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New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15

)
CHAPTER 15
APPLICATIONS OF
DIFFERENTIATION
EXERCISE 15.1
Section 15.1 Tangents and normals
(page 102)
Section A
1. y = x
3

dx
dy
= 3x
2
2 − · x
dx
dy
= 12
The equation of tangent is
2
8
+
+
x
y
= 12
i.e. 12x − y + 16 = 0.
The equation of normal is
2
8
+
+
x
y
= −
12
1
i.e. x + 12y + 98 = 0.
2. xy = 12
x
dx
dy
+ y = 0

dx
dy
=
x
y


) 4 , 3 (
dx
dy
=
3
4

The equation of tangent is
3
4


x
y
=
3
4

i.e. 4x + 3y – 24 = 0.
The equation of normal is
3
4


x
y
=
4
3
i.e. 3x – 4y + 7 = 0.
3. y = (x – 2) (x + 4)

dx
dy
= 2x + 2
1 − · x
dx
dy
= 0
The equation of tangent is
1
9
+
+
x
y
= 0
i.e. y + 9 = 0.
The equation of normal is
x + 1 = 0.
4. y =
3
1
+ x

dx
dy
=
2
) 3 (
1
+

x
2 − · x
dx
dy
= −1
The equation of tangent is
2
1
+

x
y
= −1
i.e. x + y + 1 = 0.
The equation of normal is
2
1
+

x
y
= 1
i.e. x − y + 3 = 0.
5. y =
4
1
2
+ x

dx
dy
= −
2 2
) 4 (
2
+ x
x
1 · x
dx
dy
= −
25
2

The equation of tangent is

1
5
1


x
y
= −
25
2
i.e. 2x + 25y − 7 = 0.
The equation of normal is

1
5
1


x
y
=
2
25
i.e. 125x − 10y − 123 = 0.
6. y =
x

dx
dy
=
x 2
1
4 · x
dx
dy
=
4
1

The equation of tangent is

4
2


x
y
=
4
1
i.e. x − 4y + 4 = 0.
The equation of normal is

4
2


x
y
= − 4
i.e. 4x + y − 18 = 0.
7. y = 3 tan x
dx
dy
= 3 sec
2
x
4
π
x
dx
dy
·
= 6
51
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
The equation of tangent is

4
3
π
x
y


= 6
i.e. 6x − y − 3
2
3
+
π
= 0.
The equation of normal is

4
3
π
x
y


= −
6
1
i.e. x + 6y −
4
π
− 18 = 0.
8. y = sin x + cos x

dx
dy
= cos x − sin x
π x
dx
dy
·
= −1
The equation of tangent is

π x
y

+1
= −1
i.e. x + y + 1 −
π
= 0.
The equation of normal is

π x
y

+1
= 1
i.e. x − y − 1 −
π
= 0.
9. y = ) ( sin
2
y x
π
+

dx
dy
=
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos
2
y x
π
y x
π
+ −
+
)
2
, 0 (
π
dx
dy
= 0
The equation of tangent is y =
2
π
.
The equation of normal is x = 0.
10. y = 5 3
2
3
3
1
2 3
+ − − x x x
dx
dy
= x
2
− 3x − 3

dx
dy
= 1
∴ x
2
− 3x − 3 = 1
∴ x = 4 or −1
∴ The points are
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

6
37
, 1 ,
3
29
, 4
.
11. 4x + y = 5
Slope = −4
y =
1
4
− x
x

dx
dy
=
2
) 1 (
4


x

dx
dy
= −4
∴ −4 = −
2
) 1 (
4
− x
∴ x = 0, 2
∴ Points of contact are
) 8 , 2 ( ), 0 , 0 (
.
∴ The equations of tangents are
0
0


x
y
= −4 and
2
8


x
y
= −4
i.e. 4x + y = 0
and 4x + y − 16 = 0.
12. y = 2x
2
+ x −1

dx
dy
= 4x + 1
1 · x
dx
dy
= 5
∴ The equation of normal is

1
2


x
y
= −
5
1
i.e. 5y + x − 11 = 0.
Its x-intercept = 11
Its y-intercept =
5
11
∴ The required area =
2
1
× 11 ×
5
11
=
10
1
12
13. Slope of the line x + 9y − 5 = 0 is −
9
1
.
∴ Slope of the normal = −
9
1
Hence, slope of the tangent = 9
y = x
3
− 3x
dx
dy
= 3x
2
− 3
dx
dy
= 9 (slope of the tangent)
∴ 9 = 3x
2
− 3
∴ x = t 2
∴ Points of contact are
) 2 , 2 (
,
) 2 , 2 ( − −
.
52
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
∴ The equation of normal is
2
2


x
y
= −
9
1
or
2
2
+
+
x
y
= −
9
1

i.e. x + 9y − 20 = 0
or x + 9y + 20 = 0.
14. y= x
2
− 7
dx
dy
= 2x
Let ) , (
1 1
y x be the point of contact.
Then slope of tangent
2x1 =
1
1
3
1
x
y


....................................(1)
also, y1 = x1
2
− 7.....................................(2)
Solving (1) and (2), we have
x1 = 2, y1 = −3
or x1 = 4, y1 = 9
∴ The equations of tangents are
2
3

+
x
y
= 2(2) and
4
9


x
y
= 2(4)
i.e. 4x − y − 11 = 0
and 8x − y − 23 = 0.
15. x
2
+ y
2
= 25

dx
dy
= −
y
x
) 4 , 3 (
dx
dy
= −
4
3
3y
2
− 8x − 18y + 48 = 0

dx
dy
=
) 3 ( 3
4
− y

) 4 , 3 (
dx
dy
=
3
4

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

3
4
4
3
= −1
∴ The two tangents are perpendicular.
16. 3
2
3
2
y x +
=
3
2
a
.........................................(1)
y = x ......................................................(2)
Solving (1) and (2), we get x = y = t
2 2
a
3
2
3
2
y x +
=
3
2
a

dx
dy
= −
,
`

.
|
x
y
3
1

y x
dx
dy
·
= − 1
∴ The equations of tangents are
2 2
2 2
a
x
a
y


= −1 and
2 2
2 2
a
x
a
y
+
+
= −1
i.e. x + y −
2
a
= 0
and x + y +
2
a
= 0.
17. x = a cos
3
t , y = a sin
3
t
At t =
4
π
, x = y =
2 2
a
dt
dx
= −3a cos
2
t sin t
dt
dy
= 3a sin
2
t cos t

dx
dy
=
dt
dx
dt
dy
= −tan t
4
π
t
dx
dy
·
= −1
The equation of tangent is
2 2
2 2
a
x
a
y


= −1
i.e. x + y =
2
a
.
18. x
2
− y
2
= 9

dx
dy
=
y
x
) 4 , 5 (
dx
dy
=
4
5
∴ The equation of normal is

5
4


x
y
= −
5
4
i.e. 4x + 5y − 40 = 0.
53
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
19.
2
2
a
x
+
2
2
b
y
= 1

dx
dy
= −
y
x
a
b

2
2

) , (
1 1
y x
dx
dy
= −
1
2
1
2
y a
x b
The equation of tangent is
1
1
x x
y y


= −
1
2
1
2
y a
x b
b
2
x1x + a
2
y1y − (b
2
x1
2
+ a
2
y1
2
) = 0
b
2
x1x + a
2
y1y − a
2
b
2
= 0
( (x1, y1) is on the curve)
i.e.
2
1
a
x x
+
2
1
b
y y
= 1.
Section B
20. (a) y
2
= 12x
When x = 3t
2
,
y
2
= 12 (3t
2
)
y = t 6t
∴ (3t
2
, 6t) is on the curve.
(b) y
dx
dy
= 12

dx
dy
=
y
6
) 6 , 3 (
2
t t
dx
dy
=
t 6
6
=
t
1
Equation of the tangent at P is
y − 6t =
t
1
(x − 3t
2
)
i.e. x − ty + 3t
2
= 0
(c) slope =
t
1
=
0 3
0 6


∴ t =
2
1
(d) P is (
4
3
, 3).
∴ Area of ∆OAP =
2
1

0
3
6
0
0
4
3
3
0

=
4
1
2
21. (a) x =
2
) 2 (
4
t +
, y =
t + 2
12
At t = −1, P is (4, 12).
At t = 0, Q is (1, 6).
Equation of PQ is
y − 12 =
1 4
6 12


(x − 4)
i.e. 2x − y + 4

= 0.
(b)
dx
dy
=
dt
dx
dt
dy
=
3
2
) 2 (
8
) 2 (
12
t
t
+

+

=
2
3
(2 + t)
(c) slope of PQ = 2
∴ slope of the normal
= −
2
1
=
) 2 (
2
3
1
t +

∴ t = −
3
2
Point of contact is (
4
9
, 9).
Equation of the normal is
y − 9 = −
2
1
(x −
4
9
)
i.e. 4x + 8y − 81 = 0.
22. (a) (a cos
4
θ)
2
1
+ (a sin
4
θ )
2
1
= a
2
1
∴ P is on the curve
x
2
1
+ y
2
1
= a
2
1
.
(b)
dx
dy
=
θ d
dx
θ d
dy
=
) sin ( cos 4
cos sin 4
3
3
θ θ a
θ θ a
− ⋅

=
θ
θ
2
2
cos
sin

54
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
Equation of the tangent at P is
y − a sin
4
θ =
θ
θ
2
2
cos
sin
− (x − a cos
4
θ )
i.e. x sin
2
θ + y cos
2
θ = a sin
2
θ cos
2
θ.
(c) OA = x-intercept = a cos
2
θ
OB = y-intercept = a sin
2
θ
∴ OA + OB = a for all θ
23. (a) x = 2t
2
, y = 3t
dx
dy
=
t 4
3
Equation of the tangent is
y – 3t =
t 4
3
(x – 2t
2
)
i.e. 3x − 4ty + 6t
2
= 0.
(b) Putting y = 0, we get A(–2t
2
, 0).
Putting x = 0, we get B(0, t
2
3
).
(c) Let M(x, y) be the mid-point of AB.
Then x = −t
2
, y = t
4
3
.
∴ Equation of the locus is
x= –( y
3
4
)
2
i.e. 16y
2
+ 9x

= 0.
EXERCISE 15.2
Section 15.2 Rates of change
(page 110)
Section A
1. y = 2x
3

dt
dy
= 6x
2
dt
dx
2
1
· x
dt
dy
= 6
2
2
1

,
`

.
|
⋅ 12
= 18
2. x
2
+ y
2
= 169
2x
dt
dx
+ 2y
dt
dy
= 0
dt
dy
=
y
dt
dx
x
2
2 −
=
2
169 x
dt
dx
x
− t

5 · x
dt
dy
=
2
5 169
) 3 )( 5 (
− t

=
4
5
t
3. xy = 72
y
dt
dx
+ x
dt
dy
= 0

dt
dy
=
x
dt
dx
y −
=
x
dt
dx
x
⋅ −
72
=
2
72
x
dt
dx


18 · x
dt
dy
=
( )
2
18
6 72 − −
=
3
4
4. sin
2
x + sin
2
y = 1
2 cos x sin x
dt
dx
+ 2 sin y cos y
dt
dy
= 0

dt
dy
=
y y
dt
dx
x x
cos sin
sin cos −
)
4
π
,
4
π
(
dt
dy
=
2
2
2
2
) 2 . 0 (
2
2
2
2

⋅ −
= −0.2
5. (a) x =
3
3
t
− 2t
2
+ 3t
dt
dx
= t
2
− 4t + 3
2
2
dt
x d
= 2t − 4
1 · t
dt
dx
= 0
1
2
2
· t
dt
x d
= −2
∴ Velocity = 0, acceleration = −2
(b) The direction of motion changes at v = 0.
∴ t
2
− 4t +3 = 0
(t − 3)(t − 1) = 0
t = 1 or 3
55
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
6. (a) x = 3t
2
− 5t − 2
dt
dx
= 6t − 5
1 · t
dt
dx
= 6(1) − 5 = 1
∴ Velocity = 1
(b)
2
2
dt
x d
= 6
∴ Acceleration = 6
(c) 6t − 5 = 4
t =
2
3

7. (a) x = t
3
− 6t
2
+ 9t + 5
dt
dx
= 3t
2
− 12t + 9
dt
dx
= 0
∴ 0 = 3t
2
− 12t + 9
∴ t = 1 or 3
∴ x = 9 or 5
(b)
2
2
dt
x d
= 6t − 12
2
2
dt
x d
= 0
∴ t = 2
∴ x = 7
8. x = 5 cos 2t
dt
dx
= −10 sin 2t
2
2
dt
x d
= −20 cos 2t
At x = −5, cos 2t = −1, sin 2t = 0
∴ Velocity =
dt
dx
= 0
Acceleration =
2
2
dt
x d
= 20
At x = 0, cos 2t = 0, sin 2t = t 1
∴ Velocity =
dt
dx
= t 10
Acceleration =
2
2
dt
x d
= 0
9. (a) s = t
3
− 12t
dt
ds
= 3t
2
− 12

dt
ds
= 0
∴ t = 2
t
dt
s d
6
2
2
·
2
2
2
· t
dt
s d
= 12
i.e. Acceleration = 12 cm/s
2
(b) s = t
3
− 12t = 0
t(t
2
− 12) = 0
∴ t = 0 or t 2 3
Thus the particle is next at O when
t = 2
3
.
∴ The required velocity is
3 2 · t
dt
ds
= 24 cm/s.
10. (a) s = 15t + 6t
2
− t
3
dt
ds
= 15 + 12t − 3t
2
0 · t
dt
ds
= 15
2 · t
dt
ds
= 27
∴ Average velocity =
2
15 27 −
= 6 m/s
(b)
dt
ds
= 3(t + 1)(5 – t) = 0
∴ t = 5 or –1 (rejected)
∴ s = 11 + 6(5)
2
– 5
3
= 36
(c)
2
2
dt
s d
= 12 – 6t

2
2
dt
s d
= 0 when t = 2.
The required velocity is
2 · t
dt
ds
= 27 m/s.
11. A = πr
2
dt
dA
= 2πr
dt
dr
= 2π (20)(0.04)
= 5.027 cm
2
/s
56
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
12. (a) V =
3

3
4
r π
dt
dV
= 4π r
2
dt
dr
–12 = 4π (6)
2

dt
dr

dt
dr
= –
π 12
1
cm/min
(b) A = 4πr
2
dt
dA
= 8πr
dt
dr
= 8π (6)(–
π 12
1
)
= – 4 cm
2
/min
13. V =
3
1
πr
2
h
h
r
=
20
12
=
5
3
∴ V =
25
3
πh
3
dt
dV
=
25

h
2
dt
dh
∴ 5=
25

(15)
2

dt
dh

dt
dh
=
π 81
5
cm/s
14. PV= 240
P
dt
dV
+ V
dt
dP
= 0

dt
dV
= −
dt
dP
P
V
= −
dt
dP
P
240
2
= −
5
60
240
2
×
= −
3
1
unit/s
15.
Let y m be the distance from the light,
and x m be the length of the shadow.
(a) From the figure, by similar triangles,

x
2
=

y x +
6
∴ y = 2x

dt
dy
=
2
dt
dx

dt
dx
=
2
1
(2.4) = 1.2 m/s
(b)
dt
d
(x + y)
=

dt
dx
+
dt
dy
= 1.2 + 2.4
= 3.6 m/s
16. (a) s= rθ

dt
ds
=
r
dt
θ d
∴ 6 = 18
dt
θ d

dt
θ d
=

3
1
rad/s
(b) A =
2
1
r
2
θ
dt
dA
=

2
1
r
2
dt
θ d
=

2
1
(18)
2
(
3
1
)
= 54 cm
2
/s
17. Let x m be the distance from the bottom end
of the ladder to the wall.
Let y m be the height of the top of the ladder.
∴ x
2
+ y
2
= 5
2
2x
dt
dx
+ 2y
dt
dy
=
0
i.e. x
dt
dx
+ y
dt
dy
= 0
When x = 1.4,
1.4
2
+ y
2
= 5
∴ y = 4.8
(a)
When
dt
dx
=
−0.3,
(1.4)(−0.3) + (4.8)
dt
dy
=
0

dt
dy
=
0.087 5
57
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
The top of the ladder is sliding up the
wall at 0.087 5 m/s.
58
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
(b) Let θ be the angle of inclination of the
ladder.
tan θ
=

x
y
When x = 1.4 and y = 4.8,
tan θ =
4 . 1
8 . 4
and sec
2
θ = 1+ (
4 . 1
8 . 4
)
2
sec
2
θ
dt
θ d
=

2
x
dt
dy
y
dt
dy
x −
i.e.
]
]
]

+
2
)
4 . 1
8 . 4
( 1
dt
θ d
=

2
) 4 . 1 (
) 3 . 0 )( 8 . 4 ( ) 0875 . 0 )( 4 . 1 ( − −

dt
θ d
=
0.062 5
∴ The angle of inclination of the
ladder is increasing at the rate
0.062 5 rad/s.
18. Let x km be the height of the rocket.
Let s km be the distance of the rocket from the
station.
∴ s
2
= x
2
+ 5
2
When s = 13, 13
2
= x
2
+ 5
2
x = 12
2s
dt
ds
= 2x
dt
dx
i.e. s
dt
ds
= x
dt
dx
When s = 13, x = 12 and
dt
ds
= 7 500,
(13)(7 500) = 12 ⋅
dt
dx

dt
dx
= 8 125
∴ The vertical speed of the rocket is
8 125 km/h.
Section B
19. (a) By Pythagoras’ Theorem,
r
2
+ (10 − h)
2
= 10
2

r
2
= h(20 − h)
r =
) 20 ( h h −
(b) (i) V
=

3
1
πh
2
(30 – h)

dt
dV

=
π(20h – h
2
)
dt
dh
2
=
π ] 4 ) 4 ( 20 [
2

dt
dh

dt
dh
=

π 32
1
cm/s
(ii)
dt
dr
=

dt
dh
h h
h


− −
) 20 ( 2
) 2 20 (
=

π 32
1
) 4 20 ( 4 2
)] 4 ( 2 20 [


− −
=

π 128
3
cm/s
20. (a) The point Q is (s, s
2
).
Area of ∆PQR
=

2
1
(PR)(PQ)
∴A
=

2
1
(s + 1)s
2
(b)
dt
dA
=
2
1
(3s
2
+ 2s)
dt
ds
=

2
1
[ ] ) 5 ( ) 4 ( 2 ) 4 ( 3
2
+
= 140 unit
2
/s
(c)  = QR
=

4 2
) 1 ( s s + +

dt
d
=

dt
ds
s s
s s

+ +
+ +
4 2
3
) 1 ( 2
4 ) 1 ( 2
=

5
2 ) 1 2 (
) 2 ( 2 ) 1 2 (
4 2
3

+ +
+ +
= 19 units/s
21. (a) Area
=
A
=
xy

dt
dA
=
x
dt
dy
+ y
dt
dx
= 20(−0.3) + 15(0.2)
= −3 m
2
/s
(b) Let PR = cm.

2
= x
2
+ y
2
dt
d
 2 =

dt
dx
x 2 +
dt
dy
y 2
When x = 20, y = 15,

2
= 20
2
+15
2
= 625
 = 25

dt
d
25
=
20(0.2) + 15(−0.3)
dt
d
=
−0.02 m/s
59
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
22.
(a) s
2
= (60 − 15t)
2
+ (20t)
2
= 625t
2
− 1 800t + 3 600
= 25(25t
2
− 72t + 144)
∴ s
=

144 72 25 5
2
+ − t t
(b) s
=

)
25
144
25
72
( 25 5
2
+ − t t
=

]
]
]

+ − −
25
144
)
25
36
( )
25
36
( 25 5
2 2
t
=

]
]
]

+ −
625
2304
)
25
36
( 25 5
2
t
∴ When t
=

25
36
=
1.44, s is
minimum
and min. s = 48.
i.e. When A and B are closest, they
are
48 km apart at 1:26 p.m.
(c)
dt
ds
s 2
=
25(50t − 72)

25
36
· t
dt
ds
=
]
]
]

− 72 )
25
36
( 50
) 48 ( 2
25
= 0
EXERCISE 15.3
Section 15.3 Maxima and minima
(page 120)
Section A
1. (a) y = x
2
− 2x −3
y′ = 2x − 2
∴ y′ = 0 when x = 1
x x < 1 x = 1 x > 1
y′ −
0 +
∴ The function is increasing on
[1, ∞) and is decreasing on
(–∞, 1].
(b) At x =1, y = 1
2
− 2(1) −3 = −4
∴ (1, −4) is a minimum point.
2. (a) y = 7 − 4x − x
2
y′ = −4 − 2x
∴ y′ = 0 when x = −2
x
x < −2 x = −2 x > −2
y′ + 0 −
∴ The function is increasing on
(−∞, −2] and is decreasing on
[–2, ∞).
(b) At x = −2, y = 7 − 4(−2) − (−2)
2
= 11
∴ (−2, 11) is a maximum point.
3. (a) y = x
3
− 3x +1
y′ = 3x
2
− 3
∴ y′ = 0 when x = t1
x x < −1 x = −1 −1 < x < 1 x = 1 x > 1
y′
+ 0

0 +
∴ The function is increasing on
(−∞, −1] and [1, ∞) and
is decreasing on [–1, 1].
(b) At x = −1, y = (−1)
3
−3(−1) +1 = 3
At x = 1, y = 1
3
− 3(1) +1 = −1
∴ (−1, 3) is a maximum point
and (1, −1) is a minimum point.
4. (a) y = 2x
3
− 9x
2
+ 27
y′ = 6x
2
− 18x = 6x(x − 3)
∴ y′ = 0 when x = 0 or 3
x x < 0 x = 0 0 < x < 3 x = 3 x > 3
y′ + 0 − 0 +
∴ The function is increasing on
(−∞, 0] and [3, ∞) and
is decreasing on [0, 3].
(b) At x = 0, y = 2(0)
3
− 9(0)
2
+ 27 = 27
At x = 3, y = 2(3)
3
− 9(3)
2
+ 27 = 0
∴ (0, 27) is a maximum point
and (3, 0) is a minimum point.
5. (a) y = (x +1)
3
y′ = 3(x +1)
2
≥ 0
∴ The function is always
60
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
increasing.
(b) Hence no maximum or minimum point.
61
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
6. (a) y = x(x − 5)
2
y′ = x(2)(x − 5) + (x − 5)
2
= (x − 5)( 3x − 5)
∴ y′ = 0 when x = 5 or
3
5
x x <
3
5
x =
3
5
3
5
< x < 5 x = 5 x > 5
y′
+ 0

0 +
∴ The function is increasing on
(−∞,
3
5
] and [5, ∞) and
is decreasing on [
3
5
, 5].
(b) At x = 5, y = 5(5 −5)
2
= 0
At x =
3
5
, y =
3
5

(
3
5
− 5)
2
=
27
500
∴ (5, 0) is a minimum point
and (
3
5
,
27
500
) is a maximum point.
7. (a) y = x
6
− 3x
2
y′ = 6x
5
− 6x
= 6x(x
2
+1)(x +1)(x − 1)
∴ y′ = 0 when x = 0, 1 or −1
x x < −1 x = −1 −1 < x < 0 x = 0 0 < x < 1 x = 1 x > 1
y′

0 + 0

0 +
∴ The function is increasing on
[−1, 0] and [1, ∞) and
is decreasing on (−∞, −1]
and [0, 1].
(b) At x = 0, y = 0
6
− 3(0)
2
= 0
At x = 1, y = 1
6
− 3(1)
2
= −2
At x = −1, y = (−1)
6
− 3(−1)
2
= −2
∴ (0, 0) is a maximum point
and (1, −2), (−1, −2) are minimum
points.
8. (a) y =
3 + x x
y′ = x (
2
1
)(x + 3)
2
1

+ 3 + x
=
2
1
(x + 3)
2
1

(3x + 6)
∴ y′ = 0 when x = −2
x x < −2 x = −2 x > −2
y′ −
0 +
∴ The function is increasing on
[−2, ∞) and is decreasing on
(−∞, −2].
(b) At x = −2, y = 3 2 2 + − − = −2
∴ (−2, −2) is a minimum
point.
9. y = sin x + cos x

dx
dy
= cos x − sin x
2
2
dx
y d
= −sin x − cos x
dx
dy
= 0 when x =
4
π
or
4

.
4

2
2
π
x
dx
y d
·
= −
2
< 0
Maximum value of y = sin
4
π
+ cos
4
π
=
2
4
5

2
2
π
x
dx
y d
·
=
2
> 0
Minimum value of y = sin
4

+ cos
4

= −
2
10. y = x + tan x

dx
dy
= 1 + sec
2
x
2
2
dx
y d
= 2 sec
2
x tan x
dx
dy
= 0 when 1 + sec
2
x = 0
This is impossible.
∴ There is no solution.
11. y = sin
2
x − 2 sin x + 2

dx
dy
= 2 sin x cos x − 2 cos x
= sin 2x − 2 cos x
2
2
dx
y d
= 2 cos 2x + 2 sin x
dx
dy
= 0 when x =
2
π
or
2

2

2
2
π
x
dx
y d
·
= 0
62
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
As
dx
dy
changes from −ve to +ve,
∴ Minimum value of y
= sin
2
(
2
π
) − 2 sin (
2
π
) + 2 = 1
2
3

2
2
π
· x
dx
y d
= −4 < 0
∴ Maximum value of y
= sin
2
(
2

) − 2 sin(
2

) + 2
= 5
12. y = 2 sin
2
x + cos
2
x
= 1 + sin
2
x

dx
dy
= 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x
2
2
dx
y d
= 2 cos 2x
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0,
2
π
, π or
2

.
0
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 2 > 0
Minimum value of y = 1
2
2
2
π
· x
dx
y d
= −2 < 0
Maximum value of y = 2
Section B
13. y=
1
4 4 3
2
2
+ +
+ +
x x
x x
= 3 +
1
1
2
+ +
+
x x
x
dx
dy
=
2 2
2
) 1 (
) 1 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 (
+ +
+ + − + +
x x
x x x x
=
2 2
) 1 (
) 2 (
+ +
+ −
x x
x x

dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0 or −2
By the sign test, we get
minimum point (−2,
3
8
),
maximum point (0, 4).

14. (a) f (x) = x
3
+3kx + 5
f ′(x) = 3x
2
+3k
If k > 0, then
f ′ (x) > 0 for all x.
∴ f (x) has no turning points.
(b) If k < 0, then
f ′(x) = 3x
2
+ 3k = 0
when x = t k −
Now f ″ (x) = 6x
∴ f ″ ( k − ) = 6 k − > 0
f ″ ( k − − ) = −6 k − < 0
Hence, f (x) has a maximum point at
x =
k − −
and a minimum point at
x =
k −
.
15. (a) f (x) = k sin x +
3
1
sin 3x
f ′ (x) = k cos x + cos 3x
f ′ (
3
π
) = k cos(
3
π
)+ cos
]
]
]

)
3
( 3
π
= 0
∴k = 2
(b) f ″ (x) = −2 sin x − 3 sin 3x
f ″ (
3
π
) = − 3 < 0
∴ f (x) has a maximum value at
x =
3
π
.
(c) f (
3
π
) = 2 sin
3
π
+
3
1
sin π =
3
∴ The maximum point is (
3
π
, 3 ).
16. (a) y= x
2
+
x
k

dx
dy
= 2x –
2
x
k

2
2
dx
y d
= 2 +
3
2
x
k
when
dx
dy
= 2x –
2
x
k
= 0
k = 2x
3
(i) If there is a minimum at x = 2,
k = 2(2)
3
= 16
(ii) If there is a minimum at x = –3,
k = 2(–3)
3
= –54
(b) At the turning point, k = 2x
3

2
2
dx
y d
= 2 +
3
3
) 2 ( 2
x
x
= 6 > 0
∴ The curve cannot have a
maximum
point.
63
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
EXERCISE 15.4
Section 15.4 Sketching of simple curves
(page 127)
Section A
1. f (x) = x
4
f (–x) = (–x)
4
= x
4
∴ f is symmetric about the y-axis.
2. g(x) = x
5
g(–x) = (–x)
5
= –x
5
∴ g is symmetric about the origin.
3. F(x) = 3x + tan x
F(–x) = 3(–x) + tan (–x)
= –(3x + tan x)
∴ F is symmetric about the origin.
4. G(x) = x sin x
G(–x)= –x sin (–x) = x sin x
∴ G is symmetric about the y-axis.
5. y
2
= 4x
The function consists of the branches
y =
x 2
and y =
x 2 −
.
∴ The function is symmetric about the
x-axis.
6. x
2
+ y
2
= 9
y
2
= 9 − x
2
= 9 − (−x
2
)
∴ The function is symmetric about
the y-axis.
The function consists of the branches
y =
2
9 x −
and y =
2
9 x − −
.
∴ It is symmetric about the x-axis.
−y =
2
9 x − −
and −y =
2
9 x −
∴ It is symmetric about the origin.
7. y = 2x
3
+3x
2
+ 12x

dx
dy
= 6x
2
+ 6x + 12
2
2
dx
y d
= 12x + 6
dx
dy
= 0 when x = −2 or 1
2
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= −18 < 0
∴ (−2, 20) is a max. point.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 18 > 0
∴ (1, −7) is a min. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
When y = 0, x = 0 or
4
105 3 t −
,
i.e. x = 0, −3.31 or 1.81.
8. y

= x
3
+ x
2
− 5x

dx
dy
= 3x
2
+ 2x − 5
2
2
dx
y d
= 6x + 2
Put
dx
dy
= 0 then x = 1, −
3
5
.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 8 > 0
∴ (1, −3) is a min. point.
3
5

2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= −8 < 0
∴ (−
3
5
,
27
175
) is a max. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
When y = 0, x = 0 or
2
21 1t −
,
i.e. x = 0, −2.79 or 1.79.
64
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
9. y= x
4
− 2x
3
+ 1

dx
dy
= 4x
3
− 6x
2
2
2
dx
y d
= 12x
2
− 12x
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0,
2
3
.
0
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 0
∴ No conclusion.
In fact, (0, 1) is a point of inflexion.
2
3

2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 9 > 0
∴ (
2
3
, −
16
11
) is a min. point.
When x = 0, y = 1.
When y = 0, x = 1, 1.84.
10. y = 8x
2
− x
4

dx
dy
= 16x − 4x
3
2
2
dx
y d
= 16 − 12x
2
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0, t 2.
0
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 16 > 0
∴ (0, 0) is a min. point.
2
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= −32 < 0
∴ (2, 16) is a max. point.
2
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= −32 < 0
∴ (−2, 16) is a max. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
When y = 0, x = 0 or
2 2 t
.
8(−x)
2
− (−x)
4
= 8x
2
− x
4
∴ The graph is symmetric about the y-
axis.
11. y

= 2x
3
− 3x
2
− 12x + 9

dx
dy
= 6x
2
− 6x − 12
2
2
dx
y d
= 12x − 6
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 2, −1.
2
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 18 > 0
∴ (2, −11) is a min. point.
1
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= −18 < 0
∴ (−1, 16) is a max. point.
When x = 0, y = 9.
When y = 0, x = 3 or
4
33 3 t −
,
i.e. x = 3, −2.19, 0.69.
65
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
66
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
12. y= x
5
− 15x
3

dx
dy
= 5x
4
− 45x
2
2
2
dx
y d
= 20x
3
− 90x
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0, t3.
0
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 0
∴ No conclusion.
In fact, (0, 0) is a point of inflexion.
3
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 270 > 0
∴ (3, −162) is a min. point.
3
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= − 270 < 0
∴ (−3, 162) is a max. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
When y = 0, x = 0,
15 t
.
(−x)
5
− 15(−x)
3
= −x
5
+ 15x
3
= −(x
5
− 15x
3
)
∴ Symmetric about the origin.
13. y

= x
4
− 4x
3
+ 4x
2

dx
dy
= 4x
3
− 12x
2
+ 8x
= 4x(x − 2)( x − 1)
2
2
dx
y d
= 12x
2
− 24x + 8
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0, 1, 2.
0
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 8 > 0
∴ (0, 0) is a min. point.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= −4 < 0
∴ (1, 1) is a max. point.
2
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 8 > 0
∴ (2, 0) is a min. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
when y = 0, x = 0, 2.
14. y

= 2 + 2x
2
− x
4

dx
dy
= 4x − 4x
3
= 4x(1 − x)(1 + x)
2
2
dx
y d
= 4 − 12x
2
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0, t1.
0
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 4 > 0
∴ (0, 2) is a min. point.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= −8 < 0
∴ (1, 3) is a max. point.
1
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= −8 < 0
∴ (−1, 3) is a max. point.
2 + 2(−x)
2
− (−x)
4
= 2 + 2x
2
−x
4
67
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
∴ The graph is symmetric about the y-
axis.
68
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
When x = 0, y = 2.
When y = 0, x =
3 1+ t
= t1.65.
15. y=
1
2
+ x
x

dx
dy
=
2 2
2
) 1 (
1
+

x
x
2
2
dx
y d
=
3 2
2
) 1 (
) 3 ( 2
+

x
x x
dx
dy
= 0 when x = t1.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= −
2
1
< 0
∴ (1,
2
1
) is a max. point.
1
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
=
2
1
> 0
∴ (−1, −
2
1
) is a min. point.
1 ) (
2
+ −

x
x
=
,
`

.
|
+1
2
x
x
∴ The graph is symmetric about the
origin.
When x = 0, y = 0.
16. y=
3
3
2
2
+

x
x x

dx
dy
=
3 2
) 3 (
) 1 )( 3 ( 3
+
− +
x
x x
2
2
dx
y d
=
3 2
2 3
) 3 (
18 54 18 6
+
+ + − −
x
x x x
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 1, −3.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
=
4
3
> 0
∴ (1, −
2
1
) is a min. point.
3
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= −
12
1
< 0
∴ (−3,
2
3
) is a max. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
When y = 0, x = 0, 3.
As x t∞ → ,
1 → y
.
17. The graph y
2
= x
2
(x + 1) is symmetric
about the x-axis and it is defined for
x ≥ −1. It consists of the branches
y =
1 + x x
and y =
1 + − x x
.
Consider y =
1 + x x
.

dx
dy
=
1 + x
+
1
1
2
+

x
x
=
1 2
2 3
+
+
x
x
2
2
dx
y d
=
2
3
) 1 ( 4
4 3
+
+
x
x
dx
dy
= 0 when x = −
3
2
.
3
2

2
2
− · x
dx
y d
> 0
69
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
∴ (−
3
2
, −
9
3 2
) is a min. point.
By symmetry, (−
3
2
,
9
3 2
) is a max. point.
18. y
2
= 4x
2
(1 − x
2
)
The graph is symmetric about the x-axis and
the y-axis.
It is defined for −1≤ x ≤ 1.
2y
dx
dy
= 8x − 16x
3
= 8x (1 − 2x
2
)
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 0 or
2
2
t
.
Hence, the max. points are (
2
2
, 1),
(
2
2

, 1) and the min. points are
(
2
2
, −1) , (
2
2

, −1).
19. y = 2 sin x + sin 2x

dx
dy
= 2 cos x + 2 cos 2x
2
2
dx
y d
= −2 sin x − 4 sin 2x
Putting
dx
dy
= 0,
Then cos x + cos 2x = 0
2 cos
2
x + cos x −1 = 0
(2 cos

x −1)(cos x + 1) = 0
cos

x =
2
1
or cos

x = −1
∴ x =
3
π
,
3
π
− , π (for −π ≤ x ≤ π)
When x =
3
π
,
2
2
dx
y d
< 0
∴ (
3
π
,
2
3 3
) is a max. point.
When x =
3
π
− ,
2
2
dx
y d
> 0
∴ (
3
π
− ,
2
3 3
− ) is a min. point.
When x = π,
2
2
dx
y d
= 0
∴ no conclusion.
70
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
20. y

= sin x cos
3
x
dx
dy
= −3 sin
2
x cos
2
x + cos
4
x
= cos
2
x (−3 sin
2
x + cos
2
x)
dx
dy
= 0 when x =
2
π
,
6
π
,
6

.
x x <
6
π
x =
6
π
6
π
< x <
2
π
dx
dy
+ 0 −
x =
2
π
2
π
< x <
6

x =
6

x >
6

0 − 0 +
∴ (
6
π
,
16
3 3
) is a max. point.
(
6

,
16
3 3

) is a min. point.
When x = 0, y = 0.
When y = 0, x = 0,
2
π
, π.
Section B
21. (a) y= x
3
+ px
2
+ qx + r
dx
dy
= 3x
2
+ 2px

+ q
1 · x
dx
dy
= 0
∴ 3 + 2p + q = 0............................(1)
(1, 0) and (4, 0) are on the curve,
∴ 1 + p + q + r = 0...............(2)
64 + 16p + 4q + r = 0................(3)
Solving (1), (2) and (3), we get
p = −6, q = 9, r = −4.
(b) y = x
3
− 6x
2
+ 9x − 4

dx
dy
= 3x
2
− 12x + 9
2
2
dx
y d
= 6x − 12
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 3, 1.
3
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 6 > 0
∴ When x = 3, y has a minimum
value −4.
1
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= − 6 < 0
∴ When x = 1, y has a maximum
value 0.
(c)
0 · x
dx
dy
= 9
Equation of the required tangent is
y = 9x − 4.
(d)
22. (a) y

= ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d

dx
dy
= 3ax
2
+ 2bx

+ c
2
2
dx
y d
= 6ax + 2b
When x = 0, y = −4
∴ d = −4........................................(1)
When x = −3 ,
dx
dy
= 0
∴ 27a − 6b + c = 0........................(2)
When x = 1 ,
dx
dy
=
2
2
dx
y d
= 16
∴ 3a + 2b + c = 16....................(3)
6a + 2b = 16....................(4)
From (1), (2), (3) and (4), we get
a = 1, b = 5, c = 3, d = −4.
71
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
(b) y

= x
3
+ 5x
2
+ 3x − 4

dx
dy
= 3x
2
+ 10x + 3
2
2
dx
y d
= 6x + 10
Thus, we get
minimum point (−
3
1
, −
27
121
),
maximum point (−3, 5).
(c)
23. (a) y

= f (x)

= x
3
− x
2
+ kx + 4

dx
dy
= 3x
2
− 2x

+ k
When x = 2,
dx
dy
= 3
∴ 3 (2)
2


− 2 (2) + k = 3
∴ k = −5
(b) f (2)

= 2
3
− 2
2
+ (−5)(2) + 4 = −2
Equation of tangent at x = 2 is
y +2 = 3(x −2)
i.e. 3x − y − 8 = 0.
(c)
dx
dy
= 0 when 3x
2
− 2x

− 5 = 0
(3x − 5) (x + 1) = 0
x =
3
5
or −1
2
2
dx
y d
= 6x − 2
3
5
2
2
· x
dx
y d
= 6 (
3
5
) − 2 = 8 > 0.
∴ (
3
5
, −
27
67
) is a minimum point.
1
2
2
− · x
dx
y d
= 6 (−1) − 2 = −8 < 0
∴ (−1, 7) is a maximum point.
(d) and (e)
EXERCISE 15.5
Section 15.5 Maximization and minimization
problems
(page 134)
Section A
1. Let the two numbers be x, y.
Then x + y = 100
Product, P = xy
= x(100 – x)

dx
dP
= 100 – 2x

2
2
P
dx
d
= –2 < 0
∴ P has a maximum value for
dx
dP
= 0
when x = 50.
∴ The two numbers are 50 and 50.
72
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 — Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
2. Let the two parts be x, y.
Then x + y = 40
Let the required product be P.
P = xy
2
= x(40 – x)
2
dx
dP
= (40 – x)(40 – 3x)
2
2
P
dx
d
= 6x – 160
dx
dP
= 0 when x = 40 or
3
40
40
2
2
P
· x
dx
d
> 0
3
40

2
2
P
· x
dx
d
< 0
∴ P is maximum when x =
3
40
and y = 40 –
3
40
=
3
80
∴ The two parts are
3
40
and
3
80
.
3. Let the sides of the rectangle be x m and y m.
Then 2(x + y) = 72 i.e. x + y = 36
Area, A = xy
= x(36 – x)

dx
dA
= 36 – 2x

2
2
A
dx
d
= –2 < 0
A has a maximum value.
dx
dA
= 0 when x = 18 and y = 18.
∴ The required dimensions are
18 m × 18 m.
4. (a) Area of triangle
=
2
1
(8x)
2
2
2
8
) 5 (
,
`

.
|

x
x
= 12 x
2
Area of rectangle = 8xy
∴ Area of pentagon, A = 8xy + 12x
2
Perimeter = 5x + 5x + y + 8x
+ y
= 90
∴y = 45 − 9x
∴ A = 8 × (45 − 9x ) + 12x
2
= 360x − 60x
2
(b)
dx
dA
= 360 − 120x
2
2
A
dx
d
= –120 < 0
A has a maximum value.
dx
dA
= 0 when x = 3,
and y = 9(5 − 3) = 18.
∴ The required values of x and y are
3 and 18 respectively.
5. (a) V = (24 – 2x)(24 – 2x)x
= 4x(12 – x)
2
(b)
dx
dV
= 12(12 – x)(4 – x)
2
2
V
dx
d
= 24(x – 8)
dx
dV
= 0 when x = 4 or 12.
4
2
2
V
· x
dx
d
< 0
V is maximum when x = 4.
6. (a) x
2
y = 32
y =
2
32
x
(b) P = 2x + 2y = 2 )
32
(
2
x
x +
(c) P = 2 )
32
(
2
x
x +

dx
dP
= 2 )
64
1 (
3
x

2
2
P
dx
d
= 2 )
192
(
4
x
> 0
∴ P has a minimum value.
Putting
dx
dP
= 0, then 2 )
64
1 (
3
x
− = 0
i.e. x = 4.
∴ The required values are
x = 4 and y =
2
4
32
= 2.
7. (a) Let M be the mid-point of YZ and N
be the mid-point of PQ.
XM =
2 2
YM XY −
=
2 2
)
2
10
( 13 −
= 12
73

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