LABORATORY MANUAL

MI CROWAVE
&
OPTI CAL COMMUNI CATI ON
LAB
( ECE I V B. Tech. I Semest er)













DEPT. OF ELECTRONI CS AND COMMUNI CATI ON
ENGI NEERI NG





DEPT. OF ECE


I V B. Tech ECE I Sem – Microwave & Opt ical Communicat ion
Lab

List of Experiment s Cycle Wise

Cycle – 1

1. Charact erist ics of Ref l ex Klyst ron Oscillat or.
2. Gunn diode Charact erist ics.
3. At t enuat ion Measurement s.
4. Direct ional Coupler Charact erist i cs.
5. VSWR Measurement s.
6. I mpedance & Frequency Measurement s.
7. Wave guide Paramet ers & Measurement s.
8. Scat t ering Paramet ers of Circulat ors.
9. Scat t ering Paramet ers of Magic - Tee.

Cycle – 2

10. Charact erist ics of LED.
11. Charact erist ics of LASER diode.
12. I nt ensit y modulat ion of Laser out put t hough an opt i cal f iber.
13. Desi gn of Fiber Opt ic Digi t al Link.
14. Measurement of NA.
15. Measurement of losses for Anal og Opt i cal l ink.









1. REFLEX KLYSTRON CHARACTERI STI CS
AI M: To st udy t he mode charact erist ics of t he ref lex klyst ron t ube and
t o det ermine it s
elect ronic t uning range.
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Klyst ron power supply – { SKPS – 610 }
2. Klyst ron t ube 2k- 25 wi t h klyst ron mount – { XM- 251}
3. I sol at or { X
1
- 625}
4. Frequency met er { XF-710}
5. Det ect or mount { XD- 451}
6. Variabl e At t enuat or { XA-520}
7. Wave guide st and { XU- 535}
8. VSWR met er { SW- 215}
9. Oscilloscope
10. BNC Cable
BLOCK DI AGRAM:

THEORY: The ref lex klyst ron is a single cavit y vari able frequency
microwave generat or of low power and l ow eff iciency. This is most widely
used in applicat ions where variable f requency is desired as
1. I n radar receivers
2. Local oscillat or in µw recei vers
3. Signal source in micro wave generat or of vari able f requency
4. Port able micro wave links.
Klyst ron Power
supply SKPS-610
Klyst ron
Mount
XM- 251
I solat or
XI - 621
Frequency
met er XF- 455
Var iable
at t enuat or
XA- 520
Det ect or
mount
XD-451
Mult i
met er
VSWR
met er
SW- 115
CRO



5. Pump oscillat or in paramet ric amplifier
Volt age Characterist ics: Oscillat ions can be obt ained only f or specif ic
combinat ions of anode and repeller volt ages t hat gives f arable t ransit t ime.
Power Output Char act erist ics: The mode curves and frequency
charact erist ics. The f requency of resonance of t he cavit y decides t he
f requency of oscillat ion. A variat ion in repel ler volt ages slight ly changes t he
f requency.
EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Connect t he equipment s and component s as shown in t he figure.
2. Set t he variable at t enuat or at maximum Posit ion.
3. Set t he MOD swi t ch of Klyst ron Power Supply at CW posit ion, beam
volt age cont rol knob t o fully ant i clock wise and repeller volt age cont rol
knob t o f ully clock wise and met er swit ch t o ‘OFF’ posi t ion.
4. Rot at e t he Knob of f requency met er at one side ful ly.
5. Connect t he DC microampere met er at det ect or.
6. Swit ch “ ON” t he Klyst ron power supply, CRO and cooling f an for t he
Kl yst ron t ube. .
7. Put t he met er swit ch t o beam volt age posit ion and rot at e t he beam
volt age knob clockwi se slowly up t o 300 Volt s and observe t he beam
current on t he met er by changing met er swit ch t o beam current posit ion.
The beam current shoul d not increase more t han 30 mA.
8. Change t he repeller volt age slowly and wat ch t he current met er , set t he
maximum volt age on CRO.
9. Tune t he plunger of klyst ron mount f or t he maximum out put .
10. Rot at e t he knob of f requency met er slowly and st op at t hat posit ion,
where t here is l ess out put current on mult imet er. Read direct l y t he
frequency met er bet ween t wo horizont al line and vert ical marker. I f
micromet er t ype f requency met er is used read t he micromet er reading
and f ind t he f requency f rom it s frequency cali brat ion chart .
11. Change t he repeller volt age and read t he current and f requency f or
each repeller volt age.




OBSERVATI ON TABLE:
Beam Volt age : …………V (Const ant )
Beam Current : …………. mA

Repeller
Volt age ( V)
Curren
t
( mA)
Power
(mW)
Dip Frequency
(GHz)









EXPECTED GRAPH:

RESULT:




2. GUNN DI ODE CHARACTERI STI CS

AI M: To st udy t he V-I charact erist i cs of Gunn diode.

EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:

1. Gunn power supply
2. Gunn oscil lat or
3. PI N Modulat or
4. I solat or
5. Frequency Met er
6. Variable at t enuat or
7. Slot t ed line
8. Det ect or mount and CRO.

BLOCK DI AGRAM




Gunn
osci llat or
XG - 11
Mat ched
t erminat ion
XL - 400

I solat or
XI - 621
Pin
modulat or

Frequenc
y met er
XF- 710
Gunn
power
supply



THEORY: Gunn diode oscillat or normally consist of a resonant cavit y, an
arrangement for coupli ng diode t o t he cavit y a circuit for bi asing t he diode
and a mechanism t o couple t he RF power f rom cavit y t o ext ernal circuit load.
A co- axial cavit y or a rect angular wave guide cavit y is commonly used.
The circuit usi ng co- axial cavit y has t he Gunn diode at one end at one
end of cavit y along wit h t he cent ral conduct or of t he co- axial line. The O/ P is
t aken using a induct ively or capacit ively coupled probe. The lengt h of t he
cavit y det ermines t he f requency of oscillat ion. The locat ion of t he coupling
loop or probe wit hin t he resonat or det ermines t he load impedance present ed
t o t he Gunn diode. Heat sink conduct s away t he heat due t o power
dissipat ion of t he device.
EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
Volt age- Current Charact eristics:
1. Set t he component s and equipment s as shown in Figure.
2. I nit ially set t he variable at t enuat or f or minimum at t enuat ion.
3. Keep t he cont rol knobs of Gunn power supply as below
Met er swi t ch – “ OFF”
Gunn bias knob – Fully ant i clock wise
PI N bias knob – Fully ant i clock wise
PI N mode f requency – any posi t ion
4. Set t he mi cromet er of Gunn oscillat or for required f requency of operat ion.
5. Swit ch “ ON” t he Gunn power suppl y.
6. Measure t he Gunn diode current t o corresponding t o t he various Gunn
bi as volt age t hrough t he di git al panel met er and met er swit ch. Do not
exceed t he bias volt age above 10 volt s.
7. Plot t he volt age and current readings on t he graph.
8. Measure t he t hreshold volt age which corresponding t o max current .

Not e: Do not keep Gunn bi as knob posit ion at t hreshold posit ion f or more
t han 10- 15 sec. readings should be obt ai ned as f ast as possible. Ot herwise
due t o excessive heat ing Gunn diode may burn



EXPECTED GRAPH:




OBSERVATI ON TABLE:

Gunn bias volt age
( v)
Gunn diode current
( mA)














RESULT:

Volt s ( V)
Threshold voltage
I - V CHARACTERI STI CS OF GUNN OSCI LLATOR
I
( mA)



3. ATTENUATI ON MEASUREMENT

AI M: To st udy insert ion loss and at t enuat ion measurement of at t enuat or.

EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:

1. Microwave source Klyst ron t ube ( 2k25)
2. I solat or (xI - 621)
3. Frequency met er (xF-710)
4. Variable at t enuat or ( XA-520)
5. Slot t ed line ( XS-651)
6. Tunable probe (XP- 655)
7. Det ect or mount (XD- 451)
8. Mat ched t ermi nat ion ( XL- 400)
9. Test at t enuat or
a) Fixed
b) Variable
10. Klyst ron power supply & Klyst ron mount
11. Cooli ng f an
12. BNC- BNC cable
13. VSWR or CRO








THEORY:
The at t enuat or is a t wo port bidirect ional device which at t enuat es
some power when insert ed int o a t ransmission l ine.
At t enuat ion A ( dB) = 10 log (P1/ P2)
Where P1 = Power det ect ed by t he load wit hout t he at t enuat or in t he line
P2 = Power det ect ed by t he load wit h t he at t enuat or in t he line.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect t he equipment s as shown in t he above fi gure.
2. Energize t he microwave source f or maximum power at any f requency of
operat ion
3. Connect t he det ect or mount t o t he slot t ed line and t une t he det ect or
mount also for max def lect ion on VSWR or on CRO
4. Set any ref erence level on t he VSWR met er or on CRO wit h t he help of
vari able at t enuat or. Let it be P1.
5. Caref ul ly disconnect t he det ect or mount f rom t he slot t ed li ne wi t hout
di st urbing any posit ion on t he set up place t he t est variable at t enuat or t o
t he slot t ed line and det ect or mount t o O/ P port of t est variable
at t enuat or. Keep t he micromet er readi ng of t ext variable at t enuat or t o



zero and record t he readings of VSWR met er or on CRO. Let it t o be P2.
Then t he insert ion loss of t est at t enuat or will be P1- P2 db.
6. For measurement of at t enuat ion of f ixed and variabl e at t enuat or. Place
t he t est at t enuat or t o t he slot t ed line and det ect or mount at t he ot her
port of t est at t enuat or. Record t he readi ng of VSWR met er or on CRO.
Let it be P3 t hen t he at t enuat ion value of variable at t enuat or for
part icular posit ion of micromet er reading of will be P1- P3 db.
7. I n case t he variable at t enuat or change t he micro met er reading and
record t he VSWR met er or CRO reading. Fi nd out at t enuat i on value for
di f ferent posit ion of micromet er reading and pl ot a graph.
8. Now change t he operat ing f requency and all st eps should be repeat ed for
f inding f requency sensit ivit y of f ixed and variable at t enuat or.
Not e:1. For measuring f requency sensit ivit y of variable at t enuat or t he
posit ion of micromet er reading of t he variable at t enuat or should be same f or
all f requencies of operat ion.
EXPECTED GRAPH:


OBSERVATI ON TABLE:
Micromet er
reading
P1
( dB)
P2
( dB)
At t enuat ion = P1-P2
( dB)












RESULT:



4. DI RECTI ONAL COUPLER CHARACTERI STI CS

AI M: To st udy t he f unct ion of mult i- hole direct ional coupler by measuring
t he f ollowing paramet ers.
1. The Coupling f act or, I nsert ion Loss and Direct i vit y of t he Di rect ional
coupler
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Microwave Source ( Klyst ron or Gunn- Diode)
2. I solat or, Frequency Met er
3. Vari able At t enuat or
4. Sl ot t ed Line
5. Tunable Probe
6. Det ect or Mount Mat ched Terminat ion
7. MHD Coupler
8. Wavegui de St and
9. Cables and Accessories
10. CRO.







THEORY:
A direct ional coupler is a device wit h which it is possible t o measure
t he incident and ref lect ed wave separat ely. I t consist of t wo t ransmission
lines t he main arm and auxiliary arm, elect romagnet ical ly coupled t o each
ot her Ref er t o t he Fig. 1. The power ent ering, i n t he main-arm get s divided
bet ween port 2 and 3, and almost no power comes out in port ( 4) Power
ent ering at port 2 is divided bet ween port 1 and 4.
The coupli ng f act or is def ined as
Coupling (db) = 10 log
10
[ P1/ P3] where port 2 is t erminat ed, I solat ion (dB) =
10 log
10
[ P2/ P3] where P1 i s mat ched.
Wit h built - in t ermi nat ion and power ent ering at Port 1, t he direct ivi t y
of t he coupler is a measure of separat ion bet ween inci dent wave and t he
ref lect ed wave. Di rect ivit y i s measured indi rect ly as f ollows:
Hence Di rect ivit y D ( db) = I -C = 10 log
10
[ P2/ P1]
Main line VSWR is SWR measured, looking i nt o t he main-l ine input
t erminal when t he mat ched loads are placed at all ot her port s.
Auxil iary live VSWR is SWR measured in t he auxiliary line looking int o t he
out put t erminal when t he mat ched l oads are placed on ot her t erminals.
Main line insert ion loss is t he at t enuat i on int roduced i n t he t ransmission line
by insert ion of coupler, it is def ined as:
I nsert ion Loss (dB) = 10 log
10
[ P1/ P2]
EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Set up t he equipment s as shown in t he Fi gure.
2. Energize t he mi crowave source for part icular operat ion of f requency .
3. Remove t he mul t i hole direct ional coupler and connect t he det ect or mount
t o t he slot t ed sect ion.
4. Set maximum amplit ude i n CRO wit h t he help of variabl e at t enuat or, Let
i t be X.
5. I nsert t he direct i onal coupler bet ween t he slot t ed line and det ect or
mount . Keeping port 1 t o slot t ed line, det ect or mount t o t he auxiliary
port 3 and mat ched t erminat i on t o port 2 wit hout changing t he posit ion of
vari able at t enuat or.
6. Not e down t he amplit ude using CRO, Let it be Y.



7. Cal culat e t he Coupling f act or X-Y i n dB.
8. Now caref ul ly disconnect t he det ect or mount f rom t he auxiliary port 3 and
mat ched t erminat ion f rom port 2 , wit hout dist urbi ng t he set up.
9. Connect t he mat ched t erminat ion t o t he auxiliary port 3 and det ect or
mount t o port 2 and measure t he amplit ude on CRO, Let it be Z.
10. Comput e I nsert ion Loss= X – Z i n dB.
11. Repeat t he st eps from 1 t o 4.
12. Connect t he direct ional coupler i n t he reverse di rect ion i. e. , port 2 t o
slot t ed sect ion, mat ched t erminat ion t o port 1 and det ect or mount t o port
3, wit hout dist urbi ng t he posit ion of t he vari able at t enuat or.
13. Measure and not e down t he amplit ude usi ng CRO, Let it be Y
0
.
14. Comput e t he Direct ivit y as Y-Y
0
in dB.

PRECAUTI ONS:
1. Avoid loose connect ions.
2. Avoid Paral lax errors.

RESULT:




5. VSWR MEASUREMENT
AI M: To det ermi ne t he st anding- wave rat io and ref lect ion coeff ici ent .
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Klyst ron t ube (2k25)
2. Klyst ron power supply ( skps - 610)
3. VSWR met er (SW 115)
4. Klyst ron mount (XM – 251)
5. I sol at or ( XF 621)
6. Frequency met er ( XF 710)
7. Variabl e at t enuat or (XA – 520)
8. Slot t ed line (X 565)
9. Wave guide st and ( XU 535)
10. Movable short / t erminat ion XL 400
11. BNC CableS- S Tuner ( XT – 441)


THEORY: Any mismat ched load leads t o ref lect ed waves result ing i n
st anding waves along t he lengt h of t he line. The rat io of maximum t o



minimum volt age gives t he VSWR. Hence minimum value of S is unit y. I f
S< 10 t hen VSWR is called low VSWR. I f S> 10 t hen VSWR i s called high
VSWR. The VSWR values more t han 10 are very easily measured wi t h t his
set up. I t can be read off di rect ly on t he VSWR met er calibrat ed. The
measurement involves si mply adj ust ing t he at t enuat or t o give an adequat e
reading on t he met er which is a D. C. mi ll volt met er. The probe on t he
sl ot t ed wave guide is moved t get maximum reading on t he met er. The
at t enuat ion i s now adj ust ed t o get f ull scale reading. Next t he probe on t he
sl ot t ed line is adj ust ed t o get minimum, reading on t he met er. The rat i o of
f irst reading t o t he second gives t he VSWR. The met er it self can be
calibrat ed in t erms of VSWR. Double minimum met hod is used t o measure
VSWR great er t han 10. I n t his met hod, t he probe is insert ed t o a dept h
where t he minimum can be read wit hout dif ficult y. The probe is t hen moved
t o a poi nt where t he power is t wice t he minimum.
PROCEDURE:
1. Set up equipment as shown in fi gure.
2. Keep variabl e at t enuat or in mini mum at t enuat ion posit ion.
3. Keep cont rol knobs of VSWR met er as below
Range dB = 40db / 50db
I nput swit ch = low impedance
Met er swi t ch = Normal
Gain ( coarse f ine) = Mid posit ion approximat ely
4. Keep cont rol knobs of klyst ron power supply as below.
Beam Volt age = OFF
Mod-Swit ch = AM
Beam Volt age Knob = f ully ant i clock wise
Ref lect ion volt age knob = fully clock wise
AM- Ampli t ude knob = around f ull y clock wise
AM f requency and amplit ude knob = mid posit ion
5. Swit ch ‘ON’ t he klyst ron power suppl y, VSWR met er and cooling f an.
6. Swit ch ‘ON” t he beam volt age swit ch posit ion and set ( down) beam
volt age at 300V.
7. Rot at e t he ref l ect or volt age knob t o get def lect ion in VSWR met er.



8. Tune t he O/ P by t urning t he ref lect or volt age, amplit ude and frequency of
AM modulat ion.
9. Tune plunges of klyst ron mount and probe f or maximum deflect ion in
VSWR met er.
10. I f required, change t he range db- swit ch variable at t enuat or posit ion
and ( given) gain cont rol knob t o get def lect ion in t he scale of VSWR
met er.
11. As your move probe along t he slot t ed line, t he def lect ion will change.


A. Measurement of low and medi um VSWR:
1. Move t he probe along t he slot t ed line t o get maximum def lect ion in VSWR
met er.
2. Adj ust t he VSWR met er gain cont rol knob or variable at t enuat or unt i l t he
met er indicat es 1. 0 on normal VSWR scale.
3. Keep all t he cont rol knob as it is move t he probe t o next minimum
posit ion. Read t he VSWR on scale.
4. Repeat t he above st ep for change of S- S t uner probe dept h and record
t he corresponding SWR.
5. I f t he VSWR i s bet ween 3. 2 and 10, change t he range 0dB swit ch t o next
hi gher posi t i on and read t he VSWR on second VSWR scale of 3 t o 10.

B. Measurement of High VSWR: ( double mi nimum met hod)
1. Set t he dept h of S-S t uner slight ly more for maximum VSWR.
2. Move t he probe along wit h slot t ed line unt i l a minimum is indicat ed.
3. Adj ust t he VSWR met er gain cont rol knob and variable at t enuat or t o
obt ain
n a reading of 3db i n t he normal dB scale (0 t o 10db) of VSWR met er.
4. Move t he probe t o t he left on slot t ed line unt il f ull scale deflect ion is
obt ained on 0- 10 db scale. Not e and record t he probe posit ion on slot t ed
l ine. Let it be d1.



5. Repeat t he st ep 3 and t hen move t he probe right along t he sl ot t ed line
unt il full scale defl ect ion is obt ained on 0- 10db normal db scale. Let i t be
d2.
6. Replace S- S t uner and t erminat ion by movable short .
7. Measure dist ance bet ween 2 successi ve minima posit ions of probe. Twice
this distance is guide wave length λg.
8. Comput e SWR from following equat ion
λg
SWR = - - - - - - - -- - -- - - -
t ( d1 - d2)

OBSERVATI ON TABLE:
LOW VSWR
VSWR = _______

HI GH VSWR
Beam
Vol t age
( v)
x
1
( cm)
x
2
( cm)
x
1
( cm)
x
2
( cm)
VSWR
λg=2x
(cm)
















RESULT: .



6. MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND I MPEDANCE

AI M: To det ermine t he f requency and impedance in a rect angular wave
guide worki ng in TE
10

mode.

EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Kl yst ron t ube
2. Kl yst ron power supply 5kps – 610
3. Kl yst ron mount XM-251
4. I solat or XI -621
5. Frequency met er XF- 710
6. Vari able at t enuat or XA- 520
7. Sl ot t ed sect ion XS- 651
8. Tunable probe XP- 655
9. VSWR met er SW- 115
10. Wave guide st and XU-535
11. Movable Short XT- 481
12. Mat ched t erminat i on XL- 400
FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT:
THEORY:
The cut - of f f requency relat ionshi p shows t hat t he physical size of t he wave
guide wi ll det ermine t he propagat ion of t he part icul ar modes of specific
orders det ermi ned by values of m and n. The minimum cut -of f f requency is
obt ained for a rect angul ar wave guide having dimension a> b, f or values of
m= 1, n= 0, i. e. TE
10
mode is t he dominant mode since f or TM
mn
modes, n# 0
or n# 0 t he lowest - order mode possible is TE
10
, called t he dominant mode i n
a rect angular wave guide for a> b.
For dominant TE
10
mode rectangular wave guide λo, λg and λc are
relat ed as bel ow.
1/λo² = 1/λg² + 1/λc²
Where λo is free space wave length



λg is guide wave length
λc is cut off wave length
For TE
10
mode λc – 2a where ‘a’ i s broad dimension of wave guide.
PROCEDURE:
1. Set up t he component s and equipment s as shown in f igure.
2. Set up variable at t enuat or at minimum at t enuat ion posit ion.
3. Keep t he cont rol knobs of klyst ron power supply as below:
Beam volt age – OFF
Mod-swit ch – AM
Beam volt age knob – Fully ant i cl ock wise
Repel ler volt age – Fully clock wise
AM – Amplit ude knob – Around fully clock wi se
AM – Frequency knob – Around mid posit ion
4. Swit ch ‘ON’ t he klyst ron power suppl y, CRO and cool ing f an swit ch.
5. Swit ch ’ON’ t he beam volt age swit ch and set beam volt age at 300V wit h
help of beam volt age knob.
6. Adj ust t he repeller volt age t o get t he maximum amplit ude in CRO
7. Maximize t he amplit ude wit h AM amplit ude and f requency cont rol knob of
power supply.
8. Tune t he plunger of klyst ron mount for maximum Ampl it ude.
9. Tune t he repeller volt age knob for maximum Amplit ude.
10. Tune t he f requency met er knob t o get a ‘dip’ on t he CRO and not e
down t he f requency f rom f requency met er.
11. Replace t he t erminat ion wit h movable short , and det une t he frequency
met er.
12. Move t he probe along wit h slot t ed line. The ampli t ude in CRO will vary
. Not e and record t he probe posit ion , Let it be d1.
13. Move t he probe t o next minimum posit ion and record t he probe
posit ion again, Let i t be d2.
14. Calculat e t he guide wave lengt h as t wi ce t he dist ance bet ween t wo
successive minimum posit ion obt ained as above.
15. Measure t he wave guide inner board dimension ‘a’ which will be around
22.86mm for



x- band.
16. Calculat e t he f requency by following equat ion.

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
2 2
1 1
c
g
c
f
  

Where C = 3x10
8
met er/ sec. i. e. velocit y of light .
17. Verif y wit h f requency obt ained by f requency modes
18. Above experiment can be verif ied at dif ferent f requencies.
f
o
= C/λo => C => 3x10
8
m/ s ( i. e. , velocit y of li ght )
1/λo² = 1/λg² + 1/λc²

2 2 0
c g
c g
 
 

+
=
λg = 2x ∆d
For TE
10
mode => λc = 2a
a  wave gui de inner broad dimension
a = 2. 286cm” ( given i n manual )
λc = 4.6cm
OBSERVATI ON TABLE:

B
e
a
m

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
v
)

B
e
a
m

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
m
A
)

R
e
p
e
l
l
e
r

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
v
)

f
o

(
u
s
i
n
g

f
r
e
q

m
e
t
e
r
)

(
G
H
Z
)

d1

( cm)
d2

( cm)
d3

( cm)
d4

( cm)
∆d1=
d2-
d1

( cm)
∆d2=
d3-
d2

( cm)

d
3
=

d
4

-

d

3



d
=
(

d
1
+

d
2
+

d
3
)
/
3

λ
g
=
2

x


d

λ
o

(
c
m
)

f
o

(
H
Z
)

















I MPEDANCE MEASUREMENT:
THEORY:
The impedance at any point on a t ransmi ssi on li ne can be writ t en i n
t he f orm R+ j x.
For comparison SWR can be calculat ed as

R
R
S
÷
+
=
1
1
where ref lect ion coef fi cient ‘R’

Given as

0
0
Z Z
Z Z
R
+
÷
=
Z
o
= charact erist i cs i mpedance of wave guide at operat ing frequency.
Z is t he load impedance
The measurement is performed i n t he following way.
The unknown device is connect ed t o t he sl ot t ed line and t he posit ion of
one minima is det ermined. The unknown device is repl aced by movable
short t o t he slot t ed line. Two successive minima port ions are not ed. The
t wi ce of t he dif f erence bet ween minima posit ion wil l be gui de wave lengt h.
One of t he minima i s used as reference f or impedance measurement . Find
t he diff erence of reference minima and minima posit ion obt ai ned f rom
unknown load. Let it be ‘d’. Take a smit h chart , t aking ‘1’ as cent re, draw a
ci rcle of radius equal t o S. Mark a poi nt on circumference of smit h chart
towards load side at a distance equal to d/λg.
Join t he cent er wit h t his point . Find t he point where it cut t he drawn
ci rcle. The co- ordinat es of t his point will show t he normalized impedance of
load.

PROCEDURE:
1. Cal culat e a set of Vmin values for short or movable short as load.
2. Cal culat e a set of Vmi n values f or S- S Tuner + Mat ched t erminat ion as a
l oad.
Not e: Move more st eps on S- S Tuner




3. From t he above 2 st eps calculat e d = d
1
~ d
2

4. Wi t h t he same set up as in st ep 2 but wit h few numbers of t urns (2 or 3) .
Cal culat e low VSWR.
Not e: Hi gh VSWR can also be cal culat ed but i t result s in a complex
procedure.
5. Draw a VSWR circle on a smit h chart .
6. Draw a line f rom cent er of circle t o impedance value (d/λg) from which
calculat e admit t ance and React ance ( Z = R+ j x)
Set up f or :
a) Frequency Measurement :

Figure 1: Set up f or frequency and wavelengt h measurement

b) I mpedance Measurement

Figure 2: Set up f or impedance measurement







OBSERVATI ON TABLE:
Load (short or movable short )
x
1
(cm)
x
2
( cm)
x
1
(cm)
x
2
( cm)
x
1
(cm)
x
2
( cm)




x = ______
λg = _____

Load (S. S. Tuner + Mat ched Terminat ion)



S. S Tuner + Mat ched Terminat ion Short or Movable Short





d1= , d2 =
d = d1 ~ d2 =
Z = d/λg =


RESULT:



7. WAVEGUI DE PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT


































8 . SCATTERI NG PARAMETERS OF CI RCULATOR

AI M: To st udy t he I solat or and circulat ors and measure t he I nsert ion Loss
and I solat ion of
Circulat or.
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Microwave Source ( Klyst ron or Gunn- Diode)
2. I solat or, Frequency Met er
3. Vari able At t enuat or
4. Sl ot t ed Line
5. Tunable Probe
6. Det ect or Mount Mat ched Terminat ion
7. Ci rculat or
8. Wavegui de St and
9. Cables and Accessories
10. VSWR Met er.

CI RCULATOR:
Circul at or is def ined as device wit h port s arranged such t hat energy ent ering
a port is coupled t o an adj acent port but not coupled t o t he ot her port s. This
is depict ed in f igure circulat or can have any number of port s.





I SOLATOR:
An I solat or is a t wo- port device t hat t ransf ers energy f rom input t o out put
wit h lit t le at t enuat ion and f rom out put t o input wit h very high at t enuat ion.








The isolat or, shown in Fig. can be derived f rom a t hree- port ci rculat or by
si mply placing a mat ched load ( ref lect ion less t erminat ion) on one port .
The import ant circul at or and isolat or paramet ers are:
A. I nsert ion Loss
I nsert ion Loss i s t he rat i o of power det ect ed at t he out put port t o t he power
supplied by source t o t he input port , measured wi t h ot her ort s t erminat ed in
t he mat ched Load. I t is expressed i n dB.
B. I solat ion
I sol at ion is t he rat io of power applied t o t he out put t o t hat measured at t he
input . This rat io is expressed in db. The isol at ion of a circulat or is measured
wit h t he t hird port t erminat ed in a mat ched load.

EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
Measurement of i nsert ion
1. Remove t he isolat or or circul at or f rom slot t ed line and connect t he
det ect or mount t o t he slot t ed sect ion. The out put of t he det ect or mount
should be connect ed wit h CRO.
2. Energize t he mi crowave source for maximum out put for a part icular
frequency of operat ion. Tune t he det ect or mount for maximum out put i n
t he CRO.
3. Set any ref erence level of out put in CRO wit h t he help of variable
at t enuat or, Let it be V
1
.




4. Carefully remove t he det ect or mount f rom slot t ed line wit hout dist urbing
t he posit ion of t he set up. I nsert t he isolat or/ circulat or bet ween slot t ed
line and det ect or mount . Keep input port t o slot t ed line and det ect or it s
out put port . A mat ched t ermi nat ion should be placed at t hird port in case
of Ci rculat or.
5. Record t he out put in CRO, Let it be V
2
.
6. Comput e I nsert ion loss given as V
1
-V
2
in db.
Measurement of I solat ion:
7. For measurement of isolat ion, t he isol at or or circulat or has t o be
connect ed in reverse i. e. out put port t o slot t ed line and det ect or t o i nput
port wit h ot her port t ermi nat ed by mat ched t erminat i on (f or circulat or) .
8. Record t he out put of CRO and let it be V
3
.
9. Comput e I solat i on as V
1
- V
3
i n db.
10. The same experiment can be done f or ot her port s of circulat or.
11. Repeat t he above experiment for ot her frequency if needed.

PRECAUTI ONS:
1. Avoid loose connect ions.
2. Avoid Paral lax errors.



RESULT:










9. SCATTERI NG PARAMETERS OF MAGI C TEE

AI M: To St udy t he operat ion of Magic Tee and calculat e Coupling Co-
ef f icient and I solat ion.

EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Microwave source : Klyst ron t ube ( 2k25)
2. I solat or ( XI - 621)
3. Frequency met er ( XF-710)
4. Vari able At t enuat or ( XA-520)
5. Sl ot t ed line ( SX- 651)
6. Tunable probe (XP-655)
7. Det ect or Mount ( XD- 451)
8. Mat ched Terminat ion (XL-400)
9. Magic Tee ( XE- 345/ 350)
10. Klyst ron Power Supply + Kl yst ron Mount
11. Wave guide st ands and accessories


















Fig: Magic Tee
THEORY:
The device Magic Tee is a combinat ion of E and H plane Tee. Arm 3 is t he
H-arm and arm 4 is t he E- arm. I f t he power is fed, i nt o arm 3 ( H-arm) t he
elect ric f ield divides equally bet ween arm1 and 2 wit h t he same phase and
no elect ric f iel d exist s in t he arm 4. I f power is f ed in arm 4 ( E- arm) it
divides equally int o arm 1 and 2 but out of phase wi t h no power t o arm 3,
f urt her, i f t he power i s f ed in arm 1 and 2 simult aneously it is added i n arm 3
( H- arm) and it is subt ract ed in E-arm i. e. , arm 4.
A. I solat ion:
The I solat ion bet ween E and H arm is def ined as t he rat io of t he power
supplied by t he generat or connect ed t o t he E-arm (port 4) t o t he power
det ect ed at H-arm ( port 3) when side arm 1 and 2 t erminat ed in mat ched
load.
I sol at ion ( dB) = 10 log
10
[ P4/ P3]
Simil arl y, I solat ion bet ween ot her port s may be def ined.
B. Coupling Fact or:
I t i s def ined as Ci j = 10 – ·/ 20
Where ‘·’ is at t enuat ion / isol at ion in dB when ‘i' is input arm and ‘j ’ is
out put arm.
Thus, · = 10 log
10
[ P4/ P3]



Where P3 is t he power delivered t o arm ‘i’ and P4 is power det ect ed at
‘j ’ arm.


EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Set up t he component s and equipment s as shown in f igure.
2. Energize t he microwave source for part icular frequency of operat ion and
t une t he det ect or mount for maximum out put .
3. Wi t h t he help of variabl e f requency of operat i on and t une t he det ect or
mount for maximum out put at t enuat or, set any ref erence in t he CRO let it
be V
3
.
4. Wi t hout di st urbing t he posit ion of t he variable at t enuat or, caref ully place
t he Magic Tee aft er t he slot t ed line, keeping H- arm t o slot t ed line,
det ect or mount t o E- arm and mat ched t erminat ion t o Port - 1 and Port - 2.
5. Not e down t he amplit ude using CRO, Let it be V
4
.
6. Det ermine t he I solat ion bet ween Port -3 and Port -4 as V
3
- V
4.

7. Det ermine t he coupling co- eff ici ent f rom t he equat i on given in t heory
part .
8. The same experiment may be repeat ed f or ot her Port s also.

OBSERVATI ONS:
Port s Power
( W)












Calculat ions:
Coupling Co- ef ficient :
α = 10 log
Vj
Vi

Therefore C = 10
– α /20


RESULT:























10. CHARACTERI STI CS OF LED
AI M:
1. To st udy t he relat ion ship bet ween t he LED f orward current and t he LED
opt ical power out put .
2. To det ermi ne t he lineari t y of t he device at 660nm and 850nm.
3. To det ermi ne conversion eff iciency of t he t wo LED’s
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Analog Fiber opt ic t rainers ( Tx and Rx)
2. Fiber opt ic links of 1m and 5m lengt h.
3. Cat hode Ray Oscil loscope
4. Digit al mul t i -met er.

CI RCUI T DI AGRAM

Figure 1 : Fiber Opt ic Analog Transmi t t er Kit :













Figure 2 : Fiber Opt ic Analog Receiver Kit :



THEORY:
LED’s and l aser di odes t he commonly used sources in opt ical
communicat ion syst ems, whet her t he syst em t ransmit s digit al or analog
si gnals. I n t he case of analog t ransmission, direct i nt ensit y modulat ion of t he
opt ical source is possible, provi ded t he opt ical out put f rom t he source can be
varied linearly as a funct ion of t he modulat ing elect rical signal amplit ude.
LEDs have a linear opt ical out put wi t h relat ion t o t he forward current over a
cert ai n regi on of operat ion. I t may be ment ioned t hat in many low- cost and
small band- widt h applicat ions LEDs at 660nm and 850nm are popular. While
direct int ensit y modulat i on i s simple t o realize, higher perf ormance is
achieved by FM modulat ion is simple t o realize, higher performance is
achieved by FM modulat ing t he base band signal prior t o int ensit y
modulat ion.
FO pin has a 66% higher sensit ivi t y at 850nm as compared t o 660nm
f or t he same input opt ical power . Thi s corresponds t o a sensi t ivit y higher by
2. 2 dB. Not e t hat t o calibrat e t he power met er at 850nm, deduct 2. 2dB f rom



t he measured reading. I n comput i ng losses in cables and fibers t his get s
eli minat ed while solvi ng t he equat ions.
EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Connect circuit as shown i n diagram. Connect one end of cable 1 ( 1m) t o
t he FO LED 1
(660nm) port and ot her end t o t he FO pin port ( power supply).
2. Swit ch ON t he power supply.
3. Adj ust t he pot ent iomet er P0, So t hat t he power met er reads -15. 0 dBm.
4. Connect t he digit al Mult i- met er at V
01
t erminal provided at F0 LED 1 and
measure volt age V
01

I f
1
= V
01
/ R1 in mA
Where I f
1
= 660nm LED f orward current .
R
1
= I nt ernal Resist ance (100 Ohms)
5. Adj ust t he Pot ent iomet er PO t o t he ext reme ant i- clock wise posit ion t o
reduce I f
1
t o 0.
6. Slowly t urn t he pot ent iomet er P0 cl ockwise t o increase I f 1. The power
met er should read -30. 0 dB approximat ely. From here vary t he pot P0 i n
suit able st eps and not e t he V
01
and not e t he power met er readings, P
0
record
up t o t he ext reme clockwise posit ion and not e down t he values in t able.
7. Swit ch OFF t he power supply.
8. Repeat t he complet e experiment for FO LED2 and t abulat e t he readings i n
t able . for V02& P0.
I f
2
= V02/ R2 in mA.
( Apply t he condit ion of 2. 2dB discussed in Experiment for t he 850nm LED)
Where I f
2
= 850nm LED forward current .
R
2
= I nt ernal resist ance ( 100 Ohms) .

OBSERVATI ON TABLE:

For 660 nm:
S. NO V
O1
( mV)
I
f 1
= V
01
/ 100
( mA)
P
0
( dBm)

















For 850 nm:
S. NO V
O2
( mV)
I
f2
= V
02
/ 100
(mA)
P
0
( dBm)

Vin vs Vout (t o bot h LED s)
S. NO V
O2
( mV)
Vout Gai n


PRECAUTI ONS:
1. Avoid loose connect ions.
2. Avoid Parallax errors.

RESULT:



11. CHARACTERI STI CS OF LASER DI ODE

AI M: 1.Measurement of V- I charact erist ics of Laser diode.
2. Measurement of Lasing Threshold using Current versus Opt ical
Power Charact erist ics.

EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Laser based Fiber Opt i c Trainer kit .
2. Pat ch cords
3. volt met er
4. Ammet er
5. power supply
6. Glass Fiber cable.
CI RCUI T DI AGRAM:
Figure 1: LASER diode –Transmit t er kit .










Figure 2: LASER di ode –Receiver kit .




THEORY:

The semiconduct or j unct ion l aser is also called an inj ect ion laser
because it s pumping met hod is elect ron- hole inj ect ion in a p- n j unct ion. The
semiconduct or t hat has been ext ensively used f or j unct ion is t he Gallium
Arseni de. The f eat ures of semiconduct or lasers are i) Ext reme mono
chromat icit y, ii) High direct ionalit y. Three basic t ransit ion process relat ed t o
operat ion of lasers are: 1. Absorpt ion, 2. Spont aneous emission, 3.
St imulat ed emi ssion. The st art ing mat erial is an n- t ype Ga AS doped wit h
si licon in t he range of 2-4x10
18
cm
- 3
. A p- t ype is grown on t he waf er by t he
liquid- phase epit axial process. The waf er is lapped t o a t hickness of 75 µm
and surf aces are met all ized. The waf er is t hen cleaved i nt o slivers. The next
st ep i s t o evaporat e a ref lect i ve coat ing ont o one of t he cleared f act s of t he
si lver so t hat t he l aser can emit f rom only one f acet .

EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
Forward cur rent Vs forward volt age:



1. Conf irm t hat t he power swit ch is i n OFF posit ion and t hen connect it
t o t he kit .
2. Make t he j umper set t ings and connect ion as shown in t he block
diagram.
3. I nsert t he j umper connect ion in j umper JP
1
, JP
2
, JP
3
at posit ion
shown in t he diagram.
4. Connect t he Ammet er and volt met er as shown in t he block diagram.
5. Keep t he pot ent iomet er P
5
ant i- clock wi se rot at ion is used t o cont rol
int ensi t y of Laser diode.
6. Connect ext ernal si gnal generat or t o ANALOG I N post of Analog
buf f er and appl y sine wave f requency of 1MHz and 1V p- p.
7. Then connect ANALOG OUT post t o ANALOG I N post Transmit t er.
8. Then swit ch ON t he power supply.
9. To get t he V- I charact eri st ics of l aser diode rot at e P5 slowly and
measure forward current and corresponding volt age respect ively.
Take number of reading and plot graph. When a forward volt age is
applied t o t he laser current st art s t o pass at a cert ai n t hreshold
volt age. This is cal led t hreshold volt age.

PRECAUTI ONS:
1. Avoid loose connect ions.
2. Avoid Parallax errors.
OBSERVATI ON TABLE:
Opt ical Power ( Po) Vs Forward Current ( I f ) ;

S. No Vl ( V ) Vo ( V) I f = Vl / 100
( A)
Po ( d B m )
















Phot o Diode Current ( I m) Vs Laser Opt ical Power Out put ( Po)
S. No Vm ( V ) I m = Vm / 100 (
A)
Po ( d B m )


















Vin vs Vout
S. No. Vin ( m V ) Vout ( m V ) Gai n = Vout / Vi n











RESULT:



12. I NTENSI TY MODULATI ON SYSTEM OF A LASER DI ODE

AI M: The main aim of t he experiment is t o st udy t he f ollowing ac
charact erist ics of an i nt ensit y modulat ion laser and opt ics syst ems.
1. Vin( ac) Vs Vout f or fixed carrier Po and signal f requency , Fo
2. Vin max Vs Po f or known dist ort ion f ree Vout at f ixed Fo.
EQUI PMENTS REQUI RED:
1. Laser Diode Design Module MTSFOL TX Unit 1. no.
2. Laser Diode Design Module MTSFOL RX Unit 1. no
3. Two met er PMMA Plast ic Fiber Pat ch cord ( cable 1) .
4. Two met er GI / MM Glass Fi ber Pat ch cord. (Cable 2) .
5. I n- Line SMA Adapt or.
6. Numeri cal Apert ure measurement j ig.
7. Mandrel.
EXPERI MENTAL SET UP:
Figure 1: LASER diode –Transmit t er kit .





Figure 2: LASER diode –Receiver kit
.



PROCEDURE:
1. Connect one end of t he PMMA FO cable ( cable 1) t o t he l aser port on
t he TX Uni t t he ot her end is f irst connect ed t o FO pin ( on Rx Uni t ) t o
set t he carrier power level of t he laser. Then it is removed and given t o
FO PT ( Rx Unit ) t o st udy t he response of t he I M syst em.



2. Set DMM t o t he 2000mV range and connect it t o Po.
Po= (Reading) / 10dBm.
On t he Tx Unit , connect Vin t o a f unct ion generat or ( 10Hz t o 500khz sine
wave out put , 10mV t o 2000mV p- p out put ) The black t erminal is ground.
Give t he funct ion generat or out put t o CH1, as shown below.
3. On t he Rx Unit , connect Vout t o CH2 of t he dual t race oscilloscope.
Connect t he Black t erminal t o ground.
4. Wit h t he PMMA FO cable connect ed t o t he power met er , adj ust t he
SET PO knob t o set t he opt ical carrier power Po t o a suit able level say
, - 13dBm. Next disconnect t he cable f rom t he power met er and connect
t o FO PT.
5. Set signal frequency and amplit ude t o 2 kHz and 100mV respect ively.
Observe t he t ransmit t ed and received signals on t he oscill oscope. Set
Rin suit ably t o get Vout = Vin or a known gain. The most pref erred
set t ing is t he ext reme ant iclockwi se posit ion where Rin (minimum)
= 51ohms. The syst em gain is now set . Next vary Vi n i n suit abl e st eps
f rom 10mV t o 1000mVp- p and not e t he values of Vout . Tabulat e and
plot a graph Vout Vs Vin.
6. Set signal f requency t o 2 kHz and Po t o - 25. 0dBm. Disconnect Vi n
bef ore Po measurement . Adj ust V
i n
t o i t s maximum value f or dist ort ion
f ree Vout . Not e t he values of V
i n
and V out . Repeat t his f or ot her
val ues of Po and record change in gain if any .You may addi t ionally
observe t he wavef orms in t he oscill oscope dc coupl ed posit ion t oo.

TABULAR FORM:
- Vout Vs Vin
Frequency = 2khz; Carrier level Po = -13.0dBm init ial gain = mi n/ unit y.
Sl. no
Vin( mVp-
p)
Vout (mVp-
p)
Gain= Vo/ Vin













TABULAR FORM:
- Vin max Vs Po

S. NO Po( dBm)
Vin( mVp-
p)
Vout (mVp-
p)
Gain= Vo/ Vin




















S. NO Po( dBm) Vin(mVp- p)
Vout (mVp-
p)
I f
Gain= Vo/ Vin

























RESULT:.











13. DESI GN OF FI BER OPTI C DI GI TAL LI NK FOR
TRANSMI SSI ON OF DI GI TAL SI GNALS

AI M: The obj ect ive of t his experiment is t o st udy a Fiber opt ic digit al link.
I n t his experiment you will st udy t he relat i on bet ween t he input signal s &
Received signal s.
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Fiber opt ic digit al t ransmit t er kit .
2. Fiber opt i c digit al receiver kit .
3. Fiber opt ic cable.
4. CRO
Experiment al Set up:




THEORY:
Opt ical f ibres may be produced wit h good st able t ransmission
charact erist ics in long lengt hs at a mi nimum cost and wit h maximum
reproducibilit y. A range of opt ical f ibres t ypes wi t h regard t o size, ref ract ive
indi ces and index profiles, operat ing wave l engt hs, mat erials, et c. , be
available in order t o f ulf ill many diff erent syst em applicat ions.
The f ibres may be convert ed int o pract ical cables which can be handled
in a si milar manner t o convent ional el ect rical t ransmissi on cables wit hout
problems associat ed wi t h t he degradat ion of t heir charact erist ics or damage.



The f ibres and f ibre cables may be t erminat ed and connect ed t oget her
wit hout excessive pract ical diff icult ies and in ways which limit t he ef fect of
t his process on t he f ibre t ransmi ssion charact erist ics t o keep t hem wit hin
accept able operat ing l evels. I t is import ant t hat t hese j oint ing t echniques
may be applied wit h ease in t he field locat ions where cable connect ion t akes
place.
Block Schemat ics
Fiber Opt ic Digit al Transmit t er Kit : Digit al Code Generat or
























PC
16F84



Fiber Opt ic Digit al Receiver Kit

PROCEDURE:
1. Sl ight ly unscrew t he cap of LED SFH 756V(660nm) . Do not remove
t he cap f rom t he connect or. Once t he cap i s loosened, insert t he
fi ber int o t he cap. Now t ight t he cap by screwing it back.
2. Connect t he power supply cables wit h proper polarit y t o kit . While
connect ing t his, ensure t hat t he power supply is OFF. Now swit ch
ON t he power supply.
3. Feed t he TTL si gnal of about 1KHz square wave, t o I N post of
buf f er sect ion.
4. Connect t he ot her end of Fiber t o det ect or SFH 551v very caref ully
as per t he inst ruct ions in st ep. 1
5. Observe t he received signal on CRO as O/ P post .
6. To measure t he digit al bandwidt h of t he link, vary t he f requency of
t he input f rom 100Hz on wards and observe t he ef fect on received
signal.




PC
16F84



EXPECTED GRAPH:
















OBSERVATI ONS :

Clock
V = _________ ;
Time Period = __________.

NRZ Out put
V = ___________;
Ti me Period = ___________.
Vin = _______ ;
Ti me Period = _________ .
Vout ( TTL) = ___________ ;
Ti me Period = _________.
Vo ( TTL) = ___________ ;
Ti me Period = __________.

RESULT



14. MEASUREMENT OF NUMERI CAL APERTURE




15. MEASUREMENT OF LOSSES FOR ANALOG OPTI CAL LI NK
AI M:
1. To st udy t he various t ypes of losses in Opt i cal Fiber.
2. To measure t he bending losses in t he Opt ical Fiber at wave lengt h of
660nm& 850nm.
3. To measure t he propagat ion or at t enuat ion loss in Opt ical Fiber at wave
lengt h of 660nm & 850nm.
EQUI PMENT REQUI RED:
1. Analog Fiber opt ic t rainer.
2. Fiber opt ic links of 1m and 5m lengt h.
3. I nline SMA Adopt er.
4. 20MHz CRO
5. Digit al Mult i- met er.
THEORY:
Fiber opt ic l inks can be used for t ransmissi on of digit al as well as
analog signals. Basically a f iber opt i c link cont ains t hree main element s ,a
t ransmi t t er, an opt ical f iber and a receiver. The t ransmit t er module t akes t he
input signal in elect rical and t hen t ransforms it int o opt ical energy cont aining
t he same inf ormat ion. The opt ical f iber is t he medium which t akes t he
energy t o t he recei ver. At t he receiver li ght i s convert ed back int o elect rical
f orm wi t h same pat t ern as originally fed t o t he t ransmit t er.
At t enuat ion in an opt ical f iber is a result of number of a eff ect s . We will
confine our st udies t o measurement of at t enuat ion in t wo fi ber cables( cable
1m and cable2 5m) employi ng an SMA- SMA in –line adopt er. We will also
comput e loss per met er of f iber in dB and t he spect ral response of f iber at
t wo wave lengt hs 660nm and 850nm.
FO pin has a 66% higher sensit ivi t y at 850nm as compared t o 660nm
f or t he same input opt ical power . This corresponds t o sensit ivit y hi gher by
2. 2 dB. Not e t hat t o calibrat e t he power met er at 850nm, deduct 2. 2dB f rom
t he measured reading. I n comput i ng losses in cables and fibers t his get s
eli minat ed while solvi ng t he equat ions.



Due t o diff erence in alignment at di ff erent at dif ferent connect ors, i n
each of t he removal and replacement operat i on, we experience variat ions i n
loss. The observed values will be closer t o t he t rue values, if we t ake t he
average of many readings. The at t enuat i on coef f icient of approx. 0. 3db per
met er at 660nm i s normally well defined, as per t he specif icat ions of t he
manufact urer. Deviat ion i9n any, wi ll be value of loss in t he in- line
adapt or( 1. 0dB) may be of f t he mark in some cases. The loss per met er of
cable at 850nm is not specif ied by t he manuf act urer. The range of loss
3. 5+ / 0. 5dB i s accept able
EXPERI MENTAL PROCEDURE:
Measurement of Bendi ng Loss:
1. Connect t he circuit as shown in diagram.
2. Connect one end of cable 1 ( 1met er) t o t he FO LED1 (660nm) and t he
ot her end t o t he FO PI N.
3. Swit ch ON t he power supply.
4. Set t he pot ent iomet er P
0
t o set t he power met er t o a suit able value,
say- 15. 0dBm. Not e down t hi s as P
O1
.
5. Wind one t urn of t he f iber cable on t he mandrel or on t he circul ar t ype
mat erial and not e down t he new reading of t he power met er as P
O2
.
6. Swit ch OFF t he power supply.
7. Now t he loss due t o bending and st rain on t he plast ic f iber is P
O2
-P
O1

dB. Typically t he loss due t o t he st rain and bending t he f ibre is 0. 3 t o
0. 8dB.
8. Repeat t he experiment for t he LED of 850nm wave lengt h.
9. Now compare t he bending l oss in t he Opt i cal Fiber at 660nm& 850nm.
Measurement of Propagation Loss:
1. Repeat t he above st eps 1 t o 3.
2. Now connect t he one end of t he Fiber opt ic cable of lengt h 5m t o t he
FO LED1 and ot her end t o t he FO PI N.
3. Not e down t he power met er reading P
O2
.
4. Connect t he SMA adapt er t o t he t wo cabl es of 1m and 5m l engt h in
seri es.
5. Not e down t he power met er reading P
O3
.



6. Not e down all t he above calculat ed readi ngs in t he t able for 660nm
LED.
7. Swit ch OFF t he power Supply.
8. Loss in cable 1= P
O3
- P
O2
- Li la
Loss i n cabl e 2= P
O3
- P
O1
- Lil a
9. Loss in 4 m f iber cable= (Loss in cable 2) - ( Loss in cable1)
Where Lila= Loss in in-l ine adapt er
10. Assuming a loss of 1. 0dB in t he in- line adapt er ( Lila= 1. 0dB) , we
obt ain t he Loss in each cable. The diff erence in t he losses in t he t wo
cables will be equal t o t he loss in 4m of f iber ( assuming t hat t he losses at
connect or j unct ions are t he same for bot h t he cables).
10. Repeat t he ent ire experiment wit h LED2 at 850nm and t abulat e
in t able.


OBSERVATI ON TABLE:
For 660nm
S.NO
P
O1

( dBm)
P
O2

( dBm)
P
O3

( dBm)
LOSS I N
CABLE 1
( dB)
LOSS I N
CABLE 2
( dB)
Loss i n
4m fi ber
Loss per
Met er( dB)
At 850nm

















For 850nm
S.NO P
O1
P
O2
P
O3
LOSS I N LOSS I N Loss i n Loss per



( dBm) ( dBm) ( dBm) CABLE 1
( dB)
CABLE 2
( dB)
4m fi ber Met er( dB)
At 850nm


















RESULT.

DEPT. OF ECE

IV B.Tech ECE I Sem – Microwave & Optical Communication Lab List of Experiments Cycle Wise
Cycle – 1 1. Characteristics of Reflex Klystron Oscillator. 2. Gunn diode Characteristics. 3. Attenuation Measurements. 4. Directional Coupler Characteristics. 5. VSWR Measurements. 6. Impedance & Frequency Measurements. 7. Wave guide Parameters & Measurements. 8. Scattering Parameters of Circulators. 9. Scattering Parameters of Magic -Tee.

Cycle – 2 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Characteristics of LED. Characteristics of LASER diode. Intensity modulation of Laser output though an optical fiber. Design of Fiber Optic Digital Link. Measurement of NA. Measurement of losses for Analog Optical link.

1. REFLEX KLYSTRON CHARACTERISTICS
AIM: To study the mode characteristics of the reflex klystron tube and to determine its electronic tuning range. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Klystron power supply – {SKPS – 610 } Klystron tube 2k-25 with klystron mount – {XM-251} Isolator {X1-625} Frequency meter {XF-710} Detector mount {XD-451} Variable Attenuator {XA-520} Wave guide stand {XU-535} VSWR meter {SW-215} Oscilloscope BNC Cable

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Klystron Power supply SKPS-610

Multi meter

Klystron Mount XM-251

Isolator XI-621

Frequency meter XF-455

Variable attenuator XA-520

Detector mount XD-451

VSWR meter SW-115

CRO

THEORY:

The reflex klystron is a single cavity variable frequency

microwave generator of low power and low efficiency. This is most widely used in applications where variable frequency is desired as 1. In radar receivers 2. Local oscillator in µw receivers 3. Signal source in micro wave generator of variable frequency 4. Portable micro wave links.

5. Pump oscillator in parametric amplifier Voltage Characteristics: Oscillations can be obtained only for specific

combinations of anode and repeller voltages that gives farable transit time. Power Output characteristics. Characteristics: The mode curves and frequency

The frequency of resonance of the cavity decides the

frequency of oscillation. A variation in repeller voltages slightly changes the frequency. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the equipments and components as shown in the figure. 2. Set the variable attenuator at maximum Position. 3. Set the MOD switch of Klystron Power Supply at CW position, beam voltage control knob to fully anti clock wise and repeller voltage control knob to fully clock wise and meter switch to ‘OFF’ position. 4. Rotate the Knob of frequency meter at one side fully. 5. Connect the DC microampere meter at detector. 6. Switch “ON” the Klystron power supply, CRO and cooling fan for the Klystron tube.. 7. Put the meter switch to beam voltage position and rotate the beam voltage knob clockwise slowly up to 300 Volts and observe the beam current on the meter by changing meter switch to beam current position. The beam current should not increase more than 30 mA. 8. Change the repeller voltage slowly and watch the current meter, set the maximum voltage on CRO. 9. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for the maximum output. 10. Rotate the knob of frequency meter slowly and stop at that position,

where there is less output current on multimeter. Read directly the frequency meter between two horizontal line and vertical marker. If micrometer type frequency meter is used read the micrometer reading and find the frequency from its frequency calibration chart.

11. Change the repeller voltage and read the current and frequency for
each repeller voltage.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Beam Voltage Beam Current :…………V (Constant) :………….mA

Repeller Voltage (V)

Curren t (mA)

Power (mW)

Dip Frequency (GHz)

EXPECTED GRAPH:

RESULT:

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. GUNN DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To study the V-I characteristics of Gunn diode.710 Matched termination XL -400 . Slotted line 8. Gunn power supply 2. Variable attenuator 7. PIN Modulator 4.2. Detector mount and CRO. Frequency Meter 6. BLOCK DIAGRAM Gunn power supply Gunn oscillator XG -11 Isolator XI -621 Pin modulator Frequenc y meter XF. Isolator 5. Gunn oscillator 3.

6. The O/P is taken using a inductively or capacitively coupled probe. The length of the cavity determines the frequency of oscillation. Keep the control knobs of Gunn power supply as below Meter switch – “OFF” Gunn bias knob – Fully anti clock wise PIN bias knob – Fully anti clock wise PIN mode frequency – any position 4.THEORY: Gunn diode oscillator normally consist of a resonant cavity. Initially set the variable attenuator for minimum attenuation. exceed the bias voltage above 10 volts. Measure the Gunn diode current to corresponding to the various Gunn bias voltage through the digital panel meter and meter switch. Measure the threshold voltage which corresponding to max current. 2. Do not Note: Do not keep Gunn bias knob position at threshold position for more than 10-15 sec. The circuit using co-axial cavity has the Gunn diode at one end at one end of cavity along with the central conductor of the co-axial line. The location of the coupling loop or probe within the resonator determines the load impedance presented to the Gunn diode. readings should be obtained as fast as possible. an arrangement for coupling diode to the cavity a circuit for biasing the diode and a mechanism to couple the RF power from cavity to external circuit load. 5. 8. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Voltage-Current Characteristics: 1. Plot the voltage and current readings on the graph. 7. Set the components and equipments as shown in Figure. 3. Otherwise due to excessive heating Gunn diode may burn . Heat sink conducts away the heat due to power dissipation of the device. Switch “ON” the Gunn power supply. Set the micrometer of Gunn oscillator for required frequency of operation. A co-axial cavity or a rectangular wave guide cavity is commonly used.

EXPECTED GRAPH: Threshold voltage I (mA) Volts (V) I-V CHARACTERISTICS OF GUNN OSCILLATOR OBSERVATION TABLE: Gunn bias voltage (v) Gunn diode current (mA) RESULT: .

3. ATTENUATION MEASUREMENT AIM: To study insertion loss and attenuation measurement of attenuator. Isolator (xI-621) 3. Matched termination (XL-400) 9. Test attenuator a) Fixed b) Variable 10. VSWR or CRO . 11. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Slotted line (XS-651) 6. Tunable probe (XP-655) 7. Detector mount (XD-451) 8. Klystron power supply & Klystron mount Cooling fan BNC-BNC cable 13. 12. Microwave source Klystron tube (2k25) 2. Frequency meter (xF-710) 4. Variable attenuator (XA-520) 5.

Attenuation A (dB) = 10 log (P1/P2) Where P1 = Power detected by the load without the attenuator in the line P2 = Power detected by the load with the attenuator in the line. Let it be P1. Carefully disconnect the detector mount from the slotted line without disturbing any position on the setup place the test variable attenuator to the slotted line and detector mount to O/P port of test variable attenuator. Keep the micrometer reading of text variable attenuator to . Connect the detector mount to the slotted line and tune the detector mount also for max deflection on VSWR or on CRO 4. Energize the microwave source for maximum power at any frequency of operation 3. Set any reference level on the VSWR meter or on CRO with the help of variable attenuator. Connect the equipments as shown in the above figure. 2. PROCEDURE: 1. 5.THEORY: The attenuator is a two port bidirectional device which attenuates some power when inserted into a transmission line.

Note:1. Let it be P3 then the attenuation value of variable attenuator for particular position of micrometer reading of will be P1-P3 db. Place the test attenuator to the slotted line and detector mount at the other port of test attenuator. Record the reading of VSWR meter or on CRO. Let it to be P2. For measuring frequency sensitivity of variable attenuator the position of micrometer reading of the variable attenuator should be same for all frequencies of operation. For measurement of attenuation of fixed and variable attenuator. Then the insertion loss of test attenuator will be P1-P2 db. In case the variable attenuator change the micro meter reading and record the VSWR meter or CRO reading. 7. 6. Now change the operating frequency and all steps should be repeated for finding frequency sensitivity of fixed and variable attenuator. 8. EXPECTED GRAPH: OBSERVATION TABLE: Micrometer reading P1 (dB) P2 (dB) Attenuation = P1-P2 (dB) .zero and record the readings of VSWR meter or on CRO. Find out attenuation value for different position of micrometer reading and plot a graph.

RESULT: .

DIRECTIONAL COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To study the function of multi-hole directional coupler by measuring the following parameters. Frequency Meter 3. MHD Coupler 8. .4. Microwave Source (Klystron or Gunn-Diode) 2. Slotted Line 5. CRO. 1. Variable Attenuator 4. Insertion Loss and Directivity of the Directional coupler EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Cables and Accessories 10. Tunable Probe 6. Isolator. The Coupling factor. Waveguide Stand 9. Detector Mount Matched Termination 7.

.

2.THEORY: A directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to measure the incident and reflected wave separately. Set up the equipments as shown in the Figure. it is defined as: Insertion Loss (dB) = 10 log10 [P1/P2] EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1. Note down the amplitude using CRO. Energize the microwave source for particular operation of frequency . . Directivity is measured indirectly as follows: Hence Directivity D (db) = I-C = 10 log10 [P2/P1] Main line VSWR is SWR measured. 6. Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in the transmission line by insertion of coupler. 3. and almost no power comes out in port (4) Power entering at port 2 is divided between port 1 and 4. looking into the main-line input terminal when the matched loads are placed at all other ports. Insert the directional coupler between the slotted line and detector mount. The power entering. The coupling factor is defined as Coupling (db) = 10 log10 [P1/P3] where port 2 is terminated. Let it be Y. Remove the multi hole directional coupler and connect the detector mount to the slotted section. Let it be X. Set maximum amplitude in CRO with the help of variable attenuator. It consist of two transmission lines the main arm and auxiliary arm. the directivity of the coupler is a measure of separation between incident wave and the reflected wave. Auxiliary live VSWR is SWR measured in the auxiliary line looking into the output terminal when the matched loads are placed on other terminals. Isolation (dB) = 10 log10 [P2/P3] where P1 is matched. 4. With built-in termination and power entering at Port 1. detector mount to the auxiliary port 3 and matched termination to port 2 without changing the position of variable attenuator.1. 5. electromagnetically coupled to each other Refer to the Fig. Keeping port 1 to slotted line. in the main-arm gets divided between port 2 and 3.

RESULT: . Avoid Parallax errors.e. 10. without disturbing the setup. Connect the matched termination to the auxiliary port 3 and detector mount to port 2 and measure the amplitude on CRO. port 2 to slotted section. Avoid loose connections. 11. 14. without disturbing the position of the variable attenuator. Repeat the steps from 1 to 4. 8. 2. 9. Let it be Y0. Compute the Directivity as Y-Y0 in dB. Connect the directional coupler in the reverse direction i.. 13. 12. Now carefully disconnect the detector mount from the auxiliary port 3 and matched termination from port 2 . Let it be Z. PRECAUTIONS: 1. matched termination to port 1 and detector mount to port 3. Compute Insertion Loss= X – Z in dB. Measure and note down the amplitude using CRO. Calculate the Coupling factor X-Y in dB.7.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Klystron mount (XM – 251) 5. . Isolator (XF 621) 6. VSWR MEASUREMENT AIM: To determine the standing-wave ratio and reflection coefficient.5. Movable short/termination XL 400 BNC CableS-S Tuner (XT – 441) THEORY: Any mismatched load leads to reflected waves resulting in The ratio of maximum to standing waves along the length of the line. Klystron tube (2k25) 2. 11. Slotted line (X 565) 9. Frequency meter (XF 710) 7. VSWR meter (SW 115) 4.610) 3. Variable attenuator (XA – 520) 8. Wave guide stand (XU 535) 10. Klystron power supply (skps .

The measurement involves simply adjusting the attenuator to give an adequate reading on the meter which is a D. Set up equipment as shown in figure. reading on the meter. Next the probe on the slotted line is adjusted to get minimum. . the probe is inserted to a depth where the minimum can be read without difficulty. In this method. The ratio of first reading to the second gives the VSWR. The meter itself can be calibrated in terms of VSWR. Double minimum method is used to measure VSWR greater than 10. mill volt meter. Beam Voltage = OFF Mod-Switch = AM Beam Voltage Knob = fully anti clock wise Reflection voltage knob = fully clock wise AM-Amplitude knob = around fully clock wise AM frequency and amplitude knob = mid position 5. If S<10 then VSWR is called low VSWR. The probe is then moved to a point where the power is twice the minimum. attenuation is now adjusted to get full scale reading. 2. VSWR meter and cooling fan. 6. The probe on the The slotted wave guide is moved t get maximum reading on the meter. Keep control knobs of VSWR meter as below Range dB = 40db / 50db Input switch = low impedance Meter switch = Normal Gain (coarse fine) = Mid position approximately 4. PROCEDURE: 1.minimum voltage gives the VSWR. Keep control knobs of klystron power supply as below. 7. It can be read off directly on the VSWR meter calibrated. Keep variable attenuator in minimum attenuation position. The VSWR values more than 10 are very easily measured with this setup. Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter. Switch ‘ON” the beam voltage switch position and set (down) beam voltage at 300V. Hence minimum value of S is unity. 3. Switch ‘ON’ the klystron power supply.C. If S>10 then VSWR is called high VSWR.

A. 3. As your move probe along the slotted line. 9. Tune the O/P by turning the reflector voltage. 4. Move the probe along with slotted line until a minimum is indicated. Read the VSWR on scale. Set the depth of S-S tuner slightly more for maximum VSWR. . If required. 4. Measurement of High VSWR: (double minimum method) 1. 3. 10. Tune plunges of klystron mount and probe for maximum deflection in VSWR meter. amplitude and frequency of AM modulation. Note and record the probe position on slotted line. Keep all the control knob as it is move the probe to next minimum position. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob or variable attenuator until the meter indicates 1.2 and 10. 2.0 on normal VSWR scale. Move the probe to the left on slotted line until full scale deflection is obtained on 0-10 db scale. 2. 5. Move the probe along the slotted line to get maximum deflection in VSWR meter. 11. Measurement of low and medium VSWR: 1.8. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob and variable attenuator to obtain n a reading of 3db in the normal dB scale (0 to 10db) of VSWR meter. Let it be d1. change the range db-switch variable attenuator position and (given) gain control knob to get deflection in the scale of VSWR meter. change the range 0dB switch to next higher position and read the VSWR on second VSWR scale of 3 to 10. the deflection will change. If the VSWR is between 3. Repeat the above step for change of S-S tuner probe depth and record the corresponding SWR. B.

6. Replace S-S tuner and termination by movable short. 7. Compute SWR from following equation λg SWR = -------------- (d1 .5. Let it be d2. Twice this distance is guide wave length λg. Repeat the step 3 and then move the probe right along the slotted line until full scale deflection is obtained on 0-10db normal db scale.d2) OBSERVATION TABLE: LOW VSWR VSWR = _______ HIGH VSWR Beam Voltage (v) x1 (cm) x2 (cm) x1 (cm) x2 (cm) λg=2x (cm) VSWR . Measure distance between 2 successive minima positions of probe. 8.

.RESULT: .

Slotted section XS-651 8. 12. λg and λc are related as below. Klystron tube 2. For dominant TE10 mode rectangular wave guide λo. Wave guide stand XU-535 Movable Short XT-481 Matched termination XL-400 FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT: THEORY: The cut-off frequency relationship shows that the physical size of the wave guide will determine the propagation of the particular modes of specific orders determined by values of m and n. Frequency meter XF-710 6.e. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Isolator XI-621 5. Variable attenuator XA-520 7. n#0 or n#0 the lowest-order mode possible is TE10. MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND IMPEDANCE AIM: To determine the frequency and impedance in a rectangular wave guide working in TE10 mode. called the dominant mode in a rectangular wave guide for a>b.6. n=0. Klystron mount XM-251 4. 1/λo² = 1/λg² + 1/λc² Where λo is free space wave length . VSWR meter SW-115 10. 11. for values of m=1. i. TE10 mode is the dominant mode since for TMmn modes. The minimum cut-off frequency is obtained for a rectangular wave guide having dimension a>b. Tunable probe XP-655 9. Klystron power supply 5kps – 610 3.

The amplitude in CRO will vary . PROCEDURE: 1. and detune the frequency meter. 13. Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position again. Calculate the guide wave length as twice the distance between two successive minimum position obtained as above. Let it be d1. 14.λg is guide wave length λc is cut off wave length For TE10 mode λc – 2a where ‘a’ is broad dimension of wave guide. Let it be d2. 5. Switch ‘ON’ the klystron power supply. Maximize the amplitude with AM amplitude and frequency control knob of power supply. Set up variable attenuator at minimum attenuation position. Measure the wave guide inner board dimension ‘a’ which will be around 22. Adjust the repeller voltage to get the maximum amplitude in CRO 7. 3. 15. 10. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for maximum Amplitude.Note and record the probe position . Switch ’ON’ the beam voltage switch and set beam voltage at 300V with help of beam voltage knob. 9. Move the probe along with slotted line. 2.86mm for . 12. CRO and cooling fan switch. Replace the termination with movable short. 6. 11. 8. Set up the components and equipments as shown in figure. Tune the frequency meter knob to get a ‘dip’ on the CRO and note down the frequency from frequency meter. Keep the control knobs of klystron power supply as below: Beam voltage – OFF Mod-switch – AM Beam voltage knob – Fully anti clock wise Repeller voltage – Fully clock wise AM – Amplitude knob – Around fully clock wise AM – Frequency knob – Around mid position 4. Tune the repeller voltage knob for maximum Amplitude.

. Verify with frequency obtained by frequency modes Above experiment can be verified at different frequencies. Calculate the frequency by following equation. 18. C => 3x108 m/s (i.x-band. i. velocity of light) fo = C/λo => 1/λo² = 1/λg² + 1/λc² 0   g c  g 2  c 2 λg = 2x ∆d For TE10 mode => λc = 2a a  wave guide inner broad dimension a = 2.d 3 .286cm” (given in manual) λc = 4.e.e.6cm OBSERVATION TABLE: d1 (cm) d2 d3 d4 (cm) (cm) (cm) ∆d1= ∆d2= d2d3d1 d2 (cm) (cm) λg=2 x ∆d fo (using freq meter) (GHZ) Beam voltage(v) Beam current (mA) Repeller voltage(v) ∆d=(∆d1+∆ d2+∆d3)/3 λo (cm) fo (HZ) ∆d3= d4 . 16. 17. f   1 c 1    2  2  g     c  Where C = 3x108 meter/sec. velocity of light.

Note: Move more steps on S-S Tuner . Calculate a set of Vmin values for S-S Tuner + Matched termination as a load. Take a smith chart. Find the point where it cut the drawn circle. Calculate a set of Vmin values for short or movable short as load. taking ‘1’ as centre. One of the minima is used as reference for impedance measurement. 2.IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT: THEORY: The impedance at any point on a transmission line can be written in the form R+jx. The co-ordinates of this point will show the normalized impedance of load. Mark a point on circumference of smith chart towards load side at a distance equal to d/λg. draw a circle of radius equal to S. The twice of the difference between minima position will be guide wave length. Two successive minima portions are noted. Let it be ‘d’. Find the difference of reference minima and minima position obtained from unknown load. For comparison SWR can be calculated as S 1 R 1 R where reflection coefficient ‘R’ Given as R Z  Z0 Z  Z0 Zo = characteristics impedance of wave guide at operating frequency. Join the center with this point. PROCEDURE: 1. The unknown device is connected to the slotted line and the position of one minima is determined. The unknown device is replaced by movable short to the slotted line. Z is the load impedance The measurement is performed in the following way.

Draw a line from center of circle to impedance value (d/λg) from which calculate admittance and Reactance (Z = R+jx) Setup for : a)Frequency Measurement: Figure 1: Set up for frequency and wavelength measurement b)Impedance Measurement Figure 2: Set up for impedance measurement . With the same setup as in step 2 but with few numbers of turns (2 or 3). Note: High VSWR can also be calculated but it results in a complex procedure.3. From the above 2 steps calculate d = d1~d2 4. 6. 5. Draw a VSWR circle on a smith chart. Calculate low VSWR.

S Tuner + Matched Termination Short or Movable Short d1= .OBSERVATION TABLE: Load (short or movable short) x1 (cm) x2 (cm) x1 (cm) x2 (cm) x1 (cm) x2 (cm) x= λg = ______ _____ Load (S. Tuner + Matched Termination) S.S. d2 = d = d1 ~ d2 = Z = d/λg = RESULT: .

7. WAVEGUIDE PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT .

VSWR Meter. Slotted Line 5. Detector Mount Matched Termination 7. This is depicted in figure circulator can have any number of ports. Cables and Accessories 10.8. SCATTERING PARAMETERS OF CIRCULATOR AIM: To study the Isolator and circulators and measure the Insertion Loss and Isolation of Circulator. Isolator. CIRCULATOR: Circulator is defined as device with ports arranged such that energy entering a port is coupled to an adjacent port but not coupled to the other ports. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Waveguide Stand 9. Variable Attenuator 4. Circulator 8. Frequency Meter 3. Microwave Source (Klystron or Gunn-Diode) 2. . Tunable Probe 6.

Isolation Isolation is the ratio of power applied to the output to that measured at the input. The important circulator and isolator parameters are: A. 3. Remove the isolator or circulator from slotted line and connect the detector mount to the slotted section. . Let it be V1. Tune the detector mount for maximum output in the CRO. 2. Insertion Loss Insertion Loss is the ratio of power detected at the output port to the power supplied by source to the input port. The output of the detector mount should be connected with CRO. The isolation of a circulator is measured with the third port terminated in a matched load. can be derived from a three-port circulator by simply placing a matched load (reflection less termination) on one port. The isolator. B.ISOLATOR: An Isolator is a two-port device that transfers energy from input to output with little attenuation and from output to input with very high attenuation. shown in Fig. measured with other orts terminated in the matched Load. It is expressed in dB. This ratio is expressed in db. Energize the microwave source for maximum output for a particular frequency of operation. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Measurement of insertion 1. Set any reference level of output in CRO with the help of variable attenuator.

Insert the isolator/circulator between slotted line and detector mount. Record the output in CRO. Measurement of Isolation: 7. 8. Record the output of CRO and let it be V3. RESULT: . Compute Insertion loss given as V1-V2 in db. For measurement of isolation. output port to slotted line and detector to input port with other port terminated by matched termination (for circulator). 9. 10. Compute Isolation as V1-V3 in db. PRECAUTIONS: 1. A matched termination should be placed at third port in case of Circulator. Carefully remove the detector mount from slotted line without disturbing the position of the set up. 6. the isolator or circulator has to be connected in reverse i. Keep input port to slotted line and detector its output port. 11. 5.e. The same experiment can be done for other ports of circulator. 2. Repeat the above experiment for other frequency if needed. Avoid Parallax errors.4. Avoid loose connections. Let it be V2.

SCATTERING PARAMETERS OF MAGIC TEE AIM: To Study the operation of Magic Tee and calculate Coupling Co- efficient and Isolation. Matched Termination (XL-400) 9. Magic Tee (XE-345/350) 10. Variable Attenuator (XA-520) 5. Slotted line (SX-651) 6. 11. Isolator (XI-621) 3. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Microwave source : Klystron tube (2k25) 2. Tunable probe (XP-655) 7. Detector Mount (XD-451) 8. Frequency meter (XF-710) 4.9. Klystron Power Supply + Klystron Mount Wave guide stands and accessories .

 = 10 log10 [P4/P3] . Isolation (dB) = 10 log10 [P4/P3] Similarly. Isolation between other ports may be defined. Isolation: The Isolation between E and H arm is defined as the ratio of the power supplied by the generator connected to the E-arm (port 4) to the power detected at H-arm (port 3) when side arm 1 and 2 terminated in matched load. arm 4. If the power is fed. B. into arm 3 (H-arm) the electric field divides equally between arm1 and 2 with the same phase and no electric field exists in the arm 4..e. Thus. A.Fig: Magic Tee THEORY: The device Magic Tee is a combination of E and H plane Tee. Coupling Factor: It is defined as Cij = 10 – /20 Where ‘’ is attenuation / isolation in dB when ‘i' is input arm and ‘j’ is output arm. If power is fed in arm 4 (E-arm) it divides equally into arm 1 and 2 but out of phase with no power to arm 3. if the power is fed in arm 1 and 2 simultaneously it is added in arm 3 (H-arm) and it is subtracted in E-arm i. further. Arm 3 is the H-arm and arm 4 is the E-arm.

Where P3 is the power delivered to arm ‘i’ and P4 is power detected at ‘j’ arm. Without disturbing the position of the variable attenuator. detector mount to E-arm and matched termination to Port-1 and Port-2. 5. Note down the amplitude using CRO. Setup the components and equipments as shown in figure. Let it be V4. keeping H-arm to slotted line. 3. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation and tune the detector mount for maximum output. 6. 2. Determine the Isolation between Port-3 and Port-4 as V3-V4. Determine the coupling co-efficient from the equation given in theory part. carefully place the Magic Tee after the slotted line. 8. With the help of variable frequency of operation and tune the detector mount for maximum output attenuator. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1. 7. set any reference in the CRO let it be V3. 4. The same experiment may be repeated for other Ports also. OBSERVATIONS: Ports Power (W) .

Calculations: Coupling Co-efficient: α = 10 log Therefore C = 10 Vi Vj – α /20 RESULT: .

To determine the linearity of the device at 660nm and 850nm. To determine conversion efficiency of the two LED’s EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. Fiber optic links of 1m and 5m length.10. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Figure 1 : Fiber Optic Analog Transmitter Kit : . Analog Fiber optic trainers (Tx and Rx) 2. 3. 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF LED AIM: 1. To study the relation ship between the LED forward current and the LED optical power output. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 4. Digital multi-meter. 3.

deduct 2.2 dB.2dB from . Note that to calibrate the power meter at 850nm. In the case of analog transmission. higher performance is achieved by FM modulating the base band signal prior to intensity modulation. While direct intensity modulation is simple to realize.Figure 2 : Fiber Optic Analog Receiver Kit : THEORY: LED’s and laser diodes the commonly used sources in optical communication systems. It may be mentioned that in many low-cost and small band-width applications LEDs at 660nm and 850nm are popular. FO pin has a 66% higher sensitivity at 850nm as compared to 660nm for the same input optical power . LEDs have a linear optical output with relation to the forward current over a certain region of operation.This corresponds to a sensitivity higher by 2. direct intensity modulation of the optical source is possible. higher performance is achieved by FM modulation is simple to realize. provided the optical output from the source can be varied linearly as a function of the modulating electrical signal amplitude. whether the system transmits digital or analog signals.

From here vary the pot P0 in suitable steps and note the V01 and note the power meter readings. Switch ON the power supply. Connect the digital Multi-meter at V01 terminal provided at F0 LED 1 and measure voltage V01 If1 = V01/R1 in mA Where If1 = 660nm LED forward current. In computing losses in cables and fibers this gets eliminated while solving the equations. So that the power meter reads -15. 3.NO VO1 (mV) If1= V01/100 (mA) P0 (dBm) .2dB discussed in Experiment for the 850nm LED) Where If2=850nm LED forward current. R2=Internal resistance (100 Ohms).0 dB approximately. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1. Slowly turn the potentiometer P0 clockwise to increase If1.for V02& P0. 4. If2 = V02/R2 in mA. 2.the measured reading. Switch OFF the power supply. R1=Internal Resistance (100 Ohms) 5. 6. Connect one end of cable 1 (1m) to the FO LED 1 (660nm) port and other end to the FO pin port(power supply). Repeat the complete experiment for FO LED2 and tabulate the readings in table . (Apply the condition of 2.0 dBm. Adjust the potentiometer P0. 7. OBSERVATION TABLE: For 660nm: S. 8. P0 record up to the extreme clockwise position and note down the values in table.Connect circuit as shown in diagram. The power meter should read -30. Adjust the Potentiometer PO to the extreme anti-clock wise position to reduce If1 to 0.

Avoid loose connections.For 850nm: S. 2.NO VO2 (mV) Vout Gain PRECAUTIONS: 1. Avoid Parallax errors. RESULT: .NO VO2 (mV) If2=V02/100 (mA) P0 (dBm) Vin vs Vout (to both LED s) S.

Laser based Fiber Optic Trainer kit. power supply 6. Glass Fiber cable. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. 2. Measurement of Lasing Threshold using Current versus Optical Power Characteristics. Ammeter 5. .Measurement of V-I characteristics of Laser diode. 2. voltmeter 4. Patch cords 3.11. CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER DIODE AIM: 1. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Figure 1: LASER diode –Transmitter kit .

Absorption. Three basic transition process related to operation of lasers are: 1. The features of semiconductor lasers are i) Extreme mono chromaticity.Figure 2: LASER diode –Receiver kit . The wafer is lapped to a thickness of 75 µm and surfaces are metallized. ii) High directionality. 3. The semiconductor that has been extensively used for junction is the Gallium Arsenide. Stimulated emission. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Forward current Vs forward voltage: . Spontaneous emission. THEORY: The semiconductor junction laser is also called an injection laser because its pumping method is electron-hole injection in a p-n junction. The wafer is then cleaved into slivers. The next step is to evaporate a reflective coating onto one of the cleared facts of the silver so that the laser can emit from only one facet. 2. The starting material is an n-type Ga AS doped with silicon in the range of 2-4x1018 cm-3. A p-type is grown on the wafer by the liquid-phase epitaxial process.

No Vl ( V ) Vo ( V) If = Vl /100 Po ( d B m ) (A) . 2.1.clock wise rotation is used to control intensity of Laser diode. 4. Then switch ON the power supply. Confirm that the power switch is in OFF position and then connect it to the kit. OBSERVATION TABLE: Optical Power ( Po) Vs Forward Current ( If ). Avoid Parallax errors. JP2. Connect the Ammeter and voltmeter as shown in the block diagram. Keep the potentiometer P 5 anti. 3. This is called threshold voltage. When a forward voltage is applied to the laser current starts to pass at a certain threshold voltage. 5. 8. S. To get the V-I characteristics of laser diode rotate P5 slowly and measure forward current and corresponding voltage respectively. Avoid loose connections. JP3 at position shown in the diagram. Make the jumper settings and connection as shown in the block diagram. Connect external signal generator to ANALOG IN post of Analog buffer and apply sine wave frequency of 1MHz and 1V p-p. PRECAUTIONS: 1. 6. 2. Insert the jumper connection in jumper JP1. Take number of reading and plot graph. 9. 7. Then connect ANALOG OUT post to ANALOG IN post Transmitter.

No. Vin ( m V ) Vout ( m V ) Gain = Vout / Vin RESULT: .No Vm ( V ) Im = Vm /100 ( Po ( d B m ) A) Vin vs Vout S.Photo Diode Current ( I m) Vs Laser Optical Power Output ( Po) S.

Two meter PMMA Plastic Fiber Patch cord (cable 1). 1. Laser Diode Design Module MTSFOL RX Unit 1. 5. 2.no 3. In-Line SMA Adaptor. EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: 1. (Cable 2). .12.no. Vin(ac) Vs Vout for fixed carrier Po and signal frequency . Laser Diode Design Module MTSFOL TX Unit 1. Two meter GI/MM Glass Fiber Patch cord. INTENSITY MODULATION SYSTEM OF A LASER DIODE AIM: The main aim of the experiment is to study the following ac characteristics of an intensity modulation laser and optics systems. Numerical Aperture measurement jig.Fo 2. 7. Mandrel. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP: Figure 1: LASER diode –Transmitter kit . Vin max Vs Po for known distortion free Vout at fixed Fo. 6. 4.

PROCEDURE: 1. Then it is removed and given to FO PT (Rx Unit) to study the response of the IM system. .Figure 2: LASER diode –Receiver kit . Connect one end of the PMMA FO cable (cable 1) to the laser port on the TX Unit the other end is first connected to FO pin (on Rx Unit) to set the carrier power level of the laser.

connect Vout to CH2 of the dual trace oscilloscope.-13dBm.You may additionally observe the waveforms in the oscilloscope dc coupled position too. Set Rin suitably to get Vout=Vin or a known gain. On the Rx Unit. Adjust Vin to its maximum value for distortion free Vout.0dBm initial gain = min/unity. Set DMM to the 2000mV range and connect it to Po. The most preferred setting is the extreme anticlockwise position where Rin (minimum) =51ohms. Next vary Vin in suitable steps from 10mV to 1000mVp-p and note the values of Vout. TABULAR FORM:  Vout Vs Vin Frequency =2khz.Next disconnect the cable from the power meter and connect to FO PT. The system gain is now set. 3. Tabulate and plot a graph Vout Vs Vin. Disconnect Vin before Po measurement. 6. Po= (Reading)/10dBm. Carrier level Po = -13. Note the values of Vin and V out. With the PMMA FO cable connected to the power meter . Set signal frequency to 2 kHz and Po to -25. adjust the SET PO knob to set the optical carrier power Po to a suitable level say . Set signal frequency and amplitude to 2 kHz and 100mV respectively.2. Observe the transmitted and received signals on the oscilloscope. connect Vin to a function generator (10Hz to 500khz sine wave output. 10mV to 2000mV p-p output) The black terminal is ground. 4. 5. as shown below. Repeat this for other values of Po and record change in gain if any . On the Tx Unit.no Vin(mVpp) Vout (mVpp) Gain=Vo/Vin . Connect the Black terminal to ground. Give the function generator output to CH1.0dBm. Sl.

TABULAR FORM:  Vin max Vs Po S.NO Po(dBm) Vin(mVp-p) Vout (mVpp) If Gain=Vo/Vin .NO Po(dBm) Vin(mVpp) Vout (mVpp) Gain=Vo/Vin S.

RESULT:. .

DESIGN OF FIBER OPTIC DIGITAL LINK FOR TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL SIGNALS AIM: The objective of this experiment is to study a Fiber optic digital link. 3. 4. operating wave lengths. 2. A range of optical fibres types with regard to size. CRO Experimental Set up: THEORY: Optical fibres may be produced with good stable transmission characteristics in long lengths at a minimum cost and with maximum reproducibility. Fiber optic cable. The fibres may be converted into practical cables which can be handled in a similar manner to conventional electrical transmission cables without problems associated with the degradation of their characteristics or damage. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1. materials. be available in order to fulfill many different system applications. . etc. Fiber optic digital transmitter kit. refractive indices and index profiles. In this experiment you will study the relation between the input signals & Received signals. Fiber optic digital receiver kit..13.

The fibres and fibre cables may be terminated and connected together without excessive practical difficulties and in ways which limit the effect of this process on the fibre transmission characteristics to keep them within acceptable operating levels. It is important that these jointing techniques may be applied with ease in the field locations where cable connection takes place. Block Schematics Fiber Optic Digital Transmitter Kit: Digital Code Generator PC 16F84 .

To measure the digital bandwidth of the link. 3. vary the frequency of the input from 100Hz on wards and observe the effect on received signal. Observe the received signal on CRO as O/P post.1 5. Now tight the cap by screwing it back. 2. 6. Connect the other end of Fiber to detector SFH 551v very carefully as per the instructions in step. to IN post of . Now switch ON the power supply. insert the fiber into the cap. Feed the TTL signal of about 1KHz square wave. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH 756V(660nm) .Do not remove the cap from the connector. ensure that the power supply is OFF. 4. Connect the power supply cables with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this. buffer section.Fiber Optic Digital Receiver Kit PC 16F84 PROCEDURE: 1. Once the cap is loosened.

Time Period =__________. Time Period =___________. Vin = _______ . Time Period = _________. NRZ Output V = ___________.EXPECTED GRAPH: OBSERVATIONS : Clock V = _________ . Time Period = _________ . Vo (TTL) = ___________ . Time Period = __________. RESULT . Vout (TTL)=___________ .

MEASUREMENT OF NUMERICAL APERTURE .14.

THEORY: Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. To study the various types of losses in Optical Fiber. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: 1.This corresponds to sensitivity higher by 2. Fiber optic links of 1m and 5m length.a transmitter. 2. The optical fiber is the medium which takes the energy to the receiver. To measure the bending losses in the Optical Fiber at wave length of 660nm& 850nm. 20MHz CRO 5.2dB from the measured reading. MEASUREMENT OF LOSSES FOR ANALOG OPTICAL LINK AIM: 1.2 dB.We will confine our studies to measurement of attenuation in two fiber cables( cable 1m and cable2 5m) employing an SMA-SMA in –line adopter. Basically a fiber optic link contains three main elements . Analog Fiber optic trainer. Inline SMA Adopter. We will also compute loss per meter of fiber in dB and the spectral response of fiber at two wave lengths 660nm and 850nm. In computing losses in cables and fibers this gets eliminated while solving the equations. 3. 4. The transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical and then transforms it into optical energy containing the same information. an optical fiber and a receiver. FO pin has a 66% higher sensitivity at 850nm as compared to 660nm for the same input optical power . . At the receiver light is converted back into electrical form with same pattern as originally fed to the transmitter. Attenuation in an optical fiber is a result of number of a effects . To measure the propagation or attenuation loss in Optical Fiber at wave length of 660nm & 850nm. 3. deduct 2. Digital Multi-meter.15. Note that to calibrate the power meter at 850nm. 2.

Switch OFF the power supply. 4. 6. 9.3 to 0.0dBm. Typically the loss due to the strain and bending the fibre is 0. The range of loss 3. Repeat the experiment for the LED of 850nm wave length. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram. 7.5+/0. Wind one turn of the fiber cable on the mandrel or on the circular type material and note down the new reading of the power meter as PO2. 0. as per the specifications of the manufacturer. if we take the average of many readings. we experience variations in loss. Note down the power meter reading PO2.8dB. will be value of loss in the in-line adaptor(1. Connect one end of cable 1 (1meter) to the FO LED1 (660nm) and the other end to the FO PIN. in each of the removal and replacement operation. 2.0dB) may be off the mark in some cases. Deviation i9n any. Now connect the one end of the Fiber optic cable of length 5m to the FO LED1 and other end to the FO PIN. Connect the SMA adapter to the two cables of 1m and 5m length in series. The observed values will be closer to the true values. . 8. Switch ON the power supply. Note down this as PO1. 2. say-15. Set the potentiometer P0 to set the power meter to a suitable value. 3. 5. 5. Now the loss due to bending and strain on the plastic fiber is PO2-PO1 dB. Note down the power meter reading PO3.5dB is acceptable EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Measurement of Bending Loss: 1.3db per meter at 660nm is normally well defined. The attenuation coefficient of approx. Repeat the above steps 1 to 3. 4. Now compare the bending loss in the Optical Fiber at 660nm& 850nm.Due to difference in alignment at different at different connectors. 3. Measurement of Propagation Loss: 1. The loss per meter of cable at 850nm is not specified by the manufacturer.

( Loss in cable1) Where Lila= Loss in in-line adapter 10. 8.PO2 .0dB). Switch OFF the power Supply. Loss in 4 m fiber cable= (Loss in cable 2) .Lila 9.NO PO1 (dBm) P O2 (dBm) PO3 (dBm) LOSS IN CABLE 1 (dB) LOSS IN CABLE 2 (dB) Loss in 4m fiber Loss per Meter(dB) At 850nm For 850nm S. 10. Assuming a loss of 1.NO PO1 P O2 PO3 LOSS IN LOSS IN Loss in Loss per .6. Repeat the entire experiment with LED2 at 850nm and tabulate in table. 7. Note down all the above calculated readings in the table for 660nm LED.PO1 . we obtain the Loss in each cable. Loss in cable 1=PO3 .Lila Loss in cable 2=PO3 . OBSERVATION TABLE: For 660nm S. The difference in the losses in the two cables will be equal to the loss in 4m of fiber (assuming that the losses at connector junctions are the same for both the cables).0dB in the in-line adapter (Lila=1.

(dBm) (dBm) (dBm) CABLE 1 (dB) CABLE 2 (dB) 4m fiber Meter(dB) At 850nm RESULT. .

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