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Gerry Lo> USE OF AZOLLA AS BIOFERTILIZER IN RICE-WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM ee ee BY SIKANDER ALI A THESIS SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB, LAHORE, PAKISTAN FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BOTANY 1995 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all ] am endlessly thankful to Almighty Allah for blessing me with a good health, which enabled me to work hard for extra-long hours during my research work and particularly during writing of this thesis. L wish to express my profound thanks and gratituee (o my superiors, Professor Dr. S.H. Iqbal, Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore and Dr. Kauser A. Malik, T.1, CSO, Director, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, for their constant encouragement, invaluable guidance and advice during research and in the preparation of this thesis J am thankful to all the members of Biofertilizer Division, NIBGE. especially Miss. Naima Hamid, Miss. Samina Ambreen and Mr. Tanvir Ahmad for their cooperation and help in computer work. The technical assistance for taboratory and field work by M. Younas Malik and secretarial assistance for preparation of manuscript by Mr. Khalid Javed are gratefully acknowledged. Tam thankful to Dr, M.L. Rajoka and Dr. M.S. Mirza for their valuable comments and actively reviewing this manuscript {am thankful to International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, for providing =N labelled fertilizer and for ''N analysis of samples of some of the experiments performed under Contract No. 3665/RB. Lastly | am grateful to my family members. who suffered a serious neglect during my research and particularly during writing of this thesis, and also for their sacrifices and encouragements to achieve this goa! ili CONTENTS ABSTRACT. 0 0 ee wel INTRODUCTION © 00 ee 4 REVJEW OF LITERATURE... 2 es 10 THE AZOLLA PLANT. 5 2 2 Taxonomy. es Geographical Distribution . Habitat 6 Morphology... 2... bee Loe Azolla-Anabaena Symbiosis. ©. Sexual Hybridization and Mutation. 2 2 ee ECOPHYSIQLOGY .... - : Mineral Nutrition. ©. 6... Water and Humidity Temperature ee Light. 2 ee pH. ee Salinity . . Turbulence Pests... 1. USE OF AZOLLAIN RICE. . : 27 Origin and History of Azolla use in Rice . 27 Suitability of Azofla to Rice Ecosystem . 29 Laboratory Cultivation and Transportation. © 2 ee ot Nursery Cultivation 33 Over-Wintering 34 Over-Summering . 235 Multiplication Nurseries Ce 36 Field Cultivation . Se fe 37 Monoctop cultivation © 7 Intererop cultivation. 6 ee Sea vee al