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Pipe Line Corrosion Cathodic Protection
Gulf Professional Publishing
an imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann
Peattie . and field personnel THIRD EDITION Marshall E. technicians.Pipe Line Corrosion ^^^—and-^^— Cathodic Protection A practical manual lor corrosion engineers. Parker Edward G.
e-mail: email@example.com'672 83-22630 The publisher offers special discounts on bulk orders of this book. Includes index.elsevier.bh.uk. electronic. For information. II.com/gulf 10 9 8 7 6 Printed in the United States of America. Houston. stored in a retrieval system.co. Pipelines—Cathodic protection. iv . Originally published by Gulf Publishing Company. I. contact our World Wide Web homepage at http://www. Edward G.com). This book is printed on acid-free paper. All rights reserved.P33 1984 621. mechanical.Gulf Professional Publishing and Butterworth-Heinemann are imprints of Elsevier Science. No part of this publication may be reproduced. without the prior written permission of the publisher. please contact: Manager of Special Sales Elsevier Science 200 Wheeler Road Burlington. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier Science homepage (http://www. Peattie. or transmitted in any form or by any means. by selecting 'Customer Support' and then 'Obtaining Permissions'. photocopying. Pipe line corrosion and cathodic protection. or otherwise. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Parker. Pipelines—Corrosion 2. Marshall E. Title TJ930. MA 01803 Tel: 781-313-4700 Fax:781-313-4802 For information on all Gulf publications available. fax: (+44) 1865 853333. TX. Copyright © 1999 by Elsevier Science (USA). recording. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford. UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830. ISBN 0-87201-149-6 1.
An Alternate Method. Summary. Cathodic Protection Tests. Surveys for Ground Beds. Two-Terminal Resistivity Determination. v . Temporary Ground Beds. Attenuation with Multiple Drain Points. Attenuation Curves. 2 Potential Surveys Pipe-to-Soil Connection. The Economic Balance. Pipe Line Surface Potential Survey for Corrosion. Design Procedure. Area Surveys. 5 Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 45 General Design Principles. Coating Conductance Measurement. Summary. Summary. Pipe-to-Soil PoCriterion of Cathodic Protection. Principles of Current Requirement Test. Locating Hot Spots on Bare Lines. tential as a Pipe-to-Soil 16 Potentials: Electrodes. Long-Line Currents. Anode Proximity Effects. Other Criteria. Electrode Placement. Line Termination.Contents Preface to Third Edition Preface to First Edition 1 Soil Resistivity Surveys vii ix 1 Soil Resistivity Units. Stray-Current Studies. Summary. Special Conditions. Logarithmic Resistivity Ranges. 3 Line Currents 31 Measurement of Line Current in Test Section. Current Sources for Tests. 4 Current Requirement Surveys 36 The Problem: Coated Lines. Other Applications of Potentials. FourTerminal Resistivity Determination. Summary. Other Methods.
Monitor System. Pearson Surveys. Detection of Stray Current. Summary. Field Design. Installation Methods. 8 Hot Spot Protection 88 What "Hot Spots" Are. 9 Stray-Current Electrolysis 100 Stray Current Corrosion. Design. Disturbing Factors. Basic Solutions. 10 Interference in Cathodic Protection 109 The Problem. Summary. Minimum Inspection Schedule for Anodes. Summary. Evaluation of Coating in Place. Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Index A Fundamentals of Corrosion B Cathodic Protection of Steel in Soil C Corrosion of Steel in Soil D Attenuation Equations vi 146 150 153 160 163 . Auxiliary Drainage. Crossing Bonds. Installation Details. Hot Spot Protection. Coating or Leakage Conductance. Anode Selection and Spacing. 12 Coating Inspection and Testing 136 Construction Inspection.6 Ground Bed Design and Installation 59 Design Principles. Field Installation. Foreign Lines with Insulating Joints. Exposure Areas. Zinc Anodes in Hot Spot Protection. Summary. Minimum Inspection Schedule for Rectifier System. Deep Anodes. Modification of Process with Experience. Troubleshooting. Summary. When and Where to Use Zinc. A Typical Ground Bed Installation. 7 Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines 78 When and Where to Use Magnesium. Secondary Exposure. Failures in Magnesium Anode Systems. Accelerated Coating Tests. Field Modification. Summary. Negative Bus Bonding. Steel Anodes. Calculation of Bond Resistance. Supervision and Control. General System Design. Radial-Flow Interference. Horizontal Graphite Anodes. 1 Operation and Maintenance 1 125 Importance of Adequate Supervision. Remedial Measures. Polarization and Final Adjustment. Parallel Lines. Summary. Sources of Stray Currents. High-Silicon Iron Anodes. Locating Hot Spots. Sample Problems. Potential Surveys. Multiple Bonds. Installation Procedure. Failures in Rectifier-Ground Bed Systems.
In 1955. when I was first working on cathodic protection for pipe lines in Saudi Arabia. Fortunately. the company library contained Mr. but the measurements have not changed. During the 30 years since its publication. First. the first edition of this book by Marshall Parker was just a year old. nonprotective. Many books on the subject have been published since 1954. It is made of steel—a strong. and nonyielding. I found its simplicity and directness preferable in approaching a complex subject. Parker's book. Consequently. New technology has been developed. In the second vii . It is the duty of the corrosion engineer to study the properties of this system to ensure that the pipe line will not deteriorate. The result is that we have more sophisticated instruments to use. but chemically unstable. generations of pipe line engineers and technicians have used this book as their first exposure to corrosion control. I have retained the still-valid material of the original Marshall text and made changes only when better and shorter methods are available. The first task of the pipe line corrosion engineer is to study the properties of the earthen environment. material—and is placed in an environment which is nonuniform.Preface to Third Edition A pipe line buried in the earth represents a challenge. yet the principles of cathodic protection are still the same. we shall learn how to measure the resistivity of the soil as a preparation for further work. but the Parker book is still the best introduction to the fundamentals.
the reader will be well on the way to being a capable corrosion engineer. which does not usually occur nowadays. At the end of this book. we shall learn about the standard electrode for this measurement. The problem of partial cathodic protection of a pipe line by concentrating on "hot spots" is discussed in Chapter 8. Thus. Edward G. a corrosion engineer should still be able to identify this phenomenon and find its source. Interference (Chapter 10) is a problem corrosion engineers face every day and are still learning about. To do this. Then. The last two chapters of the book (Chapters 11 and 12) show the operation and maintenance of a cathodic protection system. Chapters 5 and 6 show the computations required for the design of an impressed current cathodic protection system. and how to evaluate the coatings system in place. is that of stray-current corrosion. A problem in Chapter 9. however. The Appendixes contain material basic to the knowledge of all corrosion engineers. Chapter 7 shows the design procedure for a sacrificial cathodic protection system.chapter we shall study another electrical measurement: potential difference. In Chapter 3 we go on to line currents and extend these measurements to current requirement surveys in Chapter 4. Peattie Professor of Petroleum Engineering Mississippi State University vlii . the current necessary to design a cathodic protection system will be calculated.
That this should be the case is not surprising. for no such degree is offered. These things are true for two main reasons. and structures placed therein affect one another in very complicated ways. or any one of several others. most of the design procedures used are either empirical. Many corrosion engineers hold degrees—in chemistry. what our meters usually indicate is the ix . Many others either have no degree. particularly when the protection of underground structures against corrosive attack is still as much an art as it is a science. by trial. to do its job properly. every new project contains some surprises. Almost every cathodic protection system installed has to be adjusted. there is still room for the development of more powerful analytical methods. some conditions not previously encountered. at best. Second. the soil is a bewilderingly complex environment. chemical engineering. electrical engineering. All of these men became corrosion engineers by on-thejob experience and by individual study—some by trial-and-error methods. First. that it is a technology. having been assigned the responsibility of protecting some structure from corrosion. It is common experience that no two jobs are alike. Say. some by working with people already experienced.Preface to First Edition How do people become pipe line corrosion engineers? Not by obtaining a degree in the subject. we do not as yet know enough about the subject. rather. or. or have studied in some field apparently or actually remote from corrosion. Almost never can we measure directly a single quantity which we seek. are based on empirically modified theory.
a very large share of which is that of many others—and thus providing. some corrosion engineers avoid some of the pitfalls into which I have fallen. and save time and effort in obtaining and interpreting field data. In no case is the method given necessarily the method. If. Parker Houston. Marshall E. This manual is an attempt to present some workable methods of doing some of the things the pipe line corrosion engineer is called upon to do. then.result of what we are looking for and a number of partially unknown disturbing factors. in a way. 1954 x . a shoulder to look over. The corrosion engineer. then I will be happy that my time has been well spent setting down some of the experience—a small part of which has been his own. it is merely one method. And he can never expect to complete that training. Texas January 18. must be to a large extent self-trained. by use of this manual.
L. The resistance of a rectangular solid other than a cube is given by where W. To determine if cathodic protection may be used to prevent corrosion of steel pipe lines. is determined by the size and spacing relationships and by the resistivity of the soil. in contact with a body of soil. the resistance can be computed. as measured from opposite faces (Figure 1-1). we must first learn how to measure the resistivity of these environments. but the mathematical complexities are often very great. and p is the resistivity. as shown in Figure 1-1. usually abbreviated ohm-cm. For simple cases. of any size and shape. the unit must be ohm-cm in order for the equation to be consistent. and D are the dimensions in centimeters.1 Soil Resistivity Surveys Pipe lines may be cathodically protected in either earth or water. 1 . the resistivity of a given soil is numerically equal to the resistance of a cube of the soil one centimeter in dimensions. of any extent. Soil Resistivity Units The unit of soil resistivity is the ohm-centimeter. The resistance between any two terminals.
Two-Terminal Resistivity Determination An apparatus similar to that illustrated in Figure 1-1 may be used to determine the resistivity of soil samples. (b) Resistance of a rectangular solid. it is much more useful to measure the soil in place. it will be necessary to maintain a known and fixed distance between them. and the resistance may be de- .2 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 1-1. If two terminals are placed in the soil. surprisingly enough. if they are far enough apart. (a) Resistivity (@) in ohm-cm is numerically equal to the resistance (R) in ohms between opposite faces of a cube one cm on the side. If they are placed close together. Either AC or DC may be used. however. the indicated value is virtually independent of the distance. then it will be possible to determine its resistivity by measuring the resistance between the two electrodes. (c) Soil box. in which Q is obtained by measuring the resistance between the planes of the two potential pins. in corrosion investigations.
Figure 1-3 shows an AC bridge-type apparatus. Shepard canes for soil resistivity measurement. Cathode is made larger to avoid polarization. measures only a small sample. Details of operation vary with the particular instrument used. Current flow is measured by a double range milliammeter (0-25 and 0-100) graduated to read directly in ohm-cm (10. Figure 1-2 illustrates Shepard canes. the four-terminal or Wenner method may be used. 1-6.000-400 and 500-100). the following figures (Figures 1-5. but it. and 1-7) show some of the specific methods based on this technique.Soil Resistivity Surveys 3 Figure 1-2. Four-Terminal Resistivity Determination To include a larger sample of the soil and measure the resistivity at greater depths. or by a bridge circuit. which use DC impressed between two iron electrodes. Meter. termined by measuring current and potential. but gives the value corresponding to a small sample of soil. Current from a three-volt battery (two flashlight cells) is passed through the soil between two iron electrodes mounted on insulating rods. The basic circuit is shown in Figure 1-4. Numerous variations of the latter are on the market. in the immediate neighborhood of the electrodes. accuracy is about 6°/o when tips are separated by 8 inches or more. in which the unknown resistance is compared to one which is within the instrument. this device is also very rapid in use. too. batteries. This apparatus is rapid in use. and switch are mounted on anode rod. but .
AC soil rod.4 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 1-3. must be small compared to (a). determined by calibration in a solution of known resistivity. then Q = R .C. depth of electrode. the slidewire RA RB is graduated to read R directly. Four-terminal (Wenner) measurement of soil resistivity. where C is a constant for the particular rod. . Figure 1-4. The basic formula is The resistivity is "averaged" to a depth approximately equal to the electrode spacing (a). and condenser) is passed through the soil between a steel rod and an insulated steel tip. Distance (b). at the point of balance In practice. Current from an AC source (usually a battery. The slidewire is then adjusted until no signal is heard in the headphones. buzzer.
Ammeter-voltmeter measurement of resistivity. If the distance (a) is made 5 feet. then the formula simplifies to Direction of current should be reversed. The voltmeter used must be high resistance. the outer pair serve to introduce the current into the soil. It should be noted that the resistance measured is that between the two inner. electrodes. or a potentiometer may be employed. the principle is common to all. to balance out extraneous currents or potentials in the soil. 21A> inches. and readings averaged.So/7 Resistivity Surveys 5 Figure 1-5. Other Methods There are at least three possible indirect methods of measuring soil resistivity in which no contact is made with the soil at all. Copper sulfate electrodes will help avoid polarization errors. it is influenced to some degree by soil lying at even greater depths. The value obtained is an "average" value to a depth approximately equal to the electrode spacing. or potential. A storage battery of dry cells may be used for current. There is no sharp dividing line. this method may be very useful in scouting out low-resistivity areas. but the influence of soil at greater and greater depths becomes smaller and smaller. which can then . In general. actually. An inductiontype pipe locater gives an indication of the resistivity below it and may be calibrated to yield fairly accurate results.
but the prevention of 85-95% of them.6 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 1-6. The value and phase angle of the impedance (high-frequency) between two parallel conductors lying on or parallel to the surface is a function of the soil resistivity. as indicated by a zero deflection on the galvanometer G. Vi converts the battery's DC into AC. but the development has not yet been done. particularly gathering lines. the slidewire S is adjusted until the IR drop across R. Both of these methods offer some promise of development into very rapid and possibly automatic systems for the recording of resistivity. and thus a device could be built which would employ this principle. Vibrators V. and V2 are synchronized. It is also true that the tilt of the radiation field of a remote radio transmitter at the surface of the earth is a function of the soil resistivity. be explored more precisely by one of the methods already described. Locating "Hot Spots" on Bare Lines Bare lines. and Q is obtained from Q = 2xaR. R is then read directly on the slidewire. are often so situated that the point of maximum economic return for cathodic protection is not the prevention of all leaks. just bucks out the current in the potential circuit. This can . Vibroground (simplified diagram).
Soil resistivity Megger (simplified diagram). the statistical analysis of the entire set will be more representative of the corrosive conditions along this line. is the indicated technique. and consists of a series of measurements taken along the line (or right-of-way for a planned line). If readings are taken at uniform spacing. under the opposing forces from the two coils. there is some conflict here between the demands of science and those of practicality. This has been shown to correlate highly with resistivity so that a system of locating areas of low. In other words. at a point which indicates the resistance R. The four-point method is most commonly used. The needle comes to rest. Such a procedure is known as a soil resistivity survey. such a procedure will give the maximum of general information. resistivity. using any of the methods described. after passing through the current coil. Q is then obtained from Q = 2iraR . Readings should be taken according to a systematic procedure. and enters the soil through C1 and C2. the AC potential picked up between P1 and P2 is converted to DC by commutator Cp and is fed to the potential coil. and of relatively low. The maximum of useful information. DC from the hand-cranked generator G is converted to AC by the commutator Cc. however useful in the design of a hot spot protective Figure 1-7. as compared to other lines.Soil Resistivity Surveys 7 often be done at a cost as low as 15% of that of full protection by the application of galvanic anodes—usually magnesium—to the "hot spots'' or areas of maximum corrosiveness.
As an exception to the last rule. This technique will be discussed more fully in a subsequent chapter. the foregoing set has been found useful and economical in the survey of over a million feet of gathering lines. Data obtained in the survey are plotted on a diagram representing the length of the line. 4. As another exception to the 2:1 rule. is not obtained in this way. 3. For this type of survey. then it is necessary to go back and insert a reading. as in the preceding topic. no two readings need be taken closer than 25 feet. readings would be taken which correspond to the soil at pipe depth. The four-terminal system should be used with a spacing of about 1 '/2 times pipe depth. but rather by some such method as the following: 1. as illustrated in Figure 1-8.8 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection system. The vertical resistivity scale is logarithmic. From such a diagram the "hot spots" can readily be located. The figures given in this set of criteria may be varied for-specific cases. Surveys for Ground Beds The resistivity of the soil in which a ground bed is to be installed is one of the primary design quantities involved. very often a 5foot. It is most important to get as low a total resistance as possible in order to obtain the necessary current output with the minimum amount of power.000 ohm-cm. 2'/2-inch spacing (which makes the multiplier 2ira just equal to 1000) is well suited for this purpose. 2. this should be repeated until condition 3 is met). Unlike the survey to determine corrosiveness. it does not apply when the lower of the two readings is greater than 20. rather than their differences. Two successive readings should not differ by a ratio greater than 2:1 (when a reading differs from the preceding by more than this. A reading to be taken at least every 400 feet. This means that holes will have to be drilled or punched for the single-rod apparatus. in this case the . since resistivity ratios are of interest. 5. A reading to be taken wherever there is a visible change in soil characteristics.
For this reason. 10 inches. with distances along the pipe line as abscissas. and readings taken at each grid intersection. and 4000. and 20-foot pin spacing (actual values used are 5 feet. 10 feet. 10-. respectively).Soil Resistivity Surveys 9 Figure 1-8. 2000. Measurements taken by any of the methods described are plotted as ordinates (using a logarithmic scale). 2l/2 inches. and 20 feet. It is customary to take readings at 5-. intermediate readings should be taken. 5 inches. the four-terminal method is the only one useful here. where differences are too great. resistivity to great depth is important. giving multipliers of 1000. The prospective site should be marked off in a rectangular grid. with spacings of 50 or 100 feet. Soil resistivity profile. .
the readings at all three pin spacings can be put on the same diagram. are indicated by the small figures. Note that the values chosen for contours are logarithmic. only one is shown here. The spacing used between readings is usually greater than for ground bed design. If colors are used. Area Surveys Where a set of piping and other underground structures is spread out over an area. Such plats are of value in locating sites for ground beds and in their design.10 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection These diagrams should always be plotted in the field so that a complete picture will be obtained. as in a refinery or chemical plant. A Figure 1-9. Resistivity plat. The curves represent lines of equal resistivity. Resistivity readings taken at spaced intervals. a survey similar to the one just described will furnish information useful both in the prediction of corrosiveness and in the design of protective systems. "Contours" can be drawn. . as indicated in Figure 1-9. as were the vertical scales in the line resistivity survey. with additional readings at critical points.
Usually only one pin spacing is used. The . Note that successive ranges cover equal resistivity ratios. This shows the number of readings found in various "classes" or ranges of resistivity. There is sound scientific basis for this approach. rather than arithmetic differences.Soil Resistivity Surveys 11 Figure 1-10. when expressed as logarithms. tend to fall into "standard" distributions. and the most frequent value is the nominal five-foot spacing already mentioned. It has been found that large numbers of resistivity readings. Equally spaced resistivity readings taken over an area or along a pipe line route are plotted according to the frequency of occurrence of readings in the different ranges. with intermediate positions used where necessary to get a clear picture. As in the ground bed survey. as are the contour intervals on the plat already described. or frequency distribution. preliminary spacing of 400 feet is often used. Logarithmic Resistivity Ranges Three examples have already been given of logarithmic treatment of resistivities. In addition to the geographical distribution shown on the resistivity plat. aside from the intuitive observation that ratios are more important than differences. it is useful to prepare a histogram. readings are usually displayed on a resistivity contour map of the plant site. Resistivity histogram. these ranges should be logarithmic. as indicated in Figure 1-10.
the irregular ratios involved in scale (C) introduce complications. or the calculation of a mean.200 6. the horizontal widths of the "cells" should be made proportional to the logarithms of the ratios. These can most easily be averaged by grouping them into classes.000 5. Three different systems are in widespead use: the two already illustrated (A) based on 100 ohm-cm. in that the ratio is not always the same.12 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection standard distribution is a well-known and extremely useful concept in statistical analysis.000 4. when (C) is used for a histogram.000 2. for contours. Note. so the ratio of the two spaces should be about 3:4.000 2. On the other hand. and (C) which is not truly logarithmic. (B) based on 1000 ohm-cm. as shown in Figure 1-11.000 10.600 3.5 125 250 500 1. All three are shown here for comparison: (A) 50 100 200 400 800 1. where the logarithmic mean of 115 different readings is found to be 14.400 (B) 62.398. histograms. The logarithmic mean resistivity of a set of resistivities is the value whose logarithm is the average of all the logarithms of the measured values. log 2. A consequence of this is that two extensive structures (such as pipe lines) each exposed to a wide variety of soils can be compared as to their corrosion exposure most accurately by comparing their logarithmic mean resistivities. It is almost universal practice to choose a ratio of 2:1 for the successive values used in any logarithmic system. as used in Figure 1-11. The corrosion technician now has various methods at his disposal to measure the resistivity of the soil in which the pipe line is to be in- . Log 2 = 0.000 8. the numbers tend to become awkward. when a mathematical analysis is made of the data.900 ohm-cm.000 (C) 50 100 200 500 1.301.5 = 0.000 Scale (C) has the advantage in that all of the values are "round" numbers whereas if either (A) or (B) is extended far enough in either direction. as used in Figures 1-9 and 1-10.
as shown in Figure 1-12.Soil Resistivity Surveys 13 Figure 1-11. as we have seen. Actually. a single sample of the water is enough. but with reservations. and it can be measured in a soilbox. Summary of soil resistivity measurements. it is more complicated. stalled. . The question may now be asked: What if the pipe line is to be installed in water—would the same methods of measurement work? The answer is yes. For soils. The countless variations of resistivity which we have shown in Figure 1-9 for soil do not exist in the water environment. and so one resistivity value in ohm-centimeters is usually enough for the engineer to use.
Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
Figure 1-12. Typical connections for use of soil box with various types of instruments. (Courtesy of M. C. Miller Co., Inc.)
So/7 Resistivity Surveys Summary
The resistivity of soil is usually measured by the four-pin method with the Vibroground (Figure 1-6), possibly the easiest instrument to use. It is possible to attach a set of pins and leads which will minimize the time to get soil resistivities, and a complete survey may be done in a relatively short time. The newest example of the soil resistance meter is shown in Figure 1-13 and has been available since 1981. Its advantage is that there are no moving parts and no vibrators to change. Although called a four-pin soil resistance meter, it is also excellent for measuring water samples in a soilbox.
Figure 1-13. Four-pin soil resistance meter.
Pipe-to-Soil Potentials: Electrodes The potential difference between a buried pipe and the soil is of considerable importance, either in investigating the corrosive conditions or in evaluating the extent of cathodic protection being applied. This quantity actually is measured by connecting an instrument between the pipe itself (direct metallic contact) and a special electrode placed in contact with the soil. This electrode is also called a half cell. The most common type of electrode in use is that which employs a metal-to-electrolyte junction consisting of copper in contact with a saturated solution of copper sulfate; this particular combination is made of easily available materials and is very stable. Figure 2-1 shows two typical electrodes. Other types in use are: 1. The hydrogen electrode, used only in laboratory investigations. 2. The calomel electrode, used often in fresh water or saltwater. 3. The lead/lead chloride electrode, frequently employed in studying the corrosion of lead cable. 4. The silver/silver chloride electrode, used in seawater because it is not subject to contamination by salt incursion. 5. The pure zinc electrode (in packaged backfill). This is suitable as a permanently installed reference electrode. (Note: all these listed electrodes must be corrected to give readings similar to the copper/copper sulfate half cell. See Appendix C.)
Voltmeters One choice for the instrument to be used in measuring this potential is the voltmeter. soil. lead wires. as shown in Figure 2-2. while a voltmeter correctly indicates the potential difference across its terminals. Copper sulfate electrodes. there are two possible sources of error in its use. It is essential that no metal touch the copper sulfate solution except copper. First. and electrode) is one-fourth the resistance of the meter. Excess crystals are added. in contact with the copper. the error will be 20%. to which the instrument is connected.Potential Surveys 17 Figure 2-1. the current which flows through the instrument (a voltmeter is essentially a milliammeter) introduces an IR drop in the rest of the circuit. to ensure that the solution always will be saturated. . placed in contact with the soil. For example. which is not included in the reading. then the meter will read only four-fifths of the total potential. The essential parts are: (1) a piece of copper. (2) a saturated solution of copper sulfate. if the resistance of the external circuit (pipe. (3) a porous member.
Voltmeter measurement of pipe-to-soil potential. finally. A second source of error is that the passage of current through the circuit may polarize the electrode or even the pipe itself. In the next section. This meter is very useful for making rapid potential readings. If pushing the button makes a small change in the reading.18 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 2-2. . If the soil is dry. then no correction is needed. an equation comparable to those cited previously can be used. Readings should always be taken on two different scales (introducing two different values of meter resistance). a little water may be added to lower the contact resistance. There is also available a special "dual sensitivity" voltmeter which offers two different resistance values on the same scale. and this is often too low. it is usually adequate to dig a little below the surface. And. and so change the potential we are trying to measure. The latter should be used with caution. as flanged fittings sometimes introduce extraneous potentials. methods will be given for obtaining the corrected value when the error due to voltmeter resistance is not too high (see Equations 3-2 and 3-3). Connection to the pipe may be by means of a welded or soldered lead wire (as illustrated). by a contact bar. then a very simple correction can be made. if the change is large.000 ohms per volt is recommended. if they are in substantial agreement. not less than 50. If the reading is the same for these two (the change is made by merely pushing a button). Both of these errors may be minimized by the use of a high-resistance voltmeter. the value may be accepted. or by mechanical connection to a valve or fitting above the surface.
When the slidewire S is adjusted so that the galvanometer G shows no deflection. that current is drawn while balancing is in progress and that some polarization may occur. an instrument which draws no current from the circuit at the point of balance. (a) Basic circuit. since it is impossible to follow rapid fluctuations with them. with provision for adjusting battery voltage with resistor RB. Resistor R0 protects the galvanometer against excess currents. however. . one form of which is shown in Figure 2-4. Figure 2-3 shows this instrument and indicates its use. Slide-Wire Potentiometer These problems largely are overcome by the use of the potentiometer. using standard cell SC for calibration. then the unknown potential connected to the terminals can be read directly on the slide-wire scale. it is shorted out by the switch when the instrument is almost perfectly balanced. Potentiometer-Voltmeter Another approach to the problem is the potentiometer-voltmeter. (b) Modified circuit. This simple circuit could be used only if the battery voltage were constant.Potential Surveys 19 Figure 2-3. Slide-wire potentiometer. It should be remembered. instead of the one shown here. Both of these useful instruments suffer a disadvantage when fluctuating potentials are encountered. as in a stray-current area. Most instruments for corrosion use have two or more scales.
and (3) switch S2 controls a protective resistor. the external potential connected to the terminals is the same as that portion of the battery voltage which is indicated on voltmeter V. and hence may be used to follow fluctuating potentials without difficulty. through the use of transistors and other recent developments. More than two ranges are possible. a high range is added. of different values. Solid-State Voltmeter This instrument (Figure 2-5) is the successor to the vacuum-tube voltmeter and differs only in the substitution of solid-state transistors for the more vulnerable vacuum tubes. The resistance problems have been virtually eliminated. In (b) several refinements have been added: (1) with switch $! open. The potentiometer-voltmeter. similar to that in Figure 2-3. Vacuum-Tube Voltmeter This instrument (not illustrated) has. and it is also possible to use the same instrument as an ammeter by building in shunts. When the galvanometer deflection is zero. (2) the two resistors R.20 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 2-4. then. Battery-powered units are available with input impedances as high as 10 megohms. They possess an additional advantage over the various potentiometer types of instruments in that they do not have to be balanced. and R2. now reached a stage of reliability and stability which makes it quite useful in the field. this. so the circuit resistance error ceases to be a problem. and accurate results may be obtained by nontechnical . provide a fine and coarse adjustment. is a direct reading of the unknown potential. (a) Shows the basic circuit.
Solid-state DC voltmeter.20 mv to 200 v and with selectable input resistances of 1-200 megohms. and 200 megohms.20 mv to 20 v. Miller Co. C. It is a development of the potentiometer-voltmeter already described but has the following particular characteristics. As an ohmmeter. The range in reading varies from 0.) Multicombination Meter This is the instrument most often used by corrosion engineers because of its versatility. 50. The four voltage ranges include . Inc. 10. 100.. A particular model has selectable input resistances of 1. as shown by the latest 1983 model in Figure 2-6. which are not as easy to read as are the liquid . and the ammeter range is from —20 ma to 20 a. The left meter also has a liquid crystal display and serves both as a voltmeter and an ammeter. This allows the user to determine pipeto-soil potentials in such difficult environments as city pavements. 25. This instrument is still available with the conventional moving pointer dials.1 mv to 20 mv. (Courtesy of M.Potential Surveys 21 personnel. The right meter has a liquid crystal display with 5 ranges from . This is a rugged instrument for the technician who has to take many readings. Figure 2-5. it reads from —20 ohms to 2000 ohms.
Figures 2-7 and 2-8 show it in two forms for determining potential difference in the field. Electrode Placement Figure 2-9 shows the current and potential fields surrounding a pipe line which are either collecting or discharging current at the point indicated. It is rugged. which is simply a small voltmeter attached to a coppercopper sulfate electrode.) crystal numbers. The instrument is used for pipe-to-soil potential differences. This error is least (for a symmetrical field) . Miller Co. Inc. Electronic Potential Meter If the most advanced instrument for the corrosion engineer is the multicombination meter. and ideal for inexperienced workers to use in average rural pipe line environments. It will be seen that there is no point on the surface of the earth which is at the same potential as the surface of the pipe itself. checking continuity of test leads and the resistance of bond wires. any electrode position chosen will inevitably introduce some IR drop error into the readings. Therefore. the simplest of the new meters is the electronic potential meter.. C. to name only a few examples. Multicombination meter.22 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 2-6. (Courtesy of M. current versus IR drop. inexpensive (about 12% of the cost of the multicombination meter).
in which the effect of the IR drop is canceled out.Potential Surveys 23 Figure 2-7.) when the electrode is placed directly over the pipe. Miller Co. . or to use a complicated "null circuit" involving two or more electrodes. The only way in which the theoretically correct reading could be taken would be to place the electrode adjacent to the pipe.. C. and thus have gained little favor. Inc. Both of these are quite time-consuming. (Courtesy of M. The electronic potential meter.
C.) Pipe Line Connection As shown in Figure 2-2.24 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 2-8. Miller Co. (Courtesy of M. it will not be necessary to damage the pipe line coating to make contact with the line.. Figure 2-10 shows a typical installation. It can be seen that a portion of the coating is scraped off. and the wire is then attached to the line by a process known as "cadwelding. connection to the pipe must be made by an insulated lead wire or by an insulated contact bar or. best. once it is installed. Inc." This is a small thermite unit using . Potential meter with optional accessory electrode extension. by permanent test stations installed along the pipe line at regular intervals. The advantage of the test station is that.
The distribution of potential along the surface of the earth above the pipe clearly indicates the location of the active area. Surface Potential Survey for Corrosion Figure 2-11 represents the current and potential fields around a section of pipe line with a single active corroding (anodic) area.Potential Surveys 25 Figure 2-9. where a box containing a lead will make connection of the testing meter very convenient. it is usually convenient to use it as one end of a test section for measuring line current. as shown in the next chapter. When the test station is installed. It can be seen that no point on the surface is at the same potential as that immediately adjacent to the pipe. aluminum powder to produce enough heat to bond the copper wire to the steel. thus a survey of surface poten- . Then the connection and the surrounding bare metal are coated with a coating similar to the pipe line coating and usually finished with tape. The dotted lines represent the flow of current to or from a pipe lying in soil of uniform resistivity. The lead wire is then brought to the surface and is usually raised to a height of five feet. the dashed lines represent equal differences of potential. but an electrode placed at A represents a closer approximation than one placed at B. Current and potential field around a pipe.
26 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 2-11. An isolated anodic point on a buried pipe line can be detected easily by surface potential measurements. Potential field surrounding a single anodic point. . provided that readings are taken at sufficiently close spacing.
and. while Figure 2-13 shows a typical pipe-to-soil potential of a protected line.Potential Surveys 27 tials along the length of a pipe line should be of value in locating corrosion. In other words. Figure 2-12 diagrams the procedure for making such a survey. As a consequence of these two difficulties. this is as good as next to the pipe. and relatively safe. only if this criterion is met at every point on the surface. referred to a standard copper-saturated copper sulfate electrode placed in the electrolyte immediately adjacent to the metal surface. as for example. Another drawback to this method—and a very serious one—is that it will not disclose a highly localized cell. This assumption is almost always valid. For a bare line. it is almost certainly true that protection is complete when this is achieved. It is customary. this is not true. it is a maximum. when it breaks down because of discontinuities in soil resistivity. at the same location. The entire structure is fully protected. for a well-coated line. it is completely impossible to take a reading at every point of the surface. to consider a coated line to be fully protected if a survey along its length yields a reasonably smooth . but bare lines are rarely fully protected in any event.85-volt negative. where the anode and cathode are very close together. it is generally accepted that the electrode is to be placed in the soil immediately over the line. As mentioned. it turns out. It is also possible to have complete freedom from active corrosion at lower potentials. then. it fails only in areas which are virtually noncorrosive without protection. of course. The other difficulty is avoided by assuming a certain degree of continuity in the potential gradient along a line. Pipe-to-Soil Potential as a Criterion of Cathodic Protection It is almost universally accepted that a steel structure under cathodic protection is fully protected if the potential is at least 0. This is not a minimum requirement. Variations in soil resistivity introduce potential differences which may mask those sought. the common "concentration" cell where the anode is on the bottom of the pipe and the cathode on top. it is not difficult to show that. so the problem is by no means as simple as it might appear. it is impracticably slow to place the electrode immediately adjacent to the pipe surface.
Surface potential survey. .28 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 2-12.
Figure 2-13. Pipe-to-soil potential of protected line. Typical distribution of potential along a line with cathodic protection units at A, B, and C. Points X and Y are the critical points; if the potential remains satisfactory at these points, the entire line is probably adequately protected.
potential curve which does not dip below the value of 0.85 volt; all readings being taken are with respect to a standard copper sulfate electrode. Once a detailed survey over the system has established that the line is protected, then periodic checks at the critical points (low potential points between units) can make it possible to know that protection is still being afforded. This subject is discussed more fully later. Other Applications of Pipe-to-Soil Potentials This measurement forms a part of the technique used in several types of studies, most of which will be described later. Among them may be mentioned: (1) interference studies, (2) stray current investigations, (3) coating conductance measurements, and (4) cathodic protection tests. Other Criteria In addition to use of the -0.85-volt standard for adequacy of a cathodic protection system, two other methods are in use: 1. Test coupon. Burying corrosion test coupons along the pipe line. These should be weighed and connected to the line at locations possibly subject to extreme corrosion conditions. After a given exposure time, they should be removed and reweighed. Any loss
Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
in weight may be used to calculate the degree of protection necessary. 2. Potential change. Another criterion (called "doubtful" by Uhlig* but often used in cathodic protection design) is to use a potential change of 0.3 volt when current is applied as a measure of cathodic protection. This involves an interrupted cathodic protection current measurement, as will be shown in Chapter 4. Also, this concept may be used in primary design calculations, as described in Chapter 5. Summary We have thus seen that, although there are several reference electrodes (half cells) available for potential difference measurements, only the copper/copper sulfate electrode is used for most of the readings the corrosion engineer will take on land. Also, for precision, the potentiometer, particularly in the form of a combination instrument, is preferable to the low-resistance voltmeters. The placement of the reference electrode is best made on the surface of the earth directly over the buried pipe line. Sometimes, the soil should be moistened, although preferably nothing should be done to affect the environment. For contact with the pipe line, it is advisable to have test stations installed at regular intervals along all major pipe lines. This will eliminate the problems of direct metal contact with the pipe itself, which will be necessary if the permanent leads are not available. Although the "leap-frog" system may be useful when there is a distance between test stations, it would be advantageous to have a reel of wire available to extend the measurements along the pipe line, particularly in regions near the midpoints between rectifiers. Modern methods of pipe-to-soil measurement use recording voltmeters, which may be used to complete a series of pipe-to-soil potentials along a pipe line in a very short time. i
* Uhlig, H. H., Corrosion and Corrosion Control: An Introduction to Corrosion Science and Engineering, 2nd Edition, 1971, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, p. 225.
Now that we know the most common pipe line measurement, pipe-tosoil potential difference, we shall study some other measurements necessary for corrosion control. The next is line current measurement. Measurement of Line Current in Test Section A test section consists of a length of uninterrupted pipe line (no joints other than welds, no fittings) between two points to which an instrument may be connected (see Figure 3-1). The connection points usually take the form of a pair of permanently attached lead wires; the use of contact bars is difficult and generally unsatisfactory. The resistance of the pipe itself (not the lead wires) between the two points must be known; it will usually be on the order of 0.001 ohm, or may be expressed in conductance units, as 1.00 ampere/millivolt. To obtain this value, the length of the section must vary according to the pipe weight; values between 50 and 400 feet are common. Voltmeter Line Current Measurement The difference in potential between the two leads, multiplied by the conductance of the section, will give the value of the current flowing in the line. This difference in potential may be determined with a mil31
the corrected reading may be obtained from . Calibration of test section. in amperes per millivolt. then livoltmeter. The conductance of the section. L1( L2. T2. Rw in Equation 3-1 is total resistance of 7^. the currents used in cathodic protection give rise to larger values. and L3. as shown in Figure 3-2.32 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 3-1. perhaps as low as one ohm. If the value of the lead wire resistance is known. Measurement of IR drop in line section. the resistance of the lead wires will thus be of considerable importance. An instrument with a range such as this will have a low internal resistance. is given by If these two sections are not equal. unless L1 and L2 are a pair of "calibrated" leads matched to and supplied with the instrument. For currents occurring naturally. a meter with a full-scale deflection as low as one millivolt may be required. in which case Rw = Tt + 72 + ^-3 only- Figure 3-2.
should be used. involves taking readings on two ranges of a multiscale voltmeter and applying where: VL = reading on low scale VH = reading on high scale R = ratio between the two scales If the scale ratio is 2:1. with corrections for lead resistance. The same instrument is frequently used with a 300-ohm galvanometer—excellent for pipe-to-soil potentials—but. There is no suitable potentiometer-voltmeter available for this application. as is often the case. which has the advantage that the value need not be known. except where unusual refinement is sought. assuming that a deflection of Vio of a division can be seen. this is adequate for most work. as can be seen. A typical instrument has a 20-ohm galvanometer with a sensitivity of 20 microamperes per division. Either a potentiometer with proper galvanometer or a high-resistance voltmeter. provided a galvanometer of adequate sensitivity is used. . inadequate for line current measurement. then the minimum unbalance which can be detected is 0. Equation 3-2 simplifies to The Potentiometer The need for corrections may be avoided by the use of a potentiometer.Line Currents 33 where: ^corr = corrected reading Vjnd = indicated reading Rm = meter resistance Rw = total lead wire resistance Another method of correcting for lead resistance.04 millivolt.
so as to record corrected millivolts. as shown in Figure 3-2. By far the better method is that of direct calibration. flows through the test section. the factor may vary from 3. This effect is quite variable. corrections may be made by Equation 3-1. and two others (which will remain as permanent test leads) for the voltmeter connection. unfortunately. all of the anodic areas could thus be found. stray-current effects are suspected. depending upon coating conductance and earth resistivity. to correct for it. the most common attack on buried pipes is associated . some of it flows through a remote earth path.34 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Calibration of Test Section The conductance of a test section may be approximated from the formula This is only a rough approximation. or resistance can be inserted into the circuit so as to make Rw = Rm\ the correction factor will then be exactly 2 and may be made by selection of the proper chart. however. and further variation is introduced by the weight tolerance for line pipe. Useful clues to the source of such strays can be had from 24-hour recordings of line current potentials. Stray-Current Studies Whenever fluctuating currents or potentials are observed. If currents of this type were the sole cause of pipe line corrosion. an additional pair of leads is required. however.0.5 to as high as 5. Two connections are used for current input. Not all of the current flowing through the ammeter. If the actual current values are desired. Long-Line Currents A use of line current measurement more in vogue in the past than at present is the tracing of long-line currents and the location of the areas of discharge to earth. Comparison of the charts with records of operation of suspected equipment will often locate the source beyond question.
Summary As has already been shown. Although the lengths may vary for these sections. line current studies cannot locate such a condition. the application will be discussed in a later chapter. the multipurpose corrosion meter can be used. if test stations along the pipelines have been installed. Coating Conductance Measurement The same thing is true of the determination of coating conductance— a type of measurement which will grow in importance to the corrosion engineer in the future. this will also be discussed later in greater detail. a very valuable part of such testing is in the measurement of these currents. Again. it is very easy to construct a test section for line current measurement. either permanent or temporary test equipment. Cathodic Protection Tests The current flows associated with cathodic protection systems. . the test section may be used to measure the coating resistance once the conductance of the pipe itself has been calibrated. are typically long-line currents. very often the anode is on the bottom and the cathode on top of the pipe only a few inches away. Also. Line current measurements are much less subject to disturbing factors than are potential measurements and offer the engineer a valuable approach to this difficult subject. since values as low as one millivolt may have to be measured.Line Currents 35 with corroding cells of very small dimensions. it is advisable to have them at least 100 ft long for 8-inch schedule 40 pipe and as much as 400 ft for 30-inch OD pipe.
rather than in the field. and (2) the determination of the electrical characteristics of the line. two basic approaches are possible: (1) the complete protection of the line with temporary installations. and the calculation of the system from these data. In determining the amount and distribution of drainage current to produce the desired potential. 36 .85 volt (to a CuSO4 electrode) throughout the line. Meticulous investigations may show that protection can be had at lower figures. these being varied and shifted until a satisfactory combination is found. in which the trial and error of testing the performance of various combinations is done on paper. The first method is almost impossibly complicated in execution and is seldom even attempted. although in practice a certain amount of trial-and-error procedure is usually necessary. but only on bare or very poorly coated structures are the savings likely to be great enough to justify the additional engineering work required. A compromise technique. The second is theoretically possible.4 Current Requirement Surveys The Problem: Coated Lines The simplest approach to the cathodic protection of coated lines is to aim at obtaining a pipe-to-soil potential of 0. is recommended.
2. and the effects determined for as great a distance as they are measurable (far beyond the point of complete protection). in addition to casings. often road crossings will be adequate. At a chosen location. exceed three volts. in order: 1. A-frames. Such structures include. draining specified quantities of current. and on all crossing lines and other structures which might either be shorted or be a source of interference in either direction. permanent test leads are recommended. on a well-coated line. preferably one which appears to be suitable for a rectifier installation. Readings should be taken at all casings (reading potentials of both casing and pipe). a temporary drainage point is established and a steady current drained for a period of from one to three hours.Current Requirement Surveys 37 Principles of Current Requirement Test Current is to be drained from the line to a temporary ground bed. but bar contacts may be necessary. The value of current to be used should be large enough to cover a usefully long portion of the line—perhaps all of it—but should not be too large. The end result of this design will be the specification of drainage units at certain points. in general. Polarization run. the detail design of anode beds to accomplish this is another matter. Spacing may vary from a few hundred feet on poor coating to several miles on good coating. the behavior of the line with respect to current drainage can be determined with sufficient accuracy to carry out the design of a complete protective system. Field Procedure The following steps are taken. A pipe-to-soil potential survey is made over the entire line. supports of all kinds. The pipe-to-soil potential of a nearby point (within a few miles. a few hundred feet on a poorly coated one) is observed during this interval to follow the course of polarization. bridges. . and sometimes even such things as metal fences and guy wires. The pipe-tosoil potential near the drain point should not. from one or more such tests. Static potentials.
An interrupter. Miller Co. It is not safe to assume that the higher (more negative) reading is always the "on" reading as this is not the case with a properly insulated lateral or casing. both the "on" and "off" potentials should be read. At each point. a survey should be made of pipe-to-soil potentials at all of the points covered in 1.) . With this operating. Current interrupter. (Courtesy of M. Care should be taken that these two readings are correctly identified. Figure 4-1 shows a drawing of an automatic interrupter suitable for use on the above test. It is important that the same electrode position be used as was used for the static potential at each location. 40 seconds "on" and 20 seconds "off" is a good combination to use. is now inserted in the circuit and placed in operation. Inc. It is recommended that a graph of these values be made in the field as the readings are taken in order to detect any peculiarities which might call for additional readings. Static potentials. Figure 4-1. and the "off" reading as soon as possible after interruption. The schedule should consist of unequal "on" and "off" periods of predetermined duration.38 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection 3.. the "on" reading should be taken just before interruption. Potential survey. C. either manual or automatic. the length of the cycle is used for that purpose.
Like the potential readings. particularly if it turns out that there are some short-circuited structures on the line. If spaced pairs of test leads are available. and at a remote location in each direction. then only one or two values need to be taken during the potential survey. and perhaps only one or two thereafter. For each test run. or even over any portion thereof. Intermediate values may also be useful. but should always be plotted as a complete curve. Polarization and current check. the value of drainage current and the potential at the check point should be plotted against time (see Figure 4-2). as follows: 1. Graphical Presentation of Data All of the information gathered in the survey should then be prepared in the form of a set of curves. and the outlined process repeated until the entire line has been covered with values large enough to be usable. Where this is not possible. It is by no means necessary to achieve complete protection over the whole line. If the current change is not great. New drainage points are chosen. Line current survey. It is desirable to keep the current constant throughout the test if this can be done easily. Longitudinal distribution curves. Current and polarization. it is better for it to change smoothly over a considerable range of values than to change often and abruptly. the following should be plotted against distance along the entire line: static po- .Current Requirement Surveys 39 4. to correlate with the various potential readings. The series of potential readings at a point near the drain point. 5. Successful surveys have often been made with only the value at the start and finish (together with those taken during the polarization run). should be continued during the potential survey. the line current should be determined on each side of the drainage point. Repeat as necessary. these should consist of "on"-"off" pairs. 6. 2. The curve will have many points close together during the early polarization run. as well as a series of current values. This will make it possible to interpolate and thus determine the value of the current flowing at any particular time. These values should also be plotted in the field. On a single curve.
the net change produced by the test current. then A/ is 340 milliamperes. the following are plotted against distance (using the same horizontal scale as above): a. if the test shows 40 milliamperes flowing east during "off" conditions and 300 milliamperes flowing west during the "on" part of the cycle. "off" potential. Driving voltage. That is. tential. this is the difference between the "off" potential and the static potential. and the algebraic difference taken. c. this is the difference between the "on" potential and the "off" potential. and colors may be required for clear separation. and line current.40 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 4-2. again the value to be plotted is the difference in the "on" value and the "off" value. but there will be one of each of the others for each test run. Line current. "on" potential. but using semilogarithmic paper. These curves will present most of the data taken in the field in graphic form. b. these will overlap. . 3. A/. AV>. Normally. at each point. Attenuation curve. the very obvious difference between the two ends of the line illustrated are attributable to a short-circuited bare casing on the right-hand section. There will be only one static curve. due attention must be paid to the directions. Distribution of pipe-to-soil potential along the line. Polarization potential. Again on a single sheet (Figure 4-3). The horizontal unit is 1000 feet. at each point. AE. Longitudinal distribution curves.
This is a plot of the value of AV/> plotted against A£. as on the right-hand section. or type of coating is markedly different. 4. often it is advisable to draw limiting lines rather than a single curve through the points. Polarization chart (Figure 4-4). concave upward. and. For an infinitely long line. This chart will usually be a "scatter diagram" rather than a smooth curve. or even where there have been repeat tests on the same section with the same or different current values. The test point numbers on all three figures correspond. although the results are often as good when ordinary linear paper is used. as on the lefthand section. such curves should be straight lines. Driving voltage (AE) and polarization potential (AVP) plotted on semilog paper against distance along the line. it will not be advisable to combine values taken on different lines or on different sections if it is known that pipe size.Current Requirement Surveys 41 Figure 4-3. where several tests have been run on the same line. This is usually plotted on log-log paper. The chart shown in Figure 4-4 is better than most in the degree of conformity to a single curve. all pairs from all tests can be combined. In general. line age. concave downward. . for a finite line ending in an insulated joint. Attenuation curves. and for a "grounded" section.
Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
Figure 4-4. Polarization chart. From this plot, the functional relationship between driving voltage and polarization potential may be obtained. Test point 2 is anomalous. The explanation is found in the short-circuited casing at this location, which minimized polarization. The anomaly at point 8 is due to proximity to the anode; the apparent value of the driving voltage is too high.
Current Sources for Tests Where very large currents—20-100 amperes—are required, a welding machine is the usual source of DC power for current requirement tests. Smaller values can be supplied by storage batteries. It is possible to connect any number of such batteries in series to obtain voltages high enough for medium-to-high resistance ground beds. As high as 120 volts (ten 12-volt batteries) has been used with success. Very small currents, up to perhaps two amperes, can be supplied with ordinary dry cells, often at a considerable saving in cost, if no storage battery is readily available. This is usually practical only when a lowresistance anode is available. When saltwater is available, as near the seashore, or where a saltwater pit is near the line to be tested, a magnesium anode (even a piece of magnesium ribbon) may serve both as an anode and the source of power. Only where extremely low-resistivity soil or water is at hand, such as saltwater, is this practical, unless the current needs of the line are very small indeed.
Current Requirement Surveys
Sometimes an adjacent or crossing line, under cathodic protection, or an adjacent insulated section already under protection, can be utilized. In this case it is only necessary to connect a temporary jumper from the line under protection to the one under test, with the interrupter inserted in this connection. Temporary Ground Beds To discharge the test current to earth, a temporary anode bed must be found or constructed. Pieces of scrap two-inch pipe, set in six-inch augered holes kept filled with saltwater work well in low- or mediumresistivity soil, provided it is not too sandy or porous. Actually, any metal structure with a large area in contact with the earth may serve, although it must be realized that it is liable to some damage by corrosion. A 10-hour test will remove about 0.36 ounces of steel per ampere of test current. A fairly common practice, though of doubtful virtue, is that of using another pipe line or another section (beyond an insulating flange) of the same line of an anode. Little or no measurable harm is thus done to a bare line, but on a coated line the damage may be concentrated at a few holidays in the coating. At any rate, whenever this technique is used, the usual "on" and "off" cycle should be reversed, and one used of, say, 10 seconds "on" and 50 seconds "off." In this way the actual exposure is minimized, but it is also true that polarization will be less fully achieved. Special Conditions Sometimes fluctuating potentials will be found which make the taking of static potentials all but impossible. These are particularly prevalent on well-coated lines, in high-resistivity soil, and in northern latitudes. Similar fluctuations are sometimes found associated with thunderstorms—and the stormy conditions may be many miles away on the line under survey, with fair weather at the point of observation. These are temporary, however, and the solution is to come back another day (work around exposed insulated joints is hazardous in thunderstorm weather). But for the conditions associated with earth currents, as described earlier, there is no solution. Care must be taken to check the
Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
potential directly across each insulated joint, and the potential between the pipe and each casing, instead of merely checking the two pipe-tosoil potentials involved; but true static potentials cannot be taken, so the design will include a degree of uncertainty not otherwise present.
Summary We have just seen that the problem of securing adequate cathodic protection of coated lines may be accomplished by using the following procedures for a coated pipe: 1. Install test stations along the pipe line with a few line current test sections included. 2. Take a pipe-to-soil potential difference survey along the pipe before any cathodic protection system is installed. Be particularly careful to get readings of all road crossings where casings are used for protection. If the pipe line goes under a stream, be particularly careful to get all basic information. 3. Select a central location near a position of low soil resistivity where a temporary anode and a direct current source may be installed. (This is a prototype of the eventual cathodic protection system, but at this stage the final details have not yet been determined.) 4. The interrupted tests are now begun, and a potential difference survey of the entire line is made. 5. At the same time a series of potential readings should be made at a point near the drain point where the polarization data may be obtained. 6. Line current and coating conductivity tests should also be run. 7. The data should then be presented graphically in the following curves: (a) current and polarization, (b) longitudinal distribution, (c) attentuation curves (semilogarithmic), and (d) polarization curves (logarithmic). Current sources should be: (a) a welding machine (if possible), (b) storage batteries in series, and (c) dry cells (rarely). Ground beds should be: (a) scrap-pipe installed, or (b) unused pipe line (rarely).
Attenuation Curves When current is drained from a single point on a pipe line and discharged to earth. it is necessary to introduce some of the principles. and pipe-to-soil potential—are all a maximum at the drain point and decrease with the distance from that point. The method described here is based on the survey data as obtained and plotted by the methods described in Chapter 4. so the design has to be tailored to fit them. This is largely true because in the final analysis much of the design must be done in the field. because in the first place. rather than a straightforward mathematical solution. the mathematical analysis of the attenuation of current and potential along a pipe line is somewhat complicated even with assumptions of uniformity.5 Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines General Design Principles Although the design of a cathodic protection system does not properly belong in a field manual. For the most part. rectifier system design involves a trial-and-error method. the effects of the drainage—line current. The man45 . the choice of practical sites for rectifiers is almost always limited. This is necessarily the case. And in the second place. current density on the pipe surface.
then the attenuation function is a relatively simple mathematical expression. but merge gradually into one another. static potentials.) Note that what is plotted here is the change in potential or current when the test current is interrupted. and the method of termination of the line. Since. among which are the resistance of the pipe (which varies with the weight). connections to other structures. the mathematically ideal attenuation curve for a long line is exponential. which is seldom used in practice. as convenient (see Figure 5-1). Stray currents. The horizontal scale. represents distance along the line. it is well to take a look at the one which is mathematically the simplest of all—the infinitely long line. in units of miles. and (4) very short lines. if current is drained from a very long line. feet. Lines may be classified. These are illustrated in Figure 5-2. or thousands of feet. on which an exponential curve plots as a straight line. If pipe weight. complications in these factors result in complications in the function. the coating. It is important to note that the slopes of the AE and A/ curves are the same. These classes are not sharply divided.46 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection ner in which they decrease is known as the attenuation function of the line. and if there are no extraneous connections and the termination is simple. on logarithmic paper. or nearly so. (3) short lines. It may be such a good . This function is influenced by many factors. the cathodic current density) will be perfect exponential functions. into four mathematical classes: (1) very long lines. and soil resistivity are uniform. both AE and A/ (as well as A/. is a straight line. and the effects of polarization are all eliminated from the plotted values. infinitely long line at a single point and discharged to earth through an infinitely remote anode. In an actual case. and it must be admitted that the classification is rather arbitrary. which is not logarithmic. insofar as their attenuation behavior is concerned. the soil resistivity. the At curve (not shown) would have this same slope. Before defining these cases. If current is drained from a uniform. coating. it is customary to plot all attenuation curves on semilogarithmic paper. In all of the discussions to follow. This is always true unless pipe diameter changes. the A/ curve. the curve of which. always has the same shape as the AE curve. (2) long lines. the attenuation will be essentially as just described. The vertical scale is used to plot AE (driving voltage) and A/ (line current.
A very long line. The curves in Figure 5-3 show this characteristic. Attenuation curves—single drain points. A long line is one which starts out like an infinite line—both curves straight. If the measurements extended only over the part of the line indicated by the two . approximation to a straight line that the instruments used cannot tell the difference. In the case of a line with excellent coating. both with the same slope—but which shows a definite curvature in the lines before the effects of the test become too small to measure. is one which behaves. and both curves have the same slope.Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 47 Figure 5-1. as far as our instruments can tell. As far as they can be traced. then. even if there is considerable variation in the soil resistivity along the line. like an infinite line. this is usually the case. both A£ and A/ follow essentially straight lines.
It is admitted that the definition makes the length of the line depend upon the sensitivity of the instruments used. Another way in which a short line will usually differ from a long one is that the initial slope of the AE and A/ curves will be different. to qualify for the category of long line. The horizontal scale represents distance along the pipe line. but this corresponds to the facts in the case. arrows. it would be difficult to tell it from an infinite line.48 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 5-2. a line which is "long" to one instrument may be "short" to another. The rate of decline of driving voltage (AE) and line current (A/) with distance from the drain point. Thus. A short line is one whose length is such that the results at the end are large enough to be useful.000 feet (very good coating). it must be so long that the potential at the end is not detectable or not large enough to be useful. each division might represent as little as 500 feet (large bare line in low-resistivity soil) to as much as 25. The left-hand portion of Figure 5-4 may be taken as representing a short . However. Attenuation curves for infinite line.
with an ammeter. It may be observed that. but not in the line itself. A very short line is one which is so short that there is little or no difference. AE does not change much from end to end. either of these curves may be expressed as the derivative of the other. In other words. When a line is terminated in an insulated joint. while the line current goes to zero. It is also true of such line that the current. If AE and A/ be interchanged. This means that the line is behaving essentially as would an isolated piece of metal in the soil. line. the curves take the form shown here. in still shorter lines they are even more different. with a proper choice of vertical scale. by IR drop. and it can be seen that the two slopes are not quite the same. A/. in the potential at the drain point and at the end. is too small to be measured accurately (this is true only for a coated line). or no useful difference. the above curves apply to a line terminated in a "zero" resistance to ground. it may be measured in the drainage circuit. all at about the same potential.Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 49 Figure 5-3. The driving voltage becomes horizontal at the end. . Attenuation curves for finite line.
such as a . Attenuation curves between two drain points. The portion of the above diagram lying on either side of the point where the two straight lines cross. If a long line is terminated in an insulated joint. an insulated joint could be inserted in the line at the point of zero line current without affecting the behavior at any point. the driving voltage is at a minimum. as indicated in Figure 5-3. is mathematically identical with the curve shown in Figure 5-3. Line Termination It does not make any difference how a very long line is terminated. and the line current is zero. the difference being only in the magnitude of AE value at the end. If either of these categories is terminated by a connection to a massive bare grounded structure. The same is true of a short line. there will be a marked divergence in the A£ and A/ curves near the end.50 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 5-4. In other words.
this peak shows up opposite the anode. In plotting these composite curves. The IR drop in the soil around the anode will then affect the measured potentials along the line. Anode Proximity Effects In an actual test of a cathodic protection installation. not the logarithms. if A/ flowing north is considered positive. the AE curve will go to zero. Figure 5-4 shows a section of pipe line lying between two drain points. A very short line must be insulated in order to function as such. Attenuation with Multiple Drain Points The distribution of potential and current along a line with two or more drain points is determined by the superposition of the individual curves resulting from each point considered singly. near the anode—will be too high. the value of AE at the insulated end is exactly twice the value obtained by projecting the original straight line. This shows itself as a localized "peaking" in which there is a distinct departure from the theoretical curve to be expected. this" is nearly true. and the values of AE near the drain point—or. and the resultant AE and A/ for the actual case. if there is not much difference in the slopes. its characteristic cannot be determined. while the A/ curve will become horizontal. where the initial slopes of the two curves are the same. as compared with the mathematical ideal described.Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 51 tank farm or a refinery. then A/ flowing south is to be taken as negative. It is interesting to observe that in the case of a long line. in the latter case due attention must be paid to the direction of current. if it is grounded. In cases where the drain point is not directly opposite the anode. it should be noted that the numerical values of current and potential are added. For short lines. The actual AE at any given point is the sum of the AE's from all of the drains. the value of AE0 should not be taken as the actual value measured at the drain point but should be obtained by extending the curve back to that point. that . the anode will be at a finite distance from the line. it becomes less true with shorter lines. and the actual A/ is the sum of all the A/'s. the AE and A/ curves from each of them. For design purposes. more accurately.
and an assumed value of the drainage current at that point is chosen. If not. A suitable site for a rectifier is chosen.52 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection the absolute value of the current is used. plus the polarization potential attributable to this composite driving voltage. using the test data obtained. and attenuation curves prepared for it also. g. The distribution of current and potential along the line from this drainage is then projected. as it did for curves from a single drain point. Then the section between the two is studied. and the method described . low soil resistivity and accessibility. and that the conditions that the slopes of the two curves are equal where they coincide or can be made to coincide by proper choice of scales no longer holds. a system has been found which satisfies the conditions. then another must be chosen. An Alternate Method A somewhat less accurate but faster method may be used for initially sizing the rectifiers for a planned pipe line cathodic protection system. Whether it is the most economical system which will accomplish this result cannot be told except by comparing it with other possible combinations for initial cost and for operating cost. AE curve). The actual pipe-to-soil potential at any point may be predicted by adding the static potential (from the survey) plus the driving voltage (from the attenuation curve) plus the polarization potential (from the AV/> vs. without regard to sign. Coating conductance. Design Procedure The application of these curves to the actual problem of design proceeds as follows. It may be that the entire section under consideration can be protected adequately from the single drain point assumed. When. a combination of drain points has been found which places the entire line under protection. using the method of superposition. by trial and error. plus the sum of the two driving voltages. This involves using the basic data already listed as necessary for a pipe line calculation: 1. For any given point. This may be determined using the line current setup as described in Chapter 3. the pipe-to-soil potential is predicted by adding the static potential. using the criteria of power availability.
500-1000 micromhos/sq ft. 0. AE at low point on the pipe line. Certain values incorporating the resistivity of the pipe line itself and varying wrapped coatings are as follows: a.3 volt. 1-10 micromhos/sq ft.5. even though the conductance tests have not been run. but it is better to use the conservative value in the preliminary estimation. This is the value to be determined. 100-250 micromhos/sq ft. AE at drain point. Average coating in low-resistivity soil f. = 0. 2. AEA. 250-500 micromhos/sq ft. Poor coating in low-resistivity soil Consequently. AIA.3 .85 v.3 and hEA = 1. AI at drain point. Good coating in low-resistivity soil e. In certain circumstances this value may be exceeded. Excellent coating in high-resistivity soil b. A good practice is to limit the voltage change at the maximum point to around 1. AEX. Good coating in high-resistivity soil c. -— = 5. Criterion 3 mentioned in Chapter 3 may be used for the design assumption. That is a potential difference change of -0.0 AE. Excellent coating in low-resistivity soil d. For the special case where AE. it is possible to estimate this value of g. 4. AEA AE. 50-100 micromhos/sq ft.5 volts.Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 53 later in Chapter 12.55 v to a Cu-CuSO4 electrode to -0. 10-50 micromhos/sq ft. enough to maintain the approved cathodic protection criterion. This is to prevent disbonding of the coating. 3. This is enough to raise the average static value of coated steel in soil of about —0.0 and —— = 1. It may be calculated from the following relationship determined from one of the two modified attenuation curves (Figures 5-5 and 5-6): where D is pipe OD in inches.
3.8 (If ET = 0. Then.= 5. —.6.0 and AE.0 inches and a coating conductivity of 100 micromhos per sq ft. and how far will this current protect an infinitely long pipe line? Assume &EA = 1. Therefore. then EA = 1.t/A£.7 miles) in either direction from the drain point (Figure 5-5). the coating conductivity in micromhos per square foot. = 5.0 amperes will protect 30. Example B: Finite Line A flow line 20.3. required? From Figure 5. Method of calculation using Figures 5-5 and 5-6. (1) What is kEAIET1 (2) What is A/.0 amps.. L = 30. from Figure 5-5. Ifg. IA = 0.0 where: distance on actual line = 30.) A ET .000 ft long and nominal 3-inch pipe insulated from the well by an insulating flange at the Christmas tree and by another insulating flange at the tank battery has a coating conductivity of 500 micromhos per square foot. Example A: Infinite Line A pipe line has an OD of 30.54 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection 5. it is possible to calculate both IA and the distance it will protect for either an infinite pipe line (using Figure 5-5) or a finite pipe line (using Figure 5-6).5 and A£x = 0.7x30. What is the current change at the drain point.000 feet (or about 5. is known or estimated and the relationship AEA/AEX or AEA/AJET is assumed.74. a rectifier developing 21.0 = 21.000 ft.
Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 55 Figure 5-5. Drainage current vs. distance coated infinite line. .
56 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 5-6. length coated finite line. Drainage current vs. .
each of relatively large size. operation. and the tax and income position. First. The availability of power lines has to be considered. . with the corrosion engineer furnishing the technical analysis upon which it is to be based. the earning rate of the company. All the data should give some indication of the AE and A/ to be found.Rectifier Systems for Coated Lines 57 Therefore. Ultimately the decision is one for management. The final choice is influenced by factors quite remote from field conditions. Select rectifier sites. The lowest initial cost will be one which uses the smallest number of drainage points. as shown in Figure 5-1. the attenuation curves for the two examples are superimposed on a hyperbolic curve showing voltage and amperage differences. Factors such as availability of capital. 2. and supervision. limited usually by the maximum permissible pipe-to-soil potential. maintenance. particularly in a field manual. Somewhere between these extremes will be a system which is most attractive from every point of view—first cost. The lowest operating cost will be one which uses a larger number of smaller drain points at much closer spacing. use all the data accumulated in the tests in Chapter 4 to do the following: 1. The Economic Balance There are far too many factors influencing the choice of the optimum design to do more than barely outline the principles. thereby avoiding the "wasted" power used in over-protecting sections near the units. Also calculate for (a) infinite. Calculate the attenuation curves. Summary Two methods may be used. but also the location of low-resistivity areas for the accompanying anode beds. and (b) finite if the line is short or is to be sectionalized by insulation flanges.
AE. at drain points. ohm-cm. Compile all these data together to size the rectifier. R. by now we have the following data: g R AE A/ = = = = coating conductivity. Plot these curves for multiple drain points if more than two rectifier sites are to be chosen. Use the same g. volts. soil resistivity. but one which may be of use: 1. and A/ available from the preliminary data. Now use average attenuation curves similar to those first used by Chevron Oil Company in the 1950s. . Obviously. micromhos per sq ft. at drain points and midpoints. 4. volts. The second method is a check. 2.58 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection 3. estimate them from commonly accepted standards. If these are not available. See the test problems for examples. These are Figure 5-5 for infinite and Figure 5-6 for finite lines.
The first choice to be made is the general type of anode to be used. This quantity occupies a central role in the design of any impressed current cathodic protection system. and charges against the amount of capital invested. In most cases this will be a row of equally spaced vertical anodes. It is. At one stage in the design process described in the preceding chapter. Both the operating cost (power consumption) and installation cost are influenced by the resistance of the anode bed. Total annual cost means the sum of the costs of power. it has been decided—tentatively at least—to drain a certain amount of current from the line at a certain point. nor is it the one whose installed cost is the least. It is then necessary to design a ground bed and anode combination which will do this for the least annual cost. nor is it yet the one whose power consumption is the least. rather. maintenance. Note that it is not the lowest-resistance ground bed which is the best. the one whose resistance is such as to fit into an overall system whose total annual cost is the least. other types. and the special conditions in which they are likely to be 59 .6 Ground Bed Design and Installation Design Principles The ideal design for a cathodic protection system is the one which will provide the desired degree of protection at the minimum total annual cost over the projected life of the protected structure.
if it decreases.60 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection better. Among the types of vertical anodes in common use. Resistance of a number of rods in parallel. perhaps the most popular consists of a graphite rod. if the resistivity increases with depth. it should be lowered. will be discussed later. the total number of anodes to be used. Having chosen the type—if the row of verticals is selected—the next item to be determined is the hole diameter and the spacing. It is assumed that the soil is of uniform resistivity. the curve should be raised. . The total resistance is expressed as the percentage of the resistance of a single rod. each installed in 10 feet of tamped coke breeze backfill 8 inches in diameter. The dashed line shows the parallel resistance which would be obtained if there were no interference. Curve shows the total resistance to earth of a number of 3-inch by 60-inch graphite anodes. centered in a cylindrical column of well-tamped coke Figure 6-1. and then. when connected in parallel in a straight line at 20-foot spacing. usually 3 inches in diameter and 60 inches long. finally.
coke breeze column 10 inches in diameter by 8 feet deep—the results (by either formula) are R = . ohms p = soil resistivity (assumed constant to great depth) L = length of the coke breeze column. cm e = base of natural logarithms..Ground Bed Design and Installation 61 breeze backfill (see Figure 6-1). inches As indicated by the "log.. the resistance of the whole group is somewhat greater than the value obtained by dividing the resistance of one anode by the number of anodes. cm a = radius of the column. In = natural logarithm This can be simplified to where: R = resistance. Depths used range from 8 feet to 12 feet in general. Column diameters range from 8-inches to 16-inches. then.718 . This is due to the . with 10 feet a very common value. occasionally even larger. When several anodes are connected in parallel. When these formulas are applied to the dimensions given. This is a good rule-ofthumb approximation to remember for the resistance to earth of a single vertical anode. The column of coke is the actual anode. e = 2. the rod serves merely to establish and maintain contact." the common logarithm is used. ohms p = soil resistivity in ohm-cm (again assumed constant to great depth) L = length of the coke breeze column.002 p. with the backfill column extending to within 2 feet of the surface. Entirely typical. feet d = column diameter. 10-inches is perhaps the most common. The resistance to earth of a single anode of the type described is given by the expression where: R = resistance. or R = p/500. is a 3-inch by 60-inch graphite anode in a 10-inch by 10-foot hole.
it is necessary to perform some algebraic operations on it so as to separate the two parts. is greater than it would be around a single anode. this is in fact very seldom the case. All of these formulas are based on the assumption that the soil resistivity is uniform to great depth. and it is often difficult to decide just what value of resistivity to use. When the anodes are set in a straight line. feet log = common logarithm . at equal spacing—the usual arrangement—the total resistance of a group may be calculated by the following expression: where n is the number of anodes. however. the following expression is obtained: where: /?„ = resistance of n anodes. the value of six feet would be used. All dimensions are in centimeters. at the same time. as in the earlier expression. The interference or crowding effect depends upon the resistivity of the soil at greater depths. Reasonably good results will be had if a value is used corresponding to a pin spacing equal to the spacing between anodes. For a single anode. constants are introduced permitting us to use conventional units instead of cm and to use common instead of natural logarithms. ohm-cm L — length of the anode (coke breeze column). or to the crowding of the current paths in the earth so that the current density. If. In the case described. it is usually quite accurate to use a value corresponding to a pin spacing (four-terminal method) equal to the depth to the center of the anode column. ohms Pi = resistivity at a spacing equal to the depth of the center of the anode. To use these two different values in the same formula. the situation is different. and S is the spacing between them. and hence the total voltage drop. For multiple anodes.62 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection "interference" between adjacent anodes.
00128 .00175 .00238 . feet expression involving the series of fractions. in the normal coke breeze backfill (see later discussion of bare rods). and other components of the installation.00192 . inches resistivity at a spacing equal to the anode spacing.00268 . This means that the Table 6-1 Interference Factor Fn n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 En . it is then possible to plot a curve showing the total installed cost of a ground bed at this particular site as a function of the number of anodes used (curve A in Figure 6-2).00224 . i. this determines the minimum number of rods to be used.00118 .00121 . (This function is tabulated for convenience in Table 6-1. the resistance of the total bed decreases.00145 .09 020 . it is possible to calculate the resistance of any number of anodes installed in a specific location.00183 .00124 ..00115 . boring of holes.00136 . regardless of resistance values.00150 .00112 .00132 .00212 .00168 .00140 .00201 .00161 n 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Fn . it is customary to impose a maximum current limitation of 3 amperes per rod.00107 d p2 S Fn = = = = . and the costs of ditching. if the current drain is to be 15 amperes. ohm-cm anode spacing.00155 . and for several larger numbers. As the number of rods used is increased.e. The resistance for this minimum number of anodes is computed.00252 . With the costs of the various materials used. with certain constants included.00261 . For a given drainage point. For the usual 3inch by 60-inch graphite rod.Ground Bed Design and Installation 63 diameter of the coke breeze column.00283 .) By using these expressions. then at least 5 rods will be required.00109 .
64 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 6-2. an example of which is shown in Figure 6-3. this will not be as smooth a curve as shown in the . a curve can be plotted showing the installed cost of the rectifier as a function of the number of anode rods used.. From this information.e. W = El. the purchase price and the total installed cost in a given location are functions of the wattage. Curve R shows the installed cost of the rectifier required for each number of rods. Curve A shows the installed cost of an anode bed (as described in the text) as a function of the number of rods. i. Curve T shows the total installed cost—the sum of curves A and R—as a function of the number of rods in the bed (1983 prices). and a price list of the type rectifier to be used. This latter curve may sometimes be derived more easily by the use of an intermediate curve. Total installed cost. For a given style and make of rectifier. the added 2 volts is for the galvanic difference between a graphite anode in coke breeze and the steel pipe in soil. The DC wattage of a rectifier is the product of its rated DC voltage and current. This is shown as curve R in Figure 6-2. This voltage may be taken as V = I(Rn + 2). voltage needed for the rectifier to discharge the required current decreases. Normally.
The exact percentage to be used is a figure which must be obtained from management. but such a curve can be plotted from the supplier's price list and the estimated costs of installation. and a number of other factors which are far removed from field engineering. The curve I in Figure 6-4 is the annual cost curve. This is probably too low. . The annual charges against the investment will be directly proportional to this curve. List price and installed cost of rectifiers. example. cost of financing. as it is dependent upon the company's tax position. In the example used here. for a variety of reasons.Ground Bed Design and Installation 65 Figure 6-3. The lower curve shows the approximate list price of oil-immersed selenium rectifiers as a function of the DC rating in watts (volts) times amperes). regulatory conditions. this figure has been taken as 15%. earnings. the curve T is the sum of the other two and shows the total installed cost of the complete installation as a function of the number of anode rods to be used. Returning to a consideration of Figure 6-2. being 15% of curve T in Figure 6-2. as actual values in current use by most companies range from 20% to as high as 50%. The upper curve shows the estimated installed cost under an assumed set of conditions. Curves should be prepared for each estimating job (1983 prices).
and also taking into account whether or not the rectifier is the only load on the particular service installation. the left-hand portion of the curve would slope as shown. It will be noted that there is little difference between a large anode bed and a small one. Rectifier efficiency can . and thus shows the total annual cost as a function of the number of anode rods installed. but not in the monthly power bill. This curve is based on the company's experience but should take into account remoteness and similar factors. In any actual case. and curve M the yearly maintenance cost. Curve P shows the power cost per year curve I the investment charges per year. since there is usually a minimum monthly bill. Curve M shows the expected annual maintenance cost for the installation. This curve should always be drawn for the specific case. this curve would show breaks in slope. A ground bed of 18 rods is seen to be the most economical under the assumed conditions (1983 prices). the rectifier takes most of the inspection and maintenance costs. Curve P shows the annual power cost for the operation of the unit. The upper curve is the sum of these three. but past a certain point the curve would be horizontal. Minimum annual cost. since power rates vary step wise. there would be a saving in actual power consumption. taking actual rates into account.66 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 6-4. In fact.
and in others easier. only one size and spacing of anodes has been considered. so the power consumption should be about double the DC wattage as computed previously. In the example shown. The upper curve in Figure 6-4. . The formulas given show how to design—with a reasonable degree of accuracy—when the soil varies with depth. This is correct. without a designation. to be broken lines. but tend. but it can clearly be seen that there is not much difference from about 12 to 25. The thing which often makes it much easier is experience—often only a small part of the process described actually has to be done. it should be noted. is the sum of the other three curves—and is the one for which all the others have been made. and again only a modest increase up to 56 volts. But no methods are given for dealing with horizontal variation.Ground Bed Design and Installation 67 usually be assumed to be about 50%. Disturbing Factors The actual process is in some respects more difficult. than the description given earlier. for example. In the example given. this number is 18. two must be used in series. so that one has to be used for any rating up to that value. where another jump is encountered. it will be found that there is only a slight increase in price for increasing voltage ratings (for the same current) up to 28 volts. There is then a big jump from the 28-volt unit to the 32-volt unit. The reason for this is that the voltage rating of a single selenium stack is 28 volts. there is the immense variability of soil resistivity. Complexities and difficulties are introduced by nonuniformities and by the fact that few of the functions are continuous "smooth-curve" functions as illustrated. rather. Above that. obviously there are many possible combinations. For a certain well-known brand of rectifier. which is certainly common enough. and so on. To investigate these thoroughly would require repeating the process several times and choosing the best of the various combinations tried. Above all. and it tells the number of rods which will give the most economical installation. only if each number of rods is properly matched to just the right size rectifier. It shows the total annual cost of the installation as a function of the number of anode rods installed. Power cost has already been mentioned in this regard ^rectifier cost is another.
successively. but usually leading to a design which is not far from the true minimum. the anodes being connected one at a time. a delay of some weeks. and Figures 6-2. the slope of the line gives the resistance. somewhat less perfect than the one described above. they should be connected to the lead—a temporary connection may be used—and the total loop resistance between the pipe and the anodes should be measured. is as follows: make the pipe connection and install the ground bed.68 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection When recognition is then given to the fact that resistivity also varies with time. and the anode lead laid out along the line of the proposed anode field. nevertheless. because of moisture variation. it is wise to provide excess capacity. complete. A convenient way to do this is to use. plotting the current values measured with an ammeter and determining the resistance by projecting the line thus obtained back to zero current. . two. it is seen that the calculation of ground bed resistance is not a highly accurate technique. of course. As these values are determined for successive numbers of connected anodes. even if the resistance departs markedly from the predicted value. however. and 6-4 can be replotted in the field. and all three cells of a storage battery. Another technique of field modification (see Figure 6-5). it has the undisputed advantage that a workable system will be had. since the rectifier is not to be ordered until the ground bed has been completed. then measure the loop resistance by the battery method described and purchase a rectifier of the voltage necessary to deliver the desired current through the ground bed as built. as designed. and must be allowed for. to allow for future coating deterioration. Field Modification One of the best methods of perfecting such a design. This requires. a plotted curve will show the trend. Changes can thus be made in the number of anodes installed while the equipment and personnel are available. Large deviations from the calculated value are to be expected. The connection to the pipe line itself should be made. In addition. one. and the voltage shown for zero current is the galvanic potential between the graphite and the steel. is that of field modification while the installation is in progress. 6-3. especially when a new line is being protected. Then as the anodes are installed.
3. loose backfill can give disappointingly high resistances and shorten anode lives. One. two. for any discharge of current to earth from the cable will destroy it in a matter of days or hours. or 1.7 volts.13 ohms. in this case.13 volts/ampere. 4. this is the weak point in all known graphite anodes. Buried connections must be protected with extreme precautions against the entrance of any moisture. The principal points to be observed in the installation are: 1.Ground Bed Design and Installation 69 Figure 6-5. It must be remembered that the anode . 2. it is 1. 1. and three cells of a fully charged storage battery are connected in turn between the pipe connection and an anode or group of anodes. Burial should be at a sufficient depth (18-24 inches) to protect against accidental damage. The coke breeze must be thoroughly tamped. Anode resistance by battery test. in cross section. Care should be taken to protect the cable connection to the anode. with inevitable failure. the tiniest crack will permit the entrance of moisture. The voltage indicated for zero current. is the galvanic potential between the anode and the pipe line. The slope of the line gives the resistance. Installation Methods Figure 6-6 shows an installed vertical anode. and even if the joint does not fail from rough-handling.
However. on fence posts. lead may be severed by electrolytic action if there is the slightest break in its coating. High-Silicon Iron Anodes As mentioned. Typical single graphite anode vertical installation. at a considerable saving. Often it may be strung on existing poles. Consideration should always be given to the possibility of placing the anode lead above ground. or on short posts erected for the purpose. the central rod is merely a means of establishing an electrical connection to .70 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 6-6. and the shock hazard is nil. The alternative horizontal anode installation is shown in Figure 6-7. The voltage is so low that little insulation is needed. the protection of the anode lead connection. the entire coke breeze column acts as the anode. The critical items are the coke-breeze tamping. large copper cable is very attractive junk. and the careful protection of the connection to the anode bus. Bare cable may be used if it can be supported above ground. and buried installations are preferred if there is a theft danger.
Ground Bed Design and Installation 71 Figure 6-7. It is important to note. then a simple piece of iron rod or pipe could be used instead of the more expensive graphite. and the installation will have a disappointingly short life. correct tamping is impossible. Horizontal anode. These are almost inert under most conditions and will normally show only small weight losses—far below the 20 pounds per ampere year for steel. And. does attack the graphite. which is the actual anode. however. Much of it flows by direct conduction to the backfill and does no electrochemical damage to the graphite in so doing. This portion of the current. the most common size is 2 inches by 60 inches. If this were always true. and the graphite will be attacked at those points. if the hole fills up with water and cannot be pumped dry. The graphite or high-silicon iron rods serve merely to establish good electrical contact. When installed in the same way as the graphite . the backfill. finally. which flows electrolytically instead of by direct conduction. trouble is encountered. that steel under these conditions will be severely attacked. Resistance is calculated on the basis of the total coke breeze backfill. graphite will be attacked. The significance of the latter fact is that when graphite is used under conditions which make the installation of properly tamped backfill difficult or impossible. there will be large inclusions of soil next to the anode. but a small part flows to the moisture which penetrates to the core. and bare graphite will be severely attacked unless current is limited to about one-fourth the usual value. If the hole caves badly. Actually. and also that graphite without backfill will be severely attacked. the current leaves the graphite in two different ways. For ground bed applications. but not to an intolerable extent. if there is quicksand—really just the extreme of the two conditions mentioned—it will be completely impossible to install tamped backfill without recourse to expensive casings or similar measures. For example. One answer to these problems is in the use of high-silicon cast-iron anodes.
These can take the form of sections of coated pipe welded to the anode and . in fact. as in the case of quicksand. to slow down the attack at these points. in effect. these anodes may be used entirely bare. like cast iron. can be much less expensive than those using vertical rods described earlier. if there has been an invasion of water to the extent that the whole job of tamping is poor. Finally. they are extremely brittle and must be packed and handled with care. in high-resistivity soil. only a set of calculations for the specific case can determine its point. The dividing line lies somewhere between 5000 ohm-cm and 20. These joints should then be coated. In this case.000 ohm-cm. One problem with the high-silicon anodes is that. if augering and tamping is completely impossible. and the high resistivity will make the current density so low that an economically feasible life can be had. the necessary electrical connection is often made by welding two or more straps of metal from one section to another. attention should be given to the possibility of using scrap steel pipe or some similar available scrap as an anode. it will function just as does the graphite. If the installation is in a difficult situation so that proper tamping is not obtained for one reason or another. laying a short section of bare pipe line. Backfill is less necessary than with graphite. Steel Anodes When the soil resistivity is high. Such a ground bed. the number of anodes needed to secure an economically low resistance may be impossibly large. These anodes are commonly known in industry by their commercial names. Naturally. but it will be almost impossible to tell the difference by any test. In this way the very large area needed may be obtained.72 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection anode shown in Figure 6-6. Such a horizontal anode is usually installed by. "Duriron" for the 14% Si-cast iron alloy and "Durichlor" for installation in chloride-containing soils. The joints need not be made by the usual careful welding. the resistance will be much higher per anode (because of the smaller dimensions) so that ordinarily more anodes will be needed than would be the case if backfilling were possible. again the high-silicon anodes will not show excessive attack. the high-silicon iron anode will not show the severe attack which characterizes the graphite at those areas which are in contact with caved-in soil. Or. Several connections should be made to the anode.
but sometimes it can be coped with by a horizontal installation of graphite or high-silicon iron anodes. The anodes are laid horizontally in . but the total effect of this salting is difficult to determine in advance. A site of the latter type should be avoided if at all possible. but it also helps to prevent early segregation and loss of part of the anode. A ditch is excavated to whatever depth is practical. or where the soil resistivity increases markedly with depth. Horizontal scrap steel pipe anode. usually square in section. A "pad" around each should be coated. This will tend to raise the total resistance.Ground Bed Design and Installation 73 Figure 6-8. projected above ground. ohms p = soil resistivity.) The resistance of an anode of this kind is given by where: R = total resistance. ohm-cm L = anode length. feet S = depth to the center. and some feel that it is good practice to coat a strip down the top of the entire anode. feet D = anode diameter. and a horizontal column of coke breeze is laid therein. Horizontal Graphite Anodes Sometimes it is necessary to install an anode in a location where rock is encountered at a shallow depth. (Figure 6-8 shows a horizontal steel scrap anode installation. feet In = natural logarithm The resistance of such an anode may often be reduced by mixing salt and gypsum with the backfill around the pipe.
Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
the center of this column, with spacing between them up to perhaps twice the anode length. If the coke breeze is well compacted, the entire column will act as an anode. The expression given for the horizontal steel anode is used for the resistance, with D representing the width instead of the diameter. Deep Anodes Sometimes the distribution of soil resistivity is the opposite of that just described; there may be high-resistivity soil at the surface and lower resistivity at greater depth. In such circumstances, it may be advisable to install a deep vertical anode in a hole drilled very much like a well. In fact, abandoned wells have been used for this purpose. This hole may be "wet," i.e., full of water, or it may be dry. In holes up to perhaps 100-foot depth, it is possible to tamp coke breeze in a dry hole; at greater depths, and in all wet holes, it is necessary to pour the backfill in. It has been found that coke breeze will, in time, settle quite compactly in a hole full of standing water, so that the results are comparable with those obtained by tamping. The anodes used in these installations are usually high-silicon iron, both because of relative ease of installation and for their greater immunity to attack when the backfill is less than perfect. A number of anodes are installed in the same hole—depending on the thickness of the low resistivity layer—with the spacing between rods usually about equal to the length of one rod.
A Typical Ground Bed Installation Problem A: A ground bed for a rectifier system is installed in 1000 ohm-cm soil. Seven 3-inch by 60-inch vertical graphite anodes are to be installed. What is the resistance of the anode bed if the anodes are spaced 10-feet apart? Answer: 0.59 ohms (from Figure 6-9). Problem B: A ground bed for a rectifier is composed of ten 2-inch by 60-inch bare "Duriron" silicon anodes. The soil resistivity is 3000 ohm-cm. If the anodes are spaced 20-feet apart, what is the anode bed resistance? Answer: Using Figure 6-10, 0.57x3000/1000 = 1.71 ohms.
Ground Bed Design and Installation
Figure 6-9. Anode bed resistance vs. number of anodes, 3-in. by 60-in. vertical graphite anodes in backfill.
Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
Figure 6-10. Anode bed resistance vs. number of anodes, 2-in. x 60-in. bare vertical anodes (Duriron).
and deep anodes. Several anodes are available: 1. . The basic formulas." Graphite. called "Duriron" and "Durichlor. vertical. The calculations for these have been described. 4.Ground Bed Design and Installation Summary 77 Once the rectifiers have been sized. the ground beds should be designed. Various arrangements are also available: horizontal. Special anodes (used mainly for seawater application). vertical in parallel. 2. 3. High-silicon iron anodes. Scrap steel. plus others. have been included to show a typical installation design.
therefore. is that the current may be distributed much more readily. so it is not always true that a line can be protected for less cost with anodes. except in some special cases where only small amounts of current are needed. There is always a certain amount of over-protection of a pipe line near the drain point. These are magnesium and zinc. current from rectifiers costs less per ampere than that from magnesium. in effect. this is wasted current. since it comes. Only two metals are presently used for land galvanic anode cathodic protection systems. It is also true that magnesium anodes are not economical sources of current in soils of high resistivity.7 Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines Sometimes. 78 . This means that properly applied magnesium anodes can protect a line with less current than a system of rectifiers. their use is limited almost entirely to soils of less than 3000 ohm-cm. If. it is possible to control the distribution of current so that each part of the line receives just what it needs. in small packages. It is important to note that. for economic reasons. however. When and Where to Use Magnesium The principal advantage of magnesium anodes. much of this waste will be eliminated. as compared to the use of rectifiers. it may be advisable to use a galvanic rather than a rectifier system for pipe line cathodic protection.
it may make it possible to install anodes for a longer projected life than would otherwise be possible. on the contrary. 30. . as with tidal water.1 volt with respect to a copper sulfate electrode. of isolated structures. and the others in the next chapter. The field of application. It is therefore possible in many cases to install zinc anodes with a projected life of 20. of magnesium anodes. or even 40 years. provided the soil conditions are suitable for their use. but in cases where access and installation are difficult—as with gas distribution systems in congested urban areas—this is often the ideal solution. In lower-resistivity soil this may not be a disadvantage. other things being equal. magnesium is seldom practical beyond 10 years. the current output of a zinc anode will be lower than that of a magnesium anode of the same size. it is only necessary that short sections of low-resistivity soil be found at intervals. In some circumstances the low driving potential of zinc with respect to steel can be turned to advantage. Tying up capital in such a long-range program is not always the practical thing to do. Consequently. the efficiency of zinc does not fall off as does that of magnesium. since this is about the potential of zinc itself. but cannot raise it higher. the greater these intervals can be. the current output of the zinc anodes will vary over a wide range. then. which may require four times as much current). A generous set of zinc anodes will raise a steel structure to about 1. then. and in the protection of some coated lines. with very little shift in the potential of the protected structure. or if the resistivity of the medium changes. as auxiliary protection (to be discussed later). When and Where to Use Zinc The natural potential between zinc and steel is much lower than that between magnesium and steel.Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines 79 when the protection of a coated line is contemplated. is in the protection of bare lines. but at the much higher potential of 1. and the better the coating. It can thus function essentially as a constant potential system. At low current output. and do so at a level which is quite appropriate for steel (magnesium can do the same thing. and still make the use of magnesium feasible. If.6 volts. the coating fails in part. This latter application will be discussed here.
One method.85 volt to a copper sulfate electrode. it may run as high as 50%. and obtain the data as it is needed. the difference between these two line currents will be the total .9 volt. It may be assumed that about 2 milliamperes per square foot of equivalent bare metal will be required to afford complete protection. The only way in which an estimate can be made is by the application of experience. in the field. Some kind of preliminary estimate is necessary. as indicated by the criterion of 0. then such a design might be possible.5% for very good coating to as high as 20% for poor coating. and the soil resistivities associated with them. The section of line lying between these two points will then be at an average potential of about 0. The outstanding advantage of magnesium in this application is the flexibility which makes it possible to distribute the current where it is needed. then. and if the soil conditions were also uniform. but the calculations may be simplified somewhat. but neither of these conditions is ever found in practice. illustrated in Figure 7-1. but this is rare indeed. A survey in sufficient detail to make the design possible would be an expensive project. tailor the system to fit. by comparison with tests run or systems installed on coatings known to be similar. the line current is measured at each of these two points using the methods described in Chapter 2.80 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection General System Design A fact which might be faced is that it is virtually impossible to design on paper an effective and economical magnesium anode system for the complete protection of a coated line.0 volt and 0. This varies from a low of about 0. in other words. or by field tests. such a survey would have to determine the current requirements of various line sections. and locate the two points whose pipe-to-soil potentials are 1. The field work is similar to that described in Chapter 4. If the current requirements of the line were uniform throughout its length.8 volt. a much more reasonable technique is to use the partially completed installation as a continued survey. and only by taking full advantage of this characteristic is it possible to achieve economy in its use. It might seem that a survey could be made which would supply the data needed for the design of a system having proper distribution. If. The question to be decided is the effective bare area of the coating. sometimes under exceptional conditions. which is approximately the average of a line protected with distributed magnesium anodes. is to survey along the line after a polarization run of three or four hours.
Installation Procedure After determining the approximate amount of current to be drained.OVolt c P/S-0. The current required to bring L miles of line to 0. judgment must be used at this point. and so to arrive at the desired quantity. the esti- . this figure can only be used for an entire line if the section chosen is truly representative. and both potential and line current can then be adjusted to find the desired quantity.8Volt __ * ffi •« f^l -• 2 IB H L (Miles) Ic M Figure 7-1.8 volt respectively. Current is drained from the line at A. for example.8.9 volt is then 1S . This quantity. Points B and C.9 volt. since line current varies according to the same laws as potential. and. the next step is to proceed with the installation.0 and 0. then readings can be taken which approximate these values. the average PIS between them is 0. by a welding machine or other source of direct current.Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines 81 A j x~/ ~ B P/S-I.6 volt and linear attenuation. it is possible to determine the current values at the two latter points. will then give the current requirements of the line in amperes per mile. are located. If. Determination of current requirements.0 volt and 0.1C. it is intended to be merely preliminary. readings were taken at points A and B. and the average current required for the line is amount of current picked up on the line in the section. divided by the length of the section. If it is not possible or convenient to find the points which have the exact values mentioned. this is illustrated in Figure 7-2. It is not to be expected that the estimate thus made will be highly accurate. having PIS potentials of 1. Naturally. by assuming a static potential of 0. it is determined that points C and D have the values of 1.
and by the response of the line itself. 185. wet. as in the preceding figure. respectively.82 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 7-2. at C and D. spot should be picked. the design values for the three sizes mentioned are 285. with relatively low soil resistivity.5 ampere per mile.0 and 0. installing groups at about double the design . Measurements of PI S potential and of line current are taken at A and B. 32-pound up to 700 ohm-cm. a site should be chosen within about a mile of the end of the section. the PIS and current curves are drawn as straight lines on semilogarithmic paper. 50-pound anodes should be used only if the resistivity is 400 ohm-cm or lower. A low. and 92 milliamperes. The difference between the current values for these two points then gives the current demand of the line for the distance L. it will then be possible to observe the current output of successive anodes as they are connected. On this basis. and the points whose P/S are 1.8 are located.) The site for the second group should be selected at a distance about twice that which the design current of the first group should cover. Determination of current requirements. The connection to the pipe should be made before more than one anode is installed. (For 10-year life. mated current demand is 0. As a rule of thumb. This process is then continued. The number and size of anodes to be installed will be governed by the resistivity. and 17-pound above. and installation should be halted before the average output per anode falls below 150% of the designed value.6 volt. it is then assumed (in the absence of other information) that the static potential of the line was originally 0. with the possibility that full current output may not be had above 1500 ohm-cm.
the one shown in Figure 7-3 is only one possibility. Shunts should be installed. the connection between the shunt and the anode lead may be made with a temporary mechanical connection at this time. a current output and pipe-to-soil potential survey should be made. the others may lie on a line parallel to or across the pipe line. The mechanical arrangement of the anode station is subject to much variation in design. until the entire line is covered. This will permit adequate polarization and stabilization of current output. It is particularly important to check the potential at the Figure 7-3. After this time. Resistors should be installed where needed (see Figure 7-4). Only one anode is shown. Typical anode installation. . and the current reduced to the designed value. Polarization and Final Adjustment The anodes thus installed should be permitted to operate unrestricted for a period of three weeks or more.Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines 83 spacing. but no current limiting resistors. Details of the assembly within the pipe maker are shown in Figure 7-4.
85. which will have to be checked. the entire line will be brought under protection. The use of mechanical connections instead of silver-soldered joints is not recommended. and more anodes will have to be added. and thus with a near maximum of economy. however. this will not be the case.84 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 7-4. Usually. If these potentials should all be found above 0. with heavy installations only where they are needed. then at the low point). the entire assembly within the pipe is taped up with electrical tape. . Ultimately. the driving voltage is so low that a very little corrosion can effectively break the circuit. This will in turn introduce new midpoints. the pipe may be poured full of asphalt to the lip. then the installation is complete—and only one-half the estimated quantity of magnesium has been used. If desired. After final adjustment. Anode station connection details. new stations will have to be installed between existing groups. Some can be added to existing stations if the current output is still high enough to permit it. otherwise. the wires first being pulled up above this level. midpoints between stations (if they are unequal in size. leaving only the tips of the shunt exposed.
17-lb packaged magnesium anodes. . Anode bed resistance vs. number of anodes.Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines 85 Figure 7-5.
Number of magnesium anodes required for protection. . coated pipe line.86 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 7-6.
Magnesium anodes are usually the first choice. .Galvanic Anodes on Coated Lines 87 Modification of Process with Experience The procedure described is intended for the guidance of those with little or no experience in the technique. occasionally backtracking to reinforce a group or to insert a new one. there is a preliminary estimate. however. the installation is virtually complete. A coated pipe line has a coating conductivity of 200 micromhos per sq ft and is 10. but generally moving forward until. by the time he has reached the end of the line. followed by an installation which is cut to fit as it is put in. Sample Problems 1. The final adjustment then becomes merely an adjustment and survey. The basic principle involved remains the same.000 feet long. Summary Cathodic protection systems have thus been designed using magnesium and zinc anodes to give cathodic protection to certain pipe lines when the economic considerations warrant it. observing the behavior of the current and of the potentials. How many 17-pound magnesium anodes are necessary to protect 1000 feet according to Figure 7-6? Answer: Twenty 17pound anodes will be necessary for the entire pipe line. they may be used to advantage in certain long-term situations. with a nominal diameter of 10 inches. The experienced corrosion engineer actually combines the preliminary with the final phase and can "feel" his way along a strange line. What is the anode resistance of a packaged magnesium anode installation consisting of nine 32-pound anodes spaced 7-feet apart in soil of 2000-ohm-cm resistivity? Answer: from Figure 7-5. instead of an extremely detailed survey. 2. with no new installation work required. followed by an office design. but. since zinc anodes cost less and are more efficient.
The newest development is the "thin-film" epoxy. coatings have been available for pipe lines. then. but it is safe to say that no major pipe line has been built since 1900 that has not been coated in some way. In the 1940s a cement-asphalt coating named "Somastic" provided excellent corrosion protection. techniques and materials have varied. For the past 100 years. consequently. the following material on handling bare lines should be useful. The question. Therefore. The major method used since 1916 has been the hot applied coal tar plus wrapping system or the equivalent asphalt system. there still are many buried uncoated lines throughout the United States. and. During the 1950s. is why are there bare lines around? The answer is that flow and gathering lines were sometimes installed by marginal operators. During this time.8 Hot Spot Protection What "Hot Spots" Are "Hot spots" have been defined in Chapter 1 as portions of uncoated lines most likely to cause corrosion problems. which is shop-applied and essentially holiday free. This is particularly 88 . The question arises as to why there are uncoated lines at all. these alternatives were augmented by various tape systems which were easier to apply and almost as good. Hot Spot Protection Often the cost of complete cathodic protection for a bare or poorly coated line will prove to be prohibitively expensive.
Similarly. at a cost of perhaps 15% that of full protection.Hot Spot Protection 89 likely to be the case where the line is of a semipermanent nature. and (3) soil resistivity surveys will indicate the locations at which corrosion is likely. usually? by concentrating on these "hot spots. consideration should be given to the possibility of applying protection only to those sections of the line which are subject to the most aggressive attack. the occurrence of leaks indicates that more is needed at that particular spot. . the promiscuous installation of anodes here and there on the line is certain to be wasteful. or where the land through which the line passes is such that damage claims are apt to be low or nonexistent. surface potential surveys may show the points at which current is leaving the line. Since the entire operation is based on securing an adequate degree of protection at a minimum of total expense. leads almost automatically to the choice of magnesium anodes as the current source. In the absence of such direct evidence of corrosiveness. then. or where its operation is intermittent so that small loss is occasioned by shutdowns. on the other hand. Locating Hot Spots There are three basic methods for locating the hot spots: (1) where there have been leaks. Visual inspection of the line when an excavation has been made for any purpose will often make it possible to locate areas where corrosion is progressing but has not yet developed into an actual leak. On lines which have already started to give trouble. or where there is visible evidence of corrosive attack. In any of these or similar cases. is the selection from among the variety of anode sizes available. there are hot spots. it would indeed be foolish to ignore the evidence of hot spots which is afforded by the leaks which have already occurred. there can be no large expenditure on elaborate surveys and design. This type of protective system. (2) surface potential surveys can disclose the presence of current flow which is evidence of active corrosion. requiring small amounts of current to be drained from the line at different locations. when some protection has been installed. The problem. and how many are to be installed at each location. the determination of the locations where anodes are needed." the leak rate can be cut to 5-10% of its original value.
or hot spot. the electrode spacing should be about 25 feet in general. while in the soil it is flowing from the anode. the current in the pipe is flowing to the anode. The point of highest potential is the center of the anodic activity. there is no need for referring the potentials to the pipe itself.90 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection these will be the anodic. Hot spot location by surface potentials. the spacing may be reduced to a much smaller value. to eliminate the effects of any current flow across the line from extraneous sources. both sides should be used. as indicated by differences between two copper sulfate electrodes. . When a "reversal" is discovered. For the present purpose. Thus the potential drop along the surface above the pipe is away from the hot spot. when evidence of an anodic spot is found. areas. For a more positive indication. or corroding. In the vicinity of an anodic area. readings should be taken with one electrode over the line and the other 5 or 10 feet away at right angles. Figure 8-1 shows the current flow along the line and in the soil in the vicinity of an anodic area. When the point of reversal is located. all that is needed is the evidence of current flow in the soil. the lateral Figure 8-1. The method of making such a survey was described in Chapter 2. If the sole purpose is the location of hot spots. often the hot spot can be outlined with an accuracy of a foot or two. and also the potential profile which would be obtained at the surface. as shown in the diagram.
000. they are never as rapidly corrosive as are the low-resistivity soils. with the readings being taken in the bottom of the ditch. But even in these cases. except when they appear as narrow valleys on the profile between stretches of soil of higher resistivities. a company or a group of companies operating in a general area will adopt a standard procedure for the selection of hot spots and their protection. can be expected to have about the same projected useful life. such as pipe-type high-voltage cables. The soil resistivity survey is somewhat less exact. for example. Spacing of readings. with a minimum in the neighborhood of 300 and with hardly any spots over 20. if they. there remains the task of locating the hot spots. the relatively low sections will be found to be the site of the major attack. have already been described in Chapter 1. The method is very precise. As a general guide. and is sometimes useful in congested areas. the following procedure is almost standard for the protection of bare gathering lines: 1. too. Readings may be taken in either of two ways: with the four-terminal method (most common) or with a single rod. there is unquestionable evidence of a corroding spot. These are regions of relatively low resistivity. or when dealing with high unit cost lines. .000 ohm-cm are generally considered to be noncorrosive. in which case the ideal time to make the survey is during construction. it may be taken that soils below 1000 ohm-cm are almost always corrosive. and it is not easy to formulate precise rules for their selection. In-between the values of 1000 and 10. Soils above 10. where the mean resistivity is about 1500 ohm-cm. and is the method used for the vast majority of such surveys. All lines in soil below 1000 ohm-cm to receive protection at the rate of 2 milliamperes per square foot. In one field. soils must be judged by comparison with their neighbors. This is a logical step since all of the gathering lines in a given field. however. except when they are the high "peaks" along a line of generally much lower resistivity. Almost no hot spot surveys are made by the methods just described because of the expense involved. and methods of plotting.000. indicate flow in the soil away from the point. Usually.Hot Spot Protection 91 readings should be taken. but much less expensive.
the first step is to go through the plotted resistivity profiles and mark. In the application of these rules. by these definitions. the selection and spacing of anodes along the hot spots already determined is not an easy matter. Perhaps it should be noted that it is not at all rare for piping whose original anticipated life is short to undergo successive extensions of usefulness. in which case the design life should be made equal to the useful life of the system. because of the reduced efficiency of magnesium at low current output. the "temporary" line still in use after 20 years is fairly common. However. The first decision to be made is the intended life of the installation. the potential to which the pipe is brought by the protection. 10 years is the design figure used. Lines in soil between 1500 and 3000 ohm-cm to receive 1 milliampere per square foot. and the resistivity of the soil. unless the soil on both sides of the section are of lower resistivity. the lengths which are found to be hot spots. the composition of the alloy used. With all of these variables to contend with. but only when the soil on both sides is of higher resistivity. . To attempt to design for longer periods with magnesium anodes is not economical. except in the obvious case of piping whose useful life is considered to be less than 10 years. in which case no protection is to be applied. with an adopted set of design principles. in the majority of cases. Anode Selection and Spacing The amount of current which an anode will deliver when connected to a bare line is determined by the size and shape of the anode. the process can be systematized to the point that it can be done almost mechanically. All lines in soil between 1000 and 1500 ohm-cm to receive P/2 milliamperes per square foot.92 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection 2. To design for shorter periods is not usually economical. The life of an anode depends upon the current output and the size of the anode (assuming that all anodes operate with the same efficiency. Three colors may be used. which is not too great an assumption to make). This locates the hot spots. usually along the bottom of the sheet. or lines of different weight. 3. to distinguish the three classes.
standard alloy 1 32-lb. and then to extruded magnesium ribbon. one on top of the other. However. it is usually sufficient to use anodes of three standard sizes: 17. Because of its greater area. of course. two or even three anodes can be used in a single hole. this will extend the useful range a bit. both of these function at 10-year life in soils of higher resistivity that are usually considered corrosive. The significance of these values is that each anode should be used in soil of resis- . only one size. At the other end of the scale. Commonly known as a "high-potential" anode. But for maximum effectiveness in fitting each anode to the specific situation. standard alloy 1 17-lb. For hot spot protection. we can introduce a long slender anode of the same high-potential alloy. there has also been given the soil resistivity in which it will deliver enough current (when connected to a steel pipe polarized to 0. high-potential alloy. The simplest set is. and still get current outputs consistent with 10-year life. so we add to our arsenal a 17-pound anode of high-purity magnesium. our arsenal of weapons comprises the following distinct anodes: 3 50-lb. in soil of high resistivity. we would first go to lengths of extruded magnesium rod. and 50 pounds. 32. as far as hot spot protection measures are concerned. high potential alloy 1 17-lb. Summarizing. standard alloy 1 50-lb. If we did need to operate in still higher-resistivity soils. it will have a still higher current output. Anodes of standard alloy are available in sizes from 2 or 3 pounds up to 200 pounds. and the current will be reduced (per anode) and the life correspondingly extended. When the soil resistivity is very low so that even a 50-pound anode puts out so much current that its life is less than 10 years. the small (17pound) anode does not put out enough current. At still higher resistivities. a more elaborate set is needed. standard alloy 1 17-lb. long 350 ohm-cm 370 ohm-cm 550 ohm-cm 780 ohm-cm 1500 ohm-cm 1900 ohm-cm 2900 ohm-cm For each anode listed. In most instances.85 volt) to project an anode life of 10 years. this set will be all we will need. standard alloy 2 50-lb.Hot Spot Protection 93 The next thing to determine is a standard set of anodes to use.
in order to obtain a life of 10 years or more. the specific set of anodes listed. Any one hot spot will show several values of this variable. and will usually be less numerous than. If there are extensive areas of resistivity lower than 350 ohm-cm.94 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection tivity equal to or higher than the values shown. as well as the projected life corresponding to each current. but must be inferred from the adjacent readings. 3 inch. more economically. All are on bare pipe of three diameters: 2 inch. Furthermore. showing only the anodes whose use is contemplated. an abridged table should be made. This is an approximation. and the points of actual reading will not coincide with. and 4 inch. It is also implicit that the current furnished will be just enough to bring the pipe to 0. desired life) and the spacing for the pipe sizes under study. In practice. according to the particular policies being followed (current density. the actual resistivity in which a certain anode is placed is not precisely known. the points of anode installation. an installation aimed at a shorter life. It is designed around the set of anodes already named. The spacing of anodes along the line is determined by the current output of the size selected in the soil at each section. so that each section receives the intended current density. this has not been found to be an insuperable difficulty. and the spacing for various sizes of line which will then supply any desired value of current density.85 volt with respect to a saturated copper sulfate electrode. each anode should be shown only with those values of resistivity in which it is useful. Hence. For actual design use. and thus makes the design perform with less than perfect agreement with theory. errors are intro- . Such a table is very complex because of the large number of variables and does not lend itself well to design use where several hundred values have to be read out in a limited amount of time. special treatment is necessary—either larger anodes (special) or. and it is one of the assumptions which may not be fully realized. It must be understood that Table 8-1 applies only to one set of conditions: 10-year minimum life. is based on a minimum life of 10 years. current density of 2 milliamperes per square foot. Tables can be prepared. The following table is an example. of course. and the three pipe sizes given. and by the diameter of the line. Another difficulty lies in the matching of the anodes with the plotted resistivity. showing for each anode size the current to be expected in various soils. and is limited to 2 milliamperes per square foot.
6 12.8 11.5 10.Hot Spot Protection 95 Table 8-1 Anode Spacing Vs.940 960 980 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 " " " " " " " " 1 17S " 161 158 154 151 148 145 121 104 91 81 11.2 13. Ft.2 12.1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 129 127 124 121 119 116 97 83 73 65 85 83 81 80 78 76 64 55 48 43 68 67 65 64 63 61 51 44 38 34 .0 10.3 12.2 10.1 10.7 12.8 11.6 11.5 11. Soil Resistivity Soil Resistivlty ohm-cm 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 Anodes 3 SOS 2 SOS " " " " " " " " 1 SOS Current Mllliamp 840 569 541 516 493 472 453 435 419 404 285 Life Years 10.2 11.2 12.6 10.8 10.5 12. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Spacing In Feet Pipe Size 2" 3" 4" 675 457 435 415 396 379 364 350 336 324 229 456 310 295 281 268 258 247 237 228 220 155 354 240 228 218 208 199 192 184 177 170 120 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 " " " " " " " " " " 1 32S " " " " " 275 266 258 251 243 236 229 223 217 211 186 180 176 172 168 164 10.2 13.8 12.0 11.1 Density MINIamp Sq.8 12.3 10.7 14.3 10.8 15.9 13.5 10.0 12.3 17.7 13.3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 221 214 207 201 195 189 184 179 174 169 148 144 141 138 135 132 150 145 141 136 132 128 125 122 118 115 98 95 93 91 89 87 116 112 109 105 102 99 97 94 92 89 78 76 74 73 71 69 900 920 .7 12.1 11.5 11.
Table 8-1 is the result of splicing together the pertinent parts of a set of such tables.9 14.) Soil Reslstivity ohm-cm 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000 Current Midiamp 91 82 76 70 65 93 88 83 78 74 70 67 64 61 59 56 Density Mllliamp Sq. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Spacing in Feet Pipe Size 2" 3" 4" 73 66 61 56 52 75 71 66 63 60 57 54 51 49 47 45 49 45 41 38 35 51 48 45 42 40 38 36 35 33 32 30 38 35 32 30 27 40 37 35 33 31 30 28 27 26 24 24 Anodes 1 17H " " " " 1 17LH " " " " " " " " " " Life Years 10. Field Installation When the data from such a study is taken into the field for the actual installation. when two readings of 780 and 800 ohm-cm have been taken 400-feet apart. spacing for various pipe sizes at different current densities. it is never possible to be sure that the soil between them is in the same range. the resistivity measuring instrument should not be left behind.8 12. This can affect .6 15.0 16.8 11. and the exact relocation of points where readings were taken may not be easy.5 11.2 13. For a different set of conditions.1 10.7 17. Ft. More general tables can be made in which the output of each size of anode is given for a wide range of soils complete with the projected life. a different set of parts would be taken and spliced together. but they are not serious.0 15. Most resistivity surveys are made by pacing rather than chaining.3 16. certainly the technique works in a satisfactory manner.4 duced. it might turn out to be 3000.96 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Table 8-1 (Cont. and other data.9 12.5 13.9 14.2 11. Besides.
In these situations zinc is readily applicable. an alternative method is described here. Field Design Another way out of the dilemma described is to make the actual design in the field. The design is worked out (from the specially prepared table. Since these are available in such a large variety of sizes. which are marked with stakes as the decisions are made. The array of anodes just given can be extended for use in lower soils by the addition of one or two sizes of zinc anodes. it is necessary to have one person doing the computing while another does the measurement. With practice. as well as several compositions. where pavements. zinc anodes find a place in hot spot protection of bare lines only in soils of the lowest resistivity. As mentioned earlier. and generally difficult access make very long-life installations much more attractive. with resistivity measurements being taken as needed. Ordinary gathering systems would not justify such installations. this method will be found to be very effective and economical. narrow easements. Actual resistivity in which anodes are installed should always be verified by measurement at the time of installation. This is not the case. This makes it more adaptable for very long-life installations—up to 30 years. In long stretches of reasonably uniform soil. with many distribution systems. zinc differs from magnesium in that the current efficiency is good even at very low values of current drainage. even with anticipated useful life this long. it is not necessary to check every single site. however. a three-man crew will be needed because of the necessary staking. . the crew proceeds down the line. In this procedure. no tables have been computed for these. To do this. and consequent lower current in a given application. repeated installations at 10-year intervals would be cheaper.Hot Spot Protection 97 profoundly the actual installation. as just described) and the resistivity verified at the actual locations of most anodes. Zinc Anodes in Hot Spot Protection Because of their lower driving voltage. Usually. with closely spaced anodes.
anodes should be set about 10 feet from the line and at a depth of eight feet. of course. Placing the anodes closer to the line will result in a slight increase in current output (up to perhaps 50% at 2-foot spacing).or 500-feet apart. . and it can never be made with precision. however. It may or may not be possible to leave some kind of permanent marker to indicate the location of each anode. Shunts and current-controlling resistors may be installed. Under conditions which make the attachment of lead wires to the line particularly difficult. the presence of other lines in the same right-of-way makes closer spacing necessary. but the additional current so obtained nearly all flows to the pipe immediately adjacent. to make sure that the locations are accurately known and are recoverable for testing purposes. Sometimes. so the gain is more apparent than real. The collector wire may then be connected to the pipe at convenient locations. Some experience is necessary to make this allowance. and should be even more closely spaced. For most of the conditions encountered. and the anodes connected to it. a collector wire may be laid parallel to the pipe. often this cannot be done. except under very difficult conditions. the added expense is usually justified. This depth may be reduced if permanent moisture is present at shallower depths and should be reduced if the lower strata are found to be of high-resistivity soil. Better results may of course be had if the final adjustment is deferred until all of the anodes have been in operation for a few weeks. but steps should be taken. these should not be more than 400. in the absence of considerable experience. perhaps 40-50% is a conservative figure. the needed separation can be obtained by increased depth.98 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Installation Details In general. in this case. it will be necessary to make an allowance for the expected reduction of current output which will come with polarization and with the installation of additional anodes. If the resistor is to be adjusted at the same time the anode is installed. such as will be encountered in swampy areas. each anode will be connected to the line by its own individual lead wire. but this procedure is obviously more expensive. though on hot spot projects the shunts are frequently omitted. by careful measurement and recording.
The repair crews can easily be instructed in the method of installation. either because they are very short and were skipped over in the survey. provided there is no reason to suspect damage to lead wires. In either case.or three-year intervals. There may also be leaks in spots where the protection was not quite adequate. It is a recommended practice on bare lines. additional anodes should be installed. . a check should be made on most of the anodes to see how the current output is holding up. Since hot spot protection is essentially low-cost protection. even where no hot spot system has been installed. at two. there will be no "hot spot" problems. However. to install one or two anodes at the site of every leak known or suspected to be due to corrosion. and the losses involved by the placing of unneeded anodes will not be as great as the losses avoided by those which are useful. A complete survey at regular two-year intervals is not too expensive and will probably justify itself in continued protection. The lines will already be coated. Summary The above-mentioned procedure is an example of how the difficult problem of cathodic protection of bare pipe lines in soil may be solved. these may make themselves known by leaks. or at every place where any excavation of the line for any reason shows evidence of attack or exposes corrosive soil. and provided not too many are skipped in one stretch. As mentioned earlier. made in accordance with the procedures outlined here.Hot Spot Protection Supervision and Control 99 An installation. it is quite likely that some hot spots will be missed. the method described is intended to afford a reasonable amount of protection. Those in particularly difficult spots may be skipped. cannot be considered as perfect or complete. Anodes installed in this way are very inexpensive and are to be considered as a low cost form of leak insurance. If a cathodic protection engineer was involved in the initial installation of these lines. From time to time. there is as little point to elaborate resurveys and inspections as there is to elaborate preliminary surveys. then. or because they are due to highly local conditions not observable at the surface of the earth.
except in some metropolitan areas. "Electrolysis committees" were formed to find solutions to the corrosion problems caused by the "stray currents. The direct current discharged into the ground caused many failures of nearby piping systems. Sources of Stray Currents Some of the electrical currents which corrode pipe lines are those which arise from galvanic potential differences between various parts of the structure in contact with the earth. and the stray-current problem may arise again. when R. However. streetcars are almost all gone.9 Stray-Current Electrolysis Stray Current Corrosion Cathodic protection was an offshoot of the studies on interference corrosion caused by the many electric railways and trolley lines which spread over the United States in the early part of this century. there are several experimental direct-current transmission systems now proposed for transcontinental networks. and diesel engines have replaced the electric trains once used on the railways. E. Kuhn started cathodic protection in New Orleans. are the result of 100 . Others." and much of our knowledge of corrosion current measurement and bonding methods was developed long before 1913. however. Today.
is sufficient to do a great deal of damage. if the rail joints were adequately bonded.Stray-Current Electrolysis 101 the leakage of current from some electrical system so that part of the current path is through the earth. The electric current does not "follow the path of least resistance. then it will carry 10 times as much current—but the remaining portion. it might be assumed that. the one-eleventh of the total current which flows through the earth. part going back to substation along rails. they are usually known as stray currents. Near the substation this current flows from the pipe line through the soil to the rail system. It should be noted that the rail is supposed to provide the return path. Figure 9-1 shows in simplified form the route taken by the current. Stray-current electrolysis. when offered two or more parallel paths. at the points where it leaves. causing corrosion of the pipe." At least it does not all follow that path. Sometimes the affected line may lie at a considerable distance from the tracks. Because of the inherently accidental or unintentional nature of such currents. If the rail path has one-tenth the resistance of the earth path. Installation of a metallic bond from the pipe to the negative bus at the substation will avert the damage. or its urban counterpart. Whenever a pipe line lies within such a current path. The situation is not always as simple as that shown in the diagram. Electric current. and the damage they do is known as stray-current electrolysis. it will corrode the pipe. . By far the greatest source of stray current is the electric railway. perhaps the point of attack is near the crossing of two lines. the street car. This. there is an opportunity for current to enter and leave the line. however. Figure 9-1. divides itself between them inversely as the resistance. no trouble would result. Return current from streetcar divides. and part leaking off rails onto pipe line. is not true.
once it has been traced out and diagrammed. there are severe exposures in and near chemical plants using electrolytic processes. This is not strictly "stray current". Frequently. yet the relation is clear. Figure 9-2 shows a case which proved to be very difficult to detect. The point at which damage occurs to pipe line "A" is remote from the offending street railway tracks. and other machinery using DC should be suspected. is a common source of trouble. the . Welding equipment. although rarely is the damage done at any great distance from the equipment. Such a condition may be detected by fluctuating potentials or currents in pipe line "A" and located by a line current survey. are capable of doing great damage to other structures which occupy the same earth. in view of the distance from the nearest track to the point of damage. this makes it much easier to locate. There are other possible sources of stray current in addition to electric railways. cranes. where some current leaves one line and enters the other. Complex stray-current exposure. Finally. Mine railways.102 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 9-2. particularly when employed in production work. it is unfortunately true that the direct currents introduced deliberately into the earth for the purpose of applying cathodic protection to one structure. Almost any DC power network is capable of causing damage in this way. although most of them are innocent.
and this can be handled by the other measures enumerated here. pipe-to-soil potential. Remedial Measures Good coating is effective in reducing the total damage done in a stray-current exposure. and it may be that the actual operation of the offending system can be observed. The installation of insulated joints on either side of an electric railway will do much to alleviate the attack. just as it is not enough for general soil corrosion. For example. When location of the source is not possible by this means. By the application of similar reasoning to records of several successive days. if not properly installed. can actually act to concentrate the attack without appreciably minimizing it. it is usually possible to track down the DC system from which the stray current is coming. the exposure will be limited to the short section between the joints. but the presence of the current in the earth is not accidental. then the source is industrial machinery rather than transportation equipment. Consideration of this problem is deferred until later. Detection of Stray Current Whenever the measurement of any of the electrical quantities connected with a pipe line—line current. if there is a cessation of fluctuation for the noon hour. for example. Even when the value recorded is not the true value. The direct approach to stray-current problems is the installation of bonds between the threatened pipe and the negative terminal of the DC . the change when a street car passes may unquestionably locate the trouble. a recording meter should be connected.Stray-Current Electrolysis 103 damaging effect is altogether accidental. there is a case of stray current at hand. Coating alone cannot be depended upon as protection from stray-current damage. Such joints. but a line with good coating may experience more rapid penetration rates at the few holidays present than would be incurred on a bare line. The rapidity and nature of the changes will frequently give a clue as to the origin. because of lower sensitivity of the instrument. Often it is very helpful to leave the instrument connected and just watch the fluctuations for a while. the record over 24 hours can be very useful. or any other—shows fluctuating values.
Yet it does actually cost the street railway company—not in power. In an extensive network. which operate in such a way as to interrupt the circuit or close it. permitting current flow from the pipe line when the potential is in that direction. The presence of the bonds means that a higher percentage of their return current leaks off the rails and returns by the earth-pipe-bond path than would otherwise be the case. is often necessary. a survey will be required to locate this area. Negative Bus Bonding In a situation such as that illustrated in Figure 9-1. depending on the magnitude and direction of the potentials involved. In some locations. When the geometry is as simple as in the illustration. this affords a low-resistance path by which the current. where the amount and even the direction of the stray-current flow depend on the position of the cars or trains. usually referred to as electrolysis switches. the damage can be eliminated by the installation of a metallic connection or bond between the pipe and the negative bus at the substation. Does this involve expense to the street car company? Since they are furnishing the power. bonding with specific resistance values. and is often effective. In more complex cases. however. "Solid" bonding. The installation of such a bond affords a measure of cathodic protection to the line. But consider that the installation of bonds actually decreases the over-all loop resistance of their circuit. but in increased damage to its rail system. concentrated section. collected on the line over long sections. such as would be found in the gas system of a city with street cars. the "area of maximum exposure" will be in the immediate neighborhood of the substation. where the lowest possible resistance path is afforded. may leave without doing harm in a small. it has proved practical to install relay-controlled bonding switches.104 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection system which is doing the damage. It is for this reason that efforts are sometimes made to install resistance bonds which will limit the current . the first answer which occurs is in the affirmative. almost the entire gas distribution system may be placed under cathodic protection by the installation of such bonds. involving many pipe lines and many tracks. A modification of this system uses rectifier units as electrical check valves. but blocking flow of current to the line when the potential reverses. is the simplest method. and it is seen that actually less power is required to perform a certain amount of work.
that is. hence. without actually affording them cathodic protection against their normally occurring soil exposure. some 20-40 pairs of readings being taken. there is some current loss in the section due to sources other than the stray-current exposure. Exposure Areas If the stray-current effect on a pipe line were steady. there are two or more sources of stray current present. as shown in Figure 9-3. Location of maximum exposure area. A similar technique can be applied to surface potential surveys. Current measurements are made simultaneously at two locations. The fluctuations make the problem somewhat more complicated. the intersection above the axis indicates a small steady component at A. the areas of maximum exposure could be readily located by either a line current survey or a surface potential survey to determine the regions in which current is leaving the line. In the graph illustrated the slope greater than 45° being closer to the axis of IA indicates that the stray-current component at A is greater than that at B. and special measures are required. If the points fail to define a straight line. . if the straight line formed is at a 45° Figure 9-3. Corresponding pairs are then plotted on a graph. One approach is a modification of the line current survey. there is current loss in the section AB.Stray-Current Electrolysis 105 to that which is required to prevent damage to the lines.
106 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection angle and passes through the origin. Vol. Potential Surveys Although the study of line currents. Such surveys seldom cover very great lengths of line. These are then read. it is necessary to measure a number of potentials simultaneously—and it is important that this be exact. if the points do not fall somewhat near a straight line. As soon as the set of readings for one pair of joints is completed. 57-26) which performs this difficult task quite effectively. Finally. for a difference of less than a second could disguise or distort a relationship beyond recognition. and of pipe-to-pipe. thereby "freezing" their separate potentials. then there is no current gain or loss in the section involved. A number of capacitors are connected to the various terminals between which potentials are to be measured. 1957. 13. one crew is leap-frogged ahead and another section studied. If there are more than two crews and sets of instruments available. more than one section can be studied at one time. also NACE publication no. there is a stray-current source affecting one of the points and not the other. To do this effectively. one at a time. then there is current gain or loss due to the stray-current exposure. When a set of readings is necessary. usually being limited to areas which appear to be likely zones of exposure from a study of maps. with a vacuum-tube voltmeter. p 799t. yields the most positive and definite evidence of actual current gains and losses—and these are the direct correlates of corrosion—much information can be gained by a study of pipe-to-soil potentials. The readings may be synchronized either by use of signalling equipment (a pipe locater transmitter and receiver can be used) or by the use of synchronized watches. if it fails to pass through the origin. independent of the fluctuating currents. a button is pressed (this can be done remotely) and all capacitors are simultaneously disconnected. as just described. being designed primarily for the investigation of cable sheath corrosion. The instrument described in the reference had 19 circuits. of structure-to-structure potentials in areas where trouble is suspected. rarely . or rather. December. if it is at an angle other than 45°. there is a steady gain or loss. Technical Committee T-4B of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers first described a device (Corrosion.
will aggravate the exposure at the other location by decreasing the resistance of the total return path. Fluctuating potentials or line currents must never be ignored. as when the northern lights are active. To avert the damage. can only be found by very careful and thorough surveys. Summary It is seen that the major problem causing stray-current electrolysis in the past was direct-current leakage from electric streetcars and trains. often they are disclosed by the occurrence of leaks. can readily be improvised. and more particularly in northern latitudes. there is an exposure somewhere on the line. clips can be shifted from one terminal to another as needed. and even the rotary switch is unnecessary. Surface potential surveys. Such exposures. they should remain a case to be investigated." flows down it to the crossing. using two or three 4-mf capacitors. Current leaks off the tracks onto pipe line "A. Secondary Exposure Figure 9-2 shows a situation in which an exposure area lies at some distance from the tracks. however. and a very simple modification of the device. then leaks from "A" to "B" and follows "B" to the vicinity of the substation or track. With such a small number. but until their source is known. as they virtually preclude the taking of any "static" potentials. the relays and remote control devices can be dispensed with. as long as these remain unexplained. However. . but sometimes may be continuous for weeks. they usually disappear once a line has been placed under cathodic protection. bonds must be installed at both places. On well-coated lines in high-resistivity soil. and others even more complicated. wide fluctuations in potentials are often observed which can only be associated with natural earth currents. the installation of either bond. careful work will eventually track it down. They often turn out to be harmless. Apparently these do little if any harm. alone. The important feature of the whole device is that the capacitors must all be disconnected from their potentials at the same time.Stray-Current Electrolysis 107 would so many be needed in pipe line work. These are much more violent during periods of magnetic activity. they do make current requirement surveys quite difficult. will indicate fluctuating potentials.
including the recording meter. All the techniques we have learned to measure electrical current. may be needed to determine the problem and its source. a present cause is direct current from a foreign unbonded pipe line under cathodic protection. .108 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection However. Insulating flanges and negative bus bonding are often used to minimize the damage caused by electrolysis.
There is no definable limit to the field. there is no visible or measurable difference in the amount of current which is arriving from the side on which the anode is placed and that which is arriving from the other. at a distance of several hundred feet on either side of a protected pipe line and at almost any distance from the anode.10 Interference in Cathodic Protection The Problem In the preceding part stray current was defined as leakage current from some electrical system. It must never be supposed that the current flow is confined entirely to the earth which actually lies between the anode and the protected structure. it is a problem of the corrosion engineer to avert the damage to the underground structures under his care. Figure 2-9 (Chapter 2) shows a cross section of the field surrounding a pipe line at a considerable distance from the anode. so also are the currents deliberately caused to flow through the earth in the application of cathodic protection. in the latter. 109 . It will be noted that the field is symmetrical. it is his responsibility to take steps to prevent damage to all other structures by the action of his cathodic protection systems. Current flow can be detected at the surface of the earth by the use of two electrodes and a potentiometer. flowing accidentally through the earth. It can also be detected at a distance of a few thousand feet in any direction from the anode. In the former case. If this is capable of causing damage. that is. more sensitive instrumentation might extend the distances even further.
close to an anode bed (where the current density and potential gradient are great) is in a very hazardous exposure. or an interrupter may be used. collecting current over a part of its surface and discharging it— with attendant corrosion—from another part. as with stray currents. and (3) auxiliary drainage of the collected current. Basic Solutions There are three fundamental approaches to the problem: (1) design which aims at minimizing exposure. the potential gradient or the current density at the point of exposure. so that the effects of the unit can be clearly identified and studied. this is the area of most hazardous exposure. the rectifier can be switched on and off as desired. so that more accurate measurements and adjustments can be made. the length of the structure in the direction of current flow. Every effort should be made to select sites for the installation of rectifiers which are remote from foreign lines. The problem of cathodic interference is simpler in many respects than that of stray current. A bare pipe line. The amount of current so picked up and discharged is controlled by many factors: the coating. a piece of metal buried in that earth may function as a part of the current path. on the structure. The exposure is in general steady rather than fluctuating. The source of the current involved is under control. and the ability of the structure to carry current. (2) bonding to afford a metallic return of current collected by a foreign line. if any.110 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Wherever there is current flow in the earth. is much less seriously endangered. lying in the direction of current flow. Under the worst conditions. and traversing the current field at an angle. instead of merely that portion which leaks off. Figure 10-1 shows the current path in the case of a crossing foreign line which pass- . Design The current density in the earth is far greater in the vicinity of an anode bed than it is elsewhere. because of the magnitude of the currents involved. the exposure can be extremely severe. from whatever source. remote from an anode bed. all of the current return is by the earth path. consequently. a well-coated line.
and then discharges through the soil to the protected line. Damage is inflicted on the foreign line in the neighborhood of the crossing. between the two struc- . es near the anode bed. flows along it toward the crossing (from both sides). Figure 10-2 shows a case of interference which is serious only when the ground bed is quite close. Some of the current flowing from the anode bed to the protected line collects on the foreign line. when the crossing line is remote. insofar as this is possible. the remedy is the installation of a metallic connection.Interference in Cathodic Protection 111 Figure 10-1. or bond. Interference. but much milder. the situation is similar. The major design feature which will minimize such damage is obviously that of keeping anode beds far away from foreign structures. Crossing Bonds In a situation such as that illustrated in Figure 10-1.
Clearly the fair thing to do is to drain across the bond just enough current to prevent inflicting any damage on the foreign line. When a structure lies in a region of heavy current density.112 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 10-2. such as the tank shown close to the anode bed. Interference (radial current flow). an isolated metallic structure lying near a protected line can undergo the same kind of damage. tures.e. at or near the point of crossing. to do so requires the use of a resistor in the bond. Sometimes a "solid" bond is used. jt may receive too large a share of the current. .. This usually results in affording a considerable measure of cathodic protection to the foreign line. Sometimes. i. but not often. it may pick up current at A and discharge it to earth at B. and if it is bare or has poorer coating than the protected line. one without a resistor. with resultant damage at the discharge area.
. using the "zero-resistance ammeter" circuit diagrammed in Figure 10-5.Interference in Cathodic Protection 113 The direct method of installing and adjusting such a bond is illustrated in Figure 10-3. It is helpful to measure the "short-circuit" current between the two lines first. sometimes a long electrode can be placed properly in a rodded hole. A copper sulfate electrode is placed in the soil between the two lines at the point of crossing. This will usually involve an excavation. from this an idea may be gained of the size of conductor needed for the bond. exposing a vertical wall of soil where the two lines are closest. The resistor is then adjusted by trial and error until there is no change in the potential of the foreign line with respect to the electrode when the rectifier is turned on and off. The pipe connections may usually be made by the Figure 10-3. The connections to the two lines are made and the resistor adjusted until there is no change in the potential of the foreign line with respect to the electrode when the rectifier is switched on and off. The copper sulfate electrode is placed between the two lines at the point of crossing. Adjustment of crossing bond.
to get the simplest possible case for illustration. Suppose this line is to be crossed by a single foreign line outside the anode field. . It is much easier to determine the length of resistor wire needed by trial and error than it is by calculation. The complex circuit can be converted into a simple equivalent circuit which will duplicate the behavior of the two pipe lines at the points of interest. and hence can be used to solve the problem at hand. and Chromel or Nichrome wire used for the resistor. suppose that there is no potential difference between the two lines at the point of crossing in the absence of the cathodic protection. The method will be illustrated by considering first the simplest possible case. a more refined method makes it possible to calculate the value for an interference bond. Suppose there is a line section under protection by a single rectifier (or under test from a single drain point) (Figure 10-4). the joints should be silver soldered. The method used is that of determining circuit constants.114 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection thermite process. Schematic diagram for determining correct value of bond resistance and rectifier current to eliminate crossing interference. Figure 10-4. Calculation of Bond Resistance Instead of the direct approach just described. Further.
or the difference between the "on" and "off" values. or the potential difference between the two lines. the expected polarity should be indicated by + and . The test procedure is as follows: the rectifier current. Finally. the point (3) represents the terminals of an instrument (ammethe terminals of an instrument (ammeter) inserted in the rectifier circuit for the purpose of measuring its current output. in making interference tests of this kind. a sketch like Figure 10-3 should be prepared. if the pipe is continuous. Then. is interrupted. Normally. and thus has no unit. Always. which is known as the ground voltage coupling. to use the value which will just protect the line. within a reasonable range. or very near. it is only convenient. AVj and AV2 are determined. with the rectifier current being interrupted. Then. The point (4) is a location for an electrode over the protected line. the crossing. showing everywhere readings are to be taken. not necessary. This point is carefully marked and is indicated as (2) in Figure 104. These two give the first circuit constant.. when the test is under way. AV is the change in V when the current is interrupted. its exact location will be described later.Interference in Cathodic Protection 115 The first step is to adjust the rectifier to a value which will give adequate protection to the line. (The location refers to the precise position of the electrode. or temporary test current. these are leads in which a bond may be installed if needed. . The same value should be obtained for this constant for any value of rectifier current. this will be at. the actual contact to the pipe may be made at any convenient near-by point. it is recorded as — . Note that this is a ratio between two voltages. Vi is the voltage across terminals (1). if the reading corresponds to the indicated polarity. V2 is the voltage across terminals (2). From these readings. if it is opposite. it is recorded as +.signs shown at each numbered pair of terminals. and values of V2 and V\ are determined for both conditions (on and off). i. the P/S potential of the foreign line.e. It merely states how the potential of the foreign line responds to potential changes on the protected line.) The point (1) is a pair of terminals or test leads connected to the two lines at or near the crossing. a survey is made along the foreign line in the vicinity of the crossing until the point at which the pipe-to-soil potential of the foreign line is at a minimum.
There are instruments available which incorporate this complete circuit within themselves. we get two more circuit constants. they merely happen to be taken at the same points.116 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 10-5. at the terminals (1). This makes it possible to transfer current from one line to another. as will later on be done by the bond. The current from the battery is adjusted until the potentiometer (or high-resistance voltmeter) reads zero. will usually serve this purpose. or. and install a source of current. Zero-resistance ammeter. The next step is to open-circuit the rectifier. in many cases even a single dry cell. Then the current indicated by the ammeter I is the sought for value. . readings are also made of the PIS potential of the foreign line at terminals (2). the circuit illustrated is used. and to determine the effects of bond current. To determine the current which would flow through a "solid" or zero-resistance bond between two structures. These last two readings are called V t and V2» respectively. From these three sets of readings. so as to remove its influence completely. but these are not the same values used before. The interrupted current and the voltage across the terminals (1) between the two lines are measured. A storage battery. with interrupter.
R2\. it would seem that the bond resistance is independent of the drainage current. also has the units of a resistance. but only in the simplified case in which the two line potentials are equal. This is indeed the case. these potentials differ. it will be necessary to lower the bond resistance. From these three circuit constants.Interference in Cathodic Protection 117 and The second of these. the bond resistance is given by where E\ is the natural potential between the two lines. if the rectifier is adjusted so that it just protects the line. . When. but it does not correspond to any actually existing resistance. is equal to zero. then. the correct value of the bond resistance can now be calculated: Since the value of the rectifier current does not appear in this expression. since it is the ratio of a voltage to a current. This leads to an endless pursuit of a properly balanced system. RK. and the bond is then installed. the current is increased to where the line is once more protected. and protection will again be lost. If. it will be found that the line is no longer protected because the bond is taking part of the current. it is called the transfer resistance. as is almost always the case. so the value of A/i is just the value of current used. although actually the approximation becomes closer with each change and any three or four adjustments will usually suffice. can be recognized as the coupling resistance between the two lines. The fact that the bond resistance depends on the rectifier current now poses a problem. For. and AVi is the potential change at terminals (1) caused by the interruption at the rectifier of the adopted rectifier current. l\t when the interrupter is open.
an easier way. Then the current source is connected between the two lines and a similar survey conducted along the protected line. a guess must be made. to avoid errors due to polarization by test currents). however. The current to be used in this survey should be an approximation of the finally adopted bond current. this is the point (2) in Figure 10-4. First. is this: take the P/S potential of the foreign line at the point of maximum interference. The potential of the foreign line should not change if the adjustment is perfect. after all the adjustment and installation is complete. locating point (4). then simultaneously open-circuit the rectifier and the bond. Point (1) is. there will be some cathodic protection of the foreign line near the crossing. As this is impossible to know in advance. the tie between the two lines. the following are found: R\\. the following values can be computed: /3 is the value of rectifier current found to be adequate without any bond current. the rectifier is adjusted to a value which is somewhere in the neighborhood of full protection. if it is made more. RB is the resistance of the bond which will eliminate the interference when the final adjustment to the current 7'3 has been made. and /?43.118 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection There is. and point (3) is the rectifier drain. but it should not differ too much. the interference will not be completely eliminated. and # 2 i. it may be necessary to repeat the test. From these circuit constants. with the rectifier operating and the bond in place. the exact value is not important. as before. . RAI. in which it is all done at once. If the guess turns out to be wrong by too great a factor. With the bond current being interrupted. 7'3 is the value which will be necessary in order to provide for the bond. R^\. In all of these discussions. the following network constants are determined: /?n. The final test. if the value of the bond resistance is made less than the calculated value. 7?23. With the rectifier current being interrupted.#1 is also measured (preferably first. A survey is then made to determine the point of maximum interference.
4. and. This will give the final value needed. with no bonds installed. will give the resistance value for each bond. the current must be increased. keeping the rectifier at its original value. when used as 7'3 in Equation 10-4. Each of these will give a value of added current required. In such cases. The following procedure is simpler and almost as accurate: 1. or auxiliary . just as in the single bond case above. thereby affording sufficient cathodic protection. 3. and make the measurements required for bond adjustment. Repeat this step for each of the other bonds. but they are complicated and cumbersome in use. Adjust the rectifier so as to give adequate protection to the line. This will give a value of 7'3 from which a certain amount of additional rectifier current is seen to be required for the first bond. such as that illustrated in Figure 10-6. locate points of maximum interference for all of the crossing lines (potential differences between lines should be determined before rectifier current is started). locate point of maximum bond effect. Auxiliary Drainage In many cases.Interference in Cathodic Protection Multiple Bonds 119 Equations similar to those given have been derived for the simultaneous adjustment of two or more bonds to different foreign lines and for the correction of rectifier output to compensate. the point of exposure on the foreign line is not located at a point of crossing (the same is true of that in Figure 10-2). If not. With this current being interrupted. When this has been completed. Impress current across the first bond location. Add up all these extra requirements. often the best solution is the installation of one or more magnesium anodes at the point of exposure. which may call for additional bond adjustments. and add this sum to the basic rectifier current. these should be minor. a complete survey should be made to see that the line is actually adequately protected. 2.
flows in the opposite direction and is discharged over a relatively large and remote area. drainage. however. where it can be safely handled with a simple bond. An obscure case. this offers a path to ground for the collected current which can be taken without damaging the structure—the damage. Much of the current collected on the foreign line flows toward the crossing. In effect. Some of it. to the affected structure to avert the damage done by the offending system. This same technique can be used in simple crossing cases. instead of the bond described above. the . instead.120 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 10-6. is inflicted on the magnesium. It can be avoided by proper anode bed placement and remedied by the use of auxiliary drainage anodes. Such a situation does not arise often and probably does little damage in any case because of the large discharge area.
two electrodes are used.Interference in Cathodic Protection 121 collected current. Current transfer between parallel lines. bonds should be installed between the two lines at the points where the conditions are the worst. When the point of worst exposure is located. Readings are to be taken in both positions with the unit on and off. as shown in Figure 10-7. and other bonds installed if required. Parallel Lines When cathodic protection is applied to a pipe line which occupies the same right-of-way with another unprotected line. as distinguished from current flow past the foreign line to the protected line. In the present case. there exists an opportunity for the foreign line to collect current in some areas and discharge it through the earth to the protected line in others. flows to earth by way of the magnesium anodes. A repeat survey must then be made to determine the length of section which the bond will protect. then there is current transfer from the foreign line to the protected line. instead of following the bond back to the protected line. one being placed over each line. The determination of the areas in which such discharge takes place can most easily be made by a modification of the surface potential survey previously discussed. . a bond should be installed. and one over the foreign line and the other offset a distance equal to the space between the two for a second reading. If the delta (difference between on and off readings) in the position shown in solid lines is appreciably greater than that in the dotted position. and differences used. By this means it can be determined whether there is current flow from the foreign line to the protected line. Figure 10-7. When the areas of undesired flow are located. for the first reading.
it is possible for a structure to suffer damage by interference currents when it does not lie close to the protected line. In this case the foreign line has nonconducting couplings. such as Dressers. At each bypass point. so that the line is separated into twojoint sections. with attack on the side of the coupling away from the protected line. but this is by no means always possible. The two methods may be combined. Such trouble is not likely to be encountered anywhere except very close to an anode bed and it is most easily remedied by the installation of auxiliary drainage. Foreign Lines with Insulating Joints Figure 10-8 shows another difficulty which may be encountered. it picks up some current on the side next to the anode and discharges it on the far side. Radial-Flow Interference As indicated in Figure 10-2. . remote from the anode bed. the current collected cannot be conveyed to the point of bonding without having to bypass the coupling.122 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Further tests will then be needed to see if the bonds are adequate. only when the line lies in a heavy current density region is there much likelihood of damage. as described earlier. since it lies at least partly in the direction of flow. The type of exposure illustrated is known as radial-flow interference. The installation of anode beds remote from structures will avoid problems of this nature. which means merely that the structure lies in an area where there is current flowing through the earth. some current flows off the line. each one of which has a single auxiliary drainage anode. would not pick up enough current to cause significant damage. by the installation of a bond and a magnesium anode on alternate couplings. and back to the next joint. Such a line. The damage may be forestalled either by bonding the poorly conducting joints (and the installation of a crossing bond) or by the installation of auxiliary drainage on each joint of the line through the exposure area. or whether several will be required. through the soil. it is not possible to determine in advance whether a given bond will take all the current discharge over a section.
but there will still be damage done at the mechanical joints. Foreign Line with Dresser Couplings. This can be remedied by bonding the joints or by the use of auxiliary magnesuim anode drainage. The installation of a bond at the point of crossing will avert the damage there. .Interference in Cathodic Protection 123 Figure 10-8. by current bypassing them through the earth.
To prevent the current necessary for protecting a line from being drained off on such piping systems as tankage lines. well casings. Insulating flanges. and unused pipe lines. 3. Foreign lines. Railroad tracks and road casings. it is sometimes necessary to install insulating flanges or Dresser couplings. Any metallic system in the vicinity of the protected pipe line may cause problems. These interference problems are usually solved by resistance bonds. 2. This system will affect: 1. Each of these will be shown by accurate measurement and must be solved as it occurs. Corrosion will occur on the buried piping near these flanges unless bonds are placed around the flanges and adjusted to balance corrosion forces. . These include protected lines and those with their own protective systems.124 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Summary As has been shown already. interference problems are always a possibility whenever a cathodic protection system will be installed.
By this time. Besides the fall in pipe-to-soil potential. Much the same thing is true of most electrical or mechanical systems installed to perform various functions. there are some other indications of failure which may come to the attention of the supervisory 125 . and the condition will call itself to the attention of those responsible. where the leak has occurred. but no signs are outwardly noticeable. Importance of Adequate Supervision The total or partial failure of a cathodic protection system is not accompanied by any outwardly visible sign. Then. there is no indication whatever of the failure until a leak occurs. in addition to that done at the one point of maximum corrosion rate. But if there is a failure on a cathodic protection system. there are certain methods which we can use to evaluate its performance. except to the specialized "eyes" of instruments). If a pump fails.11 Operation and Maintenance After a cathodic protection system has been installed. there is a pressure drop or a pressure rise somewhere. Its major justification will be that corrosion has been prevented. a great deal of damage has been done to the supposedly protected system. and the relatively slow processes of corrosion resume their damaging activity. unless someone is on the alert. The purpose of this chapter is to describe what procedures to follow to assure that the systems are in operation. the pipe-to-soil potential falls (and this is not visible.
or there may be total or partial consumption of the anodes. the following parts of the total system are subject to failure: 1. Deterioration of pipe coating with time.126 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection forces. there will usually (but not always) be a change in the readings of the ammeter and voltmeter on the unit. The power supply. Cable connection to the pipe itself. which includes the protected structure as well as the protective devices. or between elements of the ground bed. or auxiliaries. 2. and 11-4). this may be an accidental contact with an old or new line. 11-3. The rectifier—transformer. 5. 4. there may be a change in the current output of the anode groups. failure may be permanent or temporary. so as to increase the demand of the system above the capacity of the unit installed. there may be an increase in total resistance due to a change in soil moisture conditions. circuit breaker. There will also be. a short-circuited insulating joint. 6. or by damage. or a contact with a road crossing casing. one or more anodes may become disconnected. 11-2. Accidental electrical connection to the protected structure of a mass of metal whose protection is not contemplated. When the protection is by means of a rectifier draining current to a ground bed (see Figures 11-1. The different things which can happen to produce total or partial failure of the protection system can best be examined by a separate consideration of the two principal types of systems. thus overloading the system. If the system is based on magnesium anodes. if the failure is in the unit itself. stacks. a drop in the total power consumption—which will show up on the monthly watthour meter readings and the power bill. If the system employs a rectifier. Failures in Rectifier-Ground Bed Systems It must be remembered that a failure can occur anywhere in the complete system. but this is no more likely to be observed than is the fall in pipeto-soil potential. The ground bed itself. . 3. and magnesium anode systems. 7. Cable connection to the ground bed. rectifierground bed systems. thus the loss of protection may be complete or partial from this cause.
Figure 11-2. throwing onto the line an unprotected lateral. . Pipe-to-soil potential before and after failure.Operation and Maintenance 127 Figure 11-1. The solid line shows the same section illustrated in Figure 11-1. the dotted line shows the potentials found along the section after a uniform deterioration of the pipe coating. The dotted line shows a survey over the same section after an insulated joint has become short-circuited. The effect is seen to be distributed. The solid line shows a typical pipe-to-soil potential plot between two rectifiers with the line under adequate protection. The maximum effect is seen to be at the points adjacent to the lateral. Pipe-to-soil potential after coating deterioration.
The dotted line shows the line currents after short-circuiting of the insulated joint to the unprotected lateral. . further measurement of line currents in the vicinity of the lateral would be even more definite. the effect on line current distribution of a general coating deterioration is very slight. The effect is more pronounced than that obtained by pipe-to-soil potentials. note that the potential is affected much more severely. using the same conventions as in the other three figures. Line currents as affected by coating deterioration. Line currents as affected by failure. The dotted line shows the values of line currents in the same section illustrated in the two preceding figures. As indicated.128 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 11-3. Figure 11-4.
Frequent readings are useful for two reasons: first. monthly. but not all. Minimum Inspection Schedule for Rectifier System It is suggested that the voltmeter. this effect may be produced by dryness at either the anode or the pipe. weekly.. Again. there is no indicating meter on which this can be read. so that less protection . this may mean that some types of failure will affect only small portions of the system. however. trouble is found and remedied in less time. any of the failures will produce a loss in pipe-to-soil potential. It should be noted. 4. such as with units installed at manned stations or where daily visits are made for other purposes. Failures in Magnesium Anode Systems The cathodic protection system as a whole is a more complex network when multiple drainage with magnesium anodes is used. Same as numbers 6 and 7 above. 3. that all failures—total or partial—will show up as a loss in pipe-to-soil potential in at least part of the system. Systems employing magnesium anodes are subject to failures of the following kinds: 1. but the current in the lead can be measured if a shunt has been installed. or both. of the listed failures will affect the readings of the meters on the rectifier unit.Operation and Maintenance 129 Some. Mechanical damage to connecting wires. and watt-hour meter of each rectifier be read daily. Consumption of one or more anodes by normal use and by local action. The effect will be a falling off of both current and potential. Loss of current output due to abnormally dry soil. As with the rectifier system. or the lead may be cut for the insertion of an ammeter. i. some of the failures will show up as failure of current output at the anode.e. The more frequent readings are advised only where accessibility is easy. effects connected with the pipe itself. It also means that more points must be checked to be sure that the entire network is functioning.5. ammeter. 2. or as a minimum.
semiannual. Without pause. A cold stack is not working. 2. Turn the power off by the outside switch. feel all of the connections that can be reached. Any found hot or warm should be tightened. or even very warm. 8. A more leisurely inspection should now be made. check operating fuses for proper size. depending on the load. Look for signs of damage or trouble. read the meters. Sudden changes are the ones which most need investigation and correction. probably only one of them is defective. bird nests. clean if needed. Look for any burned places from possible arcs or lightning damage. insects. or. note the settings. Look over the whole installation: pole. insects. a more thorough rectifier inspection should be made at greater intervals. the easier it is to guess at probable causes. 3. guys. and any other accessory equipment. check the watt-hour meter. feel all of the stacks. 5. . None of these should be hot. 6. These readings should be plotted on a graph. Open the door carefully. they should all be at about the same temperature. 7. and annual periods for this inspection. look for damage or tampering. Check the panel meters by comparison with (portable) meters of higher precision. and record. so the whole unit is dead. spiders. Check the unit for supply of fuses. should be dismantled. The following items should be included: 1. which makes trends easier to observe. or other debris. if found tight. Immediately. and retightened. In addition to the routine readings described. Inspect the case for possible repainting. 9. different companies use quarterly. they should be warm.130 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection is lost. warning signs. With the unit still off. and second. the disc should be absolutely motionless. or even rectifier stack deterioration. Before opening the case. cable runs. is the watt-hour meter operating? Feel the case for warmth and listen for the low hum of an operating rectifier. More important. along with the watt-hour meter reading. cleaned and/or filed smooth. 4. Inspect screens for stoppage by dust. Gradual changes may be either seasonal variations in soil moisture or coating deterioration. the shorter the interval in which the trouble has been known to develop. Look out for snakes. if two are cold.
This is the ratio of DC output to AC input. watts. The DC output is the product of the volts and amperes. K = meter constant (found on the nameplate of the meter). or the time of one revolution if the load is very light. . by counting the revolutions in a given time. expressed as a percentage. T = length of the counting interval. by the following expression where: / and E = meter values averaged over the period. A pronounced change in efficiency or a totally inoperative unit will be found. seconds. there is some value in making this check by using the power company's billing values. Even when a rectifier is not visited at all. Rectifier efficiency can also be averaged over a month. The efficiency is then computed from This value should be plotted as a function of time. kilowatt-hours.Operation and Maintenance 131 10. T = length of time. hours. Any unit will eventually show a decline in efficiency as a result of stack aging. Reenergize the unit and check efficiency. TV = number of revolutions of the disc. The AC input is determined from the watt-hour meter. Output in watts is then given by where: P = AC input. as shown by the panel meters (corrected as in step 8). the stacks should be replaced. W = total power consumption for the period. when the efficiency has dropped as much as 25% from the original value (at a comparable load). As a general rule. or other period between meter readings.
it is possible to use field men who are in the general area. very often the anode type of installation is on lines which are of lesser economic importance. One form of the monitor uses a zero-center voltmeter. The instrument consists of a medium-resistance voltmeter. may then be checked semiannually or annually. and pipe-to-soil potentials at about one-third of the midpoints be checked monthly. so selected that they are indicative of the behavior of the system as a whole. installed in a suitable protective housing and connected so as to indicate the potential between the pipe line and a buried zinc anode. provision is made for adjustment. This is an instrument which is permanently installed at a number of critical points. there are no power meters to read. has essentially the same meter but is marked so as to indicate copper sulfate potential directly. as found on the rectifier. It is suggested that a sampling technique be used. usually 1000 ohms per volt. The general technique is much the same. however— nothing but anode currents and pipe-to-soil potentials.132 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Minimum Inspection Schedule for Anodes It is recognized that anode installations cannot be inspected as thoroughly or as often as can rectified systems. readings are mailed or called in to the corrosion department. Then. the two can be correlated. Monitor System A technique which may be applied to either the rectifier or galvanic anode system is that of using the potential monitor. reading 500 millivolts in each direction. Total current output in ampere-hours should be computed so that the estimated life of the anode may be anticipated and replacements scheduled as needed. though not as simple as the reading of a permanently installed instrument. Another form. Shunts installed in the anode leads make the reading of current a comparatively simple matter. . but must be at easily accessible locations. Since they can be read by unskilled personnel. Although this voltage is not the same value as that with reference to the usual copper sulfate electrode. These should be somewhere near the midpoints of sections between rectifiers. too. commercially available as a complete unit. because of the larger number of components. and the current outputs. the other midpoints.
the first place to look is at the protective unit. and perhaps an overall slow decline connected with coating deterioration. A sudden drop is definite indication of some kind of failure and calls for an investigation. Troubleshooting Rectifier-Ground Bed When the monitor.. if it is normal.Operation and Maintenance 133 Figure 11-5. which is usually installed at the midpoint of a pipeline and which has a zinc anode calibrated to give readings similar to those secured from a copper sulfate electrode. (Courtesy of M. C. the trouble is on the line itself. the trouble is certainly on the line and is caused either by increased current demand or by a short-circuit to parasitic metal. Miller Co. if it is high and accompanied by low voltage. or a pipe-to-soil potential survey. If the current . an irregular variation with soil moisture conditions. and should be recorded and plotted.) These values should be read at small intervals. There will usually be a slow cyclic variation with the seasons. Potential monitor. Figure 11-5 shows a typical test station potential monitor. indicates inadequacy of protection. The current output of the rectifier should be checked. Inc.
If the rectifier and its anode bed appear to be performing satisfactorily. A more thorough. if these are satisfactory. If investigation of such suspected sources discloses nothing. a disconnected anode will not show at all. with voltage normal or high. to see if the failure seems to be localized. the pipe-to-soil potential of the lead wire will show whether it is still connected to the pipe or the anode. is on record. the trouble is in the ground bed or connecting cables. if the current collected in each section is greater than on the earlier survey. or severed or broken lead wires. there may be a loss of one or more anodes by a severed wire. This will be much more easily interpreted if a similar survey. and thus indicate the direction to the failure. the pipe-to-soil potentials should be studied. shrinkage of backfill. but slower. more measurements are required. a pipe-to-soil potential survey over the anodes will show which are active. Any area in which work has been done recently should be investigated. just as in the case of rectifier anodes. for example. If the current is zero. When inactive anodes are found. the cause may be drying out. When a given anode group shows a marked drop in current output. is that of making a detailed line current survey. because of the multiplicity of drain points (see Figure 11-6). the source of the low potentials must be sought on the line itself. If the current is low. First. the insulation should certainly be checked. On the other hand. A pipe-to-soil potential over the ground bed will show a peak over every anode which is working. find out where the drained current is coming onto the line. approach. The current output of stations nearest the point of low potential should be checked. a similar check should be extended in both directions until it is clear that the trouble must be on the line. if a new lateral has been connected.134 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection output is low. only digging will uncover the cause. a comparison will often very quickly locate the offending parasite. This test is particularly useful if comparison can be made to a similar test made at the time of the original installation. Magnesium Anode System The basic technique is the same as that outlined before. probably due to coating deterioration. with no pronounced differences. then a more detailed search must be made. made when the line was in satisfactory condition. then the trouble is simply that of increased overall current requirement. .
This is even more important when a sacrificial anode system is used. However. installed at certain critical points on a pipe line. Summary Once the cathodic protection system is installed on a pipe line. Locating idle anodes by surface potentials. Trouble indicated as being on the line.Operation and Maintenance 135 Figure 11-6. a yearly complete cathodic protection measurement determining line currents. first investigating locations where something has been done which might be responsible. Since pipe-to-soil potential measurements must be run at regular intervals along a pipe line. . rather than at the anode stations. is tracked down in the same manner as that used for lines protected by rectifiers. the dotted line exhibits the change when there is a break in the anode lead at the point indicated. a pipe lead. usually a voltmeter with a zinc anode. Single disconnected anodes may also be located by this method. it is some advantage to have a potential monitor station. potentials. since there is no rectifier to show inadequate performance. and coating conductivities should be run. all readings should be referred to the same reference. A minimum inspection system has been shown to maintain adequate performance. Certain routines are necessary to be sure that the rectifiers are running and that the anode bed leads have not been severed. and finally making a line current survey. next checking potentials. The solid line shows the potentials found along a line of anodes when all are delivering current. A driven ground rod. or even a rectifier terminal may be used for the reference ground. it must be kept in operable condition at all times.
Then it may be protected for transportation by a paper-wrapping machine. The major problem for shop-applied coatings is joint protection after welding on the job site. the pipe is sandblasted to a white-metal surface. it may be added in a molten state. It is then welded. In the Shop (in 30-foot sections) Ideally. Over the Ditch The pipe has been laid out next to the pipe line excavation. he must be familiar with the general types of coatings we have already discussed in Chapter 8. These coatings are applied to the pipe line in two general methods: (1) in the shop. it is primed with an air-curing coating that serves as a base for the top coat. Next.001 inch). cleaned by an automatic wire-brush machine. If it is a thin-film epoxy.12 Coating Inspection and Testing Construction Inspection It often becomes the duty of the corrosion engineer to inspect coating in connection with a pipe line construction project or to supervise such inspection. it is cured by the addition of a peroxide. To do this. If it is a bituminous coating (either coal tar or asphalt). which is then applied to a thickness between 2 and 3 mils (0. and (2) over the ditch. and immediately 136 .
The adherents of this view often follow the finished construction with a complete foot-by-foot Pearson survey and repair all defects thus found. It should be remarked that this full-circle detector cannot always be used and that a semicircle detector is also needed.000 volts for a "spark" detector for thick bituminous coatings and a maximum of 75 volts for a "nondestructive" detector for thin coatings. When the apparatus is used for large areas such as tanks. and an alarm to signal current flow through the apparatus. This consists of an electrical energy source such as a battery or a high-voltage coil. The ring spark detector is grounded and passed along the pipe line. The inspection for the shop-applied coating must be done twice— once at the shop and again on the job site just before burying the pipe. Any imperfections in the coating will cause a spark to form. The advantage is that it is now a continuous system.Coating Inspection and Testing 137 primed with an air-drying coating. miles from the nearest unit. from this point of view. but because a nearly perfect line under cathodic protection is very sensitive to any disturbance. Figure 12-1 shows the instruments in use. Then the molten bituminous coating is applied and followed by a wrapping of glass fiber and Kraft paper. the electrode is composed of a full circle spring to surround the pipe. an exploring electrode. One of these holds to the belief that the coating should be made as nearly perfect as possible. The thinking behind this view is that the line. even a few square inches of damaged coating. and every holiday found should be carefully repaired. The voltage may vary as much as 30. This is valued. If the pipe line is to be taped. the procedure is not complicated by the necessity of the heating kettle and may proceed faster. it uses a wand with a brush electrode. every foot of the line should be carefully checked with the detector. and this will be amplified by a bell signal. When the apparatus is used for pipe line coating testing. will produce a detectable change in the po- . The over-the-ditch coating job may be inspected only once—just before burying the pipe. not so much for its low cost. will be so nearly perfect that a very small amount of cathodic protection will be required. when completed. The instrument used for finding the coating defects ("holidays") is the electrical holiday detector. There are at present two fairly distinct schools of thought on the subject of coatings for major transmission lines. This is the usual method of operation.
Use of the holiday detector.138 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 12-1. .
and. be maintained in excellent condition for a long period of time. or rock shields. and this may strongly influence the amounts they are willing to spend on capital investment and on maintenance charges. Adherents of this school seldom make 100% holiday detector inspection.Coating Inspection and Testing 139 tential. Hence such a line may. in which case the unit is micromhos per foot. except in the case of very poor coatings or very good. mhos per megafoot is actually the same as micromhos per foot. In this system the conductance is expressed in mhos. that the financial and tax positions of various companies are quite different. it should be noted that the possible cost of a leak varies widely on different lines. leakage conductance. as described in Chapter 4. and then the results are inconclusive. omit some reinforcing materials. do not patch small holidays. Many conductance calculations are made using as a unit of length the megafoot. Before attempting to pass judgment on this difference of opinion (which. more properly. after all. further. or one million feet. It is also common practice to express the conductance of a line in terms of length rather than area. The current demands of the line may then run from four to ten times as high as those with more rigid requirements. Evaluation of Coating in Place The coating on a buried line may be evaluated in any one of three ways: by a current requirement test. The opposing viewpoint is that the cathodic protection of a line with reasonably good coating—not the superb coating just described—costs far less than the extra cost of the superior coating. or by locating breaks and holidays with a Pearson survey. lies outside the scope of the field engineer). and choose various other economies. or. Coating or Leakage Conductance The leakage conductance of a section of pipe is expressed in micromhos per square foot. and use Pearson surveys only on sample sections of the line. If a change in potential with respect to remote earth of one volt produces a change in the leakage . by the measurement of coating conductance. They also usually specify less-expensive combinations. by careful supervision. Visual spot inspection is of little value. but the claim is made that this extra cathodic protection is less expensive than the more elaborate coating job.
At the same points. the difference is A/. like that for coated pipe. i. This is based on measuring directly the basic quantities involved.^AESf+ V l n m h o . The arrangement used is illustrated in Figure 12-2. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers Technical Practices Committee T-10D-1 has revised the NACE Report 2D157 Methods for Measuring Leakage Conductance of Coating on Buried or Submerged Pipelines into an NACE Standard RP and gives an outline of methods of measuring this quantity. and the length of the section. or K . the total current flow to a given section. the average potential shift is 1fe (Afe + AEC).A/c.. At B and C. measurements are made of the line current with drainage on and off. ) ' . Coating conductance measurement. is strongly influenced by the soil resistivity. Values obtained in practice range from as low as 1-10 micromhos per square foot (excellent coating in high resistivity soil). An interrupted current is drained at A. Conductance per unit length or per unit area can then be obtained by dividing total conductance by length or area. General method. The total current picked up in the section is then A/e . or excellent coating in very low-resistivity soil). these difference are AE. the average potential shift in that section due to the current. are given here: 1. measurements are made of pipe potential with respect to a remote electrode with drainage on and off. Conductance of the section is then HE. which. . The description is general and requires considerable elaboration for actual field use.e. up to as high as 2000 or more (very poor coating). even bare line has a measurable "coating" conductance.f AEC v This value divided by the area of the section gives the conductance per square foot. Three different methods. 10-50 (good coating in high-resistivity soil. applicable in three different cases. then the total conductance of that section is one mho.140 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection current of a line section of one ampere.
at which AE is measured loge = natural logarithm—to be taken of the potential ratio From this value. if one value is 6. in general. as needed. The other factor to observe is that the two values of AE must not differ by too much. then a simpler procedure is applicable. except to be sure that the current is the same for both of the potential readings. Two cautions are to be observed in using this method: the two values of A/ must differ significantly (e. the difference of . the megafoot is a convenient unit to use .g.) No current readings are required. The attenuation constant can then be obtained from where a = attenuation constant L = distance between the points a and b. Long line method.05 is not known with sufficient precision. When the line section is sufficiently far from the end that the behavior is that of a long line or a very long line (see Chapter 5). 2.25 amperes and the other is 6.. and readings of P/S potential are taken at two points—one far enough from the drain point to avoid the anode proximity effects. If these limits are not met.6:1. (Note that it is usually necessary to take more than two sets of such readings to determine whether the line is a long line. so long as the reading is large enough to be usable. a ratio of at least 2:1 is recommended). An interrupted current is drained. the other as much farther as is desired.20. otherwise the arithmetic mean is not a sufficiently close approximation to the true average potential shift. the interval must be shortened or lengthened. The ratio of the two values of AE should not be greater than 1. etc.Coating Inspection and Testing 141 Figure 12-2. we can then obtain k from where r = longitudinal resistance of the pipe k = conductance per unit length.
and thus the conductance. Line currents are often subject to much less outside influence than potentials. The other value must be far enough from the drain point to avoid the anode proximity effect. so this method is often more accurate and consistent. disconnected line) is large enough to be useful. and must be different enough from that at the end to give a usable ratio between them. etc. installation of test leads. The principle involved is that of impressing an alternating voltage between the pipe and the earth. There are at least a dozen other methods of determining coating conductance.142 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection If calibrated current measuring spans are available. Other methods. and then detecting the high potential drop in the neighborhood of a bare spot. If the AE at a termination of the line (insulated joint or open. the same method can be applied. 4. tables of which are available a and L = two points referred to where the potentials are measured L = distance between them The rest of the calculation is the same as the previous one. by choosing the method best adapted to the situation at hand. using line currents instead of potentials. 3. the first expression is then replaced by and the rest of the calculation is the same as before. Pearson permits the location of breaks and holidays in the coating of a buried line. The expression is where: cosh = hyperbolic cosine. Terminated line method. Pearson Surveys The apparatus devised by Dr. A signal generator (usually a vibrator) is connected to the . then it and one other value of AE may be used to compute the attenuation constant. one who has a thorough knowledge of the attenuation equations and the mathematics involved can often save a great amount of field work. John M..
as indicated on the graph. line. On lines with many holidays. which results in peaks in the receiver signal. there is a rise in signal intensity which reaches a maximum when the front man is directly over it. The rear man handles the connecting cord. this produces a concentration of current in the ground. the potential difference between two points 20-feet apart is thus picked up. .Coating Inspection and Testing 143 Figure 12-3. This is fed to an amplifier carried by the front man. while Figure 12-4 shows a pictorial representation. As a holiday is approached. keeps it clear of obstructions. Then a team of two men walk the line about 20-feet apart. and maintains reasonably constant distance. Figure 12-3 shows a typical Pearson reading. in this way each holiday has only one signal. The current flowing from the signal generator ground to the pipe line concentrates at the holidays. and the amplified signal can be heard in earphones and is indicated on a meter. Each man wears a pair of contact plates on his shoes. Pearson holiday detector. confusion may be avoided by having one man walk the line while the other walks parallel to him at a distance of 20 feet. Another maximum is heard when the rear man passes the same point. the other terminal being connected to a ground rod a few hundred feet away.
These consist of applying the materials to be tested to short lengths of pipe or other metal specimens. the Pearson technique. Pearson holiday detector operation. often with externally applied voltages. the specimen is sometimes made the anode and sometimes the cathode. is picked up by the shoe contacts worn by the two men and amplified by the apparatus carried by the operator. The results obtained by the surface potential survey are much more quantitative. since it is an essentially continuous operation. is a great deal faster. Accelerated Coating Tests Numerous tests have been devised for the comparative evaluation of different coating materials and of different coating techniques. Alternating current is used instead of direct. in the vicinity of a holiday. and there is little or no danger of skipping a holiday. The operation is quite similar to that of conducting a surface potential survey on a cathodically protected line. All of these methods . however.144 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure 12-4. The concentration of current strength in the soil. and then subjecting them to highly corrosive exposures. and a different system of detection is employed.
and it has been shown that this characteristic can be used in the design of a cathodic protection system. several methods of determining coating conductivity are available. the periodic inspection and testing needed for data is not only expensive. After this inspection. new developments may have produced new coatings which ought also to be tested in this field. the pipe may be excavated and the coating repaired. however. which requires two people to make the measurements. to compare coatings or application methods on the basis of actual pipe line conditions. Long periods of time are required. and it cannot be expected that they will be had in a short time. but it does not determine the bonding of the coating to the pipe surface. After the pipe is buried. Summary It has just been shown that the best way to assure a good coating system is by adequate inspection at the time the pipe line is constructed. and in pointing out those which show promise of excellence in actual use. experience with operating lines must then give the final answers. The holiday detector is an efficient instrument to find cracks in the coating.Coating Inspection and Testing 145 are subject to the criticism that they do not accurately reproduce field conditions and that they are subject to the errors of small samples. Also. The instrument often used in looking for coating faults is the Pearson holiday detector. or that any but statistical averages of a large number of lines can yield valid results. Accelerated tests are useful in eliminating very poor coatings or techniques. . but it disturbs the sites so that even field tests do not duplicate ordinary field conditions. and it is almost impossible to find two sections of line which can be considered identical. This must be done by careful visual inspection. It is difficult or impossible. By the time such tests have progressed far enough to give dependable data.
Actually. and many combine more than one of them. the classic example to study is iron in water. Again. The material does not have to be metal but is in most cases. (2) change the material. All methods of corrosion control are variations of these general procedures. Corrosion control is thus the prevention of this deterioration by three general ways: (1) change the environment. but. By far. There are. the atmosphere.Appendix A Fundamentals of Corrosion Corrosion. it usually is. water. or the earth. the environment is. is the deterioration of a material caused by its environment. enough exceptions to make corrosion control a bit complex. or (3) place a barrier between the material and its environment. according to the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. the metal does not have to be steel. in most cases. It is only the fact that we live in an atmosphere containing oxygen that even a beaker of distilled water in a laboratory will absorb oxygen from the air. a piece of pure iron in distilled water in an oxygen-free atmosphere will not corrode. however. and the iron will slowly go into solution with the chemical reaction 146 . because of the strength and cheapness of this material.
it will show the potential difference between the electrodes. Difference in oxygen content 2. An electrode which is destroyed (anode). An electrolyte which will transfer ions. This type of cell is called the dissimilar electrode cell. These are: 1. Actually. 4. the electrodes may be the same metal and a current will flow. 3. If a voltmeter is placed between the two electrodes. Sometimes there are inorganic salts dissolved in the water. because of differences in surface irregularities. A classical cell has the structure: 1. The iron has undergone the following change: Fe-* Fe+ + metallic ferrous iron iron ion solid (in solution) Consequently. Differential temperature cells . a portion of the solid metallic iron has deteriorated into the liquid ferrous ion. 2.Fundamentals of Corrosion 147 It can be seen that both oxygen and water are necessary to attack the iron. destroying the anode and causing corrosion. This is the fundamental corrosion reaction of iron and is similar to the section at the anode of an electrolytic cell in which iron is the anode(~) and a metal such as copper is the cathode(+). An electrode which is built up (cathode). Figure A-l shows this particular cell compared to the generalized concept of an electrolytic cell. and they may increase the conductivity of the water and speed up the reaction even more. A conductor between the electrodes to allow current to flow. Two other types of electrolytic cells with the same metals for electrodes will also cause current to flow. Salt concentration b. Concentration cells a.
Dissimilar electrode cells. Figure A-2. .148 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure A-1. Concentration cells.
but Figure A-2c is an example of a possible cell in a small crevice on the surface of iron.Fundamentals of Corrosion 149 Figure A-2a shows a typical concentration cell in which the electrolyte is concentrated ferrous chloride around one electrode (cathode) and dilute ferrous chloride around the other. The iron will serve as a conductor. a process called "polarization" occurs in which the potential difference between the cells begins to fall as the current increases. Both of the previous examples are laboratory demonstrations of what can happen in a cell. As flow continues in a cell. The rust product [Fe2O3 + Fe (OH)2] serves as an electrolyte. while the cathodic area will be at the air surface and the anode will be in the anaerobic region beneath the rust. Figure A-3. One caution should be mentioned. the electrolytic cell theory can be seen to offer a suggestion as to the corrosion of a single metal in a corrosive environment. while the region around the anode is deaerated by bubbling in nitrogen. Current will flow from the concentrated to the dilute solution where the anode will be deteriorated to increase the concentration of ferrous ions. . Thus. Figure A-2b shows a differential aeration cell again containing two iron electrodes. The data on electrolytic cells is based on the initial closed-circuit potential. The area around the cathode is subjected to oxidation by the admixture of oxygen. This characteristic will be of use when cathodic protection is used. This accounts for the pockmarked surfaces seen on iron or steel in corrosive soil or water. Differential temperature cell. Figure A-3 shows an example of a differential temperature cell where the only current generation is caused by the difference in temperatures around each electrode.
Therefore. 2. the goal of cathodic protection is to make a cathode of the steel. From a study of the various kinds of corrosion cells. it will stop it. 4. Steel corrodes because portions of the material in the soil are anodic and others are cathodic.Appendix B Cathodic Protection of Steel in Soil Cathodic protection of steel in soil is based on two general principles: 1. There must be an electrolyte for the currents. 2. Only the anode corrodes. Cathodic protection is defined as the use of direct electric current to stop corrosion. This is done by examining the following principles of an electrolytic cell: 1. a process called polarization takes place in which the potential difference of each cell is reduced until 150 . 3. This is done by impressing a direct electric current on the pipe and providing an anode which will corrode instead. The cathode does not corrode. There must be a connection between the two electrodes. This will not only reduce corrosion. we know that as soon as the cell starts to conduct current. Corrosion will not occur if all portions of the steel are cathodic.
2. . This cell equilibrium may exist in various states: 1.Cathodic Protection of Steel in Soil 151 a quasiequilibrium condition exists. Figure B-3. Figure B-1. Figure B-2. Cathodic control (Figure B-2). Mixed control (Figure B-3). Mixed control. Anodic control (Figure B-1). Cathodic control. 3. Anodic control.
The result will be that the protected structure is now polarized so that all the surface is cathodic and will not corrode.152 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Figure B-4. we must have an external anode. If it is higher on the electromotive series than steel and the electrolyte can conduct the current. By adding extra current from an external source. then a source of direct current must be found. To do this. We have thus made the entire structure a cathode. This extra current may be identified as similar to the A/. which is necessary for cathodic protection. . Polarization diagram illustrating principle of cathodic protection. This is usually done by using a rectifier (if alternating current is available). this may serve as a cathodic protection cell. as shown in Figure B-4. If steel is to be used as the external anode. all cells may be placed under cathodic control.
such as those between cast iron and carbon steel. raising the pH above 10 causes the corrosion rate to fall to a minimum (3 mpy at pH = 12. and at 20 ml oxygen per liter. the excess oxygen is supposed to passivate the surface.5. Afterward. compared to 11 mpy at the maximum. the oxygen boils off and the reaction rate falls. If the solution is allowed to boil in an open vessel. up to a maximum at about 13 ml of oxygen per liter of water. as Pourbaix has shown. The effect of pH on corrosion rate is constant (about 10 mpy) from pH of 10 to pH of 4.Appendix C Corrosion of Steel in Soil The electrolytic theory shows an explanation of the corrosion of steel in water. Laboratory tests on steel in aerated water (Table C-l) show a rise in corrosion rate with increasing oxygen. have no effect on the corrosion resistance. These data are summarized in Table C-1. Also. This same scientist has created a series of diagrams showing the relationship between potential and pH and deciding whether corrosion or immunity may exist. the corrosion rate is down to 2 mils per year. Like any chemical reaction. 153 . We have also found that minor compositional differences.5) and then starts to rise as the pH increases over 14. the corrosion rate of steel in aerated water doubles for every 55°F rise in temperature of the atmosphere in which it is confined. Then it shoots up at pH of 3 and becomes catastrophic at 2.
and this may well describe steel in pipe lines offshore or in rivers.0 7.86 20.46 9.00 5. 94-95. and the corrosivity of the soil is almost proportional to the decrease in resistivity. 1911.00 9. The following is a summary of Table C-2 and shows the relation of soil resistivity to corrosion rate of steel in soils based on 12-year tests of .87 12. But most soils are not dry.0 12.6 10.. John Wiley and Sons.0 7.0 7.0 7.154 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Table C-1 Corrosion of Steel in Aerated Water (Based on Uhlig and Others)* Oxygen Content (ml O2/1000 ml H2O) 0 2 6 10 13 15 17 20 25 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Corrosion Rate (mpy) 0.00 18.86 9. New York.00 9.00 Temperature (T) 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 132 132 187 187 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 pH 7.0 7.0 16.59 5.0 7.00 4.00 13.0 14.86 3. Corrosion and Corrosion Control: An Introduction to Corrosion Science and Engineering. But the question arises: How about steel in the soil? Actually.86 15.0 7.00 +40.0 (Air saturation) (Closed system) (Open system) (Closed system) (Open system) * Uhlig.0 7.0 7. H. The soil resistivities are an indication that moisture and dissolved salts are present.0 7. pp.0 7.0 3. Inc. steel in deaerated and dry soil should not corrode at all and does not when anaerobic bacteria are absent.00 10.. 99.00 30. 2nd Edition.19 1.0 2.86 11.0 7.48 2.0 7.93 9.0 7.0 4.42 10. H. We have mentioned steel in water.
sometimes it is necessary to convert readings from other reference electrodes to the Cu-CuSO4 electrode. This may be done using Table C-3. as we have indicated in Chapter 2. W.000 ohm-cm. Table C-4 is the electromotive series of metals. The standard solution adopted is that which contains an ion concentration of one mole per 1000 grams of water. and the standard temperature for making the determination is 25°C. since an average bare pipe line will corrode in less than a year. Underground Corrosion. Also." Between 500 and 1000 ohm-cm.) 1957. taken from A. For each listed metal. Between 2000 and 1000 ohm-cm. Below 500 ohm-cm is a special situation requiring immediate action.S. buried specimens by the U. Bureau of Standards. Peabody's chapter on cathodic protection in the NACE Basic Corrosion Course. Actual potentials developed between pairs of electrodes in various solutions and at various concentrations can vary from the values shown. put it in the "corrosive" class. Circ.000 Above 10. A soil is considered "noncorrosive" if the soil resistivity is above 10. This is the "very corrosive" class.Corrosion of Steel in Soil 155 Table C-2 Corrosion of Steel in Soil (Bureau of Standards Tests and Others) Corrosion (mpy) Average of 44 soils Tidal marsh California clay Sandy loam (New England) Desert sand (Arizona) 61 100 137 21 5 Type Moderately corrosive Corrosive Very corrosive Mildly corrosive Noncorrosive Soil Resistivities (ft/cm) 1000 to 2000 500 to 1000 Below 500 2000 to 10. National Bureau of Standards (U. the potential given is the standard electrode potential.S. but the general order is . Romanoff. 579. This is determined by placing an electrode of the pure metal in a "standard" solution of its own ions and measuring the potential difference between it and a standard hydrogen electrode—to which is assigned the arbitrary value of zero. it is considered "mildly corrosive.000 FromM.
TX. Houston. This is the amount of the metal which is plated out at a cathode.1 N KC1 Solution) Silver-Silver Chloride (Silver screen with deposited silver chloride) Pure Zinc (Special high grade) +0. .074 volt Add -0. Table C-5 presents the electrochemical equivalents of the metals.) the same in most situations... no metal moves very far from the position shown. 59.78 To correct readings between structure and comparative reference electrode to equivalent readings with respect to copper sulfate reference electrode Add -0. 1973. it may go as high as 75% at high current densities under favorable conditions. Peabody. The values shown are those corresponding to 100% electrochemical efficiency. sometimes reaching 95%.g. The efficiency of magnesium anodes in ordinary applications generally runs about 50%. efficiencies obtained may vary from zero (e. shelf deterioration of a dry cell from which no current is being drawn) to very close to 100% (silver coulometer operated under careful laboratory conditions). The efficiency of zinc anodes is in many cases higher.10 * Based on zinc having an open circuit potential of —1. in actual practice.028 Add -0.25* Add -1. p.85 volt with respect to copper sulfate reference electrode -0. expressed as a function of current and time. NACE Basic Corrosion Course.156 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Table C-3 Comparison of Other Reference Electrode Potentials with that of the Copper-Copper Sulfate Reference Electrode at 25°C Structure-to-comparatlve reference electrode reading equivalent to -0. W. (From A.10 volt with respect to copper sulfate reference electrode. Chapter 5.07 Type of comparative reference electrode Calomel (saturated) Silver-Silver Chloride (0.776 volt -0.e. i. or dissolved from an anode.822 -0.
10 Bismuth Arsenic Copper (cupric) Copper (cuprous) Tellurium Silver Mercury Palladium Platinum Gold (auric) Gold (aurous) Bi + + + -0.40 +1.76 +0.10 +0.56 +0.82 -0.34 +0.36 -1.34 -0.56 -0.90 +2.69 +1.23 -0.Corrosion of Steel in Soil Table C-4 Electromotive Series of Metals Metal Lithium Rubidium Potassium Strontium Barium Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Beryllium Manganese Zinc Chromium Iron (ferrous) Cadmium Indium Thallium Cobalt Nickel Tin Lead Iron (ferric) Hydrogen Antimony Ion Formed Li Rb + K+ Sr + + Ba + + CA+ + Na + Mg++ A1+ + + Be + + Mn + + Zn+ + Cr++ Fe + + Cd + + In+ + + Tl + Co + + Ni++ Sn + + Pb ++ Fe+ + + H+ Sb+ + + + 157 Potential +2.70 +1.50 As + + + Cu + + Cu + Te+ + + + Ag + Hg + + Pd + + Pt + + + + Au + + + Au + .30 -0.40 +0.47 -0.96 +2.44 +0.87 +2.92 +2.92 +2.14 +0.80 -0.93 +2.33 +0.12 +0.80 -0.71 +2.86 -1.28 +0.00 -0.23 +0.04 0.
635 2.865 0.92 45.168 1.72 29.025 3.59 49.57 12.80 74.599 0.32 38.52 14.42 0.932 1.542 1.00 61.190 4.990 1.39 142.025 1.50 20.042 2.26 50.83 23.186 2.821 2.00 21.259 3.454 0.18 .18 31.372 1.70 13.14 40.25 21.858 0.46 35.189 1.038 1.77 6.158 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Table C-5 Electrochemical Equivalents of Metals Metal Lithium Rubidium Potassium Strontium Barium Calcium Sodium MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM Beryllium Manganese ZINC Chromium IRON (ferrous) Cadmium Indium Thallium Cobalt Nickel Tin Lead IRON (ferric) HYDROGEN Antimony Bismuth Arsenic Copper (cupric) Copper (cuprous) Tellurium Silver Mercury Palladium Platinum Gold (auric) Gold(aurous) gm/amp-hr 0.452 7.095 2.097 1.695 0.562 0.00 22.98 23.19 47.63 28.48 3.427 2.25 19.514 2.748 0.00 77.742 1.458 1.357 Ib/amp-yr 5.15 42.52 27.78 72.58 8.220 0.58 49.45 16.335 0.14 18.099 1.214 3.647 1.
3 9.6 38.1 30. that is. It will be observed that this ranking.9 Metal Tin Cobalt Nickel Copper (cuprous) Iron (ferric) Silver Antimony Bismuth Mercury Copper (cupric) Arsenic HYDROGEN Palladium Tellurium Platinum Gold (aurous) Gold (auric) Heat of Formation 40.2 26.4 76. Table C-6 Heat of Formation Chlorides of Metals (Values for Single Ion) Metal Rubidium Potassium Barium Strontium Sodium Lithium Calcium Magnesium Manganese Beryllium Aluminum Zinc Chromium Thallium Cadmium Indium Lead Iron (ferrous) Heat of Formation 105.9 98.3 102. by chemical affinity or activity.2 55.4 95. where the order is determined by electrical activity.6 30.3 15. is very similar in order to that in Table C-l.6 56.7 46.4 97. Values shown are for the combination of a single chloride ion.5 42.5 37.7 19.8 48.5 32.6 49.1 22.3 56.0 21.5 32.Corrosion of Steel In Soil 159 Table C-6 shows the heat of formation of the chlorides of the various metals.7 98.7 25.7 24.0 . the total heat of formation has in each case been divided by the valence of the metal.6 10.9 42.0 104.8 40.5 30.8 49.
this requires that the coating conductance and the soil resistivity be uniform. Current is drained from the line at a single point and discharged to earth at a remote distance so that no trace of the anode field is detectable at the pipe line. The leakage conductance to earth is uniform for the entire line. 2. Under these conditions. The line is infinitely long. The equations for these curves are derived from the following assumptions: 1.Appendix D Attenuation Equations In Chapter 5. the equations are: where: &EX = change in pipe-to-soil potential at distance x from the drainage point 160 . 4. The resistance of the pipe per unit length is uniform throughout. 3. Figure 5-2 shows the attenuation curves for an infinite line.
. and Rk is the "characteristic resistance" of the line. The actual AE0 and A/0. it can be seen. in ohms. as seen from the drainage point. Consider now a section of line of length 2L lying between two identical drainage points. let the remainder of the original assumptions made still hold. at its drainage point. and the current by the difference of two similar to Equation D-2: where AE0' and A/0' are the potential shift and line current which would be caused by either of the two units. looking in one direction only. if the other unit were not present. will ." Equations D-l and D-2 exhibit the attenuation of potential and voltage along the line. This in turn is given by where R\ is the leakage resistance to remote earth of the line in ohmfeet. . The characteristic resistance is the resistance of the whole line to remote earth. at any point at a distance x from one of the two points (chosen as an origin) the potential will be given by the sum of two expressions similar to Equation D-l. being exponential in form. a = quantity called the attenuation constant a is a function of the particular line involved and is given by where Rs is the longitudinal resistance of the pipe in ohms per foot.718 . they will plot as straight lines on semilog paper (see Figure 5-2).Attenuation Equations 161 AE0 = change in the same quantity at the drainage point e = base of natural logarithms = 2. it is the ratio A£0/A/0. It will be noted that the unit for a is "per foot. Under these conditions.
and it is true that many actual lines deviate so far from uniformity that they are not applicable. although it passes through soil which is far from uniform. They were derived as curves showing conditions along half of a line segment between two identical drainage points. It is always helpful to plot the values of AE and A/ from a current requirement test on semilog paper and give them a critical look. It should also be noted that the better the coating on a line. the following equations can be derived: where AE0 and A/0 now refer to the actual drainage potential and current (note that A/0 is always the current drained from one direction only and is normally half the total drainage current). . From these two. there will be no effect on the line whatever. however. these. These are the curves represented in Figure 5-3. are frequently applicable to bare or poorly coated lines. they are quite useful. however. It may be argued that the assumptions of uniformity made in the derivation of the attenuation equations are so severe that no actual line approaches the conditions closely enough for the equations to be useful. for the insertion of an insulated joint at the point of zero current. however. These two curves are shown in Figure 5-4.162 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection be somewhat different. but the assumptions must always be remembered. Knowing what the curves should look like for the ideally uniform conditions will often make it possible to determine the causes of the anomalies present in the data. Equations D-5 and D-6 will be found to conform to actual field conditions more often than the "infinite" line Equations D-l and D-2. to represent conditions along a line between a drainage point and an insulated joint lying at distance L. the less is the influence of soil resistivity on total leakage conductance. they may be used. This is not the case. with or without the actual use of mathematical analysis. a well-coated line will often show very uniform attenuation characteristics.
anode installation. 27-30 interference. 70-71. 66-67 Anode. 69-70 Cadweld. 136-137 163 Bond adjustment. 72-73 selection and spacing. 150-152 tests. 69-91 vertical. 156 Canes. 34 Calomel electrode.Index AC soil rod. 113-114 crossing. 68-69 scrap steel. 3 Cathode. 104-105 resistance calculation. 42. galvanic deep. 24-26 Calibration. 132 magnesium. 160-162 Bare lines. 69-70 high silicon iron. 70-72 horizontal. Shepard. 51 Area surveys. zero resistance. 10-11 Attenuation. 40-41. 16. 6-8. 147 Bituminous coating. 35 . 13-14 Cable. 59-60 zinc. 147-152 Cathodic protection criteria. 45-52. 133 Anode proximity. 78-80 multiple. 111-113 foreign line. 79. 3-4 Ammeter. 62-63 resistance. soil. test section. 109-124 steel in soil. 122-123 multiple. 2. 112 Box. 97. 92-96 single. 73-74 inspection. 116 Annual costs. 114-118 solid. 74 graphite. 88-92 Bimetallic cell. 119 negative bus.
92-99. 139 measurement. 156. 136-137 conductance. 35. 158 Evaluation of coating. heat of. electrochemical. 60-63. attenuation. 103 tests. 80-81 stray. 66-67 ground bed. 35. 31-35 measurement. 139-142 Construction inspection. 139-142 tests. 160-162 Equivalents.158-159 rectifier. 25. 35. 156 copper sulfate. 155. 27. 66-67. 36-39. 111-113 Current line. 153-159 steel in water. 149-150 Coating bituminous. 147-149 Conductance coating. 40-41. 159 . 16. 31 Curves. 139 Exposure areas. 100 Costs annual. 57. 72-74. 69-70. 122-123 Formation. 147. 157 Electronic potential meter. 22-24 Equations. 32-33 voltmeter error. 100-108 Electrolytic cell. 27-30 Crossing bonds. 16 placement. 16 Electrolysis. 137-139. 155-156 hydrogen. 31-33 requirement survey. cathodic protection. 16.164 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Cell bimetallic. attenuation. 16-17. 129 rectifier systems. 147-148 electrolytic. 147. 139-145 Coke breeze. 147-148 Efficiency galvanic anode. 149-150 Electromotive series. 16-17. 158 Electrode calomel. 126-129 Ferrous hydroxide. 25. 34. 16 zinc. 147-149 differential temperature. 146-147 Foreign line. 52-57 Detector. 64-65 Criteria. 142-144 Differential temperature cell. 73-74 Concentration cell. 105-107 Failures magnesium anode systems. 147 concentration. stray current. 63-64 rectifiers. 156. 146-149 steel in soil. 147-148 dissimilar electrode. 155-156 Correction lead resistance. 154 stray current. 46-51 Electrochemical equivalents. 45-52 Deep anode. 27. 59-69 rectifier. holiday. 139-142 definition. 27-29 silver chloride. 131 Electrical line length. 74 Design ground bed. 32-33 Corrosion fundamentals. 155 lead chloride. 22-25. 136-139 Copper sulfate electrode.
8-9 temporary.Index 165 Galvanic anode. 37 Potentiometer. 122. 111-112. 147 Joints. 73-74 Hot spots. 19-20 solid state. 119 Negative bus bonding. 69-70 Ground bed costs. 17-18. 78-87. 44. 109-124 radial. 43. 157 heat of formation of chlorides. 16. 69-76 test station. 43. 7 Metals electrochemical equivalents. 20-21 slide-wire potentiometer. 27. 22-23. 122 Ions and ionization. 21-22 potentiometer. 3. 158-159 Graphite anode. 137-139. potential. 22-25 Polarization. 20 Vibroground®. 142-144 Placement of electrode. 15 multicombination. 43 Heat of formation. 19 potentiometer-voltmeter. 149-150. 122-123 Lead chloride electrode. cathodic. 136-169 rectifier. 70-72 Holiday definition. 69-76 surveys. 61-63 cathodic protection. 50-51 Magnesium anode. 6-8. 27-29 profile. 132 construction. 72-74. 3. 159 Meters electronic potential. 123 Interference anode. 28-29 Line current measurement. 88-99 Hydrogen electrode. 158 electromotive series. 37-42. 19 Potentiometer-voltmeter. 137 detector. 122-123 length of electrical. 63-64 design. 22-24 four-pin soil resistance. 152 Potential electronic potential meter. 132-133 Multiple bonds. 35. 150-152 . 70-71. 44. insulated. 132-133 pipe to soil. 27-30. 78-80. 159 High silicon iron anode. 69-70 ground bed. 155 Inspection anodes. 24-26 Insulated joints. 6. 42. 15 voltmeters. 129-131 Installation anode. 25 static. 46-51 termination. 92-99. 59-69 installation. 109-124. 142-144 Horizontal anode. 129. 83-84. 60-61 Pearson detector. 104-105 Parallel rods. 22-24 monitor. 32-33 Monitor. 29 standard electrode. 31-35 Line foreign. 134-135 Megger. 20-21. 16 Leap frog. 19-20 Protection. 16. 19 vacuum tube.
70-72 Silver chloride electrode. 6. 59-60 Vibroground®. 36-39. 3-4 Scrap steel anode. 12-13. 79. AC soil. 66-67. 60-61 single anode. 10-11 current requirement. 64-65 design. 6-8. AC. 8-9 soil. 20-21 vacuum tube. 139-145 Troubleshooting. 17-18 correction of error. 1 horizontal anode. coating. 2. 3. 97. 16 Soil box. 100-108 Termination line. 11-15 profile. 34 Tests. 11 logarithmic. 20 Wenner method. 89-92 potential. 32-33 solid state. 106-107 resistivity. 68-69 bond. 133-134 costs. 133-135 Vertical anode. 16-30. 89-92 stray current. 155. 7 Rod. by battery test. electromotive. 7-9. 114-118 definition. 94-96 survey. 8-9 hot spot. 50-51 Test section calibration. 72-73 Series. 92-96 Static potential. 157 Shepard canes. 34. 126-131. 37 Stray currents. 62-63 parallel rods. 3-5 two-terminal. 15 Voltmeters.166 Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Rectifier. 3-5 Zero resistance ammeter. 133-134 Resistance anode. 2-3 histogram. 34. 1-15 correcting for lead. 70-71. 116 Zinc anode. 133 electrode. 3-4 Somastic. 59-61 Resistivity. 1 determination four-terminal. 80-81 ground bed. 13-14 Soil rod. 3 Silicon iron anode. 32-33 definition. 88 Spacing anode. 100-108 Surveys area. 16 . 52-57 Rectifier-ground bed troubleshooting. 73-74 multiple anode.
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