A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks auto matically or with guidance, typically by remote

control. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. R obots range from humanoids such as ASIMO and TOPIO to Nano robots, Swarm robots, Industrial robots, mobile and servicing robots. By mimicking a lifelike appeara nce or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense that it has intent or ag ency of its own. When societies first began developing, nearly all production and effort was the result of human labour, as well as with the aid of semi- and fully domesticated animals. As mechanical means of performing functions were discovered, and mechan ics and complex mechanisms were developed, the need for human labour was reduced . Machinery was initially used for repetitive functions, such as lifting water a nd grinding grain. With technological advances more complex machines were slowly developed, such as those invented by Hero of Alexandria (in Egypt) in the 1st c entury AD, and the first half of the second millennium AD, such as the Automata of Al-Jazari in the 12th century AD (in medieval Iraq). They were not widely ado pted as human labour, particularly slave labour, was still inexpensive compared to the capital-intensive machines. Men such as Leonardo Da Vinci in 1495 through to Jacques de Vaucanson in 1739, as well as rediscovering the Greek engineering methods, have made plans for and built automata and robots leading to books of designs such as the Japanese Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery) in 1796. As me chanical techniques developed through the Industrial age we find more practical applications such as Nikola Tesla in 1898, who designed a radio-controlled boat, and John Hammond Jr. and Benjamin Miessner who in 1912 created the Electric Dog as a precursor to their self directing torpedo of 1915.[1]. We also find a more android development as designers tried to mimic more human-like features includ ing designs such as those of biologist Makoto Nishimura in 1929 and his creation Gakutensoku, which cried and changed its facial expressions, and the more crude Elektro from Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1938.

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