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Published by: Muneeb Sikander on Nov 22, 2011
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05/02/2012

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Chapter

TWO

Foundations of Individual Behavior

Formation of this chapter
 Intelligence is but one characteristic that people bring with them when they join an organization. In this chapter we look at individual differences in the form of
– Ability (which includes intelligence) and – Biographical characteristics (age, gender, race, tenure) affect employee performance and satisfaction – How people learn behaviors and – What management can do to shape those behaviors.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence
Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.

Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities.

Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .Dimensions of Intellectual Ability • Number aptitude: speedy and accurate arithmetic • Verbal comprehension: understands what is read or heard • Perceptual speed: identify visual similarities and differences • Inductive reasoning: identify logical sequence in a problem • Deductive reasoning: use logic and assess the implication of an argument • Spatial visualization: imagine how object would look if position changed • Memory: retain and recall past experience E X H I B I T 2–1 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina. strength. All rights reserved. and similar characteristics. dexterity. . © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

Trunk strength 3. E X H I B I T 2–2 .Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors 1. All rights reserved. Dynamic strength 2. Explosive strength Flexibility Factors 5. Static strength 4. Body coordination 8. Alexandria. Source: Adapted from HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management. Stamina © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. VA. Dynamic flexibility Other Factors 7. Balance 9. Extent flexibility 6.

.The Ability-Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Biographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics—such as Age: Job performance declines with age Workforce is aging Most US workers no longer have to retire at age of 70 Gender: No difference in problem solving ability. sociability or learning ability Race: if same race there is tendency for favor colleagues in job. performance evaluation. competitive drive. promotion etc Tenure: impact of seniority on job . motivation. analytical skills.

Learning Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning • Involves change • Is relatively permanent • Is acquired through experience .

All rights reserved. . Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov in 1900s experimented To teach dogs to salivate in response to ringing bell Key Concepts: • Unconditioned stimulus: meat (caused salivation) • Unconditioned response: increase in salivation • Conditioned stimulus: bell (artificial stimulus) • Conditioned response: salivation in reaction to bell © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.

(Paradigm=Example) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Artist unknown .

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. . All rights reserved.

.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

All rights reserved. .© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

All rights reserved. .© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. . All rights reserved.

.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. . All rights reserved.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. .

All rights reserved. following behavior © 2007 Prentice Hall increasesInc. Key Concepts by Skinner (Harvard psychologist) • Reflexive (unlearned) behavior • Conditioned (learned / operant) behavior tendency to repeat behavior is influenced by • Reinforcement Creating pleasing consequence. the frequency .Theories of Learning (cont’d) Operant Conditioning: people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

.Theories of Learning (cont’d) Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience. All rights reserved. Key Concepts • Attentional processes • Retention processes • Motor reproduction processes • Reinforcement processes © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

• The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Key Concepts • Reinforcement is required to change behavior. . • Some rewards are more effective than others.Theories of Learning (cont’d) Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. . (look busy to avoid being called)  Punishment – Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. (ignore raising hands for question) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.  Extinction – Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.  Negative reinforcement – Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.Types of Reinforcement  Positive reinforcement – Providing a reward for a desired behavior.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. .Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. All rights reserved. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.

Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses. All rights reserved. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. .Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Rewards can also be classified as: Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.

.Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Compliments Weekly pay checks Pop Quizzes Fixed-ratio Piece-rate pay Commissioned sales E X H I B I T 2–4 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved.Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement E X H I B I T 2–5 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc.

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) E X H I B I T 2–5 (cont’d) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. .

Evaluate performance improvement © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Identify behavioral consequences 4. Identify critical behaviors 2. Develop and apply intervention 5. Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1. Develop baseline data 3. .Behavior Modification OB Mod: Emery Air Freight( now part of FedEx) (container 90%) (actual 45%) The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.

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