# Forew ord

K.C. Engineers

Sedimentation Studies Apparatus

Sedimentation Studies Apparatus .

Contents Objective Aim Introduction Theory Utilities Required Experimental Procedure Observation & Calculation …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 Sedimentation Studies Apparatus .

This is known as critical settling point. Both A and D grow larger at the expense of B and ultimately zone B & C disappear and all the solids appear in D. INTRODUCTION: The separation of dilute slurry by gravity settling into a clear fluid and slurry of higher solid concentration is known as Sedimentation. Slopes of this curve at any point of time represent settling velocities of the suspension at that time and are characteristics of specific solid concentration. To plot settling rate (dz/dθ )θ⇒ 0 vs initial concentration (Co) on a log-log-scale. on slurry of known concentration.SEDIMENTATION STUDIES APPARATUS OBJECTIVE: Study of batch sedimentation process. the height of each zone varies as indicated in the figure. Sedimentation Studies Apparatus 1 . 7. 10. the height of a liquid-solid interface is obtained as a function of time. THEORY: For any batch sedimentation experiment. Use these critical parameters of slurry for the determination of Area (A) for continuous thickener.5. Batch Sedimentation tests are used to determine the settling characteristics of a Slurry/Sludge. 3. The analysis is further used for the design of continuous thickener. 12. Cc) for each concentration (Co). To plot a graph between the height of interface (z) and time (θ ) for slurries having five different concentration (5. 4. As Sedimentation continues. To determine the critical constant (θ c. AIM: 1. The same zones shall be present in a continuous thickener. and 15 %) of CaCO3 2. The mechanism of sedimentation observed during a batch settling set is shown in figure.5.

2) θ as: a) b) c) d) e) Draw a tangent to the early part of the curve (representing free settling condition).2 Let θ c be the time needed to reach the critical concentration C c (i. Extend the two tangents till they intersect. At the intersection.e.U n ifo rm C o n c e n tr a tio n B V a r ia b le C o n c e n tra tio n A B C D ( b ) C S o o T r a n s iti o n A B C D ( c ) ( a S t a r t ) a r s e li d A C E n d ( d ) D ( e ) A D Figure. zo Let initial conc. when the settling velocity decreases rapidly). construct the angle bisector. The intersection of this angle bisector line with the settling curve gives an estimate of θ c c and Cc are obtained Sedimentation Studies Apparatus 2 . From the settling curve data (Figure .(1). of solids in the cylinder be = Co Height of solid liquid interface Cross sectional area of cylinder = zo =A z Height of interface 0 θ Figure . Draw a tangent to the last portion of the curve (representing hindered settling condition).

θ c) = (z1 .5. 50mm dia.5.zu) / (θ A = Loθ . 10. Lo = flow to the Unit SETTLING RATE-CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIP: From the batch settling data the settling velocity at any θ tangent drawn at θ = θ Concentration at θ CL = Co zo / zi L L is obtained from the slope of the and is given by: L Settling Velocity V = (zi . Start recording the time and interfacial height in each of the graduated cylinder separately continue to take the record till height of interface stops any further Note the final height (z∞). Note the initial height (zo).) 2. 12. Graduated Cylinders (1m long. Stop Watch 3.The mass balance for solid is: Cozo = Cuzu Subscript u denotes the underflow or θ u zu = zoCo / Cu case obtained from : u (zc . CaCO3 (Calcium Carbonate) EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Prepare five samples of CaCO3 slurry (5.zc) / θ c and area of thickener is obtained from : u / zo. Mix the samples thoroughly before starting the experiment so that homogeneous slurry is obtained in each case. 7.zL) / θ L is given by: UTILITIES REQUIRED: 1. Sedimentation Studies Apparatus 3 . and 15 %) in each cylinder.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION: Concentration (Co.5% 5% θ sec For a particular Co obtain settling rate concentration relationship. g/L) Time (θ ) Seconds Hight of Interface zi (cm) Plot all the curves Z vs θ . log(dz/dθ )θ =0 15% cm 1 12. Determine the thickness A for any value of Lo. Find the slope of initial settling rates (dz /dθ )θ =0 for each concentration (Co) and plot on a log-log graph. (log Co) Sedimentation Studies Apparatus 4 .5% 10% 7.