Journal of Computer Science 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

ISSN 1549-3636
© 2007 Science Publications

Corresponding Author: Ali Al-Haj, Department of Computer Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering,
Princess Sumaya University for Technology, PO Box 1928, Al-Jubeiha,
11941 Amman, Jordan
740
Combined DWT-DCT Digital Image Watermarking

Ali Al-Haj
Department of Computer Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering,
Princess Sumaya University for Technology, PO Box 1928, Al-Jubeiha,
11941 Amman, Jordan

Abstract: The proliferation of digitized media due to the rapid growth of networked multimedia
systems, has created an urgent need for copyright enforcement technologies that can protect copyright
ownership of multimedia objects. Digital image watermarking is one such technology that has been
developed to protect digital images from illegal manipulations. In particular, digital image
watermarking algorithms which are based on the discrete wavelet transform have been widely
recognized to be more prevalent than others. This is due to the wavelets' excellent spatial localization,
frequency spread, and multi-resolution characteristics, which are similar to the theoretical models of
the human visual system. In this paper, we describe an imperceptible and a robust combined
DWT-DCT digital image watermarking algorithm. The algorithm watermarks a given digital image
using a combination of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and the Discrete Cosine Transform
(DCT). Performance evaluation results show that combining the two transforms improved the
performance of the watermarking algorithms that are based solely on the DWT transform.

Key words: Digital image watermarking, image copyright protection, frequency-domain
watermarking, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

INTRODUCTION

The development of effective digital image
copyright protection methods have recently become an
urgent and necessary requirement in the multimedia
industry due to the ever-increasing unauthorized
manipulation and reproduction of original digital
objects. The new technology of digital watermarking
has been advocated by many specialists as the best
method to such multimedia copyright protection
problem
[1,2]
. Its expected that digital watermarking
will have a wide-span of practical applications such as
digital cameras, medical imaging, image databases, and
video-on-demand systems, among many others
[3]
.
In order for a digital watermarking method to be
effective it should be imperceptible, and robust to
common image manipulations like compression,
filtering, rotation, scaling cropping, collusion attacks
among many other digital signal processing operations.
Current digital image watermarking techniques can be
grouped into two major classes: spatial-domain
and frequency-domain watermarking techniques
[4]
.
Compared to spatial domain techniques
[5]
,
frequency-domain watermarking techniques proved to
be more effective with respect to achieving the
imperceptibility and robustness requirements of digital
watermarking algorithms
[6]
.
Commonly used frequency-domain transforms
include the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), the
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Fourier
Transform (DFT). However, DWT
[7]
has been used in
digital image watermarking more frequently due to its
excellent spatial localization and multi-resolution
characteristics, which are similar to the theoretical
models of the human visual system
[8]
. Further
performance improvements in DWT-based digital
image watermarking algorithms could be obtained by
combining DWT with DCT
[9]
. The idea of applying
two transform is based on the fact that combined
transforms could compensate for the drawbacks of each
other, resulting in effective watermarking.
In this paper, we will describe a digital image
watermarking algorithm based on combining two
transforms; DWT and DCT. Watermarking is done by
altering the wavelets coefficients of carefully selected
DWT sub-bands, followed by the application of the
DCT transform on the selected sub-bands.
J. Computer Sci., 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

741
THE DCT AND DWT TRANSFORMS

The DCT and DWT transforms have been
extensively used in many digital signal processing
applications. In this section, we introduce the two
transforms briefly, and outline their relevance to the
implementation of digital watermarking.

The DCT transform: The discrete cosine transforms is
a technique for converting a signal into elementary
frequency components
[9]
. It represents an image as a
sum of sinusoids of varying magnitudes and
frequencies. With an input image, x, the DCT
coefficients for the transformed output image, y, are
computed according to Eq. 1 shown below. In the
equation, x, is the input imagehaving N x M pixels,
x(m,n) is the intensity of the pixel in row m and column
n of the image, and y(u,v) is the DCT coefficient in row
u and column v of the DCT matrix.


(1)



where


u = 0
u = 1,2,…, N − 1


v = 0
v = 1,2,…, N − 1


The image is reconstructed by applying inverse
DCT operation according to Eq. 2:



(2)



The popular block-based DCT transform segments
an image non-overlapping blocks and applies DCT to
each block. This results in giving three frequency
sub-bands: low frequency sub-band, mid-frequency-
sub-ban and high frequency sub-band. DCT-based
watermarking is based on two facts. The first fact is
that much of the signal energy lies at low-frequencies
sub-band which contains the most important visual
parts of the image. The second fact is that high
frequency components of the image are usually
removed through compression and noise attacks. The
watermark is therefore embedded by modifying the
coefficients of the middle frequency sub-band so
that the visibility of the image will not be affected
and the watermark will not be removed by
compression
[10, 11,12, 13]
.

The DWT transform: Wavelets are special functions
which, in a form analogous to sines and cosines in
Fourier analysis, are used as basal functions for
representing signals
[7]
. For 2-D images, applying DWT
corresponds to processing the image by 2-D filters in
each dimension. The filters divide the input image into
four non-overlapping multi-resolution sub-bands LL1,
LH1, HL1 and HH1. The sub-band LL1 represents the
coarse-scale DWT coefficients while the sub-bands
LH1, HL1 and HH1 represent the fine-scale of DWT
coefficients. To obtain the next coarser scale of
wavelet coefficients, the sub-band LL1 is further
processed until some final scale N is reached. When N
is reached we will have 3N+1 sub-bands consisting of
the multi-resolution sub-bands LL
N
and LHx, HLx and
HHx where x ranges from 1 until N.
Due to its excellent spatio-frequency localization
properties, the DWT is very suitable to identify the
areas in the host image where a watermark can be
embedded effectively. In particular, this property
allows the exploitation of the masking effect of the
human visual system such that if a DWT coefficient is
modified, only the region corresponding to that
coefficient will be modified. In general most of the
image energy is concentrated at the lower frequency
sub-bands LLx and therefore embedding watermarks in
these sub-bands may degrade the image significantly.
Embedding in the low frequency sub-bands, however,
could increase robustness significantly. On the other
hand, the high frequency sub-bands HHx include the
edges and textures of the image and the human eye is
not generally sensitive to changes in such sub-bands.
This allows the watermark to be embedded without
being perceived by the human eye. The compromise
adopted by many DWT-based watermarking algorithm,
is to embed the watermark in the middle frequency
ub-bands LHx and HLx where acceptable
performance of imperceptibility and robustness could
be achieved
[14,15,16,17,18,19,20]
.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
M 1 N 1
u v
u 0 v 0
2 2
y u, v x m, n
M N
2m 1 u 2n 1 v
cos cos
2M 2N
− −
= =
= α α
+ ∏ + ∏
¿¿
u
v
1
2
1
1
2
1
=
¦
¦
¦
α
´
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
α =
´
¦
¦
¹
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
M 1 N 1
u v
u 0 v 0
2 2
x m, n y u, v
M N
2m 1 u 2n 1 v
cos cos
2M 2N
− −
= =
= α α
+ ∏ + ∏
¿¿
J. Computer Sci., 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

742

Fig. 1: Combined DWT-DCT watermark embedding procedure.







(a) (b)

Fig. 2: Multi-resolution DWT sub-bands of the original
image

THE COMBINED DCT-DWT ALGORTIHM

The watermark embedding procedure is depicted
in Fig. 1 followed by a detailed explanation.

Step 1: Apply DWT to decompose the cover host
image into four non-overlapping multi-resolution
sub-bands: LL
1
, HL
1
, LH
1
, and HH
1
.

Step 2: Apply DWT again to sub-band HL
1
to get four
smaller sub-bands and choose the HL
2
sub-band as
shown in Fig. 2 a. Or, apply DWT to sub-band HH
1
to
get four smaller sub-bands and choose the HH
2
sub-band as shown in Fig. 2 b
.

Step 3: Divide the sub-band HL
2
(or HH
2
) into 4 x 4
blocks.

Step 4: Apply DCT to each block in the chosen
sub-band (HL
2
or HH
2
) .

Step 5: Re-formulate the grey-scale watermark image
into a vector of zeros and ones.
Step 6: Generate two uncorrelated pseudorandom
sequences. One sequence is used to embed the
watermark bit 0 (PN_0) and the other sequence is sued
to embed the watermark bit 1 (PN_1). Number of
elements in each of the two pseudorandom sequences
must be equal to the number of mid-band elements of
the DCT-transformed DWT sub-bands.

Step 7: Embed the two pseudorandom sequences, PN_0
and PN_1, with a gain factor , in the DCT transformed
4x4 blocks of the selected DWT sub-bands of the host
image.
Embedding is not applied to all coefficients of the
DCT block, but only to the mid-band DCT
coefficients. If we donate X as the matrix of the mid-
band coefficients of the DCT transformed block, then
embedding is done as follows:

If the watermark bit is 0 then

X
'
= X

+ * PN_0 (3)

otherwise,
if the watermark bit is 1 then,

X
'
= X

+ * PN_1 (4)

Step 8: Apply inverse DCT (IDCT) to each block after
its mid-band coefficients have been modified to embed
the watermark bits as described in the previous step.

Step 9: Apply the inverse DWT (IDWT) on the DWT
transformed image, including the modified sub-band, to
produce the watermarked host image.
The watermark extraction procedure is depicted in
Fig. 3, and described in details in the following steps.
The combined DWT-DCT algorithm is a blind
J. Computer Sci., 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

743
















Fig. 3: Combined DWT-DCT watermark extraction procedure


watermarking algorithm, and thus the original host
image is not required to extract the watermark.

Step 1: Apply DWT to decompose the watermarked
image into four non-overlapping multi-resolution sub-
bands: LL
1
, HL
1
, LH
1
, and HH
1
.

Step 2: Apply DWT to HL
1
to get four smaller sub-
bands, and choose the sub-band HL
2
, as shown in
Fig. 2 a. Or, apply DWT to the HH
1
sub-band to get
four smaller sub-bands, and choose the HH
2
sub-band
,

as shown in Fig. 2 b.


Step 3: Divide the sub-ban HL
2
(or HH
2)
into 4×4
blocks.

Step 4: Apply DCT to each block in the chosen
sub-band (HL
2
or HH
2
), and extract the mid-band
coefficients of each DCT transformed block.

Step 5: Regenerate the two pseudorandom sequences
(PN_0 and PN_1) using the same seed used in the
watermark embedding procedure.

Step 6: For each block in the sub-band HL
2
(or HH
2
)
,
calculate the correlation between the mid-band
coefficients and the two generated pseudorandom
sequences (PN_0 and PN_1). If the correlation with
the PN_0 was higher than the correlation with PN_1,
then the extracted watermark bit is considered 0,
otherwise the extracted watermark is considered 1.








Fig. 4: 'Lina' host image





Fig. 5: Original watermark

Step 7: Reconstruct the watermark using the extracted
watermark bits, and compute the similarity between the
original and extracted watermarks.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

We evaluated the performance of the combined
DWT-DCT image watermarking algorithms using a
512×512 'Lena' as the original cover host image, and a
256×256 grey-scale image of the expression 'copyright'
as the watermark image. The two images are shown in
Fig. 4 and 5, respectively.

Performance Evaluation Metrics: Watermarking
algorithms are usually evaluated with respect to two
metrics: imperceptibility and robustness
[21]
. The two
metrics are described below.
J. Computer Sci., 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

744
Table 1: The 'Lina' host image watermarked at different 2-DWT sub-bands
Watermarked Image
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DWT-Only DWT-DCT DWT-Only DWT-DCT
Original Image (HL2) (HL2) (HH2) (HH2)








PSNR = 80.190 PSNR = 97.072 PSNR = 77.098 PSNR = 97.083

Imperceptibility: Imperceptibility means that the
perceived quality of the host image should not be
distorted by the presence of the watermark. As a
measure of the quality of a watermarked image, the
peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is typically used.
PSNR in decibels (dB) is given below in Eq. 5.


(5)




Robustness: Robustness is a measure of the immunity
of the watermark against attempts to remove or degrade
it, internationally or unintentionally, by different types
of digital signal processing attacks
[22]
. In this chapter,
we will report on robustness results which we obtained
for three major digital signal processing operations
(attacks): Gaussian noise, image compression and
image cropping. The three attacks are a few, however,
they are good representatives of the more general
attacks. That is the Gaussian noise is a watermark
degrading attack, JPEG compression is a watermark
removal attack and cropping is a watermark dis-
positioning geometrical attack. We measured the
similarity between the original watermark and the
watermark extracted from the attacked image using the
correlation factor ρ given below in Eq. 6.



(6)




where N is the number of pixels in watermark, w
and wˆ are the original and extracted watermarks
respectively. The correlation factor ρ may take values
between 0 (random relationship) to 1 (perfect linear
relationship). In general, a correlation coefficient of
about 0.75 or above is considered acceptable.

Performance results: We carried out the watermark
embedding algorithm described in the previous section.
Applying the 1-level DWT of the 'Lina' image produced
four 256256 sub-bands; LL
1
, LH
1
, HL
1
and HH
1
. Since
embedding the watermark beyond the first DWT level
is more effective, we decided to embed the watermark
in HL
2
(or HH
2
). The selected 128×128 sub-band was
divided into 4×4 blocks giving a total of 1024 blocks.
The DCT transform was then applied to each block in
the chosen sub-band, after which the watermark was
embedded according to Eq. 3 and 4.

Imperceptibility: We evaluated imperceptibility of the
combined DWT-DCT algorithm by measuring PSNR
for the HL
2
and HH
2
sub-bands. HL
2
gave a PSNR
value of 97.072 while HH
2
gave 97.083. The difference
is small between the two PSNR values indicating
comparable performance of the two sub-bands. In
contrast, and as shown in Table 1, the difference
between the PSNR values of the DWT-Only and the
combined DWT-DCT algorithms is relatively large.
This indicates that improvement in imperceptibility can
be achieved by applying DCT on a DWT transformed
HL
2
(or HH
2
) sub-band.

Robustness: Table 2 shows the correlation values
between the original watermark and the watermarks
extracted from sub-bands HL
2
and HH
2
after being
subjected to different attacks, independently.
The correlation values given in Table 2 show
clearly that the combined DWT-DCT watermarking
algorithm outperforms the conventional DWT-Only
approach with respect to robustness against the
Gaussian noise and cropping attacks. The results are
better regardless of whether the watermark was
embedded in HL
2
or HH
2
, however, HH
2
gave better
2
I
dB
10
I
10
MAX
PSNR 10 log
MSE
MAX
20 log
MSE
| |
= ⋅
|
\ .
| |
= ⋅
|
\ .
¿ ¿
¿
= =
=
=
N
i
i
N
i
i
N
i
i i
w w
w w
w w
1
2
1
2
1
ˆ
ˆ
) ˆ , ( ρ
J. Computer Sci., 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

745
Table 2: Correlation values due to three different attacks
Correlation Factor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fausain (Noise) Compression (Quality) Cropping (Block Size)
--------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------
0 0.4 0.8 0 40 80 8 152 200
DWT-Only
(HL2) 0.736 0.660 0.445 0.478 0.733 0.741 0.746 0.623 0.550
DWT-DCT
(HL2) 0.9738 0.8359 0.5029 0.012 0.604 0.958 0.968 0.778 0.549
DWT-Only
(HH2) 0.726 0.652 0.467 0.447 0.698 0.726 0.723 0.643 0.574
DWT-DCT
(HH2) 0.989 0.868 0.546 0.023 0.065 0.314 0.989 0.884 0.696






Fig. 6: Extracted watermarks from the cropped HH2-watermarked image using DWT only






Fig. 7: Extracted watermarks from the cropped HH2-wateramrked image using DWT and DCT





Fig. 8: Extracted watermarks from the compressed HL2-watermarked image using DWT only





Fig. 9: Extracted watermarks from the compressed HL2-watermarked image using DWT and DCT

robustness against cropping compared with HL
2
.
Figure 6 shows the extracted watermarks from HH
2

when DWT-Only was used. In contrast, the better
combined DWT-DCT results are shown in Figure 7
which shows the extracted watermarks from the HH
2

sub-band.
As given in Table 2 and illustrated in Fig. 8 and 9,
the robustness of the DWT-Only approach against the
JPEG compression attack is better than that of the
combined DWT-DCT algorithm. This is due to the fact
that the DCT is the core component of the JPEG
compression, and therefore applying DCT at a DCT-
transformed image degraded the quality of the
embedded watermark greatly.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

We described the performance of the combined
DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm. For the sake of
comparison, we also evaluated the watermarking
performance when DWT-Only was used. The results
we obtained for the DWT-Only approach indicated a
better imperceptibility performance was obtained when
the watermark was embedded in the HL
2
or HH
2
sub-
bands. The robustness performance, however, was not
acceptable. To improve performance, we combined
DWT with the another equally powerful transform; the
DCT. The combined DWT-DCT watermarking
algorithm's imperceptibility performance was better
J. Computer Sci., 3 (9): 740-746, 2007

746
than the performance of the DWT-Only approach.
Moreover, the improvement in robustness brought by
the combined DWT-DCT algorithm was considerably
high.

CONCLUSIONS

The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the
discrete cosine transform (DCT) have been applied
successfully in many in digital image watermarking. In
this paper, we described a combined DWT-DCT digital
image watermarking algorithm. Watermarking was
done by embedding the watermark in the first and
second level DWT sub-bands of the host image,
followed by the application of DCT on the selected
DWT sub-bands. The combination of the two
transforms improved the watermarking performance
considerably when compared to the DWT-Only
watermarking approach. In conclusion, in DWT-based
digital watermarking applications, combining
appropriate transforms with the DWT may have a
positive impact on performance of the watermarking
system.

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is to embed the watermark in the middle frequency ub-bands LHx and HLx where acceptable performance of imperceptibility and robustness could be achieved[14. Computer Sci. In particular. LH1.19.2. y ( u. v ) N u =0 v = 0 2N ( 2m + 1) u ∏ cos ( 2n + 1) v ∏ cos (2) The popular block-based DCT transform segments an image non-overlapping blocks and applies DCT to each block. DCT-based . HL1 and HH1 represent the fine-scale of DWT coefficients. 1 shown below.18. The DCT transform: The discrete cosine transforms is a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components [9]. v ) = 2 M M −1 N −1 2 αuαv x ( m. x. On the other hand. and outline their relevance to the implementation of digital watermarking. could increase robustness significantly.…. To obtain the next coarser scale of wavelet coefficients. x. is the input imagehaving N x M pixels. are computed according to Eq. n ) = 2M 2 M 2 M −1 N −1 α u α v y ( u. only the region corresponding to that coefficient will be modified. Due to its excellent spatio-frequency localization properties.…. In the equation.12. N − 1 v=0 v = 1.J. The sub-band LL1 represents the coarse-scale DWT coefficients while the sub-bands LH1. The DWT transform: Wavelets are special functions which.16. This results in giving three frequency sub-bands: low frequency sub-band. this property allows the exploitation of the masking effect of the human visual system such that if a DWT coefficient is modified. 2: x ( m.20]. For 2-D images. The filters divide the input image into four non-overlapping multi-resolution sub-bands LL1. n ) N u = 0 v =0 watermarking is based on two facts. mid-frequencysub-ban and high frequency sub-band. are used as basal functions for representing signals[7].v) is the DCT coefficient in row u and column v of the DCT matrix. The compromise adopted by many DWT-based watermarking algorithm. It represents an image as a sum of sinusoids of varying magnitudes and frequencies. the sub-band LL1 is further processed until some final scale N is reached. This allows the watermark to be embedded without being perceived by the human eye. In general most of the image energy is concentrated at the lower frequency sub-bands LLx and therefore embedding watermarks in these sub-bands may degrade the image significantly. we introduce the two transforms briefly. x(m. the DWT is very suitable to identify the areas in the host image where a watermark can be embedded effectively. y.2. With an input image. 3 (9): 740-746.17. HLx and HHx where x ranges from 1 until N. 741 ( 2m + 1) u ∏ cos ( 2n + 1) v ∏ cos 2M 2N (1) where αu = 1 2 1 1 2 1 u=0 u = 1. 2007 THE DCT AND DWT TRANSFORMS The DCT and DWT transforms have been extensively used in many digital signal processing applications. The second fact is that high frequency components of the image are usually removed through compression and noise attacks. the DCT coefficients for the transformed output image. and y(u. in a form analogous to sines and cosines in Fourier analysis. When N is reached we will have 3N+1 sub-bands consisting of the multi-resolution sub-bands LLN and LHx. The first fact is that much of the signal energy lies at low-frequencies sub-band which contains the most important visual parts of the image. however.15. 13]. applying DWT corresponds to processing the image by 2-D filters in each dimension. Embedding in the low frequency sub-bands. The watermark is therefore embedded by modifying the coefficients of the middle frequency sub-band so that the visibility of the image will not be affected and the watermark will not be removed by compression[10. In this section.n) is the intensity of the pixel in row m and column n of the image. HL1 and HH1. the high frequency sub-bands HHx include the edges and textures of the image and the human eye is not generally sensitive to changes in such sub-bands. N − 1 αv = The image is reconstructed by applying inverse DCT operation according to Eq.. 11.

2 b. Computer Sci. Step 3: Divide the sub-band HL2 (or HH2 ) into 4 x 4 blocks. 3 (9): 740-746. in the DCT transformed 4x4 blocks of the selected DWT sub-bands of the host image. Step 9: Apply the inverse DWT (IDWT) on the DWT transformed image. 2: Multi-resolution DWT sub-bands of the original image THE COMBINED DCT-DWT ALGORTIHM The watermark embedding procedure is depicted in Fig. then embedding is done as follows: If the watermark bit is 0 then X '= X + * PN_0 (3) (a) (b) Fig. HL1. 1 followed by a detailed explanation.. 3. including the modified sub-band. PN_0 and PN_1. 1: Combined DWT-DCT watermark embedding procedure. 2 a. if the watermark bit is 1 then. with a gain factor . 2007 Fig. The watermark extraction procedure is depicted in Fig. Step 4: Apply DCT to each block in the chosen sub-band (HL2 or HH2) . to produce the watermarked host image. LH1. apply DWT to sub-band HH1 to get four smaller sub-bands and choose the HH2 sub-band as shown in Fig. Step 6: Generate two uncorrelated pseudorandom sequences. The combined DWT-DCT algorithm is a blind . One sequence is used to embed the watermark bit 0 (PN_0) and the other sequence is sued to embed the watermark bit 1 (PN_1). If we donate X as the matrix of the midband coefficients of the DCT transformed block. and described in details in the following steps. Embedding is not applied to all coefficients of the DCT block. Step 5: Re-formulate the grey-scale watermark image into a vector of zeros and ones. Step 2: Apply DWT again to sub-band HL1 to get four smaller sub-bands and choose the HL2 sub-band as shown in Fig. and HH1. Step 1: Apply DWT to decompose the cover host image into four non-overlapping multi-resolution sub-bands: LL1. Step 7: Embed the two pseudorandom sequences. X '= X + * PN_1 (4) Step 8: Apply inverse DCT (IDCT) to each block after its mid-band coefficients have been modified to embed the watermark bits as described in the previous step.J. but only to the mid-band DCT coefficients. 742 otherwise. Number of elements in each of the two pseudorandom sequences must be equal to the number of mid-band elements of the DCT-transformed DWT sub-bands. Or.

5: Original watermark Step 7: Reconstruct the watermark using the extracted watermark bits. 743 Fig. 4: 'Lina' host image Fig. and thus the original host image is not required to extract the watermark. Or. LH1. and choose the sub-band HL2. calculate the correlation between the mid-band coefficients and the two generated pseudorandom sequences (PN_0 and PN_1). Performance Evaluation Metrics: Watermarking algorithms are usually evaluated with respect to two metrics: imperceptibility and robustness [21]. apply DWT to the HH1 sub-band to get four smaller sub-bands. . Step 6: For each block in the sub-band HL2 (or HH2). 2007 Fig. Computer Sci.J. and a 256×256 grey-scale image of the expression 'copyright' as the watermark image. Step 3: Divide the sub-ban HL2 (or HH2) into 4×4 blocks. 2 b. as shown in Fig.. Step 5: Regenerate the two pseudorandom sequences (PN_0 and PN_1) using the same seed used in the watermark embedding procedure. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION We evaluated the performance of the combined DWT-DCT image watermarking algorithms using a 512×512 'Lena' as the original cover host image. 3: Combined DWT-DCT watermark extraction procedure watermarking algorithm. Step 1: Apply DWT to decompose the watermarked image into four non-overlapping multi-resolution subbands: LL1. Step 2: Apply DWT to HL1 to get four smaller subbands. as shown in Fig. 3 (9): 740-746. otherwise the extracted watermark is considered 1. then the extracted watermark bit is considered 0. The two images are shown in Fig. and HH1. respectively. Step 4: Apply DCT to each block in the chosen sub-band (HL2 or HH2). and compute the similarity between the original and extracted watermarks. and extract the mid-band coefficients of each DCT transformed block. HL1. If the correlation with the PN_0 was higher than the correlation with PN_1. and choose the HH2 sub-band. 4 and 5. 2 a. The two metrics are described below.

190 PSNR = 97. LH1. by different types of digital signal processing attacks[22]. The DCT transform was then applied to each block in the chosen sub-band. That is the Gaussian noise is a watermark degrading attack. Computer Sci. internationally or unintentionally. N ρ ( w. w and wˆ are the original and extracted watermarks respectively. The correlation factor ρ may take values . In general. Imperceptibility: We evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-DCT algorithm by measuring PSNR for the HL2 and HH2 sub-bands. 3 (9): 740-746.072 while HH2 gave 97. however. 2007 Table 1: The 'Lina' host image watermarked at different 2-DWT sub-bands Watermarked Image ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DWT-Only DWT-DCT DWT-Only DWT-DCT Original Image (HL2) (HL2) (HH2) (HH2) PSNR = 80. we decided to embed the watermark in HL2 (or HH2). JPEG compression is a watermark removal attack and cropping is a watermark dispositioning geometrical attack. 5. LL1. the difference between the PSNR values of the DWT-Only and the combined DWT-DCT algorithms is relatively large. The difference is small between the two PSNR values indicating comparable performance of the two sub-bands. they are good representatives of the more general attacks. HL2 gave a PSNR value of 97. 6. HL1 and HH1. a correlation coefficient of about 0. image compression and image cropping.083. The correlation values given in Table 2 show clearly that the combined DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm outperforms the conventional DWT-Only approach with respect to robustness against the Gaussian noise and cropping attacks. independently. In contrast. This indicates that improvement in imperceptibility can be achieved by applying DCT on a DWT transformed HL2 (or HH2) sub-band. Robustness: Table 2 shows the correlation values between the original watermark and the watermarks extracted from sub-bands HL2 and HH2 after being subjected to different attacks. PSNRdB = 10 ⋅ log10 = 20 ⋅ log10 MAX I MSE MAX 2 I MSE between 0 (random relationship) to 1 (perfect linear relationship). w) = ˆ i =1 N i =1 ˆ wi wi 2 N i =1 (6) wi ˆ wi 2 where N is the number of pixels in watermark.. The three attacks are a few. In this chapter. The selected 128×128 sub-band was divided into 4×4 blocks giving a total of 1024 blocks. As a measure of the quality of a watermarked image.J. Since embedding the watermark beyond the first DWT level is more effective. the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is typically used. HH2 gave better 744 (5) Robustness: Robustness is a measure of the immunity of the watermark against attempts to remove or degrade it. The results are better regardless of whether the watermark was embedded in HL2 or HH2.083 Imperceptibility: Imperceptibility means that the perceived quality of the host image should not be distorted by the presence of the watermark.072 PSNR = 77. 3 and 4.098 PSNR = 97. after which the watermark was embedded according to Eq. and as shown in Table 1. Performance results: We carried out the watermark embedding algorithm described in the previous section. PSNR in decibels (dB) is given below in Eq. We measured the similarity between the original watermark and the watermark extracted from the attacked image using the correlation factor ρ given below in Eq. we will report on robustness results which we obtained for three major digital signal processing operations (attacks): Gaussian noise.75 or above is considered acceptable. Applying the 1-level DWT of the 'Lina' image produced four 256256 sub-bands. however.

the robustness of the DWT-Only approach against the JPEG compression attack is better than that of the combined DWT-DCT algorithm.9738 0. 6: Extracted watermarks from the cropped HH2-watermarked image using DWT only Fig. was not acceptable. 745 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION We described the performance of the combined DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm.989 0.5029 0.958 0.550 DWT-DCT (HL2) 0. The results we obtained for the DWT-Only approach indicated a better imperceptibility performance was obtained when the watermark was embedded in the HL2 or HH2 subbands.660 0.884 0.868 0. 9: Extracted watermarks from the compressed HL2-watermarked image using DWT and DCT robustness against cropping compared with HL2.8 0 40 80 8 152 200 DWT-Only (HL2) 0. Computer Sci.478 0.623 0. the better combined DWT-DCT results are shown in Figure 7 which shows the extracted watermarks from the HH2 sub-band.023 0. and therefore applying DCT at a DCTtransformed image degraded the quality of the embedded watermark greatly.065 0.741 0.696 Fig.J. 3 (9): 740-746. Figure 6 shows the extracted watermarks from HH2 when DWT-Only was used. however.989 0. The robustness performance. As given in Table 2 and illustrated in Fig. we also evaluated the watermarking performance when DWT-Only was used.447 0.549 DWT-Only (HH2) 0. we combined DWT with the another equally powerful transform.746 0. 2007 Table 2: Correlation values due to three different attacks Correlation Factor ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fausain (Noise) Compression (Quality) Cropping (Block Size) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0 0.652 0.643 0. 8: Extracted watermarks from the compressed HL2-watermarked image using DWT only Fig. The combined DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm's imperceptibility performance was better . To improve performance.604 0.445 0. the DCT.778 0. For the sake of comparison.4 0.8359 0.467 0. 7: Extracted watermarks from the cropped HH2-wateramrked image using DWT and DCT Fig. In contrast.723 0.546 0. 8 and 9. This is due to the fact that the DCT is the core component of the JPEG compression.733 0.968 0..726 0.726 0.012 0.574 DWT-DCT (HH2) 0.314 0.736 0.698 0.

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