Materials &equipments

Materials for Ultra-high vacuum

Properties required:

(a) Low vapor pressure. (b) Bakeable to > 200 oC without losing mechanical strength. (c) Impermeable to gases.

(d) Inert towards reaction with other materials in
system or vacuum process. (e) Inert towards irradiation by electromagnetic or particle beams. (f) Easy machining and fabrication into suitable components.

(a) Stainless steel:
• Excellent all round material. • Distortion during welding. (b) Aluminum and aluminum alloys: • Good corrosion resistance, easily machined and jointed. • Poor strength at high temperatures, high distortion when welding .

(c) Nickel alloys:
• High strength at high temperatures, excellent corrosion resistance. • High cost, machining problems. (d) Copper: • Easily machined, good corrosion resistance, especially oxygen free, high conductivity grade (OFHC) material. • Difficult to braze in hydrogen atmosphere.

(e) Brass:
• Good corrosion resistance. • Zinc evaporates out at temperatures above 100 oC. (f) Mild steel: • Not generally used as it is liable to rust.


(a) PTFE: low outgassing rate, good electrical
insulator, heat resistant, self lubricating. (b) Polycarbonate: moderate outgassing rate and water absorption, good electrical insulator.

(c) Nylon and acrylic: high outgassing rate and water absorption rates, self lubricating. (d) PVC: high outgassing rate and water absorption rates. (e) Polyethyene: only suitable if well outgassed. (f) Nitrile rubber: easily jointed, sealing rings. (g) Viton: low outgassing, heat resistant, sealing rings.

Common vacuum problems
• • • • Improper cleaning techniques Incompatible materials Leaks Virtual leaks

Feed -Through
These are used where it is necessary to transmit fluid, electrical supplies , movement and signal through the wall of vacuum chamber.

insulator Cooling water

High current

ceramic High voltage Extra feedthrough cap


Feed-through (movement)
Wobble shaft Bellows tube

Greased O-ring





Magnetic coupling

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