98 203 177 23 36 26 82 82 16 23 177 135 20 20 144 177 16 49 39 79 75 144 144 16 167 161 236 151 220 210 85 85 13 16 210 164 20 49 177 210 23 69 66 131 121 374 374 20 318 308 407 276 571 548 26 92 98 13 125 102 26 256 200 161 174 23 23 292 436 72 72 10 13 13 30 23 33 30 10 20 10 30 20 26 30 13 23 20 56 43 49 49 13 43 39 79 49 66 69 1 1 3 3 3 1 7 7 3 3 10 7 3 3 13 10 3 3 16 13 7 3 23 16 Table 14. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 235 . 3. 5. 7. 1. Unique * 2. 1. 3. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 6. 3-body 2. 6. 3. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 1 in 1. 1. 4.7.4a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug.Technical Data Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Mixproof valves 1. 1. 3. SMP-BCA 2.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. 7. 3. 4. SMP-SC. SMP-TO 2. 4. 1. Bend 45 deg. SMP-SC 2. 5.

8a Moody diagram for fD (after Miller) 236 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 14.8 Moody Diagram Fig.Technical Data 14.

14.cSt Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 237 .9a Initial suction line sizing Viscosity .m3/h 100 Fig.Technical Data 14.9 Initial Suction Line Sizing Flow rate .

(†) .TOFFEE CASTOR OIL CELLULOSE ACETATE DOPE CELLULOSE SUSPENSION CERAMIC SLIP ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ! ! Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) (‡) Name of Fluid Pumped 238 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The fluid viscous behaviour type shown relates to general terms . this can be Newtonian. .Technical Data 14.WATER BASED ALUM SLUDGE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE ANIMAL FAT BABY BATH BABY LOTION BABY OIL BATH FOAM BATTER BEER BENTONITE SUSPENSION BISCUIT CREAM BISULPHITE BITUMEN BLACK LIQUOR BLEACH BLOOD BODY LOTION BODY SCRUB BRINE BUTTER CALCIUM CARBONATE SLURRY CARAMEL .in some instances Pseudoplastic fluids can have Thixotropic tendencies.COLOURING CARAMEL .SOLVENT BASED ADHESIVE .If low concentration.Fluid can become Dilatant at high concentration and high shear rate. The elastomer compatibilty is for guidance purposes only as this may be affected by temperature.10 Elastomer Compatibility Guide Listed below are fluids commonly pumped. NBR ACETIC ACID ACETONE ADHESIVE .

ANIONIC DETERGENT .AMPHOTERIC DETERGENT .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR CHEESE CHEWING GUM CHINA CLAY SLURRY CHOCOLATE CHROMIC ACID CHUTNEY CITRIC ACID COAL TAR COCOA BUTTER COCOA LIQUOR COCONUT CREAM COLLAGEN GEL CONDENSED MILK COPPER SULPHATE CORN STEEP LIQUOR CORN SYRUP COSMETIC CREAM COUGH SYRUP CRUDE OIL CUSTARD DAIRY CREAM DETERGENT .NONIONIC DIESEL OIL DODECYL BENZENE SULPHONIC ACID DRILLING MUD DYE EGG ENZYME SOLUTION ETHANOL ETHYLENE GLYCOL FABRIC CONDITIONER FATS FATTY ACID FERRIC CHLORIDE FERTILISER FILTER AID FININGS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM FISH OIL FONDANT FORMIC ACID FROMAGE FRAIS FRUCTOSE FRUIT JUICE CONCENTRATE FRUIT PUREE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic (‡) Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 239 .CATIONIC DETERGENT .

PRINTING INK .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR FUDGE GELATINE GLUCOSE GLYCERINE GREASE GYPSUM SLURRY HAIR CONDITIONER HAIR GEL HAND CLEANSER HONEY HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE CREAM MIX INK .SOLVENT BASED ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic 240 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .WATER BASED ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL ISOCYANATE ISOPROPANOL JAM KEROSENE LACTIC ACID LACTOSE LANOLIN LATEX LECITHIN LIPSTICK LIQUORICE MAGMA MAIZE STARCH SLURRY MALT EXTRACT MANGANESE NITRATE MASCARA MASHED POTATO MASSECUITE MAYONNAISE MEAT PASTE METHANOL METHYL ETHYL KETONE SOLVENT METHYLATED SPIRIT METHYLENE CHLORIDE MILK MINCEMEAT MINERAL OIL MOLASSES MUSTARD NEAT SOAP NITRIC ACID PAINTS .

STARCH PAPER PULP PEANUT BUTTER PERACETIC ACID PETFOOD PETROLEUM PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSION PLASTISOL POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL POLYVINYL ALCOHOL POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE PROPIONIC ACID PROPYLENE GLYCOL QUARG RESIN RUBBER SOLUTION SAUCE .VEGETABLE SAUSAGE MEAT SEWAGE SLUDGE SHAMPOO SHAVING CREAM SILICONE OIL SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM SILICATE SORBIC ACID SORBITOL STARCH SUGAR PULP .CONFECTIONERY SAUCE .WATER BASED PAPER COATING .BEET SUGAR PULP .CLAY PAPER COATING .CANE SUGAR SYRUP SULPHURIC ACID TALL OIL TALLOW TITANIUM DIOXIDE TOBACCO FLAVOURING TOLUENE TOMATO KETCHUP TOMATO PUREE TOOTHPASTE TRUB UREA VARNISH VASELINE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic (†) Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 241 .PIGMENT PAPER COATING .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR PAINTS .

10a Elastomer compatibility guide ! ! ! Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic (†) 242 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR VEGETABLE GUM VEGETABLE OIL VITAMIN SOLUTION WATER WAX WHEY WHITE SPIRIT WINE WORT XYLENE YEAST YOGHURT ZEOLITE SLURRY ZIRCONIA SLURRY Table 14.

91 0.2 3.92 0.4 3.5 4.75 0.0 3.87 0.55 0.5 2.0 3.5 4.55 0.91 0.91 0.1 1.1/4.6/1.91 0.75 0.90 0.1 2.3 4.1 5.91 0.7 3.88 0.1 1.8 3.2 3.6 1.1 1.75 0.6 2.92 0.0/0.5 3.0 3.7 10.91 0.0 3.6 4.91 0.5 2.6 1.82 0.91 0.3 2.2 3.8 6.4/3.91 2.5 1.55 0.5 3.90 0.1 ABB 80 A ABB 80 C ABB 90 L ABB 90 LB ABB 100 LB Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 243 .86 0.74 0.9 5.11 Changing Motor Name Plates Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 71 C 0.1 1.0 3.6/1.3 5.75 0.7/3.0/2.75 1.8 6.5 1.7 8.9/5.5 1.7 4.1/1.1 4.5 5.91 0.4 2.8 9.Technical Data 14.2 6.75 1.90 0.1 1.89 0.88 0.1 5.6 1.91 0.1 8.91 0.2 2.85 0.2 2.1 2.85 0.3 5.3 7.3 2.65 0.0 5.3 4.89 0.1 3.9 10.0 2.5 3.88 0.7 5.89 0.75 0.3 2.89 0.90 0.4 8.3 3.91 0.88 0.7 11.6/2.77 0.91 0.92 0.89 0.90 0.2 2.91 0.2 3.3 3.55 0.0 3.88 0.2 50 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 250-280∆/380-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 380-420∆/660-690Y 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ Standard New Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2850 2800 3420 3360 3410 2850 2800 3420 3370 3420 3440 3420 2850 2830 3420 3390 3440 3450 3440 2920 2880 3510 3460 3490 3500 3490 2900 2860 3500 3430 3470 3470 3450 2920 2890 3520 3470 3490 3500 3490 2920 3520 3500 3490 0.85 0.8 1.1 1.85 0.5 2.90 0.3 1.86 0.90 0.

90 0.0 12.4 34.7 18.5 5.3 10.4 5.4 14.0 22.0 40.4 7.89 0.91 0.91 0.0 20.0 22.2 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 380-420∆/660-690Y 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 380-420∆/660-690Y 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 380-420∆/660-690Y 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 230∆/400Y 200∆ 440Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 400∆/690Y 440∆ 400∆ 380∆ Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2850 2790 3450 3360 3390 3400 3390 2850 3450 3400 3390 2855 2790 3455 3345 3395 3380 3370 2855 3455 3380 3370 2855 2825 3455 3365 3405 3415 3405 2855 3455 3415 3405 2930 2900 3515 3475 3485 3500 3485 2930 3515 3500 3485 0.89 0.0 20.4 7.0 3.89 0.90 0.7 5.91 0.5/20.8 ABB 132 SA 5.1 13.91 0.5/14.0 23.5 11.0 3.7 7.9 10.9/6.8/4.89 0.0 12.91 0.88 0.9 10.3 7.0 10.5 12.9/10.8 7.0 14.89 0.4 ABB 132 SB 7.4 5.89 0.5 6.0 12.4 7.4 5.88 0.8 14.89 0.6 3.89 0.90 0.8 7.4 14.4 5.7 5.91 0.4 14.5 8.90 0.88 0.7 7.7 4.8 10.5 12.9 25.90 0.88 0.91 0.89 0.9 21.5 6.88 0.91 0.88 0.5/7.92 0.0 18.4 5.2 11.9 10.91 0.0 4.89 0.0/11.5 7.0 11.91 0.0 23.4 26.4 6.0 14.0 40.8 4.91 0.5 14.6 7.4 ABB 160 MA 11.0 7.91 0.91 0.9 21.9 10.92 0.92 0.0 3.8 4.7 13.0 40.6 8.89 0.4 3.2 12.6 7.4 7.91 0.4 14.0 25.5 20.7 25.6 4.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 112 M 4.5 7.91 0.7/8.5 12.89 13.0 244 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .91 0.89 0.89 0.

75 1.5 77.89 0.0 27.0 22.7 15.5/22.7 ABB 160 L 18.0 59.89 0.8 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 230∆/400Y 200∆ 440Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 400∆/690Y 440∆ 400∆ 380∆ 230∆/400Y 200∆ 440Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 400∆/690Y 440∆ 400∆ 380∆ 230∆/400Y 200∆ 440Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 400∆/690Y 440∆ 400∆ 380∆ Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2920 2890 3505 3470 3485 3500 3485 2920 3505 3500 3485 2920 2895 3510 3500 3490 3500 3490 2920 3510 3500 3490 2930 2920 3530 3505 3510 3520 3510 2930 3530 3520 3510 0.88 0.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 160M 15.4 18.5 59.0 25.5 15.76 0.5 30.2 6.5 21.0 52.74 0.9 0.91 0.86 0.0 16.0 26.0 34.0 17.9 0.0 32.0 16.5 18.5 6.5 51.5 44.0 25.5/15.6 3.89 0.90 0.89 0.0 44.3 3.5 17.0 46.91 0.0 25.87 0.5 1.5 1.91 0.0 14.86 0.89 0.2/3.5 33.89 46.0/38.1 3.90 0.88 0.4 18.3 27.5 76.0 4-pole motors ABB 90 L-4 1.91 0.75 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y Standard New Standard New New New New 1440 1380 1730 1660 1680 1680 1660 0.0 30.5 19.0 22.0 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 245 .0 25.0 25.0 25.75 1.0 22.0/32.0 30.5 53.5 1.91 0.0 15.89 0.91 0.5 15.5 34.6 6.0 40.91 0.0 19.91 0.6 1.5 17.0 80.91 0.0 33.90 0.7 16.89 0.0 40.7 18.89 0.0 38.0 25.9 0.0 34.86 0.9 0.0 14.91 0.91 0.91 0.0 34.0 30.2 21.0 46.0 60.0 55.0/18.89 0.0/26.9 0.87 6.5 ABB 180 M 22.9 0.0 67.

0 28.87 0.84 0.0 55.5 12.0 20.5 21.5 30.0 32.1 29.0 246 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .0 32.0 14.0 70.3 26.87 0.0 30.85 0.5 12.87 0.87 0.83 0.5 21.83 0.0 ABB 132 M-4 7.5 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 380-420∆/660-690Y 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 380-420∆/660-690Y 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 230∆/400Y 200∆ 440Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 400∆/690Y 440∆ 400∆ 380∆ 230∆/400Y 200∆ 440Y 200∆ 220∆ 400Y 380Y 400∆/690Y 440∆ 400∆ 380∆ Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 1440 1430 1750 1700 1730 1735 1730 1450 1750 1735 1730 1450 1440 1750 1720 1730 1735 1730 1450 1750 1735 1730 1455 1440 1745 1720 1730 1735 1730 1455 1765 1735 1730 1470 1460 1765 1750 1755 1755 1755 1470 1765 1755 1755 0.0 7.0 16.4 8.5 5.86 0.4 11.2 16.85 0.5/6.86 0.83 0.5 18.8 16.0 54.5 22.0 36.5 21.1 16.0 32.0 14.85 0.86 0.0 20.0 17.85 0.84 0.83 0.0 15.85 0.5 8.0 40.4 6.6 11.0/15.83 0.2 15.86 0.84 0.85 0.0 6.5 18.0 17.2 49.0 21.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 4-pole motors ABB 132 S-4 5.83 0.1 11.0 16.86 0.8 8.86 0.3 6.3 6.0 61.0 ABB 180M-4 18.84 0.0 41.4 8.86 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.0 40.0 70.3 6.0 5.0 28.0 18.86 0.5/16.0/20.2 16.0 16.0 36.4 12.0 41.87 0.87 0.4 5.5 53.5 20.83 0.0 ABB 160 L-4 15.85 0.4 27.0 32.6 8.5 6.85 0.0 8.8 15.0 35.0/35.0 71.3/8.84 0.5 6.6 7.84 0.85 0.5 6.85 0.4 8.0/28.84 0.85 19.4 12.9/11.5 21.3 15.86 0.0 16.8 16.83 0.0 21.

90 Brook Hansen 250 55.0 37.0 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 380-420∆/660-690Y 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 380-420∆/660-690Y 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 380-420∆/660-690Y 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 380-420∆/660-690Y 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ 220-240∆/380-420Y 200∆ 380-420∆/660-690Y 250-280∆/440-480Y 200∆ 220∆ 440-480∆ 400∆ 380∆ Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New 2950 2950 2950 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 2940 2940 2940 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 2955 2955 2955 3555 3555 3555 3555 3555 3555 2960 2960 2960 3560 3560 3560 3560 3560 3560 2965 2965 2965 3565 3565 3565 3565 3565 3565 97/53 106 53/31 83/46 107 97 46 53 55 118/68 130 68/38 115/54 131 119 54 65 69 143/79 157 83/46 144/69 158 144 69 72 75 172/95 189 100/55 173/83 190 173 83 100 105 232/128 256 135/74 234/115 257 234 115 128 135 0.0 75.89 Brook Hansen 200 37.0 30.0 0.90 Brook Hansen 250 75.11a Changing motor name plates Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 247 .0 0.0 0.90 Table 14.89 Brook Hansen 200 45.0 55.0 45.0 0.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors Brook Hansen 200 30.

Technical Data 248 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Connection piece between the motor and back plate on a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. Tending to move out from the centre.Glossary of Terms 15. Absolute Pressure Total pressure exerted by a fluid i. Glossary of Terms This section explains the various terms found in this handbook. Part of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump.e.ability to clean pump system without dismantling pump and system. discharge pressure minus suction pressure.e. Fluids mass per unit of volume. Pressure at which fluid is leaving the pump. Measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is between two layers of fluid in motion. Pump speed required to overcome slip for a rotary lobe pump. Fluid viscosity increases as shear rate increases. which together with the pump casing forms the fluid chamber. Fluid viscosity increases with time under shear conditions. Absolute Viscosity Adaptor Anti-thixotropic Back Plate Cavitation Centrifugal CIP Dead Head Speed Density Differential Pressure Dilatant Discharge Pressure Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 249 . Vacuous space in the inlet port of a pump normally occupied by fluid. Cleaning In Place . Total absolute pressure differences across the pump during operation i.

decreasing to zero at the pipe wall. Positive inlet pressure/head. Net Positive Suction Head describing the inlet condition of a pump and system. Fluid viscosity is constant with change in shear rate or agitation. Net Positive Suction Head available in a system. Pumping element of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Energy required to set fluid in motion and to overcome any resistance to that motion. Net Inlet Pressure Available in a system. Net Inlet Pressure Required from a pump. A pump with more than one impeller mounted on the same shaft and connected so as to act in series. Pressure drop on both inlet and discharge sides of the pump due to frictional losses in fluid flow. Measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is under the influence of gravity. Flow characteristic whereby the fluid moves through the pipe in concentric layers with its maximum velocity in the centre of the pipe.Glossary of Terms Duty Point Dynamic Head Intersection point between the pump curve and the process curve. using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference. Pressure at which fluid is entering the pump. Net Positive Suction Head required from a pump. Pressure within a gauge that exceeds the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Elastomer Electropolishing Flooded Suction Friction Head Gauge Pressure Hydraulic Power Impeller Inlet Pressure Kinematic Viscosity Laminar Flow Multi-stage Newtonian NPSH NPSHa NPSHr NIPA NIPR 250 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Theoretical energy required to pump a given quantity of fluid against a given total head. Method of surface finishing achieved by an electro-chemical process. Non-metallic sealing device that exhibits elastic strain characteristics.

Part of a rotary lobe pump. Ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces giving a value to determine type of flow characteristic. which together with the rotorcase cover forms the pump chamber. which together with the rotorcase forms the pump chamber.Glossary of Terms Non-Product Wetted Metallic and elastomeric components not in contact with the fluid being pumped. Result of frictional losses in pipework. Part of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Fluid viscosity decreases as shear rate increases. Science of fluid flow. Fluid viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions but does not recover. A machine to transfer rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. Metallic and elastomeric components in contact with the fluid being pumped. fittings and other process equipment. Power needed at the pump shaft. Result of change in fluid velocity. Pump type whereby the fluid pumped is directly displaced. Pressure at which fluid is leaving the pump. Part of a rotary lobe pump. Method of surface finishing achieved by blasting finished components with small metallic particles at great force. which together with the back plate forms the fluid chamber. Method of surface finishing achieved by vibrating components with abrasive particulate. Outlet Pressure Positive Displacement Pressure Drop Pressure Shock Product Wetted Pseudoplastic Pump Casing Required Power Reynolds Number (Re) Rheology Rheomalactic Rotodynamic Rotor Rotorcase Rotorcase Cover Rumbling Shotblasting Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 251 . Pumping element of a rotary lobe pump.

Static suction head less the dynamic head. Rapid temperature change of pumphead components. Difference in fluid levels. Ratio of a fluids density to the density of water. Fluid viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions. Flow characteristic whereby considerable mixing of the fluid takes place across a pipe section with velocity remaining fairly constant. Fluid lost by leakage through the pump clearances of a rotary lobe pump. Pressure at which fluid is entering the pump. Difference in height between the static discharge head and the static suction head. Difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the inlet side of the pump.ability to steam clean or sterilise pump system without dismantling pump and system. Fluids weight per unit volume. Total pressure difference between the total discharge head and the total suction head of the pump. Slip Specific Gravity Specific Weight Static Head Static Discharge Head Static Suction Head Suction Lift Suction Pressure Thermal Shock Thixotropic Torque Total Discharge Head Total Efficiency Total Head Total Static Head Total Suction Head Transitional Flow Turbulent Flow 252 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Moment of force required to produce rotation. Fluid level is below the centre line of the pump inlet. Flow characteristic combining both laminar and turbulent flow tendencies. Sum of the static discharge and dynamic heads. Relationship between the input power at the pump shaft and output power in the form of water horsepower. Difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the discharge side of the pump.Glossary of Terms SIP Steam or Sterilisation In Place .

Pressure at which a fluid will change to a vapour. Velocity Viscosity Viscous Power Volumetric Efficiency Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 253 . Distance a fluid moves per unit of time. Measure of how resistive a fluid is to flow. Power loss due to viscous fluid friction within the pump. Ratio of actual capacity against theoretical capacity.Glossary of Terms Vacuum Vapour Pressure Pressure in a pumping system below normal atmospheric pressure. at a given temperature.

Glossary of Terms 254 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Time and time again. How to contact Alfa Laval Contact details for all countries are continually updated on our website. beverages. Our equipment. PM66050GB2 2002 . foodstuff.com to access the information. cool. separate and transport products such as oil. systems and services are dedicated to assisting customers in optimizing the performance of their processes.alfalaval.Alfa Laval in brief Alfa Laval is a leading global provider of specialized products and engineering solutions. We help them heat. starch and pharmaceuticals. water. chemicals. Please visit www. Our worldwide organization works closely with customers in almost 100 countries to help them stay ahead.

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