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Updating the EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (The Orange Book)

2005 Progress Report


1010223

Effective December 6, 2006, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Updating the EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (The Orange Book)
2005 Progress Report 1010223 Technical Update, October 2005

EPRI Project Manager John Chan

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1395 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES


THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI With assistance from Havard Engineering Inc., Charles Rawlins, and Jonas Weisel & Associates.

Please note: This Progress Report contains draft chapters of the EPRI book entitled Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (The Orange Book). These draft chapters are incomplete and preliminary in nature. Funders are invited to provide comment and feedback on these chapters by responding to the Reader Survey on page vii of this report. The chapters will be revised and completed in 2006, and a hardcover edition will be published at the end of 2006.

This is an EPRI Technical Update report. A Technical Update report is intended as an informal report of continuing research, a meeting, or a topical study. It is not a final EPRI technical report.

NOTE
For further information about EPRI, call the EPRI Customer Assistance Center at 800.313.3774 or e-mail askepri@epri.com. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright 2005 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This document was prepared by EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94304 Principal Investigator or Authors J. Chan, EPRI D. Havard, Havard Engineering, Inc. C. Rawlins, Consultant J. Weisel, Jonas Weisel & Associates This document describes research sponsored by EPRI. The publication is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Updating the EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (The Orange Book), 2005 Progress Report, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2005, 1010223.

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ABSTRACT
The EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion was published in 1979, and is still a well-used reference today. This book describes the mechanisms and control systems for the different forms of vibration of conductors, including fatigue of conductors, aeolian vibration, wake-induced oscillation, and galloping. Since its publication, there have been considerable developments in both approach and technology in this field. There is also a concern that the book is too academic and cannot easily be put to practical uses. To address these concerns and to meet current needs, the book will be updated. The objective of updating the book is to provide transmission and distribution line designers with the best practical tools to design overhead lines effectively in order to minimize damages to the lines from wind-induced conductor motion, and to provide overhead line maintenance staff tools to analyze vibration problems on existing lines for improvements of their performance related to such motion. Overall, the goal will be to provide the electric power industry with a useful and practical reference guide that will complement the new edition of the Red Bookthe EPRI AC Transmission Line Reference Book: 200 kV and Above. This report describes progress in 2005. Activities included development of a tender document, solicitation of proposals, selection and awarding of contracts to author teams, a kick-off meeting of lead authors to coordinate approaches to all chapters, and initial drafting of most chapters. Drafts of Chapters 2 through 6 were developed in 2005, and are included in this progress report in Appendices C through H. The drafts represent a substantial effort. In most cases, more than 60% of the drafting is complete. The draft chapters provide a clear indication of the direction and breadth of the revision, and of the areas of new information to be included. The drafts are, however, incomplete in some areas, and placeholder heading titles indicate where more information is to come in the future. With these draft chapters, this report provides readers with a preview of the revised edition of the Orange Book, which will be published in final form in 2006. Applets will be developed in 2008, if funding allows. A Readers Survey is provided with this Progress Report on page vii in order to obtain feedback and comment from funders on the draft chapters.

READER SURVEY
EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (The Orange Book) After you have read draft Chapters 2-6 of the revised Orange Book, contained in Appendices DH of this Progress Report, please answer the following questions to provide feedback to the authors. (Please be as specific as possibleidentify chapter and section.) Please send responses to John Chan at jchan@epri.com.

1. Clarity of Sections. Identify sections that are not clear. 2. Detail in Sections. Do you need to see greater detail in any sections? 3. Number of Illustrations, Photos, and Tables. Do you wish to have more or fewer illustrations, photos, or tables? Please identify any items you would like to see more or less illustrated. 4. Clarity of Figures. Identify figures that not clear enough or are missing. 5. Topics Missing. Identify topics that are not currently in the drafts but that should be covered. 6. Topics Not Of Interest. Are there topics that are covered but that are not of interest to you? If so, please identify. 7. Practical Examples. Are there practical examples that are missing? Please identify and be specific. 8. Appropriateness of Approach. Does the approach in the individual chapters meet your expectations as a user? 9. CD. The final version of the book will contain a CD. What would you like to see included in the CD? 10. Applets. Are there applets that you would like to be included in a later edition? (Applets are simple application programs for making calculations.) 11. Unpublished Fatigue Information. Are you aware of particular work not published on special conductors or OPGW, regarding fatigue, that you would be willing to share with EPRI?

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CONTENTS
1 BACKGROUND......................................................................................................................1-1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................1-1 Approach..............................................................................................................................1-1 Implementation Plan ............................................................................................................1-3 Overall Scope and Structure of the Revised Edition ............................................................1-6 2 ACTIVITIES IN 2005...............................................................................................................2-1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................2-1 Development of the Tender and Awarding of Contracts ......................................................2-1 Authors Meetings .................................................................................................................2-1 Drafts of Chapters ................................................................................................................2-1 Solicitation of Utility Interest .................................................................................................2-1 3 PROGRESS AND FUTURE PLANS ......................................................................................3-1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................3-1 Progress...............................................................................................................................3-1 Future Plans.........................................................................................................................3-1 A MINUTES OF MEETINGS, 2005 .......................................................................................... A-1 B TENDER DOCUMENTS ....................................................................................................... B-1 C CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. C-1 D CHAPTER 2 AEOLIAN VIBRATION .................................................................................... D-1 E CHAPTER 3 FATIGUE OF OVERHEAD CONDUCTORS ................................................... E-1 F CHAPTER 4 GALLOPING CONDUCTORS ..........................................................................F-1 G CHAPTER 5 BUNDLE CONDUCTOR MOTIONS................................................................ G-1 H CHAPTER 6 OVERHEAD FIBER OPTIC CABLES ............................................................. H-1 I CHAPTER 7 TRANSIENT MOTIONS .....................................................................................I-1 J GLOSSARY AND INDEX .......................................................................................................J-1

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1
BACKGROUND
Introduction EPRI is sponsoring development of a new edition of the Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion, commonly known as the Orange Book, which was originally published in 1979. Development of a new edition is being undertaken for several reasons. First, while the book is still a well-used reference for conductor vibrations, it is now almost a quarter of a century old. Since its publication, there have been considerable developments in both approach and technology in this field. Second, there is also a concern that the book is too academic and cannot easily be put to practical uses. To address these concerns, revision of the book will update existing information in the Orange Book to reflect the state-of-the art knowledge in the field of wind-induced conductor motion. The revision process will also add new information to the book to cover topics, interests, and technology that have been developed since the book was last published. In addition, the revision will broaden the scope of the book to acquire global utility experience in conductor motion. As regards practicality, the audience for the book consists of transmission and distribution line designers and staff responsible for maintenance of overhead lines, interpretation of line failures, and correction of poor designs. The objective of this revision project is to provide them with the best practical tool to design overhead lines effectively in order to minimize damages to the lines from wind-induced conductor motion, and to analyze existing lines for improvements of their performance related to such motion. The new edition will include examples to facilitate the understanding of wind-induced conductor motion and the application of the knowledge to practical uses. Usability of the volume will be improved with inclusion of an index, applets (small computer calculation programs), and other suitable electronic media. Overall, the goal will be to provide the electric power industry with a useful and practical reference guide that will complement the new edition of the Red Bookthe EPRI AC Transmission Line Reference Book: 200 kV and Above. This section describes the general approach that is being taken to revise the Orange Book and the implementation plan. Approach The strategy for the revision of the Orange Book has been to assemble a team of world experts to update different chapters of the book or to write new chapters to cover advancements in technology in this field. The overall timeframe for the project will be approximately three years. At the start, a preliminary review of the book was carried out to identify the scope of revisions and to identify potential authors for the revisions. The list of potential authors was further
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augmented through personal contacts, referrals, and national and international committees related to the subject. It was decided that work would be divided into chapters, and that the revision of the chapters would be tendered. The identified experts on the prepared list would be invited to submit proposals. The proposals submitted by the bidders would include recommendations for the revisions to be carried out. It was further decided that an expert would be selected through the tender process to be the lead author of each chapter. This author will have overall responsibility for the update or creation of that chapter. Forming a team among experts to complement one anothers skills would also be acceptable. The selection of experts will support a balance between academics and practitioners. To ensure the quality of the finished product, another expert in the same field would be selected to review each chapter for technical accuracy. The draft would also be submitted for peer reviews by representative end-users. An expert would not be assigned to undertake the writing of more than one chapter. However, he or she can be the reviewer of other chapters. In addition, an Editorial Committee was formed to ensure the revised Orange Book will be completed according to the projects goals, to review the technical contents, and to ensure consistency of style and format among different chapters. The Committee consists of four individuals. The Project Manager is John Chan of EPRI. The Technical Assistant is David Havard of Havard Engineering Inc., who has extensive experience in wind-induced conductor motion and is well known in the field. The Technical Consultant is Charles Rawlins, who also has a long background in the field and was one of the authors of the original edition. The Editorial Assistant is Jonas Weisel, who has more than 25 years experience in technical writing and editing, particularly in the electric utility industry.

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Implementation Plan Revision of the Orange Book is following the two-phase process outlined below (also see Figures 1-1 and 1-2):

1. Development of Tenders and Awarding of Contracts Initial Scoping and Solicitation of Interest Preparation of Technical Update Report Finalizing of Scope and Authors

2. Production Process Review of Current Edition and Recommendations for Revision Writing and Review Editing and Publication

In 2005, as noted in Section 2, the tender was prepared and issued, and contracts were awarded (Tasks 7 and 8 in Figure 1-1). Also, in 2005, an initial meeting of lead authors was held, and first drafts of most chapters were written (Tasks 1 through 3 in Figure 1-2).

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Figure 1-1. Development of tenders and awarding of contracts.

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Figure 1-2. Production process for revision of EPRIs Transmission Line Reference Book: WindInduced Conductor Motion.

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Overall Scope and Structure of the New Edition The revised edition of the Orange Book will include a re-ordering of the sequence of chapters and two new chapters, as shown in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1 Revised Table of Contents Current Edition Chapter No. 1 2 3 4 5 Title Introduction Fatigue of Overhead Conductors Aeolian Vibration Galloping Conductors Wake-Induced Oscillation Chapter No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Title Introduction Aeolian Vibration Fatigue of Overhead Conductors Galloping Conductors Bundle Conductor Motions Overhead Fiber Optic Cables Transient Motions Glossary Index Revised Edition

The re-ordering of Chapters 2 and 3 in the revised edition is intended to explain more about the phenomenon of vibration before discussing the effects of vibration. The new Chapter 6 will provide information on fiber optic cables, which have come into use since the earlier edition. It will include a review of the types of cable construction, attachment hardware, aerodynamic problems that can occur, qualification test procedures, and field experience. The new Chapter 7 will cover transient motions, which include short circuit forces, bundle rolling, ice drop, gust response, and wind action on members. While some of these topics were briefly mentioned in the earlier edition, experience in the intervening years offers new insights on these phenomena. It was also decided to include, where available, case study information on utility field experience. In addition, while the focus of the book will be on overhead transmission lines, discussion will also be included, when relevant, of distribution lines. A glossary and index will also be included in the new edition. There was agreement that applets, or small computer programs, will be incorporated with the new edition of the Orange Book for the purposes of providing users with simple calculation tools needed to assess different aspects of line vibration. The subtitle of the book will be changed to: Transmission Line Reference Book: Vibration and Dynamics of Overhead Conductors. Applets will be developed in 2008, if funding allows.

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ACTIVITIES IN 2005
Introduction In 2005, the primary activities included development of a tender document, awarding of contracts to author teams, a kick-off meeting of lead authors to coordinate approaches to all chapters, and initial drafting of chapters. The direction for these activities was provided in two meetings. In February, the Editorial Committee met in Las Vegas, Nevada, to draft a tender document and discuss the process of soliciting bids and awarding contracts. Following issuing of the tender in March and awarding of the contracts in April, a meeting of the lead authors and the Editorial Committee was held in May in Toronto, Canada. This meeting was intended to determine the scope of each chapter and to coordinate writing. Work on the first drafts of chapters was initiated following the May meeting, and the first drafts are incorporated in this progress report as Appendices C through J. Other activities were carried on during the year to solicit further interest in and funding for the project. Section 2 describes activities conducted in 2005 to revise the Orange Book. Development of Tender and Awarding of Contracts It was decided that the authors to revise the Orange Book should be selected through a competitive bidding process. Accordingly, EPRI issued a formal Request for Proposal (RFP) in February 2005 for revision of Chapters 2 though 7 of the Orange Book. (Chapter 1 and the end matter [Glossary and Index] will be prepared by the Editorial Committee.) The RFP, or tender document, was sent to more than 30 individuals with expertise in this area and interest in contributing to the book. (A copy of the tender document is included in this report as Appendix B.) The tender document requested that bidders submit proposals for revising one or more specific chapters. (Bidders could bid on more than one chapter, but only one chapter would be awarded to any bidder.) Bidders were asked to bid as individuals or as part of a team. Team members could include a lead author and one more team members, who could serve as co-authors or resource persons. A statement of qualifications was required for each member of the team. Bidders were also required to comment on the suggested approach to each chapter as reflected in skeleton outlines, which had been prepared by the Editorial Committee. That is, bidders were to indicate what they would do in addition to, or differently from, the skeleton outline. Further, bidders were required to provide a cost estimate for writing the chapter and attending meetings. The deadline for proposals was March 28, 2005. In response to its RFP, EPRI received a number of bids from qualified experts in the field. However, in all but one case, these bids were significantly over the anticipated budget for the

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work. It was possible that the tender document may have unintentionally misled bidders as to the required size of writing teams and thus, the budget available for the project. As a result, in order to develop the revised edition with the available funds, EPRI subsequently assigned fixed-price budgets to the six chapters being revised. These budgets were weighted relative to the expected level of effort, and were consistent with budgets for other EPRI books under revision. Consideration was given to the expected length of each chapter and whether it is new material or an update of existing material. Bidders were asked to notify EPRI by late April 2005 if they were interested in proceeding with revision of the chapters under the fixed-price budgets. An acceptable agreement was made with lead authors for every chapter. Successful candidates were invited to a kick-off planning meeting in May 2005 (see below). Assignments were subsequently made as follows: Chapter Chapter 1, Introduction Chapter 2, Aeolian Vibration Chapter 3, Fatigue of Overhead Conductors Chapter 4, Galloping Chapter 5, Bundle Conductors Chapter 6, Overhead Fiber Optic Cables Chapter 7, Transient Motions Glossary/Index Authors Meetings and Conference Calls Kick-off Meeting A kick-off planning meeting was held in Toronto, Canada, on May 24-25. The meeting brought together lead authors for the chapters and the Editorial Committee. Attending were John Chan, EPRI; Louis Cloutier, University of Sherbrooke; Anand Goel, Hydro One; Dave Havard, Havard Engineering; Jean-Louis Lilien, University of Liege; Craig Pon, Kinectrics; Chuck Rawlins, Consultant; Jeff Wang, ETS; and Jonas Weisel, Jonas Weisel & Associates. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss how the group could work together to revise the Orange Book. The meeting primarily consisted of presentations by each of the lead authors to explain their approach to their respective chapter and areas where their approach might diverge from the approach proposed by the Editorial Committee. Presentations were made on Chapter 2 by Chuck Rawlins (for Giorgio Diana who was unable to attend); Chapter 3 by Louis Cloutier; Chapter 4 by Jean-Louis Lilien; Chapter 6 by Jeff Wang; and Chapter 7 by Anand Goel and Craig Pon. (Following the meeting, Claude Hardy agreed to act as lead author for revision of Chapter 5.) It was agreed that first drafts of the chapters would be completed by October 15, 2005, for inclusion in this progress report. Charleston Meeting A number of members of the Editorial Committee and the authors met in conjunction with the Conductor Dynamics Conference in Charleston, South Carolina on September 22, 2005 to review progress on the book. In discussion, it was decided to provide utility funders of the Orange Book project with a survey form, where they could provide feedback on the revision
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Lead Author Editorial Committee Giorgio Diana Louis Cloutier Jean-Louis Lilien Claude Hardy Jeff Wang Anand Goel Editorial Committee

draft on issues such as whether the book is covering areas of interest to the users and where more information is needed. Conference Calls Conference calls were held on August 8 and October 25, 2005 to review progress on the book. Minutes are included in Appendix A of this Progress Report. Drafts of Chapters Drafts of Chapters 2 through 7 were developed in 2005 and are included in this progress report in Appendices C through I. More information on the status of the drafts is provided in Section 3 of this progress report. The drafts are intended to represent an initial start. They are incomplete in some areas, and placeholder heading titles indicate where more information is to come in the future. The drafts have not been reviewed by peer reviewers or the Editorial Committee. They have also not been edited or formatted in the form in which they will be published. The chapters are scheduled to be completed, reviewed, edited, and formatted in 2006. Solicitation of Interest A number of activities were undertaken in 2005 to solicit additional interest from utility funders and from potential authors of the book: Magazine Article. An article entitled Shake and Break: Diagnosing and Preventing Damage Caused by Wind-Induced Conductor Motion was written by John Chan and Jonas Weisel for possible publication in a trade press magazine. The article describes the Orange Book and its revision, as well as recent application of the book by two utilities (Bonneville Power Administration and Arizona Public Service). The article was submitted to T&D World Magazine on September 19, 2005. Presentations to Task Force. Presentations on the Orange Book were made to the EPRI Overhead Transmission Inspection & Maintenance Task Force on April 6-8, 2005, in Charlotte, North Carolina, by John Chan and on August 16-18, 2005, in Denver, Colorado, by John Chan and Dave Havard. The presentations described the goals of the revision, the approach, and the progress to date. CIGRE Meeting. On April 27, 2005, in Bilbao, Spain, Dave Havard made a presentation on the Orange Book to a meeting of the CIGRE Working Group 11, Mechanical Behavior of Conductors and Fittings.

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PROGRESS AND FUTURE PLANS
Introduction Significant progress was made in 2005with lead authors and writing teams selected, and initial drafts of six chapters written. A complete version of the revised book is planned to be made available by the end of 2006. Progress Drafts of Chapters 2 through 6 were developed in 2005, and are included in this progress report in Appendices C through H. The drafts represent a substantial effort. In most cases, more than 60% of the drafting is complete. The draft chapters provide a clear indication of the direction and breadth of the revision, and of the areas of new information to be included. The drafts are, however, incomplete in some areas, and placeholder heading titles indicate where more information is to come in the future. In addition, the draft chapters have not been reviewed by peer reviewers or the Editorial Committee, and have also not been edited or formatted in the form in which they will be published. As noted below, the chapters are scheduled to be completed, reviewed, edited, and formatted in 2006. Future Plans A meeting of the lead authors and the Editorial Committee will be held January 26-27, 2006, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting will review the draft chapters, decide on work remaining to be done, and establish a production schedule for the rest of the year. Once the draft chapters are completed, they will proceed through steps 4 though 7 in the production process as outlined in Figure 1-2 of this progress report. The chapters will be reviewed by peer reviewers and the Editorial Committee, and will be copyedited and laid out. Chapter 1, the Glossary, and the Index will be prepared by the Editorial Committee. An electronic version of the revised edition will be available the end of 2006. A hard copy will be published in 2007. Applets will be developed in 2008, if funding allows.

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A
MINUTES OF MEETINGS, 2005
Meeting Minutes Orange Book Editorial Committee Third Meeting February 3-4, 2005 Gold Coast Hotel and Casino Las Vegas, Nevada Attending: John Chan, EPRI Dave Havard, Havard Engineering Chuck Rawlins, Consultant Jonas Weisel, Jonas Weisel & Associates Thursday, February 3, 2005 John opened the meeting and welcomed the members of the Editorial Committee to the Committees third meeting. He noted that they had last met in August of 2004 in Toronto. He said all the groundwork for development of the tender had been completed last year, and summarized in the Technical Update report published in October 2004. The key achievement of this meeting will be to write the tender document. Due to limited funding of the project, it will not be possible to fund completion of the book in 2005. There are several ways to approach the writing. For example, the project could sponsor the writing of just a few chapters this year. However, John said he believes that the better way to proceed is to begin on all chapters this year, even though they will not be completed. In keeping with the Committees pattern of holding alternate meetings in the West and in Toronto, the next meeting will be in Toronto. That meeting could be the first meeting of the authors who have been chosen to write the book. By the time of the next meeting, the authors will have been selected and ready to begin writing. The meeting could be a session for lead authors to present their plans for chapters and to obtain broad consensus for the books direction. John sketched out a preliminary schedule. The tender could be issued by February 21. Bidders would have four to five weeks to reply, so bids would be due by March 28. The Committee would have two weeks to review bids. (The Committee would meet by conference call or webcast.) Winning bids would be announced by mid-April or the end of April. The next meeting could be held May 16-17 or May 24-25. Guests: Mark Orth, Arizona Public Service Anand Goel, Hydro One (Friday only) Craig Pon, Kinectrics (Friday only)

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John referred to the meeting agenda (see attached). 1. Outstanding Items from Last Meeting. Jonas made a presentation on three editorial issues raised in the previous meetingobtaining a Word version of the first edition of the Orange Book, developing a magazine article, and revision of the Authors Guide. Word Version. At the previous meeting, the possibility was raised of locating or creating an electronic version of the first edition. The idea was that it might save authors of some chapters the need to re-produce any material that was not necessary to change. It might also be possible to locate some of the original photos. After some research, Jonas found that the publisher of the first edition no longer exists and that EPRI does not have the original files. EPRI does have a pdf file, but not a Word version of the first edition. The cheapest way of generating an electronic version would be to have the book re-keyed. It would cost $6 per page x 240 pages = $1,440. Dave estimated that about 50% of the book was still valid and worthy of being re-keyed. John said it might be easiest, given the cost, just to go ahead and have the whole book re-keyed. Dave asked if it might be possible to use some of the photos from the first edition. Jonas said he could try scanning some of the photos, which was done for the Red Book, and see what the quality is like. Magazine Article. Jonas noted that in the last meeting the Committee had discussed the possibility of having an article about conductor vibration placed in a trade magazine such as T&D Magazine. The article would describe a utility vibration problem (a case study), and would be used to help generate interest in the Orange Book and possibly attract additional funders. The original concept for the article was to describe a case where a utility initially did not know that they had a vibration problem. They were discovering broken strands and replacing conductors, and only later associated it with vibration. Following the Task Force meeting last fall, John and Dave suggested that Jonas start with BPA. Jonas interviewed BPAs Jerry Reding. The main area discussed was a large program to replace two types of failing devices (spring-type spacer dampers and steelcoil twin spacers) (about 100,000 units of each). Jonas pointed out that this is a different concept than the one described above. John said that was OK since the BPA problem is actually typical of many utilities. Mark described a recent vibration problem at APS. On one of the utilitys lines, bolt failures were occurring, causing outages. The line is in wide open terrain, without wind breaks. A root cause analysis showed that the failures were a result of excessive cyclic loading. Previous conductor field tests indicated the loading was about 10 pounds. But lab tests indicated the bolts should handle at least 100 pounds. As a result, the research focus shifted to insulators. Subsequent field tests showed that insulator loading was 50120 pounds. The utility is still investigating why the amplitudes are so great. But the solution was to add dampers. Use of the dampers has stopped the occurrence of outages. Mark said, Without the Orange Book, we would not have known what to do.

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Jonas took a copy of Marks PowerPoint presentation and agreed to interview Mark by telephone later in order to get more details and to develop an article. Dave also suggested that Jonas contact Ed Busse of Consolidated Edison about a galloping issue. Authors Guide. Jonas said he had revised the Authors Guide, based on Daves email of 11/30, primarily to revise the section on SI units to make it more specifically relevant to the Orange Book.

2. Plan for 2005. Funding. John said the available funding for writing in 2005 would be $100K. John suggested that the project aim to do all chapters at once. If the chapters are not complete in two years, the project will be extended to a third year. The contracts issued this year will be contingent on being extended to 2006. John said bids should give the total price that would be spread over two years. Deliverables. Deliverables this year will include Vibration software 3.0, which will be completely re-vamped. Chuck raised the issue of whether it will be compatible with whats in the Orange Book. John said that he would provide information on the algorithm used in Vibration Software 3.0 to Chuck and Dave for their review and comment. The other deliverables this year will be drafts of the chapters. An EPRI draft report is due October 30, 2005. The report will be a progress report on the project. It will include actual drafts of the chapters. The deadline for authors will be October 12, 2005. The chapters may be incomplete, and include chunks of the first edition. Schedule of Activities. John referred to the schedule noted earlier for writing, issuing, and reviewing the tender and awarding the bids. Dave noted that there will be a Cigre meeting in Bilbao, Spain on April 25-27. 3. Tender Document. John led the committee in a drafting of the tender document. John suggested that the cover letter be very brief and just identify the attached documents. Attached documents will include the authors guide, the skeleton outline (both overview and detailed), and a list of technical references. The cover letter should also include directions to the FTP site, where there would be a pdf copy of the first edition. Dave noted that the bidders will have to receive a list of all the other potential bidders, so that interested parties could form teams. Dave asked that a definition of applets be included and that bidders understand that they would not be required to develop applets themselves but would be asked to identify topics for applets. 4. Chapter Drafts. John said that the tender should make clear that only Chapters 2-7 are open for bids. Chapters 1 and 8 will be written by the Committee. Drafts of chapters will be scheduled to be included in the EPRI report to be published in October 2005.

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5. Legal Issues. Jonas presented a summary of a meeting held on January 25, 2005 with John and Kevin Chu, one of EPRIs attorneys. The meeting covered copyright and legal issues raised in the August 2004 Editorial Committee meeting. Jonas gave the Committee a transcript of the conversation. The conversation covered: use of copyrighted data in figures, use of informal conference papers, discussion in the Orange Book of manufacturers products, and contractor agreements with the authors. 6. Conflicts of Interest. John discussed the need for the Committee members to sign EPRI forms for conflict of interest.

Friday, February 4, 2005 John recapped what had been discussed the day before, and reviewed the proposed schedule for development and issuance of the RFP. He said the group should aim to complete a draft of the tender by the end of the days meeting. John noted that only lead authors will need to attend the meeting in May in Toronto. He said that it should also be clear the contracts will be held by the lead authors, and that lead authors will be responsible for their teams. John said that, if not enough lead authors bid on the project, the Committee will put together teams. John said that limited funding is available for the project, and the tender should say that cofunding is a factor in selection of bidders. Cofunding could be in the form of reduction in hourly rate, funding from other organizations, or support from external sources. The group worked throughout the morning and early afternoon to complete a first draft of the tender. Jonas said he would take the draft and refine it and have it ready for review by the Committee by February 11. He and John would meet on February 15 in Palo Alto to finalize the tender and arrange for it to be released. John will set up a meeting so that there can be coordination of the development of the software and the Orange Book. It is important that the algorithm used in the software and that found in the text are consistent. The meeting was adjourned in mid-afternoon. Prepared by: Jonas Weisel

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Orange Book Revision Editorial Committee, Third Meeting February 3-4, 2005 8:3000 to 4:30, Salon G Gold Coast Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, NV AGENDA 1. Outstanding Items from Last Meeting Editorial: First edition conversion to Word, magazine article, revision of Authors Guide Technical: Number of chapters, Chapter Contents 2. Plan for 2005 Funding Deliverables: Vibration Software 3.0, Chapters of Orange Book Schedule of Activities: Technical Update report due 10/30/05. 3. Tender Document Review draft Procedures for issuing, reviewing tenders Schedule for issuing, awarding, first meeting with writers 4. Chapter Drafts Strategy for writing in 2005: Number of chapters 5. Legal Issues Copyright issues Manufacturer issues 6. Conflicts of Interest Contracts for Editorial committee members Participation of Committee members in bidding 7. Future Tasks 8. Date and Location for Next Meeting 9. Finalize all documents for tender 10. Meeting adjourned at 4:30

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Meeting Minutes Orange Book Authors Meeting May 24-25, 2005 Hydro One Toronto, Canada Attending: John Chan, EPRI Louis Cloutier, University of Sherbrooke Anand Goel, Hydro One Dave Havard, Havard Engineering Jean-Louis Lilien, University of Liege Craig Pon, Kinectrics Chuck Rawlins, Consultant Jeff Wang, ETS Jonas Weisel, Jonas Weisel & Associates

Summary of Main Points Chapter Assignments. Chapters have been assigned as follows: 1 Editorial Committee, 2 Diana, 3 Cloutier, 4 Lilien, 5 Hardy if possible, 6 Wang and Pon, 7 Goel, 8 Editorial Committee. (Note: Subsequent to the meeting, Claude Hardy agreed to take on Chapter 5.) Conference Call. A conference call will be held on August 8, 2005 at 8 am Pacific, 11 am Eastern, and 5 pm Central European. The toll-free call-in number will be 1-888-632-4892. The PIN number is 8265. Callers from Europe may need a special prefix. John will provide that. If the call-in number changes, a notice will be sent out. Informal Get Together. Members of the group may meet informally in conjunction with the Conductor Dynamics Conference in Charleston, South Carolina on the morning of September 22, 2005. Next Meeting. The next meeting will be held to coincide with the IEEE meeting in early February 2006 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Exact dates to be determined. (Subsequently January 26 and 27, 2006 were chosen.) FTP Site. An FTP site will be set up for posting and downloading files. Word Files. Files of the first edition of the Orange Book in Microsoft Word will be distributed to the lead authors and the editorial committee, for their use in reproducing passages of the chapter that do not change. Deadline. The deadline for first drafts to be included in the progress report is October 15, 2005. These submissions may be incomplete drafts, but it is necessary for something to be submitted for each chapter. This deadline cannot be extended due to contractual agreements with funders. Contracting. John will develop contracts as soon as he can. Invoices should include the contract number.

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Tuesday, May 24, 2005 Project Background: John Chan John welcomed the attendees, and initiated introductions around the room. He said the purpose of the meeting was to discuss how the group could work together to update the book. The key part of the meeting will be presentations by each of the lead authors on their respective chaptersto indicate their planned approach and any deviations from the outline (skeleton) already developed. Lead authors have been identified for nearly all the chapters. For those chapters presently without lead authors, the group will discuss the best way to proceed. As regards the budgets, John said that EPRI funding is purely from its members. Funding for revision of the Orange Book is restricted to those dollars specifically assigned to the book and is very limited. He requested that authors bill half their budgets this yearby early December 2005. Otherwise the budget will be lost. John reviewed the history of the project thus far. He had contacted Dave early on to discuss the best approach to revision, and then met with Chuck and Jonas to form an Editorial Committee. In the first year of the project, they reviewed the first edition and identified sections to be added, removed, and revised. This constituted the skeleton outline for the book and the proposed revision plan. They identified experts in the areas covered by the book, who could be candidates for the updating process. It was decided to go out for bids in order to identify as many experts in the field as possible. Editorial Issues: Jonas Weisel Jonas reviewed the Authors Guide, which is a short guidebook that sets some ground rules for the production process, setting up files, formatting parts of the book, etc. A copy of the Authors Guide will be posted on the FTP site. Key points: Drafts should be reviewed by the technical reviewers, including the teams technical reviewers, outside reviewers, and users before the book is submitted for production. Figures, tables, and equations are numbered by section, not just chapter. E.g., the fifth figure in the fourth section of Chapter 3 is Figure 3.4-5. Reference format is author-date, not numbered footnotes. Authors need to keep a list of text, tables, figures, and photos reproduced from other sources, so that the production team may request copyright permissions. SI units should be used with English measures in parentheses. The production team can assist authors by providing a Word version of the first edition and by re-drawing or improving figures, as needed. Figures will be printed in black and white. Figures (especially graphs) relying on color coding should be avoided. The CD may include color photos.
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Dave asked if the differently sized European page would be an issue for production. Jonas said he would check on that. Jean-Louis asked if it would be possible to use material from an upcoming CIGRE brochure. Jonas said that CIGRE had given permission to use their material in the EPRI Red Book, which is being published this year. But he would discuss the issue with the EPRI attorney. Overview on Assigned Chapters: Dave Havard and John Chan Dave made an overview presentation on progress to date on the revision. He proposed a new title Transmission Line Reference Book: Vibration and Dynamics of Overhead Conductors. The group approved this title. Dave reviewed volunteers who have offered to contribute, progress to date, and changes to each chapter. The question was raised about whether station buses would be covered. Two issues are: vibration of tubular bus due to vibration and the forces due to short circuits on twin buses. It was agreed that it might be covered in Chapter 7, Transient Motions, or possibly in an appendix to the book. John reviewed the contracting procedure. He will draft a simple statement of work, and all lead authors will receive a contract with standard terms and conditions. Chapter 4, Galloping: Jean-Louis Lilien The authors in the team will include Dave, Chuck, and Pierre van Dyke. More external reviewers are needed, particularly for Sections 4 and 5possibly someone from the European group or the Japanese. They can be identified next year. Team members may meet in conjunction with the Cable Dynamics Conference in September 2005. Deviations from skeleton outline: Refer to CIGRE activity. Include worldwide data. Add torsional stiffness. Add aerodynamic drag damper. Add galloping parameters. Aerodynamic curves with real ice. New design of clearances. Tension variation. Mode superposition. Test results at test stations.

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Jean-Louis raised concern over the ability to obtain permission to use CIGRE material. The Orange Book and an upcoming CIGRE brochure will be complementary. The need to obtain permission needs to be discussed at top levels. Dave will give Jonas name(s) of contact persons at CIGRE. Norman Bell is head of the committee (Committee B2- Publication &Tutorial Advisory Group [bell.normand@hydro.qc.ca]). Jean-Louis said he could provide a video of galloping to be included in the CD accompanying the book. Issue was raised about how much to say about hardware. It was agreed that it is OK to say that if you use this type of device, you will have this effect. OK to describe applications that have been made, tests that have been done. Give references. Should we discuss why were NOT using some devices? No. Authors can list devices from CIGRE survey. Authors should also flag areas that may be sensitive, so that the Editorial Committee can look at them and make determination. Craig asked if we should provide procedures that users could apply. John showed the group a format in the new EPRI Red Book, where an author had included detailed procedures. This would be OK. Jean-Louis asked if there can be blocks of text set aside for detail. Jonas suggested that the format incorporate sidebars. Chapter 3, Fatigue of Overhead Conductors: Louis Cloutier The authors will include Alain Cardou and Sylvain Goudreau. Louis said that the chapter will indicate that fatigue mechanisms could take into consideration the geometry of the conductor. His team is starting to do tests on conductors with different geometries to see if geometry has an effect. They will not have results for two years. For this book, they will provide preliminary results. Deviations from skeleton outline: Include fatigue of conductor clamp systems. More importance to Yb as a practical indicator of fatigue performance. Include fatigue measurement test methods. Include several test performed to establish the relative performance of different systems.

Issue raised about how to resolve differences of opinion that may arise between authors and reviewers. John said Editorial Committee will resolve. Issues raised about several contractual Terms and Conditions: 2.02 ix. Can we use proprietary material if we get permission? (Jonas will ask attorney.) 7.08. Export laws (Probably OK. Jonas will ask attorney.) 7.06. Insurance. (EPRI will waive this.)

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Chapter 6, Overhead Fiber Optic Cables: Jeff Wang The authors will include Craig Pon and Tony Gillespie. Deviations from skeleton outline: Add hardware of fiber optic cables. Combine 6.2, Dampers and 6.5 Damper Types. Discuss damper installation locations.

In discussion the point was made that there is no agreement in the industry on damper installation locations. CIGRE has done a survey that could be used. But it was suggested that the authors do their own questionnaire and survey of utilities and manufacturers, using a targeted mailing list. It is not necessary to obtain results by October 2005. Wednesday, May 25, 2005 Chapter 2, Aeolian Vibration: Giorgio Diana Chuck Rawlins presented this presentation for Giorgio Diana, who was unable to attend the meeting. The authors will include Umberto Cosmai, David Hearnshaw, Andre Laneville, Alessandra Manenti, and Konstantin Papailiou. (Giorgio Diana will coordinate the chapters. David Hearnshaw will check the English usage.) In discussion, the need was expressed for utility reviewers. Possible reviewers include Tony Gillespie, Andre LeBlond, Jim Duxbury, Bruce Freimark, Robert Kluge, Jerry Reding, and Ming Lu. Anand will contact Jim Duxbury. Craig will contact Jerry Reding. Deviations from skeleton outline: Add concepts of modes of vortex shedding. Add mechanics of bundle conductor motions. Add data relevant to vortex shedding from dynamic bundles. Add new data on wind power input. Add section on modeling. Maintain discussion on spacer-damper requirements. Add new CIGRE recommendations on safe tensions for damped and undamped bundles. Add a short section on the expanded bundles vibration problems.

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Chapter 7, Transient Motions: Anand Goel Anand will be the lead author for this chapter, with assistance from Craig Pon and Masoud Farzaneh. Areas: Short-Circuit ForcesCraig, Jean-Louis, Anand Bundle RollingJeff, Dave Gust ResponseJapanese researchers, Giorgio, Southwire Book (Dale Douglass) Wind Action on MembersManitoba Hydro, Louis, ITC, Dave Noise from WindJeff, Manitoba Hydro EarthquakesLouis Corona induced vibration Masoud Station BusAnand, Dave; Chuck will review CIGRE papers.

Anand, Craig, and Dave will discuss cases of member failures. Can collect data on this. Anand also has data on bus vibration. Chapter 5, Bundle Conductors: (To Be Determined) John will contact Claude Hardy to see if he will participate in the revision. Chapter 1, Introduction: Editorial Committee Work will begin on this chapter this year, time permitting. Miscellaneous Problems. Dave requests that members of the group send him photos or videos of problems that he can show to the EPRI Task Force in August to spur interest in the revision of the Orange Book. FTP Site. John asks Jonas to arrange for setting up the FTP site. New chapter numbers will be used. Folders will be set up for each chapter. Filenames will have this format: Section number, authors last name, month and day. For example: Section 3.3 Havard June 26. Classification of Information. Chuck suggests that the authors develop a system of classification of information in the book with regard to levels of accessibility, accuracy, and usefulness. All chapters will use the same terms and possibly have a box or italic text to designate it. Chuck will develop a memo for review by the Editorial Committee. (Subsequent to the meeting, a draft memo was received by the Editorial Committee.) PowerPoint. Craig asks Jonas to prepare a PowerPoint presentation on the Orange book revision for presentation at a June IEEE meeting in San Francisco.

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EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (Orange Book) Revision First Meeting with Authors May 24 & 25, 2005 9:00 to 16:30 hr Hydro One Office 483 Bay Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada AGENDA 1. 2. 3. 4. Welcome & Introduction Project Background & Objectives Editorial Committee Functions & Review Process Editorial Issues Authors Guide The production process Usage guidelines Copyright Available assistance Lessons learned from other books 5. Overall Revision Strategies Chapters 1 and 8 Applets 6. Assigned Chapters Presentations by lead authors or delegate Questions & discussions Final Scope of Work 7. Unassigned Chapters Strategy for unassigned chapters Possible formations of teams 8. Project Schedule & Deliverables 9. Progress Review Methods & Frequencies Conference calls ftp site Other suggestions 10. Administrative Items Contract Invoice Payment 11. Other Business 12. Next Meeting Date Location

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Note: 1. A presentation to describe the teams approach in revising the chapter shall be made by each lead author or his/her delegate. The presentation shall not be more than 15 minutes and shall not contain more than 5 slides. Questions and discussions lasting not more than 45 minutes will follow. The topics to be covered in the presentation are: Describe each team members responsibilities Describe any additions or changes to the team List deviations from EPRIs proposed skeleton and provide brief explanation List addition to & deletion from existing text Suggest further improvements 2. A group dinner will be hosted by EPRI in the evening of May 24 at 6:00 pm. All participants and their guests are invited.

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Minutes of Orange Book Conference Call August 8, 2005 Attending: John Chan, EPRI Louis Cloutier, University of Sherbrooke Anand Goel, Hydro One Giorgio Diana, Politecnico di Milano Claude Hardy, Claude Hardy International Jean-Louis Lilien, University of Liege Craig Pon, Kinectrics Chuck Rawlins, Consultant Jeff Wang, ETS Jonas Weisel, Jonas Weisel & Associates

Summary of Main Points Next Conference Call. The next conference call will be held on Tuesday, October 25, 2005, at 8 am Pacific, 11 am Eastern, and 5 pm Central European. The toll-free call-in number will be 1-888-632-4892. The PIN number is 8265. Callers from Europe will need additional access codes, as provided for the last conference call. Get Together. Members of the group may meet in conjunction with the Conductor Dynamics Conference in Charleston, South Carolina, from 9 to 11 am on September 22, 2005 at the Frances Marion Hotel. Next Meeting. The next meeting will be held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on Thursday and Friday, January 26 and 27, 2006, to coincide with the IEEE meeting being held earlier that week. Meeting will be two full days. Deadline. The deadline for first drafts to be included in the progress report is October 15, 2005. These submissions may be incomplete drafts, but with all headings identified. It is necessary for something to be submitted for each chapter. This deadline cannot be extended due to contractual agreements with funders. Invoicing Procedure. Go to epri.com. At top of the page, go to About EPRI. Go to Working with EPRI. Here is all the information related to contracts and recommended invoice formats. On the left-hand side, under Business Forms, Policies, and Procedures, click on Sample Invoice Form. Use this form for your invoice. Be sure to include the correct EPRI Agreement Number (contract number) where indicated. Send the invoice, as noted, to EPRI Accounts Payable Department. The schedule for invoicing is very flexible you can invoice anytime and as often as you like, but not more than twice a month. But be sure to invoice the amount allocated this year by December 1. Please do not invoice until you receive your contract.

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Introduction John opened the conference call and reviewed the agenda, including status of contracts, progress of work to date, contents of the progress report, and invoicing practices. He said he would summarize the invoicing procedure in an email, as well. He reminded authors that the purpose of this revision is not only to update the book, but also to provide a practical tool that is useful to design engineers, with relevant examples. Contracts Diana. Contract emailed August 5. Has been received. But it is in the name of Giorgio Diana, and should be assigned to Politecnico di Milano, Departimento di Meccanica. (Subsequent to the conference call, John forwarded a revised contract the week of August 8.) Laval University (Louis). Contract faxed July 29. Everything is in place and ready to go. Okay to send invoice for the first $10K. Jean-Louis Lilien. Contract emailed August 5. Looks OK. Claude Hardy. Signed and returned contract July 8. Requested a return confirmation from Kristine Dulay at EPRI. Has not received it. (Subsequent to the conference call, John arranged for Ms. Dulay to send confirmation to Claude.) Jeff Wang. Received contract last week of July Signed and returned to EPRI. Anand Goel. Will have contract next year. Writers have volunteered to write sections. John said there is a small amount of money available for Chapter 7 this year, and he will discuss this off-line with Anand. Louis found a writer who will write one section. John suggested that Louiss writer contact Anand to see how much is available for this. Kinectrics. A contract will be issued next year. Progress Report John and Jonas will write this report, and have started working on it already. The report will give some background on the project and what work has been done this year. The chapter authors should just submit whatever they have written for their chapters by October 15. It is not necessary to send any information on their progress or budget. The drafts may be partial drafts. If you have not included or completed a section, just identify the heading title and say, To Be Completed. Status of Work Chapter 3 (Louis Cloutier). Each of the three authors is working on his own, re-reading the existing chapter. When Louis returns from holidays, they will meet and review what they have to do. Will decide issues, such as whether they continue to use fymax or yb. Will work on it later in August. They need to determine where the new data arefor example, Dave Sunkle on special support. But they expect no problems. It will go rapidly once they resolve a few issues. Expect to have no difficulty in meeting the deadline. Chapter 2 (Giorgio Diana). The authors have already met and decided how many paragraphs in each section and the contents of the sections. Expect to be able to meet the October deadline. Chapter 4 (Jean-Louis Lilien). Have three authorswaiting news from the other two (Dave and Pierre). They have revised the introduction and started the overview. Sees no problem in

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getting a first draft by mid-October. But Jean-Louis is very concerned about copyright issues concerning information that overlaps with an upcoming CIGRE brochure that is being written by Pierre Van Dyke. They need agreement as soon as possible. Jonas said he has contacted the EPRI lawyer who recommended that we apply to CIGRE for permission for this specific case (even though CIGRE gave EPRI blanket permission to use their documents in the EPRI Red Book). Jonas will submit request to Catherine Ott at CIGRE. Chapter 5 (Claude Hardy). They did a lot of preparatory work while working out the proposal. Have also done a good proportion of the reduction work. Have drafted two sections and one subsection. With confirmation of the contract, they will launch the rest of the work. Claude asked for a clarification concerning spacer damper requirements, as noted in the minutes of the May meeting in Toronto. He said that he assumes that spacer damper requirements will be covered in Chapter 5, and that spacer dampers will only be covered in Chapter 2 from an Aeolian vibration perspective. John suggests that Claude confirm this with Giorgio. Chapter 6 (Jeff Wang). Jeff said that they have already started work on the hardware. Have contacted the hardware manufacturers to get the updated information regarding the fiber optic cable hardware, especially on the damper installations locations. There is no industry standard. Tony has some input on this, and they will include that. By October 15, they should be able to finish a partial first draft. Craig said the outline for this chapter developed by Dave and Chuck is a good start, but the scope may extend beyond that. Before they get into the details of writing, they will need to clarify the scope. When Jeff returns from China, he will put together a new table of contents and discuss with Craig and Tony. Chapter 7 (Anand Goel). They have received input from the contributors of what will be in the various sections. Anand sent an email showing the contents for each of the nine sections. They expect to have two sections by October. For those sections that are incomplete, will just put in headings. Jean-Louis asked if the bundle rolling section was on dynamics or torsional stiffness. Jeff said it will basically be on dynamics, but in order to describe the mechanics, they will need to introduce the torsional stiffness theory of the bundle. Chuck said it should also include static considerations. Jean-Louis said he will cross-reference Chapter 7 to refer to torsional stiffness, but not include a lot of detail, which will be in Chapter 7. Jeff will write the section in Chapter 7.

Miscellaneous Word Versions of Chapters. Jonas said that Word versions were developed of the chapters in the existing edition. These were sent to the authors and posted on the FTP site in early June. If anyone has any questions, they should contact Jonas. FTP Site. Jonas said an FTP site was set up. It requires no username or password. It can be used to upload or download files. When authors complete their drafts, they can upload them to the FTP site. European Page Size. Jonas said that, at the Toronto meeting, Jean-Louis asked if this is a problem. Jonas said he checked on this, and EPRI Publications said that this is not a problem. Availability to Students. Jean-Louis asked if the completed book would be available to students. John said it would be available at a nominal price.

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Minutes of Orange Book Conference Call October 25, 2005 Attending: John Chan, EPRI Louis Cloutier, University of Sherbrooke Giorgio Diana, Politecnico di Milano Masoud Farzaneh, University of Quebec, Chicoutimi Anand Goel, Hydro One Sylvain Goudreau, Laval University Claude Hardy, Claude Hardy International Dave Havard, Havard Engineering Jean-Louis Lilien, University of Liege Craig Pon, Kinectrics Chuck Rawlins, Consultant Jeff Wang, ETS Jonas Weisel, Jonas Weisel & Associates

Summary of Main Points Next Meeting. The next meeting will be held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on Thursday and Friday, January 26 and 27, 2006, to follow the IEEE meeting being held earlier that week. The meeting will be two full days. Schedule. The schedule for delivery of final drafts is as follows: February 28, 2006 Chapter 2 March 15, 2006 Chapter 3 March 31, 2006 Chapter 5 April 15, 2006 Chapter 1 April 30, 2006 Chapters 4, 7 May 15, 2006 Chapter 6 May 31, 2006 Chapter 8 (Index)

Introduction John opened the conference call. He said the purpose of the call is to review what we have to do before we meet in Albuquerque to go over the draft thoroughly. Contracts All the contracts are in place except for Craig Pon (Kinectrics) and Anands group. John will put that in place later this year or early next. Invoices John asked if there were any problems. He said it should take about two weeks to get paid. John asked Claude to tell him if he does not receive payment in a week. The fastest way to invoice is electronically. John will send an email to the whole team to identify the correct email address. John reminded the team to be sure to send final 2005 invoices by December 1, 2005.

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Status of Chapters Jonas reviewed the status of chapters downloaded to the FTP site. Chapter 2 (Aeolian Vibration). One file is on the site. It looks very complete. Chapter 3 (Fatigue). Two files are thereone with text, the other with new figures. Jonas will insert the new figures into the text. Jonas requested a table of contents. Chapter 4 (Galloping). Fifteen files are on the site. Jonas will combine the sections and renumber the figures. He requested a table of contents. Chapter 5 (Bundle Conductors). Seven files are on the site. Jonas will combine the sections. Chapter 6 (Fiber Optic). One file and two case studies are on the site. Jonas requested a table of contents. Chapter 7 (Transient Motion). Jonas will include Anands outline. Spacer Dampers Claude asked where spacer dampers will be discussed. He said he assumed that they will be covered in Chapter 5, except as they concern Aeolian vibration. Giorgio said spacer dampers could be described in Chapter 5. However, he said the dynamics of the spacer would be covered in Chapter 2 on Aeolian vibration. Also some experiments related to Aeolian vibration would also be covered in Chapter 2. So Claude and Giorgio agreed that there is no disagreement about what each of their teams is covering. Chapters 1 and 8 Dave pointed out that the Progress Report should include at least a list of contents for those two chapters. Jonas said he would do this. Progress Report Jonas noted that he would include the current drafts of the chapters in the Progress Report. At this point he will NOT do any editing, other than to verify that the numbering of sections, figures, tables, and equations is correct. The Report will indicate that this version is a draft. Jonas will do this renumbering in the next week or so and re-post the files on the FTP site for review by the authors. If the authors wish to proceed with writing, they can use this latest version. If authors wish to make any changes for the draft included in this Progress Report, they should post a new file by November 1. Reviewers Giorgio asked who the reviewers will be. John said the first round will be internal review within the team itself. Users will review drafts after the Albuquerque meeting, once the drafts are more complete. Funders who review the Progress Report, once it is published in December, can also send comments to John. (This would be a preliminary user review.) Torsional Stiffness of Bundles Jean-Louis raised an issue concerning the torsional stiffness of bundles. He refers to it briefly in the galloping chapter, but he does not plan to cover it in that chapter. Is it appropriate in Chapter 5 or 7? Jeff and Claude agree that it should go in Chapter 7, but there can be references in Chapters 4 and 5.

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Appendices Louis asked if lab test results should go in appendices within each chapter. John and Chuck said yes. Editing Jean-Louis asked if Jonas will take care of re-numbering of figures and introduce automatic numbering so that the authors can use it for future drafts. Jonas said he would prefer not to use automatic numbering, and that he will take responsibility for checking and re-doing numbering of figures, tables, etc. He said he would also take responsibility for putting references in the correct format to save authors time. Dave asked how many numbers are allowed in headings. Jonas said the maximum is three. After that, headings are boldface-italic and then just italic. But for now, it is acceptable to have different heading styles and numbering as long as it is consistent within the chapter. Charleston Meeting Several of the authors met on September 22 in Charleston. Topics discussed included: Author Bios. One topic discussed was the decision to use small author bios at the front of each chapter. Jonas will send a sample of the bios used in the Red Book. Bios and photos will be included of the key authors and co-authors. Referencing Format. Another topic was the new method of formatting references, which uses author and date, not numbers. Jonas said that he would make this change for authors if they did not want to take the time to do it. Surveys. It was suggested that there be a survey to users to obtain feedback on the plan for revision and the draft chapters. John and Jonas will develop a survey form to solicit specific responses, and this form will be included in the Progress Reportwith feedback on each chapter, on the format of the book, whats included and not included, and suggestions for applets. A boldface note could be included on the first page of the Progress Report to say that this is a draft only and that a survey form is included. Next Meeting The next meeting will be January 26-27, 2006 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, just after the IEEE meeting. These dates are confirmed so travel plans can be made. Dave has the hotel information and will send it to team members. Craig will send an email to John with the name of a person who can help John reserve a conference room. The meeting will be two full daysrunning until 5 pm on Friday. Craig will send an agenda of the IEEE meetings to all team members. John said the lead authors should just prepare a few slides on what has been done in each chapter, any coordination issues with other chapters, and any new theories or ideas that will be included in this edition.

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Schedule Discussion was held to determine the deadlines for delivery of a complete (un-edited) draft of each chapter. Thorough review of the draft will take place at the Albuquerque meeting on January 26-27, 2006. The final draft will be re-submitted for user review by May 31, 2006. Final (electronic) publication is August 31. Chapters will be delivered to Jonas for editing on the following staggered schedule: February 28, 2006 Chapter 2 March 15, 2006 Chapter 3 March 31, 2006 Chapter 5 April 15, 2006 Chapter 1 April 30, 2006 Chapters 4, 7 May 15, 2006 Chapter 6 May 31, 2006 Chapter 8 (Index) After these dates, authors may add or revise, if necessary. After May 31, the chapters will be submitted for Editorial Committee review and user review. Conference calls will be held over the summer to discuss results of user review. Color Figures Jean-Louis asked if color figures would be allowed. Jonas said color would appear in the electronic version of the book, but that the hardcopy bound version would only be black-andwhite. Jonas will convert figures from color to black-and-white for authors. Copyright The issue of copyright permissions for borrowed material was raised. Jonas said that he would arrange for seeking copyright permissions.

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TENDER DOCUMENTS
REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL & QUOTE (RFP&Q) Re: Request for Technical Proposal & Quote (RFP&Q); RFP&Q 057308-01, Revision of EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind Induced Conductor Motion (Orange Book) To: Recipients of RFP&Q:

The attached Request for Proposal is for development of a new edition of the Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind Induced Conductor Motion (Orange Book) This RFP includes Background and Instructions as well as a Bidding Form to be completed in order to indicate your proposed role and costs for writing chapters of the new edition. A copy of the current edition of the Orange Book is available for your reference at the following ftp site listed. It can be accessed using the User Name and Password given below. ftp://ftp.epri.com User Name: Orange Password: 7reSaDa9 You are invited to provide EPRI with a proposal and quote covering the requirements set forth in the enclosed documents. Proposals must be sent via e-mail to Michelle Pettit (mpettit@epri.com) no later than 4:00 p.m. (Pacific Time) on March 28, 2005 (hard copy proposals are not required). E-mail responses should be sent in Microsoft Word, Excel or PDF format with RFP&Q 057308-01 specified in the subject line. PLEASE NOTE THIS IS A QUICK TURNAROUND RFP&Q. No late proposals will be accepted. The Proposal shall remain effective for a period of ninety days after the due date. Proposals will be reviewed by EPRI personnel and external participants. The estimated period of performance: Begin on April 18, 2005 and end on December 31, 2006. We would appreciate an informal note of Intent. If you are teaming please advise who your lead author and team members are. We do not need exacting detail at this time, a quick email note listing the names would suffice. Please send your response to Michelle Pettit at mpettit@epri.com on or by March 7, 2005. Your proposal should be in response to the attached documents: MOST IMPORTANT INFORMATION IS LISTED IN THE FIRST ATTACHMENT YOU SEE BELOW: Background, Instructions, Bidding Form and Important Notes. Listed below is supporting documentation and reference. Attachment A: Summary Skeleton Outlines of Proposed Changes Attachment B: Detailed Skeleton Outlines of Proposed Changes Attachment C: List of Potential Participants for Teaming NOTE: (Teaming in responding to this RFP is encouraged). Attachment D: List of Technical References Attachment E: Authors Guide

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Attachment F: Form 112 Attachment G: EPRI Standard Terms and Conditions

Your response should include: Bidding Form Budget on EPRI Form 112 Key Personnel Resume(s)

The Selected Contractor may need to supply the following: EPRI Form 112 Backup Revised Technical Proposal

Any exceptions to Statement of Work should be clearly stated and explained. Elaborate submissions are not encouraged. Complete the Bidding Form as requested. EPRIs standard terms and conditions for a Fixed Price contract are enclosed. Any proposed exceptions must be clearly stated and explained in your proposal. A willingness to accept EPRIs contract terms and conditions is strongly desired. IT IS THE POLICY OF EPRI NOT TO SOLICIT OR ACCEPT PROPOSALS OR OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE MARKED TO INDICATE THAT THEY ARE CONFIDENTIAL OR CONTAIN PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF THE SENDER OR THAT RESTRICTED HANDLING IS REQUIRED. NORMAL BUSINESS PROPRIETY WILL BE OBSERVED IN HANDLING PROPOSAL MATERIALS. BIDDER AGREES TO THIS CONDITION BY SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL. All inquiries and technical questions regarding this RFP&Q shall be submitted via e-mail to Michelle Pettit (mpettit@epri.com) no later than March 15, 2005. Accordingly, questions and answers (if any) will be provided to all recipients of the RFP&Q. Bidders are not to contact EPRIs technical staff directly. Any such contact may result in the disqualification of your proposal. The following evaluation criteria will be used by EPRI in evaluating proposals submitted in response to this RFP&Q. Bidders should not minimize the importance of an adequate response in any area, as all of the criteria listed will be considered in determining EPRIs selections. The proposal will be evaluated based on its technical merits, pricing and co-funding from the bidder. After all proposals have been evaluated, you will receive e-mail notification of our decision from the undersigned. This is the only official notification of selection. Please note EPRI will not authorize the start of work or incurrence of costs to be reimbursed by EPRI prior to execution of a formal contract.

Sincerely, EPRI Contracts Department

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RFP&Q 057308-01 BACKGROUND AND INSTRUCTIONS Introduction EPRI is sponsoring development of a new edition of the Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion, commonly known as the Orange Book, which was originally published in 1979. This book covers the following topics: Aeolian Vibration Fatigue of Overhead Conductors Galloping Conductors Bundle Conductor Motions It is also planned to add material on Overhead Fiber Optic Cables and Transient and Other Motions. Development of a new edition is being undertaken for several reasons. First, while the book is still a well-used reference for conductor vibrations, it is now almost a quarter of a century old. Since its publication, there have been considerable developments in both approach and technology in this field. Second, there is also a concern that the book is too academic and cannot easily be put to practical uses. To address these concerns, revision of the book will update existing information in the Orange Book to reflect the state-of-the art knowledge in the field of wind-induced conductor motion. The revision process will also add new information to the book to cover topics, interests, and technology that have been developed since the book was last published. In addition, the revision will broaden the scope of the book to acquire global utility experience in conductor motion. As regards practicality, the audience for the book consists of transmission and distribution line designers and staff responsible for maintenance of overhead lines, interpretation of line failures, and correction of poor designs. The objective of this revision project is to provide them with the best practical tool to design overhead lines effectively in order to minimize damages to the lines from wind-induced conductor motion, and to analyze existing lines for improvements of their performance related to such motion. The new edition will include examples to facilitate the understanding of wind-induced conductor motion and the application of the knowledge to practical uses. Usability of the volume will be improved with inclusion of an index and other suitable electronic media. Overall, the goal will be to provide the electric power industry with a useful and practical reference guide that will complement the new edition of the Red Bookthe EPRI AC Transmission Line Reference Book: 200 kV and Above. Approach The strategy for the revision of the Orange Book is to assemble a group of world experts to update different chapters of the book or to write new chapters to cover advancements in technology in this field. These experts will be selected on the basis of the following RFP. In 2003, as part of the initial planning for the revision of the Orange Book, an Editorial Committee was formed to ensure that the book would be revised according to the projects goals. The Editorial Committee developed an initial revision plan for each chapter in the revised edition. These plans are captured in the skeleton outlines, which are included here as Attachments A and B, and described further below. The Editorial Committee also developed a list of possible interested participants, and outlined a production process for the book. The production process will be as follows: Once contracts have been awarded, lead authors will meet in May 2005 in Toronto to clarify objectives and review plans for revision. Authors and author-teams will write first drafts. There will be regular progress reports and conference calls, as frequently as progress merits. Drafts will be reviewed by the Editorial Committee, technical reviewers, and end-users. Initial drafts will be published in an EPRI report in October 2005. After drafts have been approved through technical review, chapters will be copyedited and laid out, and the book will be published. The production process is expected to last two years2005 and 2006. Bidders may participate in the revision of the book in several roles:

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Lead Author/Manager. An expert will be selected to be the lead author/manager of each chapter. This author will have overall responsibility for the update or creation of that chapter, will be the single point-of-contact with the Editorial Committee, and will be accountable for deliverables. Lead authors will be required to attend the initial authors meeting. Lead authors heading up a team will be awarded a contract for the team. Bidders may bid to be the lead author of more than one chapter; however, a bidder will not be assigned to be the lead author of more than one chapter. Co-author. An expert may bid, and be selected, to write a portion of a chapter, and to participate with a team in developing a chapter. Resource Person. An expert may bid or volunteer to serve as an information resource for a team. This individual may suggest relevant references and approaches to material. Technical Reviewer. The Editorial Committee will hire technical experts to review each chapter for technical accuracy. In addition, authors may volunteer to review chapters other than their own. The draft will also be submitted for peer reviews by representative end-users.

Note: There will be an expert and/or team for each chapter. Forming a team among experts to complement one anothers skills is encouraged. Attachment C provides a list of interested participants with their contact information to enable bidders to solicit team members. Persons not on this list may also be contacted to participate as team members. The team is envisaged to include a lead author, coauthors, and resource people. Teams will be expected to cover all parts of a chapter. There is only one lead author/manager for each chapter. The Editorial Committee will assemble teams, where necessary. Scope of Work Bids are being accepted for revision of six chapters, as follows: Chapter 2: Aeolian Vibration Chapter 3: Fatigue of Overhead Conductors Chapter 4: Galloping conductors Chapter 5: Bundle Conductor Motions Chapter 6: Overhead Fiber Optic Cables Chapter 7: Transient and Other Motions Chapter 1 (Introduction) and Chapter 8 (Index, Glossary) will be developed by the Editorial Committee. The revision plan for the Orange Book is captured in a series of skeleton outlines. Attachment A is a summary version of these skeleton outlines. Attachment B is a more detailed version of the outlines. The outlines indicate proposals for: the scope of information to be included in each chapter, material from the previous edition that is to be reduced or moved, new areas of information to be added, possible examples, and references. Please consult these outlines before completing the Bidding Form. However, please note that these outlines are intended to be initial positions. Bidders are encouraged to indicate in the Bidding Form what they would do in addition to, or differently from, the proposed revision. Authors will also be responsible for suggesting the development of software applets to accompany the text. Applets are small, Java-based, stand-alone calculation modules. The applets provide users with sample problems and results to illustrate concepts in the text. The applets are interactive and allow users to input parameters and calculate results. Applets will be developed by programmers, but authors will need to work with the programmers to suggest areas of calculation and parameters. Chapters will be written according to an Authors Guide, which is included as Attachment E. For material from the current edition that is to be included unchanged in the revised edition, a Microsoft Word version of the first edition will be made available to authors. Note: Limited funding is available for this project. Cofunding will be a factor in the selection process. Cofunding may be in the form of unbilled hours, reduction in hourly rate, funding from other organizations, or support from other external sources.

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More Information For more information, or if you have questions, contact EPRI Contracts, Contract Analyst Michelle Pettit (mpettit@epri.com). Contracts will then contact the technical staff for a response. Answers to all questions received will be emailed to all bidders.

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BIDDING FORM Please complete a separate form for each chapter on which you are bidding. You may bid as a team (Part A) and/or as an individual (Part B) for any chapter. Chapter Number: Chapter Title: Name: Address: Telephone: Email: A. Bidding as a Team When bidding as a team, please submit a maximum of one page each of related experience and pertinent publications for each participant. Teams may include as many members, as desired. Lead Author: Team Member (1) Role (please check): Co-author ___ Resource Person: ___ Name: Sub-topic(s):

Team Member (2) Role (please check): Co-author ___ Resource Person: ___ Name: Sub-topic: Comments on Proposed Skeletons. (Briefly describe if there is anything that you would do in addition to, or differently from, the proposed skeleton outline.)

Total Cost Estimate Estimate your total cost (hourly rate and number of hours) to complete the work over two years. (Note: Awards will be fixed price. Estimate is for full scope of work, which will include attendance by lead author at two 2-day meetings in North America in 2005 and 2006, writing of first draft, preparation of references, incorporation of changes following peer review, incorporation of comments following editorial review, and review of page layout. First drafts are to be completed in 2005.) Total Cost: Less Cofunding: Net Cost: Additional Suggestions/Comments

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______________________________________________________________

B. Bidding as an Individual
Co-author only: Resource Person: Technical Reviewer:

Comments on Proposed Skeletons. (Briefly describe if there is anything that you would do in addition to, or differently from, the proposed skeleton outline.)

Total Cost Estimate Estimate your total cost (hourly rate and number of hours) to complete the work over two years. (Note: Awards will be fixed price. Estimate is for full scope of work, which will include attendance by lead author at two 2-day meetings in North America in 2005 and 2006, writing of first draft, preparation of references, incorporation of changes following peer review, incorporation of comments following editorial review, and review of page layout. First drafts are to be completed in 2005.) Total Cost: Less Cofunding: Net Cost: Additional Suggestions/Comments

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CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1, Introduction, will be written in 2006 by the Editorial Committee. This chapter will introduce the range of conductor motions to be addressed in greater detail in the subsequent chapters. The chapter will provide an overview of the new edition and explain why an updated edition is needed. Revisions will include addition of state-of-the-art technology for each type of conductor motion, discussion of transient motions and other effects, and expansion of conductor tables to include missing types. Contents will include: 1.1 Overview of the Conductor Motion Problem 1.2 The Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion 1.3 Introduction to Types of Conductor Motion and their Effects 1.4 Mechanics of Conductor Motions 1.5 Conductor Tables 1.6 Glossary of Terms 1.7 Units and Conversion Factors References

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CHAPTER 2, AEOLIAN VIBRATION

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CHAPTER 2 AEOLIAN VIBRATION CONTENTS 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 INTRODUCTION EXCITATION CONDUCTORS DAMPING DEVICES SYSTEM RESPONSE EFFECTS ON LINE DESIGN FIELD MEASUREMENTS REFERENCES

2.1

INTRODUCTION

Aeolian vibration is one of the most important problems in transmission lines because it represents the major cause of fatigue failure of conductor strands or of items associated with the support, use, and protection of the conductor. In this phenomenon, conductor strand fatigue failures occur at the suspension clamps or at the clamps of the other devices installed on the conductor such as spacers, spacer dampers, dampers and other devices. Forces induced by vortex shedding are the cause of this type of vibration. From an aerodynamic and aeroelastic point of view, the problem is very complex as will be clearly explained in the following paragraphs. In addition, some differences arise in the mechanics of the phenomenon depending on whether single or bundled conductors are being considered. The response of the conductor to vortex shedding excitation is strongly non linear in terms of the vibration amplitude. This non-linearity is related to both the conductor parameters and the characteristics of the wind blowing across the conductor. From an engineering point of view, it is important to have a relatively simple approach to predict the conductor or bundle response to vortex shedding. The most common approach relies on the Energy Balance Principle (EBP) in which the steady state amplitude of vibration of the conductor or bundle due to aeolian vibration is that for which the energy dissipated by the conductor and other devices used for its support and protection equals the energy input from the wind. In this phenomenon, maximum vibration amplitudes can be as low as one conductor diameter where they can cause fatigue of the conductor strands due to bending. The problem may be defined as controlling the conductor vibration amplitude in order to maintain the stress in the conductor strands below the fatigue endurance limit. Adequate control can be achieved if the correct amount of damping is present in the system and if necessary, additional damping can be introduced in the form of damping devices such as dampers and spacer-dampers. The energy introduced by the wind to single and bundle conductors has been determined through wind tunnel measurements. Vortex shedding excitation on a vibrating cylinder is quite a complicated phenomenon and details will be given in Section 2.2 Excitation, which will cover such aspects as vortex shedding frequency, lock-in, synchronization range, modes of vortex shedding, variables controlling the phenomenon and energy input for both single and multiple conductors. The energy dissipated by the conductor and damping devices can be determined through laboratory measurements The conductor mechanical models, self-damping and bending stiffness will be treated in Section 2.3 Conductors, whilst damping devices used to provide additional damping and control aeolian vibration will be treated in Section 2.4 Damping Devices. From the comparison between introduced and dissipated energies, the steady state amplitude of vibration of the conductor can be evaluated together with strains and stresses in its most significant sections: This is done using computation programs whose main features and controlling variables are described and discussed in Section 2.5 System Response. The effects on line design of the aeolian vibration phenomenon will be discussed in Section 2.6, whilst the last section of the chapter will describe the methods and associated instrumentation to perform aeolian vibration measurements in the field.

2.2 2.2.1

EXCITATION Introduction

Organisation of the section Excitation 2.2.2 The Conductor as Flow Disturbance

In this short section, the different flow regions produced by the presence of a conductor in the airflow will be identified and presented. Using Figure 2.2-1 (source: M.M. Zdravkovich, Flow around Circular Cylinders, Vol.1: Fundamentals, page 4, ISBN 0-19-856396-5),

Figure 2.2-1 Conductor in an airflow. The region IV will be identified as the wake and the location of the vortex shedding process. This process will be linked to the upstream regions. In the particular case of conductors, the boundary layer will be said to remain laminar and transition to occur in the separating shear layer. When the frequency of the shed vortices approaches one of the conductor resonance frequencies, there is the onset of an aeroelastic instability called vortex-induced vibration, or aeolian vibration in the field of cable dynamics. When the frequencies of the shed vortices differ, the resultant pressure fluctuations are still applied but their intensity is insufficient to bring the conductor into significant amplitudes of motion. The wake (or the organization of the vortices) downstream from a vibrating conductor should be expected to differ from that of a stationary conductor.

2.2.3

Vortex Shedding in the case of a Stationary Conductor

Variables Controlling the Phenomenon The flow of a fluid interacting with a cylindrical shape has been observed to generate vortices that are shed in a downstream wake. Leonardo da Vinci sketched such vortices downstream from a stationary pile (Figure 2.2-2). Ancient civilisations also knew that aeolian sound was caused by wind blowing over a string. Cenek Vincent Strouhal (1878) formed a dimensionless parameter from his measurements of f, the frequency of the audible tone generated by wires and rods (diameter D) whirled through the air at velocity V; this dimensionless parameter, fD/V, was to be defined the Strouhal number following a suggestion by Henri Bnard (1926). Adapting Strouhals (1878) data, M. M. Zdravkovich (1985) produced a dimensionless graph of the variation of the Strouhal number in terms of the Reynolds number, VD/; is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Vortex shedding in the case of a stationary cylinder is then a phenomenon controlled by four primary variables, f, D, V and which can be reduced to two dimensionless parameters, S and R, respectively the Strouhal and Reynolds numbers. In the particular cases of stationary cylindrical conductors (5 mm<D<50 mm and 1 m/s<V<10 m/s), the Reynolds number may Figure 2.2-2 Studies of a water flow range from a value of 50 to 20000 and the interacting with an obstacle circa 1513 by Strouhal number can be evaluated using Leonardo da Vinci from Carlo Pedretti (1987) Figure 2.2-3. For example, consider a 20 mm diameter conductor in a 5 m/s wind (10C): the Reynolds number is then 7000 and the Strouhal number 0.185 according to Figure 2.2-3. The vortices would be shed at the frequency: f(Hz) = SV(m/s)/D(m) = 0.185 5/0,02 = 46.3 Hz If mixed English units (V in mph, D in inches and f in Hz) are adopted, the value of the Strouhal number remains the same but the formula for the determination of the frequency of the vortex shedding must be modified according to: f(Hz) = S V(m/s)/D(m) = S V(mph) 17,6/D(in)

Figure 2.2-3. Relationship between Reynolds number and Strouhal number from WindInduced Conductor Motion (source EPRI) For a 0.75 inch diameter conductor in an 11 mph wind (50F), the value of the Reynolds number is 7200 and that of the Strouhal number remains close to 0.185 according to Figure 2.2-3; in this case the Strouhal frequency, that is the frequency at which vortices are shed downstream from this particular stationary conductor, is 47.8 Hz. The Wake of Vortices and the Aerodynamics Force Transfer The alternate shedding of vortices at the Strouhal frequency in the wake of the stationary conductor induces an unsteady pressure distribution on its surface. This alternating pressure unbalance is translated in mean and fluctuating loads: CD and CL, respectively the mean drag and lift coefficients and, CDRMS and CLRMS, the rms drag and lift coefficients. In the case of a bare conductor, the value of CL is 0, as one expects by symmetry. Figure 2.2-4 shows the variation of the three other coefficients as a function of the Reynolds number. The figure also indicates if transition from laminar to turbulent states occurs in the wake (TrW), the shear layer (TrSL) or the boundary layer (TrBL). The conductor should remain practically motionless (stationary) if the damping of the conductors system is sufficiently large or if the frequency of the shedding vortices does not match one of the natural frequencies of the conductors system. Within the range of Reynolds numbers typical of conductors (from 103 to 2104), the aerodynamic force coefficients can be evaluated using the following curve fit expressions: CL=0 CD=1.05 4 6 2 CLRMS = 0.42 0.33 e 210 (R10 ) CDRMS=. . 5

Figure 2.2-4 Variation of force coefficients for a circular cylinder in smooth flow (after M.M. Zdravkovich 1997) Vortices shed downstream from a stationary cylindrical conductor are named Krmn-Bnard vortices after Theodore von Krmn and Henri Bnard for their pioneering work in this field. Figure 2.2-5 shows a flow visualization of the near wake downstream from a stationary circular cylinder using a fog generator, a laser sheet and a digital high-speed camera: half of the cylinder shows faintly on the left of the figure

Figure 2.2-5 Krmn-Bnard vortices R=8800, [Source: Laneville (2005)] The photo, obtained at a Reynolds number matching that of a typical conductor, shows the turbulent nature of vortex shedding in the case of a conductor; the length of formation of the vortices can be observed to be of the order of three diameters. Vortex shedding will adopt a completely different mode in the case of a conductor in motion, as will be shown subsequently. 6

2.2.4

Vortex Shedding in the case of a Vibrating Conductor: Aeolian Vibrations

Initiation of Aeolian Vibration: Onset and Lock-in (p 7 of Orange Book + new material) Additional Variables Controlling the Phenomenon (new) Modes of Vortex shedding: 2S and 2P (new material) 2.2.5 Wind Power Input (p 86-87 of Orange Book)

Case of a Single Conductor (p86-87 +new data) Case of Multiple Conductors (new material)

2.3 2.3.1

CONDUCTORS Types and Basic Properties of Conductors

Overhead transmission lines transmit electric power using stranded cables called conductors. In fact, conductors are the only active component of a transmission line and account for a significant proportion of the overall costs of the line, up to as much as 40%. Conductors have to sustain a range of electrical, mechanical and environmental loads over the projected life expectancy of a line, which can be well over 50 years of service and therefore, special attention is given to the selection of their constituent materials, layout and design. Although this book covers the effects of conductor vibration, it is considered relevant to summarize the common types and basic properties of conductors employed today in transmission lines in this chapter. The simplest and most widely used form of conductor is that of concentric layers of single round wires stranded around a so-called core. In order to reduce torsional imbalance, the stranding takes place in alternating direction from layer to layer, the outer layer being often applied with a right hand twist, Figure 2.3-1. Each layer has six wires more than the layer beneath it, ensuring in most of the cases, a good fit in every layer. The most common types of bare overhead conductors are constructed from aluminium and its alloys and can be further strengthened with steel. Most typical types are All Aluminium Conductor (AAC), All aluminium Alloy Conductor (AAAC), Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR), Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) and Aluminium Alloy Conductor Alloy Reinforced (AACSR). In a few special cases, for instance in extremely corrosive environments such as a marine environment, copper conductors may be used. For these conductors, a number of national and international standards exist. Apart from the standard conductor designs, there are also a number of special designs, such as conductors with high steel content for very long spans (river crossings), smooth bodied conductors, expanded conductors etc. Recently, there has been an increased use of so-called high temperature conductors with special designs and materials, which are used for increasing (uprating) the transmission capacity of a line. It is helpful to understand the geometric properties of conductors, such as the lay ratio and the lay angle. These are explained briefly with the help of some figures. Also the mechanical and electrical properties of the basic conductor materials are shown with some tables. Last but not least, a section of the chapter will be devoted to the bending stiffness of conductors, which plays a pre-eminent role in the vibration assessment. This chapter will also include the (updated) tables of the Orange book (see Orange book 1.5. Conductor Tables, pp. 26).

2.3.2

Inner Conductor Mechanics

Inner conductor mechanics is the calculation of the stresses and strains in the individual conductor wires because of external loads/deformations of the conductor due to vibration, which often leads to conductor fatigue damage. This will be treated extensively in Chapter 3 of this book. The fatigue mechanism of vibrating conductors is a complicated chemomechanical process called fretting fatigue. Fretting fatigue depends on many factors, such as the macroscopic or bulk stresses in the individual wires of the conductor, the relative movement between the wires, the forces acting between two adjacent wires and the resulting contact stresses at the crossing points, Figure 2.3-2. A better understanding of the inner conductor mechanics should lead to a reasonably accurate prediction of the above parameters, which in turn may enable a quantitative approach to conductor fatigue to be developed. Aeolian vibration causes the tensioned conductor to undergo lateral movements, i.e. to bend. Prior to bending, the conductor obviously has to sustain an external tensile load. This load is distributed in the individual conductor wires (strands), causing tensile stresses. Even this apparently simple loading case (i.e. conductor under pure tension) is a complicated mechanical problem, in particular where temperature effects, manufacturing process effects, creep etc have to be considered. In order not to further complicate matters, simplified formulae are used to calculate these tensile stresses in the individual wires, which are given in Appendix A. The tensile loads in the wires cause normal loads at the crossing points of two wires in adjacent layers, Figure 2.3-3, which, besides leading to contact stresses, determine the stick-slip behaviour of the wires during cyclic bending caused by aeolian vibration. Qualitatively, when a conductor is bent, the movement of its wires is suppressed by the friction forces acting between the wires and mainly between the wires of two adjacent layers. Mechanically, this situation is described by the axial force equilibrium of a differential wire element, Figure 2.3-4. This process leads to a variation of the conductor bending stiffness during bending. At small bending amplitudes, the bending stiffness can be calculated as though the wires are "welded" together and is called EImax. At large bending amplitudes, the bending stiffness can be calculated as though the wires are loose and do not interact with each other at all and is called EImin. In between these two extremes, a more or less smooth transition takes place as indicated in Figure 2.3-5. Because of the complexity of the bending process of a conductor under tension as described above, a simplified model was developed in 1965 (Poffenberger and Swart) and since then, has been almost exclusively and extensively used in order to calculate idealized conductor stresses. These are regarded as figure-of-merit or reference stresses, in order to compare the vibration intensity of different conductors based on bending amplitude measurements in the field. Comparisons can also be made with the so-called safe stress limits or fatigue endurance limits (accumulated stress or S/N (Whler) curves) which are then indicative of conductor endurance capability. The Poffenberger-Swart formula, which ultimately relates (measured) bending amplitudes with (calculated) wire stresses in the outer conductor layer, is given in Appendix A. As this formula is derived using a crude approximation of the actual bending mechanism in the conductor, deviations are often found between measured and calculated stresses. These deviations will be explained using the most elaborate conductor bending models available today. There is an abundance of literature on the mechanical modelling of stranded ropes, but only few papers have been presented specifically for bending of overhead line conductors. A. Cardou and C. Jolicoeur have published an excellent and extensive review and so in this chapter, only the papers specifically covering conductor bending will be referenced.

2.3.3

Conductor self-damping

Dissipation Mechanisms To some extent, all conductors are able to dissipate a portion of the mechanical energy input by the wind. A span composed of a single strand of a wire, rod, or tube possesses a small amount of self-dissipation in the form of material damping, which exists as frictional dissipation at a molecular level. This type of self-damping is normally quite low, so vibration problems may be readily anticipated on single strand systems. Conductors having higher than normal self-damping properties are called self-damping conductors. Their designs use trapezoidal-shaped aluminum strands, spun into a tubular construction, forming one or more lays of the conductor. With stranded conductors, the damping is considerably greater, since the losses induced by relative motion between strands are added to the material damping. Conductor self-damping is non-linear, appearing as a curve if input power or energy is plotted against resulting conductor strain or amplitude. Plotting of these relationships on log-log paper will usually result in a fairly straight line for tests run at a given frequency. If tests are made at various frequencies on a particular conductor at a fixed tension, a series of parallel straight lines will normally be observed, each line representing a result from a particular frequency. Due to the low values of self-damping, there are several measurement problems present in such tests, such as the frequency response and the end loop dissipation. Presence of the vibration exciter in the test span can introduce loop shape distortions, which alter the normal conductor dissipation. Specimen preparation and termination introduce additional unknown factors. Test Methods Force-Velocity Testing This method measures the transfer of power between the shaker and the test span. This is done by coupling the shaker and the test span through a force transducer and also determining the sinusoidal velocity of the shaker system at its point of attachment. The power may then be calculated as the product of force, velocity, and the cosine of the phase angle between force and velocity. Standing Wave Testing This method is based on the measurement of nodal and anti-nodal amplitudes along the test span. The ratio between nodal amplitude and anti-nodal amplitude is indicative of the dissipation within the system. The method has particular application to the determination of damper effectiveness since it avoids some of the waveform distortion problems that may be encountered in other measurement systems. Decay Testing In this method, the test span is brought into resonance and then disconnecting the shaker using a fuse mechanism in the shaker/span connecting linkage. The rate of decay is a function of the system losses. The decay rate is recorded and expressed in terms of logarithmic decrement, which is defined as the natural log of the amplitude ratio of two successive cycles of vibration.

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2.4 2.4.1

DAMPING DEVICES Vibration Dampers

Stockbridge-type Dampers Original Stockbridge damper (few lines with historical information) Modern Stockbridge dampers (4R dampers, few lines for Asahi torsional, Dogbone) Dynamic response (resonances,- force/phase, power, impedance vs. frequency, etc.) Design characteristics (materials, clamp types, messenger cables, mass shapes) Technology (methods for attachment of clamp and masses to messenger cable) Standard and recommendations (IEC 61897, IEEE 664, etc) Laboratory tests (particularly performance, effectiveness and fatigue) Outdoor Testing (basic criteria for the field tests) Other Damper Types Torsional dampers (more complete description, as they are still used) Impact dampers (reduce the existing text and remove fig.3-12) Bretelle dampers (reduce text and eliminate design analysis and fig. 3-14 ) Festoon dampers (remove fig.3-16) Spiral impact dampers (remove fig.3-18 and 3-20 and relevant text) The Application Criteria for Dampers Location in the span (vs span length, tension, extremity clamp type, etc.) Proximity of grounding connections on shield wires (how to locate the dampers) Installation procedure of Stockbridge (hook clamp, orientation, torque wrench, etc.) In-span Damping Introduction (what does it means, when it is necessary) Long crossing spans (examples) Spans with warning devices (warning spheres and night warning devices) Spans with interphase spacers (examples) 2.4.2 Other Protection Methods

Armour Rods General (with just few lines for the tapered armour rods) Factory formed armour rods (advantages) Design criteria (materials, dimensions, pitch, grip, end termination, sets, etc.) Armour rods performance (stiffness, damping contribution, etc.) Installation procedure Long Radius Clamps (for long spans. Provide a recent photo) Rubber-lined Clamps (discuss suspension clamps and few lines for some fittings clamps)

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Armour Grip Suspension Clamps Armour Grip Tension Clamps 2.4.3 Conductors with Enhanced Damping Capacity Compact Conductors (information needed) Thermal-resistant Conductors Gap conductors (remind the similarity with the old self-damping conductors)
ACSS and ACCR conductors (information needed)

Other thermal resistant conductors (information needed) 2.4.4 Conductors with Reduced Vibration Sensitivity Oval Conductors T-2 Conductors Low-noise Conductors (Japan) 2.4.5 Vibration of Other Cables and Busbars Vibration of Ground Wires (audible noises, high frequencies, use of spiral dampers, etc) Vibration of ADSS and OPGW Cables (requirements, effect on optical fibres, fittings, etc.) Vibration of Substation Bus bars (just few lines on the phenomenon and typical dampers) Hoarfrost (are some real cases known?) 2.4.6 Spacers and Spacer Dampers (To be integrated /coordinated with the section relevant to bundle response to wind action of sections 2.2 and 2.5) Type of Spacers Rigid and semi rigid spacers (photo available) Articulated spacers (photo needed) Flexible spacers (photo available)
Spacer dampers (photo available)

Material Used in Spacers (refer to CIGRE documents) Material requirements and selection criteria Metallic materials Non-metallic materials Corrosion resistance

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Design Criteria for Spacers and Spacer Dampers Mechanical characteristics Dynamic characteristics Electrical characteristics (Conductivity, Corona and RIV performance) Characteristics and performance of elastomer components Clamping Systems Introduction (requirements and design criteria) Cantilever clamp Opposed hinge clamp (nut cracker clamps) Comparison between cantilever and opposed hinge clamps Elastomer-lined cantilever or hinged clamp Helically-attached clamp (open clamps rubber lined, armour rods set) Fasteners (bolts, latches, springs) Clamp grip requirements and energy storing elements (Belleville washers) Breakaway bolts (advantages and disadvantages, correct design) Spacer Damper Articulations Introduction (requirements and design criteria) Elastic and damping characteristics Energy absorption mechanism (elastomer deformation by compression, torsion, etc.) Flexibility (capacity to accommodate displacements in all directions) Fatigue endurance (both aeolian vibration and subspan oscillation) Electrical resistance (conductivity to avoid RIV and electrical discharges) Spacer Damper Main Frame Introduction (shapes, articulation housings and arm rotation stops) Mechanical strength (short circuit and other dynamic load resistance) Dynamic characteristics (inertial effects) Standard and Recommendations for Spacers IEC 61854, CIGRE and main Utilitys specifications Test Methods for Spacers Laboratory tests (test procedure and test devices) Test on elastomers (test to characterize elastomer and performance tests)
Outdoor testing (vibration field tests, actual short circuit tests, etc.)

Damping Systems Spacer plus vibration dampers (discuss typical applications esp. on twin bundles) Spacer dampers only Spacer dampers plus vibration dampers (long spans, critical spans especially twin) Twin spacers in Russian configuration (for triple and quad bundles)

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Criteria for Spacer Distribution Along the Spans Aeolian vibration (discuss limited influence of spacer damper positioning) Bundle torsional stability (discuss distribution to increase torsional stability) Sub-span oscillation (few lines and reference to Chapter 5) Galloping (few lines and reference to Chapter 4) Proximity of joints, warning devices, interphase spacers (min. distance, etc.) Spacer Damper Installation Introduction ( installation instructions, problem arising from incorrect installation) Crew training (installation instructions and trial installation at ground level) Installation procedure (use of cable car, installation survey, etc.) Tools (use and verification of torque wrench, special tools, etc.) Damping Systems for Expanded Bundles Introduction (refer to recent Brazilian projects and old Russian ones) Bundle characteristics (asymmetrical bundles, reduction of bundle at towers, etc.) Type of spacers (refer to recent Brazilian projects) Distribution (considering the absence of wake induced oscillations) Spacers for Jumper Loops General (type of jumpers, counterweights, bundle reductions) Type of spacers (rigid spacers or the same spacers of the line spans) Distribution (discuss sticking problem and protection of span end fittings) Current Practice and Field Experience (refer to CIGRE survey) Survey of Field Experience (refer to CIGRE survey)

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2.5 2.5.1

SYSTEM RESPONSE Introduction

Aeolian vibration occurs when the vortex shedding frequency becomes equal to that of a natural mode of the system, i.e. when a resonance condition occurs. When the vibration amplitude increases, lock-in effects occur and a self-excited mechanism is generated. The resonance condition excites one of the vibration modes of the system under consideration, i.e.: single conductor, bundle conductor plus devices etc. The amplitudes of vibration for each of the excited vibration modes are obtained through a balance between the wind energy input and the energy dissipated by the system. In the case of single conductors, the energy dissipated by the conductor and system components for each mode of vibration can be readily identified, as will be shown in Section 2.5.2. For a single conductor plus dampers and other devices, the task is more difficult and this will be explained in Section 2.5.3. Finally, for the case of bundle conductor plus spacer-dampers and other devices, the identification of modes of vibration must be achieved by suitable numerical computation models, as will be explained in Section 2.5.4. Once the system vibration modes have been identified, the conductor vibration amplitudes can be defined all along the span as a function of a reference amplitude, which then enables the wind energy input to be computed. Knowing of the mode of vibration, the motion of the dampers, the spacer dampers and any other device present on the conductor can be determined as a function of the reference amplitude and the energy dissipated may then be computed. Aeolian vibration control is achieved if the system damping, defined as the energy dissipated by conductors and damping devices for all the system vibration modes, is high enough to limit vibration amplitudes to within acceptable levels. In other fields of engineering, such as the vortex-induced vibrations of risers and stay cables of bridges or other structures, the vortex induced vibration severity is identified through the Scruton number value: Sc = m/(D2 ), Where:m is the cable mass per unit length, D is its diameter, is the non dimensional damping of the considered mode and is the fluid density. Once the Sc number is defined, the amplitude of vibration can be identified through Figure 2.5-1. For the case of a single conductor this approach can be readily applied, being u/D the in-span antinode amplitude. In case of bundle conductors, reference can be made to the maximum amplitude along the span. 15

In Section 2.5.2, 2.5.3, and 2.5.4 some examples will be given to demonstrate the validity of this simple approach.

Figure 2.5-1 The Scruton Number. 2.5.2 EBP Models to Simulate the Aeolian Vibration Behaviour of Single Conductors

Reference Cigre TF1 paper and previous chapter paragraphs State of the art of modelling Comparison: analytical vs analytical Comparison: analytical vs experimental Uncertainties 2.5.3 EBP Models to Simulate the Aeolian Vibration Behaviour of Single Conductors Plus Dampers and/or other Devices

Reference Cigre TF1 paper and previous chapter paragraphs State of the art of modelling Comparison: analytical vs analytical Comparison: analytical vs experimental Uncertainties The main facts to be highlighted in this section are as follows:-: If the simulation of the aeolian vibration behaviour of the single conductor indicates the need for additional damping, this has to be generally provided through dampers. The maximum energy that can be dissipated by a damper on a certain single conductor at a certain tensile load is known [xx][xx] and from this the optimum damper dynamic stiffness can be defined: Fopt = . , fopt = .

16

This information can be used to select the damper to be used through comparison of the optimum values with the dynamic stiffness of real dampers evaluated by shaker tests. There is a physical limit to the amount of damping that can be added locally, i.e. through dampers at the span extremities and this can be a problem for very long spans (crossings), which may require in-span damping. Once a damper is chosen and a first approximate position of the damper on the conductor is selected, the EBP method requires the definition of the dissipated energy, or the damping, for all the system vibration modes, then the vibration modes themselves have to be determined i.e. the vibration amplitudes distribution all along the system. The determination of the system modes of vibration (with or without damping devices) is therefore the preliminary step of the computation procedure based on the EBP. In particular, the vibration mode distortions caused by the damper presence have to be evaluated to correctly define the energy dissipated by the dampers in the field of frequencies involved in the aeolian vibration phenomenon. 2.5.4 EBP Models to Simulate the Aeolian Vibration Behaviour of Bundled Conductors Eventually Equipped with Dampers and/or other Devices Reference Cigre TF1 work and previous chapter paragraphs State of the art of modelling Comparison: analytical vs analytical Comparison: analytical vs experimental Uncertainties

17

2.6

EFFECTS ON LINE DESIGN

It is well known that stranded conductors are more susceptible to Aeolian vibrations as tension is increased. This is true for all conductor systems, whether they are used as single conductors or in bundles and whether or not they are fitted with damping and/or spacing devices. Therefore, there is a need to set an upper limit to conductor unloaded tension that may prevail for a significant period of time. Unarmoured, unprotected single conductors of the most common types are considered in the first part, starting with a critical examination of the so-called `EDS concept (% of the Ultimate Tensile Strength), which was put forward in 1962 by CIGR SC 6 with the intent to provide guidance on conductor safe design tensions with respect to aeolian vibration. It is noted, for example, that the 18% EDS value which was proposed as safe for ACSR conductors led to fatigue failures in a significant number of cases, thus calling into question the relevance of the `EDS concept) as a suitable conductor tension parameter. This question has been addressed recently by CIGR WG11-TF4, which proposed H/w, the ratio between the initial horizontal tensile load H and conductor weight w per unit length, as limiting parameter. Another parameter of prime importance is wind turbulence, which relates to the roughness of the terrain crossed by the lines. Wind turbulence has considerable influence on the power imparted to vibrating conductors. By using the various analytical models, recommendations are presented for safe design tensions of unarmored, unprotected single conductors. These recommendations are ratified by comparison with field experience, which provides a `reality check. In a second part, single conductor lines protected by means of Stockbridge-type vibration dampers installed at span ends are examined. The addition of dampers requires the introduction of another parameter to define the protective capacities of the damping system. The parameter that was selected by CIGR WG11-TF4 is LD/m, the ratio of the product of span length L and conductor diameter D to conductor mass m per unit length. (Comment by G Diana - This is not a non dimensional parameter and its relationship to the physics of the phenomenon is questionable. Making reference to the Scruton number, it seems more appropriate to introduce another parameter defined as LD2/m, being the fluid density) The second part describes the analytical models that were used to predict safe design tensions by making reference to Section 2.5. Comparison is then made with all available test line and field experiences, again as a `reality check. The recommendations are provided both graphically and algebraically. The last part deals with bundled conductor lines, particularly twin horizontal bundles, triple apex-down bundles and quad horizontal bundles made up of conventional stranded conductors fitted with damping spacers, non-damping spacers or a combination of non-damping spacers and span-end Stockbridge-type dampers. Firstly, a thorough review of the literature describing previous field tests was carried out. This referred to dedicated test lines where bundled conductors were set up in parallel with identical single conductors at the same tension. Field experience gathered on 91 bundled conductor lines erected mainly in North America was also reviewed. This is followed by a description of 18

the methodologies that were used to arrive at safe design tension for each one of a number of bundled conductor systems. In this case, these methodologies are purely empirical, relying on field experience and full-scale test line data. The safe design tension recommendations thus derived are summarised in a table in the form of simple algebraic expressions, each one associated to a specific conductor system and one out of four terrain categories. (Comment by G Diana - It can be observed that the data base used to set these recommendations is quite specific (only bundles in North America) and no analytical support is given. Other experimental data will be added and analytical support will be included to check the validity of the recommendations)

19

2.7

FIELD MEASUREMENTS

The aim of field vibration measurements on conductors and earth wires is to obtain data on their vibration behaviour and to assess the risk of fatigue failure. The main objectives of such measurements include: Quantitative evaluation of the severity of the vibration and the danger it poses to the line. Acceptance tests and assessment of the performance of a damping system installed on the line. Establishment of inspection plans. Comparison of the theoretically predicted and actual vibration behaviour of a line.

In order to carry out field tests, vibration recorders or live-line recorders have been developed. These recorders have progressed from the predominantly mechanical devices of the fifties to todays sophisticated digital recorders, which have large memory and powerful signal analysis processors etc. Using an IEEE recommendation from 1966, practically all recorders measure a physical parameter called bending amplitude, which is the deflection of the vibrating conductor at a certain distance (89 mm) from the last point of conductor contact with the suspension clamp, this being the most common location of attachment of these recorders. Based on long-term experience and laboratory fatigue tests, this can then be related to the fatigue endurance of the conductor in question. It is common practice to record a sample of the bending amplitude for a few seconds at regular intervals (commonly 10 seconds every 15 minutes), the underlying assumption being that the vibration pattern does not change significantly during this period. This signal sample is analysed by the recorder software and reduced to frequency/amplitude data pairs, which are then stored in a matrix (up to 64 x 64 cells). It is recommended that the measurement duration is at least 3 months because the data obtained during this period are deemed to be typical for the projected lifetime of a line, which can be well above 50 years. As with any kind of measurements, there are possibilities of errors, such as: Systematic and random errors of the instrumentation: - linearity, offset, EMF-effects, etc. Installation errors causing the incorrect location of the bending amplitude sensor. Errors caused by the influence of the mass and the rotational inertia of the recorder on the vibration pattern. Errors caused by inadequacies in the devices used to attach the recorder to the hardware.

For the purposes of evaluation, the measured bending amplitudes are often converted to bending strain/stress values by using the Poffenberger/Swart formula explained elsewhere in this book. These latter values are then compared to well-accepted endurance limits. Another approach is to compare the so-called accumulated stress curve gained from the measurements with the S/N (Whler) curve of the conductor/clamp combination in question or with the socalled safe border line developed by CIGRE. A linear damage accumulation theory (Miners law) is sometimes used to try to get a rough estimate of the life expectancy of the conductor. Both approaches have arguments for and against their use, which will be explained in detail and which also provide scope for future work. Worked examples will be given to assist understanding of this procedure as well as tables of the endurance limits of the most common conductors and earthwires, which have been already included in the first edition of the Orange Book. 20

(U Cosmai noted that the existing paragraph can be updated and enlarged by using the content of the following documents: 1. Guide to vibration measurements on overhead lines CIGRE TF 22.11.2 1995 2. Assessment of vibration severity on actual lines (Brochure) CIGRE TF B2.11.7 2005 3. Draft guide for aeolian vibration field measurements of overhead conductors IEEE 2005)

21

E
CHAPTER 3, FATIGUE OF OVERHEAD CONDUCTORS

E-1

3
FATIGUE OF OVERHEAD CONDUCTORS
3.1 Introduction
Fatigue failure of strands in overhead conductors is the most common form of damage resulting from aeolian vibration. Conductor fatigue may also result from galloping and from wake-induced oscillation, but is not the primary penalty associated with those motions. Aeolian vibration may cause fatigue of other line components such as armor rods, dampers, ties, insulators, and tower members. Fatigue of conductor strands occurs at points where motion of the conductor is constrained against transverse vibration, such as the vertical motion of aeolian vibration. These points include: support locations, suspension clamps, clamp-top and pin insulators, goatheads, and deadends. They also include damper and bundle conductor spacer clamps, hot-line taps, splices, and armor rod end clamps. Fatigue failures have occurred on occasion at each of these locations. The incidence of fatigue relative to the above locations is directly associated with the rigidity with which conductor motion is restrained. The vast majority of fatigued strands are found at tangent supports where structural stiffness in the vertical direction is required to support the load associated with the weight span. At the other locations listed above, there is some vertical mobility of the clamp or compression device that seizes the conductor. This mobility is often reduced by resonances of the parts involved. For example, fatigue at deadends often involves a resonance of the insulator string and jumper system. Fatigue at damper locations usually is associated with a poorly-damped resonance of the damper, or resonance of the segment of conductor between the damper and the adjacent support. Fatigue failures of strands have occurred in all basic conductor types: ACSR, all-aluminum whether EC or alloy, copper, copperweld, and steel, whether galvanized or aluminum-clad. Fatigue of conductor strands is caused by the cyclic bending of the conductors where their motion is restrained. However, that fatigue is not a bending fatigue situation, as found in standard fatigue tests on smooth specimens. Rather, it is a case of fretting fatigue occurring at strand surfaces because of the cyclic microslip induced by the conductor motion. While fretting fatigue life decreases with increasing bending amplitude, beyond a certain amplitude, fretting fatigue gives way to fretting wear which is generally less critical.. Yet, if fretting wear is occurring at some points in a particular conductor, restrained by a particular clamp, fretting fatigue is certainly occurring at other points where relative slip is more restrained (closer to the clamp, or deeper in the conductor). Thus, in a conductor, fretting wear, with the corresponding 3-1

debris (black powder), is a good indicator of fretting fatigue, a crack propagation phenomenon which is otherwise difficult to detect. More importantly, for a given conductor-clamp system, there is apparently an amplitude of bending which, if not exceeded, can be endured almost indefinitely. This amplitude corresponds to an endurance limit for the clamp-conductor combination. Because of the complex stress state in a contact area at which microslip occurs, there is no direct relationship between the endurance limit of the material, as found in material handbooks, and that of the clamp-conductor system (Cloutier et al. 2003). A good example of that can be found in (EPRI 1987) where fatigue tests on an ACAR conductor are reported. In that conductor, the outer layer is made of 1350-H19 aluminum, while inner strands are made of 6201-T81 alloy, whose reported fatigue limit (at 500 million cycles) is almost double the outer one. Yet, 80% of strand failures have been found to be inner strand failures. If the endurance limit is exceeded in a particular line, the rapidity with which failures appear is determined by the degree to which that limit is exceeded, and by the rate at which cycles of highamplitude accumulate. In some cases, fatigue has appeared within a few months of stringing, while in others failures have been discovered only after years of service. Figure 3.1-1 shows the distribution of the times for discovery of fatigue, based on a study of U.S. experience made by Alcoa Laboratories in 1962 (EPRI 1979).

Figure 3.1-1 Elapsed years between date of construction and date when damage discovered.

Severity of damage, in terms of number of broken strands at any location, is also determined by the amplitudes of bending experienced, and their accumulated cycles. Fatigue, once initiated at a location, often spreads to more and more strands if the vibration continues unabated, and can eventually result in fracture of all strands of the same material as that which failed first. Then, if the conductor is an ACSR, fatigue may halt when only the steel core is left. In most cases, however, line current is great enough to heat the steel core and anneal it at the location where it is the only remaining current path. When that happens, the steel core may fail in tension.

3-2

The progress of fatigue through the aluminum strands under continued vibration is illustrated in Figure 3.1-2. The figure is based upon data from a laboratory fatigue test of 795 kcmil ACSR (45/7) (Silva 1976). Conductor tension was 26% of rated strength, and the severity of bending, as measured by the amplitude of the conductor relative to the clamp at a distance of 89 mm from it, was 0.61 mm (24 mils). The nearly linear accumulation of conductor damage with cycles of vibration, shown in the figure, is just an example of that found in such test and should not be generalized. In multilayer ACSR's, those having more than one layer of aluminum strands, the first strands to break may be in the outer layer or in a layer below it. An example of a line in which initial failure in the outer layer predominated is represented in Table 3.1-1 (EPRI 1979). The table is based upon inspection of all support points at the time the line was reconditioned after about 25 years of service, and shows the number of support points having various combinations of inner and outer-layer strand failures. The conductor had two aluminum layers, the outer with 18 strands and the inner with 12. Note that there were no instances in which failures were found in the inner layer when the outer layer was intact. There were no complete conductor failures in the line.

Figure 3.1-2. Progress of fatigue in 795 kcrnil ACSR (45/7). (Silva 1976).

In contrast, there have been cases in other lines where inner-layer strands failed before outerlayer strands. This sequence of failure has been reproduced in laboratory fatigue tests of ACSR. For example, Table 3.1.2 shows the sequence of failure by layer in a test on 954 kcmil ACSR (45/7) at Alcoa Laboratories (EPRI 1979). Conductor tension was 25% of Rated Strength, and the bending amplitude was 0.88 mm (34.5 mils), a rather high amplitude for that size of a conductor. In general, on multi-layer conductors, bending amplitudes slightly above the endurance limit generate failures on the outer layer or on the next one. Inner layer failures only occur at higher amplitudes.

3-3

Table 3.1-1 ( ) RELATIVE OCCURRENCE OF BROKEN STRANDS IN INNER AND OUTER LAYERS OF ACSR CABLE * CONDUCTOR: 397.5 kcmil ACSR (30/7) Broken Inner-Layer Strands 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 117 1 55 1 1 2 66 4 3 53 19 3 1 4 16 21 13 3 5 14 8 14 6 2 6 10 8 17 12 3 1 7 7 6 15 14 3 8 7 5 6 7 7 3 1 9 4 1 4 8 5 1 10 1 4 1 1 1 11 3 1 1 1 12 2 1 1 1 1 13 2 14 1 1 1 1 15 1 1 16 17 18

12

*All strand breaks were found at support clamps after line had been in service for approximately 25 years.

Broken Outer Strands

Table 3.1-2 SEQUENCE OF STRAND FAILURE IN MULTI-LAYER ACSR Megacycles of Vibration 5.29 6.99 7.56 8.47 8.62 8.81 9.03 9.05 9.25 11.00 11.49 11.79 11.87 11.96 Layer in Which

Failure Occurred
Middle Middle Middle Middle Middle Middle Inner Inner Inner Middle Middle Middle Inner Outer

The lag between first inner-layer failure and first outer-layer failure, and the number of inner strands that break before outer-layer failure occurs, are important relative to inspection of operating lines. Visual inspections detect only outer-layer damage and thus may overlook evidence of inadequate vibration protection until significant damage has already occurred. In the series of tests from which Table 3.1-2 is taken, there were five in which the first outerlayer failure followed inner-1ayer failure. For those tests the ratio of cycles required to cause outer-layer failure to cycles to cause first inner-layer failure averaged 3.8. The maximum 3-4

number of inner failures preceding outer failures was 13, as represented in Table 3.1-2. The average for the five tests was 5.4, or about 12% of the aluminum strands. In a series of twenty-three fatigue tests on 397.5 kcmil ACSR (26/ 7) reported by Sepp (Sepp 1969) outer-layer failure followed inner-layer failure in seven tests. In these seven tests, the average ratio of cycles at first outer-layer failure to cycles at first inner-layer failure was 2.4, and the average number of inner breaks preceding outer failure was 1.86 or about 7% of the aluminum strands. There were three additional tests in this series that were terminated before outer-layer failure occurred. Had it occurred just at the time each of these tests was terminated, then the average ratio of outer-to inner-layer cycles to failure, in the tests where inner failure occurred first, would have been 3.2, and the average number of inner strands broken before outer-strand failure would have been 2.7, or 10% of the aluminum strands. Based on these data, the average time lag between first fatigue and first visible evidence of it may be by a ratio on the order of 3 or 4, and the average loss of aluminum area preceding first outer-layer failure may be about 10 or 15%. The maximum lag in any test was by a ratio of 12 to 1, and the maximum aluminum area loss preceding outer visible evidence was 29%. These figures pertain to conductor-clamp combinations and amplitudes that favor inner-layer failure. In a significant fraction of cases, when amplitude is not too far above the conductor-clamp system endurance limit, outer-layer failures occur first. Transmission engineers are faced with several practical questions with respect to fatigue damage in existing lines. a. Are failures likely to occur? b. Have they occurred yet? c. If so, what should be done? These questions are discussed in the following sections. Section 3.2 will deal with endurance of conductors to constant amplitude vibration in terms of parameters that can be measured in an operating line. Measurement methods described in Appendix xmay then be applied to assess the likelihood of damage occurring in a particular line. Section 3.3 will examine how constant amplitude results can be used in the variable amplitude case. Section 3.4 will discuss testing and inspection of operating lines. Section 3.5 will discuss remedial measures.

3.2 Fatigue Endurance of Conductors Relating the measurable vibration of an overhead span of conductor to the likelihood of fatigue of its strands is a complicated matter. The complications arise primarily from two facts. First, the stresses that cause the failures are complex and not related in a simple way to the gross motions of the conductor involved. Second, the failures originate at locations where there is surface contact and fretting between components. Inspection and failure analysis of a large number of fatigue breaks from field and laboratory spans indicate that fatigue cracks always originate at places where the strand that broke was in 3-5

contact with another strand, with an armor rod, or with the clamping device (Fricke and Rawlins 1968; Sepp 1969; Mcks 1970, Silva 1976, Cardou et al. 1994). The stresses at these locations are combinations of static stresses due to conductor tension, bending, and the compressive force between the members, and of dynamic stresses due to bending, fluctuation of tension, and traction between the contacting members. Models are available to evaluate a conductor global bending behavior (Papailiou 1997). Also, cyclic stresses at points of contact between the outer layer and the next have been obtained, under purely elastic behaviour hypothesis, and with simple boundary conditions (Leblond and Hardy 2005). Yet, a realistic analysis relating all these stresses, including contact stresses and microslip for a specific conductor-clamp system to the vibration of the conductor has yet to be published. The endurance of metals to combined stresses has received considerable attention in recent decades, and several criteria for rating such stresses relative to fatigue have been developed and are in use. A similar effort has been made to obtain criteria for fretting damage to the contacting surfaces (Hills.and Nowell 1994; Fouvry et al. 2000). Application of these criteria is generally restricted to specific materials, contact conditions and loadings. No satisfactory criterion is available yet to evaluate analytically the fatigue behavior of conductors from the fatigue properties of the materials used in their construction and the stresses that occur in them. Thus, fatigue characteristics of conductors must be determined by fatigue tests of conductors themselves. These tests should be performed on conductor-clamp systems reproducing as closely as possible the field loading conditions. In such tests, the fatigue life of the conductor must be determined as a function of some measure of vibration intensity, rather than of the stress or stress combination that causes the failure, since that stress is not accessible to measurement. Several measures of vibration intensity have been employed: a. Free-loop amplitude of vibration, Ymax (Little et al. 1950; Overhead Conductor Vibration 1961; Hondalus 1964; Smollinger and Sitter 1965) b. Angle through which the conductor is bent at the clamp by the vibration (Sepp 1969; Bolser and Kanouse 1948; Helms 1964) c. Bending amplitude (amplitude of conductor relative to clamp, measured a short distance from the clamp), Yb (Tebo 1941; IEEE 1966; Josiki et al. 1976, Cloutier et al. 1999) d. Dynamic strain in an outer-layer strand in the vicinity of the clamp, (Yamagata et al. 1969; Nakayama et al. 1970) Fatigue curves have been developed through tests in laboratory spans using each of these parameters as the measure of vibration intensity. Four problems arise in applying such fatigue curves in assessing vibration of field spans. One is that the parameter expressing vibration intensity may be inconvenient to measure reliably in the field (a, b, d) or doesn't do justice to the complicated behavior found there (a) (Hard 1958; Rawlins and Harvey 1959). It is because of this problem that bending amplitude (c) is the most widely used parameter for measurement of vibration of operating lines (IEEE 1966). 3-6

The second problem is that vibration fatigue test data are available for only a small fraction of the conductor sizes and types that are in use, and such data are expensive to acquire. Since none of the above parameters is simply related to the fatigue-initiating stresses, results from tests on one conductor size are not necessarily applicable to others. The third problem is that fatigue tests have to be performed with a particular clamp, which may differ from the one at hand. And it has been found that different types of clamps may yield quite different fatigue test results. Finally, the fourth problem arises when field vibration amplitude is not a constant, while available fatigue tests are performed keeping the selected amplitude parameter constant. The second problem has been dealt with in practice by assuming that there is some idealized strain or stress that can be calculated from vibration amplitude, and that correlates well enough with conductor fatigue life to permit its use in establishing a single endurance limit for a range of conductor sizes. To the extent that the approach is valid, fatigue information on one size can be applied throughout that range, or piecemeal fatigue data scattered over a number of sizes within the range of validity can be combined by putting them on a common basis: the calculated stress. Use of such an idealized stress, at present, lacks a fundamental analytical basis. However, ranges of conductor size and support arrangement have been found where its use gives results that are reliable enough to be usefully applied. There is no solution yet to the third problem. The general hypothesis is that within a given type, clamp geometry is not a primary factor. Some tests, however, have shown that this is not quite the case (McGill and Ramey 1986; EPRI 1987). The best solution is of course to have fatigue tests performed with the same clamp as the one considered in the application. The fourth problem, variable amplitude, or spectrum loading, will be dealt with in Section 3.3 3.2.1 Conductor Fatigue Mechanisms Before taking up the calculation of idealized stress and its correlation with fatigue, some discussion of actual fatigue mechanisms is worthwhile. Standard overhead conductors are comprised of concentric layers of helically-laid strands. The tensions of the strands of each layer cause them to embrace the layer or core below with a certain amount of pressure. This pressure lends structural stability to the conductor. It also results in friction between strands, and thus impedes their sliding motion relative to one another during vibration. Were there no interstrand friction, there would be no possibility of variation in the tension in a strand along its length. If a conductor having frictionless strands were flexed, the strand tensions in a layer might or might not change. For example, the strand represented at a in Figure 3.2-1 would undergo no tension change because its arc length would not be affected by the bending. The arc length of the strand represented at b would change however, resulting in a change in its tension. Were the conductor many lay lengths long, the change in arc length would be dissipated 3-7

over a great length of strand, and the change in tension would be slight. Thus, for long conductor lengths, in a frictionless conductor, individual strand tensions would not be changed by flexure of the conductor at its ends. In the absence of tension changes in the strands, the flexural rigidity of the conductor would simply be the sum of individual strand flexural rigidities. Dynamic stresses would be only those associated with bending of each strand about its own neutral axis. Note that when the cable of Figure 3.2-1 (a) is bent, the strand slides along the core in the direction indicated by the small arrow. Sliding also occurs in the cable at b, indicated by the arrows.

Figure 3.2-1. Effects of conductor bending upon movement of outer strand.

Real conductors do not have frictionless strands, and, for the small amounts of flexure experienced due to vibration waves out in the span, the friction present between strands is normally great enough to prevent gross sliding between them. The relative axial movements of the strands are absorbed in largely-elastic shear strains around the small areas of inter-strand contact indicated in Figure 3.2-2.However, very small amounts of sliding, called microslip, do take place at the peripheries of the interstrand contacts where the contact pressure tapers to zero.

Figure 3.2-2. Area of inter-layer strand contact.

Near supporting clamps, conductor curvatures caused by vibration are much larger than in the free span. The attendant sliding forces there overcome frictional restraint much more readily. Microslip amplidude increases and even gross sliding may occur, as indicated by the arrow in Figure 3.2-3.

3-8

Figure 3.2-3. Strand motion adjacent to clamp.

A noteworthy situation arises when the interstrand tractions are almost large enough to cause sliding. The interstrand contacts are nominally line contacts between the core and the innermost layer of strands, and point contacts between strands of adjacent layers. Actually, the line contacts expand into strip contacts, and the point contacts into ellipses of finite size because of the bearing forces acting upon them. The sizes of the contact areas expand, mainly through plastic deformation of the strands. Contact pressure distribution is more or less uniform at a value corresponding to the bearing yield strength of the strand material, between two and three times the material yield strength, of about 170 MPa (25 ksi) for conductor-grade aluminum. That pressure decreases to zero on the boundary of the contact region. The tangential surface traction required to cause sliding is this normal stress multiplied by the static coefficient of friction, which is about 0.7 between aluminum strands. Under tangential surface traction, there always is a microslip region near the contact zone boundary (for a circular region, it would be an annulus). That region increases when bending amplitude increases. Then, the dynamic shear stresses at the threshold of sliding may become quite high. Because of the cyclic bending of the conductor, microslip direction is reversed as does the shear stress in the contact region. This cycling will often generate small cracks which will propagate up to a certain point. Because of the contact pressure many cracks are stabilized. However, if the vibration amplitude is large enough, some cracks grow beyond the compression zone and enter in the region where the dominating stress is the tensile stress from the conductor axial load. The small variation of that stress will then suffice to grow the crack up to complete strand fracture. The process is easily observed on the broken wire: a crack starts at a small angle with the strand surface (mode II, or normal shear, cracking). Then it will rotate and become normal to the strand axis (mode I, or opening mode, cracking). Shear stresses are reduced when amplitudes are large enough to cause gross sliding at a contact. One gets fretting wear instead of fretting fatigue. Wear expands the area of contact, and the tangential tractions are further reduced by the lubricating effect of wear products. In such cases, strand fracture will occur at inner layers where sliding is impeded by the higher contact pressures. Thus, in a conductor-clamp system, occurrence of fretting wear is a definite sign that fretting fatigue is also occurring, if not at the same points of contact. As noted earlier, all fatigue breaks of conductor strands appear to originate at strand contacts where fretting has occurred. There are numerous such contacts in the vicinity of a clamp, between the various strands and between the outer-layer strands and the clamp or armor rods, if any. Figure 3.2-4 shows the second layer of strands in a sample of 795 kcmil ACSR (54/7) 3-9

fatigue tested in the laboratory (Overhead Conductor Vibration 1961). The region shown was adjacent to a fixed clamp, and numerous fretted contact points and several fatigue failures are visible.

Figure 3.2-4. Fretting and fatigue of second layer of strands 795 kcmil ACSR (54/7). (Overhead Conductor Vibration 1961).

Closer examination of the breaks permits identification of the origins of the cracks. For example, the pattern of radiating ridges and the texture variation in the failure surface of Figure 3.2-5 identify the fretted region as the origin of the crack.

Figure 3.2-5. Failure surface of fatigued strand (EPRI 1979).

Microscopic examination of cross-sections of fretted zones, such as that of Figure 3.2-6, shows a surface layer of highly disordered structure containing a fine lacework of cracks, heavily loaded with aluminum oxide. This layer is created by repeated welding of the high points or asperities of the contacting surfaces, and breaking of virgin metal adjacent to the welds, under repeated small tangential movements of the two surfaces relative to each other. Eventually, a crack may be formed as in the figure. Depending on the vibration amplitude it may remain stable in the compression zone, or it may grow beyond that region and become the origin of a fatigue break (Ouaki et al. 2003). As a matter of observation, fatigue breaks in conductor favor those strand locations where movements have caused crack initiation and propagation (fretting fatigue) but not gross wear (fretting wear). The reason for this is that the latter removes material from the strand surface faster than young cracks can propagate, so that the stress raisers are destroyed at inception. Besides, wear debris may act as a lubricant, leading to a decrease in the coefficient of friction, and consequently to smaller contact tangential stresses (Zhou et al. 1992). 3-10

The cracks created from the zone of fretting drastically reduce the fatigue strength of the strand relative to its unfretted strength. Some tests on individual strands have shown a decrease by a factor of two (Lanteigne et al. 1986). The magnitude of the effect is not the same in all aluminum alloys. In fact, because of the difference in crack propagation properties, the reduction in fatigue strength is greater the stronger the alloy. Differences in fatigue resistance among aluminum conductors of different alloy do appear in fatigue tests, as will be noted in the Section Comparison of Calculated with Measured Stress.

Figure 3.2-6. Microscopic cross section of fretted strand (EPRI 1979).

3.2.2 Calculation Of Idealized Stress The mechanisms described above are complex enough that any analysis of the vibration stresses in a conductor has to be approximate. It is generally sufficient, however, to determine one indicator which can be used in conjunction with fatigue tests. The following one, which is based upon convenient assumptions has been employed to arrive at a nominal stress for rating the fatigue-inducing intensity of vibration. The particular stress that is customarily nominated for this purpose is the alternating stress in the topmost outer-layer strand, at the point where the conductor enters, or becomes restrained by, the clamp. As we shall see, the stress calculation is based on the hypothesis of complete strand independence, which implies that, actually, all strands are supposed to undergo the same alternating stress as the topmost outer-layer strand. There are several ways to assess this stress. One is measurement by strain-gage. Figure 3.2-7 shows fatigue curves for 25.3 mm diameter ACSR (26/7) at three levels of conductor tension, when the conductor was supported by a rigid, square-faced aluminum bushing (Yamagata et al. 1969). The dynamic stresses shown were determined from measured strains on outer layer strands.

3-11

Figure 3.2-7. Results of fatigue tests on 25.3 mm diameter ACSR (26/7) based on measured outerlayer dynamic strain (Yamagata et al. 1969).

Because of the inconvenience of strain measurements (and because it has been found to vary vary a lot from one strand to the other), it is more common to use a value of the nominal stress that is calculated from an easily-measured vibration amplitude, a characteristic of the whole conductor. In such calculations, the conductor is treated as a solid rod under tension for purposes of determining the alternating curvature of the conductor at the clamp caused by vibration, i.e. the variation in curvature about the static curvature associated with sag. Some value of flexural rigidity, constant along the conductor, is assumed in the calculations. Dynamic strain is estimated from the alternating curvature The value customarily used for flexural rigidity is the sum of the flexural rigidities of the individual strands, where each strand is assumed to be straight (lay angle is neglected) and to bend about its own neutral axis. Thus, all strands are assumed to undergo the same alternating stress, independently of their distance from the conductor effective neutral axis, a rather drastic assumption. Several similar analyses of the shape of a vibrating stiff wire, rigidly clamped at its ends, have been published (Morse 1948, p. 166 et seq.; Steidel 1959; Scanlan and Swart 1968; Sepp 1969; Claren and Diana 1969). A concise analysis is presented in Appendix 3.1. The following simplified analysis takes advantage of several approximations that introduce errors that are generally small enough to be neglected. Assume that the conductor is straight and vibrates in standing waves as in Figure 3.2-8, and that the supporting clamp is rigidly fixed. Assume further that the region adjacent to the clamp where the shape of the conductor departs significantly from that of a sine-shaped loop is short compared with the loop length, as indicated by a in the figure. The shape in this region is shown in more detail in Figure 3.2-9, in which a dashed line represents the end of the sine-shape loop, from which the conductor departs. The dashed line is almost straight in this region. The conductor axis, which is assumed to be horizontal at the clamp, becomes asymptotic to the sineshaped loop with increasing distance from the clamp.

3-12

Figure 3.2-8. Standing wave vibration, with rigidly fixed supporting clamp at left end of section a.

Figure 3.2-9. Enlargement of section a (from Figure 3.2-8).

If the dashed locus is taken to be indeed straight, and the amplitudes of motion are small enough in region a that inertia forces can be neglected, then the dashed line may be taken as the line-ofaction of the conductor tension. If this is the case, the bending moment acting at any crosssection is equal to the tension H multiplied by the departure yt of the conductor's axis from that line of action, as in Figure 3.2-10.

Figure 3.2-10. Departure (yt) of conductor centerline from sine-shaped loop, as conductor approaches fixed supporting clamp.

Now, the curvature of the conductor is given by:

d 2 yt M = dx 2 EI

(rad/m) (3.2-1)

3-13

where M is local bending moment and EI is flexural rigidity. Since M = Hyt,

d 2 yt H = yt dx 2 EI

(rad/m) (3.2-2)

and yt = Ae px + C1 x + C2 where p = H / EI , and A, C1 and C2 are constants of integration to be determined by boundary conditions. Since yt approaches zero for large x, yt = Ae px is the admissible solution. The slope of the conductor axis relative to the line of action of the tension is:

3)

dyt = pAe px dx

(dimensionless) (3.2-

From Figure 3.2-9, the value of the slope at x = 0 (at the clamp, with respect to the line of action) is equal to the angle and the curvature of the conductor as it emerges from the clamp is:

d 2 yt H 2 = p = EI dx x=0

(rad/m) (3.2-4)

The angle may be determined from the frequency and amplitude of motion of the span. For standing wave vibration, the amplitude y at any location in the span remote from region a is:
y = ymax sin 2 f ( x x1 ) VT

(m) (3.2-5)

in which V T = H / m is the velocity of traveling waves on the conductor, and x1 is the distance from the clamp to the point where the line of action of conductor tension intercepts the x axis. The node angle is equal to the maximum of dy/dx, and this turns out to be:

2 fymax H /m

(rad) (3.2-6)

Thus the conductor curvature at the clamp becomes: d2yt m fy max 2 = 2 EI dx x =0 (rad/m) (3.2-7)

3-14

and the bending moment at that location is: d2y M o = EI 2 t = 2 mEI fy max dx x =0 (N.m) (3.2-8)

It is interesting to note in this equation that the bending moment Mo is independent of conductor tension H. The reason is that, referring to Figure 3.2-9, Mo = Hya, but the greater the tension the more sharply the conductor is curved as it emerges from the clamp, so the smallery ya is. In fact, they vary in inverse production, so their effects upon Mo cancel. Now the curvature and bending moment at the clamp may be calculated on the basis of an amplitude other than ymax. If that amplitude is measured within region a of Figure 3.2-8 the calculation is particularly simple. It can be seen from Figures 3.2-9 and 3.2-10 that this y of the conductor relative to the x axis, assuming a small angle , is: y = ya + x + yt Now, from Equation (3.2-4): (m) (3.2-9)

1 d2yt = pA p dx 2 x =0

(rad) (3.2-10)

Also, ya = A, so: y = A + pAx + Ae px and: d2yt p2 y = p 2 A = ( px ) 2 e 1 + px dx x =0 (rad/m) (3.2-12) (m) (3.2-11)

While the general principle of the calculation of yt(x) is due to Isaachsen (Isaachsen 1907), Equation (3.2-12) was first reported by J. C. Poffenberger and R. L. Swart (Poffenberger and Swart 1965) and is called the Poffenberger-Swart Formula. The industry standard position for measuring y is at x = 89 mm (3.5 in.) (IEEE 1966) and, when measured at that position, its peak-to-peak value is called bending amplitude, Yb. ( Yb = 2 y .) Equations (3.2-4), (3.2-7) and (3.2-12) provide three means for calculating conductor curvature at the clamp, based upon node point vibration angle, frequency, and free-loop amplitude or 3-15

bending amplitude respectively. In practice, the vibration angle is usually calculated from measured values of f and ymax according to Equation (3.2-6). Estimated dynamic strain in the conductor strands at the clamp is calculated by multiplying the dynamic curvature there by an assumed distance from the neutral plane of bending to the outermost fiber. Half of strand diameter, or d/2 is the value usually assumed. Again, this is equivalent to assuming that a strand bends with respect to its own neutral axis. Thus the three bases for estimating curvature at the clamp lead to the following three equations for estimating the alternating stress in the top surface of the conductor at the clamp:

a =

dE a 2

H EI m fymax EI

(Pa) (3.2-13) (Pa) (3.2-14) (Pa) (3.2-15)

a = dEa
a =

dEa p 2 / 4 Yb e px 1 + px

in which Ea is Young's modulus for the outer-layer strand material. 3.2.3 Comparison Of Calculated With Measured Stress The correlation of calculated with measured values of a may appear to be somewhat academic, since the stresses that initiate fatigue failures are located at metal-to-metal contacts, and a is a free-surface stress. The comparisons do, however, provide some measure of the sensitivity of the analysis to the degree of idealization involved in the assumptions employed. For example, the nominal value of EI used here, and by many workers, is the sum of the flexural rigidities of the individual strands, which is its minimum theoretical value (EI)min (if one neglects the strand lay angle). However, dynamically-derived values of EI are sometimes 10 to 50 times as great (Scanlan and Swart 1968). Indeed, in small amplitude vibration, there is practically no interlayer slip. Thus, one would expect EI to take a value near its maximum (EI)max, when the section behaves as in a solid beam, plane sections remaining plane. However, micro-slip does occur at points of contact. Besides, elastic tangential compliance at these points also plays a role in lowering the flexural rigidity (Hardy and Leblond 2003). Thus, (EI)max is never obtained. In view of these departures from reality, there is a surprising degree of correlation between measurement and prediction. For example, Figure 3.2-11 shows the alternating stress determined by strain gage measurement versus fymax from a series of tests of 1/0 ACSR performed at Alcoa Laboratories (EPRI 1979). The conductor was supported in a square-faced aluminum bushing. The measurements cover tensions of 15%, 25%, and 35% of rated conductor strength, and frequencies ranging from 10 to about 115 Hz. There is a clear one-to-one correspondence between a and fymax. The factor of proportionality is 0.147 MPa per mm/s, which compares well with the calculated value of 0.171. The ratio of measured to calculated a /fymax is 0.86. If one 3-16

assumes some degree of restraint between the strands, EI increases and calculated values can be made to coincide with the measured values. Here, it should be slightly more than 1.35(EI)min , taking into account the fact that strand radius d has also to be replaced by some equivalent distance comprised between d and 1.5 d. Note that in the 6/1 case, assuming identical strands and neglecting the lay angle(EI)max = 7.86 (EI)min . Similar measurements on multi-layer conductors show some scatter in this ratio, but the scatter is small, considering the crudeness of the assumptions noted above. Table 3.2-1 shows this ratio for several published series of measurements. In the tests by Helms, the clamp was allowed to rock, and an effective bending angle, corresponding to the sum of and the angle of rocking, was reported. For Table 3.2-1, this angle was treated as in Equation (3.2-6) to obtain the equivalent fymax. Good correlation is also found between measured a and that calculated on the basis of bending amplitude Yb using Equation (3.2-15). Comparison between theory and experiment found in the experiments of Poffenberger and Swart (Poffenberger and Swart 1965) is shown in Figure 3.212, in which solid points pertain to high conductor tensions, and open points to low tensions. Agreement is excellent, with measured stresses generally being slightly smaller than predicted by theory, except for one wild point. However, in a separate series of measurements, Claren and Diana (Claren and Diana 1969) obtained experimentally-determined stresses averaging 30% higher than predicted by Equation (3.2-15), with the total range, found in tests on 13 combinations of conductor size and tension, running from 14% low to 73% high. They also found that strain measurements varied a lot from one wire to the other. In either event, correlation with experiment is rather good considering the assumptions under which theoretical stress is calculated and because of these assumptions, the calculated stress level should be considered as an indicator of conductor vibration severity rather than the actual dynamic bending stress in the strands.

3-17

Figure 3.2-11. Dynamic bending stress based on strain gage measurement as function of fymax. 1/0 ACSR (6/1) supported by square-faced bushing. Tensions 15, 25 and 35% of rated strength.

Table 3.2-1 RATIO OF MEASURED TO CALCULATED VALUES OF a/fymax References Hard 1958 Sepp 1969 Helms 1964 Claren and Diana 1969 Conductor Diamater (mm) 28.14 28.14 28.0 30.45 30.45 30.51 31.5 31.5 35.0 Type ACSR ACSR AACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR AACSR ACSR Stranding 26/7 26/7 28/19 18/19 18/19 42/7 54/19 54/19 42/7 Clamp Susp. Sq. Bushing Deadend Sq. Bushing Sq. Bushing Sq. Bushing Sq. Bushing Sq. Bushing Sq. Bushing

a Meas. fy max Calc.


0.43 1.00 0.43 0.61 0.65 0.59 0.76 0.51 0.78

3-18

Figure 3.2-12. Comparison of theory and measurement for Poffenberger-Swart Formula (Poffenberger and Swart 1965).

3.2.4 Use of Conductor Fatigue Test Data The two following sections will present data from fatigue tests of various conductors in the form of a -N curves, in which a is calculated from free-loop amplitude, using Equation (3.2-14) in the Section Fatigue Performance Relative to fymax and on the basis of bending amplitude using Equation (3.2-15), in the section Fatigue Performance Relative to Bending Amplitude. In both sections, the a -N curves will be used to estimate endurance limits in terms of a , applicable to certain ranges of conductors. These endurance limits will then be used to calculate the corresponding amplitudes which can be endured indefinitely which is usually understood as equivalent to being a life of 500x106 cycles without a strand failure These will be expressed in the respective sections as fymax, and as Yb. The data of these two Sections will pertain to unarmored conductor. In the Section Effect of Armor Rods, data from fatigue tests of armored conductor will be presented. These data indicate that the relationship between fatigue life and bending amplitude is not greatly changed by the presence of armor rods. It will be suggested that bending amplitude endurance limits for unarmored conductor be applied where armor rods are present. The results of the Section Fatigue Performance Relative to fymax based on fymax as the measure of vibration, cannot be directly applied in determining whether the vibration of a particular field span is safe, since one of the assumptions underlying Equation (3.2-14) is that the clamp is rigidly supported, and this is seldom the case in the field. That assumption is not inherent in Equation (3.2-15), which is keyed to bending amplitude Yb. Furthermore, ymax is somewhat more difficult to measure on operating lines than is Yb. The curves of the Section Fatigue Performance Relative to fymax are included in spite of these limitations because endurance limits in terms of fymax are available for some conductor types for which endurance limits in terms of Yb are not. These fymax endurance limits may be converted to Yb endurance limits through laboratory determination of the relationship between fymax and Yb as the need arises. That determination entails a cost that is only a very small fraction of the cost of running a new series of fatigue tests. 3-19

One should also note that, for some types of suspension clamps, bending amplitude Yb cannot be measured accurately as the last point of contact is not well defined. It is preferable to use parameter fymax even if assumptions underlying Equation (3.2-14) are not fully met. One should not combine equations (3.2-14) and (3.2-15) to arrive at a theoretical relationship between fymax and Yb, to convert the fymax endurance limit because, in these equations, bending stiffness EI is given a value a priori, which yields different values for the maximum curvature, using Equation (3.2-14) or (3.2-15). Ratio Yb /fymax should be obtained experimentally for a given axial load. In fact, it may be found that it also depends on vibration amplitude. As a corollary, the a endurance limits estimated in the Section Fatigue Performance Relative to fymax through use of Equation (3.2-14) should not be used to establish Yb endurance limits Equation (3.2-15). The values of a obtained from the two equations are different surrogates for the actual fatigue-initiating stress at the strand contacts where failures originate. The effects of the simplifying assumptions in the Section Calculation of Idealized Stress can be expected to cancel only if the same equation is used to take endurance limit information out of a a vs N curve as was used to put fatigue test information in.

3.2.5 Fatigue Performance Relative To fymax


Data for the fatigue curves of this Section derive from tests in which ymax was measured or could be determined from reported information. The idealized dynamic stress was thus calculated using Equation (3.2-14).

m fymax All of the data EI employed derive from laboratory vibration fatigue tests of conductors supported by rigid clamps. The tests were run with constant amplitude.

a = dEa

Analysis of a -N curves employing available data indicates several things that will be brought out in graphs below. First, the level of tension in the conductor seems to have little effect upon the a -N relationship, given the conductor and its supporting clamp. Second, number of layers appears to have some influence upon the a -N relationship within broad ranges of strandings, given the conductor material and the supporting clamp. Third, the general a -N relationship is relatively insensitive to clamp contour. However, no conclusion can be drawn from this set of data with respect to the endurance limit, as no run-outs were obtained with the square-faced bushings. In the figures that follow, the tests are grouped according to: a. Conductor material. b. Stranding class. c. Clamp type.

3-20

S-N DIAGRAM (Figure 3-16a) Tw o-layer ACSR Preliminary version October 14 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0.1 1 10 N at the first w ire break [Mc] 100 1000
EPRI(1979)
EPRI(1979); run out
Ramey
Ramey run out
Drake
Drake run out

a fct (fymax) [MPa]

3-21

Crow run out [ 2 pt s at (500,24)]

EPRI(1979) run out

S-N DIAGRAM (Figure 3-16b) Three-layer ACSR Preliminary version October 14

Bersf ort run out

EPRI(1979)

Bersf ort

100 40 30 20 10 0.1 1 N at the first w ire break [Mc] 10

70

60

Crow

Figure 3.2-13 Fatigue tests of two-layer ACSR. Figure 3.2-14 Fatigue tests of three-layer ACSR.

The cycles to failure N is intended to refer to failure of the first strand. Even when such failure occurs inside the conductor, several techniques are available to record it. However, in some tests, detection of failures was made by periodic visual inspection of the conductor outer surface, and in some tests, involving multi-layer ACSR, failures were found in inner-layer strands when the conductors were inspected upon discovery of outer-layer fatigue. The multi-layer sizes in which this occurred were 397.5 kcmil ACSR (30/7), and 795 kcmil ACSR (54/7). The values of N for these sizes are thus biased on the high side relative to failure of the first strand

Multi-Layer ACSR
Figures 3.2-13 and 3.2-14 shows calculated a versus cycles to failure (N) for several sizes of two- and three-layer ACSR, respectively. Two-layer data lie slightly above those for three-layer ACSR, indicating that the connection between calculated a and the actual fatigue-inducing stresses is different for the two types of stranding. The conductor sizes and the clamps used are indicated. The suspension clamps were common commercial, short-radius clamps, generally with 5 tilt to simulate sag angle. The clamps identified as BM were aluminum bell-mouthed clamps. The BM clamps are somewhat like cylinders whose internal bore is a surface of revolution with a profile that closely fits the conductors and has generous radii at the exits. It separates into two similar shells which are bolted together once the conductor is in place.

a fct (fymax) [MPa]

50

1000

3-22

In Figure 3.2-13, the groups of points at the same stress represent groups of tests made under identical conditions : clamp, clamping pressure, axial load, sag angle. This holds true except for the set at 39 MPa. That set (Sepp 1969), containing 15 tests encompassed variations in sag angle from 0 to 10 and variations in clamp bolt torque from 0 to 54 N-m. It also included tests with the clamp keeper removed. As noted previously, in the tests of 397.5 kcmil ACSR (30/7) and 795 kcmil ACSR (54/7), failures were detected by visual inspection, so the fatigue lives N are biased on the high side, probably by a factor less than 2. In the other tests, failure was detected by distortions of the conductor in the vicinity of the clamp. Sepp (Sepp 1969) used strain gages attached to several strands to reveal the shift of tensions among strands that follows each strand break. Other laboratories monitored rotation of the conductor, at the node nearest the clamp, that resulted from loss of torque in a layer due to strand failure. Silva (Silva 1976) also used this method. (Silva 1976; EPRI 1979 and 1981, Cardou et al. 1994) Figures 3.2-13 and 3.2-14 indicate the scatter among identical tests and shows a generally consistent pattern for the several conductors and clamp combinations involved. At high amplitude, for a given conductor, scatter is rather small, lives to first strand failure being in a maximum ratio of about three, at a given amplitude. At lower amplitudes, scatter is much larger, that ratio reaching 25 in some cases. It also shows, for Sepp's data at the 39 MPa stress level, a rather small influence by the variations in clamp tilt and bolt torque. It will be noted, however, that, for data encompassing several conductors, scatter is even larger. In Figure 3.2-14 (three-layer ACSRs), three 500 million cycles run-outs have been obtained at amplitude a 23 MPa , showing that endurance limit is not far from this value. In Figure 3.2-13 (two-layer ACSRs), several run-outs have also been obtained for 100 Mc tests and beyond : Two 500 Mc run-outs with the Drake ACSR for a 33 MPa One 400 Mc run-out with the Lark ACSR for a 26 MPa (EPRI 1979) Several 100 Mc run-outs with the Drake ACSR for a in the [29 MPa 33 MPa] domain

Moreover, in the same stress range, several tests (EPRI 1979) gave first strand failure between 20 and 130 Mc. All these results indicate that two-layer ACSR endurance limit is in the region of a 30 MPa. The data from (EPRI 1979) are shown again in Figure 3.2-15 with each group of tests represented by a single point at the logarithmic mean cycles to failure. The number beside each point is the conductor tension, in percent of rated strength, used in the tests of that group. It is evident that the a -N relationship is influenced slightly, if at all, by conductor tension. Figure 3.2-16 shows results of fatigue tests in which square-faced aluminum or steel bushings were used as clamps. The points for suspension and bell-mouthed clamps are included in the figure for comparison. The conductors that were tested in the square-faced bushings were as shown in Table 3.2-2.

3-23

Table 3.2-2 Conductors in Square-Faced Bushings


Size 397.5 kcmil 30/7 477 kcmil 30/7 566.5 kcmil 26/7 795 kcmil 30/19 795 kcmil 54/7 1780 kcmil 84/19 Bushing material Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Steel References EPRI 1979 EPRI 1979 EPRI 1979 EPRI 1979 EPRI 1979 Hondalus 1964

Tensions ranged from 18 to 63% of rated strength. A small but consistent difference between the two groups of data is evident in Figure 3.2-16. The stress required to cause failure at a given number of cycles is slightly less with the square-faced aluminum bushings. In addition, one sport occurred at a stress of 28 MPa, failing at about one million cycles. At levels down to 28 MPa, Figure 3.2-16 indicates that clamp characteristics have relatively small influence upon the a versus N relationship. However, while suspension and BM clamps show an endurance limit around 26 MPa, no such conclusion can be drawn for square-faced bushings for lack of data points. Other preliminary fatigue tests reported in (EPRI 1987), using three generic clamps, tend to show some influence of clamp geometry.

In the (EPRI 1987) report, specimens were cycled at a given midloop amplitude of 17.8 mm (0.7 in) for about 8.2 million cycles. Four clamps were used, each having a different longitudinal radius of curvature: 152 mm (6 in), 305 mm (12 in), 610 mm (24 in). Three of them had deep grooves conforming closely to the conductor, while a 305 mm (12 in) radius clamp was also tested with a shallow groove. Two specimens were tested with each clamp, under the same conditions. At the end of the test the specimen was examined. Shorter radius clamp showed more strand breaks than larger radius one. The 305 mm (12 in) clamps, with deep and shallow grooves did not show a marked difference in the average number of breaks. Nevertheless, considering : the practical case of suspension and BM clamps, that fatigue data from two-layer ACSR tests do not show a clear endurance limit value that no data are available for four-layer ACSR

it is suggested that the three-layer endurance limit of 22 MPa be taken (Figure 3.2-14) for multilayer ACSR when calculated on the basis of Equation (3.2-14).

3-24

Figure 3.2-15. Fatigue tests of multi-layer ACSR. 68 tests represented.

calculated from

Equation (3.2-14). Numbers indicate tension in percent of rated strength.

3.2.7 Single-Layer ACSR Figure 3.2-17 presents fatigue data (EPRI 1979) for single-layer ACSR, i.e. the 6/1 and 7/1 strandings, supported in bell-mouthed clamps and suspension clamps. The sizes tested in bellmouthed clamps were No.4 (6/1), No.4 (7/1), and 3/0 (6/1). Log mean cycles to failure are shown for groups of identical tests. Tensions ranged from 20% to 70% of rated strength. Only 1/0 ACSR (6/1) was tested in suspension clamps, and the tension in those tests was 25% of rated strength. For the 1/0 ACSR. a point is shown for each individual test.

3-25

Figure 3.2-16. Fatigue tests of multi-layer ACSR.

calculated from Equation (3.2-14).

3-26

EPRI (1979) Susp run out

EPRI (1979) Susp

EPRI (1979) BM

1000 S-N DIAGRAM Single-layer ACSR (Figure 3-19) Preliminary version October 14 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.1

LOG MEAN N at the first wire break [Mc]

10

100

Figure 3.2-17. Fatigue tests of single-layer ACSR in bell-mouthed or suspension clamps. calculated from Equation (3.2-14).

As in the tests of multi-layer ACSR, the bell-mouthed clamps were well-fitted to the conductors involved, and the clamp exits were generously radiused. The suspension clamp used with the 1/0 ACSR was not well-fitting. Its seat was designed to accommodate conductors up to 18.3 mm in diameter, substantially larger than the 10.1 mm diameter of 1/0 ACSR. Clamping pressure caused noticeable distortion of the conductor strands. It is evident from Figure 3.2-17 that all of the data are encompassed by a single a -N relationship, and a curve has been drawn to represent it. This curve lies slightly above those for two-layer ACSR, again indicating that the connection between calculated a and the actual fatigue-inducing stresses is different for different types of stranding. The two a relationships appear to converge at large values of N, and the same endurance limit, 22 MPa seems suitable to both. Figure 3.2-18 compares the curve of Figure 3.2-17 with results of several tests of single-layer ACSR supported in square faced bushings (EPRI 1979). The conductor sizes represented are those in Figure 3.2-17 plus a special 28.6 mm diameter 6/1 ACSR. Use of square-faced clamps with single-layer ACSR markedly shortened fatigue life in a number of tests, especially those with the lower levels of a . 3-27

a fct(fymax) [Mpa]
a

Figure 3.2-18. Fatigue tests of single-layer ACSR in square-faced bushings. Equation (3.2-14).

a calculated from

3.2.8 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Conductors


Little data are available on stranded aluminum conductors of conductor-grade metal (1350 alloy), from tests in which failure of the first strand, or first few strands were detected. What data there are correlate best with the multi-layer ACSR pattern of Figures 3.2-13 and 3.2-14, even though they pertain to a seven-strand conductor. Multi-layer all-aluminum conductors would be expected to follow the same multi-layer ACSR pattern. Thus, it seems reasonable to assign the same a endurance limit to all stranded aluminum conductors: 22 MPa. Aluminum alloy 5005 has been used to a limited extent in overhead conductors. Fatigue data on multi-layer 5005 suitable for construction of a a -N curve are not available. However, conductor fatigue tests comparing severity of damage after equal numbers of cycles of vibration indicated little difference between 61strand 5005 alloy conductor and 1780 kcmil ACSR 84/19 of about equal diameter (Hondalus 1964). This result is consistent with vibration fatigue test data (EPRI 1979) on single-layer 123.3 kcmil 5005 alloy 7-strand conductor shown in Figure 3.2-19, where the ACSR curve from Figure 3.2-17 is based on Log mean N values. The tests were made at a tension of 25% of ultimate strength, and utilized the same ill-fitting suspension clamp used in the 3-28

tests of 1/0 ACSR discussed above. It thus appears reasonable to apply the a endurance limit for ACSR to the 5005 alloy conductor.

Figure 3.2-19. Fatigue tests of 5005 alloy conductor (7-strand) in suspension clamps, 12 tests represented (EPRI 1979). a calculated from Equation (3.2-14).

Few data appear to be available on ACAR conductors utilizing heat-treatable aluminum alloys such as 6201 and Aldrey. Aldrey has the same alloying constituents as 6201, but in smaller concentrations. Available data on these two types are collected in Figure 3.2-20 for comparison with the multi-layer ACSR curve of Figure 3.2-16. All points represent individual tests. The data for 7-strand 6201 alloy conductor indicate greater dispersion in fatigue behavior found in other conductor types, and a lower endurance limit, than for ACSR or 5005 alloy conductor. Only a rough estimate of that endurance limit is possible. Taking a margin of safety, a value of 15MPa (2.2 ksi) is suggested. The data are not extensive enough to clarify whether Aldrey and 6201 conform to the same a -N relationship. It is nevertheless suggested that the same endurance limit be applied to both. Fatigue tests on an ACAR 18/19 are reported in (EPRI 1987). The controlling amplitude being Yb , first strand failure data points cannot be included in Figure 3.2-16. Besides, amplitude levels are quite high and yield very short lives, thus giving no indication on endurance limit, which was not the objective of the tests. 3-29

Figure 3.2-20. Fatigue tests of Aldrey and 6201 alloy conductors. (3.2-14).

calculated from Equation

3.2.9 Steel and Alumoweld Ground Wires (being revised)


Figure 3.2-21 shows data from tests of 5/16" (7.94 mm) diameter extra-high strength galvanized steel ground wire (Little et al. 1950), 5/16 (7.94 mm) diameter aluminum-coated steel (Bethalume) (Smollinger and Siter 1965), and 7 No. 8 Alumoweld (EPRI 1979). The conductors were supported in standard suspension clamps in all cases. The a endurance limit for the EHS steel appears to be about 192 MPa (28 ksi). It is of interest that shorter fatigue life would be inferred for lower conductor tension, based upon Figure 3.2.21, for equal values of a as calculated by means of Equation (3.2-14). The difference is not great enough to justify assignment of different a endurance limits for different tensions, however. The points representing aluminum-coated steel and Alumoweld are based upon the calculated stress in the steel component of the strand. The two groups of data seem to conform to the same a -N relationship when plotted on that basis. A common a endurance limit of about 135 MPa (19.5 Ksi) is suggested

3-30

Figure 3.2-21. Fatigue tests of steel and conductors.

a calculated from Equation (3.2-14).

3.2.10 Copper, Copperweld, and Copper-Copperweld (being revised)


Figure 3.2-22 summarizes results of vibration fatigue test (EPRI 1979) on No. 6A CopperCopperweld (2/1), 3 No. 12 Copperweld 4/0 HD copper (7 strand), 1/0 F Copper-Copperweld 6/1), and 500 kcmil MHD copper (37) strand). Bell-mouthed clamps were used in all tests. Test tension were 25, 30, 45, and 60% of rated strength. In the test of No.6A Cu/Cw, which has two copper strands and one Copperweld strand, fatigue behavior was largely determined by the copper strands. In a series of 49 tests, the Copperweld strand failed first in only 6. The test series represented in Figure 3.2-22 did not extend to low enough values of a to establish knees in the a -N relationships, so endurance limits are difficult to estimate. However, 35 MPa (5 ksi) is suggested for both 3 strand and 7 and more strand groups.

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Figure 3.2-22. Fatigue tests of copper, Copperweld, and Copper-Copperweld conductors. calculated from Equation (3.2-14).

3.2.11 Endurance Limits Expressed as fymax


In the equation used for calculating the idealized dynamic stress,

a = dEa

m fymax EI

the factor preceding fymax on the right is nearly constant within each conductor type. In fact, for homogeneous conductors of a given material in which all strands are of equal size, the calculated ratio a /fymax, is constant, regardless of the number of strands and their size. This constancy arises from the simplified assumption that each strand bends independently with respect to its own neutral axis. Thus, EI is proportional to nd4 while m is proportional to nd2, n being the number of strands and the ratio a /fymax, only depends on material parameters. For ACSR, a /fymax ranges from 0.171 to 0.200 MPa.s/mm for the standard strandings, except for 7/1. That range of variation is small within the context of the assumptions used in deriving the equation, and of the indirect connection between a and the actual fatigue-inducing stresses. It is therefore reasonable to represent all ACSRs except the 7/1 strandings by a single value of a /fymax.

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Table 3.2-3 lists, for various conductor types, their a /fymax factors and the resulting fymax endurance limits. Note that a pertains to the material of the conductor surface except in the cases of EHS steel and Alumoweld, where a pertains to the steel component. The endurance limits listed in the table should be treated with a caution commensurate with the weight of data and inference leading to them. For example, data on Aldrey and 6201 alloy conductor are quite thin. Also, application of the steel and Alumoweld endurance limits to multilayer strandings rests primarily upon evidence in the ACSR data that the single- and multi-layer strandings have about the same endurance limit. It should be emphasized that fymax is preferred over a for expressing endurance limits, since both frequency and amplitude were measured in the fatigue tests. In contrast, the stress a is a derived parameter.
Table 3.2-3 ENDURANCE LIMITS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF CONDUCTORS* SI Units Conductor Type

a /fymax
MPa.sec/mm
0.172 0.172 0.172 0.186 0.148 0.409 0.299 0.377 0.359 0.499 0.497 0.498 ENGLISH UNITS

Endurance Limit

a
MPa
22 22 15 22 22 35 35 35 35 192 135 135

fymax mm/s
128 128 87 118 149 86 117 93 97 385 272 276

All-Aluminum All-5005 Alloy All-Aldrey or 6201 ACSR (Except 7 / 1) ACSR (7 / 1 ) Copper (Cu) Copperweld (Cw) 6 Cu/1 Cw 2 Cu/1 Cw EHS Steel (Galv.) (Aluminized) Alumoweld

Conductor Type

a /fymax
ksi.s/in
0.633 0.633 0.635 0.687 0.544 1.499 1.102 1.386 1.329 1.837 1.828

Endurance Limit

a
3.19 3.19 2.18 3.19 3.19 5.08 5.08 5.08 5.08 27.85 19.58

fymax in.s
5.04 5.04 3.43 4.65 5.87 3.39 4.61 3.66 3.82 15.16 10.71

All-Aluminum All-5005 Alloy All-Aldrey or 6201 ACSR (Except 7 / 1) ACSR (7 / 1 ) Copper (Cu) Copperweld (Cw) 6 Cu/l Cw 2 Cu/l Cw EHS Steel (Galv.) (Aluminized)

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Alumoweld
* Conductor supported by rigid clamps

1.802

19.58

10.87

3.2.12 Fatigue Performance Relative to Bending Amplitude The idealized bending stress is calculated from bending amplitude by means of the PoffenbergerSwart Formula:

a =

dEa p 2 / 4 Yb e px 1 + px

(3.2-15)

in which Yb is measured 89 mm (3.5 inches) from the last point of contact of conductor with supporting clamp. Since p = H / EI , the calculated a / Yb is a function of conductor tension. Data from vibration fatigue tests in which Yb was measured are available for four ACSR (GREMCA 2006, EPRI 1987). However, several tests in which f and ymax were measured can also be used. Such previously-run fatigue tests have been reconstructed and run long enough to permit measurement of Yb, and this has made several blocks of data (EPRI 1979) available for construction of a -N relationships. The procedure introduces an additional source of scatter, since no test configuration can be reproduced with absolute precision. 3.2.13 Fatigue Characteristics of ACSR Data are available in sufficient quantity to construct a -N curves, only for ACSR. These data are shown in Figures 3.2-23, 3.2-24, and 3.2-25. Most data are drawn with respect to N cycles to strand failure, while data from (EPRI 1979) are drawn with respect to Log Mean N. The data indicate that the single-layer, two-layer and three-layer ACSR constructions have different a -N relationships, when a is calculated from bending amplitudes according to Equation (3.15). Within each of these groups, however, there appears to be no significant influence of stranding upon the a -N relationship. The tests represented in the figure had tensions ranging from 16% to 70% of rated strength. The quality of the correlations within each group indicates that Equation (3.15) takes tension effects into account adequately. In Figure 3.2-23 (single-layer ACSRs), many tests at the stress a 29 MPa gave first strand failure; these tests are regrouped in 4 points at the Log Mean N value higher than 130 Mc. It is suggested that the single-layer endurance limit of 22.5 MPa be taken when calculated on the basis of Equation (3.15). In Figure 3.2-25 (three-layer ACSRs) several run-outs have been obtained for 320 Mc and beyond: Three 500 Mc run-outs with the Crow ACSR (ref ?) for a 13 MPa One 500 Mc run-out with the Tern ACSR (EPRI 1979), for a 12 MPa 3-34

One 320 Mc run-out with the Rail ACSR (EPRI 1979) for a 10 MPa Moreover, in the same stress range, several tests (EPRI 1979) gave first strand failure; these tests are regrouped in one point of Log Mean N equal to 190 Mc. All these results indicate that the three-layer ACSR endurance limit is in the region of a 10 MPa
In Figure 3.2-24 (two-layer ACSRs), several run-outs have also been obtained for 100 Mc tests and beyond: Two 500 Mc run-outs with the Drake ACSR (ref ?) for a 19 MPa One 400 Mc run-out with the Lark ACSR (EPRI 1979) for a 13 MPa Several 100 Mc run-outs with the Drake ACSR (ref ?) for a in the [22 MPa, 26 MPa ] domain Moreover, in the range of a 15 MPa, several tests (EPRI 1979) gave first strand failure at the Log Mean N values of 52 Mc and 79 Mc. All these results do not permit to establish an accurate endurance limit but tend to show that the two-layer endurance limit is higher than the three-layer one. Nevertheless, considering the practical case of suspension and BM clamps that fatigue data from the two-layer ACSR tests do not show a clear endurance limit value that no data are available for four-layer ACSR it is suggested that the three-layer endurance limit of 8.5 MPa be taken (Figure 3.2-25) for multilayer when calculated on the basis of Equation (3.2-15).

It should be pointed out that results of a few tests performed in Poland (Josiki et al. 1976) conflict with the multi-layer data of Figure 3.2-25. The tested conductor was similar to a threelayer Curlew ACSR. While the applied tensile load was not specified, if one assumes a 25% UTS load to determine their three data points plotting position in Figure 3.2-25, they yield failure points located above the single-layer region (Figure 3.2-23) . The cause of this conflict is not known.

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S-N DIAGRAM (Figure 3-25a) Single-layer ACSR Preliminary version October 14

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.1 1 10

EPRI (1979) 1/ 0 ( 6/ 1) Susp EPRI (1979) 1/ 0 ( 6/ 1) Susp r un out EPRI (1979) No.4 (6/ 1) BM EPRI(1979) No.4 (7/ 1) BM EPRI(1979) 3/ 0 ( 6/ 1) BM

a fct(Yb) [MPa]

Figure 3.2-23 Fatigue tests of single-layer

100
LOG MEAN N at the first w ire break ][Mc]

1000

3-36

S-N DIAGRAM (Figure 3-25b) Tw o-layer ACSR Preliminary version October 14 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0.1 1 10 N at the first w ire break [Mc] 100 1000
Ramey
Ramey run out
EPRI(1979); log mean N
EPRI(1979) run out
Drake
Drake run out [ 2 pt s at (500,19) ]

ACSR. Figure 3.2-24 Fatigue tests of two-layer ACSR.

a fct(Yb) [Mpa]

3-37

Crow run out [ 3 pt s at (500,12)]

EPRI(1979); log mean N

EPRI(1979) run out

S-N DIAGRAM (Figure 3-25c) Three layer ACSR Preliminary version October 14

Bersf ort run out

Bersf ort

Crow

100 25 20 15 10
Table 3.2-4 Maximum Safe Bending Amplitudes For ACSR Tension in Percent of Rated Strength*

1000 35 30 5 0.1 1 N at the first w ire break [Mc] 10

40

Figure 3.2-25 Fatigue tests of three-layer ACSR.

3.2.14 Bending Amplitude Endurance Limits for ACSR


The above estimated endurance limits are convertible to Yb by means of Equation (3.2-15). When this is done, the Yb endurance limits turn out to fall generally in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mm endurance limits (20 to 40 mils) for single-layer ACSR's, and 0.2 to 0.3 mm (8 to 12 mils) for multi-layer ACSR's. In the latter case, the precision with which the a endurance limit can be estimated, and the quality of correlation in the a -N relationship, do not justify an inference of great precision in the calculated Yb endurance limits. This is why only two uniform conservative values of a = 22.5 MPa and 8.5 MPa have been selected for single-layer and all standard multi-layer ACSRs, respectively and the corresponding calculated Yb endurance limits are included in Table 3.2-4. If, in a given application, a more realistic value is available, the Yb endurance limit given in the table should be multiplied by the appropriate factor, which is simply the ratio between the adopted a value and the table value (22.5 or 8.5 MPa).

a fct(Yb) [Mpa]
3-38

Name
Turkey Swan Swanate

Conductor Size (kcmils)


#6 4 4 2 #2 #1 # 1/0 2/0 3/0 # 4/0 266.8 266.8 266.8 336.4 336.4 336.4 397.5 397.5 397.5 397.5 477.O 477.0 477.0 477.0 556.5 556.5 556.5 556.5 605.0 605.0 605.0 636.0 636.0 636.0 636.0 636 .O 653.9 666.6 666.6 71 5.5 71 5.5 795.0 795.0 795.0 795.0

Stranding
6/1 6/1 7/1 6/1 7/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 18 / 1 6/7 26 / 7 18 / 1 26 / 7 30 / 7 18 / 1 24 / 7 26 / 7 30 / 7 18 / 1 24 / 7 26 / 7 30 / 7 18 / 1 24 / 7 26 / 7 30 / 7 24 / 7 26 / 7 30 / 19 36 / 1 18/ 1 24 / 7 26 / 7 30/ 19 18/3 24 / 7 26 / 7 26 / 7 30/ 19 36 / 1 45 / 7 24 1 7 54 / 7

15% Yb
mm 0.97 0.92 1.01 0.86 0.94 0.82 0.79 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.33 0.22 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.32 0.30 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.32 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.31 0.30 0.25 0.32 mils 38. 36. 40. 34. 37. 32. 31. 30. 28. 26. 13. 9. 12. 12. 12. 13. 12. 11. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 10. 11. 10. 13. 10. 10. 11. 10. 10 10. 10. 10. 10. 12. 12. 10. 12. mm 0.79 0.76 0.84 0.73 0.80 0.70 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.59 0.28 0.20 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.28 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.27 0.26 0.22 0.27

25% Yb
mils 31. 30. 33. 29. 31. 28. 27. 26. 25. 23. 11. 8. 10. 11. 10. 11. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 9. 9. 10. 9. 9. 9 11. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9 11. 10. 9. 11. mm 0.69 0.67 0.74 0.64 0.71 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.54 0.26 0.18 0.23 0.24 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.26 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.25 0.24 0.20 0.24

35% Yb
mils 27. 26. 29. 25. 28. 25. 24. 23. 22. 21. 10. 7. 9. 10. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 8. 8. 9. 8. 8. 8. 10. 9. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 10. 9. 8. 10.

Sparrow
Sparate Robin Raven Quail Pigeon Penguin Waxwing

Owl
Partridge Merlin Linnet Oriole Chickadee Brant Ibis Lark Pelican Flicker Hawk Hen

Osprey
Parakeet Dove Eagle Peacock Squab Teal Swift Kingbird

Rook
Grosbeak Egret

Flamingo Gannet Starling Redwing Coot Tern Cuckoo Condor

*For other tensions, interpolate between values given.

Table 3.2-4 (Cont.) Maximum Safe Bending Amplitudes For ACSR Tension in Percent of Rated Strength *

Name

Conductor Size (kcmils)

Stranding mm

15% yb
mils mm

25% yb
mils mm

35% yb
mils

3-39

Drake Mallard Ruddy Canary Catbird Rail Cardinal Ortolan Curlew Bluejay Finch Bunting Grackle Bittern Pheasant Dipper Martin Bobolink Plover Nuthatch Parrot Lapwing Falcon Chukar Bluebird Kiwi Thrasher Joree

795.0 795.0 900.0 900.0 954.0 954.0 954.0 1033.5 1033.5 1113.0 1113.0 1192.0 1192.0 1272.0 1272.0 1351.5 1351.0 1431.0 1431.0 1510.5 1510.5 1590.0 1590.0 1780.0 2034.0 2156.0 2167.0 2312.0 2515.0

26 / 7 30 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 7 36 / 1 45 / 7 54 / 7 45 / 7 54 / 7 45 / 7 54 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 19 45 / 7 54 / 19 84 / 19 72 / 7

84 / 19
72 / 7 76 / 19 76 / 19

0.25 0.25 0.30 0.31 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.29 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.26

10. 10. 12. 12. 11. 12. 12. 11. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 10.

0.22 0.21 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23

9. 8. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 9. 10. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. 9. 9.

0.20 0.19 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.22 0.21 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21

8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 9

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9
9 9 9 8

*For other tensions, interpolate between values given.

3.2.15 Conversion of fymax to Yb Endurance Limits


As noted above, endurance limits that have been established in terms of fymax may be converted to Yb endurance limits by experimental determination in a laboratory span of the value of Yb that corresponds to the fymax endurance limit. This should be done at the fymax endurance limit. It may not be sufficient to determine the ratio Yb/fymax at some arbitrary combination of f and ymax since Yb does not always vary linearly with fymax. Several determinations of this kind, resulting in the Yb endurance limit values, are shown in Table 3.2-5 (EPRI 1979). They are considered applicable where conventional suspension clamps are employed.
Table 3.2-5 Estimated Bending Amplitude Endurance Limits For Various Types Of Conductor Conductor 7 No. 8 Alumoweld 7 No. 6Alumoweld 123.3 kcmil 5005 (7 str) Tension 25% 25% 25% Yb Endurance Limit mm mils 0.96 38 0.96 38 0.59 23

3-40

123.3 kcmil 6201 (7str) " EHS Steel (7 str) " EHS Steel (7 str)

25% 25% 25%

0.40 1.96 1.67

16 77 66

3.2.16 Effects of Armor Rods (being revised)


Application of armor rods to conductors at tangent supports imparts a small but useful amount of additional damping to vibrating spans. The original intent in use of armor rods, however, was to reinforce the conductor against the dynamic bending caused by aeolian vibration. Their effectiveness as reinforcements has turned out to be small except for small conductors, and not consistently realized, even there. In general, the same fymax and Yb endurance limits as determined for bare conductors may be applied to armored conductors without serious risk of significantly overestimating or under-estimating the likelihood of fatigue occurring in a particular span. Under laboratory conditions, substantial increases in the number of cycles required to cause strand failure may be realized by application of armor rods. The basis for viewing these increases as having minor importance is that they are greatly overshadowed by those that result from amplitude reductions that may be achieved by the damping action of the rods. This point is illustrated in Figure 3.2-26, in which data on multi-layer ACSR with and without armor rods are collected. Although some superiority in fatigue resistance for armored conductor is evident, fymax endurance with rods cannot be assigned a value more than 15% greater than that for un-armored conductors. In contrast, reductions in amplitude, and thus in fymax by a factor less than 0.5 are sometimes achieved in spans of moderate tension by application of armor rods, through damping effects.

3-41

Hawk with armor rods (dia. 6.4 mm) Hawk with armor rods (dia. 6.4 mm); run out EPRI(1979) Susp without armor rods; log mean N EPRI(1979) Susp without armor rods; run out EPRI(1979) BM without armor rods; log mean N EPRI(1979) BM without armor rods; run out EPRI(1979) BM with armor rods; log mean N

fymax -N Diagram (Figure 3-26) Preliminary version October 14

400

350

300

250

200

150

Figure 3.2-26. Effect of armor rods on fatigue of multi-layer ACSR (fymax basis).

Figure 3.2-27 shows a corresponding plot for ACSR having 6/1 stranding and supported in bellmouthed or suspension clamps (EPRI 1979). Although use of rods introduces additional scatter that is always in the direction of increased fatigue life, no differences in the fymax endurance limit can be discerned between armored and unarmored cases. Both wrench-formed and preformed are represented in Figures 3.2-26 and 3.2-27. There appears to be no significant difference in their effects upon fatigue resistance for equal values fymax. In the fatigue tests with armor rods discussed in this section, conductor strand breaks were detected by different means. In some tests involving multi-layer conductors, failures were detected by periodically stopping each test and laying the rods for visual inspection of the conductor surface. In the GREMCA tests (2006), they were detected by recording conductor rotation. 3-42

100

50

0.1 fymax [mm/sec]

10 100 N at the first wire break [Mc]

1000

If failures were not found, the rods were re-laid and the test resumed. In most of the tests of single-layer conductor, failures were detected without disturbing the armor rod assembly, for example, by monitoring conductor resistance across the supporting clamp, or by detecting the transfer of tension to armor rods when a strand fails, by strain gages attached to the rods. Figure 3.2-28 presents results by Little et al. (Little et al. 1950) on effects of steel preformed armor when applied to 5/16 (7.9 mm) EHS steel (7 strand). These data indicate a small but consistent improvement in fatigue resistance, caused by the rods. The armor rod data do not extend to a great enough fatigue life to indicate whether the fymax endurance limit with rods is significantly different from that without.

Figure 3.2-27. Effect of armor rods on fatigue of single-layer ACSR (fymax basis).

3-43

Figure 3.2-28. Effect of armor rods on fatigue of steel conductor (fymax basis)

Figures 3.2-26 to 3.2-28 showed effects of armor rods for equal values of fymax . Those effects may also be assessed for equal values of bending amplitude Yb. These comparisons indicate little or no improvement in fatigue resistance through use of armor rods. For example, Figure 3.2-29 compares armored data for 397.5 kcmil ACSR (30/7) and 795 and 954 kcmil ACSR (45/7), with unarmored data for those sizes plus 795 and ACSR (45/7) with conductors supported by mouthed or suspension clamps. All of these sizes have about the same Yb endurance limits without rods. All data of Figure 3.2-29 derive from tests in which conductor tension was between 25 and 35% of ultimate. There is little to distinguish the armored and unarmored groups. Comparisons for other size groupings for which data are available gave the same indication. Unfortunately, these data did not extend beyond ACSR. Evidently, Equations (3.2-13) to (3.2-15) for calculation of a cannot be applied to armored conductor since two regions should be considered in the analysis, each having its own flexural rigidity. Besides, armor rod diameter, with its corresponding bending stiffness, should have an influence on test results. Unfortunately, that parameter was never specified in available data, and a systematic study of that influence has yet to be published.

3-44

3.2.17 Other Supporting Devices ( being revised)


Several special devices for supporting conductors are available that are said to permit higher vibration levels without fatigue than do conventional suspension clamps. Armor-Grip suspensions, long-radius clamps, and Formula clamps are among these devices. Information on maximum safe vibration levels, when these devices are employed, should be obtained from their suppliers. A review of various supporting devices has been published by Cloutier and Hardy (1987).

EPRI(1979) w ith armor rods; log mean N

Haw k w ith armor rods (dia. 6.4 mm)

Haw k w ith armor rods (dia. 6.4 mm); run out

EPRI (1979) w ithout armor rods; log mean N

EPRI(1979) w ithout armor rods; run out

Yb-N Diagram (Figure 3-29) Preliminary version October 14

1000 1
N at the first wire break [Mc]

Figure 3.2-29. Effect of armor rods on fatigue of multi-layer ACSR (bending amplitude basis)

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
Yb [mm]

10

100

3-45

3.3 Variable Amplitudes

Section will include a summary of corresponding problem: Miners Law, available test data (EPRI, GREMCA). A more detailed treatment will be given in Appendix 3.2).

3-46

3.4 Tests and Inspections (Revision to be completed)


Three general procedures are available that are suitable for assessing the likelihood of the occurrence of damage from conductor fatigue serious enough to threaten the security of a line during its economic life. The different procedures have strengths and weaknesses that help determine when each is appropriate. The procedures are: a. Recording vibration of the line. b. Visual inspection of the conductor surface. c. Radiographic inspection. The need to apply one of these procedures may be indicated by certain early warnings. 3.4.1 Early Warnings There are several types of information that can indicate that the safety of an existing line against fatigue should be questioned. One source of information is past experience with lines of similar design as represented in the field experience plots of Chapter x or Appendix x. If a line falls in a region of the plot where damage has not been experienced previously in similar lines, then that line is almost certainly safe. If it falls in a region of the plot where damage has been experienced, then it may or may not be in danger, depending primarily upon local terrain conditions, and an investigation may be appropriate. Another source of early-warning information is reports by line patrols of visible vibration of the line. A line may display amplitudes large enough to be visible even from the ground, especially at the low frequencies that occur in light winds. Mere visibility does not indicate danger to the line. A rough measure of the potential for damage can be obtained, however, if the frequency of the observed vibration can be inferred from the wind velocity or from observed loop lengths, and multiplied by the observed free loop amplitude to obtain fymax Reference to Table 3.2-3 can then permit a quite approximate estimate of whether dangerous amplitudes are being experienced. The fact that the fymax endurance limits of Table 3.2-3 pertain to conductors supported by rigid clamps tends to exaggerate the estimate of danger, especially where armor rods are the sole means of vibration protection in the line. The fact that the observed fymax is based upon spot observations tends to cause underestimates of danger. A third source of information derives from simple recording instruments such as Zenith and Servis recorders and Jacquet counters. (See Chapter x or Appendix x). These devices do not respond in a manner that is directly related to bending amplitude. They do, however, provide a quite rough, relative index of vibration activity, an index that has been used for early warning purposes. Evidence of possibly damaging vibration sometimes appears in components of the line other than the conductor. Loss of cotter pins, loosening of tower bolts, fatigue of redundant tower members, and loss of damper weights are among warning signs, although damper weights are dropped 3-47

more often as a result of galloping or of aeolian vibration of conductors when they are covered with hoarfrost.

3.4.2 Measurement of Vibration Intensity


Testing methods described in Chapter x or Appendixx. may be employed to determine the levels of bending amplitude that occur in a line. The estimated endurance limits given in Section 3.2 may then be used to estimate whether fatigue of strands in the conductor may eventually occur. This procedure has one major advantage. It permits an assessment of the likelihood of damage before any damage has occurred. The procedure may be applied any time after the line is sagged and clipped. It affords the greatest lead time during which any needed remedial action may be decided and scheduled. The procedure has several disadvantages. First, it may be economically applied only at a limited number of points in the line. There is considerable dispersion in the vibration activity among the spans of most lines. There is thus a risk that the most active span will not be among those tested, and that the weak link in the line will be overlooked. Judgment and experience are important in minimizing this risk. The second disadvantage is that the wind and temperature conditions that cause the most severe vibration will not always occur during the period of recording. For example, in a study of a series of two-week recording periods from a 230-kV line in North Dakota, Poffenberger and Komenda found considerable variation in the maximum alternating stress a recorded period-to-period (Poffenberger and Komenda 1971). The average of these maxima over 24 two-week periods was 10.3 MPa (1.49 ksi), as calculated from Yb using Equation (3.2-15). However, the maxima ranged from 7.7 to 15.2 MPa (1.12 to 2.17 ksi) over the 24 periods, with standard deviation of 2.2 MPa (0.33 ksi). A similar evaluation reported by Rawlins illustrates the seasonal variation of maximum Yb during 15 successive two-week recording periods, as shown in Figure 3.3-1 (Rawlins 1971). Judgment and experience are required in deciding when and for how long to conduct field measurements. The other significant disadvantage of vibration measurement as a means for assessing likelihood of fatigue failures is the limited precision of the estimated endurance limits that must be used in interpreting the measurements. That precision is probably great enough in the case of ACSR, for example, that errors associated with estimation of its endurance limit are small compared with those likely to arise from choice of test location in the line, or choice of test period. The confidence that can be assigned the estimated endurance limits for some other conductors, such as ACAR and multi-layer steel and Alumoweld, is substantially less, and that lower confidence must reflect upon the reliability assumed for this procedure, where those conductors are involved. Each of these disadvantages affects the precision involved in comparison of actual vibration amplitude with that which can initiate failure of a conductor. The smaller the measured amplitude is with respect to the estimated endurance limit, the more confidently the future safety 3-48

of the line can be viewed. Prolonged recordings on ACSR and single-layer ground wires at selected line locations may permit reasonable confidence in long-term safety of a line, when maximum recorded amplitudes are only about 20% below the estimated endurance limit of ACSR given in Section 3.2. In other situations, substantially larger margins of safety are appropriate. No general rules can be given. However, study of data contained in (Poffenberger and Komenda 1971; Ruhlman and Poffenberger 1957), and of the data of Section 3.2 is useful in dealing with this problem.

Figure 3.3-1. Maximum bending amplitudes recorded during 15 successive two-week periods. 477 kcmil ACSR (26/7) in a 457 m span (Rawlins 1971).

3.4.3 Visual Inspections


In all but a few cases, a climbing inspection is required to detect fatigue of outer-surface strands or of armor rods or Armor Grips. Reliability of detection for unarmored conductors is about doubled if the conductor can be bare-handed. Fully reliable inspection requires that the conductor be lifted from the clamp. If armor is present, it must be laid back, after the clamp has been removed. If the clamp cannot be removed, the keeper should be. Visual inspection has several advantages. First, it lends itself to wholesale inspection of support points more readily than the other procedures. Second, the condition of the conductor reflects all of its service to date, not merely a sample acquired during a limited recording period. Third, it provides information that is useful in deciding which corrective measures are appropriate, towerby-tower. In fact, if a repair policy has been formulated, it is often possible to carry it out concurrent with the inspection. There are several disadvantages. First, the cost of the procedure is generally high, and it entails an extended period of scheduled outages. Second, information on the extent of damage is 3-49

incomplete and somewhat speculative relative to damage to inner layers, since only the outer layer can be thoroughly inspected. Finally, the most useful inspections require fortuitous timing. The period between first appearance of visible damage and the first serious threat to the line's integrity due to extensive damage may be viewed as an inspection window. An inspection is most valuable when it falls near the beginning of this window. If no damage is found, reliable operation of the line extends at least for the duration of the window. If damage is found, the full period of the window is available for taking corrective action. The duration of this window is not known, but it certainly is influenced by the likelihood of core annealing by line current, and by whether or not the conductor is armored. It is thought to vary from two to ten times the period of service preceding the first occurrence of fatigue in the outer layer. The actual timing of visual inspections is determined in almost all cases by evidence that the line is experiencing excessive levels of vibration. The evidence may be chance discovery of damage in the line or in a similar line, records of high bending amplitudes from a test at some location in the line, or line crew reports of visual observations of excessive vibration. The timing of the inspection may be viewed as fortunate if this evidence comes to light early in the inspection window, when damage is still small.

3.4.4 Radiographic Inspections


Radiographic inspections (Ruhlman and Poffenberger 1957; Elton 1961) may be made using Xray or gamma-ray sources, and have been successfully conducted on energized lines (Elton and Batiste 1965). A sample X-ray of a support point is shown in Figure 3.3-2 (Elton 1961). An inner-layer strand failure is indicated by the arrow. Radiographic inspections are normally conducted by companies having special capabilities in that area. This type of inspection has several advantages. First, it is capable of revealing damage that would not be detected by visual inspection: failures of inner-layer strands. As noted in Section 3.1, inner- layer failure may precede outer-layer failure by a substantial margin in some lines. In those lines, use of radiographic inspection moves the leading edge of the inspection window forward, thereby improving the chances of early detection of danger to the line. The opportunity to use the most economical remedial measures is less likely to have been foreclosed in such a case.

3-50

Figure 3.3-2. Radiograph of conductor having inner-layer strand failure. (Courtesy Bonneville Power Administration)

Another advantage of radiographic inspection is the opportunity, in many cases, to conduct the inspection with the line energized. Figure 3.3-3 shows such an inspection in progress. Finally, as with visual inspection, the condition of the conductor reflects all of its service, not merely that occurring during a limited period of recording.

Figure 3.3-3. Radiographic inspection procedure. (Courtesy Bonneville Power Administration)

There are three disadvantages. First, the cost is too great to permit inspection of large numbers of supports. Second, processing of films introduces a time lag between their exposure and actual detection of damage. Unless films are processed and read in the field, inspection and repair cannot be done concurrently. Finally, failure detection is not completely reliable, due to the difficulty of interpreting the radiographs. Failures are sometimes overlooked. In other cases, films indicate failures that, in fact, are not present. 3.4.5 Discussion Generally speaking, the above procedures are applied only when existing evidence (or lack of it) raises a question with regard to vulnerability of a line or span to fatigue caused by aeolian vibration. The urgency of that evidence tends to determine which procedure is viewed as most 3-51

appropriate in any particular case. Recording vibration amplitude is preferred when the evidence is speculative, or when the line has been in operation for only a short time. Radiographic inspection appears to be favored for intermediate levels of urgency, perhaps in response to results of vibration recordings indicating large bending amplitudes. Visual inspection is appropriate when there is strong or specific evidence that damage has occurred. Such evidence may stem from radiographic inspections or from discovery of actual damage in the line or in a similar line.

3.5 Remedial Measures (Revision to be completed)


Remedial measures encompass repairs of damage already experienced, and changes in vibration arrangements. Conductor damage may be repaired by addition of suitably chosen armor rods, or by cutting out the damaged area and splicing in a segment of new conductor. In certain cases, armor rods or compression repair sleeves are placed over damaged areas, and the conductor is shifted several metres along the line to bring undamaged conductor into the supporting clamps. The extent of damage that may be repaired using particular armor rod or compression sleeve devices may be determined through enquiry directed to their suppliers. Control of the vibration that occurs may be improved through reductions in conductor tensions, if clearances permit; through addition of vibration dampers; by substitution of damping spacers for non-damping types; or by replacing conventional conductor with self-damping conductor. Ordinarily, one of these steps must be taken if fatigue has already been experienced, or is anticipated. Exceptions occur when the extent of damage is small and the line is scheduled for retirement or reconductoring in a few years. Timeliness in taking remedial action can have a strong influence upon the cost involved, since the cost of repair increase rapidly with the extent of damage. For example, it may be sufficient to apply or retain standard armor rods over conductor having a few broken strands, and to prevent continued breakage, except where cracks have already formed, by reducing vibration levels experienced through application of dampers. Laboratory high-low fatigue tests bear on this procedure (Silva 1976; EPRI 1981; EPRI 1987), which consists in cycling at high amplitude till one or more strand failures are obtained, then reducing sharply the amplitude, generally below the endurance limit, and continuing the fatigue test up to a predetermined number of cycles, unless a maximum number of new strand failures is observed. Silva tested 795 kcmil ACSR (47/7) supported by a rigid suspension clamp and tensioned at 26% of rated strength. In one test the conductor was vibrated at Yb of 0.61 mm until one strand broke at 1.7 million cycles. Yb was then reduced to 0.18 mm, or about 70% of the estimated endurance limit given in Table 3.2-4, and vibration was continued for another 30.3 million cycles. No further failures occurred, and none were discovered in subsequent visual inspection. In a second test, vibration at 0.61 mm was maintained until, at 5 million cycles, four strand failures had accumulated. Bending amplitude was then again reduced to 0.18 mm, and vibration continued for an additional 29 million cycles. Three additional strands failed after 9, 10, and 11 million additional cycles, respectively, but none failed thereafter, nor were cracked strands discovered 3-52

when the sample was dismantled. The three breaks that occurred after amplitude was reduced are thought to have resulted from cracks that were formed prior to the amplitude reduction. Similar high-low tests on three different ACSRs (EPRI 1981) and one ACAR (EPRI 1987) are found in the EPRI reports yielding similar results. These tests suggest that, where damage is slight, and effective damping can be applied, armoring of the damaged areas can be foregone. In a majority of cases the damage is not discovered at such an early stage, and repair, in the form of armoring, is required, along with addition or improvement of damping. In a significant number of cases, damage has progressed to the point where splicing of new conductor is required at some supports. Attentiveness to early warnings, and use of vibration recording appear to be the best defense against such experience, even if their use to obtain a complete overhead line damage evaluation is still quite limited (Rawlins 2004). References Bolser, M.O., and E. L. Kanouse. 1948. Type HH Cable in Vibration and Bending. CIGRE Report 215. Cardou, A.; A. Leblond; S. Goudreau, and L. Cloutier. 1994 Electrical conductor bending fatigue at suspension clamp: a fretting fatigue problem. in: R.W. Waterhouse and T.C. Lindley, Eds. Fretting Fatigue; Sheffield, U.K. Mechanical Engineering Publications. pp.257-266. Claren, R., and G. Diana. 1969. Dynamic Strain Distribution on Loaded Stranded Cables. IEEE Transactions Paper. Vol. PAS-99. No. 41. November. Cloutier, L.; C. Dalp, A. Cardou, C. Hardy, and S. Goudreau. 1999. Studies of conductor vibration fatigue tests, flexural stiffness and fretting behavior. Third Intl Symp. On Cable Dynamics; Trondheim, Norway. pp. 197-202. Cloutier, L., and C. Hardy. 1987. Effect of Suspension Clamp Design on Conductor Fatigue Life. Report CEA No. ST-178. Canadian Electrical Association. Montreal, Canada. June. Cloutier et al. 2003 ?. (article sur le fretting prsent au comit TF7 ?) Rapport CIGRE 22- ? Elton, M.B. 1961. Radiographic Field Tests Reveal Vibration Fatigue Breaks in High-Voltage Power Conductors. invited paper before Society for Nondestructive Testing. Los Angeles. March. Elton, M.B., and A. R. Batiste. 1965. Vibration Fatigue Breaks Revealed by Instant X-Ray. Elect. Light & Power, September. EPRI. Transmission Line Reference Book. 1979. Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto, CA. EPRI. 1981. Conductor fatigue life research. Ramey, G. E., Principal Investigator. Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto. Report EL-1946. 3-53

EPRI. 1987. Conductor fatigue life research - Eolian vibration of transmission lines. Ramey, G. E., Principal Investigator. Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto: Report EL-4744. Fouvry, S., P. Kapsa, and L. Vincent. 2000. Fretting-Wear and Fretting-Fatigue : Relation through a Mapping Concept. In Fretting Fatigue : Current Technology and Practice, ASTM STP 1367, D.W. Hoeppner, V. Chandrasekaran and C.B. Elliot III , Eds, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA. Fricke, W.G. Jr., and C. B. Rawlins. 1968. Importance of Fretting in Vibration Fatigue of Stranded Conductors. IEEE Transactions Paper, PAS-87. No. 6. June, pp. 1381-4. GREMCA. 2006. A compendium of new ACSR conductor fatigue data under constant bending amplitude. Report SM-2006-01. Dept of Mechanical Engrg. Laval University. Quebec City, Canada. Grover, H.J., S. A. Gordon and L. R. Jackson. 1960. Fatigue of Metals and Structures, NAVWEPS 00-25-534, Department of the Navy. Hard, A.R. 1958. Studies of Conductor Vibration in Laboratory Span, Outdoor Test Span and Actual Transmission Lines. CIGRE Report 404. Hardy, C., and A. Leblond. 2003. On the Dynamic Flexural Rigidity of Taut Stranded Cables. Proc. Fifth Intl Symp. On Cable Dynamics; Santa Margherita Ligure, Italy. pp. 45-52. Helms, R. 1964. Zur Sicherheit der Hochspannungs-Freileitungen bei hoher Mechanischer Beanspruchung, VDI-Forschungsheft 506, BAM, Berlin. Hills, D.A. and D. Nowell. 1994. Mechanics of Fretting Fatigue, Kluwer, Boston. Hondalus, B. 1964. Comparative Vibration Fatigue Tests-84/19 ACSR Chukar vs 61-strand 5005, IEEE Transactions Paper. Vol. PAS-83, pp. 971-4. IEEE Committee Report. 1966. Standardization of Conductor Vibration Measurements. IEEE Transactions Paper. Vol. PAS-85. No. 1. pp. 10-20. Isaachsen, I. 1907 Die Beanspruchung von Drahtseilen. Zeitschrift. VDI. Vol. 51. No 17. pp. 652-657. Josiki, Z., A. Kierski, K. Lewichi and W. Lieszkowski. 1976. New Overhead Transmission Lines in the Polish Network-Service Experience. CIGRE Report 22-05. Krogen, E. 1960. A Case History of Line Fatigue. AIEE Conference Paper CPA 60-5014. May.

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Lanteigne, J.; L. Cloutier, and A. Cardou. 1986. Fatigue life of aluminum wires in all-aluminum and ACSR conductors. Report CEA No. 131-T-241. Canadian Electrical Association. Montreal, Canada. July. Leblond, A., and C. Hardy. 2005. Assessment of the Fretting-Fatigue-Inducing Stresses within Vibrating Stranded Conductors in the Vicinity of Clamps. Sixth Intl Symp. On Cable Dynamics; Charleston, S.C. Little, J.C., D. G. MacMillan and J. V. Majercak. 1950. Vibration and Fatigue Life of Steel Strand. AIEE Transactions. Vol. 69. pp. 1473-9. McGill, P. B. and G.E. Ramey. 1986. Effect of suspension clamp geometry on transmission line fatigue. ASCE J. of Energy Eng. Dec; Vol. 112. No 3. December. pp.168-184. Mcks, L. 1970. Schwingungsschden in Leiterseilen. Bulletin of the Swiss Electrotechnical Association. Vol. 69. No. 5. May. pp. 223-7. Morse, P.M. 1948. Vibration and Sound. McGraw-Hill, NY. Nakayama, Y., T. Ikeya, K. Yamagata, J. Katoh and T.Munakata. 1970. Vibration Fatigue 2 Characteristics of 470 mm AAAC. CIGRE Report 22-70. Ouaki, B.; G. Goudreau, A. Cardou, and M. Fiset. 2003. Fretting Fatigue Analysis of Aluminium Conductor Wires near the Suspension Clamp: Metallurgical and Fracture Mechanics Analysis. J. Strain Analysis. Vol. 38, No 2. pp.133-147. Overhead Conductor Vibration. 1961. Aluminum Company of America. Papailiou, K.O. 1997. On the Bending Stiffness of Transmission Line Conductors. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. Vol. 12. No 4. pp. 1576-1588. Peterson, T.F. and J. C. Little. 1949. Conductor Armor for Reinforcement, Splicing and Repair. AIEE Conference Paper. August 26. Poffenberger, J.C., and R. A. Komenda. 1971. Long-Term Vibration Study with the Live-Line Recorder. IEEE Conference Paper C71 159-PWR. Poffenberger, J.C., and R. Swart. 1965. Differential Displacement and Dynamic Conductor Strain. IEEE Transactions Paper, Vol. PAS-84. pp. 281-9. Rawlins, C.B., and J. R. Harvey. 1959. Improved Systems for Recording Conductor Vibration. AIEE Transactions, Vol. PAS-78. pp. 1494-1500. Rawlins, C.B. 1971. discussion of Poffenberger, J.C., and R. A. Komenda. 1971.

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Rawlins, C. B. 2004 A perspective on the interpretation of field recordings of overhead conductor vibration with respect to fatigue. CIGRE Report 22- ??. Ruhlman, J.R., and J. C. Poffenberger. 1957. Vibration Destruction Testing of Transmission and Distribution Conductors -Part I, Pacific Coast Electrical Association Meeting, March. Scanlan, R.H., and R. L. Swart. 1968. Bending Stiffness and Strain in Stranded Cables. IEEE Conference Paper C68 43-PWR. Sepp, T. 1969. Effect of Various Factors on Vibration Fatigue Life of ACSR IBIS. CIGRE Report 22-69. Silva, J.M. 1976. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Amplitude Reduction on the Fatigue Life of Overhead Transmission Lines Subjected to Aeolian Vibration. 1976 Annual Conference, South-eastern Electric Exchange. April. Smollinger, C.W. and R. B. Siter. 1965. Influence of Compressive Forces on the Fatigue Performance of Bethalume Strand Wire. IEEE Conference Paper C65 237. Steidel, R.F. Jr. 1959. Factors Affecting Vibratory Stresses in Cables Near the Point of Support. AIEE Transactions. Vol. 78. pp. 1207-12. Tebo, G.B. 1941. Measurement and Control of Conductor Vibration. A IEE Transactions. Vol. 60. pp. 1188-93. Yamagata, K., M. Fukuda and Y. Nakayama. 1969. Vibration Fatigue Characteristics of Overhead Line Conductors. CIGRE Report 22-69. Zhou, Z.R., S. Fayeulle and L. Vincent. 1992. Cracking behaviour of various aluminium alloys during fretting wear. Wear. Vol. 155. pp. 317-330.

Bibliography CIGRE. 1979. Recommendations for the Evaluation of the Lifetime of Transmission Line Conductors. Electra. March. pp. 103-145 Hong, K.J., A. Der Kiureghian, and J.L. Sackman. 2005. Bending Behavior of Helically Wrapped Cables. J. Engrg Mech., Vol. 131, No 5. May. pp. 500-511. Johnson, K.L. 1985. Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K. Zhou, Z. R.; A. Cardou, S. Goudreau, and M. Fiset. 1994a. Fretting Patterns in a ConductorClamp Contact Zone. Fatigue Fract. Engng. Mater. Struct.; Vol. 17. No. 6. pp.661-669. 3-56

Zhou, Z. R.; A. Cardou, M. Fiset, and S. Goudreau. 1994b. Fretting Fatigue in Electrical Transmission Lines. Wear. Vol. 173. pp. 179-188. Zhou, Z. R.; M. Fiset, A. Cardou, L. Cloutier, and S. Goudreau. 1995. Effect of Lubricant in Electrical Conductor Fretting Fatigue. Wear. Vol.189. pp. 51-57. Zhou, Z. R.; A. Cardou, S. Goudreau, and M. Fiset.1996. Fundamental Investigations of Electrical Conductor Fretting Fatigue. Tribology Intl.; Vol. 29, No 3. pp. 221-232.

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Appendix 3.1
Vibration of a Rigidly Supported Stiff Wire Under Tension Assume that a wire having mass per unit length m and flexural rigidity EI is held under tension H by a rigid horizontal clamp at location s = 0 , and that the wire extends to infinity in the positive s direction. Let the wire vibrate in standing waves in the vertical y plane at circular frequency = 2 f The differential equation for free vibration of the wire is (Morse 1948)

2 y 2 y 2 y EI 4 m 2 = 0 s 2 s t

A3.1-1

The instantaneous shape of the wire is (Morse 1948)


y = A 1 sin 2 2 s cos 2 2 s + e 2 1 s sin t 2

A3.1-2

in which

12 = 4 + 4 + 4 22 = 4 + 4 4 2 = H /[8 2 EI ] = p 2 /[8 2 ]
2 =
f 2 m fp = EI 2 Vt

The influence of the exponential term approaches zero with increasing distance from the clamp, so the free-loop amplitude remote from the clamp is

ymax

12 = A 2 +1 2

and Equation (A3.1-2) becomes

y=

ymax

+
2 1

2 2

1 sin 2 2 s 2 cos 2 2 s + 2 e 2 1 s sin t

A3.1-3

The curvature is y which, if evaluated at s = 0 yields 3-58

4 yo = 4 2 ymax 4 + 2 sin t

A3.1-4

If, by definition,
K=
4 4 + 2 2

yo '' = 2 Kymax f m / EI sin t

A3.1-5

The factor K is a function of

2 H = as shown in Figure A3.1-1 2 4 f mEI

For values of 2 / 2 found in overhead conductors, K is approximately unity. Departure from unity is greatest for low tension, high frequency and large flexural rigidity. For example, for a solid aluminum rod under 160 MPa (2300 psi) tensile stress, which is about 10% of its ultimate strength, and vibrating at a frequency corresponding to 7 m/s (15.7 mph) wind speed, K = 1.22. At the higher tensions normally found in overhead lines and with the reduced EI that results from the stranded construction of overhead conductors, K is normally within a few percent, or less, of unity. Equation (3.2-7) of Section 3.2 is Equation (A3.1-5) with K= 1. If the bending amplitude is measured at a distance s = s(b) from the clamp, then from Equation (A3.1-3),

y (b) =

ymax

+
2 1

2 2

1 sin 2 2 s (b) 2 cos 2 2 s (b) + 2 e 2 1 s ( b )

This equation may be used to eliminate ymax from Equation (A3.1-4) with the result

yo =

1 sin 2 2 s (b) cos 2 2 s (b) + e 2 2

2 4 2 ( 12 + 2 ) y (b)

A3.1-6
1 s (b )

In actual conductors, 2 >> 2 and 2 s << 1 for s(b) = 89 mm, the industry standard position for measuring bending amplitude. Under those conditions,
yo = p 2 y (b) e ps (b ) 1 + ps (b)

A3.1-7

3-59

Equation (A3.1-7) is the same as Equation (3.2-12) of Section 3.2.

Figure A3.1-1. Factor K as function of

2 / 2.

3-60

Appendix 3.2
Conductor fatigue life prediction under variable bending amplitude

3-61

F
CHAPTER 4 GALLOPING CONDUCTORS

F-1

Chapter 4 Galloping Conductors 4.1 INTRODUCTION


Galloping of iced conductors has been a design and operating problem since early 1900s. The earliest occurrences of galloping cannot be pinpointed, since a connection between the observed lowfrequency, high-amplitude motions and the aerodynamic effects of ice deposits on conductors was not recognized until the late 1920s and did not achieve general credibility until 1932 when Den Hartog presented his classic analysis of the mechanisms involved (Den Hartog 1932). Since that time, numerous research programs throughout the world have been mounted, aimed at solving the problem, and various devices and techniques have been proposed for preventing galloping or at least minimizing its effects. Some of these methods have been tested and many have been applied in operating lines with mixed feeling. Despite significant improvement in galloping understanding from our previous draft of 1979, no practical protection method has been developed that is recognized as fully-reliable for all kind of galloping at any wind speed. Progress, both in analytical attack on the problem and in development of countermeasures, has been slow until 1980s but has received more support afterwards due to rapid growth of computer availability to quickly solve numerous non-linear equations. About 75 years after publication of Den Hartogs analysis, important questions remain. If variables have been found out (they will be presented in this book), there are still some concerns as to which mechanisms (which are truly established) are significant on actual locations, and validation of some theories of galloping is still not fully satisfactory concerning fluid model. The progress has resulted from several things: (i) Quantitative data were obtained during long campaign of observations, many test sites analysed and some full scale test spans results obtained (with natural or artificial ice), particularly in Japan and Canada. (ii) International cooperation has strongly been favoured inside CIGRE, IEEE facilitating experts data exchanges (iii) analytical/numerical models have been confronted to dynamic wind tunnel tests as well to actual observations on tests line with artificial ice of different shapes or, more rarely with natural icing (iv) numerous aerodynamic properties of conductor with ice have been obtained. It has been clearly demonstrated that galloping, in particular its analytical and numerical analysis have to consider a full section (from dead-end to dead-end towers), inside which many different modes of vibrations may occur, with coupling between spans owing to suspension insulator movement. Tension variations during galloping (which is a design load for both dead-end and suspension towers) have been deeply investigated and comparison between model and observations are quite in good agreement, both in amplitudes and frequency content. One major problem is related to the varied character of ice deposits from one occasion (or one location) to another makes generalization of a few observations chancy. Questions remain, regarding how well artificial ice sections represent natural ice (D-shape clearly not valid), and regarding how broadly tests with only a few artificial ice shapes can be generalized with respect to the great variety of natural ice shapes. But data bank of ice shapes aerodynamic characteristics have been obtained in a large range of ice eccentricity and their effects evaluated by numerical simulation and the result compared with actual on site observation on several hundreds of events. Moreover some significant studies have been performed to evaluate the processes of ice accretion on conductors on real span taking into account conductor torsional stiffness as well as wind speed action. There is no general agreement as to whether a fully-reliable yet practical method for controlling galloping eventually can be used. It is extremely difficult to assess the effectiveness of such countermeasures on a probability basis as numerous cases need to be obtained, only one device 1

(eccentric massa) has received enough support to get some trends based on large scale observations results. These observations could be extrapolated to a range of devices based on similar principle of use. It must be noted nevertheless that, even for such devices, some (rare) cases of completely unefficiencies have been observed, even creating some galloping on treated lines in the vicinity of completely still untreated phases. Also some devices have introduced side effects, like conductor damages related to unexpected strong aeolian vibrations. Experts, to-day, may evaluate the efficiencies of anti-galloping devices by simulation tools. If some consensus appears on bundle line protection methods, there is less common opinion on single line protection methods as the mechanism of galloping is not the same in most of the cases. Conductor manufacturers also tried to implement some changes to decrease galloping risk by changing conductor cross sectional shape, changing wire shape, changing conductor characteristics (torsional stiffness, self damping). Generally designed to control Aeolian vibrations some of these new conductors may have some effects on galloping but not necessarily in the good way in all cases. Galloping is also observed on CATV cables, on lashed fiber optics cables and other types of cables, in these cases the ice is of course not necessary as asymmetrical shape is existing at the design stage, some information will be given about these cases. Interphase spacers are actually proposed and tested on some lines which is another way to attack the problem by limiting interphase flashovers. At present, line designers have available to them a menu of protection schemes that differ widely in cost, effectiveness, degree of evaluation, and level of usage. Several of these schemes will be discussed in some detail in Section 4.5, and they will also be sketched briefly in the following Section 4.2. None of these schemes has been validated as fully effective; some are known to be partly effective; some are thought to be promising. This chapter attempts to do four things: 1. Provide insight into the mechanics of galloping of iced conductors and the factors that influence its occurrence, type and severity; 2. Overview of galloping observation 3. Give a survey of protection methods 4. Provide new rules of anti-galloping design without protection, giving access to maximum amplitudes and tension variations in both dead-ends and suspension towers. Successful design to control galloping will involve considerable good fortune, and it may involve capital expenditures. Last but not least, some vibrations similar to galloping (significant but not very large amplitude, low frequency) have been observed on round wires without any ice (temperature was high). Cases are known on quad bundle and on single conductor with air craft warning markers. These cases are most probably related to wake induced galloping due to specific obstacles in the vicinity (subconductors of the same bundle may be these wake inducers), there are generally of limited amplitudes and with limited consequences on the line. These cases are not discussed here. In rare case (there is a famous one on the crossing of river Severn in UK) a quasi parallel wind to the cable may also induce significant amplitude at low frequencies in case of round wires cable which are presenting to the oblique wind a slightly non symmetrical cross section which is inducing instabilities. Such cases may be easily solved by using appropriate cables with outer surface close to a circle (using trapezoidal or Z-shape conductors). A CD-ROM of galloping events has been recollected by international experts and made available to both CIGRE and EPRI members. 2

In parallel to this publication, CIGRE will publish a thematic brochure on galloping which will be complementary to this book.

4.2 OVERVIEW (UNDER REVISION)


4.2.1 Galloping Definition Galloping is a low frequency (from 0.1 to 1 Hz), large amplitude (from 0.1 to 1 times the sag of the span, some cases up to 4 times the sag on distribution lines), wind induced vibration of both single and bundle conductors, with a single or a few loops of standing waves per span. It is always caused by moderately strong, steady crosswind acting upon an asymmetrically iced conductor surface. The large amplitudes are generally - but not always - in a vertical plane, while frequencies are dependant of the type of line construction and the oscillation mode excited. Winds approximately normal to the line with a speed above 7 m/s are usually required and it can not be assumed that there is necessarily an upper speed limit. Most of galloping are due to icing of lines, which may be ice, glaze, rime, wet snow deposit. Galloping has major impact on the design of overhead lines, both for clearances and tower load design as large load variations may occur between phases and even between each side of a given tower, causing horizontal, vertical, bending as well as torsional load on towers and crossarms. Due to large amplitudes, breaking bending loads may be reached at conductor attachment (see on damage and other penalties), tower bolts failure have also been observed and at least wearing are created at some location (yoke plate, pin of insulator,) which may be discovered or at the origin of more severe consequences much later, eventually during other seasons). Torsional motion of the phase or earthwire conductor (single or bundle) may occur with very significant amplitude (up to bundle collapse in some cases) causing troubles in suspension arrangement. It must be understood that protection methods against Aeolian vibration (chapter 3 of this book), like Stockbridge or dogbone dampers have absolutely no effect against galloping as this one occur mainly in range of frequencies very far from Aeolian vibrations and also due to the fact that the amount of energy in galloping is much bigger than the amount related to Aeolian vibrations. The wind energy input during a galloping of a few meters amplitude peak-to-peak is typically in the range of thousand of Joules in one cycle (means a power near several hundreds of Watts). By comparison, the maximum wind power input during Aeolian vibration of amplitude close to conductor diameter on a similar span (a few hundreds of meters) is a very few Watts, between two and three order of amplitudes less. On the opposite site, Aeolian vibration dampers may be subject to damages during galloping, despite the very low response of these dampers at the galloping frequencies, the response may be affected by snow accretion pushing down frequencies of the dampers, coupled with large amplitudes. As galloping is a low frequency, high power phenomenon, the control of it will force the use of heavy material as we will see in preventive methods (over 10% of the full span conductor mass). The overhead line designers have to be cautious about side effects that could be induced by antigalloping devices. Indeed a heavy located mass on conductor span is a fixed point at high frequencies, which may have dramatic impact on Aeolian vibration severities so that it will be strongly recommended to take care of such considerations. 4.2.2 Galloping without Ice Galloping motions do occur under other conditions, however, and it is useful to distinguish these other phenomena at this point. 4

Galloping of iced conductors is associated with their altered aerodynamic characteristics, relative to those of nominally-cylindrical bare conductors. However, even bare conductors can display the aerodynamic characteristics required for galloping. For example, single conductors with a large number of outer-layer strands, say 42, may experience aerodynamic lift and a coefficient of drag that varies rapidly with wind speed, when exposed to quite steady wind having a speed within a certain critical range and a direction of about 15-25 from perpendicular to the conductor. These peculiar aerodynamic characteristics result from the differences in the conductors apparent roughness presented to the air flow over the top and bottom surfaces. The flow is more nearly parallel to the strands on one of those surfaces than on the other. Galloping may result.(4-5) There appear to be few documented cases, however. The phenomenon is often termed bare-wire galloping. Bundled conductors may acquire aerodynamic characteristics that permit galloping in the absence of ice. The characteristics result from the aerodynamic shielding of leeward subconductors by windward ones. The phenomenon is called wake-induced galloping and is dealt with in Chapter 5. Special cable or cable manufacturing or specific arrangement, like CATV cable (figure 8 cable), lashed fiber optic cables can also display the aerodynamic characteristics required for galloping in the absence of ice. 4.2.3 Effects of Terrain on Propensity of Galloping It is certain that galloping only occur in specific locations. That is because of the necessity, for the power line to be located in region where: having cold temperature (most of galloping occurred near 0C, some have been observed at much lower values, even at -45C in Siberia and some others have been observed at ground level temperature close to +3C). The temperature must be negative on the surface of the conductor, which must be able to accrete ice/snow/rime. Ice may easily transfer calories, so that small winds are able to evacuate significant amount of calories from the conductor heat losses. Of course high electrical loads will limit the risk, evaluation can be done based on conductor, wind data and load profile.
140 The Field 120 Nearest Tower Utilitiy's Facility AMeDAS

100

Number of Incident

80

60

40

20

0 < -4deg C -4deg C to -2deg C -2deg C to 0deg C 0deg C to 2deg C 2deg C to 4deg C 4deg C to 6deg C Temperature (deg C)

Figure 4.2-1

Number of galloping events Vs temperature in Japan. AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) is observed air temperature, wind direction/speed and sunshine duration at more than 1,300 locations in Japan

the power line must be more or less perpendicular to dominant wind speed (range over 5 m/s) during winter time
80

The Field
70

Nearest Tower

Utilitiy's Facility

AMeDAS

60 Number of Incident

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 deg 22.5 deg 45 deg Wind Direction with the Line (deg) 67.5 deg 90 deg

Figure 4.2-2 Number of galloping events Vs wind direction in Japan.

to have a wind acting similarly on most of the span(s) of the same section (in the same direction) with no significant obstacle in the close vicinity (which would induce turbulence in a part of the span). Of course very flat area like desert, rice field, large river crossing, tundra are very sensitive. Of course a "section" may be reduced to one span (especially for distribution line), in that case a span by span risk analysis may be necessary environment which favours wind acceleration and/or driving wind in a direction close to perpendicular of the power lines may be very sensitive, like fjords, power lines down a hill from which transverse wind may arrive from the top of the hill over a forest for example, power lines on a top of hills subject to transverse wind are one of the worst conditions, plateau in mountainous area with enough distance (several hundreds of meters) for the wind to "re-arrange" before arriving on the power lines never forget that winter conditions may drastically change from summer conditions as some obstacles may be hidden by the snow near water lines (lakes, rivers, seas, oceans) perpendicular to dominant winds, which are locations very prone to power lines icing together with significant wind coming from the see or the ground depending on the season. it must be noted that turbulence intensity may be nevertheless quite high (20%) during galloping events as has been observed at least in Belgium with a total certainty (visual and tension recording during that event on both wind speed and conductor movement).

Of course the observation is depending on power lines cable altitudes, a power lines in a city may be subject to galloping if conductors are over the boundary layer of high turbulence created by buildings, etc. Some moving power lines cable in strange location, not prone to galloping, may be induced by a real galloping in other spans of the section. SO that a galloping risk evaluation must look for all section length.
6

All these typical observations on some actual site of galloping cannot be considered as absolute rules. But those which are in these kind of arrangement have to consider seriously the risk of galloping.

4.2.4 Causes of Galloping: The Forces in Action The Drag Force

Figure 4.2-3 Wind force on bare conductor.

The drag is a force induced by the wind on any structure, it is oriented in the direction of the wind (more exactly in the direction of the relative wind speed in case of conductor movement). Fluid consideration, in particular air pressure repartition around the conductor is at the origin of that force. Drag force in its static effect is just pushing conductor until the wind force will be balanced by internal tension (due to conductor swing, a tension component appeared in the wind direction). Drag force in its dynamic action (imagine to push a little bit the conductor around an equilibrium position in the presence of wind) has always a damping action (see later). It means that any disturbance caused will disappear after a while. That is because the drag force is oriented in the direction of the relative wind speed, which has always an active component opposite to the movement of the conductor. There is no way, at constant drag force, to get any instability based only on that force. Drag force is given by the formula:

FD =

1 air . .CD .Vr2 (N/m) 2

where air is the density of air (about 1,2 kg/m3 at standard conditions of temperature, pressure), , the conductor diameter (m) , Vr the relative wind speed (m/s). CD, the drag coefficient, is in fact not a constant and depends on the wind speed and rugosity (k/h on figure 4-2) of apparent surface. Moreover if the surface has eccentricity due to asymmetrical deposit (e.g. ice), CD will become dependent of the angle of attack which would refer to ice position relative to wind direction (see later).

Aster 570

Aero-Z

Figure 4.2-4 CD vs. e curves for smooth and classical stranded conductors, compared to the pure cylinder. To the right the conductors cross-sections are shown. Equivalent wind speed, shown beneath, corresponds to conductor diameters about 31 mm. For Aero-Z k/h ~ 0.005, and for Aster k/h ~ 0.02. Aero-Z: 31.5 mm and Aster: 31.05 mm. (courtesy Nexans and EDF)

Under turbulent wind, drag force are able to impose dynamic movement of the conductor in three dimensional place as the cable react to drag force by its stiffness (related to both its geometry and its tension or sag/span ratio). This is not an instability, this is a forced movement which may be very large during thunderstorm. Under strong wind speed (going over the drag crisis, the sharp decrease in drag coefficient over a given wind speed, as we can see on Figure 4.2-4), significant difference of behaviour may occur between very similar conductor (like the two shown on Figure 4.2-4). The dynamic movement, imposed by drag only, under turbulent wind is called buffeting and may be sensitively influenced by the frequency content of the wind. A typical wind spectra is shown on Figure 4.2-5. A typical power line span response is given on Figure 4.2-6.

(a)

Figure 4.2-5 Frequency spectrum of the energy content in the wind, Von Karman spectrum (for a particular case).

-8 4 -10
U = 30 m/s

Y, m 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

-12 Z, m -14 -16


ASTER

Z Y X

-8 4 -10 -12 Z, m -14 -16 6 8 10 12 14 16

Y, m 18

Aero Z

Figure 4.2-6 Wind turbulence effect. This is not a galloping. Mid-point evolutions of the two cable shown on fig.1 on a 500 m span length. Mean wind speed: 30 m/s, alongwind turbulence scale: 200 m, turbulence intensity: 19%.

The Lift Force and the Pitching Moment To obtain galloping, the conductor (single or bundle) must have something more than the drag which is purely a dissipative force for typical wind speed of galloping. That force which would be able to create, in some particular conditions, a negative damping on the whole system. The lift force needs asymmetrical profile of the conductor to the wind.

Figure 4.2-7 Lift and drag on iced conductor. Lift is a force perpendicular to the wind direction, which may be nul (a), negative (b) or positive (c) depending on ice position. Air-foil theory is not necessary applicable. Measurement needed.

Once asymmetry exist, a new factor has to be defined : the angle of attack. The angle of attack is the angle between (relative) wind speed direction and the direction of the asymmetry, generally taken as a straight line joining the bare conductor center of gravity and the center of gravity of the ice coating (see details in the explanation box for sign references). As soon as asymmetric coating is present on a conductor, lift and drag exist. In fact these two aerodynamic forces are applied on a point inside the conductor which is called aerodynamic centre which is not the centre of the conductor. To facilitate the understanding, measurements and modeling, the shift of the application point of these forces are replaced by the same forces applied on the shear centre plus an additional pitching moment which is physically obvious. On Figure 4.2-7, such pitching moment is obviously clockwise on picture b and anticlockwise on picture c and zero on picture a. Wind tunnel measurement can easily measured these three components of the wind action on asymmetrical shapes, curves like Figure 4.2-8 are obtained. So that we have three aerodynamic coefficients which are all depending of the angle of attack.

Figure 4.2-8 Typical aerodynamic coefficients. Ice (crescent type) thickness 1.1 cm over a subconductor diameter of 32.4 mm (similar as [3]). LIFT positive upwards; Pitching moment and torsional angle positive anti-clockwise. Zero angle when ice is facing the wind and in horizontal position. The symmetry with angle of attack is not perfect as the curves have been measured on real ice shape which cannot be purely symmetrical. In this case all coefficients have values of the same sign as typical air-foil near zero angle of attack.

The two forces and the pitching aerodynamic moment (all per unit of length) have been obtained by similarity laws to be expressed as follows: FD = 1 air . .Vr2 .CD ( ) 2 FL = 1 air . .Vr2 .CL ( ) 2 FM = 1 air . 2 .Vr2 .CM ( ) 2 (eq1)

(notice the square exponent of the conductor diameter on the pitching moment) 10

Where CD, CL and CM are the three curves given as an example, for a particular ice shape, on Figure 4.2-8. The abscissa is , the angle of attack. Order of amplitudes of these wind actions on power lines conductors are (wind speed 10 m/s; conductor diameter of 30 mm): FD = 2 to 3 N/m FL = 0 to 1 N/m and FM = 0 to 0.03 N.m/m

It is amazing that such small amount of forces (moment) are able to generate huge amplitude, it is obviously related to the fact that power lines have very small self damping at the frequencies of galloping and that the aerodynamic forces, owing to their derivatives (see later), will be able to change the system damping to negative value. In such case energy can be inserted in the movement by the wind at each cycle of oscillation, thus increasing progressively the amplitude to a maximum level that will be explained later on and which is mainly due to non linearities in aerodynamic coefficients which are not able to force negative damping on a large range of angle of attack. It is remarkable to point out that these coefficients are more or less wind speed independent in the classical range for overhead power lines (this is less true for pitching moment). Of course these coefficients are considering subcritical range of Reynolds number, where the drag would have been a constant on bare conductor. On site wind speed is rarely constant and constant wind speed is not needed for galloping. Figure 4.29 is showing a wind speed (component perpendicular to the line) detailed measurement during one galloping event on actual 400 kV line in the Ardennes in Belgium in February 1997. The galloping observed, a typical one of large amplitude, has been recorded under 25% turbulent wind.

Figure 4.2-9 Mean wind speed (one dot every minutes) (m/s) measured at the line location and appropriate height during all the day of February 13th, 1997. Abscissa in GMT+1, given in minutes. Turbulence was quasi constant around 25%.

Measured galloping with significant amplitudes (around 6 m peak-to-peak on a single loop on a deadend span, inducing about 25 kN tension variation peak-to-peak) were observed around abscissa 710 (means 10h30 GMT) and another significant event occurred around abscissa 830. Temperature was close to 0C and icing rain occurred during strong wind. One of the two events, for which only tension recording were available, has been reconstructed as shown on Figure 4.2-10. 11

Figure 4.2-10 Galloping ellipse at mid-span , rebuild from actual tension recordings (10 minutes).

Based on quasi-steady theory of fluids, and many observations and simulations, it can be pointed out that turbulence level has limited influence on galloping which may easily occur during such kind of wind speed. The mean ten minutes wind speed is a good reference wind to evaluate galloping amplitude using steady wind. It is important to notice the reference signs for the forces and angles : Lift force will be positive upwards Drag force will be positive in the direction of the wind Pitching moment : there are two ways to choose the positive moment : clockwise or anticlockwise. Both are used in the literature unfortunately. It is of dramatic importance to well understand the chosen case. Generally and in this book, we will suppose zero angle of attack when ice is facing the actual wind. An example of aerodynamic forces acting on conductor + ice is shown on the Figure 4.2-11: In this case the conductor is moving upwards (speed dy/dt) and also rotating in anticlockwise sense (of an angle ). The initial position of ice is given by ice. is the angle of attack which is composed of two contributions : rotation + initial position of ice from one side and the difference angle between relative wind speed and actual wind speed Drag force fD is oriented in the relative wind speed direction and lift force fL is perpendicular to the drag. Both forces are acting on the shear center of the conductor and a pitching moment (positive anticlockwise) MW exists.

12

Figure 4.2-11 Drag, lift and pitching moment. The conductor is moving up and rotating anticlockwise. is the actual angle of attack. It includes two dynamic components : the conductor rotation and , the part of the angle of attack which is due to vertical movement only. The cases of single (left) and twin bundle conductors (right).

If the reference choice for angle is clockwise, the angle of attack is negative on Figure 4.2-11. If the reference choice for angle of attack is anticlockwise, the angle of attack is positive In case of no movement, the angle of attack is limited to ice., the position of ice (zero being (gravity centre of) ice in front of the wind). The vertical force acting on conductor arrangement is then given by ( is negative with angle reference positive anticlockwize) :

f w = f L cos + f D sin
In that expression fL and fD are depending on aerodynamic coefficient (see eq 1) of lift and drag which are depending on the full angle of attack on Figure 4.2-11.

4.2.5 Causes of Galloping: The Mechanisms

Galloping (of iced conductors) occurs when wind is able to inject its energy to vertical (more rarely to horizontal or even to torsion) movement, it means that a mechanism must be found to progressively (at each cycle of vibration) inject more energy than the one which is dissipated by self damping (in fact extremely low at low frequency) and by the drag. But the sole presence of lift is not enough to get galloping (happily for airplanes!). To destabilize the system (means to get a negative damping) , the lift force must be such that any disturbance (which always occur in practice) , for example a cable movement going up, would augment the (lift) force which will be oriented in the same direction as the starting movement : the instability condition is created. Thus the derivative (= slope) of the lift force (vs angle of attack) is a key factor. A mechanism by which the periodic motion of a galloping conductor could cause modulation of aerodynamic lift to sustain the motion was first described by Den Hartog in 1932. A. E. Davison, in an earlier paper,(4-6) (this will be detailed in chapter 4.3) The aerodynamic lift on the conductor will be modulated by periodic motion of the conductor. It is important to distinguish the conductor motions and lift variations here from those involved in aeolian vibration, discussed in Chapter 3. The frequencies involved in galloping are less than a tenth of Hz and usually less than one hundred times of those for aeolian vibration for the same wind velocity. Conductor amplitudes in galloping often exceed a metre, whereas they rarely exceed a few centimetres in aeolian vibration. The two phenomena are not directly related.
Causes of Galloping: The Mechanisms in Case of Pure Vertical Motion

13

Den Hartog(4-1) pointed out that the conductors vertical velocity Y could modulate the angle of attack of the apparent wind, Vr, since, as shown in Figure 4.2-13, the vector Vr is the true wind vector V, . minus the conductors velocity vector Y . Figure 4.2-13 shows the effect upon the apparent wind vector of upward and of downward velocity of the conductor.

Figure 4.2-12 Illustration of variation of lift with angle of attack. Clockwise reference for angles. Zero angle facing the wind. Lift values opposite to typical airfoil value near zero angle of attack but valid for D-shape structure, as shown.

Figure 4.2-13 Effect of vertical conductor motion on apparent wind. The sign of the angle of attack is obtained depending of reference choice.

It is apparent that Y modulates both the magnitude and the direction of the apparent wind. The magnitude variations are small enough that they can be ignored for present purposes. The modulation in the vertical component of the apparent wind, indicated by V tan in Figure 4.2-13 is significant, however. Suppose that the iced conductor, when not galloping, has zero angle of attack and thus experiences zero lift according to Figure 4.2-12. If that conductor is given an upward velocity as in Figure 4.2-13a, it experiences an angle of attack with respect to the apparent wind of , and this results in positive lift corresponding to point a in Figure 4.2-12. The upward velocity thus begets an upward lift force on the conductor. A downward velocity, as in Figure 4.2-13b, results in a downward lift force, such as at b in Figure 4.2-12. If the conductor gallops sinusoidally in the vertical direction, the lift force from the wind assists its motion during each vertical stroke, imparting energy to the conductor to increase its amplitude of motion. In fact, if the motion is given by y = ymax sin t
so that
.

y = ymax cost t

= y/ V =
assuming that | y |<< V .
.

ymax
V

cost t,

(4.1)

If the excursions of are small enough that remains on the straight-line part of Figure 4.2-12 between a and b, then the lift is given approximately by 14

L = L =

L . y V

where L = dL/ d, the slope of the lift curve of Figure 4.2-12, between points a and b. The slope illustrated is negative (reference positive clockwise), with the result that the lift is proportional to, and . in phase with the conductors vertical velocity y . In effect the force L is a negative damping force. Note that the lift force has the character of negative damping, making self-exciting galloping motions possible, only when the slope L is negative (reference positive clockwise). Were the operating point not at the origin, but at an angle of attack where L, is positive (reference positive clockwise), such as . point c in Figure 4.2-12, the variations in L resulting from y would be such as to oppose motions in the vertical direction and the oscillations would decay. Lift and drag are defined as the components of aero-dynamic force respectively perpendicular and parallel to the relative wind velocity Vr. Consequently both the lift L and the drag D forces have components acting in the vertical and horizontal directions. Thus, when there is vertical velocity, the directions of lift and drag axe as shown in Figure 4.2-14, where D is the drag vector. The component of that acts in the vertical direction is L cos .

Figure 4.2-14 Lift and drag referred to apparent wind.

. The other aerodynamic force that influences the conductors galloping in they y direction is the vertical component of drag, D sin . This force component always opposes the conductors y motion, and acts as positive damping. The balance between the negative damping, due to L and positive damping, caused by D, determines whether galloping can build up or not. Specifically, if L+D is negative (reference positive clockwise), in the region of the conductors at-rest angle of attack, * then galloping can build up from small amplitudes. If L+D is positive (reference positive clockwise), it cannot build up. The reader may easily adapt the text to the other reference for angle (positive anticlockwise) and will found out that the negative damping would only occur for positive slope of lift and a build up of galloping would only be possible if D-L is negative.

The preceding paragraphs sketch the elements of Den Hartogs analysis. Den Hartog also explained how the maximum amplitude of galloping is determined by energy balance considerations when large excursions in bring into play parts of the lift versus curve having positive slopes or, at least, slopes that are less negative than those responsible for letting the galloping build up. His analysis established a credible connection between the motions observed in ice-coated conductors and the changed aerodynamics resulting from the ice deposits. Den Hartogs analysis has since been studied, tested, modified and extended, as will be discussed in Section 4.3.

The at-rest angle of attack is the angle of the ice section with respect to the wind arising solely from the ices position of deposit on the conductor. It is measured with respect to convenient in the ice deposit, such as the middle of the ice crescent, as in the insert to Figure 4.2-12.

15

How Much Den-Hartog Mechanism Could Occur in Practice?

As we just stated out, it needs some relationship between drag and derivative of lift. Many investigations have been performed in the literature on tentative actual ice shape. These shapes were obtained during observations (peaces of ice dropped form the line) (ref Tunstall, Koutselos) or in complex cold wind tunnel experiment. These last were using a piece of conductor fixed in vertical and horizontal movement but free (with appropriate torsional stiffness) in rotation. Snow or ice were injected/created in the wind tunnel to observed ice accretion shapes depending on temperature, wind speed , duration of event and conductor torsional stiffness. Afterwards the ice shape were reproduced in its shape and aerodynamic forces measured in classical wind tunnel. Most of these complex tests were performed in Japan. As a general conclusion based on all such tests performed during last thirty years, we can summarize the findings as follows:

ice shape may have kind of air-foil shape with significant eccentricity mainly on bundle conductors. Ice shape on single conductor (able to generate galloping) may be extremely thin, made of glaze ice. D-shape type of ice quasi never occurs

It has been shown by laboratory testing that extremely thin deposit behaves, near zero angle of attack, completely differently from other ice shape and are showing lift curve with slopes inverse to air-foil theory, similar to D-shape. The following aerodynamic curves (Figures 4.2-15 to 4.2-18) have been obtained by the methods described. Den-Hartog zones are clearly highlighted on the abscissa. All curves presented with anticlockwise reference sign. The left hand side is showing lift and drag, and the right hand side is showing drag and derivative of lift, directly pointed out Den-Hartog zones when both curves are crossing, due to anticlockwise reference choice. All curves smoothed using high pass band Fourier at 42 harmonic components.

Figure 4.2-15 Aerodynamic lift and drag with ice eccentricity 0.33 (source Buchan OH report 78-205-K, 1978). Only one small range of Den-Hartog zone near 180.

16

Figure 4.2-16 Aerodynamic lift and drag with eccentricity 0.82 (source Manitoba Hydro, CEA report N321, T 672, 1992). Only one small range of Den-Hartog zone near 180.

Figure 4.2-17 Aerodynamic lift and drag with eccentricity 1.39 (source Fujikura, courtesy T. Oka). Only one small range of Den-Hartog zone near 180 plus one asymmetric zone near -40.

Figure 4.2-18 Aerodynamic lift and drag with typical D-Shape (courtesy University of Lige, 1999). Large range of DenHartog zone near zero angle of attack and 90.

It must be noted :

17

For classical shape (air-foil type, like Figures 4.2-15 to 4.2-17), any eccentricity between thin to thick have similar curves of different amplitudes. There are few or no Den Hartog zone, except for 180, which needs a reverse wind action (ice shape positioned at the opposite of wind action). The D-shape (Figure 4.2-18) is showing opposite behaviour near zero angle of attack, which is very unstable. Rarely some small area of angle of attack may be unstable (like eccentricity 1.39 around -40) on a very small zone. It means that small dissymmetry in ice shape may create such behaviour but the area of instability (which will be related to amplitude) is generally very small. Another theory than Den-Hartog has been established (see later). That is because of numerous observations on bundle conductor with many cases including conductor movement accompanied by a clear torsional movement at the same frequency of the vertical one. This is not a pure theoretical theory only needed for scientist to better understand all observed cases, but it has been a new era of galloping control methods which has been open as we will see. Many scientist through the world have contributed in these new theories, the first papers on that were coming from Canada and Japan in early seventies, like (Nigol-Havard, Otsuki, Matsubayashi) and some others, these theories have been deepened and modelled in the eighties and nineties owing to increase computer performances and worldwide cooperations through organisms like CIGRE, IEEE, JAWE. The nineties were particularly fruitful with the works performed by (Shah-Popplewel, Yu, Havard, Rawlins, Lilien, Wang, Yamaguchi, Diana, etc..). This new kind of galloping has been called (may be unproperly) flutter galloping or binary flutter by similitude with airplane and bridge engineering (domain in which instabilities like that one is very well known). It is not the aim of this book to relate these theories which may be found in the literature or in the CIGRE brochure which will be published in 2006 on the subject. But important is to consider the major findings which can be summarized as follows.

torsion movement may be the sole origin of wind energy input into vertical movement flutter galloping is strongly related to the initial ratio torsional/vertical frequency and thus structural parameters (not only aerodynamic as in Den-Hartog) have influences. A ratio close to one (+/- 30%) is needed on galloping frequencies. Flutter galloping is strongly influenced by the phase shift between vertical and torsional movement The coupling between vertical and torsional movement is related to (i) aerodynamic lift and pitching moment, (ii) torsional stiffness of the system (iii) torsional moment of inertia of the system (with ice) (iv) rotational inertial forces acting on ice (v) position of ice The conductor span (ratio conductor diameter to sag of the span) is a key parameter System torsional damping (in particular the conductor/bundle) is playing a major role in energy transfer (due to Vertical/torsional movement phase shift effect)

A fact is that, in case of Den-Hartog, as soon as the criterion is observed, the system is unstable in all its modes (one, two, three, .. loops), the amplitudes of which being driven by Den-Hartog area in the angle of attack, the wind speed and the frequency concerned. In case of flutter galloping this may be not the case as the better tuned modes will grow faster.

18

Last but not least, a galloping mode in movement, due to related tension variation in the cable, may force other movement (as tension is connecting all modes together). An example of stability/amplitude analysis for flutter galloping is shown on the next Figure 4.2-19. Obviously we cannot work as for Den-Hartog (which was limited to show aerodynamic curves) because of the strong interaction with structural parameters.

Figure 4.2-19 The influence (by model) of torsional damping (2 and 4% of critical damping) on flutter type galloping on bundle conductor line. (courtesy University of Lige) Left hand side : amplitude of galloping vs position of ice (0 is facing the wind, anticlockwise). Right hand side : amplitude vs wind speed.(ratio vertical/torsion = 0.93, conductor/bundle diameter = 0.072, reduced ice inertia = 0.007, conductor span = 0.066), aerodynamic curves as on Figure 4.2-15.

Figure 4.2-20 The influence of detuning (by model), same case as before. A 25% detuning is able to suppress or limit at negligeable value the galloping for wind speed up to 10 m/s. Impact of extra torsional damping is clearly visible as it helps to suppress galloping or limits its amplitude with less detuning effects.

4.2.6 Types of Motion

Galloping takes one of two basic forms, standing waves and traveling waves, or a combination of them. The standing waves may occur with one, or as many as ten loops in a span. Data on observed galloping of operating lines, collected by the by the Galloping Task Force of EEI,(4-7) shows the following distribution of loops observed:
Table 4.2-1 Title Cases Reported No. of Loops 1 Phase 42 Grd. Wire 2

19

2 3 4 or more

26 34 2

3 6 1

Small numbers of loops are clearly favored. Traveling waves are often observed in the course of build- up of actual galloping. The waves initially may be only tens of metres long with amplitudes of a few cm. With repeated passage back and forth along the span, they grow in length and amplitude and eventually interact with one another to form standing waves. If the standing waves turn out to have a large number of loops within the span, further traveling-wave action usually leads to a shift to a smaller number of loops, and eventually the span settles on three or fewer loops.
On occasion, the shift from traveling waves to standing waves does not occur, and a traveling wave with a length of the order of 1/4 of the span length will persist as long as wind conditions do not change. Such waves may incorporate steep wavefronts, causing significant dynamic loads on supports. There is one such example on our video records.

On other occasions, standing-wave galloping builds up without traveling-wave involvement. Observed peak-to-peak amplitudes of galloping are often as great as the sag in the span and are sometimes greater, especially in short spans. Amplitudes approaching in magnitude the sag have been observed with as many as three loops in the span, but beyond that number the amplitudes become smaller. Traveling-wave peak-to-peak amplitudes have magnitudes comparable to standing waves of the same length, that is, the longest waves may have amplitudes on the order of span sag, but the shorter waves have smaller amplitudes. The predominant conductor motions are vertical in galloping, but there is often some horizontal component of motion transverse to the line. The vertical and horizontal motions are often not in phase, so that a point on the conductor near mid-loop traces an elliptical orbit. The data collected by the EEI Task Force indicate that substantially elliptical orbits occur in about 30% of observed cases. Figure 4.2-21 shows the percentage distribution of observed orbit shapes based upon two collections of galloping reports.(4-7, 4-8)

Figure 4.2-21 Percentage of observations of various galloping ellipse shapes and tilts.

When galloping occurs with one loop in the span, there may be significant movement of the conductor in the direction of the line. Peak-to-Peak swings on the order of meter have been observed. These motions are most noticeable in longs spans. Many observations in Japan on large bundle (bundle diameter larger than 1 m sometimes with many subconductors) showed large horizontal movement. Twisting motion of single conductors during galloping is difficult to discern from the ground, but has been detected and measured by means of attachment of suitable targets to the span. Peak-to-peak rotations greater than 100 have been observed, simultaneous with vertical motion. Edwards and Madeyskis analysis(4-9) of films of natural galloping showed significant torsional motion 20

to be present in two out of five cases of natural galloping of single conductors that were analyzed. Many such movement can be observed on bundle conductor galloping on our videos. Twisting motion is almost always observed during vertical galloping of bundled conductors.(4-10)
4.2.7 Factors Influencing Galloping

Galloping requires moderate to strong wind at an angle greater than about 45 to the line, a deposit of ice or rime upon the conductor lending it suitable aerodynamic characteristics, and positioning of that ice deposit (angle of attack) such as to favor aerodynamic instability. Ice deposits occur in three forms, illustrated in Figure 4.2-22: soft rime, hard rime, and glaze.(4-11) Soft rime occurs most often in mountainous terrain and has a feathery appearance, a granular structure and a density usually less than 0.6 g/cm3. It adheres poorly to conductors and is seldom associated with galloping. On occasion, a cylindrical deposit of soft rime will form on small conductors and aeolian vibration in light to moderate wind may take place. The vibration has the large amplitudes and low frequencies appropriate to the diameter of the rime coating, and dampers designed to protect the small-diameter bare conductor are usually ineffective. Hard rime is amorphous but may be cloudy due to entrapped air bubbles. Its density is usually between 0.6 and 0.9 g/cm3 and it adheres strongly to conductors. Glaze, also called blue ice, is smooth and transparent. Its density is 0.90 to 0.92 g/cm3, and its adherence to conductors is excellent. Hard rime and glaze are responsible for most conductor galloping.

21

Figure 4.2-22 Types of ice deposits. Reference 4-11.

The three types of icing occur under different atmospheric conditions. Glaze forms when supercooled drops or droplets impinge on the conductor and freeze. When the temperature is somewhat above freezing, only a small fraction of each drop freezes, due to evaporative cooling, and the rest runs off as liquid. At and slightly below freezing, part of the runoff freezes in the form of icicles. At lower temperature, the part that does not freeze on contact does freeze in the form of ridges toward the leeward side of the conductor. At even lower temperatures, complete freezing occurs on contact. Glaze, hard rime or soft rime may occur when freezing fog particles impinge on the conductor. The particles have diameters on the order of 10. Conditions favoring each form of accretion are shown in Figure 4.2-23.

22

Figure 4.2-23 Relation between types of ice and meteorological conditions. Reference 4-12.

Hard rime and glaze deposits are tenacious enough, and have sufficient strength and elasticity, that galloping motions do not dislodge them. Wind-driven wet snow may pack onto the windward sides of conductors, forming a hard, tenacious deposit with a fairly sharp leading edge. The resulting ice shape may permit galloping.

Figure 4.2-24 Total number of glaze storms observed during the nine year period of the Association of American Railroads Study. Reference 4-12.

23

The incidence (frequency of occurrence) of glaze icing was studied by Bennett (see Tattelman et al.(4) Figure 4.2-24 shows the number of glaze storms that occurred in various parts of the country during a nine-year period. Almost all states experienced glaze, but the highest incidences were found in the Northeast, North Central and Central States and certain localized regions in West Coast States. Corresponding information on incidence of hard rime is not available. It occurs most frequently, but not exclusively, in hilly or mountainous regions.
12)

The thickness of icing varies from storm to storm. To the nearest 1/4 inch reported ice thicknesses, at point of maximum thickness, during 69 cases of galloping were as follows:(4-7)
Table 4.2-2 Title No. of Cases 42 17 8 0 0 2 Ice Thickness (Inches) Very thin, Not visible, etc. 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4

Little ice thickness is needed for galloping. Galloping has occurred with deposits so thin, 1 or 2 mm, that the contour of the strand surface was not obliterated. It has also been observed with ice thickness as great as 5 cm. Apparently, quite a wide variety of shapes provide aerodynamic characteristics capable of causing galloping for at least some range of angle of attack. A survey by J. J. Ratkowski(4-13) of wind tunnel data on 18 simulated ice shapes found all but two of them capable of causing galloping, according to Den Hartogs theory, when suitably oriented. The Japan is particularly active in galloping observations from the early seventies. 776 cases have been recorded with some details in all regions of Japan, of course, most of them occurred in Honshu and Hokkaido island, particularly in Tokyo, Hokuriku, Tohoku, regions. The global statistics (single and bundle lines, wind speed and orientation to the line, temperature, altitude, span length,) is available in CIGRE brochure. An interesting additional data is also provided about ice shape and its eccentricity for 125 cases :

53 cases were observed with eccentricity 1 less than 1, most of the cases with a crescent shape windward (23 cases) 48 cases were observed with eccentricity in the range 1 to 2,most of the cases with a triangle shape with round tip windward (34 cases) 7 cases were observed with eccentricity in the range 2 to 4, most of the case with triangle with round tip windward 16 cases were observed with eccentricity in the range 4 and over, most of the cases with triangle with tip round leeward (12 cases).

Wind tunnel testing of actual ice shapes, or of plastic/metal/polymeric replicas of actual iced conductors, has been largely developed since 1979 all around the world. Examination of ice shapes
1

Eccentricity is defined as the ratio ice thickness over conductor radius

24

involved in actual galloping indicates that numerous naturally-occurring shapes have involved. Figure 4.2-25 shows the percentages of observations when the ice was thickest in each of eight sectors around the conductors girth, based upon two collections of data on galloping transmission and distribution line span.(4-7, 4-8)

Figure 4.2-25 Percentage of observations in which point of maximum ice thickness fell in various sectors of the conductor surface. References 4-7, 4-8.

The thickness of ice deposit appears to influence the likelihood of galloping for certain types of span. Galloping is favored if the ice shape is uniform and of constant angle of attack along the span. Glaze ice is usually deposited on the upper windward surface of the conductor as illustrated in Figure 4.2-26. In long single-conductor spans, the eccentric weight of the deposit (see Figure 4.2-27) may be great enough to significantly twist the conductor. Since the conductor span is fixed against rotation at the ends, this eccentric ice load will twist the conductor most at midspan, and the angle of twist will become progressively smaller going from that point toward the supports. The angle of attack will thus vary along the span.

Figure 4.2-26 Effect of rain impingement angle on location of ice deposits.

Figure 4.2-27 Eccentric ice deposit resulting in torque on conductor.

25

The ice shape will also vary along the span. Near the span extremities, the ice deposit on the top windward surface will progressively thicken with continued impingement of freezing droplets. Ice deposited on that quadrant remains in that quadrant. Near midspan, however, continued deposition of ice causes progressive rotation of the conductor, so that the ice coating is wrapped on.(4-14) Because of this rotation, the first film of ice, which was initially in the upper windward quadrant, may ultimately face directly to windward, or down, or even directly to leeward, depending upon the torsional stiffness of the span and the duration of icing conditions. This wrapped-on ice shape will be different from that near span ends where little rotation takes place. The twisting of the conductor, discussed above, may have the effect of changing its ability to gallop as the ice storm progresses. Early in the storm, the angle of attack of the ice deposit may be nearly constant along the span, and its value may be such that galloping may occur or such that it may not. Subsequent twisting may change the angle of attack, remote from towers, to values where the reverse is true. Ultimately, ice shape and angle of attack may vary so greatly along the span that galloping cannot occur. Thus galloping behavior may change substantially during the storm, even when the wind conditions remain constant. After precipitation ceases, and as long as the ice coating remains intact, galloping behavior should depend only on wind conditions. Galloping behavior may be influenced by the electrical load being transmitted by a line, since a small temperature rise of the conductors can postpone the initiation of deposition, and a large enough temperature rise may prevent icing altogether. It must be pointed out also that the position of ice/glaze/rime (we mean the angle of attack), is also strongly dependent of the wind speed. The combination of torsional stiffness of the span with aerodynamic pitching moment causes some conductor rotation all along the span. During moderate to strong wind (say 15 m/s) some positions of ice at mid-span are simply impossible because these are statically unstable (the cable cannot maintain the position due to torque applied by the wind). Typically large eccentricity cannot be in front of the wind for single conductor in presence of wind. (see later) This is pointed out some of complexity of galloping and some imperatives in modeling. We cannot consider all position of ice as probable, some are simply impossible depending on wind speed. The integration of appropriate torsional stiffness model is a must and this not a simple think, especially for bundle conductor as detailed on chapter 7. Such theories (verified by static test on actual span) may explain bundle collapse in all its aspects (subspan by subspan). The same theory pointed out the major effect (for bundle conductor) on torsional stiffness of end-span fixation of the bundle on suspension and anchoring tower (yoke plate). Torsional stiffness effects are thought to influence the number of loops that occur in natural galloping. Spans with low torsional stiffness, due to large span length or small conductor diameter, tend to experience large rotation at midspan resulting in a shape of ice having aerodynamic characteristics poorly suited to galloping.(4-15) The amount of rotation is less at locations nearer the towers, such as the quarter points of the span. The distribution of gallop-prone ice shape along the span is thus better able to support two-loop than one loop galloping. It is, in fact, widely thought that single-loop galloping seldom occurs in long single-conductor spans (we will see later on that such observation is also related to mechanical behaviour of single span). However, significant conductor rotation during deposition of ice does not occur in bundled conductors because of much larger torsional stiffness (due to the effect of the tension in the conductors separated by subconductor spacing) and by torsional restraint by spacers. Bundle torsional stiffness is 5 to 10 times, sometimes more, higher values compared to single conductor span. Bundled conductors are widely thought to be more prone to galloping than single conductors. But the number of kilometers of single lines being much more large, there are very significant number of observations on such cases too. In Japan, during the last 30 years, 776 case of galloping were recorded, 326 of them being observed on single line 66 kV, 231 cases observed on single conductors at voltage over 66 kV to 220 kV and 210 cases on bundle lines of voltage of 220 kV and over (including 53 on 500 kV), which corresponds 26

to galloping occurrences on about 30% of the 66 kV lines route length and 20% of the 275 kV line route length. The incidence of one-loop galloping appears to be influenced not only by twisting of the conductor due to eccentric loading by the ice, as noted above, but also by the sag ratio and the whole section data (from dead-end to dead end towers). This need some more details to be understood. The galloping motion may be correlated to some eigenmodes of the whole section. EIgenmodes are the free vibration shape that are possible in structures. Despite its mathematic complexities (which we will not been explained here), these modes have clear physical sense. And those who viewed galloping on video (or on the field) have a better understanding of what a mode is. Each mode has a given frequency. The lowest one is called fundamental, for a violin, the fundamental of a cord (which is a taut string) has a given frequency and the corresponding modal shape is a pure sine. For cable as overhead lines, the cable is not a taut string as the sag/span ratio is not negligible (generally 2 to 5%) compared to taut string structures (like violin, stayed cable in bridges). The full theory of cable dynamics has been developed first by Irvine (ref). It has introduced the so called Irvine parameter which indicates how far a cable is from taut string theory. Such parameter has been extended to the overhead lines, including tower stiffness by introducing the following key parameter : If K= tower stiffness (both dead-end of the section in series) (N/m) EA = product of conductor Young modulus by conductor cross section for one phase (thus in case of bundle, consider n times the cross section of one conductor, n being the number of subconductors) (N) Ls = span length of the span considered in the section (m) L = the whole length of the multi-span section, if any (m) a = the inverse of the catenary parameter (m-1), means the ratio between conductor weight (product of mass pu length (m in kg/m) by the gravity constant g=9.81 m/s2) and conductor tension T (in Newtons). r = the radius of the bundle, if any (m) (all subconductors supposed to be on a circle) = angular position of one subconductor (0 for horizontal twin, 90 for vertical twin e.g.) h = the longitudinal dimension of the yoke plate at dead-end level as defined on Figure 4.2-29 (m) Figure 4.2-28 shows two very different arrangements for twin bundle dead-end.

Figure 4.2-28 Yoke plate arrangement, definition of h and two typical arrangements for twin bundle, one with h quasi infinite (on the left) and one with a typical h around 0.1 m (on the right). Two cases which would dramatically influence torsional frequencies.

The following set of definitions will lead to Mv and M factors (this last only for bundle) (Dubois et al-1991) :

27

L 1 1 = s + K v EA K L = Ls
s =1 Ns

1 K ,twin
Ns s =1

1 = cos 2

(2r ) 2 L + 2hT EA

L = Ls a=
)2 . T m

a=

mg T

2 v = (

mg T

Ls

2 = (

Ls

)2 .

1 ( + r 2T ) 2 mr

Mv =

8 a 2 . K v .L 2 2 .m.v

M =

8a 2 .K .L 2 2 .m.

The correcting factor based on M factors is the same curve (Figure 4.2-29) for vertical and torsion but refer to different basic formula (v or ) and different K factors. It is amazing to consider the following cases for twin bundle conductors : Horizontal twin ( = 0) compared to vertical twin ( = 90) : For vertical twin, yoke plate has no impact, K is always nul as cos() =0 For horizontal twin, yoke plate has dramatic impact : The minimum value is obtained for h = 0 (full equilibrium between tension in the two conductors), then K is nul and we have the same frequencies as for vertical bundle, equal to fundamental theory. The maximum value id obtained for h = infinity (cases similar as shown in the upper figure) and K is equal to EA/L which is very large and may induce an increases of the pseudo-one loop in torsion of a significant factor (more than 2 is possible). Detuning is thus possible on horizontal twin by simple arrangement of end-span condition. This is less valid for multi-span section with large number of spans as end-span effects are quickly decreasing. Comparing the taut string theory with exact theory, as detailed by Irvine, may help to draw the next curve for the 4 first modes of a single span overhead line, as detailed in (ref)

Figure 4.2-29

Modal shape changes for pseudo-one loop vs Mv factor.

28

Such figure, drawn for levelled span, may become more complex as soon as significant unleveling occurs.(not detailed here) Its amazing to notice that the two-loops mode may have lower frequency than the first mode. This is particularly true for large span and thus explain simply why a two loop is more prone to gallop in such span (in fact for span having Mv larger than 2) as the lowest frequency is the first to be unstable as wind speed is increasing. (see later). Another amazing observation is that the shape of the so called one loop mode is no more a pure sine wave. But has some small loops near the end of the span, this is called the pseudo-one loop. In such span there is no one loop case possible. Another important fact is the behaviour of a full multi-span section. The one loop mode is multifold. There are interaction between adjacent spans, owing to suspension insulators, which play a major role in the whole span behaviour. There are possible movement at the suspension points longitudinal to the line. So that a two spans section has two possibilities of one loop modes, one with both span moving in phase, one with both span moving out of phase. These two modes are completely different , even if an observer looking at one span would not see any significant differences. In fact the two frequencies will not be the same and the tension variation in the conductor is hugely different (for the same amplitude of course). It can be shown that a section of n spans has n different one loop mode, one of them only is the mode with all span moving in phase. The relative amplitudes in all span may vary significantly from one mode to another in multi-span cases (larger than 2 spans).

Some order of magnitudes are given in Table 4.2-3.


Table 4.2-3 Title

ACSR 470 mm2 Drake single

AAAC 620 mm2 Twin bundle

ACSR 550 mm2 Quad bundle

Span length (m) Dead-end span Tension (kN) Stress N/mm2 Mass (kg/m) Catenary (m)

488

360

225

40 85 1.63

2 x 35 56 2x 1.7 2100 5.9 1010

4 x 29.25 53 4x 1.9 1570 7.5 1010

parameter 2500 7.5 1010

Young modulus N/m2 Conductor diameter

28.2

32.5

30.5

29

mm Subconductor spacing (m) Bundle radius (m) Orientation Yoke plate h 0.45 0.225 Horizontal 0.1 2x460 105 (h infinite) 70 (h=0.1) (true case) 50 (h=0) 0.00016 0.17 0.457 0.323 Any 0.2 4x 292 410 (h infinite) 290 (h=0.2) (true case) 240 (h=0) 0.80

Conductor torsional 170 stiffness (Nm2/rad) Bundle stiffness (torque at mid-span) Nm/rad Moment of inertia -

(for the whole bundle (yes, 0.16 10-3) if any) (kg.m) Sag (m) Sag/span ratio Basic pulsation v In vertical (rad/s) Basic pulsation In torsion (rad/s) Calculation of M Mv= 2.2 factors (tower stiffness M= 0 =K=2.5 105 N/m) Vertical Pseudo-one loop Frequency (Hz) Two loops frequency 0.32 (Hz) Pseudo-three (Hz) loops 0.49 2.14 3.21 0.40 0.60 0.45 0.67 0.55 0.83 0.58 0.87 0.28 Torsion 1.07 Mv= 1.4 M= 0.51 Vertical 0.31 Torsion 0.27 Mv= 0.6 M= 0.25 Vertical 0.35 Torsion 0.32 2.1.07 2. 0.22 2. 0.29 11.9 2.4% 2. 0.16 7.7 2.1% 2. 0.20 4 1.8% 2.. 0.28

The same case with 4 spans (equal spans)

30

Bundle Nm/rad

stiffness 0.16 1.07

57 0.20 0.22

260 0.28 0.29

one loop up and down (Hz) Pseudo-one loop (Hz) Two loops (Hz) Pseudo-three loops

0.3 0.32 0.48

1.07 2.14 3.21

0.35 0.40 0.61

0.33 0.44 0.68

0.42 0.56 0.84

0.36 0.58 0.87

Figure 4.2-30 illustrates the four lowest-frequency modes for a line section having four suspension spans of 160, 180, 190 and 195 m between dead ends. Calculations, using a linear analysis of the motions, show that for the modes at 0.386 and 0.403 Hz, there is only small variation in tension during galloping. This is because, when one span is at its upward extreme of motion, there is another span at the downward extreme. The variations in arc length of the two spans compensate each other by means of swinging of the suspension support between them. In the mode at 0.516 Hz in Figure 4.2-30, all spans move in phase so there is less ability for arc length compensation between spans to occur. As a result, this mode displays significant tension variations during galloping, rather like the pseudo-fundamental in a dead ended span, which we discuss below. The least common design of overhead transmission line span is that with dead ending at both ends. When the galloping takes place in such a span, the motions are independent of what is taking place in adjacent spans. The galloping may display modes with 1, 2, 3, etc, loops. The modes with even numbers of loops conform in frequency and mode shape to simple taut-string theory. The oddnumbered modes, however, have higher frequencies than predicted by string theory, and their mode shapes take the form of sine waves with an offset, as illustrated in Figure 4.2-30. They are called pseudo-modes because of these differences. These odd modes, especially the pseudo-fundamental, are marked by significant variations in conductor tension even for small galloping amplitudes. These variations occur because the galloping loops are superimposed upon the curvature of the sagged conductor. This results in a difference in the arc length of the conductor between its upper and lower extremes of motion, as illustrated in the top panel of Figure 4.2-30. Since the supports of a dead ended span are nominally rigid, this variation in arc length must be accommodated through conductor strain, with resulting variations in tension. These tension variations lead to an offset of the sine wave synchronous with its deflection, resulting in loop shapes such as in the second panel of Figure 4.2-30. The lowest odd mode, the pseudo-fundamental, may have enough offset that it appears to have three loops, as in the third panel. Dead end spans experience the highest forces applied to the structures during galloping. There are certain modes that, even in suspension spans, are autonomous to the span. These are the modes that have even numbers of loops in the span. These modes cause only slight variations in conductor tension, and thus produce little motion at suspension supports. Thus, there is no significant coupling to adjacent spans. Spans are often observed to gallop in a combination of two or more of the modes that are available to them. For example, a suspension span may move simultaneously in a mode of the section and in its own autonomous 2-loop mode. This type of behaviour is discussed in more detail in Chapter 3, Galloping Observations by Measurement and Data Analysis. 31

The vertical component of galloping, and the longitudinal motions at suspension supports, are important relative to violation of electrical clearances, both in spans and at supports. They are also closely associated with the conductor tension variations, which can be large, and the dynamic forces transmitted to insulators and supporting structures. The above discussion neglects the torsional component of galloping motion, as well as motions lateral to the span. Both of these also have normal modes by span and by line section. Those components can have important effects in relation to aerodynamic mechanisms that cause galloping, and they are discussed in the next part of this chapter.

Figure 4.2-30Typical one loop mode shapes (4 span section). The three first ones are up-and-down modes (some span are moving up when others are moving down with a global compensation effect). The fourth one is the upup mode when all spans are synchronously going up or down. This last is related to large tension variation and its shape may be non purely sinusoidal, as detailed by Irvine and shown on Figure 4.2-29.

These kind of analysis may be obtained by any finite element codes having non-linear cable element or by less sophisticated software using basic cable equations, but using the appropriate tension evaluation. Of course these frequencies will be back in the galloping observation analysis. More complex will be the frequency content in the tension oscillogram or in the suspension set tension variation. A specific subchapter will be devoted to tension variations. Last but not least, If the ice formations in adjacent spans are not at an unstable angle of attack, these spans may act as dampers, reducing the amplitude or the likelihood of galloping of the span having the gallop-prone ice formation. Some damping effect may also arise from the varying longitudinal load applied to the tower.

Figure 4.2-31

Single-loop galloping in span with: a. small sag ratio and b. large sag ratio.

32

As a matter of observation, single-loop galloping of large amplitude is a great deal less frequent in long spans than in short, probably for both of the reasons cited.
Factors Influencing Galloping, Summary

We may summarize these factors as follows: ice accretion type and shape (eccentricity, weight, aerodynamic properties) wind speed (with limited effects of turbulence and orientation as detailed) conductor self damping (vertical, torsion) in the low frequency range (including end span effects) span lengths (including all spans of a section) and section length longitudinal stiffness (anchoring tower) at fixation point yoke plate assembly (anchoring and suspension tower) (torsional stiffness effect) number of subconductors and their arrangement subconductor spacing sagging conditions (vertical frequencies effect) spacers (kind of spacer, location, eccentric weight effect, conductor fixation effect) presence of retrofit devices (all kind including interphase methods) position of ice in the presence of wind ratio vertical/torsional frequency for each mode, in the presence of wind

Many investigations have been performed to extract from these parameters the best candidates to present a general approach on galloping (Lilien and Dubois 1988, Lilien et al.1989, Rawlins 1981, Wang 1996). We are presenting in Table 4.2-4 the actual view on the subject. Obviously, the conductor self damping and aerodynamic properties are separate important data, but data on which the designer has no (very few) action, except in using appropriate devices. The remaining important data may be coupled into 5 (4 for single conductor) dimensionless parameters:
Table 4.2-4 Galloping Parameters

Px = parameter Nx

P1 Torsion/vertical frequency P2 cond diam/bundle diam P3 Reduced wind speed P4 Reduced ice inertia P5 Conductor span parameter

Single conductor line Parameter Range v/ 0.1 to 0.3 None 15 to 1000 U0/(v. ) 0.01 to 5 mice.dice/(m. ) 0.01 to 1 12.5 /f

Bundle conductor line Parameter Range v/ 0.8 to 1.2 0.03 to 0.13 /d 15 to 1000 U0/(v. ) 0.01 to 5 mice.dice/(m. ) 0.01 to 0.12 12.5 /f

is the conductor diameter (m), f the sag (m), d the bundle diameter (m), dice is the distance between conductor centre and ice gravity centre (m), mice is the mass of ice p.u. length (kg/m), m the mass of conductor (kg/m) and U0 the wind speed (m/s). v and are the pulsation (rad/s) of the vertical and torsional mode under analysis (without wind nor ice) The conductor span parameter has many ways to be expressed, it is (at a constant factor difference) the product of the catenary parameter (T/mg) and the torsional compliance (/L2). These parameters 33

are extracted from the stability criterion deduced from galloping equations. The conductor span parameter is coming from the inertial coupling. The constant 12.5 has been chosen to fix at 1 the maximum value. A good candidate to examine galloping amplitude in a dimensionless form is the ratio amplitude/(conductor diameter), or by mixing with conductor span parameter, the very well known reduced amplitude/sag.
4.2.8 Incidence of Galloping

The frequency with which galloping occurs is, of course, closely related to the frequency of icing, depicted , for USA, in Figure 4.2-24. Incidence is greatest in the central region of the USA, between the Rockies and the Appalachians, but not including Louisiana and Arkansas and the states to the east of them. Most utilities that experience galloping at least annually lie in that region. Galloping also occurs annually in parts of California. Utilities in the Northwest experience galloping about every 2 to 5 years. The character of the terrain through which a line passes influences the likelihood of galloping. Smooth-contoured terrain with few large obstacles favors galloping. Broken terrain or a high density of such obstacles as buildings and coniferous trees seems to prevent galloping, by causing turbulence in the winds flow. A survey by EEIs Galloping Task Force(4-7) found terrain to be flat in 71% of reported instances of gallop, rolling in 22% and mountainous in 7%. However, the location was described as urban, as opposed to rural in about half of the cases. Utilities in the Atlantic Seaboard States experience galloping rarely or never, except in New York and New Jersey, where galloping may occur every 2 to every 10 years. Certain localized areas, often near lakes or rivers, show a much higher incidence of galloping than do nearby regions. Ice storms move with the frontal weather system. Little data appear to be available on the dimensions of the regions affected. Smith(4-6) reports widths from 40 km (25 miles) to 160 km (100 miles), and lengths in the direction of storm movement from 160 km (100 miles) to 320 km (200 miles) in South Dakota. The lengths of line affected by galloping vary from only a single span to as many as 30 km (18 miles.) In Japan, Hokkaido Island as well as both west and east coast are very sensible to galloping as can be seen on the next figures showing events during the last 30 years (776 cases) (Figure 4.2-32). Obviously related to major wind speed flowing either from the Pacific Ocean either from the China see depending on the period of the year.

34

Figure 4.2-32 Location of 776 cases of galloping reported in Japan in the last 30 years (courtesy M. Mito).

Figure 4.2-33 In Germany, 570 cases have been reported between 1979 and 1999, some of them being located for the winter 1998/1999. (courtesy C. Jurdens).

The figure is showing 9 cases on single conductors, 22 cases on twin bundle and 16 events on quad bundle lines. All these reported cases caused short-circuit, four cases had permanent bundle collapse.
4.2.9 Damage and Other Penalties

Galloping has caused various kinds of structural damage in overhead lines. Some types of damage result directly from the large forces that galloping waves or loops apply to supports. For example, crossarms have failed on wood and on metal structures. Ties on pin-type insulators have been broken. On rare occasions, support hardware has failed. On others, cotter pins have been damaged, permitting insulator strings to uncouple. Dynamic loads, such as the shock that occurs when a steep-fronted galloping wave is reflected at a tower, have damaged vibration dampers, sometimes snapping the weights off and sometimes, with repeated reflection, fatiguing the damper cables. The number of miles of line affected by galloping in a particular storm occasionally can be surmised later from assessment of damper damage, Dynamic loads have also caused loosening of crossarm and bracing bolts in wood structures and loosening of wood poles themselves in the ground. Jumpers at deadend towers have been tossed up onto crossarms.

Figure 4.2-34 Damage due to galloping. (UK, courtesy M. Tunstall, the galloping occurred in 1986 and is available on our videos, it lasted four days .)

When galloping amplitudes are great enough to permit flashover between phases or from phase to ground, arcing damage to conductor surfaces results. The damage has been great enough in some cases to cause broken strands in conductors, and to result in complete failure of ground wires. Such severe damage is rare, however, because faults are usually brief and the arcs usually travel, leaving only a track of pock marks on the conductor surfaces.(4-14) 35

Forced outages caused by galloping result in loss of revenue and sometimes in other costs associated with reestablishing service. Those penalties are generally considered to be more severe than direct damage to lines. Published data on their magnitude do not appear to be available, but a survey of utilities by the T&D Committee of EEI(4-17) developed the following information on effects of the worst ice and/or galloping conditions each utility had faced. (costs in the seventies).
Table 4.2-5 Title

No. of Customers Affected 0-10,000 11,000-50,000 51,000-100,000 More than 100,000 Length of Service Interruption 1 hour or less 1-3 hours 3-6 hours 6-9 hours 9-12 hours 12-24 hours 1-3-1/2 days 4-8 days 9-11 days Cost of Interruption (thousands of dollars) Less than 50 51-100 101-200 201-500 501-1000 4000

No. of Utilities 24 9 3 2 No. of Utilities 17 9 4 5 6 5 5 4 1 No. of Utilities 27 7 1 3 3 1

Although line failures due to heavy ice loading may be represented in the above tabulations, it is likely that galloping cases predominate. Frequency of outages caused by galloping has been reported by few utilities. During a two-year period, the CEGB in the United Kingdom experienced an outage rate of 0.24 per 100 km per year, on 132 kv and above.(4-18) Of 48 utilities reporting outages, in EEIs collection of galloping case,(4-7) none reported phase-toground faults. A number of utilities design lines with larger phase and phase-to-ground wire clearances than would other-wise be employed, in order to reduce the frequency with which flashover occurs during galloping. The added margins of clearance increase tower costs. Representative figures cited in 1966 for the additional cost were: $8000/mile ($5000/km) for double circuit 345 kv, and about the same for double circuit 230 kV in Canada.(4-19) Current figures for lines of similar design are thought to be in the $20,000 to $50,000/ mile range. The difference in cost would be 36

(TO BE CERTIFIED) even greater between conventional lines with clearances increased because of galloping, and compact lines.(4-20) When forced outages due to galloping are anticipated, extra transmission is often provided in the system to make the outages more tolerable. This extra transmission adds to utility costs, and since the increased clearances usually employed do not eliminate all outages, they do not entirely eliminate galloping costs.(4-19)

37

4.2.10

Field Observations (Film Analysis of Orbits) and Galloping Ellipse Design

(This section will be transferred to Section 4.5)

A database of 166 observations of galloping on single, twin, triple and quad bundle lines has been analyzed. The database is sufficiently detailed to define the variation of maximum amplitudes of galloping motion for single conductors in 50 to 450 m spans, and for twin and quad bundles in 200 to 450 m spans. Conventional design expectations are exceeded, for maximum galloping motions on short spans, and through the existence of single loop galloping on long spans. The CIGRE TFG experts have approved the next formulas estimating the maximum galloping motions for spans without galloping controls. The best fit numerical model for single conductors uses the peak to peak galloping amplitude over sag, versus conductor span parameter, the conductor diameter over the sag. The best-fit model for bundle conductors uses the peak-to-peak galloping amplitude over subconductor diameter as a function of the conductor span parameter. The following proposal have been deduced from cases in the following range of data: sag/span ratio in the range 1-5% conductor diameter 1-5 cm single and bundle conductors (two different formulas) span length 50-450 m

More details of the database are presented in .


4.2.11 The Conductor Span Parameter

The approach employs the reduced amplitude, which is the ratio of peak-to-peak galloping amplitude (Apk-pk) over conductor diameter (), both in m:
A pk pk

(5.1)

This reduced amplitude has a range between 0 and 500. The conductor span parameter is a combination of the catenary parameter with the ratio of conductor diameter () over the square of the span length (L), which can also be expressed as the ratio of conductor diameter over the sag (f). The conductor span parameter is dimensionless:
100 T mgL
2

100 8f

(5.2)

The conductor span has already been defined earlier and has been denominated as P5. Due to its definition and practical data, the conductor span parameter is in the range for single conductor 0 to 1 for bundle conductor 0 to 0.12

The Case of Single Conductor Lines

38

450

data base estimated max

400

350 Amplitude pk-pk / diameter

300

250

200

150

100

50

0 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 cable span parameter

Figure 4.2-35Variation of observed maximum peak-to-peak galloping amplitude/diameter on single conductors as a function of the conductor span parameter. Only observed data on the field.

This parameter has a range of 0 to 1.1 with tension in N, mass in kg/m, span length, sag and diameter in m. For single conductors, the fitted curve to the maximum amplitude over conductor diameter, which is included in Figure 4.2-35, is given by:
A pk pk

= 80 ln

8f 50

(5.3)

This is valid only in the 0-1 range of the conductor span parameter, which corresponds to the data base range.
The Case of Bundle Conductor Lines
700 data base gamma=300 600 gamma=500 single conductor curve

500 Amplitude pk-pk / diameter

400

300

200

100

0 0 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,1 0,12 0,14 Cable span parameter

Figure 4.2-36Variation of observed maximum peak-to-peak galloping amplitude/diameter on bundle conductors as a function of the conductor span parameter. Only observed data on the field.

The observed values (all for wind speed lower than 10 m/s) have in fact been completed by many simulations coming from different aerodynamic curves (4 different) and for wind speed covering up to 39

15 m/s, means bigger than in observed cases. (these dots are not reproduced here but available on the reference (Lilien and Havard 2001), they have influenced our fit choice. As the difference (between observed and calculated) is much larger than on single conductor, more observations would be needed, especially for higher wind speed before coming to a conclusion. Actually, we will recommend the fitted curve based on observed data only. For bundle conductors, the corresponding fitted curve, which is reproduced in Figure 4.2-36 as the estimated maximum, is given by ( = 500):
A pk pk

= 170 ln

8f 500

(5.4)

This is valid in the range 0-0.15 of the conductor span parameter. It may be noted that the expressions have the same form, but single conductors have up to about 2.5 times larger values of galloping amplitude/diameter for values of the conductor span parameter between 0.015 and 0.10. It should be noted that the observed galloping amplitude on single conductors can reach up to 5 times the unloaded sag. In the context of distribution line conductor spans and sag, this indicates much larger galloping motions than conventionally considered in design [17]. Also the data show a significant number of single loop galloping events on long spans, which is at variance with the above design guide. The observed galloping amplitude on bundle conductor was limited to the unloaded sag in the observed cases. More detailed analysis on that database are available on (Lilien, Havard 1998 or 2001 ?). Proposed galloping ellipse for design Due to observations on these 166 cases, it is recommended to use a vertical ellipse for design. The new suggested design would use Figure 4.2-37 with amplitude A4 deduced from formula (5.3) or (5.4) depending on the case. These formula have been transformed in diagram on Figure 4.2-38.

A1 DL Loaded SAG A2 A4 (single) A1 = 0.7 A4 A2 = 0.3 A4 A5 = 0.4 A4 V ti l lli

A5

Figure 4.2-37 Proposed galloping design ellipse.

40

600 500 A4/diameter 400 300 200 100 0 10 100 sag/diameter 1000 A4 bundle A4 single

Figure 4.2-38

Proposed curves for galloping maximum peak-to-peak amplitude. (all data in meters)

Range of Application for Given Curves

Span length between 30 m and 500 m Sag/span ratio between 0.5% and 5% Diameter of the conductor between 0.01 m and 0.05m Data obtained from 166 observations and complementary simulations. Data only based on classical bundle (symmetric 2, 3 and 4 bundle conductor up to 0.6m bundle diameter) Maximum design wind speed against galloping taken as 15 m/s. Only realistic data considered, dont try a bundle with conductor diameter 0.01 m and 1 m sag.
Comparison with Other Known Methods

This approach cannot be easily compared to BPA curves (former draft of this book) or any other approach because of the dependence with the diameter and the sag. Nevertheless we may apply both methods in a given case. Lets imagine a multi-span 400 kV line, with span length close to 350 m, and having a twin bundle (45 cm bundle diameter). Initial loaded sag about 8 meters (sag/span ratio 2.3 %) Evaluation following BPA curves: A4 = about 70% of the sag = 5.6 m Hunt &Richards method (see chapter 4.3, eq 4.32) Basic frequency of the up and down mode at 0.2 Hz is giving, for wind speed up to 15 m/s a maximum amplitude of: 0.26 (15/0.2) = 19.5 m Evaluation following this new method (need diameter data): A4 = 10 m (diameter 32 mm); 8.5 m (diameter 22 mm), 5.6 m (diameter 11 mm)

41

We do need more observation data which would include diameter as information needed to validate the new proposal. We do think that the proposed approach is completely valid for single conductor line but need more information for bundle conductors, as stated in [1].
4.2.12 Galloping Observations by Measurement and Data Analysis

Instrumented test lines and instrumented sections in operating lines are particularly valuable in advancing understanding of galloping, since they produce numerical records. It was already pointed out that galloping can occur in a number of different modes, and that these often appear in combinations. Recorded data on variables that are involved in the galloping can be used to determine which modes were present in particular galloping events, and can often permit estimates of galloping amplitudes, even if amplitude was not directly recorded. Doing this requires detailed knowledge of the modes that can occur in the span or line section involved.

Figure 4.2-39Typical tension variation during actual galloping with untreated and treated phase (anti-galloping device), as measured on actual 400 kV line under permanent recording. Recording of tension fluctuations at anchoring level in two phases of the Villeroux test station (Belgium). Only relative changes are important. Upper oscillogram (5kN peak-to-peak) for phase with anti-galloping device, the other one detail during the same period of observation, the tension fluctuation ( 25 kN peak-to-peak) in the reference phase (twin bundle at the same vertical position).

There are many such oscillograms during several years in the same test station. One of them is treated here in detail. The FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) of the signal is reproduced on Figure 4.2-40. It was a section of four spans equipped with twin spacered bundle (horizontal). The twin was made of AAAC 620 mm2 of 32.4 mm diameter. Subconductors paving of 0.45m. Basic tension per subconductor was about 35 kN at around 0C. Simultaneous presence of several modes is shown most clearly in the spectra of recorded variables. Figure 4.2-40 is a spectrum obtained during a galloping episode at the Belgium test line at Villeroux. The recorded variable was the conductor tension at one of the dead ends of the four-span section. The spectrum shows 12 major peaks, suggesting that 12 different modes were active. 42

Analysis of the possible normal modes of the section was carried out using the procedures of ((Rawlins and Pohlman 1988). Several of these modes are pictured in Figure 4.2-41, identified by their frequencies. It should be noted that the motions that occur in natural galloping are not strictly identical to the undamped free normal modes obtained from the procedures of (Rawlins 2001) , since aerodynamic forces are not taken into account. However, those forces are small compared with the inertial and elastic forces at work in the conductors. Thus, they cause only small perturbations in the gross features of the normal modes, i.e., the frequencies and amplitudes of motion and tension variations. The free normal modes provide a good, if imperfect, representation of the major features of actual galloping. Table 4.2-6 lists the major spectral peaks of Figure 4.2-40, and associates many of them with eigenmodes of the section. Some of these peaks reflect the tension variations that are synchronous with the galloping motion, such as the eigenmode at 0.357 Hz, and those at 1.111, 1.316, 1.406 and 2.072 Hz. Other peaks reflect tension variation due to nonlinear effects. When galloping amplitude becomes large enough, stretching of the conductor at its extreme displacements causes increases in tension twice each cycle. This introduces a tension variation at double the frequency of the eigenmode. For example, the peaks at 0.66 and 0.74 Hz arise from autonomous two-loop galloping in the 397.3 and 361.4 m spans, which had resonant frequencies of 0.341 and 0.375, respectively. The eigenmode at 1.316 Hz causes a peak at 1.31 Hz directly, and one at 2.63 Hz due to nonlinear effect. The peak at 0.36 Hz could be due to the 0.357 Hz eigenmode directly, or to nonlinear effect of the 0.1819 Hz eigenmode. It would require additional information, such as from an insulator swing transducer, to distinguish between the two possibilities. The peaks at 1.53 and 1.89 Hz are not associated with eigenmodes of the recorded phase. A 1.89 Hz peak was present in the tension spectrum of another phase, and probably caused motion in the deadend structure that was reflected in the signal leading to Figure 4.2-40. The 1.53 Hz peak has the same frequency as subspan resonance in another phase. It also corresponds to the longitudinal resonance of the four-span section (CIGRE 1989). The peak may be associated with this coincidence. Detailed knowledge of the eigenmodes associated with the spectral peaks permits calculation of the galloping amplitudes from the spectrum ordinates. Table 4.2-6 shows these estimated amplitudes reported as the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude in the section. Note that the source of the 0.36 Hz peak is ambiguous. That peak may mean either 2.5 m in the 0.182 Hz eigenmode, or 0.19 m in the 0.357 Hz eigenmode. Fortunately, on-site observers were present during the galloping and could not have failed see the 0.1819 Hz mode. Thus, the tension peak at 0.36 Hz must have been from the 0.357 Hz eigenmode directly. The observers did report seeing, and filming, two-loop galloping in the 361.4 m span with amplitude of 3 m. This is consistent with the 2.91 m calculated from the tension spectrum. The combination of recorded data from an instrumented test line, supported by observer reports, with detailed analysis of the possible galloping modes permits greater insight into the complexity of galloping in nature. In the example described here, there are three different modes with amplitudes larger than 2 metres simultaneously present. The picture that emerges highlights the challenge faced by on-site observers in attempting to describe galloping events verbally.
Table 4.2-6 Correlation of Spectral Peaks with Eigenmodes
Spectrum frequency 0.33 Eigenmode frequency 0.167 Hz Effect on tension Nonlinear Est. max ampl. (m pk-pk) 2.42

43

0.36 0.36 0.66 0.74 1.13 1.31 1.38 1.53 1.89 2.07 2.63

0.182 Hz 0.357 Hz 2 loops in 397.3 m span 2 loops in 361.4 m span 1.111 Hz 1.316 Hz 1.406 Hz Subspan gallop in another phase? Transfer from another phase. 2.072 Hz 1.316 Hz

Nonlinear Direct Nonlinear Nonlinear Direct Direct Direct

2.49 0.19 2.38 2.91 0.40 0.15 0.014

Direct Nonlinear

0.64 0.27

Figure 4.2-40 Spectrum of conductor tension, Sensor 4, Villeroux, 4 April 1989.

Figure 4.2-41

Eigenmode shapes.

44

4.2.13

Design Dynamic Loads on Towers

The dynamic load on tower is given by the tension variations around the initial value (equilibrium taking into account wind and ice as static load). For the sake of simplicity in this demonstration, we will suppose that the tension is the longitudinal component of a levelled multi-span section, it is supposed constant all along the whole section. (in practice, this is not true because suspension insulator would not move in such situation). This helps to define a unique initial tension T0 for the whole section. N.B. Such hypothesis is NOT used in any simulation method. Tension variation (T) may be obtained by the Hookes law: (E, the conductor young modulus (N/mm2), A the cross section (mm2), L, l are lengths and length variation and K the stiffness (see later))

T =

T EA l = K ev l L K

(2.6)

The change of length in the Hookes is the conductor length change, so that we must subtract the end span movement, related to tower stiffness K (N/m) (the K here is the equivalent of the two end stiffness putted in series). The length to consider is the whole length of the section (all spans between two anchoring tower). Where
L = Ls
s =1 Ns

(2.7a)

and

L 1 1 = + K ev EA K

(2.7b)

In order to find relationship between tension and galloping amplitudes, we have to express the same equation using, to write down l, the modal decomposition in k modes in each span s of the section.
T = K ev Ls
s =1 Ns modes

k =1

k 2L s

2 y s ,k y s2,ko

(2.8)

the ys,k0 is the modal contribution k to the initial sag in the span s. ys , ko = 4mgL2 s 3 (k ) T0
(2.9)

obviously only for k odd (and 0 for k even). The reader may easily verify that for infinite number of k modes, such formula tends to the classical expression of the sag. To better feel the content of the formula (3), we will make some example: Example 1: multi-span of equal length Ls and only one mode is considered.
T = K ev

2 Ns
4L

(y
s

2 s

ys20

(2.10)

or

45

T = K ev

2 Ns
4L

(2 y
s

so

+ ys ys

(2.11)

with ys = ys ys 0 From such a formula the following evidence may be stated: - For the up-and-down mode we have the following relationship: ys = 0 s
(2.12)

So that the second order terms remain (so called non-linear) and the frequency content would clearly be the double frequency of the observed vibration. There will be an offset of the ellipse compared to loaded sag. The tension variations are proportional to the square of the amplitude. For the up-up mode (all spans in phase) both single frequency and double frequency of observed displacement will be present. Tension variations are very large, even for low amplitudes. They are proportional to the amplitude and to the initial sag for limited amplitude level.

N.B. Due to non-linear coupling, most of the up-and-down mode are forcing up-up mode (even if limited in amplitude) which are generating large tension variation. So that most of the case generate both single and double frequency of the observed displacement. Example 2: only a two loop galloping is concerned (apparently) and all section has equal span length. T = K ev

2 Ns
L

span

2 s

(2.13)

So that only second order terms remain and the frequency content would be the double frequency of the observed vibration. The tension variations are proportional to the square of amplitude. N.B. if tension changes occur, there will be automatic non-linear coupling exciting up-up mode on one loop also (limited amplitude). Remark: A multi-span section may have gallop in only some spans. Nevertheless all tension variations are applied to end span anchoring towers. So that observers may not see anything moving significantly at some location despite huge tension variations measured on the tower. The evaluation of tension difference between adjacent spans need to write down equilibrium equation at suspension span and each Dl of each span would include the displacement of suspension insulator. This has been done in ref () and is obviously automatic in finite element simulation as insulator is modelled separately. The frequency content of suspension chain insulator is more complex as it includes the content of both displacement of adjacent spans and conductor tension. It is quite interesting to evaluate the effect of tower stiffness on tension variations. Clearly, all formulas are showing a direct proportionality of tension variation with Kev. defined in equation (2.7b). So that tower stiffness (order of amplitude 106 N/m at transmission level) may have some influence if in the same range as EA/L, L being the section length. Generally tower stiffness has very limited effect, except for extreme cases (and at least for distribution level). Last, but not least, we neglect the dynamic behaviour of the tower (order of amplitude 1 Hz for transmission level), which may not be discarded in some cases. But we never observed such case.

Order of amplitudes of tension variations There are some extremely interesting published papers on the subject, including measurement on site. Obviously we must be cautious about the main differences existing between dead-end cases and multispan cases. 46

Equation (2.11) is giving access to the maximum theoretical value reached for one loop in a dead-end arrangement with amplitude equal to the sag (neglect tower stiffness) (ys = ys0/2)
T = K ev

2 Ns
4L

(2 y
s

so

+ ys ys

(2.14)

Which would be equal to 1.2 times the initial static value for amplitude equal to the sag (means roughly (ys = ys0/2). Such a value has in fact been observed. In all summarized cases, the following tension variation has been observed:
Anchoring level: up to 1.2 times the value without wind Suspension level: up to 1.7 times the value without wind

When the variation is very large, the movement may slightly overpass the sag level, as can be seen on some joined videos and the tension may be completely relaxed at the upper position. But most of the times the tension is not relaxed in multi-span arrangement, even during extremely high amplitude, because up and down exist and the tension in the conductor reflect, as detailed, the whole section length changes, which is never relaxed for all span together, except may be for some dead-end span. Concerning suspension insulator, they have to sustain stronger vertical loads, but they are also submitted to dynamic horizontal loading (due to tension variation in the span). The tensioned insulator have a specific eigenfrequency which may be excited by these horizontal excitations. Such effects may lead in dramatic movement. 5some can be seen in the joined videos). Some corollas of the above evaluations can be stated: Is that the longitudinal loads on anchoring towers, during galloping events may reach 2.2 times the load existing without wind. (but with ice). The vertical load on crossarms (an thus existing in the suspension insulators) due to galloping may reach 2.7 times the load without wind. As there is no reason for synchronism or asynchronism of galloping loads in each phases, both extreme may be reached at different time in the events, so that some anchoring towers with two circuit in vertical arrangement may be submitted to torsional loads induce by a quasi-relaxation on one circuit and the maximum values in each phases of the second circuit.

Havard-2005 ("dynamic loads on transmission line structures during galloping") has catched available measurement in the literature on such tension variation (peak-peak/static) and observed: On longitudinal loads on anchoring towers: factors up to 2.2 on "classical" high voltage line, but observed for short span length (80 m long) in Iceland some extreme cases going up to factor 2.8 on test spans On vertical loads on crossarms : dynamic peak factor always lower than 2 Recommendations: As a conclusion on dynamic load factor, we would recommend, in the absence of detailed simulation able to point out particular cases, to choose the following design values : anchoring level : tension variation during galloping : from 0 to 2.2 times the static value (with ice, no wind) suspension level : vertical load: from 0 to 2 times the static value

47

The risk of anchoring tower torsion has to be analysed as well as the risk in suspension tower related to unbalanced vertical loads between the left and the right hand side of towers (triangle arrangement or double circuit)

48

4.2.14

Protection Methods

There are three main classes of countermeasure employed against galloping: 1. Removal, or preventing formation, of ice on conductors. 2. Interfering with the galloping mechanisms to prevent galloping from building up or from attaining high amplitude. 3. Making lines tolerant of galloping through ruggedness in design, provision of increased phase clearances, or controlling the mode of galloping with interphase ties. Prevention of ice formation, and melting-off of deposited ice, by electrically heating the conductors, were applied as early as the1920s.(4-6) Normal load current is seldom large enough to cause a useful amount of heating, but larger amounts can be obtained by special procedures. One is to route all load in a multi-circuit line through one circuit, so as to keep it free of ice. The other circuits may gallop, but since they are out of service, flashovers cannot occur. Another method is to short-circuit one end of a line, and energize the other end at reduced voltage. Other heating methods that have been tried involve insulation of inner and outer portions of conductors from one another, to concentrate current flow in only part of the conductor and attachment of low Curie-point cylinders at frequent intervals along conductor cross-section, (4-21 The cylinders become efficient as transformers in the neighborhood of 0C, producing large currents in shorted, one-turn secondaries. The heat generated can prevent ice from forming on the span.

Figure 4.2-42 Low Curie-point Alloy Wires [14]

Sleet prevention or melting by increasing the current in conductors is still practiced by some utilities. Special preparations are required. Success in any instance depends upon weather conditions and upon the system load situation. Some systems, where switching options are limited, are not suited to the practice. Some recent development suggest to overimpose DC current on power lines during icing events information. Preventing deposition of ice requires less heating current than does melting it off, and the required current levels are better defined since ice thickness is not a variable. The lower required currents entail less risk of overheating at joints and connections. The possibility of galloping occurring and causing flashovers while melting is in progress is eliminated. Some background will be detailed in Section 4.5 Provision of increased phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground wire clearances is the most widelypracticed countermeasure against galloping. EEIs T&D Committee survey(4-17) found this approach employed by 39 out of the 48 utilities that reported taking active measures to offset the effects of galloping. Vertical clearances are increased the most. Most designers rely upon galloping ellipses in gauging what clearances to use, and feel that very significant reductions in outage rates are achieved. These ellipses, first proposed by A. E. Davison of Ontario Hydro, will be discussed in Section 4.5. New trends in that design have been recently proposed by international experts after deep investigations on more than actual galloping hundreds events analysis. 49

Interphase ties are phase-to-phase insulating struts that are placed at one or more points in a span to enforce phase separation. Galloping is not prevented, but the motion that occurs is forced into a mode that reduces the relative motion of the phases, and thus the likelihood of flashover. Interphase ties have been in use more than 40 years and experience has been quite encouraging. They have been used by 20 of the 48 utilities noted above that reported taking active measures against galloping. Nevertheless some reporting exist of interphase insulators breakage as well as (rare) case of global connected system galloping (in test station). Also some more details are explained in Section 4.5

Figure 4.2-43 Interphase Spacers [15]

Devices that interfere with the galloping mechanisms fall generally into two groups: those that intervene in the energy balance of a galloping span to damp the motions, in a manner similar to that by which Stockbridge dampers control aeolian vibration; and those that seek to control torsional vibrations of the conductors in a manner that prevents large vertical amplitudes from developing.
Table 4.2-7 Title

All these devices are presented in Section 4.5. All trial to increase drag of the conductor or vertical damping have not succeeded. 50

The three most widely used devices are probably air-flow spoiler for single conductor, AR Windamper for single conductor and pendulum for bundle conductors. The earliest, proposed by Richardson,(4-23) was formed essentially of two half cylinders with their convex sides facing one another, separated by a small space. The arrangement has drag characteristics able to help conductor to rotate, over a long enough part of the span, of a certain amount to avoid ice to remain in a Den-Hartog zone of instability. There exists light and heavy device to choose depending on conductor torsional stiffness. This device, particularly well suited to control Den-Hartog type of instabilities, has probably no effect on coupled type of galloping.

Figure 4.2-44 A-R Windamper.

Several devices that seek to intervene in galloping mechanisms operate through control of the conductors torsional motion. Extensions of Den Hartogs analysis to include torsional effects, as well as other theories, have led to hypotheses that vertical galloping can be controlled by preventing torsional motion from occurring, or by inducing torsional motion having a certain phase relationship with the vertical motion. These effects will be discussed further in Section 4.3. Torsion control devices are of four types: those that seek to limit torsional motion by damping; those that seek to control the phase relationship between the torsional and vertical motions; those that seek to control the relationship between the vertical and torsional natural frequencies and more recently those who mixed all these effects. Japanese utilities worked a lot on these mechanisms and have tried many ways of dynamic control of torsion with resonance device (quasi no damping).

Figure 4.2-45Torsionless Galloping Damper

Figure 4.2-46 Torsional Control Device (TCD)

Most of the experience gained with static systems (eccentric massa) have been developed by D. Havard (Canada). An example of detuning type is shown in Figure 4.2-46. It is a simple mass hung as a pendulum from the conductor (but rigidly fixed on it). As we will see later, such eccentric massa may drastically influence both torsional stiffness and, in case of single conductor, span moment of inertia. Applied on single conductor line, for which basic torsional frequency in the absence of ice is much higher than the vertical one (about 7 to 10 times), it decreases that ratio (the effect on inertia is sensibly larger than the effect on torsional stiffness so that torsional frequency will decrease) of a significant amount but afterwards, that new ratio is supposed to remain more or less constant for classical wind speed and ice accretion due to much stronger torsional stiffness.

51

Figure 4.2-47 Detuning pendulum incorporated in single ( two on the left) or bundle(right) conductor spacer. (Photo courtesy of Ontario Hydro).

Applied on bundle conductor, for which basic torsional frequency is very close to vertical frequency (it is a structural effect which cannot be avoided without eccentric massa, independently of the number of conductors, the spacing between subconductors and valid for any tension), such pendulum will also increase both bundle torsional stiffness and bundle moment of inertia, but this last of a very small ratio. So that the effect is opposite compared to single conductors: the torsional frequency will increase. Such device may easily help detuning torsional with vertical frequency, which may be very favorable to suppress some galloping mechanism (if such detuning are larger than about 25%), but Den-Hartog type instabilities will not be affected. These devices have shown promise in tests on the field but only systematic observations exist on pendulums. Interesting application of eccentric massa has been developed in Japan and USA (AR Twister), using similar device that seeks to control the phase relationship between vertical and torsional motions is reported to have shown promise in field tests in Japan. Physically, the device is quite similar to pendulums, but it is mounted with the mass projecting horizontally (or different positions), rather than vertically downward, from the conductor.

Figure 4.2-48 AR twister (left) and Eccentric Weights [15](right).

The most recent development, trying to mix detuning, torsional damping and phase shift between vertical and torsion has been developed by Lilien (1998) and promises have been observed on test lines but few applications exist on the field (see Section 4.5)

Figure 4.2-49 Torsional Damping Detunder.

52

Air-flow spoiler has been introduced to modify the ice shape by changing conductor surface on a significant part of the spans (25% recommended to be recovered)

Figure 4.2-50 Air-Flow Spoiler (AFS).

Last but not least, some countries, especially in Europe have investigated, for bundle conductor line, the despacering (removal of the spacers) for twin conductors with some success for limited diameter conductor line as will be explained in Section 4.5

Figures 4.2-51 Hoop-spacers and Despacered Bundles.

4.2.15

Survey Report on Galloping Control Device

Recently, CIGRE has published a report on galloping control device which is reproduced in this section. The reader who would like to have access to more detailed discussion may go back to a recent publication published by the CIGRE TFG into ELECTRA (ref) We reproduce here the conclusions. The complexity of galloping is such that control techniques cannot be adequately tested in the laboratory and must be evaluated in the field on trial lines. This testing takes years and may be inconclusive. Analytical tools and field test lines with artificial ice are useful in evaluation of galloping risk and appropriate design methods. No control method can guarantee it will prevent galloping under all conditions. Interphase spacers virtually ensure galloping faults will not occur, but do not necessarily prevent galloping. Their usage is growing and their design is undergoing further development. Mechanical dampers to stop vertical motion are still being pursued but to only a very limited extent. Torsional devices, which either detune or increase torsional damping or both, are being pursued and actively evaluated. 53

Techniques which disrupt either the uniformity of ice accretion by presenting a varying conductor cross-section or the uniformity of the aerodynamics by inducing conductor rotation are being actively pursued. Methods of ice removal or prevention are not widely used as specific anti-galloping practices. Despacering or using rotating-clamp spacers is still used extensively in a number of parts of Europe subject to wet snow accretions. For bundled conductors, the influence of the design of suspension and anchoring dead-end arrangements on the torsional characteristics of the bundle and on the occurrence of vertical/torsional flutter type galloping has been recognized.

54

4.2.16

The Particular Case of CATV Cable and Lashed Fiber Optic Cable

Figure 4.2-52 Typical CATV cable (e.g., = 40 mm, di=20 mm).

These kind of cable having a messenger cable placed inside a screen and supported by steel cable may have typical such data : torsional stiffness : 140 Nm2/rad typical sag on 33 m span length : 1.4 m typical traction in the steel conductor : 840 N basic pseudo-one loop mode in vertical : 1 Hz These cable have every day aerodynamic properties like the ones shown on Figure 4.2-53 (courtesy University of Lige) :

55

Figure 4.2-53 Caption to come.

Such curves may help to analyse potential instability on raw cable (no need of any ice deposit) and typical Den-Hartog zone exists in many positions like -150, all area between -30 and +30 and +150. Generally such cable is attached with an angle close to 90 which is not unstable. But wind speed may force some twisting (sometimes with permanent deformation) pushing cable near zero angle, a very unstable position. If such cable is installed in free zone (no obstacle), the danger to get galloping is extremely high and damages are observed on the sheet (made of copper or aluminium) which, as a consequence, will introduce losses of the high frequency signal. It is recommended to install such cable with a twist over the span and if not possible, to install eccentric massa near the mid span to maintain CATV cable in vertical position.

TO BE ADDED : galloping of lashed fiber optic cable

56

4.3 MECHANISMS OF GALLOPING (UNDER REVISION)

Foreword
4.3.1 The Equations of Galloping

The mechanisms of galloping are hidden in the equations governing the phenomenon. These equations have now been detailed in the literature. This foreword will only present two basic equations limited to vertical and torsional movement of power lines conductor (single or bundle). Moreover these equations will be presented in a form readily understandable by linearization around a virtual equilibrium position. Means that the conductor, in presence of wind and ice would go to that position if the system would be stable. Any perturbation from that position will help to understand the possible mechanisms of galloping of power lines. More complex evaluation is done in the literature referred. There are many papers dealing with all details in relation with galloping equations. The reader may found such information in (Kreutgen 1999, Lilien and Ponthot 1988, Lilien and Dubois 1988, Lilien et al 1989, Lilien and Chabart 1995, Wang 1996, Wang and Lilien 1998, Richardson et al. 1963, Nigol and Buchan 1981, Nigol and Clarke 1974, EPRI 1979, Hunt and Richard 1969, Nakamura 1980, Parkinson 19xx, Wang and Lilien 1994) . If it is relatively easy to write down these equations, it must be emphasized that we cannot neglect: Self damping of the conductors, even if very small. These data are relatively close to 0% of critical for the vertical and horizontal movement and 2% for torsional movement. Aerodynamic damping is automatically included in the aerodynamic coefficient (drag mainly (always positive) but also the derivative of lift and pitching moment, these last could be negative values), no more is needed Inertial coupling (the eccentricity of ice induce rotational inertial term in the vertical movement (readily negligible for most of ice shape) and vertical inertial coupling in torsional equation (not negligible), as the rotation is around the shear centre So called inverse pendulum effect which is a static effect on torsional stiffness due to ice eccentricity weight (= mi.g) The aerodynamic effects, which induce some important coupling (due to the derivative of lift and the derivative of the pitching moment) and seriously affect the torsional stiffness too. The vertical frequency is strongly affected by tension variation (thus by amplitude of vibration), which cannot be considered as a constant (taut string model is not valid), as already explained in other chapter. This effect is only active for odd modes (1 and 3 mainly). The torsional frequency is dependent on the torsional stiffness, which is very complex in case of bundle conductor The tension in the conductor (included in the vertical frequency) is not a constant and depends on the amplitude, the kind of modes shapes (several could be present at the same time). Fundamental effect is also that the tension in the conductor is the resultant of the whole section (all spans) movement at a given time. The tension is the variable through which all modes are interrelated and all spans in a section are depending from each other.

57

It is recommended to look for all these details in the literature, but we would like to present here a very simplified case which could be a good base to study the possible instabilities in a vertical-torsion movement. As we are looking for instabilities only (thus not valid to estimate amplitudes), we may limit our investigation to very small movement and make a development limited to first derivatives. For the sake of simplicity, we will also limit the case to one mode only (the mode at a frequency v for vertical and the mode at for torsion). Such a mode may be a section mode, as detailed in chapter 4.2, including the movement in different spans. Lets choose an up and down mode for which tension variation is small enough. The complete equations may be written down right a way, and the corresponding linearised terms are coming out, with our hypothesis. We just use the modal decomposition method to be tuned on one mode under investigation for each of the considered degree of freedom (vertical and torsion here), so that each of the term (including aerodynamic coefficients, sin0, etc. are in fact integral terms taking into account the repartition of these data all along the multi-span section): (angle positive anticlockwise). All notations already defined in Section 4.2
m k U2 k U 2 & && + D 0 (C D C L ) + 2V V y + V y = D 0 C L i d i sin 0 & & y m m m
2 && + 2 + 2 1 k M U 0 C + mi gdi sin = k M U 0 C y + mi di cos && & & M 0 0y I I 2 I M 2 I

(4.1a)

(4.1b)

The instability analysis may be easily evaluated on such a simple non-linear 2 degrees of freedom system. The outputs of such analysis would be (complex eigenvalue analysis): The frequency of the limit cycle, if any (if unstable, there exist a limit amplitude due to nonlinearities, mainly coming from aerodynamic coefficients, but not only). The frequency of the limit cycle is close to v but not equal. The modal shape of the limit cycle which is a combination of vertical and torsional amplitude

All effects cited in this book are summarized on these two equations: limited to vertical movement only, the Den Hartog criterion is transcendent in the damping term of the vertical equation (the critical wind speed may be written directly). The coupling between torsion and vertical is obvious and the change of torsional stiffness with the ice pendulum effect and aerodynamic pitching moment is clearly established. The block diagram of such closed loop system is readily established and the instability conditions can be clearly stated, in which the product CL..CM is playing a major contribution which is also multiplied by the cubic power of the wind speed. The Laplace transform of equations 4.1 a and b are readily obtained as follows : ( a + s 2 a4 ) G ( s) = 2 3 ( s 2 + a1s + a2 ).Y = (a3 + s 2 a4 ). ( s + a1s + a2 ) defining open loop and feedback loop ( sb + s 2b4 ) 2 2 H (s) = 2 3 ( s + b1s + b2 ). = ( sb3 + s b4 ).Y ( s + b1s + b2 )

58

where all a and b coefficients are easily obtained by looking at the basic equations. For example a2 (respectively b2) are the square of the pulsation in vertical direction (respectively torsional). Y and are the Laplace transforms of the vertical and torsional movement. From these transforms, the block diagram of galloping is the feedback loop system as shown in Figure 4.3-1.

(s)

G(s)

Y(s)

H(s)
Figure 4.3-1 Caption to come.

So that the transfer function is Output G = Input 1 G.H the denominator is giving access to characteristic equation. The transfer function may be analysed by any methods offered by system theory, like Bode diagram, Nyquist, Evans or Routh criterion analysis for example. But it is clear that the product G.H is a key factor. The product G.H is introducing the key factor a3.b3, the product of CM.CL.V3. (a4 factor is negligible in practice). If Den-Hartog criterion (a1<0) is not violated, both separate equations have positive damping, but owing to the coupling, the system may become unstable as we already stated out. We will come back on all these points in this chapter.
4.3.2 Estimation of Unstable Conditions

Some parametric studies have been presented in the literature and generally are looking for the stability conditions (or reduced amplitude) drawing the envelope curves given by a constant parameter in the plane of two other parameters. Unfortunately it is very difficult to have a global overview of the influence of 5 parameters (table 1.1 in chapter 4.2) plus self damping, ice position and ice aerodynamic curves. To get some sense, the analysis needs to be performed using the following sequence: With a given wind speed and a given ice profile (means aerodynamic curves), all possible ice position around the conductor are studied (this need to study the static equation in torsion). Inverse pendulum effect as well as pitching moment are both fundamental to study such equilibrium position All found possible static position of ice (in the presence of wind) (some are generally impossible at mid span for strong winds) are studied by stability analysis (complex eigenvalue) and the dangerous ice accretion angle are located, if any. For the most dangerous cases, if suspected to be possible, limit cycle analysis is performed either by energy method (very quick but approximate as it is difficult to include tension variation in such 59

methods, moreover such method are limited to one mode only) or by time response. This last may lead to calculations of a few minutes on actual 3.3 GHz PC as all the section (multi-span generally) has to be analysed with all its modes in vertical, horizontal and torsion (some up-to-date simulation are able to limit the amount of modes par span to be studied). Only time response analysis may give access to appropriate tension variation in the conductor as well as in the suspension insulator chain. Only finite element methods may give access to more complex case, like interphase spacers effects, these last cases have to include travelling waves and some local effect introduced by some retrofit methods. (See f.e.Keutgen 1999) Figure 4.3-2 is giving access to a stability analysis. Referring to Section 4.2 on the galloping parameter, Parameter P2 (bundle separation), P3 (wind speed), P4 (reduce ice inertia) and P5 (conductor span) being given as well as ice eccentricity, the stability analysis is performed in the plane (torsional damping, angle of ice accretion) for different parameter P1 value (detuning). It is remarkable that more or less all position of ice may be unstable. But in fact actual torsional damping is around 2-4% depending on conductor type, spacers used and end span fixation. It results that unstable area for galloping are located around -50 for ice accretion in that case. It is also remarkable to notice that a detuning of 20% would completely remove all unstable area. The detuning may be obtained either with an increase or a decrease of the torsional frequency, both having some different actions. A too large detuning seems to create new unstable area close to 0 (ice facing the wind). The same curves are shifting to stronger galloping problem for higher wind speed as stated in the next Figure 4.3-2 (but the unstable area over -90 disappears).

Figure 4.3-2

Typical instability analysis. Detection of galloping risk for a bundle conductor line. The specific wind speed are given for the case ( = 0.033 m; m = 1.7 kg/m; d = 0.45 m, T/2 = 35 kN; span length = 360 m (4 span section, equal length), sag f = 7.8 m; up and down 0.23 Hz vertical mode, ice thickness of 5 mm, ice density 900 kg/m3). Parameters P1 to P5 as explained o, table 1.1.

4.3.3 Estimation of Galloping Amplitudes and Ellipse Shape

The scientific world has developed numerical tools and analytical tools to study the complete interaction between all the degrees of freedom and including all aspect of a multi-span line. So that we may say that the galloping is now completely covered by its equations which are well known and defined, but the complexity of so many interactions in a real problem make it very difficult to understand everything, even if it is possible to simulate any case. The practical problem is more 60

related to suppress or limit actual galloping by appropriate retrofit method and not to be able to reproduce a specific observation. That is why it is a major concern to simplify equations reasonably to have access to the different kind of instabilities. Nevertheless the numerical or analytical tools developed may help to estimate the efficiencies of the retrofit method used using typical ice shape and appropriate range of wind speed, for all possible ice accretion. The finite element method may even evaluate the efficiencies of interphase spacers as detailed in (Keutgen 1999) But no numerical tool can estimate properly the retrofit method based on ice shape modification, because of the lack of aerodynamic properties of the modified conductor shape all along the spans.

Figure 4.3-3 A typical galloping ellipse in a vertical plane at mid-span, due to coupled flutter, the straight line attached to each square point (all square being spaced by the same time between them, around 0.1 s) is giving access to ice position all around the limit cycle. (calculated by University of Lige using analytical tools).

4.3.4 Basic Mechanisms of Galloping

The basic mechanism of galloping, described by Den Hartog, was outlined in Section 4.2, for a springmounted model constrained to move solely in the vertical plane. Analysis of that mechanism led to the criterion that galloping may occur if L + D 0 with clockwise reference for positive angles D L <= 0 with anticlockwise reference for positive angles (see section 4-2 to locate Den-Hartog zone of unstable case on actual and artificial ice shapes) Since the drag D and lift L are given by (eq1) in 4.2 the criterion may be expressed versus aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag and their derivatives CL + CD 0 (clockwise) CD - CL <= 0 (anticlockwise) where CL = CL / = angle of attack. Inequality (4.3) is known as Den Hartogs criterion. * It is easy to demonstrate that the criterion also applies to a galloping conductor span if it is constrained to motion in the vertical plane, with no torsional motion, and if the wind and ice section are uniform over the length of the span. Den Hartogs method for estimating the maximum amplitude on the basis of energy balance has also been applied to full-span galloping, subject to the same restrictions.
*

(4.3)

Tornqist and Becker4-28 point out that this criterion had actually been derived as early as 1919 in connection with autorotation of airfoils.

61

Considerable effort has been expended over the years in extending Den Hartogs analysis to cover such effects as damping, torsional and swinging motions of spans, and the variations in conductor tension that occur during large-amplitude galloping. This effort has resulted in a repertoire of analyses, some computerized, for making predictions regarding whether particular spans will gallop, under what conditions, and to what amplitudes. Effort has also been directed at verifying the analyses against tests in wind tunnels and on full-span test lines. On the whole, correlation has been good where theory has been tested against experiment in wind tunnel simulations. Correlation has been less evident where full-span galloping in natural wind is involved, however. But, more recently, parametric approach giving envelop of different cases with different ice position may reach better correlation. A detailed discussion of galloping theory is beyond the scope of this volume, since line designers cannot usefully apply very much of it. Some understanding of the main mechanisms at work in galloping is useful, however, and it is the intent of the present section to provide that. It is helpful to approach the discussion with specific questions in mind. The first part of this section will deal with the question when may galloping occur; i.e., under what conditions can galloping of small amplitude build up, rather than decay and disappear? The second part of the discussion will concern the question: if galloping can occur, how severe will it be, how great its amplitudes? The first question involves behavior when amplitudes are small and thus permits the simplifications afforded by linearization. The second question requires consideration of nonlinear effects with their complexities. In much of the discussion, the conductor span, more exactly a specific mode of a multi-span section, will be modelled as a rigid rod hung from springs in such a way that it has one or several of the three degrees of freedom: vertical displacement y (plunging), horizontal displacement x (swinging), and rotation (torsion), as depicted in Figure 4.3-x. In this lumped parameter representation, the springs k1 and k2 are chosen to give natural frequencies in the x and y directions equal to horizontal and vertical natural frequencies for the span in question, and the torsional spring k3 is chosen to reproduce in the model the torsional natural frequency of the span. It must be noted that such configuration has been used in wind tunnel for dynamic testing, noticely by (xxxx, Keutgen 2001,...), using for the rigid rod a piece of power line conductor (last layer fitted on a tube) on which ice accretion is reproduced by synthetic material. The same experiment, by fixing the springs, helps to find out aerodynamic coefficients. In one sense, this model reflect one mode of oscillation of a whole overhead line section, in its three degrees of freedom (a fourth one exist in longitudinal direction but, despite it dramatic importance for tension variation, we may temporarily neglect its influence on galloping inset mechanisms)

62

Figure 4.3-4 Lumped mass model of conductor span.

4.3.5 Effect of Vertical Damping

If the model of Figure 4.3-4 is constrained to purely vertical vibration, without torsional or horizontal motion, then Den Hartogs criterion applies (equation 4.3) . Note that the magnitude of wind velocity is not involved in the criterion. The negative damping forces, due to CL of appropriate sign, and the positive damping, due to the deflection of the drag vector, both vary directly with V2 so if the negative damping overpowers the drag effect at one wind velocity, it does so at all wind velocities. Careful experiments in wind tunnels indeed show galloping down to quite low wind velocities. If mechanical damping is applied, for example by paralleling the vertical springs with dashpots, a force that does not vary with wind velocity comes into play, and stability then depends upon V. The equation of motion for the damped system is (positive anticlockwise): dl . m + q ( CD CL ) + c y+ky=0 V
Where m = mass per unit length of conductor
2

(4.4)

q= V /2 = dynamic pressure c= damping constant of dashpot k= system spring constant l= length of model d = conductor diameter
Classical vibration analysis was concerned with the oscillatory response of linear multiple degree-of-freedom systems excited by periodic forces. Viscous damping is defined for these systems by multiplying the velocity terms by constant coefficients. Structural damping, also called hysteretic seems to give better agreement with the measured responses of large structures for typical low-frequency ranges. Either viscous or structural damping gives reasonable qualitative results for simple non-linear systems, as overhead lines galloping. The damping or dissipative force is not really proportional to the relative velocity in any material, part or system. Equivalent linear damping is found by assuming sinusoidal motion, calculating the energy dissipated by the actual non linear damping force acting through one cycle of the assumed motion, and finding the linear damping coefficient which would give the same energy dissipation. The equation (4.4) is the classical equation for the linear oscillator, which is usually put in nondimensional form as (without aerodynamic terms):

63

y + 2 vv y + v2 y = 0
where :

..

(4.4 bis)

v =

c cc
(so called critical damping)

cc = 2 k .m

v =

k m

the energy loss per cycle is easily evaluated as :


2 D = cv ymax

the equation (4.4 bis) is easily solved to get the amplitude of exponential vibration decays :

y = y0 e vvt sin(v . 1 v2 .t )
the relative amplitude decrement per cycle is :

yn +1 = e v (1 v ) yn where

v = 2 v
is called the logarithmic decrement is called percentage of critical damping there is a ratio of about 6.28 between these two values expressing in a different way the equivalent viscous damping of systems like overhead lines modes. The equation (4.4 bis) may be considered as a modal equation of a whole overhead line section. Order of amplitude of practical values of actual structures for low frequency modes are : Percentage of critical damping around : 0,5% means =0.005 Which, converted into logarithmic decrement, gives = 3% or = 0.03 In overhead lines, the vertical damping (mechanical) is practically zero at galloping frequencies and is reaching significant values over 5 Hz as detailed in the Aeolian vibration chapter. The vertical damping, including aerodynamics (easily obtained by looking at equation (4.4) may be either positive (stable system) or negative (galloping will start). In any case its value grows linearly with the wind speed, increases with the square root of the sag of the span and decrease linearly with the conductor diameter. The value of the damping is given approximately by :

veq 0.12 sag

air .V .(CL + CD ) cable .

(clockwise, one loop up-down mode)

all data in SI system, using meters for sag and conductor diameter and m/s for wind speed. Density of air and conductor have to be expressed in the same unit (f.e kg/m3) The horizontal damping (mechanical) is also close to zero at galloping frequencies, may be obtained by a similar equation as (4.4) but written for horizontal movement, which is using different aerodynamic force components. In that direction it is always a positive damping which is approximately equal to (in the same conditions and units):

heq 0.24 sag

air .V .CD cable .

. Steady galloping is possible when the coefficient of the y term is zero, or


64

V=-

2c pdl ( CD CL )

(4.5)

This relationship is conventionally expressed in the form (MANQUE 2/l)


V 2m = 2 f yd pd CD CL

(4.6)

where is the logarithmic decrement of the system in still air. The dimensionless parameter 2m/ d2 is roughly 3000 to 3500 for commonly-used ACSRs. To illustrate, if the galloping frequency were 0.5 Hz, the conductor were 25 mm in diameter, CD - CL were -1, and were 0.1, the threshold V/fyd would be about 300 and V would be about 3.75 m/s or about 8 mph. Doubling would double the threshold wind velocity. Just how much damping, in terms of , a particular span requires to prevent galloping, depends very strongly upon what wind speeds are anticipated and upon the characteristics of the ice deposit, since those characteristics determine CL and CD Methods for achieving useful levels of damping will be discussed in Section 4.5. For practical reason, nobody until now has found any usable ways to increase the vertical damping at galloping frequencies of an amount which could be of interest. May be one day active control could do that. Dissipation within the conductor caused by its vertical motion is too small to influence galloping behavior, since the long loops associated with galloping result in only slight flexing of the conductor. Due to the fact that actual mechanical damping has been confirmed to be really extremely close to zero, the onset galloping wind velocity may be extremely low. Practically none have been observed at wind speed lower than roughly 4 m/s. As such fact cannot be correlated to possible mechanical source of damping, it must be recognized that another cause may explain the observed onset galloping wind speed. One cause is certainly the fact that a certain wind speed is needed to maintain conductor surface to negative temperature able to fix icing/snow/rime deposit, despite the load flow existing in the conductor. Some others could be (i) the needed wind speed to get ice eccentricity at proper location to generate galloping, which is very seldom possible if it is located at the bottom of the conductor and (ii) last but not least the fact that Den-Hartog galloping is only one cause of galloping, some other mechanisms exist so that the onset conditions will be different and will depend on other structural data which may be , due to non linearities, influenced by the wind.
4.3.6 Torsional Motion

Den Hartogs analysis demonstrated that the sinusoidally varying lift required to sustain galloping could be generated by variations in angle of attack, with respect to the relative wind Vr, caused by the conductors own vertical velocity (see Figure 4.3-x). Variations in angle of attack can also be caused by torsional motion of the conductor. To better understand the influence of torsion, lets come back to the vertical force applied on the conductor arrangement (single or bundle), as shown on the Figure 4.2-11 in Section 4.2 (where all aerodynamic forces are defined). To evaluate possible instabilities, the vertical force acting on the conductor is calculated as follows (have in mind that is negative):

f w = f L cos + f D sin

(2.2)

Where fL is the lift force and depending on the global angle of attack and fD is the drag force (idem). is only a part of the angle of attack, the part which is due to vertical movement only. Instability obviously occurs if a positive vertical push up would see an increase of the vertical force. 65

fW > 0 fW < 0

unstable stable

(2.3a) (2.3b)

To establish the variation of the force, we will make the simplified hypothesis that the drag coefficient is constant and that the angle is very small (which is indeed the case).

f w = f L + f D f L = k D

& y U0

(2.4a)

C L C L ( ) = k D

(2.4b)

C fW = k D CD + L ( )

(2.4c)

So that instability criterions are easy to predict (keep in mind that is negative for an upward movement): Case 1) no torsion (infinitely rigid) = 0 C D C L > 0 stable Therefore the system may be unstable only for C L > 0 and larger than CD. This is the classical Den Hartog criterion, already discussed earlier. But, as we know, the torsion in overhead lines could never been supposed to be rigid, in fact a several hundred of meters beam with a diameter of a few centimetre is obviously non rigid in torsion. For bundle conductors, the torsional stiffness is dependent on the tension in the subconductor and the spacing in the bundle as well as the number of subconductors and the spacers used. Bundle conductor torsional stiffness (several thousand of N.m2/rad) are two orders of amplitude larger than that of single conductor (a tenths to some hundreds of N.m2/rad), but the bundle line has a resonance between vertical and torsional mode so that torsion is easy during dynamic movement. Due to practical data, single conductor lines have a ratio of 5 to 10 between torsional frequencies and vertical ones (torsion being higher). As galloping frequency will be close to vertical one, the torsion of single conductor will have very limited dynamic action and can be reduced, in a first attempt, to quasistatic behaviour, means that the left hand side of the torsional equation may be reduced to its stiffness term (neglecting inertial and damping term). Thus, for single conductor, the torsion is forced by the vertical movement and is in phase with the vertical speed of the conductor, the amplitude being dependent of the pitching aerodynamic moment and some structural data. For bundle conductor, the torsion is in resonance with vertical movement so that phase shift between the two movements may cover all the range and the amplitude may be large. Case 2)
0

two cases:

in phase with vertical velocity (the case of single conductor) (=.)

the criterion is not change compared to Den Hartog but the derivative of lift is increased by the coupling so that a lower drag may cause instabilities.

CD CL .( + 1) 0 (positive anticlockwise)
66

(once again : To be in phase with velocity for torsion means a forced movement with no inertial effects. It would need a large difference between vertical and torsional frequencies, which will be possible only for single conductors with very thin ice deposit).

in opposite phase with velocity (may be one particular case of bundle conductor) ( may be negative)

The criterion is completely modified. Instability may occur even if C L < 0 , but non only. In this case the phase shift (vertical/torsion) play an important role, this last being strongly related to torsional damping and the proximity of resonance. This last case is called coupled flutter galloping for electrical engineering. It is opening the scope to completely different mechanisms as the derivative of lift is no more needed to have the sign of Den-Hartog instability criterion

We may complexify easily such situation by introducing horizontal movement, limit cycle frequency (which is close to vertical one but not equal), etc This can be managed by computer but experts have not found significant discrepancies with the theory explained here over. Some new kind of instabilities (horizontal/torsion) may occur but the physics remain similar.

Figure 4.3-5 Combined vertical and torsional motion, with amplitudes out of and in phase.

Of course many other torsional behavior is possible most of them may lead to galloping unpredictable by Den-Hartog criterion. The phase shift between torsion and vertical movement is a major factor for these new mechanisms. Of course the amplitude of torsion is also a key factor. must be negative but also of enough amplitude. The factors behind torsional amplitude are driven by:

resonance between vertical and torsional movement (we are obviously speaking here about frequencies in the presence of wind and ice, both factors which have dramatic influences on overhead lines dynamics due to strong non linearities). Most of the time, resonance could only occur for bundle conductor lines. pendulum effect of the ice (the center of gravity of ice deposit is not coincident with conductor share center), which is a static influence on torsional stiffness. Just like an eccentric massa. Such availability of rotation in the presence of eccentric mass is obviously depending on the location around the conductor. If on the bottom part, the rotational stiffness is increased, if on the top of the conductor, the rotational stiffness is decreased. Inertial effect of the ice (the mass of ice, eccentric to the share center, is accompanied by an inertial force during conductor acceleration.) 67

Aerodynamic effect of the ice (the presence of ice generates a pitching moment) which may also favor either to decrease or increase the torsional stiffness of the conductor. For example, in the presence of strong wind, independently of the three first actions here above, it is obviously extremely difficult to maintain large eccentric ice in front of the wind.

All these effects are clearly highlighted in the basic equations of galloping given in the foreword of this chapter. We will see that galloping in most of cases is what is called a limit cycle in the theory of non linear systems. It means that , after the onset of the instability (which is driven by the Den Hartog criterion or other mechanisms), the system will lock on one mode of oscillation (may be several could occur simultaneously) which mixes different degrees of freedom (very often vertical and torsion for example, but many often with some extra horizontal movement). All these movements will then be locked on the same frequency, that frequency being the result of some complex interactions, but in our world of overhead lines, the limit cycle frequency is generally very close to vertical frequency, but not strictly equal. The system is then moving to large amplitude (being unstable, the wind is able to inject its energy into the movement) until some non linearities will limit the amplitude to a given value: the galloping ellipse is then reached and the movement may remain in such movement during a very long time. To limit amplitude at a certain value means that some mechanisms act to balance the energy input by the wind by something else which must be a dissipation of energy. We know actually that the main mechanism which act to limit amplitude is not, as some authors thought, the tension changes in the conductor (which may be dramatic for towers , conductors and hardware). The mechanism of limiting the amplitude is in fact in the aerodynamic itself. As amplitude is growing the change of angle of attack is increasing during one cycle (amplitude is growing, means conductor velocity is growing, thus angle of attack range of variation is increasing as stated in equation 4-7), thus the aerodynamic lift, drag and moment (including their derivatives) cannot obviously be considered as a constant, like we did for evaluation Den-Hartog criterion. These changes of the aerodynamics will progressively avoid wind energy input in more and more parts of the movement until a balance is obtained: the galloping ellipse is reached. As an example, we are presenting the case if the vertical and torsional motions have the same frequency with phase shift of a given angle (and if the motion is steady, means that the limit cycle is reached)

y = ymax sin( t )

= max sin( t + )
. y=Ymax cos( t )
It has been shown by (Keutgen, 1999) that in such case, and providing that Den Hartog criterion is not violated (means a positive value of the criterion), the necessary condition to get the system unstable is: (CD CL )
where

ymax
U0

< CL .max .sin

is in fact the amplitude of the part of the angle of attack due to the speed of the vertical U0 motion (see Figure 4.2-11 of Section 4.2). There is a clear need of appropriate sign a derivative of lift, coupled with phase shift with torsion and amplitude of torsion.

ymax

68

Figure 4.3-6 Combined vertical and torsional motion, with amplitudes in quadrature.

Now the amount of -motion that actually occurs and its phase are determined by the balances of forces, aerodynamic and mechanical, acting in the system. Once again if we go back to basic equations (see foreword) which are showing the basic forces and moment acting on the conductor, the right hand side of torsional equation are showing two terms :

the aerodynamic pitching moment effect the inertial coupling effect

But the torsional stiffness is strongly influenced also by aerodynamic pitching moment and inverse pendulum effect (static effect of ice). To evaluate torsion vertical phase shift is particularly complex in dynamic case (when torsion frequency is close to vertical frequency) where each case is possible. That is clearly the case of bundle conductors. But in practice, for single conductor lines, the ratio vertical to torsional frequency is quite high (over 5) so that torsional movement, during galloping (at a frequency close to vertical one) may be reduced to its stiffness term. Depending on the relative importance of pitching moment term (which increases quickly with wind speed) or inertial term the phase shift will be a quadrature or in/out of phase. This last case is shown on Figure 4.3-7.

69

Figure 4.3-7 Combination of vertical and torsional motion, resulting from eccentric ice load, when torsional damping is absent.

4.3.7 Influences of Conductor Self-Damping in Torsion

Actually, stranded conductors possess significant self damping for torsional motion, even at the low frequencies encountered in galloping. Edwards and Madeyski(4-9) report experimentally-determined torsional energy loss factors (log decrement) in the range 0.15 to 0.20 in typical conductors. More recent testing presented in CIGRE brochure on galloping, confirmed torsional damping close to 2% up to 4% of critical damping in torsion at galloping frequencies. The effect of this torsional damping is to make the -motions lag those that would occur in the absence of damping. For example, the response shown in Figure 4.3-7(a) with no torsional selfdamping becomes that of Figure 4.3-8 with it. If we define eccentricity to be positive when the center of gravity lies upwind of the conductor axis, and retain the sign conventions of Figure 4.3-4, then a wind from the left in Figure 4.3-8 indicates that the displacement acquires, through damping effects, . a component in phase with y . Figure 4.3-8 is sketched for the ft > fy and, for wind from the left, e > 0. Other assumptions relative to wind direction and frequency ratio lead to the following table . showing which way the working component of lies in phase relative to y .

Figure 4.3-8 Combination of vertical and torsional motion, resulting from eccentric ice load, when torsional damping is present (ft < fy). has component in phase with e<0 e>0 ft > fy ft < fy

+y y

y +y

Now the importance of these -responses is that they may shift the conditions under which galloping may occur relative to those obtaining in the absence of torsional response. The -responses may, in fact, permit entirely new instabilities. The former may be illustrated by the case where galloping would occur without torsional response under Den Hartogs criterion: 70

CD - CL < 0. Since CD is always positive and roughly equal to one, a substantially positive slope CL is required (angle positive anticlockwise) for galloping to occur. If, however, torsional motion did occur with ft > fy, and if the ice lay to leeward (e < 0), then there would be a -response having a . component in phase with y That -component would reduce the excursions in angle of attack of the ice section with respect to the relative wind (Equation 4.7), more or less as depicted in Figure 4.3-x. That reduction could reduce the amplitude of the lift force per Equation (4.8) enough that the damping effect of CD could not be overcome, and galloping would not be possible. A more positive value of CL would be required to permit galloping with the torsional motion than that indicated by Den Hartogs criterion.
Conversely, if the ice lay to windward (e > 0) in the above case, the excursions in would be amplified by the -motions, and a less positive value of CL would be required.

71

Instability in the form of flutter, not visualized in the Den Hartog analysis, may arise from the mechanical coupling of y- to -motion. As noted in Section 4.2, positive values of are stabilizing; i.e., they tend to damp out purely vertical motions. However, if the -motion are in phase with and large . enough relative to y / V (see Equation 4.8), the phase of the lift force L may be reversed, such that it sustains, rather than damps, the motion in the y direction. ft > fv, e < 0 and CL < 0 would correspond to such a case.
4.3.8 Influence of Ratio of Torsional to Vertical Natural Frequency

For typical conductors, the positions of the stability boundaries depend most upon wind speed, V, the ratio of torsional to vertical natural frequency ft / fv and upon the conductors torsional damping loss factor . Need some inputs

The effect of frequency ratio ft / fy is illustrated in Figure 4.3-x. Although ft / fy for bare conductors that are rigidly supported at towers falls generally in the range 6 to 10, several effects can reduce it.(4-30) One is the inverted pendulum effect illustrated in Figure 4-29. Without ice or wind, the torsional natural frequency is determined by the mass moment of inertia of the conductor about the pivot and by the constant of the torsion spring. With ice deposited on the top of the conductor, the center of gravity of ice plus conductor lies above the pivot, and the torsional natural frequency is reduced. If enough ice is deposited, the system may be statically unstable and the conductor may twist to a new at-rest positon with the ice deposits center of gravity somewhere below the altitude of the conductor axis. The inverted pendulum effect comes into play whenever the center of gravity of the ice deposit falls above the altitude of the conductor axis, and is strongest when the deposit is directly on top. Calculations based upon a derivation by Nigol and Havard(4-31) indicate that a deposit of only 4 mm thickness over the top surface of a 25 mm diameter conductor would halve the torsional natural frequency of a 250 m (820 foot) span. The thickness required to do this varies roughly as the square of conductor diameter and inversely as the square of span length. Most ice deposits do not fall exactly on top of the conductor, so the frequency reduction usually is more modest but may still be significant. Even with no inverted pendulum effect, the increase in the mass moment of inertia from the ice deposit causes some (very small in fact) reduction in torsional frequency. The vertical natural frequency is also reduced by the mass of the ice, but usually of a very small amount. The frequency ratio ft / fy may also be altered by direct aerodynamic action of the wind. This can occur when the aerodynamic center, through which the drag and lift forces act, does not coincide with the conductors axis. This is illustrated in Figure 4.3-x, and the situation depicted results in an aerodynamic moment about the axis.

72

Figure 4.3-9 Model illustrating inverted pendulum effect.

Figure 4.3-10 Illustration of displacement of aerodynamic center from center of gravity of iced conductor.

The aerodynamic moment has been defined and its interaction with torsional stiffness already point out: it could be an increase or a decrease depending on ice location. The aerodynamic moment varies with angle of attack , just as the lift and drag forces do. The effect upon the torsional vibration of the conductor about its axis is the same as that of attaching a torsion spring, additional to k3 of Figure 4.3-4, having spring constant (as can be seen on the basic equations of galloping in the foreword) :

-dM = qd 2 CM d
Where CM = dCM/d.

(4.13)

If CM positive, the net torsional spring constant will be reduced, and thus the torsional natural frequency will be also. To illustrate, again based upon Nigol and Havards derivation, the torsional natural frequency about the conductor axis (y motion restrained) would be halved by a value of CM of about 0.34 under the following conditions:
V = 10 m/s, d = 25 mm, span length = 250m.

Such values of CM are apparently within the range of practical interest. It should be noted, however, that for this model and most others that have been tested, CL and CM are roughly similar in shape, so CL and CM usually have the same sign. Thus CM would have the effect of reducing ft / fy in the upper part of Figure 4.3-x in most cases, but would usually increase it in the modified Den Hartog region of the lower part of the figure. Must explain here the fact that effect on frequencies must include first the evaluation of the stationary position of ice in the presence of wind, which may drastically change the effects on frequencies, in such a way that frequencies collapse is no more possible for single conductors. From a practical standpoint, most ice deposits reported during galloping are thin enough that e/d is expected to fall generally in the range 0.05 to 0.2. Thus, with reference to Figures 4.3-x to 4.3-x, the effects of the vertical-torsional couplings are expected to be significant in at least some cases

The torsional coupling due to eccentricity not only changes the boundaries of the regions of instability, but also alters the degree of instability within regions. This is illustrated in results of wind tunnel model tests reported by Chadha.(4-33) The model tested was essentially that of Figure 4-18 with ft / fy = 2.5, = .006, and V / fyd =180. CL was negative in the angle-of-attack range -5 < < 20, with the most negative value about -3. Figure 4.3-x shows rates of decay, ( > 0) or buildup ( < 0) for three values of e / d. Substantially more rapid buildup was found for more positive values of e /d.
73

It is not necessarily true that the maximum amplitude achieved will be greater, however. This point will be discussed later.

Figure 4.3-11 Model of iced conductor. Reference 4-33.

Figure 4.3-12 Effect of eccentricity of ice deposit upon buildup rate, as found in wind tunnel model test. Negative log decrement indicates buildup, positive indicates decay.

4.3.9

Purely Torsional Self-Excitation

A different torsion-effect mechanism than that outlined above has been suggested by Nigol and Clark.(4-30) The mechanism described above relied upon coupling of the vertical and torsional motions to produce either modified Den Hartog galloping or binary flutter. In the former case, torsional motion 74

merely modified what is basically a vertical instability, while in the latter case both vertical and torsional motions were necessary for instability to occur. Nigol and Clarke suggest that iced conductors may become unstable and oscillate purely in torsion, without the need for vertical motion. The existence of purely torsional instability has been demonstrated through wind tunnel tests in connection with suspension bridges(4-84)and for models of iced conductors,(4-46) although the aerodynamic mechanism bringing the instability about is not yet clear. The recent view on these mechanisms, only observed in wind tunnel testing are based on the fact that CM may introduce negative damping in the torsional motion, as detailed in (Wang 1996). If this may produce instability when torsional damping is extremely low, this has no practical interest as on actual line torsional self-damping is most of the time larger that the amount required for classical ice shape. Such galloping, if any, could be suppressed by preventing the torsional instability through extra torsional damping.
4.3.10 Horizontal Motion

We have considered above the interaction of torsional and vertical motions of the conductor. Torsional motion may also couple with horizontal swinging motion through the variations in drag induced by CD = dCD/d Vertical and horizontal motions may also couple through and in fact all three motions, vertical, horizontal and torsional, may become coupled. The effects of horizontal conductor motions are thought to have considerably less practical upon the likelihood and expected severity of galloping than the vertical and torsional motions, and will not be pursued here. The reader is referred to the published work of McDaniel,(4-33) Richardson et al.,(4-35, 4-36) and Chadha(4-33) for three-degree of freedom analysis. The recent view is different from the observations done in the seventies. In fact numerous observations, mainly in Japan, have pointed out natural galloping with more horizontal movement , or figure 8 (horizontal) galloping limit cycles, but quasi exclusively on large bundle conductors (4 conductors and over, sometimes with huge bundle diameter, up to 2 meters in extreme cases). As these cases are refereeing to geometry which are not worldwide used, we will remain focused on vertical galloping, which some limited horizontal movement.
Un exemple de galop horizontal (papier Yamaguchi) 4.3.11 Ice Characteristics and the Incidence of Galloping

As noted in Section 4.2 the thickness, shape and weight of ice deposited on a conductor is influenced by a number of meteorological factors, as well as by the conductors size and the current it is carrying. There is thus considerable variety in ice deposits found in the field. It can be expected that the varied deposits found from storm to storm, line to line and in- deed span to span will have different aerodynamic characteristics representable by different combinations of CL and e (among other parameters). Unfortunately, little data (only one published Yamaguchi 2005) exist on aerodynamic characteristics of conductors with actual ice deposits. But the videos on galloping (distributed with this book) are including some good views of some of them. And a recent Japanese overview of galloping observations during last 30 years are giving some additional data. One hundred and twenty four (124) cases of height and shape of the ice were observed. Table 4.3-1 shows observation data of shape of ice and height.
Table 4.3-1 Number of Incidents and Height of Ice

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Shape

Triangle Triangle with 3 1 34 2 4 0 tip round Crescent 23 0 1 0 1 0 Others 7 0 1 Note: * Ratio with the conductors = height of ice / the conductors diameter

Height of Ice ( Ratio with the conductors*) 0 ~ 0.5 0.5 ~ 1.0 1.0 ~ 2.0 2.0 ~ windward leeward windward leeward windward leeward windward leeward 9 10 8 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 12 0

Ici photo Yamaguchi-Yukino

There are certainly not enough such data to develop probability distributions of, for example, CL. Yet it is such probability distributions, acting through the dynamic characteristics of exposed spans, that determine the likelihood of galloping occurring.

The distribution of actual CL,, e/d combinations influences the expected benefit of different galloping control devices. Clearly the actual distribution of CL, e/d is of direct interest in connection with predicting the probability of galloping, given the approach of a glaze storm, and in connection with assessing proposed protection methods. As noted, data are lacking. Opinion of researchers in the field, although certainly not unanimous, is generally as follows:
1. Ice builds up on the windward side of the conductor, making e > 0, unless the wind reverses direction. 2. The wind reverses direction in a minor fraction of glaze storms, this case will easily generate galloping of Den-Hartog type on any kind of ice. This is a particular difficult case to be controlled. (on the Japanese enquiry 20% of the cases were observed with leeward ice) 3. The absolute value of e / d is usually less than 0.5. (in the Japanese enquiry only 50% of observations have such ratio)
4.

Both positive and negative values of CL occur, perhaps with about equal probability.

There are widely differing opinions as to the magnitudes of CL positive and negative, that are achieved in nature. The rapid overview of typical case shown in xxxx, all being in the range of Japanese investigations, are showing very few windward position with Den-Hartog criterion verified, as already stated. It is felt that CL may change in a particular span during the ice buildup, due to twisting of the conductor under the eccentric weight of the ice deposit and taking into account wind speed effect. Referring to Figures 4.3-x to 4.3-x, which pertains to natural ice section (of progressively increased eccentricity), the initial angle of attack, early in the storm, would correspond to the angle of impingement of the droplets, possibly near 60 to the horizontal (where close unstable Den-Hartog area exists but only for large eccentricity). In this vicinity, CL would be positive (reference positive anticlockwise). With buildup, the conductor could (depending on wind speed) twist toward other angle , going through a range where CL is strongly changing in value and sign (from -3 to +3). Thus, galloping could start during glazing and could cease before glazing stopped. A larger, torsionally lighter span might twist enough to take out of the appropriate range of unstable Den-Hartog zone and might thus experience short galloping 76

period. A shorter, torsionally stiffer span might not twist enough to take out of the dangerous zone near -60, and therefore might suffer prolonged galloping. The situation of Figure 4.3-x (D-shape) is completely different as far as it concerns unstable zones of potential galloping. These observations are dramatically influenced by the wind speed action which may force the ice position to be completely out of its position without wind, due to the aerodynamic pitching moment acting on it. For example, depending on torsional stiffness (thus single conductor would behave completely differently from bundle conductors) it would simply be impossible, in the case of low torsional stiffness, for the conductor to twist the ice in a position below the wind direction. This is of course depending on a complex mix of wind speed, ice eccentricity (thus ice aerodynamic properties and its density) and conductor torsional stiffness. The next subchapter is giving a quick overview of these aspects. Obvious cases are bundle conductors, generally having very strong torsional stiffness (compared to acting forces), so that in these cases the ice buildup procedure will generally occur on the upper quadrant facing the wind. This is not true for single conductors.
4.3.12 Ice Position along the Span

It is not correct to suppose that a given ice accretion angular position is equal all along the span. Except for very short span or some bundle conductors. For single conductors, such position varies significantly from anchor to mid-span. The influence of the mean wind speed and inverse pendulum effect is dramatic, even based on a pure static approach. In this short subchapter, we will introduce the problem in a particular simple hypothesis: Lets suppose first that ice accretion is created instantaneously all along the span at the same position = ice and, then, lets the gravity and wind acting on it, in a pure static approach (wind is constant, no inertial effect, just look for static equilibrium position in the presence of gravity and wind forces). Only torsion is considered here. The equation governing the position of ice along a span is given by:

d 2 = k M U 02CM ( ) + mice gd ice cos( ) dz

where is the conductor torsional stiffness z is the coordinate oriented from one end to the other of the span (z = 0 at the origin and z = L at the end) is the actual position of ice at abscissa z ((0) = initial position of ice on rigid structure = ice) the two right hand side terms are : the first one is the aerodynamic pitching moment acting on ice, with CM the aerodynamic coefficient and U0 the wind speed the second term is the inverse pendulum effect of ice with mice the mass of ice, dice is the distance between the conductor shear centre et the ice centre of gravity, g the gravity constant (9.81 m/s2) It is relatively easy to solve that equation with the two conditions :

(0) = ice
77

and

d = 0 (at mid span, means z = L/2) dz


The influences may be inserted in two dimensionless parameters:

P2 =

L2 k M U 02

and P5 =

L2 mice gdice

And the general view of the ice repartition along the span can be seen on the Figure 4.3-13, giving ice position at the mid-span versus ice position at the end of the span.

Figure 4.3-13 evaluation of ice position along the span with existing aerodynamic pitching moment (curve Nigol). In abscissa the ice position at anchoring level, in ordinates, the ice position at the mid-span. (angle positive anticlockwise)

This graph is quite interesting, clearly showing that a classical single conductor (e.g. Drake on a 488 meters span, external diameter 28.2 mm, stringed at 40 kN. The Drake conductor has a torsional stiffness around 170 N.m2/rad), if we avoid any inverse pendulum effect (P5 inactive), the simple evidence of aerodynamic pitching moment gives a P2 around 3 as soon as the wind speed is over 2 m/s for ice thickness near 10 mm.(elliptic shape). That means that a lot of position of ice cannot occur in any circumstances near mid-span, for any accretion angle (which is the position at anchoring level), as soon as wind is blowing. These potential positions (which could obviously exists in the absence of wind) would be pushed by the wind in other region. The inverse pendulum effect is still emphasizing the case (P5 active). Moreover ice accretion in the upper quadrant (0 to -90) are pushed near 180 close to Den-Hartog area.

78

The situation is completely inverse in case of bundle conductor (curve 1), which is at least one order of amplitude larger in its torsional stiffness (e.g. a twin Drake conductor with 45 cm separation would give a torsional stiffness close to 4000 N.m2/rad). The P5 parameter has no effect on curve 1. The shape of the aerodynamic pitching moment has a dramatic impact on that curve, but we have seen that the shape of that curve, if amplitudes may be quite different, the global shape would remains the same. Last but not least, these last explanations are taking into account a very simplified case. The actual case would have to include ice accretion procedure (during which wind and gravity are also acting) which may obviously also include some rotation of the conductor. And, in case of movements, ice inertial effect may also force additional dynamic rotations which may install ice eccentricity in other positions which would react differently in presence of wind forces. As a conclusion it may be said that ice accretion shape all along the span is a very complex feature. If for classical bundle conductor (classical means bundle with spacers rigidly connected to the subconductors, each subspan having typical subspan length, around 40 to 60 m) the eccentricity of ice is probably rather uniformly distributed owing to the much stronger torsional stiffness and distributed spacers, the situation is much more complex on single conductor lines. In these last cases, we cannot consider separately the ice position in presence or in absence of the wind. Some devices attached on the line (those with eccentric massa, compared to conductor centre of gravity f.e.) may drastically change the torsional stiffness of single conductor, thus completely affect the accretion procedure and the possible position of ice in presence of the wind. It is thus of extreme importance to well understand the torsional behavior of power line conductors.
4.3.13 Estimation of Conductor Torsional Stiffness

Some details on torsional stiffness of bundle conductors are explained in Chapter 7. The torsional stiffness GJ is defined by the following equation:

GJ

d 2 = M ( z) dz

where M(z) is a torque on the span at abscissa z, which can be distributed or localized. GJ is given by analogy with beam theory where G is the slipping modulus and J the moment of inertia in torsion. is an intrinsic data of the conductor. For power lines conductors, the fact that the conductor is made of assembled wires (most of times round wire shape) need experimental approach. By analogy with beam theory, we know that the parameters behind the torsional stiffness are the diameter (at a power 4 for cylindrical beam), the shape, the slipping modulus. Most conductors have round external shape and are made of aluminum on most of their (active) layers for torsion. So that a simplified approach could consider the diameter at a power x as the only variable of interest.

If that equation is applied to the simple case of a concentrated torque C applied at mid-span (of length L), the corresponding angle of rotation at mid-span is simply given by the classical formula :

L / 2 =

C.L 4GJ

Single Conductor

79

The torsional stiffness of single conductor has been manifold studied in the literature. There is one global overview presented by (Lilien-Wang 1998) summarizing 87 experimental measurement performed in many different countries, which is summarized in Figure 4.3-14.

Figure 4.3-14 torsional stiffness of single conductor mixing ACSR, AAAC with new and old (more than 30 years) conductors. Based on 87 tests from Belgium, France, Canada, Japan, USA. Only round wires conductors. Two curves fit are shown. Where as a summary and good approximate for practical standard cable (diameter between 12 and 60 mm, AAAC, ACSR, round wire shape) can be estimated by the simple formula:

GJ = = 0.00028 4 ( in Nm2/rad if the diameter is given in mm)


Large discrepancies may occur for old conductors (some 30 years old conductor tests showed up to 2 times that value). Other conductor than round wire shape (like trapezoidal or z shape) have also much stronger torsional stiffness (z shape new conductor tests showed up to 2 to 3 time higher torsional stiffness, depending on stranding and number of z shape layers). As an example, a Drake (ACSR 470 mm2, diameter of 28.2 mm) conductor has a torsional stiffness of :

= 0.00028(28.2) 4 = 177 Nm 2 / rad


It is clear from the Figure 4.3-14 the power 4 of the diameter remains valid, as for the beam theory.
Bundle Conductors

The basic torsional stiffness, as explained in Chapter 7, of a bundle of n subconductors is given by GJ = n( + r 2 .T ) where r is the radius of the bundle (the diameter of the bundle is the diameter of the circle on which all subconductors are placed, for classical bundle) and the intrinsic torsional stiffness of one 80

subconductor (see single conductor of this subchapter). T is the mechanical tension in each subconductor. In SI unity system, is in Nm2/rad, r in meter and T in Newtons. Such simple formula is thus generating a very much larger value compared to single conductor : mechanical tension is playing a dramatic increasing effect. As an example, a twin Drake conductor with 0.45 m bundle diameter and a 40 kN tension in each subconductor will give a bundle torsional stiffness of : 2(177 + (0.45 / 2) 2 .40000) = 4400 Nm 2 / rad which is 26 times larger than the single Drake conductor. The torsional stiffness on bundle conductor is unfortunately not such simple. It can even be larger (twice that value is easily possible) depending on end-span conditions (yoke plate arrangement). That is because tension differences may appear between subconductors, depending on end span arrangement (yoke plate). The physics are explained in Chapter 7, including subspans collapses. In this chapter we will limit torsional angle less than collapse as the design must be such than collapse has to be avoided, even if some galloping may cause bundle collapse due to large torsional movement. The torsional stiffness of bundle conductor is definitely no more linear. It depends on conductor tension which is changing during galloping. But for small movement (in any direction including torsion) the tangent stiffness may be used. That is particularly valid for evaluating basic oscillation modes of the power line.
4.3.14 Influence of Eccentric Massa on the Line

To limit complexities, we will suppose that the additional massa is installed vertically on the lower part of the conductor arrangement (single or bundle), at a distance lpi of the center of gravity of the conductor arrangement (just like a pendulum). That massa is rigidly fixed to conductor arrangement, so that rotation of the conductor arrangement will force all the system to rotate and the massa will rotate of the same angle. Some simplified evaluation of the additional torsional stiffness on each different mode k due to different Np massa mpi located at different place zpi on the span L can be given by (g is the gravity constant) :

k z pi 2 ) m pi l pi g sin 2 ( L GJ add = L 2 1 k L For example, a single vertical pendulum of 6 kg with an arm of 0.2 m placed at mid span (L= 400 m, Drake single conductor) is giving an increase of the torsional stiffness for the first mode (k=1) of about: 2 200 (6).(0.2).(9.81) sin 2 ( ) 1 400 400 = 955 Nm 2 / rad GJ add = 2 1 400
Np

81

which is quite impressive compared to single conductor intrinsic stiffness of 170 Nm2/rad. The same case has obviously no impact on mode 2 torsional stiffness (the sinus, with k=2, will give a zero contribution), etc This is clearly emphasizing the extreme importance of added eccentric massa on power lines cable.

4.3.15

Estimation of Galloping Amplitudes

When conditions are such that a span is unstable, its amplitude will increase until nonlinearities prevent further buildup, and amplitude will then become steady at the limit cycle amplitude. If that amplitude is great enough, flashover may occur (between phases or between phases and ground wires), or the forces applied to supports by the galloping may cause mechanical damage. It is thus of considerable interest to determine the magnitudes of limit cycles. It is nowadays established that the nonlinearities (many of them exist) which are really driven the limit cycle amplitude is NOT the mechanical tension variation in the conductor but well the non linearities coming form the aerodynamic curves. In fact by increasing amplitudes, the variation of angle of attack is increasing as a consequence (as the angle of attack includes the conductor speed). So that during a cycle of oscillation, the angle of attack is varying in a range which is increasing around its initial value. To clarify thinks, imagine we are in a Den-Hartog zone, means the system is unstable and amplitude is growing. Imagine that we are in the case of Figure 4.2-15 (Section 4.2-15 4.2) around 180 angle of attack. The wind speed is supposed to be 10 m/s. The system is, for example, in a single one loop mode (say at around 0.5 Hz). The amplitude cycle is supposed to be a pure sine wave, purely vertical (no torsion, no horizontal movement).

y = ymax sin y t
then

. y =yymaxcosyt

(4.15)

The excursions in angle of attack become

. = tan1 y /V

(4.16)

These excursions in are growing with the vertical speed, means that, around initial angle of attack (say 180 as stated above), any conductor position (in the vertical oscillation) has its own speed thus its own angle of attack :
Application :

ymax = 0.4m

= 2 f = 2 (0.5) = 3.14rad / s
& ymax = (3.14).(0.4) = 1.25m / s

= 7
so that angle of attack is changing from (180-7)=173 to (180+7)=187. In that range the Den-Hartog criterion is still violated so that energy transferred by the wind to the vertical movement is still positive.
82

But as the amplitude is growing, there will be obviously a range of angle of attack variation in which the Den-Hartog criterion will no more be verified so that energy transferred by the wind to the power lines is decreasing and progressively (as amplitude is still growing) coming to a zero balance. At that moment, there are part of the cycle during which energy is injected in the system and other parts of the cycle during which energy is extracted from the system. The equilibrium of these two parts exists for a particular amplitude : the limit cycle amplitude. (the galloping ellipse).

In other words, large amplitudes may penetrate beyond the range where CL has a linear variation with . or with y , such as the region ab in Figure 4.3-x. When that occurs, the equation for the periodic qdI & ( CD -CL ) y is no longer sufficiently accurate. The excursions V in may also extend beyond linear regions of the CM versus and CD versus characteristics. Furthermore, the wind speed relative to the conductor is no longer well-approximated by V, since the component of vertical force Fy =

& contributions of y to Vr = V 2 + & 2 may be significant. Finally, the changes in direction of the lift and y drag forces shown in Figure 4-5 cannot be accounted for by ( is negative):
Fy L + D
but must be represented by

Fy L cos + D sin

(4.17)

In many studies, limit cycle amplitudes have been estimated on the basis of energy balance. For example, for purely vertical motion of the model in Figure 4.3-x, the energy per cycle imparted to the conductor by the wind is
E = Fy ( ,V ) & ydt
T o

(4.18)

where T is the period of one cycle. When the above large-amplitude effects are taken into account, the expression for Fy becomes

Fy =

dl (V 2 + 2 ) CL ( ) cos + CD ( ) sin
(4.19)

(1 + tan2 ) CL ( ) cos + CD ( ) sin 2 This is usually written


Fy = qdl C y ( ) ( 1 + tan 2 )

V 2 dl

(4.20)

for short. Cy() must be calculated from measured CL versus and CD versus characteristics. It is some nonlinear function of . Equation (4.18) becomes

E = qdl oT C y ( ) & ( 1+tan 2 ) dt y

(4.21)

& in which a is determined from y through Equation (4.16)


To determine maximum amplitudes, Equation (4.18) is sometimes integrated numerically for a number of assumed values of ymax in search of a value for which Ea = 0. That value is the limit cycle

83

amplitude. * Equation (4.18) may also be integrated analytically by representing CL() and CD()by power series or other functions. These procedures may also be applied with slight modification to a conductor span galloping in sineshaped loops, by integrating over the loops. When combined vertical, torsional and/or horizontal motions occur, the problem is much more complex, not only because two or three integrations like that of Equation (4.21) must be carried out, instead of one, but also because the forces and moments to be integrated are functions of several independent variables. For example, is

& = tan1 y / V

(4.22)

. . so CD, CL and CM are functions of and y at least. But the relationship between and y , or integration . path in the , y plane, is not known until the limit cycle has been determined.
This multi-degree of freedom problem has been attacked by various analysts using different methods including step-by- step integration of the equations of motion,(4-37) the Kryloff-Bogoliuboff first approximation,(4-38) and other approximation methods.(4-39, 4-40) The analyses are so complex and involve so many parameters that they are of interest primarily to researchers, and provide little useful insight to transmission engineers. Obviously nowadays, computer may easily solved the full complex three degrees of freedom movement. This has been done noticely by (Shah, Poppelwell ??, Lilien-Wang, Lillien-Keutgen, Yamaguchi, Diana, etc..)(to be completed)

Analyses that consider only vertical motions, and ignore the torsional and horizontal motions that observably do occur in some cases of natural galloping, may not be realistic enough for reliable prediction of galloping amplitudes. This is illustrated by Blevins and Iwans(4-38) numerical integration of the equations of motion for a vertical-torsional case involving an angle section having the Cy characteristic shown in Figure 4.3-15. This has been largely supported in the eighties and nineties by numerous development with the same authors as those cited for computer approach. It is obvious that pure vertical motions cannot predict amplitude of instabilities related to torsionvertical coupled movement as these are not at all related to Den-Hartog criterion, so that the pure vertical approach in such case would not give any galloping.
The system damping has been discussed in a subchapter on damping to consider for galloping analysis.

Provided dE/dymax < 0 at that amplitude.

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Figure 4.3-15 Cy, versus characteristics of model analyzed by Blevins and Iwan. Reference 4-38.

As noted earlier, the usual method for estimating maximum vertical amplitudes is based upon energy balance. Equation (4.21), or its equivalent for a full span, is integrated to discover the amplitude ymax at which the net flow of energy to the span over a cycle of galloping is zero. If the damping in the system is negligible, then given the Cy or CL and CD characteristics, predicted ymax always corresponds to a certain maximum excursion max of the angle of attack, independent of wind speed. This is because it is the integral in Equation (4.21) that makes E go to zero, by going itself to zero, and the parameter of that integral can be made ymax / V by means of Equations (4.15) and (4.16). Equation (4.21) then becomes
T y 2 y 2 max E = qVdl 1+ cos 2 t max Cy 2 O V V

(4.23)

1 ymax tan V cos t dt

Figure 4.3-16 Measured single-loop galloping amplitudes in vertical two-conductor bundle of square conductor in 244 m span. Solid line shows predicted maximum amplitude based upon Equation (4.20). Reference 4-43.

For the types of Cy () of interest here, only one value of ymax / V satisfies the requirement that E = 0. This value of ymax / V specifies just one value of max.

max = tan 1 ( ymax / V ) E =0

(4.24)

An implication of this result is that given fy and thus , ymax will vary directly with wind speed V. That, in fact, is found to be the case in wind tunnel tests involving purely vertical galloping, (4-41, 4-42) except at such low wind velocities that the galloping motion interacts with the shedding of Karman vortices The linear relationship between ymax and V is also evident in tests of actual spans equipped with simulated ice and exposed to natural wind. Figure 4.3-16, for example, shows recorded values of ymax as a function of the component of wind velocity normal to the conductor for a 244 m (800 foot) vertical two-bundle span of 336.4 kcmil all-aluminum conductor having a square-shaped polyethylene covering 20 x 20 mm (0.8" x 0.8").(4-43) The conductors were oriented with the sides of the square horizontal and vertical. A bundle was employed with 406 mm (16 inch) separation and rigid spacers every 17 m (57 feet), to enforce that orientation. The span was fully-deadended to eliminate support point damping effects, and tension was 50% RS. 85

Interestingly, galloping first occurred in a high-frequency mode with one loop between adjacent spacers. The top and bottom conductors moved vertically, with opposite phase and equal amplitudes, leaving the spacers stationary. Adjacent subspans did not interact, and there was no low-frequency galloping. The top and bottom conductors would sometimes clash. This high-frequency mode was eliminated by applying specially-designed Stockbridge-type dampers, tuned to its frequency, to the bottom conductor in each subspan. The span then galloped in the oneloop full-span mode. Figure 4.3-16 pertains to that galloping. The line in Figure 4.3-16 is the predicted relationship between ymax and V based upon integration of Equation (4.23). Figure 4.3-17 shows results of another field test, this one carried out by J. J. Ratkowski.(4-29) The conductor was a stainless steel ribbon with wooden ice attached in the form of a semicircle, or D-section, having 54 mm (2-) diameter. The flat face was positioned vertically and facing the wind. The span was 8.7 m (28.6 feet) long, deadended through springs. The two curves represent predicted ymax versus V, using Equation (4.23), based upon CD CL data published by Cheersc)(4-23) and by Harris.(4-45) Both field tests show reasonable correlation between theory and experiment for purely-vertical galloping. The section test in natural wind (4.4) is detailing some additional testing in natural wind conditions, with artificial or natural icing.
4.3.16 Traveling-Wave Buildup

Observations of actual galloping and forced galloping using ellipse shape of ice have shown that traveling wave are not necessary present during the build-up procedure. But some have been observed with traveling waves (one is available on our videos) with no evolution to stationary waves. Ratkowski, observed that, in his span, the initial stages of buildup involved traveling waves moving back and forth in the span. The waves were of short wavelength and had small amplitude, so their energy was small. A gust could have excited them. Because of their short wavelength, however, their passage over any location along the span caused a brief but quite significant pulse of vertical velocity, illustrated in Figure 4.3-18, the magnitude of that velocity being equal to the slope of the wave front & multiplied by the velocity of travel of the wave. With enough slope, y could be great enough and permit energy from flow from the wind into waves, causing them to build up in case of appropriate ice shape and ice accretion position.

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Figure 4.3-17 Measured single-loop galloping amplitudes in 8.7 m model span having D-shaped cross-section. Solid lines show predicted maximum amplitudes based upon Equation (4.20). Reference 4-29.

Figure 4.3-18 Vertical conductor velocity resulting from passage of traveling wave.

Ratkowskis observations showed that the small waves did indeed increase in amplitude and length, with repeated travel along the span. They eventually became equal in length to some harmonic of the span and were transformed to a standing wave in that harmonic. The process described above has been observed in some cases of actual galloping, some involving natural ice and some involving artificial ice. The process is evidently required for ice shapes for which E is small or negative for small excursions in but significantly positive for large excursions. Some shapes experience this condition for some initial orientations but not at others. When E is significantly positive at small amplitudes, galloping can build up from rest without recourse to the wave mechanism. This was the case with the tests using square conductor represented in Figure 4.3-16. Such buildup (without traveling waves) has been reported with natural ice by A. T. Edwards.(4-46)

4.3.17

Other Methods

87

The various procedures, discussed or mentioned above, for estimating maximum galloping amplitudes require knowledge of the dynamic properties of the span and of the aerodynamics of the iced conductor involved. Estimated amplitude will vary with assumed ice characteristics. Hunt and Richards(4-48) of the Central Electricity Research Laboratories in the U.K. have proposed a procedure for estimating an upper limit on the maximum amplitude that is ever likely to occur. The procedure combines a set of worst-case assumptions to arrive at the most aggressive combination of aerodynamics and span dynamics in a way that yields an easily-calculated amplitude estimate. The energy balance method is used, with sine-shaped loops assumed. The worst-case aerodynamic lift characteristic that is used: CL is taken as - 0.6 for all <O and +0.6 for all >O(positive angle anticlockwise). CD is taken as unity for all . Purely vertical galloping is assumed. These assumptions lead, through Equation (4.23), to a simple equation for the amplitude where energy input from the wind becomes zero:

Ymax = 0.26

V f

(4.32)

Thus, if V = 10 m/s (22 mph) and frequency is 0.2 Hz, ymax is 13 m (43 feet). Hunt and Rowbottom(4-49) have used Equation (4.32) to estimate what minimum wind speeds would be required to cause high enough amplitudes to result in flashover, to lines in the U.K. that had experienced outages attributed to galloping during a 7-year period. They compared these speeds with speeds actually recorded at meteorological stations and found encouraging correlation, although they caution that neither the outage nor the meteorological data were obtained under ideal conditions. Single and bundled-conductor lines were involved in the comparisons. The concept of applying a full-strength CL regardless of angle of attack, and with a step from -0.6 to +0.6 at = 0, appears to be pessimistic. No simulated ice sections tested in wind tunnels to date have displayed this characteristic, and the sudden step in CL at = 0 implies that CD - CL = . However, the use of such a function in effect makes allowance for the possibility that torsional motion of the conductor or bundle amplifies the instability in the manner discussed under Torsional Motion, as well as for the possibility that non-linear torsional effects may contrive to hold the effective angle of attack at that corresponding to maximum CL over each half cycle. Thus, the effects of experiencing the CL characteristic could, at least in concept, arise. Hunt and Richards based their choice of CL = 0.6 upon wind tunnel tests reported by Simpson and Lawson(4-50) on one simulated ice shape. Other shapes have shown peak CL as much as three times the value used by Hunt and Richards, however.(4-44) Some are detailed in Section 4.2 in Figures 4-2.15 to 4.2-17.Thus, the method will tend to overestimate galloping amplitudes, but the present choice of CL may be biased in the other direction. In spite of the robust nature of the Hunt-Richards derivation, Equation (4.32) accords well with some observations. The factor, which is 0.26 in the equation, can be calculated for any galloping case from the observed frequency, amplitude and wind speed. The values calculated for 66 of the cases collected by the EEIs Galloping Task Force(4-7) are represented in Figure 4.3-x in terms of their cumulative distribution. The Hunt and Richards value, indicated by the arrow, is exceeded by only 9% of the observed values. All of those derive from cases involving two- or three-loop galloping. It should be noted that the field frequencies were calculated from final 16C (60F) bare-conductor sags and the observed numbers of loops, since it was these data that were reported. The actual frequencies could be somewhat greater or less in individual cases, but the overall effect upon the distribution should not be great. Thus, Equation (4.32) perhaps with a slightly larger constant, provides a useful guide to maximum expected amplitudes, if estimates are available for maximum expected wind speeds.

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4.3.18

Estimation of Galloping Amplitudes and Ellipse Shape

Natural galloping records exists, based on analysis of motion picture film. Some hundreds of them have been performed and will be used for the new method of design for ellipse in this book. An example of waveform is given on Figure 4.3-19.

Figure 4.3-19 Waveform of natural galloping in a 256 m span of Grackle conductor (34 mm diam), determined from analysis of motion picture film. Reference 4-9.

The scientific world has developed numerical tools and analytical tools to study the complete interaction between all the degrees of freedom and including all aspect of a multi-span line (an example of such treatment is given on Figure 4.3-20). So that we may say that the galloping is now completely covered by its equations which are well known and defined, but the complexity of so many interactions in a real problem make it very difficult to understand everything, even if it is possible to simulate any case. The practical problem for power line engineers is more related either to design clearances able to accept galloping amplitudes or to solve galloping by appropriate retrofit method. There is little demand asking to be able to reproduce a specific observation. The numerical or analytical tools developed may nowadays help to both estimate galloping amplitudes risks and also estimate the efficiencies of the retrofit method used using typical data bank of ice shape and appropriate range of wind speed, for all possible ice accretion position on conductors. The finite element method may even evaluate the efficiencies of interphase spacers as detailed in (Keutgen 1999). But no numerical tool can estimate properly the retrofit method based on ice shape modification, because of the lack of aerodynamic properties of the modified conductor shape all along the spans.

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Figure 4.3-20A typical galloping ellipse in a vertical plane at mid-span, due to coupled flutter, the straight line attached to each square point (all square being spaced by the same time between them, around 0.1 s) is giving access to ice position all around the limit cycle. (calculated by University of Lige using analytical tools).

Figure 4.3-21 is giving access to a typical amplitude analysis. In this case the equi-amplitudes are drawn in the plane (wind speed, ice accretion angle), for all other parameters fixed.

Figure 4.3-21Typical amplitude analysis. Equiamplitude have been drawn in a plane (wind speed, angle of ice accretion) all other parameters fixed. In this case only a small range of ice accretion may lead to large amplitudes, in a narrow range around -20 to -50 at the anchoring level. It may be seen that there is a need a very particular data combination to get a dangerous galloping. For example a given ice (-40 location at anchoring level) may give a galloping of 8 m for wind speed around 10 m/S but would not give any galloping for wind speed higher than 15 m/s or lower than 5 m/s.

4.3.19

Effect of Ice Thickness on Amplitude

Figure 4.3-22 showed the distribution of observed values of fYmax/ V, and indicated that for the most part they were about evenly spread over the range 0.05 to 0.30. Dispersion in fYmax/ V would be expected because of the great variety in ice thicknesses, deposited angles of attack, and span dynamic characteristics. The largest values off fYmax/ V should be associated with the most aggressive combinations of those factors. It is not possible to separate these factors in the field cases represented in Figure 4.3-x. However, it appears from study of the data that the small to moderate ice thicknesses tend to be more aggressive 90

than thick ones. Figure 4.3-23 shows the correlation of observed fYmax/ V with reported (4-7) ice thickness. The ice thicknesses are the maxima: if ice was deposited only on one side, the maximum thickness of that deposit was reported, not the average around the conductors girth. Cases in which the deposit was only a film, very thin, not visible and none are plotted in the 1 to 2 mm thickness range. The cases where none was reported were all associated with temperatures in the freezing range and, in some cases, with records of glazing conditions at local airports. It is evident from Figure 4.3-23 that galloping occurred much more frequently with thin ice than with thick, and that fYmax/ V tends to become smaller for thicknesses greater than 6 mm (1/4 inch). The tendency would be even more obvious, were the calculations of f based upon loaded sags, which were not available. Frequency and sag D are related by the equations *

f = 0.56n / D
= 1.00n / D

for D in meters for D in feet,

(4.33)

Figure 4.3-22Cumulative distribution of observed values of fYmax/ V based upon field reports.

where n is number of loops. Use of loaded sags would tend to lower the plotted positions of the cases involving larger ice thickness more than those with thinner ice. The apparently reduced aggressiveness of thick ice may arise from several effects. A wrapped-on deposit with its less effective lift characteristics, would obviously be a thick one. Torsional coupling effects could also be involved. The two cases having greatest fYmax/ V had ice thickness of 6 mm (1/4 inch). In both of these cases, the conductors were fully-coated, with the point of greatest thickness directly to leeward.

These equations are not accurate for single-loop galloping of fully deadended spans with sag ratios greater than about .01 to .015.

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Figure 4.3-23 Observed combinations of fYmax/ V and maximum ice thickness, based upon field reports. Circled points pertain to bundled conductors.

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4.3.20

Tension Variations

When a span gallops with one loop in the span, the arc length of the catenary tends to change, as illustrated in Figure 4.3-24. If the span has suspension supports, the supporting insulators swing in the direction of the line, feeding the variations in the secant span length into adjacent spans. If the span is fully-deadended, however, such swings cannot occur and the conductor experiences longitudinal strain with resulting significant variations in conductor tension. These tension variations are great enough that high galloping amplitudes can cause the conductor to go slack at some level of the galloping cycle. It is not true to say that when such slackness is approached, amplitude can increase no further. In fact amplitudes of galloping can overpass the sag as can be seen on our videos of actual galloping. This particularly true for distribution lines where several times the sag may be reached. But most of transmission lines have their amplitude limited around the sag as their conductor span parameter is less than 0.1

Figure 4.3-24 Actual observed galloping amplitudes on (left) single conductor line and (right) bundle conductors (extracted from Lilien-Havard 2000)

A deadended span can only go slack if its arc length can be reduced by more than the elastic stretch in the conductor, by lifting it into a straight, zero sag, position. Now the difference between the arc length S and the secant length S of a shallow catenary is well approximated by the equation

ea =

S a S 8D 2 = S 3S 2

(4.34)

where D is sag. e, is the strain a conductor would undergo rising from sag D to the straight If e exceeds the elastic strain in the conductor in its at-rest position due to tension, the conductor can go slack before becoming straight. If e is less, however, the conductor cannot go slack, regardless of amplitude. Most lines are strung with unloaded 0C tensions in the range 20 to 33% of RS, and their elastic strains are generally in the range .0006 to .0016. These correspond, by the above equation, to barewire sag ratios of .015 to .024. A span that would go slack in the no-sag position with ice will also do it without ice, so the potential for going slack can be judged from bare-wire sags. Thus, if the approach of slackness does in fact limit galloping amplitudes, most deadended spans with 0C sag ratios greater than .024 should be incapable of one-loop galloping at amplitudes approaching sag, while deadended spans with sag ratios less than .015 should be capable of much greater amplitudes in the one loop mode. Figure 4.3-25 contains data on a number of observed cases of galloping, most of them collected by the Galloping Task Force of T&D Committee of EEI.(4-7) The points in the figure represent galloping 93

cases in spans that were deadended at both ends, were on pin-type insulators, or were supported from strut insulators. The number identifying each point is the number of galloping loops observed in the span. The ordinate is the observed ratio of peak-to-peak amplitude to barewire sag, while the abscissa is the bare-wire sag ratio. The data show that single-loop galloping was not observed for sag ratios greater than .023. Amplitudes reached as much as four times sag for sag ratios less than .018.

Figure 4.3-25 Observed combinations of amplitude divided by sag and sag ratio, for spans with fixed supports.

Figure 4.3-26 Same as Figure 4.3-25 but for spans supported in suspension at both ends.

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Figure 4.3-27 Same as Figure 4.3-25 but for spans in suspension at only one end.

Suspension spans may gallop to amplitudes greater than sag without going slack. Figure 4.3-26 shows data similar to that of Figure 4.3-25, but for suspension spans only. Several single-loop cases occurred for sag ratios greater than .023, two of them with amplitudes slightly exceeding sag. Figure 4.3-27 shows the same type of data for spans that are deadended at only one end. The patterns in Figures 4.3-25 to 4.3-27 are distorted by the use of 16C (60F) final sags, which were available, rather than 0C sags existing at the time galloping was observed. The slackness effect may come into play in long suspension spans, if the swing of insulator strings is great enough to effectively deadend the spans at some point in the galloping cycle. This is illustrated in Figure 4.3-28. The figure shows a three-span section between deadends, and catches the galloping motion at the point where the tangent span is at the top of its travel. At this point the end spans are in effect fully deadended, and the tangent span is slack. This effect appears at lower amplitudes of galloping when the insulator string or suspension linkage is short. That fact probably accounts in part for the lower incidence of singleloop galloping in ground wires than in phase conductors, indicated in Section 4.2 under Types of Motion, The expected limitation on single-loop amplitudes caused by the mechanism illustrated in Figure 4.3-28 has been used in estimating required phase-to-phase clearances.(4-51) The slackness effect can be achieved at lower amplitudes by use of inverted V-string supports at tangent towers.

Figure 4.3-28 Illustration of large amplitude galloping permitting a tangent span to go slack.

4.3.21

How Many Loops Will Occur?

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The several simplified methods described above for estimating galloping amplitude (energy balance and that of Hunt and Richards) all lead to an estimate of the parameter fYmax/ V. Amplitude ymax can only be estimated for some assumed wind velocity if the frequency is known. The fundamental frequency of suspension spans can be calculated from sag, but the actual frequency may be the fundamental or some harmonic of it. The expected amplitude is strongly influenced by the harmonic of the span in which galloping occurs. For example, if wind speed is 10 m/s and sag is 5 m, then by Equation (4.33), f is .25 Hz max for one-loop galloping, and by Equation (4.32), ymax is 10.4 m. For two-loop galloping, f is 0.50 Hz and ymax is only 5.2 m. Several effects influence how many loops will actually occur.

Deadending clearly does, as discussed immediately above, tending to exclude the single-loop mode. Twisting of the conductor under the eccentric weight (case of single conductor lines) of the growing ice deposit tends to result in a more aerodynamically stable ice shape at midspan than near the ends, tending to favor two loop galloping over single loop. The most important factor is nevertheless the Irvine coefficient as defined in overview. In fact fundamental mode is no more a sine wave for typical (but not all) high voltage power lines. We called it pseudo-one loop. The frequency of the pseudo one loop may be larger than the two loops mode. In such case the two loops is obviously more quickly excited as it needs a lower wind speed to be launched. The loops which are existing are obviously those who are unstable and this may result of a complex mix of structural and aerodynamic data, like torsion/vertical frequencies detuning. It depends on the galloping mechanism. In case of Den-Hartog type, If the wind speed is strong enough all the modes are unstable below a certain frequency which is not true for coupled flutter type of galloping. In a multi-span arrangement, there are strong coupling between all spans, both in vertical and torsion at least. True instability may occur in some span only (due to appropriate structural and aerodynamic data with appropriate wind speed and wind direction) but all the spans of the section will move, the stable one being forced to move due to coupling owing to suspension insulators. The forced movement shape will depend on actual excitation both by end of the span displacement (insulator movement) and by tension variation. Due to coupling between modes owing to tension variation in large amplitude, even a two loops galloping in one span will force pseudo-one loop to operate.

With these effects aside, the number of loops appears to be governed by chance, which is not the case. Consider a suspension span with uniform ice section along its length, the section having such shape that Den Hartogs criterion is satisfied: CD + CL < 0. The statement that the criterion is satisfied means that small motions will grow in amplitude, and the statement applies to motions in one or two or any number of loops. Whatever mode is present initially will grow. That mode will continue to grow until a limit cycle is reached. When such a limit cycle is attained then, as explained by Myerscough (ref xxx), other modes cannot grow. The mode that has reached limit cycle has, in effect, preempted the winds supply of galloping energy and locked other modes out. This is not necessarily true as wind speed is far from being constant and building up of some modes may be affected by ice orientation (which depends on wind speed) which has also some effects on frequency tuning, thus on galloping modes and mechanisms. Note that there must be an initial disturbance in order for galloping to build up. In field spans, such disturbances are thought to arise from gusts striking the span. The choice as to the number of loops in which galloping finally occurs is thought to be governed by two effects. The first has to do with the 96

combinations of modes that are present in disturbances excited by gusts. The second pertains to the relative rates of growth of the different modes. The simplest gust is one that is wide enough that it strikes the whole span uniformly. Such gusts tend to excite primarily the fundamental mode. For example, if the operating point of the ice section (its angle of attack) is such that the span experiences lift, then the increase in wind speed that attends the gust will increase that lift, giving the span an impulse in the vertical direction. The spans response to this impulse will be largely in the one-loop mode, with only small response in higher modes. In natural winds, the gust fronts have randomly-distributed widths, with many in the 20 to 100 m range at elevations above ground typical of overhead conductors. These limited width gusts excite disturbances that contain several harmonics of the span simultaneously. Which of these harmonics is dominant in any case depends upon the width and spanwise location of the gust, upon the length of the span, and upon the duration of the gust relative to the spans fundamental frequency. Regardless of span length, the relative intensities of the several harmonics that are excited vary, gust-to-gust. However, in short spans the fundamental one-loop mode is emphasized more often than the higher modes, whereas in longer spans the typical run of gust sizes tends to excite the higher modes more strongly. When the mean wind speed and the ice deposit attain conditions where galloping may occur, all of the gust-excited modes that exist in the span at that moment start to build up. If the one-, two-, and threeloop modes are present in the current gust-induced disturbance, all three begin to grow independently of one another. They do not, however, all grow at the same rate. Energy effects governing their buildup are such that they all experience the same percentage increase in amplitude per cycle of motion; they all experience the same (negative) logarithmic decrement. Thus, if they all start from the same amplitude, the two-loop mode grows twice as fast per unit time as does the one-loop mode, and the three-loop mode grows three times as fast, because of their higher frequencies. The different modes or harmonics grow independently of one another as long as the angle-of-attack excursions that result from their combined motions remain in the linear range of the CL characteristic: region a-b of Figure 4.3-x, for example. When these excursions penetrate the nonlinear regions of the CL characteristic, the energy supply to all modes is reduced, and all grow more slowly. The mode that is dominant at this point is affected least, however, and continues to grow. As it does, it reduces the coherence of the lift forces acting on the span with the motions in the other modes, and they eventually die out. In the end, the mode that won the buildup race settles alone into its limit cycle. See the description earlier in this section pertaining to Figure 4.3-xx, relative to this effect. Buildup is thus an unfair race among modes that are given (usually) unequal starts. The outcome varies from one occasion to the next, even in the same span. The starting conditions tend to give the edge to the fundamental mode in short spans and to the two- and three-loop modes in longer spans. Deadending and conductor twisting effects, noted earlier, modify the odds. Several of the methods being used or tried for preventing high-amplitude galloping appear to have the effect of fixing the race. They prevent or retard the growth of the fundamental, one-loop mode, giving the higher modes a better chance to build up and preempt the limit cycle. The lower amplitudes that attend the higher modes, because of their higher frequencies, are less likely to cause flashover. All of the galloping control systems that attach to and restrain the motion of the conductor at discrete points remote from the span ends (interphase spacers, aerodynamic drag dampers, seismic dampers and torsion control devices) are thought to be affected by this mechanism.

97

4.4 TESTING IN NATURAL WINDS (UNDER REVISION)

Data on conductor galloping may be collected by reproducing conditions propitious to conductor galloping using artificial ice shapes on a full scale test line, or by doing field observations on existing lines subjected to conductor galloping. Those approaches are described in the following sections with their pros and cons.
4.4.1 Tests Using Artificial Ice

As mentioned previously, to obtain test results in a relatively short time and with a well defined test set-up, it is possible to install artificial ice shapes on the conductor of a test line. There are few such lines in the world. The two most well known still in service, are installed in Japan (where many such sites exist, the most famous one being Mogami test line) and in Canada (IREQ facilities). These two installations may have up to three suspension spans under testing (total length of 1.6 km). Japan researchers are conducting such test for more than thirty years(Anjo et al. 1974).
Description of Artificial Ice Shapes

Different artificial ice shapes have been used to induce galloping on test lines. The most common artificial ice shapes used on test lines are the D, crescent, triangular and D-modified shapes. Reproductions of natural ice shapes have also been used and the crescent shape is one of those. However, on those tests, the same shape is used along the span while on a real accretion it varies according to the torsional stiffness of the cable which decreases as it goes further from the tower. The wind speed also varies along the span and with the height of the cable and may also influences the amount and shape of ice accretion. The square prism which induces galloping in wind tunnel (Parkinson and Smith 1964) was tested at IREQ test line during four weeks. The use of such a prism would have been advantageous since it would have induced galloping with winds coming from both sides of the test line. However, on a 27.8 mm ACSR conductor, it induced only torsional instability with a vertical displacement limited to an amplitude of the order of the conductor diameter. This difference of behaviour was explained by the low torsional stiffness of the conductor compared with the wind tunnel model. However, Edwards (CIGRE 1989) obtained 0.5 m galloping amplitude with such a shape but it was much less prone to galloping on their test line than a D-shape. When testing with artificial ice shapes, one must take into account some practical considerations like the low torsional stiffness of a single conductor. Consequently, on single conductors, it is easier to install artificial ice shapes having their center of gravity coincident in a horizontal plane with the center of the conductor. Because of the high torsional stiffness of bundles, a D-modified shape which has its center of gravity outside the conductor may be used on it. A more complete description of the aerodynamic characteristics of artificial and natural ice shapes may be found in Section 4.4.
Summary of Test Line Results ---Chapter to be modified to include a summary of test line results in the world.----------------------

The next paragraph will explain a complex case of testing in natural wind, full-scale, artificial ice while studying the effect of interphase spacers. These tests have been performed at Mogami test line in Japan.

98

Figure 4.4-1 Artificial triangular snow model.

Figure 4.4-2 Configuration of Mogami test line.

Figure 4.4-3 Test sample.

99

Figure 4.4-4 Interphase spacers targets.

100

Figure 4.4-5 Interphase spacerss bending stress.

From their measurements and observations, they concluded that the installation of interphase spacers can reduce the galloping amplitude and tension variations by a factor of approximately 50% compared with the system without interphase spacers. Part of a test result from the IREQ test line (Van Dyke and Laneville 2004) are also described hereafter: 101

Description of Test Line

The tests were carried out at IREQ - Hydro-Qubecs test line in Varennes, which consists of three suspension spans and two dead-end spans (Figure 4.4-6 and Figure 4.4-7). It is built on agricultural land, which offers the possibility of obtaining a low turbulent wind regime conducive to severe windinduced conductor galloping, and its orientation is perpendicular to the predominant wind direction. The test line comprises testing positions for horizontal arrangements of conductors as well as tower arms allowing for a vertical arrangement of conductors.

Figure 4.4-6 Line set up with interphase spacers

Figure 4.4-7 Test line

The tests were performed on single Condor conductors suspended with I-insulator strings. The conductor has an outside diameter of 27.8 mm, a mass per unit length of 1.522 kg/m and a rated tensile strength (RTS) of 127 kN. The conductor is made of 54 aluminium strands over seven steel strands. D-sections(Edwards 1970), which are generally assumed to produce severe galloping, were used to induce conductor galloping without being dependent on the temperature and precipitations (Figure 4.4-8). The center of gravity of the D-section and the conductor were coincident. The sections were attached to each conductor in the middle span only. Their mass per unit length was 1.0 kg/m and their height 75 mm. When covered with D-sections, the mechanical tension of the conductor was 37% RTS.

Figure 4.4-8 D-section

One of the tests reported here was performed on a single conductor while the second test was done on a vertical arrangement of three conductors linked with four interphase spacers per span. The interphase spacers were located at one third and one fourth of the span length (see Figure 4.4-6). The phase to phase distance was 3.7 m. The interphase spacers consisted of one polymer insulator with an 102

articulation at each end where it was attached to the conductor. This articulation allowed rotation in a longitudinal-vertical plane. Conductor displacement was monitored using two piezoresistive accelerometers and two video cameras. The wind speed, yaw and elevation angles were monitored by means of four bivane-type Gill anemometers located at the conductors level (Figure 4.4-6). A fifth anemometer of the same type was located at mid-span at a height of 10 m. All the data collected during the test period were processed by software developed at IREQ, some of which is based on Matlab software. Accelerometer signals were recorded at a rate of 32 pts/s during 128 s and wind data were sampled at a rate of 4 pts/s for a total of 256 s while the data of one anemometer was also recorded at 32 pts/s. The video cameras were synchronized with the accelerometers. The acquisition cycle was repeated every 10 min. Characteristic parameters of wind conditions, such as mean velocity, yaw, elevation angle and turbulence, were determined and stored. The accelerometer signals were processed to determine the maximum conductor displacement along the span during each recording period.
Results
Test line results without interphase spacers

The wind exposure at the height of the conductors center of gravity is shown on a polar graph in for the test without interphase spacers. The 0-180 line is coincident with the line direction. Wind exposure is shown only for the azimuth range of 180 to 360, since galloping occurs only with the wind facing the flat surface of the D-section. It corresponds to winds blowing from the south-west side of the line. The maximum wind speed attained for this test was 18 m/s with an azimuth of 222. The conductor vertical displacement was normalized with the D-section height (A/h - peak to peak). It is shown as a function of wind velocity for different ranges of direction measured from the perpendicular to the line on while Figures 4.4-6 and 4.4-7 show the same information in a different form. Comparing the three figures with the wind exposure, it can be seen that there is no apparent relationship between the conductor vertical displacement and the azimuth. Figure 4.4-5 shows that the onset of galloping appears at 2.5 m/s.
Test line results with interphase spacers

The same graphs have been generated for the test with interphase spacers (Figures 4.4-8 to 4.4-11). In this case, the maximum wind speed is much lower: 10 m/s with an azimuth of 327. However, the amplitudes reached are higher: 65 m/m peak to peak. Based on Figures 4.4-9 to 4.4-11, it is quite clear in this case that the conductor vertical displacement is related to the winds direction. Maximum amplitudes are attained at angles close to 50 from the perpendicular to the conductor and decrease to a minimum when the wind is perpendicular or parallel to the conductor. Figure 4.4-9 shows that the onset of galloping appears slightly below 2 m/s, which is close to the previous result. This is not surprising since this value depends on the system damping, which is similar for the two configurations (Parkinson and Smith 1964).

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Results without interphase spacers:


<-- Test line orientation --> 5 0 Azimuth (degree) Wind velocity (m/s) 15 20 10 180

<-- Test line orientation --> 5 0 Azimuth (degree)

Wind velocity (m/s) 15 20 10 180

330
330 210

210

300 270
300 270 240

240

Figure 4.4-13 Wind exposure.


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 Wind velocity (m/s)
0 to 20 o 20 to 70 o 70 to 90
o

Figure 4.4-9 Wind exposure.


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0
0 to 20 o 20 to 70 o 70 to 90
o

A/h (pp)

A/h (pp)

20

10 Wind velocity (m/s)

15

20

Figure 4.4-10 Amplitude for different ranges of wind direction from the perpendicular to the line.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 180
0 to 5 m/s 5 to 9 m/s 9 to 18 m/s

Figure 4.4-14 Amplitude for different ranges of wind direction from the perpendicular to the line.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 180
0 to 5 m/s 5 to 9 m/s 9 to 18 m/s

A/h (pp)

A/h (pp)

210

240 270 300 Wind azimuth (degree)

330

360

210

240 270 300 Wind azimuth (degree)

330

360

Figure 4.4-15 Amplitude for different ranges of wind velocity.


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 18 0 16 360 14 12 Win 330 s) 8 10 (m/ d a 300 zim270 240 ty 46 ci uth 210 2 (de 180 0 elo gre dv e) in W

Figure 4.4-11 Amplitude for different ranges of wind velocity.


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 18 0 16 ) 14 12 10 (m/s 8 4 6 ocity l 02 ve in d W

360 Win 330 d a 300 zim 270 uth 240 210 (de 180 gre e)

A/h (pp)

Figure 4.4-16 Conductor amplitude envelope.

Figure 4.4-12 Conductor amplitude envelope.

Results with interphase spacers:


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A/h (pp)

Discussion and Conclusion

Based on the results from the preceding section, it appears that the interphase spacers play an important role in the behaviour of the D-section regarding galloping amplitudes and contradict some observations from the field which indicate that conductors are generally less prone to galloping when equipped with interphase spacers. This may be attributed to the fact that in the field, the natural ice accretion may be different on each conductor and one conductor may act as a damper while the other one alone would experience severe galloping. Moreover, the interphase spacers contribute to increase conductor torsional stiffness. The first torsional resonant frequency, which in our case was close to the fourth vertical mode, is then moved further apart from the first vertical resonant frequencies. Hence, the torsional mode may then be coupled with a higher vertical mode which generally corresponds to lower amplitudes. On the other hand, when there are no interphase spacers, conductors tilt under the effect of drag. Consequently, instead of remaining vertical, the initial angle of incidence on the Dsection varies between 0 and 20, depending on the perpendicular component of the wind speed. This may explain why the amplitude does not increase much with the wind speed when there are no interphase spacers since the angle of incidence exceeds the range of galloping instability. However, when there are interphase spacers, even for high wind speed, the conductors will remain mainly vertical because they are linked together at two points along the span. The initial angle of incidence on the D-section remains the same regardless of wind speed. The results obtained on a D-section exposed to turbulent flow in a wind tunnel (Havard and Pohlman 1984) show that for angles of incidence below 9, the aerodynamic force coefficients have a null gradient and no propensity for galloping. At higher angles of incidence, the Dsection becomes unstable, which means that it needs an initial excitation to become unstable and, consequently, it acts as a hard oscillator. The D-section becomes stable again above 41. The fact that the D-section acts as a hard oscillator may be circumvented if there is an initial angle of incidence combined with a dynamic torsion of the conductor. This may explain why the configuration without interphase spacers experiences galloping for winds perpendicular to the conductor while the configuration with interphase spacers does not. As mentioned earlier, the first configuration is more prone to torsion since it is more flexible and its first mode is close to a lower vertical mode than the second configuration. The higher torsional flexibility of the configuration without interphase spacers may facilitate the initiation of galloping but it may also set a lower bound for galloping amplitudes since the conductor torsion added to the apparent angle of attack (ratio of conductor speed over wind velocity) may bring the conductor out of its range of instability at lower amplitudes. Regarding conductor galloping for wind directions that are not perpendicular to the conductor, it may be interesting to notice that in this case, the wind flows around a D-section which seems to have a different aspect ratio. For example, for a direction of about 50 from the perpendicular to the line, the apparent aspect ratio of the D-section becomes 0.78 instead of 0.5. Nakamura et al (Nakamura et al. 1980) have measured the aerodynamic characteristics of D-sections with different aspect ratios in a turbulent flow. They have shown that Dsections with aspect ratios above 0.73 will experience soft galloping (a galloping that starts spontaneously from a resting state). Figures 4.4-6 and 4.4-10 show that the amplitude reaches a maximum at about 50 from the perpendicular to the line. At mean angles closer to the perpendicular to the line, the D-section may still act partly as a soft oscillator because the wind direction varies continuously during the acquisition and, consequently, there may be

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some excursions in direction that are in the range of a soft oscillator. Nakamura has shown that the D-section will experience soft galloping up to an aspect ratio of 1.5, which in our case corresponds to an angle of incidence of 72. There are no data available above those angles. This last result emphasizes the fact that a mathematical model based on aerodynamic coefficients corresponding only to a direction perpendicular to the section considered will not provide adequate results for different wind directions. Moreover, as shown in the case with interphase spacers, non perpendicular winds may be the most severe.

4.4.2 Tests with Natural Ice

There are several ways of testing in natural wind: Wait for appropriate icing period during windy time, which has been done in many countries in the world where permanent test station were installed in the regions favouring galloping, these test stations being equipped with appropriate material (camera, tension recording) and data processing to detect in real time to record or not some events. Remote control is sometimes possible, but costly. Nowadays internet facilities may help a lot using Webcam on site. The measurement of tension and other parameters are not an easy task due to awful meteorological conditions during which most of galloping occurs and due to the fact that such measurement, for some of them, have to be installed on the conductor, on the tower n, in between tower and conductor at anchoring level, etc which force to be protected against lightning and harsh environment (electromagnetic field noticely). There is no known easy way, actually, to measure directly the low frequency amplitude of galloping. Most of existing methods are using post treatment of camera records. Some temporary installation may also be installed in windy regions, like the experience explained in. Some rare operating line (some sections) are (were) under permanent supervision, like in Belgium in the Ardennes (Villeroux) where a 400 kV four spans section have been recorded for more than ten years with different bundle line arrangement. Such tests can be done by chance, just being informed on actual galloping existing on an operating line. There are some famous cases, like the one in U.K. in 1986 when galloping was observed about four days long on quad bundle lines. Many videos have been taken and some can be seen on the joined CD-ROM. The most classical real time detection of galloping remains the recurrent circuit-breaker operation, several times in a few minutes, due to clearance problems in the galloping phases. Last but not least, there are some after-galloping observations, when somebody has seen something. In fact the first galloping observed were seen by lineman who reported to their chief such huge amplitude. Nobody believed them until the first video had been taken. Some unexplained consequences can clearly be the output of some galloping, like bundle twist, abnormal insulator failure, tower legs troubles, spacer failure, conductor damages (up to breakage). The aim of such testing must be clearly established and may be multifold:

To better understand the phenomenon (kind of icing events, wind speeds, torsional behaviour, range of tension variations, shape of galloping, amplitudes)

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To test retrofit methods in actual conditions To validate simulation tools

The two last cases need some comments: Retrofit systems based on aerodynamic control devices or torsional control devices must be validated with natural icing or artificial ice with natural shapes or else the interaction mechanism will not be proven adequately. To validate simulation tools, it is required to obtain all data of the tested structures, to avoid side effect. In such case, artificial ice is recommended, because it is the only way to get access to the aerodynamic coefficients, which can be measured in wind tunnel before hand. It is needed to validate the model with different kind of galloping mechanism (Den Hartog and coupled flutter at least). The reader may refer to and to section 1179657 to have access to such full scale tests in natural ice and wind. It is important to mention also that extensive field trials were carried out on operating power lines, mainly in North America, including systematic observation of motions of the overhead conductors during galloping occurrences. The main purpose of those tests was to validate the efficiency of detuning pendulums. The field sites were set up to include identical spans of conductors with and without the galloping controls subject to the same conditions of ice or wet snow and wind. The program generated an extensive database on galloping motions with and without the control devices.
Galloping Observations by Measurement and Data Analysis

Instrumented test lines and instrumented sections in operating lines are particularly valuable in advancing understanding of galloping, since they produce numerical records. It was pointed out in Chapter X that galloping can occur in a number of different modes, and that these often appear in combinations. Recorded data on variables that are involved in galloping can be used to determine which modes were present in particular galloping events, and can often permit estimates of galloping amplitudes, even if amplitude was not directly recorded. Doing this requires detailed knowledge of the modes that can occur in the span or line section involved. Simultaneous presence of several modes is shown most clearly in the spectra of recorded variables. Figure 4.4-17 is a spectrum obtained during a galloping episode at the Belgium test line at Villeroux. The recorded variable was the conductor tension at one of the dead ends of the four-span section. The spectrum shows 12 major peaks, suggesting that 12 different modes were active. Analysis of the possible normal modes of the section was carried out using the procedures of. Several of these modes are pictured in Figure 4.4-18, identified by their frequencies. It should be noted that the motions that occur in natural galloping are not strictly identical to the undamped free normal modes obtained from the procedures of, since aerodynamic forces are not taken into account. However, those forces are small compared with the inertial and elastic forces at work in the conductors. Thus, they cause only small perturbations in the gross features of the normal modes, i.e., the frequencies and amplitudes of motion and tension variations. The free normal modes provide a good, if imperfect, representation of the major features of actual galloping. Table lists the major spectral peaks of Figure 4.4-17, and associates many of them with eigenmodes of the section. Some of these peaks reflect the tension variations that are

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synchronous with the galloping motion, such as the eigenmode at 0.357 Hz, and those at 1.111, 1.316, 1.406 and 2.072 Hz. Other peaks reflect tension variation due to nonlinear effects. When galloping amplitude becomes large enough, stretching of the conductor at its extreme displacements causes increases in tension twice each cycle. This introduces a tension variation at twice the frequency of the eigenmode. For example, the peaks at 0.66 and 0.74 Hz arise from autonomous two-loop galloping in the 397.3 and 361.4 m spans, which had resonant frequencies of 0.341 and 0.375 Hz, respectively. The eigenmode at 1.316 Hz causes a peak at 1.31 Hz directly, and one at 2.63 Hz due to nonlinear effect. The peak at 0.36 Hz could be due to the 0.357 Hz eigenmode directly, or to nonlinear effect of the 0.1819 Hz eigenmode. It would require additional information, such as from an insulator swing transducer, to distinguish between the two possibilities. The peaks at 1.53 and 1.89 Hz are not associated with eigenmodes of the recorded phase. A 1.89 Hz peak was present in the tension spectrum of another phase, and probably caused motion in the deadend structure that was reflected in the signal leading to Figure 4.4-17. The 1.53 Hz peak has the same frequency as subspan resonance in another phase. It also corresponds to the longitudinal resonance of the four-span section. The peak may be associated with this coincidence. Detailed knowledge of the eigenmodes associated with the spectral peaks permits calculation of the galloping amplitudes from the spectrum ordinates. Table 3.1 shows these estimated amplitudes reported as the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude in the section. Note that the source of the 0.36 Hz peak is ambiguous. That peak may mean either 2.5 m in the 0.182 Hz eigenmode, or 0.19 m in the 0.357 Hz eigenmode. Fortunately, on-site observers were present during the galloping and could not have failed see the 0.1819 Hz mode. Thus, the tension peak at 0.36 Hz must have been from the 0.357 Hz eigenmode directly. The observers did report seeing, and filming, two-loop galloping in the 361.4 m span with amplitude of 3 m. This is consistent with the 2.91 m calculated from the tension spectrum. The combination of recorded data from an instrumented test line supported by observer reports, with detailed analysis of the possible galloping modes, permits greater insight into the complexity of galloping in nature. In the example described here, there are three different modes with amplitudes larger than 2 metres simultaneously present. The picture that emerges highlights the challenge faced by on-site observers in attempting to describe galloping events verbally.
Table 4.4-1 Correlation of Spectral Peaks with Eigenmodes

Spectrum frequency 0.33 0.36 0.36 0.66 0.74 1.13 1.31 1.38 1.53 1.89 2.07

Eigenmode frequency 0.167 Hz 0.182 Hz 0.357 Hz 2 loops in 397.3 m span 2 loops in 361.4 m span 1.111 Hz 1.316 Hz 1.406 Hz Subspan gallop in another phase? Transfer from another phase. 2.072 Hz

Effect on tension Nonlinear Nonlinear Direct Nonlinear Nonlinear Direct Direct Direct

Est. max ampl. (m pk-pk) 2.42 2.49 0.19 2.38 2.91 0.40 0.15 0.014

Direct

0.64

108

2.63

1.316 Hz

Nonlinear

0.27

Figure 4.4-17

Spectrum of conductor tension, Sensor 4, Villeroux, 4 April 1989.

Figure 4.4-18 Eigenmode shapes.

How to Collect Field Data

The way to collect data from a galloping event has been well described in a previous work done by this same task force. Examples of galloping mode shapes, how to measure galloping ellipse and how to install cameras during galloping observations are shown in Figure 4.4-19 and galloping reporting forms are shown in Figure 4.4-20 to 4.4-22. Since galloping instability depends not only on structural characteristics but mainly on ice shape aerodynamic force coefficients and on wind conditions, it is particularly interesting to

109

evaluate them adequately. A review of methods and systems for collecting icing data has been done recently Moreover, there are still some additional informations which might be gathered during or after the galloping event such as the possibility to collect ice samples that have fallen from the cables or in extreme cases, because the line collapsed and the cables lie on the ground. In either case, security of the personnel must be considered first but this will not be covered here. When collecting ice samples, the following procedure must be followed: Identify the conductor or ground wire or OPGW from which the ice sample comes from; Identify the span no; Measure the distance from the nearest tower since the ice shape may vary along the span due to the variation of torsional rigidity of the cable; Cut a section of the ice section and take a picture with an object of known dimension (a rule is ideal for that purpose); Make a sketch of the ice sample section with its main dimensions indicating the orientation of the ice section relative to the horizontal plane; Put the ice sample in a plastic bag to prevent loss by sublimation and keep it in a cold place; As soon as possible, measure the mass of the ice sample to deduce its mass per unit length; It is possible to prepare plaster molds of the ice samples for future aerodynamic characterization in a wind tunnel.

110

111

Figure 4.4-19 Field observations of overhead line galloping, ref.

112

Figure 4.4-20 Galloping reporting forms, ref.

113

Figure 4.4-21

Galloping reporting forms, ref.

114

Figure 4.4-22

Galloping reporting forms, ref.

115

4.5 Galloping Protection Methods: Introduction

A variety of methods for protecting against galloping or its effects are currently in use or under field evaluation. They fall generally into the following categories:

Ice build-up prevention, ice melting or ice removal Special conductors with aerodynamic or ice phobic properties Increased clearances between phases and ground wires Interphase spacers to reduce phase to phase approaches Aerodynamic drag dampers to modify wind effects during galloping Torsional motion control devices Limiting longitudinal conductor motions Bundle geometry modification to decouple bundles and to promote twisting of the
subconductors A survey of the various known galloping control methods was recently completed under the aegis of CIGRE and published in ELECTRA (Wolfs et al. 2000). The various control approaches were classified as retrofit or design systems. The ELECTRA paper also includes a list of discontinued methods. This chapter will focus on control devices which are considered to be practical, and in use, at least on a trial basis, on operating lines. Where possible practical issues relating to ease of installation and side effects attributable to the devices will be summarized. A table forms the final section of this chapter, combining the key information about the application of each of the devices in current use. The devices will be discussed in this chapter including, where possible, the following aspects:

For which type(s) of weather exposure and line construction has each device been tested
and applied. Galloping can be caused by a range of different conditions, namely the type, density and adhesion of the ice, be it glaze, wet snow, or hoar frost, and the speed, direction, and turbulence of the wind. Most of the North American experience is with galloping due to wind acting on glaze ice accretions. Galloping due to wind acting on wet snow has received more attention in Japan and parts of Europe. The type of icing under which each device has been evaluated will be included along with known practical details. It is also different on small versus large single conductors, on bundle conductors versus single conductors, and on dead end spans versus suspension spans. There are even rare conditions, with wind but without ice, in which other mechanisms create galloping-like motions. The common feature of all galloping is the excitation of the lowest natural frequencies of the spans and the resulting large amplitude, low frequency motions.

What are the proper locations for each galloping control device.
The number of devices required for control, or the physical design of the devices, or the manner of application of the devices may also differ according to the expected type of ice accretion and the physical details of the conductor span. Where there are alternative practices, these are indentified. While application practices for some of the devices are public knowledge, for some devices these are considered proprietary by the suppliers. 116

What are the limitations and precautions required with each galloping control device.
The performance of a control device may be acceptable in one range of sizes of conductor while less acceptable in another size range. Also the effectiveness in one weather condition may or may not indicate effectiveness in a different form of icing.

Observed motions without and with each control device.


Data from tests on scaled or full size test lines, sometimes with airfoils to represent ice are included where available. More weight should be given to information obtained from observations on actual operating lines, especially where there are systematic trials including untreated phases similar to the phases with the control devices, and such results are included where possible. When galloping does occur in a span of an overhead line, the individual conductors are frequently moving at different amplitudes and in different modes under nominally the same exposure to ice and wind. During an ice storm the galloping amplitudes change as the speed and direction of the wind, as well as the amount of ice deposited changes. This randomness and variability are inherent in the galloping phenomenon. Conclusions on the overall performance of a device need to be based on a number of separate galloping events. The greatest confidence can be placed on the devices that have been the subjects of the widest exposure and evaluations. At the same time the control device needs to be installed on one or more phases in the same span as nominally identical phases without controls. Galloping motions on all the phases needs to be documented to enable proper statistically supportable conclusions on performance of the control devices to be obtained.
Cautions to be Observed When Applying In-span Galloping Control Devices

In-span hardware, including galloping control devices and aircraft warning markers, are concentrated masses, which can act as reflection points of traveling waves of aeolian vibration. This vibration due to wind can occur in the sections of the conductors or overhead ground wires between the in-span devices and these sections of the span are isolated from any vibration damping systems, which are most often applied to the ends of spans. For spans of conductors with low tension this does not cause any problems. However extra precautions are needed for spans with tensions approaching the safe tension limits with no dampers (Hardy et al. 1999). The precautions required are to reduce the stress concentrations at the metal clamps attaching the hardware to the conductors. Two alternatives for reducing these stresses are installing armor rods under the metal clamps or replacing the metal clamps with elastomer lined clamps. A further option is to add vibration dampers within each subspan between the in-span hardware. A second aspect requiring caution applies to galloping control devices based on the control of torsional motions. These are custom designed based on the parameters of the conductor span. They are designed to ensure that the torsional natural frequency, after adding the devices and a chosen amount of ice and wind, falls within a range necessary for the proper function of the control device. The caution required for this is that the actual parameters of the line need to be known, and that may necessitate a line survey to confirm that the line is installed according to the design. In particular the tension of the conductors has been found to deviate from the as designed values, especially in regions where ice loads have occurred increasing the sag, or where repairs have been made in the spans. There are ratios of torsional to vertical oscillation frequency that make a span more likely to gallop. Consequently, it is possible to misapply the devices if they are designed with the wrong input parameters, or if the resonant behavior is 117

not avoided by proper choice of device dimensions. It is therefore highly recommended that the design of galloping controls be carried out by experienced practitioners.

118

4.5.1

Ice Melting

(*To be written*)

119

4.5.2

Ice or Wet Snow Removal

(*To be written*)

120

4.5.3

Special Conductors

(*To be written*)

121

4.5.4

Increased Clearances

The principal opportunity to impact the effects of galloping occurs at the design stage. Many utilities have guidelines aimed at providing sufficient spacing within the tower heads to reduce the probability of overlapping of the galloping motions of the phase conductors and overhead ground wires, thus avoiding contacts between them. A summary of these approaches is given in (EPRI 1980). The design approaches are basically similar to the concepts introduced by Davison (Davison 1939). These are based upon observations of amplitudes and mode shapes in a number of cases of actual galloping. The design methods involve laying out elliptical envelopes around Figure 4.5-1 Generic galloping ellipse the conductor positions under standardized envelope inscribed around sagged conditions of wind and ice loading. The conductor at mid span (EPRI 1980) envelopes are intended to represent the maximum excursions, during single loop motions, of the galloping orbits at mid span. The conductor and overhead ground wire positions are the positions including the sag at mid span under the chosen ice and wind load. The ellipse sizes vary between the different design methods, but the ellipse axes are normally scaled in terms of the sag under these chosen wind and ice loads. Figure 4.5-1 shows the approach schematically. The symbols in the figure have the following significance:

A1 = DL A2 = A1/4 = /2

DL = sag under wind and ice load A3 = 0.3 m (1 foot) A5 = 0.4A4

= angle of conductor swing out under the selected loading

It had been observed that, when certain spans galloped, the motion most often seen was the twoloop mode, and the single-loop mode was rare. These observations were on dead end dead end spans and very long spans. For these situations alternate lower values of the major, A4 , and minor, A5 , axes of the ellipse have been proposed (Toye 1951). The proposed values are:

A4 DL / 2 2
A5 = 2 A4

(4.5.4-1) (4.5.4-2)

These basic shapes for the clearance ellipses have been modified by several utilities based on their own experience. Table 4.5-1 summarizes some of these variants. A more complete description is given in (EPRI 1980).

Table 4.5-1 Sample Dimensions of Galloping Clearance Ellipses

122

SOURCE Davison 1939 Toye 1931 REA 1962

A4
1.25 DL + 0.3 m (1 foot)

A5
0.4 DL 2A4 0.4 DL

A2 A1/4 DL/2
0.3 m (1 foot)

COMMENT Single loop galloping Two loop galloping Single loop galloping

DL/22 DL + 0.6 m (2 feet)

AEP (EPRI 1980) Ontario Hydro

1.25 DL

DL + 0.3 m (1 foot) F.DL + 0.3 m (1 foot)

0.33 A4 0.3 m (1 foot) 0.4 A4

Single loop galloping

A4/4

F is a galloping factor between 0.8 and 1.4


Single loop galloping

Commonwealth 1.4 DL + 0.3 m (1 foot) Edison Russia (Baikov 1967) 35-220 kV: 0.45DL + 1m 300 kV: 0.9 DL 500 kV: DL

1.25 A4 0.4 DL

0.33 A4 A4/5

Single loop galloping

Davisons suggested value of in Figure 4.5-1 had the ellipse tilted opposite to the blowout angle, . Other values have been used. It appears from the database of field observations that tilts in both directions are regularly experienced with perhaps a higher incidence of tilts that are in the same direction as the blowout angle. Dimension A2 in Figure 4.5-1 is of minor importance with respect to phase-to-phase clearances, if all phases are assumed to gallop. An error in estimating A2 does not affect the relative positions of the phase ellipses. A2 is important to phase-to-ground wire clearances, especially if the ground wire is assumed not to gallop. Simultaneous phase and ground wire galloping was observed in only about 10% of reported cases. For galloping in two and more loops, the galloping ellipse is very nearly centered on the conductors blown-out at-rest position. All of these galloping ellipse systems have apparently served well in that they have resulted in reduced outage rates. Statistical data on the degrees of reduction do not appear to be available, but the reductions are generally thought to be quite significant. The issue of whether spans are more likely to undergo galloping in single- or two-loop mode was addressed by Anjo (Anjo et al. 1974). From studies of two and four conductor bundle lines, the behaviour was related to a parameter M given by:

M=
(4.5.4-3)

m2l 2 EA 24T 3

123

Where E is the final modulus of the conductor and A is the area of cross section of the conductor. This parameter is equal to ea /e in which ea is the excess of catenary length over secant span length, expressed as a fraction of the latter, and e is elastic strain of the conductor due to its loaded tension. The guidelines developed from this approach differentiate between the expected ellipse sizes for dead-ended and suspension spans. The recommendations are presented in Table 4.5-2 in which the sags corresponding to values of M of 1.5 and 4.0 are D1* * and D2 , respectively.
Table 4.5-2 Guidelines for Galloping Clearance Ellipses

based on Anjos method (Anjo et al. 1974) DEAD-END SPANS Sag A4 * 0.58 DL DL < D1 * 0.37 DL + 1.3 m D1* < DL < D2
* D2 < DL < 27.3 m DL > 27.3 m * 0.45 D2 2.27 DL

SUSPENSION SPANS Sag A4 * 1.25 DL DL<0.83 D1 1.04 DL 0.83 D1* < DL < D1*
* D1* < DL < D2

0.24 DL + 5.0m
* 0.54 D2 0.27 DL

D < DL < 32.8 m DL > 32.8 m

* 2

A similar approach was taken by the Bonneville Power Administration (Winkelman 1974). Their approach assigns values to the major ellipse axis, A4, according to span length, single or bundle conductor, and dead-end or suspension span type. The approach is summarized in Figure 4.5-2. The asterisks identify span lengths below which single-loop galloping, and above which two-loop galloping, are assumed. The ellipses surrounding the various conductors and overhead ground wires need to be separated by sufficient air gap to eliminate flashovers at the corresponding phase-tophase or phase-to-ground voltage. Table 4.5-3 shows the separations required.

Figure 4.5-2 Bonneville Power Administration guidelines on galloping ellipse amplitude (Winkelman 1974)

Table 4.5-3 Clearances required to avoid flashovers between conductors and overhead ground wires at different voltages (EPRI 1980)

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VOLTAGE Phase-Phase Phase-Ground

115 kV

138 kV

230 kV

345 kV

500 kV

0.46 m (1.5 ft) 0.46 m (1.5 ft) 0.76 m (2.5 1.07 m (3.5 ft) 1.83 m (6.0 ft) 0.76 m (2.5 ft) 1.22 m (4.0 ft) 0.30 m (1.0 ft) 0.30 m (1.0 ft) ft) 0.61 m (2.0 ft)

Data from eighty-one galloping events were gathered over several years by the Galloping Conductor Task Force of the Edison Electric Institute and documented in the chapter on galloping in the EPRI Orange Book (EPRI 1980). The reports include the basic design parameters of the line and the weather and galloping activity on lines without any control devices installed, but not all data were collected in every case. Figure 4.5-3 shows the plot of these results in the form of peak to peak galloping amplitude versus span length for conductors supported on suspension-suspension spans. Figure 4.54 shows the equivalent values for conductors supported on dead-end structures. In this and the next figure, the small numbers indicate the number of galloping loops reported, and circled values are for bundled conductors.

Figure 4.5-3 Field data from galloping events: Peak to peak galloping amplitude versus span length for suspension spans (EPRI 1980) These two plots provide field data for comparison with each of the above design methods. The maximum galloping amplitude reported is about 12 metres. Also there is a tendency for more galloping loops in the longest spans and in dead-ended spans. It is of interest to compare the amplitudes reported in the EEIs collection of galloping cases, and in previous reports and papers, with the suggested values of A4 discussed above. Unfortunately, the comparison cannot be done in a rigorous manner, since the loaded sags that exist during galloping are usually quite difficult to determine and are rarely reported. Comparison must be based upon bare-wire sags and, since most of these have been referred to 60F (16C), that reference temperature will be used here.

Figure 4.5-4 Field Data from galloping events: peak to peak galloping amplitude versus span length for dead-ended spans (EPRI 1980)

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The observed ice thicknesses during 21 different glaze ice galloping events are shown in Figure 4.5-5. This figure shows that the majority of galloping events occur with thin layers of ice, and consequently, use of barewire sags should be acceptably close in most cases, except where small conductors or short spans are involved.

The wind speeds recorded during the same set of 21 galloping events are shown Figure 4.5-5 Data from 21 galloping events from database in Figure 4.5-6. This figure compiled during field studies showing that most events occur shows that most events with low ice thickness (Havard and Pohlman 1984) occur with wind speeds between 15 and 35 mph. The corresponding wind pressure is then in the range of 0.6 to 3.1 pounds per square foot. The value of 2 pounds per square foot used in the REA guide then appears to be a reasonable intermediate value. When considering the area of the conductor including the ice accretion, the relative positions of phases would be the same but there could be different positions relative to the overhead ground wire. Plots of the maximum galloping amplitudes and maximum galloping amplitudes divided by sag, as observed in the field from the above database, are shown as functions of span length, in Figure 4.5-7. Both plots show continuous envelopes around the maximum values.

Figure 4.5-6 Data from 21 galloping events from database compiled during field studies showing that most events occur with wind speeds between 15 and 35 mph (Havard 1979)

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The same database of field observations of galloping was used in an analysis to relate maximum galloping amplitude to line parameters (Rawlins 1981, Rawlins 1986). The resulting set of trend lines is presented in Figure 4.5-8 in the form of curves of equal peak to peak galloping amplitude / span length, Ymax / S, versus catenarity factor, M1, and tension / unit weight of conductor, T/w. Here EA1 is an adjusted longitudinal stiffness including the flexibility of insulator strings of different length, or dead end strings. Figure 4.5-7 Envelopes encompassing maximum peak to peak galloping amplitude and peak to peak galloping amplitude/sag versus span length from 95 galloping events on single conductors (Havard 1998) An alternative analysis of the same database (Lilien and Havard 2000) employs the reduced amplitude, which is the ratio of peak-to-peak galloping amplitude (Apk-pk) over conductor diameter (), both in m: A pk pk (4.5.4-5)

M1 =

w2 S 2 EA1 3 24T

(4.5.4-4)

This reduced amplitude has a range between 0 and 500. The conductor span parameter is a combination of the catenary parameter with the ratio of conductor diameter () over the square of the span length (L), which can also be expressed as the ratio of conductor diameter over the sag (f). The conductor span parameter is dimensionless: (4.5.4-6) T . 100. = 100 8f mg.L2

Figure 4.5-8 Estimated maximum peak to peak galloping amplitude / sag versus catenarity factor and tension /weight (Rawlins 1986)

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This parameter shows a clear distinction between single and bundle conductors, and the similarity among all types of bundle conductor. This parameter has a range of 0 to 1.1 with tension in N, mass in kg/m, span length, sag and diameter in m. The dimensionless conductor span parameter is useful because it shows clear trends on the global database. For single conductors, the fitted curve to the maximum amplitude over conductor diameter, which is included in Fig. 4.5-9, is given by :
Peak to peak galloping amplitude/conductor diameter
500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Observed motions Fitted maxima (Eq. 4.5.3-7)

A pk pk

= 80. ln

8f (4.5.4-7) 50.

This is valid only in the 0-1 range of the conductor span parameter, which corresponds to the data base range.

Conductor span parameter

Figure 4.5-9 Variation of observed maximum peak to peak galloping amplitude/diameter on single conductors as a (Lilien function of the conductor span parameter and Havard 2000)

For bundle conductors, the corresponding fitted curve, which is reproduced in Fig. 4.5-10 as the estimated maximum, is given by :

A pk pk

= 170 . ln

8f 500 .

(4.5.4-8)

Peak to peak galloping amplitude/conductor diameter

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.025 0.05 0.075 0.1 0.125 0.15

Observed (twin) Observed (triple) Observed (quad)


Fitted maxima (Eq.4.5.4-8)

This is valid in the range 00.15 of the conductor span parameter.


It may be noted that the expressions have the same form, but single conductors have up to about 2.5 times larger values of galloping amplitude/diameter for values of the conductor span parameter between 0.015 and 0.10.

Conductor span parameter

Figure 4.5-10 Variation of observed maximum peak to peak galloping amplitude/diameter on bundle conductors as a function of the conductor span parameter (Lilien and Havard 2000)

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The US and Canadian field trials of galloping control devices (Havard and Pohlman 1979, Havard and Pohlman 1984, Havard 1996), produced an extensive archive of films of the events reported. Since that program finished, the clearest of these films were selected for further analysis (Pon and Havard 1994). A total of 44 films were used, showing galloping events on single conductors and twin, triple and quad bundle lines. The films were carefully scanned and motions scaled to give statistical data on actual conductor orbits during galloping. The key characteristics of the galloping motions extracted from the films were:

the peak to peak vertical amplitude the peak to peak horizontal amplitude the position of the motion relative to the median position of the conductor

The main results of this analysis were that, based on films of 12 galloping events, the vertical motions of single conductors were up to 1.7 times the loaded sag. On bundle conductors the vertical motions extended up to 0.93 times the loaded sag from 17 different films. The horizontal motions for the both single and bundle conductors were always less than one tenth of the loaded sag, and always less than one fifth of the vertical motions. Thus the observed motions are almost all in the vertical plane. The position of the center of the galloping motion was found to be close to the static position in half the records, and in the lower third of the motion in the other half. A compromise average of the film records places the static position at the lower quartile point of the motion. These film analyses led to a possible new galloping clearance envelope. Figure 4.5-11 shows this profile, which consists of two ellipses, each with a width that is 10 percent of the height, and inclined at 5 degrees each side of vertical. They are attached to the sagged position of the conductor at the lower quartile point in the ellipse. The height would be chosen according to the current practice of the utility. In default, the maximum galloping amplitude given as a function of span length, as shown in Figure 4.5-7 can be used. It should be noted that the envelope around the field data does not show lower galloping amplitudes for two loop galloping than for single loop galloping. The effect of this profile compared to existing ellipses would be to reduce the amount of horizontal offset between tower crossarms resulting in lighter towers shafts and foundations because of the lessened requirement for resisting twisting under unbalanced, broken conductor, load.

The results of the analysis of films of galloping, described above, are from events due to freezing rain accretion on the conductors. The terrain in most cases was relatively flat. There are a few regions where there are transmission lines, which are subject to wet snow accretion, and galloping does occur in those regions. These are often

Figure 4.5-11 Clearance envelope derived from analysis of films of galloping (Pon and Havard 1994)

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regions in mountains and where there are frequent periods with cold wet winds from a nearby sea. There have been several field sites established in regions, where galloping is caused by wet snow, with the test sites set up mainly to study the effects of the weather conditions before constructing a new transmission line. Some of these studies are summarized in a comprehensive CIGR paper (Morishita et al. 1984). That paper is mainly focused on the behavior of bundled conductors using three test sites in the mountains. Test lines comprising single conductors, and two-, four-, six-, eight- and ten-conductor bundles were installed. The sites included instrumentation and cameras to record loads and movements during galloping events. Results of three winters at two sites and four winters at the other site are summarized. The terrain is irregular and the winds have significant vertical components rather than being mainly horizontal as in flat terrain. One significant result of this research, from the perspective of design of clearances within the tower heads, is the extent of conductor motions during galloping in these locations with wet snow accretion. The excursions of the four- and sixbundle conductors are exemplified by the orbits included in Figure 4.5-12. These recordings were obtained under naturally accreted wet snow with winds of 12 m/s, by Chubu Electric Company at their Mount Ryuo test site. The conductors cross a valley between mountains at an elevation of 830 m and are boldly exposed to transverse winds. The orbits recorded contain much larger horizontal motion than is usually seen during galloping under freezing rain conditions in flat terrain.

Figure 4.5-12 Orbit shapes obtained on six- and fourconductor bundles during galloping due to wet snow with a wind velocity of 12 m/s (Morishita et al. 1984)

The tests with an eight-conductor bundle showed an even more elongated orbits as shown in Figure 4.5-13. This record was obtained at an elevation of 750 meters above sea level at the Mount Tsuruga test site by the Kansai Electric Power Company, under natural wet snow accretion with a wind speed of 18 m/s.

Figure 4.5-13 Orbit shape obtained on an eightconductor bundle during galloping due to wet snow with a wind velocity of 18 m/s (Morishita et al. 1984)

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Figure 4.5-14 Orbit shapes obtained on six- and ten- conductor bundles during galloping due to simulated wet snow accretions with a wind velocity of 20 and 15 m/s (Morishita et al. 1984) bundles to represent the wet snow shapes.

Some research was conducted by the Tokyo Electric Company at the Mount Takahashi test site with simulated wet snow accretion on sixand ten-conductor bundles. This test site is at an elevation of 1500 meters above sea level. Figure 4.5-14 shows the resulting orbits of motion at wind speeds of 20 m/s and 15 m/s respectively. The figure includes sketches of the artificial accretion profiles used on the

These samples of orbits of galloping bundle conductors under wet snow, or simulated wet snow, conditions illustrate that transmission lines in regions subject to these weather conditions cannot be safely designed using the guidelines normal for many North American lines. Design criteria for clearances need to be developed for such locations, and also, as described elsewhere in this volume, high dynamic loads can occur and need to be accommodated.

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4.5.5 Interphase Spacers One method for controlling galloping motions, in such a way as to prevent phase-to-phase contacts, involves use of insulating interphase ties or spacers. The method does not prevent galloping, but forces the motions into a mode in which flashovers are much less likely. Interphase spacers appear to have been highly effective at reducing the incidences of galloping flashovers due to galloping, and are employed by a number of utilities. (Edwards 1970, Vollmer 1969, Jongerius and Lewis 1970, Becken and Drevlow 1972, Callahan 1973, Kito et al. 1975, Abilgaard et al. 1976) A worldwide survey in the 1990s (Berg and Smart 1992) showed data from 32 utilities in 13 countries with nearly 13,000 installed interphase spacers. The survey reported that these are used on lines at voltages from 11 kV to 420 kV. The earliest stiff spacers were assembled from ceramic insulator sections joined with an aluminum tube, and attached to the conductors using standard suspension clamps. These spacers were heavy and difficult to handle and install (Figure 4.5-15). Some early rigid spacers suffered breakages of the insulating sections due to the high compressive forces occurring during galloping, and there were failures of the welded joints at the ends of the central aluminum tube. Later, polymeric insulators were substituted for the ceramic sections creating a lighter and more Figure 4.5-15 Installation of a rigid manageable, but still rigid, assembly. Flexible interphase spacer (Havard 1978) clamps were also used, but special means were needed to avoid arcing at the sliding surfaces. More recently armor grip suspension (AGS) clamps have also been used to reduce local stresses in the conductors at the points of attachment. The spacers are applied well out in the span, sometimes at or near midspan, sometimes at one third or one-quarter points of the span. Figure 4.5-16 illustrates recommended use of two or four interphase spacers per span of a vertically oriented circuit (Edwards and Ko 1979). In either of these arrangements the interphase spacers could be effective in both the single and two loop modes. These Figure 4.5-16 Alternative arrangements of arrangements were used in the field interphase spacers in a span of a vertical circuit evaluations, but the alternative using (Edwards and Ko 1979) four spacers is preferred, because there is still a possibility of contact between the phases at the quarter points in the span during mixed mode galloping with only two spacers.

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Overhead line circuits in Germany can be vertical, horizontal or in a delta configuration. Interphase spacer location schemes, that are intended to be economical while still establishing an adequate level of control, have been proposed for each of these circuit designs (Schmidt and Jrdens 1989). The scheme for the delta circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 4.5-17. This spacing scheme was Figure 4.5-17 Mounting scheme for interphase installed on over 100 spans of a spacers on a delta circuit twin bundle line in southern (Schmidt and Jrdens 1989) Germany, but the report does not include any field experience during galloping events. They also note that spans which include a transition from one configuration to another, or which serve to rotate the phases for electrical load balance, are at particular risk of flashovers during galloping. They recommend use of interphase spacers at the closest point of approach of the conductors.
Practice varies from utility to utility with regard to number of spacers needed per span and as to their positioning. In some installations, only one pair of phases is coupled. Usually all three are coupled, but the bottom pair may be coupled at different spanwise positions from the top pair. Interphase spacers do not suppress the galloping motions of the conductors. Figure 4.5-18 shows a double exposure of a Figure 4.5-18 Double exposure photo of a span quite usual two-loop type of equipped with rigid interphase spacers during galloping motion on a span of a galloping showing two-loop motion (Pon et al. 1982) vertical circuit fitted with four interphase spacers. This shows that galloping motion can occur, but the spacers maintain the phase separation and minimize the likelihood of phase-to-phase contacts.

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Figure 4.5-19 Forced motion of the middle phase conductor during mixed mode galloping with two interphase spacers (Pon et al. 1982)

There are less common motions and a diagram of one type of mixed mode motion, observed during a galloping event on Ontario Hydro lines, is sketched in Figure 4.5-19. The upper and lower phase conductors are moving in a single loop mode, while the middle phase is in a two-loop mode. The middle phase conductor can approach the other conductors at the top of the left hand and at the bottom of the right hand interphase spacer.

Early studies (Tornquist and Becker 1947) on a test line with D-shaped artificial ice, showed that connecting the three phases by means of a taut cord located at one of the one-third points of the span forced the separate phases to gallop in unison, with equal amplitudes and the same phase. Since the relative motions of the phases were negligible, phase separation was maintained, even with large-amplitude galloping. Although a flexible cord is not an effective spacing member in most other applications, the oscillatory character of galloping does make it effective here. Galloping leads to reduced phase separations through oscillations of conductors about their mean positions. Those oscillations require that the phases be free to move away from, as well as toward, each other. By preventing increased phase separation, the cord prevented oscillations that could produce reduced phase separation. Interphase insulating spacers may be either essentially rigid or somewhat flexible. The latter type has been used in Germany (Abilgaard et al. 1976). It employs a single spacing member with a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) rod for a core and a cast-on silicone rubber shed shell. Its column strength is low enough that it may buckle under compressive loads that may occur during galloping. Subsequent designs were made more flexible through joints within the length of the spacers, initially retaining the metal middle section. Later designs substituted silicone rubber covered fibreglass rods for the metal sections. These changes effectively created a chain of insulated links between the phases. This type of interphase spacer was used at 230 kV and 500 kV, in the Canadian Electrical Association sponsored field trials of galloping controls for bundled conductors, as illustrated by the sample on a Manitoba Hydro 500 kV triple bundle line shown in Figure 4.5-20 (Pon and Havard 1994). The joints are bridged with flexible metal bonding straps to eliminate arcing from

Figure 4.5-20 Flexible polymeric interphase spacer installed on a triple bundle 500 kV line in Manitoba Hydro (Pon and Havard 1994)

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movements of the loose joints. Corona rings are mounted at the high voltage ends of the sheds of the polymeric insulators to reduce the electric field gradient and minimize arcing damage to the sheds.

While most of the applications are to vertical or near vertical circuit arrangements, interphase spacers have also been applied to horizontally arranged circuits with galloping problems. One such design for a two-conductor bundle line in northern Norway (Loudon 2003), which has experienced frequent winter damage, is shown in Figure 4.5-21. This rigid design uses composite insulators and has a tubular steel central section. It is underslung to ensure that the bundle stays in its normal orientation. Some cases of damage to interphase spacers have occurred with this design.

Figure 4.5-21 Rigid interphase spacer for a horizontally aligned two conductor bundle circuit in northern Norway (Loudon 2003) Apparently, all phase-to-phase spacers that have been employed in the United States are of the essentially-rigid type. Most have a GRP strut as the spacing member, with porcelain elements between each of its ends and the conductor clamps. The clamps are usually applied over armor. Specific application data and recommendations should be obtained from suppliers of interphase spacers. Certain considerations involved will be mentioned, however. Since galloping motion is not eliminated, the spacers may have to endure dynamic mechanical loads. Useful estimates of these loads may be made through an analysis (Kito et al. 1975). The spacers must also cope with the shock loads that occur when ice falls from a span, and with static loads that exist after the top conductor, for example, has shed its ice but before the others have. The dead weight of the spacers may cause measurable increases in sag, especially for the smaller conductors in short spans. Wind loads on interphase spacers are significant in some cases.
Interphase spacers require a high degree of electrical reliability, otherwise the increased number of flashovers caused by contamination or breakdown of the interface at the end fittings, may exceed the number of flashovers prevented by the improved galloping performance (Jongerius and Lewis 1970, Kito et a1. 1975).

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Field trials of interphase spacers were in place on Ontario Hydro lines during the 1970s (Pon et al. 1982). In that period a number of manufacturers products were installed, and most of the installations were on single conductor lines with stiff spacers. The field results from single conductor lines only are presented graphically as a plot of peak-to-peak amplitude versus the fraction of the observations in Figure 4.5-22. The xaxis scale is based on the Weibull statistical analysis of values of extreme events (such as flood levels Figure 4.5-22 Effect of interphase spacers on of rivers), and allows linear peak to peak galloping amplitude based on 10 projection to give predictions of observations on single conductors (Pon et al. 1982) behavior beyond the plotted data. The figure includes all values of peak-to-peak amplitude on the untreated phases and all those with interphase spacers recorded during 10 separate galloping events. This figure shows that there is, on average, a reduction in the reported galloping amplitudes, but there are still large amplitudes of motion on the lines with interphase spacers. In Figure 4.5-23 the same data are divided by sag and plotted against number of data points on the same scale as in the previous figure. This form of presentation compares directly with the design guides in which the galloping clearance envelopes are scaled to the sag of the conductor. The maximum amplitude is reduced from 0.52 x sag to 0.38 x sag, a reduction of 27%. It should be noted that interphase spacers, and several of the other devices, restrain the rotation of the conductor that tends to occur under the eccentric weight of the growing ice deposit. Free rotation tends to result in an ice shape that is more rounded and so less prone to gallop. Thus, in long single conductor spans, these devices may aggravate the problem they are intended to solve.

Figure 4.5-23 Effect of interphase spacers on peak to peak galloping amplitude/sag based on 10 observations on single conductors (Pon et al. 1982)

The Canadian Electrical Association sponsored field trials of galloping control devices for bundled conductor lines (Pon and Havard 1994) included four sites with flexible interphase spacers on twin, triple and quad bundle lines. The field trials of interphase spacers on bundled lines produced four documented galloping observations. The results include three events in which there were no visible motions on the 136

phases linked by the interphase spacers and small amplitude motions on the reference untreated phases. One event included significant motions on both the treated and untreated phases. These four results were not considered sufficient to draw conclusions about the overall performance of these devices under the range of ice and wind conditions conducive to galloping. The worldwide survey (Berg and Smart 1992) investigated the opinion of the utilities with regards to both performance of interphase spacers as control devices during galloping, and the experience with respect to damage and maintenance required of the interphase spacers. Solely from the performance point of view the survey indicated:

Many survey responses indicated that there were no phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground


flashovers after installing the interphase spacers

Some low amplitude galloping was seen after spacer installation, but large amplitude
motions appear to be eliminated

Clashing was prevented but galloping continued at a lower level Wear and conductor damage occurrences were reduced
Reported side effects of using the interphase spacers included:

Some mechanical damage to the insulator sections of the spacers in the form of cracking
of the sections with sheds

Electrical and mechanical breakdown in some urban areas, due to tracking attributed to
pollution.

A few cases of compression failures during galloping Some spacers damaged by birds pecking at the insulator sheds Some porcelain insulator sections were replaced by polymer insulators.
Spacers have proved effective at eliminating phase-to-phase contacts during galloping but there can still be conductor motions and dynamic loads on the support structures. Recently studies of interphase spacer behaviour during simulated galloping have been carried out at IREQ, Hydro Quebecs research facility. (Van Dyke 2005). The focus of this study was the fatigue of conductors at clamps due to galloping, and the outdoor test site at Varennes was used to simulate overhead line performance. A D section foil was attached to the conductors to produce galloping at any time of year providing the winds were adequate. In this study the fatigue stress was assessed by instrumentation measuring the frequency of vibration and the free loop amplitude in the span. The dynamic stresses adjacent to the clamps were compared during galloping on two parallel phases, one with and one without interphase spacers. Surprisingly these measurements showed that the bending stress at the clamps was as high or higher with the interphase spacers than without them. The clamps used were metal clamps, and it was recommended that they be replaced with elastomer-lined clamps attached using helical armor rods in galloping prone locations. In summary, the interphase spacers have a good track record for eliminating flashovers during galloping but they do not prevent the galloping motions. Observations in the field show that motions still occur with interphase spacers in place, especially when the galloping conditions are such that high levels of motion can occur. The side effects of galloping such as high loads 137

on the support structures and damage to the conductors at the suspension clamps can still be a problem with interphase spacers. Interphase spacers are also subject to breakage if they are not designed well enough for the dynamic loads applied to them.

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4.5.6 Aerodynamic Dampers

(*To be written*)

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4.5.7 Torsional Control Devices

(*To be written*)

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4.5.8 Bundle Modification

Experience in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium, as well as other European countries where winter precipitation occurred mainly in the form of wet snow, was that small to medium sized single conductors were virtually gallop free while bundle conductors galloped severely, leading to sporadic occurrences of serious damage. The difference in behaviour is attributed to the ability of long spans of single conductor to rotate under the weight of the accretion, and for the ice to form in a smooth profile with smaller aerodynamic lift forces. This twisting action is not possible in short single conductor spans, in bundle conductors due to the restraint of the spacers, or in large single conductors due their inherent torsional rigidity. For these spans the accretion will build up on one side of the conductor and develop into a more pointed profile, with higher aerodynamic lift forces. Modifications to the design of bundle conductors were investigated in order to allow the subconductors to rotate under the weight of the accretion (Leppers et al. 1978). Upwards of 240 circuit-km (150 circuit-miles) of line were treated in three European utilities. The modifications generally involved moving the subconductors to different heights, and the removal of spacers from the spans. Figure 4.5-24 shows samples of suspension arrangements for two-, and four-conductor bundles developed for this purpose, and applied to transmission lines operating at 150, 220 and 380 kV in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. The height differentials were introduced so that during swing-out under buffeting winds the subconductors do not clash, and also to reduce the wake effects in bundles, which contribute to an increase in wind energy transfer to the conductors. The applications were on lines with subconductors in the 18 to 22 mm diameter range. The initial development was simply removal of spacers, but adverse behaviour was experienced during emergency current conditions in which there are high electromagnetic forces of attraction between the subconductors causing the bundle to collapse inward. These

Figure 4.5-24 Alternative arrangements of bundles without spacers (Leppers et al. 1978) forces are inversely proportional to the spacing between subconductors, so the bundle will remain in its collapsed state even when the current is reduced to normal operating levels. The current must be reduced to zero to restore the bundle geometry. Also, in vertical two-

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conductor and four-conductor bundles, unequal ice loads on the subconductors, or sudden release of ice may cause the subconductors to wrap up. A new design of spacer was developed to allow free rotation of the subconductors, while preventing the collapse of the bundle. This is the hoop spacer, and a sample design is shown in Figure 4.5-25 (Hoffman and Tunstall 2003). Hoop spacers are shown installed on an experimental section of a 150 kV twin bundle line in the PLEM system in the Netherlands in Figure 4.5-26. Figure 4.5-25 Hoop spacer used to maintain The left hand circuit is despacered, as shown separation of subconductors in despacered in diagram a in Figure 4.5-24, and top and bundles (Hoffman and Tunstall 2003) bottom phase suspension strings are replaced by V strings to limit excursions of the phases during galloping. The right hand circuit has the top two phases despacered as in diagram a of Figure 4.5-24, and the hoop spacers are mounted on the bottom phase only, which remains in its original horizontal configuration. This line was monitored by line patrols during galloping events and on two occasions the sections with conventional spacers were seen to gallop while the sections without spacers were quiet. The patrols also reported that the ice coatings were eccentric and pointed on the conventionally spacered section, and fell off quickly after the temperature rose. On the other hand, the despacered section was covered with a smoother ice coating, which persisted for a longer period. In Belgium, UNERG implemented the despacered vertical twin bundle configurations shown in Figure 4.5-24 a and c. The lines were initially at 150 kV and were later uprated to 220 kV. The lines run through the Ardennes mountain range, Figure 4.5-26 Despacered vertical twin bundle and had a history of galloping problems. 150 kV transmission line with hoop spacers The effectiveness of the spacer removal on lower phase of right circuit program was monitored by a remote sensing (Leppers et al. 1978) station established by LABORELEC, the Belgian electrical industry research laboratory. The station instrumentation measured the dynamic loads on a dead end span. All six phases of the double circuit line were monitored to facilitate comparison of the despacered vertical and standard horizontal bundle configurations with different types of spacers. As shown in Figure 4.5-27, these measurements indicated dynamic tension variations up to 60 percent of the static conductor tension at 0C on the horizontal bundles at a frequency corresponding to the galloping motion. On the despacered

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phase the loads were much smaller and irregular, indicating that the load variations were not due galloping conductors, but due to the reactions of the towers and crossarms to the galloping motions on the other side of the tower.

Figure 4.5-27 Rotating clamp spacer to allow subconductor twisting during ice and wet snow accretion (Leppers et al. 1978)

Initial trials of despacering in the German utility PREAG were on a twin bundle 220 kV line, and the arrangement shown in Figure 4.5-24 b was used. Due to numerous repair sleeves and resulting uneven sags in this galloping prone section of the line, the 80 cm vertical separation was applied. The previous poor performance during the winters was eliminated with this modification. When PREAG applied the spacer removal approach to 380 kV quad bundles, rearranged as shown diagrams d and e of Figure 4.5-24, there were increases in electric field, radio interference, and audible noise. Subsequently, such modifications were limited to uninhabited areas only. An alternative method of achieving the free rotation of subconductors was then developed, illustrated in Figure 4.5-24. This is the rotating clamp spacer, and consists of two shells around each conductor, one clamped to the subconductor and one attached to the hinged link forming the spacer. The two shells are designed to rotate freely one within the other, and care is required to ensure that the subconductors are at the same tension, to facilitate rotation. Also one metre long, wind driven vane drives were added to the conductor to effect continuous movements and keep the sliding surfaces free. Spacer removal is expected to produce significant benefits in spans that are long enough or use small enough conductors that resistance to twisting is small. One measure of torsional Figure 4.5-28 Load measurements during galloping resistance to twisting under eccentric 2 on a twin bundle in Belgium (Leppers et al. 1978) ice load is S/d , where S is span length and d is conductor diameter. Large S/d2 indicates small resistance to twisting. Figure 4.5-28 shows the distribution of S/d2 for a large data set of galloping events on single conductors (Edison Electric Institute 1977). The data in the figure indicate that S/d2 exceeded 600,000 m-l (180,000 ft-l) in less than 5% of all reported single conductor galloping cases. The spans involved in the European spacer removal programs are generally more torsionally flexible, with values of S/d2 generally greater than 600,000 m-l.

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Figure 4.5-28 invites the conclusion that twisting effects will almost always prevent galloping in single conductor spans for which S/d2 exceeds 600,000 m-1. It should be borne in mind, however, that the trend that is evident in the figure is probably due in part to the distribution of span lengths that appears in actual lines. For example, for the relatively popular conductor Rail, S/d2 would exceed 600,000 m-l only in spans greater than 525 m (1700 feet). Galloping is unlikely to be reported very often for such spans, simply because they form a small percentage of the total population of lines. It is almost certain that twisting effects do protect spans with large S/d2, but not with the reliability implied by Figure 4.5-28. Oddly, all of the lines represented in Figure 4.5-28 having S/d2e

Figure 4.5-28 Cumulative distribution of span length/(diameter)2 in spans where galloping was observed. (EPRI 1979)

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4.5.9 Limiting Longitudinal Motions

(*To be written*)

145

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4-16 E. Smith, Excerpts from Bureau of Reclamation Reports on Recent Experiences with Conductor Icing and Galloping, see Reference 4-2, Addendum 5. 4-17 Edison Electric Institute, Data courtesy of Transmission and Distribution Committee. 4-18 H. J. Lowe and R. F. Richards, Summary of Recent Experience and Current Research in Central Electricity Generating Board on Vibration Aspects of Overhead Lines, see Reference 4-2, Addendum 1. 4-19 N. J. McMurtrie, Economic Aspects of the Problem of Conductor Galloping in Ontario Hydro, see Reference 4-2, Addendum 6. 4-20 L. O. Barthold, I. S. Grant and V. J. Longo, Preliminary Research Studies on Compact Transmission Lines, IEEE Conference Paper C73 429-8, July 1973. 4-21 K. Spaderna, Protection of Overhead Conductors Against Ice (in German), Electrotechnische Zeitschrift, Vol. 6, No. 12, 1954. 4-22 J. E. Toms and L. Gardner, Combatting Winters Grip on Power Lines, see Reference 4-2, Addendum 2. 4-23 A. S. Richardson, Galloping Conductors-Progress Toward a Practical Solution of the Problem, EEI Bulletin, May 1962, Vol. 30, No. 5. 4-24 A. T. Edwards, J. Chadha and A. D. Hogg, Control of Galloping of Overhead Conductors by the End-Point Damping System, IEEE Conference Paper C72 185-2, January 1972. 4-25 A. T. Edwards, Current Status-Galloping Problem, CIGRB Report 22-76 (WG 0 15P) 0 1. 4-26 A. S. Richardson, Jr., Dynamic Damper for Galloping Conductors, Electrical World, September 20, 1965, pp. 154-5. 4-27 A. H. Kidder, A Proposed Friction Damper for Galloping Conductor Waves, IEEE Transactions Paper, Vol. PAS-86, November 1967, pp. 1368-73. 4-28 E. L. Tornquist and C. Becker, Galloping Conductors and a Method for Studying Them, AIEE Transactions Paper, Vol. 66, 1947, pp. 1154-61. 4-29 J. J. Ratkowski, Experiments with Galloping Spans, AIEE Conference Paper CP 6262, January 1962. 4-30 O. Nigol and G. J. Clarke, Conductor Galloping and Control Based on Torsional Mechanism, IEEE Conference Paper C74 016-2, 1974. 4-31 O. Nigol and D. G. Havard, Control of Torsionally-Induced Conductor Galloping with Detuning Pendulums, IEEE Paper A78 125-7, January 1978. 4-32 J. Chadha and W. Jaster, Influence of Turbulence on the Galloping Instability of Iced Conductors, IEEE Transactions Paper, Vol. PAS-94, No. 5, September/October 1975, pp. 1489-96. 4-33 J. Chadha, A Dynamic Model Investigation of Conductor Galloping, IEEE Conference Paper C74 059-2, 1974. 4-34 W. N. McDaniel, An Analysis of Galloping Electric Transmission Lines, AIEE Transactions, Vol. PAS-79, 1960, pp. 406- 12.

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A.S. Richardson. A study of galloping conductors on a 230 kV Transmission line. Electric power systems research, 2151991) 43-55 S. Sasaki, M. Komoda, T. Akiyama, M. Oishi, Y. Kojima, T. Okumura, Y. Maeda. Developments of galloping control devices and its operation records in Japan. Cigre report 22-07, 1986. Tunstall, M., Koutselos, L.T., Further Studies of the Galloping Instability & Natural Ice Accretions on Overhead Line Conductors, 4th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Icing of Structures., Paris, sept.1988. J. Wang, J.L. Lilien. Overhead Transmission Line Galloping. A comparative study between 2DOF and 3-DOF models. 3me Congrs National Belge de Mcanique Thorique et Applique. Lige. Mai 1994. Acte du Congrs, pp 257,261. J. Wang, J.L. Lilien. Overhead Electrical transmission line galloping. A full multi-span 3-dof model, some applications and design recommendations. IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 13, N3, pp 909-916, July 1998. J. Wang, J.L. Lilien. A new theory for torsional stiffness of multi-span bundle overhead transmission lines. February 1998. IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 13, N4, pp 14051411. J. Wang, Large Vibrations of Overhead Electrical Lines: a Full 3-DOF Model for Galloping Studies, Ph.D. Thesis, Collection des Publications de la Facult des Sciences appliques de lUniversit de Lige, No 151, pp. 1-227, 1996. R. Whapham, Field Research for Control of Galloping with Air Flow Spoiler Preformed Line Products, May 1983. V. Winants, M. Riez, Conductor Galloping on Overhead Lines, CIGRE SC22, Paper 06, Paris, August, 1970. Yamaguchi H. Analytical study on growth mechanism of rain vibration of cables, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 33 (1990) 73-80. Yamaguchi H., Yukino T, Fujii K. Essential factors affecting on maximum vertical amplitude of wind-induced vibrations in overhead transmission lines Proceedings of the 6th CABLE DYNAMICS conference, Charleston, SC (USA), sept. 2005.

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References: Section 4.4 [1] K. Anjo, S. Yamasaki, Y. Matsubayashi, Y. Nakayama, A. Otsuki, T. Fujimura, An experimental study of bundle galloping on the Kasatory-Yama test line for bulk power transmission, CIGRE report 22-04, Paris 1974. [2] CIGRE WG document An Observation of Galloping on Despacered Thick Conductor Bundles at the Villeroux Test Site, CIGRE Document WG 22-11 (TFG) 89-12, 5 October 1989. [3] CIGRE SC22:WG11 Task Force on Galloping, Field observations of overhead line galloping Galloping reporting forms, Electra No 162, 1995. [4] A.T. Edwards, Ontario Hydro full-scale galloping test line, Addendum 8, Summary of Proceedings of Conference on Conductor Galloping, Ontario Hydro W.P. Dobson Research Laboratory, Toronto, September 1966. [5] A.T. Edwards, Conductor galloping, Electra N 12 , march 1970, pp. 31-48 [6] D.G. Havard, J.C. Pohlman., Five Years Field Trials of Detuning Pendulums for Galloping Control, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-103, No 2, pp. 318-327, February 1984. [7] D.G. Havard, Fifteen years field trials of galloping controls for overhead power lines, IWAIS 95, 7th International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures, Chicoutimi, Canada, June 3-6, 1996. [8] A. Laneville, An explanation of some effects of turbulence on bluff bodies Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Cambridge University Press, pp 333-341, 1977. [9] J.L. Lilien, M. Erpicum, M. Wolfs, Overhead lines galloping. Experience during one event in Belgium on last February 13th, 1997 IWAIS 98. International Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, June 1998, proceedings, pp 293-299. [10] J.L. Lilien, A. Vinogradov, Full-scale tests of TDD antigalloping device (Torsional Damper and Detuner) IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, vol.17,N2, April 2002. [11] Y. Nakamura, Y. Tomonari, The aerodynamic characteristics of D-section prisms in a smooth and in a turbulent flow April 1980. [12] G.V. Parkinson, J.D. Smith, The square prism as an aeroelastic non-linear oscillator, Quart Jour. Mech. And Applied Math, Vol. XVII, Pt. 2, 1964. [13] C. B. Rawlins, Galloping Eigenmodes in a Multispan Overhead Line Section Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on Cable Dynamics, Montreal (Canada), May 28-30, 2001, pp. 85-92. [14] J. Rogier, J. Goossens, M. Wolfs, A. Van Overmeere, J.L. Lilien, L. Lugentz, Lexprience des mesures occasionnelles et permanentes sur des lignes ariennes belges CIGRE 1998, session plnire, Aot 1998. Rapport N 145, CE 22. [15] P. Van Dyke, A. Laneville, Galloping of a single conductor covered with a D-section on a high voltage overhead test line 5th International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications, pp. 377-380, July 2004.

157

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Hardy et al. 1999: Safe Design Tension with respect to Aeolian Vibration Part 1: Single Unprotected Conductors, ELECTRA, Vol. 186 Oct 1999, by CIGR Committee B2 WG11 TF4, Convenor Claude Hardy Wolfs et al. 2000, Review of Galloping Control Methods, by CIGR Working Group 22.11, Convenor M. Wolfs, ELECTRA, Vol. 191, August 2000 Anjo et al. 1974, An Experimental Study of Bundle Conductor Galloping on the KasatoriYama Test Line for Bulk Power Transmission, by K. Anjo, S. Yamasaki, Y. Matsubayashi, Y. Nakayama, A. Otsuki & T. Fujimura, CIGR Paper 22-04, 1974 Baikov 1967, Choice of Conductor-Conductor and Conductor-Ground Wire Distances According to Conditions of Galloping (in Russian), by S. P. Baikov, R. A. Golutsov and P. E. Sandler, Electricheskii Stantzii, August 1967, pp. 57-61. Davison 1939, Ice-Coated Electrical Conductors , by A.E. Davison, Bulletin Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Vol. 26, No.9, September 1939, pp 271-80 EPRI 1980, Transmission Line Reference Book, Wind Induced Conductor Motion, Chapter 4, Galloping Conductors, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1980 Havard 1979, EPRI Research Program RP-1095 Galloping Control by Detuning, Progress Report No. 2, by D.G. Havard, Ontario Hydro Research Division Report No. 79-619-K, November 1979 Havard 1996, "Fifteen Years Field Trials of Galloping Controls for Overhead Power Lines", by D.G. Havard, IWAIS '95, 7th International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures, Chicoutimi, Canada, June 3-6, 1996 Havard 1998, "Analysis of galloping conductor field data", by D.G. Havard, IWAIS '98, 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures, Reykjavik, Iceland, June 8-11 1998. Havard and Pohlman 1984, "Five Years' Field Trials of Detuning Pendulums for Galloping Control", by D.G. Havard and J.C. Pohlman, Trans. IEEE PES, Feb 1984, pp 318-327 Lilien and Havard 2000, "Galloping Data Base on Single and Bundle Conductors Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes", by J.L. Lilien and D.G. Havard, IEEE, Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 2000, pp 670-674. Morishita et al. 1984, Galloping Phenomena of Large Bundle Conductors: Experimental Results of the Field Test Lines, by S. Morishita, K. Tsujimoto, M. Yasui, N. Mori, K. Shimojima & K. Naito, CIGR Paper 22-04, 1984 Rawlins 1981, Analysis of Conductor Galloping Field Observations Single Conductors, by C.B. Rawlins, Trans. IEEE Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-100, No. 8, August 1981 Rawlins 1986, Conductor Galloping Field Observations Analysis Update, by C.B. Rawlins, Alcoa Conductor Products Company Technical Note No. 26, January 1986

158

REA 1962, Galloping Conductors, Design Report No. 1, Rural Electrification Administration, Toye 1951, Formulas Determine Conductor Path at Quarter Point, by L. W. Toye, Electrical World January 29, 1951, p. 160 Winkelman 1974, Investigations of Ice and Wind Loads, Galloping, Vibrations and Subconductor Oscillations (Transmission Line Conductor Problems), by P.F. Winkelman, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bonneville Power Administration, September 1974. Abilgaard et al. 1976, Composite Long-Rod Insulators and Their Influence on the Design of Overhead Lines, by E. H. Abilgaard, E. A. Bauer and K. L. deLussanet dela Sablomiere,CIGRE Report 22-03, 1976. Becken and Drevlow 1972, Midspan Spacers Rein in Galloping Conductors, by R. W. Becken and R. A. Drevlow, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 24, November 1972, pp. 346,86. Berg and Smart 1992, "Results of Questionnaire on Interphase Spacers", by A. Berg and T.J. Smart, CIGR SC22 WG11, ELECTRA Vol. 143, Aug 1992 Callahan 1973, Curbs for Galloping Conductors, by F. B. Callahan, Transmission and Distribution, October 1973, pp. 66-8. Edwards 1970, Conductor Galloping, by A. T. Edwards, Electra, No. 12, March 1970, pp. 31-48. Edwards and Ko 1979, Interphase Spacers for Controlling Galloping of Overhead Conductors, by A.T. Edwards and R.G. Ko, IEEE Symposium on Mechanical Oscillations of Overhead Transmission Lines, Vancouver, B.C., July 1979 Havard 1978, Status of Conductor Galloping Research at Ontario Hydro, Second Canadian Workshop on Wind Engineering, by, D.G. Havard, IREQ, Varennes, Quebec, Sept 28-29, 1978. Jongerius and Lewis 1970, Development of a 69 kV Mid- Span Phase Spacer, by W. L. Jongerius and P. E. Lewis, IEEE Conference Paper C70 630-PWR, July 1970. Kito et al. 1975, Phase-To-Phase Spacers for Transmission Lines, by K. Kito, T. Imakama, and K. Shinoda, IEEE Paper No. A75 498-6, July 1975.
Loudon 2003, Private correspondence from D. Loudon Pon and Havard 1994, "Field Trials of Galloping Control Devices for Bundle Conductor Lines", Final Report on CEA R & D Project 133 T 386, by C.J. Pon and D.G. Havard, Mar 1994

Pon et al. 1982, Performance of Interphase Spacers for Galloping Control by C.J. Pon, D.G. Havard and A.T. Edwards, Ontario Hydro Research Division Report No.82-216-K, July 6, 1982.

159

Schmidt and Jrdens 1989, Design of Interphase Spacers with Composite Insulators and Service Experience, by J. Schmidt and C. Jrdens, presentation to CIGR SC22-WG11 Task Force on Galloping, Rijeka, Jugoslavia, 1989 Tornquist and Becker 1947, Galloping Conductors and a Method for Studying Them, by E. L. Tornquist and C. Becker, AIEE Transactions Paper, Vol. 66, 1947, pp. 1154-61. Van Dyke 2005. Oral presentation by P. Van Dyke, at CIGR WG11 meeting, Bilbao, Spain, 2005 Vollmer 1969, Control of Galloping with Interphase Ties, by R. W. Vollrner, IEEE Conference Paper C59-PWR, June 1968.
Edison Electric Institute 1977, Data courtesy of Edison Electric Institutes Galloping Conductor Task Force. NOTE: Eighty-one of the cases in this collection have been used in one or more tables and figures in this book. In many cases some items of data, e.g. ice thickness, wind speed, amplitude, were not available. For this reason, different figures and tables that are based upon this collection contain data on different numbers of cases. EPRI 1979 "Transmission Line Reference Book - Wind Induced Conductor Motion", Electric Power Research Institute, Research Project 795, 1978.

Hoffman and Tunstall 2003, A Review of the Service Performance of National Grid Transcos Conductor Systems, by S.P. Hoffman, and M.J. Tunstall, CIGR Study Committee B2 Colloquium on UK Transmission & Distribution - An Era of Change, Edinburgh, Sept 2003 Leppers et al 1978, Spacers Removed to Combat Galloping, by P. H. Leppers, R. H. Brand, M. Couvreur and J. Maljean, Electrical World, Vol. 187, No. 9, May 1, 1977, pp. 70-2.

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G
CHAPTER 5, BUNDLE CONDUCTOR MOTIONS

G-1

Chapter 5 Bundle Conductor Motion (Wake-Induced Oscillation)


5.1 INTRODUCTION

(*To be completed*)

5.2

OVERVIEW

5.2.1 Types of Motion Wake-induced oscillation encompasses several types of motion, observed in conductor bundles, that are caused by the aerodynamic shielding of leeward-lying conductors by windward ones. The leeward conductors that lie in the wakes of windward conductors are subjected to forces not experienced by single conductors, and these forces permit windinduced motions to occur that are peculiar to bundles. The motions occur in moderate to strong winds, usually in the range of 7 to 18 m/s (15 to 40 mph). Although they may occur with ice on the conductors, (5-15) or when there is rain, (5-16, 5-17) the motions are most often observed when the conductors are bare and dry. The four principal types of wake-induced motion are illustrated in Figure 5-1. Three of these types, those shown in B, C, and D of the Figure, are termed rigid-body modes since little distortion of the cross section of the bundle occurs. They are similar to the fluttering motions of a ribbon. The rigid-body modes involve motions in the three degrees of freedom: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. However, none of these degrees of freedom occur in pure form. The vertical and horizontal galloping modes of Figure 5-1B and C are accompanied by some rotation or rolling, while the rolling or twisting mode of Figure 5-1D seems to embody some vertical galloping. Motion in one of the degrees of freedom is always dominant, however, and this provides a basis for the mode classifications. The rigid-body modes may occur with one or several loops in the span, the two-loop forms being the most common for vertical and horizontal galloping. The rolling mode has been observed with as many as eight loops in the span. The one-loop form is uncommon. When more than one loop occurs, the node points between loops do not appear to be associated with spacer locations. The vertical galloping mode is occasionally observed in the form of a traveling wave, (5-5) rather than as standing loops. The wave has a length of the order of 50 or 100 metres and travels back and forth along the span, being reflected at the towers. Peak-to-peak amplitudes greater than a metre have been observed. Traveling waves in the rolling and horizontal galloping modes have not been reported.

The subspan mode of wake-induced oscillation is illustrated in Figure 5-1A. It takes the form of one or several loops between spacers in a span, with nodes at or near the spacers.The trajectories of individual subconductors are elliptical, and windward-leeward pairs of subconductors often move approximately in phase opposition. Motions in adjacent subspan are usually synchronized but are not necessarily in phase or exactly out of phase. The one-loop-per-subspan form is most common.(5-18)More than two loops per subspan are rarely observed, except when the conductors are wet. The subspan mode is the most dramatic and the most frequently reported. Since the elliptical orbits traced by the conductors usually have their major axes horizontal, the motions are easily seen from the ground. However, large amplitudes in the rolling mode also give an appearance similar to the subspan mode, if the observer is not directly under the bundle. Many instances of the rolling mode are reported as subspan mode. In the subspan mode, both subconductors in a windward-leeward pair usually participate in the motion, the leeward having the higher amplitude. Not all pairs in a bundle necessarily participate to the same degree. For example, in a four-conductor square bundle, the upper or lower pair may have considerably greater amplitude than the other. In a bundle with a large number of subconductors, their association into windwardleeward pairs is apparently not meaningful since some subconductors are upwind of one subconductor and downwind of another. In such bundles, all conductors in the top or bottom quadrant may oscillate as a group, but in a complex pattern. The frequencies of the rigid-body modes are associated with harmonics of the bundle span. Thus, for example, the fundamental frequency of a typical 400 metre span would be about 0.20 Hz. The two-loop vertical and horizontal galloping modes would then have frequencies of about 0.3 Hz. Their amplitudes may be as much as 2 or 1 metres, respectively. The two-loop rolling mode would have a slightly higher frequency, say 0.35 Hz, due to the torsional rigidity of the conductors. Its amplitude can reach 80 peak-topeak. The amplitudes of the subspan mode frequently reach magnitudes at which subconductors clash, 0.5 metres peak-to-peak. However, where the loops are short, say less than 50 metres, as occurs when there are two loops in a span, maximum amplitudes are less, and clashing seldom occurs. The frequencies of the mode are associated with loop lengths determined by subspan lengths, and are well approximated by the fundamentals or harmonics of the subspan. Thus, a bundle having 80 metre subspans would display the subspan mode with one loop per subspan at a frequency of about 1 Hz.

Detailed analysis of wake-induced oscillations over a whole span reveals that several modes participate in the motion at the same time. This is shown in Table 5.2-1, which was derived from typical spectral analyses of the motion of one of the subconductors in a quad bundle fitted with a system of five spacer-dampers staggered along the span. (Hardy & Van Dyke, 1995). The motion, which was measured horizontally at the middle of all six subspans, resulted from a 11 m/s wind blowing almost perpendicularly to the line. Subspan lengths together with the associated theoretical fundamental subspan frequencies are indicated in the first two columns of the Table respectively. These theoretical frequencies f merely correspond to the fundamental frequency of a taut string having the length l of the given subspan. They can be determined from the well known relationship: f = (H/m)/2l where H and m are conductor tension and mass per unit length respectively. The next three columns show the mode number in each subspan, sorted according to decreasing amplitude, and then the related frequency and root-mean-square (r.m.s.) amplitude of motion as derived from the spectral analyses. The next column deals with modal identification. Hence, in this case, it may be seen that all individual subspan modes participate in the motion, all of them dominating their own terrain amplitude-wise except for subspan #3 where the snaking mode predominates although marginally. The highest subspan mode amplitudes, about 50 mm r.m.s., occur in subspans #2 and #4. The fundamental #6 subspan mode is felt in all subspans except again for subspan #3 where its magnitude at the point of measurements could have been small enough to have been outside of the range of analysis. Likewise, fundamental subspan modes associated with subspans #2 and #5 are detected in adjacent subspans #3 and #4 respectively. Some of the minor component frequencies in subspans #3 and #4 could not be related to any classified mode of oscillation. It could be determined that the spectral component with a frequency of 0.729 Hz corresponds to a snaking mode showing four loops along the span. The antinodal amplitude of this snaking mode could be determined by best-fitting a four-loop sine curve through the measured amplitude at each point of measurement. That yielded an antinodal amplitude of 14.8 mm r.m.s approximately.

Table 5.2-1 Modal Identification of Wake-Induced Oscillations: A Case Study

5.2.2 Factors Influencing Oscillation The incidence of wake-induced oscillations in transmission lines reflects the effects of location and line design upon susceptibility to motion. Locale appears to exert an influence because of the recurrence of auspicious winds and of the effect of local terrain upon the smoothness of wind flow over the lines.(5-19) 5.2.2.1 Incidence of Motion Where and when spans are susceptible to oscillation, there is a combination of wind velocity and wind yaw angle (angular direction of approach with respect to the line) required to initiate and maintain motion. That is evidenced in Figures 5.2-1 and 5.2-2 which show on polar plots the contour lines of maximum and average values of the Instability Index (see Appendix for a definition of the instability index) regarding a quad conductor bundle tested at the Hydro-Quebec test line in the Magdalen Islands (Hardy & Van Dyke, 1995). The bundle was systematically tilted at a uniform angle of -10 (leeward subconductors lying below windward subconductors) all along the test line to favor incidence of oscillations as much as possible. An Instability Index of 0.05 corresponds typically to the instrumented subconductor oscillating at an amplitude of about two conductor diameters peak-to-peak in one subspan. For practical purposes, such a value may be looked upon as the threshold of wake-induced oscillations. Hence, the figures show that winds assailing the line at angles less than about 45 do not produce oscillations. As a corollary, it is clear that winds having the same component of wind speed perpendicular to the line but a different yaw angle are not equivalent. Otherwise, contour lines of the instability index would appear as straight lines parallel to the test line on the polar plots. The instability contour lines are closed curves depicting not only a range of propitious yaw angles but also a lower and an upper wind velocity for oscillations to occur. In this particular case, the bundle tilt angle was fixed throughout so that stabilization at the higher wind velocities could arise only as a result of changing aerodynamic forces. It should be noted at this juncture that the minimum or threshold, wind velocity is often used hereafter as a parameter for classifying susceptibility of individual spans to wakeinduced oscillation. The instability contour lines are not quite symmetrical with respect to the normal to the line; the center of the contour lines appears to be offset by about 20 with respect to the normal. This may be due to the effect of conductor stranding. Low-activity contour lines corresponding to the maximum value of the Instability Index are somewhat more stretched out than low-activity contour lines corresponding to the average value of the Index, but not by much. However, the maximum value of the maximum Instability Index is about three times as high as the maximum value of the average instability index. This suggests that the more the oscillations are violent, the less they are sustained.

Figure 5.2-1. Maximum values of the instability index of a quad bundle as a function of wind velocity and angle of approach to the line.

Figure 5.2-2. Average values of the instability index of a quad bundle as a function of wind velocity and angle of approach to the line.

The circumstances under which wake-induced oscillation may occur appear to be narrowly circumscribed. That is, a number of conditions must be satisfied simultaneously. The tilt of the bundle with respect to the wind must be right, the separation expressed as a/d, the spacing to diameter ratio, must not be too large, the spacing system and support arrangements must be amenable, and the wind must be of sufficient smoothness. Observations of operating lines indicate that these conditions are simultaneously satisfied in only a small percentage of all spans. The requirement that the wind be smooth appears to be particularly restrictive. The turbulence of low-altitude strong winds is largely determined by the nature of the ground cover and of local terrain features, such as ravines. Local winds are found to be increasingly turbulent over ice, mown grass, plowed fields, woods, towns, and cities, respectively.(5-27) Figure 5.2-3 shows a graph representing spans in which wake-induced oscillations have been observed or recorded, plotted according to their a/d ratio and the type of ground cover.(5-28) The number for each entry in the graph indicates the number of subconductors in the bundle. Lines or spans that have not oscillated are not represented in the graph. The turbulence of the wind at conductor height is thought to be influenced to some degree by the location and orientation of the line relative to large terrain features such as valleys, where the wind flow may be funneled, and ridges, where the flow may be accelerated. Little quantitative information on these effects, relative to turbulence, appears to be available. They are not represented in Figure 5.2-3. A trend indicated in the graph is that for small oscillations have occurred in spans having rougher ground cover than in the case of spans with larger a/d. The dashed line indicates a possible boundary above which lines of conventional construction do not oscillate. It is likely that bundles having different numbers of subconductors actually have different boundaries, but not enough data are available to distinguish them. The indicated boundary is consistent with the geographical distribution of occurrences of oscillation. The 500 kV system along the West Coast is largely two-bundle with a/d in the range 10 to 11.3, much of it in regions where the ground cover is sagebrush. More than half of the reported oscillation occurs in this system. Two-bundles with a/d in the same range are also extensively used in the Northeast and Middle Atlantic states. These lines traverse terrain having more generous ground cover, and have experienced very little oscillation, other than at water crossings. Two-conductor bundles having a/d around 15 have been used extensively in several regions, but face their most barren terrain in the Southwest. Even there, they have experienced little difficulty, the most troublesome 345 kV two-bundle having an a/d of 13.6 and residing in sagebrush country. Three-conductor bundles are concentrated in the South-east, where the relatively rough ground cover apparently protects them, and in the Northwest, where special spacing procedures are followed to reduce the likelihood of oscillation.

Four-conductor bundles for 765 kV are located in the region from Illinois to New York State, where the smoothest ground cover is field grass. With a/d in the range 13 to 15.5, significant motion occurs in some spans. Because of the variability of both terrain and tilts along a line, the incidence of oscillation within lines is spotty. In uniform terrain, such as desert, as many as six or eight contiguous spans may be found in motion simultaneously, seldom involving all phases. In less uniform terrain, one normally finds only isolated spans or pairs of span in motion. The phases within a given span almost always behave differently, because of differences in tilt or spacer position, and possibly due to differences in support flexibility.

Figure 5.2-3. Effects of ground cover upon incidence of wake-induced oscillation.

The motions that occur do so only during periods when the wind speed is above threshold, and from the proper direction. The range of wind directions that may result in motion is different for different spans and lines. For example, Figure 5.2-4 is a polar plot showing amplitudes of oscillation in the B1(one-loop subspan) mode that were recorded during a certain test period in one phase of a 345 kV line.(5-6) The numbers shown in the plot are the amplitudes of motion in inches, and their locations in the plot represent the speeds, and directions of approach with respect to the line, of wind at the times of recording. The enclosed regions show the combinations of wind speed and direction that were well-represented in the test. It can be seen that winds from a fairly broad range of azimuths caused oscillation.

Figure 5.2-4. Monroe-State Line 345 kV line. Top phase NE circuit B1 mode. Amplitudes in inches peak-to-peak. Test duration: ten weeks.

In contrast, Figure 5.2-5 shows a similar plot from another test, in this case on a 500kV line. The entries in the plot are again the amplitudes of the subspan mode. In this case, the wind azimuth range in which oscillation occurred was clearly more limited.

Figure 5.2-5. Grizzly-Round Butte 500 kV line. North phase B1 mode. Amplitudes in inches peak-to-peak. Test duration: six weeks.

10

Differences in tilt, spacering, terrain and line design result in different threshold wind velocities. Observed thresholds as low as 4 m/s (10 mph) and as high as 18 m/s (40 mph) have been found in field tests. The number of times that oscillation occurs in a particular phase of a particular span is determined by how often the wind speed exceeds threshold in the azimuth sector from which oscillation-producing winds come. For certain spans having low thresholds, oscillation occurs with the passage of most major weather systems, sometimes twice a week, and the motion endures for several hours. In most cases, however, the required combination of wind speed and direction occurs less frequently, for example once or twice a month, and these occasions may be limited to winter and spring when winds tend to be stronger. Seasonal changes in foliage and crop growth alter the effective roughness of the ground and thus the smoothness of the wind, reducing the incidence of oscillation, or eliminating it during summer in some lines. 5.2.2.2 Design Factors (to be completed) Revised subsection to cover former subsections Primary Factors (Number and Arrangement of Subconductors, Separation between Subconductors, Bundle Tilt and Spacing System) and Secondary Factors (Conductor Surfaces, Suspension Arrangements {done} and Conductor Tension).

11

5.2.2.2.6 Suspension Arrangements The influence of spacer characteristics upon oscillation behavior was noted above. The mechanical characteristics of suspension arrangements at towers are also expected to have an influence. First, they may affect the tilt of the bundle under the pressure of the wind, and thus the position of the leeward conductor(s) in the wake(s) of the upwind conductors. This effect is illustrated in results of tests at the Magdalen Island test line of IREQ [Hardy & VanDyke 1995] shown in Figure 5.2-6. The figure shows the Instability Index of side-by-side four-conductor bundles of Bersfort ACSR, one support from Istrings and the other by V-string insulators. Both were adjusted to zero tilt in no-wind conditions. When the wind attained velocities greater than about 35 km/h, the I-string bundle swung into the positive tilt range that had been found in other tests to be more stable than zero tilts. The other potential effect of suspension arrangements has to do with the fact that they provide some freedom for dynamic motions of conductor or bundle at towers. For example, the links by which suspension clamps are hung from support yokes permit lateral and longitudinal movement of the conductors with respect to each other. Use of Istring suspensions permits corresponding movements of the bundle as a whole. The types and magnitudes of conductor and bundle mobility depend upon the particulars of the support design. Experimental data from field tests on effects of support point dynamic mobility appear to be lacking. However, computer analyses have indicated a substantial influence upon oscillation behavior.(5-26) Also, certain features of field test data are best explained on the basis of such effects. Specifically, the observation that the subspan modes occur in square four-bundles only for negative tilts, and in two-bundles usually for positive tilts, indicates some asymmetry with respect to horizontal, either in the structure of the bundle span, or in the system of aerodynamic forces that causes the motions. The aerodynamic force functions are symmetric about the zero tilt positions of the bundles, so the rotations of the suspension members under the pressure of the wind on the phases are thought to be the cause.

12

Figure 5.2-6. Oscillation severity for V- and I-insulators strings: *, = 0 = const. (V-strings); , 0 (I-strings)

5.2.3

Damage Caused by Wake-Induced Oscillations

(*To be completed*) 5.2.4 Protection Methods (*To be completed*)

13

5.3

ANALYSIS OF WAKE-INDUCED OSCILLATIONS

It is generally felt among researchers involved that the fundamental causes and important mechanisms of wake-induced oscillations are understood. A number of detailed analyses have been carried out, some of which will be described below. In many cases, these analyses lead to results that are consistent with the observed behavior of bundles exposed to natural winds. The number of variables involved in the oscillations has, so far, made broad validation of analytical attacks impossible. Too many of the variables have had to be dealt with through assumptions, either because field data lacked sufficient detail, or because the particular analyses in question did not provide for them: Further, the fund of quantitative field data available for such comparisons is limited. Utilization of results of analytical studies in design thus entails some risk. Section 5.3 contains three parts. The first contains a qualitative description of the causes and mechanisms of wake induced oscillations, consistent with present understanding of them. The second and third provide an overview of the major published analyses and wind tunnel testing programs respectively. 5.3.1 Mechanisms of Wake-Induced Oscillation Fully developed wake-induced oscillation of a bundled span usually involves a number of subspan sections of the bundle, and frequently, all of them. The combinations of motions that occur are difficult to describe because so many loosely coupled parts participate in the motion. There may, for example, be six subspans separated by mobile and somewhat flexible spacers, with two, three, four or more subconductors in each subspan, with each subconductor capable of vibrating in the form of loops or waves, independently, in two separate planes, such as vertical and horizontal. The several sub-conductors within a subspan influence one anothers motions by aerodynamic effects. The subconductor subspans that share a spacer, or a support yoke, influence one anothers motions by coupling through the spacer or yoke. The large number of degrees-of-freedom and the numerous couplings between them make the analytical problem immensely complex. Two features of the oscillations lend some simplicity, however, and these are useful in illuminating the mechanisms involved in terms of systems that are much less complex than full spans. First, the wind is the sole source of energy to initiate and sustain the oscillation, and to a first approximation individual spans are autonomous: there is only a small flow of vibration energy past support points. Second, under the influence of steady wind, generally steady motion is eventually achieved, sometimes at a single frequency. The motions in different parts of the bundle are of different magnitude and phase, but they are coherent. The coherence of motions at widely separated locations in the span and the coherence of motions of differing phase represent a singular situation. The forces that produce such motions require special attributes. Those attributes, and the source of energy for the oscillations, are most easily brought out in the context of a simple two-degree-of-freedom system. The system is illustrated in Figure 5.3-1. A windward conductor is fixed with

14

respect to ground. A leeward conductor is suspended from a two-degree-of-freedom mechanical spring system.

Figure 5.3-1 Elementary twin-conductor system. Windward conductor fixed, leeward conductor has two degrees of freedom.

5.3.1.1

Aerodynamic Forces

5.3.1.1.1 Static Force Field The windward conductor of Figure 5.3-1 is subjected to aerodynamic drag determined by its size, surface roughness, and the Reynolds number R. The drag force per unit length is, D= pV 2 dCD 2 is mass density of air is speed of oncoming flow is conductor diameter is drag coefficient (5.1)

Where V d CD

CD is a function of R, as illustrated in Figure 5.3-2 for a smooth cylinder and for a stranded conductor.(5-22) There is no lift force (transverse to the stream), at least if the conductors are perpendicular to the flow. The leeward conductor is also subjected to aerodynamic drag, but the magnitude of its drag coefficient depends not only on R, but also upon where the leeward conductor lies with respect to the wake of the windward one. This wake is a region of reduced speed of flow, as illustrated in Figure 5.3-3, and that results in smaller drag near the center of the wake than outside of it. If the drag coefficient for the leeward conductor is defined, as in Equation (5.1), in terms of the free stream velocity V, the shielding effect of the windward conductor is expressed by that drag coefficient. Figure 5.3-4 shows this drag coefficient as a function of the location in the wake for smooth cylinders, based upon measurements reported by Diana et al. in Italy.(5-5) The leeward conductors CD is minimum at the center of the wake, and approaches that of the free stream velocity at the wake boundary. The shielding effect diminishes as the leeward conductor is moved downstream in the wake.

15

Figure 5.3-2 Drag coefficients vs. wind speed for smooth and stranded single conductors.

Figure 5.3-3 Wind velocity impinging upon leeward conductor vs. position of leeward conductor in wake.

Figure 5.3-4 Drag coefficients (CD) of a subconductor, placed in the wake of another one, as a function of the position of subconductors in the wake. Reference 5-5.

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The leeward conductor also experiences a lift force, transverse to the stream. In general, the lift on the leeward conductor is directed toward the axis of the wake of the windward conductor. Figure 5.3-5 shows the lift coefficient as a function of wake position for smooth circular cylinders, based upon tests reported by Diana et al.(5-5) Corresponding to Equation (5.1), the equation for the lift force per unit length of conductor is: L=

V 2 d
2

CL

(5.3)

Figure 5.3-5 Lift coefficients (CL) of a subconductor, placed in the wake of another one, as a function of the position of subconductors in the wake. Reference 5-5.

Wake-induced oscillations of the leeward conductor of Figure 5.3-1 are self-excited and result from the variations in drag and lift that it experiences as it moves about in the wake of the windward one. The drag and lift forces by the wind will cause some shift in the rest position of the leeward conductor, due to the elasticity of its suspension, and the particular drag and lift that correspond to that new position will be called D0 and L0, with coefficients CD0 and CL0. It is the variations of drag and lift about D0 and L0, resulting from excursions of the leeward conductor about the rest position, that cause the oscillations. If the leeward conductor is thought of as moving about in an aerodynamic force field, that field can be represented as in Figure 5.3-6, where the resultant of D and L is shown. A possible orbit of oscillation is shown in Figure 5.3-6, and it may be used to illustrate the manner in which the leeward conductor acquires its energy of oscillation from the wind. Basically, the conductor moves downstream with the strong flow of the outer wake, and upstream against the weaker flow of the inner wake. The drag forces that do work upon the conductor in its downstream course are larger than those against which it does work moving upstream, so net work is done upon the conductor by the aerodynamic forces in the course of a complete cycle of motion. The picture can be made more dramatic by subtracting out the steady drag and lift, D0 and L0, at location R of Figure 5.3-6, corresponding to the rest position of the leeward conductor. This is done in Figure 5.3-7, which shows the vector sum of D -D0 and L - L0. This is the active part of the static force field in which the leeward conductor moves. This Figure was produced by subtracting the vector at R in Figure 5.3-6 from all of the other

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vectors. Figure 5.3-7 brings out the concept that the leeward conductor oscillates because it is caught in a vortex. Now it is evident that the shape of orbit has a great deal to do with how much energy the conductor can acquire from the wind during a cycle of motion. If the orbit is a straight line, so that in the second half of a cycle it simply retraces its path of the first half, it will lose, going upstream, all the energy it gained going downstream. It goes with and against the same forces at each point. In order to gain energy from the wind, the forces must be different in the two legs of the orbit, and so, those legs must be separated. The orbit must be open. The particular characteristic of the static force field most directly connected with energy input is the curl of the force. The relationship involved can be brought out through consideration of Figure 5.3-8 (a), which represents a small square orbit. For motion around the orbit, following the legs in order 1,2,3,4, the work done upon the conductor is:

W = ( D1 D3 + L4 L2 )

(5.4)

where is the length of each leg, and D1 D3, L4 and L2 are the magnitudes of D and L that exist in the vicinities of the legs indicated by the subscripts.

Figure 5.3-6 Aerodynamic static force field acting upon leeward conductor. (R indicates rest position).

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Figure 5.3-7 Variable part of aerodynamic static force field acting upon leeward conductor. (Note; scale length of vectors is twice that of Figure 5.3-6).

Figure 5.3-8 Incremental force and motion data for development of curl F (see text).

If the square orbit is small enough, D1 D3 D = y and: L2 L4 L = x Thus the work done is:

(5.5)

(5.6)

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2 W = y x Now the curl of the force field is defined as: Curl F = D L y x

(5.7)

(5.8)

Thus the work done is:

W = 2curl F

(5.9)

The work done in traversing an orbit that encloses two such small square orbits 1 and 2 in Figure 5.3-8 (b) is simply the sum 2 (curl F1+ curl F2) of the amounts of work done in orbiting the two squares separately, since the elements of work done in traversing the leg that is common to both squares cancel one another. A large orbit of almost any shape can be built up in this manner from a number of square elements, as in Figure 5.3-8 (c). The total work done in traversing the entire orbit is the sum of the work done in traversing each of the square elements it contains:
W = 2 curl Fn

(5.10) (5.11)

If the mesh size is allowed to approach zero, this becomes: W = curl F dxdy where the double integral is taken over the area of the orbit. It is clear that the orbit must be open for work to be done on the leeward conductor. Now: curlF = D L V 2 d = y x 2 CD CL y x (5.12)

is not constant over the area of the wake. When curl F is calculated from sample wind tunnel data on CD and CL, a plot such as Figure 5.3-9 results(5-19), indicating certain regions of the wake as having larger values than others. These are the regions where aerodynamic forces can excite oscillation the most energetically. By and large, they are associated with rapid variations in local velocity VL with cross-wake position y. In curl F, CD / y is dominant; CL / x is numerically of much less significance. It should be noted that the acquisition of wind energy by the orbiting conductor hinges upon its going around the orbit in the proper direction. If counter-clockwise rotation is taken as positive, then the sense of the orbit must be negative in the upper wake and positive in the lower, consistent with the indications of Figure 5.3-9. Orbits A and B must have positive sense, orbits C and D must have negative sense.

20

Figure 5.3-9 Contour representing intensity of curl of aerodynamic force field acting on leeward conductor.

The points to be emphasized at this stage are the localized nature of the oscillationproducing forces in the wake, and the importance of a difference in phase between the x and y components of the leeward conductors motion (to produce an open orbit). Now, sustained oscillation requires more than access to a supply of energy. Conditions must be such that the source can be tapped on a continuing basis. Basically, this requires a steady open orbit of motion, with the proper direction of rotation. The x and y components of motion must be synchronized to the same frequency and must have a certain type of phase relationship. During steady oscillation, the frequencies of the x and y motions are indeed synchronized. They are not equal by happenstance. In wind tunnel tests(5-4) of the system shown in Figure 5.3-1, differences in the vertical and horizontal natural frequencies, with wind off, caused by differences in the corresponding spring constants, have been explored for their effects upon oscillation behavior with wind on. When the wind-off natural frequencies are not equal, trajectories of motion resulting from an impulse to the model are not steady, in the absence of wind, but display continually changing phase, as illustrated in Figure 5.3-10. The rapidity of the phase change is proportional to the difference in natural frequencies. When the wind is turned on, however, oscillation in a steady orbit occurs for any combination of the wind-off natural frequencies, within a certain range. The shape of orbit and its amplitude vary with the choice of frequencies, but in each case the motions in both directions are synchronized to exactly the same frequency, and the phase is unvarying.

21

Figure 5.3-10 Unsteady orbit produced when impulse is applied to conductor (with wind off), when natural x and y frequencies are not equal.

Two characteristics of the aerodynamic force field in the wake of the windward conductor are involved in this synchronization. The first is the characteristic of the aerodynamic force field that lends it spring-like properties. L is plotted as a function of y in Figure 5.3-11. The plot represents the force in the y direction as a function of the displacement in the same direction. The relationship is similar to that of a non-linear spring. For small displacements about a particular y position, the spring is essentially linear. A similar plot of D versus x would also show a spring-like relationship, again with locally linear behavior. These local spring constants are CL / y and CD / x each multiplied by V 2 d / 2 . The mechanical and aeroelastic spring systems add together to form a resultant spring system, as illustrated in Figure 5.3-12. This system determines the basic natural frequencies of the system, wind on, and the planes of its principal modes. These wind-on natural frequencies are different from those with the wind off, but they are still generally not equal.

22

Figure 5.3-11 Lift force L as a function of vertical displacement (y). (Note for the editor: Substitute L to CL on the ordinate)

Figure 5.3-12 Equivalent spring system acting upon leeward conductor.

The other characteristic of the wake forces involved in the synchronization of frequencies is the same one responsible for energy input: curl F. The aeroelastic spring system discussed above may modify the original natural frequencies in a way that increases or lessens their separation. It is the action of curl F that actually brings them to the same value, in cases where that occurs. If the orbit of oscillation contains a linear component, such that it is elliptical rather than circular, curl F causes further shifts in the two natural frequencies. The directions and magnitudes of these shifts depend on the eccentricity of the orbit and the orientation of its major axis. Generally speaking, there is a continuum of orbit shape and orientation combinations, within which the natural frequencies may be shifted by the two aerodynamic mechanisms to be made equal. Only certain orbits occur, however. Selection out of the range of choices available is determined by energy balance considerations internal to the system. These are different from those pertaining to the global energy balance, the total input to, and total dissipation of, the system. That balance will be dealt with later. The considerations that govern orbit shape and orientation arise from the fact that the force associated with curl F imparts energy to the system with proportions among the x and y coordinates that are usually different from the proportions in which the system can dispose of energy to the ultimate sources of dissipation. The energy must be redistributed among the coordinates by couplings within the system to satisfy an internal energy budget. The nature of the curl force is such that it imparts energy to the x and y components of motion in equal amounts. In fact, it imparts energy to motions in any two perpendicular coordinates in equal amounts. The dissipation of energy, on the other hand, is not partitioned among coordinates in a simple manner, but varies with their relative amplitudes, with the damping assumed in the springs of the suspension, and with aerodynamic damping effects. Now, the precessing orbit of Figure 5.3-10 illustrates the passing of vibration energy from one normal mode to another. These modes are aligned with the 45 axes for the case illustrated. There is a continual transfer of energy from one mode to the other and then back again as the orbit precesses. The rate and direction of transfer at any moment depends on the orientation, eccentricity and direction of rotation of the orbit at that time. An orbit of stable shape can occur when this transfer just balances the inequality of dissipation between the two modes.

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Two conditions must be met for an orbit to occur that is stable in shape. First, the frequencies in the x and y directions must be synchronized, and this is brought about through the action of the curl force component. Second, the internal energy budget must be balanced in such a way that the energies in the x and y directions maintain a constant ratio. This is achieved through the action of the energy transfers described above. There turn out to be just two orbits that simultaneously satisfy both conditions, given the wind speed, mechanical parameters of the system, and the at-rest, wind-on location of the leeward conductor in the wake. One rotates positively (counter-clockwise) and the other negatively (clockwise). The importance of the interaction between the spring-like forces (Figure 5.3-12) and the curl force (Figure 5.3-9) was illustrated in wind tunnel experiments on the system of Figure 5.3-1, carried out at the Canadian National Research Council (5-21). The suspension was essentially that illustrated in Figure 5.3-13.

Figure 5.3-13. Suspension system used in tests of Figure 5.3-14.

The wind tunnel test results are summarized in Figure 5.3-14, which shows stability boundaries, in terms of wake position, for several wind velocities. Oscillation occurred when the leeward conductors rest position (wind off) fell within the boundary pertaining to the wind velocity in question.
Figure 5.3-14. Wind tunnel test results (*to come*).

In the present context, the significant feature in Figure 5.3-14 is the omission of the upper half of the wake. That half was omitted because no oscillation occurred there at any wake location, at any wind velocity. Although just as much curl-derived energy is available there (see Figure 5.3-9), the orbital direction required to serve internal energy flows (counterclockwise) is opposite to that which permits that energy source to be tapped (clockwise). Although the symmetry of the aerodynamic forces about the axis of the wake would have permitted a clockwise orbit in the upper wake, the mechanical couplings from the spring system were not symmetrical. The blow-back angle was the same in both halves of the wake. Thus the effective spring system in Figure 5.3-12 was different in the lower and upper wakes. In the lower wake, the system resulted in natural frequencies that were nearly enough equal for curl force action to bring them to synchronism. In the upper wake it did not.

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5.3.1.1.2

Velocity-Dependent Forces

The above description is accurate only when the leeward conductor moves in its orbit very slowly, relative to the speed of the wind. When the velocity of motion is significant, as it is in actual wake-induced oscillations, the velocity of flow relative to the conductor is changed, and this changes the aerodynamic forces. For example, in Figure 5.3-15, the effect of vertical velocity of motion upon the drag force is to present the leeward conductor with an apparent wind that is the vector difference between the local flow velocity in the wake, VL, and the conductor's vertical & & velocity y . Because y is substantially smaller than VL, in general, the apparent wind speed is still approximately VL, but its direction is tilted downward by an angle Tan1 & & ( y /VL) which is approximately equal to y /VL. The deflection of the direction of the apparent wind deflects the drag vector, resulting in a vertical component of drag given by & (D/VL) y The velocity thus causes a vertical opposing force, proportional to it.

Figure 5.3-15 Effect of vertical velocity of leeward conductor upon drag force applied to leeward conductor.

Figure 5.3-16 Effect of transverse velocity of leeward conductor upon apparent wind velocity applied to leeward conductor.

Figure 5.3-16 illustrates the leeward conductor with a velocity of motion in the & downstream direction of x . The magnitude of the drag acting upon it is reduced because it is moving with the local flow VL. The amount of the change can be estimated by means of Equation (5.1), by substituting for VL in that equation, the relative flow speed with & respect to the conductor, which is (VL - x ). The result is:

25

D=

VL 2 d
2

CDO

VL 2 d 2CDO
2 VL

& x+

& x2d 2

CDO

(5.18)

The last term is small enough to be dropped in practical cases, so the change in D that & results from x is:

Dx = &

VL 2 d 2CDO
2

& x VL

(5.19)

& & The force associated with x is, then, one opposing and proportional to x .
These forces that arise from the velocity of motion of the leeward conductor have the & & character of damping forces, since they are, for small values of x and y , proportional to the conductor velocity. They are thus called aerodynamic dampings. Both are proportional to VL 2 d / 2 , or to V 2 d / 2 if CD is defined in terms of the speed of the free stream as in Equation (5.1). The influence of these forces on the power balance may be illustrated in terms of the orbit shown in Figure 5.3-17, in which the leeward conductor is assumed to move with significant velocity. The conductor receives energy from the flow, basically because the drag is greater in the vicinity of b than d, due to shielding effects. However, to the extent & that x is significant at those locations, the difference in those drags is reduced, consistent with Equation (5.19), and the net energy received per cycle is reduced. This reduction is treated conceptually as a distinct dissipation. Loss of energy also occurs in the vicinities of a and c through the deflection of the apparent wind direction, as described earlier.

Figure 5.3-17

Wind velocities affecting moving leeward conductor.

26

Both losses increase with increased velocity of motion of the leeward conductor, and thus, with increase in frequency. If frequency is continually increased, a point is reached at which energy input and these losses are in balance. Oscillation at any higher frequency could occur only with the support of some external source of power. Now the frequency of the oscillation is always very close to a natural frequency of the system. The global energy balance is therefore strongly influenced by such frequencies. If they are too high, the velocity of vibration is always too great to permit the curl-derived energy to carry the aerodynamic damping losses, and oscillation will not occur. This mechanism may be usefully exploited in protecting operating lines, as will be discussed in Section 5.5. 5.3.1.2 Global Energy Balance The amplitudes of orbital oscillation grow until global energy balance is achieved. Energy derived from aerodynamic forces during each orbits sweep of the curl field goes into added potential and kinetic energy of vibration or into dissipation through the aerodynamic dampings or losses in the mechanical structure of the system. The part that goes into stored energy appears as increased amplitude. As amplitude grows, so does the energy input per cycle, because of the expanding area of the curl field being swept, and so do the losses to dissipation. The balance between the two changes with amplitude. The losses vary roughly as the square of amplitude. So does energy input when amplitudes are small, because the area swept by the orbit varies with the square of amplitude, and the strength of the curl field being swept is nearly constant. See, for example, orbits A and C of Figure 5.3-9.

Figure 5.3-18 Results of wind tunnel tests of suspension system shown in Figure 5.3-1. Reference 5-21.

As amplitude becomes larger, however, the curl field is no longer uniform in strength within the orbit (orbit B of Figure 5.3-9), and the energy input no longer keeps pace with increase in dissipation. Ultimately, an amplitude is reached at which global energy balance is achieved. The balance between input and dissipation is influenced by other factors, such as changes in orbit shape due to variations in aerodynamic damping as amplitude increases.

27

Now the energy gained per orbital cycle from the curl field is independent of frequency. However, dissipation is influenced by frequency, since the aerodynamic damping forces are proportional to conductor velocity. Thus, global energy balance in a particular orbit may be achievable at low frequency but not at high frequency. The maximum frequency at which balance can be achieved can be termed the threshold frequency for the orbit, given the wind velocity. Correspondingly, both energy input and dissipation ordinarily increase with increased wind speed, given the orbit and frequency of oscillation. The energy input increases with the square of wind speed, since drag and lift and their x and y derivatives do. The aerodynamic damping forces increase only linearly with wind speed, however (see Equation (5.19)), so global energy balance may be possible at high wind speed, but not at low. The minimum wind speed that permits global energy balance is called threshold wind velocity. The contours of Figure 5.3-18 represent the threshold velocities at various wake locations. Determination of threshold wind velocity is complicated by the fact that the drag and lift coefficients may vary with Reynolds number, and consequently with wind speed. The drag and lift, and thus the intensity of the curl force field, may then not vary with V2. Threshold wind velocity may be substantially higher than would have been predicted had these Reynolds number effects been ignored. 5.3.1.3 Summary of Aerodynamic Effects

The aerodynamic forces that act on conductors in wakes are clearly complex. Their salient features are: a. A component of the static force field, its curl, that permits input of energy to leeward conductors executing orbital oscillations, and that also acts to synchronize the frequencies of motion in different degrees of freedom. b. A spring-like component that modifies the natural frequencies and modes from those with the wind off. c. Aerodynamic damping forces that dissipate energy of oscillation and thus help establish the global energy balance of the system, and which also participate in the constraints that determine the flows of energy internal to the oscillating system. The mechanical couplings within the system, as modified by the aeroelastic couplings, provide the means by which internal energy flows occur. These flows are determined by the shape and orientation of the orbit of motion, as is the frequency- synchronizing effect of the curl of the static force field. These two relationships determine between them two orbits that are stable in shape and orientation. The global energy balance associated with each orbit determines whether it will grow in amplitude, decay, or remain steady. Since one of the orbits rotates against the curlderived force field, it always decays. The other may grow if wind velocity is great enough, and oscillation frequency is not too high.

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5.3.1.4

Oscillation of Bundles

The simple two-degree-of-freedom system discussed above and illustrated in Figure 5.3-1 has the same general properties and types of behavior as certain field spans. A leeward cable may oscillate in the wake of a windward one that is largely stationary. This is occasionally observed when two self-supporting telephone cables are supported at about the same height on opposite sides of a pole, as in Figure 5.3-19. The motions observed in this situation are not galloping in the sense of Chapter 4, although such cables may be subject to such galloping when free of wake effects.

Figure 5.3-19 Wake-induced oscillation of leeward telephone cable.

Wake-induced oscillation involving only the leeward conductor is occasionally observed in bundles that are supported by V-strings, where the subspans between spacers are very nearly equal, as in Figure 5.3-20.

Figure 5.3-20 Wake-induced oscillation of leeward subconductor. (Bundles supported by V-strings. Nearly equal subspans).

In these cases, motions are well represented in terms of one of the vertical and one of the horizontal normal modes of the leeward cable or conductor. Little coupling of the motion in those modes to other modes, or to motion of the windward cable, takes place. The behavior is essentially that of the two-degree-of-freedom system dealt with above. In the vast majority of bundle spans, however, some motion is transmitted to the windward conductor, either through support point movements, or through spacers that do not fall precisely on the node points of the loops in the leeward conductor. Even when this happens, the motions that occur may be relatively simple, at least in concept. That simplicity is found in the rigid-body modes. 29

5.3.1.4.1

Rigid-Body Modes

The rigid-body forms of wake-induced oscillation are basically combinations of the undamped rolling and the vertical and horizontal galloping modes. When oscillation occurs, one of these motions is dominant and gives its name to the wind-induced motion. Apparently in all cases, however, a second component of motion is present, and the instability boils down to a two-degree-of-freedom situation involving two out of the three degrees of freedom of the bundle as a unit: vertical and horizontal displacement, and rotation. Wake-induced vertical galloping combines vertical motion with rotation. Wake-induced horizontal galloping involves horizontal displacement and rotation. Wake-induced rolling appears to combine rotation with vertical displacement, although the latter is often discernible only in terms of a phase lag between the motions of the subconductors. In each case, mechanisms exist that are analogous to those described above, through which energy input, frequency equalization, internal energy budgeting and global energy balancing are brought about. The mechanisms are harder to visualize, since the static force fields involved do not map directly onto the wake, as was the case in the previous section. An extended discussion of these mechanisms may be found in the first edition of this book. It should be pointed out that the rigid body modes are specialized forms of galloping. Chapter 4 of this book deals with galloping of ice-coated conductors, the ice coatings lending the conductors aerodynamic characteristics that lead to aerodynamic instability. However, conductor bundles, even without ice, possess some of those characteristics. Leeward subconductors experience wake-induced lift and drag forces that are functions of the instantaneous tilt of the bundle with respect to the apparent wind. These forces are shared with the bundle as a whole through coupling by the spacers. The bundle thus can have lift, drag and moment characteristics similar to those illustrated in Chapter 4 for iced conductors. The ranges of tilt (angle of attack) where the slopes of the lift characteristics are conducive to galloping instability are narrow for bundles without ice, because of the narrowness of the wakes of the upwind conductors. Thus, conditions where the rigid body modes may occur are similarly narrow. They are not often observed, and the vertical galloping mode in particular is rarely seen. 5.3.1.4.2 Subspan Oscillations

Subspan oscillations occur when the spacers and supports transmit some of the leeward conductors energy to windward conductors in a form that is not incorporated into rigidbody motions. A distinctive feature of subspan oscillations is the distribution of the energy of motion within the span. The rigid-body modes take the form of one or several sine-shaped loops between supports, and when there are several loops they are identical in amplitude and orbit shape. All loops are part of the same simple mode, and energy of motion is the same in each loop.

30

In subspan oscillation, the action of spacers is to partially isolate certain motions in some subspans from corresponding motions in others, and those motions may incorporate different amplitudes, and thus, different energies in the different subspans. This may be illustrated by considering certain motions in a two-conductor bundle equipped with completely-rigid spacers, in the absence of wind, illustrated in Figure 5.321. The motion considered is one of the resonances of the bundle, and takes place in the plane of the bundle. Since the amplitudes of the two subconductors in the vibrating subspan are equal, the forces acting upon the spacers at either end of that subspan are always in balance, and the spacers do not move. Adjacent subspans do not feel the motions of the vibrating subspan.

Figure 5.3-21 Horizontal oscillation of single subspan of two-conductor bundle with rigid spacers. (No wind).

In the case illustrated, each subspan is capable of motions of this type, independent of what the other subspans are doing. In fact, each can perform such motions with two, three, or more loops within it. These motions are fully trapped within subspans. They may exist simultaneously with, and independent of, the rigid-body modes.

31

Figure 5.3-22 Horizontal subspan oscillations involving all subspans between supporting structures. (Two-conductor bundle with flexible intermediate spacers). Reference 5-35.

If the spacers are not rigid, the motions in adjacent subspans are coupled through motions of the spacer clamps. In this case, instead of having a series of modes for each subspan, corresponding to its harmonics, with the modes for each subspan independent of those in the others, there is instead a series of modes of the span as a whole, each generally involving motions in all subspans. The modes in this series are represented by different ratios of amplitudes among the various subspans, and each mode has, in general, a different frequency. The node points do not fall precisely at spacers. A sample set of such modes is shown in Figure 5.3-22, based upon calculations by Claren et al.(5-35) Each of the three modes shown is reminiscent of a mode like that of Figure 5.321, in that one subspan has most of the amplitude and energy. However, in this case, spacer flexibility couples the dominant subspan to the others, and they perform motions such as to assure balance of forces on the spacers. Note that none of the frequencies of these modes is equal to what it would be were the spacers rigid. These frequencies are shown in Table 5.3-1. Table 5.3-1 Title
Dominant Subspan 1 2 3 Length 15 m 16 m 15.52 m Frequency Rigid Spacers 5.16 Hz 4.84 4.99 Flexible Spacers 5.05 Hz 4.31 4.84

The mechanism involved here is that of a discontinuous change in the shape of vibration loops by the force that is applied to the conductor by the spacer. With rigid spacers, the loops are simply terminated at the spacers (and supports), but with the flexible spacers, the loops continue past the spacers following a step change in slope. The magnitude of the change in slope is proportional to the force applied by the spacer, which, for linearly elastic spacers, is proportional to the deflection of the spacer from its at-rest length. Thus, the change in slope of the loop as it passes the spacer is proportional to the amplitude of the loop as it reaches that location. The net effect is to leave the force in the spacer balanced by the transverse components of conductor tension, as illustrated in Figure 5.323.

32

Figure 5.3-23 Components of force applied to flexible spacer.

Now the modes shown in Figure 5.3-22 are undamped normal modes of the bundle. To a first approximation, each of them taken separately is analogous to the x-degree-offreedom motion in the simple two-degree-of-freedom system discussed earlier. Use of that analogy permits illumination of mechanisms involved in the subspan mode of wakeinduced oscillation.

5.3.1.4.3 Normal Mode Combinations


The bundle as a whole is subject to the same constraints as the two-degree-of-freedom system in performing steady wake-induced oscillations. There must be energy input to supply the losses to dissipation. The frequencies of the modes involved must be synchronized. Flows of energy within the structure must be matched to the distributions of energy input and dissipation among its various components. Physically, the wind does work on individual elements of the leeward conductor. If the bundle as a whole is to receive energy, at least some of those elements must move in open orbits. Each of the undamped normal modes involves planar motions, however. Often the several conductors move in different planes within a mode in bundles of more than two conductors, but no conductor moves with an open orbit. It takes the combination of two mode types to create an open orbit, and in subspan oscillation one of them is a subspan normal mode. Figure 5.3-24 illustrates the combination of the rigid body rolling with a subspan normal mode to create orbital motion, and thus permit input of energy.

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Figure 5.3-24 Combination of rolling and normal subspan oscillation, creating orbital motion in both conductors of a two-conductor bundle.

The fact that both conductors have orbits in Figure 5.3-24 tends to be confusing. In natural oscillation of real bundles, windward conductors are usually in motion, unlike the case with the two-degree-of-freedom model discussed previously (e.g. Figure 5.3-17). For the pair of orbits shown, however, the effect of the windward conductors displacements is to double the displacement of the leeward conductor relative to the windward ones wake, and thus to amplify the aerodynamic force variations that act upon the leeward conductor. Qualitatively, the static aerodynamic effects are the same as if the windward conductor were still. The orbit that is created is different at different points along the span. Just how these orbits differ depends upon just which of the subspan normal modes is involved, and the differences are important. This may be illustrated in terms of the subspan normal modes of Figure 5.3-22. Figure 5.3-25 shows the orbits that would be traced at the middle of each subspan when each of the modes of Figure 5.3-22 is combined with three-loop rolling motion, assuming that the subspan motions are in quadrature with the rolling motion. The orbits can be reversed in any case by reversing the phase of the rolling mode. Now the orbits illustrated in the case at the top all rotate in the same sense, and that sense is such that energy input from the curl field occurs for negative tilts if the wind is from the left. In the other two cases, however, which involve the second and third modes of Figure 5.3-22, one of the subspans orbits in the direction opposite from the other two. Thus, if the bundle is tilted uniformly along its length in the right direction, two subspans can receive energy from the curl component of the wind force, but the third must yield energy back. The global energy input is determined by integrating over the full length of the span, and clearly, the first mode combination receives the most abundant supply of energy.

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The frequencies of the undamped subspan mode components of motion are 5.05, 4.31, and 4.84 Hz, respectively. The frequency of the rolling component is 4.99 Hz in all cases. The spring-like component of wind force will modify each of these, but will still leave them different, so curl field action will be required in different degrees to effect frequency synchronization of the two mode types in each case. The reversed phase relationships in the second and third cases weaken this action, as well as the effectiveness of the couplings in shifting energy from one mode to the other. The first case in Figure 5.3-25 is thus the most likely to experience wake-induced oscillation. The frequencies for the case illustrated are rather high for that to happen, however.

5.3.1.4.4

Effects of Unequal Subspans

Subspan staggering systems employ patterns of unequal distance between adjacent spacers within a span to reduce the range of conditions under which oscillation may occur. Their general effect is to increase the threshold wind velocity. Three mechanisms involved can be identified in terms of the case discussed above.

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Figure 5.3-25 Development of open subspan orbits in two-conductor bundle by combination of rigid rolling with subspan normal mode.

The first mechanism is reduced coherence between the normal modes participating in the motion. The orbit shape is different at various locations along the span, with the result that efficient input of energy from the wind occurs only in some parts. Orbit differences are apparent in Figure 5.3-25, relative to the midspan orbits. However, it is also true that the nodes of the subspan modes of Figure 5.3-22 are displaced from the nodes of the rolling mode. Thus at the locations of the nodes for the rolling mode, motion in the subspan mode creates a straight-line orbit which gathers no energy, but which does suffer aerodynamic damping. This reduced coherence, and the attendant effects on local orbit shape result essentially from the fact that the spacers shift the loops of the two mode types along the span with respect to one another. The subspan mode loops and the rolling mode loops are not in phase in terms of the spanwise positions. The second mechanism is the concentration of energy input in one or a few subspans, without corresponding concentration of dissipation. The relative areas of the orbits in each case in Figure 5.3-25 illustrate the concentration of energy input. That concentration is associated with the partial entrapment of the subspan mode in subspan 1, 2, or 3 in Case I, II, or III, respectively. However, the rolling mode is not entrapped by the spacers. This mode, which is a necessary part of the energy-gathering orbit of the dominant subspan, must also be present in the other subspans, where its motions cause aerodynamic damping. In effect, this mechanism harnesses the aerodynamic damping loads of all subspans to the limited energy input of the dominant subspan or subspans. This mechanism has the greatest leverage in two- and three-conductor bundles, since the selection of mode types available for forming orbits is most limited there. As the number of subconductors increases, there is a corresponding increase in the number of types of subspan mode. These different types of subspan mode lie in different planes. Orbits may then be formed entirely from subspan modes, certain pairs of which may turn out to be dominant in the same subspan. The effect is quite noticeable in four-conductor bundles equipped with rigid spacers, where all oscillation motion may be concentrated in a single subspan, as illustrated in Figure 5.3-26. The top two panels of that figure indicate simple one-loop normal modes of the type shown in Figure 5.3-21 involving different pairs of subconductors. The top panel indicates horizontal motions, with the top pair and bottom pair moving in phase opposition. The middle panel shows vertical motions with the lefthand pair and right-hand pair moving in opposite phase. When the two sets of motions are superimposed with their phases in quadrature, the fully trapped subspan motion of the last panel results. In a real bundle experiencing actual subspan motion, there would have to be at least a small amount of bodily motion of the spacers to permit transfer of energy from the leeward to the windward conductors, in order to sustain their motion. The third mechanism through which subspan staggering systems raise threshold wind velocity is detuning of frequencies of the modes participating in the motion. In the illustrations of Figures 5.3-22 and 5.3-25, the subspan mode of Case I had a frequency of

36

5.05 Hz, while the nearest rolling mode had a frequency of 4.99. This small frequency difference is within the range that can be eliminated by the action of the curl component of the aerodynamic forces. More generous differences between subspan lengths would increase the frequency difference, however, requiring a higher wind velocity to suppress it.

Figure 5.3-26 Formation of open subspan orbits in four-conductor bundle due to transverse and vertical normal modes.

Identification of the three mechanisms described above is useful in relating subspan oscillation of full bundles to the simple two-degree-of-freedom model of Figure 5.3-1. There are, however, fundamental differences, between that simple system and full bundles, which have been ignored in the interest of simplicity. When those differences are taken into account, the three mechanisms above turn out to be different aspects of one more-fundamental mechanism.

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5.3.1.4.5

Wave Motions in Bundles

In the descriptions above of wake-induced oscillations of full bundles, the conductor motions have been characterized by undamped normal modes of the bundle: the rolling, vertical and horizontal galloping, and subspan modes. These undamped normal modes take the form of standing waves as in Figure 5.3-22. Actual motions are more complex in that traveling waves are present and are, in fact, necessary to a rigorous description of the phenomenon. They are necessary in order to properly account for flows of vibration energy within bundles. A singular characteristic of standing-wave vibrations is that there is no movement of vibration energy from one location in the structure to another. All forces and moments are in quadrature with velocities of motion, so that the vector product of any force, and the velocity with which it acts, is zero. No element of the structure can do net work on an adjacent element over a cycle of motion. Energy does flow within bundles during steady oscillation, however. For example, in the illustration of Figures 5.3-22 and 5.3-25, energy must flow from the dominant subspan to the other subspans to sustain motion against the aerodynamic damping and loss of energy due to orbiting against the curl of the force field. Also, when a windward conductor participates in the motion, energy flows to it from a leeward conductor, which has a supply of wake-derived energy, to sustain the windward conductors motion against aerodynamic damping. Vibration energy imparted to a conductor by an external force takes the form of a continuous train of traveling waves moving along the conductor away from the point where the force is applied, as in Figure 5.3-27. If the conductor is subject to distributed positive damping, such as aerodynamic damping, the wave decays as it travels. If the damping is negative, reflecting input of energy from the wind, the wave grows as it travels, and its increased amplitude indicates increased energy borne by the wave.

Figure 5.3-27 Planar traveling wave.

The waves involved in wake-induced oscillations are generally not planar waves like that illustrated in Figure 5.3-27, but rather, helically-shaped, corkscrew waves as in Figure 5.3-28. They have certain orbit shapes and orientations associated with them, and certain rates of decay or growth with travel, which depend upon the winds velocity, the position of the leeward conductor in the wake of the windward one and the frequency of the wave. The waves propagate at approximately the taut string wave velocity, VT = H / m .

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Figure 5.3-28 Helical traveling wave.

The total motion of an oscillating bundle is a combination of such waves traveling in the various subconductors of the several subspans. There are usually waves of similar shape moving in opposite directions, which superimpose to form a visible standing wave pattern. These standing waves are not pure, however. There is almost always a travelingwave component, and it is this component that is responsible for net transport of energy within the bundle. Although the traveling-wave motions are complex, they may be resolved into four basic types known as normal propagation modes, and any steady wake-induced motion that a bundle is capable of, subspan, rolling, or vertical or horizontal galloping, may be synthesized from some combination of them. The combination is likely to be different in different subspans and in different windward-leeward pairs of subconductors of the same subspan. The four basic wave mode types are illustrated in Figure 5.3-29.

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Figure 5.3-29 Basic types of traveling wave propagation modes for two-conductor bundles. Reference 5-6

At each spacer, there are sixteen such wave modes for each windward-leeward conductor pair: four incoming from each side, and four outgoing. Broadly speaking, the spacer acts as a mode conversion device: each incoming mode is partly transmitted past the spacer, partly reflected back into the subspan from which it approached, and partly converted to other mode types and dispersed in either direction from the spacer. Each of the eight incoming wave modes for each conductor pair experiences this process. If there are several windward-leeward conductor pairs, say three, then there are twenty-four outgoing wave modes into which each incoming mode may be dispersed. Now only one mode type in each set of four that traverses any subspan is capable of growth: Type 4 of Figure 5.3-29. The others decay. It is useful to view the Type 4 mode as the medium through which the wind imparts energy to the span, and to view Types 1, 2, and 3 as damping media. (This view is not completely rigorous, but is sufficiently so to illustrate the role of spacers in oscillations.) To the extent that the spacers are effective in mode conversion, they channel the wind energy borne by the incoming Type 4 modes to the other three modes, where that energy is dissipated through aerodynamic damping. Some energy may be dissipated in the spacers during the conversion. Energy disposed of in these ways is not available to build up the amplitude in the span. If the disposal of the Type 4 mode energy is efficient enough, oscillation cannot occur. The effectiveness of the mode conversions is strongly influenced by spacer characteristics, and by their positioning in the span. Very flexible spacers would, of course, exert only small forces opposing the motions of the conductors, and would thus

40

be inefficient at mode conversion. Also, if the spacers all fall at, or quite near, natural nodes of the span, the motions they experience are too small to result in significant forces on the conductors, and mode conversion is again inefficient. The most severe wakeinduced oscillation in the subspan mode in field spans is, in fact, found where all subspans are equal.

5.3.1.4.6

Additional Factors

The descriptions above of the mechanisms involved in wake-induced oscillation are quite simplified, Considerable detail that is needed in exact analysis has been omitted, as not necessary to basic understanding. Certain effects should be mentioned, however, because of their leverage upon practical performance of field spans. Two of these effects pertain to types of waves that move in the conductors in addition to the lateral displacement waves illustrated in Figure 5.3-29. These additional waves are torsional and longitudinal waves. Neither is excited directly by wind forces, and both travel substantially faster than the latera1 waves of Figure 5.3-29. They occur when lateral waves force motions at spacers or supports that tend to twist or to stretch the subconductors. For example, a pivoted spacer arm necessarily twists the conductor in the course of lateral motion, if the pivot axis is parallel to the conductors. These waves provide additional paths for dispersion of the normal propagation modes. They tend to increase the natural frequencies of certain of the undamped normal modes. The torsional waves have a significant effect in all three types of wake-induced rigidbody oscillations. The longitudinal waves have a small influence in vertical galloping.

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5.3.2 Survey of Analytical Methods The preceding section gives an overview of the physical phenomena involved in wakeinduced oscillation. During the years following its emergence as a serious problem there was a sustained effort to put this technology in an analytical framework that could be applied in line design. The effort met with limited success. It did lead to clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved and their relative importance, and pointed to the more fruitful approaches to controlling oscillation. However, it did not result in a capability to predict the behavior of field spans numerically with any degree of confidence. The main reason for this failure was the sheer complexity of the phenomenon. First, there are a great many variables involved. Second, their interactions are nonlinear. The result is that large and complex computer programs are required for analysis of field spans. The large number of variables, and the expense of field testing, have made it impractical to properly verify analytical predictions. Their reliability remains unclear. The first edition of this reference book contained an extended discussion of the published analyses of wake-induced oscillation, intended in large part to guide further effort on the analytical approach to the problem. What follows here is a much-reduced version of that discussion, aimed only at providing background for designers who may wish to look further into the area. The literature on analysis of wake-induced oscillation of bundled conductors began in 1967 with an exploratory report by I. P. Smith [5-36] of the Central Electricity Research Laboratories (United Kingdom). Various analyses have been published since. Taken as a group, these analyses reflect the growth of understanding of the phenomenon, and the increasing sophistication of the analytical methods applied to it, during the decade following Smiths report. 5.3.2.1 Two-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

I. P. Smiths exploratory analysis was put in more concise form and expanded by Alan Simpson of the University of Bristol. Simpsons analysis [5-24] remains the definitive one for the basic two-degree-of-freedom system shown in Figure 5.3-1, and the corresponding bundle mode illustrated in Figures 5.3-19 and 5.3-20. The analysis takes into account all energy effects as well as frequency synchronization (confluence). Aeroelastic and mechanical couplings are considered. The analysis is linear, and thus is suitable for evaluating stability of the system and buildup rates. A number of similar analyses have since appeared that extend Simpsons or that study simplifications of it or cast it in other coordinate systems [5-2, 34, 53, 56, 58].

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5.3.2.2

Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom Analyses

Two analyses have been published in which a short segment of a bundle is modeled with all subconductors free to oscillate. Ko [5-56] considered the case of a 4-bundle modeled as in Figure 5.3-30. The four conductor segments were suspended from a massless frame by independent spring systems that could be assigned various spring constants and orientations relative to the frame. The frame was sprung from ground such as to permit motions of the bundle in the rolling and the horizontal and vertical galloping modes. The orientations and constants of the various springs could be chosen on the basis of a separate finite element analysis of full-bundle undamped normal modes. The model incorporated aerodynamic coefficients derived from wind tunnel tests. A similar analysis was announced by Claren et al [5-61]. In that analysis, the massless frame and frame-to-conductor springs were replaced by a spacer or damping spacer. The frame-to-ground springs were selected to permit rigid-body motions of the model bundle. The analysis was extended to bundles having as many as six conductors. The analysis utilized aerodynamic coefficients based on wind tunnel tests on smooth cylinders. These analyses are strictly applicable only to the type of model illustrated in Figure 5.330, and are useful in fundamental research.

Figure 5.3-30 Physical representation of mathematical model of segment of fourconductor bundle used in multi-degree-of-freedom analyses.

5.3.2.3

Energy Methods

The analyses discussed so far are linear. They are realistic for small amplitudes of motion and are useful in predicting conditions under which small amplitudes can grow and, if so, how rapidly. Linear analyses do not permit prediction of the maximum amplitudes that 43

oscillation will achieve. To circumvent this limitation, Diana and Gasparetto [5-51] applied the principle of conservation of energy to the global energy balance in Simpsons simple system, thus taking partially into account the non-uniformity of the aerodynamic force field (see Figures 5.3-4, 5.3-5, 5.3-6, 5.3-7, and 5.3-9). Diana et al. later extended the above global energy balance procedure to full bundles [55]. In that analysis, the selection of modes considered was again restricted, this time to undamped normal modes of the bundle span as determined in a separate normal mode analysis [5-35]. Global energy balance was determined assuming simultaneous presence of two of these undamped normal modes, with their motions in quadrature as illustrated in Figure 5.3-25. 5.3.2.4 Normal Propagation Mode Method

The usefulness of methods that represent bundle motion by combinations of undamped normal modes is questionable where spanwise flows of vibration energy are significant, since those modes do not contain the traveling-wave components that make these energy flows possible. Spanwise flows of energy are necessary in the subspan modes of wakeinduced oscillation if windward conductors participate in the motion. Rawlins [5-33] extended the transfer matrix method of Claren et al. [5-35], which was based on undamped normal modes, by introduction of traveling-wave type normal propagation modes such as those illustrated in Figure 5.3-28. Use of these modes permitted proper accounting of flows of energy internal to the bundle. Their application in the transfer matrix method retained that methods rigor with respect to bundle frequencies. The normal propagation mode method was further extended to cover various secondary effects [5-26]. The method can be used to predict the wake-induced oscillation modes that may occur in a particular bundled span, and the minimum wind velocities that can cause them. Since it is a linear analysis, limit cycle amplitudes cannot be predicted. 5.3.2.5 Linear Finite Element Analyses

Finite element methods permit useful degrees of realism and accuracy to be attained with large but finite numbers of degrees of freedom. In this approach, the conductors of the bundle are broken down into a number of simple segments, such as rods connected endto-end. These segments or elements are governed by ordinary, rather than partial, differential equations, and equations of motion of bundle systems may then be cast as a set of simultaneous ordinary differential equations. These may be solved by algebraic eigenanalysis. In theory, finite element methods can be made to yield results that come arbitrarily close to exact behavior of the bundle. How close depends upon the type of element employed, and how finely the bundle is divided into elements. The choice of type of element and mesh size is important, because use of too few or too simple elements may lead to inaccurate results, while use of too many elements or of types that are too sophisticated leads to unmanageably large matrices and prohibitive computational expense. Two linear stability analyses have been reported that are based on finite element methods. The first, by Ko and Wardlaw, [5-4] employed a relatively sophisticated element in small

44

numbers. A single element was used to represent each conductor in each subspan. The element was essentially a rod that could flex to an arc of a circle. The rod element had eight degrees of freedom: the vertical and horizontal displacements at its midpoint and at each end, and the longitudinal (axial to conductor) displacements at each end. Eigenanalysis yielded, for an assumed wind velocity, the frequencies and mode shapes for all the wind-on normal modes, and their rates of buildup or decay. The minimum wind velocity that permits buildup could be determined by iteration. The other linear stability analysis using finite elements methods was reported by Curami et al.[5-48]. The element employed was a rigid rod, and three rod elements were used, end-to-end, to represent each conductor in each subspan. This resulted in 3/4 as many degrees of freedom as in the Ko Wardlaw analysis. Due to the limited number of elements used in a subspan, the analysis is applicable to the subspan modes having one loop per subspan, and to the rigid-body modes from the lowest full span modes up to those with about as many loops in the span as there are subspans. 5.3.2.6 Non-Linear Finite Element Analyses

Linear analyses discussed above are valid only for small amplitudes of oscillation, since they assume that the forces acting on and within the bundle vary linearly with amplitude. Some of the forces, particularly the aerodynamic ones, do not vary linearly with amplitude if those amplitudes are large. Departure from linearity is usually significant when the amplitude of a leeward conductor relative to its windward neighbor reaches one conductor diameter in the vertical (cross-wind) direction, or several conductor diameters in the horizontal (along-wind) direction. This is illustrated in Figures 5.3-4 to 5.3-7. When conditions are such that a bundle span is unstable, so that oscillation will build up, the limit cycle amplitudes eventually reached are determined by nonlinearities, primarily those of the aerodynamic force field referred to above. These amplitudes can be determined only through a nonlinear analysis. Curami et a1 [5-48] have reported step-by-step integration of the nonlinear equations of motion for the finite element model mentioned above, where each subconductor in each subspan was represented by three rigid rod elements end-to-end. Calculations were carried out for twin and triple bundles. 5.3.2.7 Decrement Method

Each of the analyses discussed above seeks to cover aerodynamic and structural effects, and to deal with the interactions between them. A procedure aimed at optimizing structural effects without reference to the aerodynamic forces that excite the oscillations, was proposed by Hearnshaw [5-63]. The procedure involved evaluation of the structural damping in the wind-off vibration modes that are similar to those observed in actual subspan-type oscillations, e.g. those of Figure 5.3-22. The method rests on the assumption that structural dampings have a major influence upon the occurrence or severity of the subspan form of wake-induced oscillation. Experimental methods have been utilized in full-bundle test spans, to find sets of spacer locations that maximize damping in subspan modes [5-63]. The procedure employed was

45

manual excitation of the mode from a location near a tower, and evaluation of damping in terms of the logarithmic decrement determined during decay of the mode. Hearnshaw [5-64] later reported an analytical procedure for arriving at the logarithmic decrements without recourse to the above test. The analysis required information on the flexibility and damping characteristics of the spacer involved, and was applied to the problem of optimizing over-all logarithmic decrement in terms of spacer position.

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5.4

TESTING IN NATURAL WINDS

(*To be completed*)

5.5

PROTECTION METHODS (to be coordinated with Section 5.2)

(*To be completed*) 5.6 SPACERS AND SPACER-DAMPERS

5,6,1 Introduction 5.6.2 Type of Spacers 5.6.3 Material Used in Spacers 5.6.4 Design Criteria for Spacers and Spacer-Dampers 5.6.5 Clamping Systems (*To be completed*)

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5.6.6

Spacer Damper Articulations

5.6.6.1 Introduction (requirements and design criteria) As defined in Section 5.6.2.4, a spacer damper must incorporate some mechanism to allow large relative movements of one conductor clamp with respect to the others. This mechanism is referred to as the articulation. This mechanism has to provide some elasticity in order to restore the bundle geometry when the external loads are removed. The stiffness has to be high enough to prevent excessive arm movement, but low enough to ensure that some arm movement will take place to allow the spacer damper to play its role. The articulation also has damping capacity. The damping can only be provided if there is some relative movement of the arm. Consequently, the damping characteristics cannot be considered independently from the elastic characteristics. Section 5.6.4.2 describes in detail how those two parameters are interrelated and contribute to the performance of the spacer damper. The next paragraphs describe the various types of articulation mechanisms and their main characteristics. 5.6.6.2 Articulation Mechanisms

5.6.6.2.1 Mechanisms Using Elastomer Most spacer damper design use an energy absorption mechanism based on the deformation of some elastomer elements. Each articulation contain one or more elements which are deformed by the relative movement of the arm with respect to the central frame of the spacer damper. Depending on the articulation design, the deformation of the rubber elements can result in compression or shear stresses. In practice, both type are present, with one of them prevailing. The design of the articulation greatly influences the damping capacity as well as the endurance of the spacer damper. In some articulation mechanisms, a friction component is also present, although generally not intentional. The contribution of this component in the overall energy absorption may not be negligible, and as it is generally not controlled, a reduction of the damping may be experienced as the result of the wear of the rubber surface. The exact positioning of the arm with respect to the spacer body is generally positively defined by the geometry of the components, preventing assembly error. However, in some designs the position of the arm is ensured by bonding the rubber elements to the metallic surfaces of the arm and of the body. It has been shown that with time the bond may deteriorate and the arm may slip out of position. The overall performance of the spacer-damper may be significantly affected.

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5.6.6.2.2

Mechanisms without Elastomer

A few spacer dampers without elastomer have been developed, and some are still commercialised. In one case, messenger cables were used to connect the spacer clamps to the body. As in Stockbridge dampers, the energy absorption comes from the friction between strands. Such design is characterized by a high flexibility in all directions, which has sometimes be a problem, when the amplitude of the arm displacement was not limited by means of some mechanical stops. Early designs experienced severe fatigue problems. Increase in cable size and better material has solved the problem. This spacer damper is no more commercialised. In the early days of bundled lines, some spacer damper prototypes using springs and friction disks have been proposed. They have had a limited use. Some spacer damper articulations, mostly from Asia, are using a coil spring to apply an axial pressure between the arm extremity and the spacer body. Energy absorption comes from the friction between the two surfaces. (Asahi model, ref CEA fig 1.2.-5) 5.6.6.3 Flexibility (capacity to accommodate displacements in all directions) Spacer dampers have to withstand loads related to the environmental conditions and to accommodate movements due to the vibrations and oscillations of the conductors. Ice accumulation and ice shedding can induce relative longitudinal movements between the subconductors. The resulting longitudinal load applied on the spacer damper can be reduced if the spacer damper articulation provides some flexibility in the longitudinal direction. Possibility of damage to the spacer damper and to the conductors is then reduced. With regards to vibrations and oscillations, the contribution of the damping capacity and of the stiffness of the articulation has been described in Section 5.6.4.2. One important aspect is the direction of the movement. For aeolian vibrations, the movement is mainly vertical, while for subconductor oscillation, it is mainly horizontal, or elliptical with the major axis nearly horizontal. In old spacer damper design, the arms were oriented horizontally. This was appropriate for aeolian vibrations, but for subconductor oscillations, the spacer damper appeared very stiff. Later, most manufacturers adopted a 45 configuration. Theoretical investigations indicated that more complex modes of vibrations were possible, such as movements oriented toward the center of the bundle. In such case, spacer arms at 45 are very stiff. Analytical prediction of the performance of such spacer damper indicated that this particular mode of vibration could not be adequately controlled. However, performance tests on full scale test lines did not confirm this theoretical assessment. Some spacer dampers with double articulations have been

49

developed and commercialised (Damp model, ref CEA fig. 1.2-8a). However, worldwide competition favours simpler and less costly configuration. 5.6.6.4 Fatigue Endurance (Both Aeolian Vibration and Subspan Oscillation) Fatigue of the rubber elements is one of the problems that have been reported. Fatigue will generally occur under large repeated movements of the spacer arm. Such movement may occur under severe subconductor oscillations, when the system efficiency is inadequate. Severe environmental conditions may contribute to the initiation or the development of the fatigue damage. Small amplitude movements, typical of Aeolian vibrations are less likely to induce fatigue damage. Besides the choice of the rubber material, discussed previously, the design of the articulation can influence greatly the fatigue endurance. In general, it is recognized that rubber material are more sensitive to shear stresses than to compression stresses. For articulation using elastomer mainly in torsion, it is quite important to minimize the stress concentrations. This is illustrated in Figure 4.6-1 showing results of fatigue tests done on two spacer damper articulations, one favouring compressive stresses and the other one, shear stresses. The graph shows the variation of the articulation stiffness as a function of the number of cycles.

Figure 5.6-1 Variation of the articulation stiffness as a function of the number of cycles.

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For elastomer-free articulations, there are very little information available. It is well known that the original version of the messenger cable type was experiencing fatigue of the cable. No data is available for the coil spring type. 5.6.6.5 Electrical Resistance (Conductivity to Avoid RIV and Electrical Discharges) The electrical characteristics of spacers and spacer-dampers have been described in detail in Section 5.6.4.4. The importance of ensuring that each metallic component be connected to a subconductor via a conductive path has been pointed out. For spacer damper articulation using elastomer elements, there are different ways to provide this conductive path. The most common way is to make the elastomer material semiconductive. This is done by adding carbon particles to the rubber compound. In the past, some other means have been used, such as having a metallic element (e.g. a spring) to make a direct connection between the arm and the spacer body. In another case, a semiconductive rubber sleeve concentric with the non conductive damping element was used to electrically connect the arm with the body. Unfortunately, due to the movement of the arm, this sleeve was subjected to rapid wear. It has also been the case for some metallic shunts. 5.6.6.6 Effect of Climate

As described previously, climate and environment may affect significantly elastomer properties. Some effects, such as extreme low or high temperature can only be counteracted by a proper selection of the elastomer compound. In the case of atmospheric contaminants (ozone, UV, salt, sand,...) some shielding can also be provided by the design of the articulation housing or the frame.

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5.6.7 5.6.8 5.6.9

Spacer Damper Main Frame Standard and Recommendation for Spacers Test methods for Spacers

5.6.10 Criteria for Spacer Distribution along the spans 5.6.11 Spacer Damper Installation 5.6.12 Damping Systems for Expanded Bundles 5.6.13 Spacers for Jumper Loops 5.6.14 Current Practice and Field Experience (*To be completed*)

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H
CHAPTER 6, OVERHEAD FIBER OPTIC CABLES

H-1

Chapter 6
6.1

Overhead Fiber Optic Cables

INTRODUCTION

Include background and purpose of overhead fiber optic cables

6.2
6.2.1

TYPES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF OVERHEAD FIBER OPTIC CABLES


Optical Ground Wire

Optical Ground Wire, or OPGW, has the dual performance functions of a ground wire with telecommunications capabilities. There are multiple acceptable designs of optical ground wire. Typically, they consist of one or more layers of metallic wires stranded about a cable core comprised of components such as tubes, wires and/or slotted rods and optical fibers in optical fiber units. The wires are normally a combination of aluminum alloy, aluminum-clad steel and or galvanized steel. The proportions of wires are designed to achieve the required tensile strength and sag characteristics as well as conduction of fault currents and lightning currents without damage. OPGW is the most common type of overhead fibre optic cable it is also the most durable with the longest life expectancy of any fiber optic cable type.

Photo of a typical OPGW cable is shown in Figure 6.2-1.

Figure 6.2-1 Typical OPGW cable.

6.2.2

All-Dielectric Self Supporting Cable

All-Dielectric Self Supporting Cable, or ADSS, was developed for use on telecommunications purposes on high voltage power lines. ADSS cable contains no metallic or electric conducting elements yet contains sufficient strength from dielectric strength members such as aramid or fibreglass yarns to be suspended between supports without the need to be lashed to or integrated with a steel messenger cable. ADSS has the advantage over OPGW that it can be installed live. Consequently, ADSS is commonly used to retrofit communications capability to a line that cannot be de-energised. The service life of ADSS is determined by the sheath. Typically, ADSS life time is 10 to 15 years.

Include Photo

6.2.3

Wrapped and Lashed Fiber Optic Cable

Wrapped and lashed fiber optic cables are all-dielectric cables that are either wrapped around or lashed to a messenger cable. The fiber optic cable has little tensile strength and relies on the messenger cable for support. Wrapped fiber cable is wrapped snugly around the messenger cable in a helix with a pitch ranging from ___ to ___ m. Wrapped cable is used to retrofit communications capability by lashing the fiber optic cable to the existing conventional ground wire or phase conductor. Figure 6.2-2 shows lashing fiber optic cable to a 333kV phase conductor.

Figure 6.2-2 Lashing fiber optic cable to a 333-kV phase conductor.

Lashed fiber cable is lashed snugly below the messenger cable by a lashing cord.

construction and materials when are they used

6.2.4

Optical Phase Wire

Optical fiber is contained inside the phase conductor. The challenging aspect of this type is the transition from line voltage to ground. The electric field gradient must be controlled and also the buildup of contaminants to avoid dry band arcing. Due to these considerations, the maximum voltage for Optical Phase Wire is 132kV.

Figure 6.2-3

6.2.5

Optical Attached Cable

6.3

REQUIREMENTS FOR OVERHEAD FIBER OPTIC CABLE

Fiber optic cables installed on overhead electric power lines have the purpose to provide telecommunications capacity utilizing optical fibers. In the case of OPGW, they also serve to protect the transmission system from lightning and to serve as a conductive medium for carrying fault currents to ground.

As such, fiber optic cables are required to withstand the effects from installation and long-term in-service exposure to mechanical, electrical and environmental loads without significant degradation in performance.

6.3.1 Electrical Requirements

ADSS fiber optic cables must be designed to withstand the effects of high electric fields such as sheath damage due to dry band arcing.

An OPGW cable must be designed so that fault currents due to short circuits do not damage the integrity or impair the functionality of any component of the cable and its optical, electrical and mechanical performance.

An OPGW cable must also be designed so that lightning arcs striking the cable do not impair the long term functionality of any component of the cable and its optical, electrical and mechanical performance.

6.3.2 Mechanical Requirements

The following are recommended as minimum sag and tension criteria when designing fibre optic cables.

a) Fiber optic cable sag should be co-ordinated with the phase conductor sag to prevent mid span flashover or clashing. b) The Maximum Rated Design Tension of the cable shall not be exceeded. The cable should be applied to ensure that the zero strain limit of the optical fibers is not exceeded. Mechanical loading in excess of this value will increase optical attenuation and may cause failure of the optical fibers. c) Cable sags should be such that the tensions do not exceed the limits for open supply conductors, which are given in the latest edition of the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) or appropriate national code(s) for the country where installed. These limitations are based on the use of recognized methods for reducing the likelihood of fatigue failures by minimizing chafing and stress concentrations. d) It is recommended that tension limits for a specific application be chosen through a coordinated study that should include the requirements of the user, recommendations from the cable supplier, and recommendations from the supplier of all supporting hardware.

Sag and tension recommendations regarding vibration protection should be obtained from the cable supplier or from a vibration protection hardware supplier approved by the cable supplier. The cable must be designed such that it can withstand aeolian vibrations with either permanent or temporary attenuation increases less than the criteria indicated in the Aeolian Vibration Test.

6.3.3 Optical Requirements


An optical budget should be prepared for each communications hop making allowance for joint attenuation. Upon receipt of the cable from the supplier, it is recommended that the purchaser perform acceptance tests in order to verify that the optical characteristics of the fiber meet the order requirements and to determine if optical fibers have been damaged during shipment. The results of these tests and the suppliers certified quality control information, which is attached to each reel, should be compared to the fiber requirements specified in the purchase order. An optical test after jointing is also required to verify end to end performance.

Optic fiber attenuation is very sensitive to mechanical strain and moisture. Every effort should be made to ensure that the optical fibers are not subjected to mechanical strain or moisture.

6.3.4 Environmental Requirements

The cable must be able to withstand the natural elements that exist at its installation location. The corrosive nature of installation sites can vary vastly from location to location. Therefore, some fiber optic cable designs are more suitable for certain locations than other designs. Locations that are basically low corrosion sites such as deserts do not require extreme corrosion protection for problems like dissimilar metals or thin aluminum coatings. Whereas, high corrosion sites such as high moisture zones, salt water zones, industrial corrosion zones, volcanic sulfur zones, or combinations of zones require special protection from corrosion. Marine pollution build up on ADSS can cause dry band arcing and subsequent sheath failure.

The optical fiber cable should be checked to ensure that it can withstand the likely maximum wind and ice loads without optical or mechanical damage.

Low Corrosion Installation Sites

These areas are defined as installation locations that have low or very low levels of corrosive materials such as moisture, salts, industrial pollution, volcanic pollution, naturally occurring atmospheric/animal corrosive pollutants or any combinations of these materials. Care must still be taken when considering a cable that may be affected by other corrosive or damaging elements such as: wind blown sand.

High Corrosion Installation Sites

These areas are defined as installation locations that receive high or very high levels of corrosive materials such as: moisture, salts, industrial pollution, volcanic pollution, naturally occurring atmospheric/animal corrosive pollutants or any combinations of these or other non-listed corrosive materials. Care must be taken when considering cables that may be affected by additional corrosive or damaging elements such as wind blown sand.

6.3.5 Installation Requirements


It is recommended that IEEE Std 524-2003 [2] and the OPGW cable suppliers recommended procedures be used for the installation of an OPGW cable. Use of Anti-Rotation Device

When a cable supplier does not recommend an anti-rotation device be used during installation the following information shall be provided to the end user:

i)

the maximum stringing tension

ii) the maximum number of cable rotations per unit of length iii) the maximum affect on strain margin

6.3.6 Hardware Requirements

Suspension and dead-end hardware, some types of vibration damper hardware, and bonding clamps are usually designed to accommodate a small range of sizes of a particular type of fiber optic cable.

Factors that may influence the interaction of the hardware to cable interface are as follows: a) Excessive contact pressure under hardware can exceed the designed crushing limits of the cable. b) The current transfer capability of the connection between hardware and the cable could be exceeded if there is insufficient contact area. c) Contact between dissimilar materials may cause excessive corrosion in some environments. It is therefore recommended that hardware and other accessories

connected electrically and mechanically to the cable are compatible for the cable being used. d) Corona from the tips of armor rods can erode the sheath of ADSS. If the ends of the armor rods are not aligned so that they all terminate at the same location along the cable length, then the sheath can be burnt by corona at protruding armor rod tips.

6.4

FIBER OPTIC CABLE MOTIONS AND SOLUTIONS

6.4.1

Types of Motion

6.4.2

Aeolian Vibration

Aeolian vibration is caused by an alternating wind force which arises from a pressure difference associated with a regular formation of vortices behind a fiber optical cable. The main characteristics of Aeolian vibration are high frequency and low amplitude, mainly in the vertical plane.

Solutions: 6.4.3 Galloping

Galloping is a low frequency, large amplitude, wind-induced vibration of overhead cables, with a single or a few loops of standing waves per span. It is always caused by moderately strong, steady crosswind acting upon an asymmetrically-iced cable surface.

Solutions:

6.4.4

Buffeting

6.4.5

Short Circuit Force Caused Motion

6.5 HARDWARE FOR OVERHEAD FIBER OPTIC CABLES

6.5.1

Suspensions

A suspension is used to suspend or support the fiber optical cable at each structure. It must hold high vertical loads, transverse loads due to wind, and withstand a small amount of longitudinal loading.

Fiber optic helically formed suspension is intended for use on OPGW and ADSS cable. They are designed to reduce static stresses at the support point as well as ensure that the cable is cushioned against the dynamic stress of Aeolian vibration. The combination of the Armor Rods and Reinforcing Rods provides protection against cable bending stress. The two housing halves easily assemble around the EPDM insert and are held firmly in place by the assembly strap. A ground attachment can be installed by utilizing a mechanical lug that is attached to the housing by a threaded bolt.

The following is a typical suspension assembly of a fiber optic cable - Single Layer Suspension:

Figure 6.5-1

6.5.2

Dead-ends

Dead-ends maintain line tension of 95% RTS and terminate the cable. Fiber optic dead ends may be installed once as a temporary (less than 30 days) pulling device prior to its final installation; as long as it is not stressed over 50% of its rated strength. The following is a Bolted Bilateral Dead End with Splice

Figure 6.5-2

6.5.3

Vibration Dampers

Dampers reduce Aeolian vibration to levels that the cable can endure for indefinite time periods (endurance limit).
Stockbridge type dampers:

SVDs:

6.5.4

Galloping Control Devices

Generally, helical fittings are applied to ADSS and OPGW for suspension and strain attachment to prolong fatigue life by stiffening the cable and ensuring bending stress is spread over a long length of cable. If the ends of the armor rods are not aligned so that they all terminate at the same location along the ADSS cable length, then the sheath can be burnt by corona at protruding armor rod tips. If the ends of the armor rods are not aligned so that they all terminate at the same location along the cable length, then the sheath can be burnt by corona at protruding armor rod tips.

The fatigue endurance limit of ADSS cable type has not yet been established so it is prudent to apply vibration protection conservatively.

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Based on damping efficiency, stockbridge vibration dampers are installed on cables with diameters greater than 12.5mm while spiral vibration dampers ( abbreviated SVCs )are installed on cables with diameters less than 12.5mm that vibrate at high frequencies that cannot be damped by stockbridge dampers. ADSS diameter is such that spiral vibration dampers are fitted to control aeolian vibration and must be separated from the armor rods by at least 3m in a location where the electric field parallel to the sheath is less than 2 kV/cm. The fatigue endurance limit of ADSS cable type has not yet been established so it is prudent to apply vibration protection conservatively. Under damping with SVCs can cause damage to the outer surface of the cable as the SVC hits the cable and wears away the surface. It is recommended that armor rods be installed under the clamps of stockbridge dampers to prevent crush damage to OPGW. As the armor rods stiffen the cable, more dampers must be applied to ensure adequate damping. Fiber optic joint boxes must be vandal, gun fire and weather proof to prevent moisture ingress. Joint boxes must also be re-enterable for testing and repair.

6.6

OTHER PROBLEMS

6.6.1 Electric Field Effect for ADSS

An ADSS sheath is at earth potential at each pole. At the center of the span the sheath is capacitively charged from phase conductor voltage. For an uncontaminated sheath, only capacitive current flows. When the sheath is contaminated with pollution and moistened, current flow increases due to resistive current through pollutants and dry band arcing can occur which could erode the sheath and cause failure. The operational life time of ADSS is largely determined by the sheath performance. Two types of sheath are available. The standard polyethylene sheath is suitable for up to 12 kV space potential and a higher cost, tracking resistant sheath is suitable for 25 kV space potential.

11

6.6.2

Ice Accretions

6.6.3

Clearance Requirements

For under slung, the ADSS or OPGW mounting position must be sufficient to avoid vehicles and conductor contact. ADSS has a much lower weight to mass ratio than the metal phase conductors so will be blown out almost vertical with even modest winds. Consequently, there is a risk of ADSS contacting conductors during windy conditions. This will cause failure of the sheath and ultimately the whole cable. Similarly, OPGW is often lighter than ACSR conductor and will be blown more than the conductor. OPGW placement and sag must be chosen to ensure there will not be flashovers to phase conductors.

In the case on top mounted OPGW, the OPGW must be strung with less sag than the top phase conductors to prevent mid span flashovers.

Long spans Wind loading on long spans can cause the tension to increase excessively for OPGW and ADSS. It is advisable to check that cables have adequate mechanical strength and zero optical fiber strain margins for long span application. A special cable may be required for the long span situations.

6.7

TESTS FOR OVERHEAD FIBER OPTIC CABLES

Many tests have been developed to demonstrate the good design and performance of fiber optic cables. Many of these tests have been specified by international standards writing bodies such

as IEEE and IEC. Tests include:

6.7.1

Cable Characteristics Tests Creep Test Stress-Strain Test Strain Margin Test

12

Ultimate Tensile Strength Test DC Resistance Test

6.7.2

Installation Tests Sheave Test Crush Test Bend Test Twist Test

6.7.3

In-Service Tests Aeolian Vibration Test Galloping Test Short Circuit Test Lightning Test Water Ingress Test Seepage of Flooding Compound Test Temperature Cycle Test Salt Spray Corrosion Test

6.8

FIBER OPTIC CABLE VIBRATION CONTROL

6.8.1 6.8.2

Control Technologies Control Devices

13

EXAMPLE OPGW DAMPER PLACEMENT The following calculation is an example of how to calculate the location of vibration dampers on a 14mm diamter OPGW. Input Data CBL 70kN edt 18% dia 14.0mm Calculations Tens := edt CBL Tens = 12.6kN vmax Freq := 0.185 dia Freq = 88.536Hz Vt := Tens Wt Vt Freq Every day tension Calculated Breaking Load of wire
1 1

Every day tension in % Weight of wire per unit length Diameter of wire Max wind velocity where aeolian vibration is experience

Wt 0.529kgm

vmax 6.7msec

Aeolian vibration frequency

Travelling wave velocity

Vt = 154.333msec -1 := Wavelength

= 1.743m Looplength:= Looplength=


1 2 Freq 872 mm

Vt

Loop length ( 0.5 wavelength )

Damper Placement Damper1 := 0.7Looplength Damper1 = 610mm Damper2 := 0.6Looplength Damper2 = 523mm Damper3 := 0.9Looplength Damper3 = 784mm First to second damper distance Round this to 525mm Second to third damper distance Round this to 785mm Clamp to first damper distance

6.9

FIELD EXPERIENCE

Source: Utilities, Manufacturers, Literature Search

14

Case Study #1

OPGW Selection for a 345kV Double Circuit Transmission Line

Scope

A new 345kV double circuit line with some communications capacity is required between an existing substation and a new substation site. The communications path is required to carry power system protection, supervisory control and data acquisition, telephone calls and computer network traffic. Some additional capacity would be desirable to rent out to third parties. This capacity is external to the power system regulations and can produce non-regulated profit.

Requirements are as follows:

Line construction is double circuit lattice steel towers with twin AAAC conductor and twin overhead ground wires as shown in Figure 1.

High lightning activity. Terrain is flat to undulating without much natural shielding. Line life required is 50 years.

Overhead Ground wires

One conventional ground wire and one OPGW (-optical fiber in ground wire) are to be installed to provide shielding from lightning. The OPGW provides the communications path.

To ensure electrical and mechanical matching, the ground wire and OPGW should have similar diameters and aluminium to steel ratios. The ground wire and the OPGW should be electrically matched as close as possible so that fault currents are shared evenly between the two wires, and no one ground wire is electrically overloaded due to disparity

15

in resistance or fault rating. Ground wires and OPGW should have a minimum individual strand size of no less than 3 mm, to avoid breakage from direct lightning strikes.

The OPGW and ground wire should also be mechanically matched as close as possible so they sag the same. To prevent mid span flashovers, the sag of the OPGW and groundwires should be less than the conductor sag. A typical value is 80% the sag of the conductor. To reduce wind loading, the diameters of the OPGW and ground wires should be minimised and to reduce the strength requirement and consequential cost of the strain tower, the maximum wire tensions should be kept to as low a value as possible. The OPGW everyday tension should be kept below 20% of its calculated breaking load to ensure long fatigue life. The OPGW maximum tension must be kept below the manufacturers limit for zero strain on the fibers.

One 14mm ACSR ground wire and one 14mm OPGW with 24 fibers are selected.

Hardware Selection

The terrain is flat to undulating, with little natural shielding of the line, and wire tension is high so aeolian vibration needs to be controlled to prevent fatigue failure of conductor and ground wire strands. Stockbridge type dampers are applied to the conductor, ground wire and OPGW. Line guards are applied over the OPGW under the vibration damper to prevent possible crushing damage to the OPGW. To make maintenance easier, line guards and the same size damper as on the OPGW, are installed on the ACSR groundwire. As line guards stiffen the groundwire, more dampers are applied to compensate for their reduced efficiency. The dampers are de-rated to one damper per 150m of span for the OPGW and ground wire. Eg. For a span of 400m, three dampers will be required. For suspension attachment, armor grip suspension units are installed on the groundwire, OPGW and conductor to give longer fatigue life.

Wedge strain fittings are used on the ground wire and OPGW. Compression splices are installed on the ground wire.

16

OPGW is spliced with extra cable length looped up into the tower. This extra length allows splicing at ground level in an air-conditioned vehicle and sufficient extra length is provided to enable splicing to be redone twice.

Case Study #2 ADSS Selection for Retrofitting on a 161kV Transmission Line Scope Extra communications capacity is required to a mine. There is an existing unshielded 161kV single circuit pole line supplying the mine. The line route runs parallel to the marine coast and is between 3km and 10km from the sea shore. No icing occurs on the line. As the 161kV line is the only supply for the mine, extended outages are not possible. The remaining life in the mine is 12 years. The chosen solution is to retrofit All Dielectric Self Supporting ( abbreviated ADSS ) cable to the transmission line. ADSS has a lower capital cost than an equivalent OPGW and can be installed live where as, in most cases, OPGW cannot safely be installed live. Furthermore, the shorter life expectancy of ADSS would be acceptable for the remaining 12 year life of the mine. There is some concern that ADSS and associated fittings may be chewed by birds but this is considered to be a low risk. A 48fibre ADSS with 14.5mm diameter was selected for retrofitting.

ADSS Position ADSS can be installed below the lowest conductor level or at the top of the existing structure, possibly on a riser.

For under slung, the ADSS mounting position must be sufficient to avoid vehicles and conductor contact. ADSS has a much lower weight to mass ratio than the metal phase conductors so will be blown out almost vertical with even modest winds. Consequently, there is a risk of ADSS contacting conductors during windy conditions. This will cause

17

failure of the sheath and ultimately the whole cable. The under slung solution is ruled out because there is insufficient ground clearance. A top mounted ADSS could be fitted to the top of each pole above the top phase conductor. The exact height and mounting position of the ADSS is selected based on the electric field. ADSS is subject to sheath failure from dry band arcing. Capacitive currents flow from the energised conductors onto the ADSS, along the sheath to the poles. If a low electric field position is found, then less sheath current will flow and the ADSS will have a longer service life. The operational life time of ADSS is largely determined by the sheath performance. Two types of sheath are available. The standard polyethylene sheath is suitable for up to 12kV space potential and a higher cost, tracking resistant sheath is suitable for 25kV space potential.

As the line traverses terrain with a low isoceraunic level, there is a low probability that a top mounted ADSS will be hit and damaged by lightning.

Based on a structural analysis of the poles for different ADSS mounting heights and electric field modelling, it was decided that the ADSS could be placed in a region with 11kV space potential. Although this is less than the maximum for the standard sheath, it was decided to purchase the track resistant sheath because exposure was such that marine salt contamination would be deposited on the sheath. When wet the salty contamination layer on the sheath will have increased conductivity. The sheath is at earth potential at each pole. At the centre of the span the sheath is capacitively charged from phase conductor voltage. For an uncontaminated sheath, only capacitive current flows. When the sheath is contaminated with marine pollution and moistened, current flow increases due to resistive current through pollutants and dry band arcing can occur which could erode the sheath.

Pole strength was checked with the additional loads imposed by the ADSS cable and it was found that most of the poles had adequate strength. A few poles with long spans would have to be replaced live.

18

The ADSS will be installed above the conductors on a steel riser bracket bolted to the top of the pole. As the ADSS is mounted above the level of the top phase conductors, there is less chance of contact with phase conductors.

Hardware Selection

Helical fittings are used for attachment at both suspension and strain positions. If the ends of the armor rods are not aligned so that they all terminate at the same location along the cable length, then the sheath can be burnt by corona at protruding armor rod tips.

The fatigue endurance limit of ADSS cable type has not yet been established so it is prudent to apply vibration protection conservatively. Spiral vibration dampers are fitted to control aeolian vibration and must be separated from the armour rods by at least 3m in a location where the electric field parallel to the sheath is less than 2 kV/cm.

Maintenance

Eventhough ADSS is made of all insulating materials, contamination can make the sheath surface conductive which can be an electrical safety hazard to maintenance personnel. Precautions should be taken by maintenance personnel to prevent electric shock.

Sags & Tensions The selected ADSS has the following properties :Weight Calculated breaking load ( abbreviated CBL ) Diameter Area of FRP ( ie. Fibre reinforced plastic ) strength member Modulus of Elasticity for FRP strength member Thermal coefficient of linear expansion for composite cable 200kg/km 39kN 14.5mm 128mm2 17.9GPa 4.6 x 10-6 /C

19

Maximum tension for zero optical fibre strain

36% CBL

For the longest span of 450m the ADSS was strung to achieve an everyday tension at 20C of 14% CBL which is 5.46kN and the sag is 9.1m. The tension rises to the zero fibre strain limit at a wind pressure just over 700Pa at 10C ambient. The tension is 13.8kN under 700Pa wind at 10C and the sag is 18.9m. Under everyday and maximum wind, the ADSS sag and blow out was checked against the top conductor sag and blow out to ensure there is an adequate margin to prevent clashing. References CIGRE papers CEA project IEEE guide 1138 More to be included.

20

I
CHAPTER 7, TRANSIENT MOTIONS

I-1

CHAPTER 7 Transient Motions (Possible alternative title: Conductor Motions due to Other Causes) The chapter covers dynamic behavior of overhead conductors under other causes that can create fatigue and damage of conductors, hardware and structures. A number of procedures to ameliorate the effects and safeguard against extensive damage are discussed. Also the analysis of some instabilities can be used to improve design of lines to reduce the level of damage. The chapter also includes a discussion on the dynamic behavior of sub- station tubular buses due to wind induced motions. 7.1 Short Circuit ForcesSpacer Frame Strength Requirements Author: Lilien Reviewer: Pon The section will deal with the impact of short circuit forces on overhead lines and substation buses. The major differences will be explained and three major effects, namely, tension increase, clearance problem and spacer compression will be discussed. The CIGRE brochures will be referred to. Further simple formulation developed for the increase of tension due to short circuit forces developed by Lilien and Papailiou will be detailed and its validation on short circuit tests will be discussed. Also, the research on interphase spacers loads due to short circuit forces will be presented.

7.2 Bundle Rolling Author: Wang Reviewer: Havard This section will introduce bundle conductor configurations in relation with dynamic motions. A new bundle conductor model and bundle collapse mechanism will be described. The spacing for spacer/spacer damper and the quantity for a bundle conductor line will be discussed. This section will also include Ontario Hydro test and analysis due to heavy ice loads and wind.

7.3 Ice Drop Author: Farzaneh Reviewer: Rawlins Ice shedding is the physical phenomenon that occurs when a mass of ice accumulated on overhead cables and conductors suddenly drops off. The detachment mechanism is affected by a number of factors and parameters, such as ice morphology, meteorological conditions and structural design of lines, as well as cable and conductor characteristics.

Ice shedding from transmission lines may result in high-amplitude vibrations, applying excessive transient dynamic forces to the suspension structures sometimes leading to severe structural damages or to flashover between conductors. Therefore, it is important to predict the maximum jump height of the unloaded span and the maximum drop in the span that remains loaded. As well, it is necessary to predict the maximum cable tension and the maximum swing by the insulators string during the oscillation of the conductor. In this section, the process of ice shedding and the consequent jumps and oscillations of the conductors are described, and the related predicting models are presented. Also included are parameters affecting ice drop mechanism, impact on conductors and structures, and safeguards against the damaging effect of ice drop.

7.4 Gust Response Author: Havard Reviewers: Douglass This section will cover the response of conductors and structures to wind gusts, and safeguards against damaging effects. 7.5 Wind Action on Members Authors: Legeron/Havard Reviewer: Goel This section will cover the response of structure members to conductor motions, case studies, and design practices to safeguard against negative effects. 7.6 Noise From Wind Author: Wang Reviewer: Havard This section will discuss dynamic interactions between conductors and towers, between conductors and hardware due to wind. Different self-damping conductors will also be discussed. 7.7 Earthquake Authors: Legeron Reviewer: Havard This section will discuss possible earthquake effects on overhead lines, including earthquake ground motion, the response of a conductor to earthquake motion, and current mitigation practices. 7.8 Corona Author: Farzaneh Reviewers: Chisholm

The mechanical vibrations of HV transmission line conductors initiated by corona discharges are usually observed under rain conditions, but also under wet snow and intense fog. This kind of vibrations usually occurs in the absence of wind or with a very mild wind. The oscillation of conductors, as any other type of vibrations, can cause metal fatigue, especially at supports or clamps, which may eventually lead to failure. This phenomenon has been observed and mentioned in a number of publications or reports. According to these observations, the critical voltage gradient causing the phenomenon is between 15 and 23 kV/cm. The amplitude of the vibrations is generally less than 10 cm, with a maximum observed of about 120 cm. The frequency of the vibrations is lower than 10 Hz. In this section, this phenomenon and the conditions under which the vibrations occur are described, and several mitigation methods are proposed.

7.9 Station Bus Vibrations Authors: Havard/ Goel Reviewer: Rawlins The section deals with the vibration of substation buses due to wind. A brief description of the theoretical, experimental and field trials will be presented. Reference will be made to the work done at Ontario Hydro, CIGRE and the recent study done for Hydro One. The industry practices to minimize the impact of these vibrations are also discussed.

J
GLOSSARY AND INDEX
A Glossary and Index will be developed in 2006 by the Editorial Committee. The Glossary will provide brief definitions of key terms conforming to IEC and IEEE norms. The Index will provide an alphabetical listing of subject areas covered in the book, with page number or section number locations. Different fonts will be used for text references, figures, and tables.

J-1

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