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.INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE
Government of India Ministry of Agriculture Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
Directorate of Plant Protection, . May, 2001 Quarantine & StoragE:
N.H. IV, Faridabad - 121 001
IPM PACKAGE FOR CHILLIES/CAPSICUM
Foreward Preface Acknowledgements I. MAJOR PESTS Pests of National Signif.icance Pests of Regional Significance PEST MONITORING 1.
Page No. i ii
Agro~Eco·System Analysis (AESA) Field scouting Pheromones Yellow pan/sticky traps Nematodes Economic threshold levels (ETL)
2 3 3 3
3. 4. 5. 6. III.
IPM Strategies for Chimes 1. 2. 3.
Cultural Practices Mechanical control Biological control. Chemical control
CROP STAGE- WISE IPM PRACTICES DO'S AND DON'TS IN CHILUES/CAPSICUM SAFETY PARAMETERS ANNEXURES - I & II IPM
IN PESTICIDES USAGE
. April I.. low input based Crop Production Progamme etc. FARIDABAD tax: 0129 0129 5413985 ~412125 OF PLANT PROTECTION. However. It has become more relevant due to a number of advantages like safety to environment. Subsequently concerted efforts were made in 1998... R bunat .-" (V.. Though IPM approach has been taken up since 1981. .. Presently. 2002 / II~ . Hopefully. Human Resource Development has helped to sensitise extension functionaries and farmers about the usefulness of IPM. QUARANTINE & STORAGE .Telegram: PROTECTION Tel' I DIRECTORATE Ministry of Agriculture (Department of Agriculture & Cooperation) Covcrnmenl of India NH IV...V.121001 (Haryana) DR.2001 and 2002 to update and develop IPM package of practices for agricultural and horticultural crops. the scattered information on various components of this ceo-friendly approach forms basic necessity. its impact has not been felt until 1994. For successful implementation of IPM. these IPM Package of Practices will be useful for the Researchers. Plant Protection Workers and Fanners alike.. RAGUNATHAN Plant Protection Adviser To the Government of India FOR EWARD Integrated Pest management (rPM) approach has been globally accepted for achieving sustainability in agriculture. IPM package of practices for 51 crops have been finalised to help the extension workers and fanners to manage the pests/ diseases and to minimise the over use/ misuse of chemical pesticides. In this direction.. initial attempts were made in 1992 to harmonise the IPM Package of Practices of various crops. pesticide-free food commodities.) . suggestions for further improvement in future publication/ revision will be of immense help. Efforts have been made to incorporate the relevant available technical input provided by the scientists of leAR Institutes! SAUs and Stale Departments of Agriculture.
IPM is an ecofriendly approach for managing pest and disease problems encompassing available methods and techniques of pest control such as cultural. Onion. Hyderabad and Dte.PREFACE In order to minimise the indiscriminate and Injudicious use of chemical pesticides. Cruciferous vegetables. 2002 (A. Faridabad and lPM package of practices for 20 crops were evolved on rice. first National Workshop on IPM for harmonisation of Package of Practices was organized at National Plant Protection Training Institute (NPpm. sticky/yellow pan traps.6. Soybean. 1998 and Nov. Castor. Grapes. weeds. Wheat. pulses. In this series. 20-22. Fennel.---- April 1. Pesticide Industries and State Departments of Agriculture/Horticulture will provide technical backup in the management of pests. Rajma). Chillies.. Pea. ~-ev. Tea). fruit crops (Citrus. nematodes and rodents in the Indian Agriculture and Horticulture. lPM Package of Practices for Agricultural and Horticultural crops will be helpful to minimize the ill effects of chemical pesticides to promote the IPM for sustainable production. Pineapple. Leguminous vegetables. pheromone. oilseeds (Groundnut. Cashew and Arecanut) have been finalised. 1992. spice and plantation crops (Small Cardamom. 2001 and Feb. 2002 respectively to update 20 available IPM Packages and develop 31 new IPM Packages specially for Horticultural crops. Cumin. Ginger. cotton. and oilseeds. Guava. extension workers and farmers alike who are engaged in the agricultural practices.D. 1998 at. 51 IPMPackage of Practices for cereal crops (Rice. Faridabad during May 14-17. diseases. Black gram/Green gram. vegetables. The economic threshold levels CETL) of important pests and diseases are also given in the packages to take appropriate control measures when pest population crosses ETL. Coconut. of PPQ&S. Sunflower. Hyderabad during June 29-30. Pomegranate. pulse crops (Pigeonpea. Pest monitoring is also one of the important component ofIPM to take proper decision to manage any pest problem. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (]PM) has been enshrined as cardinal principle of Plant Protection in the overall Crop Protection Programme under the National Agricultural Policy of the Govt. Sapota. field scouting. These IPM packages developed with the technical inputs from experts from Indian Council of Agriculture Research. The IPM packages encompasses various management strategies for containing the pest and disease problems. Sugarcane. Okra. vegetables (potato. With a View to provide technical knowledge to the extension functionaries and farmers in the States. commercial crops (Cotton. Banana. Mango. mechanical. It can be done through Agro-Ecosystem Analysis (AESA). Apple. Coriander. Sorghum. The greater emphasis has been given on biological control including use ofbiopesticides. These packages will be useful for the researchers. Black Pepper. Millets). Rapeseed/Mustard. Maize. Large Cardamom. Directorate of Plant Protection. of India. Gram. light. Sesame. two National Workshops on IPM have been conducted at NPPTI. Cucurbitacious vegatables). Tobacco. Brinjal. Safflower.. In these workshops. biological and chemical in a compatible and scientific manner. 5-. !PM technology manages the pest population in such a manner that economic loss is avoided and adverse side effects of chemical pesticides are minimized. State Agricultural Universities. These will also be useful In reducing the pesticide residues in exportable agricultural commodities and would also help in the management of pests/diseases/weeds/nematodes which may get inadvertently introduced in the country. Subsequently workshops were organized from April J 5-17. Quarantine & Storage. Litchi). Pawar) Director (IP~f) . Tomato. Oilpalm). Central Directorate of Plant Protection.
Faridabad.IPM Div . IV. Divakar. 7.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The IPM Package of Practices for CbUlles/Capdcum crop was discussed and finalised in the National Workshop on IPM held at National Plont Protection Training Institute (NPPTI). Dy. Kanungo.. CentrallPM Centre. Srinivasa. Faridabad :1 2. Entomologist. Dr. Dr.. IPM Div. CIL. Faridabad : Dr. Director. SSA. Dr.). Director (Ent.• Dte ofPPQS. I. Gorakhpur Dr. NPPTI. Sh. LOC. Kapoor.ofP~S. IPM Div. N. 2. B. Faridabad. K. It. Faridabad 10. Sh. Director (Bio. 5..B.S. Technical Session Co-chairman.Faridabad : Dr. M. The technical input received from the following experts is thankfully acknowledged. Misra.P. PPO(E). M. Abrar Alam. rPM Div.lPM Div. Laxmi Chand. Bangalore U. Faridabad. Dte ofPPQS. Dte of PPQS. II. Sr. Jt. Sb. SSA. Dte ofPPQS. Central IPM Centre. 6. SSA. Faridabad 9.S.P. 5. Dte ofPPQS. A. Srivastava.K Mishra. Faridabad. Dr.S. Rajahmundry C. PDBC. Faridabad. Dr. Dte ofPPQS. Dte ofPPQS.V. ~e. APPO. Sharma. Sh. 3. R. Mohd. Sh. Technical input 1. SSA. Bhaskar. Sreedhar.M. 4. Sh. Director (IPM). Technical Session Coordinator. 2001.s. Sr. Faridabad 8. 4. Brajendra Singh. Jasvir Singh. Sf Scientist eTRI (leAR). Faridabad. Dte ofPPQS. Entomologist. Singh. Faridabad. Scientist (Ent). Technical Session Dr.. PPO (E). Cnetral IPM Centre. Dte ofPPQS. Expert input BJ. Hyderabad during Moy 14-17. leAR.) m. PPO(PP). D. Stenographet. Dr.. Faridabad V. . Hyderabad N. Pawar. Dte ofPPQS. Rao. Dte ofPPQS. lPM Div. Or. Tomer.L. Agronomist (H). Dte ofPPQS. IPM Div. R.S. Bangalore 7. Jalandhar 6. S. Sh. 3.D. Yogesh Kumar. Dte ofPPQS. Dr. AD(E).. Phogat. Chairman. x.
.1 1.8 Lamb square (Chenopodium album) Pimpernel (Anagalfis arvensis) Sweet clover (Melilotus spp.2 4.3 Thrips Aphids Mites 2.1 3.1 4.2 Root knot nematode Reniform nematode 4.6 4.) Fumitory (Fumaria indica) Corn sparry (Spergul/a ervensie.IPM PACKAGE FOR CHILLIES I CAPSICUM I. Blue grass (Poa annua) Canary grass (Phalaris minor) Rabbit foot grass (Dactylotenium aegyptium) 2659 AGR If02-2A .2 1. Diseases 2. Major weeds 4.3 4. MAJOR PESTS Pests of National Significance Insect pests 1.2 2.5 4.4 Damping off Wilt Anthracnose Viral 3. 1.3 2.1 2.4 4. Nematodes 3.7 4. A.
5 2. Soil conditions.4 2.2 1 .4 1. 4. the influence of climatic factors and their inter-relationship for growing healthy crop. 2. Pests of Regional Significance Insect Pests 1. Diseases 2. 2659 AGRII02-2B . which can be gainfully employed by extension functionaries and farmers to analyse field situations with regard to pests. Built-in compensation abilities of the plants.B.5 Tobacco cutworm leaf eating caterpillar White grub Capsicum gall midge Fruit borer Flea beetle 1. Plant health at diHerent stages. soil conditions. plant health.1 2. 5. Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA) AESA is an approach.6 Bacterialspot leaf spots Powdery mildew Stem rot Leaf curl Murda disease complex II. defenders.ender population dynamics.3 2. Such a critical analysis of the field situations will help in taking appropriate decision on management practices. 1.2 2. Farmers' past experience. Pest and def. 3. Climatic factors. The basic components of AESA are:1.. 6.3 1.6 2.1 1. PEST MONITORING 1.
3. Pheromones Pheromone traps with lures are commercially available for pests like H. Nematodes Root knot causes diagnostic symptoms of gall formation and reniform causes "dirty root" symptom. Locally available empty yellow palmolive tins coated grease/vaseline/castor @ 10 with oil on outer surface may also be used as yellow pan trap.The details of AESA are given in Annexure-I. Replace the lures once in 15 to 25 days depending upon the weather conditions.. traps per ha. 4. Field scouting AESA requires skill and so only the trained farmers can undertake their exercise. Economic Threshold Level of H.. Install five traps with lures for each pests. Traps should be installed in the field in such a way that the position of lure is always 6-12" above the crop canopy. keep the distance of five meters between the traps.armigera.litura. 2. thrips.arge extent. 6.armigera is B to 10 moths per day per trap. Economic threshold levels(ETL) The Economic Threshold Level (ETL) is an attempt to improve decision making practices by using partial economic analysis on the impact of the control . Sample field scouting on pest situation by the farmers helps to minimize pesticide usage to a I. etc. other farmers also can do field scouting in their own fields at regular intervals to monitor the major pest situation. 5. S. Their presence can be detected by using "Trypan Blue Stain" solution in water which turns nematode egg sacs dark blue in colour.. Yellow pan/sticky traps Set up yellow pan/sticky traps for monitoring whitefly. whereas roots remain uncoloured. The trapped moths should be collected and killed daily. However.
thereby avoid damping off in solanaceous nurseries by preventing soil borne fungi VIZ. The ETL for some of the major pests are listed below:PEST Thrips Leaf hopper Mites Fruit borer ETL 6 thrips per leaf or 10% affected plants. 1. 2-5 nymphs per leaf.practice such as spraying a pesticide. 1 egg or 1 larva per plant or 1damaged fruit per plant. Pythium.2 Crop rotation with French beans reduces the bacterial wilt disease incidence.5 Deep summer ploughing also helps in exposing resting stages of pests and soil borne nematodes to sunlight. .. etc.3 Adopt raised nursery beds (10 cms) for good drainage. III. 5-10 mites per leaf. Crop rotation with cereals and inter-cropping reduces nematodes. (PM STRATEGIES 1. Clean planting material.1 Phytosanitation after final harvest volunteer plants. Phytophthora. At the ETL the benefit of spraying is equal to the losses caused by the insects in the field. Htuzoctonis. 1. onion and garlic 1. Cultural practices to reduce sources of inoculum such as removal of plants 1. The farmers are advised to take appropriate measures. with marigold. whenever the incidence crosses ETL. nematodes and resting stages of insects and diseases. preferably certified seeds should be used.4 Soil solarization using transparent polythene sheets 60-100 gauge thick on nursery beds for about 15 to 21 days which helps in killing weed seeds. 1.
Reduvid bugs. Anthocorid bugs. 2.1 Collection Epilachna beetle. Nabid bugs.Removal of damaged shoots and fruits and destruction. on Asphondylia sp. 2. Damselfly. which would be capable of competing with weeds at the initial stages of crop growth. @ 5 per ha.3 Use of yellow pan/sticky traps for sucking pests @ 10 per ha.2 . Dragonfly..5 Crops should be maintained weed free for 4-6 weeks after planting by resorting to timely hand hoeing and hand weedings. e.atode. Aphidius sp. grubs and adults of 2. Spiders. Geocorid bugs. Carabids. .I/tura. Eurytoma sp. armfgera and 2.. Syrphids. Biological control 3. tabacco cutworm etc. larvae. 2. In addition to these parasites.7 Crop seedlings should be timely planted in well prepared seed bed at recommended spacing.5 1. Use balanced dose of fertilizer to get optimum plant population and healthy crop stand.g. 1.4 Installation of Pheromone traps S. on aphids. predatory miridbugs. predatory pentatomids. predatory thrips also actively suppress the . predatory mite.. Destruction of crop residues/debris 6 and alternate host material reduces the inoculum load of any foliar diseases and nem. general predators like Coccinellids.1 Conservation (a) Some parasites vegetable crop-as (b) are very active in the field against senous pests of required. Aphelinus sp.. 2. Mechanical control and destruction of egg masses. for monitoring H. Staphylinids. 3.
priteosum @ 50. as a basal dose at the time of land preparation for controlling root-knot nematode infection. . etc. starting from flower formation stage for six times at weekly interval in chillies/capsicum. (c) (d) (e) Since these natural enemies are highly prone for pesticides. armigera eggs.2 Augmentation (a) Inundative release of Trichogramma brasiliensis or T.harzianum @ @ 500 9 per ha.000 per ha. Seed treatment with Trichoderma 4 gm per kg of seeds to prevent seed and soil borne infection of fungal diseases. 3.3 Biopesticides (a) (b) (c) Spray of HaNPV @ 250 LE(6x10 PIB per LE) for three times starting from flower initiation to fruit development stage in chillies. Grow cowpea or pulses on the bunds to build up natural enemy fauna.000 per ha. (c) Release Chrysoperla camea @ 2 grubs per plant to control H. 3. Install bird perchers @ 50 per ha. which also takes care of serpentine leaf miner. Application of neem cake @ 200 kg per ha. 3.4 (a) (b) Botanical pesticides Five per cent NSKE spray for sucking pests in early stages of the crop. starting from flower formation stage for six times at weekly interval in chil!ies/capsicum."- pest population. (b) Inundative release of Chelonous blackburni or Copidosoma koehleri @ 15. as a basal dose at the time of land(b) Application of neem cake @ 200 kg per ha. the commercial preparation viridelT. Spray Bacillus thuringiensis var Kurstaki. against lepidopteran pests. avoiding unnecessary sprays are the best way to conserve them. Stethorns pauperculus is an active predator on red spider mite. aphids and other soft bodied insects during early in the season.
to control early leaf spots (Alternaria solam) whenever the disease is noticed.lha./sq.m.1. durinqearly stages of crop to avoid sucking pests and also nematodes. a.3 Application of bleaching powder @ 15 kg/ha before planting against bacterial wilt infection in chillies in endemic areas. 4. In direct seeded crops treat the seed with Carbofuran/Carbosulfan (25 8T) @ 3% (w/w) to reduce root knot nematode problem.4 Application of carbofuran 1 kg a.Uha.125 .5 Spray Endosulfan 525 g a.3 to O.6 Apply Pendimethalin for weed control. Quinalphos 25 EC 1000 rnl/ha. and Cypermethrin 50g a. 4. as pre-emergence herbicides .i.i.4 . @ 1.6gm a. to control insect pests. Only when pest population intensity crossed economic threshold level. 4.25 kg. Alternate spray of Endosulfan @ 525 g a.7 Treat nursery beds with Carboturan 3 G @ 0.i. Chemical control 4. the safer pesticides should be applied judiciously.per ha.. per ha. 4.Uha at 15 days interval.2 Foliar spray of mancozeb 1.i.Uha. 4.1 Chemical' pesticides should be used on need basis as a last resort. 4.5 kg a.0 to 1.
8 IV. @ .02%. Weeds Maintain planting weedings.3 to 2. Spray 5% NSKE. CROP STAGE·WISEIPM PRACTICES S.NP 46a. nematodes I Deep Practices summer ploughing. Adopt recommended spacing and timely well prepared seed bed. as 3. PIB/LE) Augment the natural enemies by keeping the egg masses collected from the fields in the netted cage.000/ha for four times at weekly intervals. Use balanced fertil izer. Use of bird perchers @ 50 per ha. (6xl09 during evening hours. Apply 1. Seed seedling Thrips Grow resistant varieties Release Chrysoperla Dimethoate 0.25 kg a. Release Chrysoperla carnea @ 2 grubs/plant.No. weed free by resorting crop for 4~6 weeks after to hand hoeings and hand Mites Thrips Spray Dicofol 500 g. A ppJ ication of neern cake @ 200 kg per ha.zha.a. 1.i. Vegetative Tobacco cutworm Installation of pheromone traps @ five traps per ha. Soi I solarization.lha.i. disease causing spores.i. 1 .lha. Jwala. Pusa. planting dose of Weeds 111 Pendimethalin @ Lflto pre-e mergence heri b ici de. Replace lure once in 15 days. Stage Pre-sowing Pest Resting stages of insects. 3 g @ 0. Spray SINPY @ 250 LE/ha. a. Treat the nursery bed with Carbofuran 0.i/sq. Hand collection of egg masses/early instar larvae. Release Chrysoperlla cameo @ 2 grubs/plant.a." Spray ~nthracnose/Pseudomonos Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed and Carbendazim @ I gil 00 g seed.6 g. Spray Endosulfan @ 312-625 g.m. Release of Telenomus remus @ 50. 2 grubs/plant.
0001118. Spray Endosulfan g.i./ha.4.i. . Reproductive Tobacco cutworm As shown in Vegetative Install pheromone once in 15 days. Spray HaNPV @ 250 LE per ha. Spray 5% NSKE or Bacillus kurstaki 500 g.a. Mites Thrips 525 g. and Carbaryl 1000 As shown in vegetative stage.a.lha. stage. Hand collection of larvae of Helicoverpa on main and trap crops. of lures Fruit borer traps with replacement Release Trichograntma brasiliensis H priteosuml Tichilonis @ 50. for six times at weekly interval. As shown in vegetative stage.lha. (6x1012 PIB/ha) thuringiensis var twice at a 15 days interval in the evening hours.
S. Do not use seeds without seed treatment with biocides/ chem iea Is. Pre-emergence herbicides should not be applied after emergence of crop and/or weeds.v. Crops should not be exposed to moisture deficit stress at their critical growth stages. to avoid its photo degradation. 1. 2. 9.No. Grow only recommended varieties. Pre-emergence as well as soil incorporated herbicides should not be applied in dry soils. Do not grow varieties not suitable for the season or the region. as they cannot control the germinated weeds as well as they may cause phytotoxicity to the crop. seeds with approved for the control of seed 5. Herbicides like fluchloralin should be incorporated In the soil immediately after spraying. 4. . Avoid late sowing as this may lead to reduced yields 'and incidence of white grubs and diseases. Sow early in the seasons. Sow in rows at optimum depths under proper moisture conditions for better establishment. DO'S AND DON'TS IN CHILLIES/CAPSICUM IPM Do's Deep ploughing is to be done on bright sunny days during the months of May and June. to allow desiccation of weed's bulbs and/or rhizomes of perennial weeds. The field should be kept exposed to sunlight at least for 2-3 weeks. 6. at least for 2-3 weeks. Maintain optimum and healthy crop stand which would be capable or competing with weeds at a critical stage of crop weed condition. Soil incorporation of fluchloralin should not be delayed or avoided for achieving effective weed control. Do not sow seeds beyond 5-7 em depth. sand or urea. as appropriate spray solution with standard equipment along with flat fan or flat jet nozzels. Do not apply herbicides alongwith irrigation water or by mixing with soil. proper time. Always treat the chernicals/bio-products borne diseases/pests. Apply only recommended herbicides at recommended dose. 8. Pre-emergence herbicides should be applied immediately after sowing before the emergence of weeds and crop. 3. 7. Don'ts Do not plank or Irrigate the field after ploughing.
Use NPK fertilizers recommendatio ns. Do not apply pesticides during preceding seven days before harvest.m. . _Apply HaNPV. 16. 12. Apply NPV only in the evening hours after 5 jJlTI. Apply short persistent pesticides to avoid a pesticides residue in the soil and produce. SINPV at recommended dose when a large number of egg masses and early instar larvae are noticed. P:D ratio only. otherwise it may not attract the pests and natural enemies. 18. 13. when it is 17. Do not use the same sprayer for application of chemical pesticides and biocides. Do not apply chemical pesticides seven days of release of parasites. 14. Epilachna grubs. Conduct AESA weekly In the morning preferably before 9 a. most of the insects are not active during this period. Do not spray pesticides at mid-day since. Spray pesticides thoroughly to treat the undersurface of the leaves particularly for mites. 11. Do not mix micronutrients with fertilizers and incorporate into the soi l. 15. Do not store the __ pheromone lures at normal . as per the soil test Avoid imbalanced use of fertilizers. Do not apply pesticides/biocides not absolutely required.10. room temperature (keep them 1I1 refrigerator). etc. within . ETL. Release parasites only after noticing adult moth catches in the pheromone trap or as per field observati on. spray recommended biocides/chemicals at the time of their appearance in the night. Take decision on management practice based on AESA. Use micronutrient mixture after 'sowing as top dressing separately. In case of pests which are active during night like Spodoptera. Follow the recommended procedure of trap crop technology. Do not apply chemical pesticides on calendar basis. Install pheromone traps at appropriate period. Spodptera. Do not apply long persistent pesticides on trap crop. 19.
induce vomiting by tickling back of the throat. tremor. weakness. For extreme symptoms of O. for adults. Do not administer milk. respiratory fai lure and death Gastric lavage with 2-4 L. injection of atropine (2-4 rng.Wash the eyes' with plenty of coot and clean water. Medical aid: Take the patient to the docotr/Primary Health Centre immediately along with tile original container. anorexia. tremors of tongue and eyelids. give mouth to mouth or mouth to nose breathing. headache. oil laxatives and epinephrine (Adrenal in) .Carry the person 10 the open fresh air. Class tl Moderately Hazardous vomiting.If the victim is fully conscious. coma. In case the person is unconscious make sure the breathing passage is kept clear without any obstruction. In case of breathing difficulty. 1971 Colour of Toxicity Triangle WHO classification by hazard First aid measures IN PESTICIDES USAGE of poisoning Treatment of poisoning Waiting period (No" of days) Symptoms INS ECTJC IDES ORGA NOCH LO RI NE PESTlC] DES Yellow 1.5-1. the In case of (a) Skin contact Remove a II con tam inaiedcl oth ings and immediately wash with lot of water and soap. (b) Eye contamination . No Name pesticide of Classification as per Ins ecti c ides Rules. (10 oz) sodium sulphate in one cup of water Barbiturates in appropriate dosages repeated as necessary for restlessness or convulsions Watch breathing closely. 0. tap water Catharsis with 30 gm. Give calcium gluconate (10% in to rnl. Victim's head should be little lowered and face should be turned to one side In the lying down posuion. anxiety. restlessn es s. Endosulfan Highly toxic Class II Moderately Hazardous Remove the person from contaminated environment. Nausea. Ieaflet and label. aspirate. ( c) Inhalation .. . Mild dizziness.CROP: CHILLI'E$ SAFETY PARAMETERS S. apprehens ion. convulsions. Avoid oils.0 mg for children) is recommended. oxygen an dJor artiflc ia I resp irat ion. if needed. miosis. and (d) Ingestion . ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES Yellow Highly toxic Ouinalphos 2. Ampules) intravenous ly every four hOUTS. loosen the clothings around neck and chest.P poisoning. alcohol and fatty substances.do not give stimulants.
.pyridinc 2-PAM Ic aldoxime 111 eth iod ide).25 and intravenously '" at a slow rate over a period of 5 minutes adm inister agam and period ica Ily as indicated. minute Excessive salivation more good sign. muscular slow pulse. nOllpinpoint and pupils. salivation.0 recur (15-16 intervals).impairment acuity. abdominal swearing.. atropinization occur. use oxygen. tremors.unt il signs of. More than one injection may be required. i I :1 Avoid tbeophyllin. lavage · For ingestion 5% with stomach if sodium bicarbonate. open. morphine. barb iturates phenothiazines. reactive respi ratory difficulty. with isotonic Wear rubber "loves while washing contact areas. miosis. when toxic symptoms begin 1. Severe . sphincter convulsions. insert endotracheal tube. Speed is imperative Atropine injecliol1 . Q : Moderatenausea. arninophyllin.I to 4 mg. In addition to atropine give (2.diarrhoea. wash with soap and water (eyes.wash saline). o for infants'" 0. coma and heart block. · . Do tracheotorny and give artificial respiration as needed. not vomiting. pulmonary cyanosis. Joss of control. lacrimation. I : . ufr . cramp. For skin contact. of visual repeated at 5-10 min ute I intervals . vomiting. . edema. atrop ine needed. airways · Keep Aspirate. Repeat 2 mg.
nausea. epigastric pain. Carbaryl Highly toxic Yellow - Constriction of pupils. vomiting._ wash saline). profuse sweating. tightness in c hest. diarrhoea. airway open. Carbofuran Extremely toxic Ked Class I b Highly hazardous 11 Class Moderately hazardous - 4. . artificial respiration first then administer atropine. theophyllin and Avoid am inophyll in or barb iturates. 2-PAM and other oximes are not harmful and in fact contra indicated for routine usatge. Oxygen Morphine. Do not give atropine to a cyanotic patient.Do not give atropine to a Give cyanotic patient. with isotonic gloves Wear rubber contact while washing area. For ingestion. CARBAMATES ~ J. For skin not vomiting. Keep Aspirate. if needed. sal ivat ion. lavage 5% stomach with if sodium bicarbonate. lassitude. contact was with soap and water (eyes . Give artificial resp iration first then administer atropine. insert endotracheal tube. muscle incocrdination. salivation Excessive good sign. use oxygen. - - I - - Atropine injection 1 to 4 mg. Do tracheotomy and give artificial respiration as needed. Repeat 2 mg when toxic symptoms begin to recur ([ 5·60 minute intervals). more atropine needed.
essentially 7. nausea. specific No Treatment IS sy III ptornatic. antidote. nausea. vomiting. vomiting. throat eyes and skin. allergic man ifestat ion s etc. flushed face. Highly toxic nn Yellow Class II Moderately hazardous - Headache. lO. pa lpitati on. Pendimetha lin Moderately toxic Blue Class III Slighly hazardous Class I b Highly hazardous Class III Slightly hazardous - Headache. antidote. essentially FUNGICIDES Mancozeb 6. irritation of nose. irritation of nose..SYNTHETlC PYRETHROIOS Cypermeth 5. vomiting. throat eyes and skin etc. irritation of nose. antidote. flushed face. flushed face. Carbosulfan Extremely toxic Moderately toxic Red - 11.. essentially I . specific No Treatment is sym ptornatic. palp itation. palpitation. nausea.. Bavistin OTHERS j Oxadicozen 8. 9. Slightly toxic Green Table 5Unlikely to present acute hazard In normal use specific No Treatment is symptomatic. Headache. Dicofol Blue - . throat eyes and skin etc.
drawing and discussion. which can be gainfully employed by group of farmers for decision making in IPM. leave the border side. Pest and defender population. Move from first to the second row and select the fifth plant from that . The eco-system analysis is done weekly. irrigation status. plants. Time required: Materials required: 120 minutes one note book. Other investment opportunities. activity is to analyse the field situation by analysis (AESA) is an approach. one large size paper. polythene bags. The health of the plant is determined by the environment and the herbivores. The basic components The goal of the AESA observation.16 Annexure-I AGRO ECO-SYSTEM ANALYSIS (AESA) IPM is based on ecological interactions between the environment. Past experience of the farmer in the situation. At the end of the activity the group should have made a decision about any action required for the field. plastic vials. The herbivores are balanced by their natural enemies. herbivores and their natural enemies. select fifth plant in a row for observation. Compensation abilities of the plants. Agro-ecosystem of AESA are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Plants health at different stages. Procedure: Go to the field. The maximum yield of the crop is determined by plants and their health. Weather conditions. etc. pencils and drawing crayons. Soil conditions. rubber band and chloroform.
Out of ten sample symptoms. note the uniformity in growth of the plants. larvae and adults of defoliators and workout defoliation percentage. larvae and adults of defoliators and workout defoliation downwards. Select three leaves from the sample plant. note the number of plants with flowers/fruits to assess the percentage of plants flowering/fruiting. . width of Likewise. Insect-pest. select a total at ten plants. plants. Count the branches that are affected by die-back or other shoot diseases. water situation and presence of weeds (observe the different kinds of weeds and severity). one taken from the top. Count the egg masses. Make records of the soil condition. assess the number of plants with virus for wilting symptoms. the following parameters and record. not observe on the ten sample plants. Likewise. Also record different leaf spot disease symptoms and count the number of spots. Count the flower and fruit feeding insects and assess the percentage of fruits affected by them. Walk through the whole plot to assess any other beneficials. Observe each plant. Out of ten sample plants. symptoms tissue). Rat: Count number of plants affected by rats. number of leaves. pests or Measure the height of the plant. Plant parameters: foliage. Start from the top of the plant and work downwards. also record number of live burrows in the plot. Pick or turn the leaf and count the number of sucking pests and predatory mites. is occuring. disease and defenders count : Count the larger pests and beneficials found on different branches and leaves of the plant.position for second observation. one from the middle and one from the bottom of the plant. Pull wilting plants and observe on the roots (cut the roots to observe the colour of the vascular diseases. Count the egg masses. Estimate the percentage of leaf area affected. etc.
If the plant is healthy. If the week was cloudy all the day for most of the week.Weather: Record last week's weather parameter. If diseases occur.. draw the disease. Draw dead or dying leaves in yellow. Draw the kinds of weeds in the field. Write the average number of natural enemies and their local names next to the drawing. For pest populations draw the different insects found in the field on the right side of the plant. Draw dead or dying leaves in yellow. colour it yellow. If the week was mostly sunny draw a sun. write the average number of fruits/head attacked. put just dark clouds. The data can also be summarized in a table on the right side. write the average number next to the insect. then draw a picture of a hand throwing N. For weeds draw the approximate density and size of weeds in relation to the size of the vegetable plant. colour the plant green. For rats. leaves. crayons. P or K depending on the type of fertilizer used. The rule's of drawing are as follows: Draw the plant with the correct number of branches. Also write the local' name next to the insect. If the week was mostly sunny and cloudy together draw a sun but half covered with dark clouds. If the fertilizer was applied. Make a drawing on the large piece of paper for each plot observed. For weeds draw the yellow. colour it yellow. If the plant is yellow. fruit and write the plant height and number of green and yellow leaves some where in the note book. . flowers. Find a shady place to sit as a qroup .Each group should sit together in a circle with pencils. draw the insects and spiders as found in the field on the left side of the plant. For natural enemy populations. data from each of the field activities and the drawing of the AESA of the previous week.
If granules were broadcast. Activities in neighbours fields 7. Natural enemies (and neutrals) 6. effects the crop 2. leaf spots? Die back? Fungicides? Diseases? 3.If pesticides were used in the field. Weather What to ask? Rain/dry? Trends in weather dry/wet season. seeding/vegetable Actions Do we need to water? Preparation of beds? Disease management Need fertilizer? =============~======~~~=========~~==================~======== Growth/flowe ring/fru iting/colou r Need watering? of leaves. Field condition Soil structure hard/wet? Weeds present? 4. show a hand with the name of pesticide being broadcast. Herbivores What herbivores? Population? Damaging? 5. Crop condition Age of crop. Now discuss the field situation among the group and arrive at a conclusion for the management practices required for the field. show sprays with a nozzle and write the type of chemical coming out of the nozzle. Decisions made last week What Natural Enemies? Population? Damaging? Do neighbours spray? What was sprayed? Was the decision made effective? Special topic? Hand weeding? Soil aeration? Insect zoo Special topic Insect zoo Special topic Compare with FP plot Insect zoo Special topic Do we need to do similar action? ======================~==========~============================== . The discussion may be centred around as detailed below: =======~~~=========~~~====~~=~~=======~=~========~========~== Steps what to observe 1.
Like wise many ground dwelling predators like ground beetles which play major role in regulating the population of lepidopterous pest like Helicoverpa armigera. Observation should be made 48 to 72 hours after fixing the trap. Agrotis ypsilon cannot be observed on plant in the vegetable fields during day time. Container with half filled water with a few drops of teepol on water surface is buried in the field in such a way that the top surface is at level with that of soil surface. spodopetra litura can not be assessed properly by visual observations. Ten traps may be required per hectare on vegetable crop. The pit fall trap method is effective in these situations. Pit fall trap is a simple plastic container (1 liter capacity) without lid.2 Pit fall trap Due to nocturnal behaviour and hiding during day time many insect pests like greasy cutworm. .4.
Never carry/transport pesticides along with materials. EARS and HANDS. Handling 1. Do not smell the pesticides. Do not transfer pesticides to other containers. handkerchiefs or piece of clean cloth as mask and a cap or towel to cover the head (Do not use polythene bag contaminated with pesticides. loose. shoulders or on the back. Always protect your NOSE. B.g. Pu rchase only JUST required quantity e. 6. 7. 9. 6. Keep away from reach of children and livestock. 3. 2. 500 or 1000 g/ml for single application in specified area. 5. Use polythene bags as hand gloves. Use clean water. 5. Precautions for Preparing Spray Solution 1. Avoid spilling of pesticides solution while filling the sprayer tank. 100. Concentrated pesticides must not fall on hands etc. Prepare spray solution as per requirement. 2.. 3.Annexure-II BASIC PRECAUTIONS IN PESTICIDE USAGE A. Do not purchase pesticides without proper/approval LABELS. Purchase 1. 4. 3. while opening sealed containers. 4. Do not expose to sunlight or rain water. Keep only in original container with intact seal. . Never keep them together with food or feed/fodder. 2. 2. EYES. Do not purchase leaking containers. Use hand gloves. face mask and cover your head with cap. Storage 1. 8. Read the label on the container before preparing spray solution. unsealed or torn bags. MOUTH. Avoid carrying bulk-pesticides (dusts/granules) on head. Do not mix granules with water. D. 250. C. Avoid storage of pesticides in house premises.
Do not use leaky. 8. 2. drink. if possible. Precaut. etc.Never re-use empty pesticide container for any purpose.ions for applying pest. 3. Disposal 1.The operator should protect his bare feet and hands with polythene bags. Apply only at recommended dose and dilution. Don't blow/clean cloqqed-nozz!e with mouth. F. 3 . . 5. Wash the sprayer and buckets. Avoid entry of animals and workers in the fields immediately after the spraying. 6. The used/empty containers should be crushed with a stone/stick and buried deep into soil away from water source.10. G. 4. 3. 1. used for mixing pesticides should not used for domestic purposes. etc. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations should not be used for spraying with battery operated ULV sprayer..00 not eat. Select right kind of nozzle. 2. 4. 11. Select right kind of equipment 2.icides. E. buckets. Containers. Do not apply on hot sunny day or strong windy condition. 7. Do not apply just before the rains and also after the rains. Use old tooth-brush tied with the sprayer and clean with water. defective equipment. with soap water after spraying. Do not apply against the wind direction. smoke or chew while preparing solution. Equipment 1. Left over spray solution should not be drained in ponds or water lines etc. Throw itin barren isolated area. Do not use same sprayer for weedicide and insecticide. 5.
Use pesticides judiciously on need based manner.ection before use of any pesticide. Consult expert of the fi. Don1tuse green leaves as food after spray of pesticides. .WARNINGS 1. Select pesticides wise fully. 4. regarding doses and time of application. 2.eldof Plant Prot. 5. 3. Don't use pesticides in wrong way.