DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMM. ENGG. B.I.T.

MESRA, RANCHI EC7101 Module –1: Switching in Telecommunication Systems: Evolution of Telecommunications, General principle of switching, Classification of Switching Systems, Elements of Switching System, Signalling tones, DTMF, Common Control and Direct Control. Text Book: “Telecommunication Switching Systems & Networks”, by T. Viswanathan, PHI, 2001. Module – 2: Electronic Space Division Switching: Stored Program Control (SPC), Centralised SPC, Distributed SPC, Enhanced Services, Two-Stage Networks, Three-Stage Networks. Text Book: “Telecommunication Switching Systems &Networks”, by T. Viswanathan, PHI, 2001. (Chap.4) Module – 3: Time Division Switching: Basic Time Division Space Switching, Time Multiplexed Space Switching, Time Multiplexed Time Switching, Combination Switching, Three-stage Combination Switching. Text Book “Telecommunication Switching Systems & Networks”, by T. Viswanathan, PHI, 2001. (Chap. 6) Module – 4: Traffic Engineering: Network Traffic Load and Parameters, Grade of Service and Blocking Probability, Modelling Switching systems, Blocking Models & Loss Estimates, Delay Systems. Text Book: “Telecommunication Switching Systems”, by T. Viswanathan, PHI, 2001. (Chap 8) Module – 5: ISDN and its Motivation, New Services, Network and Protocol Architecture, Transmission Channels, Internetworking, BISDN. TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING CIRCUITS & NETWORKS

International numbering. Transmission Plan. Transmission of ATM Cells. Module – 7: Introduction to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).Text Book: “Telecommunication Switching Systems & Networks”. Switching Hierarchy & Routing. “Telecommunications Switching. 7/e. Protocol. 2004. PHI. Architecture. (Chap. ATM Adaptation Layer. 9) 2. 10. ATM Cells. by T. Pearson Education Asia. (Chap 11) Module – 6: Network Subscriber Loop Systems. “Telecommunication Switching Systems & Networks”. Viswanathan. Traffic and Networks”. 2001. Numbering Plan. PHI. (Chaps – 11 & 12) . PHI. Text Book: “Data & Computer Communications by William Stallings”. Chap. 2001. Flood. Text Books: 1. J. E. ATM Logical Connection. Traffic and congestion control. National Schemes. T. Viswanathan.

7. If the noise power in a channel is 0.000 telephone subscribers (use voice B. Explain the following terms: a. 15. what is the S/N ratio? 16. 14. What is the importance of sidetone in a telephonic conversation? . Busy-hour traffic g. 5. 2. Blocking network d. Transit Exchange h.1: 1. Compare and contrast between local battery exchanges and common battery exchanges. Folded network c. Erlang (E) Name and explain different types of signalling tones. TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS & NETWORKS 3.TUTORIAL EC7101 Module. Draw the diagram of carbon granule microphone and derive the equation of voicemodulated current from the microphone. 10. 6. Non-blocking network e. Explain with suitable diagram the working of manned Common Battery exchange. 9. Explain simplex. What do you understand by PABX and DID (Direct Inward Dialling)? 11. Symmetric network b. half duplex & full duplex communication systems and give at least two examples of each. 4.1dBm and the signal power is 20mw. if the transmitted power is one watt. 13. 8. What are the elements of a switching system? Explain using diagram.W = 4 KHz and 1 sample = 8 bits). Estimate the received power. Estimate the rate of transmission for a channel used to connect 20. What are the drawbacks of manual exchange? 12. What is sidetone? How it is minimized using antisidetone circuit? Explain with circuit diagram. Give the drawbacks associated with local battery exchange. An electrical communication system uses a channel that has 20dB loss. Blocking Probability f. Classify and explain different types of switching systems.

18. 29. What is the series of tones that are sent when dialling the number 911 in DTMF Touch Tone Pad? . Differentiate between pulse dialling and multifrequency dialling. Draw the pulse dialling waveform for 24. A central battery exchange is powered with a 48V battery. What is the importance of a steady current flowing through a carbon microphone? 21. Explain. Name the basic circuits used in all the selector control circuits. Assume that the subscriber takes 6000ms on an average to rotate the dial for a single digit. The battery has a 4.C.0ohm resistance in series for short circuit protection. What are the advantages of Automatic switching systems? 23. Calculate the time required to dial 00-91-44-414630 using a rotary dial telephone. What can be concluded? 30. resistance of the microphone is 50ohm. For a carbon granule microphone. Explain the function of touch dial arrangement. If the cable used for subscriber lines has a resistance of 50ohm/km. determine a suitable value for m. 32. The D. Describe the working of a rotary switch. A long distance dialer hears four different types of call-in-progress signals while establishing call. 24. 22. if the ratio of local to external traffic is 4:1. A busy tone does not imply that the called party is actually engaged in a conversation. The carbon microphone requires a minimum of 24mA as energizing current.01 Io. determine the maximum distance at which a subscriber station can be located. 26. if the contribution from each of the higher order terms is to be less than 0. Differentiate between forward acting and reverse acting types.17. Estimate the bandwidth requirements of a single satellite that is to support 10-lakh telephone conversations simultaneously. 25. 28. Forty percent of the subscribers are active during peak hour. Differentiate between common control and direct control. estimate the number of trunk lines required. What is dual tone multifrequency (DTMF) signalling? What are its advantages? 34. Give the advantages of multifrequency dialling over pulse dialling of rotary dialling. 31. 27. 33. A 1000 line exchange is partly folded & partly non-folded. 20. 19.

Time space ii. 40 subscribers initiate calls. An exchange serves 2000 subscribers. Explain the following terms: Busy hour Peak busy hour Time consistent busy hour. 3. 3. Module – 3: 1. Space time iii. Explain basic time division space switching and time division time switching. For a Close network derive the expression for minimum number of switching elements. Calculate the unavailability for single and dual processor systems. a. If the average BHCA is 10. Total duration of the calls is 4800 sec. Calculate the load offered to the network by the subscribers and the average subscriber traffic. i. 3. Describe various configurations of dual processor architecture. estimate the number of cross points required. Module – 4: 1. calculate the busy hour calling rate. 2. Determine the blocking probability of a switch if (a) all the subscribers are active at the same time (b) Only 5-% of the subscribers are active simultaneously. 5. Space time space. N = 16 & the number of subscribers connected to the system is 0. Explain different types of combination switching. Blocking crossbar switch is to be designed to support 1000 subscribers. 7. Explain centralized stored program control (SPC). Time space time iv. 2. 4.2: 1. 4. . Show that grade of service (GOS) is equal to blocking probability for erlang traffic. Given that MTBF = 2000 hrs & MTTR = 4 hrs. Differentiate between centralized & distributed SPC. Over a 20-minute observation interval. c. In a time space switch M = 128. 2.000 & CCR is 60%.Module. 6.1 MN. b. If the estimated peak traffic is 10 Erlangs with average holding time of three minutes per call. Derive the expression for the switching elements for two stage and three stage networks.

5. Derive the expression for GOS for Engest traffic. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 . 1 per unit recorded by the meter. outgoing or incoming calls simultaneously. If there is a sudden spurt in the traffic increasing the average traffic by 50%. 600 per Km for a minimum rental period of 3 months. If 20% of the subscribers attempt to call simultaneously. A telephone exchange supporting 5000 subscribers uses DTMF dialling and a common control subsystem with 100 digit receivers. A call processor in an exchange requires 120 ms to service a complete call. What is the BHCA rating for the processor? If the exchange is capable of carrying 700 erlangs of traffic.8. 7.000 subscribers are connected to an exchange. the calls arrive at the rate of 1100 calls per hour.1E per subscriber. what is the BHCA that can be supported by the exchange. determine the GOS. Explain the following: (a) Grade of service (b) Blocking probability (c) Delay probability A switching system serves 10.000 subscribers with a traffic intensity of 0. At what traffic volume per day should he move over to leased line? Assume 20 working days per month and a rate of Re. Each digit receiver is assigned for duration of five seconds per subscriber for call processing. What is the effect on the arrival rate? 10. How many subscribers can be supported in bi-directional PAM switching bus. Explain the differences between micro programmed control unit and hard-wired control unit. If the demand is serviced by a trunk group of 50 lines. A heavy point-to-point traffic user has his offices located 600 Km apart and is confronted with the choice of using STD or leased lines. what is the worst-case wait time for a subscriber before he receives the dial tone? Estimate the number of cross points required to design an exchange that supports 500 users on a non-blocking basis and 50 transit. Derive the expression for the switching elements and blocking probability of a threestage network. 6. A telephone administration provides leased lines at the rate of Rs. If the exchange is designed to achieve a call completion rate of 0. what is the call completion rate? Assume an average call holding time of two minutes. if the pulse width of the PAM sample is 125 ns? Derive an expression for the blocking probability of a TSTS switch if each stage is individually non-blocking. with each call holding for duration of three minutes. What should be the call processing time for this exchange? In an exchange.8 when the busy hour calling rate is 4.

1100 calls are offered. What is the resulting grade of service? Explain holding time and delay with regard to SPC systems.2. On an average. On a particular traffic relation the calling rate is 461 and the average call duration is 1. there are 10 busy serves at any time. A particular exchange has been dimensioned to handle 1000 calls during the busy hour. there are 20 servers and 100 subscribers. calculate the number of calls put through by a single server and the group as a whole in a one-hour period. calculate the busy hour calling rate. A group of 20 servers carry traffic of 10 erlangs. On a certain day during the busy hour.000 and the CCR is 60%. Total duration of the call is 4800 secs. two limiting performance factors come into play. 40 subscribers initiate calls. CCS and CM. Calculate the subscriber traffic in erlangs. A subscriber makes three phone calls of three minutes. Calculate the load offered to the network by the subscribers and the average subscriber traffic. As we extend the loop further. In a telephone system. What are the two basic parameters that define “traffic”? Explain them.5 min during the busy hour. Explain the factors responsible for the development of ISDN. four minutes and two minutes duration in a one-hour period. If the average BHCA is 10. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Module – 5: 1. If the average duration of a call is three minutes. What are these? Explain them. each is occupied for 30 minutes in an observation interval of two hours. In a group of 10 servers. in erlangs? 32 In traffic theory there are three ways lost calls are handled. is extended. Calculate GOS assuming (i) Erlang traffic (ii) Engest traffic. Distinguish a full availability switch from a limited availability switch. The probability of all the servers being busy is 0. Name them. with a fixed battery voltage. . Give the basic principles on which ISDN is based. what occurs at the serving switch? A subscriber pair. Over a 20-minute observation interval. What is the traffic intensity in CCS. What is on-hook and off-hook? When a subscriber handset goes “off-hook”. calculate the traffic carried by the group. Distinguish between offered traffic and carried traffic. 2.18 An exchange serves 2000 subscribers.

3. 4. 5. 4. 7. How many wires connect the telephone to the central exchange? What are the names given to the wires connected to the phone? What is a line? What is a trunk? What are the advantages of a central exchange? Discuss the various topologies adopted for interconnecting exchanges. Explain the ISDN architecture. a. Discuss the National and International telephone numbering plan. Cell header at the B – ISDN UNI and cell header at the B – ISDN NNI. 7. What is ATM? (a)Explain the cell structure of ATM. 2. Module – 7: 1. . 8. Discuss the CCITT hierarchical structure for routing traffic between exchanges. Name & explain the different layers of the ISDN protocol architecture. Explain the following: (i) Video text (ii) Teletext (iii) Compare & Contrast telex and e-mail systems Module – 6: 1. 8. 6. Explain the signalling used in ISDN. 5. What are the services that ISDN can support? Explain the processes that take place in E-mail. 6. 2.3.

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