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IUPhysicsP201F2009

Assignment 6a

Due at 12:00pm on Tuesday, October 14, 2008

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Impulse on a Baseball

Description: Calculation of the impulse and momentum change on a baseball. Learning Goal: To understand the relationship between force, impulse, and momentum. The effect of a net force acting on an object is related both to the force and to the total time the force acts on the is a measure of both these effects. For a constant net force, the impulse is

object. The physical quantity impulse given by

.

The impulse is a vector pointing in the same direction as the force vector. The units of

are

or

.

Recall that when a net force acts on an object, the object will accelerate, causing a change in its velocity. Hence the object's momentum ( ) will also change. The impulse-momentum theorem describes the effect that an impulse has on an object's motion: . So the change in momentum of an object equals the net impulse, that is, the net force multiplied by the time over which the force acts. A given change in momentum can result from a large force over a short time or a smaller force over a longer time. In Parts A, B, C consider the following situation. In a baseball game the batter swings and gets a good solid hit. His swing applies a force of 12,000 to the ball for a time of .

Part A Assuming that this force is constant, what is the magnitude Enter your answer numerically in newton seconds. ANSWER: = of the impulse on the ball?

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635

10/6/2008

where a large force is applied for a short time. Then as the ball loses contact with the bat. the graph will look like the one shown in the figure. A real force. Part B The net force versus time graph has a rectangular shape. For a constant net force such as that used in the previous part.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . especially in a case like the one presented in Parts A and B. the area of the rectangle corresponds to the impulse. Often in physics geometric properties of graphs have physical meaning. A more realistic graph of the force that the swinging bat applies to the baseball will show the force building up to a maximum value as the bat comes into full contact with the ball. is not likely to be constant. ANSWER: For this graph.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 2 of 16 We often visualize the impulse by drawing a graph of force versus time. The assumption of a constant net force is idealized to make the problem easier to solve.masteringphysics. http://session. the graph will show the force decaying to zero. It will look like the graph in the figure.

even in a one-dimensional problem. Part D Assume that a pitcher throws a baseball so that it travels in a straight line parallel to the ground. Keep in mind that . as in the case of the real net force acting on the baseball.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 3 of 16 Part C If both the graph representing the constant net force and the graph representing the variable net force represent the same impulse acting on the baseball. it can be used to find the change in momentum. The impulse on the ball can then be found Graphically. which geometric properties must the two graphs have in common? ANSWER: j k l m n maximum force i j k l m n area j k l m n slope When the net force varies over time.masteringphysics. Define the direction the pitcher originally throws the ball as the +x direction. the other momentum can be found. This average net force is treated as a constant force that acts on the ball for time as .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . you can simplify the problem by finding the average net force acting on the baseball during time . http://session. this method states that the impulse of the baseball can be represented by either the area under the net force versus time curve or the area under the average net force versus time curve. it is essential to account for the direction of each vector. . ANSWER: The impulse on the ball caused by the bat will be in the negative x direction. The impulse of an object is also related to its change in momentum. or if either the initial or final momentum is known. Once the impulse is known. Because both impulse and momentum are vectors. These areas are represented in the figure as the areas shaded in red and blue respectively. The batter then hits the ball so it goes directly back to the pitcher along the same straight line.

masteringphysics. exists for every rigid object or system of massive particles. and the motion of each point of the stick (taken individually) will be fairly complex. Where is the center of mass of the j k l m n less than 5 meters from the particle of mass j k l m n exactly 5 meters from the particle of mass more than 5 meters but less than 10 meters from the particle of mass i j k l m n http://session. With negligible air resistance. along with the formulas for locating the center of mass. The stick will tend to rotate as it travels through the air. it turns out.145baseball parallel to the ground with a speed of 32 in the +x direction. Students are required to complete several conceptual and computational questions that deal with systems of point particles. Imagine throwing a rock upward and away from you.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 4 of 16 Part E Now assume that the pitcher in Part D throws a 0. The Center of It All Description: The definitions of the center of mass and the center of gravity are introduced. Such a point. and masses . The motion of the entire stick can then be described as a combination of the translation of that single point (as if the entire mass of the stick were concentrated there) and the rotation of the stick about that point. the rock will follow a parabolic path before hitting the ground. In this problem. . The batter then hits the ball so it goes directly back to the pitcher along the same straight line. It is called the center of mass. this special point will always be located at the same position within the stick. ANSWER: = The negative sign in the answer indicates that after the bat hits the ball. To calculate the center of mass for a system of massive point particles that have coordinates the following equations are used: . No matter how the stick is thrown.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . there will be one point that will follow a simple parabolic path: the point about which the stick rotates. the ball travels in the opposite direction to that defined to be positive. What is the ball's velocity just after leaving the bat if the bat applies an impulse of to the baseball? Enter your answer numerically in meters per second. Part A Two particles of masses system located? ANSWER: and ( ) are located 10 meters apart. However. (version for algebra-based courses) Learning Goal: To learn the definition of the center of mass for systems of particles and be able to locate it. you will practice locating the center of mass for various systems of point particles. Now imagine throwing a stick (or any other extended object).

find the x coordinate of the center of mass. Part C For the system of particles described in Part B.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 5 of 16 j k l m n more than 10 meters from the particle of mass Part B For the system of three particles shown. Part D Let us now consider a two-dimensional case. . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . allows one to pinpoint the exact location of the center of mass. where is the center of ANSWER: j k l m n to the left of the particle of mass and the particle of mass j k l m n between the particle of mass i j k l m n between the particle of mass and the particle of mass j k l m n to the right of the particle of mass Perhaps you "feel" that the center of mass should be located to the right of the particle of mass . A calculation. The system includes three particles of equal mass located at the vertices of an isosceles triangle as shown in the figure. since the particle to the right of it has greater mass than the particle to the left. which have masses mass located? .masteringphysics. Assume that the particle of mass is at the origin and the positive x axis is directed to the right. however. Which arrow best shows the location of the center of mass http://session. and as indicated.

A student begins to add water gradually to the bucket located at the origin. As a result. Initially. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = From the symmetry of the situation.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 .masteringphysics. Part F A system of four buckets forms a square as shown in the figure. you can see that the x and y coordinates of the center of mass are the same. what happens to the coordinates of the center of mass of the system of buckets? http://session. the buckets have different masses (it is not known how these masses are related).MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 6 of 16 of the system? Do not calculate. ANSWER: j k l m n1 j k l m n2 j k l m n3 i j k l m n4 j k l m n5 Part E What is the x coordinate of the center of mass of the system described in Part D? .

ANSWER: = http://session. the y coordinate increases. will the center of mass move closer to the origin or away from it? ANSWER: j k l m n The x coordinate stays the same. j k l m n The x coordinate decreases.1 The movement of the center of mass As the bucket at the origin gets heavier. ANSWER: = Part H Find the y coordinate of the center of mass of the system of particles described in the previous part.masteringphysics. the y coordinate decreases. the y coordinate stays the same. i j k l m n The x coordinate decreases. Express your answer in meters to two significant figures. the y coordinate stays the same.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . Part G Find the x coordinate of the center of mass of the system of particles shown in the figure. the y coordinate stays the same. j k l m n There is not enough information to answer the question. Express your answer in meters to two significant figures. j k l m n The x coordinate stays the same. j k l m n The x coordinate increases. j k l m n The x coordinate increases.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 7 of 16 Hint F. the y coordinate increases. j k l m n The x coordinate stays the same. the y coordinate decreases.

together with conservation of momentum. The applet at the end of the problem will give you a chance to explore the "in-between" collisions. These two conservation laws allow the final motion of the two objects to be determined. the term . with varied mass ratios. Part A. what are the final velocities Hint A.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum and of objects 1 and 2? collide. . both total kinetic energy and total momentum are conserved. When two objects collide elastically. total momentum is conserved.1 How to approach the problem In analyzing any collision. but the total kinetic energy is not conserved.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 8 of 16 Introduction to Collisions Description: Basic questions about two disks colliding. (version for algebrabased courses) Learning Goal: To understand how to find the velocities of objects after a collision. Once you have the equations.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . There are two main types of collisions that you will study: perfectly elastic collisions and perfectly inelastic collisions. These extreme cases allow for a more straightforward analysis than the in-between cases. When two objects collide inelastically. In reality. this fact. leaving http://session. Part A If the collision is perfectly elastic.masteringphysics. and thus travel with the same final velocity. allows the final motion of the two objects to be calculated. use algebra to eliminate from the system to get a formula for in terms of . you can always use conservation of momentum as long as there are no external forces acting on the colliding objects. General definition of elasticity of a collision introduced in the last part. After an inelastic collision the two objects are stuck together. and . Uses applet. with elastic and perfectly inelastic at the extreme ends. elastically and perfectly inelastically. and object 2 is Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER: i j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Since the objects have equal mass. directed to the right. there is a range of collision types. Let two objects of equal mass initially stationary. Then. Each of these conservation laws will allow you to write down an equation relating . go back to the original system and eliminate to get a formula for in terms of . will factor out of both sides of the equation. In elastic collisions you can also use the conservation of kinetic energy. Object 1 has initial velocity .

Each of these facts will allow you to write down an equation relating . . Once you have the equation from conservation of momentum. separated by a comma.1 How to approach the problem and of the two objects after the In analyzing any collision. leaving Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocity in terms of .2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER: j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n http://session. . simply substitute using the equation to find the final velocity of each object in terms of . and . (and a factor of ) will factor out of the equation.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 .masteringphysics. ANSWER: = of object 2.3 Find the equation that results from conservation of energy Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of energy for the two objects? ANSWER: j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n i j k l m n j k l m n Since the objects have equal mass. In perfectly inelastic collisions you can also use the fact that the final velocities of the objects are equal. What are the velocities collision? Hint B.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 9 of 16 Part A. Express each Part B Now suppose that the collision is perfectly inelastic. you can always use conservation of momentum. Part B.

the term . Part C. separated by a comma.3 Find the equation that results from conservation of energy Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of kinetic energy for this part? ANSWER: http://session. you can use algebra to eliminate from the system to get a formula for in terms of . Express the Part C Now assume that the mass of object 1 is are the final velocities and . while the mass of object 2 remains . you can always use conservation of momentum.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER: j k l m n i j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Notice that will factor out of both sides of the equation. Each of these conservation laws will allow you to write down a linear equation relating . what of objects 1 and 2? Hint C. In elastic collisions you can also use the conservation of kinetic energy. If the collision is elastic.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 10 of 16 j k l m n Since the objects have equal mass. Then.masteringphysics. will factor out of both sides of the equation.1 How to approach the problem In analyzing any collision. and . . leaving . Part C. leaving Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocities in terms of . Once you have the equations. ANSWER: = of object 2. go back to the original system and eliminate to get a formula for in terms of .

This is a general feature of many collision situations: The ratio of the two masses is important. Each of these facts will allow you to write down an equation relating . separated by a comma. Once you have the equation from conservation of momentum. leaving . you can always use conservation of momentum. If the collision is perfectly inelastic.1 How to approach the problem In analyzing any collision. Part D.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER: i j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n http://session. Part D Let the mass of object 1 be and the mass of object 2 be . ANSWER: = of object 2. but the absolute masses are not. Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocities in terms of . In perfectly inelastic collisions you can also use the fact that the final velocities of the objects are equal. cancels out. simply substitute using the equation to find the final velocity of each object in terms of . Express the Note that in both the conservation of momentum equation and the conservation of energy equation.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 11 of 16 j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n i j k l m n j k l m n Notice that will divide out of the equation.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . and .masteringphysics. . what are the velocities of the two objects after the collision? Hint D.

You can change the ratio of the masses of the two disks as well as the elasticity of the collision.masteringphysics. The bullet hits the block and becomes completely embedded within it. frictionless block: type of collision? what is conserved? v_final? A bullet of mass is fired horizontally with speed at a wooden block of mass resting on a frictionless table. Part A Which of the following best describes this collision? http://session. leaving . .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 12 of 16 j k l m n j k l m n Notice that will factor out of both sides of the equation. separated by a comma. The orange disk always has the same initial velocity. After the bullet has come to rest within the block. Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocities in terms of . ANSWER: = of object 2. while a perfectly inelastic collision has . with the bullet in it. You should use the applet to reproduce the collisions of Parts A-D. Express the This applet shows two disks colliding. You can then adjust A Bullet Is Fired into a Wooden Block Description: Conceptual: A bullet embeds in a stationary.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . is traveling at speed . the block. a perfectly elastic collision has elasticity elasticity to see how the value of the elasticity affects the various collisions. is a measure of how elastic a collision is.

kinetic energy is lost. ANSWER: j k l m n perfectly elastic j k l m n partially inelastic i j k l m n perfectly inelastic Part B Which of the following quantities. ANSWER: j k l m n kinetic energy only i j k l m n momentum only j k l m n kinetic energy and momentum j k l m n neither momentum nor kinetic energy Part C What is the speed of the block/bullet system after the collision? Part C. but the objects colliding do not stick together. if any. From this information.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 13 of 16 Hint A. Therefore.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . In a partially inelastic collision. What is the total momentum Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part C. you can infer what completely inelastic and elastic collisions are. Find a second expression for . this time expressed as the total momentum of the system before the collision. and .1 Types of collisions An inelastic collision is a collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved.masteringphysics.1 Find the momentum after the collision of the block/bullet system after the collision? and other given quantities. are conserved during this collision? Hint B.2 Use conservation of momentum The momentum of the block/bullet system is conserved. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = http://session. the momentum before the collision is the same as the momentum after the collision. . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . and other given quantities.1 When is kinetic energy conserved? Kinetic energy is conserved only in perfectly elastic collisions.

or whether the two cars have equal values for the parameter in question. the work-energy relation. For each question. with masses as given in the figure.0 Hint B. The two toy cars shown in the figure. car B. For the next three parts assume that the cars' motors supply the same force to each car over the course of a 1.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 14 of 16 Kinetic Energy and Momentum Conceptual Question Description: Conceptual question on using kinetic energy and momentum to analyze motion.masteringphysics. In this case. Which approach to use depends on the information given in the problem statement and the information you are trying to determine.0meter race.1 The work-energy relation away? Since both cars start from rest and move in the same direction.1 Three ways to analyze motion Newton's second law. state whether the correct answer is car A. are ready to race. the work done on each car is equal to its final kinetic energy. http://session. Recall that work is given as the product of applied force (parallel to the direction of motion) and the distance over which the force is applied. Part B Which car has the larger kinetic energy when it crosses the finish line 1. Part A Which car crosses the finish line 1. Notice you are told about both force and distance in the description of the race. you are asked a kinematic question.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . and the impulse-momentum relation can all be used to draw conclusions about the forces that act on an object and the object's motion. ANSWER: j k l m n Car A j k l m n Car B Both cars have the same kinetic energy.0 away first? Hint A. Both cars begin from rest. so you should use the technique that will give you a useful kinematic quantity such as acceleration or initial velocity. ANSWER: j k l m n Car A wins i j k l m n Car B wins j k l m n Both cars cross the finish line at the same time.

Part D Which car has traveled farther after 10 ? ANSWER: j k l m n Car A i j k l m n Car B j k l m n Both cars travel the same distance.1 which car has a larger kinetic energy? The work-energy relation Since both cars start from rest and move in the same direction. ANSWER: j k l m n Car A i j k l m n Car B j k l m n Both cars have the same kinetic energy. You are given the equality of the forces in the description of the race. Recall that impulse is given as the product of applied force and the time interval over which the force is applied. in which the cars' motors supply the same force to each car over the course of a 10-second race. the impulse applied to each car is equal to its final momentum.0 Hint C. ANSWER: i j k l m n Car A j k l m n Car B j k l m n Both cars have the same momentum. Recall that impulse is given as the product of applied force and the time interval over which the force is applied. the work done on each car is equal to its final kinetic energy.1 The impulse-momentum relation Since both cars start from rest. The distance is the subject of Part D. the impulse applied to each car is equal to its final momentum.masteringphysics.1 which car has a larger momentum? The impulse-momentum relation Since both cars start from rest. You are given the equality of the forces in the description of the second race. The time is the subject of Part A. Part E After 10 Hint E. Recall that work is given as the product of applied force (parallel to the direction of motion) and the distance over which the force is applied. Part F After 10 Hint F.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 . away? In the the next three parts we analyze a different type of race.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 15 of 16 i j k l m n Part C Which car has a larger momentum when it crosses the finish line 1. Notice you are told http://session.

ANSWER: j k l m n Car A j k l m n Car B i j k l m n Both cars have the same momentum. score) 0 of 5 points http://session. Summary 0 of 5 items complete (0% avg.masteringphysics.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 16 of 16 about both force and time in the description of the second race.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentID=1158635 10/6/2008 .

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