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Pro/Beava AASHTO Code
IEG Group, Bentley Systems Bentley Systems Inc.
March 12, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Introduction………………………………………………….1 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis…………2 Generate AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response……………13 Bridge Design as Per AASHTO…………………………...31 Conclusion…………………………………………………36
The combination of STAAD.pro and STAAD.beava can make your bridge design and analysis easier. STAAD.pro is first used to construct the bridge geometry and STAAD.beava is used to find the AASHTO 2002 load positions that will create the maximum load response. The maximum load response could be any of the following: 1. Maximum plate stresses, moment about the local x axis of a plate (Mx), moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) etc. used to design for concrete deck reinforcement. 2. Maximum support reactions to design isolated, pile cap, and mat foundations. 3. Maximum bending moment or axial force in a member used to design members as per the AASHTO code. 4. Maximum deflection at mid span. These loads that create the maximum load responses can be transferred into STAAD.pro as load cases to load combinations for further analysis and design. Figure 1 shows the bridge design procedure discussed above.
Figure 1: Bridge Design process in STAAD.pro The purpose of this document is to explain these steps in more detail.
Figure 2: Bridge Dimensions Figure 3: Completed Bridge Model in STAAD.0 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis Figure 2 shows a bridge with the dimensions.pro 2 .2.
1. 3 .pro with the default units of Kip-Ft and use the Space option. Click Finish. Click the Next button and select the Add Beam mode. Open STAAD. 2.
4 . 5.3. Then draw the 40ft beams in the z direction. To break these beams at the intersection point. The goal of the next few steps is to draw the stick model of the Bridge Structure (i. STAAD. Create four grid lines in the z direction at 10ft spacing. the beams and the girders). First draw five 160ft girders. Create two grid lines in the x direction at 80ft spacing. Click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight. Click on the Snap Node/Beam button and draw the beams and the girders as shown below. Select the X-Z grid option. 4.e.pro will highlight all the beams that intersect each other no common nodes. click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Intersect.
and 7 using the nodes cursor as shown below. Select the y direction for the translational repeat and select enter a Default Step Spacing of -25ft as shown below. The node numbers may vary depending upon how the model was constructed. 14. The beams have been created. 5 . The columns will now be created using the translational repeat command. Select nodes 6.6. Select Geometry->Translational Repeat from the menu.
spacing of beams etc. Select the Geometry->Generate Surface Meshing tool from the menu. Simply click on node 1. 8. Select four nodes that outline the 160ft x 40ft deck. In reality. Select the Quadrilateral Meshing option. 6 . 11. The deck of this bridge structure will be created in the following steps using the Generate Surface Meshing Tool. The Parametric Meshing Mode could become very useful in these circumstances.7. and 10 and select node 1 again to complete the command. may not be regular and hence it may become difficult to create the deck of the bridge using the Generate Surface Meshing Tool. 3.
Select each entry and press the Merge button. we should merge the beams in the z direction. 2ft x 2ft element size is adequate for this type of model. 13. the girders are physically attached to the deck hence it is ok to mesh them. To view the mesh properly.pro will highlight all the beams that intersect each other no common nodes. In reality.9. The concrete beams parallel to the z-axis are not attached to the deck. the concrete column to beam connectivity is lost. click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight. By merging the beams together. To break these beams at the intersection point. you will need to click on the Setup Control Tab on your left. Select Geometry->Merge Selected Members to merge the split concrete beams. Hence. The load from the girders is then transferred to the concrete beams. Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->z from the menu. 11. click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members>Intersect. The load from the deck is transferred to the 40ft steel girders. The mesh will be created. 10. Hence input the parameters as shown below. 7 . You should note that the girders and beams are automatically broken down into smaller elements. STAAD. 12. Hence.
Input a 2ft diameter and press the Add button. Press the Beam button. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->Y from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Select the W24x103 section that has been created. Select the local option from the Direction selection box. 22. Select the start option from the location selection box. Press the Add button.12in thick Material . Select the Rectangle section profile and input 2ft in the YD and ZD input boxes. Select the Offset tab. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->Z from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right.044167 ft + 0.5 thickness of slab = 0. Select all the plates using the Plates Cursor and press the Assign button. Click on the General->Property control tab on your left and click on the Section Database button. The geometry has been created.5 x 1ft = 1.14.5 x Depth of Concrete Beam + Depth of Steel Beam + 0. 16. Press the Add button.5220835 in the Y input box.5 thickness of slab = 2ft + 2. Select the newly create Plate Thickness entry in the Properties dialog box.044167 ft + 0. 25. 21. Press the Thickness button the right and input 1ft in the Node 1 input box and press the Add button.044167 ft + 0.544167 ft at both ends. Concrete Deck Steel Girders – Parallel to x axis Plate elements .5 x 2ft + 2. 8 .00x24. 20. 24. Press the Close button.00 section that has been created. Select the W24x103 section from the American W shape database and click on the Add button. Concrete Beam – Parallel to the z axis Concrete Columns 15. Select the Spec sub-control tab on the left.5 x 1ft = 4. 19.Concrete 40ft Beam elements – W24X103 Material – Steel Offset = 0. 17. Click on the Select the Select>Beam Parallel To->X from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Input an offset of -1. 23.5220835 ft at both ends. 2ft Circular Sections Material – Concrete Offset = Depth of Concrete Beam + Depth of Steel Beam + 0. 2ft x 2ft Sections Material – Concrete Offset = 0. Select the Rect 24. Select the Define button on the right and select the Circle section profile. The properties and specifications have to be assigned.5 x Depth of Beam + 0.5 thickness of slab = 0. 18. Select the Cir 24 section that has been created.544167ft at the end connected to the concrete beams.5 x 2.5 x 1ft = 3.
Assign these specifications to the steel girders parallel to the x-axis.544167 ft at both ends. Click on the View->3D Rendering in the menu. Press the Beam button. Select the END LOCAL 0 -1. Repeat Steps# 25 to 28 for the concrete beams but use a y-offset of -3. 29. Press the Add button. 30.52208 0 specification that has been created.26. Select the Offset tab. 27. 28. you will need to select beams parallel to the z-axis. 9 . For Step# 28. Select the Local option from the Direction selection box. 31. Select the End option from the Location selection box.544167ft at the end connected to the concrete beams. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->x from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Click on the Select->Beam Parallel To->x from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right.52208 0 specification that has been created.5220835 in the Y input box. Select the START LOCAL 0 -1. Input an offset of -1. For the columns assign a local x-offset of 4.
e create a fixed support entry). 17.32. Select the General->Support tab on the left and click on the Create button in the right hand side Data Area. 33. and 18. Click on the Add button (i. 10 . Select the newly created S2 Support 2 entry and using the nodes cursor select nodes 16. Click on the Assign button.
Press the Add button. Select the Selfweight item and press the Add button. If the analysis completed successfully.34. Try to find out any connectivity problems etc. 39. 37. Click the Close button. Click on the Analyze->Run Analysis menu. 38. 35. Use the STAAD Analysis option and click on the Run Analysis button. 36. You can go to the Post-Processing mode by clicking on Mode>Postprocessing command in the menu. Click on the Analysis/Print control tab item on the left and press the Add button. Select the newly created 1: Dead Load entry in the data area. you should look at the exaggerated deflected shape of the bridge under the action of selfweight. Select the General->Load tab on the left and click on Load Case Details on the right hand side in the Data Area. Input the “Dead Load” in the Title input box. Select “Dead” in the Loading type selection box. 11 . Click on the Add button on the right. Press the Add button.
Select the Max Absolute stress type from the Stress Type selection box and click on the Ok button. 12 . 41. You can look at the bending moment diagram for the bridge by clicking on the Beam>Forces control tab on your left in the Post-Processing mode. You can look at the stress distribution diagram for the bridge by clicking on the Plate control tab on your left.40.
foundation. Maximum support reactions at the three supports which will be used to design pile cap footings using STAAD. moment about the local x-axis of a plate (Mx). 2. The plates are located at the center of the two spans as shown below. Maximum plate stresses.3.0 Generate AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response The purpose of this section is to generate the following AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response: 1. 13 . moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) in plate # 967 and 1046 that will be used to design for concrete deck reinforcement.
1944. Click on Deck->Define Roadway menu and click the New button. 14 . Click on Deck->Create Deck command in the menu. 145. Maximum deflection at nodes 842 and 881 to check if the deflection of the girders is less than L/360 = 80ft x 12in/360 = 2. The influence surface diagram will give a clear picture of the distribution or stresses. The next few steps will illustrate the creation of lanes on the Deck 1 that has been created.beava is to generate a deck and define a roadway. etc. STAAD. In STAAD.3.beava will be used to generate the above maximum responses (i. Using the Nodes Cursor. the location of the AASHTO HS-20 loading or lane loading on this bridge that will generate the maximum responses listed above). To accept the default name of the deck click the Ok button. 476.beava. forces. The second step is to generate the influence surface and view the influence surface diagrams.e. 1043.7in. across the bridge as a result of loading a certain place with unit loading. 555. 1. and 2023 used to design members as per the AASHTO code. To generate a deck and define a roadway. you are allowed to create multiple decks and multiple roadways on a single deck. Maximum bending moment (Mz) in members 65. The last step is to use the Load Generator to generate the desired maximum responses and transfer them into STAAD. 4. 4. 3. select the Plates Cursor and select all plates in the model.pro as independent load cases for further analysis and design. The origin of the deck is at the top left hand side corner. 1535. 1456. the user may find out the coordinates of the deck as shown below. 964. moments. Click on Mode->Bridge Deck Preprocessor menu 2. The first step in STAAD.
15 . Straight. The Define Roadway dialog box contains three tabs. Curved.5. and Custom.beava will calculate the lane widths automatically. The Straight option allows users to simply define the outer curb origins and STAAD. Namely.
The Angle input parameter will control the starting point of the lanes on the bridge. if curved lanes were desired. if the lane starts at the center of the bridge. the engineer may enter 16 . The meaning of the Curb A and Curb B Origin input parameters can be best understood from the above figure. in this case. the engineer first has to know the center of the curve. For example. For Example. The Curved tab is used to create a curved lane on any deck. he/she can simply enter the following inputs.If the designer has no idea about the lane widths of this bridge. The Angle input box simply allows the user to define a roadway which is placed at an angle in the Global XZ-plane.
Suppose the lanes are only to be generated on the region that lies between 0 and 65. Curb A radius is 10ft and Curb B radius be 100ft. 17 . The engineer needs to provide the following inputs in the Define Roadway dialog box. In the example shown in the following figure curved lanes have to be generated. The Angle is measured with respect to the line parallel to the global x axis which passes through the center of the circular lane.-270 degrees for both Curb A and Curb B.4 degrees angle in the anticlockwise direction (plan view).
The Anticlockwise direction has been provided. STAAD. In the Straight and the Curved tabs discussed above. Suppose the lanes have to be generated for the entire circular deck.beava will automatically generate lanes for the deck region that that lies between 0 and 65.4 degrees angle in the anticlockwise direction (plan view). the start Angle of the Curb A and Curb B are 65. Note that in this case. The Spacing Between Points input box lets the user control the increment of the moving load on the bridge deck. The center of the circular lanes is located at x=0 and z=0 with respect to the global coordinate system.beava. the numbers of lanes are automatically calculated by STAAD. In this example. there are four 10ft wide lanes. These lanes can be created using the Custom tab.Note that the Curb A radius of 60ft and Curb B radius of 100ft have been provided.5 degrees and the direction of lane generation is in Clockwise. The user may enter in the following inputs. 18 .
19 . Click on the Custom tab and enter the following inputs: 7. To create the second lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. The first lane has been created. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes.6.
Press the Close button for the Roadways dialog box. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes. The third lane has been created. To create the third lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. To create the last lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. The second lane has been created. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes. 9. Press the Ok button. 20 .8.
the following scenario can be created in this example.The Custom tab allows users to create lanes with/without curbs. The following is just an example and you are not required to test this out on this model. 21 . For example.
Click on Vehicle->Database from the menu. The engineer can look at the influence surface diagram for this plate using the Loading->Influence Diagram from the menu. Press the ok button. and plate 967 for the Plate number selection box.10. You may also create your own Vehicle definitions by pressing the New button. Click on the Loading->Influence Diagram from the menu. This process may take long depending upon the number of plates in the model. One of the maximum response conditions is the maximum absolute stress in plate 967. You will notice the point loads that are associated with this vehicle in the Vehicle Database dialog box. This will generate the influence surface diagrams for the entire deck. Click on AASHTO HS 20-44. The influence surface diagram should be displayed in the graphics window along with the legend on the left hand side. This menu will display the vehicle database. 12. Max Absolute for the Stress Type selection box. 11. Select Plate Stress for the Diagram Type selection box. 23 . Click on Loading->Influence Surface Generator.
13. Select the AASHTO ASD/LFD design code from the Design Code selection box. Click on Loading->Run Load Generator command in the menu. moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) in plate # 967 and 1046. STAAD.beava to find the AASHTO HS 20-44 load position/conditions that will generate the maximum plate stresses. 14. The Figure shown below explains the definition used to create the third axle which does not have a fixed location. Select the Ultimate Limit State for the Limit State selection dialog box. moment about the local x-axis of a plate (Mx). Click on the AASHTO tab in the Load Generator Tab and select the HS 20-44 in the Loading Class selection box.The Figure shown above explains the input parameters used to create the HS 20-44 vehicle. 15. 24 . Click the Ok button on the Vehicle Database dialog box.beava will place the third axle anywhere between14ft to 30ft whichever location generates the maximum response. Let us instruct STAAD.
6.pro Technical Reference Manual for a description of the stress types. The top side of element 967 is shown in the following figure.1 Plate and Shell Element of the STAAD. Please refer to section 1. Click on the Plate Center Stress tab in the Load Generator Tab. 25 . The first instruction in the above dialog box instructs STAAD.beava find out the AASHTO load positions/conditions on the four lanes that will generate the maximum positive stress on the top side of element 967.16. Input the parameters as shown in the following figure.
1535. 1043.17. 964.beava to find out the AASHTO loading on the four lanes that will generate the maximum Fy reaction at support #16. The second AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum support reactions at the three supports which will be used to the design pile cap footings using STAAD. 18. 1456. 555. The third AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum bending moment (Mz) in members 65. and 2023 used to design members as per the AASHTO code.foundation. 26 . The first instruction in the above dialog box instructs STAAD. Select the Support Reactions tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure. 145. 1944. 476. Select the Beam End Forces tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure.
The Last AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum deflection at nodes 842 and 881. 27 .19. Select the Node Displacements tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure.
21. Click on the response selection box located on the top right corner of your screen. 28 . The vehicle positions generating the maximum Response for each desired response can be viewed in the STAAD. You will notice the following dialog box which will summarize the STAAD.pro graphics window. You will notice a list of all the desired responses that were entered. Press the Ok button. Click the Ok button. Selection box. You will notice the vehicle positions on the deck. Click the Close button. Select the Deck tab and check the loads and vehicles options. You may get accurate load positions for each lane using the Lane No.beava AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response load locations for the desired responses that we entered above.20. 22. Right click on the graphics window and select the Labels command.
pro as individual load cases for the slab.23. member.pro.pro Model command from the menu. You may add this load item to each load case using the STAAD.pro GUI. To transfer these loadings into STAAD. In the General->Load control tab you will notice that all the AASHTO loadings have been created.pro.pro input file editor. and foundation design using the code check features in STAAD. These loadings do not include the selfweight of the structure that will be needed for the design. 24. Click on Model->Modeling command to return to STAAD. These loads can be transferred to STAAD. 30 . You may simply add the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 command to each load case using the STAAD. select the Loading->Create Loading in STAAD.pro.
4. 964. The deflection of beam 964 with respect to nodes 6 and 14 have to be checked. 1043.pro except for members 964 and 1043 have to have proper DFF. We will accept the default steel design parameters in STAAD. 4. 31 . Select 4. and 2023 using the Tools->Create New Group menu command. Grouping 5. click on the Design->Steel control tab on your left. the subsequent steps can either be used for optimization or may not be required. Perform Analysis 6. Code Check We have already completed the first step. For more information on the Ratio design parameter please refer to Section 2. If the beams fail after Step#6. we could design the steel beams using the following steps: 1. 2. 1043.13. If the beams pass in Step# 2. Create a group of members 65. 476. Perform Analysis 2. 145. Select the AASHTO design code in the Data Area. 1535. 555. in the Modeling Mode. 1456. 1944. To minimize the number of cycles. 1456. 1944.pro Technical Reference Manual. 964. the entire design cycle from Step# 1 to Step# 6 have to be repeated.1 AASHTO (ASD) of the STAAD. 476. and 2023 are used to design members as per the AASHTO code and all the load cases that we have created. 3.0 Bridge Design as Per AASHTO Steel Design as per AASHTO can be summarized in the following steps: 1. After obtaining the analysis results. Select beams 964 and 1043 in the graphics window and click the Define Parameters button in the Data Area. Hence. 1535. Code Check 3. 145. DJ1and DJ2 parameters assigned for the deflection checks. The deflection of beam 1041 with respect to nodes 14 and 7 have to be checked. one may take advantage of the Ratio design parameter which is not discussed in this manual. Members 65. 555.
and DFF 360 parameters have to be assigned to beam 964. Select the Assign to Selected beams option and click the Assign button.Hence. On the left hand side. 32 . These design parameters have to be assigned to members 964 and 1043. Select the DFF parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter 360 and press the Add button. Select beam 964 in the graphics window. Select the DJ1 parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter node number 14 and press the Add button. Click on the Commands button in the Data Area and select the Check Code option in the Design Commands dialog box. Click the Close button. 6. Click on the Assign button. Uncheck the Highlight Selected Geometry check box. Select the DJ2 parameter and enter node number 7 and press the Add button. and DFF 360 parameters have to be assigned to beam 1043. Select the DJ1 6 parameter in the Data Area. Click on Analyze -> Run Analysis command from the menu. select the DJ1 parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter node number 6 and press the Add button. The DJ1 6. Select the Select->By Group Name command from the menu and select the beam group that we have created. Click the Close button. you will notice the following items with question marks besides them. Select the STAAD Analysis option and press the Run Analysis button. The DJ1 14. Again. After the analysis is completed click on the View Output File option to view the steel design results. 5. This is the L/360 deflection criteria. DJ2 7. Click the Close button. assign the remaining design parameters using the procedure described above. Select the DJ2 parameter and enter node number 14 and press the Add button. DJ2 14. click on the RESULTS tab and click on STEEL DESIGN. Similarly. Under the Parameter 1 tree item in the Data Area.
as per Step 6 discussed above. The After Current check box will enable you to place the DMIN 2 and DMAX 2. In the Post-processing mode. 8. Assign the Select and Ratio 0. 964.3ft for the selection. Staad. the selection needs to be applied to all beam members. Close the output file. Let us limit the depth of the girders to 2ft and 2. Select the Check Code entry in the Data Area. 7. 555. 555. 1456. 1043. After running the analysis.pro has to be instructed that all members in the design group have the same section profile. 1043. one for the initial selection and the other for the member selection. Select Ax in the Property Specification dialog box and check the After Current check box. The After Current check box will enable you to place the Ratio design parameter at the correct location. Click the Assign button. 145. 145.9 command to members 65.9 command must be placed before the Check Code command with the rest of the design parameters. 964. 1944.pro to perform member selection. Click on the Add button in the Design Commands dialog box.3 design parameter to members 65.3 design parameter at the correct location. 1456. you will notice that there are two sets of steel design results. the design results are shown in the Beam->Unity Check Tab. After performing the member selection. Select the design group that you had created in Step 2. and 2023 using the instructions in Step# 4 discussed above and must be placed before the Check Code command with the rest of the design parameters. 1944. 476. You can instruct STAAD. Click the Close button. 476. 33 . The offsets have to be manually updated. Click the Commands button in the Data Area and select the Group option. and 2023. Create and assign the DMIN 2 and DMAX 2. 1535.You will notice that all the beams have failed as per the AASHTO code checks. Select the GROUP AX MEMB design command in the Data Area and click on the Select Group/Deck button. The Ratio 0. 1535.
Select the Assign to Selected Beams option and click the Assign button. 10. it is not necessary to change the offsets of the beams and the columns in this case. Select W21X275 and select the Select->Beams parallel to->x command from the menu.pro editor. Using the STAAD. The last step in the design process is to check if this member selection is ok because of the changes in the force distribution in the entire structure and the proposed new member property proposed by STAAD. 34 . The W24X192 have a depth which is 0.PRO SELECTION. comment out the following lines as follows: *RATIO 0.9.pro.9 ALL *WE SELECTED W21X275 AS PER STAAD. Perform the analysis as per the instructions in Step# 6 and you will notice that the beams are passing. WAS W24X103.03ft less than that of W24X103. Open the General->Properties control tab in the Modeling mode. *SELECT MEMB 65 145 476 555 964 1043 1456 1535 1944 2023 *GROUP AX MEMB _MIDSPANBEAMS INITIAL SECTION 11. Hence.
pro as load cases to load combinations for further analysis and design. slab elements and foundations.pro in combination with STAAD.beava is used to find the AASHTO 2002 load positions that will create the maximum load response. This manual has demonstrated the design of the steel girders. 36 . STAAD. These loads that create the maximum load responses can then be transferred into STAAD.pro is first used to construct the bridge geometry and STAAD.5. A similar design approach can be used for design of concrete members.beava can be used to analyze bridges as per the AASHTO code.0 Conclusion STAAD.
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