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Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning
Topic 4: Micro and Macro Teaching
What Is Micro teaching? Do you know that micro teaching originated in Stanford University, United States in 1963? Robert Bush and D. Wight Allen first introduced micro teaching as an organized practice. Microteaching is a method that enables teacher trainees to practice a skill or combination of skills by teaching short lessons to a small number of students, or a group of peers. Usually, a micro-lesson of between 20 to 30 minutes is taught to eight to ten students or peers. This would provide an opportunity for you to practice teaching theory or a specific technique. You could practices teaching theory or technique in a controlled situation whereby you play the role as a teacher and your peer teacher trainees play the roles of students and at the same time observing and evaluating you. Wragg (1999) in his book says that ”the argument in favour of the technique is that it enables a teacher to develop his repertoire of professional skills in an atmosphere congenial to learning, away from the hurly-burly of normal classroom life, and that, especially for the novice, this relatively safe environment is essential for effective learning to take place”. Having read what Wragg has to say about micro teaching, do you agree that it is an effective technique of ensuring that the student teacher learns and develops his set of teaching skills in a conducive learning environment away from that of the classroom? Allen and Ryan (1969) suggest the following as the main propositions of micro teaching:
1. Micro teaching is real teaching although the teaching situation is a
constructed one where lecturer and learner work together in a practice situation
2. Micro teaching lessens the complexities of normal classroom teaching where
class size, scope of content, and time are all reduced.
3. Micro teaching focuses on training for the accomplishment of specific tasks,
such as an instructional skills, techniques of teaching and mastery of curricular materials or demonstration of teaching methods
4. Micro teaching allows for the increased control of practice where time,
number of students, methods of feedback and supervision, and other factors can be manipulated 5. Micro teaching greatly expands the normal knowledge-of-results or feedback dimension in teaching. Through the use of appraisal forms designed to elicit reactions to specific aspects of teaching, and video tape playbacks, the learner knows how he has performed and then tries to think of ways to improve.
The micro teaching process investigated in this unit consists of: discussion and planning. you are advised to begin each micro teaching session with the statement of the objectives of the lesson you want to teach. effective questioning. If you can throw in a few suitable jokes and humour as and when necessary. What do you think of the micro teaching process? Sounds systematic. This will then be followed by the presentation of the matter in an organized. doesn’t it? Try a few micro teaching sessions and you will be definitely impressed by its utility in improving your teaching skills.Reteach – Reobserve (Allen and Ryan. you should also try to use adequate and appropriate audio-visual aids. use of illustrations and examples. sequential manner. Micro teaching Skills And Evaluation 4-33 . implementation (teaching). try not to overdo it. Also try to ensure that your students take an active part throughout your lesson. Why? In order to have a brief idea of your students’ understanding and comprehension of the concepts and content taught. Each cycle was devoted to the practice of one component skill such as set induction and closure (the beginning and ending of lesson segments). you are encouraged to summarize the topic taught and also to obtain student feedback. During presentation. Lectures and skill demonstrations were given to the students prior to the practice of the skill.1 illustrates the Micro teaching Process. At the end of the lesson. However. Figure 4. 1987).Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning The Micro Teaching Process The original micro teaching cycle developed at Stanford in the early 1960s consisted of the sequences Plan – Teach – Observe (Critique) – Replan . Plan State the objective and teach Observer’s opinion Re-teach Re-plan Observer’s criticism The Micro teaching process Figure 4. You should bear in mind the appropriate speed of presentation. reflective evaluation (criticism). student reinforcement and student participation.1 The Micro teaching Process As a trainee. replanning and reteaching.
which will interest your students in what is to follow and help to establish what they already know and link this to what is to follow. Set induction Let us now examine the first micro teaching skill. gesture and eye contact to gain students’ attention. You could control your voice. What are some of the methods you have tried in the classroom? Try to recall. Many times. It actually introduces a lesson. I am sure you are familiar with the term “set induction”. pre-instructional orientation. we will examine each of the eight teaching skills listed above as well as provide a sample appraisal guide for each of these skills. which is set induction. 4-34 . examples.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning You should realize that special concern of microteaching is the skills used by you in face-to-face classroom contact. quantifiable and known related to students learning. definable. Haven’t you? What is set induction. They are behaviours that are rather specific. observable. illustrations Closure In the following section. You could also use audio-visual aids or changing the pattern of teacher and student interaction. aids. The various teaching skills emphasized in micro teaching and evaluation include the following: • • • • • • • • Set Induction Questioning techniques Discussion of experimental results Stimulus variations Reinforcement Explanation Use of resource materials. or a new topic within a lesson in a way. it is a skill concerned with methods of preparing your students for a lesson: that is. and then jot them down on a piece of paper. anyway? As the name suggests. you must have exhausted all avenues trying to think of an interesting and stimulating set induction to begin your lesson.
it is necessary for you to understand and bear in mind a few principles below. To construct students’ flow of thought To motivate the students To relate the students’ prior knowledge and experience with the new knowledge To give suggestions on how to carry out activities. previous knowledge. tasks or project To inform the students on the scope of the task given To make the lesson meaningful 4-35 . The induction set activity should be Suited according to students’ experience. and interest Objective of using induction set To attract students’ attention to what is taught.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Guidelines for preparing induction set In order to attain the purpose of induction set. ability and age Related to the content Related to students’ prior knowledge Interesting and able to sustain the students’ attention a) Presented within the time limit and achieved its objective b) Meaningful to the students in terms of their ability.
Use of audio-visual aids 3.2 Set Induction Appraisal Guide Components Of Set Induction Attention Gaining 1.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Table 4. Questioning Techniques Another micro teaching skill is questioning. Relate to past experience 2. This skill also includes the ability to ask various kinds of follow-up questions. Yes No Ask a colleague to evaluate your set induction skills using the appraisal guide for set induction. First of all. Use of story telling technique 3. According to Callahan and Clarke (1988). Ask provocative questions Cognitive Link 1. Relate to students’ interest and experience Structure Provision 1. Stating activity. the use of questions is one of the most important of all teaching techniques. Use of gestures and eye contact 4. Stating the limits of the task 2. and follow up redirections (redirecting your student’s response to other students or the class in general for comment and discussion). 4-36 . task or project Please (√ ) at the relevant column . Use of voice to focus interest 2. Involve students in their tasks 4. Relate to new experience 3. follow-up probes (asking your students to clarify or elaborate an answer which is vague). what is questioning? It is concerned with the ability to ask low-level and high-level questions. Follow-up questions include: follow-up prompts (modifying a question that is too difficult for your students to answer). Introducing something unusual Motivation stimulation 1. Questioning is one of the most often used teaching techniques according to Kim and Kellough (1987). Discuss ways to improve these skills. Using a series of questions 3. Relate to current events 4. Stating ways to accomplish task 4. To arouse curiosity (use of analogy) 2.
try and identify some of the errors that you. precise and brief Objective of questioning • • • • • • • • • • • To arouse interest and curiosity To focus attention on an issue To stimulate learners to ask questions To diagnose specific learning difficulties To encourage reflection and self-evaluation To promote thought and the understanding of ideas To review content already learned To help recall specific information To reinforce recently learned material To teach via student answers To probe deeper after an answer is given You have already been learning about this in Unit 1-3.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Construction of question • • • • • • The level of the questions should be suited according to students’ age. Look through it and give your comments. Table 4. which I hope you will find useful. 4-37 . The teacher should plan and prepare different types of questions before the teaching takes place. The words used in the questions should be simple and easily understood by the students. As you read the section on questioning above. as a teacher. So why don’t you get that unit to refresh your memory. Use different types o questions to arouse students’ interest.3 below provides the questioning techniques appraisal guide. ability and experience. commonly commit. Questions used should be able to promote thought Questions should be clear. Suggest some ways you can enhance your questioning techniques.
you will notice that the questioning technique encompasses the cognitive levels of questions asked.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Table 4. But the success of the student in answering the question is more often determined by the teacher's questioning techniques. or evaluation. Refresh you memory about how. The way a student is expected to respond to questioning is determined by the levels at which the questions are worded: recall. when and on whom to use each of the six levels of questions mentioned above.3 Questioning Technique Appraisal Guide Questioning techniques Number of questions 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 12 13 14 15 Framing of questions Clear and coherent Focus on one idea Pausing Prompting Refocusing Redirecting Handling of incorrect responses Distributing of questions among the class Levels Of Cognitive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Questions Recall Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Please (√) at the relevant column based on the characteristics of each question asked. analysis. synthesis. From the table. comprehension. 4-38 . commonly known as Bloom’s Taxonomy.
the teaching and learning process will be more effective and interesting. Discussion of experimental results is an activity carried out by the students and guided by you. In this way you and your students can interact. If it is carried in a proper manner. discuss the experimental results and reaching conclusion. hypothesis and prediction Explaining the results Making the report orally or in writing Suggestion on ways to improve or improvise the experiment or to conduct further experiments Experimental results discussion involves a lot of high level thinking skills as follows: Calculation Data interpretation (analyzing and explaining the pattern and differences in the data) Recording data in various format Predicting the shape of the graph Relating the parameters and suggesting a formula that relates the parameters Deciding whether the experimental results conforms to the theory/hypothesis and stating why it is so Identify any problems that may arise during the experiment Looking for other alternatives to achieve better results or to conduct further experiment 4-39 .Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Discussion of experiment results After the students have carried out the experiment and collected all the data needed to prove their hypothesis. It involves two procedures: (a) Data processing Making calculation based on the data collected Representing the data in various format such as tables. discuss and shared information about the data. it is necessary for them to process the data into meaningful information. charts and graph Interpreting graphs and charts Identifying the pattern of the data and its relationship Classifying the data (b) Information reporting techniques Interpreting the relationship among the results.
in the skills of stimulus variation? It is to help you to avoid teaching styles which are likely to induce boredom in your students. correct students’ mistakes. the development of verbal and non-verbal methods of focusing students’ attention. interested and thus learn better.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Making final conclusion Reporting the results and the discussion of the outcome of the experiment What is the role of the teacher during the discussion of experimental results? Acts as a facilitator Make sure the students take part actively in the discussion Provide appropriate responds. Why do we train you. 4-40 . Some of the things you will learn are the use of movement in a systematic way and the avoidance of teaching from one spot. and student movement. and don’t forget the reinforcement Students must be informed of any rules and regulation regarding the discussion Supervise the activities so that it runs smoothly Summarize ideas Show attention and appreciation for every idea and opinion given by any student Stimulus variation The third micro teaching skill we will learn is stimulus variation. the use of gestures. change of sensory focus. stimulus variation is concerned with the ability to introduce variety into lesson so that your students will be attentive. As the name suggests. student talk. change in speed pattern. the learner.
it also helps in promoting your students’ self-concept and.4 Stimulus Variation Appraisal Guide (√ at the relevant column) 30 seconds for each column 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Components Teacher movement Eye contact and movement Teacher voice Teacher-group interaction Teacher-pupil-teacher interaction Pupil-pupil interaction Teacher-object interaction Pupil-object interaction Pupil verbal and physical activity 1 2 3 4 12 13 Skill of reinforcement Reinforcement is one of the most widely known principles of successful learning. Training in the skills of reinforcement involves the development of discriminating methods of rewarding and encouraging your students’ efforts and of avoiding the often unconscious punishing comments on a student’s work. 4-41 .4 below. consequently help to give them confidence. Table 4. reinforcement can help to increase your students’ attention and also maintain a high level of motivation. Besides. What is the objective of using reinforcement? If you can recollect. when she praises good answer. Ask your colleague to observe how many times you use each of the components for duration of 30 seconds during a lesson. This skill can modify or change student behaviour in a number of positive ways.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Study the Stimulus Variation Guide in Table 4. Discuss how you can improve your skills in this aspect. when she encourage a slow learner or when she writes “Well done” on a piece of work. such as when the teacher gives a smile. How is the use reinforcement seen in the classroom? Educational psychologists suggest a number of ways.
“wrong”. Use Of Teaching and Learning Aids Based on your experience in the classroom you may have understand the importance of mastering the skill associated with using relevant and interesting examples to illustrate a point. Proximity .verbal reinforcement .“No”. What other aspects does this sixth micro teaching skill cover? . Give two scenarios in your science classroom that requires the skill of reinforcement from you as an effective teacher. Table 4. etc.shaking the head. Negative verbal reinforcement . Positive non verbal reinforcement .5(with the help of your collogues) you could use to improve your skills of reinforcement. stressing of important points by repetition. gesture. shaking hands. besides selecting appropriate teaching aids. isn’t it? 4-42 . sitting near the students. use of voice. “That’s right”. obtaining pupil participation and feedback. Quite a wide scope.moving nearer or standing next to.5 Skill of Reinforcement Appraisal Guide (√ at the relevant column) Components Positive verbal reinforcement Positive non verbal reinforcement Proximity Contact Negative verbal reinforcement Negative non verbal cues Yes No Explanation Skills. “yes”. frowning. etc. nodding of head. implementation at appropriate stages. “Nonsense”.patting the student’s head.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning • • • • • • Can you think of some of the components of reinforcement skills? The following are some suggestions: Positive verbal reinforcement . Negative non. clapping hands. It also deals with suitable organization of content. Contact .the use of such words as “ good”.a smile. Using Table 4.
and conclusion.g. tone and volume Emphasizing key points Suitable gesture and movement Simple and concise Yes No Use of illustration/ examples/audio-visual aids • • • • Relevant Clear and interesting Variety Sufficient Arrangement of ideas • • Orderly elaboration of ideas Use of non verbal cues e.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Do you know there are three main forms of explanation? Interpretative Descriptive Reason-giving This specifies the central meaning of a term or statement. the use of illustration/ examples/audio-visual aids. structures and procedures. For example. Table 4. • Basically.6 illustrates the four main aspects. Explore the possibility of trying out the ones you do not normally use in your classroom the next time you teach. gestures and verbal expressions) Conclusion Key points are clearly stated (oral/written) • Key points orderly arranged. 4-43 . density is the relationship between mass and volume of an object Describe processes. namely. For example. • Clear and concise Please (√ ) at the relevant column. clarify further an idea by describing it. “Why does ice float in water?” Components and criteria Level of initiation • • • • Quality of voice variation in pitch. the steps to carry out dissection are as follows …. For example. Look through the list and check which the ones you normally use are. level of initiation. or clarifies an issue. Mostly suitable for an explanation that uses the logical processes to answer the question on how and why something happens. arrangement of ideas.
the social closure is used at the end of a lesson (Table 4. The teacher trainee practices teaching theory or technique in a controlled situation whereby one or two teacher trainees play the role as a teacher and the peer teacher trainees play the roles of students and at the same time observing and evaluating the teacher. What is Macro teaching? Macro teaching is a teaching simulation on a complete lesson in a normal class. you are more concerned with giving your students a sense of achievement so that. closure. Macro teaching is the integration of micro teaching techniques. taking steps to ensure that your students have understood and are able to see the connections with what has been learnt. Great 4-44 . they are encouraged to continue striving. laboratory or preview room.7). How often do you use these two types of closure? Which of the two do you usually use? Table 4.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Closure This micro teaching skill.7 Closure Appraisal Guide Component and criteria Cognitive link • • • • • Make a summary Repetition of key points Correcting assignment Suggestion of further activity Reinforcement exercise Yes No Social Link • • Create a sense of achievement Positive reinforcement Please (√) at the relevant column. It involves training in different methods of concluding a lesson with you. the learner. Whereas in social closure. It is also seen as the rounding off a lesson or topic so as to reinforce your students’ interest in it and also helps to recapitulate what has been learnt. What is the difference between the two? Cognitive closure is directed at consolidating what your students have learnt and focusing their attention on the major points covered in the lesson or lesson segment. The simulation can be carried out in classroom. Usually. despite any difficulties they encountered within the lesson. Do you know that there are two important types of closure? They are known as cognitive and social. with the exception that micro teaching only focuses on one teaching skill. is the obverse of set induction. Implementation of micro teaching in teaching and learning The lesson plan format for micro teaching is generally similar to that of lesson plan for classroom teaching and learning.
It is important to practice laboratory/practical work in macro teaching to prepare the trainee teachers as smart school teachers in the new millennium. three trainee teachers act as evaluators to evaluate the practical class carried out. If the teaching is not recorded.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning effort should be taken to integrate all the knowledge and experience learned in planning the teaching and learning in classroom. Every trainee teacher must have earlier picture or scenario of the real situation of a classroom in school. can be carried out in any of the following ways: • • All the trainee teachers will watch the videos recorded to evaluate and discuss the weak and strong points of the subject and teaching. Teaching is an experience that needs to be practiced since practice makes perfect. 4-45 . The evaluation form for macro teaching as shown in Table 4.1. Macro teaching skills Good planning can be transformed into teaching action in classroom.
1: Macro teaching Evaluation Form No. Was the lesson successful? 2. Is the learning experience meaningful? Why? 4. Is the class control effective? Application of Ideas 1. What sort of problem is given? 2. Criteria and Teaching Phase Orientation 1.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Trainee’s name: ___________________ Subject Topic :____________________ :____________________ Date Time :___________________ :___________________ Table 4. 4. Comment and Reason 2 3. Does it promote thinking skills? Eliciting ideas 1. Are the activities interesting? 2. Are the student’s motivated ? Overall 1. 5. Does it arouse the student’s interest? 3. Are the students thinking? 3. Is the student’s idea applicable? Reflection 1. . Why? Evaluator’s signature: ………………………… Lecturer’s signature …………………….. 1. Do the questions promote reflective thinking? 2. 4-46 . Is the topic clearly introduced? 2. Are the techniques used successful? Restructuring of Ideas 1. What is the technique used? 2.
Teaching Experience Assignment The lesson plan is a basic document that describes what is to be done. You are required to have your experienced senior science teacher observe and comment one of your teaching sessions. 1. how it is to be done and what the expected outcomes of the experience will be. Implement all your amended lesson plans in your normal teaching. Referring to the three lesson plans given. 4-47 . Choose a suitable topic from different areas in the Primary Science Curriculum. prepare three 60-minute lessons using the three approaches. After completing your lesson plans. Which of the approaches do you think are more manageable? 2. 3. After your teaching. have a discussion with your experienced science teacher. compare and contrast between macro teaching and micro teaching. Reflect on your teaching and write a report on your reflection and submit it to your lecturer. 4. have your lesson plans evaluated by at least one of your experienced senior science teacher.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning Using a suitable graphic organizer.
In The Handbook of research on teacher education. (1999). & Kaucahak. J. C.(1977). 4-48 . P. Hoyle. London: Falmer Press. Houston(ed. M. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Ryan. Darling-Hammond.L. To all student teachers on teaching practice . New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. London: Cassel Jacobsen. (1995). London: Methuen. & John. An introduction to classroom observation. & Cooper.(1991). Developing Teachers: The Challenges of Lifelong Learning. Methods for teaching. D. Cohen.C.) New York: Macmillan Day.Module 2: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 4: Planning Instruction and Evaluating Teaching and Student’s Learning References Allen & Ryan in Brown. Wragg. L. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. E. D. (1993). (1998). Those Who Can Teach. Education as a profession. G. (1995). K.. M.London : Methuen. Professional Knowledge and professional practice. Eggen. (1999).Manion. E. Teachers and Teaching: Signs of a changing profession. Micro teaching: A program of teaching skills. London: Routledge.. Lieberman. (1987). L. P.
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